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Sample records for plasmodium toxoplasma trichomonas

  1. Quinolone-based drugs against Toxoplasma gondii and Plasmodium spp.

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    Anquetin, Guillaume; Greiner, Jacques; Vierling, Pierre

    2005-09-01

    Owing to the rapid emergence of multi-resistant strains of Plasmodium spp. (the causative agents of malaria) and the limitations of drugs used against Toxoplasma gondii (an important opportunistic pathogen associated with AIDS and congenital birth defects), the discovery of new therapeutical targets and the development of new drugs are needed. The presence of the prokaryotic-like organelle in apicomplexan parasites (i.e. plastids), which comprise these major human pathogens, may represent a unique target for antibiotics against these protozoa. Quinolones which are known to be highly potent against bacteria were also found to specifically disrupt these parasites. They inhibit DNA replication by interacting with two essential bacterial type II topoisomerases, DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV. There are some clues that quinolones act on plastids with a similar mechanism of action. After a brief presentation of plasmodium and toxoplasma dedicated to their life cycle, the chemotherapies presently used in clinics to fight against these protozoa and the potential new targets and drugs, we will focus our attention on their plastid which is one of these promising new targets. Then, we will present the various drugs and generations of quinolones, the leading molecules, and their inhibitory effects against these parasites together with their pharmacological properties that have been established from in vitro and in vivo studies. We will also discuss their possible mode of action.

  2. Polyamine quinoline rhodium complexes: synthesis and pharmacological evaluation as antiparasitic agents against Plasmodium falciparum and Trichomonas vaginalis.

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    Stringer, Tameryn; Taylor, Dale; Guzgay, Hajira; Shokar, Ajit; Au, Aaron; Smith, Peter J; Hendricks, Denver T; Land, Kirkwood M; Egan, Timothy J; Smith, Gregory S

    2015-09-07

    A series of mono- and bis-salicylaldimine ligands and their corresponding Rh(i) complexes were prepared. The compounds were characterised using standard spectroscopic techniques including NMR, IR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. The salicylaldimine ligands and complexes were screened for antiparasitic activity against two strains of Plasmodium falciparum i.e. the NF54 CQ-sensitive and K1 CQ-resistant strain as well as against the G3 isolate of Trichomonas vaginalis. The monomeric salicylaldimine quinolines exhibited good activity against the NF54 strain and the dimeric salicylaldimine quinolines exhibited no cross resistance across the two strains. The binuclear 5-chloro Rh(i) complex displayed the best activity against the Trichomonas vaginalis parasite, possibly a consequence of its enhanced lipophilicity. The compounds were also screened for cytotoxicity in vitro against WHCO1 oesophageal cancer cells. The monomeric salicylaldimine quinolines exhibited high selectivity towards malaria parasites compared to cancer cells, while the dimeric compounds were less selective.

  3. Basal body structure and composition in the apicomplexans Toxoplasma and Plasmodium.

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    Francia, Maria E; Dubremetz, Jean-Francois; Morrissette, Naomi S

    2015-01-01

    The phylum Apicomplexa encompasses numerous important human and animal disease-causing parasites, including the Plasmodium species, and Toxoplasma gondii, causative agents of malaria and toxoplasmosis, respectively. Apicomplexans proliferate by asexual replication and can also undergo sexual recombination. Most life cycle stages of the parasite lack flagella; these structures only appear on male gametes. Although male gametes (microgametes) assemble a typical 9+2 axoneme, the structure of the templating basal body is poorly defined. Moreover, the relationship between asexual stage centrioles and microgamete basal bodies remains unclear. While asexual stages of Plasmodium lack defined centriole structures, the asexual stages of Toxoplasma and closely related coccidian apicomplexans contain centrioles that consist of nine singlet microtubules and a central tubule. There are relatively few ultra-structural images of Toxoplasma microgametes, which only develop in cat intestinal epithelium. Only a subset of these include sections through the basal body: to date, none have unambiguously captured organization of the basal body structure. Moreover, it is unclear whether this basal body is derived from pre-existing asexual stage centrioles or is synthesized de novo. Basal bodies in Plasmodium microgametes are thought to be synthesized de novo, and their assembly remains ill-defined. Apicomplexan genomes harbor genes encoding δ- and ε-tubulin homologs, potentially enabling these parasites to assemble a typical triplet basal body structure. Moreover, the UNIMOD components (SAS6, SAS4/CPAP, and BLD10/CEP135) are conserved in these organisms. However, other widely conserved basal body and flagellar biogenesis elements are missing from apicomplexan genomes. These differences may indicate variations in flagellar biogenesis pathways and in basal body arrangement within the phylum. As apicomplexan basal bodies are distinct from their metazoan counterparts, it may be possible to

  4. The calcium signaling toolkit of the Apicomplexan parasites Toxoplasma gondii and Plasmodium spp.

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    Lourido, Sebastian; Moreno, Silvia N J

    2015-03-01

    Apicomplexan parasites have complex life cycles, frequently split between different hosts and reliant on rapid responses as the parasites react to changing environmental conditions. Calcium ion (Ca(2+)) signaling is consequently essential for the cellular and developmental changes that support Apicomplexan parasitism. Apicomplexan genomes reveal a rich repertoire of genes involved in calcium signaling, although many of the genes responsible for observed physiological changes remain unknown. There is evidence, for example, for the presence of a nifedipine-sensitive calcium entry mechanism in Toxoplasma, but the molecular components involved in Ca(2+) entry in both Toxoplasma and Plasmodium, have not been identified. The major calcium stores are the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), the acidocalcisomes, and the plant-like vacuole in Toxoplasma, or the food vacuole in Plasmodium spp. Pharmacological evidence suggests that Ca(2+) release from intracellular stores may be mediated by inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) or cyclic ADP ribose (cADPR) although there is no molecular evidence for the presence of receptors for these second messengers in the parasites. Several Ca(2+)-ATPases are present in Apicomplexans and a putative mitochondrial Ca(2+)/H(+) exchanger has been identified. Apicomplexan genomes contain numerous genes encoding Ca(2+)-binding proteins, with the notable expansion of calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs), whose study has revealed roles in gliding motility, microneme secretion, host cell invasion and egress, and parasite differentiation. Microneme secretion has also been shown to depend on the C2 domain containing protein DOC2 in both Plasmodium spp. and Toxoplasma, providing further evidence for the complex transduction of Ca(2+) signals in these organisms. The characterization of these pathways could lead to the discovery of novel drug targets and to a better understanding of the role of Ca(2+) in these parasites. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All

  5. Ectopic expression of a Neospora caninum Kazal type inhibitor triggers developmental defects in Toxoplasma and Plasmodium.

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    Zoi Tampaki

    Full Text Available Regulated proteolysis is known to control a variety of vital processes in apicomplexan parasites including invasion and egress of host cells. Serine proteases have been proposed as targets for drug development based upon inhibitor studies that show parasite attenuation and transmission blockage. Genetic studies suggest that serine proteases, such as subtilisin and rhomboid proteases, are essential but functional studies have proved challenging as active proteases are difficult to express. Proteinaceous Protease Inhibitors (PPIs provide an alternative way to address the role of serine proteases in apicomplexan biology. To validate such an approach, a Neospora caninum Kazal inhibitor (NcPI-S was expressed ectopically in two apicomplexan species, Toxoplasma gondii tachyzoites and Plasmodium berghei ookinetes, with the aim to disrupt proteolytic processes taking place within the secretory pathway. NcPI-S negatively affected proliferation of Toxoplasma tachyzoites, while it had no effect on invasion and egress. Expression of the inhibitor in P. berghei zygotes blocked their development into mature and invasive ookinetes. Moreover, ultra-structural studies indicated that expression of NcPI-S interfered with normal formation of micronemes, which was also confirmed by the lack of expression of the micronemal protein SOAP in these parasites. Our results suggest that NcPI-S could be a useful tool to investigate the function of proteases in processes fundamental for parasite survival, contributing to the effort to identify targets for parasite attenuation and transmission blockage.

  6. The Phosphoproteomes of Plasmodium falciparum and Toxoplasma gondii reveal unusual adaptations within and beyond the parasites’ boundaries

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    Treeck, Moritz; Sanders, John L.; Elias, Joshua E.; John C Boothroyd

    2011-01-01

    Plasmodium falciparum and Toxoplasma gondii are obligate intracellular apicomplexan parasites that rapidly invade and extensively modify host cells. Protein phosphorylation is one mechanism by which these parasites can control such processes. Here we present a phosphoproteome analysis of peptides enriched from schizont stage P. falciparum and T. gondii tachyzoites that are either “intracellular” or purified away from host material. Using liquid chromatography and tandem mass-spectrometry we i...

  7. Roles of proteases during invasion and egress by Plasmodium and Toxoplasma.

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    Dowse, Timothy J; Koussis, Konstantinos; Blackman, Michael J; Soldati-Favre, Dominique

    2008-01-01

    Apicomplexan pathogens replicate exclusively within the confines of a host cell. Entry into (invasion) and exit from (egress) these cells requires an array of specialized parasite molecules, many of which have long been considered to have potential as targets of drug or vaccine-based therapies. In this chapter the authors discuss the current state of knowledge regarding the role of parasite proteolytic enzymes in these critical steps in the life cycle of two clinically important apicomplexan genera, Plasmodium and Toxoplasma. At least three distinct proteases of the cysteine mechanistic class have been implicated in egress of the malaria parasite from cells of its vertebrate and insect host. In contrast, the bulk of the evidence indicates a prime role for serine proteases of the subtilisin and rhomboid families in invasion by both parasites. Whereas proteases involved in egress may function predominantly to degrade host cell structures, proteases involved in invasion probably act primarily as maturases and 'sheddases', required to activate and ultimately remove ligands involved in interactions with the host cell.

  8. Studies of Toxoplasma gondii and Plasmodium falciparum enoyl acyl carrier protein reductase and implications for the development of antiparasitic agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muench, Stephen P. [The Krebs Institute for Biomolecular Research, Department of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, University of Sheffield, Firth Court, Western Bank, Sheffield S10 2TN (United Kingdom); Prigge, Sean T. [Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD 21205 (United States); McLeod, Rima [Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, Paediatrics (Infectious Diseases) and Pathology and the Committees on Molecular Medicine, Genetics, Immunology and The College, The University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Rafferty, John B. [The Krebs Institute for Biomolecular Research, Department of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, University of Sheffield, Firth Court, Western Bank, Sheffield S10 2TN (United Kingdom); Kirisits, Michael J. [Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, Paediatrics (Infectious Diseases) and Pathology and the Committees on Molecular Medicine, Genetics, Immunology and The College, The University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Roberts, Craig W. [Department of Immunology, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow G4 0NR, Scotland (United Kingdom); Mui, Ernest J. [Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, Paediatrics (Infectious Diseases) and Pathology and the Committees on Molecular Medicine, Genetics, Immunology and The College, The University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Rice, David W., E-mail: d.rice@sheffield.ac.uk [The Krebs Institute for Biomolecular Research, Department of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, University of Sheffield, Firth Court, Western Bank, Sheffield S10 2TN (United Kingdom)

    2007-03-01

    The crystal structures of T. gondii and P. falciparum ENR in complex with NAD{sup +} and triclosan and of T. gondii ENR in an apo form have been solved to 2.6, 2.2 and 2.8 Å, respectively. Recent studies have demonstrated that submicromolar concentrations of the biocide triclosan arrest the growth of the apicomplexan parasites Plasmodium falciparum and Toxoplasma gondii and inhibit the activity of the apicomplexan enoyl acyl carrier protein reductase (ENR). The crystal structures of T. gondii and P. falciparum ENR in complex with NAD{sup +} and triclosan and of T. gondii ENR in an apo form have been solved to 2.6, 2.2 and 2.8 Å, respectively. The structures of T. gondii ENR have revealed that, as in its bacterial and plant homologues, a loop region which flanks the active site becomes ordered upon inhibitor binding, resulting in the slow tight binding of triclosan. In addition, the T. gondii ENR–triclosan complex reveals the folding of a hydrophilic insert common to the apicomplexan family that flanks the substrate-binding domain and is disordered in all other reported apicomplexan ENR structures. Structural comparison of the apicomplexan ENR structures with their bacterial and plant counterparts has revealed that although the active sites of the parasite enzymes are broadly similar to those of their bacterial counterparts, there are a number of important differences within the drug-binding pocket that reduce the packing interactions formed with several inhibitors in the apicomplexan ENR enzymes. Together with other significant structural differences, this provides a possible explanation of the lower affinity of the parasite ENR enzyme family for aminopyridine-based inhibitors, suggesting that an effective antiparasitic agent may well be distinct from equivalent antimicrobials.

  9. Bisphosphonates inhibit the growth of Trypanosoma brucei, Trypanosoma cruzi, Leishmania donovani, Toxoplasma gondii, and Plasmodium falciparum: a potential route to chemotherapy.

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    Martin, M B; Grimley, J S; Lewis, J C; Heath, H T; Bailey, B N; Kendrick, H; Yardley, V; Caldera, A; Lira, R; Urbina, J A; Moreno, S N; Docampo, R; Croft, S L; Oldfield, E

    2001-03-15

    We have investigated the effects in vitro of a series of bisphosphonates on the proliferation of Trypanosoma cruzi, Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense, Leishmania donovani, Toxoplasma gondii, and Plasmodium falciparum. The results show that nitrogen-containing bisphosphonates of the type used in bone resorption therapy have significant activity against parasites, with the aromatic species having in some cases nanomolar or low-micromolar IC(50) activity values against parasite replication (e.g. o-risedronate, IC(50) = 220 nM for T. brucei rhodesiense; risedronate, IC(50) = 490 nM for T. gondii). In T. cruzi, the nitrogen-containing bisphosphonate risedronate is shown to inhibit sterol biosynthesis at a pre-squalene level, most likely by inhibiting farnesylpyrophosphate synthase. Bisphosphonates therefore appear to have potential in treating parasitic protozoan diseases.

  10. Ribosomal protein P2 localizes to the parasite zoite-surface and is a target for invasion inhibitory antibodies in Toxoplasma gondii and Plasmodium falciparum.

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    Sudarsan, Rajagopal; Chopra, Reshma Korde; Khan, Mudassar Ali; Sharma, Shobhona

    2015-02-01

    In the malarial parasite Plasmodium falciparum, the conserved ribosomal stalk protein P2 (PfP2) exhibits extra-ribosomal stage-specific oligomerization and trafficking to the host red cell membrane. Antibodies directed against PfP2 arrested cell division. We sought to examine whether P2 from a closely related Apicomplexan parasite, Toxoplasma gondii, exhibits similar properties in terms of its oligomeric status as well as such unique host-cell localization. Circular dichroism spectroscopy of recombinant P2 from T. gondii (TgP2) showed a structure similar to that of PfP2, but unlike PfP2, which forms SDS- and DTT-resistant oligomers, TgP2 exhibited only a weak SDS-resistant dimerization. Also, unlike PfP2 localization to the infected erythrocyte surface, TgP2 did not localize to the host membrane in T. gondii infected human foreskin fibroblast cells. However, P2 protein was detected on the free tachyzoite surface, corroborated by localization of epitope-tagged P2 transfected in T. gondii. The presence of P2 on the surface of P. falciparum merozoites was also observed, and specific antibodies raised against the P2 protein blocked both T. gondii and P. falciparum zoite invasion of the host cells. Thus, although certain moonlighting functions of the acidic ribosomal protein P2 are different amongst P. falciparum and T. gondii, the P2 protein localizes to the surface of the invasive zoite form, and appears to constitute a potential target for host cell invasion inhibition in both the Apicomplexan infections.

  11. The IFN-γ-inducible GTPase, Irga6, protects mice against Toxoplasma gondii but not against Plasmodium berghei and some other intracellular pathogens.

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    Oliver Liesenfeld

    Full Text Available Clearance of infection with intracellular pathogens in mice involves interferon-regulated GTPases of the IRG protein family. Experiments with mice genetically deficient in members of this family such as Irgm1(LRG-47, Irgm3(IGTP, and Irgd(IRG-47 has revealed a critical role in microbial clearance, especially for Toxoplasma gondii. The in vivo role of another member of this family, Irga6 (IIGP, IIGP1 has been studied in less detail. We investigated the susceptibility of two independently generated mouse strains deficient in Irga6 to in vivo infection with T. gondii, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Leishmania mexicana, L. major, Listeria monocytogenes, Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Plasmodium berghei. Compared with wild-type mice, mice deficient in Irga6 showed increased susceptibility to oral and intraperitoneal infection with T. gondii but not to infection with the other organisms. Surprisingly, infection of Irga6-deficient mice with the related apicomplexan parasite, P. berghei, did not result in increased replication in the liver stage and no Irga6 (or any other IRG protein was detected at the parasitophorous vacuole membrane in IFN-γ-induced wild-type cells infected with P. berghei in vitro. Susceptibility to infection with T. gondii was associated with increased mortality and reduced time to death, increased numbers of inflammatory foci in the brains and elevated parasite loads in brains of infected Irga6-deficient mice. In vitro, Irga6-deficient macrophages and fibroblasts stimulated with IFN-γ were defective in controlling parasite replication. Taken together, our results implicate Irga6 in the control of infection with T. gondii and further highlight the importance of the IRG system for resistance to this pathogen.

  12. The IFN-γ-Inducible GTPase, Irga6, Protects Mice against Toxoplasma gondii but Not against Plasmodium berghei and Some Other Intracellular Pathogens

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    Han, Seong-Ji; Heinrich, Frederik; Muñoz, Melba; Kaiser, Frank; Aebischer, Toni; Buch, Thorsten; Waisman, Ari; Reichmann, Gaby; Utermöhlen, Olaf; von Stebut, Esther; von Loewenich, Friederike D.; Bogdan, Christian; Specht, Sabine; Saeftel, Michael; Hoerauf, Achim; Mota, Maria M.; Könen-Waisman, Stephanie; Kaufmann, Stefan H. E.; Howard, Jonathan C.

    2011-01-01

    Clearance of infection with intracellular pathogens in mice involves interferon-regulated GTPases of the IRG protein family. Experiments with mice genetically deficient in members of this family such as Irgm1(LRG-47), Irgm3(IGTP), and Irgd(IRG-47) has revealed a critical role in microbial clearance, especially for Toxoplasma gondii. The in vivo role of another member of this family, Irga6 (IIGP, IIGP1) has been studied in less detail. We investigated the susceptibility of two independently generated mouse strains deficient in Irga6 to in vivo infection with T. gondii, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Leishmania mexicana, L. major, Listeria monocytogenes, Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Plasmodium berghei. Compared with wild-type mice, mice deficient in Irga6 showed increased susceptibility to oral and intraperitoneal infection with T. gondii but not to infection with the other organisms. Surprisingly, infection of Irga6-deficient mice with the related apicomplexan parasite, P. berghei, did not result in increased replication in the liver stage and no Irga6 (or any other IRG protein) was detected at the parasitophorous vacuole membrane in IFN-γ-induced wild-type cells infected with P. berghei in vitro. Susceptibility to infection with T. gondii was associated with increased mortality and reduced time to death, increased numbers of inflammatory foci in the brains and elevated parasite loads in brains of infected Irga6-deficient mice. In vitro, Irga6-deficient macrophages and fibroblasts stimulated with IFN-γ were defective in controlling parasite replication. Taken together, our results implicate Irga6 in the control of infection with T. gondii and further highlight the importance of the IRG system for resistance to this pathogen. PMID:21698150

  13. Empyema caused by trichomonas.

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    Lewis, Kevin L; Doherty, Dennis E; Ribes, Julie; Seabolt, John P; Bensadoun, Eric S

    2003-01-01

    Empyema is one of the potential complications of lower respiratory tract infections. Very rarely, in predisposed individuals, empyema can be caused by Trichomonas species, of which Trichomonas tenax appears to be the most common cause. Here, we present a case of trichomonal empyema in a 56-year-old man and review the available literature of this rare occurrence.

  14. Trichomonas tenax proteolytic activity.

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    Segović, S; Buntak-Kobler, D; Galić, N; Katunarić, M

    1998-12-01

    In this study, proteolytic activity of Trichomonas tenax collected directly from patient's dentobacterial plaque was examined. Electrophoretic method involving polyacrylamide gels (Commassie Brilliant Blue R-250) and electrophoretic method involving gelatin-containing polyacrylamide gels, have been used to analyse Trichomonas tenax proteolytic activity. The most obvious and the fastest activities were obtained when gels were incubated in pH 4.6; followed by results of incubating in pH 5.6; while in pH 2.8 activity was less effective but still obvious. Proteolytic activities were the most effective in area of protein MW 36 kDa. Different activities of enzymes depending on pH of incubated media indicate the presence of different endopeptidases in cell lysates of protozoon Trichomonas tenax from dentobacterial plaque.

  15. Trichomonas species in a subhepatic abscess.

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    Jakobsen, E B; Friis-Møller, A; Friis, J

    1987-06-01

    A rare case of Trichomonas tenax/Trichomonas hominis and mixed oral bacterial flora in pus from a subhepatic abscess in a patient with a perforated penetrating ventricular ulcer is reported and the possible pathogenicity of the flagellate is discussed.

  16. [Trichomonas tenax in pulmonary and pleural diseases].

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    Chiche, L; Donati, S; Corno, G; Benoit, S; Granier, I; Chouraki, M; Arnal, J-M; Durand-Gasselin, J

    2005-11-05

    Trichomonas is a protozoan rarely incriminated in pulmonary or pleural disorders. An 84-year-old man, under treatment for chronic lymphoid leukemia with hypogammaglobulinemia, was hospitalized for respiratory distress and fever due to bilateral pulmonary and pleural disorders. Direct examination of the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid revealed a flagella protozoan identified as Trichomonas tenax. Although Trichomonas is rare in pulmonary disorders, when it occurs, T. tenax appears to be the most common species. Treatment with metronidazole was effective.

  17. Trichomonas tenax in Basrah, Iraq.

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    Mahdi, N K; al-Saeed, A T

    1993-12-01

    One hundred and forty-three swabs from diseased mouths and 271 from healthy controls were examined by direct wet smear method for Trichomonas tenax. Negative swabs were cultured on suitable media. The frequency of trichomonas tenax was 8.4% and 4.1% in diseased and controls respectively. Of 23 positive samples, 14 (3.3%) were positive on direct wet smear method and 9 (2.1%) were positive on culture method. There were 12 males and 11 females. Highest frequency of infection (6.7%) was found in 6-10 years age group and lowest (3.7%) in 11-20 years group. Only 1% university students were positive.

  18. Detection of Plasmodium sp. in capybara.

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Leonilda Correia; Curotto, Sandra Mara Rotter; de Moraes, Wanderlei; Cubas, Zalmir Silvino; Costa-Nascimento, Maria de Jesus; de Barros Filho, Ivan Roque; Biondo, Alexander Welker; Kirchgatter, Karin

    2009-07-07

    In the present study, we have microscopically and molecularly surveyed blood samples from 11 captive capybaras (Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris) from the Sanctuary Zoo for Plasmodium sp. infection. One animal presented positive on blood smear by light microscopy. Polymerase chain reaction was carried out accordingly using a nested genus-specific protocol, which uses oligonucleotides from conserved sequences flanking a variable sequence region in the small subunit ribosomal RNA (ssrRNA) of all Plasmodium organisms. This revealed three positive animals. Products from two samples were purified and sequenced. The results showed less than 1% divergence between the two capybara sequences. When compared with GenBank sequences, a 55% similarity was obtained to Toxoplasma gondii and a higher similarity (73-77.2%) was found to ssrRNAs from Plasmodium species that infect reptile, avian, rodents, and human beings. The most similar Plasmodium sequence was from Plasmodium mexicanum that infects lizards of North America, where around 78% identity was found. This work is the first report of Plasmodium in capybaras, and due to the low similarity with other Plasmodium species, we suggest it is a new species, which, in the future could be denominated "Plasmodium hydrochaeri".

  19. Experimental Trichomonas infection: Morphological aspects

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    E. N. Shumkova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Growth tendency the asymptomatic forms of an urogenital trichomoniasis, frequency of complications from reproductive organs, uncertainty of many aspects of the violations of a spermatogenesis influencing reproductive function all this proves need of search of the urogenital trichomoniasis adequate experimental model. Lack of the corresponding experimental model is limited by our opportunities for carrying out the standardized, controlled researches on studying of transmission, pathogenesis, the immune answer, therapy and development of vaccines at a triсhomonas infection.Objective is studying action of Trichomonas vaginalis on a spermatogenny epithelium the mature of individuals of guinea pigs in the conditions of sharp and chronic experience.Materials and methods. Experiments are made on the “Reproductive System (Guinea Pigs + Trichomonas vaginalis” modeling the natural course of an infection. In experiment 2 groups of animals: 1st (n = 8 – experimental, 2nd (n = 8 – control were formed. Against the background of the reduction of the immune status (hydrocortisone 125 mg/kg intramuscularly 1 time in day during 2 days the animals of the 1st group were injected intraurethral suspension containing 1 × 106 Trichomonas on 0.5 ml of culture medium, the animals of the 2nd group – 0.5 ml of medium. Under the condition of the acute experiment the animals were sacrificed on day 9 (the middle of the cycle of spermatogenesis – I experienced group and on day 30 (full spermatogenic cycle – II experimental group. The control animals were slaughtered in the same period. The material for histological study was prepared by the traditional way.Results. In an experimental model of “Reproductive system (guinea pigs + T. vaginalis”, staging and degree of disturbance of spermatogenesis, depending on the duration of trichomonas infection were shown. So, in acute experience morphological changes correspond to changes in the

  20. [Fine Structures Of Trichomonas Tenax And Trichomonas Hominis

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    Lee, Joo Min; Cho, Kee Mok

    1973-04-01

    Trichomonas tenax(T. tenax) and Trichomonas hominis (T. hominis) were collected, cultured and sampled for comparative microscopical studies using electron microscope. 1. Both flagellates were oval in shape and surrounded by a distinct outer membrane. Five recurrent flagella and one anterior flagellum had, each, 9 paris of peripheral and 1 pair of central fibrils, Undulating membrane was curved over the recurrent flagella, and bended in the middle at right angles with cell surface. Cytostome, engulfing bacteria, was observed in T. hominis. 2. In the cytoplasm, there were fine dense glycogen particles, and vacuoles containing ingested materials. Dense pigment rods were also observed in both flagellates, but the rods were not distributed around the vacuoles in T. hominis. 3. In T. tenax axostyle appeared as a cup-shaped structure comprising a single row of 41 fibrils, each about 120 a in diameter. It enclosed glycogen particles, and the open side was faced to the nucleus. 4. Endoplasmic reticulum was observed around the nucleus, but it was less developed in T. hominis. 5. Nucleus was ovoid having double nuclear membrane, which was clearly defined in T. hominis. 6. Blepharoplast, parabasal body, Golgi appartus and mitochondrion was not observed in both flagellates.

  1. [Pleural trichomoniasis due to trichomonas tenax].

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    Porcheret, H; Maisonneuve, L; Estève, V; Jagot, J L; Le Pennec, M P

    2002-02-01

    Thoracic infections due to Trichomonas species often go unrecognised as they are seldom described in the literature. We describe a case that, to our knowledge, is the first reported case of empyema caused by this organism. A 59 year old man with metastatic adenocarcinoma of the lung developed a right pyopneumothorax following treatment with corticosteroids and radiotherapy. The pleural fluid was purulent and fetid, and contained large numbers of Trichomonas tenax amongst a mixed bacterial flora. Pleural drainage and antibiotic therapy with metronidazole, ciprofloxacin and gentalline were instituted immediately, but the patient died 4 days later. Trichomonas tenax is part of the normal oral floral and may on occasions colonize the airways. It can thus become involved during aspiration pneumonia or cause pleural infection following the rupture of a pulmonary abscess. Such infection tends to be associated with concurrent respiratory pathology or with immunodepression. The significance Trichomonas tenax when found in the airways is unclear and their pathogenic role is discussed.

  2. Pulmonary trichomoniasis and Trichomonas tenax.

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    Hersh, S M

    1985-08-01

    Pulmonary trichomoniasis is usually caused by aspirated Trichomonas tenax. Adult men with chronic purulent or necrotic pulmonary disease are usually affected. Sixty-eight patients were previously described. A Russian study demonstrated pulmonary trichomoniasis in 19 of 112 patients (17%), mostly in patients with lung cancer, lung abscess, or bronchiectasis. Rarely, pulmonary trichomoniasis may be caused by an intra-abdominal (T. hominis) or genitourinary (T. vaginalis) infection. T. tenax is usually regarded as a harmless commensal of the human mouth. Its prevalence ranges from 4% to 53% and may exceed that of vaginal infection with T. vaginalis in adult females. It is frequently found in patients with poor oral hygiene. Cultural identification is superior to microscopic examination of wet-smear, gram-stained and Papanicolaou-stained preparations. Aspirated pulmonary trichomoniasis is an opportunistic infection. Until the question of possible pathogenicity is resolved, metronidazole should be given. The underlying pulmonary disease should be vigorously treated.

  3. Genetic diversity in Trichomonas vaginalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meade, John C; Carlton, Jane M

    2013-09-01

    Recent advances in genetic characterisation of Trichomonas vaginalis isolates show that the extensive clinical variability in trichomoniasis and its disease sequelae are matched by significant genetic diversity in the organism itself, suggesting a connection between the genetic identity of isolates and their clinical manifestations. Indeed, a high degree of genetic heterogeneity in T vaginalis isolates has been observed using multiple genotyping techniques. A unique two-type population structure that is both local and global in distribution has been identified, and there is evidence of recombination within each group, although sexual recombination between the groups appears to be constrained. There is conflicting evidence in these studies for correlations between T vaginalis genetic identity and clinical presentation, metronidazole susceptibility, and the presence of T vaginalis virus, underscoring the need for adoption of a common standard for genotyping the parasite. Moving forward, microsatellite genotyping and multilocus sequence typing are the most robust techniques for future investigations of T vaginalis genotype-phenotype associations.

  4. Trichomonas

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1983-04-09

    Apr 9, 1983 ... S Air Med J 1983: 63: 566-567. ... failure to treat se\\'ere T. i'agiizalis infection in the la t two ... preparation in the treatment of these infections. ... The women were asked to try ... complaints of side-effects, all of a minor nature.

  5. Plasmodium Immunomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doolan, Denise L.

    2010-01-01

    The Plasmodium parasite, the causative agent of malaria, is an excellent model for immunomic-based approaches to vaccine development. The Plasmodium parasite has a complex life cycle with multiple stages and stage-specific expression of ~ 5,300 putative proteins. No malaria vaccine has yet been licensed. Many believe that an effective vaccine will need to target several antigens and multiple stages, and will require the generation of both antibody and cellular immune responses. Vaccine efforts to date have been stage-specific and based on only a very limited number of proteins representing Plasmodium parasite life cycle with immune responses implicated in parasite elimination and control. Immunomic approaches which enable the selection of the best possible targets by prioritizing antigens according to clinically relevant criteria may overcome the problem of poorly immunogenic, poorly protective vaccines that has plagued malaria vaccine developers for the past 25 years. Herein, current progress and perspectives regarding Plasmodium immunomics are reviewed. PMID:20816843

  6. Taxonomy Icon Data: Toxoplasma gondii [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii Toxoplasma gondii Toxoplasma_gondii_L.png Toxoplasma_gondii_NL.png Toxoplasma..._gondii_S.png Toxoplasma_gondii_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Toxoplasma...+gondii&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Toxoplasma+gondii&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.j...p/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Toxoplasma+gondii&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy..._icon/icon.cgi?i=Toxoplasma+gondii&t=NS http://togodb.biosciencedbc.jp/togodb/view/taxonomy_icon_comment_en?species_id=113 ...

  7. Canine Trichomonas tenax mandibular gland infestation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Szczepaniak, Klaudiusz; Łojszczyk-Szczepaniak, Anna; Tomczuk, Krzysztof; Skrzypek, Tomasz; Lisiak, Barbara; Abd-Al-Hammza Abbass, Zahrai

    2016-01-01

    ...], who described the species Trichomonas canistomae. Later, oral trichomoniasis was recorded by Beelitz et al. [4] and Breuker [5]. Recently, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based molecular characterization of the various trichomonad species isolated from the oral cavity of dogs (mostly from Europe) confirmed the presence of T...

  8. A novel Toxoplasma gondii calcium-dependent protein kinase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzen M.

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular parasite that infects all types of cells in humans. A family of calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs, previously identified as important in the development of plants and protists, was recently shown to play a role in the infectivity of apicomplexans, and in motility and host cell invasion in particular. We report here the isolation of a new calcium-dependent protein kinase gene from the human toxoplasmosis parasite, Toxoplasma gondii. The gene consists of 12 exons. The encoded protein, TgCDPK4, consists of the four characteristic domains of members of the CDPK family and is most similar to PfCDPK2 from Plasmodium falciparum. We measured TgCDPK4 activity, induced by calcium influx, using a kinase assay. A calcium chelator (EGTA inhibited this activity. These findings provide evidence of signal transduction involving members of the CDPK family in T. gondii.

  9. Pregnancy and Toxoplasma Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cihan Cetin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasmosis is an infectious disease caused by a protozoa named Toxoplasma gondii. It is a very important disease because it is related to fetal anomalies and poor perinatal outcomes like abortus and stillbirth. It spreads via uncooked meat and contaminated food. Timely and appropriate treatment and management of this infection prenatally reduces the risk of serious neurological sequelae. Therefore it is crucial that clinician who takes care of pregnant women know this infection deeply. In this review we aimed to summarize the prenatal diagnosis, complications and treatment of toxoplasma infection. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2016; 25(4.000: 457-466

  10. Trichomonas tenax: ultrastructure of giant forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribaux, C L; Joffre, A; Magloire, H

    1988-03-01

    Trichomonas tenax is a parasitic flagellate of the human mouth. The morphology and the ultrastructure of the protozoan are identical to those of other trichomonads. Giant forms suddenly appeared in a strain maintained in culture for two years. The structure and the ultrastructure of these abnormal forms were studied at the light and electron microscope level. Several nuclei, groups of flagella, undulating membranes and Golgi complexes were observed. The significance of these forms is still unknown.

  11. Pulmonary eosinophilia due to Trichomonas tenax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Kamel, A; Rouetbi, N; Chakroun, M; Battikh, M

    1996-05-01

    A 39 year old woman was admitted with fever and an exacerbation of asthma. The chest radiograph showed extensive bilateral lung infiltrates, but transtracheal needle aspiration did not reveal any infectious organisms. The bronchoalveolar fluid lavage contained a large number of Trichomonas tenax and an increased percentage of eosinophils. Corticosteroids provided a dramatic response. Because of the relatively high frequency of colonisation of the human mouth by T tenax (about 20%), this organism should be considered in all cases of pulmonary eosinophilia.

  12. Characterization of a Toxoplasma gondii calcium calmodulin-dependent protein kinase homolog

    OpenAIRE

    Kato, Kentaro; Sugi, Tatsuki; Takemae, Hitoshi; Takano, Ryo; Gong, Haiyan; Ishiwa, Akiko; Horimoto, Taisuke; Akashi, Hiroomi

    2016-01-01

    Background Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular parasite of the phylum Apicomplexa and a major pathogen of animals and immunocompromised humans, in whom it causes encephalitis. Understanding the mechanism of tachyzoite invasion is important for the discovery of new drug targets and may serve as a model for the study of other apicomplexan parasites. We previously showed that Plasmodium falciparum expresses a homolog of human calcium calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CaMK) that is ...

  13. Prevalencia de Trichomonas vaginalis en trabajadores sexuales

    OpenAIRE

    María Cristina Salomón; Norma Martínez; Delia Delgado; Carolina González Arra; Víctor Bittar; Nieves González

    2011-01-01

    La tricomoniasis es una infección de transmisión sexual (ITS) que se asocia a vaginitis, uretritis, cervicitis y enfermedad inflamatoria pélvica pudiendo producir infertilidad tubárica. El objetivo de este trabajo, de tipo retrospectivo longitudinal, fue determinar la prevalencia de Trichomonas vaginalis en una población de trabajadores sexuales en Mendoza, Argentina. Se estudió en forma retrospectiva una población de 720 personas asistidas por el Programa Provincial de ITS de Mendoza. Entre ...

  14. Modern diagnosis of Trichomonas vaginalis infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbs, Marcia M; Seña, Arlene C

    2013-09-01

    Recent advances in tests for the sexually transmitted protozoan parasite Trichomonas vaginalis have increased opportunities for diagnosis and treatment of this important sexually transmitted infection. This review summarises currently available tests, highlighting their performance characteristics, advantages and limitations. The recent development of molecular tests for the detection of T vaginalis, including rapid antigen detection and nucleic acid amplification tests, has significantly improved the quality of diagnostics for trichomoniasis, particularly in women. In light of the expanded menu of testing options now available, improved recognition and better control of trichomoniasis are in sight, which should enable the eventual reduction of adverse reproductive consequences associated with T vaginalis infection.

  15. Freeze-fracture study of Trichomonas vaginalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlene Benchimol

    1990-12-01

    Full Text Available The freeze-fracture technique was used to analyse the organization of the plasma membrane, as well as membranes of cytoplasmic organelles, of the pathogenic protozoan Trichomonas vaginalis. Rosettes formed by 4 to 14 intramembranous particles were seen on the fracture faces of the membrane lining the anterior flagella as well as in fracture faces of the plasma membrane enclosing the anterior region of the protozoan and in cytoplasmic organelles. Special organization of the membrane particles were also seen in the region of association of the recurrent flagellum to the cell body.

  16. [Invasion of Trichomonas tenax in patients with periodontal diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurnatowska, Anna J; Dudko, Anna; Kurnatowski, Piotr

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the study was to analyze the frequency of occurrence of Trichomonas tenax in patients with periodontitis and also to check the relationship between the occurrence of the protozoan and the indices of oral hygiene, and to evaluate periodontal treatment needs. The study involved 91 individuals aged 23-79 years (52 women and 39 men). 34 of them were infected with Trichomonas tenax. The study revealed dependence between the frequency of occurrence of Trichomonas tenax and the state of periodontium and the hygiene of the oral cavity.

  17. Canine Trichomonas tenax mandibular gland infestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczepaniak, Klaudiusz; Łojszczyk-Szczepaniak, Anna; Tomczuk, Krzysztof; Skrzypek, Tomasz; Lisiak, Barbara; Abd-Al-Hammza Abbass, Zahrai

    2016-02-18

    Several species of trichomonads are intestinal or urogenital parasites of humans and animals, with only a few species typically being located in the oral cavity. The prevalence of oral trichomoniasis in dogs is approximately 15-25 %, although the prevalence varies among different populations and depends on age, sex and the health of the oral cavity. A case of mandibular gland infestation by trichomonads in a 13-year-old female Dachshund with advanced periodontal disease and oral trichomoniasis is reported. The dog was referred due to a history of a painless swelling over the left submandibular region that increased in size over time. Based on physical and ultrasound examinations, a final diagnosis of mandibular gland cyst was established and transcutaneous needle aspiration was carried out. Numerous mobile trophozoites of trichomonads were found by microscopy and culturing for trichomonas was performed. The species was finally characterized as Trichomonas tenax by polymerase chain reaction and sequencing. Studies have shown that T. tenax can be found in humans in atypical locations such as the salivary glands and upper and lower respiratory tracts. According to our knowledge this is the first report of T. tenax being present in the salivary glands of a dog. Because of the relatively high prevalence of trichomoniasis in dogs with periodontal diseases, these parasites should be considered together with bacterial and viral agents in salivary gland infections, especially in individuals with compromised oral health.

  18. Identification and characterization of a type III Trichomonas vaginalis virus in the protozoan pathogen Trichomonas vaginalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bessarab, Irina N; Nakajima, Rui; Liu, Hsing-Wei; Tai, Jung-Hsiang

    2011-02-01

    A type III Trichomonas vaginalis virus, which may be involved in transcriptional regulation of the major surface protein gene P270 of the protozoan pathogen Trichomonas vaginalis, was purified and characterized in the present study. The complete 4844-base-pair complementary DNA sequence of the viral genome reveals overlapping cap and pol genes with a putative ribosomal frame-shifting signal within the overlap region. The type III virus is related more closely to the type II virus than to the type I virus in the sequence of its ribosomal frameshift signal and in its capsid protein. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that these viruses could be grouped in the same clade as a genus distantly related to other genera in the family Totiviridae. Virus-induced P270 gene expression was only evident in Trichomonas vaginalis cells infected with either a type II or type III virus, but not with a type I virus. These findings suggest that transcription of the P270 gene is likely regulated by viral factors common to type II and type III viruses and thus provides important information for future investigation of virus-host interactions.

  19. Management of recalcitrant Trichomonas vaginalis in pregnancy: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayal, Sarup

    2016-02-01

    A case report of a pregnant woman with recalcitrant Trichomonas vaginalis is described. This case was managed with suppressive treatment with metronidazole during pregnancy and cleared with paromomycin vaginal treatment after delivery.

  20. Draft genome sequence of the sexually transmitted pathogen Trichomonas vaginalis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlton, Jane M.; Hirt, Robert P.; Silva, Joana C.

    2007-01-01

    We describe the genome sequence of the protist Trichomonas vaginalis, a sexually transmitted human pathogen. Repeats and transposable elements comprise about two-thirds of the approximately 160-megabase genome, reflecting a recent massive expansion of genetic material. This expansion...

  1. Diagnosis of trichomonas vaginalis in patients with chronic abacterial prostatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. P. Selivanov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Trichomonasis diagnostics in 326 men with chronic prostatitis was performing. Trichomonas vaginalis was seen in 31,5% and 60,7% together with pyrogenal provocation. Trichomonas vaginalis was detected in 158 (48,5% by microscopy, in 90 (27,6% by direct immunofluorescence assay, in 24 (7,4% by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and 6 (1,8% polymerase chain reaction. Polymerase chain reaction demonstrated lowest sensitiveness.

  2. Trichomonas vaginalis Pathogenesis: a Narrative Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Arab-Mazar

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In the latest articles which were published during 2013-2014, Trichomonas vaginalis (T. vaginalis was mentioned as a neglected sexual transmission disease (STD, while the exact mechanism of its pathogenesis has not been cleared yet. Although trichomonasiasis is easy curable, there is concern that resistance to drug are increasing. This common infection as concerning the important public health implications needs more research to be done for understanding the diagnosis, treatment, immunology and pathogenesis. In this review we searched all valuable and relevant information considering the pathogenesis of T. vaginalis. We referred to the information databases of Medline, PubMed, Scopus and Google scholar. The used keywords were the combinations of T. vaginalis and words associated with pathogenicity. This review discusses the host-parasite interaction and pathogenicity of this parasite.

  3. Zoonotic Trichomonas tenax and a new trichomonad species, Trichomonas brixi n. sp., from the oral cavities of dogs and cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellerová, Pavlína; Tachezy, Jan

    2017-04-01

    Trichomonads are known to inhabit the oral cavities of various mammals, including dogs, cats and horses. However, little attention has been paid to species identification, prevalence and zoonotic potential of these parasites, although their hosts live in close proximity with humans. According to the original description, oral trichomonads in dogs and cats belong to the genus Tetratrichomonas. Interestingly, later investigations suggested that the oral cavities of dogs and cats could be infected with different species of the genus Trichomonas, including the human oral cavity parasite Trichomonas tenax. Thus, in this study we investigated the occurrence of oral trichomonads in 111 domestic dogs and 122 cats using cell cultivation methods, nested PCR analyses, and the sequencing of ITS1-5.8rRNA-ITS2 regions. We found that both dogs and cats harbour T. tenax, with prevalences of 8.1% and 4.1%, respectively. Considerably more dogs were infected with different species of the genus Trichomonas (30.6%), which we also identified in cats (6.6%). An analysis of the potential risk factors suggested that dogs of more than 3years old or with dental disease signs are more frequently infected with Trichomonas sp. than younger dogs or dogs without the disease signs, and that crossbreed dogs revealed increased rates of infection in comparison with purebred dogs. An analysis of the cat population suggested that Trichomonas sp. infection is lower in younger and crossbreed cats. Although the morphology of Trichomonas sp. is very similar to that of T. tenax, based on a phylogenetic analysis of ITS1-5.8rRNA-ITS2 regions and the ssrRNA genes, we consider Trichomonas sp. to represent a new trichomonad species, for which we propose the name Trichomonas brixi. Copyright © 2017 Australian Society for Parasitology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Molecular characterization and phylogenetic analysis of Plasmodium vivax, Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium ovale, Plasmodium malariae and Plasmodium cynomolgi

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chatterjee, Soumendranath; Mukhopadhyay, Priyanka; Bandyopadhyay, Raktima; Dhal, Paltu; Biswal, Debraj; Bandyopadhyay, Prabir Kumar

    18S ribosomal RNA gene sequences of different species of Plasmodium were aligned and analyzed to determine the molecular diversity among different species of Plasmodium. AT content of P. cynomolgi, P. ovale, P. falciparum, P. vivax and P...

  5. Characterization of aspartyl aminopeptidase from Toxoplasma gondii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jun; Cheng, Ziying; Jia, Honglin; Zheng, Yonghui

    2016-01-01

    Aminopeptidases have emerged as new promising drug targets for the development of novel anti-parasitic drugs. An aspartyl aminopeptidase-like gene has been identified in the Toxoplasma gondii genome (TgAAP), although its function remains unknown. In this study, we characterized TgAAP and performed functional analysis of the gene product. Firstly, we expressed a functional recombinant TgAAP (rTgAAP) protein in Escherichia coli, and found that it required metal ions for activity and showed a substrate preference for N-terminal acidic amino acids Glu and Asp. Then, we evaluated the function and drug target potential of TgAAP using the CRISPR/Cas9 knockout system. Western blotting demonstrated the deletion of TgAAP in the knockout strain. Indirect immunofluorescence analysis showed that TgAAP was localized in the cytoplasm of the wild-type parasite, but was not expressed in the knockout strain. Phenotype analysis revealed that TgAAP knockout inhibited the attachment/invasion, replication, and substrate-specific activity in T. gondii. Finally, the activity of drug CID 23724194, previously described as targeting Plasmodium and malarial parasite AAP, was tested against rTgAAP and the parasite. Overall, TgAAP knockout affected the growth of T. gondii but did not completely abolish parasite replication and growth. Therefore, TgAAP may comprise a useful adjunct drug target of T. gondii. PMID:27678060

  6. Regulation of Plasmodium falciparum Glideosome Associated Protein 45 (PfGAP45) Phosphorylation

    OpenAIRE

    Divya Catherine Thomas; Anwar Ahmed; Tim Wolf Gilberger; Pushkar Sharma

    2012-01-01

    The actomyosin motor complex of the glideosome provides the force needed by apicomplexan parasites such as Toxoplasma gondii (Tg) and Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) to invade their host cells and for gliding motility of their motile forms. Glideosome Associated Protein 45 (PfGAP45) is an essential component of the glideosome complex as it facilitates anchoring and effective functioning of the motor. Dissection of events that regulate PfGAP45 may provide insights into how the motor and the glideos...

  7. Glycogen accumulation and degradation by the trichomonads Trichomonas vaginalis and Trichomonas tenax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Tyler J; Pradhan, Prajakta; Brittingham, Andrew; Wilson, Wayne A

    2012-01-01

    Several species of trichomonad have been shown to accumulate significant quantities of glycogen during growth, suggesting an important role for this compound in cell physiology. We provide the first analysis of the changes in glycogen content and glycogen phosphorylase activity that occur during in vitro growth of two trichomonad species: Trichomonas vaginalis and Trichomonas tenax. Both species accumulated glycogen following inoculation into fresh medium and utilized this compound during logarithmic growth. Glycogen phosphorylase activity also varied during growth in a species-specific manner. The expression of phosphorylase genes in T. vaginalis remained constant during growth and thus transcriptional control did not explain the observed fluctuations in phosphorylase activity. After cloning, expression, and purification, two recombinant glycogen phosphorylases from T. vaginalis and one recombinant glycogen phosphorylase from T. tenax had robust activity and, in contrast to many other eukaryotic glycogen phosphorylases, did not appear to be regulated by reversible protein phosphorylation. Furthermore, allosteric regulation, if present, was not mediated by compounds known to impact the activity of better characterized phosphorylases. © 2012 The Author(s) Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology © 2012 International Society of Protistologists.

  8. Comparative analyses among the Trichomonas vaginalis, Trichomonas tenax, and Tritrichomonas foetus 5S ribosomal RNA genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Machorro, Ana Lilia; Hernández, Roberto; Alderete, John F; López-Villaseñor, Imelda

    2009-04-01

    The 5S ribosomal RNA (5S rRNA) is an essential component of ribosomes. Throughout evolution, variation is found among 5S rRNA genes regarding their chromosomal localization, copy number, and intergenic regions. In this report, we describe and compare the gene sequences, motifs, genomic copy number, and chromosomal localization of the Trichomonas vaginalis, Trichomonas tenax, and Tritrichomonas foetus 5S rRNA genes. T. vaginalis and T. foetus have a single type of 5S rRNA-coding region, whereas two types were found in T. tenax. The sequence identities among the three organisms are between 94 and 97%. The intergenic regions are more divergent in sequence and size with characteristic species-specific motifs. The T. foetus 5S rRNA gene has larger and more complex intergenic regions, which contain either an ubiquitin gene or repeated sequences. The 5S rRNA genes were located in Trichomonads chromosomes by fluorescent in situ hybridization.

  9. Determination of internal transcribed spacer regions (ITS) in Trichomonas vaginalis isolates and differentiation among Trichomonas species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibáñez-Escribano, Alexandra; Nogal-Ruiz, Juan José; Arán, Vicente J; Escario, José Antonio; Gómez-Barrio, Alicia; Alderete, J F

    2014-04-01

    The nucleotide sequence of the 5.8S rRNA gene and the flanked internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions of six Trichomonas vaginalis isolates with different metronidazole sensitivity and geographic origin were genotyped. A multiple sequence alignment was performed with different sequences of other isolates available at the GenBank/EMBL/DDBJ databases, which revealed 5 different sequence patterns. Although a stable mutation in position 66 of the ITS1 (C66T) was observed in 26% (9/34) of the T. vaginalis sequences analyzed, there was 99.7% ITS nucleotide sequence identity among isolates for this sequence. The nucleotide sequence variation among other species of the genus Trichomonas ranged from 3.4% to 9.1%. Surprisingly, the % identity between T. vaginalis and Pentatrichomonas hominis was ~83%. There was >40% divergence in the ITS sequence between T. vaginalis and Tritrichomonas spp., including Tritrichomonas augusta, Tritrichomonas muris, and Tritrichomonas nonconforma and with Tetratrichomonas prowazeki. Dendrograms grouped the trichomonadid sequences in robust clades according to their genera. The absence of nucleotide divergence in the hypervariable ITS regions between T. vaginalis isolates suggests the early divergence of the parasite. Importantly, these data show this ITS1-5.8S rRNA-ITS2 region suitable for inter-species differentiation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Pentamycin shows high efficacy against Trichomonas vaginalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kranzler, Markus; Syrowatka, Michael; Leitsch, David; Winnips, Cornelis; Walochnik, Julia

    2015-04-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis is the causative agent of the venereal disease trichomoniasis, which is the most frequent non-viral sexually transmitted disease worldwide. Since the 1960s, metronidazole has been the standard treatment, however an increasing number of cases with metronidazole-resistant strains is being reported. In this study, pentamycin, a polyene antibiotic, was tested for its in vitro efficacy against T. vaginalis using four strains with different metronidazole susceptibilities. It was shown that pentamycin is highly active against T. vaginalis and that the effect is prompt and independent of underlying metronidazole resistance. The effective concentrations (EC values) after 1 h of treatment were in the range 1.74-2.62 μg/mL (EC50) and 4.91-6.51 μg/mL (EC90). Total eradication of trichomonads (EC100) was achieved in all strains by treatment with 15 μg/mL (22 μM) for 1 h or with ≥1 μg/mL (≥1.5 μM) for 24 h. Long-term cultivation (12 months) under permanent drug pressure did not induce stable resistance against pentamycin in any of the strains tested. Pentamycin has been approved for intravaginal use and is a promising candidate for the topical treatment of trichomoniasis.

  11. Global epidemiology and control of Trichomonas vaginalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Victoria J; Mabey, David C

    2008-02-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis is the most common curable sexually transmitted infection. Despite a number of serious health consequences including facilitation of HIV transmission, pelvic inflammatory disease and adverse outcomes of pregnancy it remains an under-recognized condition. This review aims to update the reader on the global epidemiology and control of T. vaginalis. The burden of T. vaginalis infection is found in resource-limited settings and high-risk groups in industrialized settings. Utilization of polymerase chain reaction-based diagnostics has enhanced our understanding of the epidemiology of T. vaginalis both at the population level and in sexual partners. High rates of asymptomatic infection in male partners of infected females and subsequent re-infection have significant implications for control programmes. Further studies investigating the role of T. vaginalis in facilitating HIV transmission has highlighted its significance and the need to develop and implement control interventions. Future research to develop cheap, point-of-care diagnostic tests will allow a greater understanding of T. vaginalis epidemiology. In addition, the effect of treatment on outcome of pregnancy and HIV acquisition requires further study. This will in turn facilitate operational studies evaluating optimal control strategies and their impact on the complications of T. vaginalis.

  12. Prevalencia de Trichomonas vaginalis en trabajadores sexuales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Cristina Salomón

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available La tricomoniasis es una infección de transmisión sexual (ITS que se asocia a vaginitis, uretritis, cervicitis y enfermedad inflamatoria pélvica pudiendo producir infertilidad tubárica. El objetivo de este trabajo, de tipo retrospectivo longitudinal, fue determinar la prevalencia de Trichomonas vaginalis en una población de trabajadores sexuales en Mendoza, Argentina. Se estudió en forma retrospectiva una población de 720 personas asistidas por el Programa Provincial de ITS de Mendoza. Entre febrero de 2007 y junio de 2009 se procesaron 1692 muestras con un muestreo por reposición. La distribución por sexo fue de 687 mujeres y 33 varones con edades comprendidas entre 15 y 65 años. La prevalencia de tricomoniasis determinada en esta población en riesgo fue de 7.6% para las mujeres, sin encontrarse infecciones en el grupo de los hombres. La prevalencia hallada en este grupo en riesgo muestra una población con alta vulnerabilidad para contraer otras ITS de mayor gravedad. En otro sentido, sugiere una importante falta de adhesión al uso de barreras mecánicas para prevenir infecciones de transmisión sexual. Este trabajo justifica la elaboración de una guía de procedimientos para el manejo de la infección por tricomonas en el marco del Programa de Salud Reproductiva (PROSAR.

  13. Trichomonas vaginalis: Clinical relevance, pathogenicity and diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Thomas; Burke, Patricia; Smalley, Helen; Hobbs, Glyn

    2016-05-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis is the etiological agent of trichomoniasis, the most prevalent non-viral sexually transmitted disease worldwide. Trichomoniasis is a widespread, global health concern and occurring at an increasing rate. Infections of the female genital tract can cause a range of symptoms, including vaginitis and cervicitis, while infections in males are generally asymptomatic. The relatively mild symptoms, and lack of evidence for any serious sequelae, have historically led to this disease being under diagnosed, and under researched. However, growing evidence that T. vaginalis infection is associated with other disease states with high morbidity in both men and women has increased the efforts to diagnose and treat patients harboring this parasite. The pathology of trichomoniasis results from damage to the host epithelia, caused by a variety of processes during infection and recent work has highlighted the complex interactions between the parasite and host, commensal microbiome and accompanying symbionts. The commercial release of a number of nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) has added to the available diagnostic options. Immunoassay based Point of Care testing is currently available, and a recent initial evaluation of a NAAT Point of Care system has given promising results, which would enable testing and treatment in a single visit.

  14. Gene Diversity of Trichomonas Vaginalis Isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z Valadkhani

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Trichomonas vaginalis is protozoan parasite responsible for trichomoniasis and is more common in high-risk behavior group such as prostitute individuals. Interest in trichomoni­asis is due to increase one's susceptibility to viruses such as herpes, human papillomavirus and HIV. The aim of this study was to find genotypic differences between the isolates.Methods: Forty isolates from prisoners' women in Tehran province were used in this study. The random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD technique was used to determine genetic differ­ences among isolates and was correlated with patient's records. By each primer the banding pat­tern size of each isolates was scored (bp, genetic differences were studied, and the genealogical tree was constructed by using NTSYS software program and UPGMA method.Results: The least number of bands were seen by using primer OPD8 and the most by using OPD3. Results showed no significant difference in isolates from different geographical areas in Iran. By using primer OPD1 specific amplified fragment with length 1300 base pair were found in only 8 isolates. All these isolates were belonged to addicted women; however, six belonged to asymptomatic patients and two to symptomatic ones.Conclusion: There was not much genetic diversity in T vaginalis isolates from three different geo­graphical areas.

  15. Eicosapentaenoic Acid Modulates Trichomonas vaginalis Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korosh, Travis; Jordan, Kelsey D; Wu, Ja-Shin; Yarlett, Nigel; Upmacis, Rita K

    2016-01-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis is a sexually transmitted parasite and, while it is often asymptomatic in males, the parasite is associated with disease in both sexes. Metronidazole is an effective treatment for trichomoniasis, but resistant strains have evolved and, thus, it has become necessary to investigate other possible therapies. In this study, we examined the effects of native and oxidized forms of the sodium salts of eicosapentaenoic, docosahexaenoic, and arachidonic acids on T. vaginalis activity. Eicosapentaenoic acid was the most toxic with 190 and 380 μM causing approximately 90% cell death in Casu2 and ATCC 50142 strains, respectively. In contrast, oxidized eicosapentaenoic acid was the least toxic, requiring > 3 mM to inhibit activity, while low levels (10 μM) were associated with increased parasite density. Mass spectrometric analysis of oxidized eicosapentaenoic acid revealed C20 products containing one to six additional oxygen atoms and various degrees of bond saturation. These results indicate that eicosapentaenoic acid has different effects on T. vaginalis survival, depending on whether it is present in the native or oxidized form. A better understanding of lipid metabolism in T. vaginalis may facilitate the design of synthetic fatty acids that are effective for the treatment of metronidazole-resistant T. vaginalis.

  16. Anti-Toxoplasma activity of vegetal extracts used in West African traditional medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benoit-Vical F.

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Both Toxoplasma gondii and Plasmodium are Apicomplexan protozoa that share common metabolic pathways and potential drug targets. The objective of this study was to examine the anti- Toxoplasma activity of nine West African plants with known activity against P. falciparum. The extracts were obtained from parts of plant commonly used, by most traditional healers, in the form of infusion or as water decoction. The in vitro activity of plant extracts on T. gondii was assessed on MRC5 tissue cultures and was quantified by enzyme-linked immunoassay. Aqueous extracts from Vernonia colorata were found to be inhibitory for Toxoplasma growth at concentrations > 10 mg/L, with an IC50 of 16.3 mg/L. A ten-fold gain in activity was obtained when organic solvents such as dichloromethane, acetone or ethanol were used to extract V. colorata's active principles. These extracts were inhibitory at concentrations as low as 1 mg/L, with IC50 of 1.7, 2.6 and 2.9 mg/L for dichloromethane, acetone and ethanol extracts respectively. These results indicate a promising source of new anti-Toxoplasma drugs from V. colorata and African medicinal plants.

  17. Virus in Trichomonas--an ultrastructural study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benchimol, Marlene; Monteiro, Sandra; Chang, T-H; Alderete, John F

    2002-09-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis is a flagellated, parasitic protozoan that inhabits the urogenital tract of humans. Approximately one-half of isolates of T. vaginalis are infected with a double-stranded (ds) RNA virus, which was described in the literature as a homogeneous population of icosahedral virus with isometric symmetry and 33 nm in diameter. The present study describes the heterogeneous virus population found in T. vaginalis isolate 347. This population comprises different virus sizes (33-200 nm) and shape (filamentous, cylindrical, and spherical particles). These observations were made in CsCl-purified virus fractions as well as the thin sections of parasites. Some viruses were only observed after slight changes in the technique where the sample was prepared by the negative staining carbon-film method directly onto freshly cleft mica. The VLPs were found in the cytoplasm closely associated with the Golgi complex, with some VLPs budding from the Golgi, and other VLPs were detected adjacent to the plasma membrane. Unidentified cytoplasmic inclusions were observed in the region close to the VLPs and Golgi. These results indicate that T. vaginalis organisms may be infected with different dsRNA viruses simultaneously and suggest that T. vaginalis may be a reservoir for several viruses. We also showed some steps in the route of T. vaginalis virus and some aspects of the cytopathology of this infection. Purified VLPs were transfected to virus-free T. vaginalis isolates. Our results demonstrate that TVV attach and penetrate into trichomonads through endocytic coated pits and are maintained within vacuoles during batch culture for several daily passages. Immediately after virus transfection, many cells were lysed, whereas some intact reminiscent cells were recruited forming large clusters. Virus particles were found outside the cells, and in coated pits, within vacuoles in the cytoplasm, and infrequently within the nucleus. The Golgi complex showed changes in its electron

  18. Toxoplasma gondii and Epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayaz, Erol; Türkoğlu, Şule Aydın; Orallar, Hayriye

    2016-06-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is a zoonotic parasite can be seen in all the vital organ; in the acute phase, it can be found in the blood, cerebrospinal fluid, semen, tears, saliva, urine, and in almost all body fluids. Transplasental infection can lead to fetal damage and miscarriage. Its last hosts are felines and intermediate hosts are all mammals, including humans. People infected by the ingestion of meat containing cysts in undercooked or raw, are thrown oocysts with cat felines By taking in water and food, from mother to fetus transplacental way, the infected organ transplantation, blood transfusion, laboratory accidents and kaprofaj transmitted by mechanical vectors of the invertebrates. Suppression of the immune system is being transformed to the shape and texture of the cysts with bradyzoite. The parasite settles in the cells of the tissue cysts and causes change in the cellular mechanisms, such as cytokinin task. Depending on changes and type of neurotransmitter (GABA, glutamate, serotonin, dopamine) levels in CSF in ions (Ca, K, Cl, Mg), it is believed that there is a change in their concentration. In this review, literature about the relationship between T. gondii and epilepsy and epileptiform activity the importance of parasites, which settle in the brain, will be highlighted.

  19. [Cultivation of Trichomonas gallinarum and Trichomonas tenax on a trimed medium].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsvetkova, A; Iankov, N; Dorevska, K

    1975-01-01

    Studied was the possibility to isolate and culture Tr. gallinarum and Tr. tenax on a medium Trimed, proposed by the authors for the isolation and cultivation of Tr. vaginalis. The growth and development of the two Trichomonas species were followed up at various temperatures -- 38 degrees, 36 degrees, and 32 degrees C, in order to establish the most appropriate temperature for continuous cultivation at longer intervals of reseeding as well as the temperature optimum for the fast deposition of great amounts of biomass. It was found that the Trimed medium is suitable for the isolation and cultivation of Tr. gallinarum and Tr. tenax. Temperatures of 38 degrees and 36 degrees contribute to the accumulation of greater amounts of biomass, while at 32 degrees C the growth of these protozoa is delayed and reseeding is to be carried out at greater intervals.

  20. Actin cytoskeleton demonstration in Trichomonas vaginalis and in other trichomonads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brugerolle, G; Bricheux, G; Coffe, G

    1996-01-01

    The flagellate form of Trichomonas vaginalis (T v) transforms to amoeboid cells upon adherence to converslips. They grow and their nuclei divide without undergoing cytokinesis, yielding giant cells and a monolayer of T v F-actin was demonstrated in Trichomonas vaginalis by fluorescence microscopy using phalloidin and an anti-actin mAb which labelled the cytoplasm of both the flagellate and amoeboid forms. Comparative electrophoresis and immunoblotting established that the actin band has the same 42 kDa as muscle actin, but 2-D electrophoresis resolved the actin band into four spots; the two major spots observed were superimposable with major muscle actin isoforms. Electron microscopy demonstrated an ectoplasmic microfibrillar layer along the adhesion zone of amoeboid T v adhering to coverslips. Immunogold staining, using anti-actin monoclonal antibodies demonstrated that this layer was mainly composed of actin microfilaments. A comparative immunoblotting study comprising seven trichomonad species showed that all trichomonads studied expressed actin. The mAb Sigma A-4700 specific for an epitope on the actin C-terminal sequence labelled only actin of Trichomonas vaginalis, Tetratrichomonas gallinarum. Trichomitus batrachorum and Hypotrichomonas acosta, but not the actin of Tritrichomonas foetus, Tritrichomonas augusta and Monocercomonas sp. This discrimination between a 'trichomonas branch' and a 'tritrichomonas branch' is congruent with inferred sequence phylogeny from SSu rRNA and with classical phylogeny of trichomonads.

  1. Identification of microRNA in the protist Trichomonas vaginalis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lin, Wen-Chang; Lin, Wei-Chen; Li, Sung-Chou; Shin, Jyh-Wei; Hu, Song-Nian; Yu, Xiao-Min; Huang, Ting-Yun; Huang, Po-Jung; Chen, Hua-Chien; Chen, Shu-Jen; Chen, Shih-Chieh; Ruei-Chi Gan, Richie; Chiu, Cheng-Hsun; Tang, Petrus

    2009-01-01

    .... However, miRNA has never been identified experimentally in protist. Direct cloning of 438 expressed miRNA tags by microRNA serial analysis of gene expression from the parasitic protist Trichomonas vaginalis identified nine candidate miRNAs...

  2. Draft genome sequence of the sexually transmitted pathogen Trichomonas vaginalis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carlton, Jane M.; Hirt, Robert P.; Silva, Joana C.; Delcher, Arthur L.; Schatz, Michael; Zhao, Qi; Wortman, Jennifer R.; Bidwell, Shelby L.; Alsmark, U. Cecilia M.; Besteiro, Sebastien; Sicheritz-Ponten, Thomas; Noel, Christophe J.; Dacks, Joel B.; Foster, Peter G.; Simillion, Cedric; Van de Peer, Yves; Miranda-Saavedra, Diego; Barton, Geoffrey J.; Westrop, Gareth D.; Mueller, Sylke; Dessi, Daniele; Fiori, Pier Luigi; Ren, Qinghu; Paulsen, Ian; Zhang, Hanbang; Bastida-Corcuera, Felix D.; Simoes-Barbosa, Augusto; Brown, Mark T.; Hayes, Richard D.; Mukherjee, Mandira; Okumura, Cheryl Y.; Schneider, Rachel; Smith, Alias J.; Vanacova, Stepanka; Villalvazo, Maria; Haas, Brian J.; Pertea, Mihaela; Feldblyum, Tamara V.; Utterback, Terry R.; Shu, Chung-Li; Osoegawa, Kazutoyo; de Jong, Pieter J.; Hrdy, Ivan; Horvathova, Lenka; Zubacova, Zuzana; Dolezal, Pavel; Malik, Shehre-Banoo; Logsdon, John M.; Henze, Katrin; Gupta, Arti; Wang, Ching C.; Dunne, Rebecca L.; Upcroft, Jacqueline A.; Upcroft, Peter; White, Owen; Salzberg, Steven L.; Tang, Petrus; Chiu, Cheng-Hsun; Lee, Ying-Shiung; Embley, T. Martin; Coombs, Graham H.; Mottram, Jeremy C.; Tachezy, Jan; Fraser-Liggett, Claire M.; Johnson, Patricia J.

    2007-01-01

    We describe the genome sequence of the protist Trichomonas vaginalis, a sexually transmitted human pathogen. Repeats and transposable elements comprise about two-thirds of the similar to 160-megabase genome, reflecting a recent massive expansion of genetic material. This expansion, in conjunction wi

  3. [Familial infections with Trichomonas tenax (O.F. Müller, 1773), Dobel, 1939].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurnatowska, Anna J; Dudko, Anna; Turkowicz, Monika

    2004-01-01

    Aim of the study was to research familial occurrence of Trichomonas tenax and relationship between infection with the protozoan and both a state of parodontium and hygiene of oral cavity. The study involved 10 families (22 individuals). Trichomonas tenax was found in 16 patients. Simultaneously isolates of protozoans were examined with the methods of molecular biology. The study showed the dependence of infection with Trichomonas tenax on both bad hygiene of oral cavity and occurrence of pathological lesions in the paradontium.

  4. Cathepsin proteases in Toxoplasma gondii

    OpenAIRE

    Dou, Zhicheng; Carruthers, Vern B.

    2011-01-01

    Cysteine proteases are important for the growth and survival of apicomplexan parasites that infect humans. The apicomplexan Toxoplasma gondii expresses five members of the C1 family of cysteine proteases, including one cathepsin L-like (TgCPL), one cathepsin B-like (TgCPB), and three cathepsin C-like (TgCPC1, 2 and 3) proteases. Recent genetic, biochemical and structural studies reveal that cathepsins function in microneme and rhoptry protein maturation, host cell invasion, replication, and n...

  5. Trichomonas vaginalis: Diagnosis and Clinical Characteristics in Pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    R. Phillip Heine; James A. McGregor; Elisa Patterson; Deborah Draper; Janice French; Ward Jones

    1994-01-01

    Objective: The objectives of this study were to 1) determine the prevalance and characterize the symptomatology of Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) infection in pregnant women on entry into prenatal care in an inner-city population; 2) compare conventional microscopic methods vs. culture techniques in diagnosing TV in both symptomatic and asymptomatic pregnant patients; and 3) correlate wet mount microscopic and microbiologic characteristics of varying manifestations of trichomoniasis. Methods: One...

  6. Trichomonas tenax empyema in an immunocompromised patient with advanced cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiota, T; Arizono, N; Morimoto, T; Shimatsu, A; Nakao, K

    1998-12-01

    A 53-year-old male acromegalic patient with advanced rectal adenocarcinoma developed pleuritis in the course of cobalt irradiation, steroid treatment and chemotherapy. Examination of drained pleural fluid demonstrated numerous motile organisms, which were identified as Trichomonas tenax by Giemsa staining. Peptostreptococcus micros was also detected in the cultures of pleural fluid and blood. Treatment with metronidazole successfully eliminated the protozoa and cured the pyothorax.

  7. [Molecular diagnosis of oral cavity trichomonas infections in HIV patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turkowicz, Monika; Tomaszewska, Danuta; Cielecka, Danuta

    2004-01-01

    The occurrence of trichomonas in oral cavity of HIV patients is not well known. HIV patients often suffer from oral lesions (candidiosis, advanced caries) and it remains unclear if any oral parasites can affect that, therefore the aim of the study was verification of species that can occur in HIV patients' oral cavity. Diagnosis of oral trichomonas can be performed by conventional methods (microscopic observation of wet and stained preparations and cultivation) but these are time consuming and insufficient for proper species differentiation, therefore in order to detect and identify species of parasites precisely, molecular methods such as PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction) and sequencing of its product, were applied. 54 HIV patients (18 females and 36 males at the age of 20-54) were examined. All of them were addicted to intravenous drugs for at least 6 years. Saliva, smears and spittle samples were collected and used for cultivation, preparations and molecular diagnosis. For PCR amplification a pair of primers (T1 and T2) specific for ITS 1 - 5.8 SrRNA - ITS 2 region was designed. The oral trichomonas were detected in saliva samples of 3 HIV patients; these were males at the age of 25, 27 and 44. The identification of species by PCR and sequencing of the PCR products showed the trichomonads belonging to Trichomonas tenax. Infection of HIV patients' oral cavity caused by T. tenax is rather related with inflammatory processes than with the immunosuppression of these patients but should be considered as a potential factor in pathogenesis of oral disorders in immunosuppressed patients.

  8. New Concepts in the Diagnosis and Pathogenesis of Trichomonas vaginalis

    OpenAIRE

    Renuka Bhatt; Mary Abraham; Dino Petrin; Garber, Gary E.

    1996-01-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis infection is the most commonly encountered sexually transmitted disease. There is a need for more accurate and rapid laboratory diagnostic methods, leading to better control and treatment strategies. Various virulence factors such as adherence, contact-independent factors, hemolysis and acquisition of host macromolecules have been shown to play a role in the pathogenesis of this infection. Detection of the factors that are only present in the pathogenic isolates of trich...

  9. Trichomonas vaginalis: IdentiWcation of a triacylglycerol acylhydrolase

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    This work describes the identiWcation of a triacylglycerol lipase named TVLip directly onto blood-LB-agar plates by hemolytic screening of a Trichomonas vaginalis cDNA expression library. Sharing signiWcant similarity in the primary sequence with other lipases, the theoretical 3D structure of the TVLip was resolved. The structure reveals the predictive conserved characteristics of other lipases from EC3.1.1.3 group, although presenting one aminoacid change in the catalytic triad Ser-...

  10. RNG1 is a Late Marker of the Apical Polar Ring in Toxoplasma gondii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Johnson Q.; de Leon, Jessica C.; Li, Catherine; Huynh, My-Hang; Beatty, Wandy; Morrissette, Naomi S.

    2010-01-01

    The asexually proliferating stages of apicomplexan parasites cause acute symptoms of diseases such as malaria, cryptosporidiosis and toxoplasmosis. These stages are characterized by the presence of two independent microtubule organizing centers (MTOCs). Centrioles are found at the poles of the intranuclear spindle. The apical polar ring (APR), a MTOC unique to apicomplexans, organizes subpellicular microtubules which impose cell shape and apical polarity on these protozoa. Here we describe the characteristics of a novel protein that localizes to the APR of Toxoplasma gondii which we have named ring-1 (RNG1). There are related RNG1 proteins in Neospora caninum and Sarcocystis neurona but no obvious homologs in Plasmodium spp., Cryptosporidium spp. or Babesia spp. RNG1 is a small, low-complexity, detergent-insoluble protein that assembles at the APR very late in the process of daughter parasite replication. We were unable to knock-out the RNG1 gene, suggesting that its gene product is essential. Tagged RNG1 lines have also allowed us to visualize the APR during growth of Toxoplasma in the microtubule-disrupting drug oryzalin. Oryzalin inhibits nuclear division and cytokinesis although Toxoplasma growth continues, and similar to earlier observations of unchecked centriole duplication in oryzalin-treated parasites, the APR continues to duplicate during aberrant parasite growth. PMID:20658557

  11. Epigenomic modifications predict active promoters and gene structure in Toxoplasma gondii.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu Gissot

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Mechanisms of gene regulation are poorly understood in Apicomplexa, a phylum that encompasses deadly human pathogens like Plasmodium and Toxoplasma. Initial studies suggest that epigenetic phenomena, including histone modifications and chromatin remodeling, have a profound effect upon gene expression and expression of virulence traits. Using the model organism Toxoplasma gondii, we characterized the epigenetic organization and transcription patterns of a contiguous 1% of the T. gondii genome using custom oligonucleotide microarrays. We show that methylation and acetylation of histones H3 and H4 are landmarks of active promoters in T. gondii that allow us to deduce the position and directionality of gene promoters with >95% accuracy. These histone methylation and acetylation "activation" marks are strongly associated with gene expression. We also demonstrate that the pattern of histone H3 arginine methylation distinguishes certain promoters, illustrating the complexity of the histone modification machinery in Toxoplasma. By integrating epigenetic data, gene prediction analysis, and gene expression data from the tachyzoite stage, we illustrate feasibility of creating an epigenomic map of T. gondii tachyzoite gene expression. Further, we illustrate the utility of the epigenomic map to empirically and biologically annotate the genome and show that this approach enables identification of previously unknown genes. Thus, our epigenomics approach provides novel insights into regulation of gene expression in the Apicomplexa. In addition, with its compact genome, genetic tractability, and discrete life cycle stages, T. gondii provides an important new model to study the evolutionarily conserved components of the histone code.

  12. First report of Trichomonas tenax infections in the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimasuay, Kris Genelyn B; Rivera, Windell L

    2014-04-01

    Recent studies have reported Trichomonas tenax as a cause of pleuropulmonary infections in humans. In this study, sputum and vaginal swab samples were collected from patients suffering from respiratory ailments in Rodriguez, Rizal and sex workers attending the social hygiene clinics in Angeles City in Pampanga, Mandaluyong City and Pasay City in Metro Manila, Philippines, respectively. DNA was extracted from samples and the 18S rRNA gene was amplified and sequenced. Phylogenetic trees were constructed using neighbor-joining, maximum-likelihood, maximum parsimony, and Bayesian inference analyses. Results showed that the new primer sets successfully amplified T. tenax from 14 sputum samples and Trichomonas vaginalis from 19 vaginal swab samples. Consequently, all isolates clustered with high bootstrap support and posterior probability values to their respective reference strains in the phylogenetic tree. Thus, the genus Trichomonas formed a highly supported clade with T. vaginalis in the first clade and T. tenax in the second clade. These findings conclude that T. vaginalis is solely present in the genito-urinary tract of females and that T. tenax can be found in the respiratory tract of humans. To our knowledge, this is the first report of detection and identification of T. tenax from sputum samples in the Philippines. However, further studies are still needed to determine the pathogenicity of this organism in humans. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The Crystal Structure of Toxoplasma gondii Pyruvate Kinase 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakszt, R.; Wernimont, A; Allali-Hassani, A; Mok, M; Hills, T; Hui, R; Pizarro, J

    2010-01-01

    Pyruvate kinase (PK), which catalyzes the final step in glycolysis converting phosphoenolpyruvate to pyruvate, is a central metabolic regulator in most organisms. Consequently PK represents an attractive therapeutic target in cancer and human pathogens, like Apicomplexans. The phylum Aplicomplexa, a group of exclusively parasitic organisms, includes the genera Plasmodium, Cryptosporidium and Toxoplasma, the etiological agents of malaria, cryptosporidiosis and toxoplasmosis respectively. Toxoplasma gondii infection causes a mild illness and is a very common infection affecting nearly one third of the world's population. We have determined the crystal structure of the PK1 enzyme from T. gondii, with the B domain in the open and closed conformations. We have also characterized its enzymatic activity and confirmed glucose-6-phosphate as its allosteric activator. This is the first description of a PK enzyme in a closed inactive conformation without any bound substrate. Comparison of the two tetrameric TgPK1 structures indicates a reorientation of the monomers with a concomitant change in the buried surface among adjacent monomers. The change in the buried surface was associated with significant B domain movements in one of the interacting monomers. We hypothesize that a loop in the interface between the A and B domains plays an important role linking the position of the B domain to the buried surface among monomers through two {alpha}-helices. The proposed model links the catalytic cycle of the enzyme with its domain movements and highlights the contribution of the interface between adjacent subunits. In addition, an unusual ordered conformation was observed in one of the allosteric binding domains and it is related to a specific apicomplexan insertion. The sequence and structural particularity would explain the atypical activation by a mono-phosphorylated sugar. The sum of peculiarities raises this enzyme as an emerging target for drug discovery.

  14. Genetic identity and differential gene expression between Trichomonas vaginalis and Trichomonas tenax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucknoor, Ashwini S; Mundodi, Vasanthakrishna; Alderete, Jf

    2009-03-18

    Trichomonas vaginalis is a human urogenital pathogen responsible for trichomonosis, the number-one, non-viral sexually transmitted disease (STD) worldwide, while T. tenax is a commensal of the human oral cavity, found particularly in patients with poor oral hygiene and advanced periodontal disease. The extent of genetic identity between T. vaginalis and its oral commensal counterpart is unknown. Genes that were differentially expressed in T. vaginalis were identified by screening three independent subtraction cDNA libraries enriched for T. vaginalis genes. The same thirty randomly selected cDNA clones encoding for proteins with specific functions associated with colonization were identified from each of the subtraction cDNA libraries. In addition, a T. vaginalis cDNA expression library was screened with patient sera that was first pre-adsorbed with an extract of T. tenax antigens, and seven specific cDNA clones were identified from this cDNA library. Interestingly, some of the clones identified by the subtraction cDNA screening were also obtained from the cDNA expression library with the pre-adsorbed sera. Moreover and noteworthy, clones identified by both the procedures were found to be up-regulated in expression in T. vaginalis upon contact with vaginal epithelial cells, suggesting a role for these gene products in host colonization. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis of select clones showed that the genes were not unique to T. vaginalis and that these genes were also present in T. tenax, albeit at very low levels of expression. These results suggest that T. vaginalis and T. tenax have remarkable genetic identity and that T. vaginalis has higher levels of gene expression when compared to that of T. tenax. The data may suggest that T. tenax could be a variant of T. vaginalis.

  15. Genetic identity and differential gene expression between Trichomonas vaginalis and Trichomonas tenax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mundodi Vasanthakrishna

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Trichomonas vaginalis is a human urogenital pathogen responsible for trichomonosis, the number-one, non-viral sexually transmitted disease (STD worldwide, while T. tenax is a commensal of the human oral cavity, found particularly in patients with poor oral hygiene and advanced periodontal disease. The extent of genetic identity between T. vaginalis and its oral commensal counterpart is unknown. Results Genes that were differentially expressed in T. vaginalis were identified by screening three independent subtraction cDNA libraries enriched for T. vaginalis genes. The same thirty randomly selected cDNA clones encoding for proteins with specific functions associated with colonization were identified from each of the subtraction cDNA libraries. In addition, a T. vaginalis cDNA expression library was screened with patient sera that was first pre-adsorbed with an extract of T. tenax antigens, and seven specific cDNA clones were identified from this cDNA library. Interestingly, some of the clones identified by the subtraction cDNA screening were also obtained from the cDNA expression library with the pre-adsorbed sera. Moreover and noteworthy, clones identified by both the procedures were found to be up-regulated in expression in T. vaginalis upon contact with vaginal epithelial cells, suggesting a role for these gene products in host colonization. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis of select clones showed that the genes were not unique to T. vaginalis and that these genes were also present in T. tenax, albeit at very low levels of expression. Conclusion These results suggest that T. vaginalis and T. tenax have remarkable genetic identity and that T. vaginalis has higher levels of gene expression when compared to that of T. tenax. The data may suggest that T. tenax could be a variant of T. vaginalis.

  16. Plasmodium and mononuclear phagocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mac-Daniel, Laura; Ménard, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Plasmodium, the causative agent of malaria, initially multiplies inside liver cells and then in successive cycles inside erythrocytes, causing the symptoms of the disease. In this review, we discuss interactions between the extracellular and intracellular forms of the Plasmodium parasite and innate immune cells in the mammalian host, with a special emphasis on mononuclear phagocytes. We overview here what is known about the innate immune cells that interact with parasites, mechanisms used by the parasite to evade them, and the protective or detrimental contribution of these interactions on parasite progression through its life cycle and pathology in the host.

  17. 弓形虫与疟原虫入侵引起宿主细胞骨架重组相关GTP酶不同定位的观察%Observation on different localization of GTPases related to host cytoskeleton reorganization triggered by Toxoplasma gondii and Plasmodium falciparum infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈艾媛; 娜仁花; 彭鸿娟; 赵亚

    2012-01-01

    Both Toxoplasmagondii and Plasmodium spp. belong to the intracellular protozoa in Order Eucoccidiida, Class Sporozoea, and Phylum Apicomplexa. They dwell in the parasitophorons vaenole lor parasitism , development and multiplication alter recruitment . The invasion of these intracellular protozoans into host cells requires the cytoskeleton reorganization of the host cell . Rho GTPases are the important enzymes in regulation of cytoskeleton reorganization in mammalian cells inclu -ding nucleated cells and erythrocytes . We found in our research that host cell RhoA and Racl GTPase were recruited to the par-asitophorous vacuole membrane (PV M ) of T. gondii and showed a high accumulation on the PV M after T. gondii tachyzoite invading the host cell. On the other hand , this accumulation of the Rho GTPases on the PV M was not observed after Plasmodium falciparum merozoites invading erythrocytes . The different distribution of RhoA and RaclGTPase in the host cell after the invasion of T. gondii tachyzoites and Plasmodium falciparum merozoites indicated the different way for the regulation of cytoskeleton reorganization in host cells upon the parasites invasion .%目的 方法,结果,结论弓形虫与疟原虫均是顶复门(Phylum Apicomplexa),孢子纲(Class Sporozoea), 真球虫目(Order Eucoccidiida)的细胞内寄生原虫,入侵宿主细胞后均寄生于纳虫泡内进行发育增殖.细胞内寄生原虫的入侵均需要宿主细胞的细胞骨架发生重组,RhoGTP酶是哺乳动物细胞(有核细胞及红细胞)调节细胞骨架重组的重要酶类.我们在研究中发现宿主细胞的RhoA及Rac1GTP酶在弓形虫速殖子侵染后被纳入了纳虫泡膜(Parasitophorous Vacuole Membrane,PVM)上并高丰度聚集,然而在疟原虫裂殖子侵染的红细胞内却没有发现这两种GTP酶在纳虫泡膜上聚集的现象.宿主细胞RhoA及Rac1GTP酶在弓形虫及疟原虫感染宿主细胞后的不同分布,显示这两种原虫感染引起宿主细

  18. The transcriptome of Toxoplasma gondii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roos David S

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Toxoplasma gondii gives rise to toxoplasmosis, among the most prevalent parasitic diseases of animals and man. Transformation of the tachzyoite stage into the latent bradyzoite-cyst form underlies chronic disease and leads to a lifetime risk of recrudescence in individuals whose immune system becomes compromised. Given the importance of tissue cyst formation, there has been intensive focus on the development of methods to study bradyzoite differentiation, although the molecular basis for the developmental switch is still largely unknown. Results We have used serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE to define the Toxoplasma gondii transcriptome of the intermediate-host life cycle that leads to the formation of the bradyzoite/tissue cyst. A broad view of gene expression is provided by >4-fold coverage from nine distinct libraries (~300,000 SAGE tags representing key developmental transitions in primary parasite populations and in laboratory strains representing the three canonical genotypes. SAGE tags, and their corresponding mRNAs, were analyzed with respect to abundance, uniqueness, and antisense/sense polarity and chromosome distribution and developmental specificity. Conclusion This study demonstrates that phenotypic transitions during parasite development were marked by unique stage-specific mRNAs that accounted for 18% of the total SAGE tags and varied from 1–5% of the tags in each developmental stage. We have also found that Toxoplasma mRNA pools have a unique parasite-specific composition with 1 in 5 transcripts encoding Apicomplexa-specific genes functioning in parasite invasion and transmission. Developmentally co-regulated genes were dispersed across all Toxoplasma chromosomes, as were tags representing each abundance class, and a variety of biochemical pathways indicating that trans-acting mechanisms likely control gene expression in this parasite. We observed distinct similarities in the specificity and

  19. Cathepsin proteases in Toxoplasma gondii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, Zhicheng; Carruthers, Vern B.

    2014-01-01

    Cysteine proteases are important for the growth and survival of apicomplexan parasites that infect humans. The apicomplexan Toxoplasma gondii expresses five members of the C1 family of cysteine proteases, including one cathepsin L-like (TgCPL), one cathepsin B-like (TgCPB), and three cathepsin C-like (TgCPC1, 2 and 3) proteases. Recent genetic, biochemical and structural studies reveal that cathepsins function in microneme and rhoptry protein maturation, host cell invasion, replication, and nutrient acquisition.. Here, we review the key features and roles of T. gondii cathepsins and discuss the therapeutic potential for specific inhibitor development. PMID:21660658

  20. Immunolocalization of two hydrogenosomal enzymes of Trichomonas vaginalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brugerolle, G; Bricheux, G; Coffe, G

    2000-01-01

    Three monoclonal antibodies specific for malic enzyme and for the alpha- and beta-subunits, respectively, of the succinyl-coenzyme A (CoA) synthetase of Trichomonas vaginalis were used to immunolocalize these proteins in the cell. All antibodies labeled the hydrogenosome matrix as determined both by immunofluorescence and by immunogold staining. There was no labeling on the cell surface or in any other cell compartment. These results support the idea that these proteins are restricted to a hydrogenosomal function and do not play a role as adhesins at the plasma membrane surface.

  1. Biological variability in clinical isolates of Trichomonas vaginalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia Gómez-Barrio

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Eighteen clinical isolates of Trichomonas vaginalis were obtained from women who attended health centers of the Goverment of Madrid. A total of 1,848 vaginal specimens recovered during the gynaecological examination were seeded in culture tubes containing liquid Diamond medium. Pathogenicity to mice was determined after intraperitoneal inoculation of mice by quantification of mortality and gross damage to abdominal organs. As could be expected, a broad variability was obtained, being some of the isolates more virulent than the reference strain. Regarding to metronidazole susceptibility, none resistant isolate was found but different degrees of susceptibility were determined.

  2. Trichomonas vaginalis surface proteins: a view from the genome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hirt, R. P.; Noel, C. J.; Sicheritz-Pontén, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    Surface proteins of mucosal microbial pathogens play multiple and essential roles in initiating and sustaining the colonization of the heavily defended mucosa. The protist Trichomonas vaginalis is one of the most common human sexually transmitted pathogens that colonize the urogenital mucosa....... However, little is known about its surface proteins. The recently completed draft genome sequence of T. vaginalis provides an invaluable resource to guide molecular and cellular characterization of surface proteins and to investigate their role in pathogenicity. Here, we review the existing data on T....... vaginalis surface proteins and summarize some of the main findings from the recent in silico characterization of its candidate surface proteins....

  3. Medicinal plants and their isolated compounds showing anti-Trichomonas vaginalis- activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehriardestani, Mozhgan; Aliahmadi, Atousa; Toliat, Tayebeh; Rahimi, Roja

    2017-04-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis is a major of non-viral sexually-transmitted infection and an important cause of serious obstetrical and gynecological complications. Treatment options for trichomoniasis are limited to nitroimidazole compounds. The increasing resistance and allergic reactions to nitroimidazole and recurrent trichomoniasis make it essential to identify and develop new drugs against trichomoniasis. Medicinal plants are an important source for discovery of new medications. This review discusses the anti-trichomonas effects of medicinal plants and their chemical constituents to find better options against this pathogenic protozoon. Electronic databases were searched to collect all data from the year 2000 through September 2015 for in vitro, in vivo and clinical studies on the effect of medicinal plants on T. vaginalis. A total of 95 in vitro and clinical studies were identified. Only four human studies were found in this review. The Asteracea, Lamiaceae and Myrtaceae families contained the greatest number of plants with anti-trichomonas activity. Persea americana, Ocimum basilicum and Verbascum thapsus were the most efficacious against T. vaginalis. Plant metabolites containing alkaloids, isoflavonoid glucosides, essential oils, lipids, saponins and sesquiterpene lactones were found to possess anti-trichomonas properties. Assessing the structure-activity of highly-potent anti-trichomonas phytochemicals is suggested for finding natural, semisynthetic and synthetic anti-trichomonas compounds. Further clinical studies are necessary for confirmation of natural anti-trichomonas substances and completion of their safety profiles.

  4. Structure of Toxoplasma gondii fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boucher, Lauren E.; Bosch, Jürgen, E-mail: jbosch@jhu.edu [Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, 615 North Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD 21205 (United States); Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, 615 North Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD 21205 (United States)

    2014-08-29

    The structure of T. gondii fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase, a glycolytic enzyme and structural component of the invasion machinery, was determined to a resolution of 2.0 Å. The apicomplexan parasite Toxoplasma gondii must invade host cells to continue its lifecycle. It invades different cell types using an actomyosin motor that is connected to extracellular adhesins via the bridging protein fructose-1,6-@@bisphosphate aldolase. During invasion, aldolase serves in the role of a structural bridging protein, as opposed to its normal enzymatic role in the glycolysis pathway. Crystal structures of the homologous Plasmodium falciparum fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase have been described previously. Here, T. gondii fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase has been crystallized in space group P22{sub 1}2{sub 1}, with the biologically relevant tetramer in the asymmetric unit, and the structure has been determined via molecular replacement to a resolution of 2.0 Å. An analysis of the quality of the model and of the differences between the four chains in the asymmetric unit and a comparison between the T. gondii and P. falciparum aldolase structures is presented.

  5. Calcium uptake and proton transport by acidocalcisomes of Toxoplasma gondii.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Rohloff

    Full Text Available Acidocalcisomes are acidic calcium stores found in diverse organisms, being conserved from bacteria to humans. They possess an acidic matrix that contains several cations bound to phosphates, which are mainly present in the form of short and long polyphosphate chains. Their matrix is acidified through the action of proton pumps such as a vacuolar proton ATPase and a vacuolar proton pyrophosphatase. Calcium uptake occurs through a Ca(2+/H(+ countertransporting ATPase located in the membrane of the organelle. Acidocalcisomes have been identified in a variety of microorganisms, including Apicomplexan parasites such as Plasmodium and Eimeria species, and in Toxoplasma gondii. We report the purification and characterization of an acidocalcisome fraction from T. gondii tachyzoites after subcellular fractionation and further discontinuous iodixanol gradient purification. Proton and calcium transport activities in the fraction were characterized by fluorescence microscopy and spectrophotometric methods using acridine orange and arsenazo III, respectively. This work will facilitate the understanding of the function of acidocalcisomes in Apicomplexan parasites, as we can now isolate highly purified fractions that could be used for proteomic analysis to find proteins that may clarify the biogenesis of these organelles.

  6. A unique dual activity amino acid hydroxylase in Toxoplasma gondii.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth A Gaskell

    Full Text Available The genome of the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii was found to contain two genes encoding tyrosine hydroxylase; that produces L-DOPA. The encoded enzymes metabolize phenylalanine as well as tyrosine with substrate preference for tyrosine. Thus the enzymes catabolize phenylalanine to tyrosine and tyrosine to L-DOPA. The catalytic domain descriptive of this class of enzymes is conserved with the parasite enzyme and exhibits similar kinetic properties to metazoan tyrosine hydroxylases, but contains a unique N-terminal extension with a signal sequence motif. One of the genes, TgAaaH1, is constitutively expressed while the other gene, TgAaaH2, is induced during formation of the bradyzoites of the cyst stages of the life cycle. This is the first description of an aromatic amino acid hydroxylase in an apicomplexan parasite. Extensive searching of apicomplexan genome sequences revealed an ortholog in Neospora caninum but not in Eimeria, Cryptosporidium, Theileria, or Plasmodium. Possible role(s of these bi-functional enzymes during host infection are discussed.

  7. [Advances in research of dihydroartemisinin against parasitic diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hong-Jun; Wang, Wei; Liang, You-Sheng

    2011-08-01

    Dihydroartemisinin, the main metabolite of artemisinin and two artemisinin derivatives, artemether and artesunate, is a broad-spectrum anti-parasitic drug. The present paper systematically reviews the advances in research of dihydroartemisinin against Plasmodium, Schistosoma, Pneumocystis, Toxoplasma, Trichomonas vaginalis, Leishmania, Giardia lamblia.

  8. Trichomonas tenax and periodontal diseases: a concise review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marty, Mathieu; Lemaitre, Mathieu; Kémoun, Philippe; Morrier, Jean-Jacques; Monsarrat, Paul

    2017-09-01

    Periodontal diseases (gingivitis and periodontitis), result from a disruption of the host-oral microbiome homoeostasis. Whereas the pathological role of some specific bacterial strains during periodontal diseases is well documented, the impact of parasites in periodontium pathophysiology is still under debate. This review aims to collect data about the prevalence and the potential role of Trichomonas tenax during periodontal diseases. Data from 47 studies revealed that T. tenax prevalence in diseased periodontium ranged from 0 to 94·1%. The prevalence of oral protozoan infections was found to be largely greater in patients with periodontal diseases than with healthy periodontium. The parasite detection was mainly performed by direct microscopy. Trichomonas tenax presence was clearly correlated with periodontal disease. The high heterogeneity of its periodontal prevalence may be correlated with the diversity of the population screened (age, sex, systemic diseases), and the methods used for diagnosis. This protozoan seems to have the capacity to be involved in the inflammatory process of gum disease. Animal experimentation, using relevant physiopathological models of periodontitis, needs to be performed to investigate the ability of T. tenax to cause and/or worsen the disease. Further investigations using standardized experimental designs of epidemiologic studies are also needed.

  9. Pathogenic Trichomonas vaginalis cytotoxicity to cell culture monolayers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alderete, J F; Pearlman, E

    1984-04-01

    Exposure of monolayer cultures of human urogenital and vaginal (HeLa), human epithelial (HEp-2), normal baboon testicular (NBT), and monkey kidney (Vero) cells to live pathogenic Trichomonas vaginalis resulted in extensive disruption of monolayers. Trypan blue was taken up by all host cells released from cell monolayers, which indicated irreversible damage of these cell types by trichomonads. Time and dose related data on cytotoxicity kinetics were obtained using increasing ratios of parasites to cells. All cell types were most sensitive to trichomonads at a multiplicity of infection of one. Release of tritiated thymidine (3H-thymidine) of the deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) of prelabelled host cells after incubation with T vaginalis corroborated that extensive cytotoxicity was caused by pathogenic trichomonads in man. Only living parasites were cytotoxic, and no trichomonal toxic products were implicated in disruption of the cell monolayer cultures. A pathogenic bovine trichomonad, Tritrichomonas foetus KV-1, produced half as much cell damage as did T vaginalis. Trichomonas tenax, a non-pathogenic member of the normal flora of the oral cavity in man, produced no measurable cytotoxicity to HeLa cells when compared with the pathogenic human trichomonads.

  10. Veterinary vaccines against Toxoplasma gondii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth A Innes

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii has a very wide intermediate host range and is thought to be able to infect all warm blooded animals. The parasite causes a spectrum of different diseases and clinical symptoms within the intermediate hosts and following infection most animals develop adaptive humoral and cell-mediated immune responses. The development of protective immunity to T. gondii following natural infection in many host species has led researchers to look at vaccination as a strategy to control disease, parasite multiplication and establishment in animal hosts. A range of different veterinary vaccines are required to help control T. gondii infection which include vaccines to prevent congenital toxoplasmosis, reduce or eliminate tissue cysts in meat producing animals and to prevent oocyst shedding in cats. In this paper we will discuss some of the history, challenges and progress in the development of veterinary vaccines against T. gondii.

  11. Structural determinants of the 5'-methylthioinosine specificity of Plasmodium purine nucleoside phosphorylase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teraya M Donaldson

    Full Text Available Plasmodium parasites rely upon purine salvage for survival. Plasmodium purine nucleoside phosphorylase is part of the streamlined Plasmodium purine salvage pathway that leads to the phosphorylysis of both purines and 5'-methylthiopurines, byproducts of polyamine synthesis. We have explored structural features in Plasmodium falciparum purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PfPNP that affect efficiency of catalysis as well as those that make it suitable for dual specificity. We used site directed mutagenesis to identify residues critical for PfPNP catalytic activity as well as critical residues within a hydrophobic pocket required for accommodation of the 5'-methylthio group. Kinetic analysis data shows that several mutants had disrupted binding of the 5'-methylthio group while retaining activity for inosine. A triple PfPNP mutant that mimics Toxoplasma gondii PNP had significant loss of 5'-methylthio activity with retention of inosine activity. Crystallographic investigation of the triple mutant PfPNP with Tyr160Phe, Val66Ile, andVal73Ile in complex with the transition state inhibitor immucillin H reveals fewer hydrogen bond interactions for the inhibitor in the hydrophobic pocket.

  12. Aspectos ultraestruturais do processo de divisão do Toxoplasma gondii

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    Wanderley de Souza

    1974-02-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho é feita uma revisão sobre alguns aspectos biológicos do Toxoplasma gondii, principalmente sobre a ultraestrutura da forma interfásica e as modificações ultraestruturais que ocorrem no parasito durante o seu processo de divisão. Considera-se inicialmente o processo de divisão binária admitindo-se, porém, a possibilidade de que as imagens interpretadas como senão de divisão binária representem estágios da divisão por endodiogenia. Quanto à endodiogenia descrevem-se as alterações que ocorrem na "parasito mãe" durante o processo de formação dos dois "parasitos filhos". Este processo é semelhante no Toxoplasma gondii, Besnoitia jellisoni, Sarcocystis tenella e Frenkelia. Discute-se a possibilidade da formação de mais de dois "parasitos filhos" por um processo de endopoligenia, bem como o processo de esquizogonia. Os resultados mais recentes mostram que não existe esquizogonia nas formas vsgetativas do Toxoplasma gondii, senão que as imagens interpretadas como tal, ao microscópio ótico, são o resultado de endodiogenias sucessivas em que os endozoitas formados permanecem ligados entre si pela região posterior. A esquizogonia é, no entanto, encontrada nas formas que se desenvolvem no interior de células epiteliais do intestino do gato, que é o hospedeiro definitivo do Toxoplasma gondii. Discute-se o conceito de esquizogonia, comparando-o em três protozoários: Eimeria bovis, E. callospermophili e Plasmodium juxtanucleare, que apresentam diferenças entre si quanto ao processo de iniciação da individualização dos "parasitos filhos". Refere-se à recente hipótese que considera a endodiogenia como o processo fundamental de divisão dos esporozoárlos, ocorrendo na fase final da esquizogonia. Finalmente é acentuado o papel que a microscopia eletrônica aliada às modernas técnicas de citoquímica e imunocitoquimica poderá desempenhar no sentido de um melhor conhecimento da biologia do Toxoplasma

  13. [Effects of the symbiosis of Trichomonas vaginalis with Mycoplasma hominis on ferredoxin gene].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaodong; Wen, Wenjing; Xue, Changgui

    2011-08-01

    We isolated 30 Trichomonas vaginalis for the PCR detection from the gynecological outpatients in the Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University using the specific 16s rDNA primers of Mycoplasma hominis. The results showed that there were 25 cases of Mycoplasma hominis infection, with the infection rate of 83.33%. This gave a clew that the symbiosis of Trichomonas vaginalis with Mycoplasma hominis may be of certain generality in China. We sequenced the ferredoxin gene of 10 Trichomonas vaginalis where 5 Mycoplasma hominis were positive and five negative, and found that the ferredoxin (Fd) gene of the 10 Trichomonas vaginalis were exactly the same. But compared to the genes in the GenBank, a comparative analysis of the gene revealed that there were 3 more ctg bases at the 200th position of encoding leucine, but this did not lead to changes in reading frame. The gene homology was 99%.

  14. Experimente ueber den Einflusse von Metaboliten und Antimetaboliten am Modell von Trichomonas Vaginalis. VI. (Experiments on the Influence of Metabolites and Antimetabolites on the Model of Trichomonas Vaginalis. VI. Communication: Effect of Vitamins and Vitamin-Like Substances),

    Science.gov (United States)

    A number of substances (folic acid, axerophtol, tokopherol and others) stimulate the growth of Trichomonas vaginalis and, therefore, are very well...group of vitamins (thiamine, lactoflavin, pyridoxine and others) are without recognizeable effect upon the growth of Trichomonas vaginalis . The third...inhibiting effect upon the growth of Trichomonas vaginalis . Further investigations with these substances within a combined inhibition system seem to be important. (Modified author abstract)

  15. [Importance of Trichomonas tenax and Entamoeba gingivalis protozoa in the human oral cavity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feki, A; Molet, B

    1990-01-01

    Trichomonas tenax and Entamoeba gingivalis are protozoa found in the human oral cavity. Morphological and ultrastructural characteristics of those parasites were reviewed and then studied with the scanning electron microscope in this paper. Based on previous epidemiological studies, the relationship between periodontal disease and those protozoa was analysed. Evaluation of the pathogenicity of Trichomonas tenax and Entamoeba gingivalis was also part of the discussion of this study.

  16. Development of PCR assays for detection of Trichomonas vaginalis in urine specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandea, Claudiu I; Joseph, Kahaliah; Secor, Evan W; Jones, Laurie A; Igietseme, Joseph U; Sautter, Robert L; Hammerschlag, Margaret R; Fajman, Nancy N; Girardet, Rebecca G; Black, Carolyn M

    2013-04-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis infections are usually asymptomatic or can result in nonspecific clinical symptoms, which makes laboratory-based detection of this protozoan parasite essential for diagnosis and treatment. We report the development of a battery of highly sensitive and specific PCR assays for detection of T. vaginalis in urine, a noninvasive specimen, and development of a protocol for differentiating among Trichomonas species that commonly infect humans.

  17. Clinical importance of detection of bacterial vaginosis, trichomonas vaginalis, candida albicans and actinomyces in Papanicolaou smears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güdücü, N; Gönenç, G; Işçi, H; Yiğiter, A Başgül; Başsüllü, N; Dünder, I

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the role of Papanicolaou (pap) smears in the diagnosis of lower genital tract infections. A retrospective study was planned by reviewing charts of patients for trichomonas vaginalis, bacterial vaginosis, actinomyces, candida and nonspecific vaginitis. Charts of 9,080 patients were reviewed and 1,733 women had a diagnosis of lower genital tract infection in the pap smear or had had a clinically treated lower genital tract infection. Only 33.5%, 30.4%, 43.3%, and 0% of patients with bacterial vaginosis, trichomonas vaginalis, candida and actinomyces, respectively on pap smear were diagnosed and treated clinically. Postmenopausal patients had a higher rate of trichomonas vaginalis infection and a lower rate of candida infection when compared to women of the reproductive age group. Patients using an intrauterine device for contraception had a statistically significantly increased rate of trichomonas vaginalis and candida infection when compared to women using other contraceptive methods or those who were not using any contraception. Finding trichomonas vaginalis, bacterial vaginosis and actinomyces infections in pap smears might be considered an indication for treatment without performing other diagnostic tests. Treatment of asymptomatic infections can prevent complications in selected patients. Candida can be a commensal bacteria in the vagina, therefore asymptomatic patients may not require treatment. Detection of a higher rate of trichomonas vaginalis and candida infection in IUD users shows that IUDs can increase the risk of vaginal infections and associated complications.

  18. Giardia, Entamoeba, and Trichomonas enzymes activate metronidazole (nitroreductases) and inactivate metronidazole (nitroimidazole reductases).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Dibyarupa; Banerjee, Sulagna; Cui, Jike; Schwartz, Aaron; Ghosh, Sudip K; Samuelson, John

    2009-02-01

    Infections with Giardia lamblia, Entamoeba histolytica, and Trichomonas vaginalis, which cause diarrhea, dysentery, and vaginitis, respectively, are each treated with metronidazole. Here we show that Giardia, Entamoeba, and Trichomonas have oxygen-insensitive nitroreductase (ntr) genes which are homologous to those genes that have nonsense mutations in metronidazole-resistant Helicobacter pylori isolates. Entamoeba and Trichomonas also have nim genes which are homologous to those genes expressed in metronidazole-resistant Bacteroides fragilis isolates. Recombinant Giardia, Entamoeba, and Trichomonas nitroreductases used NADH rather than the NADPH used by Helicobacter, and two recombinant Entamoeba nitroreductases increased the metronidazole sensitivity of transformed Escherichia coli strains. Conversely, the recombinant nitroimidazole reductases (NIMs) of Entamoeba and Trichmonas conferred very strong metronidazole resistance to transformed bacteria. The Ehntr1 gene of the genome project HM-1:IMSS strain of Entamoeba histolytica had a nonsense mutation, and the same nonsense mutation was present in 3 of 22 clinical isolates of Entamoeba. While ntr and nim mRNAs were variably expressed by cultured Entamoeba and Trichomonas isolates, there was no relationship to metronidazole sensitivity. We conclude that microaerophilic protists have bacterium-like enzymes capable of activating metronidazole (nitroreductases) and inactivating metronidazole (NIMs). While Entamoeba and Trichomonas displayed some of the changes (nonsense mutations and gene overexpression) associated with metronidazole resistance in bacteria, these changes did not confer metronidazole resistance to the microaerophilic protists examined here.

  19. Trichomonas transmembrane cyclases result from massive gene duplication and concomitant development of pseudogenes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jike Cui

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Trichomonas vaginalis has an unusually large genome (approximately 160 Mb encoding approximately 60,000 proteins. With the goal of beginning to understand why some Trichomonas genes are present in so many copies, we characterized here a family of approximately 123 Trichomonas genes that encode transmembrane adenylyl cyclases (TMACs.The large family of TMACs genes is the result of recent duplications of a small set of ancestral genes that appear to be unique to trichomonads. Duplicated TMAC genes are not closely associated with repetitive elements, and duplications of flanking sequences are rare. However, there is evidence for TMAC gene replacements by homologous recombination. A high percentage of TMAC genes (approximately 46% are pseudogenes, as they contain stop codons and/or frame shifts, or the genes are truncated. Numerous stop codons present in the genome project G3 strain are not present in orthologous genes of two other Trichomonas strains (S1 and B7RC2. Each TMAC is composed of a series of N-terminal transmembrane helices and a single C-terminal cyclase domain that has adenylyl cyclase activity. Multiple TMAC genes are transcribed by Trichomonas cloned by limiting dilution.We conclude that one reason for the unusually large genome of Trichomonas is the presence of unstable families of genes such as those encoding TMACs that are undergoing massive gene duplication and concomitant development of pseudogenes.

  20. Trichomonas vaginalis - an indicator for other sexually transmitted infecting agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agrawal B

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study is based on 350 women having sexually transmitted diseases and 68 men counterparts. Trichomonas vaginalis was a significant contributor in 216 (61.7% out of 350 female SID cases′ and in 56 (82.3% out of 68 male counterparts. Further, out of 216 cases of T.vaginalis, 41 cases (32.5% were associated with infection with Candida species; 29 (23% with Neisseria gonorrhoea. 18 cases (14.3% with Haemophilus ducreyi and 11 cases (8.7%, Chlamydia trachomatis. Treponema pallidum was observed in 8 cases (6.3% which constituted a low percentage. Present study highlighted the importance of T. vaginalis by showing positivity in two-third cases which suggested that it can be an important indicator for other etiological STD agents in women.

  1. Two distinct hemolysins in Trichomonas tenax ATCC 30207.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagao, E; Yamamoto, A; Igarashi, T; Goto, N; Sasa, R

    2000-12-01

    An oral protist Trichomonas tenax ATCC 30207 was investigated for the ability to lyse erythrocytes of sheep, rabbits, horses and humans. Five fractions, including intact cells, culture supernatant, culture filtrate, cell debris and lipid-enriched fractions, were prepared from the protozoan cells, and their hemolytic activities were assayed under various conditions. All the samples except culture supernatant had hemolytic activities, which were due to two different kinds of hemolysins. One hemolysin was protein-like and mainly found in cell-free fractions: culture supernatant and culture filtrate. It was heat-labile and inhibited by various cysteine-proteinase inhibitors. The other hemolysin was lipid-like and found in cell-associated fractions: intact cells, cell-debris and lipid-enriched fractions. It was heat-stable, organic solvent-tolerant and unaffected by various proteinase inhibitors and stimulators. These results suggested that T. tenax ATCC 30207 possessed two distinct hemolysins, protein and lipid.

  2. Correlation between Trichomonas vaginalis and Concurrency: An Ecological Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenyon, Chris R; Hamilton, Deven T

    2016-01-01

    Objective. There is a large variation in the prevalence of Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) between different countries and between racial groups within countries. Sexual partner concurrency may play a role. We investigate the correlation between the prevalence of sexual partner concurrency and TV prevalence. Methods. Spearman's correlation to assess relationship between TV prevalence in women and point prevalence of concurrency in men in (1) 11 countries with comparable data (concurrency data from WHO Survey and TV prevalence data from Global Burden of Disease estimates) and (2) three racial groups in the United States (Add Health Study). Results. The prevalence of TV and concurrency was positively correlated in the international (rho = 0.84, P = 0.001) and USA study (rho = 1.0, P < 0.001). Conclusion. Prospective longitudinal studies that include measures of partner behavior are required to definitively establish the role of concurrency in the spread of TV.

  3. New Concepts in the Diagnosis and Pathogenesis of Trichomonas vaginalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renuka Bhatt

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Trichomonas vaginalis infection is the most commonly encountered sexually transmitted disease. There is a need for more accurate and rapid laboratory diagnostic methods, leading to better control and treatment strategies. Various virulence factors such as adherence, contact-independent factors, hemolysis and acquisition of host macromolecules have been shown to play a role in the pathogenesis of this infection. Detection of the factors that are only present in the pathogenic isolates of trichomonads will lead to a better understanding of the epidemiology of this pathogen. Culture technique is highly specific compared with microscopic techniques, but it is time consuming. Immunological techniques lack proper correlation with clinical manifestations. The application of monoclonal antibodies, either singly or in a group that recognizes a common antigen, along with methods such as detection of common DNA fragment from clinical specimens, may have a promising future in the laboratory diagnosis of trichomoniasis.

  4. Successful treatment of refractory Trichomonas vaginalis infection using intravenous metronidazole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Isobel; Carne, Christopher; Sonnex, Christopher; Carmichael, Andrew

    2015-08-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis is a sexually transmitted protozoan infection resulting in a vulvo-vaginitis and altered vaginal discharge in symptomatic women. Since its introduction in the 1960 s, metronidazole has been the first-line drug for trichomonal infection. Other nitroimidazoles, such as tinidazole, are used as alternative regimens with similar activity but at a greater expense. Treatment failure usually represents patient non-compliance or reinfection, although metronidazole resistance has previously been documented. Sensitivity testing is currently not available in the UK. Patients with disease unresponsive to first-line treatments pose a major challenge, as therapeutic options are limited. This case looks at a patient with refractory disease over an 18-month period, where intravenous infusion of metronidazole resulted in cure after multiple previous therapy failures. There is limited evidence to endorse the use of intravenous metronidazole, and this case report provides further support for its efficacy.

  5. The problem of resistant Trichomonas vaginalis to antiprotozoal drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. L. Poznyak

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This review presents recent data on the energy metabolism of Trichomonas vaginalis and ways the activation of metronidazole. The sensitivity of microorganisms to the 5-nitroimidazole by the presence of their enzyme systems, generating and transporting electrons, which can then transfer them to the nitro group of the drug. In T.vaginalis these are pyruvate ferredoxin-oxydoreductase, thioredoxin reductase and flavin reductase. The development of resistance T.vaginalis to metronidazole preparations of this multistep process, based on the gradual reduction (up to a loss activity hydrogenosomal enzymes and / or violation of the flavindependent metabolic pathways.

  6. Superoxide anion production by human neutrophils activated by Trichomonas vaginalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Hyun-Ouk; Ryu, Jae-Sook

    2013-08-01

    Neutrophils are the predominant inflammatory cells found in vaginal discharges of patients infected with Trichomonas vaginalis. In this study, we examined superoxide anion (O2 (.-)) production by neutrophils activated by T. vaginalis. Human neutrophils produced superoxide anions when stimulated with either a lysate of T. vaginalis, its membrane component (MC), or excretory-secretory product (ESP). To assess the role of trichomonad protease in production of superoxide anions by neutrophils, T. vaginalis lysate, ESP, and MC were each pretreated with a protease inhibitor cocktail before incubation with neutrophils. Superoxide anion production was significantly decreased by this treatment. Trichomonad growth was inhibited by preincubation with supernatants of neutrophils incubated for 3 hr with T. vaginalis lysate. Furthermore, myeloperoxidase (MPO) production by neutrophils was stimulated by live trichomonads. These results indicate that the production of superoxide anions and MPO by neutrophils stimulated with T. vaginalis may be a part of defense mechanisms of neutrophils in trichomoniasis.

  7. Trichomonas vaginalis perturbs the junctional complex in epithelial cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis, a protist parasite of the urogenital tract in humans, is the causative agent of trichomonosis,which in recent years have been associated with the cervical cancer development. In the present study we analyzed the modifications at the junctional complex level of Caco-2 cells after interaction with two isolates of T. vaginalis and the influence of the iron concentration present in the parasite's culture medium on the interaction effects. Our results show that T. vaginalis adheres to the epithelial cell causing alterations in the junctional complex, such as: (a) a decrease in transepithelial electrical resistance; (b) alteration in the pattern of junctional complex proteins distribution as obseryed for E-cadherin, occludin and ZO-1; and (c) enlargement of the spaces between epithelial cells. These effects were dependent on (a) the degree of the parasite virulence isolate, (b) the iron concentration in the culture medium, and (c) the expression of adhesin proteins on the parasite surface.

  8. Trichomonas vaginalis infection among young pregnant women in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Angelica E; Pinto, Valdir M; Gaydos, Charlotte A

    2014-01-01

    Our goal was to determine the prevalence of Trichomonas vaginalis and its associated risk factors in parturient women aged 15-24 years attending Brazilian public maternity units. Participants answered a demographic, behavioral, and clinical data questionnaire. A sample of urine was screened for T. vaginalis. A total 299 women participated in this study. The prevalence rate of T. vaginalis was 7.7% (95% CI: 4.7-10.7%). The factors associated with T. vaginalis were use of illicit drugs [OR=4.70 (95% CI: 1.63-13.56, p=0.004)] and not attending antenatal care [OR=5.15 (95% CI: 1.15-23.25, p=0.032)]. These data demonstrate that it is important to discuss how to include routine screening for T. vaginalis during antenatal care in Brazil.

  9. A novel multifunctional oligonucleotide microarray for Toxoplasma gondii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Feng

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microarrays are invaluable tools for genome interrogation, SNP detection, and expression analysis, among other applications. Such broad capabilities would be of value to many pathogen research communities, although the development and use of genome-scale microarrays is often a costly undertaking. Therefore, effective methods for reducing unnecessary probes while maintaining or expanding functionality would be relevant to many investigators. Results Taking advantage of available genome sequences and annotation for Toxoplasma gondii (a pathogenic parasite responsible for illness in immunocompromised individuals and Plasmodium falciparum (a related parasite responsible for severe human malaria, we designed a single oligonucleotide microarray capable of supporting a wide range of applications at relatively low cost, including genome-wide expression profiling for Toxoplasma, and single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP-based genotyping of both T. gondii and P. falciparum. Expression profiling of the three clonotypic lineages dominating T. gondii populations in North America and Europe provides a first comprehensive view of the parasite transcriptome, revealing that ~49% of all annotated genes are expressed in parasite tachyzoites (the acutely lytic stage responsible for pathogenesis and 26% of genes are differentially expressed among strains. A novel design utilizing few probes provided high confidence genotyping, used here to resolve recombination points in the clonal progeny of sexual crosses. Recent sequencing of additional T. gondii isolates identifies >620 K new SNPs, including ~11 K that intersect with expression profiling probes, yielding additional markers for genotyping studies, and further validating the utility of a combined expression profiling/genotyping array design. Additional applications facilitating SNP and transcript discovery, alternative statistical methods for quantifying gene expression, etc. are also pursued at

  10. Pituitary prolactin adenoma with Toxoplasma gondii infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓晖; 李青; 程虹; 阎庆国; 黄高昇

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To report two recent cases of pituitary adenoma associated with Toxoplasma gondii (T.Gondii) infection.Methods: Histological changes were observed in H & E and PAS staining sections microscopically.Immunohistochemistry was performed to classify the pituitary tumors and to confirm the diagnosis of T.gondii.Results: The cases were 43- and 19-year-old females, in which the latter one was a recurring case, and radiology examination showed that tumors existed in sellar region.Microscopically, the tumors consisted of small homogenous polygonal or round cells with abundant eosinophilic granular cytoplasm.Immunohistochemistry revealed they were prolactin-producing adenomas.Interestingly, we found toxoplasma infection in the tumor tissues, being confirmed by T.gondii sepicific antibody immunohistochemistry.Conclusion: The association of pituitary adenoma with toxoplasma raises the possibility that T.gondii may be involved in the development of certain cases of pituitary adenoma.

  11. The effect of Toxoplasma cell fractions and mycobacterial immunostimulants against virulent Toxoplasma gondii in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masihi, K N; Brehmer, W; Werner, H

    1979-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii tachyzoites were disrupted in a Ribi cell fractionator and separated into cell walls and protoplasm by differential centrifugation. These products were used alone or combined with a mycobacterial glycolipid (P3) and injected either as oil-in-water emulsions or incorporated in Freund's incomplete adjuvant. Mice were vaccinated by intravenous or intradermal routes and challenged intraperitoneally with a highly virulent strain of Toxoplasma gondii. A local granuloma formation was induced after i.d. inoculation of Toxoplasma vaccines containing P3 as this glycolipid enabled an adherence of the antigens on the mineral oil droplets. The adjuvant effect of P3 on antibody formation was also observed. Most of the fractions showed a low, but statistically significant prolongation of survival time. Vaccination by the i.v. route with homologous or heterologous antigens, including Trypanosoma cruzi, were not significantly effective, with the exception of a high dose of Toxoplasma protoplasm associated with P3.

  12. Toxoplasma gondii infection in pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Maria Ruiz Lopes

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasmosis is caused by an intracellular protozoan, Toxoplasma gondii, which has a wide geographical distribution. The main infection routes are ingestion of cysts from raw or badly-cooked meat, ingestion of oocysts from substrates contaminated with the feces of infected felines and congenital transmission by tachyzoites. The congenital form results in a severe systemic disease, because if the mother is infected for the first time during gestation, she can present a temporary parasitemia that will infect the fetus. Many of the clinical symptoms are seen in congenitally-infected children, from a mild disease to serious signs, such as mental retardation. Early diagnosis during the pregnancy is highly desirable, allowing prompt intervention in cases of infection, through treatment of pregnant women, reducing the probability of fetal infection and consequent substantial damage to the fetus. Conventional tests for establishment of a fetal diagnosis of toxoplasmosis include options from serology to PCR. Prevention of human toxoplasmosis is based on care to avoid infection, understanding the disease and serological exams during gestation. Pregnant women should be tested serologically from three months gestation, until one month after childbirth. Inclusion of serology for congenital toxoplasmosis along with the basic Guthrie test for PKU is of fundamental importance for early diagnosis of infection and so that treatment is initiated, in order to avoid possible sequels in the infant.

  13. Purine metabolism in Toxoplasma gondii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krug, E.C.; Marr, J.J.; Berens, R.L.

    1989-06-25

    We have studied the incorporation and interconversion of purines into nucleotides by freshly isolated Toxoplasma gondii. They did not synthesize nucleotides from formate, glycine, or serine. The purine bases hypoxanthine, xanthine, guanine, and adenine were incorporated at 9.2, 6.2, 5.1, and 4.3 pmol/10(7) cells/h, respectively. The purine nucleosides adenosine, inosine, guanosine, and xanthosine were incorporated at 110, 9.0, 2.7, and 0.3 pmol/10(7) cells/h, respectively. Guanine, xanthine, and their respective nucleosides labeled only guanine nucleotides. Inosine, hypoxanthine, and adenine labeled both adenine and guanine nucleotide pools at nearly equal ratios. Adenosine kinase was greater than 10-fold more active than the next most active enzyme in vitro. This is consistent with the metabolic data in vivo. No other nucleoside kinase or phosphotransferase activities were found. Phosphorylase activities were detected for guanosine and inosine; no other cleavage activities were detected. Deaminases were found for adenine and guanine. Phosphoribosyltransferase activities were detected for all four purine nucleobases. Interconversion occurs only in the direction of adenine to guanine nucleotides.

  14. Trichomonas vaginalis Lipophosphoglycan Exploits Binding to Galectin-1 and -3 to Modulate Epithelial Immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fichorova, Raina N; Yamamoto, Hidemi S; Fashemi, Titilayo; Foley, Evan; Ryan, Stanthia; Beatty, Noah; Dawood, Hassan; Hayes, Gary R; St-Pierre, Guillaume; Sato, Sachiko; Singh, Bibhuti N

    2016-01-08

    Trichomoniasis is the most common non-viral sexually transmitted infection caused by the vaginotropic extracellular protozoan parasite Trichomonas vaginalis. The infection is recurrent, with no lasting immunity, often asymptomatic, and linked to pregnancy complications and risk of viral infection. The molecular mechanisms of immune evasion by the parasite are poorly understood. We demonstrate that galectin-1 and -3 are expressed by the human cervical and vaginal epithelial cells and act as pathogen-recognition receptors for the ceramide phosphoinositol glycan core (CPI-GC) of the dominant surface protozoan lipophosphoglycan (LPG). We used an in vitro model with siRNA galectin knockdown epithelial clones, recombinant galectins, clinical Trichomonas isolates, and mutant protozoan derivatives to dissect the function of galectin-1 and -3 in the context of Trichomonas infection. Galectin-1 suppressed chemokines that facilitate recruitment of phagocytes, which can eliminate extracellular protozoa (IL-8) or bridge innate to adaptive immunity (MIP-3α and RANTES (regulated on activation normal T cell expressed and secreted)). Silencing galectin-1 increased and adding exogenous galectin-1 suppressed chemokine responses to Trichomonas or CPI-GC/LPG. In contrast, silencing galectin-3 reduced IL-8 response to LPG. Live Trichomonas depleted the extracellular levels of galectin-3. Clinical isolates and mutant Trichomonas CPI-GC that had reduced affinity to galectin-3 but maintained affinity to galectin-1 suppressed chemokine expression. Thus via CPI-GC binding, Trichomonas is capable of regulating galectin bioavailability and function to the benefit of its parasitic survival. These findings suggest novel approaches to control trichomoniasis and warrant further studies of galectin-binding diversity among clinical isolates as a possible source for symptom disparity in parasitic infections.

  15. Aspectos ultraestruturais do processo de divisão do Toxoplasma gondii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanderley de Souza

    1974-02-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho é feita uma revisão sobre alguns aspectos biológicos do Toxoplasma gondii, principalmente sobre a ultraestrutura da forma interfásica e as modificações ultraestruturais que ocorrem no parasito durante o seu processo de divisão. Considera-se inicialmente o processo de divisão binária admitindo-se, porém, a possibilidade de que as imagens interpretadas como senão de divisão binária representem estágios da divisão por endodiogenia. Quanto à endodiogenia descrevem-se as alterações que ocorrem na "parasito mãe" durante o processo de formação dos dois "parasitos filhos". Este processo é semelhante no Toxoplasma gondii, Besnoitia jellisoni, Sarcocystis tenella e Frenkelia. Discute-se a possibilidade da formação de mais de dois "parasitos filhos" por um processo de endopoligenia, bem como o processo de esquizogonia. Os resultados mais recentes mostram que não existe esquizogonia nas formas vsgetativas do Toxoplasma gondii, senão que as imagens interpretadas como tal, ao microscópio ótico, são o resultado de endodiogenias sucessivas em que os endozoitas formados permanecem ligados entre si pela região posterior. A esquizogonia é, no entanto, encontrada nas formas que se desenvolvem no interior de células epiteliais do intestino do gato, que é o hospedeiro definitivo do Toxoplasma gondii. Discute-se o conceito de esquizogonia, comparando-o em três protozoários: Eimeria bovis, E. callospermophili e Plasmodium juxtanucleare, que apresentam diferenças entre si quanto ao processo de iniciação da individualização dos "parasitos filhos". Refere-se à recente hipótese que considera a endodiogenia como o processo fundamental de divisão dos esporozoárlos, ocorrendo na fase final da esquizogonia. Finalmente é acentuado o papel que a microscopia eletrônica aliada às modernas técnicas de citoquímica e imunocitoquimica poderá desempenhar no sentido de um melhor conhecimento da biologia do Toxoplasma

  16. Evaluation of Presto(plus) assay and LightMix kit Trichomonas vaginalis assay for detection of Trichomonas vaginalis in dry vaginal swabs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Waaij, Dewi J; Ouburg, Sander; Dubbink, Jan Henk; Peters, Remco P H; Morré, Servaas A

    2016-08-01

    This is an evaluation study of the Presto(plus) Assay for T. vaginalis by comparing to the TIB MOLBIOL LightMix Kit Trichomonas vaginalis Assay using 615 dry collected vaginal and rectal swabs. Discordant samples were analyzed by the Qiagen® Microbial DNA qPCR for TV Assay. Both assays showed comparable performances (McNemar p>0.05).

  17. Mechanics of the Toxoplasma gondii oocyst wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ability of microorganisms to survive under extreme conditions is closely related to the physicochemical properties of their wall. In the ubiquitous protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii, the oocyst stage possesses a bilayered wall that protects the dormant but potentially infective parasites from...

  18. Toxoplasma-safe meat: close to reality?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kijlstra, A.; Jongert, E.

    2009-01-01

    In 2008, the centennial of the discovery of Toxoplasma gondii was celebrated. However, toxoplasmosis is still seen as a neglected and underreported disease, despite having a disease burden similar to that of salmonellosis and campylobacteriosis. Human vaccines are not available and current antiparas

  19. Specific nature of Trichomonas vaginalis parasitism of host cell surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alderete, J F; Garza, G E

    1985-01-01

    The adherence of Trichomonas vaginalis NYH 286 to host cells was evaluated by using monolayer cultures of HeLa and HEp-2 epithelial cells and human fibroblast cell lines. Saturation of sites on HeLa cells was achieved, yielding a maximal T. vaginalis NYH 286-to-cell ratio of two. The ability of radiolabeled NYH 286 to compete with unlabeled trichomonads for attachment and the time, temperature, and pH-dependent nature of host cell parasitism reinforced the idea of specific parasite-cell associations. Other trichomonal isolates (JH31A, RU375, and JHHR) were also found to adhere to cell monolayers, albeit to different degrees, and all isolates produced maximal contact-dependent HeLa cell cytotoxicity. The avirulent trichomonad, Trichomonas tenax, did not adhere to cell monolayers and did not cause host cell damage. Interestingly, parasite cytadherence was greater with HeLa and HEp-2 epithelial cells than with fibroblast cells. In addition, cytotoxicity with fibroblast cells never exceeded 20% of the level of cell killing observed for epithelial cells. Elucidation of properties of the pathogenic human trichomonads that allowed for host cell surface parasitism was also attempted. Treatment of motile T. vaginalis NYH 286 with trypsin diminished cell parasitism. Incubation of trypsinized organisms in growth medium allowed for regeneration of trichomonal adherence, and cycloheximide inhibited the regeneration of attachment. Organisms poisoned with metronidazole or iodoacetate failed to attach to host cells, and adherent trichomonads exposed to metronidazole or iodoacetate were readily released from parasitized cells. Coincubation experiments with polycationic proteins and sugars and pretreatment of parasites or cells with neuraminidase or periodate had no effect on host cell parasitism. Colchicine and cytochalasin B, however, did produce some inhibition of adherence to HeLa cells. The data suggest that metabolizing T. vaginalis adheres to host cells via parasite surface

  20. In vitro effect of octenidine dihydrochloride against Trichomonas vaginalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Küng, Erik; Pietrzak, Jacek; Klaus, Christoph; Walochnik, Julia

    2016-03-01

    Trichomoniasis is the most common non-viral sexually transmitted disease. It is associated with a wide spectrum of complications, including infertility and increased susceptibility to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). A rising number of reports of Trichomonas vaginalis strains resistant to metronidazole has driven the search for new compounds. In the present study, the in vitro effects of the common antiseptic octenidine dihydrochloride against T. vaginalis were tested on metronidazole-resistant and -susceptible strains. Assays were performed under microaerophilic conditions in three different media containing varying concentrations of protein. It was shown that octenidine dihydrochloride is highly effective against T. vaginalis, with no difference between metronidazole-resistant and -susceptible strains. The 50% effective concentration (EC50) values ranged from 5.7 to 21.37μg/mL after 5min, from 6.48 to 10.82μg/mL after 15min and from 0.68 to 2.11μg/mL after 30min of treatment depending on the protein concentration of the test medium. Octenidine dihydrochloride, already approved in some countries for the treatment of bacterial and fungal vaginal infections, appears to be a promising alternative treatment for trichomoniasis, particularly in mixed vaginal infections or in cases caused by metronidazole-resistant strains. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. and the International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  1. Sphingomyelinase Activity of Trichomonas vaginalis Extract and Subfractions

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Salazar, Francisco; Garza-González, Jesús N.; Hernandez-Luna, Carlos E.; Mata-Cárdenas, Benito David; Carranza-Rosales, Pilar; Castro-Garza, Jorge Enrique; Hernández-García, Magda Elizabeth; Vargas-Villarreal, Javier

    2013-01-01

    Trichomoniasis is one of the most common acute sexually transmitted curable diseases, and it is disseminated worldwide generating more than 170 million cases annually. Trichomonas vaginalis is the parasite that causes trichomoniasis and has the ability to destroy cell monolayers of the vaginal mucosa in vitro. Sphingomyelinases (SMase) are enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of sphingomyelin into ceramide and phosphorylcholine. Ceramide appears to be a second messenger lipid in programmed apoptosis, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Sphingomyelinase is probably a major source of ceramide in cells. Signal transduction mediated by ceramide leads cells to produce cytokine induced apoptosis during several inflammatory responses. SMase are also relevant toxins in several microorganisms. The main objective of this research is to identify SMase activity of T. vaginalis in the total extract (TE), P30, and S30 subfractions from brooked trophozoites. It was found that these fractions of T. vaginalis have SMase activity, which comes principally from P30 subfraction and was mainly type C. Enzymatic activity of SMase increased linearly with time and is pH dependent with two peaks by pH 5.5 and pH 7.5. The addition of manganese to the reaction mixture increased the SMase activity by 1.97. PMID:24024206

  2. Trichomonas vaginalis: chromatin and mitotic spindle during mitosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Conde, E; Mena-López, R; Hernández-Jaúregui, P; González-Camacho, M; Arroyo, R

    2000-11-01

    The mitotic phases and the changes that the chromatin and mitotic microtubules undergo during mitosis in the sexually transmitted parasite Trichomonas vaginalis are described. Parasites arrested in the gap 2 phase of the cell cycle by nutrient starvation were induced to mitosis by addition of fresh whole medium. [(3)H] Thymidine labeling of trichomonad parasites for 24 h showed that parasites have at least four synchronic duplications after mitosis induction. Fixed or live and acridine orange (AO)-stained trichomonads analyzed at different times during mitosis by epifluorescence microscopy showed that mitosis took about 45 min and is divided into five stages: prophase, metaphase, early and late anaphase, early and late telophase, and cytokinesis. The AO-stained nucleus of live trichomonads showed green (DNA) and orange (RNA) fluorescence, and the nucleic acid nature was confirmed by DNase and RNase treatment, respectively. The chromatin appeared partially condensed during interphase. At metaphase, it appeared as six condensed chromosomes, as recently reported, which decondensed at anaphase and migrated to the nuclear poles at telophase. In addition, small bundles of microtubules (as hemispindles) were detected only in metaphase with the polyclonal antibody anti-Entamoeba histolytica alpha-tubulin. This antibody showed that the hemispindle and an atractophore-like structure seem to duplicate and polarize during metaphase. In conclusion, T. vaginalis mitosis involves five mitotic phases in which the chromatin undergoes different degrees of condensation, from chromosomes to decondensed chromatin, and two hemispindles that are observed only in the metaphase stage.

  3. In vitro efficacy of curcumin on Trichomonas vaginalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wachter, Benjamin; Syrowatka, Michael; Obwaller, Andreas; Walochnik, Julia

    2014-04-01

    Trichomonosis, the disease caused by the protozoan parasite Trichomonas vaginalis, is the most common curable sexually transmitted disease with 174 million cases per year worldwide. The emerging resistance against the current standard therapy with metronidazole is pushing the search for alternative drugs. The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of curcumin, a derivate of Curcuma longa, on T. vaginalis. The effective concentrations (ECs) were evaluated using three strains of T. vaginaliswith different metronidazole susceptibilities (ATCC 30001, ATCC 30236 and ATCC 50138) and dilution series of curcumin in 24-well microtitre assays. Curcumin was shown to be highly effective against T. vaginalis, and the susceptibility of the different strains was not affected by an existing resistance to metronidazole. After 24 h of incubation, the EC50 ranged from 73.0 to 105.8 µg/ml and the EC90 from 216.3 to 164.9 µg/ml. In all strains tested, a 100 % eradication of all trichomonal cells within 24 h was reached at a concentration of 400 µg/ml curcumin, the 50-fold concentration still being very well tolerated by human mucosa. Altogether, curcumin seems to be a promising candidate for topical treatment of trichomonosis.

  4. Is Trichomonas tenax a Parasite or a Commensal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Luiz Carlos; Santos, Carlos; Benchimol, Marlene

    2015-05-01

    Trichomonas tenax is considered a commensal organism found under poor oral hygiene conditions. T. tenax presents morphological similarities with T. vaginalis, and there are doubts concerning whether this protist is a parasite and whether it is a genetic variant of T. vaginalis. This study aimed to investigate the capacity of T. tenax to cause mammalian cell damage and compare its cytotoxicity with that of T. vaginalis. Protozoan-host cell interaction assays were performed with Madin-Darby canine kidney, HeLa, and gum cells and 3D spheroids, which were examined by scanning electron and transmission electron microscopy. Cellular viability experiments were also performed. T. tenax attached and had different forms when interacting with mammalian cells and caused damage with time-dependent host-cell viability. We observed that T. tenax produced plasma membrane projections and phagocytosed portions of the mammalian cells. In addition, T. tenax caused membrane blebbing and apoptotic bodies in HeLa cells, thus inducing cell death. Spheroids were also used in interaction assays with T. tenax and they were damaged by these cells. This study shows that T. tenax fulfills the requisites of a parasite, causing damage to different mammalian cells and behaving similarly to T. vaginalis when in contact with target cells in vitro. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  5. Identification and properties of Trichomonas vaginalis proteins involved in cytadherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alderete, J F; Garza, G E

    1988-01-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis NYH286 surface proteins which are candidates for mediating parasite cytadherence (adhesins) were identified. At least four trichomonad protein ligands ranging in relative molecular mass from 65 to less than or equal to 21 kilodaltons were found to selectively bind to chemically stabilized HeLa cells. The proteins were present on the surfaces of 10 different isolates of T. vaginalis examined; however, the nonpathogenic trichomonad T. tenax did not possess similar HeLa cell-binding proteins under identical experimental conditions, suggesting that these proteins are unique to the pathogenic human trichomonads. The surface nature of the candidate adhesins was confirmed by the ability of the proteins on intact, live organisms to be radioiodinated and to be removed with trypsin treatment. Rabbit antiserum (immunoglobulin G fraction) generated against adhesin proteins electroeluted from acrylamide preparations inhibited cytadherence compared with control immunoglobulin G. An adherence-negative subpopulation of T. vaginalis NYH286 organisms was also isolated. These nonadherent trichomonads did not synthesize the adhesin proteins. Interestingly, absence of adhesins from these parasites paralleled expression of a major immunogen known to undergo phenotypic variation. Revertant organisms derived from the adherence-minus subpopulation synthesized the adhesins and attached to HeLa cells. The emergence of revertant adherent T. vaginalis organisms also corresponded with the appearance of parasites which were without the major immunogen on their surface. Finally, it was determined that only those parasites lacking the major surface immunogen were capable of adherence and toxicity to HeLa cells.

  6. Persistence of Trichomonas vaginalis serostatus in men over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutcliffe, Siobhan; Alderete, John F; Neace, Calvin; Joyce, Patrick A; Gaydos, Charlotte A; Huth, James I A; Mucci, Lorelei A; Signorello, Lisa B

    2015-10-01

    Previous epidemiologic studies have observed positive associations between Trichomonas vaginalis (Tv) serostatus and both prostate cancer (PCa) risk and mortality. However, only a few small older studies have examined Tv antibody persistence over time, all of which were composed mainly of female patients. Therefore, we examined Tv antibody persistence over time, as well as intra-individual variability, among middle- to older-aged men in the Southern Community Cohort Study (SCCS). We tested baseline and repeat plasma specimens (collected 1-3 years later) from 248 male participants for Tv antibodies. We used the same enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay as in previous studies of Tv serostatus and PCa. At baseline, 46 (18.5 %) participants were seropositive for Tv infection. Seventy-six percent of these men were still seropositive 1-3 years later. A similar proportion of men "seroconverted" (4.0 %) as "seroreverted" (4.4 %), all of whom had absorbance values near the cutoff point for seropositivity. Overall, substantial agreement was observed between baseline and repeat serostatus (κ = 0.72, 95 % confidence interval 0.60-0.83). Tv seropositivity was largely persistent between plasma specimens collected 1-3 years apart from middle- to older-aged men. These high levels of persistence are similar to those observed for other sexually transmitted infections frequently investigated in relation to PCa.

  7. Novel in Vitro Efficiency of Chitosan Biomolecule Against Trichomonas Gallinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SH Pourseyed

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Development of new natural agents for parasitic diseases treatment has unexpectedly increased to overcome effectively against emergence and re-emergence of parasitic diseases, the appearance of drug resistant organisms and toxic side effects of current agents. The aim of the study was to evaluate antiprotozoal activities of chitosan biomolecule on trophozoites of Trichomonas gallinae.Methods: The antitrichomonal activity of various low molecular weight chitosan concentrations including 125, 250, 500 and 1250 μg ml-1 against T. gallinae trophozoites cultured in trypticase-yeast extract-maltose medium supplemented with heat-inactivated cold horse serum was evaluated in vitro. Samples containing medium without chitosan were also assayed as controls.Results: The mortality rates at 0, 3 and 6 h post treatment with all concentrations were significantly different from control group (P<0.05. Treated trophozoites showed more susceptibility to the highest concentration reaching mortality rate of 100% at 3h post inoculation. However, at this time, results for 125, 250 and 500 μg ml-1 were 93%, 95% and 96.7%, respectively.Conclusion: The results demonstrate that the application of chitosan biomolecule is a promising option for treatment of trichomoniasis in pigeons.

  8. The antimicrobial effect of boric acid on Trichomonas vaginalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brittingham, Andrew; Wilson, Wayne A

    2014-12-01

    The treatment options for trichomoniasis are largely limited to nitroimidazole compounds (metronidazole and tinidazole). Few alternatives exist in cases of recalcitrant infections or in cases of nitroimidazole hypersensitivity. Recently, the intravaginal administration of boric acid has been advocated as an alternative treatment of trichomoniasis. However, no in vitro studies are available that directly assess the sensitivity of Trichomonas vaginalis to boric acid. We examined the sensitivity of common laboratory strains and recent clinical isolates of T. vaginalis to boric acid. The effect of increasing concentrations of boric acid on parasite growth and viability was determined, and a minimal lethal concentration was reported. The effect of pH on boric acid toxicity was assessed and compared with that of lactic and acetic acid. Boric acid is microbicidal to T. vaginalis, and its antitrichomonal activity is independent of environmental acidification. Unlike acetic acid and lactic acid, boric acid exposure results in growth suppression and lethality over a wide range of pH (5-7) and under conditions that are normally permissible for growth in vitro. The microbicidal effect of boric acid on T. vaginalis, coupled with its previous clinical use in treating vaginal candidiasis, supports the continued inclusion of boric acid in the therapeutic arsenal for treating trichomoniasis.

  9. Trichomonas vaginalis: An Updated Overview Towards Diagnostic Improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Ana S; Ferrão, Ana R; Pereira, Filomena Martins; Martinez-de-Oliveira, José; Palmeira-de-Oliveira, Ana

    2016-01-01

    The protozoan Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) is responsible for trichomonosis, a sexually transmitted disease (STD) with a significant incidence worldwide. This infection is one of the most common non-viral STDs, representing almost 50% of all curable STDs. Trichomonosis has an incidence of 180 million new cases worldwide. Nowadays, the 'gold standard' for TV diagnosis remains the use of in vitro cultures combined with daily visual microscopic evaluations, which is a time-consuming and low sensitive method. Recent diagnostic methodologies include imunocromatographic assays and molecular biology techniques. The use of the latter has improved enormously the sensitivity and specificity of TV diagnosis, despite, however, none being unable to identify the presence of live parasites. By understanding the biology, the pathogenesis, the proteomic profile and its relation with the parasite's virulence mechanisms, new possibilities towards diagnostic techniques can arise. This review covers various important aspects of vaginal trichomonosis from the parasite's biology and virulence to recent improvements in diagnostic techniques and also metabolic and protein discoveries.

  10. Trichomonas vaginalis: a review of epidemiologic, clinical and treatment issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kissinger, Patricia

    2015-08-05

    Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) is likely the most common non-viral sexually transmitted infection (STI) in the world. It is as an important source of reproductive morbidity, a facilitator of HIV transmission and acquisition, and thus it is an important public health problem. Despite its importance in human reproductive health and HIV transmission, it is not a reportable disease and surveillance is not generally done. This is problematic since most persons infected with TV are asymptomatic. Metronidazole (MTZ) has been the treatment of choice for women for decades, and single dose has been considered the first line of therapy. However, high rates of retest positive are found among TV infected persons after single dose MTZ treatment. This has not been explained by drug resistance since in vitro resistance is only 2-5 %. Treatment failure can range from 7-10 % and even higher among HIV+ women. Treatment efficacy may be influenced by vaginal ecology. The origins of repeat positives need further explanation and better treatment options are needed.

  11. Sphingomyelinase Activity of Trichomonas vaginalis Extract and Subfractions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco González-Salazar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Trichomoniasis is one of the most common acute sexually transmitted curable diseases, and it is disseminated worldwide generating more than 170 million cases annually. Trichomonas vaginalis is the parasite that causes trichomoniasis and has the ability to destroy cell monolayers of the vaginal mucosa in vitro. Sphingomyelinases (SMase are enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of sphingomyelin into ceramide and phosphorylcholine. Ceramide appears to be a second messenger lipid in programmed apoptosis, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Sphingomyelinase is probably a major source of ceramide in cells. Signal transduction mediated by ceramide leads cells to produce cytokine induced apoptosis during several inflammatory responses. SMase are also relevant toxins in several microorganisms. The main objective of this research is to identify SMase activity of T. vaginalis in the total extract (TE, P30, and S30 subfractions from brooked trophozoites. It was found that these fractions of T. vaginalis have SMase activity, which comes principally from P30 subfraction and was mainly type C. Enzymatic activity of SMase increased linearly with time and is pH dependent with two peaks by pH 5.5 and pH 7.5. The addition of manganese to the reaction mixture increased the SMase activity by 1.97.

  12. Prevalence of Trichomonas vaginalis Infection in Hamadan City, Western Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Fallah

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Infection with Trichomonas vaginalis is one of the most common sexually transmitted diseases (STDs in humans. The prevalence of infection in Iran has been reported between 2 to 8%, depending on deferent socio-cultural conditions. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of T. vaginalis in women referred to gynecologic clinics in Hamadan city, West of Iran.Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted on 750 women who referred to Gyneco­logic clinics in Hamadan from November 2010 to July 2011. Vaginal samples were obtained from them and examined by wet mount and culture methods for the detection of T. vaginalis.Results: Sixteen out of 750 vaginal swab specimens (2.1% were culture positive for T. vaginalis and 13 of these positive specimens (1.7% were wet mount positive. Only 12 of 42 patients who were clinically diagnosed as having T. vaginalis infection, confirmed by culture method. Five hundred and fifty of the participants women (73.3% had at least one of signs and symptoms of trichomoniasis. No statistical correlation was observed between clinical manifestations and parasitological results (p>0.05.Conclusion: This study showed low prevalence of T. vaginalis infection in the study population. Since clinical signs of trichomonal vaginitis are the same of other STDs, a confirmatory laboratory diagnosis is necessary. Wet smear as well as culture are sensitive for detection of T. vaginalis.

  13. Effect of Chaerophyllum macropodum extracts on Trichomonas vaginalis in vitro

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    Jabari Maryam

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Trichomonas vaginalis (T. vaginalis is a protozoan parasite causing trichomoniasis or trichomonal vaginitis. The infection is considered as non-viral sexually transmitted disease (STD. Metronidazole and Tinidazole are now the drugs of choice for the treatment of this infection. However, resistant to these drugs has also been reported. So it is necessary to search for effective alternative drugs with fewer side effects. Chaerophyllum macropodum (C. macropodum plant have been used against some parasites. Therefore, in this study the effects of different extracts of this plant on T. vaginalis in culture media have been investigated. Methods: In this experimental study hydro-ethanol extracts of C. macropodum leaves were prepared. Anti-T. vaginalis activities of the extracts were tested in concentrations of 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 40, 50, 60, 80, 100 and 150 mg/ml following 24, 48 and 72 hours of incubation of cultured media. Results: All extract concentrations showed some degrees of growth inhibition activity on T. vaginalis. However crude extract was more efficient. Conclusion: C. macropodum showed an anti-T. vaginalis activity. More investigations are recommended to use this plant as an antiparasitic drug.

  14. Ultrastructural changes during asexual multiple reproduction in Trichomonas vaginalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusof, A; Kumar, S

    2012-05-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis, a flagellated protozoan parasite, is commonly found in the genitourinary tract of humans. Its mode of reproduction has always been reported to be binary fission. The high parasite numbers seen in a relatively short period in in vitro cultures led us to believe that there must be other modes of reproduction. The present study for the first time provides transformational evidence at the ultrastructural level seen in tropohozoites of T. vaginalis undergoing a multiple asexual mode of reproduction. The findings show that the single cell with a nucleus is capable of dividing to as many as eight nuclei within the cytoplasmic body. Before the commencement of division, the nucleus remained round or ovoid in shape with condensed chromatin masses and only a few endoplasmic reticula surrounding the nucleus. During the division, the nucleus started to elongate and become irregular in shape with visible chromatin masses condensing with the accumulation of numerous endoplasmic reticula. Nuclear division gave rise to as many as eight nuclei within a cell, which could be seen to be connected by numerous endoplasmic reticula. In addition, a high number of hydrogenosomes and vacuoles can be seen in multinucleated T. vaginalis compared with single nucleated T. vaginalis. This study confirms that multiple modes of nuclear division do exist in T. vaginalis and are a precursor to progeny formation.

  15. Sphingomyelinase activity of Trichomonas vaginalis extract and subfractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Salazar, Francisco; Garza-González, Jesús N; Hernandez-Luna, Carlos E; Mata-Cárdenas, Benito David; Carranza-Rosales, Pilar; Castro-Garza, Jorge Enrique; Hernández-García, Magda Elizabeth; Vargas-Villarreal, Javier

    2013-01-01

    Trichomoniasis is one of the most common acute sexually transmitted curable diseases, and it is disseminated worldwide generating more than 170 million cases annually. Trichomonas vaginalis is the parasite that causes trichomoniasis and has the ability to destroy cell monolayers of the vaginal mucosa in vitro. Sphingomyelinases (SMase) are enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of sphingomyelin into ceramide and phosphorylcholine. Ceramide appears to be a second messenger lipid in programmed apoptosis, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Sphingomyelinase is probably a major source of ceramide in cells. Signal transduction mediated by ceramide leads cells to produce cytokine induced apoptosis during several inflammatory responses. SMase are also relevant toxins in several microorganisms. The main objective of this research is to identify SMase activity of T. vaginalis in the total extract (TE), P30, and S30 subfractions from brooked trophozoites. It was found that these fractions of T. vaginalis have SMase activity, which comes principally from P30 subfraction and was mainly type C. Enzymatic activity of SMase increased linearly with time and is pH dependent with two peaks by pH 5.5 and pH 7.5. The addition of manganese to the reaction mixture increased the SMase activity by 1.97.

  16. Ferredoxin Gene Mutation in Iranian Trichomonas Vaginalis Isolates

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    Soudabeh Heidari

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Trichomonas vaginalis causes trichomoniasis and metronidazole is its chosen drug for treatment. Ferredoxin has role in electron transport and carbohydrate metabolism and the conversion of an inactive form of metronidazole (CO to its active form (CPR. Ferredoxin gene mutations reduce gene expression and increase its resistance to metronidazole. In this study, the frequency of ferredoxin gene mutations in clinical isolates of T.vaginalis in Tehran has been studied.Methods: Forty six clinical T. vaginalis isolates of vaginal secretions and urine sediment were collected from Tehran Province since 2011 till 2012. DNA was extracted and ferredoxin gene was amplified by PCR technique. The ferredoxin gene PCR products were sequenced to determine gene mutations.Results: In four isolates (8.69% point mutation at nucleotide position -239 (the translation start codon of the ferredoxin gene were detected in which adenosine were converted to thymine.Conclusion: Mutation at nucleotide -239 ferredoxin gene reduces translational regulatory protein’s binding affinity which concludes reduction of ferredoxin expression. For this reduction, decrease in activity and decrease in metronidazole drug delivery into the cells occur. Mutations in these four isolates may lead to resistance of them to metronidazole.

  17. RNA-Binding Proteins in Trichomonas vaginalis: Atypical Multifunctional Proteins

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    Elisa E. Figueroa-Angulo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Iron homeostasis is highly regulated in vertebrates through a regulatory system mediated by RNA-protein interactions between the iron regulatory proteins (IRPs that interact with an iron responsive element (IRE located in certain mRNAs, dubbed the IRE-IRP regulatory system. Trichomonas vaginalis, the causal agent of trichomoniasis, presents high iron dependency to regulate its growth, metabolism, and virulence properties. Although T. vaginalis lacks IRPs or proteins with aconitase activity, possesses gene expression mechanisms of iron regulation at the transcriptional and posttranscriptional levels. However, only one gene with iron regulation at the transcriptional level has been described. Recently, our research group described an iron posttranscriptional regulatory mechanism in the T. vaginalis tvcp4 and tvcp12 cysteine proteinase mRNAs. The tvcp4 and tvcp12 mRNAs have a stem-loop structure in the 5'-coding region or in the 3'-UTR, respectively that interacts with T. vaginalis multifunctional proteins HSP70, α-Actinin, and Actin under iron starvation condition, causing translation inhibition or mRNA stabilization similar to the previously characterized IRE-IRP system in eukaryotes. Herein, we summarize recent progress and shed some light on atypical RNA-binding proteins that may participate in the iron posttranscriptional regulation in T. vaginalis.

  18. Contact-dependent cytopathogenic mechanisms of Trichomonas vaginalis

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    Krieger, J.N.; Ravdin, J.I.; Rein, M.F.

    1985-12-01

    The cytopathogenic mechanisms of Trichomonas vaginalis have been debated since the 1940s. We examined the following three proposed pathogenic mechanisms: contact-dependent extracellular killing, cytophagocytosis, and extracellular cytotoxins. Serial observations of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell monolayers exposed to trichomonads revealed that (i) trichomonads form clumps, (ii) the clumps adhere to cells in culture, and (iii) monolayer destruction occurs only in areas of contact with T. vaginalis. Kinetic analysis of target cell killing by trichomonads revealed that the probability of CHO cell death was related to the probability of contact with T. vaginalis, supporting the observation by microscopy that trichomonads kill cells only by direct contact. Simultaneous studies of /sup 111/indium oxine label release from CHO cells and trypan blue dye exclusion demonstrated that T. vaginalis kills target cells without phagocytosis. Filtrates of trichomonad cultures or from media in which trichomonads were killing CHO cells had no effect on CHO cell monolayers, indicating that trichomonads do not kill cells by a cell-free or secreted cytotoxin. The microfilament inhibitor cytochalasin D (10 micrograms/ml) inhibited trichomonad killing of CHO cell monolayers by 80% (P less than 0.0001). In contrast, the microtubule inhibitor vinblastine (10(-6) M) caused only 17% inhibition of trichomonad destruction of CHO cell monolayers (P less than 0.020), whereas colchicine (10(-6) M) had no effect. T. vaginalis kills target cells by direct contact without phagocytosis. This event requires intact trichomonad microfilament function; microtubule function appears not to be essential.

  19. Anti-Trichomonas vaginalis activity of betulinic acid derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hübner, Dariana Pimentel Gomes; de Brum Vieira, Patrícia; Frasson, Amanda Piccoli; Menezes, Camila Braz; Senger, Franciane Rios; Santos da Silva, Gloria Narjara; Baggio Gnoatto, Simone Cristina; Tasca, Tiana

    2016-12-01

    Caused by Trichomonas vaginalis, trichomoniasis is the most common non-viral STD worldwide. Currently, metronidazole and tinidazole are the only drugs approved for treatment of the condition. However, problems such as metronidazole-resistant T. vaginalis isolates and allergic reactions have been reported. Based on data previously published by our group, structural changes in betulinic acid (1) were performed, generating three new compounds that were tested for in vitro anti-T.vaginalis activity in this study. Whereas derivative 2 did not demonstrate anti-T. vaginalis activity, derivatives 3 and 4 reduced trophozoite viability by 100%, with MIC values of 50μM. The structural difference of two compounds was performed only on the C-28 position. Derivative 3 showed low cytotoxicity against Vero cells in 24h; however, derivative 4 was highly cytotoxic, but efficient when associated with metronidazole in the synergism assay. ROS production by neutrophils was reduced, and derivative 3 showed anti-inflammatory effect. Collectively, the results of this study provide in vitro evidence that betulinic acid derivatives 3 and 4 are potential compounds with anti-T. vaginalis activity.

  20. RNA-Binding Proteins in Trichomonas vaginalis: Atypical Multifunctional Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa-Angulo, Elisa E; Calla-Choque, Jaeson S; Mancilla-Olea, Maria Inocente; Arroyo, Rossana

    2015-11-26

    Iron homeostasis is highly regulated in vertebrates through a regulatory system mediated by RNA-protein interactions between the iron regulatory proteins (IRPs) that interact with an iron responsive element (IRE) located in certain mRNAs, dubbed the IRE-IRP regulatory system. Trichomonas vaginalis, the causal agent of trichomoniasis, presents high iron dependency to regulate its growth, metabolism, and virulence properties. Although T. vaginalis lacks IRPs or proteins with aconitase activity, possesses gene expression mechanisms of iron regulation at the transcriptional and posttranscriptional levels. However, only one gene with iron regulation at the transcriptional level has been described. Recently, our research group described an iron posttranscriptional regulatory mechanism in the T. vaginalis tvcp4 and tvcp12 cysteine proteinase mRNAs. The tvcp4 and tvcp12 mRNAs have a stem-loop structure in the 5'-coding region or in the 3'-UTR, respectively that interacts with T. vaginalis multifunctional proteins HSP70, α-Actinin, and Actin under iron starvation condition, causing translation inhibition or mRNA stabilization similar to the previously characterized IRE-IRP system in eukaryotes. Herein, we summarize recent progress and shed some light on atypical RNA-binding proteins that may participate in the iron posttranscriptional regulation in T. vaginalis.

  1. Comparative drug susceptibility study of five clonal strains of Trichomonas vaginalis in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hemantkumar Somabhai Chaudhari; Prati Pal Singh

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To produce comparative data on a group of Trichomonas vaginalis clonal strains with varied drug responses using identical methods and materials. Methods: Five clonal strains of Trichomonas vaginalis were isolated from reference strain using agar plate technique. The variability of growth kinetic and susceptibility of clonal strain to metronidazole, tinidazole, satranidazole and nitazoxanide were observed in 96 well microtitre plate. Results: Among these clonal strains there was a good correlation between rates of growth with the relative susceptibility of the strains to drugs in vitro. Regarding metronidazole, tinidazole and satranidazole susceptibility, different degrees of susceptibility were determined. However, no difference in nitazoxanide susceptibility was found between the clonal strain tested and a reference strain.Conclusions: This is the first description of biological variability in clonal stock of Trichomonas vaginalis. Different degrees of drug susceptibility were determined among clonal strains tested. Further studies will be necessary to ascertain the importance of this variability in clinical infection.

  2. Salivary trichomoniasis. A case report of infestation of a submaxillary gland by Trichomonas tenax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duboucher, C; Mogenet, M; Périé, G

    1995-03-01

    A tumor was suspected after detection of an asymptomatic submaxillary swelling in an 85-year-old woman. Clinical, radiologic, and biologic investigations were fruitless. Transcutaneous needle aspiration revealed numerous trichomonads and led to the conclusion that a salivary duct was infested by Trichomonas tenax. The patient recovered following treatment with metronidazole, and there has been no recurrence after 2 years. This case sheds new light on the pathogenic properties of trichomonads. Peculiar features of this previously unreported location are discussed. Trichomonas tenax is often unrecognized by pathologists, and surely such cases are often misdiagnosed.

  3. Centrin protein and genes in Trichomonas vaginalis and close relatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brugerolle, G; Bricheux, G; Coffe, G

    2000-01-01

    Anti-centrin monoclonal antibodies 20H5 and 11B2 produced against Clamydomononas centrin decorated the group of basal bodies as well as very closely attached structures in all trichomonads studied and in the devescovinids Foaina and Devescovina. Moreover, these antibodies decorated the undulating membrane in Trichomonas vaginalis, Trichomitus batrachorum, and Tritrichomonas foetus, and the cresta in Foaina. Centrin was not demonstrated in the dividing spindle and paradesmosis. Immunogold labeling, both in pre- and post-embedding, confirmed that centrin is associated with the basal body cylinder and is a component of the nine anchoring arms between the terminal plate of flagellar bases and the plasma-membrane. Centrin is also associated with the hook-shaped fibers attached to basal bodies (F1, F3), the X-fiber, and along sigmoid fibers (F2) at the pelta-axostyle junction, which is the microtubule organizing center for pelta-axostyle microtubules. There was no labeling on the striated costa and parabasal fibers nor on microtubular pelta-axostyle, but the fibrous structure inside the undulating membrane was labeled in T. vaginalis. Two proteins of 22-20 kDa corresponding to the centrin molecular mass were recognized by immunoblotting using these antibodies in the three trichomonad species examined. By screening a T. vaginalis cDNA library with 20H5 antibody, two genes encoding identical protein sequences were found. The sequence comprises the 4 typical EF-hand Ca++-binding domains present in every known centrin. Trichomonad centrin is closer to the green algal cluster (70% identity) than to the yeast Cdc31 cluster (55% identity) or the Alveolata cluster (46% identity).

  4. Cytokine response of human THP-1 macrophages to Trichomonas tenax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govro, Emily J; Stuart, Melissa K

    2016-10-01

    Trichomonas tenax is a protozoan that inhabits the oral cavity of humans, most often those with poor oral hygiene. Although T. tenax is widely considered a commensal, recent studies have suggested a pathogenic role for the protozoan in persons with periodontitis. Here we investigated the capacity of T. tenax to induce pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion in human macrophages, with the idea that elicitation of inflammation may be one mechanism by which T. tenax contributes to oral pathology. Human THP-1 cells differentiated to the macrophage phenotype (dTHP-1) were incubated with live or sonicated T. tenax at trophozoite:dTHP-1 ratios of 1:5, 1:10, and 1:20. Culture media removed from the wells after 4, 8, and 16 h of stimulation were assayed by ELISA for tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin-1 beta, interleukin-8, and the immunoregulatory cytokine interleukin-10. Live T. tenax trophozoites failed to induce production of any of the cytokines tested, regardless of trophozoite:dTHP-1 cell ratio or length of co-incubation. T. tenax lysates stimulated interleukin-8 synthesis, but only after 16 h of incubation at the 1:5 trophozoite:dTHP-1 cell ratio. These results suggest that pro-inflammatory cytokine synthesis by human macrophages in direct response to T. tenax contributes little to oral pathology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Trichomonas vaginalis Infection in a Tertiary Care Vaginitis Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keating, Maria A; Nyirjesy, Paul

    2015-09-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis infection (TVI) is one of the most common sexually transmitted diseases in the United States. We sought to determine the features of TVI in a referral-based vaginitis center, focusing on diagnosis and treatment of difficult cases. We conducted a retrospective review of all patients with TVI, based on International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision codes, seen at the Drexel Vaginitis Center between January 2008 and November 2013. Information collected on each subject included demographics, symptoms, examination findings, diagnostic tests, and treatment regimens. Of approximately 4000 new patient visits during our study period, 80 subjects were identified with TVI. Twenty subjects presented with known TVI, with most having clinically resistant infections. Diagnosis was confirmed by saline microscopy in 45%, OSOM rapid test in 40%, and clinical history in the remaining 15%. Treatment regimens varied: 20% received single 2-g dosing of either metronidazole or tinidazole, 50% received high-dose regimens, 20% received therapy with vaginal paromomycin, and 10% underwent desensitization for nitroimidazole allergy. Sixty subjects had newly diagnosed TVI, with 35% diagnosed by saline microscopy, 41.7% by OSOM rapid test, and 23.3% by APTIMA. Treatment regimens for these subjects included single 2-g dosing in 88.3%, high-dose regimen in 8.3%, and other formulations in the remaining 3.4%. In total, 80% of our subjects returned for follow-up; all of whom were cured. T. vaginalis infection is a rare condition in a tertiary care vaginitis center and often requires nonstandard treatments. Among those who returned for follow-up, the cure rate was 100%.

  6. Drug resistance in the sexually transmitted protozoan Trichomonas vaginalis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    REBECCA L DUNNE; LINDA A DUNN; PETER UPCROFT; PETER J O'DONOGHUE; JACQUELINE A UPCROFT

    2003-01-01

    Trichomoniasis is the most common, sexually transmitted infection. It is caused by the flagellated protozoan parasite Trichomonas vaginalis. Symptoms include vaginitis and infections have been associated with preterm delivery, low birth weight and increased infant mortality, as well as predisposing to HIV/AIDS and cervical cancer. Trichomoniasis has the highest prevalence and incidence of any sexually transmitted infection. The 5-nitroimidazole drugs, of which metronidazole is the most prescribed, are the only approved,effective drugs to treat trichomoniasis. Resistance against metronidazole is frequently reported and crossresistance among the family of 5-nitroimidazole drugs is common, leaving no alternative for treatment, with some cases remaining unresolved. The mechanism of metronidazole resistance in T. vaginalis from treatment failures is not well understood, unlike resistance which is developed in the laboratory under increasing metronidazole pressure. In the latter situation, hydrogenosomal function which is involved in activation of the prodrug, metronidazole, is down-regulated. Reversion to sensitivity is incomplete after removal of drug pressure in the highly resistant parasites while clinically resistant strains, so far analysed, maintain their resistance levels in the absence of drug pressure. Although anaerobic resistance has been regarded as a laboratory induced phenomenon, it clearly has been demonstrated in clinical isolates. Pursuit of both approaches will allow dissection of the underlying mechanisms. Many alternative drugs and treatments have been tested in vivo in cases of refractory trichomoniasis, as well as in vitro with some successes including the broad spectrum anti-parasitic drug nitazoxanide. Drug resistance incidence in T. vaginalis appears to be on the increase and improved surveillance of treatment failures is urged.

  7. Digestion of glycogen by a glucosidase released by Trichomonas vaginalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huffman, Ryan D; Nawrocki, Lauren D; Wilson, Wayne A; Brittingham, Andrew

    2015-12-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis is a protozoan parasite that is the causative agent of trichomoniasis, a widespread sexually transmitted disease. In vitro culture of T. vaginalis typically employs a medium supplemented with either maltose or glucose and carbohydrates are considered essential for growth. Although the nature of the carbohydrates utilized by T. vaginalis in vivo is undefined, the vaginal epithelium is rich in glycogen, which appears to provide a source of carbon for the vaginal microbiota. Here, we show that T. vaginalis grows equally well in growth media supplemented with simple sugars or with glycogen. Analysis of conditioned growth medium by thin layer chromatography indicates that growth on glycogen is accompanied by glycogen breakdown to a mixture of products including maltose, glucose, and oligosaccharides. Enzymatic assays with conditioned growth medium show that glycogen breakdown is accomplished via the release of a glucosidase activity having the properties of an α-amylase into the growth medium. Furthermore, we find that released glucosidase activity increases upon removal of carbohydrate from the growth medium, indicating regulation of synthesis and/or secretion in response to environmental cues. Lastly, we show that addition of T. vaginalis glucosidase activity to a growth medium containing glycogen generates sufficient simple sugar to support the growth of lactobacilli which, themselves, are unable to degrade glycogen. Thus, not only does the glucosidase activity likely play an important role in allowing T. vaginalis to secure simple sugars for its own use, it has the potential to impact the growth of other members of the vaginal microbiome.

  8. Ginger (Zingiber officinale) induces apoptosis in Trichomonas vaginalis in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbabi, Mohsen; Delavari, Mahdi; Fakhrieh Kashan, Zohre; Taghizadeh, Mohsen; Hooshyar, Hossein

    2016-01-01

    Background: Trichomoniasis is the most common sexually transmitted protozoan diseases in the worldwide. Metronidazole is the choice drug for trichomoniasis treatment, however, metronidazole resistant Trichomonas vaginalis (T.vaginalis) has been reported. Natural products are the source of most new drugs, and Zingiber officinale (Ginger) is widely used ingredient in the traditional medicine. Objective: The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of different concentrations of the ginger ethanol extract on the growth of T.vaginalis trophozoites in vitro. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 970 women who were attend in Kashan health centers were examined for T. vaginalis. Of them, 23 samples were infected with T.vaginalis. Three T. vaginalis isolates were cultured in a TYI-S-33 medium. The effect of ginger ethanol extracts and its toxicity in different concentrations (25, 50, 100, 200, 400, 800 µg/ml) on mouse macrophages were measured in triplicate exam by MTT [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide] assay. The effect of ginger on apoptosis induction was determined by Flow cytometry. Results: The IC50 of ginger and metronidazole were 93.8 and 0.0326 µg/ml, respectively. 12, 24 and 48 hr after adding different concentrations of extract on mouse macrophages, fatality rates in maximum dose (800 µg/ml) were 0.19, 0.26 and 0.31 respectively. Flow cytometry results showed the apoptosis rate following treatment with different concentrations of the extract after 48 hr were 17, 28.5, 42.1, 58.8, 76.3 and 100% respectively, while in the control group was 2.9%. Conclusion: Ginger ethanol extract induces programmed death in T. vaginalis. It is recommended that due to the known teratogenic effect of metronidazole, ginger can be considered as an alternative drug for metronidazole. PMID:27981254

  9. Optimal Reference Genes for Gene Expression Normalization in Trichomonas vaginalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Odelta; de Vargas Rigo, Graziela; Frasson, Amanda Piccoli; Macedo, Alexandre José; Tasca, Tiana

    2015-01-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis is the etiologic agent of trichomonosis, the most common non-viral sexually transmitted disease worldwide. This infection is associated with several health consequences, including cervical and prostate cancers and HIV acquisition. Gene expression analysis has been facilitated because of available genome sequences and large-scale transcriptomes in T. vaginalis, particularly using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), one of the most used methods for molecular studies. Reference genes for normalization are crucial to ensure the accuracy of this method. However, to the best of our knowledge, a systematic validation of reference genes has not been performed for T. vaginalis. In this study, the transcripts of nine candidate reference genes were quantified using qRT-PCR under different cultivation conditions, and the stability of these genes was compared using the geNorm and NormFinder algorithms. The most stable reference genes were α-tubulin, actin and DNATopII, and, conversely, the widely used T. vaginalis reference genes GAPDH and β-tubulin were less stable. The PFOR gene was used to validate the reliability of the use of these candidate reference genes. As expected, the PFOR gene was upregulated when the trophozoites were cultivated with ferrous ammonium sulfate when the DNATopII, α-tubulin and actin genes were used as normalizing gene. By contrast, the PFOR gene was downregulated when the GAPDH gene was used as an internal control, leading to misinterpretation of the data. These results provide an important starting point for reference gene selection and gene expression analysis with qRT-PCR studies of T. vaginalis.

  10. Toxoplasma polymorphic effectors determine macrophage polarization and intestinal inflammation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jensen, K.D.C.; Wang, Y.; Tait Wonjo, E.D.; Shastri, A.J.; Hu, K.; Cornel, L.; Boedec, E.; Ong, Y.C.; Chien, Y.H.; Hunter, C.A.; Boothroyd, J.C.; Saeij, J.P.J.

    2011-01-01

    European and North American strains of the parasite Toxoplasma gondii belong to three distinct clonal lineages, type I, type II, and type III, which differ in virulence. Understanding the basis of Toxoplasma strain differences and how secreted effectors work to achieve chronic infection is a major g

  11. [Difficulties in the diagnosis of Trichomonas infection complicated by mycosis of the oral cavity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurnatowska, A; Kurnatowska, A

    1990-01-01

    Out of 1018 patients calling on parasitologist or stomatologist, 148 (14.5 +/- 1%) were found to be infected with Trichomonas tenax. The difficulties with diagnosis of T. tenax were connected fungi infection. Fungi strains isolated from oral cavity of patients infected with T. tenax were differentiated by morphological and biochemical methods.

  12. Medical Devices; Immunology and Microbiology Devices; Classification of Trichomonas Vaginalis Nucleic Acid Assay. Final order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-04

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is classifying a Trichomonas vaginalis nucleic acid assay into class II (special controls). The Agency is classifying the device into class II (special controls) in order to provide a reasonable assurance of safety and effectiveness of the device.

  13. The Trichomonas vaginalis hydrogenosome proteome is highly reduced relative to mitochondria, yet complex compared with mitosomes

    OpenAIRE

    Schneider, Rachel E.; Mark T. Brown; Shiflett, April M.; Dyall, Sabrina D.; Hayes, Richard D.; Xie, Yongming; Loo, Joseph A.; Johnson, Patricia J.

    2011-01-01

    The human pathogen Trichomonas vaginalis lacks conventional mitochondria and instead contains divergent mitochondrial-related organelles. These double-membrane bound organelles, called hydrogenosomes, produce molecular hydrogen. Phylogenetic and biochemical analyses of hydrogenosomes indicate a common origin with mitochondria; however identification of hydrogenosomal proteins and studies on its metabolism have been limited. Here we provide a detailed proteomic analysis of the T. vaginalis hyd...

  14. Diagnostic utility of p16 immunocytochemistry for Trichomonas in urine cytology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pantanowitz Liron

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We present a case in which p16 immunocytochemistry helped establish the diagnosis of Trichomonas in urine from a male patient. Based on this finding, we recommend p16 immunocytochemistry as a diagnostic tool for unexpected patients or specimen types in which potential trichomonads are identified following routine cytologic evaluation.

  15. Persistent Urethritis and Prostatitis Due to Trichomonas vaginalis: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Abdolrasouli

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The present report describes a case of persistent urethritis accompanied by prostatitis due to Trichomonas vaginalis in a young male patient. The importance of the laboratory diagnosis of trichomoniasis in persistent or recurrent urethritis (ie, testing samples from multiple sites is highlighted, with the aim of improving the clinical recognition of this pathogen.

  16. Trichomonas foetus en el ganado lechero de Lima, Chiclayo y Pacasmayo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. D. Stauffer

    1946-01-01

    Full Text Available Se han encontrado 15 casos de trichomoniasis genital bovina a Trichomonas foetus en Lima, Chiclayo y Pacasmayo, en ganado lechero Holstein en su mayor parte importado. De acuerdo con la literatura que disponemos éste es el primer informe sobre la existencia de tal enfermedad en el Perú.

  17. 21 CFR 866.3402 - Plasmodium species antigen detection assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Plasmodium species antigen detection assays. 866... Plasmodium species antigen detection assays. (a) Identification. A Plasmodium species antigen detection assay... malaria caused by the four malaria species capable of infecting humans: Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium...

  18. Cytologic diagnosis of toxoplasma gondii lymphadenitis: A case report

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    Hüseyin BALOĞLU

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to present cytologic features of fine needle aspiration (FNA of lymph node suggesting toxoplasmosis with demonstration of histiocytes containing tissue bradyzoites. A 3-year-old female presented with a mobile, tender, 3 cm diameter swelling in submandibular region. FNA smears showed features of reactive lymphoid hyperplasia with polymorphic cells including groups of histiyocytes. Many epitelioid histiocytes containing intracytoplasmic particules suggesting toxoplasma bradyzoites were also seen in a Papanicolaou -stained smear. Although serologic tests did not reveal a high titer of IgG and IgM-specific antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii, the diagnosis of Toxoplasma lymphadenitis was confirmed by demonstrating the sequence specific for toxoplasma genom of the DNA in the material scraped from the stained slides with PCR technique. FNA cytology is a valuable diagnostic tool for toxoplasma lymphadenitis, which especially demonstrates epithelioid histiocytes containing tissue bradyzoites. Although serology may not be supportive, PCR study may confirm the diagnosis.

  19. Plasmodium vivax: who cares?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barnwell John W

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract More attention is being focused on malaria today than any time since the world's last efforts to achieve eradication over 40 years ago. The global community is now discussing strategies aimed at dramatically reducing malarial disease burden and the eventual eradication of all types of malaria, everywhere. As a consequence, Plasmodium vivax, which has long been neglected and mistakenly considered inconsequential, is now entering into the strategic debates taking place on malaria epidemiology and control, drug resistance, pathogenesis and vaccines. Thus, contrary to the past, the malaria research community is becoming more aware and concerned about the widespread spectrum of illness and death caused by up to a couple of hundred million cases of vivax malaria each year. This review brings these issues to light and provides an overview of P. vivax vaccine development, then and now. Progress had been slow, given inherent research challenges and minimal support in the past, but prospects are looking better for making headway in the next few years. P. vivax, known to invade the youngest red blood cells, the reticulocytes, presents a strong challenge towards developing a reliable long-term culture system to facilitate needed research. The P. vivax genome was published recently, and vivax researchers now need to coordinate efforts to discover new vaccine candidates, establish new vaccine approaches, capitalize on non-human primate models for testing, and investigate the unique biological features of P. vivax, including the elusive P. vivax hypnozoites. Comparative studies on both P. falciparum and P. vivax in many areas of research will be essential to eradicate malaria. And to this end, the education and training of future generations of dedicated "malariologists" to advance our knowledge, understanding and the development of new interventions against each of the malaria species infecting humans also will be essential.

  20. Gibberellin biosynthetic inhibitors make human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum cells swell and rupture to death.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoko Toyama

    Full Text Available Malaria remains as one of the most devastating infectious disease, and continues to exact an enormous toll in medical cost and days of labor lost especially in the tropics. Effective malaria control and eventual eradication remain a huge challenge, with efficacious antimalarials as important intervention/management tool. Clearly new alternative drugs that are more affordable and with fewer side effects are desirable. After preliminary in vitro assays with plant growth regulators and inhibitors, here, we focus on biosynthetic inhibitors of gibberellin, a plant hormone with many important roles in plant growth, and show their inhibitory effect on the growth of both apicomplexa, Plasmodium falciparum and Toxoplasma gondii. Treatment of P. falciparum cultures with the gibberellin biosynthetic inhibitors resulted in marked morphological changes that can be reversed to a certain degree under hyperosmotic environment. These unique observations suggest that changes in the parasite membrane permeability may explain the pleiotropic effects observed within the intracellular parasites.

  1. Antibodies and Plasmodium falciparum merozoites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramasamy, R; Ramasamy, M; Yasawardena, S

    There is considerable interest in using merozoite proteins in a vaccine against falciparum malaria. Observations that antibodies to merozoite surface proteins block invasion are a basis for optimism. This article draws attention to important and varied aspects of how antibodies to Plasmodium

  2. Bifunctional activity of deoxyhypusine synthase/hydroxylase from Trichomonas vaginalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintas-Granados, Laura Itzel; Carvajal Gamez, Bertha Isabel; Villalpando, Jose Luis; Ortega-Lopez, Jaime; Arroyo, Rossana; Azuara-Liceaga, Elisa; Álvarez-Sánchez, María Elizbeth

    2016-04-01

    The Trichomonas vaginalis genome analysis suggested the presence of a putative deoxyhypusine synthase (TvDHS) that catalyzes the posttranslational modification of eIF-5A. Herein, we expressed and purified the recombinant TvDHS (rTvDHS) protein (43 kDa) and the recombinant TveIF-5A (rTveIF-5A) precursor protein (46 kDa). A 41 kDa band of the native TvDHS was recognized by western blot analysis in T. vaginalis total protein extract by a mouse polyclonal anti-rTvDHS antibody. The enzymatic activity of rTvDHS was determined by in vitro rTveIF-5A precursor modification. The modification reaction was performed by using ((3)H)-spermidine, and the biochemical analysis showed that rTvDHS exhibited Km value of 0.6 μM. The rTvDHS activity was inhibited by the spermidine analog, N″-guanyl-1,7-diamino-heptane (GC7). Native gel electrophoresis analysis showed two bands corresponding to an rTvDHS-rTveIF-5A complex and an intermediate form of rTveIF-5A. The two forms were subsequently separated by ion exchange chromatography to identify the hypusine residue by MS/MS analysis. Moreover, mutations in TvDHS showed that the putative HE motif present in this enzyme is involved in the hydroxylation of TveIF-5A. We observed that only hypusine-containing TveIF-5A was bound to an RNA hairpin ERE structure from the cox-2 gene, which contains the AAAUGUCACAC consensus sequence. Interestingly, 2DE-WB assays, using parasites that were grown in DAB-culture conditions and transferred to exogenous putrescine, showed the new isoform of TveIF-5A. In summary, our results indicate that T. vaginalis contains an active TvDHS capable of modifying the precursor TveIF-5A protein, which subsequently exhibits RNA binding activity.

  3. Caracterización parcial de aislamientos de Trichomonas vaginalis:estudios relacionados con la virulencia y la patogenicidad

    OpenAIRE

    Rojas Rivero, Lázara

    2005-01-01

    La trichomonosis vaginal es la principal enfermedad de transmisiónn sexual de etiologí­a parasitaria. Es producida por un protozoo flagelado denominado Trichomonas vaginalis. Los mecanismos de patogenidad y los factores de virulencia relacionados con la enfermedad no están totalmente esclarecidos. En el presente trabajo se reportan los resultados de la caracterización parcial de 40 aislamientos de Trichomonas vaginalis obtenidos a partir de muestras de exudado vaginal de pacientes adolescente...

  4. Comparison of four diagnostic techniques for detection of Trichomonas vaginalis infection in females attending tertiary care hospital of North India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razia Khatoon

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Trichomonas vaginalis causes a common sexually transmitted disease trichomoniasis, which may lead to increased risk of transmission of human immunodeficiency virus infection and other pelvic inflammatory diseases. Wet mount examination is the most common test for diagnosis, but it has low sensitivity. Acridine orange staining can be used for diagnosis, but it requires special microscopic facility. Culture is considered as the gold standard, but it takes a long time for diagnosis. OSOM Trichomonas Rapid Test is a recently introduced rapid method based on immunochromatographic assay of trichomonal protein antigens. Hence, the present study was done to compare these four diagnostic techniques for detection of trichomoniasis in females with vaginal discharge. Materials and Methods: Vaginal swabs were taken from 835 female patients and wet mount examination, acridine orange staining, culture in Kupferberg medium, and OSOM Trichomonas Rapid Test, were performed. Results: Out of 835 patients included in our study, 68 (8.1% positive cases of trichomoniasis were detected by culture. OSOM Trichomonas Rapid Test detected 63 (7.5% cases, acridine orange staining detected 53 (6.3% cases, whereas, wet mount examination detected only 45 (5.4% positive cases. OSOM Trichomonas Rapid Test performed well and showed high sensitivity and specificity of 88.2% and 99.6%, respectively. Conclusion: As OSOM Trichomonas Rapid Test is a point of care test and gave better results than both wet mount examination and acridine orange staining; it can be used as a routine test in peripheral areas lacking laboratory facilities.

  5. Novel triazine JPC-2067-B inhibits Toxoplasma gondii in vitro and in vivo.

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    Ernest J Mui

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND METHODOLOGY: Toxoplasma gondii causes substantial morbidity, mortality, and costs for healthcare in the developed and developing world. Current medicines are not well tolerated and cause hypersensitivity reactions. The dihydrotriazine JPC-2067-B (4, 6-diamino-1, 2-dihydro-2, 2-dimethyl-1-(3'(2-chloro-, 4-trifluoromethoxyphenoxypropyloxy-1, 3, 5-triazine, which inhibits dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR, is highly effective against Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax, and apicomplexans related to T. gondii. JPC-2067-B is the primary metabolite of the orally active biguanide JPC-2056 1-(3'-(2-chloro-4-trifluoromethoxyphenyloxypropyl oxy- 5-isopropylbiguanide, which is being advanced to clinical trials for malaria. Efficacy of the prodrug JPC-2056 and the active metabolite JPC-2067-B against T. gondii and T. gondii DHFR as well as toxicity toward mammalian cells were tested. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS AND CONCLUSIONS: Herein, we found that JPC-2067-B is highly effective against T. gondii. We demonstrate that JPC-2067-B inhibits T. gondii growth in culture (IC50 20 nM, inhibits the purified enzyme (IC50 6.5 nM, is more efficacious than pyrimethamine, and is cidal in vitro. JPC-2067-B administered parenterally and the orally administered pro-drug (JPC-2056 are also effective against T. gondii tachyzoites in vivo. A molecular model of T. gondii DHFR-TS complexed with JPC-2067-B was developed. We found that the three main parasite clonal types and isolates from South and Central America, the United States, Canada, China, and Sri Lanka have the same amino acid sequences preserving key binding sites for the triazine. SIGNIFICANCE: JPC-2056/JPC-2067-B have potential to be more effective and possibly less toxic treatments for toxoplasmosis than currently available medicines.

  6. The FIKK kinase of Toxoplasma gondii is not essential for the parasite's lytic cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skariah, S; Walwyn, O; Engelberg, K; Gubbels, M-J; Gaylets, C; Kim, N; Lynch, B; Sultan, A; Mordue, D G

    2016-05-01

    FIKK kinases are a novel family of kinases unique to the Apicomplexa. While most apicomplexans encode a single FIKK kinase, Plasmodium falciparum expresses 21 and piroplasms do not encode a FIKK kinase. FIKK kinases share a conserved C-terminal catalytic domain, but the N-terminal region is highly variable and contains no known functional domains. To date, FIKK kinases have been primarily studied in P. falciparum and Plasmodium berghei. Those that have been studied are exported from the parasite and associate with diverse locations in the infected erythrocyte cytosol or membrane. Deletion of individual P. falciparum FIKK kinases indicates that they may play a role in modification of the infected erythrocyte. The current study characterises the single FIKK gene in Toxoplasma gondii to evaluate the importance of the FIKK kinase in an apicomplexan that has a single FIKK kinase. The TgFIKK gene encoded a protein of approximately 280kDa. Endogenous tagging of the FIKK protein with Yellow Fluorescent Protein showed that the FIKK protein exclusively localised to the posterior end of tachyzoites. A Yellow Fluorescent Protein-tagged FIKK and a Ty-tagged FIKK both co-localised with T. gondii membrane occupation and recognition nexus protein to the basal complex and were localised apical to inner membrane complex protein-5 and Centrin2. Deletion of TgFIKK, surprisingly, had no detectable effect on the parasite's lytic cycle in vitro in human fibroblast cells or in acute virulence in vivo. Thus, our results clearly show that while the FIKK kinase is expressed in tachyzoites, it is not essential for the lytic cycle of T. gondii. Copyright © 2016 Australian Society for Parasitology Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Novel triazine JPC-2067-B inhibits Toxoplasma gondii in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mui, Ernest J; Schiehser, Guy A; Milhous, Wilbur K; Hsu, Honghue; Roberts, Craig W; Kirisits, Michael; Muench, Stephen; Rice, David; Dubey, J P; Fowble, Joseph W; Rathod, Pradipsinh K; Queener, Sherry F; Liu, Susan R; Jacobus, David P; McLeod, Rima

    2008-03-05

    Toxoplasma gondii causes substantial morbidity, mortality, and costs for healthcare in the developed and developing world. Current medicines are not well tolerated and cause hypersensitivity reactions. The dihydrotriazine JPC-2067-B (4, 6-diamino-1, 2-dihydro-2, 2-dimethyl-1-(3'(2-chloro-, 4-trifluoromethoxyphenoxy)propyloxy)-1, 3, 5-triazine), which inhibits dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR), is highly effective against Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax, and apicomplexans related to T. gondii. JPC-2067-B is the primary metabolite of the orally active biguanide JPC-2056 1-(3'-(2-chloro-4-trifluoromethoxyphenyloxy)propyl oxy)- 5-isopropylbiguanide, which is being advanced to clinical trials for malaria. Efficacy of the prodrug JPC-2056 and the active metabolite JPC-2067-B against T. gondii and T. gondii DHFR as well as toxicity toward mammalian cells were tested. Herein, we found that JPC-2067-B is highly effective against T. gondii. We demonstrate that JPC-2067-B inhibits T. gondii growth in culture (IC50 20 nM), inhibits the purified enzyme (IC50 6.5 nM), is more efficacious than pyrimethamine, and is cidal in vitro. JPC-2067-B administered parenterally and the orally administered pro-drug (JPC-2056) are also effective against T. gondii tachyzoites in vivo. A molecular model of T. gondii DHFR-TS complexed with JPC-2067-B was developed. We found that the three main parasite clonal types and isolates from South and Central America, the United States, Canada, China, and Sri Lanka have the same amino acid sequences preserving key binding sites for the triazine. JPC-2056/JPC-2067-B have potential to be more effective and possibly less toxic treatments for toxoplasmosis than currently available medicines.

  8. TgCDPK3 Regulates Calcium-Dependent Egress of Toxoplasma gondii from Host Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, James M.; Whitehead, Lachlan; van Dooren, Giel G.; Tonkin, Christopher J.

    2012-01-01

    The phylum Apicomplexa comprises a group of obligate intracellular parasites of broad medical and agricultural significance, including Toxoplasma gondii and the malaria-causing Plasmodium spp. Key to their parasitic lifestyle is the need to egress from an infected cell, actively move through tissue, and reinvade another cell, thus perpetuating infection. Ca2+-mediated signaling events modulate key steps required for host cell egress, invasion and motility, including secretion of microneme organelles and activation of the force-generating actomyosin-based motor. Here we show that a plant-like Calcium-Dependent Protein Kinase (CDPK) in T. gondii, TgCDPK3, which localizes to the inner side of the plasma membrane, is not essential to the parasite but is required for optimal in vitro growth. We demonstrate that TgCDPK3, the orthologue of Plasmodium PfCDPK1, regulates Ca2+ ionophore- and DTT-induced host cell egress, but not motility or invasion. Furthermore, we show that targeting to the inner side of the plasma membrane by dual acylation is required for its activity. Interestingly, TgCDPK3 regulates microneme secretion when parasites are intracellular but not extracellular. Indeed, the requirement for TgCDPK3 is most likely determined by the high K+ concentration of the host cell. Our results therefore suggest that TgCDPK3's role differs from that previously hypothesized, and rather support a model where this kinase plays a role in rapidly responding to Ca2+ signaling in specific ionic environments to upregulate multiple processes required for gliding motility. PMID:23226109

  9. Toxoplasma gondii: sexual transmission in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Asgari, Qasem; Keshavarz Valian, Hossein; REZAEIAN, Mostafa; SHOJAEE, Saeedeh; Mehrabani, Davood

    2013-01-01

    This study was performed to evaluate sexual transmission of Toxoplasma gondii in mice. RH strain tachyzoites were intraperitoneally inoculated into 10 Balb/C male mice and after 48 h, their semen were collected from epididymis and examined by giemsa staining and PCR. Twenty Balb/C female mice mated with four infected male mice four times and any mating time was 48 h whilst 20 female control mice mated with four uninfected male mice for 8 days. Female mate choice was assessed using a three-cha...

  10. Sulfadiazine resistance in Toxoplasma gondii: no involvement of overexpression or polymorphisms in genes of therapeutic targets and ABC transporters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doliwa, Christelle; Escotte-Binet, Sandie; Aubert, Dominique; Sauvage, Virginie; Velard, Frédéric; Schmid, Aline; Villena, Isabelle

    2013-01-01

    Several treatment failures have been reported for the treatment of toxoplasmic encephalitis, chorioretinitis, and congenital toxoplasmosis. Recently we found three Toxoplasma gondii strains naturally resistant to sulfadiazine and we developed in vitro two sulfadiazine resistant strains, RH-RSDZ and ME-49-RSDZ, by gradual pressure. In Plasmodium, common mechanisms of drug resistance involve, among others, mutations and/or amplification within genes encoding the therapeutic targets dhps and dhfr and/or the ABC transporter genes family. To identify genotypic and/or phenotypic markers of resistance in T. gondii, we sequenced and analyzed the expression levels of therapeutic targets dhps and dhfr, three ABC genes, two Pgp, TgABC.B1 and TgABC.B2, and one MRP, TgABC.C1, on sensitive strains compared to sulfadiazine resistant strains. Neither polymorphism nor overexpression was identified. Contrary to Plasmodium, in which mutations and/or overexpression within gene targets and ABC transporters are involved in antimalarial resistance, T. gondii sulfadiazine resistance is not related to these toxoplasmic genes studied. PMID:23707894

  11. Fundamental Roles of the Golgi-Associated Toxoplasma Aspartyl Protease, ASP5, at the Host-Parasite Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammoudi, Pierre-Mehdi; Jacot, Damien; Mueller, Christina; Di Cristina, Manlio; Dogga, Sunil Kumar; Marq, Jean-Baptiste; Romano, Julia; Tosetti, Nicolò; Dubrot, Juan; Emre, Yalin; Lunghi, Matteo; Coppens, Isabelle; Yamamoto, Masahiro; Sojka, Daniel; Pino, Paco; Soldati-Favre, Dominique

    2015-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii possesses sets of dense granule proteins (GRAs) that either assemble at, or cross the parasitophorous vacuole membrane (PVM) and exhibit motifs resembling the HT/PEXEL previously identified in a repertoire of exported Plasmodium proteins. Within Plasmodium spp., cleavage of the HT/PEXEL motif by the endoplasmic reticulum-resident protease Plasmepsin V precedes trafficking to and export across the PVM of proteins involved in pathogenicity and host cell remodelling. Here, we have functionally characterized the T. gondii aspartyl protease 5 (ASP5), a Golgi-resident protease that is phylogenetically related to Plasmepsin V. We show that deletion of ASP5 causes a significant loss in parasite fitness in vitro and an altered virulence in vivo. Furthermore, we reveal that ASP5 is necessary for the cleavage of GRA16, GRA19 and GRA20 at the PEXEL-like motif. In the absence of ASP5, the intravacuolar nanotubular network disappears and several GRAs fail to localize to the PVM, while GRA16 and GRA24, both known to be targeted to the host cell nucleus, are retained within the vacuolar space. Additionally, hypermigration of dendritic cells and bradyzoite cyst wall formation are impaired, critically impacting on parasite dissemination and persistence. Overall, the absence of ASP5 dramatically compromises the parasite’s ability to modulate host signalling pathways and immune responses. PMID:26473595

  12. Fundamental Roles of the Golgi-Associated Toxoplasma Aspartyl Protease, ASP5, at the Host-Parasite Interface.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre-Mehdi Hammoudi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii possesses sets of dense granule proteins (GRAs that either assemble at, or cross the parasitophorous vacuole membrane (PVM and exhibit motifs resembling the HT/PEXEL previously identified in a repertoire of exported Plasmodium proteins. Within Plasmodium spp., cleavage of the HT/PEXEL motif by the endoplasmic reticulum-resident protease Plasmepsin V precedes trafficking to and export across the PVM of proteins involved in pathogenicity and host cell remodelling. Here, we have functionally characterized the T. gondii aspartyl protease 5 (ASP5, a Golgi-resident protease that is phylogenetically related to Plasmepsin V. We show that deletion of ASP5 causes a significant loss in parasite fitness in vitro and an altered virulence in vivo. Furthermore, we reveal that ASP5 is necessary for the cleavage of GRA16, GRA19 and GRA20 at the PEXEL-like motif. In the absence of ASP5, the intravacuolar nanotubular network disappears and several GRAs fail to localize to the PVM, while GRA16 and GRA24, both known to be targeted to the host cell nucleus, are retained within the vacuolar space. Additionally, hypermigration of dendritic cells and bradyzoite cyst wall formation are impaired, critically impacting on parasite dissemination and persistence. Overall, the absence of ASP5 dramatically compromises the parasite's ability to modulate host signalling pathways and immune responses.

  13. Genetic diversity of Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum in Honduras

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    Lopez Ana

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Understanding the population structure of Plasmodium species through genetic diversity studies can assist in the design of more effective malaria control strategies, particularly in vaccine development. Central America is an area where malaria is a public health problem, but little is known about the genetic diversity of the parasite’s circulating species. This study aimed to investigate the allelic frequency and molecular diversity of five surface antigens in field isolates from Honduras. Methods Five molecular markers were analysed to determine the genotypes of Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum from endemic areas in Honduras. Genetic diversity of ama-1, msp-1 and csp was investigated for P. vivax, and msp-1 and msp-2 for P. falciparum. Allelic frequencies were calculated and sequence analysis performed. Results and conclusion A high genetic diversity was observed within Plasmodium isolates from Honduras. A different number of genotypes were elucidated: 41 (n = 77 for pvama-1; 23 (n = 84 for pvcsp; and 23 (n = 35 for pfmsp-1. Pvcsp sequences showed VK210 as the only subtype present in Honduran isolates. Pvmsp-1 (F2 was the most polymorphic marker for P. vivax isolates while pvama-1 was least variable. All three allelic families described for pfmsp-1 (n = 30 block 2 (K1, MAD20, and RO33, and both allelic families described for the central domain of pfmsp-2 (n = 11 (3D7 and FC27 were detected. However, K1 and 3D7 allelic families were predominant. All markers were randomly distributed across the country and no geographic correlation was found. To date, this is the most complete report on molecular characterization of P. vivax and P. falciparum field isolates in Honduras with regards to genetic diversity. These results indicate that P. vivax and P. falciparum parasite populations are highly diverse in Honduras despite the low level of transmission.

  14. Specific and sensitive detection of Trichomonas tenax by the polymerase chain reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuta, N; Yamamoto, A; Fukura, K; Goto, N

    1997-03-01

    A polymerase chain reaction (PCR) protocol was developed for specific detection of Trichomonas tenax by using a pair of primers designed for its 18S rRNA gene. The detection was specific for T. tenax, since no amplification was detected with DNAs from Trichomonas vaginalis, which belongs to the same genus as T. tenax, in addition to various species of oral protists, fungi and bacteria, and human leukocytes. This method had a detection limit of 100 fg for T. tenax genomic DNA and could detect T. tenax cells in dental plaque at a concentration of as low as 5 cells per PCR mixture. Direct detection from clinical dental plaque samples was also possible; therefore, the present PCR procedure could provide a simple and rapid detection method of T. tenax in dental plaque.

  15. In vitro effects of various plants extracts on the growth of Trichomonas vaginalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharafi, Seyedeh M; Yousefi, Morteza; Yousefi, Hossein A; Asghari, Gholamreza; Darani, Hossein Yousofi

    2013-10-01

    Trichomoniasis is a common sexually transmitted disease (STD) caused by a protozoan parasite called Trichomonas vaginalis. This disease, with roughly 170 million new infected people worldwide per year, is associated with various problems such as pre-term delivery, high infant mortality or low birth weight. In addition, trichomoniasis increases patient susceptibility to HIV infection. The mainstay medication for trichomoniasis is metronidazole, but some resistant strains to this treatment have been identified. Moreover, treatment with metronidazole is associated with numerous side effects. Thus efforts to identify new alternative drugs in order to control trichomoniasis are vital. The use of medicinal herbs has gained widespread acceptance in both developing and non-developing societies because of owing to fewer side effects and better patient tolerance. In our search for alternative drugs in the treatment of trichomoniasis, we reviewed the effect of different plant extracts on Trichomonas vaginalis in vitro.

  16. Complement evasion by Plasmodium falciparum

    OpenAIRE

    Holopainen, Saila

    2008-01-01

    Patologian oppiaine Malaria remains one of the major health problems in many tropical countries, especially in sub-Saharan Africa. Among the most characteristic features of the malaria pathogens, protozoan parasites of the genus Plasmodium, is their ability to evade the immune defences of the host for extended periods of time. The complement system (C) is an essential part of the innate system in the first line of defense. It consists of over 30 soluble or membrane-bound components. C...

  17. Tetany with Plasmodium falciparum infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, P S; Singh, Neha

    2012-07-01

    Plasmodium falciparum is a malarial infection with high morbidity and wide spectrum of atypical presentation. Here we report an unusual presentation of malaria as tetany with alteration in calcium,phosphate and magnesium metabolism Hypocalcaemia in malaria can cause prolonged Q-Tc interval which could be arisk factor for quinine cardiotoxicity and sudden death Hence monitoring of serum calcium in severe malarial infection and cautious use of quinine in such patients is very important in management

  18. Iron uptake and increased intracellular enzyme activity follow host lactoferrin binding by Trichomonas vaginalis receptors

    OpenAIRE

    1984-01-01

    Lactoferrin acquisition and iron uptake by pathogenic Trichomonas vaginalis was examined. Saturation binding kinetics were obtained for trichomonads using increasing amounts of radioiodinated lactoferrin, while no significant binding by transferrin under similar conditions was achieved. Only unlabeled lactoferrin successfully and stoichiometrically competed with 125I-labeled lactoferrin binding. Time course studies showed maximal lactoferrin binding by 30 min at 37 degrees C. Data suggest no ...

  19. Symptomatic Trichomonas vaginalis infection in the setting of severe nitroimidazole allergy: successful treatment with boric acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzny, Christina; Barnes, Arti; Mena, Leandro

    2012-09-01

    This report describes a patient with symptomatic Trichomonas vaginalis infection who was unable to tolerate nitroimidazole drugs because of severe hypersensitivity, for which desensitisation was not possible. Use of intravaginal clotrimazole, intravaginal paromomycin, intravaginal furazolidone, povidone-iodine douches, and oral nitazoxanide were unsuccessful in eradicating the patient's T. vaginalis infection. A 2-month course of intravaginal topical boric acid subsequently achieved a complete symptomatic cure and the patient remained T. vaginalis wet prep- and culture-negative 60 days after treatment.

  20. A new method for identification of Trichomonas vaginalis by fluorescent DNA in situ hybridization.

    OpenAIRE

    Muresu, R; Rubino, S.; Rizzu, P.; Baldini, A.; Colombo, M; Cappuccinelli, P.

    1994-01-01

    The protozoan flagellate Trichomonas vaginalis is responsible for human trichomoniasis, one of the most widespread sexually transmitted diseases in the world. Several methods are currently used for laboratory diagnosis, including direct microscopic observation, cell culture, immunological techniques, and more recently, DNA probing and gene amplification. This report describes an in situ hybridization technique with specific DNA probes labeled with either biotin, rhodamine, or fluorescein for ...

  1. Organizational changes of the daughter basal complex during the parasite replication of Toxoplasma gondii.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke Hu

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The apicomplexans are a large group of parasitic protozoa, many of which are important human and animal pathogens, including Plasmodium falciparum and Toxoplasma gondii. These parasites cause disease only when they replicate, and their replication is critically dependent on the proper assembly of the parasite cytoskeletons during cell division. In addition to their importance in pathogenesis, the apicomplexan parasite cytoskeletons are spectacular structures. Therefore, understanding the cytoskeletal biogenesis of these parasites is important not only for parasitology but also of general interest to broader cell biology. Previously, we found that the basal end of T. gondii contains a novel cytoskeletal assembly, the basal complex, a cytoskeletal compartment constructed in concert with the daughter cortical cytoskeleton during cell division. This study focuses on key events during the biogenesis of the basal complex using high resolution light microscopy, and reveals that daughter basal complexes are established around the duplicated centrioles independently of the structural integrity of the daughter cortical cytoskeleton, and that they are dynamic "caps" at the growing ends of the daughters. Compartmentation and polarization of the basal complex is first revealed at a late stage of cell division upon the recruitment of an EF-hand containing calcium binding protein, TgCentrin2. This correlates with the constriction of the basal complex, a process that can be artificially induced by increasing cellular calcium concentration. The basal complex is therefore likely to be a new kind of centrin-based contractile apparatus.

  2. Trichomonas vaginalis PREVALENCE AND RISK FACTORS FOR WOMEN IN SOUTHERN BRAZIL

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    Cíntia Lima AMBROZIO

    Full Text Available SUMMARY Trichomonas vaginalis infections have been associated with other diseases so that epidemiological studies of the parasite are important and help to prevent the spread of the disease. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of T. vaginalis in female patients of 19 counties in southwestern Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. For diagnosis, was used direct examination, followed by applying a socio-epidemiological questionnaire. We analyzed 300 women and 9% were infected by Trichomonas vaginalis. The highest frequency occurred in women between 18 and 39 years old, single/divorced/widowed, whose family income was at one minimum wage or less, and they had not completed the primary school. Statistically significant risk factors were: women reporting two or more sexual partners in the last year were 3.3 times more likely to acquire the parasite, and those in use of oral contraceptives were 2.7 times more likely to have T. vaginalis. Importantly, 33% of the asymptomatic women were infected, and most of the negative results were from women presenting symptoms consistent with the infection. The findings emphasize that it is necessary to expand the knowledge of individuals about the disease, especially among women with the above mentioned risk factors and also to include the regular screening of Trichomonas vaginalis infections in health centers.

  3. Cloning and characterization of a repetitive DNA sequence specific for Trichomonas vaginalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paces, J; Urbánková, V; Urbánek, P

    1992-09-01

    A family of 650-bp-long repeats from the Trichomonas vaginalis genome, designated the Tv-E650 family, was cloned and sequenced. The nucleotide sequence is A+T-rich (73.3% A+T in the consensus sequence) and highly conserved among the 8 molecular clones analyzed. The differences among the clones are single-nucleotide and 2-nucleotide substitutions and insertions or deletions. The sequence uniformity of the clones as well as the presence of identical mutations in different clones suggest that efficient sequence homogenization mechanisms, such as gene conversion or recurring unequal crossing-over, operate in T. vaginalis. The copy number of the Tv-E650 repeats was estimated to be about 10(2)-10(3) per genome. Based on the DNA hybridization results, the Tv-E650 repeat family is conserved in all T. vaginalis strains examined, regardless of their diverse geographical origin. No hybridization of the Tv-E650 probe was found with the DNA from Trichomonas tenax, Trichomonas gallinae and Pentatrichomonas hominis, indicating that the Tv-E650 repeated sequences are species-specific. A dot blot hybridization protocol was developed which does not require isolation of DNA. By using this protocol it was possible to detect the DNA released from approximately 10(3) T. vaginalis cells per dot. These observations suggest that the Tv-E650 probe is potentially applicable to the identification and detection of T. vaginalis.

  4. Effect of the antimicrobial peptide tritrpticin on the in vitro viability and growth of Trichomonas vaginalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infante, Veronica V; Miranda-Olvera, Alma D; De Leon-Rodriguez, Luis M; Anaya-Velazquez, Fernando; Rodriguez, Mayra C; Avila, Eva E

    2011-01-01

    Antimicrobial peptides are widely distributed in nature; they play important roles in several aspects of innate immunity and may provide a basis for the design of novel therapeutic agents. In this study, C-amidated tritrpticin, a 13 amino acid tryptophan-rich antimicrobial peptide derived from a porcine cathelicidin, was tested against Trichomonas vaginalis, a protozoan that causes a serious non-viral sexually transmitted disease associated with preterm birth, low birth weight, and high risk of HIV-1 infection. Tritrpticin was selected due to its reasonably easy synthesis and because analogs with lower toxicity may be designed. Our results show that tritrpticin-NH(2) at either 100 or 200 μg/ml (52.5 or 105 μM) clearly reduces the viability and growth of Trichomonas vaginalis. Together with tritrpticin-NH(2), sodium bicarbonate further limited trichomonad growth. Additionally, a low concentration of metronidazole (5.8 μM), the most commonly used medication for Trichomonas vaginalis, was more effective against the growth of the parasite when it was combined with tritrpticin-NH(2).

  5. The biology of Trichomonas vaginalis in the light of urogenital tract infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusdian, Gary; Gould, Sven B

    2014-12-01

    The human pathogen Trichomonas vaginalis is a parasitic protist. It is a representative of the eukaryotic supergroup Excavata that includes a few other protist parasites such as Leishmania, Trypanosoma and Giardia. T. vaginalis is the agent of trichomoniasis and in the US alone, one in 30 women tests positive for this parasite. The disease is easily treated with metronidazole in most cases, but resistant strains are on the rise. The biology of Trichomonas is remarkable: it includes for example the biggest protist genome currently sequenced, the expression of about 30,000 protein-encoding genes (and thousands of lncRNAs and pseudogenes), anaerobic hydrogenosomes, rapid morphogenesis during infection, the secretion of exosomes, the manipulation of the vaginal microbiota through phagocytosis and a rich strain-dependent diversity. Here we provide an overview of Trichomonas biology with a focus on its relevance for pathogenicity and summarise the most recent advances. With some respect this parasite offers the opportunity to serve as a model system to study certain aspects of cell and genome biology, but tackling the complex biology of T. vaginalis is also important to better understand the effects that accompany infection and direct symptoms.

  6. Trichomonas vaginalis PREVALENCE AND RISK FACTORS FOR WOMEN IN SOUTHERN BRAZIL

    Science.gov (United States)

    AMBROZIO, Cíntia Lima; NAGEL, Andréia Saggin; JESKE, Sabrina; BRAGANÇA, Guilherme Cassão Marques; BORSUK, Sibele; VILLELA, Marcos Marreiro

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Trichomonas vaginalis infections have been associated with other diseases so that epidemiological studies of the parasite are important and help to prevent the spread of the disease. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of T. vaginalis in female patients of 19 counties in southwestern Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. For diagnosis, was used direct examination, followed by applying a socio-epidemiological questionnaire. We analyzed 300 women and 9% were infected by Trichomonas vaginalis. The highest frequency occurred in women between 18 and 39 years old, single/divorced/widowed, whose family income was at one minimum wage or less, and they had not completed the primary school. Statistically significant risk factors were: women reporting two or more sexual partners in the last year were 3.3 times more likely to acquire the parasite, and those in use of oral contraceptives were 2.7 times more likely to have T. vaginalis. Importantly, 33% of the asymptomatic women were infected, and most of the negative results were from women presenting symptoms consistent with the infection. The findings emphasize that it is necessary to expand the knowledge of individuals about the disease, especially among women with the above mentioned risk factors and also to include the regular screening of Trichomonas vaginalis infections in health centers. PMID:27680166

  7. Frequency of Trichomonas Vaginalis Infection among Pregnant Women Referred to Health and Medical Centers in Ardabil City, 2013-2014

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    Behnam Mohammadi-ghalehbin

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Trichomonas vaginalis is a protozoan parasite lives and also causes symptoms in urogenital system of human. Trichomoniasis is the widest spread infection which is transmitted through sexual contact and more than 170 million people are a ffected with Trichomonas vaginalis in the world. Trichomonas vaginalis in women causes pelvic inflammatory disease, increase in the risk of fallopian tube dependent infertility, ectopic pregnancy, preterm labor, the birth of low weight infants and the increase in the possibility of HIV transmission. Considering the importance of Trichomonas vaginalis infection in pregnant women and lack of data from Ardabil city, this study was performed to identify this infection in pregnant women referred to health and medical centers of Ardabil city.   Methods: Vaginal discharge from 500 pregnant women was collected with sterile swap and disposable speculum and examined for Trichomonas vaginalis by direct microscopic examination and cultured in Diamond specific medium. A testimonial and questionnaire were completed for each case and the results analyzed using chi-square test by SPSS statistical software version 19.   Results: In this study, the culture of samples displayed 12 positive cases (2.4%. Furthermore, Trichomonas vaginalis trophozoites were observed in five cases (1% with direct microscopic examination. Among 12 positive cases, five respondents (41.7% were in age range of 16-25 years and seven (58.3% in 26-35 years old. Among different clinical manifestations there was a significant relation between discharge and the infection.   Conclusion: The present survey confirmed the presence of Trichomonas vaginalis infection in pregnant women of Ardabil city. Therefore, an effective healthcare program by health authorities for prevention of infection in this group seems to be needed.

  8. Toxoplasma gondii decreases the reproductive fitness in mice.

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    Katerina Dvorakova-Hortova

    Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii is a common protozoan parasite that infects warm-blooded animals throughout the world, including mice and humans. During infection, both, the parasite and the host, utilize various mechanisms to maximize their own reproductive success. Mice and humans are both the intermediate hosts for Toxoplasma gondii, which forms specialized vacuoles containing reproductive cysts in the formers' tissue. As half of the human population is infected, developing a disease called toxoplasmosis, along with an ever-growing number of couples suffering with idiopathic infertility, it is therefore surprising that there is a lack of research on how Toxoplasma gondii can alter reproductive parameters. In this study, a detailed histometric screening of the testicular function along with the levels of the pituitary luteinizing hormone (LH were analysed in infected mice. Data on relative testis and epididymis weight, and sperm count were also collected. Based on the results obtained, the level of LH in the urine of Toxoplasma gondii infected mice was lower compared to the control. In direct correlation with the hormone level, testicular function and sperm production was also significantly lower in Toxoplasma gondii positive group using sperm count and histometric analysis as a marker. Not only were the number of leptotene primary spermatocytes and spermatids lowered, but the number of Sertoli cells and the tubule diameter were elevated. In parallel, a pilot epigenetic study on global testicular methylation, and specific methylation of Crem, Creb1 and Hspa1genes essential for successfully ongoing spermatogenesis was performed. Global methylation was elevated in Toxoplasma infected mice, and differences in the DNA methylation of selected genes were detected between the Toxoplasma positive and control group. These findings demonstrate a direct relation between Toxoplasma gondii infection and the decrease of male reproductive fitness in mice, which may

  9. Antiretroviral activity of protease inhibitors against Toxoplasma gondii Terapia antiretroviral de inibidores da protease contra Toxoplasma gondii

    OpenAIRE

    Lianet Monzote; Marta Rodríguez; Yenisey Alfonso; Raymundo Cox

    2013-01-01

    The introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has caused a marked reduction in the occurrence and severity of parasitic infections, including the toxoplasmic encephalitis (TE). These changes have been attributed to the restoration of cell-mediated immunity. This study was developed to examine the activity of six antiretroviral protease inhibitors (API) on Toxoplasma gondii tachyzoites. The six API showed anti-Toxoplasma activity, with IC50 value between 1.4 and 6.6 µg/mL. F...

  10. Plasmodium vivax malaria: An unusual presentation

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    Kasliwal Prasad

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute renal failure, disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS, hypoglycemia, coma, or epileptic seizures are manifestations of severe Plasmodium falciparum malaria. On the other hand, Plasmodium vivax malaria seldom results in pulmonary damage, and pulmonary complications are exceedingly rare. We report the case of a 42-year-old male living in a malaria-endemic area who presented with ARDS and was diagnosed as having Plasmodium vivax malaria. A diagnosis of Plasmodium vivax malaria was established by a positive Plasmodium LDH immunochromatographic assay while a negative PfHRP2 based assay ruled out P. falciparum malaria. After specific anti-plasmodial therapy and intensive supportive care, the patient recovered and was discharged from hospital. The use of NIPPV in vivax-malaria related ARDS was associated with a good outcome.

  11. Current progress toward vaccines against Toxoplasma gondii

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    Garcia JL

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available João Luis Garcia,1 Elisabeth A Innes,2 Frank Katzer21Department of Preventative Veterinary Medicine, Center of Agricultural Science, State University of Londrina, Parana, Brazil; 2Moredun Research Institute, Pentlands Science Park, Edinburgh, ScotlandAbstract: Toxoplasma gondii is an intracellular protozoan parasite that can infect many warm-blooded animal species and humans. Despite substantial knowledge of the biology, epidemiology, and host-pathogen interactions of T. gondii, there are still very few effective control strategies to prevent oocyst shedding in cats, tissue cysts in livestock for consumption, and infection and disease in humans. This article reviews current progress and targets for vaccination against T. gondii.Keywords: toxoplasmosis, vaccination, livestock animals, cats, immune response, organelles

  12. Toxoplasma gondii infection in humans in China

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    He Shenyi

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Toxoplasmosis is a zoonotic infection of humans and animals, caused by the opportunistic protozoan Toxoplasma gondii, a parasite belonging to the phylum Apicomplexa. Infection in pregnant women may lead to abortion, stillbirth or other serious consequences in newborns. Infection in immunocompromised patients can be fatal if not treated. On average, one third of people are chronically infected worldwide. Although very limited information from China has been published in the English journals, T. gondii infection is actually a significant human health problem in China. In the present article, we reviewed the clinical features, transmission, prevalence of T. gondii infection in humans in China, and summarized genetic characterizations of reported T. gondii isolates. Educating the public about the risks associated with unhealthy food and life style habits, tracking serological examinations to special populations, and measures to strengthen food and occupational safety are discussed.

  13. Control of Plasmodium knowlesi malaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullahi, Mohammed Baba; Hasan, Yahya Abu; Abdullah, Farah Aini

    2015-10-01

    The most significant and efficient measures against Plasmodium knowlesi outbreaks are efficient anti malaria drug, biological control in form of predatory mosquitoes and culling control strategies. In this paper optimal control theory is applied to a system of ordinary differential equation. It describes the disease transmission and Pontryagin's Maximum Principle is applied for analysis of the control. To this end, three control strategies representing biological control, culling and treatment were incorporated into the disease transmission model. The simulation results show that the implementation of the combination strategy during the epidemic is the most cost-effective strategy for disease transmission.

  14. The periodicity of Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum in Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grillet, María-Eugenia; El Souki, Mayida; Laguna, Francisco; León, José Rafael

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the periodicity of Plasmodium vivax and P. falciparum incidence in time-series of malaria data (1990-2010) from three endemic regions in Venezuela. In particular, we determined whether disease epidemics were related to local climate variability and regional climate anomalies such as the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO). Malaria periodicity was found to exhibit unique features in each studied region. Significant multi-annual cycles of 2- to about 6-year periods were identified. The inter-annual variability of malaria cases was coherent with that of SSTs (ENSO), mainly at temporal scales within the 3-6 year periods. Additionally, malaria cases were intensified approximately 1 year after an El Niño event, a pattern that highlights the role of climate inter-annual variability in the epidemic patterns. Rainfall mediated the effect of ENSO on malaria locally. Particularly, rains from the last phase of the season had a critical role in the temporal dynamics of Plasmodium. The malaria-climate relationship was complex and transient, varying in strength with the region and species. By identifying temporal cycles of malaria we have made a first step in predicting high-risk years in Venezuela. Our findings emphasize the importance of analyzing high-resolution spatial-temporal data to better understand malaria transmission dynamics. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Examination for double-stranded RNA viruses in Trichomonas gallinae and identification of a novel sequence of a Trichomonas vaginalis virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerhold, Richard W; Allison, Andrew B; Sellers, Holly; Linnemann, Erich; Chang, T-H; Alderete, John F

    2009-09-01

    To determine if double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) viruses exist and are potential virulence factors in Trichomonas gallinae, virus purification via ultracentrifugation was attempted for 12 T. gallinae isolates recovered from wild birds. Following purification, virus-like particles were not observed by transmission electron microscopy, nor were dsRNA segments visualized in agarose gels after electrophoresis of extracted RNA from any of the 12 T. gallinae isolates. However, virus particles and dsRNA segments were detected from a previously determined virus-infected T. vaginalis isolate as a control using identical purification procedures. Subsequent reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis of the dsRNA of the virus in this isolate revealed a novel sequence of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase gene of T. vaginalis viruses.

  16. Diagnosis of Trichomonas vaginalis infection by PCR using vaginal swab samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madico, G; Quinn, T C; Rompalo, A; McKee, K T; Gaydos, C A

    1998-11-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis infection is the most prevalent nonviral sexually transmitted disease (STD) in the world. A PCR test using vaginal swab samples for the detection of T. vaginalis was developed to add T. vaginalis infection to the growing list of STDs that can be detected by DNA amplification techniques. A primer set, BTUB 9/2, was designed to target a well-conserved region in the beta-tubulin genes of T. vaginalis. All strains (15 of 15) of T. vaginalis tested were successfully detected by PCR giving a single predicted product of 112 bp in gel electrophoresis. No such targeted product was amplified with DNA from Trichomonas tenax, Trichomonas gallinae, Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Giardia lamblia, Chilomastix sulcatus, Dientamoeba fragilis, and Entamoeba histolytica. An optimal analytical sensitivity of one T. vaginalis organism per PCR was achieved. Culture, performed with the Inpouch TV culture system, was examined daily with a light microscope to identify T. vaginalis. Twenty-three of 350 (6.6%) vaginal swab samples from women attending an army medical clinic were culture positive for T. vaginalis. Of these culture positive specimens, PCR detected 22 of 23 (96%) with primer set BTUB 9/2, and wet preparation detected only 12 of 23 (52%). Seventeen specimens were BTUB 9/2-PCR positive and culture negative. Ten of these discordant specimens were determined to be as true positive by PCR using primer sets TVA 5-1/6 and/or AP65 A/B, which target different regions in the T. vaginalis genome, and seven were determined to be false positive. The sensitivity of BTUB 9/2-PCR was 97% and the specificity was 98%. The sensitivities of culture and wet preparation were 70 and 36%, respectively. The diagnosis of T. vaginalis infection by PCR is a sensitive and specific method that could be incorporated into a joint strategy for the screening of multiple STDs by using molecular amplification methods.

  17. Detection of Trichomonas Vaginalis in Vaginal Speciemens from Women by Wet Mount, Culture and PCR

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    Gulnaz Culha

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Trichomoniasis, a sexually transmitted infection (STI caused by Trichomonas vaginalis, affects 180 million people worldwide and causes significant morbidity. Infection with T. vaginalis has been associated with vaginitis, exocervicitis, and urethritis in women. Material and Method: In this study, we aim to investigate the presence of T. vaginalis by using three different methods for comparing the results. Two hundred T. vaginalis isolates taken from swap samples were collected in Medical Faculty, Department of Gynecology, Mustafa Kemal University Polyclinic, and examined genotypically and phenotypically to identify T. vaginalis in Parasitology Department. This research is unique in terms of its contribution to patient treatment, being the first molecular study in Turkey/Hatay to determine Trichomonas (TV genes stemming from Trichomonas vaginalis strains. Result: 56 out of 200 patients examined were identified as positive and 24 (42.8% of these were identified through microscopy, 18 (32,1% with culture and 24 (42,8% with PCR. The number of those identified through all these methods is 14 (25%. In this study, difference was calculated using three methods (p=0.022 with Cochran%u2019s Q test. When compared with McNemar two by two, no superiority in T. vaginalis diagnosis was found between microscopy and culture (p=0.5, microscopy and PCR (p=0.063, or culture and PCR (p=0.25 methods. Discussion: Culture method is not used in routine laboratory procedures and has contamination risk. PCR method shows directly the parasite of DNAs, and so it is thought to be more reliable compared to the other two methods.

  18. Characterization of the cathepsin B-like proteinases of Trichomonas tenax ATCC 30207.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, A; Asaga, E; Nagao, E; Igarashi, T; Goto, N

    2000-12-01

    An oral parasite Trichomonas tenax ATCC 30207 synthesizes and secretes various proteinases. By gelatin-SDS-PAGE, we found five proteinases bands (30, 37, 46, 51 and 60 kDa) in cell lysate and four bands (37, 45, 52 and 60 kDa) in culture filtrate. The proteinases hydrolyzed acid soluble type I collagen as well as gelatin. The enzymes were suggested to possess typical characteristics of cysteine proteinases based on the patterns of inhibition and activation by various factors. Based on relative efficiencies of synthetic substrates, most of them were most likely cathepsin B-like enzymes.

  19. Current status and prospects for development of a vaccine against Trichomonas vaginalis infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jeffrey; Garber, Gary E

    2014-03-20

    Trichomonas vaginalis is a sexually transmitted pathogen with an annual worldwide incidence of over 276 million infections, the highest of all curable and non-viral STI. A large proportion of cases are asymptomatic and under-diagnosed with conventional diagnostic tools. Infection has important maternal and fetal health consequences and can lead to a higher probability of HIV transmission and susceptibility. Lack of affordable accurate diagnostic tests globally and metronidazole resistance hinder T. vaginalis control efforts. Based on data from current vaccination studies in animal models, a human vaccine is achievable to intervene on the substantial incidence of infection.

  20. Detection of Mycoplasma genitalium from male primary urine specimens: an epidemiologic dichotomy with Trichomonas vaginalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napierala, Maureen; Munson, Erik; Wenten, David; Phipps, Paula; Gremminger, Roger; Schuknecht, Mary Kay; Munson, Kimber L; Boyd, Vivian; Hamer, Deb; Schell, Ronald F; Hryciuk, Jeanne E

    2015-07-01

    A total of 2750 male urines subjected to a transcription-mediated amplification (TMA)-based Mycoplasma genitalium assay yielded 188 positive results (6.84%). This rate was similar to Chlamydia trachomatis (6.87%; P = 0.96) and greater than Neisseria gonorrhoeae (4.0%) and Trichomonas vaginalis (2.3%; P vaginalis (mean, 41.6; P vaginalis (P < 0.0002 versus detection in STI clinic males). TMA-based M. genitalium screening identifies additional cases of nongonococcal urethritis.

  1. Effect of Hygromycin-B on pigeons (Columba livia) with and without Trichomonas gallinae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocan, R.M.

    1972-01-01

    Hygromycin-B was administered in varied quantities to pigeons harboring nonvirulent Trichomonas gallinae and to pigeons free of T. gallinae. Both groups responded identically with large yellow caseous lesions in the upper digestive tract which superficially resembled canker (trichomoniasis). No mycotic association with the lesions could be established in either .group from sections stained with periodic acid-Schiff. The lesions observed in Hygromycin-B-treated pigeons were concluded to be the direct result of the drug on the mucosa of the pigeon's upper digestive tract.

  2. New metabolic labelling medium for Trichomonas vaginalis and Tritrichomonas foetus using 35S methionine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torian, B.E.; Kenny, G.E.

    1986-04-01

    A metabolic labelling medium was devised for Trichomonas vaginalis and Tritrichomonas foetus utilizing 35S methionine. T. vaginalis cultured for 24h in the medium took up approximately 27% of the available label and increased greater than two fold in number. Counts per microgram of protein were 32,555 +/- 10% between different strains or identical strains in different labelling runs. T. foetus took up approximately 5% of the available label and increased greater than two fold in 24h. This resulted in specific labelling of 12,704 cpm/ug protein +/- 10% between different runs with the same strain.

  3. CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE KNOWLEDGE OF TRICHOMONAS VAGINALIS PARASITE IN CURTEA DE ARGEŞ POPULATION

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    Daniela Bărbuceanu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The present study, conducted in 2008-2010 to the Curtea de Argeş population releaved an incidence of infestation with Trichomonas vaginalis of 46.29% on the investigated cases. There are significant differences related to the gender distribution and most cases come from urban areas. The incidence of infested women is higher in comparison with the infested men because the trichomoniasis at men is usually asymptomatic and remains undiagnosed. It is required a training and information campaign in schools, but also an implementation of programs at a national level for the testing of population, especially to identify the trichomoniasis at persons between 15 and 40 years.

  4. Plasmodium falciparum malaria associated with ABO blood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Plasmodium falciparum malaria associated with ABO blood phenotypes and ... out to investigate the relationship between blood group types and P. falciparum ... of long lasting treated (LLT) mosquito bed nets and the prevalence of infection.

  5. Possible role of Toxoplasma gondii in brain cancer through modulation of host microRNAs

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    Thirugnanam Sivasakthivel

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The obligate intracellular protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii infects humans and other warm-blooded animals and establishes a chronic infection in the central nervous system after invasion. Studies showing a positive correlation between anti-Toxoplasma antibodies and incidences of brain cancer have led to the notion that Toxoplasma infections increase the risk of brain cancer. However, molecular events involved in Toxoplasma induced brain cancers are not well understood. Presentation of the hypothesis Toxoplasma gains control of host cell functions including proliferation and apoptosis by channelizing parasite proteins into the cell cytoplasm and some of the proteins are targeted to the host nucleus. Recent studies have shown that Toxoplasma is capable of manipulating host micro RNAs (miRNAs, which play a central role in post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression. Therefore, we hypothesize that Toxoplasma promotes brain carcinogenesis by altering the host miRNAome using parasitic proteins and/or miRNAs. Testing the hypothesis The miRNA expression profiles of brain cancer specimens obtained from patients infected with Toxoplasma could be analyzed and compared with that of normal tissues as well as brain cancer tissues from Toxoplasma uninfected individuals to identify dysregulated miRNAs in Toxoplasma-driven brain cancer cells. Identified miRNAs will be further confirmed by studying cancer related miRNA profiles of the different types of brain cells before and after Toxoplasma infection using cell lines and experimental animals. Expected outcome The miRNAs specifically associated with brain cancers that are caused by Toxoplasma infection will be identified. Implications of the hypothesis Toxoplasma infection may promote initiation and progression of cancer by modifying the miRNAome in brain cells. If this hypothesis is true, the outcome of this research would lead to the development of novel biomarkers and

  6. Anti-Retroviral Lectins Have Modest Effects on Adherence of Trichomonas vaginalis to Epithelial Cells In Vitro and on Recovery of Tritrichomonas foetus in a Mouse Vaginal Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Aparajita; Ratner, Daniel M; Ryan, Christopher M; Johnson, Patricia J; O'Keefe, Barry R; Secor, W Evan; Anderson, Deborah J; Robbins, Phillips W; Samuelson, John

    2015-01-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis causes vaginitis and increases the risk of HIV transmission by heterosexual sex, while Tritrichomonas foetus causes premature abortion in cattle. Our goals were to determine the effects, if any, of anti-retroviral lectins, which are designed to prevent heterosexual transmission of HIV, on adherence of Trichomonas to ectocervical cells and on Tritrichomonas infections in a mouse model. We show that Trichomonas Asn-linked glycans (N-glycans), like those of HIV, bind the mannose-binding lectin (MBL) that is part of the innate immune system. N-glycans of Trichomonas and Tritrichomonas bind anti-retroviral lectins (cyanovirin-N and griffithsin) and the 2G12 monoclonal antibody, each of which binds HIV N-glycans. Binding of cyanovirin-N appears to be independent of susceptibility to metronidazole, the major drug used to treat Trichomonas. Anti-retroviral lectins, MBL, and galectin-1 cause Trichomonas to self-aggregate and precipitate. The anti-retroviral lectins also increase adherence of ricin-resistant mutants, which are less adherent than parent cells, to ectocervical cell monolayers and to organotypic EpiVaginal tissue cells. Topical application of either anti-retroviral lectins or yeast N-glycans decreases by 40 to 70% the recovery of Tritrichomonas from the mouse vagina. These results, which are explained by a few simple models, suggest that the anti-retroviral lectins have a modest potential for preventing or treating human infections with Trichomonas.

  7. Anti-Retroviral Lectins Have Modest Effects on Adherence of Trichomonas vaginalis to Epithelial Cells In Vitro and on Recovery of Tritrichomonas foetus in a Mouse Vaginal Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aparajita Chatterjee

    Full Text Available Trichomonas vaginalis causes vaginitis and increases the risk of HIV transmission by heterosexual sex, while Tritrichomonas foetus causes premature abortion in cattle. Our goals were to determine the effects, if any, of anti-retroviral lectins, which are designed to prevent heterosexual transmission of HIV, on adherence of Trichomonas to ectocervical cells and on Tritrichomonas infections in a mouse model. We show that Trichomonas Asn-linked glycans (N-glycans, like those of HIV, bind the mannose-binding lectin (MBL that is part of the innate immune system. N-glycans of Trichomonas and Tritrichomonas bind anti-retroviral lectins (cyanovirin-N and griffithsin and the 2G12 monoclonal antibody, each of which binds HIV N-glycans. Binding of cyanovirin-N appears to be independent of susceptibility to metronidazole, the major drug used to treat Trichomonas. Anti-retroviral lectins, MBL, and galectin-1 cause Trichomonas to self-aggregate and precipitate. The anti-retroviral lectins also increase adherence of ricin-resistant mutants, which are less adherent than parent cells, to ectocervical cell monolayers and to organotypic EpiVaginal tissue cells. Topical application of either anti-retroviral lectins or yeast N-glycans decreases by 40 to 70% the recovery of Tritrichomonas from the mouse vagina. These results, which are explained by a few simple models, suggest that the anti-retroviral lectins have a modest potential for preventing or treating human infections with Trichomonas.

  8. Limitations of microscopy to differentiate Plasmodium species in a region co-endemic for Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium knowlesi

    OpenAIRE

    Barber Bridget E; William Timothy; Grigg Matthew J; Yeo Tsin W; Anstey Nicholas M

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background In areas co-endemic for multiple Plasmodium species, correct diagnosis is crucial for appropriate treatment and surveillance. Species misidentification by microscopy has been reported in areas co-endemic for vivax and falciparum malaria, and may be more frequent in regions where Plasmodium knowlesi also commonly occurs. Methods This prospective study in Sabah, Malaysia, evaluated the accuracy of routine district and referral hospital-based microscopy, and microscopy perfor...

  9. Genome-scale comparison of expanded gene families in Plasmodium ovale wallikeri and Plasmodium ovale curtisi with Plasmodium malariae and with other Plasmodium species

    KAUST Repository

    Ansari, Hifzur Rahman

    2016-07-05

    Malaria in humans is caused by six species of Plasmodium parasites, of which the nuclear genome sequences for the two Plasmodium ovale spp., P. ovale curtisi and P. ovale wallikeri, and Plasmodium malariae have not yet been analyzed. Here we present an analysis of the nuclear genome sequences of these three parasites, and describe gene family expansions therein. Plasmodium ovale curtisi and P. ovale wallikeri are genetically distinct but morphologically indistinguishable and have sympatric ranges through the tropics of Africa, Asia and Oceania. Both P. ovale spp. show expansion of the surfin variant gene family, and an amplification of the Plasmodium interspersed repeat (pir) superfamily which results in an approximately 30% increase in genome size. For comparison, we have also analyzed the draft nuclear genome of P. malariae, a malaria parasite causing mild malaria symptoms with a quartan life cycle, long-term chronic infections, and wide geographic distribution. Plasmodium malariae shows only a moderate level of expansion of pir genes, and unique expansions of a highly diverged transmembrane protein family with over 550 members and the gamete P25/27 gene family. The observed diversity in the P. ovale wallikeri and P. ovale curtisi surface antigens, combined with their phylogenetic separation, supports consideration that the two parasites be given species status.

  10. Antiretroviral activity of protease inhibitors against Toxoplasma gondii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lianet Monzote

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART has caused a marked reduction in the occurrence and severity of parasitic infections, including the toxoplasmic encephalitis (TE. These changes have been attributed to the restoration of cell-mediated immunity. This study was developed to examine the activity of six antiretroviral protease inhibitors (API on Toxoplasma gondii tachyzoites. The six API showed anti-Toxoplasma activity, with IC50 value between 1.4 and 6.6 µg/mL. Further studies at the molecular level should be performed to clarify if the use of API could be beneficial or not for AIDS patients with TE.

  11. Telomeric Heterochromatin in Plasmodium falciparum

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    Rosaura Hernandez-Rivas

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Until very recently, little was known about the chromatin structure of the telomeres and subtelomeric regions in Plasmodium falciparum. In yeast and Drosophila melanogaster, chromatin structure has long been known to be an important aspect in the regulation and functioning of these regions. Telomeres and subtelomeric regions are enriched in epigenetic marks that are specific to heterochromatin, such as methylation of lysine 9 of histone H3 and lysine 20 of histone H4. In P. falciparum, histone modifications and the presence of both the heterochromatin “writing” (PfSir2, PKMT and “reading” (PfHP1 machinery at telomeric and subtelomeric regions indicate that these regions are likely to have heterochromatic structure that is epigenetically regulated. This structure may be important for telomere functions such as the silencing of the var gene family implicated in the cytoadherence and antigenic variation of these parasites.

  12. Molecular detection of Toxoplasma gondii in snakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasiri, Vahid; Teymurzadeh, Shohreh; Karimi, Gholamreza; Nasiri, Mehdi

    2016-10-01

    Toxoplasma gondii, an obligate intracellular protozoan parasite, is responsible for one of the most common zoonotic parasitic diseases in almost all warm-blooded vertebrates worldwide, and it is estimated that about one-third of the world human population is chronically infected with this parasite. Little is known about the circulation of T. gondii in snakes and this study for the first time aimed to evaluate the infection rates of snakes by this parasite by PCR methods. The brain of 68 Snakes, that were collected between May 2012 and September 2015 and died after the hold in captivity, under which they were kept for taking poisons, were examined for the presence of this parasite. DNA was extracted and Nested-PCR method was carried out with two of pairs of primers to detect the 344 bp fragment of T. gondii GRA6 gene. Five positive nested-PCR products were directly sequenced in the forward and reverse directions by Sequetech Company (Mountain View, CA). T. gondii GRA6 gene were detected from 55 (80.88%) of 68 snakes brains. Sequencing of the GRA6 gene revealed 98-100% of similarity with T. gondii sequences deposited in GenBank. To our knowledge, this is the first study of molecular detection of T. gondii in snakes and our findings show a higher frequency of this organism among them.

  13. Toxoplasma gondii in small neotropical wild felids

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    William Alberto Cañon-Franco

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade, studies on wildlife worldwide have discovered key epidemiological aspects of the sylvatic cycle of Toxoplasma gondii. However, despite the known role of wild felines as definitive hosts in the transmission and maintenance of this parasite, few studies have focused on the involvement of these animals. Brazil exhibits the largest number of wild felid species in the Americas, all of which have a critical conservation status. However, serological detections, epidemiological studies and some molecular characterizations of T. gondii have primarily used Neotropical felid populations that are maintained in captivity, which does not reflect the disease behavior in free-living conditions. A systematic review of the worldwide scientific literature was conducted focusing on toxoplasmosis in small Neotropical felids. This review covered a number of aspects, including the state of scientific research, parasite transmission in the wild, the genetic characteristics of isolates, the relationship between these genetic characteristics and the pathogenicity of the parasite, and the risk factors linked to conflicts with humans. The present review shows the relevance of studying these felid populations based on their frequent interactions with humans in peri-urban areas and the need for further comprehensive studies to establish the real significance of T. gondii in public and animal health in tropical and temperate regions.

  14. Advances in understanding immunity to Toxoplasma gondii

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    Elia D Tait

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii is an important cause of clinical disease in fetuses, infants and immunocompromised patients. Since the discovery of T. gondii 100 years ago, this pathogen and the host's immune response to toxoplasmosis have been studied intensely. This has led to the development of a working model of immunity to T. gondii, and has also resulted in fundamental new insights into the role of various cytokines in resistance to infection. By examining this organism, researchers have identified many of the requirements for resistance to intracellular pathogens and characterized numerous regulatory factors, including interleukin-10 (IL-10 and IL-27, which control inflammatory processes. In the next 100 years of T. gondii immunobiology, researchers will have the opportunity to answer some of the long-standing questions in the field using new techniques and reagents. These future studies will be vital in building a more comprehensive model of immunity to this pathogen and in advancing our understanding of immunoregulation, particularly in humans. Ultimately, the challenge will be to use this information to develop new vaccines and therapies to manage disease in affected patients.

  15. Plasmodium vivax Transmission in Africa.

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    Rosalind E Howes

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Malaria in sub-Saharan Africa has historically been almost exclusively attributed to Plasmodium falciparum (Pf. Current diagnostic and surveillance systems in much of sub-Saharan Africa are not designed to identify or report non-Pf human malaria infections accurately, resulting in a dearth of routine epidemiological data about their significance. The high prevalence of Duffy negativity provided a rationale for excluding the possibility of Plasmodium vivax (Pv transmission. However, review of varied evidence sources including traveller infections, community prevalence surveys, local clinical case reports, entomological and serological studies contradicts this viewpoint. Here, these data reports are weighted in a unified framework to reflect the strength of evidence of indigenous Pv transmission in terms of diagnostic specificity, size of individual reports and corroboration between evidence sources. Direct evidence was reported from 21 of the 47 malaria-endemic countries studied, while 42 countries were attributed with infections of visiting travellers. Overall, moderate to conclusive evidence of transmission was available from 18 countries, distributed across all parts of the continent. Approximately 86.6 million Duffy positive hosts were at risk of infection in Africa in 2015. Analysis of the mechanisms sustaining Pv transmission across this continent of low frequency of susceptible hosts found that reports of Pv prevalence were consistent with transmission being potentially limited to Duffy positive populations. Finally, reports of apparent Duffy-independent transmission are discussed. While Pv is evidently not a major malaria parasite across most of sub-Saharan Africa, the evidence presented here highlights its widespread low-level endemicity. An increased awareness of Pv as a potential malaria parasite, coupled with policy shifts towards species-specific diagnostics and reporting, will allow a robust assessment of the public health

  16. [Value of WHO recommendations for the assessment of oral health in patients with diagnosed Trichomonas tenax invasion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurnatowska, A

    1990-01-01

    In patients with periodontium lesions infected and not infected with Trichomonas tenax the following indices were analysed: caries index, Russell's index (+periodontal diseases), Greene-Vermillions index (oral hygiene). No statistically significant differences were found between infected and non-infected groups as regards caries and oral hygiene. Russell's index showed considerable differences between the groups of subjects.

  17. The Effect of Nonsurgical Periodontal Therapy on Trichomonas Tenax and Entamoeba Gingivalis in Patients with Chronic Periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashidi Maybodi, Fahimeh; Haerian Ardakani, Ahmad; Fattahi Bafghi, Ali; Haerian Ardakani, Alireza; Zafarbakhsh, Akram

    2016-09-01

    Trichomonas tenax and Entamoeba gingivalis are commensal protozoa which inhabit the human oral cavity. These parasites are found in patients with poor oral hygiene and might be a reason for progressive periodontal diseases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of nonsurgical periodontal treatment on the frequency of these protozoa in saliva and plaque samples. In this clinical trial, samples of saliva and dental plaque were collected from 46 patients with moderate to severe chronic periodontitis before and after periodontal therapy. The samples were assessed for the frequency of parasites. The frequency of Entamoeba gingivalis was reduced in saliva (p= 0.007) and plaque (p= 0.027) three weeks after the treatment. Likewise, the frequency of Trichomonas tenax reduced in saliva (p= 0.030); however, the decrease was not significant in plaque (p= 0.913). Trichomonas tenax frequency in dental plaque directly related to the severity of periodontitis (r= 0.565, p≤ 0.000). In contrast, the number of Entamoeba gingivalis in both saliva (r= -0.405, p≤ 0.005) and plaque (r= -0.304, p= 0.040) was inversely related with the severity of the periodontal disease. Nonsurgical periodontal treatment could reduce the number of Trichomonas Tenax and Entamoeba gingivalis in the oral environment of patients with chronic periodontitis.

  18. The Effect of Nonsurgical Periodontal Therapy on Trichomonas Tenax and Entamoeba Gingivalis in Patients with Chronic Periodontitis

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    Fahimeh Rashidi Maybodi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Statement of the Problem: Trichomonas tenax and Entamoeba gingivalis are com-mensal protozoa which inhabit the human oral cavity. These parasites are found in patients with poor oral hygiene and might be a reason for progressive periodontal diseases. Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of nonsurgical periodontal treatment on the frequency of these protozoa in saliva and plaque samples. Materials and Method: In this clinical trial, samples of saliva and dental plaque were collected from 46 patients with moderate to severe chronic periodontitis before and after periodontal therapy. The samples were assessed for the frequency of parasites. Results: The frequency of Entamoeba gingivalis was reduced in saliva (p= 0.007 and plaque (p= 0.027 three weeks after the treatment. Likewise, the frequency of Trichomonas tenax reduced in saliva (p= 0.030; however, the decrease was not significant in plaque (p= 0.913. Trichomonas tenax frequency in dental plaque directly related to the severity of periodontitis (r= 0.565, p≤ 0.000. In contrast, the number of Entamoeba gingivalis in both saliva (r= -0.405, p≤ 0.005 and plaque (r= -0.304, p= 0.040 was inversely related with the severity of the periodontal disease. Conclusion: Nonsurgical periodontal treatment could reduce the number of Trichomonas Tenax and Entamoeba gingivalis in the oral environment of patients with chronic periodontitis.

  19. The Effect of Nonsurgical Periodontal Therapy on Trichomonas Tenax and Entamoeba Gingivalis in Patients with Chronic Periodontitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashidi Maybodi, Fahimeh; Haerian Ardakani, Ahmad; Fattahi Bafghi, Ali; Haerian Ardakani, Alireza; Zafarbakhsh, Akram

    2016-01-01

    Statement of the Problem Trichomonas tenax and Entamoeba gingivalis are commensal protozoa which inhabit the human oral cavity. These parasites are found in patients with poor oral hygiene and might be a reason for progressive periodontal diseases. Purpose The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of nonsurgical periodontal treatment on the frequency of these protozoa in saliva and plaque samples. Materials and Method In this clinical trial, samples of saliva and dental plaque were collected from 46 patients with moderate to severe chronic periodontitis before and after periodontal therapy. The samples were assessed for the frequency of parasites. Results The frequency of Entamoeba gingivalis was reduced in saliva (p= 0.007) and plaque (p= 0.027) three weeks after the treatment. Likewise, the frequency of Trichomonas tenax reduced in saliva (p= 0.030); however, the decrease was not significant in plaque (p= 0.913). Trichomonas tenax frequency in dental plaque directly related to the severity of periodontitis (r= 0.565, p≤ 0.000). In contrast, the number of Entamoeba gingivalis in both saliva (r= -0.405, p≤ 0.005) and plaque (r= -0.304, p= 0.040) was inversely related with the severity of the periodontal disease. Conclusion Nonsurgical periodontal treatment could reduce the number of Trichomonas Tenax and Entamoeba gingivalis in the oral environment of patients with chronic periodontitis. PMID:27602391

  20. Chemical composition of essential oil and anti trichomonas activity of leaf, stem, and flower of Rheum ribes L. extracts

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    Forough Naemi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Trichomoniasis is one of the most common sexually transmitted diseases in humans and is caused by the protozoan Trichomonas vaginalis. Nowadays, increasing resistance to drugs such as metronidazole resulted in many problem, so new effective remedies are needed. In this study, we evaluate constituents of essential oil and anti-trichomonas activity of Rheum ribes. Materials and Methods: The essential oil from Rheum ribes L.flower growing wild in Iran was analyzed by GC/MS. The parasites were treated with different extract and fractions of the flower, stem, and leave of the plant. Anti-trichomonas activity was evaluated using an in vitro assay.   Results: In all, 19 compounds were identified; palmitic acid [27.08%], n-eicosane [9.9%], n-tetracosane [7.34%], linoleic acid [6.56%], and ethyl linoleate [4.76%] were the main components of the oil. Rheum ribes extracts and fractions concentration dependently inhibited the ability of parasites to growth. This was associated with polarity of solvent used for fractionation and plant parts used for extraction. Conclusion: Findings demonstrate the potential of Rheum ribes extracts as an anti-trichomonas agent for human use. Further studies are required to evaluate its toxicity and safety.  

  1. Association of Trichomonas vaginalis with sociodemographic factors and other STDs among female inmates in Lisbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, A; Exposto, F; Prieto, E; Lopes, M; Duarte, A; Correia da Silva, R

    2004-09-01

    A study on STDs was conducted among 211 female inmates in a prison in Lisbon, Portugal, in order to establish possible associations between Trichomonas vaginalis infection, sociodemographic factors and other STDs. T. vaginalis was found in 31.2% of the women, from whom only 65.1% presented symptoms. It was more frequently isolated in the 20-40 year age group. On univariate analysis there was an association, although not statistically significant, between the existence of T. vaginalis, multiple sexual partners, drug addiction and no condom use. A statistically significant association was found between trichomoniasis, prostitution and other STDs. These were found in 87% of all women. T. vaginalis was detected alone in 23.8% (15/63) of all women with trichomoniasis, while 76.2% (48/63) of them had multiple infections with trichomonas and other STDs. A statistically significant association was present between trichomoniasis and Mycoplasma hominis and infection with Treponema pallidum. This study showed that the prevalence of T. vaginalis is as high as that of multiple infections with other STDs. Therefore, our findings seem to confirm that trichomoniasis serves as a marker for other STDs. Screening for STDs should then be offered to Portuguese inmates, or, at least, these women should be screened for T. vaginalis, as a marker for the other STDs.

  2. Dot-immunobinding assay with monoclonal antibody for detection of Trichomonas vaginalis in clinical specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gombosová, A; Valent, M

    1990-01-01

    A rapid and specific dot-enzyme immunoassay (DIBA) using monoclonal antibody was introduced for detection of Trichomonas vaginalis antigen in vaginal and urethral materials. The results of DIBA were compared with culture findings of the parasite in 245 female patients. Taking culture as the reference method, DIBA had a sensitivity of 92% and a specificity of 93%. The predictive value of a positive test was 98% and that of a negative test 77%. The efficacy of wet mount, culture and DIBA were compared in 134 women with trichomonal infection. The most sensitive method was cultivation with a positivity of 99.3%. DIBA was as sensitive as the wet mount (92%). In 51 sexual partners of women with trichomoniasis DIBA proved to be ineffective. The sensitivity of the assay with corpuscular antigen of T vaginalis was 1 x 10(4) cells/ml, with soluble antigen 47 micrograms/ml. Specificity of the assay was confirmed by lack of any cross-reactivity with Trichomonas tenax. Tritrichomonas mobilensis and Candida albicans. Images PMID:2265844

  3. Development of a loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay for detection of Trichomonas vaginalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, John Carlo B; Solon, Juan Antonio A; Rivera, Windell L

    2014-07-01

    A loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay targeting the 2-kbp repeated DNA species-specific sequence was developed for detection of Trichomonas vaginalis, the causative agent of trichomoniasis. The analytical sensitivity and specificity of the LAMP assay were evaluated using pooled genital swab and urine specimens, respectively, spiked with T. vaginalis trophozoites. Genital secretion and urine did not inhibit the detection of the parasite. The sensitivity of the LAMP was 10-1000 times higher than the PCR performed. The detection limit of LAMP was 1 trichomonad for both spiked genital swab and urine specimens. Also, LAMP did not exhibit cross-reactivity with closely-related trichomonads, Trichomonas tenax and Pentatrichomonas hominis, and other enteric and urogenital microorganisms, Entamoeba histolytica, Candida albicans, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Staphylococcus aureus. This is the first report of a LAMP assay for the detection of T. vaginalis and has prospective application for rapid diagnosis and control of trichomoniasis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. [Steroidal saponins from the plant Agave brittoniana with activity against the parasite Trichomona vaginalis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, José Orestes; Meneses, Alfredo; Simonet, Ana María; Macías, Francisco Antonio; Nogueiras, Clara; Gómez, Alicia; Escario, José A

    2008-12-01

    The genus Agave (Agavaceae), includes more than 300 species; around 16 of them show an homogeneous distribution throughout Cuba. Agave brittoniana (ssp. brachypus), is an endemic subspecies that grows in the central region of the country and its leaves are traditionally used in the treatment of parasitic diseases. The parasite Trichomonas vaginalis causes the disease known as trichomoniasis, that infects the genital tract. To test in vitro the plant against Trichomona vaginalis, the dried and powdered leaves were extracted three times with ethanol-water (7:3) by maceration at room temperature. The solvent was removed under reduced pressure and the extract was suspended in distilled water, defatted with n-hexane, and extracted with water-saturated n-butanol. After solvent removal, a portion of the n-butanol extract was hydrolyzed. After extraction with ethyl acetate the hydrolysis products were compared with authentic sapogenins samples using thin layer chromatography (TLC). Most of the sapogenins (yuccagenin and diosgenin) were isolated and their structures were confirmed. using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experiments. The n-butanol extract was subjected to a separation process through column chromatography to obtain five fractions. After multiple separation processes by reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), the most active one produced one refined fraction that contained two saponins with the same aglycone (diosgenin) and one yuccagenin based saponin. Best results of the activity were obtained with the yuccagenin derived glycoside.

  5. Modulation of dendritic cell function by Trichomonas vaginalis-derived secretory products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Min-Ji; Lee, Jong-Joo; Nam, Young Hee; Kim, Tae-Gyun; Chung, Youn Wook; Kim, Mikyoung; Choi, Ye-Eun; Shin, Myeong Heon; Kim, Hyoung-Pyo

    2015-02-01

    Trichomoniasis caused by the parasitic protozoan Trichomonas vaginalis is the most common sexually transmitted disease in the world. Dendritic cells are antigen presenting cells that initiate immune responses by directing the activation and differentiation of naïve T cells. In this study, we analyzed the effect of Trichomonas vaginalis-derived Secretory Products on the differentiation and function of dendritic cells. Differentiation of bone marrow-derived dendritic cells in the presence of T. vaginalis-derived Secretory Products resulted in inhibition of lipopolysaccharide-induced maturation of dendritic cells, down-regulation of IL-12, and up-regulation of IL-10. The protein components of T. vaginalis-derived Secretory Products were shown to be responsible for altered function of bone marrow- derived dendritic cells. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assay demonstrated that IL-12 expression was regulated at the chromatin level in T. vaginalis-derived Secretory Productstreated dendritic cells. Our results demonstrated that T. vaginalis- derived Secretory Products modulate the maturation and cytokine production of dendritic cells leading to immune tolerance.

  6. Iron from haemoglobin and haemin modulates nucleotide hydrolysis in Trichomonas vaginalis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Patrícia de Brum; Silva, Nícolas Luiz Feijó; Kist, Luiza Wilges; de Oliveira, Giovanna Medeiros Tavares; Bogo, Maurício Reis; Carli, Geraldo Atillio De; Macedo, Alexandre José; Tasca, Tiana

    2015-01-01

    Extracellular ATP may act as a danger signalling molecule, inducing inflammation and immune responses in infection sites. The ectonucleotidases NTPDase and ecto-5’-nucleotidase are enzymes that modulate extracellular nucleotide levels; these enzymes have been previously characterised in Trichomonas vaginalis. Iron plays an important role in the complex trichomonal pathogenesis. Herein, the effects of iron on growth, nucleotide hydrolysis and NTPDase gene expression in T. vaginalis isolates from female and male patients were evaluated. Iron from different sources sustained T. vaginalis growth. Importantly, iron from haemoglobin (HB) and haemin (HM) enhanced NTPDase activity in isolates from female patients and conversely reduced the enzyme activity in isolates from male patients. Iron treatments could not alter the NTPDase transcript levels in T. vaginalis. Furthermore, our results reveal a distinct ATP, ADP and AMP hydrolysis profile between isolates from female and male patients influenced by iron from HB and HM. Our data indicate the participation of NTPDase and ecto-5’-nucleotidase in the establishment of trichomonas infection through ATP degradation and adenosine production influenced by iron. PMID:25946243

  7. Susceptibilidad a desinfectantes de Trichomonas vaginalis y Escherichia coli presentes en fómites experimentales

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    Fernando Anaya Velázquez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Las enfermedades infecciosas provocadas por microorganismos patógenos se pueden transmitir directa o indirectamente. El protozoario Trichomonas vaginalis y la bacteria Escherichia coli son patógenos para el ser humano que pueden ser trans - mitidos por fómites. Existe una gama de productos para desinfectar, pero no existe información sobre el efecto completo de su eficacia en forma comparativa sobre bacterias o tricomonas en interacción con diferentes tipos de materiales. En este trabajo, se analizó el efecto de algunos desinfectantes sobre la viabilidad de Escherichia coli cepa 055 y Trichomonas vaginalis cepa GT-21, depositadas sobre diferentes tipos de materiales. Se diseñó un sistema in vitro con fómites experi - mentales para estudiar el efecto sobre estos patógenos. Se encontró que las tricomonas permanecen viables hasta ocho horas, y las bacterias hasta 24 horas en madera, papel, tela y plástico. Sin embargo, ambos microorganismos sobreviven solamente entre 1 y 4 horas sobre vidrio o metal. Tanto las bacterias como las tricomonas son inhibidas por los desinfec - tantes probados, siendo los más efectivos el etanol a 70% y el producto comercial Lysol ® .

  8. Evaluation of the in vitro activity of ceragenins against Trichomonas vaginalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polat, Zubeyde Akin; Cetin, Ali; Savage, Poul B

    2016-03-01

    Trichomonosis, caused by the protozoan parasite Trichomonas vaginalis, is a curable sexually transmitted disease that is most commonly encountered worldwide. Increasing importance of trichomoniasis and emerging of resistance against metronidazole lead to search for alternative drugs with different mode of activity. The purpose of this study was to determine in vitro activity of ceragenins (CSA-13, CSA-44, CSA-13, and CSA-138) against the metronidazole-susceptible (ATCC 30001) and metronidazole-resistant (ATCC 50138) strains of T. vaginalis. The effective concentrations were evaluated using two strains of T. vaginalis with different metronidazole susceptibilities (ATCC 30001 and ATCC 50138) in the presence of dilution series of ceragenins in 24-well microtitre assays. Overall, all the ceragenins killed the metronidazole-susceptible (ATCC 30001) and metronidazole-resistant (ATCC 50138) strains of T. vaginalis (p>0.05). With regard to the their effects against the studied strains of T. vaginalis, in order of effectiveness, overall, the ceragenins ordered as CSA-13 (the most effective), CSA-131 and CSA-138 (effective similarly), and CSA-44 (the least effective) (pvaginalis with a time- and dose- dependent manner (pvaginalis. CSA-13 is the leading ceragenin as the most effective anti-trichomonas compound, followed by CSA-131 and CSA-138. They have a potential to have a place in the armemantarium of gynecologic and urologic practice for the management of sexually transmitted diseases.

  9. Characterization of RNase MRP RNA and novel snoRNAs from Giardia intestinalis and Trichomonas vaginalis

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    Chen Xiaowei S

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Eukaryotic cells possess a complex network of RNA machineries which function in RNA-processing and cellular regulation which includes transcription, translation, silencing, editing and epigenetic control. Studies of model organisms have shown that many ncRNAs of the RNA-infrastructure are highly conserved, but little is known from non-model protists. In this study we have conducted a genome-scale survey of medium-length ncRNAs from the protozoan parasites Giardia intestinalis and Trichomonas vaginalis. Results We have identified the previously 'missing' Giardia RNase MRP RNA, which is a key ribozyme involved in pre-rRNA processing. We have also uncovered 18 new H/ACA box snoRNAs, expanding our knowledge of the H/ACA family of snoRNAs. Conclusions Results indicate that Giardia intestinalis and Trichomonas vaginalis, like their distant multicellular relatives, contain a rich infrastructure of RNA-based processing. From here we can investigate the evolution of RNA processing networks in eukaryotes.

  10. Microscopy outperformed in a comparison of five methods for detecting Trichomonas vaginalis in symptomatic women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathan, B; Appiah, J; Saunders, P; Heron, D; Nichols, T; Brum, R; Alexander, S; Baraitser, P; Ison, C

    2015-03-01

    In the UK, despite its low sensitivity, wet mount microscopy is often the only method of detecting Trichomonas vaginalis infection. A study was conducted in symptomatic women to compare the performance of five methods for detecting T. vaginalis: an in-house polymerase chain reaction (PCR); Aptima T. vaginalis kit; OSOM ®Trichomonas Rapid Test; culture and microscopy. Symptomatic women underwent routine testing; microscopy and further swabs were taken for molecular testing, OSOM and culture. A true positive was defined as a sample that was positive for T. vaginalis by two or more different methods. Two hundred and forty-six women were recruited: 24 patients were positive for T. vaginalis by two or more different methods. Of these 24 patients, 21 patients were detected by real-time PCR (sensitivity 88%); 22 patients were detected by the Aptima T. vaginalis kit (sensitivity 92%); 22 patients were detected by OSOM (sensitivity 92%); nine were detected by wet mount microscopy (sensitivity 38%); and 21 were detected by culture (sensitivity 88%). Two patients were positive by just one method and were not considered true positives. All the other detection methods had a sensitivity to detect T. vaginalis that was significantly greater than wet mount microscopy, highlighting the number of cases that are routinely missed even in symptomatic women if microscopy is the only diagnostic method available.

  11. Iron from haemoglobin and haemin modulates nucleotide hydrolysis in Trichomonas vaginalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Patrícia de Brum; Silva, Nícolas Luiz Feijó; Kist, Luiza Wilges; Oliveira, Giovanna Medeiros Tavares de; Bogo, Maurício Reis; Carli, Geraldo Atillio de; Macedo, Alexandre José; Tasca, Tiana

    2015-04-01

    Extracellular ATP may act as a danger signalling molecule, inducing inflammation and immune responses in infection sites. The ectonucleotidases NTPDase and ecto-5'-nucleotidase are enzymes that modulate extracellular nucleotide levels; these enzymes have been previously characterised in Trichomonas vaginalis. Iron plays an important role in the complex trichomonal pathogenesis. Herein, the effects of iron on growth, nucleotide hydrolysis and NTPDase gene expression in T. vaginalis isolates from female and male patients were evaluated. Iron from different sources sustained T. vaginalis growth. Importantly, iron from haemoglobin (HB) and haemin (HM) enhanced NTPDase activity in isolates from female patients and conversely reduced the enzyme activity in isolates from male patients. Iron treatments could not alter the NTPDase transcript levels in T. vaginalis. Furthermore, our results reveal a distinct ATP, ADP and AMP hydrolysis profile between isolates from female and male patients influenced by iron from HB and HM. Our data indicate the participation of NTPDase and ecto-5'-nucleotidase in the establishment of trichomonas infection through ATP degradation and adenosine production influenced by iron.

  12. A Review of Evidence-Based Care of Symptomatic Trichomoniasis and Asymptomatic Trichomonas vaginalis Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meites, Elissa; Gaydos, Charlotte A; Hobbs, Marcia M; Kissinger, Patricia; Nyirjesy, Paul; Schwebke, Jane R; Secor, W Evan; Sobel, Jack D; Workowski, Kimberly A

    2015-12-15

    Trichomonas vaginalis is the most prevalent nonviral sexually transmitted infection, affecting an estimated 3.7 million women and men in the United States. Health disparities are prominent in the epidemiology of this infection, which affects 11% of women aged ≥40 years and a disproportionately high percentage of black women. Particularly high prevalences have been identified among sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinic patients and incarcerated individuals. This article reviews and updates scientific evidence in key topic areas used for the development of the 2015 STD Treatment Guidelines published by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Current evidence is presented regarding conditions associated with Trichomonas vaginalis infection, including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and pregnancy complications such as preterm birth. Nucleic acid amplification tests and point-of-care tests are newly available diagnostic methods that can be conducted on a variety of specimens, potentially allowing highly sensitive testing and screening of both women and men at risk for infection. Usually, trichomoniasis can be cured with single-dose therapy of an appropriate nitroimidazole antibiotic, but women who are also infected with HIV should receive therapy for 7 days. Antimicrobial resistance is an emerging concern.

  13. Iron from haemoglobin and haemin modulates nucleotide hydrolysis in Trichomonas vaginalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia de Brum Vieira

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Extracellular ATP may act as a danger signalling molecule, inducing inflammation and immune responses in infection sites. The ectonucleotidases NTPDase and ecto-5’-nucleotidase are enzymes that modulate extracellular nucleotide levels; these enzymes have been previously characterised in Trichomonas vaginalis. Iron plays an important role in the complex trichomonal pathogenesis. Herein, the effects of iron on growth, nucleotide hydrolysis and NTPDase gene expression in T. vaginalis isolates from female and male patients were evaluated. Iron from different sources sustained T. vaginalis growth. Importantly, iron from haemoglobin (HB and haemin (HM enhanced NTPDase activity in isolates from female patients and conversely reduced the enzyme activity in isolates from male patients. Iron treatments could not alter the NTPDase transcript levels in T. vaginalis. Furthermore, our results reveal a distinct ATP, ADP and AMP hydrolysis profile between isolates from female and male patients influenced by iron from HB and HM. Our data indicate the participation of NTPDase and ecto-5’-nucleotidase in the establishment of trichomonas infection through ATP degradation and adenosine production influenced by iron.

  14. Crystal structure of GAP50, the anchor of the invasion machinery in the inner membrane complex of Plasmodium falciparum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosch, Jürgen; Paige, Matthew H; Vaidya, Akhil B; Bergman, Lawrence W; Hol, Wim G J

    2012-04-01

    The glideosome associated protein GAP50 is an essential protein in apicomplexan parasites such as Plasmodium, Toxoplasma and Cryptosporidium, several species of which are important human pathogens. The 44.6kDa protein is part of a multi-protein complex known as the invasion machinery or glideosome, which is required for cell invasion and substrate gliding motility empowered by an actin-myosin motor. GAP50 is anchored through its C-terminal transmembrane helix into the inner membrane complex and interacts via a short six residue C-terminal tail with other proteins of the invasion machinery in the pellicle of the parasite. In this paper we describe the 1.7Å resolution crystal structure of the soluble GAP50 domain from the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. The structure shows an αßßα fold with overall similarity to purple acid phosphatases with, however, little homology regarding the nature of the residues in the active site region of the latter enzyme. While purple acid phosphatases contain a phosphate bridged binuclear Fe-site coordinated by seven side chains with the Fe-ions 3.2Å apart, GAP50 in our crystals contains two cobalt ions each with one protein ligand and a distance between the Co(2+) ions of 18Å. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP: Early detection of Toxoplasma gondii infection in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kong Qing-Ming

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Toxoplasmosis is a widespread zoonotic parasitic disease that occurs in both animals and humans. Traditional molecular assays are often difficult to perform, especially for the early diagnosis of Toxoplasma gondii infections. Here, we established a novel loop-mediated isothermal amplification targeting the 529 bp repeat element (529 bp-LAMP to detect T. gondii DNA in blood samples of experimental mice infected with tachyzoites of the RH strain. Findings The assay was performed with Bst DNA polymerase at 65°C for 1 h. The detection limit of the 529 bp-LAMP assay was as low as 0.6 fg of T. gondii DNA. The sensitivity of this assay was 100 and 1000 fold higher than that of the LAMP targeting B1 gene (B1-LAMP and nested PCR targeting 529 bp repeat element (529 bp-nested PCR, respectively. The specificity of the 529 bp-LAMP assay was determined using the DNA samples of Trypanosoma evansi, Plasmodium falciparum, Paragonimus westermani, Schistosoma japonicum, Fasciola hepatica and Angiostrongylus cantonensis. No cross-reactivity with the DNA of any parasites was found. The assay was able to detect T. gondii DNA in all mouse blood samples at one day post infection (dpi. Conclusions We report the following findings: (i The detection limit of the 529 bp-LAMP assay is 0.6 fg of T. gondii DNA; (ii The assay does not involve any cross-reactivity with the DNA of other parasites; (iii This is the first report on the application of the LAMP assay for early diagnosis of toxoplasmosis in blood samples from experimentally infected mice. Due to its simplicity, sensitivity and cost-effectiveness for common use, we suggest that this assay should be used as an early diagnostic tool for health control of toxoplasmosis.

  16. Toxoplasma gondii: epidemiology, feline clinical aspects, and prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toxoplasma gondii is a parasite of birds and mammals. Cats are the only definitive host and thus the only source of infective oocysts, but other mammals and birds can develop tissue cysts. While feline infections are typically asymptomatic, infection during human pregnancy can cause severe disease i...

  17. ISOLATION OF TOXOPLASMA GONDII FROM BOTTLENOSE DOLPHINS (TURSIOPS TRUNCATUS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toxoplasma gondii infection in marine mammals is intriguing and indicative of contamination of the ocean environment and coastal waters with oocysts. In previous serological surveys > 90% of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) from the coasts of Florida, South Carolina, and California had antib...

  18. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in seabirds from Abrolhos Archipelago, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toxoplasma gondii is a coccidian parasite that infects almost all warm-blooded animals, including birds. Abrolhos is an archipelago of five islands, located in the Atlantic Ocean, 56 nautical kilometers from the south coast of the state of Bahia, northeastern Brazil. Part of this archipelago is a Na...

  19. The neurotropic parasite Toxoplasma gondii increases dopamine metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    The common parasite Toxoplasma gondii induces behavioral alterations in its hosts including phenotypes increasing the likelihood of its transmission in rodents and reports of psychobehavioral alterations in humans. We have found that elevated levels of dopamine are associated with the encysted stage...

  20. Toxoplasma gondii Infection in Animal-Friendly Pig Production Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kijlstra, A.; Eissen, O.A.; Cornelissen, J.B.W.J.; Munniksma, K.; Eijck, I.A.J.M.; Kortbeek, T.

    2004-01-01

    PURPOSE. Consumption of undercooked pork meat products has been considered a major risk factor for contracting toxoplasmosis in humans. Indoor farming and improved hygiene have drastically reduced Toxoplasma infections in pigs over the past decades. Whether introduction of animal-friendly production

  1. Toxoplasma gondii Seroprevalence Among Blood Donors in Zahedan, Southeastern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jafari Modrek

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background Blood transfusion is one of the many ways, through which Toxoplasma Gondii (T. gondii, a protozoan parasite, can be transmitted to humans. Objectives This cross sectional study aimed to evaluate the seroprevalence of toxoplasma infection and related epidemiological features among healthy blood donors. Materials and Methods A total of 375 blood samples from donors were tested for specific T. gondii antibodies (IgG and IgM by ELISA method, in Blood Transfusion Organization, Zahedan, Iran. Positive samples for T. gondii IgG were further tested for T. gondii IgM. A positive IgG test with a negative or positive IgM test was interpreted as a chronic or acute toxoplasmosis case, respectively. Results From the total 375 blood donors, 94 samples (25% were T. gondii IgG positive. No positive cases of anti-T. gondii IgM antibodies were found. The difference between age and presence of anti-Toxoplasma antibodies was statistically significant (P < 0.05. Other characteristics of blood donors, including male gender, ABO blood groups and having a history of blood transfusion showed no association with infection. Conclusions Our results highlighted that 25% of blood donors were infected by Toxoplasma, prior to the sampling and it can relapse, when facing a decreased immunity level.

  2. Prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in common moles (Talpa europaea)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krijger, I.M.; Cornelissen, J.B.W.J.; Wisselink, H.J.; Meerburg, B.G.

    2014-01-01

    Background The prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in common moles, Talpa europaea, was investigated in order to determine whether moles can serve as an indicator species for T. gondii infections in livestock. Findings In total, 86 moles were caught from 25 different sites in the Netherlands. Five diffe

  3. Toxoplasma gondii seroprevalence in dairy and beef cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jokelainen, Pikka; Tagel, Maarja; Motus, Kerli

    2017-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is a zoonotic protozoan parasite that thrives in Estonia. In this nationwide cross-sectional study, we tested sera from 3991 cattle, collected from 228 farms in 2012–2013, for anti-T. gondii immunoglobulin G antibodies using a commercial direct agglutination test. Titer of 100 w...

  4. SEROPREVALENCE OF TOXOPLASMA GONDII IN SPONTANEOUS ABORTIONS IN PREGNANT WOMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anubhuti

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Toxoplasmosis is one of the diseases comprising the TORCH [ Toxoplasma gondii , Rubella virus , Cytomegalovirus , Herpes simplex virus] infections . It is known to cause perinatal death if the organism is acquired during pregnancy . Toxoplasmosis during pregnancy can cause congenital infection which may result in mental retardation and blindness in the infant . The present study aimed to evaluate the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii and it i s associated risk facto rs among the women with history of spontaneous abortion . MATERIALS & METHODS: A total of 60 women with past or present history of spontaneous abortion and another 60 pregnant women without any bad obstetric history as control attending our hospital were in cluded in the study . All the serum samples were tested for the presence of specific Toxoplasma IgM and IgG antibodies using the On Site Toxo IgG/IgM Rapid Test strip , a lateral flow chromatographic immunoassay . RESULTS: Total seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in the study was 12 . 5% . Total seropositivity in women with history of spontaneous abortion was 12 ( 20% and 3 ( 5% among control group . More number of seropositivity was observed among women between 26 to 30 years ( 60% . Risk factor of having cat a s pet animal had greater association of getting toxoplasmosis . CONCLUSION: This study revealed that the seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis was significantly high in the study population than in control group . There should be routine screening for antenatal wo men with bad obstetric history .

  5. Toxoplasma gondii infections in sheep in Sicily, southern Italy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vesco, G; Buffolano, W; La Chiusa, S

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the burden of Toxoplasma gondii-infections in sheep in Sicily, southern Italy and the risk factors for infection. Sera from 1961 sheep were collected just before slaughtering from 62 farms located in 8 out of 9 Sicilian administrative districts. The sera were...

  6. Toxoplasma gondii in animal reservoirs and the environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Opsteegh, M.

    2011-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is an important zoonotic parasite that is best known as a cause of abortion and abnormalities in newborns if a woman is primary infected during pregnancy, although ocular toxoplasmosis from acquired infection may contribute substantially to the disease burden. Infectious parasites

  7. IgA antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii in human tears

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meek, B.; Klaren, V.N.A.; Haeringen, van N.J.; Kijlstra, A.; Peek, R.

    2000-01-01

    PURPOSE. To investigate whether mucosal immune responses directed against the ubiquitous parasite Toxoplasma gondii can be detected in tears of healthy humans. METHODS. Nonstimulated tears and blood were obtained from 62 healthy humans (mean age, 35 ± 10 [SD] years). Serum anti-T. gondii immunoglobu

  8. DNA circles with cruciforms from Isospora (Toxoplasma) gondii

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijers, P.J.; Borst, P.; Overdulve, J.P.; Fase-Fowler, F.; Berg, Marlene van den

    1984-01-01

    We have isolated a closed circular duplex DNA fraction from the unicellular parasite Isospora (Toxoplasma) gondii and examined the purified DNA by electron microscopy. A major part of this circular DNA consists of 12-μm circles containing a cruciform with 0.5-μm tails. We also found 23-μm circles wi

  9. Survival strategies of the malarial parasite Plasmodium falciparum

    OpenAIRE

    Ramya, TNC; Surolia, Namita; Surolia, Avadhesha

    2002-01-01

    Plasmodium falciparum, the protozoan parasite causing falciparum malaria, is undoubtedly highly versatile when it comes to survival and defence strategies. Strategies adopted by the asexual blood stages of Plasmodium range from unique pathways of nutrient uptake to immune evasion strategies and multiple drug resistance. Studying the survival strategies of Plasmodium could help us envisage strategies of tackling one of the worst scourges of mankind.

  10. Toxoplasma gondii impairs memory in infected seniors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajewski, Patrick D; Falkenstein, Michael; Hengstler, Jan G; Golka, Klaus

    2014-02-01

    Almost 30% of humans present a Toxoplasma gondii positive antibody status and its prevalence increases with age. The central nervous system is the main target. However, little is known about the influence of asymptomatic i.e. latent Toxoplasmosis on cognitive functions in humans. To investigate neurocognitive dysfunctions in asymptomatic older adults with T. gondii positive antibody status a double-blinded neuropsychological study was conducted. The participants were classified from a population-based sample (N=131) of healthy participants with an age of 65 years and older into two groups with 42 individuals each: Toxoplasmosis positive (T-pos; IgG>50 IU/ml) and Toxoplasmosis negative (T-neg; IgG=0 IU/ml). The outcome measures were a computer-based working-memory test (2-back) and several standardized psychometric tests of memory and executive cognitive functions. T-pos seniors showed an impairment of different aspects of memory. The rate of correctly detected target symbols in a 2-back task was decreased by nearly 9% (P=0.020), corresponding to a performance reduction of about 35% in working memory relative to the T-neg group. Moreover, T-pos seniors had a lower performance in a verbal memory test, both regarding immediate recall (10% reduction; P=0.022), delayed recognition (6%; P=0.037) and recall from long-term memory assessed by the word fluency tests (12%; P=0.029). In contrast, executive functions were not affected. The effects remained mostly unchanged after controlling for medication. The impairment of memory functions in T-pos seniors was accompanied by a decreased self-reported quality of life. Because of the high prevalence of asymptomatic Toxoplasmosis and an increasing population of older adults this finding is of high relevance for public health.

  11. Improved diagnosis of Trichomonas vaginalis infection by PCR using vaginal swabs and urine specimens compared to diagnosis by wet mount microscopy, culture, and fluorescent staining

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. van der Schee (Cindy); A.F. van Belkum (Alex); L. Zwijgers (Lisette); E. van der Brugge; E.L. O'Neill; A. Luijendijk (Ad); T. van Rijsoort-Vos; W.I. van der Meijden (Willem); J.F. Sluiters (Hans); H.A. Verbrugh (Henri)

    1999-01-01

    textabstractFour vaginal cotton swab specimens were obtained from each of 804 women visiting the outpatient sexually transmitted disease clinic of the Erasmus University Medical Center Rotterdam, Rotterdam, The Netherlands, for validation of various forms of Trichomonas

  12. Improved diagnosis of Trichomonas vaginalis infection by PCR using vaginal swabs and urine specimens compared to diagnosis by wet mount microscopy, culture, and fluorescent staining

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. van der Schee (Cindy); A.F. van Belkum (Alex); L. Zwijgers (Lisette); E. van der Brugge; E.L. O'Neill; A. Luijendijk (Ad); T. van Rijsoort-Vos; W.I. van der Meijden (Willem); J.F. Sluiters (Hans); H.A. Verbrugh (Henri)

    1999-01-01

    textabstractFour vaginal cotton swab specimens were obtained from each of 804 women visiting the outpatient sexually transmitted disease clinic of the Erasmus University Medical Center Rotterdam, Rotterdam, The Netherlands, for validation of various forms of Trichomonas

  13. Helminth Parasites Alter Protection against Plasmodium Infection

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    Víctor H. Salazar-Castañon

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available More than one-third of the world’s population is infected with one or more helminthic parasites. Helminth infections are prevalent throughout tropical and subtropical regions where malaria pathogens are transmitted. Malaria is the most widespread and deadliest parasitic disease. The severity of the disease is strongly related to parasite density and the host’s immune responses. Furthermore, coinfections between both parasites occur frequently. However, little is known regarding how concomitant infection with helminths and Plasmodium affects the host’s immune response. Helminthic infections are frequently massive, chronic, and strong inductors of a Th2-type response. This implies that infection by such parasites could alter the host’s susceptibility to subsequent infections by Plasmodium. There are a number of reports on the interactions between helminths and Plasmodium; in some, the burden of Plasmodium parasites increased, but others reported a reduction in the parasite. This review focuses on explaining many of these discrepancies regarding helminth-Plasmodium coinfections in terms of the effects that helminths have on the immune system. In particular, it focuses on helminth-induced immunosuppression and the effects of cytokines controlling polarization toward the Th1 or Th2 arms of the immune response.

  14. Helminth Parasites Alter Protection against Plasmodium Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar-Castañon, Víctor H.; Legorreta-Herrera, Martha

    2014-01-01

    More than one-third of the world's population is infected with one or more helminthic parasites. Helminth infections are prevalent throughout tropical and subtropical regions where malaria pathogens are transmitted. Malaria is the most widespread and deadliest parasitic disease. The severity of the disease is strongly related to parasite density and the host's immune responses. Furthermore, coinfections between both parasites occur frequently. However, little is known regarding how concomitant infection with helminths and Plasmodium affects the host's immune response. Helminthic infections are frequently massive, chronic, and strong inductors of a Th2-type response. This implies that infection by such parasites could alter the host's susceptibility to subsequent infections by Plasmodium. There are a number of reports on the interactions between helminths and Plasmodium; in some, the burden of Plasmodium parasites increased, but others reported a reduction in the parasite. This review focuses on explaining many of these discrepancies regarding helminth-Plasmodium coinfections in terms of the effects that helminths have on the immune system. In particular, it focuses on helminth-induced immunosuppression and the effects of cytokines controlling polarization toward the Th1 or Th2 arms of the immune response. PMID:25276830

  15. Antiretroviral activity of protease inhibitors against Toxoplasma gondii Terapia antiretroviral de inibidores da protease contra Toxoplasma gondii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lianet Monzote

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART has caused a marked reduction in the occurrence and severity of parasitic infections, including the toxoplasmic encephalitis (TE. These changes have been attributed to the restoration of cell-mediated immunity. This study was developed to examine the activity of six antiretroviral protease inhibitors (API on Toxoplasma gondii tachyzoites. The six API showed anti-Toxoplasma activity, with IC50 value between 1.4 and 6.6 µg/mL. Further studies at the molecular level should be performed to clarify if the use of API could be beneficial or not for AIDS patients with TE.La introducción de la terapia antirretroviral de alta efectividad ha causada una marcada reducción en la ocurrencia y curso clínico de las infecciones parasitarias, incluyendo la toxoplasmosis encefálica (TE. Estos cambios han sido atribuidos a la restauración celular. Este estudio fue desarrollado para examinar la actividad de seis inhibidores de proteasas antirretrovirales (IPA sobre taquizoitos de Toxoplasma gondii. Los seis IPA mostraron actividad anti-Toxoplasma, con valores de CI50 entre 1.4 y 6.6 µg/mL. Futuros estudios a nivel molecular deben ser realizados, los cuales podrán delucidar si el uso de IPA pudiera beneficiar o no a los pacientes que sufren de TE.

  16. Genital chlamydia, genital herpes, Trichomonas vaginalis and gonorrhea prevalence, and risk factors among nearly 70,000 randomly selected women in 4 Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber, Mette Tuxen; Nielsen, Ann; Nygård, Mari

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of women reporting ever having genital chlamydia, genital herpes, Trichomonas vaginalis, and gonorrhea, and to identify factors associated with each of these sexually transmitted infections (STIs).......The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of women reporting ever having genital chlamydia, genital herpes, Trichomonas vaginalis, and gonorrhea, and to identify factors associated with each of these sexually transmitted infections (STIs)....

  17. In silico identification of specialized secretory-organelle proteins in apicomplexan parasites and in vivo validation in Toxoplasma gondii.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongqiang Chen

    Full Text Available Apicomplexan parasites, including the human pathogens Toxoplasma gondii and Plasmodium falciparum, employ specialized secretory organelles (micronemes, rhoptries, dense granules to invade and survive within host cells. Because molecules secreted from these organelles function at the host/parasite interface, their identification is important for understanding invasion mechanisms, and central to the development of therapeutic strategies. Using a computational approach based on predicted functional domains, we have identified more than 600 candidate secretory organelle proteins in twelve apicomplexan parasites. Expression in transgenic T. gondii of eight proteins identified in silico confirms that all enter into the secretory pathway, and seven target to apical organelles associated with invasion. An in silico approach intended to identify possible host interacting proteins yields a dataset enriched in secretory/transmembrane proteins, including most of the antigens known to be engaged by apicomplexan parasites during infection. These domain pattern and projected interactome approaches significantly expand the repertoire of proteins that may be involved in host parasite interactions.

  18. Toxoplasma gondii peroxiredoxin promotes altered macrophage function, caspase-1-dependent IL-1β secretion enhances parasite replication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marshall Edward S

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Alternatively activated macrophages (AAM are a key feature Th2 immunity and have been associated with a variety of roles during helminth infection. The role this cell subset plays in protzoan infection remain relatively unexplored, herein we describe the effects of a redox enzyme (rTgPrx derived from Toxoplasma gondii on murine macrophage phenotype in vitro. RTgPrx has been previously associated with the maintainence of parasite oxidative balance. Here our experiments show that rTgPrx promotes AAM as indicated by high arginase-1 (arg-1, YM1 and FIZZ expression via both signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT6-dependent and -independent mechanisms. Additionally rTgPrx treatment reduced caspase-1 activity and IL-1β secretion, while simultaneously increasing IL-10 release. Furthermore the in vitro replication of T. gondii (RH strain was enhanced when macrophages were treated with rTgPrx. This is in contrast with the previously described effects of a Plasmodium berghei ANKA 2-cys-peroxiredoxin that promotes pro-inflammatory cytokine production. These results highlight the role of T. gondii derived redox enzymes as important immune modulators and potentially indicate a role for AAM in modulating immunopathology and promoting parasite replication during T. gondii infection.

  19. Accurate identification of the six human Plasmodium spp. causing imported malaria, including Plasmodium ovale wallikeri and Plasmodium knowlesi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderaro, Adriana; Piccolo, Giovanna; Gorrini, Chiara; Rossi, Sabina; Montecchini, Sara; Dell'Anna, Maria Loretana; De Conto, Flora; Medici, Maria Cristina; Chezzi, Carlo; Arcangeletti, Maria Cristina

    2013-09-13

    Accurate identification of Plasmodium infections in non-endemic countries is of critical importance with regard to the administration of a targeted therapy having a positive impact on patient health and management and allowing the prevention of the risk of re-introduction of endemic malaria in such countries. Malaria is no longer endemic in Italy where it is the most commonly imported disease, with one of the highest rates of imported malaria among European non-endemic countries including France, the UK and Germany, and with a prevalence of 24.3% at the University Hospital of Parma. Molecular methods showed high sensitivity and specificity and changed the epidemiology of imported malaria in several non-endemic countries, highlighted a higher prevalence of Plasmodium ovale, Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium malariae underestimated by microscopy and, not least, brought to light both the existence of two species of P. ovale (Plasmodium ovale curtisi and Plasmodium ovale wallikeri) and the infection in humans by Plasmodium knowlesi, otherwise not detectable by microscopy. In this retrospective study an evaluation of two real-time PCR assays able to identify P. ovale wallikeri, distinguishing it from P. ovale curtisi, and to detect P. knowlesi, respectively, was performed applying them on a subset of 398 blood samples belonging to patients with the clinical suspicion of malaria. These assays revealed an excellent analytical sensitivity and no cross-reactivity versus other Plasmodium spp. infecting humans, suggesting their usefulness for an accurate and complete diagnosis of imported malaria. Among the 128 patients with malaria, eight P. ovale curtisi and four P. ovale wallikeri infections were detected, while no cases of P. knowlesi infection were observed. Real-time PCR assays specific for P. ovale wallikeri and P. knowlesi were included in the panel currently used in the University Hospital of Parma for the diagnosis of imported malaria, accomplishing the goal of

  20. Occurrence of Plasmodium in Anatidae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, C.M.; Kocan, R.M.

    1970-01-01

    Until a little over a decade ago reports of Plasrnodium in geese, ducks, and swans were the result of examination of single blood smears from wild birds. One would gather from the earlier studies that Anatidae are infrequently infected. During the past decade we have conducted studies on prevalence of Plasmodium by an isodiagnosis technique, inoculating blood from wild birds into captive young geese, ducks, and other species of birds and determining the status of infection in the donors by examination of repetitive blood smears from the recipients. Examination by this technique of a series of adult Canada geese from the Seney National Wildlife Refuge in northern Michigan uncovered a prevalence of 60% during five successive years. Domestic geese were the primary recipients but we found that several other species of geese, ducks, and gulls were also susceptible. Similar studies on Canada geese from other areas (Maryland, New Jersey, New York, and southern Michigan) uncovered infection rates from zero to 27%. Following isolation of Plasmodlum in a single canvasback duck (Aythya valisineria) in southern Michigan by inoculation into a domestic duck, a series of 88 canvasbacks from Chesapeake Bay in Maryland this winter uncovered an infection rate of 27%. The most common parasite observed in both the geese and was as P. circumflexum.

  1. TOXOPLASMA AND VIRAL ANTIBODIES AMONG HIV PATIENTS AND INMATES IN CENTRAL JAVA, INDONESIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sari, Yulia; Haryati, Sri; Raharjo, Irvan; Prasetyo, Afiono Agung

    2015-11-01

    In Indonesia, Toxoplasma and its associations with blood-borne viruses have been poorly studied. In order to study the association between anti-Toxoplasma antibodies and blood-borne viral antibodies, blood samples from 497 participants (375 inmates from four prisons in Central Java, Indonesia and 122 HIV patients at a Voluntary Counseling and Testing Clinic in Surakarta, Indonesia) were tested for serological markers of Toxoplasma, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), hepatitis D virus (HDV) and human T-lymphotropic virus types I and II (HTLV-1/2). Anti-Toxoplasma IgG and IgM positivity rates were 41.6% and 3.6%, respectively. One point two percent of participants was positive for both anti-Toxoplasma IgG and IgM antibodies. Sixteen point five percent, 11.3%, 2.6% and 2.8% of participants were positive for anti- Toxoplasma IgG combined with anti-HCV antibodies, anti-Toxoplasma IgG combined with anti-HIV antibodies, anti-Toxoplasma IgM combined with anti-HIV antibodes and anti-Toxoplasma IgG combined with both anti-HIV and anti-HCV antibodies, respectively. Anti-Toxoplasma IgM seropositivity was associated with anti-HIV (aOR = 4.3; 95% CI: 1.112-16.204, p = 0.034). Anti-Toxoplasma IgG antibodies were associated with anti-HCV (aOR = 2.8; 95% CI: 1.749-4.538, p < 0.001) and history of injection drug use (aOR = 3.1; 95% CI: 1.905-5.093, p < 0.001). In conclusion, we recommend patients with HIV, HCV infection and injection drug users should be screened for Toxoplasma infection in Indonesia.

  2. Predator Cat Odors Activate Sexual Arousal Pathways in Brains of Toxoplasma gondii Infected Rats

    OpenAIRE

    House, Patrick K.; Ajai Vyas; Robert Sapolsky

    2011-01-01

    Cat odors induce rapid, innate and stereotyped defensive behaviors in rats at first exposure, a presumed response to the evolutionary pressures of predation. Bizarrely, rats infected with the brain parasite Toxoplasma gondii approach the cat odors they typically avoid. Since the protozoan Toxoplasma requires the cat to sexually reproduce, this change in host behavior is thought to be a remarkable example of a parasite manipulating a mammalian host for its own benefit. Toxoplasma does not infl...

  3. Prevalence of anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in sport horses from Qazvin, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajialilo, Elham; Ziaali, Naser; Harandi, Majid Fasihi; Saraei, Mehrzad; Hajialilo, Mohammad

    2010-10-01

    In the present study, the prevalence of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii in sport horses of Qazvin was examined using modified agglutination test (MAT). On 52 horse sera totally examined for anti-Toxoplasma antibodies, 37 horses (71.2%) were seropositive by MAT. Results of the present study showed a high rate of Toxoplasma infection in horses in Qazvin area. More comprehensive study on equine toxoplasmosis is recommended.

  4. Genetic divergence of Toxoplasma gondii strains associated with ocular toxoplasmosis, Brazil

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Khan, Asis; Jordan, Catherine; Muccioli, Cristina; Vallochi, Adriana L; Rizzo, Luiz V; Belfort, Jr, Rubens; Vitor, Ricardo W A; Silveira, Claudio; Sibley, L David

    2006-01-01

    .... To identify the genotypes of parasite strains associated with ocular disease, we compared 25 clinical and animal isolates of Toxoplasma gondii from Brazil to previously characterized clonal lineages...

  5. Trichomonas vaginalis-An indicator for other sexually transmitted infecting agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, B M; Agrawal, S; Singh, P K; Rizvi, G; Hussain, K

    2000-01-01

    The present study is based on 350 women having sexually transmitted diseases (STD) and 68 male counterparts. Trichomonas vaginalis was a significant contributor in 216 (61.7%) out of 350 female STD cases and 56 (82.3%) out of 68 male counterparts. Further, out of 126 (58.3%) out of 216 cases of T. vaginalis, 41 cases (32.5%) were associated with candida species; 29 cases (23%) were associated with Neisseria gonorrhoeae (N gonorrhoeae); Haemophilus ducreyi (H. ducreyi) 18 cases (14.3%) and Chlamydia trachomatis (C. trachomatis) 11 cases (8.7%). Treponema pallidium (T. pallidium) was observed in 8 cases (6.3%) which constitutes a low percentage. The present study highlights the importance of T. vaginalis by showing positivity in two-thirds of the STD cases which suggests that it can be an important indicator for other etiological STD agents in women.

  6. Identification of a new protein in the centrosome-like "atractophore" of Trichomonas vaginalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bricheux, Geneviève; Coffe, Gérard; Brugerolle, Guy

    2007-06-01

    The human parasite Trichomonas vaginalis has specific structural bodies, atractophores, associated at one end to the kinetosomes and at the other to the spindle during division. A monoclonal antibody specific for a component of this structure was obtained. It recognizes a protein with a predicted molecular mass of 477 kDa. Sequence analysis of this protein shows that P477 belongs to the family of large coiled-coil proteins, sharing a highly versatile protein folding motif adaptable to many biological functions. P477-might act as an anchor to localize cellular activities and components to the golgi centrosomal region. It may represent a new class of structural proteins, since similar proteins were found in many protozoans.

  7. Nucleotide sequence of the SrRNA gene and phylogenetic analysis of Trichomonas tenax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukura, K; Yamamoto, A; Hashimoto, T; Goto, N

    1996-01-01

    The small subunit ribosomal RNA (SrRNA) gene of Trichomonas tenax ATCC30207 was amplified by PCR and the 1.55-kb product was cloned into plasmid vector pUC18. Four clones were isolated and sequenced. The insert DNAs were 1,552 bp long and their G+C contents were 48.1%; three of them had exactly the same DNA sequences and one had only one nucleotide change. A representative SrRNA sequence was analyzed and a phylogenetic tree was estimated by the neighbor-joining (NJ) method. Among the protists examined, T. tenax was placed as the closest relative of Tritrichomonas foetus, as expected from the traditional taxonomy. The total homology between the two SrRNA sequences was 89.2%.

  8. [Study of an oral protozoan Trichomonas tenax using scanning and transmission electron microscopy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribaux, C L

    1979-06-01

    The study with scanning and transmission electron microscopy of Trichomonas tenax gave morphological information on this protozoon. The oval-shaped cell body showed at the anterior pole four free flagella and a trailing flagellum which had an undulating membrane. The axostyle which consisted of microtubules and produced the cellular rigidity emerged at the posterior pole. An ovoid nucleus and a well-developed Golgi apparatus were located at the anterior pole. At the latter, a pelta consisting of horizontal microtubulus surrounding the kinetoplats from which started the flagella was also found. No mitochondria were observed: they were replaced by chromatin granules or hydrogenosomes. Numerous vacuoles and developing vesicles were found in the cytoplasm. Phagocytized bacteria were in an advanced stage of lysis. Others seemed intact showing even division phases.

  9. Trichomonas vaginalis vaginitis in obstetrics and gynecology practice: new concepts and controversies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Jenell S; Gaydos, Charlotte A; Witter, Frank

    2013-01-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) is the most common curable sexually transmitted infection worldwide. Annually, 7.4 million new infections are estimated in the United States, which is greater than combined new cases of Chlamydia, gonorrhea, and syphilis. Serious adverse reproductive health outcomes including pregnancy complications, pelvic inflammatory disease, and an increased risk of HIV acquisition have been linked to TV infection. There are several sensitive and specific diagnostic tests available, including a newly approved nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT) that utilizes the same instrumentation platform and clinical sample as Chlamydia and gonorrhea tests. In this article, we review TV pathogenicity, adverse reproductive health outcomes, detection, and treatment followed by clinical scenarios for which TV diagnosis may prove useful in obstetrics and gynecology practice.

  10. Identification of proton-pump inhibitor drugs that inhibit Trichomonas vaginalis uridine nucleoside ribohydrolase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shea, Tara A; Burburan, Paola J; Matubia, Vivian N; Ramcharan, Sandy S; Rosario, Irving; Parkin, David W; Stockman, Brian J

    2014-02-15

    Trichomonas vaginalis continues to be a major health problem with drug-resistant strains increasing in prevalence. Novel antitrichomonal agents that are mechanistically distinct from current therapies are needed. The NIH Clinical Compound Collection was screened to find inhibitors of the uridine ribohydrolase enzyme required by the parasite to scavenge uracil for its growth. The proton-pump inhibitors omeprazole, pantoprazole, and rabeprazole were identified as inhibitors of this enzyme, with IC50 values ranging from 0.3 to 14.5 μM. This suggests a molecular mechanism for the in vitro antitrichomonal activity of these proton-pump inhibitors, and may provide important insights toward structure-based drug design.

  11. Trichomonas vaginalis Cysteine Proteinases: Iron Response in Gene Expression and Proteolytic Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arroyo, Rossana; Cárdenas-Guerra, Rosa Elena; Figueroa-Angulo, Elisa Elvira; Puente-Rivera, Jonathan; Zamudio-Prieto, Olga; Ortega-López, Jaime

    2015-01-01

    We focus on the iron response of Trichomonas vaginalis to gene family products such as the cysteine proteinases (CPs) involved in virulence properties. In particular, we examined the effect of iron on the gene expression regulation and function of cathepsin L-like and asparaginyl endopeptidase-like CPs as virulence factors. We addressed some important aspects about CPs genomic organization and we offer possible explanations to the fact that only few members of this large gene family are expressed at the RNA and protein levels and the way to control their proteolytic activity. We also summarized all known iron regulations of CPs at transcriptional, posttranscriptional, and posttranslational levels along with new insights into the possible epigenetic and miRNA processes.

  12. Trichomonas vaginalis: observation of coexistence of multiple viruses in the same isolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benchimol, Marlene; Chang, T-H; Alderete, John F

    2002-10-08

    Trichomonas vaginalis is a flagellated, parasitic protozoan that inhabits the urogenital tract of humans. Some isolates of T. vaginalis are infected with a double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) virus, which was described in the literature as homogeneous icosahedral viral particles with an isometric symmetry and 33 nm in diameter. This study examined in detail the viral particles in T. vaginalis isolate 347 and describes a heterogeneous population of viral particles. The different dsRNA viruses were only observed after a change in the technique. The sample was prepared by the negative staining carbon-film method directly onto freshly cleft mica. The detected viruses ranged in size from 33 to 200 nm. Among the shapes observed were filamentous, cylindrical, and spherical particles. These results show that T. vaginalis may be a reservoir for several different dsRNA viruses simultaneously.

  13. Diagnosis and molecular characterization of Trichomonas vaginalis in sex workers in the Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queza, Macario Ireneo P; Rivera, Windell L

    2013-01-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis is a pathogenic protozoon which causes the sexually transmitted infection, trichomoniasis. The absence or non-specificity of symptoms often leads to misdiagnosis of the infection. In this study, 969 samples consisting of vaginal swabs and urine were collected and screened from social hygiene clinics across the Philippines. Of the 969 samples, 216 were used for the comparative analysis of diagnostic tools such as wet mount microscopy, culture, and PCR utilizing universal trichomonad primers, TFR1/2 and species-specific primers, TVK3/7 and TV1/2. PCR demonstrated higher sensitivity of 100% compared to 77% of the wet mount. PCR primer set TVK3/7 and culture had the same and the best expected average performance [receiver-operating characteristic (ROC): 0.98]. Prevalence of infection in the sample population was 6.8%. PMID:23683368

  14. Novel structural features of the immunocompetent ceramide phospho-inositol glycan core from Trichomonas vaginalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiss, Christian; Wang, Zhirui; Black, Ian; Azadi, Parastoo; Fichorova, Raina N; Singh, Bibhuti N

    2016-01-01

    The ceramide phosphoinositol glycan core (CPI-GC) of the lipophosphoglycan of Trichomonas vaginalis is a major virulent factor of this common genitourinary parasite. While its carbohydrate composition has been reported before, its structure has remained largely unknown. We isolated the glycan portions of CPI-GC by nitrous acid deamination and hydrofluoric acid treatment and investigated their structures by methylation analysis and 1- and 2-D NMR. We found that the α-anomer of galactose is a major constituent of CPI-GC. The β-anomer was found exclusively at the non-reducing end of CPI-GC side chains. Furthermore the data showed that the rhamnan backbone is more complex than previously thought and that the inositol residue at the reducing end is linked to a 4-linked α-glucuronic acid (GlcA) residue. This appears to be the most striking and novel feature of this GPI-anchor type molecule.

  15. Comparative pathogenicity of Trichomonas vaginalis isolated from symptomatic and asymptomatic cases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhatt R

    1993-10-01

    Full Text Available Pathogenicity of 19 isolates of Trichomonas vaginalis obtained from vaginal specimens were studied in the murine model by intraperitoneal inoculation. Sixteen isolates were recovered from the females with various clinical conditions and 3 isolates were from normal healthy females. Pathogenicity level of these isolates were studied by inoculating 5 mice per isolate through intraperitoneal route and the animals were sacrificed on the 10th day post-inoculation. In general, all the isolates recovered produced infection in mice. On comparison with the reference strain obtained from Hoechst India Ltd., seven isolates recovered from symptomatic cases and one strain from healthy females produced severe infection in mice. Though variation in the pathogenicity level was observed among the isolates, a definite correlation between the clinical picture in the natural host and pathogenicity in mice was not observed.

  16. Diagnosis and molecular characterization of Trichomonas vaginalis in sex workers in the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queza, Macario Ireneo P; Rivera, Windell L

    2013-04-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis is a pathogenic protozoon which causes the sexually transmitted infection, trichomoniasis. The absence or non-specificity of symptoms often leads to misdiagnosis of the infection. In this study, 969 samples consisting of vaginal swabs and urine were collected and screened from social hygiene clinics across the Philippines. Of the 969 samples, 216 were used for the comparative analysis of diagnostic tools such as wet mount microscopy, culture, and PCR utilizing universal trichomonad primers, TFR1/2 and species-specific primers, TVK3/7 and TV1/2. PCR demonstrated higher sensitivity of 100% compared to 77% of the wet mount. PCR primer set TVK3/7 and culture had the same and the best expected average performance [receiver-operating characteristic (ROC): 0·98]. Prevalence of infection in the sample population was 6·8%.

  17. Is There a Seasonal Difference in the Detection of Trichomonas vaginalis by Cervical Cytology?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sydney Shrader

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This objective of our study was to determine the prevalence of a Trichomonas vaginalis diagnosis in routine Papanicolaou smears and whether it is seasonal. We reviewed the diagnosis rendered for 93,681 Papanicolaou smears evaluated at a medical school hospital laboratory between 1992 and 1997. The occurrence of a diagnosis of T. vaginalis was analyzed by year, by quarter, and by month using a generalized linear regression model. The prevalence of a T. vaginalis diagnosis during the 6-year study period was 3.1%. The between-month and between-quarter comparisons of prevalence were not statistically different. In the population reported here, the prevalence of a Papanicolaou smear diagnosis of T. vaginalis was low and no seasonal difference in making this diagnosis was identified.

  18. Persistent and recurrent Trichomonas vaginalis infections: epidemiology, treatment and management considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seña, Arlene C; Bachmann, Laura H; Hobbs, Marcia M

    2014-06-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) is a common sexually transmitted infection that can cause vaginitis, cervicitis and urethritis. Persistent and recurrent TV infections are frequent in women, potentially due to the lack of routine screening recommendations for this pathogen, the chronic nature of some infections, and drug resistance. Metronidazole and tinidazole are two oral drugs that are effective against trichomoniasis. There are few alternative treatment options for persons with a metronidazole allergy or treatment failure. Most TV isolates from women with treatment failures that have been analyzed for susceptibility testing in the United States have exhibited low-level metronidazole resistance, supporting the initial use of tinidazole for patients who fail metronidazole therapy. Several non-nitroimidazole drugs and other agents have demonstrated acceptable in vitro activity or cure rates in case reports for metronidazole-resistant trichomoniasis; however, clinical trials are imperative to evaluate their efficacy as alternative therapeutic regimens for this highly prevalent infection.

  19. Biological roles of cysteine proteinases in the pathogenesis of Trichomonas vaginalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Hilda M; Marcet, Ricardo; Sarracent, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    Human trichomonosis, infection with Trichomonas vaginalis, is the most common non-viral sexually transmitted disease in the world. The host-parasite interaction and pathophysiological processes of trichomonosis remain incompletely understood. This review focuses on the advancements reached in the area of the pathogenesis of T. vaginalis, especially in the role of the cysteine proteinases. It highlights various approaches made in this field and lists a group of trichomonad cysteine proteinases involved in diverse processes such as invasion of the mucous layer, cytoadherence, cytotoxicity, cytoskeleton disruption of red blood cells, hemolysis, and evasion of the host immune response. A better understanding of the biological roles of cysteine proteinases in the pathogenesis of this parasite could be used in the identification of new chemotherapeutic targets. An additional advantage could be the development of a vaccine in order to reduce transmission of T. vaginalis.

  20. Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Trichomonas vaginalis Ferredoxin Show a Loop-Cap Transition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weksberg, Tiffany E; Lynch, Gillian C; Krause, Kurt; Pettitt, Bernard M

    2007-05-01

    The crystal structure of the oxidized Trichomonas vaginalis ferredoxin (Tvfd) showed a unique crevice that exposed the redox center. Here we have examined the dynamics and solvation of the active site of Tvfd using molecular dynamics simulations of both the reduced and oxidized states. The oxidized simulation stays true to the crystal form with a heavy atom root mean-squared deviation of 2Å . However, within the reduced simulation of Tvfd a profound loop-cap transition into the redox center occurred within 6-ns of the start of the simulation and remained open throughout the rest of the 20-ns simulation. This large opening seen in the simulations supports the hypothesis that the exceptionally fast electron transfer rate between Tvfd and the drug metronidazole is due to the increased access of the antibiotic to the redox center of the protein and not due to the reduction potential.

  1. Genetic characterization of Trichomonas vaginalis isolates by use of multilocus sequence typing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelius, Denise C; Robinson, D Ashley; Muzny, Christina A; Mena, Leandro A; Aanensen, David M; Lushbaugh, William B; Meade, John C

    2012-10-01

    In this study, we introduce a multilocus sequence typing (MLST) scheme, comprised of seven single-copy housekeeping genes, to genetically characterize Trichomonas vaginalis. Sixty-eight historical and recent isolates of T. vaginalis were sampled from the American Type Culture Collection and female patients at area health care facilities, respectively, to assess the usefulness of this typing method. Forty-three polymorphic nucleotide sites, 51 different alleles, and 60 sequence types were distinguished among the 68 isolates, revealing a diverse T. vaginalis population. Moreover, this discriminatory MLST scheme retains the ability to identify epidemiologically linked isolates such as those collected from sexual partners. Population genetic and phylogenetic analyses determined that T. vaginalis population structure is strongly influenced by recombination and is composed of two separate populations that may be nonclonal. MLST is useful for investigating the epidemiology, genetic diversity, and population structure of T. vaginalis.

  2. Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Trichomonas vaginalis Ferredoxin Show a Loop-Cap Transition.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weksberg, Tiffany E; Lynch, Gillian C; Krause, Kurt; Pettitt, Bernard M

    2007-05-01

    The crystal structure of the oxidized Trichomonas vaginalis ferredoxin (Tvfd) showed a unique crevice that exposed the redox center. Here we have examined the dynamics and solvation of the active site of Tvfd using molecular dynamics simulations of both the reduced and oxidized states. The oxidized simulation stays true to the crystal form with a heavy atom root mean-squared deviation of 2Å. However, within the reduced simulation of Tvfd a profound loop-cap transition into the redox center occurred within 6-ns of the start of the simulation and remained open throughout the rest of the 20-ns simulation. This large opening seen in the simulations supports the hypothesis that the exceptionally fast electron transfer rate between Tvfd and the drug metronidazole is due to the increased access of the antibiotic to the redox center of the protein and not due to the reduction potential.

  3. Amaurocine: Anti-Trichomonas vaginalis protein produced by the basidiomycete Amauroderma camerarium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Mariana; Seixas, Adriana; Peres de Carvalho, Maira; Tasca, Tiana; Macedo, Alexandre José

    2016-02-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis is the causative agent of trichomoniasis, the most common nonviral STD worldwide. This infection can lead to severe health conditions, especially when women are affected. Metronidazole and tinidazole are the only choices of treatment. In this sense, natural bioactive compounds against T. vaginalis are an interesting approach in the search for more efficient therapies. Herein, amaurocine, a 12 kDa protein, produced by the mushroom Amauroderma camerarium was purified and tested against T. vaginalis, including two fresh clinical isolates. Amaurocine presented MIC values at 2.6 μM against the ATCC isolate 30236, and 5.2 μM against the fresh clinical isolates, TV-LACH1 and TV-LACM2. Furthermore, besides increasing human neutrophils nitric oxide release, amaurocine presented a low toxicity toward those cells, suggesting it exerts a proinflammatory character.

  4. Trichomonas vaginalis-An indicator for other sexually transmitted infecting agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agrawal B

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study is based on 350 women having sexually transmitted diseases (STD and 68 male counterparts. Trichomonas vaginalis was a significant contributor in 216 (61.7% out of 350 female STD cases and 56 (82.3% out of 68 male counterparts. Further, out of 126 (58.3% out of 216 cases of T. vaginalis, 41 cases (32.5% were associated with candida species; 29 cases (23% were associated with Neisseria gonorrhoeae (N gonorrhoeae; Haemophilus ducreyi (H. ducreyi 18 cases (14.3% and Chlamydia trachomatis (C. trachomatis 11 cases (8.7%. Treponema pallidium (T. pallidium was observed in 8 cases (6.3% which constitutes a low percentage. The present study highlights the importance of T. vaginalis by showing positivity in two-thirds of the STD cases which suggests that it can be an important indicator for other etiological STD agents in women.

  5. Activity of Cuban propolis extracts on Leishmania amazonensis and Trichomonas vaginalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monzote Fidalgo, Lianet; Sariego Ramos, Idalia; García Parra, Marley; Cuesta-Rubio, Osmany; Márquez Hernández, Ingrid; Campo Fernández, Mercedes; Piccinelli, Anna Lisa; Rastrelli, Luca

    2011-07-01

    In this paper we analyzed the antiprotozoal effects of eighteen Cuban propolis extracts (brown, red and yellow type) collected in different geographic areas, using Leishmania amazonensis (as a model of intracellular protozoa) and Trichomonas vaginalis (as a model of extracellular protozoa). All evaluated propolis extracts caused inhibitory effect on intracellular amastigotes of L. amazonensis. However, cytotoxicity on peritoneal macrophages from BALB/c mice was observed. Only five samples decreased the viability of T. vaginalis trophozoites at concentrations lower than 10 microg/mL. No correlation between the type of propolis and antiprotozoal activity was found. Cuban propolis extracts demonstrated activity against both intracellular and extracellular protozoa model, as well as the potentialities of propolis as a natural source to obtain new antiprotozoal agents.

  6. Epidemiology of Plasmodium vivax Malaria in India

    OpenAIRE

    Anvikar, Anupkumar R; Shah, Naman; Dhariwal, Akshay C.; Sonal, Gagan Singh; Pradhan, Madan Mohan; Ghosh, Susanta K; Valecha, Neena

    2016-01-01

    Historically, malaria in India was predominantly caused by Plasmodium vivax, accounting for 53% of the estimated cases. After the spread of drug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum in the 1990s, the prevalence of the two species remained equivalent at the national level for a decade. By 2014, the proportion of P. vivax has decreased to 34% nationally, but with high regional variation. In 2014, P. vivax accounted for around 380,000 malaria cases in India; almost a sixth of all P. vivax cases repor...

  7. A small molecule glycosaminoglycan mimetic blocks Plasmodium invasion of the mosquito midgut.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derrick K Mathias

    Full Text Available Malaria transmission-blocking (T-B interventions are essential for malaria elimination. Small molecules that inhibit the Plasmodium ookinete-to-oocyst transition in the midgut of Anopheles mosquitoes, thereby blocking sporogony, represent one approach to achieving this goal. Chondroitin sulfate glycosaminoglycans (CS-GAGs on the Anopheles gambiae midgut surface are putative ligands for Plasmodium falciparum ookinetes. We hypothesized that our synthetic polysulfonated polymer, VS1, acting as a decoy molecular mimetic of midgut CS-GAGs confers malaria T-B activity. In our study, VS1 repeatedly reduced midgut oocyst development by as much as 99% (P<0.0001 in mosquitoes fed with P. falciparum and Plasmodium berghei. Through direct-binding assays, we observed that VS1 bound to two critical ookinete micronemal proteins, each containing at least one von Willebrand factor A (vWA domain: (i circumsporozoite protein and thrombospondin-related anonymous protein-related protein (CTRP and (ii vWA domain-related protein (WARP. By immunofluorescence microscopy, we observed that VS1 stains permeabilized P. falciparum and P. berghei ookinetes but does not stain P. berghei CTRP knockouts or transgenic parasites lacking the vWA domains of CTRP while retaining the thrombospondin repeat region. We produced structural homology models of the first vWA domain of CTRP and identified, as expected, putative GAG-binding sites on CTRP that align closely with those predicted for the human vWA A1 domain and the Toxoplasma gondii MIC2 adhesin. Importantly, the models also identified patches of electropositive residues that may extend CTRP's GAG-binding motif and thus potentiate VS1 binding. Our molecule binds to a critical, conserved ookinete protein, CTRP, and exhibits potent malaria T-B activity. This study lays the framework for a high-throughput screen of existing libraries of safe compounds to identify those with potent T-B activity. We envision that such compounds when

  8. High prevalence of drug-resistance mutations in Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax in southern Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Schunk, Mirjam; Kumma, Wondimagegn P.; Barreto Miranda, Isabel; Maha E. Osman; Roewer, Susanne; Alano, Abraham; Loescher, Thomas; Bienzle, Ulrich; Mockenhaupt, Frank P

    2006-01-01

    Background: In Ethiopia, malaria is caused by both Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax. Drug resistance of P. falciparum to sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) and chloroquine (CQ) is frequent and intense in some areas. Methods: In 100 patients with uncomplicated malaria from Dilla, southern Ethiopia, P. falciparum dhfr and dhps mutations as well as P. vivax dhfr polymorphisms associated with resistance to SP and P. falciparum pfcrt and pfmdr1 mutations conferring CQ resistance were assesse...

  9. Promoter regions of Plasmodium vivax are poorly or not recognized by Plasmodium falciparum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    del Portillo Hernando A

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Heterologous promoter analysis in Plasmodium has revealed the existence of conserved cis regulatory elements as promoters from different species can drive expression of reporter genes in heterologous transfection assays. Here, the functional characterization of different Plasmodium vivax promoters in Plasmodium falciparum using luciferase as the reporter gene is presented. Methods Luciferase reporter plasmids harboring the upstream regions of the msp1, dhfr, and vir3 genes as well as the full-length intergenic regions of the vir23/24 and ef-1α genes of P. vivax were constructed and transiently transfected in P. falciparum. Results Only the constructs with the full-length intergenic regions of the vir23/24 and ef-1α genes were recognized by the P. falciparum transcription machinery albeit to values approximately two orders of magnitude lower than those reported by luc plasmids harbouring promoter regions from P. falciparum and Plasmodium berghei. A bioinformatics approach allowed the identification of a motif (GCATAT in the ef-1α intergenic region that is conserved in five Plasmodium species but is degenerate (GCANAN in P. vivax. Mutations of this motif in the P. berghei ef-1α promoter region decreased reporter expression indicating it is active in gene expression in Plasmodium. Conclusion Together, this data indicates that promoter regions of P. vivax are poorly or not recognized by the P. falciparum transcription machinery suggesting the existence of P. vivax-specific transcription regulatory elements.

  10. Immunohistochemical localization of fibronectin-like protein on the cell surface of the oral flagelatte Trichomonas tenax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribaux, C L; Magloire, H; Joffre, A; Morrier, J J

    1983-03-01

    A protein immunologically related to fibronectin was demonstrated on the oral flagellate Trichomonas tenax. Two strains of T. tenax were used, the first freshly taken from ulcerative gingivitis and the second maintained in culture for 2 years. Initial investigations were made by established immunofluorescence staining procedures. Cells of the protozoa gave a positive fluorescence with anti-fibronectin anti-serum, while the controls were negative. Subsequently, indirect immunostaining procedures for electron microscopy were performed using the peroxidase procedure. Peroxidase deposits were detected on the outer layer of the cell membrane. Particularly intense labelling was localized in the contact areas between bacteria and protozoa, and sometimes within the marginal lamina of the undulating membrane. This fibronectin-like protein could potentially play an important role in the adhesion of Trichomonas tenax to gingival cells, connective tissue and in the phagocytosis of bacteria. The attachment of protozoa to gingival substrates could be the first step in the breakdown of periodontal tissues.

  11. Toxoplasma gondii infection and liver disease: a case-control study in a Northern Mexican population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liesenfeld Oliver

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infection with the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii may cause liver disease. However, the impact of the infection in patients suffering from liver disease is unknown. Therefore, through a case-control study design, 75 adult liver disease patients attending a public hospital in Durango City, Mexico, and 150 controls from the general population of the same region matched by gender, age, and residence were examined with enzyme-linked immunoassays for the presence of anti-Toxoplasma IgG and anti-Toxoplasma IgM antibodies. Socio-demographic, clinical and behavioral characteristics from the study subjects were obtained. Results Seroprevalence of anti-Toxoplasma IgG antibodies and IgG titers did not differ significantly in patients (10/75; 13.3% and controls (16/150; 10.7%. Two (2.7% patients and 5 (3.3% controls had anti-Toxoplasma IgM antibodies (P = 0.57. Seropositivity to Toxoplasma did not show any association with the diagnosis of liver disease. In contrast, seropositivity to Toxoplasma in patients was associated with consumption of venison and quail meat. Toxoplasma seropositivity was more frequent in patients with reflex impairment (27.8% than in patients without this impairment (8.8% (P = 0.05. Multivariate analysis showed that Toxoplasma seropositivity in patients was associated with consumption of sheep meat (OR = 8.69; 95% CI: 1.02-73.71; P = 0.04 and rabbit meat (OR = 4.61; 95% CI: 1.06-19.98; P = 0.04. Conclusions Seropositivity to Toxoplasma was comparable among liver disease patients and controls. Further studies with larger sample sizes are needed to elucidate the association of Toxoplasma with liver disease. Consumption of venison, and rabbit, sheep, and quail meats may warrant further investigation.

  12. Aspectos clínicos, patogênese e diagnóstico de Trichomonas vaginalis Clinical aspects, pathogenesis and diagnostic of Trichomonas vaginalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisele de Paiva Maciel

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Trichomonas vaginalis é o agente etiológico da tricomoníase, a doença sexualmente transmissível (DST não-viral mais comum no mundo. Esse protozoário flagelado atinge o parasitismo com sucesso em um ambiente hostil através dos vários mecanismos pelos quais estabelece sua patogenicidade e também por sua capacidade de evadir a resposta imune do hospedeiro. A infecção apresenta uma ampla variedade de manifestações clínicas, desde quadro assintomático até severa vaginite. A tricomoníase tem sido associada à transmissão do vírus da imunodeficiência humana (HIV, à doença inflamatória pélvica, ao câncer cervical, à infertilidade, ao parto prematuro e ao baixo peso de bebês nascidos de mães infectadas. A investigação laboratorial é essencial na diagnose dessa patogenia, uma vez que leva ao tratamento apropriado e facilita o controle da propagação da infecção. A prevalência mundial anual da tricomoníase é de 180 milhões de casos, e na Europa é responsável por 41% dos casos de vaginite. A terapia da tricomoníase inclui as mesmas medidas profiláticas destinadas às outras DSTs, como prática de sexo seguro e uso de preservativos. O metronidazol é o medicamento de escolha no tratamento da tricomoníase, entretanto, devido à ineficácia dos tratamentos de dose única e ao iminente surgimento de cepas resistentes, outras alternativas terapêuticas estão sendo investigadas.Trichomonas vaginalis is the aethiologic agent of trichomoniasis, the sexually transmitted disease (STD non-viral most common in the world. This flagellate protozoan successfully reaches the parasitism in a hostile environment through some mechanisms which establish its pathogenicity and also through its capacity to evade the host immune response. Trichomoniasis presents a large variety of clinical manifestations, from a totally asymptomatic infection to severe vaginitis. It has been associated to the increase in transmission of the human

  13. Investigación de Trichomonas vaginalis durante el embarazo mediante diferentes metodologías Investigation of Trichomonas vaginalis through different methodologies during pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Perazzi

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Los objetivos del trabajo fueron conocer la prevalencia de tricomonosis en pacientes embarazadas y evaluar la utilidad de diferentes metodologías para su diagnóstico. Se estudiaron prospectivamente 223 mujeres embarazadas. Trichomonas vaginalis se investigó utilizando distintos exámenes microscópicos, cultivo en medio sólido y medio líquido. Se evaluó la sensibilidad y especificidad de la microscopía considerando a los cultivos en ambos medios como método de referencia. La prevalencia del parásito obtenida por cultivo (medio líquido más medio sólido fue de 4,5% (10/223 siendo la detección por examen en fresco, coloración de May-Grunwald Giemsa, fresco con solución acética formolada (SAF/azul de metileno y por cultivo en medio sólido y líquido de 1,3%, 1,8%, 1,8% y 4,5% respectivamente. La sensibilidad del examen en fresco fue 30%, para el May-Grunwald Giemsa y el SAF/azul de metileno fue 40%. Utilizando conjuntamente los tres exámenes microscópicos, la sensibilidad se elevó al 50% y la especificidad fue 100% para todos los exámenes microscópicos. El cultivo en medio líquido detectó el 100% de los casos positivos , mientras que el medio sólido sólo el 50%. Por la baja sensibilidad de la microscopía para T. vaginalis, en embarazadas asintomáticas recomendamos la utilización del cultivo en medio líquido durante el embarazo, para instaurar un tratamiento precoz.The aim of this study was to conduct a survey regarding the prevalence of trichomoniasis in pregnant patients and to evaluate the utility of different diagnostic methods. Two hundred and twenty three vaginal swab specimens from pregnant women were prospectively examined. Trichomonas vaginalis was investigated by various microscopic examinations, solid culture medium and liquid culture medium. The sensitivity and specificity of microscopy were evaluated by considering both culture media as the "gold standards". The prevalence of T. vaginalis obtained by both

  14. Epidemiology of Plasmodium vivax Malaria in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anvikar, Anupkumar R; Shah, Naman; Dhariwal, Akshay C; Sonal, Gagan Singh; Pradhan, Madan Mohan; Ghosh, Susanta K; Valecha, Neena

    2016-12-28

    Historically, malaria in India was predominantly caused by Plasmodium vivax, accounting for 53% of the estimated cases. After the spread of drug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum in the 1990s, the prevalence of the two species remained equivalent at the national level for a decade. By 2014, the proportion of P. vivax has decreased to 34% nationally, but with high regional variation. In 2014, P. vivax accounted for around 380,000 malaria cases in India; almost a sixth of all P. vivax cases reported globally. Plasmodium vivax has remained resistant to control measures, particularly in urban areas. Urban malaria is predominantly caused by P. vivax and is subject to outbreaks, often associated with increased mortality, and triggered by bursts of migration and construction. The epidemiology of P. vivax varies substantially within India, including multiple relapse phenotypes with varying latencies between primary infection and relapse. Moreover, the hypnozoite reservoir maintains transmission potential and enables reestablishment of the parasite in areas in which it was thought eradicated. The burden of malaria in India is complex because of the highly variable malaria eco-epidemiological profiles, transmission factors, and the presence of multiple Plasmodium species and Anopheles vectors. This review of P. vivax malaria in India describes epidemiological trends with particular attention to four states: Gujarat, Karnataka, Haryana, and Odisha.

  15. Plasmodium falciparum Malaria, Southern Algeria, 2007

    OpenAIRE

    Boubidi, Saïd C; Gassen, Ibrahim; Khechache, Yacine; Lamali, Karima; Tchicha, Boualem; Brengues, Cécile; Menegon, Michela; Severini, Carlo; Fontenille, Didier; Harrat, Zoubir

    2010-01-01

    An outbreak of Plasmodium falciparum malaria occurred in Tinzaouatine in southern Algeria in 2007. The likely vector, Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes, had not been detected in Algeria. Genes for resistance to chloroquine were detected in the parasite. The outbreak shows the potential for an increase in malaria vectors in Algeria.

  16. Congenital Plasmodium falciparum Malaria in Washington, DC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Castillo, Melissa; Szymanski, Ann Marie; Slovin, Ariella; Wong, Edward C C; DeBiasi, Roberta L

    2017-01-11

    Congenital malaria is rare in the United States, but is an important diagnosis to consider when evaluating febrile infants. Herein, we describe a case of congenital Plasmodium falciparum malaria in a 2-week-old infant born in the United States to a mother who had emigrated from Nigeria 3 months before delivery. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  17. Plasmodium falciparum Malaria, Southern Algeria, 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gassen, Ibrahim; Khechache, Yacine; Lamali, Karima; Tchicha, Boualem; Brengues, Cécile; Menegon, Michela; Severini, Carlo; Fontenille, Didier; Harrat, Zoubir

    2010-01-01

    An outbreak of Plasmodium falciparum malaria occurred in Tinzaouatine in southern Algeria in 2007. The likely vector, Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes, had not been detected in Algeria. Genes for resistance to chloroquine were detected in the parasite. The outbreak shows the potential for an increase in malaria vectors in Algeria. PMID:20113565

  18. Plasmodium falciparum Malaria, Southern Algeria, 2007

    OpenAIRE

    Boubidi, Saïd C; Gassen, Ibrahim; Khechache, Yacine; Lamali, Karima; Tchicha, Boualem; Brengues, Cécile; Menegon, Michela; Severini, Carlo; Fontenille, Didier; Harrat, Zoubir

    2010-01-01

    An outbreak of Plasmodium falciparum malaria occurred in Tinzaouatine in southern Algeria in 2007. The likely vector, Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes, had not been detected in Algeria. Genes for resistance to chloroquine were detected in the parasite. The outbreak shows the potential for an increase in malaria vectors in Algeria.

  19. Toxoplasma gondii, “new” genotypes and virulence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dardé M.L.

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii has been described as a parasite with a low genetic diversity and a clonal population structure. The three main clonal lineages designated as type I, II or III largely predominate in Europe and North America. But strains not related to these main lineages circulate, notably, in other continents. They possess a shuffled combination of alleles that typify the three clonal types and unique polymorphisms detected by multilocus analysis. The population structure of Toxoplasma in these continents is also characterized by a higher genetic diversity associated with a lower linkage desequilibrium suggesting a role for genetic exchange. Due to their genomic diversity, it is difficult to draw global conclusions about their virulence. However, most of them are virulent in mice at isolation. Several reports also suggest a higher pathogenicity in humans and an association with ocular toxoplasmosis or severe cases of acquired toxoplasmosis in immunocompetent patients.

  20. Degradation of collagen types I, III, IV and V by extracellular proteinases of an oral flagellate Trichomonas tenax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bózner, P; Demes, P

    1991-01-01

    Proteinases secreted by an axenic strain of Trichomonas tenax were active against native types I, III, IV and V collagens when evaluated by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Degradation of all four collagen types was temperature dependent. Basement membrane type IV collagen was digested most effectively. An inhibition of all collagenolytic activities by a specific inhibitor of cysteine proteinases, E-64, and activation by a reducing agent, dithiothreitol, indicated the involvement of cysteine proteinases of the oral flagellate in the cleavage of collagen.

  1. Synthesis and antiprotozoal activity of mono- and bis-uracil isatin conjugates against the human pathogen Trichomonas vaginalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Kewal; Liu, Nicole; Yang, Donald; Na, Daniel; Thompson, John; Wrischnik, Lisa A; Land, Kirkwood M; Kumar, Vipan

    2015-08-15

    A library of mono- and bis-uracil isatin conjugates were synthesized and subjected for the assessment of their in vitro activity against the protozoal pathogen Trichomonas vaginalis. The structure activity studies (SAR) revealed that the bis-uracil-isatin based conjugates were more effective than their corresponding mono conjugates in inhibiting the growth of T. vaginalis at approximately 10 μM with no visual effect on mammalian cells at the same concentration.

  2. Diagnosis of toxoplasmosis and typing of Toxoplasma gondii

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Toxoplasmosis, caused by the obligate intracellular protozoan Toxoplasma gondii, is an important zoonosis with medical and veterinary importance worldwide. The disease is mainly contracted by ingesting undercooked or raw meat containing viable tissue cysts, or by ingesting food or water contaminated with oocysts. The diagnosis and genetic characterization of T. gondii infection is crucial for the surveillance, prevention and control of toxoplasmosis. Traditional approaches for the diagnosis o...

  3. Toxoplasma gondii infection in Blanford's fox (Vulpes cana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, J P; Pas, An

    2008-05-06

    Fatal toxoplasmosis was diagnosed in a Blanford's fox (Vulpes cana) from the United Arab Emirates. Toxoplasma gondii-like tachyzoites were found associated with necrosis in intestine, spleen, liver, kidneys, lungs, skeletal muscle, brain and heart. Protozoal tachyzoites reacted positively with T. gondii-specific polyclonal antibodies. Antibodies to T. gondii were detected in 10 of 12 V. cana assayed by the latex agglutination or the modified direct agglutination test.

  4. Toxoplasma gondii Ingests and Digests Host Cytosolic Proteins

    OpenAIRE

    Dou, Zhicheng; McGovern, Olivia L.; Di Cristina, Manlio; Carruthers, Vern B.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii resides within a nonfusogenic vacuole during intracellular replication. Although the limiting membrane of this vacuole provides a protective barrier to acidification and degradation by lysosomal hydrolases, it also physically segregates the parasite from the host cytosol. Accordingly, it has been suggested that T. gondii acquires material from the host via membrane channels or transporters. The ability of the parasite to internalize macromolec...

  5. Plasmodium knowlesi in travellers, update 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Mattia; Schlagenhauf, Patricia

    2014-05-01

    Since the initial discovery of Plasmodium knowlesi in Malaysia, cases have been reported from several neighbouring countries. Tourism has also resulted in an increasing number of cases diagnosed in Europe, America, and Oceania. In this review we focus on the risk of the travel-associated acquisition of P. knowlesi malaria. A search of the literature in PubMed was carried out to identify articles and literature on the distribution of P. knowlesi infections in Southeast Asia and details of its acquisition and importation by travellers to other continents. The cut-off date for the search was December 1, 2013. Search words used were: "Plasmodium knowlesi", "Plasmodium knowlesi infections", "Plasmodium knowlesi travellers", "Plasmodium knowlesi prevalence", "Plasmodium knowlesi host", "Plasmodium knowlesi vector" "Plasmodium knowlesi RDT", and "Plasmodium knowlesi Malaysia". Traveller numbers to Malaysia were obtained from the Tourism Malaysia website. A total of 103 articles were found. Using a selection of these and others identified from the reference lists of the papers, we based our review on a total of 66 articles. P. knowlesi malaria appears to be the most common malaria species in Malaysian Borneo and is also widely distributed on the Malaysian mainland. Furthermore, locally transmitted cases of P. knowlesi malaria have been reported in Thailand, the Philippines, Vietnam, Singapore, Myanmar, Indonesian Borneo, and Cambodia. Two cases have been reported from non-endemic countries in Asia (Japan and Taiwan) in people with a history of travel to Malaysia and the Philippines. Twelve cases were imported to their home countries by travellers from other continents: two from the USA, two from the Netherlands, two from Germany, and one each from Spain, France, Sweden, Finland, Australia, and New Zealand. In most cases, the infection was associated with a trip to or near forested areas. The symptoms were fever (n=12), headache (n=6), chills (n=6), nausea (n=4), myalgia (n

  6. Trichomonas vaginalis is highly prevalent in adolescent girls, pregnant women, and commercial sex workers in Ndola, Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crucitti, Tania; Jespers, Vicky; Mulenga, Chanda; Khondowe, Shepherd; Vandepitte, Judith; Buvé, Anne

    2010-04-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the prevalence of Trichomonas sp. infection among adolescent girls, pregnant women, and commercial sex workers in Ndola, Zambia. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 460 girls attending school, 307 pregnant women, and 197 commercial sex workers. Self-collected specimens from the vagina, rectum, and mouth were tested by polymerase chain amplification assays for the presence of Trichomonas vaginalis, Pentatrichomonas hominis, and Trichomonas tenax. Genotyping was performed on specimens that tested positive for T. vaginalis. The prevalence of vaginal infection with T. vaginalis was 24.6% among the adolescents, 32.2% among the pregnant women, and 33.2% among the commercial sex workers. Trichomonads other than T. vaginalis were rarely found in the vagina, rectum, and mouth. The presence of T. vaginalis in the rectum was associated with T. vaginalis in the vagina. T. tenax was also detected in the vagina. A total of 9 actin genotypes of T. vaginalis were identified. The distribution of the actin genotypes of T. vaginalis was similar in the 3 study groups. We detected high prevalence rates of trichomoniasis among women in Ndola, Zambia. Prevalence among adolescent girls was lower than among pregnant women and commercial sex workers but was still high. We were not able to detect differences in T. vaginalis actin genotypes among the 3 study groups.

  7. Trichomoniasis of the breast diseased by fibrocystic mastopathy: pathogenic rather than saprophytic relationship (Trichomonas in fibrocystic mastopathy process).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krvavac, S

    1998-01-01

    Because of the striking similarity between histopathological pictures of chronic trichomonal cervicitis uteri, the tissue reaction after subcutaneous inoculation of Trichomonas culture in experimental animals and female breast diseased by fibrocystic mastopathy, the detection of Trichomonads was undertaken in surgically removed diseased breast parts. In 12 FCM patients, subjected to segmental breast resection, the imprint smears were prepared from dissected specimens and after supravital staining immediately examined by light microscopy. The mucous content from dilated ducts was inoculated in the culture media. The dissected tissues have been further histologically analysed by standard method. In nine out of 12 examined FCM cases the direct microscopy revealed aflagellary, pseudocystic, leucocytoid form of Trichomonads. The cultures were positive in 4 cases: in 3 patients Trichomonas tenax was identified and in the last one T vaginalis. Histopathological findings in all 12 examined cases have shown the changes characteristic for FCM. On the basis of the accumulated knowledge about pathogenic capacity of Trichomonads, it can be with great certainty claimed that these protozoa, even in their pseudocystic form are able to cause the all appearances characteristic for FCM. This first report about Trichomonas infection in the middle of FCM process gives the unexpected hope in solving of its etiology and new insight into antitrichomonal host reaction which is frequently associated with epithelial dysplasia and unrarely with precancerous lesions as earlier observed in cervix uteri.

  8. Prevalence of Trichomonas spp. in domestic pigeons in Shandong Province, China, and genotyping by restriction fragment length polymorphism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xiyue; Sun, Jingjing; Wang, Fangkun; Li, Hongmei; Zhao, Xiaomin

    2016-05-01

    Oropharyngeal swabs (n = 609) were collected randomly from 80,000 domestic pigeons (Columba livia domestica) on five pigeon farms and at one pigeon slaughterhouse in Shandong Province, China, from September 2012 to July 2013. Trichomonas spp. were detected in 206/609 (33.8%) samples. The prevalence was 14.9-31.1%, depending on different levels of sanitation and management, and was 4.8% in nestling pigeons, 13.6% in breeding pigeons and 35.2% in adolescent pigeons. Trichomonas gallinae genotypes A and B, and Trichomonas tenax-like isolates were identified by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis and sequencing of the 5.8S rDNA-internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions. RFLP analysis with the restriction enzyme BsiEI generated different RFLP band patterns between T. gallinae and T.tenax-like isolates. When BsiEI RFLP analysis was combined with HaeIII RFLP analysis, all infection types of T. gallinae and T.tenax-like isolates could be identified. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Seroprevalence of cytomegalovirus, toxoplasma and parvovirus in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, A; Tan, K H; Tee, C S; Yeo, G S

    2000-04-01

    The aim of our study was to determine the seroprevalence of cytomegalovirus (CMV), toxoplasma and parvovirus infection in our local antenatal population, and to see the effects, if any, of age, race, parity and nationality on its seroprevalence. The sera of 120 consecutive antenatal women seen in KK Women's and Children's Hospital between the period of October 1997 and March 1998 were screened for cytomegalovirus (CMV) IgG, toxoplasma IgG and parvovirus B19 IgG and IgM. An antibody titer greater than 1:32 was regarded as positive. A total of 87.0% of patients were tested seropositive for CMV IgG, 17.2% seropositive for toxoplasma IgG and 30.0% seropositive for parvovirus IgG. There seemed to be a trend of increasing seropositivity with age in all three groups, however only parovirus B19 reached statistical significance. The incidence of all three infections were higher among the Malays, Indians and other races compared to the Chinese. CMV is endemic in our population and hence the most common infection. Toxoplasmosis and parvovirus is relatively low in our population but this implies that a large proportion of our antenatal women are still susceptible to these infections. Prevention of congenital CMV, toxoplasmosis and parvovirus infection is mainly by educating the antenatal population.

  10. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection among pregnant women in Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna L. Njunda

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasmosis is caused by an intracellular protozoan, Toxoplasma gondii, which has a wide geographical distribution. The congenital form results in a gestational form that can present a temporary parasiteamia that will infect the fetus. For this reason early diagnosis in pregnancy is highly desirable, allowing prompt intervention in cases of infection. The aim of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies among pregnant women attending the Douala General Hospital. The study was carried out between March and July 2009, whereby 110 pregnant women were tested for IgG and IgM antibodies and information about eating habits and hygienic conditions was collected using a questionnaire. These women’s ages ranged from 20-44 years old with an average of 29.9 years; the overall IgG and IgM seroprevalence was 70% and 2.73 % respectively. Seroprevalence was significantly high amongst women who ate raw vegetables (76.39%, P<0.05 and there was a significant trend towards a higher seroprevalence in women who did not have a good source of water (75.58%, P<0.05. This research showed that consumption raw vegetables and poor quality drinking water are two risk factors associated with Toxoplasma gondii infection amongst pregnant women attending the Douala General Hospital in Cameroon.

  11. Is Toxoplasma gondii a Trigger of Bipolar Disorder?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Del Grande

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii, a ubiquitous intracellular parasite, has a strong tropism for the brain tissue, where it forms intracellular cysts within the neurons and glial cells, establishing a chronic infection. Although latent toxoplasmosis is generally assumed to be asymptomatic in immunocompetent individuals, it is now clear that it can induce behavioral manipulations in mice and infected humans. Moreover, a strong relation has emerged in recent years between toxoplasmosis and psychiatric disorders. The link between T. gondii and schizophrenia has been the most widely documented; however, a significant association with bipolar disorder (BD and suicidal/aggressive behaviors has also been detected. T. gondii may play a role in the etiopathogenesis of psychiatric disorders affecting neurotransmitters, especially dopamine, that are implicated in the emergence of psychosis and behavioral Toxoplasma-induced abnormalities, and inducing brain inflammation by the direct stimulation of inflammatory cytokines in the central nervous system. Besides this, there is increasing evidence for a prominent role of immune dysregulation in psychosis and BD. The aim of this review is to describe recent evidence suggesting a link between Toxoplasma gondii and BD, focusing on the interaction between immune responses and this infectious agent in the etiopathogenesis of psychiatric symptoms.

  12. Seroepidemiological Survey of Toxoplasma Infections of Mentally Retarded Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MJ Gharavi

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasmosis is a widespread infection in the world. Although the infection by Toxoplasma gondii is widely prevalent in humans and animals, the disease is uncommon and most of the acquired infections are asymptomatic. The important aspect of this parasitic infection is the probable danger of congenital transmission and its severe effects on the fetus. In the present descriptive study, a total of 353 samples from mentally retarded children and adolescents in rehabilitation centers in Tehran, were examined from 2001 to 2002. In order to determine the Toxoplasma antibodies, the samples were tested using an IFA technique and in some cases ELISA technique was applied as well. Fourteen percent of the examined samples were positive. In this research Toxoplasma antibody titer in 36 cases were reported as 1:100 and it was found to be 1:200, 1:400 and 1:800 in 9,1 and 3 cases, respectively. In three cases for which the titer was reported 1:800, samples were tested applying Ig-M ELISA technique in order to determine if there was an acute infection but all tests were negative. In the current study, we did not find any significant differences in the prevalence rate between the genders, but the prevalence significantly increases with age. We used standard questionnaires for causative relation in congenital toxoplasmosis within sero-positive children and 3 cases of infection were documented during the mother's pregnancy period.

  13. Women infected with parasite Toxoplasma have more sons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaňková, Š.; Šulc, J.; Nouzová, K.; Fajfrlík, K.; Frynta, D.; Flegr, J.

    2007-02-01

    The boy-to-girl ratio at birth (secondary sex ratio) is around 0.51 in most populations. The sex ratio varies between societies and may be influenced by many factors, such as stress and immunosuppression, age, primiparity, the sex of the preceding siblings and the socioeconomic status of the parents. As parasite infection affects many immunological and physiological parameters of the host, we analyzed the effect of latent toxoplasmosis on sex ratios in humans. Clinical records of 1,803 infants born from 1996 to 2004 contained information regarding the mother’s age, concentration of anti- Toxoplasma antibodies, previous deliveries and abortions and the sex of the newborn. The results of our retrospective cohort study suggest that the presence of one of the most common parasites (with a worldwide prevalence from 20 to 80%), Toxoplasma gondii, can influence the secondary sex ratio in humans. Depending on the antibody concentration, the probability of the birth of a boy can increase up to a value of 0.72, C.I.95 = (0.636, 0.805), which means that for every 260 boys born, 100 girls are born to women with the highest concentration of anti- Toxoplasma antibodies. The toxoplasmosis associated with immunosuppression or immunomodulation might be responsible for the enhanced survival of male embryos. In light of the high prevalence of latent toxoplasmosis in most countries, the impact of toxoplasmosis on the human population might be considerable.

  14. Virus-Like Nanoparticle Vaccine Confers Protection against Toxoplasma gondii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dong Hun; Lee, Su Hwa; Kim, Ah Ra; Quan, Fu Shi

    2016-01-01

    The inner membrane complex (IMC) of Toxoplasma gondii as a peripheral membrane system has unique and critical roles in parasite replication, motility and invasion. Disruption of IMC sub-compartment protein produces a severe defect in T. gondii endodyogeny, the form of internal cell budding. In this study, we generated T. gondii virus-like particle particles (VLPs) containing proteins derived from IMC, and investigated their efficacy as a vaccine in mice. VLP vaccination induced Toxoplasma gondii-specific total IgG, IgG1 and IgG2a antibody responses in the sera and IgA antibody responses in the feces. Upon challenge infection with a lethal dose of T. gondii (ME49), all vaccinated mice survived, whereas all naïve control mice died. Vaccinated mice showed significantly reduced cyst load and cyst size in the brain. VLP vaccination also induced IgA and IgG antibody responses in feces and intestines, and antibody-secreting plasma cells, mixed Th1/Th2 cytokines and CD4+/CD8+ T cells from spleen. Taken together, these results indicate that non-replicating VLPs containing inner membrane complex of T. gondii represent a promising strategy for the development of a safe and effective vaccine to control the spread of Toxoplasma gondii infection. PMID:27548677

  15. [Seroprevalance Differences of Toxoplasma Between Syrian Refugees Pregnants and Indigenous Turkish Pregnants in Kahramanmaraş].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakacak, Murat; Serin, Salih; Aral, Murat; Ercan, Önder; Köstü, Bülent; Kireçci, Ahmet; Bostancı, Mehmet Sühha; Bakacak, Zeyneb

    2015-06-01

    In this study, we aimed to compare the Syrian refugees and resident Turkish pregnant population in terms of Toxoplasma seroprevalence. Data acquired from Kahramanmaraş Necip Fazıl City Hospital Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology between 2012 and 2013 were analyzed retrospectively. Results of 7201 Toxoplasma IgM tests and 4113 Toxoplasma IgG tests were evaluated. For 2012 and 2013 Toxoplasma IgM seropositivity was found in Syrian refugees 4.76% and 4.84% respectively in our study. In the same population Toxoplasma IgG seropositivity rates were 80% and 62.6%, respectively. Toxoplasma IgM seropositivity rates for the native peoples in Turkey in 2012 and 2013 was 1.96% and 2.34%, while in the same population Toxoplasma IgG seropositivity was detected 49.7% and 45.7% respectively. Toxoplasma IgM seropositivity was statistically higher in Syrian refugees for each year (p refugees was statistically higher (p refugees living in the region of Kahramanmaraş were statistically higher than the rates of local inhabitants, we consider that this condition should be taken into account in the follow-ups of Syrian pregnant refugees outnumbering in Kahramanmaraş and its vicinity.

  16. The prevalence of Toxoplasma infection in schizophrenia and affective disorders and the correlated factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王惠玲

    2006-01-01

    Objective To compare the seropositivity rates of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii and animal contact history between schizophrenia and affective disorders. Methods Six hundred cases with schizophrenia and 600 with affective disorders were recruited. The serum IgG and IgM anti-Toxoplasma antibodies were detected with enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) .And the patients’

  17. A clonal theory of parasitic protozoa: the population structures of Entamoeba, Giardia, Leishmania, Naegleria, Plasmodium, Trichomonas, and Trypanosoma and their medical and taxonomical consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tibayrenc, M; Kjellberg, F; Ayala, F J

    1990-04-01

    We propose a general theory of clonal reproduction for parasitic protozoa, which has important medical and biological consequences. Many parasitic protozoa have been assumed to reproduce sexually, because of diploidy and occasional sexuality in the laboratory. However, a population genetic analysis of extensive data on biochemical polymorphisms indicates that the two fundamental consequences of sexual reproduction (i.e., segregation and recombination) are apparently rare or absent in natural populations of the parasitic protozoa. Moreover, the clones recorded appear to be stable over large geographical areas and long periods of time. A clonal population structure demands that the medical attributes of clones be separately characterized; ubiquitous clones call for priority characterization. Uniparental reproduction renders unsatisfactory Linnean taxonomy; this needs to be supplemented by the "natural clone" as an additional taxonomic unit, which is best defined by means of genetic markers.

  18. A clonal theory of parasitic protozoa : the population structures of Entamoeba, Giardia, Leishmania, Naegleria, Plasmodium, Trichomonas, and Trypanosoma and their medical and taxonomical consequences

    OpenAIRE

    1990-01-01

    We propose a general theory of clonal reproduction for parasitic protozoa, which has important medical and biological consequences. Many parasitic protozoa have been assumed to reproduce sexually, because of diploidy and occasional sexuality in the laboratory. However, a population genetic analysis of extensive data on biochemical polymorphisms indicates that the two fundamental consequences of sexual reproduction (i.e. segregation and recombination) are apparently rare or absent in natural p...

  19. A new Apicomplexa-specific protein kinase family : multiple members in Plasmodium falciparum, all with an export signature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercereau-Puijalon Odile

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria caused by protozoan parasites of the genus Plasmodium spp. is a major health burden in tropical countries. The development of new control tools, including vaccines and drugs, is urgently needed. The availability of genome sequences from several malaria parasite species provides a basis on which to identify new potential intervention targets. Database mining for orthologs to the Plasmodium falciparum trophozoite protein R45, a vaccine candidate, led us identify a new gene family. Results Orthologs to the P. falciparum trophozoite protein R45 were detected exclusively in protozoan parasites of the phylum Apicomplexa, including several Plasmodium spp., Toxoplasma gondii and Cryptosporidium parvum. All family members are hybrid genes with a conserved C-terminal protein kinase domain of a novel type, recently called FIKK kinase, associated with a non conserved N-terminal region without any known functional signature. While a single copy gene was detected in most species, considerable gene expansion was observed in P. falciparum and its closest phylogenic relative P. reichenowi, with 20 and six copies, respectively, each with a distinct N-terminal domain. Based on full length protein sequence, pairs of orthologs were observed in closely related species, such as P. berghei and P.y. yoelii, P. vivax and P. knowlesi, or P. reichenowi and P. falciparum. All 20 P. falciparum paralogs possess a canonical Plasmodium export element downstream of a signal / anchor sequence required for exportation outside the parasitophorous vacuole. This is consistent with the reported association of the trophozoite protein R45, the only paralog characterised to date, with the infected red blood cell membrane. Interestingly, most genes are located in the subtelomeric region of chromosomes, in association with other multigene families contributing to the remodelling of the infected red blood cell membrane, in particular the ring erythrocyte surface

  20. Infection of murine peritoneal macrophages with toxoplasma gondii exposed to ultraviolet light

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Endo, T.; Pelster, B.; Piekarski, G.

    1981-01-01

    Exposure of Toxoplasma trophozoites to ultraviolet light (UV; 2.539 A) remarkably inhibited intracellular multiplication of the toxoplasmas within cultured mouse peritoneal macrophages. These toxoplasmas possessed the ability to induce normal parasitophorous vacuoles (PV) and underwent gradual degeneration in the PV without participation of host-cell lysosomes. Apparently, the basic conformation of the PV, i.e. the association of mitochondria, rough endoplasmic reticulum, and microtubules of the host cell and the presence of microvillous infoldings, was maintained as seen under the electron microscope even after the toxoplasmas had died within the PV. Even PV, in which debris of the toxoplasmas could be observed, did not show the sign of fusion with ferritin-labeled secondary lysosomes.

  1. Using Click Chemistry to Identify Potential Drug Targets in Plasmodium

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-13-1-0429 TITLE: Using "Click Chemistry" to Identify Potential Drug Targets in Plasmodium PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Dr. Purnima...SUBTITLE Sa. CONTRACT NUMBER W81XWH-1 3-1-0429 Using "Click Chemistry" to Identify Potential Drug Targets in Plasmodium 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM...Release; Distribution Unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Sporozo ite infection of the liver is the first obl igate step of the Plasmodium

  2. Filarial worms reduce Plasmodium infectivity in mosquitoes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew T Aliota

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Co-occurrence of malaria and filarial worm parasites has been reported, but little is known about the interaction between filarial worm and malaria parasites with the same Anopheles vector. Herein, we present data evaluating the interaction between Wuchereria bancrofti and Anopheles punctulatus in Papua New Guinea (PNG. Our field studies in PNG demonstrated that An. punctulatus utilizes the melanization immune response as a natural mechanism of filarial worm resistance against invading W. bancrofti microfilariae. We then conducted laboratory studies utilizing the mosquitoes Armigeres subalbatus and Aedes aegypti and the parasites Brugia malayi, Brugia pahangi, Dirofilaria immitis, and Plasmodium gallinaceum to evaluate the hypothesis that immune activation and/or development by filarial worms negatively impact Plasmodium development in co-infected mosquitoes. Ar. subalbatus used in this study are natural vectors of P. gallinaceum and B. pahangi and they are naturally refractory to B. malayi (melanization-based refractoriness. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Mosquitoes were dissected and Plasmodium development was analyzed six days after blood feeding on either P. gallinaceum alone or after taking a bloodmeal containing both P. gallinaceum and B. malayi or a bloodmeal containing both P. gallinaceum and B. pahangi. There was a significant reduction in the prevalence and mean intensity of Plasmodium infections in two species of mosquito that had dual infections as compared to those mosquitoes that were infected with Plasmodium alone, and was independent of whether the mosquito had a melanization immune response to the filarial worm or not. However, there was no reduction in Plasmodium development when filarial worms were present in the bloodmeal (D. immitis but midgut penetration was absent, suggesting that factors associated with penetration of the midgut by filarial worms likely are responsible for the observed reduction in malaria

  3. Stop codon recognition in the early-diverged protozoans Giardia lamblia and Trichomonas vaginalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Baofeng; Li, Cui; Yu, Jingfei; Hao, Yanrong; Guo, Ping; Shen, Quan

    2015-07-01

    Two classes of polypeptide release factors (RFs) are responsible for maintaining accuracy in translation termination; however, their detailed mechanism of action and evolutionary history of these factors remain elusive. The structure and function of RFs vary in bacteria and eukaryotes, a fact that is suggestive of evolutionary changes in the translation termination system. Giardia lamblia (Diplomonada) and Trichomonas vaginalis (Parabasalia) are considered as early-diverged eukaryotes. The class II release factor, eRF3, of Giardia (Gl-eRF3) appears to have only one domain that corresponds to EF-1α and lacks the N-terminal domain, similar to that of eRF3 of other organisms. In the present study, we show that the chimeric molecules Gl/Sc eRF1 and Tv/Sc eRF1, which are composed of the N-terminal domain of Gl-eRF1 or Tv-eRF1, fused to the core domain (M and C domain) of Saccharomyces cerevisiae eRF1 (Sc-eRF1), resulting in loss of the RF properties of the N-terminal domain. This suggests that the conformation of eRF1 for stop codon recognition in Giardia and Trichomonas varies from the eRF1s of other eukaryotes, including ciliates and yeast. Further studies using intra-N-terminal chimeras of eRF1 indicated that the combination of the GTS loop and NIKS motif from Gl-eRF1 and the Y-C-F motif from Sc-eRF1within the N terminal domain of hybrid eRF1 could restore UGA, but not UAG and UGA recognition. In contrast, the combination of the GTS loop and the NIKS motif of Sc-eRF1 and the Y-C-F motif of Gl-eRF1 could restore UAG and UAA recognition, but not UGA recognition. Thus, these results confirm the findings of previous studies that three motifs in eRF1 are necessary for discrimination of the three bases of stop codons. The NIKS motif is responsible for recognition of the first two bases of UAA and UAG, and the Y-C-F motif identifies the second base of UGA by Gl-eRF1. Amino acid residue substitutions in Gl/Sc-eRF1 by corresponding residues of Sc-eRF1 could change and even

  4. Clinical characteristics of aerobic vaginitis and its association to vaginal candidiasis, trichomonas vaginitis and bacterial vaginosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahic, Mahira; Mulavdic, Mirsada; Nurkic, Jasmina; Jahic, Elmir; Nurkic, Midhat

    2013-12-01

    Examine clinical characteristics of aerobic vaginitis and mixed infection for the purpose of better diagnostic accuracy and treatment efficiency. Prospective research has been conducted at Clinic for Gynecology and Obstetrics, Department for Microbiology and Pathology at Polyclinic for laboratory diagnostic and Gynecology and Obstetrics Department at Health Center Sapna. Examination included 100 examinees with the signs of vaginitis. anamnesis, clinical, gynecological and microbiological examination of vaginal smear. The average age of the examinees was 32,62±2,6. Examining vaginal smears of the examinees with signs of vaginitis in 96% (N-96) different microorganisms have been isolated, while in 4% (N-4) findings were normal. AV has been found in 51% (N-51) of the examinees, Candida albicans in 17% (N-17), BV in 15% (N-15), Trichomonas vaginalis in 13% (N-13). In 21% (N-21) AV was diagnosed alone while associated with other agents in 30% (N-30). Most common causes of AV are E. coli (N-55) and E. faecalis (N-52). AV and Candida albicanis have been found in (13/30, 43%), Trichomonas vaginalis in (9/30, 30%) and BV (8/30, 26%). Vaginal secretion is in 70,05% (N-36) yellow coloured, red vagina wall is recorded in 31,13% (N-16) and pruritus in 72,54% (N-37). Increased pH value of vagina found in 94,10% (N-48). The average pH value of vaginal environment was 5,15±0,54 and in associated presence of AV and VVC, TV and BV was 5,29±0,56 which is higher value considering presence of AV alone but that is not statistically significant difference (p>0,05). Amino-odor test was positive in 29,94% (N-15) of associated infections. Lactobacilli are absent, while leukocytes are increased in 100% (N-51) of the examinees with AV. AV is vaginal infection similar to other vaginal infections. It is important to be careful while diagnosing because the treatment of AV differentiates from treatment of other vaginitis.

  5. Bifurcation in the chemotactic behavior of Physarum plasmodium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirakawa, Tomohiro; Gunji, Yukio-Pegio; Sato, Hiroshi; Tsubakino, Hiroto

    2017-07-01

    The plasmodium of true slime mold Physarum polycephalum is a unicellular and multinuclear giant amoeba. Since the cellular organism has some computational abilities, it is attracting much attention in the field of information science. However, previous studies have mainly focused on the optimization behavior of the plasmodium for a single-modality stimulus, and there are few studies on how the organism adapts to multi-modal stimuli. We stimulated the plasmodium with mixture of attractant and repellent stimuli, and we observed bifurcation in the chemotactic behavior of the plasmodium.

  6. Plasmodium Oocysts: Overlooked Targets of Mosquito Immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Ryan C; Barillas-Mury, Carolina

    2016-12-01

    Although the ability of mosquitoes to limit Plasmodium infection is well documented, many questions remain as to how malaria parasites are recognized and killed by the mosquito host. Recent evidence suggests that anti-Plasmodium immunity is multimodal, with different immune mechanisms regulating ookinete and oocyst survival. However, most experiments determine the number of mature oocysts, without considering that different immune mechanisms may target different developmental stages of the parasite. Complement-like proteins have emerged as important determinants of early immunity targeting the ookinete stage, yet the mechanisms by which the mosquito late-phase immune response limits oocyst survival are less understood. Here, we describe the known components of the mosquito immune system that limit oocyst development, and provide insight into their possible mechanisms of action. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Plasmodium knowlesi malaria in Vietnam: some clarifications

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    Hung Le

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A recently published comment on a report of Plasmodium knowlesi infections in Vietnam states that this may not accurately represent the situation in the study area because the PCR primers used may cross-hybridize with Plasmodium vivax. Nevertheless, P. knowlesi infections have been confirmed by sequencing. In addition, a neighbour-joining tree based on the 18S S-Type SSUrRNA gene shows that the Vietnamese samples clearly cluster with the P. knowlesi isolates identified in Malaysia and are distinct from the corresponding P. vivax sequences. All samples came from asymptomatic individuals who did not consult for fever during the months preceding or following the survey, indicating that asymptomatic P. knowlesi infections occur in this population, although this does not exclude the occurrence of symptomatic cases. Large-scale studies to determine the extent and the epidemiology of P. knowlesi malaria in Vietnam are further needed.

  8. Engineered anopheles immunity to Plasmodium infection.

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    Yuemei Dong

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A causative agent of human malaria, Plasmodium falciparum, is transmitted by Anopheles mosquitoes. The malaria parasite is under intensive attack from the mosquito's innate immune system during its sporogonic development. We have used genetic engineering to create immune-enhanced Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes through blood meal-inducible expression of a transgene encoding the IMD pathway-controlled NF-kB Rel2 transcription factor in the midgut and fat-body tissue. Transgenic mosquitoes showed greater resistance to Plasmodium and microbial infection as a result of timely concerted tissue-specific immune attacks involving multiple effectors. The relatively weak impact of this genetic modification on mosquito fitness under laboratory conditions encourages further investigation of this approach for malaria control.

  9. Exploring the folate pathway in Plasmodium falciparum

    OpenAIRE

    Hyde, John E.

    2005-01-01

    As in centuries past, the main weapon against human malaria infections continues to be intervention with drugs, despite the widespread and increasing frequency of parasite populations that are resistant to one or more of the available compounds. This is a particular problem with the lethal species of parasite, Plasmodium falciparum, which claims some two million lives per year as well as causing enormous social and economic problems. Amongst the antimalarial drugs currently in clinical use, t...

  10. Plasmodium falciparum drug resistance in Angola

    OpenAIRE

    Fançony, Cláudia; Brito, Miguel; Gil, Jose Pedro

    2016-01-01

    Facing chloroquine drug resistance, Angola promptly adopted artemisinin-based combination therapy as the first-line to treat malaria. Currently, the country aims to consolidate malaria control, while preparing for the elimination of the disease, along with others African countries in the region. However, the remarkable capacity of Plasmodium to develop drug resistance represents an alarming threat for those achievements. Herein, the available, but relatively scarce and dispersed, information ...

  11. Characterization of Specific RAPD Markers of Virulence in Trichomonas vaginalis Isolates

    Science.gov (United States)

    FRAGA, Jorge; ROJAS, Lázara; SARIEGO, Idalia; FERNÁNDEZ-CALIENES, Aymé

    2015-01-01

    Background: As for human trichomoniasis the host-parasite relationship is very complex, and the broad ranges of clinical symptoms are unlikely be attributable to a single pathogenic mechanism. Specific Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers of 490 bp, 720 bp and 460 bp using the primers Tv-5, OPA-6 and OPA-11, respectively, were reported. This was the first description of possible genetic virulence markers of the infection by T. vaginalis. The aim of this study was to characterize the specific RAPD markers in order to elucidate their importance on virulence of this illness. Methods: The selected specific RAPD fragments were cloned and sequenced. The obtained sequences were compared by the BLAST algorithm. Results: The nucleotide sequence of the Tv-5490 RAPD marker exhibited significant similarity to T. vaginalis hypothetical G3 leucine rich repeat (LRR) family protein (e-value: 6e-14) and Giardia lamblia leucine rich repeat protein 1 virus receptor protein (e-value: 6e-14 and 2e-12) ; however, the OPA-6720 and OPA-11460 showed no significant similarity with any coding published sequence. All the evaluated strains showed the presence of the LRR gene. Conclusion: These results demonstrate a possible role of this gene in the virulence of T. vaginalis and in the parasite infection with Trichomonas virus as a possible virus receptor. Further analysis of this gene and encoded protein will allow determining the role that they play in the isolates virus susceptible or resistant phenotypes. PMID:26622300

  12. Trichomonas vaginalis and associated factors among women living with HIV/AIDS in Amazonas, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Leila Cristina Ferreira; Miranda, Angélica Espinosa; Batalha, Rosieny Santos; Monte, Rossicléia Lins; Talhari, Sinésio

    2013-01-01

    Our goal was to determine the prevalence of Trichomonas vaginalis and its associated factors among women living with HIV attending an AIDS clinic in Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil. Cross-sectional study among women attending an AIDS clinic in Manaus between March and December 2010 for gynecological examination were invited to participate. Enrolled patients answered a face-to-face interview including demographic, behavioral and clinical data. They also underwent a gynecological evaluation and cervical scrape samples were collected for wet mount, Gram stain, culture and cytological analysis. A blood sample was obtained to determine TCD4+ lymphocytes and viral load. A total of 341 (91.2%) women participated in the study. The prevalence of T. vaginalis was 4.1% (95% CI: 2.0-6.2%). Median age was 32 (interquartile range 27-38) years and median years of schooling was 9.0 (interquartile range 4-11). A total of 165 (53.2%) HIV women were classified as patients with AIDS. In multivariate analyses, squamous intraepithelial lesions in cytology [OR=2.46 (95% CI: 1.31-4.63, p=0.005)] and anal sex practice [OR=3.62 (95% CI: 1.08-12.19, p=0.037)] were associated with T. vaginalis. These results highlight that HIV-infected women should be screened for T. vaginalis. The control of this infection may have an impact on preventing reproductive complications among these women. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  13. Pathogenicity of a strain of Trichomonas gallinarum in turkeys and its possible interaction with cecal coccidia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, R A

    1997-01-01

    The pathogenicity of Trichomonas gallinarum (TG) in turkeys and chickens was assessed in a series of four experiments. TG was shown to be resistant to freezing for a period of 1 hr at -20 C; birds administered an emulsion of previously frozen TG were readily infected. Young birds receiving this inoculum were more likely to be infected with TG in both ceca compared with birds administered TG emulsion that had remained at room temperature for the same length of time. In this and other experiments, birds infected with the parasite consistently produced a yellow frothy liquid in the ceca, as well as small raised papulae on the mucosal surface of the ceca. Histologically, the lesions were located in the lamina propria, with openings that extended from the apex of the lesion to the crypts. The lamina propria was consistently infiltrated by lymphocytes and scattered heterophiles. Although TG is likely involved in the pathogenesis of the lesions, the resulting pathology could not be linked definitively to TG alone because inoculation was performed with a cecal contents homogenate containing significant numbers of cecal bacteria. Combined infections of TG and Eimeria adenoides (EA) were also studied. Turkeys administered both parasites were more frequently infected with TG in both ceca compared with those that received TG alone. Ceca infected with TG alone tended to be enlarged and gas filled, whereas those infected with the combination of TG and EA were smaller and usually lacked the yellow frothy liquid contents.

  14. Evidence for an uncommon alpha-actinin protein in Trichomonas vaginalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bricheux, G; Coffe, G; Pradel, N; Brugerolle, G

    1998-09-15

    As part of our ongoing project of identification of actin-binding proteins implicated in the cell transition (flagellate to amoeboid/adherent) of Trichomonas vaginalis, we have characterized an alpha-actinin-related protein in this parasite. The protein (P100) has a molecular mass of 100 kDa and an isoelectric point of 5.5. A monoclonal antibody raised against this protein co-localizes with the actin network. P100 gene transcripts are co-expressed with actin throughout the cell cycle. Analysis of the deduced protein sequence reveals three domains: an N-terminal actin-binding region; a central region rich in alpha-helix; and a C-terminal domain with Ca(2+)-binding capacity. Whereas the N- and C-terminal regions are well-conserved as compared to other alpha-actinins, we observe in the central region an atypical distribution of residues in five repeats. The sequence of the repeats does not show any homology with the rod domain of the other alpha-actinins, except for the first repeat which shows some similarity. The four other repeats of T. vaginalis P100 appear to result from a duplication event which is not detectable in the other sequences.

  15. Iron-induced changes in the proteome of Trichomonas vaginalis hydrogenosomes.

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    Neritza Campo Beltrán

    Full Text Available Iron plays a crucial role in metabolism as a key component of catalytic and redox cofactors, such as heme or iron-sulfur clusters in enzymes and electron-transporting or regulatory proteins. Limitation of iron availability by the host is also one of the mechanisms involved in immunity. Pathogens must regulate their protein expression according to the iron concentration in their environment and optimize their metabolic pathways in cases of limitation through the availability of respective cofactors. Trichomonas vaginalis, a sexually transmitted pathogen of humans, requires high iron levels for optimal growth. It is an anaerobe that possesses hydrogenosomes, mitochondrion-related organelles that harbor pathways of energy metabolism and iron-sulfur cluster assembly. We analyzed the proteomes of hydrogenosomes obtained from cells cultivated under iron-rich and iron-deficient conditions employing two-dimensional peptide separation combining IEF and nano-HPLC with quantitative MALDI-MS/MS. We identified 179 proteins, of which 58 were differentially expressed. Iron deficiency led to the upregulation of proteins involved in iron-sulfur cluster assembly and the downregulation of enzymes involved in carbohydrate metabolism. Interestingly, iron affected the expression of only some of multiple protein paralogues, whereas the expression of others was iron independent. This finding indicates a stringent regulation of differentially expressed multiple gene copies in response to changes in the availability of exogenous iron.

  16. Molecular characterization of the Trichomonas gallinae morphologic complex in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerhold, Richard W; Yabsley, Michael J; Smith, Autumn J; Ostergaard, Elissa; Mannan, William; Cann, Jeff D; Fischer, John R

    2008-12-01

    Forty-two Trichomonas gallinae isolates were molecularly characterized to determine whether isolates differed in genetic sequence of multiple gene targets depending on host species or geographical location. The 5.8S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) and flanking internal transcribed spacer (ITS) gene regions were amplified by polymerase chain reaction, and the sequences were analyzed phylogenetically. The results of the sequence analysis strongly suggest at least 2 species may exist within the T. gallinae morphologic complex. Based on ITS sequences, one group demonstrated high nucleotide identity to the 3 T. gallinae sequences available in GenBank, whereas the second group was more closely related to T. vaginalis (98%) than to T. gallinae (92%). Two common ground-dove (Columbina passerina) isolates shared a 95% identity with T. vaginalis and a 92% identity with T. gallinae and T. tenax. Sequence analysis of both the 18S rRNA and alpha-tubulin genes from a subset of the isolates supports the 5.8S-ITS sequence results. All of the T. vaginalis-like isolates originated from Arizona, California, or Texas, whereas T. gallinae isolates were found in all sampled states. Both T. vaginalis-like and T. gallinae isolates were involved in trichomoniasis outbreaks in California and Arizona.

  17. Investigation of Entamoeba gingivalis and Trichomonas tenax in Periodontitis or Gingivitis Patients in Kayseri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazar, Süleyman; Çetinkaya, Ülfet; Hamamcı, Berna; Alkan, Arzu; Şişman, Yıldıray; Esen, Çağrı; Kolay, Melike

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of Entamoeba gingivalis and Trichomonas tenax in periodontitis and gingivitis patients. The study consisted of 107 periodontitis patients and 68 gingivitis patients. Bacterial plaque samples were collected with a curette from the deepest pocket in each quadrant and placed into separate tubes containing sterile 0.9% saline solution. Samples were examined at a magnification of ×400 by light microscopy. Cultivation for T. tenax was performed using the same samples, and the cultures were examined after 48 hours. E. gingivalis was present in the samples from 38 periodontitis patients, whereas T. tenax was present in samples from only 3 periodontitis patients. Both E. gingivalis and T. tenax were found together in the samples from 2 periodontitis patients. In total, 22 and 2 gingivitis patients were found to be infected with E. gingivalis and with T. tenax, respectively. Only 1 gingivitis patient was found to be infected with both E. gingivalis and T. tenax. In our study, oral protozoa were found in a high percentage in periodontitis and gingivitis patients. We believe that the prevalence of E. gingivalis and T. tenax should be determined via new studies and, in particular, the protection principles should be complied with.

  18. Cell-associated and extracellular proteolytic activity of an oral flagellate, Trichomonas tenax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bózner, P; Demes, P

    1991-01-01

    Proteolytic activities in crude extracts and culture filtrates from Trichomonas tenax were determined using hide powder azure as substrate and the proteinase profiles in both samples were analysed in SDS-polyacrylamide gels containing copolymerized gelatin. The enzyme activity in the crude extract was detected over a broad pH range and was strongly activated by dithiothreitol, mainly in the pH range 5-8, and inhibited by cysteine proteinase inhibitors. Extracellular enzyme activity in culture filtrates was SH-dependent and increased continuously during incubation of the cell suspension, suggesting proteinase release. A total of seven distinct proteolytic bands could be detected in crude preparations. Three of these, with apparent Mr values 35,000, 45,000 and 56,000 and a pH optimum of 4-7, were SH-dependent and their inhibitory sensitivities were characteristic for cysteine proteinases. The 45,000 and 56,000 proteinases probably corresponded to those found in the culture filtrates. Proteolytic bands with apparent Mr 76,000, 87,000, 102,000 and 270,000 and pH optima in the alkaline region, pH 8-9, were independent of SH groups and were inhibited by a chelating agent EDTA, suggesting that they belong to the metalloproteinase family.

  19. [The investigation of Entamoeba gingivalis and Trichomonas tenax in a group of patients with periodontal disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abualqomsaan, Moin; Töz, Seray Ozensoy; Yolasiğmaz, Ayşegül; Turgay, Nevin

    2010-01-01

    The oral cavity is suitable for invasion of many microorganisms. Entamoeba gingivalis (E.gingivalis) and Trichomonas tenax (T.tenax) settle in the oral cavity of patients with poor oral hygiene and gingival disease. In the present study, two slide specimens were prepared from the cole region of the teeth of 46 persons for investigation of the parasites. One of the slide specimens was dried in the air while the other one put into fixative and they were stained with trichrome and Giemsa stains. The two staining methods were used for 36 samples and only Giemsa, for 10 samples. E. gingivalis was positive in 7 (19.44%) out of 36 samples stained by the trichrome stain while T. tenax was positive in one (2.17%) out of 46 samples stained by Giemsa stain. Parasitic infections were found to be positive in seven (21.2%) specimen from 33 patients with periodontal disease and in one (7.69%) specimen from 13 healthy controls. Dental policlinics are generally far from parasitology laboratories and microscopical wet mount examination can not be performed. Therefore dentists can send the specimens and have the parasites diagnosed with Giemsa and trichrome staining methods as an alternative to wet mount examination.

  20. Prevalence of Oral Trichomonas tenax in Periodontal Lesions of Down Syndrome in Tabriz, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehr, Atabak Kashefi; Zarandi, Ali; Anush, Keivan

    2015-07-01

    It was presented that Trichomonas tenax is one of the parasites which is responsible for oral infection. This study was considered to estimate the prevalence of this parasite in oral cavity of Down syndrome patients with periodontal lesions and in healthy population from welfare organization in Tabriz, Iran. In the case-control study, 52 patients with periodontal disease (case group) and 52 individuals with healthy gingiva (control group) selected for the study. Examination was done by dental mirror and periodontal probe. After using plaque detector tablets, sampling was done by entering sterile paper into periodontal pocket for 20 seconds. The amount of plaque was measured by plaque index. Finally samples sent to laboratory for prepared PCR reaction. In the case group, 14 patients were infected and in the control group 5 individuals. Percentage of infection in case group was 18.8% and in the control group was 3% that difference was statically significant. Plaque index in the case group was 72 ± 10.2 and in the control group was 68 ± 11.4 and difference between two groups was not significant. Parasitic infections in Down syndrome were higher than healthy children while plaque index was not significantly different between the two groups. Therefore follow-up of orders are necessary in control of parasitic infection in Down syndrome that have intrinsic defect of immune systems.

  1. The secretory products of Trichomonas vaginalis decrease fertilizing capacity of mice sperm in vitro

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    Jaesook Roh

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Trichomonas vaginalis infection is one of the most prevalent sexually transmitted infections in humans and is now recognized as an important cause of infertility in men. There is little information about the effect of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS from T. vaginalis on sperm, but previous reports do not provide a conclusive description of the functional integrity of the sperm. To investigate the impact of EPS on the fertilizing capacity of sperm, we assessed sperm motility, acrosomal status, hypo-osmotic swelling, and in vitrofertilization rate after incubating the sperm with EPS in vitrousing mice. The incubation of sperm with EPS significantly decreased sperm motility, viability, and functional integrity in a concentration and time-dependent manner. These effects on sperm quality also resulted in a decreased fertilization rate in vitro. This is the first report that demonstrates the direct negative impact of the EPS of T. vaginalis on the fertilization rate of sperm in vitro. However, further study should be performed using human sperm to determine if EPS has similar negative impact on human sperm fertilizing capacity in vitro.

  2. Deep sequencing of Trichomonas vaginalis during the early infection of vaginal epithelial cells and amoeboid transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Sven B; Woehle, Christian; Kusdian, Gary; Landan, Giddy; Tachezy, Jan; Zimorski, Verena; Martin, William F

    2013-08-01

    The human pathogen Trichomonas vaginalis has the largest protozoan genome known, potentially encoding approximately 60,000 proteins. To what degree these genes are expressed is not well known and only a few key transcription factors and promoter domains have been identified. To shed light on the expression capacity of the parasite and transcriptional regulation during phase transitions, we deep sequenced the transcriptomes of the protozoan during two environmental stimuli of the early infection process: exposure to oxygen and contact with vaginal epithelial cells. Eleven 3' fragment libraries from different time points after exposure to oxygen only and in combination with human tissue were sequenced, generating more than 150 million reads which mapped onto 33,157 protein coding genes in total and a core set of more than 20,000 genes represented within all libraries. The data uncover gene family expression regulation in this parasite and give evidence for a concentrated response to the individual stimuli. Oxygen stress primarily reveals the parasite's strategies to deal with oxygen radicals. The exposure of oxygen-adapted parasites to human epithelial cells primarily induces cytoskeletal rearrangement and proliferation, reflecting the rapid morphological transition from spindle shaped flagellates to tissue-feeding and actively dividing amoeboids.

  3. Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification Targeting Actin DNA of Trichomonas vaginalis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goo, Youn-Kyoung; Shin, Won-Sik; Yang, Hye-Won; Joo, So-Young; Song, Su-Min; Ryu, Jae-Sook; Kong, Hyun-Hee; Lee, Won-Ki; Chung, Dong-Il; Hong, Yeonchul

    2016-01-01

    Trichomoniasis caused by Trichomonas vaginalis is a common sexually transmitted disease. Its association with several health problems, including preterm birth, pelvic inflammatory disease, cervical cancer, and transmission of human immunodeficiency virus, emphasizes the importance of improved access to early and accurate detection of T. vaginalis. In this study, a rapid and efficient loop-mediated isothermal amplification-based method for the detection of T. vaginalis was developed and validated, using vaginal swab specimens from subjects suspected to have trichomoniasis. The LAMP assay targeting the actin gene was highly sensitive with detection limits of 1 trichomonad and 1 pg of T. vaginalis DNA per reaction, and specifically amplified the target gene only from T. vaginalis. Validation of this assay showed that it had the highest sensitivity and better agreement with PCR (used as the gold standard) compared to microscopy and multiplex PCR. This study showed that the LAMP assay, targeting the actin gene, could be used to diagnose early infections of T. vaginalis. Thus, we have provided an alternative molecular diagnostic tool and a point-of-care test that may help to prevent trichomoniasis transmission and associated complications. PMID:27417089

  4. A Systematic Review of Point of Care Testing for Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and Trichomonas vaginalis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbst de Cortina, Sasha; Bristow, Claire C.; Joseph Davey, Dvora; Klausner, Jeffrey D.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. Systematic review of point of care (POC) diagnostic tests for sexually transmitted infections: Chlamydia trachomatis (CT), Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG), and Trichomonas vaginalis (TV). Methods. Literature search on PubMed for articles from January 2010 to August 2015, including original research in English on POC diagnostics for sexually transmitted CT, NG, and/or TV. Results. We identified 33 publications with original research on POC diagnostics for CT, NG, and/or TV. Thirteen articles evaluated test performance, yielding at least one test for each infection with sensitivity and specificity ≥90%. Each infection also had currently available tests with sensitivities <60%. Three articles analyzed cost effectiveness, and five publications discussed acceptability and feasibility. POC testing was acceptable to both providers and patients and was also demonstrated to be cost effective. Fourteen proof of concept articles introduced new tests. Conclusions. Highly sensitive and specific POC tests are available for CT, NG, and TV, but improvement is possible. Future research should focus on acceptability, feasibility, and cost of POC testing. While pregnant women specifically have not been studied, the results available in nonpregnant populations are encouraging for the ability to test and treat women in antenatal care to prevent adverse pregnancy and neonatal outcomes. PMID:27313440

  5. The Trichomonas vaginalis hydrogenosome proteome is highly reduced relative to mitochondria, yet complex compared with mitosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Rachel E; Brown, Mark T; Shiflett, April M; Dyall, Sabrina D; Hayes, Richard D; Xie, Yongming; Loo, Joseph A; Johnson, Patricia J

    2011-11-01

    The human pathogen Trichomonas vaginalis lacks conventional mitochondria and instead contains divergent mitochondrial-related organelles. These double-membrane bound organelles, called hydrogenosomes, produce molecular hydrogen. Phylogenetic and biochemical analyses of hydrogenosomes indicate a common origin with mitochondria; however identification of hydrogenosomal proteins and studies on its metabolism have been limited. Here we provide a detailed proteomic analysis of the T. vaginalis hydrogenosome. The proteome of purified hydrogenosomes consists of 569 proteins, a number substantially lower than the 1,000-1,500 proteins reported for fungal and animal mitochondrial proteomes, yet considerably higher than proteins assigned to mitosomes. Pathways common to and distinct from both mitochondria and mitosomes were revealed by the hydrogenosome proteome. Proteins known to function in amino acid and energy metabolism, Fe-S cluster assembly, flavin-mediated catalysis, oxygen stress response, membrane translocation, chaperonin functions, proteolytic processing and ATP hydrolysis account for ∼30% of the hydrogenosome proteome. Of the 569 proteins in the hydrogenosome proteome, many appear to be associated with the external surface of hydrogenosomes, including large numbers of GTPases and ribosomal proteins. Glycolytic proteins were also found to be associated with the hydrogenosome proteome, similar to that previously observed for mitochondrial proteomes. Approximately 18% of the hydrogenosomal proteome is composed of hypothetical proteins of unknown function, predictive of multiple activities and properties yet to be uncovered for these highly adapted organelles.

  6. Iron uptake and increased intracellular enzyme activity follow host lactoferrin binding by Trichomonas vaginalis receptors

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    Peterson, K.M.; Alderete, J.F.

    1984-08-01

    Lactoferrin acquisition and iron uptake by pathogenic Trichomonas vaginalis was examined. Saturation binding kinetics were obtained for trichomonads using increasing amounts of radioiodinated lactoferrin, while no significant binding by transferrin under similar conditions was achieved. Only unlabeled lactoferrin successfully and stoichiometrically competed with 125I-labeled lactoferrin binding. Time course studies showed maximal lactoferrin binding by 30 min at 37 degrees C. Data suggest no internalization of bound lactoferrin. The accumulation of radioactivity in supernatants after incubation of T. vaginalis with 125I-labeled lactoferrin and washing in PBS suggested the presence of low affinity sites for this host macromolecule. Scatchard analysis indicated the presence of 90,000 receptors per trichomonad with an apparent Kd of 1.0 microM. Two trichomonad lactoferrin binding proteins were identified by affinity chromatography and immunoprecipitation of receptor-ligand complexes. A 30-fold accumulation of iron was achieved using 59Fe-lactoferrin when compared to the steady state concentration of bound lactoferrin. The activity of pyruvate/ferrodoxin oxidoreductase, an enzyme involved in trichomonal energy metabolism, increased more than sixfold following exposure of the parasites to lactoferrin, demonstrating a biologic response to the receptor-mediated binding of lactoferrin. These data suggest that T. vaginalis possesses specific receptors for biologically relevant host proteins and that these receptors contribute to the metabolic processes of the parasites.

  7. Identification and characterization of a surface-associated, subtilisin-like serine protease in Trichomonas vaginalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Romano, Pablo; Hernández, Roberto; Arroyo, Rossana; Alderete, John F; López-Villaseñor, Imelda

    2010-09-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis is a protozoan parasite causing trichomonosis, a sexually transmitted infection in humans. This parasite has numerous proteases, most of which are cysteine proteases that appear to be involved in adherence and cytotoxicity of host cells. In this report we identify and characterize a putative subtilisin-like serine protease (SUB1). The sub1 gene encodes a 101-kDa protein. In silico analyses predict signal and pro-peptides at the N-terminus, and a transmembrane helix at the carboxy-terminal region. The sub1 gene was found as single copy by Southern analysis, albeit additional serine protease related genes are annotated in the T. vaginalis genome. The expression of sub1 could only be detected by RT-PCR and Ribonuclease Protection Assays, suggesting a low abundant mRNA. The sub1 gene transcription start site was correctly assigned by RPA. The transcript abundance was found to be modulated by the availability of iron in the growth medium. Antibodies raised to a specific SUB1 peptide recognized a single protein band (approximately 82 kDa) in Western blots, possibly representing the mature form of the protein. Immunofluorescence showed SUB1 on the trichomonad surface, and in dispersed vesicles throughout the cytoplasm. A bioinformatic analysis of genes annotated as serine proteases in the T. vaginalis genome is also presented. To our knowledge this is the first putative serine protease experimentally described for T. vaginalis.

  8. Trichomonas vaginalis adherence mediates differential gene expression in human vaginal epithelial cells.

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    Kucknoor, Ashwini; Mundodi, Vasanthakrishna; Alderete, John F

    2005-06-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis, an ancient protist, colonizes the vaginal mucosa causing trichomonosis, a vaginitis that sometimes leads to severe health complications. Preparatory to colonization of the vagina is the adhesion to vaginal epithelial cells (VECs) by trichomonads. We hypothesized that VECs alter the gene expression to form a complex signalling cascade in response to trichomonal adherence. In order to identify the genes that are upregulated, we constructed a subtraction cDNA library after contact with parasites that is enriched for differentially expressed genes from the immortalized MS-74 VECs. Sixty cDNA clones were sequenced and to our knowledge for the first time, differentially regulated genes were identified in response to early trichomonal infection. The identified genes were found to encode functional proteins with specific functions associated with cell structure maintenance and extracellular matrix components, proinflammatory molecules and apoptosis. Semi-quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) confirmed expression of selected genes. Further, cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) protein expression was analysed using Western blot and immunofluorescence assays. Data suggest that p38 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase and tyrosine kinases play a role in COX-2 induction. Finally, T. vaginalis and Tritrichomonas foetus but not Pentatrichomonas hominis induce expression of COX-2. This is a first attempt at elucidating the basis of interaction of trichomonads with host cells and the corresponding host responses triggered by the parasites.

  9. Heterologous expression in Tritrichomonas foetus of functional Trichomonas vaginalis AP65 adhesin

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    Kucknoor, Ashwini S; Mundodi, Vasanthakrishna; Alderete, JF

    2005-01-01

    Background Trichomonosis, caused by Trichomonas vaginalis, is the number one, nonviral sexually transmitted infection that has adverse consequences for the health of women and children. The interaction of T. vaginalis with vaginal epithelial cells (VECs), a step preparatory to infection, is mediated in part by the prominent surface protein AP65. The bovine trichomonad, Tritrichomonas foetus, adheres poorly to human VECs. Thus, we established a transfection system for heterologous expression of the T. vaginalis AP65 in T. foetus, as an alternative approach to confirm adhesin function for this virulence factor. Results In this study, we show stable transfection and expression of the T. vaginalis ap65 gene in T. foetus from an episomal pBS-ap65-neo plasmid. Expression of the gene and protein was confirmed by RT-PCR and immunoblots, respectively. AP65 in transformed T. foetus bound to host cells. Specific mAbs revealed episomally-expressed AP65 targeted to the parasite surface and hydrogenosome organelles. Importantly, surface-expression of AP65 in T. foetus paralleled increased levels of adherence of transfected bovine trichomonads to human VECs. Conclusion The T. vaginalis AP65 adhesin was stably expressed in T. foetus, and the data obtained using this heterologous system strongly supports the role of AP65 as a prominent adhesin for T. vaginalis. In addition, the heterologous expression in T. foetus of a T. vaginalis gene offers an important, new approach for confirming and characterizing virulence factors. PMID:15748280

  10. Heterologous expression in Tritrichomonas foetus of functional Trichomonas vaginalis AP65 adhesin

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    Alderete JF

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Trichomonosis, caused by Trichomonas vaginalis, is the number one, nonviral sexually transmitted infection that has adverse consequences for the health of women and children. The interaction of T. vaginalis with vaginal epithelial cells (VECs, a step preparatory to infection, is mediated in part by the prominent surface protein AP65. The bovine trichomonad, Tritrichomonas foetus, adheres poorly to human VECs. Thus, we established a transfection system for heterologous expression of the T. vaginalis AP65 in T. foetus, as an alternative approach to confirm adhesin function for this virulence factor. Results In this study, we show stable transfection and expression of the T. vaginalis ap65 gene in T. foetus from an episomal pBS-ap65-neo plasmid. Expression of the gene and protein was confirmed by RT-PCR and immunoblots, respectively. AP65 in transformed T. foetus bound to host cells. Specific mAbs revealed episomally-expressed AP65 targeted to the parasite surface and hydrogenosome organelles. Importantly, surface-expression of AP65 in T. foetus paralleled increased levels of adherence of transfected bovine trichomonads to human VECs. Conclusion The T. vaginalis AP65 adhesin was stably expressed in T. foetus, and the data obtained using this heterologous system strongly supports the role of AP65 as a prominent adhesin for T. vaginalis. In addition, the heterologous expression in T. foetus of a T. vaginalis gene offers an important, new approach for confirming and characterizing virulence factors.

  11. Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification Targeting Actin DNA of Trichomonas vaginalis.

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    Goo, Youn-Kyoung; Shin, Won-Sik; Yang, Hye-Won; Joo, So-Young; Song, Su-Min; Ryu, Jae-Sook; Kong, Hyun-Hee; Lee, Won-Ki; Chung, Dong-Il; Hong, Yeonchul

    2016-06-01

    Trichomoniasis caused by Trichomonas vaginalis is a common sexually transmitted disease. Its association with several health problems, including preterm birth, pelvic inflammatory disease, cervical cancer, and transmission of human immunodeficiency virus, emphasizes the importance of improved access to early and accurate detection of T. vaginalis. In this study, a rapid and efficient loop-mediated isothermal amplification-based method for the detection of T. vaginalis was developed and validated, using vaginal swab specimens from subjects suspected to have trichomoniasis. The LAMP assay targeting the actin gene was highly sensitive with detection limits of 1 trichomonad and 1 pg of T. vaginalis DNA per reaction, and specifically amplified the target gene only from T. vaginalis. Validation of this assay showed that it had the highest sensitivity and better agreement with PCR (used as the gold standard) compared to microscopy and multiplex PCR. This study showed that the LAMP assay, targeting the actin gene, could be used to diagnose early infections of T. vaginalis. Thus, we have provided an alternative molecular diagnostic tool and a point-of-care test that may help to prevent trichomoniasis transmission and associated complications.

  12. Low prevalence of Trichomonas gallinae in urban and migratory Cooper's Hawks in northcentral North America

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    Rosenfield, Robert N.; Taft, Stephen J.; Stout, William E.; Driscoll, Timothy G.; Evans, David L.; Bozek, Michael A.

    2009-01-01

    Trichomoniasis is a digestive tract disease caused by ingestion of the protozoan Trichomonas gallinae. This disease can be a significant source of mortality. No deaths of nestlings could be attributed to trichomoniasis in Cooper's Hawks (Accipiter cooperii) breeding in urban and rural environs in Wisconsin, North Dakota, and British Columbia. We detected T. gallinae in four (5.2%) of 77 nestling Cooper's Hawks during 2006 and 2007 among 42 urban nests on new study areas in southeast Wisconsin and eastern North Dakota/western Minnesota. All four infected young fledged. We did not detect T. gallinae in 52 breeding adult Cooper's Hawks on two urban study sites, nor in 28 migrant hatching year (n  =  24) and adult (n  =  4) Cooper's Hawks at Hawk Ridge Nature Reserve, Duluth, Minnesota in 2006–2007. Overall, we detected T. gallinae in only 2.5% of 157 Cooper's Hawks in northcentral North America. These results suggest a low prevalence of T. gallinae in Cooper's Hawks in the northern part of this hawk's breeding range.

  13. Effect of Recombinant Prophenin 2 on the Integrity and Viability of Trichomonas vaginalis

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    J. L. Hernandez-Flores

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Trichomonas vaginalis is the causal agent of trichomoniasis, which is associated with preterm child delivery, low birth weight, and an increased risk of infection by human papilloma virus and human immunodeficiency virus following exposure. Several reports have established increasing numbers of trichomoniasis cases resistant to metronidazole, the agent used for treatment, and it is therefore important to identify new therapeutic alternatives. Previously, our group reported the effect of tritrpticin, a synthetic peptide derived from porcine prophenin, on T. vaginalis; however, the hemolytic activity of this small peptide complicates its possible use as a therapeutic agent. In this study, we report that the propeptide and the processed peptide of prophenin 2 (cleaved with hydroxylamine affected the integrity and growth of T. vaginalis and that pro-prophenin 2 displays some resistance to proteolysis by T. vaginalis proteinases at 1 h. Its effect on T. vaginalis as well as its low hemolytic activity and short-time stability to parasite proteinases makes prophenin 2 an interesting candidate for synergistic or alternative treatment against T. vaginalis.

  14. IL-10 release by bovine epithelial cells cultured with Trichomonas vaginalis and Tritrichomonas foetus

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    Vilela, Ricardo Chaves; Benchimol, Marlene

    2013-01-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis and Tritrichomonas foetus are parasitic protists of the human and bovine urogenital tracts, respectively. Several studies have described the cytotoxic effects of trichomonads on urogenital tract epithelial cells. However, little is known about the host cell response against trichomonads. The aim of this study was to determine whether T. foetus and T. vaginalis stimulated the release of the cytokine interleukin (IL)-10 from cultured bovine epithelial cells. To characterise the inflammatory response induced by these parasites, primary cultures of bovine oviduct epithelial cells were exposed to either T. vaginalis or T. foetus. Within 12 h after parasite challenge, supernatants were collected and cytokine production was analysed. Large amounts of IL-10 were detected in the supernatants of cultures that had been stimulated with T. foetus. Interestingly, T. vaginalis induced only a small increase in the release of IL-10 upon exposure to the same bovine cells. Thus, the inflammatory response of the host cell is species-specific. Only T. foetus and not T. vaginalis induced the release of IL-10 by bovine oviduct epithelial cells. PMID:23440124

  15. Trichomonas vaginalis exosomes deliver cargo to host cells and mediate host∶parasite interactions.

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    Olivia Twu

    Full Text Available Trichomonas vaginalis is a common sexually transmitted parasite that colonizes the human urogential tract where it remains extracellular and adheres to epithelial cells. Infections range from asymptomatic to highly inflammatory, depending on the host and the parasite strain. Here, we use a combination of methodologies including cell fractionation, immunofluorescence and electron microscopy, RNA, proteomic and cytokine analyses and cell adherence assays to examine pathogenic properties of T. vaginalis. We have found that T.vaginalis produces and secretes microvesicles with physical and biochemical properties similar to mammalian exosomes. The parasite-derived exosomes are characterized by the presence of RNA and core, conserved exosomal proteins as well as parasite-specific proteins. We demonstrate that T. vaginalis exosomes fuse with and deliver their contents to host cells and modulate host cell immune responses. Moreover, exosomes from highly adherent parasite strains increase the adherence of poorly adherent parasites to vaginal and prostate epithelial cells. In contrast, exosomes from poorly adherent strains had no measurable effect on parasite adherence. Exosomes from parasite strains that preferentially bind prostate cells increased binding of parasites to these cells relative to vaginal cells. In addition to establishing that parasite exosomes act to modulate host∶parasite interactions, these studies are the first to reveal a potential role for exosomes in promoting parasite∶parasite communication and host cell colonization.

  16. Trichomonas vaginalis: the adhesins AP51 and AP65 bind heme and hemoglobin.

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    Ardalan, Shahed; Lee, B Craig; Garber, Gary E

    2009-04-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis is the cause of human trichomoniasis, the most common non-viral sexually transmitted disease worldwide. Although acquisition of iron by binding to host hemoglobin through distinct receptor(s) has been described, no specific heme- or hemoglobin-binding site has been reported in this parasite. To determine the presence of hemoglobin-binding protein(s), membrane proteins were subjected to hemoglobin-affinity chromatography. Eluted proteins were analysed by SDS-PAGE. Two protein bands of 48 and 63 kDa were detected. Competition assay with an excess amount of hemoglobin or hemin in hemoglobin-affinity chromatography could block the 63- and 48-kDa bands, respectively. Further analysis by mass spectrometry indicated that the 48- and 63-kDa proteins had identity with two T. vaginalis adhesins: AP51 and AP65, respectively. This study confirms the existence of multifunctional proteins in T. vaginalis, and suggested that AP51 and AP65, besides serving as adhesion molecules, could also act as heme- and hemoglobin-binding proteins.

  17. Caatinga plants: Natural and semi-synthetic compounds potentially active against Trichomonas vaginalis.

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    Vieira, Patrícia de Brum; Silva, Nícolas Luiz Feijó; da Silva, Gloria Narjara Santos; Silva, Denise Brentan; Lopes, Norberto Peporine; Gnoatto, Simone Cristina Baggio; da Silva, Márcia Vanusa; Macedo, Alexandre José; Bastida, Jaume; Tasca, Tiana

    2016-05-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis causes trichomoniasis; the most common but overlooked non-viral sexually transmitted disease worldwide. The treatment is based at 5'-nitroimidazoles, however, failure are related to resistance of T. vaginalis to chemotherapy. Caatinga is a uniquely Brazilian region representing a biome with type desert vegetation and plants present diverse biological activity, however, with few studies. The aim of this study was to investigate the activity against T. vaginalis of different plants from Caatinga and identify the compounds responsible by the activity. A bioguided fractionation of Manilkara rufula was performed and four major compounds were identified: caproate of α-amyrin (1b), acetate of β-amyrin (2a), caproate of β-amyrin (2b), and acetate of lupeol (3a). In addition, six derivatives of α-amyrin (1), β-amyrin (2) and lupeol (3) were synthesized and tested against the parasite. Ursolic acid (5) reduced about 98% of parasite viability after 2h of incubation and drastic ultrastructural alterations were observed by scanning electron microscopy. Moreover, 5 presented high cytotoxicity to HMVII and HeLa cell line and low cytotoxicity against Vero line at 50 μM (MIC against the parasite). Metronidazole effect against T. vaginalis resistant isolate was improved when in association with 5. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The Caatinga endemic Manilkara rufula possesses remarkable activity against Trichomonas vaginalis and Tritrichomonas foetus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Brum Vieira, Patrícia; Feijó Silva, Nícolas Luiz; Silva, Denise Brentan; Lopes, Norberto Peporine; da Silva, Alexandre Gomes; da Silva, Márcia Vanusa; Bastida, Jaume; Macedo, Alexandre José; Tasca, Tiana

    2017-02-01

    Tritrichomonas foetus infects the bovine urogenital tract, causing bovine trichomoniasis. Significant economic losses may occur due to infertility and abortion among cattle. Trichomonas vaginalis is the causative agent of trichomoniasis; the most common but overlooked non-viral sexually transmitted disease worldwide. Human and bovine trichomoniasis present treatment restrictions and efforts to identify new alternatives are essential. The present study evaluated the anti-trichomonads activities of seven fractions from northwest endemic plant Manilkara rufula. Flavonoids and condensed tannins were identified from these fractions by LC-DAD-MS/MS and MALDI-MS/MS. Altogether, the results demonstrated for the first time the structural description of tannins from leaves of M. rufula and the relation of these compounds with anti-T. vaginalis and anti-T. foetus activities. Overall, this report reveals the potential of M. rufula fractions against both parasites and shows new alternatives to treat the infection caused by trichomonads. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. THE N-GLYCANS OF TRICHOMONAS VAGINALIS CONTAIN VARIABLE CORE AND ANTENNAL MODIFICATIONS

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    Paschinger, Katharina; Hykollari, Alba; Razzazi-Fazeli, Ebrahim; Greenwell, Pamela; Leitsch, David; Walochnik, Julia; Wilson, Iain B. H.

    2012-01-01

    Trichomonad species are widespread unicellular flagellated parasites of vertebrates which interact with their hosts through carbohydrate-lectin interactions. In the past, some data has been accumulated regarding their lipo(phospho)glycans, a major glycoconjugate on their cell surfaces; on the other hand, other than biosynthetic aspects, few details about their N-linked oligosaccharides are known. In this study, we present both mass spectrometric and HPLC data about the N-glycans of different strains of Trichomonas vaginalis, a parasite of the human reproductive tract. The major structure in all strains examined is a truncated oligomannose form (Man5GlcNAc2) with α1,2-mannose residues, compatible with a previous bioinformatic examination of the glycogenomic potential of T. vaginalis. In addition, dependent on the strain, N-glycans modified by pentose residues, phosphate or phosphoethanolamine and terminal N-acetyllactosamine (Galβ1,4GlcNAc) units were found. The modification of N-glycans by N-acetyllactosamine in at least some strains is shared with the lipo(phospho)glycan and may represent a further interaction partner for host galectins, thereby playing a role in binding of the parasite to host epithelia. On the other hand, the variation in glycosylation between strains may be the result of genetic diversity within this species. PMID:21983210

  20. "Evaluation of Trichomonas Vaginalis Isolates from Symptomatic and Asymptomatic Patients in Mouse Model"

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    Z Valadkhani

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Trichomoniasis, a worldwide prevalent infection, is a perfect example of interplay between the infecting parasite and the host, on which the presentation of disease depends. To study the pathogenesis, animal model is required for establishment of infection. In this study, by using strains of Trichomonas vaginalis isolated from vaginal swabs and/or urine samples and maintained in axenic form from 10 symptomatic and 10 asymptomatic female patients, the infections in BALB/c mice have been evaluated. Based on parasitic load, experimental peak infection in vagina of estradiol and L. acidophilus treated female BALB/c mice was observable on 5th post infection day. This was significantly higher in mice infected with isolates from symptomatic patients in comparison to the other group. Gradual increase up to day 5 followed by decline in parasites, polymorphs and vaginal epithelial cells was observed in mice infected with isolates from symptomatic subjects in contrast to mice infected with asymptomatic patients’ isolates or control animals at all time intervals.

  1. Molecular Characterization of Trichomonas vaginalis Strains Based on Identifying Their Probable Variations in Asymptomatic Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    SPOTIN, Adel; EGHTEDAR, Sanaz TAGHIZADEH; SHAHBAZI, Abbas; SALEHPOUR, Asghar; SARAFRAZ, Seddigheh; SHARIATZADEH, Seyyed Ali; MAHAMI-OSKOUEI, Mahmoud

    2016-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to identify the Trichomonas vaginalis strains/haplotypes based on identifying their probable variations in asymptomatic patients referred to Tabriz health centers, northwestern Iran. Methods: Sampling was taken from 50-suspected women to T. vaginalis in northwestern Iran. The obtained samples were smeared and cultured. Fifty DNA samples were extracted, amplified and identified by nested polymerase chain reaction and PCR-RFLP of actin gene using two endonuclease enzymes: MseI and RsaI. To reconfirm, the amplicons of actin gene were directly sequenced in order to identify the strains/haplotypes. Results: PCR-RFLP patterns, sequencing and phylogenetic analyses revealed definitely the presence of the G (n=22; 73.4%) and E (n=8; 26.6%) strains. Multiple alignments findings of genotype G showed five haplotypes and two amino acid substitutions in codons 192 and 211 although, no remarkable unique haplotype was found in genotype E. Conclusion: The accurate identification of T. vaginalis strains based on discrimination of their unknown haplotypes particularly those which are impacted on protein translation should be considered in parasite status, drug resistance, mixed infection with HIV and monitoring of asymptomatic trichomoniasis in the region. PMID:28127362

  2. Trichomonas, Candida , and Gardnerella in cervical smears of Iranian women for cancer screening

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    Narges Kalantari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Trichomonas vaginalis, Gardrenella vaginalis, and Candida sp are responsible for 90% of vaginitis which has been reported as important risk factors for cervical cancer. Aim: This study aimed to find the prevalence of T. vaginalis, Candida sp, and G. vaginalis in women attended the cancer clinic charity, Babol, Iran and to identify the associated risk factors. Materials and Methods: This retrospective study carried out from 1996 to July 2012 on women who attended to a cancer screening program at the cancer clinics charity, Babol, Iran. Papanicolaou test and clinical examinations were performed for each woman. In addition to Papanicolaou test results, demographic data were collected. The data were analyzed with X 2 test using SPSS software, version 18. Results: In total, 2511 out of 33600 (7.5% cases had vaginal infections. A total of 71 (0.2%, 2248 (6.7%, and 192 (0.6% of subjects were infected by T. vaginalis, Candida sp, and Gardnerella, respectively. The highest rate of infection was seen in 20-30 and 30-40 years age group. The frequency of vaginal ulcers was higher in trichomoniasis (14.1%. Conclusion: This study demonstrated that the prevalence of T. vaginalis, Candida sp, and Gardnerella was low among the studied population. Moreover, malignant cytological alternations were not seen in any infected women.

  3. Study on ITS1 Gene of Iranian Trichomonas Vaginalis by Molecular Methods

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    F Kazemi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Trichomoniasis is a worldwide protozoan parasitic disease and metronidazole is a choice drug for its treatment. Because of disease importance in public health and its controversial ideas about the prevalence of drug resistance, this study was carried out.Methods: Fifty-two suspected vaginal samples were collected from 2006 to 2007 in Gynecology Maryam Hospital, Tehran, Iran. All isolates were examined by microscopic, culture and PCR tech­niques. The PCR products were analyzed by RFLP and CSGE methods and two suspected samples were sequenced.Results: Trichomonas vaginalis was identified from all 52 samples. Of 52 isolates, 45 samples were successfully cultured and amplified by PCR except one. Seven were positive only by PCR. Finally, ITS1 fragment was successfully amplified in 51 of 52. CSGE analysis and PCR products di­gestion by MspI followed by sequencing showed nucleotide mutation at position 209 (C209T of the ITS1 fragment in two (3.9% of them.Conclusion: The results showed mutation in ITS1 fragment of T. vaginalis in two (3.9% of Ira­nian isolates which may be related to metronidazole resistance.

  4. Prevalence of Trichomonas vaginalis in Women Visiting 2 Obstetrics and Gynecology Clinics in Daegu, South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goo, Youn-Kyoung; Shin, Won-Sik; Yang, Hye-Won; Joo, So-Young; Song, Su-Min; Ryu, Jae-Sook; Lee, Won-Myung; Kong, Hyun-Hee; Lee, Won-Ki; Lee, Sang-Eun; Lee, Won-Ja; Chung, Dong-Il; Hong, Yeonchul

    2016-02-01

    This study explored epidemiological trends in trichomoniasis in Daegu, South Korea. Wet mount microscopy, PCR, and multiplex PCR were used to test for Trichomonas vaginalis in vaginal swab samples obtained from 621 women visiting 2 clinics in Daegu. Of the 621 women tested, microscopy detected T. vaginalis in 4 (0.6%) patients, PCR detected T. vaginalis in 19 (3.0%) patients, and multiplex PCR detected T. vaginalis in 12 (1.9%) patients. Testing via PCR demonstrated high sensitivity and high negative predictive value for T. vaginalis. Among the 19 women who tested positive for T. vaginalis according to PCR, 94.7% (18/19) reported vaginal signs and symptoms. Notably, more than 50% of T. vaginalis infections occurred in females younger than 30 years old, and 58% were unmarried. Multiplex PCR, which simultaneously detects pathogens from various sexually transmitted infections, revealed that 91.7% (11/12) of patients were infected with 2 or more pathogens. Mycoplasma hominis was the most prevalent co-infection pathogen with T. vaginalis, followed by Ureaplasma urealyticum and Chlamydia trachomatis. Our results indicate that PCR and multiplex PCR are the most sensitive tools for T. vaginalis diagnosis, rather than microscopy which has been routinely used to detect T. vaginalis infections in South Korea. Therefore, clinicians should take note of the high prevalence of T. vaginalis infections among adolescent and young women in order to prevent persistent infection and transmission of this disease.

  5. Modulatory effect of iron chelators on adenosine deaminase activity and gene expression in Trichomonas vaginalis.

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    Primon-Barros, Muriel; Rigo, Graziela Vargas; Frasson, Amanda Piccoli; Santos, Odelta dos; Smiderle, Lisiane; Almeida, Silvana; Macedo, Alexandre José; Tasca, Tiana

    2015-11-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis is a flagellate protozoan that parasitises the urogenital human tract and causes trichomoniasis. During the infection, the acquisition of nutrients, such as iron and purine and pyrimidine nucleosides, is essential for the survival of the parasite. The enzymes for purinergic signalling, including adenosine deaminase (ADA), which degrades adenosine to inosine, have been characterised in T. vaginalis. In the evaluation of the ADA profile in different T. vaginalis isolates treated with different iron sources or with limited iron availability, a decrease in activity and an increase in ADA gene expression after iron limitation by 2,2-bipyridyl and ferrozine chelators were observed. This supported the hypothesis that iron can modulate the activity of the enzymes involved in purinergic signalling. Under bovine serum limitation conditions, no significant differences were observed. The results obtained in this study allow for the assessment of important aspects of ADA and contribute to a better understanding of the purinergic system in T. vaginalis and the role of iron in establishing infection and parasite survival.

  6. Novel metronidazole-chalcone conjugates with potential to counter drug resistance in Trichomonas vaginalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthwal, Amit; Rajesh, U Chinna; Rawat, M S M; Kushwaha, Bhavana; Maikhuri, Jagdamba P; Sharma, Vishnu L; Gupta, Gopal; Rawat, Diwan S

    2014-05-22

    Trichomoniasis is the most prevalent, curable sexually transmitted disease (STD), which increases risk of viral STDs and HIV. However, drug resistance has been developed by some strains of Trichomonas vaginalis against Metronidazole (MTZ), the FDA approved drug against trichomoniasis. In the present study twenty two chalcone hybrids of metronidazole have been synthesized in a quest to get new molecules with higher potential against metronidazole-resistant T. vaginalis. All new hybrid molecules were found active against T. vaginalis with varying levels of activity against MTZ-susceptible and resistant strains. Eight compounds (4a, 4c, 4d, 4e, 4f, 4h, 4q and 4s) were found as active as the standard drug with an MIC of 1.56 μg/ml against MTZ-susceptible strain. However, compounds 4e, 4h and 4m were 4-times more active than MTZ against drug-resistant T. vaginalis, amongst which 4e and 4h were most promising against both susceptible and resistant strains.

  7. Inflammatory response of a prostate stromal cell line induced by Trichomonas vaginalis.

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    Im, S J; Han, I H; Kim, J H; Gu, N Y; Seo, M Y; Chung, Y H; Ryu, J S

    2016-04-01

    While Trichomonas vaginalis, a cause of sexually transmitted infection, is known as a surface-dwelling protozoa, trichomonads have been detected in prostatic tissue from benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostatitis by immunoperoxidase assay or PCR. However, the immune response of prostate stromal cells infected with T. vaginalis has not been investigated. Our objective was to investigate whether T. vaginalis could induce an inflammatory response in prostate stromal cells. Incubation of a human prostate stromal myofibroblast cells (WPMY-1) with live T. vaginalis T016 increased expression of the inflammatory chemokines CXCL8 and CCL2. In addition, TLR4, ROS, MAPK and NF-κB expression increased, while inhibitors of TLR4, ROS, MAPKs and NF-κB reduced CXCL8 and CCL2 production. Medium conditioned by incubation of WPMY-1 cells with T. vaginalis stimulated the migration of human neutrophils and monocytes (THP-1 cells). We conclude that T. vaginalis increases CXCL8 and CCL2 production by human prostate stromal cells by activating TLR4, ROS, MAPKs and NF-κB, and this in turn attracts neutrophils and monocytes and leads to an inflammatory response. This study is the first attempt to demonstrate an inflammatory reaction in prostate stromal cells caused by T. vaginalis.

  8. Analysis of the NTPDase and ecto-5'-nucleotidase profiles in serum-limited Trichomonas vaginalis

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    Amanda Piccoli Frasson

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Trichomonas vaginalis is a parasite of the human urogenital tract that causes trichomonosis, the most prevalent non-viral sexually transmitted disease. Ectonucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase (NTPDase family members, which hydrolyse extracellular ATP and ADP and ecto-5′-nucleotidase, which hydrolyses AMP, have been characterised in T. vaginalis. For trichomonad culture, the growth medium is supplemented with 10% serum, which is an important source of nutrients, such as adenosine. Here, we investigated the ATP metabolism of T. vaginalis trophozoites from long-term cultures and clinical isolates under limited bovine serum conditions (1% serum. The specific enzymatic activities were expressed as nmol inorganic phosphate (Pi released/min/mg protein, the gene expression patterns were determined by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, the extracellular adenine nucleotide hydrolysis was analysed by high performance liquid chromatography and the cell cycle analysis was assessed by flow cytometry. Serum limitation led to the profound activation of NTPDase and ecto-5'-nucleotidase activities. Furthermore, the levels of NTPDase A and B transcripts increased and extracellular ATP metabolism was activated, which led to enhanced ATP hydrolysis and the formation of ADP and AMP. Moreover, the cell cycle was arrested at the G0/G1 stage, which suggested adenosine uptake. Our data suggest that under conditions of serum limitation, NTPDase and ecto-5'-nucleotidase play a role in providing the adenosine required for T. vaginalis growth and that this process contributes to the establishment of parasitism.

  9. Genetic diversity of Trichomonas vaginalis clinical isolates from Henan province in central China.

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    Mao, Meng; Liu, Hui Li

    2015-07-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis is a flagellated protozoan parasite that infects the human urogenital tract, causing the most common non-viral, sexually transmitted disease worldwide. In this study, genetic variants of T. vaginalis were identified in Henan Province, China. Fragments of the small subunit of nuclear ribosomal RNA (18S rRNA) were amplified from 32 T. vaginalis isolates obtained from seven regions of Henan Province. Overall, 18 haplotypes were determined from the 18S rRNA sequences. Each sampled population and the total population displayed high haplotype diversity (Hd), accompanied by very low nucleotide diversity (Pi). In these molecular genetic variants, 91.58% genetic variation was derived from intra-regions. Phylogenetic analysis revealed no correlation between phylogeny and geographic distribution. Demographic analysis supported population expansion of T. vaginalis isolates from central China. Our findings showing moderate-to-high genetic variations in the 32 isolates of T. vaginalis provide useful knowledge for monitoring changes in parasite populations for the development of future control strategies.

  10. Recent Advances in the Trichomonas vaginalis Field [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Leitsch

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The microaerophilic protist parasite Trichomonas vaginalis is occurring globally and causes infections in the urogenital tract in humans, a condition termed trichomoniasis. In fact, trichomoniasis is the most prevalent non-viral sexually transmitted disease with more than 250 million people infected every year. Although trichomoniasis is not life threatening in itself, it can be debilitating and increases the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes, HIV infection, and, possibly, neoplasias in the prostate and the cervix. Apart from its role as a pathogen, T. vaginalis is also a fascinating organism with a surprisingly large genome for a parasite, i.e. larger than 160 Mb, and a physiology adapted to its microaerophilic lifestyle. In particular, the hydrogenosome, a mitochondria-derived organelle that produces hydrogen, has attracted much interest in the last few decades and rendered T. vaginalis a model organism for eukaryotic evolution. This review will give a succinct overview of the major advances in the T. vaginalis field in the last few years.

  11. The clinical spectrum of Trichomonas vaginalis infection and challenges to management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzny, Christina A; Schwebke, Jane R

    2013-09-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis is the most common curable sexually transmitted infection worldwide. T vaginalis infections in women can range from asymptomatic to acute inflammatory vaginitis. In men, this infection is typically asymptomatic but is increasingly being recognised as a cause of non-gonococcal urethritis. Diagnosis of T vaginalis has traditionally been made by direct microscopic examination of a wet mount of vaginal fluid or through the use of culture. The recent commercial availability of nucleic acid amplification tests for the detection of T vaginalis has seen these replace culture as the gold standard for diagnosis. Nitroimidazoles (ie, metronidazole and tinidazole) are the mainstay of therapy. In the case of treatment failure due to drug resistance or in the case of a severe nitroimidazole allergy, alternative intravaginal therapies exist, although their effectiveness has not been evaluated systematically. Novel systemic agents other than nitroimidazoles for the treatment of T vaginalis are needed, and efforts to promote and support antimicrobial drug development in this setting are necessary.

  12. Trichomonas vaginalis metalloproteinase induces mTOR cleavage of SiHa cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quan, Juan-Hua; Choi, In-Wook; Yang, Jung-Bo; Zhou, Wei; Cha, Guang-Ho; Zhou, Yu; Ryu, Jae-Sook; Lee, Young-Ha

    2014-12-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis secretes a number of proteases which are suspected to be the cause of pathogenesis; however, little is understood how they manipulate host cells. The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) regulates cell growth, cell proliferation, cell motility, cell survival, protein synthesis, and transcription. We detected various types of metalloproteinases including GP63 protein from T. vaginalis trophozoites, and T. vaginalis GP63 metalloproteinase was confirmed by sequencing and western blot. When SiHa cells were stimulated with live T. vaginalis, T. vaginalis excretory-secretory products (ESP) or T. vaginalis lysate, live T. vaginalis and T. vaginalis ESP induced the mTOR cleavage in both time- and parasite load-dependent manner, but T. vaginalis lysate did not. Pretreatment of T. vaginalis with a metalloproteinase inhibitor, 1,10-phenanthroline, completely disappeared the mTOR cleavage in SiHa cells. Collectively, T. vaginalis metallopeptidase induces host cell mTOR cleavage, which may be related to survival of the parasite.

  13. Epigenome mapping highlights chromatin-mediated gene regulation in the protozoan parasite Trichomonas vaginalis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Min-Ji; Kim, Mikyoung; Choi, Yeeun; Yi, Myung-hee; Kim, Juri; Park, Soon-Jung; Yong, Tai-Soon; Kim, Hyoung-Pyo

    2017-01-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis is an extracellular flagellated protozoan parasite that causes trichomoniasis, one of the most common non-viral sexually transmitted diseases. To survive and to maintain infection, T. vaginalis adapts to a hostile host environment by regulating gene expression. However, the mechanisms of transcriptional regulation are poorly understood for this parasite. Histone modification has a marked effect on chromatin structure and directs the recruitment of transcriptional machinery, thereby regulating essential cellular processes. In this study, we aimed to outline modes of chromatin-mediated gene regulation in T. vaginalis. Inhibition of histone deacetylase (HDAC) alters global transcriptional responses and induces hyperacetylation of histones and hypermethylation of H3K4. Analysis of the genome of T. vaginalis revealed that a number of enzymes regulate histone modification, suggesting that epigenetic mechanisms are important to controlling gene expression in this organism. Additionally, we describe the genome-wide localization of two histone H3 modifications (H3K4me3 and H3K27Ac), which we found to be positively associated with active gene expression in both steady and dynamic transcriptional states. These results provide the first direct evidence that histone modifications play an essential role in transcriptional regulation of T. vaginalis, and may help guide future epigenetic research into therapeutic intervention strategies against this parasite. PMID:28345651

  14. Five putative nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase genes are expressed in Trichomonas vaginalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frasson, Amanda Piccoli; Dos Santos, Odelta; Meirelles, Lúcia Collares; Macedo, Alexandre José; Tasca, Tiana

    2016-01-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis is a protozoan that parasitizes the human urogenital tract causing trichomoniasis, the most common non-viral sexually transmitted disease. The parasite has unique genomic characteristics such as a large genome size and expanded gene families. Ectonucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase (E-NTPDase) is an enzyme responsible for hydrolyzing nucleoside tri- and diphosphates and has already been biochemically characterized in T. vaginalis. Considering the important role of this enzyme in the production of extracellular adenosine for parasite uptake, we evaluated the gene expression of five putative NTPDases in T. vaginalis. We showed that all five putative TvNTPDase genes (TvNTPDase1-5) were expressed by both fresh clinical and long-term grown isolates. The amino acid alignment predicted the presence of the five crucial apyrase conserved regions, transmembrane domains, signal peptides, phosphorylation and catalytic sites. Moreover, a phylogenetic analysis showed that TvNTPDase sequences make up a clade with NTPDases intracellularly located. Biochemical NTPDase activity (ATP and ADP hydrolysis) is responsive to the serum-restrictive conditions and the gene expression of TvNTPDases was mostly increased, mainly TvNTPDase2 and TvNTPDase4, although there was not a clear pattern of expression among them. In summary, the present report demonstrates the gene expression patterns of predicted NTPDases in T. vaginalis.

  15. PCR for diagnosis of male Trichomonas vaginalis infection with chronic prostatitis and urethritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jong Jin; Moon, Hong Sang; Lee, Tchun Yong; Hwang, Hwan Sik; Ahn, Myoung-Hee; Ryu, Jae-Sook

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the usefulness of PCR for diagnosis of Trichomonas vaginalis infection among male patients with chronic recurrent prostatitis and urethritis. Between June 2001 and December 2003, a total of 33 patients visited the Department of Urology, Hanyang University Guri Hospital and were examined for T. vaginalis infection by PCR and culture in TYM medium. For the PCR, we used primers based on a repetitive sequence cloned from T. vaginalis (TV-E650). Voided bladder urine (VB1 and VB3) was sampled from 33 men with symptoms of lower urinary tract infection (urethral charge, residual urine sensation, and frequency). Culture failed to detect any T. vaginalis infection whereas PCR identified 7 cases of trichomoniasis (21.2%). Five of the 7 cases had been diagnosed with prostatitis and 2 with urethritis. PCR for the 5 prostatitis cases yielded a positive 330 bp band from bothVB1 and VB3, whereas positive results were only obtained from VB1 for the 2 urethritis patients. We showed that the PCR method could detect T. vaginalis when there was only 1 T. vaginalis cell per PCR mixture. Our results strongly support the usefulness of PCR on urine samples for detecting T. vaginalis in chronic prostatitis and urethritis patients.

  16. Trichomonas vaginalis flavin reductase 1 and its role in metronidazole resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitsch, David; Janssen, Brian D; Kolarich, Daniel; Johnson, Patricia J; Duchêne, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The enzyme flavin reductase 1 (FR1) from Trichomonas vaginalis, formerly known as NADPH oxidase, was isolated and identified. Flavin reductase is part of the antioxidative defence in T. vaginalis and indirectly reduces molecular oxygen to hydrogen peroxide via free flavins. Importantly, a reduced or absent flavin reductase activity has been reported in metronidazole-resistant T. vaginalis, resulting in elevated intracellular oxygen levels and futile cycling of metronidazole. Interestingly, FR1 has no close homologue in any other sequenced genome, but seven full-length and three truncated isoforms exist in the T. vaginalis genome. However, out of these, only FR1 has an affinity for flavins, i.e. FMN, FAD and riboflavin, which is high enough to be of physiological relevance. Although there are no relevant changes in the gene sequence or any alterations of the predicted FR1-mRNA structure in any of the strains studied, FR1 is not expressed in highly metronidazole-resistant strains. Transfection of a metronidazole-resistant clinical isolate (B7268), which does not express any detectable amounts of FR, with a plasmid bearing a functional FR1 gene nearly completely restored metronidazole sensitivity. Our results indicate that FR1 has a significant role in the emergence of metronidazole resistance in T. vaginalis.

  17. A systematic identification of Kolobok superfamily transposons in Trichomonas vaginalis and sequence analysis on related transposases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qingshu Meng; Kaifu Chen; Lina Ma; Songnian Hu; Jun Yu

    2011-01-01

    Transposons are sequence elements widely distributed among genomes of all three kingdoms of life, providing genomic changes and playing significant roles in genome evolution. Trichomonas vaginalis is an excellent model system for transposon study since its genome ( ~ 160 Mb) has been sequenced and is composed of ~65% transposons and other repetitive elements. In this study, we primarily report the identification of Kolobok-type transposons (termed tvBac) in T. vaginalis and the results of transposase sequence analysis. We categorized 24 novel subfamilies of the Kolobok element, including one autonomous subfamily and 23 non-autonomous subfamilies. We also identified a novel H2CH motif in tvBac transposases based on multiple sequence alignment. In addition, we supposed that tvBac and Mutator transposons may have evolved independently from a common ancestor according to our phylogenetic analysis. Our results provide basic information for the understanding of the function and evolution of tvBac transposons in particular and other related transposon families in general.

  18. Influence of 120 kDa Pyruvate:Ferredoxin Oxidoreductase on Pathogenicity of Trichomonas vaginalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Hyun-Ouk

    2016-02-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis is a flagellate protozoan parasite and commonly infected the lower genital tract in women and men. Iron is a known nutrient for growth of various pathogens, and also reported to be involved in establishment of trichomoniasis. However, the exact mechanism was not clarified. In this study, the author investigated whether the 120 kDa protein of T. vaginalis may be involved in pathogenicity of trichomonads. Antibodies against 120 kDa protein of T. vaginalis, which was identified as pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase (PFOR) by peptide analysis of MALDI-TOF-MS, were prepared in rabbits. Pretreatment of T. vaginalis with anti-120 kDa Ab decreased the proliferation and adherence to vaginal epithelial cells (MS74) of T. vaginalis. Subcutaneous tissue abscess in anti-120 kDa Ab-treated T. vaginalis-injected mice was smaller in size than that of untreated T. vaginalis-infected mice. Collectively, the 120 kDa protein expressed by iron may be involved in proliferation, adhesion to host cells, and abscess formation, thereby may influence on the pathogenicity of T. vaginalis.

  19. Hydrogenosome metabolism is the key target for antiparasitic activity of resveratrol against Trichomonas vaginalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallo, Natalia; Lamas, Jesús; Leiro, José M

    2013-06-01

    Metronidazole (MDZ) and related 5-nitroimidazoles are the recommended drugs for treatment of trichomoniasis, a sexually transmitted disease caused by the protozoan parasite Trichomonas vaginalis. However, novel treatment options are needed, as recent reports have claimed resistance to these drugs in T. vaginalis isolates. In this study, we analyzed for the first time the in vitro effects of the natural polyphenol resveratrol (RESV) on T. vaginalis. At concentrations of between 25 and 100 μM, RESV inhibited the in vitro growth of T. vaginalis trophozoites; doses of 25 μM exerted a cytostatic effect, and higher doses exerted a cytotoxic effect. At these concentrations, RESV caused inhibition of the specific activity of a 120-kDa [Fe]-hydrogenase (Tvhyd). RESV did not affect Tvhyd gene expression and upregulated pyruvate-ferredoxin oxidoreductase (a hydrogenosomal enzyme) gene expression only at a high dose (100 μM). At doses of 50 to 100 μM, RESV also caused overexpression of heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70), a protective protein found in the hydrogenosome of T. vaginalis. The results demonstrate the potential of RESV as an antiparasitic treatment for trichomoniasis and suggest that the mechanism of action involves induction of hydrogenosomal dysfunction. In view of the results, we propose hydrogenosomal metabolism as a key target in the design of novel antiparasitic drugs.

  20. Effect of recombinant prophenin 2 on the integrity and viability of Trichomonas vaginalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez-Flores, J L; Rodriguez, M C; Gastelum Arellanez, A; Alvarez-Morales, A; Avila, E E

    2015-01-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis is the causal agent of trichomoniasis, which is associated with preterm child delivery, low birth weight, and an increased risk of infection by human papilloma virus and human immunodeficiency virus following exposure. Several reports have established increasing numbers of trichomoniasis cases resistant to metronidazole, the agent used for treatment, and it is therefore important to identify new therapeutic alternatives. Previously, our group reported the effect of tritrpticin, a synthetic peptide derived from porcine prophenin, on T. vaginalis; however, the hemolytic activity of this small peptide complicates its possible use as a therapeutic agent. In this study, we report that the propeptide and the processed peptide of prophenin 2 (cleaved with hydroxylamine) affected the integrity and growth of T. vaginalis and that pro-prophenin 2 displays some resistance to proteolysis by T. vaginalis proteinases at 1 h. Its effect on T. vaginalis as well as its low hemolytic activity and short-time stability to parasite proteinases makes prophenin 2 an interesting candidate for synergistic or alternative treatment against T. vaginalis.

  1. Molecular typing of the actin gene of Trichomonas vaginalis isolates by PCR-RFLP in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momeni, Zohreh; Sadraei, Javid; Kazemi, Bahram; Dalimi, Abdolhossein

    2015-12-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis is a human urogenital pathogen that causes trichomoniasis, the most common nonviral, parasitic sexually transmitted infection in the world. At present, little is known regarding the degree of strain variability of T. vaginalis. A classification method for T. vaginalis strains would be a useful tool in the study of the epidemiology, drug resistance, pathogenesis and transmission of T. vaginalis. Eight different types of actin genes have been identified by PCR-RFLP in T. vaginalis; the purpose of this study is to determine the genotypes of this parasite in Karaj city, Iran. Forty-five clinical T. vaginalis isolates from vaginal secretions and urine sediment were collected from Karaj city from 2012 through 2014. DNA was extracted and the actin gene was amplified by nested-PCR; all samples were positive. To determine the genetic differences, sequencing on seven samples was conducted. Then, all PCR products were digested with HindII, MseI, and RsaI restriction enzymes. Of 45 isolates, 23 samples (51.1%) were of actin genotype G, 11 samples (24.4%) of genotype E, six samples (13.3%) of genotype H, three samples (6.6%) of genotype I, and two samples (4.4%) were mixed genotypes of G and E. Genetic diversity of T. vaginalis isolates is notable. The actin genotype G may be the dominant genotype in Karaj city, Iran.

  2. Effect of Mexican medicinal plant used to treat trichomoniasis on Trichomonas vaginalis trophozoites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calzada, Fernando; Yépez-Mulia, Lilian; Tapia-Contreras, Amparo

    2007-09-05

    Crude methanolic extracts from 22 Mexican medicinal plants were screened for antitrichomonal activity against Trichomonas vaginalis, which is the etiological agent of trichomoniasis. Among the plants tested Carica papaya and Cocos nucifera showed the best antitrichomonal activity with IC(50) values of 5.6 and 5.8 microg/ml, respectively. The extracts of Bocconia frutescens, Geranium mexicanum, and Lygodium venustum showed moderate activity with IC(50) values ranging from 30.9 to 60.9 microg/ml. All the other plant extracts were inactive (IC(50)>100 microg/ml). All extracts tested were less active than metronidazole (IC(50) 0.037 microg/ml), an antiprotozoal drug used as positive control. The results of the antiprotozoal screening support the popular uses of five of the plants tested for the treatment of some urogenital tract disorders in Mexican traditional medicine. However, seeds of Carica papaya and aerial parts of Bocconia frutescens should be used in herbal medicine with care to avoid toxicity.

  3. IL-10 release by bovine epithelial cells cultured with Trichomonas vaginalis and Tritrichomonas foetus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Chaves Vilela

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Trichomonas vaginalis and Tritrichomonas foetus are parasitic protists of the human and bovine urogenital tracts, respectively. Several studies have described the cytotoxic effects of trichomonads on urogenital tract epithelial cells. However, little is known about the host cell response against trichomonads. The aim of this study was to determine whether T. foetus and T. vaginalis stimulated the release of the cytokine interleukin (IL-10 from cultured bovine epithelial cells. To characterise the inflammatory response induced by these parasites, primary cultures of bovine oviduct epithelial cells were exposed to either T. vaginalis or T. foetus. Within 12 h after parasite challenge, supernatants were collected and cytokine production was analysed. Large amounts of IL-10 were detected in the supernatants of cultures that had been stimulated with T. foetus. Interestingly, T. vaginalis induced only a small increase in the release of IL-10 upon exposure to the same bovine cells. Thus, the inflammatory response of the host cell is species-specific. Only T. foetus and not T. vaginalis induced the release of IL-10 by bovine oviduct epithelial cells.

  4. Optimization of Trichomonas vaginalis Diagnosis during Pregnancy at a University Hospital, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testardini, Pamela; Vaulet, María Lucía Gallo; Entrocassi, Andrea Carolina; Menghi, Claudia; Eliseht, Martha Cora; Gatta, Claudia; Losada, Mirta; Touzón, María Sol; Corominas, Ana; Vay, Carlos; Tatti, Silvio; Famiglietti, Angela; Fermepin, Marcelo Rodriguez; Perazzi, Beatriz

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate different methods for Trichomonas vaginalis diagnosis during pregnancy in order to prevent maternal and perinatal complications. A total of 386 vaginal exudates from pregnant women were analyzed. T. vaginalis was investigated by 3 types of microscopic examinations direct wet mount with physiologic saline solution, prolonged May-Grunwald Giemsa (MGG) staining, and wet mount with sodium-acetate-formalin (SAF)/methylene blue method. PCR for 18S rRNA gene as well as culture in liquid medium were performed. The sensitivity and specificity of the microscopic examinations were evaluated considering the culture media positivity or the PCR techniques as gold standard. The frequency of T. vaginalis infection was 6.2% by culture and/or PCR, 5.2% by PCR, 4.7% by culture, 3.1% by SAF/methylene blue method and 2.8% by direct wet smear and prolonged MGG staining. The sensitivities were 83.3%, 75.0%, 50.0%, and 45.8% for PCR, culture, SAF/methylene blue method, and direct wet smear-prolonged MGG staining, respectively. The specificity was 100% for all the assessed methods. Microscopic examinations showed low sensitivity, mainly in asymptomatic pregnant patients. It is necessary to improve the detection of T. vaginalis using combined methods providing higher sensitivity, such as culture and PCR, mainly in asymptomatic pregnant patients, in order to prevent maternal and perinatal complications.

  5. Epidemiology of Plasmodium vivax in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surjadjaja, Claudia; Surya, Asik; Baird, J Kevin

    2016-12-28

    Endemic malaria occurs across much of the vast Indonesian archipelago. All five species of Plasmodium known to naturally infect humans occur here, along with 20 species of Anopheles mosquitoes confirmed as carriers of malaria. Two species of plasmodia cause the overwhelming majority and virtually equal shares of malaria infections in Indonesia: Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax The challenge posed by P. vivax is especially steep in Indonesia because chloroquine-resistant strains predominate, along with Chesson-like strains that relapse quickly and multiple times at short intervals in almost all patients. Indonesia's hugely diverse human population carries many variants of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency, most of them exhibiting severely impaired enzyme activity. Therefore, the patients most likely to benefit from primaquine therapy by preventing aggressive relapse, may also be most likely to suffer harm without G6PD deficiency screening. Indonesia faces the challenge of controlling and eventually eliminating malaria across > 13,500 islands stretching > 5,000 km and an enormous diversity of ecological, ethnographic, and socioeconomic settings, and extensive human migrations. This article describes the occurrence of P. vivax in Indonesia and the obstacles faced in eliminating its transmission. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  6. Plasmodium simium/Plasmodium vivax infections in southern brown howler monkeys from the Atlantic Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Camargos Costa

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Blood infection by the simian parasite, Plasmodium simium, was identified in captive (n = 45, 4.4% and in wild Alouatta clamitans monkeys (n = 20, 35% from the Atlantic Forest of southern Brazil. A single malaria infection was symptomatic and the monkey presented clinical and haematological alterations. A high frequency of Plasmodium vivax-specific antibodies was detected among these monkeys, with 87% of the monkeys testing positive against P. vivax antigens. These findings highlight the possibility of malaria as a zoonosis in the remaining Atlantic Forest and its impact on the epidemiology of the disease.

  7. Detection of Acanthamoeba and Toxoplasma in River Water Samples by Molecular Methods in Iran.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Mahmoudi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Free-living amoebae such as Acanthamoeba species may act as carriers of Cryptosporidium and Toxoplasma oocysts, thus, may play an important role in the water-borne transmission of these parasites. In the present study, a loop mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP method for detection of Toxoplasma and a PCR assay were developed for investigation of Acanthamoeba in environmental water samples.A total of 34 samples were collected from the surface water in Guilan Province. Water samples were filtrated with membrane filters and followed by DNA extraction. PCR and LAMP methods used for detection of the protozoan parasites Acanthamoeba and Toxoplasma respectively.Totally 30 and 2 of 34 samples were positive for Acanthamoeba and Toxoplasma oocysts respectively. Two samples were positive for both investigated parasites.The investigated water supplies, are contaminated by Toxoplasma and Acanthamoeba (oocystes. Acanthamoeba may play an important role in water-borne transmission of Toxoplasma in the study area. For the first time in Iran, protocol of LAMP method was used effectively for the detection of Toxoplasma in surface water samples in Iran.

  8. Susceptibility of pregnant women to toxoplasma infection--potential benefits for newborn screening.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ferguson, W

    2008-08-20

    Congenital toxoplasmosis (CT) arises as a result of new acquisition of Toxoplasma infection by a susceptible woman during pregnancy. Early detection of CT through neonatal screening programmes could optimize management and improve infant outcome. This study sought to estimate the prevalence of Toxoplasma susceptibility in pregnant women. As detection of Toxoplasma antibodies in neonatal blood reflects maternal exposure history, maternal antibody seroprevalence was determined using anonymized residual blood from newborn screening cards. A total of 20,252 cards were tested in 1 year. 4,991 (24.6%) cards tested positive for Toxoplasma antibody. Results were stratified by county. Toxoplasma antibody seroprevalence rates of 25% indicated that Toxoplasma infection is common in Ireland and that up to 75% of women remain susceptible to primary infection during pregnancy. This study aimed to a) determine the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma antibody in pregnant women, and hence b) estimate the risk for acquisition of primary toxoplasmosis in pregnancy in order to support an application to fund a pilot newborn screening programme.

  9. Can trichomonas immunochromatographic test increase the validity and reliability of WHO syndromic algorithm for vaginal discharge as a screening tool for trichomoniasis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasini Banneheke

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Trichomoniasis is a sexually transmitted parasitic infection. The World Health Organization (WHO advocated flow charts for curable sexually transmitted infections (STIs to improve the care. In this study, an attempt was made to evaluate the validity and reliability of WHO syndromic algorithm for vaginal discharge against trichomonas immunochromatographic test (ICT. Trichomonas ICT is a test with high validity, reliability, and feasibility. Objectives: The objective was to evaluate the validity and reliability of "WHO syndromic algorithm for vaginal discharge" against "trichomonas ICT" as a screening tool for trichomonas infection among women of reproductive age in the Western Province, Sri Lanka. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in sexually transmitted disease clinics, well woman clinics, gynecology clinics, and institutional health clinics in the Western Province, Sri Lanka. We enrolled 100 women in the age group of 15-45 years using the stratified random sampling method. They were interviewed and examined and the specimens were collected to identify trichomoniasis by culture and ICT. Two-stage analyses were done to evaluate the performance of the WHO algorithm against Trichomonas ICT. Results: In a two-stage analysis, the specificity of syndromic algorithm improved from 80.9% to 94.4% while false positive rate reduced from 19.1% to 5.6%. The net effect of specificity was 98.7% while the false positive rate was 1.3%. Conclusion: The validity and reliability of WHO syndromic algorithm as a diagnostic tool for trichomoniasis can be improved by adding trichomonas ICT.

  10. Infección por toxoplasma: panorama actual

    OpenAIRE

    Palmezano Díaz, Jorge Mario; Plazas Rey, Lisette Katherine; Rojas Carvajal, Daniela

    2015-01-01

    Tema y alcance: este artículo pretende ofrecer al lector una mirada general sobre la toxoplasmosis, una zoonosis causada por Toxoplasma gondii, que afecta tanto a los hospederos intermediarios, como a los definitivos; buscamos que pueda entenderse la dinámica de la enfermedad, dejando de lado ciertos mitos sobre esta. Características: los félidos (Felidae) son los hospederos definitivos, entre los cuales encontramos a los gatos como los más cercanos al ser humano, que desarrollan la forma sex...

  11. Experimental toxoplasma gondii infection in grey seals (Halichoerus grypus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gajadhar, A. A.; Measures, L.; Forbes, L. B.;

    2004-01-01

    changes were observed in all inoculated seals but not in control animals. A modified agglutination test revealed the presence of antibodies to T. gondii in sera collected from inoculated seals and mice inoculated as controls. No evidence of the parasite was found on an extensive histological examination......Laboratory-reared animals were used to assess the susceptibility of seals (Halichoerus grypus) to Toxoplasma gondii infection. Four seals were each orally inoculated with 100 or 10,000 oocysts of T. gondii (VEG strain), and another 4 seals served as negative controls. Occasionally, mild behavioral...

  12. Serologic survey for Toxoplasma gondii in grizzly bears from Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarnke, R L; Dubey, J P; Kwok, O C; Ver Hoef, J M

    1997-04-01

    Blood samples were collected from 892 grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) in Alaska (USA) from 1973 to 1987. Sera were tested for evidence of exposure to Toxoplasma gondii by means of the modified agglutination test. Two hundred twenty sera (25%) had titers > or = 25, the minimum threshold titer. Six hundred seventy-two sera (75%) had titers < 25. Antibody prevalence ranged from 9% (18 positive of 196 tested) in southern areas to 37% (162 of 433 tested) in northern areas. There was no readily apparent explanation for these discrepancies in location-specific prevalence.

  13. Mosquito transmission of wild turkey malaria, Plasmodium hermani.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, M D; Nayar, J K; Forrester, D J

    1977-04-01

    Culex nigripalpus experimentally transmitted Plasmodium hermani, a plasmodium of wild turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo) in Florida. The mosquitoes were infected by feeding upon blood induced parasitemias in domestic turkey poults. The resulting sporozoites, transmitted by either mosquito bites or injection, produced malaria infections in domestic poults.

  14. Plasmodium vivax induced myocarditis: A rare case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Gupta

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Malaria is one of the commonest parasitic disease in the tropics since ages. However the plasmodium still continues to give surprises to all of us. In the similar context we report a case of Plasmodium vivax induced myocarditis in a 20 year old male and review the literature related to this rare entitiy.

  15. Multiplicity of Infection and Disease Severity in Plasmodium vivax

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pacheco, M Andreína; Lopez-Perez, Mary; Vallejo, Andrés F

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Multiplicity of infection (MOI) refers to the average number of distinct parasite genotypes concurrently infecting a patient. Although several studies have reported on MOI and the frequency of multiclonal infections in Plasmodium falciparum, there is limited data on Plasmodium vivax. ...

  16. Severe sepsis and septic shock due to Plasmodium vivax infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalkias, Athanasios; Aridas, Sotirios; Karageorgopoulos, Drosos E; Stratiotis, Georgios; Mystrioti, Dimitra; Mallios, Athanasios; Nakos, Ioannis; Mpellos, Nikolaos; Ganotopoulou, Asimina; Xanthos, Theodoros

    2013-04-01

    Plasmodium vivax malaria is typically characterized by a mild and benign clinical course. Organ dysfunction is rarely seen, whereas acute lung injury has been found to occur after starting antimalarial treatment. We present an unusual case of severe sepsis and septic shock due to Plasmodium vivax monoinfection.

  17. The Study of Clinical Treatment of Trichomonas Vaginitis%滴虫性阴道炎的临床治疗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张艳

    2015-01-01

    目的:观察滴虫性阴道炎的全身治疗、局部治疗的临床疗效。方法将34例滴虫性阴道炎患者临床治疗资料进行分析。结果34例滴虫性阴道炎患者治愈31例,占91.18%,好转3例,占8.82%,总有效率100%,用药时间4~21天,平均12.5天。结论滴虫性阴道炎多发生在月经后复发,故治疗后检查滴虫性时,应于月经后复查白带、如果连续3次滴虫性检查均阴性时方可称治愈。%Objective To investigate clinical effect of the systemic and local treatment of trichomonas vaginitis.Methods Analyzed 34 cases of Trichomonas vaginitis patient’s clinical data.Results There were 31 cases completely cured, accounting for 91.18%, 3 cases improved markedly , accounting for 8.82%, the total efifciency of 100%. The treatment time of 4 to 21 days, an average of 12.5 days.Conclusion Trichomonas vaginitis occurred in the period after relapse, so check trichomoniasis, you should review the treatment of vaginal discharge after menstruation before when called cured trichomoniasis if three consecutive tests were negative.

  18. Plasmodium vivax cerebral malaria complicated with venous sinus thrombosis in Colombia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Miguel A Pinzn; Juan C Pineda; Fernando Rosso; Masaru Shinchi; Fabio Bonilla-Abada

    2013-01-01

    Complicated malaria is usually due to Plasmodium falciparum. Nevertheless, Plasmodium vivax is infrequently related with life-threatening complications. Few cases have been reported of severe Plasmodium vivax infection, and most of them from Southeast Asia and India. We report the first case of cerebral malaria due to Plasmodium vivax in Latin America, complicated with sagittal sinus thrombosis and confirmed by a molecular method.

  19. Lymph node infection by Trichomonas tenax: report of a case with co-infection by Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duboucher, C; Farto-Bensasson, F; Chéron, M; Peltier, J Y; Beaufils, F; Périé, G

    2000-10-01

    In an 82-year-old woman, presenting with fever and asthenia, cervical adenopathy was noted. Clinical and radiological investigations were fruitless. Laboratory examinations detected a refractory anemia. The lymph node was excised and showed numerous trichomonads on touch preparations. Histologically, the node showed caseous necrosis and macrophagic reaction. Diagnosis of lymph node infection by Trichomonas tenax was made. Three weeks later, culture of the node showed Mycobacterium tuberculosis and let us conclude co-infection. T tenax is usually regarded as a harmless saprophyte of the oral cavity. This exceptional observation shows for the first time an invasive potential of T tenax. It raises questions about links with tuberculosis and refractory anemia.

  20. [Morphology and diagnosis of the oral protozoans Trichomonas tenax and Entamoeba gingivalis using the Giemsa-Romanovsky stain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vráblic, J; Vodrázka, J; Tomová, S; Staník, R; Catár, G

    1998-11-01

    In the microscopic diagnosis of Trichomonas tenax and Entamoeba gingivalis is the technically and time not demanding native preparation of a culture, in which both protozoans can be detected according to their typical motility, determining. In the permanent preparation of the culture stained according to Giemsa-Romanovsky, which has also documentary character, are all of the characteristic cell organelles stainable, enabling so their detection without their typical motility. Staining according to Giemsa-Romanovsky is technically simple and not time consuming, not very laborious, low cost and the coloration is permanent, that means optimal for the diagnostic of oral protozoans in permanent preparations. (Fig. 5, Ref. 4.)

  1. Saponinas esteroidales de la planta Agave brittoniana (Agavaceae) con actividad contra el parásito Trichomona vaginalis

    OpenAIRE

    Orestes Guerra, José; Meneses,Alfredo; María Simonet, Ana; Antonio Macías, Francisco; Nogueiras, Clara; Gómez, Alicia; A. Escario, José

    2007-01-01

    El género Agave, familia Agavaceae, tiene más de 300 especies, con aproximadamente 16 distribuidas en toda Cuba. Una de ellas, el Agave brittoniana Trel. (ssp. brachypus), es una subespecie endémica y sus hojas son tradicionalmente utilizadas en el tratamiento de enfermedades parasitarias. Se realizaron estudios "in vitro" de la actividad de productos de esta planta frente a Trichomona vaginalis. Las hojas secas y pulverizadas fueron extraídas tres veces con una mezcla de etanol-agua (7: 3) m...

  2. Frequency of Trichomonas vaginalis, Candida sp and Gardnerella vaginalis in cervical-vaginal smears in four different decades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila Jorge Adad

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Vaginitis is one of the principal motives that lead women to seek out an obstetrician or gynecologist. Bacterial vaginosis, candidiasis and trichomoniasis are responsible for 90% of the cases of infectious vaginitis. OBJECTIVE: To verify the frequency of the three main causative agents of vaginitis, Trichomonas vaginalis, Candida sp and Gardnerella vaginalis, in four different decades (1960's, 1970's, 1980's and 1990's. DESIGN: Retrospective. PLACE: A tertiary referral center. PARTICIPANTS: Patients attended to as gynecology and obstetrics outpatients at the Faculdade de Medicina do Triângulo Mineiro during the years 1968, 1978, 1988, 1998, taken as samples of each decade. MAIN MEASUREMENTS: Diagnoses of infection by Trichomonas vaginalis, Candida sp and Gardnerella vaginalis were gathered from 20,356 cervical-vaginal cytology tests on patients attended to as gynecology outpatients at Faculdade de Medicina do Triângulo Mineiro during the years 1968, 1978, 1988, 1998, representing the four decades. The results were grouped according to the age group of the patients: under 20, between 20 and 29, between 30 and 39, between 40 and 49, and 50 or over. Statistical analysis was done via the chi-squared (Mantel-Haentzel test with a significance level of 5%. RESULTS: In 1968 infections by Trichomonas vaginalis and Candida sp were diagnosed in 10% and 0.5% of the cytology tests and in 1978, 5.1% and 17.3%, respectively (P < 0.0001. Infection by Gardnerella vaginalis could only be evaluated in the latter two decades. In 1988, 19.8% of the women had positive tests for Gardnerella vaginalis, which was the most frequent agent in that year, diminishing in the subsequent decade to 15.9% (P < 0.0001. Candidiasis was the most frequent infection in 1998, detected in 22.5% of the tests (P < 0.0001. In a general manner, all the infections were most frequent among younger patients, especially those aged under 20, in all decades, whereas infections were

  3. Saponinas esteroidales de la planta Agave brittoniana (Agavaceae) con actividad contra el parásito Trichomona vaginalis

    OpenAIRE

    José Orestes Guerra; Alfredo Meneses; Ana María Simonet; Francisco Antonio Macías; Clara Nogueiras; Alicia Gómez; Escario,José A

    2008-01-01

    El género Agave, familia Agavaceae, tiene más de 300 especies, con aproximadamente 16 distribuidas en toda Cuba. Una de ellas, el Agave brittoniana Trel. (ssp. brachypus), es una subespecie endémica y sus hojas son tradicionalmente utilizadas en el tratamiento de enfermedades parasitarias. Se realizaron estudios "in vitro" de la actividad de productos de esta planta frente a Trichomona vaginalis. Las hojas secas y pulverizadas fueron extraídas tres veces con una mezcla de etanol-agua (7: 3) m...

  4. Survey for Trichomonas gallinae in Northern Bobwhites (Colinus virginianus) from the Rolling Plains Ecoregion, Oklahoma and Texas, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, Andrea; Fedynich, Alan; Purple, Kathryn; Gerhold, Richard; Rollins, Dale

    2015-07-01

    Northern Bobwhites (Colinus virginianus) have been in decline throughout the southeastern US. Prevalence of Trichomonas gallinae in wild bobwhites is unknown, although T. gallinae caused morbidity and mortality in experimentally infected bobwhites. Many species of Columbidae (pigeons and doves) in Texas are hosts to T. gallinae. Bobwhites potentially may become exposed to this protozoan through supplemental feed or water sources contaminated by columbids infected with T. gallinae. All of 506 bobwhites collected in Oklahoma and Texas, 2011-13, were PCR negative for T. gallinae. These data suggest T. gallinae is not contributing to the population decline of bobwhites in this region.

  5. Construction of living cellular automata using the Physarum plasmodium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirakawa, Tomohiro; Sato, Hiroshi; Ishiguro, Shinji

    2015-04-01

    The plasmodium of Physarum polycephalum is a unicellular and multinuclear giant amoeba that has an amorphous cell body. To clearly observe how the plasmodium makes decisions in its motile and exploratory behaviours, we developed a new experimental system to pseudo-discretize the motility of the organism. In our experimental space that has agar surfaces arranged in a two-dimensional lattice, the continuous and omnidirectional movement of the plasmodium was limited to the stepwise one, and the direction of the locomotion was also limited to four neighbours. In such an experimental system, a cellular automata-like system was constructed using the living cell. We further analysed the exploratory behaviours of the plasmodium by duplicating the experimental results in the simulation models of cellular automata. As a result, it was revealed that the behaviours of the plasmodium are not reproduced by only local state transition rules; and for the reproduction, a kind of historical rule setting is needed.

  6. Response to various periods of mechanical stimuli in Physarum plasmodium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umedachi, Takuya; Ito, Kentaro; Kobayashi, Ryo; Ishiguro, Akio; Nakagaki, Toshiyuki

    2017-06-01

    Response to mechanical stimuli is a fundamental and critical ability for living cells to survive in hazardous conditions or to form adaptive and functional structures against force(s) from the environment. Although this ability has been extensively studied by molecular biology strategies, it is also important to investigate the ability from the viewpoint of biological rhythm phenomena so as to reveal the mechanisms that underlie these phenomena. Here, we use the plasmodium of the true slime mold Physarum polycephalum as the experimental system for investigating this ability. The plasmodium was repetitively stretched for various periods during which its locomotion speed was observed. Since the plasmodium has inherent oscillation cycles of protoplasmic streaming and thickness variation, how the plasmodium responds to various periods of external stretching stimuli can shed light on the other biological rhythm phenomena. The experimental results show that the plasmodium exhibits response to periodic mechanical stimulation and changes its locomotion speed depending on the period of the stretching stimuli.

  7. Mitosis in the Human Malaria Parasite Plasmodium falciparum ▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerald, Noel; Mahajan, Babita; Kumar, Sanjai

    2011-01-01

    Malaria is caused by intraerythrocytic protozoan parasites belonging to Plasmodium spp. (phylum Apicomplexa) that produce significant morbidity and mortality, mostly in developing countries. Plasmodium parasites have a complex life cycle that includes multiple stages in anopheline mosquito vectors and vertebrate hosts. During the life cycle, the parasites undergo several cycles of extreme population growth within a brief span, and this is critical for their continued transmission and a contributing factor for their pathogenesis in the host. As with other eukaryotes, successful mitosis is an essential requirement for Plasmodium reproduction; however, some aspects of Plasmodium mitosis are quite distinct and not fully understood. In this review, we will discuss the current understanding of the architecture and key events of mitosis in Plasmodium falciparum and related parasites and compare them with the traditional mitotic events described for other eukaryotes. PMID:21317311

  8. Management of Toxoplasma gondii screening in pregnancy: light and shade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo De Paschale

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our study was to evaluate the performance of screening for toxoplasmosis in pregnancy through comparing the data obtained from Italian and foreign women. 3074 women, 2465 Italians (80.2% and 609 foreigners (19.8% had undergone screening for serological detection of anti-Toxoplasma IgG and IgM antibodies in the years 2005-2007. 85.0% of the Italian women and 84.1% of the foreign women had the first blood test in the first trimester of pregnancy (difference not statistically significant.Among anti-Toxoplasma negative women average of blood tests during pregnancy was 3.69 for the Italians and 3.42 for the foreigners (p <0.01. 32.2% of Italian and 28.3% of foreign women were subjected to five or more blood tests (difference not statistically significant. Considering the trimester of pregnancy, the percentage of Italian and foreign women tested at least once in every trimester was respectively 58.0% and 45.2% (p <0.01. In conclusion, our data show that on the one hand the screening is active in controlling women within the first trimester of pregnancy, while on the other it appears weak in fully implementing the follow up, as indicated by the legislation currently in force. In addition, foreign women undergo fewer tests covering all trimesters compare to Italian women. This problem should be taken into account in terms of health policy.

  9. Toxoplasma gondii Ingests and Digests Host Cytosolic Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, Zhicheng; McGovern, Olivia L.; Di Cristina, Manlio

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii resides within a nonfusogenic vacuole during intracellular replication. Although the limiting membrane of this vacuole provides a protective barrier to acidification and degradation by lysosomal hydrolases, it also physically segregates the parasite from the host cytosol. Accordingly, it has been suggested that T. gondii acquires material from the host via membrane channels or transporters. The ability of the parasite to internalize macromolecules via endocytosis during intracellular replication has not been tested. Here, we show that Toxoplasma ingests host cytosolic proteins and digests them using cathepsin L and other proteases within its endolysosomal system. Ingestion was reduced in mutant parasites lacking an intravacuolar network of tubular membranes, implicating this apparatus as a possible conduit for trafficking to the parasite. Genetic ablation of proteins involved in the pathway is associated with diminished parasite replication and virulence attenuation. We show that both virulent type I and avirulent type II strain parasites ingest and digest host-derived protein, indicating that the pathway is not restricted to highly virulent strains. The findings provide the first definitive evidence that T. gondii internalizes proteins from the host during intracellular residence and suggest that protein digestion within the endolysosomal system of the parasite contributes to toxoplasmosis. PMID:25028423

  10. The ferredoxin-NADP+ reductase/ferredoxin electron transfer system of Plasmodium falciparum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balconi, Emanuela; Pennati, Andrea; Crobu, Danila; Pandini, Vittorio; Cerutti, Raffaele; Zanetti, Giuliana; Aliverti, Alessandro

    2009-07-01

    In the apicoplast of apicomplexan parasites, plastidic-type ferredoxin and ferredoxin-NADP(+) reductase (FNR) form a short electron transport chain that provides reducing power for the synthesis of isoprenoid precursors. These proteins are attractive targets for the development of novel drugs against diseases such as malaria, toxoplasmosis, and coccidiosis. We have obtained ferredoxin and FNR of both Toxoplasma gondii and Plasmodium falciparum in recombinant form, and recently we solved the crystal structure of the P. falciparum reductase. Here we report on the functional properties of the latter enzyme, which differ markedly from those of homologous FNRs. In the physiological reaction, P. falciparum FNR displays a k(cat) five-fold lower than those usually determined for plastidic-type FNRs. By rapid kinetics, we found that hydride transfer between NADPH and protein-bound FAD is slower in the P. falciparum enzyme. The redox properties of the enzyme were determined, and showed that the FAD semiquinone species is highly destabilized. We propose that these two features, i.e. slow hydride transfer and unstable FAD semiquinone, are responsible for the poor catalytic efficiency of the P. falciparum enzyme. Another unprecedented feature of the malarial parasite FNR is its ability to yield, under oxidizing conditions, an inactive dimeric form stabilized by an intermolecular disulfide bond. Here we show that the monomerdimer interconversion can be controlled by oxidizing and reducing agents that are possibly present within the apicoplast, such as H(2)O(2), glutathione, and lipoate. This finding suggests that modulation of the quaternary structure of P. falciparum FNR might represent a regulatory mechanism, although this needs to be verified in vivo.

  11. Trichomonas vaginalis as a cause of perinatal morbidity: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silver, Bronwyn J; Guy, Rebecca J; Kaldor, John M; Jamil, Muhammad S; Rumbold, Alice R

    2014-06-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis is the most common curable sexually transmissible infection worldwide, with high rates in women of reproductive age. There have been inconsistent findings about the impact of infection and its treatment in pregnancy. We conducted a meta-analysis to determine the association between T. vaginalis and perinatal outcomes. Electronic databases were searched to May 2013. Included studies reported perinatal outcomes in women infected and uninfected with T. vaginalis. Meta-analysis calculated a pooled relative risk (RR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) using either a fixed- or random-effects model. Study bias was assessed using funnel plots. Of 178 articles identified, 11 studies met the inclusion criteria. The study populations, outcomes, and quality varied. T. vaginalis in pregnancy was associated with an increased risk of preterm birth (RR, 1.42; 95% CI, 1.15-1.75; 9 studies; n = 81,101; I = 62.7%), preterm premature rupture of membranes (RR, 1.41; 95% CI,1.10-1.82; 2 studies; n = 14,843; I = 0.0%) and small for gestational age infants (RR, 1.51; 95% CI,1.32-1.73; 2 studies; n = 14,843; I = 0.0%). Sensitivity analyses of studies that accounted for coinfection with other sexually transmissible infection found a slightly reduced RR of 1.34 for preterm birth (95% CI, 1.19-1.51; 6 studies; n = 72,077; I = 11.2%), and in studies where no treatment was confirmed, the RR was 1.83 (95% CI, 0.98-3.41; 3 studies; n = 1795; I = 22.3%). Our review provides strong evidence that T. vaginalis in pregnancy is associated with an increased risk of preterm birth. Based on fewer studies, there were also substantial increases in the risk of preterm premature rupture of membranes and small for gestational age infants. Further studies that address the current gaps in evidence on treatment effects in pregnancy are needed.

  12. Characterization, cloning and immunolocalization of a coronin homologue in Trichomonas vaginalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bricheux, G; Coffe, G; Bayle, D; Brugerolle, G

    2000-06-01

    On adhesion to host cells the flagellate Trichomonas vaginalis switches to an amoeboid form rich in actin microfilaments. We have undertaken the identification of actin-associated proteins that regulate actin dynamics. A monoclonal antibody 4C12 raised against a cytoskeletal fraction of T. vaginalis labeled a protein doublet at circa 50 kDa. These two bands were recognized by the antibody against Dictyostelium discoideum coronin. During cell extraction and actin polymerization, T. vaginalis coronin cosedimented with F-actin. By two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, the protein doublet was separated into two sets of isoforms covering two Ip zones around 6 and 7. By screening a T. vaginalis library with 4C12, two clones Cor 1 and Cor 2 were isolated. This gene duplicity is a particularity among unicellular organisms examined. The complete sequence of the gene Cor 1 encodes a 435-residue protein with a calculated molecular mass of 48 kDa and Ip of 5.58. The incomplete sequence Cor 2 was very similar but with a more basic calculated Ip than Cor 1 on the same region. T. vaginalis coronin had 50% similarity with the coronin family, possessing the five WD-repeats and a leucine zipper in its C-terminal part. Double immunofluorescence labeling showed that coronin mainly colocalized with actin at the periphery of the adherent amoeboid cells. However, coronin labeling displayed patches within a reticular array. Immunogold electron microscopy confirmed the coronin labeling in the actin-rich microfilamentous fringe beneath the plasma membrane, with accumulation in phagocytic zones and pseudopodial extensions. In T. vaginalis, one of the first emerging lineage of eukaryotes, coronin seems to play an important role in actin dynamics and may be a downstream target of a signaling mechanism for the cytoskeleton reorganization.

  13. Trichomonas vaginalis Incidence Associated with Hormonal Contraceptive Use and HIV Infection among Women in Rakai, Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heena Brahmbhatt

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Data on the incidence of Trichomonas vaginalis and use of hormonal contraception (HC are limited. Methods. 2,374 sexually active women aged 15–49 years from cohort surveys in Rakai, Uganda, were included. Incidence of T. vaginalis was estimated per 100 person years (py and association between HC (DMPA, Norplant, and oral contraceptives and T. vaginalis infection was assessed by incidence rate ratios (IRR, using Poisson regression models. Results. At baseline, 34.9% had used HC in the last 12 months, 12.8% HIV+, 39.7% with high BV-scores (7–10, and 3.1% syphilis positive. The 12-month incidence of T. vaginalis was 2.4/100 py; CI (1.90, 3.25. When stratified by type of HC used, compared to women who did not use HC or condoms, incidence of T. vaginalis was significantly higher among users of Norplant (adj.IRR = 3.01, CI: 1.07–8.49 and significantly lower among DMPA users (adj.IRR = 0.55, CI: 0.30, 0.98 and women who discontinued HC use at follow-up (adj.IRR = 0.30, CI: 0.09, 0.99. HIV infection was associated with an increase in incidence of T. vaginalis (adj.IRR = 2.34, CI: 1.44, 3.78. Conclusions. Use of Norplant and being HIV+ significantly increased the risk of T. vaginalis, while use of DMPA and discontinuation of overall HC use were associated with a decreased incidence of T. vaginalis.

  14. Leukocyte Lysis and Cytokine Induction by the Human Sexually Transmitted Parasite Trichomonas vaginalis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercer, Frances; Diala, Fitz Gerald I.; Chen, Yi-Pei; Molgora, Brenda M.; Ng, Shek Hang; Johnson, Patricia J.

    2016-01-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis (Tv) is an extracellular protozoan parasite that causes the most common non-viral sexually transmitted infection: trichomoniasis. While acute symptoms in women may include vaginitis, infections are often asymptomatic, but can persist and are associated with medical complications including increased HIV susceptibility, infertility, pre-term labor, and higher incidence of cervical cancer. Heightened inflammation resulting from Tv infection could account for these complications. Effective cellular immune responses to Tv have not been characterized, and re-infection is common, suggesting a dysfunctional adaptive immune response. Using primary human leukocyte components, we have established an in vitro co-culture system to assess the interaction between Tv and the cells of the human immune system. We determined that in vitro, Tv is able to lyse T-cells and B-cells, showing a preference for B-cells. We also found that Tv lysis of lymphocytes was mediated by contact-dependent and soluble factors. Tv lysis of monocytes is far less efficient, and almost entirely contact-dependent. Interestingly, a common symbiont of Tv, Mycoplasma hominis, did not affect cytolytic activity of the parasite, but had a major impact on cytokine responses. M. hominis enabled more diverse inflammatory cytokine secretion in response to Tv and, of the cytokines tested, Tv strains cleared of M. hominis induced only IL-8 secretion from monocytes. The quality of the adaptive immune response to Tv is therefore likely influenced by Tv symbionts, commensals, and concomitant infections, and may be further complicated by direct parasite lysis of effector immune cells. PMID:27529696

  15. Nitroimidazole carboxamides as antiparasitic agents targeting Giardia lamblia, Entamoeba histolytica and Trichomonas vaginalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrad, A M; Debnath, A; Miyamoto, Y; Hansford, K A; Pelingon, R; Butler, M S; Bains, T; Karoli, T; Blaskovich, M A T; Eckmann, L; Cooper, M A

    2016-09-14

    Diarrhoeal diseases caused by the intestinal parasites Giardia lamblia and Entamoeba histolytica constitute a major global health burden. Nitroimidazoles are first-line drugs for the treatment of giardiasis and amebiasis, with metronidazole 1 being the most commonly used drug worldwide. However, treatment failures in giardiasis occur in up to 20% of cases and development of resistance to metronidazole is of concern. We have re-examined 'old' nitroimidazoles as a foundation for the systematic development of next-generation derivatives. Using this approach, derivatisation of the nitroimidazole carboxamide scaffold provided improved antiparasitic agents. Thirty-three novel nitroimidazole carboxamides were synthesised and evaluated for activity against G. lamblia and E. histolytica. Several of the new compounds exhibited potent activity against G. lamblia strains, including metronidazole-resistant strains of G. lamblia (EC50 = 0.1-2.5 μM cf. metronidazole EC50 = 6.1-18 μM). Other compounds showed improved activity against E. histolytica (EC50 = 1.7-5.1 μM cf. metronidazole EC50 = 5.0 μM), potent activity against Trichomonas vaginalis (EC50 = 0.6-1.4 μM cf. metronidazole EC50 = 0.8 μM) and moderate activity against the intestinal bacterial pathogen Clostridium difficile (0.5-2 μg/mL, cf. metronidazole = 0.5 μg/mL). The new compounds had low toxicity against mammalian kidney and liver cells (CC50 > 100 μM), and selected antiparasitic hits were assessed for human plasma protein binding and metabolic stability in liver microsomes to demonstrate their therapeutic potential.

  16. Association of Trichomonas vaginalis and cytological abnormalities of the cervix in low risk women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilbert G G Donders

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Is Trichomonas vaginalis (TV an inducing factor for the development of (pre-cancerous lesions of the cervix? DESIGN: Cross sectional study. SETTING: Screening healthy Belgian women with low infection risk. SAMPLE: 63,251 consecutive liquid based cervical samples. METHODS: Real time quantitative PCR for presence of TV, 18 HPV types and Pap smear analysis of cytologic abnormalities. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Association of TV and HPV with cervix dysplasia. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of TV DNA was 0.37%, of low risk HPV 2%, of high risk HPV 13.2%, and 8.8 % had cytological abnormalities. Both LR-HPV and HR-HPV were significantly associated with all cytological abnormalities. Presence of TV was associated with LR- and HR-HPV, ASC-US and HSIL, but not with other abnormalities. All women with TV and HSIL also had HR-HPV, while the latter was present in only 59% of women with TV and ASC-US. Amongst HPV negative women, TV was found in 1.3% of women with ASC-US, but only in 0.03% of women with normal cytology (OR 4.2, CL95% 2.1-8.6. In HR-HPV positive women, presence of TV increased the likelihood of cytological abnormalities somewhat (P=0.05, mainly due to an increase in ASC-US and LSIL, but not HSIL. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that TV infection is associated with both LR and HR-HPV infection of the cervix, as well as with ASC-US and HSIL. TV is a concomitant STI, but is not thought to be a co-factor in the causation of HSIL and cervical cancer. However, TV may cause false positive diagnoses of ASC-US.

  17. Sequestration of host-CD59 as potential immune evasion strategy of Trichomonas vaginalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibáñez-Escribano, Alexandra; Nogal-Ruiz, Juan José; Pérez-Serrano, Jorge; Gómez-Barrio, Alicia; Escario, J Antonio; Alderete, J F

    2015-09-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis is known to evade complement-mediated lysis. Because the genome of T. vaginalis does not possess DNA sequence with homology to human protectin (CD59), a complement lysis restricting factor, we tested the hypothesis that host CD59 acquisition by T. vaginalis organisms mediates resistance to complement killing. This hypothesis was based on the fact that trichomonads are known to associate with host proteins. No CD59 was detected on the surface of T. vaginalis grown in serum-based medium using as probe anti-CD59 monoclonal antibody (MAb). We, therefore, infected mice intraperitoneally with live T. vaginalis, and trichomonads harvested from ascites were tested for binding of CD59. Immunofluorescence showed that parasites had surface CD59. Furthermore, as mouse erythrocytes (RBCs) possess membrane-associated CD59, and trichomonads use RBCs as a nutrient source, organisms were co-cultured with murine RBCs for one week. Parasites were shown to have detectable surface CD59. Importantly, live T. vaginalis with bound CD59 were compared with batch-grown parasites without surface-associated CD59 for sensitivity to complement in human serum. Trichomonads without surface-bound CD59 had a higher level of killing by complement than did parasites with surface CD59. These data show that host CD59 acquired onto the surface by live T. vaginalis may be an alternative mechanism for complement evasion. We describe a novel strategy by T. vaginalis consistent with host protein procurement by this parasite to evade the lytic action of complement. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Prospective Study of Trichomonas vaginalis Infection and Prostate Cancer Incidence and Mortality: Physicians' Health Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judson, Gregory; Alderete, John F.; Mundodi, Vasanthakrishna; Kucknoor, Ashwini S.; Giovannucci, Edward L.; Platz, Elizabeth A.; Sutcliffe, Siobhan; Fall, Katja; Kurth, Tobias; Ma, Jing; Stampfer, Meir J.; Mucci, Lorelei A.

    2009-01-01

    Background A recent nested case–control study found that the presence of antibodies against Trichomonas vaginalis, a common nonviral sexually transmitted infection, was positively associated with subsequent incidence of prostate cancer. We confirmed these findings in an independent population and related serostatus for antibodies against T vaginalis to prostate cancer incidence and mortality. Methods We conducted a case–control study nested within the Physicians’ Health Study that included 673 case subjects with prostate cancer and 673 individually matched control subjects who had available plasma samples. Plasma from blood samples collected at baseline was assayed for antibodies against T vaginalis with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. We used conditional logistic regression to estimate the odds ratios (ORs) of incident prostate cancer, extraprostatic prostate cancer, and cancer that would ultimately progress to bony metastases or prostate cancer–specific death. Results Although not statistically significant, the magnitude of the association between T vaginalis–seropositive status and overall prostate cancer risk (OR = 1.23, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.94 to 1.61) was similar to that reported previously. Furthermore, a seropositive status was associated with statistically significantly increased risks of extraprostatic prostate cancer (OR = 2.17, 95% CI = 1.08 to 4.37) and of cancer that would ultimately progress to bony metastases or prostate cancer–specific death (OR = 2.69, 95% CI = 1.37 to 5.28). Conclusions This large prospective case–control study obtained further support for an association between a seropositive status for antibodies against T vaginalis and the risk of prostate cancer, with statistically significant associations identified for the risk of extraprostatic prostate cancer and for clinically relevant, potentially lethal prostate cancer. PMID:19741211

  19. Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase is a surface-associated, fibronectin-binding protein of Trichomonas vaginalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lama, A; Kucknoor, A; Mundodi, V; Alderete, J F

    2009-07-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis colonizes the urogenital tract of humans and causes trichomonosis, the most prevalent nonviral sexually transmitted disease. We have shown an association of T. vaginalis with basement membrane extracellular matrix components, a property which we hypothesize is important for colonization and persistence. In this study, we identify a fibronectin (FN)-binding protein of T. vaginalis. A monoclonal antibody (MAb) from a library of hybridomas that inhibited the binding of T. vaginalis organisms to immobilized FN was identified. The MAb (called ws1) recognized a 39-kDa protein and was used to screen a cDNA expression library of T. vaginalis. A 1,086-bp reactive cDNA clone that encoded a protein of 362 amino acids with identity to glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) was obtained. The gapdh gene was cloned, and recombinant GAPDH (rGAPDH) was expressed in Escherichia coli cells. Natural GAPDH and rGAPDH bound to immobilized FN and to plasminogen and collagen but not to laminin. MAb ws1 inhibited binding to FN. GAPDH was detected on the surface of trichomonads and was upregulated in synthesis and surface expression by iron. Higher levels of binding to FN were seen for organisms grown in iron-replete medium than for organisms grown in iron-depleted medium. In addition, decreased synthesis of GAPDH by antisense transfection of T. vaginalis gave lower levels of organisms bound to FN and had no adverse effect on growth kinetics. Finally, GAPDH did not associate with immortalized vaginal epithelial cells (VECs), and neither GAPDH nor MAb ws1 inhibited the adherence of trichomonads to VECs. These results indicate that GAPDH is a surface-associated protein of T. vaginalis with alternative functions.

  20. Comparative transcriptomic and proteomic analyses of Trichomonas vaginalis following adherence to fibronectin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Kuo-Yang; Huang, Po-Jung; Ku, Fu-Man; Lin, Rose; Alderete, John F; Tang, Petrus

    2012-11-01

    The morphological transformation of Trichomonas vaginalis from an ellipsoid form in batch culture to an adherent amoeboid form results from the contact of parasites with vaginal epithelial cells and with immobilized fibronectin (FN), a basement membrane component. This suggests host signaling of the parasite. We applied integrated transcriptomic and proteomic approaches to investigate the molecular responses of T. vaginalis upon binding to FN. A transcriptome analysis was performed by using large-scale expressed-sequence-tag (EST) sequencing. A total of 20,704 ESTs generated from batch culture (trophozoite-EST) versus FN-amoeboid trichomonad (FN-EST) cDNA libraries were analyzed. The FN-EST library revealed decreased amounts of transcripts that were of lower abundance in the trophozoite-EST library. There was a shift by FN-bound organisms to the expression of transcripts encoding essential proteins, possibly indicating the expression of genes for adaptation to the morphological changes needed for the FN-adhesive processes. In addition, we identified 43 differentially expressed proteins in the proteomes of FN-bound and unbound trichomonads. Among these proteins, cysteine peptidase, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (an FN-binding protein), and stress-related proteins were upregulated in the FN-adherent cells. Stress-related genes and proteins were highly expressed in both the transcriptome and proteome of FN-bound organisms, implying that these genes and proteins may play critical roles in the response to adherence. This is the first report of a comparative proteomic and transcriptomic analysis after the binding of T. vaginalis to FN. This approach may lead to the discovery of novel virulence genes and affirm the role of genes involved in disease pathogenesis. This knowledge will permit a greater understanding of the complex host-parasite interplay.

  1. Epitopes within recombinant α-actinin protein is serodiagnostic target for Trichomonas vaginalis sexually transmitted infections.

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    Alderete, J F

    2017-01-01

    To date there is no commercially-available serodiagnostic for women and men infected with Trichomonas vaginalis. Thirteen epitopes of the immunogenic T. vaginalis α-actinin (106.2-kDa) are detected by sera of women patients, and 5 epitopes, a subset of the 13, are detected by sera of men. A truncated recombinant protein called ACT-P2 (63.5-kDa) encoding the 5 epitopes is used for screening by ELISA for antibody in sera of women and men. Because ACT-P2 is poorly expressed in E. coli, we wanted alternative recombinant α-actinin proteins as serodiagnostic targets. We, therefore, constructed plasmids encoding two novel, small recombinant proteins of ∼25-kDa comprised of 15-mer peptides, each peptide of which contains one of the 13 epitopes. We refer to these novel proteins as α-actinin::string-of-epitopes1 (ACT::SOE1) and ACT::SOE2. We found the proteins to be unrecoverable from insoluble inclusion bodies without denaturing conditions, which rendered the proteins unsuitable for antibody detection. Thus, we synthesized a third ACT::SOE3 protein (72.4-kDa) with 7 epitopes that was synthesized in high amounts and was readily purified. Monoclonal antibodies to α-actinin detected ACT::SOE3 and ACT-P2 by ELISA. Further, we show that ACT::SOE3 is equal to ACT-P2 as a target protein for detection of serum IgG in positive sera of women and men. Data indicate that ACT::SOE3 is a target for screening of populations at-risk for this STI. Finally, the paper discusses the findings with regard to Point-of-Care diagnostic targets and vaccine candidates.

  2. Iron and contact with host cells induce expression of adhesins on surface of Trichomonas vaginalis.

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    Garcia, Ana F; Chang, Te-Hung; Benchimol, Marlene; Klumpp, David Jichael; Lehker, Michael W; Alderete, John F

    2003-03-01

    The proteins AP65, AP51, AP33 and AP23 synthesized by Trichomonas vaginalis organisms in high iron play a role in adherence. Multigene families encode enzymes of the hydrogenosome organelles, which have identity to adhesins. This fact raises questions regarding the compartmentalization of the proteins outside the organelle and about the interactions of adhesins with host cells. Data here demonstrate the presence of the proteins outside the organelle under high-iron conditions. Fluorescence and immuno-cytochemical experiments show that high-iron-grown organisms coexpressed adhesins on the surface and intracellularly in contrast with low-iron parasites. Furthermore, the AP65 epitopes seen by rabbit anti-AP65 serum that blocks adherence and detects surface proteins were identified, and a mAb reacting to those epitopes recognized the trichomonal surface. Two-dimensional electrophoresis and immunoblot of adhesins from surface-labelled parasites provided evidence that all members of the multigene family were co-ordinately expressed and placed on the trichomonal surface. Similar two-dimensional analysis of proteins from purified hydrogenosomes obtained from iodinated trichomonads confirmed the specific surface labelling of proteins. Contact of trichomonads with vaginal epithelial cells increased the amount of surface-expressed adhesins. Moreover, we found a direct relationship between the levels of adherence and amount of adhesins bound to immortalized vaginal and ureter epithelial cells, further reinforcing specific associations. Finally, trichomonads of MR100, a drug-resistant isolate absent in hydrogenosome proteins and adhesins, were non-adherent. Overall, the results confirm an important role for iron and contact in the surface expression of adhesins of T. vaginalis organisms.

  3. Epitopes within recombinant α-actinin protein is serodiagnostic target for Trichomonas vaginalis sexually transmitted infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.F. Alderete

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To date there is no commercially-available serodiagnostic for women and men infected with Trichomonas vaginalis. Thirteen epitopes of the immunogenic T. vaginalis α-actinin (106.2-kDa are detected by sera of women patients, and 5 epitopes, a subset of the 13, are detected by sera of men. A truncated recombinant protein called ACT-P2 (63.5-kDa encoding the 5 epitopes is used for screening by ELISA for antibody in sera of women and men. Because ACT-P2 is poorly expressed in E. coli, we wanted alternative recombinant α-actinin proteins as serodiagnostic targets. We, therefore, constructed plasmids encoding two novel, small recombinant proteins of ∼25-kDa comprised of 15-mer peptides, each peptide of which contains one of the 13 epitopes. We refer to these novel proteins as α-actinin::string-of-epitopes1 (ACT::SOE1 and ACT::SOE2. We found the proteins to be unrecoverable from insoluble inclusion bodies without denaturing conditions, which rendered the proteins unsuitable for antibody detection. Thus, we synthesized a third ACT::SOE3 protein (72.4-kDa with 7 epitopes that was synthesized in high amounts and was readily purified. Monoclonal antibodies to α-actinin detected ACT::SOE3 and ACT-P2 by ELISA. Further, we show that ACT::SOE3 is equal to ACT-P2 as a target protein for detection of serum IgG in positive sera of women and men. Data indicate that ACT::SOE3 is a target for screening of populations at-risk for this STI. Finally, the paper discusses the findings with regard to Point-of-Care diagnostic targets and vaccine candidates.

  4. Bacterial vaginosis and the risk of trichomonas vaginalis acquisition among HIV-1-negative women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balkus, Jennifer E; Richardson, Barbra A; Rabe, Lorna K; Taha, Taha E; Mgodi, Nyaradzo; Kasaro, Margaret Phiri; Ramjee, Gita; Hoffman, Irving F; Abdool Karim, Salim S

    2014-02-01

    The vaginal microbiota may play a role in mediating susceptibility to sexually transmitted infections, including Trichomonas vaginalis (TV). Data were analyzed from HIV-1-seronegative women participating in HIV Prevention Trials Network Protocol 035. At quarterly visits for up to 30 months, participants completed structured interviews and specimens were collected for genital tract infection testing. T. vaginalis was detected by saline microscopy. Bacterial vaginosis (BV) was characterized by Gram stain using the Nugent score (BV = 7-10; intermediate = 4-6; normal = 0-3 [reference group]). Cox proportional hazards models stratified by study site were used to assess the association between Nugent score category at the prior quarterly visit and TV acquisition. In this secondary analysis, 2920 participants from Malawi, South Africa, United States, Zambia, and Zimbabwe contributed 16,259 follow-up visits. Bacterial vaginosis was detected at 5680 (35%) visits, and TV was detected at 400 (2.5%) visits. Adjusting for age, marital status, hormonal contraceptive use, unprotected sex in the last week and TV at baseline, intermediate Nugent score, and BV at the prior visit were associated with an increased risk of TV (intermediate score: adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 1.73; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.21-2.19; BV: aHR, 2.40; 95% CI, 1.92-3.00). Sensitivity analyses excluding 211 participants with TV at baseline were similar to those from the full study population (intermediate score: aHR, 1.54; 95% CI, 1.10-2.14; BV: aHR, 2.23; 95% CI, 1.75-2.84). Women with a Nugent score higher than 3 were at an increased risk for acquiring TV. If this relationship is causal, interventions that improve the vaginal microbiota could contribute to reductions in TV incidence.

  5. N-Terminal Presequence-Independent Import of Phosphofructokinase into Hydrogenosomes of Trichomonas vaginalis.

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    Rada, Petr; Makki, Abhijith Radhakrishna; Zimorski, Verena; Garg, Sriram; Hampl, Vladimír; Hrdý, Ivan; Gould, Sven B; Tachezy, Jan

    2015-12-01

    Mitochondrial evolution entailed the origin of protein import machinery that allows nuclear-encoded proteins to be targeted to the organelle, as well as the origin of cleavable N-terminal targeting sequences (NTS) that allow efficient sorting and import of matrix proteins. In hydrogenosomes and mitosomes, reduced forms of mitochondria with reduced proteomes, NTS-independent targeting of matrix proteins is known. Here, we studied the cellular localization of two glycolytic enzymes in the anaerobic pathogen Trichomonas vaginalis: PPi-dependent phosphofructokinase (TvPPi-PFK), which is the main glycolytic PFK activity of the protist, and ATP-dependent PFK (TvATP-PFK), the function of which is less clear. TvPPi-PFK was detected predominantly in the cytosol, as expected, while all four TvATP-PFK paralogues were imported into T. vaginalis hydrogenosomes, although none of them possesses an NTS. The heterologous expression of TvATP-PFK in Saccharomyces cerevisiae revealed an intrinsic capability of the protein to be recognized and imported into yeast mitochondria, whereas yeast ATP-PFK resides in the cytosol. TvATP-PFK consists of only a catalytic domain, similarly to "short" bacterial enzymes, while ScATP-PFK includes an N-terminal extension, a catalytic domain, and a C-terminal regulatory domain. Expression of the catalytic domain of ScATP-PFK and short Escherichia coli ATP-PFK in T. vaginalis resulted in their partial delivery to hydrogenosomes. These results indicate that TvATP-PFK and the homologous ATP-PFKs possess internal structural targeting information that is recognized by the hydrogenosomal import machinery. From an evolutionary perspective, the predisposition of ancient ATP-PFK to be recognized and imported into hydrogenosomes might be a relict from the early phases of organelle evolution.

  6. Trichomonas vaginalis infection among Iranian general population of women: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hezarjaribi, Hajar Ziaei; Fakhar, Mahdi; Shokri, Azar; Teshnizi, Saeed Hosseini; Sadough, Azita; Taghavi, Mahbobeh

    2015-04-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis (T. vaginalis) is one of the main causes of vaginitis, prostatitis, and cervicitis all over the world. Little information is available regarding the burden of T. vaginalis infection in Iranian women. This systematic review and meta-analysis were carried out to determine the prevalence of T. vaginalis among general population of Iranian women. Data were systematically collected from 1992 to 2012 in Iran on such electronic databases as PubMed, Google Scholar, Science Direct, Scopus, Web of Science, Magiran, Irandoc, Iran medex, Scientific Information Database (SID), Global Health, and LILACS. Additionally, abstracts of national scientific congresses and dissertations were included. A total of 30 articles attempted to examine 70,373 individuals and reported the prevalence of trichomoniasis from different regions of Iran. The overall prevalence rate of trichomoniasis in Iran was estimated to be 8% (95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.07 to 0.09) with the maximum 38.8% (95% CI = 0.036 to 0.042) and the minimum 0.009% (95% CI = 0.008 to 0.010), respectively. Also, it was found that the prevalence in Central provinces is higher than other ones. In all studies, the average of age was 24.5 with the maximum and the minimum of 45 and 22.5 years old, respectively. The present review revealed that infection rate is relatively high among Iranian women, and risk factors such as hygienic situation, behavior and local culture, poor socioeconomic condition, feeble moral considerations, and increase in marriage age must be considered in the management of controlling programs.

  7. In vitro anti-Trichomonas vaginalis activity of Pistacia lentiscus mastic and Ocimum basilicum essential oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezz Eldin, Hayam Mohamed; Badawy, Abeer Fathy

    2015-09-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis is a protozoan parasite that causes trichomoniasis; a cosmopolitan sexually transmitted disease. Metronidazole is the drug of choice for T. vaginalis infections. The increase in metronidazole resistant parasites and undesirable side effects of this drug makes the search for an alternative a priority for the management of trichomoniasis. Pistacia lentiscus mastic and Ocimum basilicum oil are known for their antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral and antiprotozoal effects. The present study was carried out to investigate the in vitro effects of P. lentiscus mastic and O. basilicum oil on T. vaginalis trophozoites. The effects of different concentrations of P. lentiscus mastic (15, 10 and 5 mg/ml) and different concentrations of O. basilicum oil (30, 20 and 10 μg/ml) on multiplication of trophozoites at different time points (after 24, 48, 72 and 96 h) were determined, also morphological changes were reported by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results showed that both plants caused an inhibition of growth of T. vaginalis trophozoites. The minimal lethal concentration of P. lentiscus mastic was 15 mg/ml after 24 h incubation, 10 mg/ml after 48 h and 5 mg/ml after 96 h. The minimal lethal concentration of O. basilicum oil was 30 μg/ml after 24 h incubation, 20 μg/ml after 48 h and 10 μg/ml after 96 h. TEM study of trophozoites treated by P. lentiscus mastic or by O. basilicum oil showed considerable damage of the membrane system of the trophozoites, and extensive vacuolization of the cytoplasm. These results highly suggest that P. lentiscus mastic and O. basilicum oil may be promising phytotherapeutic agents for trichomoniasis treatment.

  8. Inflammatory Responses in a Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia Epithelial Cell Line (BPH-1) Infected with Trichomonas vaginalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sang-Su; Kim, Jung-Hyun; Han, Ik-Hwan; Ahn, Myoung-Hee; Ryu, Jae-Sook

    2016-04-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis causes the most prevalent sexually transmitted infection worldwide. Trichomonads have been detected in prostatic tissues from prostatitis, benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), and prostate cancer. Chronic prostatic inflammation is known as a risk factor for prostate enlargement, benign prostatic hyperplasia symptoms, and acute urinary retention. Our aim was to investigate whether T. vaginalis could induce inflammatory responses in cells of a benign prostatic hyperplasia epithelial cell line (BPH-1). When BPH-1 cells were infected with T. vaginalis, the protein and mRNA of inflammatory cytokines, such as CXCL8, CCL2, IL-1β, and IL-6, were increased. The activities of TLR4, ROS, MAPK, JAK2/STAT3, and NF-κB were also increased, whereas inhibitors of ROS, MAPK, PI3K, NF-κB, and anti-TLR4 antibody decreased the production of the 4 cytokines although the extent of inhibition differed. However, a JAK2 inhibitor inhibited only IL-6 production. Culture supernatants of the BPH-1 cells that had been incubated with live T. vaginalis (trichomonad-conditioned medium, TCM) contained the 4 cytokines and induced the migration of human monocytes (THP-1 cells) and mast cells (HMC-1 cells). TCM conditioned by BPH-1 cells pretreated with NF-κB inhibitor showed decreased levels of cytokines and induced less migration. Therefore, it is suggested that these cytokines are involved in migration of inflammatory cells. These results suggest that T. vaginalis infection of BPH patients may cause inflammation, which may induce lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS).

  9. Putrescine is required for the expression of eif-5a in Trichomonas vaginalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvajal-Gamez, Bertha Isabel; Arroyo, Rossana; Camacho-Nuez, Minerva; Lira, Rosalia; Martínez-Benitez, Máximo; Alvarez-Sánchez, María Elizbeth

    2011-11-01

    Recently, we found that Trichomonas vaginalis contains a eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5A (TveIF-5A) with unknown function in this parasite. eIF-5A is the only cellular protein dependent of polyamines to form a hypusine residue, an unusual basic amino acid that is post-translationally formed by modification of a single specific lysine residue in an eIF-5A precursor protein. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of a putrescine analogue, 1,4-diamino-2-butanone (DAB), on tveif-5a mRNA and TveIF-5A protein expression. TveIF-5A protein expression was reduced by inhibition of putrescine biosynthesis, and tveif-5a mRNA levels were reduced ∼90%, as shown by western blot and immunofluorescence assays. Cycloheximide treatment reduced the amount of mature TveIF-5A protein at 4h and decreased the tveif-5a transcript level at 2h, according to western blot, RT-PCR and qRT-PCR analyses. Actinomycin D treatment showed that the tveif-5a mRNA had half-life of ∼2.5h in DAB-treated parasites. The half-life of tveif-5a mRNA was ∼4.5h under exogenous putrescine conditions. These results suggest that putrescine is required for tveif-5a mRNA stability, and it is necessary for the expression, stability and maturation of TveIF-5A protein.

  10. Ultrastructural and immunohistochemical studies on Trichomonas vaginalis adhering to and phagocytizing genitourinary epithelial cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈文列; 陈金富; 钟秀容; 梁平; 林炜

    2004-01-01

    Background Trichomonas vaginalis (T. vaginalis) belongs to a common sexually transmitted disease pathogen causing genitourinary trichomoniasis in both sexes. We investigated the pathogenetic mechanism of genitourinary trichomoniasis.Methods Cultured T. vaginalis bodies were injected into the vaginas of rats, or incubated with genitourinary epithelial cells of female subjects, male subjects, and sperm. The ultrastructural and microscopic changes were observed via transmission and scanning electron microscopy and through microscopic histochemistry.Results Groups of T.vaginalis adhered to PAS positive columnar cells at the surface of stratified epithelium in the middle and upper portions of the vaginas. They also traversed under these cells. The parasites were shown to be PAS, cathepsin D, and actin positive, and they could release hydrolase into the cytoplasm of adhered epithelial cells. In the amebiform T.vaginalis, microfilaments were arranged into reticular formation. Similar phenomena were found during the interaction of T.vaginalis with host cells, both in vitro and in vivo. Usually several protozoa adhered to an epithelial cell and formed polymorphic pseudopodia or surface invaginations to surround and phagocytize the microvilli or other parts of the epithelial cytoplasm. Adhesion and phagocytosis of sperm by the protozoa occurred at 15-30 minutes of incubation. Digestion of sperm was found at 45-75 minutes and was complete at 90-105 minutes.Conclusions T.vaginalis tends to parasitize at the fornix of the vagina, because this is the site where columnar cells are rich in mucinogen granules and their microvilli are helpful for adhesion and nibbling. T.vaginalis possesses some invading and attacking abilities. Shape change, canalization, encystation, phagocytosis, digestion, the cell coat, cytoskeleton, and lysosome all play important roles in the process of adhesion. They have two methods of phagocytosis: nibbling and ingestion. Genitourinary epithelium may be

  11. Leukocyte Lysis and Cytokine Induction by the Human Sexually Transmitted Parasite Trichomonas vaginalis.

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    Frances Mercer

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Trichomonas vaginalis (Tv is an extracellular protozoan parasite that causes the most common non-viral sexually transmitted infection: trichomoniasis. While acute symptoms in women may include vaginitis, infections are often asymptomatic, but can persist and are associated with medical complications including increased HIV susceptibility, infertility, pre-term labor, and higher incidence of cervical cancer. Heightened inflammation resulting from Tv infection could account for these complications. Effective cellular immune responses to Tv have not been characterized, and re-infection is common, suggesting a dysfunctional adaptive immune response. Using primary human leukocyte components, we have established an in vitro co-culture system to assess the interaction between Tv and the cells of the human immune system. We determined that in vitro, Tv is able to lyse T-cells and B-cells, showing a preference for B-cells. We also found that Tv lysis of lymphocytes was mediated by contact-dependent and soluble factors. Tv lysis of monocytes is far less efficient, and almost entirely contact-dependent. Interestingly, a common symbiont of Tv, Mycoplasma hominis, did not affect cytolytic activity of the parasite, but had a major impact on cytokine responses. M. hominis enabled more diverse inflammatory cytokine secretion in response to Tv and, of the cytokines tested, Tv strains cleared of M. hominis induced only IL-8 secretion from monocytes. The quality of the adaptive immune response to Tv is therefore likely influenced by Tv symbionts, commensals, and concomitant infections, and may be further complicated by direct parasite lysis of effector immune cells.

  12. The antitrichomonal efficacy of garlic and metronidazole against Trichomonas gallinae infecting domestic pigeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seddiek, Sh A; El-Shorbagy, Mohamed M; Khater, Hanem F; Ali, Ali M

    2014-04-01

    Trichomonas gallinae is the causative agent of canker in pigeon. This work was carried out to investigate in the vitro and in vivo efficacy of aqueous water extract of garlic (AGE) on the growth of T. gallinae infecting pigeons compared to those of metronidazole (MTZ). MTZ and AGE were added, at different concentrations, to glucose-serum broth medium containing 1 × 10(4) trophozoites/ml. In the in vivo experiment, 48 squabs were grouped into four groups. The first group (gr. I) was not infected and not treated. Each squab of the other group was infected with 1 × 10(4) trophozoites. The second group (gr. II) was infected and not treated. On day 0, the third group (gr. III) was treated with MTZ (50 mg/kg BW) and the fourth group (gr. IV) was treated with AGE (200 mg/kg BW) for seven successive days in drinking water. In vitro study revealed that the MLC, 24, 48, and 72 h post treatment were 50, 25, and 12.5 μg/ml, respectively, for MTZ and 75, 50, and 50 mg/ml, respectively, for AGE. Garlic (200 mg/kg BW) had the highest antitrichomonal effect and shortened course of treatment of pigeons from 7 days in gr. III to 5 days. Squabs in gr. II suffered from macrocytic hypochromic anemia, whereas squabs in grs. III and IV showed normal blood pictures. Serum total protein, albumin, and globulin were increased, whereas AST, ALT, and the total cholesterol were decreased in grs. III and IV when compared to those of gr. II. Pigeons protected with AGE showed increased body weight and reduced mortality percentage than the other groups. Our results indicated that garlic may be a promising phytotherapeutic agent for protection against trichomoniasis in pigeons.

  13. The core components of organelle biogenesis and membrane transport in the hydrogenosomes of Trichomonas vaginalis.

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    Petr Rada

    Full Text Available Trichomonas vaginalis is a parasitic protist of the Excavata group. It contains an anaerobic form of mitochondria called hydrogenosomes, which produce hydrogen and ATP; the majority of mitochondrial pathways and the organellar genome were lost during the mitochondrion-to-hydrogenosome transition. Consequently, all hydrogenosomal proteins are encoded in the nucleus and imported into the organelles. However, little is known about the membrane machineries required for biogenesis of the organelle and metabolite exchange. Using a combination of mass spectrometry, immunofluorescence microscopy, in vitro import assays and reverse genetics, we characterized the membrane proteins of the hydrogenosome. We identified components of the outer membrane (TOM and inner membrane (TIM protein translocases include multiple paralogs of the core Tom40-type porins and Tim17/22/23 channel proteins, respectively, and uniquely modified small Tim chaperones. The inner membrane proteins TvTim17/22/23-1 and Pam18 were shown to possess conserved information for targeting to mitochondrial inner membranes, but too divergent in sequence to support the growth of yeast strains lacking Tim17, Tim22, Tim23 or Pam18. Full complementation was seen only when the J-domain of hydrogenosomal Pam18 was fused with N-terminal region and transmembrane segment of the yeast homolog. Candidates for metabolite exchange across the outer membrane were identified including multiple isoforms of the β-barrel proteins, Hmp35 and Hmp36; inner membrane MCF-type metabolite carriers were limited to five homologs of the ATP/ADP carrier, Hmp31. Lastly, hydrogenosomes possess a pathway for the assembly of C-tail-anchored proteins into their outer membrane with several new tail-anchored proteins being identified. These results show that hydrogenosomes and mitochondria share common core membrane components required for protein import and metabolite exchange; however, they also reveal remarkable differences

  14. Trichomonas vaginalis induces cytopathic effect on human lung alveolar basal carcinoma epithelial cell line A549.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvador-Membreve, Daile Meek C; Jacinto, Sonia D; Rivera, Windell L

    2014-12-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis, the causative agent of trichomoniasis is generally known to inhabit the genitourinary tract. However, several case reports with supporting molecular and immunological identifications have documented its occurrence in the respiratory tract of neonates and adults. In addition, the reports have documented that its occurrence is associated with respiratory failures. The medical significance or consequence of this association is unclear. Thus, to establish the possible outcome from the interaction of T. vaginalis with lung cells, the cytopathic effects of the parasites were evaluated using monolayer cultures of the human lung alveolar basal carcinoma epithelial cell line A549. The possible effect of association of T. vaginalis with A549 epithelial cells was analyzed using phase-contrast, scanning electron microscopy and fluorescence microscopy. MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide), crystal-violet and TUNEL (terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labelling) assays were conducted for cytotoxicity testing. The results demonstrate that T. vaginalis: (1) adheres to A549 epithelial cells, suggesting a density-dependent parasite-cell association; (2) adherence on A549 is through flagella, membrane and axostyle; (3) causes cell detachment and cytotoxicity (50-72.4%) to A549 and this effect is a function of parasite density; and (4) induces apoptosis in A549 about 20% after 6 h of incubation. These observations indicate that T. vaginalis causes cytopathic effects on A549 cell. To date, this is the first report showing a possible interaction of T. vaginalis with the lung cells using A549 monolayer cultures. Further studies are recommended to completely elucidate this association.

  15. Trichomonas vaginalis homolog of macrophage migration inhibitory factor induces prostate cell growth, invasiveness, and inflammatory responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twu, Olivia; Dessí, Daniele; Vu, Anh; Mercer, Frances; Stevens, Grant C; de Miguel, Natalia; Rappelli, Paola; Cocco, Anna Rita; Clubb, Robert T; Fiori, Pier Luigi; Johnson, Patricia J

    2014-06-03

    The human-infective parasite Trichomonas vaginalis causes the most prevalent nonviral sexually transmitted infection worldwide. Infections in men may result in colonization of the prostate and are correlated with increased risk of aggressive prostate cancer. We have found that T. vaginalis secretes a protein, T. vaginalis macrophage migration inhibitory factor (TvMIF), that is 47% similar to human macrophage migration inhibitory factor (HuMIF), a proinflammatory cytokine. Because HuMIF is reported to be elevated in prostate cancer and inflammation plays an important role in the initiation and progression of cancers, we have explored a role for TvMIF in prostate cancer. Here, we show that TvMIF has tautomerase activity, inhibits macrophage migration, and is proinflammatory. We also demonstrate that TvMIF binds the human CD74 MIF receptor with high affinity, comparable to that of HuMIF, which triggers activation of ERK, Akt, and Bcl-2-associated death promoter phosphorylation at a physiologically relevant concentration (1 ng/mL, 80 pM). TvMIF increases the in vitro growth and invasion through Matrigel of benign and prostate cancer cells. Sera from patients infected with T. vaginalis are reactive to TvMIF, especially in males. The presence of anti-TvMIF antibodies indicates that TvMIF is released by the parasite and elicits host immune responses during infection. Together, these data indicate that chronic T. vaginalis infections may result in TvMIF-driven inflammation and cell proliferation, thus triggering pathways that contribute to the promotion and progression of prostate cancer.

  16. Substrate-Induced Dimerization of Engineered Monomeric Variants of Triosephosphate Isomerase from Trichomonas vaginalis.

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    Samuel Lara-Gonzalez

    Full Text Available The dimeric nature of triosephosphate isomerases (TIMs is maintained by an extensive surface area interface of more than 1600 Å2. TIMs from Trichomonas vaginalis (TvTIM are held in their dimeric state by two mechanisms: a ball and socket interaction of residue 45 of one subunit that fits into the hydrophobic pocket of the complementary subunit and by swapping of loop 3 between subunits. TvTIMs differ from other TIMs in their unfolding energetics. In TvTIMs the energy necessary to unfold a monomer is greater than the energy necessary to dissociate the dimer. Herein we found that the character of residue I45 controls the dimer-monomer equilibrium in TvTIMs. Unfolding experiments employing monomeric and dimeric mutants led us to conclude that dimeric TvTIMs unfold following a four state model denaturation process whereas monomeric TvTIMs follow a three state model. In contrast to other monomeric TIMs, monomeric variants of TvTIM1 are stable and unexpectedly one of them (I45A is only 29-fold less active than wild-type TvTIM1. The high enzymatic activity of monomeric TvTIMs contrast with the marginal catalytic activity of diverse monomeric TIMs variants. The stability of the monomeric variants of TvTIM1 and the use of cross-linking and analytical ultracentrifugation experiments permit us to understand the differences between the catalytic activities of TvTIMs and other marginally active monomeric TIMs. As TvTIMs do not unfold upon dimer dissociation, herein we found that the high enzymatic activity of monomeric TvTIM variants is explained by the formation of catalytic dimeric competent species assisted by substrate binding.

  17. Population structure and genetic diversity of the parasite Trichomonas vaginalis in Bristol, UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawksworth, Joseph; Levy, Max; Smale, Chloe; Cheung, Dean; Whittle, Alice; Longhurst, Denise; Muir, Peter; Gibson, Wendy

    2015-08-01

    The protozoan parasite Trichomonas vaginalis is the causative agent of trichomoniasis, an extremely common, but non-life-threatening, sexually-transmitted disease throughout the world. Recent population genetics studies of T. vaginalis have detected high genetic diversity and revealed a two-type population structure, associated with phenotypic differences in sensitivity to metronidazole, the drug commonly used for treatment, and presence of T. vaginalis virus. There is currently a lack of data on UK isolates; most isolates examined to date are from the US. Here we used a recently described system for multilocus sequence typing (MLST) of T. vaginalis to study diversity of clinical isolates from Bristol, UK. We used MLST to characterise 23 clinical isolates of T. vaginalis collected from female patients during 2013. Seven housekeeping genes were PCR-amplified for each isolate and sequenced. The concatenated sequences were then compared with data from other MLST-characterised isolates available from http://tvaginalis.mlst.net/ to analyse the population structure and construct phylogenetic trees. Among the 23 isolates from the Bristol population of T. vaginalis, we found 23 polymorphic nucleotide sites, 25 different alleles and 19 sequence types (genotypes). Most isolates had a unique genotype, in agreement with the high levels of heterogeneity observed elsewhere in the world. A two-type population structure was evident from population genetic analysis and phylogenetic reconstruction split the isolates into two major clades. Tests for recombination in the Bristol population of T. vaginalis gave conflicting results, suggesting overall a clonal pattern of reproduction. We conclude that the Bristol population of T. vaginalis parasites conforms to the two-type population structure found in most other regions of the world. We found the MLST scheme to be an efficient genotyping method. The online MLST database provides a useful repository and resource that will prove

  18. Multilocus sequence typing of Trichomonas vaginalis clinical samples from Amsterdam, the Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Veer, C; Himschoot, M; Bruisten, S M

    2016-01-01

    Objectives In this cross-sectional epidemiological study we aimed to identify molecular profiles for Trichomonas vaginalis and to determine how these molecular profiles were related to patient demographic and clinical characteristics. Setting Molecular typing methods previously identified two genetically distinct subpopulations for T. vaginalis; however, few molecular epidemiological studies have been performed. We now increased the sensitivity of a previously described multilocus sequence typing (MLST) tool for T. vaginalis by using nested PCR. This enabled the typing of direct patient samples. Participants From January to December 2014, we collected all T. vaginalis positive samples as detected by routine laboratory testing. Samples from patients either came from general practitioners offices or from the sexually transmitted infections (STI) clinic in Amsterdam. Epidemiological data for the STI clinic patients were retrieved from electronic patient files. Primary and secondary outcome measures The primary outcome was the success rate of genotyping direct T. vaginalis positive samples. The secondary outcome was the relation between T. vaginalis genotypes and risk factors for STI. Results All 7 MLST loci were successfully typed for 71/87 clinical samples. The 71 typed samples came from 69 patients, the majority of whom were women (n=62; 90%) and half (n=34; 49%) were STI clinic patients. Samples segregated into a two population structure for T. vaginalis representing genotypes I and II. Genotype I was most common (n=40; 59.7%). STI clinic patients infected with genotype II reported more sexual partners in the preceding 6 months than patients infected with genotype I (p=0.028). No other associations for gender, age, ethnicity, urogenital discharge or co-occurring STIs with T. vaginalis genotype were found. Conclusions MLST with nested PCR is a sensitive typing method that allows typing of direct (uncultured) patient material. Genotype II is possibly more prevalent

  19. The protist Trichomonas vaginalis harbors multiple lineages of transcriptionally active Mutator-like elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pereira Gonçalo AG

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background For three decades the Mutator system was thought to be exclusive of plants, until the first homolog representatives were characterized in fungi and in early-diverging amoebas earlier in this decade. Results Here, we describe and characterize four families of Mutator-like elements in a new eukaryotic group, the Parabasalids. These Trichomonas vaginalis Mutator- like elements, or TvMULEs, are active in T. vaginalis and patchily distributed among 12 trichomonad species and isolates. Despite their relatively distinctive amino acid composition, the inclusion of the repeats TvMULE1, TvMULE2, TvMULE3 and TvMULE4 into the Mutator superfamily is justified by sequence, structural and phylogenetic analyses. In addition, we identified three new TvMULE-related sequences in the genome sequence of Candida albicans. While TvMULE1 is a member of the MuDR clade, predominantly from plants, the other three TvMULEs, together with the C. albicans elements, represent a new and quite distinct Mutator lineage, which we named TvCaMULEs. The finding of TvMULE1 sequence inserted into other putative repeat suggests the occurrence a novel TE family not yet described. Conclusion These findings expand the taxonomic distribution and the range of functional motif of MULEs among eukaryotes. The characterization of the dynamics of TvMULEs and other transposons in this organism is of particular interest because it is atypical for an asexual species to have such an extreme level of TE activity; this genetic landscape makes an interesting case study for causes and consequences of such activity. Finally, the extreme repetitiveness of the T. vaginalis genome and the remarkable degree of sequence identity within its repeat families highlights this species as an ideal system to characterize new transposable elements.

  20. The dimension of Trichomonas vaginalis as measured by scanning electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheon, Sang-Hoon; Kim, Seung Ryong; Song, Hyun-Ouk; Ahn, Myoung-Hee; Ryu, Jae-Sook

    2013-04-01

    It is known that physicochemical conditions (e.g., pH, temperature, and ionic strength) affect the size of trichomonads. In this study, the sizes of 4 isolates of Trichomonas vaginalis cultured for more than a year (called "old T") and 3 isolates freshly isolated from vaginitis cases (called "fresh T") were compared by scanning electron microscopy. Although the fresh T had shorter body length, body width, and flagellar length than old T, total length (about 26 µm), including body length, flagella length, and axostyle length was almost the same in the 2 groups. A striking difference was observed between the axostyles of the 2 groups; the axostyle length of the fresh T (8.2 µm) was more than twice as long as that of the old T (4.0 µm). However, in several parasitology textbooks, the length of T. vaginalis is said to vary widely from 7 to 32 µm, and its undulating membrane is said to extend about half way (53.5%) to the posterior end of the body. On the other hand, in our study, the undulating membrane was observed to extend more than 3/4 of the body length (72.1%) in old T, whereas in fresh T it could not be measured. Taken together, we suggest that T. vaginalis averages 26 (21-32) µm in total length, with 9.5 (7.4-11.4) µm of body length and 6.8 (5.3-7.7) µm of width, and its undulating membrane extending 3/4 of its body length. Therefore, these findings may provide useful information for morphological characteristics of T. vaginalis.

  1. A Trichomonas vaginalis Rhomboid Protease and Its Substrate Modulate Parasite Attachment and Cytolysis of Host Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riestra, Angelica M; Gandhi, Shiv; Sweredoski, Michael J; Moradian, Annie; Hess, Sonja; Urban, Sinisa; Johnson, Patricia J

    2015-12-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis is an extracellular eukaryotic parasite that causes the most common, non-viral sexually transmitted infection worldwide. Although disease burden is high, molecular mechanisms underlying T. vaginalis pathogenesis are poorly understood. Here, we identify a family of putative T. vaginalis rhomboid proteases and demonstrate catalytic activity for two, TvROM1 and TvROM3, using a heterologous cell cleavage assay. The two T. vaginalis intramembrane serine proteases display different subcellular localization and substrate specificities. TvROM1 is a cell surface membrane protein and cleaves atypical model rhomboid protease substrates, whereas TvROM3 appears to localize to the Golgi apparatus and recognizes a typical model substrate. To identify TvROM substrates, we interrogated the T. vaginalis surface proteome using both quantitative proteomic and bioinformatic approaches. Of the nine candidates identified, TVAG_166850 and TVAG_280090 were shown to be cleaved by TvROM1. Comparison of amino acid residues surrounding the predicted cleavage sites of TvROM1 substrates revealed a preference for small amino acids in the predicted transmembrane domain. Over-expression of TvROM1 increased attachment to and cytolysis of host ectocervical cells. Similarly, mutations that block the cleavage of a TvROM1 substrate lead to its accumulation on the cell surface and increased parasite adherence to host cells. Together, these data indicate a role for TvROM1 and its substrate(s) in modulating attachment to and lysis of host cells, which are key processes in T. vaginalis pathogenesis.

  2. Auranofin inactivates Trichomonas vaginalis thioredoxin reductase and is effective against trichomonads in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopper, Melissa; Yun, Jeong-Fil; Zhou, Bianhua; Le, Christine; Kehoe, Katelin; Le, Ryan; Hill, Ryan; Jongeward, Gregg; Debnath, Anjan; Zhang, Liangfang; Miyamoto, Yukiko; Eckmann, Lars; Land, Kirkwood M; Wrischnik, Lisa A

    2016-12-01

    Trichomoniasis, caused by the protozoan parasite Trichomonas vaginalis, is the most common, non-viral, sexually transmitted infection in the world, but only two closely related nitro drugs are approved for its treatment. New antimicrobials against trichomoniasis remain an urgent need. Several organic gold compounds were tested for activity against T. vaginalis thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) in cell-free systems as well as for activity against different trichomonads in vitro and in a murine infection model. The organic gold(I) compounds auranofin and chloro(diethylphenylphosphine)gold(I) inhibited TrxR in a concentration-dependent manner in assays with recombinant purified reductase and in cytoplasmic extracts of T. vaginalis transfected with a haemagglutinin epitope-tagged form of the reductase. Auranofin potently suppressed the growth of three independent clinical T. vaginalis isolates as well as several strains of another trichomonad (Tritrichomonas foetus) in a 24 h-assay, with 50% inhibitory concentrations of 0.7-2.5 µM and minimum lethal concentrations of 2-6 µM. The drug also compromised the ability of the parasite to overcome oxidant stress, supporting the notion that auranofin acts, in part, by inactivating TrxR-dependent antioxidant defences. Chloro(diethylphenylphosphine)gold(I) was 10-fold less effective against T. vaginalis in vitro than auranofin. Oral administration of auranofin for 4 days cleared the parasites in a murine model of vaginal T. foetus infection without displaying any apparent adverse effects. The approved human drug auranofin may be a promising agent as an alternative treatment of trichomoniasis in cases when standard nitro drug therapies have failed.

  3. In Vitro Susceptibility of Iranian Isolates of Trichomonas vaginalis to Metronidazole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad MATINI

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Metronidazole, a 5-nitroimidazole derivative, is the main antitrich­omonal agent of choice for treatment of trichomoniasis. Since 1962, some cases of treatment failure with metronidazole have been reported and recently drug re­sistance is now on the rise in the world. This study was aimed to determine current susceptibility of Iranian isolates of Trichomonas vaginalis to metronidazole.Methods: This study was performed on 50 T. vaginalis isolates collected from west and central areas of Iran. After axenisation of the parasites, susceptibility testing was carried out by using serial twofold dilutions of metronidazole (400 to 0.1 µg/ml. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and the minimum lethal concentration (MLC of the trichomonads were determined after 48 h incubation at 35.5 °C. Drug susceptibility assays of the all isolates were carried out two times in triplicate under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Results: Ninety-eight percent of the T. vaginalis isolates (49/50 were sensitive to metronidazole. Metronidazole resistance was defined as aerobic MIC ≥50 µg/ml, detected in one isolate. The means of aerobic MICs and MLCs and that of anaero­bic MICs of the parasites were 2.91, 1.95 and 0.28 µg/ml, respectively.Conclusion: This investigation showed in vitro low-level tolerance to metronida­zole in a few T. vaginalis isolates that may be leading to the development of drug resistance.

  4. Effect of Verbascum thapsus ethanol extract on induction of apoptosis in Trichomonas vaginalis in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashan, Zohreh F; Arbabi, Mohsen; Delavari, Mahdi; Hooshyar, Hossein; Taghizadeh, Mohsen; Joneydy, Zeynab

    2015-01-01

    Trichomoniasis is a sexually transmitted disease (STD) caused by a tiny parasite called Trichomonas vaginalis. Metronidazole is used as routine treatment of disease. Some reports have confirmed the potential carcinogenic and teratogenic effects of this drug on fetus and indication of drug resistance. Verbascum thapsus belongs to the family of Scorphulariaceae. Its antiinflammatory properties, disinfectant and skin healing effects are well known. This plant has been used to treat diarrhea and genitourinary infection in traditional medicine. Effects of different concentrations of the Verbascum thapsus extract were tested on the growth and motility of T. vaginalis trophozoites. To evaluate the toxicity of extract, their effects on mice macrophages were measured by MTT([3-(4,5-dimethyl thiazolyl-2)- 2,5-diphenyle tetrazolium bromide ])assay. In this experimental study the effect of Verbascum thapsus ethanol extract on induction apoptosis in T. vaginalis was determined by Flow Cytometry. Results were analyzed by Flow Jo software and the degree of apoptosis was determined. Toxicity percentage of 25-800 μg/ml concentrations of Verbascum thapsus alcoholic extract for mice macrophages was observed between 0.17-0.25 after 12 hours and they were between 0.25-0.42 and0.45-0.95 after 24 and 48h respectively. IC50 (inhibitory concentration, 50%) of Verbascum thapsus ethanol extract and metronidazole after 24h was 39.17 and 0.0326 μg/ml respectively. Flow cytometry results showed the percent of apoptosis following treatment of trophozoites with different concentrations of Verbascum thapsus ethanol extract (25, 50,100,200,400 μg/ml), were 20.7, 37.04, 47.5, 62.72 and 86.35 respectively, while in control group was 2.9. According to this study, Verbascum thapsus extract induces programmed death in T. vaginalis. It is recommended that Verbascum thapsus extract can be considered as a suitable choice for Medical Studies.

  5. Prevalence of Trichomonas vaginalis and Candida albicans among Brazilian Women of Reproductive Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glehn, Mateus De Paula; Ferreira, Lana Cristina Evangelista Sá; Da Silva, Hian Delfino Ferreira; Machado, Eleuza Rodrigues

    2016-01-01

    Introduction There are no studies assessing the simultaneous occurrence of Candida albicans (C. albicans) and Trichomonas vaginalis (T. vaginalis) in the primary health care in Brazil. Despite different conditions to establishment of each one, the co-detection of both has been reported by some authors in previous studies from other regions. Aim To compare the prevalence of T. vaginalis and C. albicans in correlation with associated variables. Materials and Methods A cross-sectional study conducted in a family health clinic in the Federal District of Brazil, between November 2014 and March 2015. Vaginal swabs were collected from 201 women of the reproductive age selected from women registered at the family health clinic. Minors and pregnant women were excluded. The rates of T. vaginalis and Candida albicans prevalence were evaluated with vaginal pH, the whiff test, sexual practices and other social and demographic variables. Difference between proportions was assessed by Z-Test. Results C. albicans was present in 20% of the women, while 16% of them had T. vaginalis. The simultaneous occurrence of the agents was found in 1.5%. Significant differences were found between prevalence rates for the variables race/skin colour, practice of anilingus and lifetime number of sexual partners. Conclusion The prevalence of T. vaginalis exceeds C.albicans among women with higher numbers of sexual partners. The prevalence of C. albicans was higher than T. vaginalis among white women and those who practice active and receptive anilingus. The simultaneous occurrence of the two microorganisms was uncommon. PMID:28050410

  6. Cloning of cDNA Encoding GRA1 Protein of Tachyzoite Toxoplasma Gondii Local Isolate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erma Sulistyaningsih

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Gene encoding GRA1 protein is potent DNA-vaccine candidate against toxoplasmosis. The aim of the researchwas to clone the gene encoding GRA1 protein of tachyzoite Toxoplasma gondii local isolate by DNA recombinanttechnology. Tachyzoite was grown in Balb/c mice in vivo. Messenger RNA was isolated from total RNA and itwas used to synthesis cDNA. Complementary DNA encoding GRA1 protein of tachyzoite Toxoplasma gondii localisolate was amplified and cloned in a prokaryote cloning vector. The recombinant GRA1-encoding gene was thendigesting using EcoRI restriction endonuclease and sequencing. The result showed that the recombinant GRA1-encoding gene consisted of DNA sequences encoding all signal peptide and mature peptide of GRA1 protein.Alignment of recombinant GRA1 sequence to gene encoding GRA1 protein of Toxoplasma gondii RH isolate showed100% homologous.Keywords: GRA1 protein, Toxoplasma gondii, tachyzoite, cloning, cDNA

  7. Literature Reference for Toxoplasma gondii (Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 2004. 70(7): 4035–4039)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Procedures are described for analysis of water samples and may be adapted for assessment of solid, particulate and liquid samples. The method uses real-time PCR assay for detecting Toxoplasma gondii DNA using gene-specific primers and probe.

  8. Environmental Exposures Are Important Risk Factors for Infection Toxoplasma gondii and Helicobacter pylori

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: An estimated 70% of Americans suffer chronic infections. Helicobacter pylori and Toxoplasma gondii affect an estimated 35% and 15% of Americans, respectively. Despite their heavy burden, environmental transmission of these infections is not well understood. Object...

  9. Environmental Exposures Are Important Risk Factors for Infection Toxoplasma gondii and Helicobacter pylori

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: An estimated 70% of Americans suffer chronic infections. Helicobacter pylori and Toxoplasma gondii affect an estimated 35% and 15% of Americans, respectively. Despite their heavy burden, environmental transmission of these infections is not well understood. Object...

  10. The Effect of Toxoplasma gondii on Animal Behavior: Playing Cat and Mouse

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Webster, Joanne P

    2007-01-01

    A convincing body of evidence now exists to indicate that the ubiquitous protozoan Toxoplasma gondii can cause permanent behavioral changes in its host, even as a consequence of adult-acquired latent infection...

  11. Completing the hypusine pathway in Plasmodium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frommholz, David; Kusch, Peter; Blavid, Robert; Scheer, Hugo; Tu, Jun-Ming; Marcus, Katrin; Zhao, Kai-Hong; Atemnkeng, Veronica; Marciniak, Jana; Kaiser, Annette E

    2009-10-01

    In searching for new targets for antimalarials we investigated the biosynthesis of hypusine present in eukaryotic initiation factor-5A (eIF-5A) in Plasmodium. Here, we describe the cloning and expression of deoxyhypusine hydroxylase (DOHH), which completes the modification of eIF-5A through hydroxylation of deoxyhypusine. The dohh cDNA sequence revealed an ORF of 1236 bp encoding a protein of 412 amino acids with a calculated molecular mass of 46.45 kDa and an isoelectric point of 4.96. Interestingly, DOHH from Plasmodium has a FASTA SCORE of only 27 compared with its human ortholog and contains several matches similar to E-Z-type HEAT-like repeat proteins (IPR004155 (InterPro), PF03130 (Pfam), SM00567 (SMART) present in the phycocyanin lyase subunits of cyanobacteria. Purified DOHH protein displayed hydroxylase activity in a novel in vitro DOHH assay, but phycocyanin lyase activity was absent. dohh is present as a single-copy gene and is transcribed in the asexual blood stages of the parasite. A signal peptide at the N-terminus might direct the protein to a different cellular compartment. During evolution, Plasmodium falciparum acquired an apicoplast that lost its photosynthetic function. It is possible that plasmodial DOHH arose from an E/F-type phycobilin lyase that gained a new role in hydroxylation. Structured digital abstract: * MINT-7255047: DHS (uniprotkb:P49366) enzymaticly reacts (MI:0414) with eIF-5A (uniprotkb:Q710D1) by enzymatic studies (MI:0415) * MINT-7255326: DOHH (uniprotkb:Q8I701) enzymaticly reacts (MI:0414) with eIF-5A (uniprotkb:Q710D1) by enzymatic studies (MI:0415).

  12. Prevalence of Malaria Plasmodium in Abeokuta, Nigeria

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    Okonko, I. O.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This study reports the prevalence of malaria caused by plasmodium between genders in Abeokuta, the capital city of Ogun State located in the forest zone of southwestern Nigeria between January 2002 and December 2004. Blood film examination for malaria parasites in 708 patients; 366 males and 342 females. Microscopic examination of thick films techniques was employed for this study. Of the 708 (100% patients examined, 577 (81.5% were Plasmodium-positive. A high malaria parasite prevalence rate of 81.5% was noted in this study. Female subjects were more infected (42.4% than males (41.9% however, there was no significant difference in the sex of the subjects studied (p=0.05. A high malaria parasite prevalence rate of 86.9% was noted in samples collected in year 2003 than in other years studied. There was significant difference in the years under study (p=0.05. This study shows that a good percentage of people were infested by malaria Plasmodium. This could be attributed to lack of adequate accommodation and poor sanitary conditions in the area under study. Although several efforts have been made to effectively control the high incidence of malaria in Nigeria, these have been largely unsuccessful due to a number of reasons such as irrigated urban agriculture which can be the malaria vector’s breeding ground in the city, stagnant gutters and swamps in our environment where mosquitoes breed in millions, and lack of political will and commitment of the government in its disease management program, low awareness of the magnitude of malaria problem, poor health practices by individuals and communities and resistance to drugs. Therefore, future interventions in Nigeria should be directed toward controlling malaria in the context of a moderate transmission setting; thus, large-scale distribution of insecticide-treated nets or widespread use of indoor residual spraying may be less cost-effective than enhanced surveillance with effective case management or

  13. Gametocitos de Plasmodium vivax y Plasmodium falciparum: etapas relegadas en el desarrollo de vacunas Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum gametocyte stages are neglected in vaccine development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Contreras-Ochoa

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Los gametocitos de Plasmodium son los responsables de la transmisión del huésped vertebrado al mosquito vector. Sufren un proceso de desarrollo complejo a partir de parásitos asexuales, que no está completamente entendido, expresando proteínas y moléculas de adhesión específicas. Son capaces de inducir una respuesta inmune humoral específica con anticuerpos IgG, y celular específica, con producción de TNFa, IFNg y proliferación de linfocitos gd+, aun cuando existen respuestas inducidas en contra de las etapas previas del parásito (esporozoito, exo-eritrocítica y eritrocítica. Las vacunas destinadas a bloquear la transmisión del parásito no contemplan a los gametocitos circulantes en el huésped como blancos de acción, sino que van enfocadas contra antígenos expresados en los gametos y en las etapas posfertilización. El estudio de los mecanismos que regulan la producción de gametocitos y de la respuesta inmune contra éstos, ofrece una oportunidad para el desarrollo de estrategias adicionales para el control de la transmisión.Plasmodium gametocytes are responsible for transmission from the vertebrate host to the mosquito. Plasmodium gametocytes undergo a complex cycle from asexual stages, through a poorly understood process characterized by expression of stage-specific proteins and adhesion molecules. Gametocytes are capable of inducing specific humoral IgG, and cellular responses, which include induction of TNFa, IFNg and gd+ lymphocyte proliferation, in addition to immune responses to other stages of the parasite (sporozoite, exo-erythrocytic stages, erythrocytic stages. Although transmission-blocking vaccines against Plasmodium do not currently include components against the gametocytes (rather they focus on gametes, zygotes or ookinetes, stages which occur in the mosquito, further understanding of the mechanisms underlying gametocytogenesis and immune responses against these stages may provide additional strategies for

  14. Gametocitos de Plasmodium vivax y Plasmodium falciparum: etapas relegadas en el desarrollo de vacunas Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum gametocyte stages are neglected in vaccine development

    OpenAIRE

    Carla Contreras-Ochoa; Ramsey, Janine M.

    2004-01-01

    Los gametocitos de Plasmodium son los responsables de la transmisión del huésped vertebrado al mosquito vector. Sufren un proceso de desarrollo complejo a partir de parásitos asexuales, que no está completamente entendido, expresando proteínas y moléculas de adhesión específicas. Son capaces de inducir una respuesta inmune humoral específica con anticuerpos IgG, y celular específica, con producción de TNFa, IFNg y proliferación de linfocitos gd+, aun cuando existen respuestas inducidas en con...

  15. Mosquito transgenic technologies to reduce Plasmodium transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Silke; Nolan, Tony; Crisanti, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    The ability to introduce genetic constructs of choice into the genome of Anopheles mosquitoes provides a valuable tool to study the molecular interactions between the Plasmodium parasite and its insect host. In the long term, this technology could potentially offer new ways to control vector-borne diseases through the suppression of target mosquito populations or through the introgression of traits that preclude pathogen transmission. Here, we describe in detail protocols for the generation of transgenic Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes based on germ-line transformation using either modified transposable elements or the site-specific PhiC31 recombinase.

  16. Behavioral changes in Rattus norvegicus coinfected by Toxocara canis and Toxoplasma gondii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maisa Leite de Queiroz

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Using an elevated plus maze apparatus and an activity cage, behavioral changes in Rattus norvegicus concomitantly infected by Toxocara canis and Toxoplasma gondii were studied, during a period of 120 days. Rats infected by Toxocara canis or Toxoplasma gondii showed significant behavioral changes; however, in the group coinfected by both parasites a behavioral pattern similar to that found in the group not infected was observed thirty days after infection, suggesting the occurrence of modulation in the behavioral response.

  17. Actin Nanobodies Uncover the Mystery of Actin Filament Dynamics in Toxoplasma gondii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tardieux, Isabelle

    2017-08-01

    While the intracellular parasite Toxoplasma relies on a divergent actomyosin motor to support unique speeds in directional movement, the dynamics and architecture of parasite actin filaments remain a much-discussed issue. Using actin chromobodies, Periz et al. started to unveil how networks of dynamic F-actin connect Toxoplasma progeny and expand in the replicative vacuole. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Restoration of Toxoplasma gondii-specific immune responses in patients with AIDS starting HAART.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furco, André; Carmagnat, Maryvonnick; Chevret, Sylvie; Garin, Yves J-F; Pavie, Juliette; De Castro, Nathalie; Charron, Dominique; Derouin, Francis; Rabian, Claire; Molina, Jean-Michel

    2008-10-18

    To study the kinetics and identify factors associated with Toxoplasma-specific immune responses in patients with AIDS starting antiretroviral therapy. A prospective study of 38 HIV-infected patients seropositive for Toxoplasma who started antiretroviral therapy with CD4 T cells less than 200 cells/microl. T-cell and B-cell phenotypes, anti-Toxoplasma antibodies titers, Th-1 and Th-2 cytokine production and lymphocyte proliferative responses (LPRs) to Toxoplasma were assessed over 12 months. Median CD4 cell count increased from 122 cells/microl at baseline to 260 cells/microl at 12 months, and the incidence of a positive LPR from 18.4 to 70.5%. A Toxoplasma IgG titer more than 150 IU/ml was the only baseline variable associated with a positive LPR (hazard ratio: 4.6, P = 0.003). Among time-dependent covariates, the number of effector memory (CD45RA-CCR7-) CD4 T cells was associated with a positive LPR (P < 0.02) and the number of terminally differentiated (CD45RA+CCR7-) CD8 T cells was associated with in-vitro production of gamma-IFN (P < 0.008). Among patients with low CD4 cell counts, high anti-Toxoplasma IgG titers were associated with LPR to Toxoplasma antigen. After starting antiretroviral therapy, the number of effector memory CD4 T cells and terminally differentiated CD8 T cells were associated with the restoration of Toxoplasma LPR and gamma-IFN production, respectively.

  19. The novel oxygenated chalcone, 2,4-dimethoxy-4'-butoxychalcone, exhibits potent activity against human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum in vitro and rodent parasites Plasmodium berghei and Plasmodium yoelii in vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, M; Brøgger Christensen, S; Zhai, L

    1997-01-01

    growth of both a chloroquine-susceptible (3D7) and a chloroquine-resistant (Dd2) strain of Plasmodium falciparum in a [3H]hypoxanthine uptake assay. The in vivo activity of 2,4mbc was tested in mice infected with Plasmodium berghei or Plasmodium yoelii and in rats infected with P. berghei. 2,4mbc...

  20. Synthesis of 3-tetrazolylmethyl-4H-chromen-4-ones via Ugi-azide and biological evaluation against Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia lamblia and Trichomona vaginalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cano, Pedro A; Islas-Jácome, Alejandro; González-Marrero, Joaquín; Yépez-Mulia, Lilian; Calzada, Fernando; Gámez-Montaño, Rocío

    2014-02-15

    The synthesis of novel 3-tetrazolylmethyl-4H-chromen-4-ones via an Ugi-azide multicomponent reaction and their biological evaluation against Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia lamblia and Trichomona vaginalis are described. Reported yields are moderate to good and biological results show that these compounds could be considered as candidates to anti-parasitic drugs, especially against G. lamblia.

  1. One case of Trichomonas vaginalis in pleural fluid%胸水中检出阴道毛滴虫1例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范久波; 刘海菊; 王荣; 陈斌

    2009-01-01

    本文报道1例从胸水中检出阴道毛滴虫的病例.患者治疗不彻底,因心肺衰竭而死亡.%This paper reports a case of Trichomonas vaginalis detected from pleural fluid. Because of inadequate treatment, the patient died due to heart and lung failure.

  2. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for the rapid detection of the sexually-transmitted parasite, Trichomonas vaginalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adao, Davin Edric V; Rivera, Windell L

    2016-01-01

    A loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay was developed to detect the sexually-transmitted parasite, Trichomonas vaginalis in vaginal swabs. The presence of T. vaginalis was detected from 121 female sex workers attending a social hygiene clinic in Balibago, Angeles City, Pampanga, Philippines using culture, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and the developed LAMP assay. The high analytical sensitivity of LAMP detected a higher prevalence of T. vaginalis (42.06%) compared to culture (8.26%) and PCR (7.44%). Additionally, this assay did not cross-react with DNAs of other trichomonads that can infect humans such as Trichomonas tenax and Pentatrichomonas hominis as well as the pathogens, Candida albicans and Staphylococcus aureus. The LAMP assay developed had a limit of detection (0.036 ng/μl) lower than that of PCR using the primers TvK3 and TvK7 (0.36 ng/μl). Prevalence of T. vaginalis in female sex workers in this area of the Philippines may be higher than previously estimated. Discordant results of PCR and LAMP may be due to different reactions to different kinds of inhibitors in the vaginal swabs.

  3. Trichomonas vaginalis Infection and Associated Risk Factors in a Socially-Marginalized Female Population in Coastal Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leon, Segundo R.; Konda, Kelika A.; Bernstein, Kyle T.; Pajuelo, Jose B.; Rosasco, Ana M.; Caceres, Carlos F.; Coates, Thomas J.; Klausner, Jeffrey D.

    2009-01-01

    Objective. The epidemiology of Trichomonas vaginalis infection among sexually active socially-marginalized women in three urban, coastal Peruvian cities was examined in order to quantify the prevalence of trichomonas infection and identify associated risk factors. Methods. We conducted a cross-sectional, venue-based study of women from socially-marginalized populations in three coastal Peruvian cities. Results. Among the 319 women enrolled, the overall prevalence of trichomonal infection was 9.1% (95% CI, 5.9%–12.3%). The mean age was 26.3 years, and 35.5% reported having had unprotected intercourse with nonprimary partners and 19.8% reported two or more sex partners in the last three months. Trichomonal infection was associated with increased number of sex partners (PR 2.5, 95% CI 1.4–4.6) and unprotected sex with nonprimary partner in the last three months (PR 2.3, 95% CI 1.1–4.9). Conclusions. A moderately high prevalence of trichomonal infection was found among women in our study. Trichomonal infection was associated with unprotected sex and multiple sex partners. Efforts to control the continued spread of trichomonal infection are warranted. PMID:19584943

  4. Trichomonas vaginalis Infection and Associated Risk Factors in a Socially-Marginalized Female Population in Coastal Peru

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    Segundo R. Leon

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The epidemiology of Trichomonas vaginalis infection among sexually active socially-marginalized women in three urban, coastal Peruvian cities was examined in order to quantify the prevalence of trichomonas infection and identify associated risk factors. Methods. We conducted a cross-sectional, venue-based study of women from socially-marginalized populations in three coastal Peruvian cities. Results. Among the 319 women enrolled, the overall prevalence of trichomonal infection was 9.1% (95% CI, 5.9%–12.3%. The mean age was 26.3 years, and 35.5% reported having had unprotected intercourse with nonprimary partners and 19.8% reported two or more sex partners in the last three months. Trichomonal infection was associated with increased number of sex partners (PR 2.5, 95% CI 1.4–4.6 and unprotected sex with nonprimary partner in the last three months (PR 2.3, 95% CI 1.1–4.9. Conclusions. A moderately high prevalence of trichomonal infection was found among women in our study. Trichomonal infection was associated with unprotected sex and multiple sex partners. Efforts to control the continued spread of trichomonal infection are warranted.

  5. Validation of wet mount microscopy against Trichomonas culture among women of reproductive age group in Western province, Sri Lanka.

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    Banneheke, H; Fernandopulle, R; Gunasekara, U; Barua, A; Fernando, N; Wickremasinghe, R

    2015-06-01

    Wet mount microscopy is the most commonly used diagnostic method for trichomoniasis in clinical diagnostic services all over the world including Sri Lanka due to its availability, simplicity and is relatively inexpensive. However, Trichomonas culture and PCR are the gold standard tests. Unfortunately, neither the culture nor PCR is available for the diagnosis of trichomoniasis in Sri Lanka. Thus, it is important to validate the wet mount microscopy as it is the only available diagnostic test and has not been validated to date in Sri Lanka. The objective was to evaluate the validity and reliability of wet mount microscopy against gold standard Trichomonas culture among clinic based population of reproductive age group women in Western province, Sri Lanka. Women attending hospital and institutional based clinics were enrolled. They were interviewed and high vaginal swabs were taken for laboratory diagnosis by culture and wet mount microscopy. There were 601 participants in the age group of 15-45 years. Wet mount microscopy showed 68% sensitivity, 100% specificity, 100% positive (PPV) and 98% negative predictive values (NPV) (P=0.001, kappa=0.803) respectively against the gold standard culture. The area under the ROC curve was 0.840. Sensitivity of wet mount microscopy is low. However it has high validity and reliability as a specific diagnostic test for trichomoniasis. If it is to be used among women of reproductive age group in Western province, Sri Lanka, a culture method could be adopted as a second test to confirm the negative wet mount for symptomatic patients.

  6. Prevalence of Trichomonas vaginalis by PCR in men attending a primary care urology clinic in South Korea.

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    Seo, Jun-Hyeok; Yang, Hye-Won; Joo, So-Young; Song, Su-Min; Lee, Yu-Ran; Ryu, Jae-Sook; Yoo, Eun Sang; Lee, Won Kee; Kong, Hyun-Hee; Lee, Sang-Eun; Lee, Won-Ja; Goo, Youn-Kyoung; Chung, Dong-Il; Hong, Yeonchul

    2014-10-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis, a causative agent of trichomoniasis, may trigger symptomatic or asymptomatic nongonococcal urethritis and chronic prostatitis in men. Despite the availability of highly sensitive diagnostic tests, such as nucleic acid amplification tests, including PCR, few prospective studies present data on male T. vaginalis infection in South Korea. In the present study, the prevalence of T. vaginalis and associated clinical conditions were evaluated in 201 male patients from a primary care urology clinic in South Korea. The prevalence of T. vaginalis infection in our cohort was 4% (8/201) by PCR. T. vaginalis infection was common in men older than 40 years (median age, 52 years). Among the 8 Trichomonas-positive patients, 87.5% (7/8) had prostatic diseases, such as prostatitis and benign prostatic hyperplasia, and 25.0% (2/8) and 12.5% (1/8) were coinfected with Chlamydia trachomatis and Mycoplasma genitalium, respectively. Our results suggest that T. vaginalis infection is not rare in men attending primary care urology clinics in South Korea, especially in those older than 40 years, in whom it may explain the presence of prostatic disease. The possibility of T. vaginalis infection should be routinely considered in older male patients with prostatic diseases in South Korea.

  7. Inflammasome sensor NLRP1 controls rat macrophage susceptibility to Toxoplasma gondii.

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    Kimberly M Cirelli

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii is an intracellular parasite that infects a wide range of warm-blooded species. Rats vary in their susceptibility to this parasite. The Toxo1 locus conferring Toxoplasma resistance in rats was previously mapped to a region of chromosome 10 containing Nlrp1. This gene encodes an inflammasome sensor controlling macrophage sensitivity to anthrax lethal toxin (LT induced rapid cell death (pyroptosis. We show here that rat strain differences in Toxoplasma infected macrophage sensitivity to pyroptosis, IL-1β/IL-18 processing, and inhibition of parasite proliferation are perfectly correlated with NLRP1 sequence, while inversely correlated with sensitivity to anthrax LT-induced cell death. Using recombinant inbred rats, SNP analyses and whole transcriptome gene expression studies, we narrowed the candidate genes for control of Toxoplasma-mediated rat macrophage pyroptosis to four genes, one of which was Nlrp1. Knockdown of Nlrp1 in pyroptosis-sensitive macrophages resulted in higher parasite replication and protection from cell death. Reciprocally, overexpression of the NLRP1 variant from Toxoplasma-sensitive macrophages in pyroptosis-resistant cells led to sensitization of these resistant macrophages. Our findings reveal Toxoplasma as a novel activator of the NLRP1 inflammasome in rat macrophages.

  8. Predator cat odors activate sexual arousal pathways in brains of Toxoplasma gondii infected rats.

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    Patrick K House

    Full Text Available Cat odors induce rapid, innate and stereotyped defensive behaviors in rats at first exposure, a presumed response to the evolutionary pressures of predation. Bizarrely, rats infected with the brain parasite Toxoplasma gondii approach the cat odors they typically avoid. Since the protozoan Toxoplasma requires the cat to sexually reproduce, this change in host behavior is thought to be a remarkable example of a parasite manipulating a mammalian host for its own benefit. Toxoplasma does not influence host response to non-feline predator odor nor does it alter behavior on olfactory, social, fear or anxiety tests, arguing for specific manipulation in the processing of cat odor. We report that Toxoplasma infection alters neural activity in limbic brain areas necessary for innate defensive behavior in response to cat odor. Moreover, Toxoplasma increases activity in nearby limbic regions of sexual attraction when the rat is exposed to cat urine, compelling evidence that Toxoplasma overwhelms the innate fear response by causing, in its stead, a type of sexual attraction to the normally aversive cat odor.

  9. [Studies on the correlation of toxoplasma antibody between mothers and their infants in toxoplasmosis in pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakachi, H

    1982-12-01

    The author examined immunoglobulin and toxoplasma antibody titer using a routine serologic test in 55 pregnant women with positive antibody titer and their infants (including one twin). After evaluation of the immunological correlationship between mothers and infants, the toxoplasma antibody titer half life in infants and its decay curve were derived from IgG toxoplasma antibody titer in infants. The IgG toxoplasma antibody titer at delivery well correlated with the titer transition in infants thereafter, and the infants were divided into the following three groups for comparison with mothers' titer at delivery. Group A (mothers' titer = infants' titer), group B (mothers' titer greater than infants' titer), group C (mothers' titer less than infants' titer). The antibody titer in group A and C decreased to negative at one year of age, the value in group B, however, at 6 months after delivery. Toxoplasma antibody titer (X) and antibody half life (T) from delivery to one month, from one month to 3 months and from 3 months to 6 months respectively, were derived as follows: (formula; see text) When the antibody titer of an infant is higher than the decay curve, toxoplasma infection is strongly indicated.

  10. Comparison of Toxoplasma gondii seropositivity in hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Faezeh Hamidi; Jalal Etemadi; Nader Ghabouli Mehrabani; Mahmoud Mahami Oskouei; Roza Motavalli; Mohammad RezaArdalan

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To compare the seropositivity of Toxoplasma gondii in a group of peritoneal dialysis patients with hemodialysis patients and a general local population as a control group in Tabriz, Northwest Iran. Methods: A total of 176 individuals were participated in the present study. Among them, 42 were peritoneal dialysis patients, 84 were hemodialysis patients and 50 were healthy volunteers. Anti-Toxoplasma immunoglobulin G and immunoglobulin M serologic study was administered on the collected serums and then the obtained data were analyzed using statistical methods. Results: In the present research, 70.2% of hemodialysis patients, 66.6% of peritoneal dialysis patients and 68% of control group had positive results for anti-Toxoplasma immunoglobulin G antibody. All individuals of the groups had negative serologic results for anti-Toxoplasma immunoglobulin M antibody. There was no significant difference between Toxoplasma gondii seropositivity in hemodialysis patients and peritoneal dialysis patients and general population (P> 0.05). Conclusions: The findings showed that either peritoneal dialysis or hemodialysis doesn’t increase the risk of Toxoplasma seropositivity in our region (Northwest Iran). It could be explained by the fact that the present research is carried out in a high seroprevalent area scale in which the majority of normal population had previous exposure to this parasitical infection.

  11. No evidence for ape Plasmodium infections in humans in Gabon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Délicat-Loembet, Lucresse; Rougeron, Virginie; Ollomo, Benjamin; Arnathau, Céline; Roche, Benjamin; Elguero, Eric; Moukodoum, Nancy Diamella; Okougha, Alain-Prince; Mve Ondo, Bertrand; Boundenga, Larson; Houzé, Sandrine; Galan, Maxime; Nkoghé, Dieudonné; Leroy, Eric M; Durand, Patrick; Paupy, Christophe; Renaud, François; Prugnolle, Franck

    2015-01-01

    African great apes are naturally infected by a multitude of Plasmodium species most of them recently discovered, among which several are closely related to human malaria agents. However, it is still unknown whether these animals can serve as source of infections for humans living in their vicinity. To evaluate this possibility, we analysed the nature of Plasmodium infections from a bank of 4281 human blood samples collected in 210 villages of Gabon, Central Africa. Among them, 2255 were detected positive to Plasmodium using molecular methods (Plasmodium Cytochrome b amplification). A high throughput sequencing technology (454 GS-FLX Titanium technology, Roche) was then used to identify the Plasmodium species present within each positive sample. Overall, we identified with confidence only three species infecting humans in Gabon: P. falciparum, P. malariae and P. ovale. None of the species known to infect non-human primates in Central Africa was found. Our study shows that ape Plasmodium parasites of the subgenus Laverania do not constitute a frequent source of infection for humans. It also suggests that some strong host genetic barriers must exist to prevent the cross species transmission of ape Plasmodium in a context of ever increasing contacts between humans and wildlife.

  12. Prevalence and distribution of human Plasmodium infection in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khattak, Aamer A; Venkatesan, Meera; Nadeem, Muhammad F; Satti, Humayoon S; Yaqoob, Adnan; Strauss, Kathy; Khatoon, Lubna; Malik, Salman A; Plowe, Christopher V

    2013-08-28

    Both Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum are prevalent in Pakistan, yet up-to-date data on the epidemiology of malaria in Pakistan are not available. This study was undertaken to determine the current prevalence and distribution of Plasmodium species across the country. A malariometric population survey was conducted in 2011 using blood samples collected from 801 febrile patients of all ages in four provinces and the capital city of Islamabad. Microscopically confirmed Plasmodium-positive blood samples were reconfirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Confirmed parasite-positive samples were subjected to species-specific PCR capable of detecting four species of human malaria. Of the 707 PCR-positive samples, 128 (18%) were P. falciparum, 536 (76%) were P. vivax, and 43 (6%) were mixed P. falciparum and P. vivax. Ninety-four microscopy-positive samples were PCR-negative, and Plasmodium malariae and Plasmodium ovale were not detected. Prevalence of P. vivax ranged from 2.4% in Punjab Province to 10.8% in Sindh Province and prevalence of P. falciparum ranged from 0.1% in Islamabad to 3.8% in Balochistan. Plasmodium infections in Pakistan are largely attributed to P. vivax but P. falciparum and mixed species infections are also prevalent. In addition, regional variation in the prevalence and species composition of malaria is high.

  13. Plasmodium infection decreases fecundity and increases survival of mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vézilier, J; Nicot, A; Gandon, S; Rivero, A

    2012-10-07

    Long-lived mosquitoes maximize the chances of Plasmodium transmission. Yet, in spite of decades of research, the effect of Plasmodium parasites on mosquito longevity remains highly controversial. On the one hand, many studies report shorter lifespans in infected mosquitoes. On the other hand, parallel (but separate) studies show that Plasmodium reduces fecundity and imply that this is an adaptive strategy of the parasite aimed at redirecting resources towards longevity. No study till date has, however, investigated fecundity and longevity in the same individuals to see whether this prediction holds. In this study, we follow for both fecundity and longevity in Plasmodium-infected and uninfected mosquitoes using a novel, albeit natural, experimental system. We also explore whether the genetic variations that arise through the evolution of insecticide resistance modulate the effect of Plasmodium on these two life-history traits. We show that (i) a reduction in fecundity in Plasmodium-infected mosquitoes is accompanied by an increase in longevity; (ii) this increase in longevity arises through a trade-off between reproduction and survival; and (iii) in insecticide-resistant mosquitoes, the slope of this trade-off is steeper when the mosquito is infected by Plasmodium (cost of insecticide resistance).

  14. Human infections and detection of Plasmodium knowlesi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Balbir; Daneshvar, Cyrus

    2013-04-01

    Plasmodium knowlesi is a malaria parasite that is found in nature in long-tailed and pig-tailed macaques. Naturally acquired human infections were thought to be extremely rare until a large focus of human infections was reported in 2004 in Sarawak, Malaysian Borneo. Human infections have since been described throughout Southeast Asia, and P. knowlesi is now recognized as the fifth species of Plasmodium causing malaria in humans. The molecular, entomological, and epidemiological data indicate that human infections with P. knowlesi are not newly emergent and that knowlesi malaria is primarily a zoonosis. Human infections were undiagnosed until molecular detection methods that could distinguish P. knowlesi from the morphologically similar human malaria parasite P. malariae became available. P. knowlesi infections cause a spectrum of disease and are potentially fatal, but if detected early enough, infections in humans are readily treatable. In this review on knowlesi malaria, we describe the early studies on P. knowlesi and focus on the epidemiology, diagnosis, clinical aspects, and treatment of knowlesi malaria. We also discuss the gaps in our knowledge and the challenges that lie ahead in studying the epidemiology and pathogenesis of knowlesi malaria and in the prevention and control of this zoonotic infection.

  15. Plasmodium vivax malaria during pregnancy, Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brutus, Laurent; Santalla, José; Schneider, Dominique; Avila, Juan Carlos; Deloron, Philippe

    2013-10-01

    Plasmodium vivax is a major cause of illness in areas with low transmission of malaria in Latin America, Asia, and the Horn of Africa. However, pregnancy-associated malaria remains poorly characterized in such areas. Using a hospital-based survey of women giving birth and an antenatal survey, we assessed the prevalence rates of Plasmodium spp. infections in pregnant women in Bolivia, and evaluated the consequences of malaria during pregnancy on the health of mothers and newborns. P. vivax infection was detected in 7.9% of pregnant women attending antenatal visits, and placental infection occurred in 2.8% of deliveries; these rates did not vary with parity. Forty-two percent of all P. vivax malaria episodes were symptomatic. P. vivax-infected pregnant women were frequently anemic (6.5%) and delivered babies of reduced birthweight. P. vivax infections during pregnancy are clearly associated with serious adverse outcomes and should be considered in prevention strategies of pregnancy-associated malaria.

  16. Severe Plasmodium knowlesi with dengue coinfection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Che Rahim, Mohd Jazman; Mohammad, Nurashikin; Besari, Alwi Muhd; Wan Ghazali, Wan Syamimee

    2017-02-20

    We report a case of severe Plasmodium knowlesi and dengue coinfection in a previously healthy 59-year-old Malay man who presented with worsening shortness of breath, high-grade fever with chills and rigors, dry cough, myalgia, arthralgia, chest discomfort and poor appetite of 1 week duration. There was a history mosquito fogging around his neighbourhood in his hometown. Further history revealed that he went to a forest in Jeli (northern part of Kelantan) 3 weeks prior to the event. Initially he was treated as severe dengue with plasma leakage complicated with type 1 respiratory failure as evidenced by positive serum NS1-antigen and thrombocytopenia. Blood for malarial parasite (BFMP) was sent for test as there was suspicion of malaria due to persistent thrombocytopenia despite recovering from dengue infection and the presence of a risk factor. The test revealed high count of malaria parasite. Confirmatory PCR identified the parasite to be Plasmodium knowlesi Intravenous artesunate was administered to the patient immediately after acquiring the BFMP result. Severe malaria was complicated with acute kidney injury and septicaemic shock. Fortunately the patient made full recovery and was discharged from the ward after 2 weeks of hospitalisation. 2017 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  17. RETINAL HAEMORRHAGE IN PLASMODIUM VIVAX PATIENTS- 2 RARE CASE REPORTS

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    Sangeeta

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Retinal haemorrhage is commonly detected during opht halmoscopic examination of patients with Plasmodium falciparum infections. Ho wever, it is observed very rarely in Plasmodium vivax infections. Only six cases of reti nal haemorrhage have been reported so far in Plasmodium vivax infections. We review the literatu re and discuss two such cases of retinal haemorrhage that presented at our hospital. It is sug gested that retinal haemorrhage be routinely ruled out in all malaria patients, and Pla smodium vivax infection be considered in patients with unexplained retinal haemorrhage and fev er.

  18. Plasmodium falciparum full life cycle and Plasmodium ovale liver stages in humanized mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soulard, Valérie; Bosson-Vanga, Henriette; Lorthiois, Audrey; Roucher, Clémentine; Franetich, Jean- François; Zanghi, Gigliola; Bordessoulles, Mallaury; Tefit, Maurel; Thellier, Marc; Morosan, Serban; Le Naour, Gilles; Capron, Frédérique; Suemizu, Hiroshi; Snounou, Georges; Moreno-Sabater, Alicia; Mazier, Dominique

    2015-01-01

    Experimental studies of Plasmodium parasites that infect humans are restricted by their host specificity. Humanized mice offer a means to overcome this and further provide the opportunity to observe the parasites in vivo. Here we improve on previous protocols to achieve efficient double engraftment of TK-NOG mice by human primary hepatocytes and red blood cells. Thus, we obtain the complete hepatic development of P. falciparum, the transition to the erythrocytic stages, their subsequent multiplication, and the appearance of mature gametocytes over an extended period of observation. Furthermore, using sporozoites derived from two P. ovale-infected patients, we show that human hepatocytes engrafted in TK-NOG mice sustain maturation of the liver stages, and the presence of late-developing schizonts indicate the eventual activation of quiescent parasites. Thus, TK-NOG mice are highly suited for in vivo observations on the Plasmodium species of humans. PMID:26205537

  19. Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum are Common Malaria Species in Pakistan

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    Tauseef Ahmad

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The microbes have a diverse nature, it makes human laugh and cry. Some microbes are fruitful for humans while others are harmful. Infectious diseases are a key problem in the modern world. In the last few decades, million of peoples have died from different diseases, including bacterial, viral, fungal, parasitic, etc. Among these diseases, malaria is one of the major health problems for developing countries including Pakistan. This study was undertaken to provide baseline information about the prevalence of malaria, species distribution and to contribute to the data regarding epidemiology in Pakistan. For a collection of literature, the electronic search engine was used, using different key words i.e. prevalence, species distribution, epidemiology of malaria in Pakistan, etc. The time frame of the obtained articles was from 2000 to 2014. The two species of malaria Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum are common in Pakistan. [Biomed Res Ther 2016; 3(6.000: 666-672

  20. Global Analysis of Palmitoylated Proteins in Toxoplasma gondii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foe, Ian T; Child, Matthew A; Majmudar, Jaimeen D; Krishnamurthy, Shruthi; van der Linden, Wouter A; Ward, Gary E; Martin, Brent R; Bogyo, Matthew

    2015-10-14

    Post-translational modifications (PTMs) such as palmitoylation are critical for the lytic cycle of the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii. While palmitoylation is involved in invasion, motility, and cell morphology, the proteins that utilize this PTM remain largely unknown. Using a chemical proteomic approach, we report a comprehensive analysis of palmitoylated proteins in T. gondii, identifying a total of 282 proteins, including cytosolic, membrane-associated, and transmembrane proteins. From this large set of palmitoylated targets, we validate palmitoylation of proteins involved in motility (myosin light chain 1, myosin A), cell morphology (PhIL1), and host cell invasion (apical membrane antigen 1, AMA1). Further studies reveal that blocking AMA1 palmitoylation enhances the release of AMA1 and other invasion-related proteins from apical secretory organelles, suggesting a previously unrecognized role for AMA1. These findings suggest that palmitoylation is ubiquitous throughout the T. gondii proteome and reveal insights into the biology of this important human pathogen.

  1. Fatal Toxoplasma gondii infection in the giant panda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii can infect nearly all warm-blooded animals. We report an acute fatal T. gondii infection in the endangered giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca in a zoo in China, characterized by acute gastroenteritis and respiratory symptoms. T. gondii infection was confirmed by immunological and molecular methods. Multilocus nested PCR-RFLP revealed clonal type I at the SAG1 and c29-2 loci, clonal type II at the SAG2, BTUB, GRA6, c22-8, and L358 loci, and clonal type III at the alternative SAG2 and SAG3 loci, thus, a potential new genotype of T. gondii in the giant panda. Other possible pathogens were not detected. To our knowledge, this is the first report of clinical toxoplasmosis in a giant panda.

  2. Fatal Toxoplasma gondii infection in the giant panda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Hongyu; Wang, Zedong; Wang, Chengdong; Li, Caiwu; Wei, Feng; Liu, Quan

    2015-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii can infect nearly all warm-blooded animals. We report an acute fatal T. gondii infection in the endangered giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) in a zoo in China, characterized by acute gastroenteritis and respiratory symptoms. T. gondii infection was confirmed by immunological and molecular methods. Multilocus nested PCR-RFLP revealed clonal type I at the SAG1 and c29-2 loci, clonal type II at the SAG2, BTUB, GRA6, c22-8, and L358 loci, and clonal type III at the alternative SAG2 and SAG3 loci, thus, a potential new genotype of T. gondii in the giant panda. Other possible pathogens were not detected. To our knowledge, this is the first report of clinical toxoplasmosis in a giant panda. © H. Ma et al., published by EDP Sciences, 2015.

  3. Molecular Characterization of Toxoplasma gondii from Bird Hosts

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    N Zia-Ali

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available The determination of Toxoplasma gondii prevalence in a variety of domestic birds is thought as a good indicator of distribution of T.gondii ooccyts in the environment. To verify the potential role of domestic birds in circulating toxoplasmosis in Iran, the present study was conducted in Mazandaran Provinces, northern Iran. Latex agglutination test (LA antibodies were found in 25 of 58 free-ranging chickens (Gallus domesticus and ducks (Anas sp.. Also, viable T. gondii was isolated from 7 of 25 seropositive chickens and ducks by bioassay of their brains and hearts into mice. Most of the isolated strains were avirulant to mice. Genotyping of T.gondii isolates using Multiplex PCR for 5 microsatellite markers indicated that 7 isolates were type III. In this study type II and III isolates and mixed genotypes were not found. This study showed that domestic birds could have a potential role in transmitting toxoplasmosis to humans in Iran.

  4. Vaccines against Toxoplasma gondii: new developments and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Nian-Zhang; Chen, Jia; Wang, Meng; Petersen, Eskild; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2013-11-01

    Toxoplasmosis caused by the protozoan Toxoplasma gondii is a major public health problem, infecting one-third of the world human beings, and leads to abortion in domestic animals. A vaccine strategy would be an ideal tool for improving disease control. Many efforts have been made to develop vaccines against T. gondii to reduce oocyst shedding in cats and tissue cyst formation in mammals over the last 20 years, but only a live-attenuated vaccine based on the S48 strain has been licensed for veterinary use. Here, the authors review the recent development of T. gondii vaccines in cats, food-producing animals and mice, and present its future perspectives. However, a single or only a few antigen candidates revealed by various experimental studies are limited by only eliciting partial protective immunity against T. gondii. Future studies of T. gondii vaccines should include as many CTL epitopes as the live attenuated vaccines.

  5. Quantitative studies of the mutagenesis of Toxoplasma gondii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfefferkorn, E.R.; Pfefferkorn, L.C.

    1979-06-01

    The induction of mutants resistant to 5-fluorodeoxyuridine (FUDR) was used to measure the efficiency of various physical and chemical mutagens on extracellular and intracellular Toxoplasma gondii. The frequency of resistant mutant was measured by plaque assay in human fibroblast cultures in the presence and absence of FUDR. When considered as a function of lethality, the most efficient mutagenesis was obtained with nitrosoguanidine treatment of extracellular parasites and with ethylmethane sulfonate treatment of actively growing intracellular parasites. Each of these treatments increased the frequency of FUDR-resistant mutants from less than one to more than 200 per million parasites. Ultraviolet irradiation, X-rays, and the alkylating mustard ICR-191 also induced FUDR-resistant mutants in a dose-dependent fashion.

  6. Outbreak of caprine abortion by Toxoplasma gondii in Midwest Brazil

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    Flávio Henrique Bravim Caldeira

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available An outbreak of abortion by Toxoplasma gondii in goats on a farm in the Brazilian Midwest is reported. Gross lesions were not observed in seven aborted fetuses submitted to the Veterinary Pathology Laboratory, Federal University of Mato Grosso, for necropsy investigation. The main histologic lesions were mononuclear cell pneumonia and necrotizing encephalitis in varying degrees of intensity. PCR for Brucella abortus and Neospora caninum and aerobic cultures were negative in all cases. Antibody titles against T. gondii varying from 1:1024 to 1:32.768 were detected in serum samples from four aborted goats. Nested-PCR assay for T. gondii were positive in brain samples of all cases submitted. These findings indicate that T. gondii infection should be considered in the diagnosis of abortion in goats in Midwest Brazil.

  7. Toxoplasma polymerase chain reaction on experimental blood samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joss, A W; Chatterton, J M; Evans, R; Ho-Yen, D O

    1993-01-01

    A two-stage polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay employing oligonucleotide primers from the B1 gene of Toxoplasma gondii was developed and assessed for sensitivity and specificity. It was able to detect T. gondii DNA from as little as one parasite/sample in mock-infected rat or mouse leucocyte preparations. Parasitaemia was also identified in animals at five stages between 16 and 66 h after infection with the virulent RH strain, and at 12 stages between 2 and 38 days after infection with the cyst-forming Beverley strain. In the latter case, PCR was more sensitive than animal culture. No cross-reactions were observed in samples containing various opportunist pathogens which may also be found in the blood of immunocompromised patients.

  8. Toxoplasma gondii aspartic protease 1 is not essential in tachyzoites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polonais, Valerie; Shea, Michael; Soldati-Favre, Dominique

    2011-08-01

    Aspartic proteases are important virulence factors for pathogens and are recognized as attractive drug targets. Seven aspartic proteases (ASPs) have been identified in Toxoplasma gondii genome. Bioinformatics and phylogenetic analyses regroup them into five monophyletic groups. Among them, TgASP1, a coccidian specific aspartic protease related to the food vacuole plasmepsins, is associated with the secretory pathway in non-dividing cells and relocalizes in close proximity to the nascent inner membrane complex (IMC) of daughter cells during replication. Despite a potential role for TgASP1 in IMC formation, the generation of a conventional knockout of the TgASP1 gene revealed that this protease is not required for T. gondii tachyzoite survival or for proper IMC biogenesis.

  9. GITR Activation Positively Regulates Immune Responses against Toxoplasma gondii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Frederico R. C.; Mota, Caroline M.; Santiago, Fernanda M.; Silva, Murilo V.; Ferreira, Marcela D.; Fonseca, Denise M.; Silva, João S.; Mineo, José R.; Mineo, Tiago W. P.

    2016-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is a widespread parasite responsible for causing clinical diseases especially in pregnant and immunosuppressed individuals. Glucocorticoid-induced TNF receptor (GITR), which is also known as TNFRS18 and belongs to the TNF receptor superfamily, is found to be expressed in various cell types of the immune system and provides an important costimulatory signal for T cells and myeloid cells. However, the precise role of this receptor in the context of T. gondii infection remains elusive. Therefore, the current study investigated the role of GITR activation in the immunoregulation mechanisms induced during the experimental infection of mice with T. gondii. Our data show that T. gondii infection slightly upregulates GITR expression in Treg cells and B cells, but the most robust increment in expression was observed in macrophages and dendritic cells. Interestingly, mice infected and treated with an agonistic antibody anti-GITR (DTA-1) presented a robust increase in pro-inflammatory cytokine production at preferential sites of parasite replication, which was associated with the decrease in latent brain parasitism of mice under treatment with DTA-1. Several in vivo and in vitro analysis were performed to identify the cellular mechanisms involved in GITR activation upon infection, however no clear alterations were detected in the phenotype/function of macrophages, Tregs and B cells under treatment with DTA-1. Therefore, GITR appears as a potential target for intervention during infection by the parasite Toxoplasma gondii, even though further studies are still necessary to better characterize the immune response triggered by GITR activation during T. gondii infection. PMID:27027302

  10. SEROLOGICAL SURVEY OF TOXOPLASMA GONDII IN DOGS AND CATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faiz Ahmad, Azhar Maqbool, Ashar Mahfooz and Sikandar Hayat

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available A serological survey for Toxoplasma gondii in dogs (n=40 and cats (n= 10 was conducted by using a Latex agglutination test (LAT. The overall seroprevalence of T. gondii in canines was 50%. Out of total 9 dogs were found seropositive at 1:256, giving an evidence of presence of infection. The seroprevalence of T. gondii in canines was inversely related to the age i.e., 52% at 6 months and 33.33% at 4 years of age. Little variation in seropositivity was observed between males (57.89% and females (42.85% or between exotic (46.15% and local (57.14% breeds. However, tremendous variation in seropositivity was found between stray dogs (78.57% and pet dogs (34.61 % and between dogs having close contact with cats (50% and without contact {16.16%. Out of the tested bitches, 66.66% were seropositive, mostly at I: 16 indicating residual immunity. The overall seroprevalence of T. gondii in cats was 60%, three at screening dilution of 1:256, suggesting recent exposure to Toxoplasma. The seroprevalence of T. gondii in cats was directly related to age. A significant difference in seropositivity was observed between stray cats (66.66% and indoor cats (57.14% and between females (70% and males (40%.The seropositive rate in local breeds of cats was high (66.66% as compared with exotic (50%. This test might give false positive results due to interfering factors (rheumatoid factor and IgG class antibodies. So it is not a "Gold standard" test for the concrete diagnosis of toxoplasmosis.

  11. Keratoconjunctivitis associated with Toxoplasma gondii in a dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swinger, Robert L; Schmidt, Karl A; Dubielzig, Richard R

    2009-01-01

    A 12-year-old Pug presented with a 3-mm corneal mass OD. The dog was currently being treated for keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS) and pigmentary keratitis OU. A superficial keratectomy followed by cryotherapy was performed OD. A histopathologic diagnosis of epithelial dysplasia and suppurative keratitis was made and the lesion resolved. Two months later, a yellow/tan conjunctival mass, diffuse chemosis and conjunctival thickening was discovered OD. Necrotizing conjunctivitis with protozoal parasites was diagnosed with histopathology. Complete blood count and a serum biochemistry panel were normal. Neospora caninum and Toxoplasma gondii titers were negative. The conjunctivitis resolved after a 6-week course of oral clindamycin. Two months later, the patient presented with a similar conjunctival mass OS. Toxoplasma gondii was confirmed as the etiologic agent with immunohistochemical staining. Repeat T. gondii titers were negative. Oral clindamycin was re-instituted. The corneal biopsy was re-reviewed and protozoal organisms were discovered. Three months later, a recurrence was suspected and oral ponazuril was initiated for 28 days. There has been no evidence of recurrence since this treatment. Ocular toxoplasmosis is rare in the dog but reports have included episcleritis, scleritis, retinitis, anterior uveitis, ciliary epithelium hyperplasia, optic neuritis and polymyositis. To our knowledge, this is the first confirmed report of toxoplasmosis causing only corneal and conjunctival disease in the dog. We hypothesize that these localized lesions may be associated with topical immunomodulating therapy for KCS. Toxoplasmosis should be considered as a differential for canine conjunctivitis and corneal disease and has the potential to manifest in one or both eyes.

  12. Toxoplasma gondii in women with recent abortion from Southern Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivonne Beatriz Hernández-Cortazar

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To estimate the presence, parasite burden, percentage of avidity and risk factors to seropositivity for Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii in women with recent abortion attended at the two main hospitals from Merida, Yucatan, Mexico. Methods: Seroprevalence and IgG avidity were estimated from 161 blood samples from aborting women and risk factors associated with serological status were determined. Only 130 from 161 samples were analyzed by quantitative PCR (qPCR and a nested-PCR (nPCR to detect T. gondii-DNA. Results: Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma IgM and IgG was 3.72% (6/161 and 59.00% (95/161, respectively; 98.94% (94/95 of the women showed high-avidity index and only 1.05% (1/95 demonstrated low-avidity. For qPCR, 3.84% (5/130 of the samples were detected with T. gondii-DNA and all positive samples showed a low parasite load (< 1 parasite/mL. For nPCR, 6.92% (9/130 of positivity was found. Logistic regression analysis showed a positive association between IgG-seropositivity and potable-drinking-water intake in households (P < 0.020, odds ratio = 11.62, 95% confidence interval = 0.011–0.683. Conclusions: In this study, the detection of T. gondii-DNA in IgG-positive women suggests in some cases active parasitemia, even when they demonstrated high-avidity index. Reinfection cases could be presented due to the high circulation of the parasite in the study region. T. gondii could play an important role as cause of abortion and municipal potable-water could be an important risk factor of infection.

  13. DMPD: Manipulation of mitogen-activated protein kinase/nuclear factor-kappaB-signalingcascades during intracellular Toxoplasma gondii infection. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available nalingcascades during intracellular Toxoplasma gondii infection. Denkers EY, Butcher BA, Del Rio L, Kim L. I...in kinase/nuclear factor-kappaB-signalingcascades during intracellular Toxoplasma...appaB-signalingcascades during intracellular Toxoplasma gondii infection. Authors Denkers EY, Butcher BA, De

  14. Immunization of mice with Plasmodium TCTP delays establishment of Plasmodium infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, K J; Van, T T H; MacDonald, S M; Meshnick, S R; Fernley, R T; Macreadie, I G; Smooker, P M

    2015-01-01

    Translationally controlled tumour protein (TCTP) may play an important role in the establishment or maintenance of parasitemia in a malarial infection. In this study, the potential of TCTP as a malaria vaccine was investigated in two trials. In the initial vaccine trial, Plasmodium falciparum TCTP (PfTCTP) was expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and used to immunize BALB/c mice. Following challenge with Plasmodium yoelii YM, parasitemia was significantly reduced during the early stages of infection. In the second vaccine trial, the TCTP from P. yoelii and P. berghei was expressed in Escherichia coli and used in several mouse malaria models. A significant reduction in parasitemia in the early stages of infection was observed in BALB/c mice challenged with P. yoelii YM. A significantly reduced parasitemia at each day leading up to a delayed and reduced peak parasitemia was also observed in BALB/c mice challenged with the nonlethal Plasmodium chabaudi (P.c.) chabaudi AS. These results suggest that TCTP has an important role for parasite establishment and may be important for pathogenesis. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Plasmodium species: master renovators of their host cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Koning-Ward, Tania F; Dixon, Matthew W A; Tilley, Leann; Gilson, Paul R

    2016-08-01

    Plasmodium parasites, the causative agents of malaria, have developed elaborate strategies that they use to survive and thrive within different intracellular environments. During the blood stage of infection, the parasite is a master renovator of its erythrocyte host cell, and the changes in cell morphology and function that are induced by the parasite promote survival and contribute to the pathogenesis of severe malaria. In this Review, we discuss how Plasmodium parasites use the protein trafficking motif Plasmodium export element (PEXEL), protease-mediated polypeptide processing, a novel translocon termed the Plasmodium translocon of exported proteins (PTEX) and exomembranous structures to export hundreds of proteins to discrete subcellular locations in the host erythrocytes, which enables the parasite to gain access to vital nutrients and to evade the immune defence mechanisms of the host.

  16. STUDY ON RELATIVE ABUNDANCE OF Plasmodium SPECIES: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    2013-06-01

    Jun 1, 2013 ... Keywords: abundance, plasmodium, relative, thin blood film, malaria control programmes. INTRODUCTION ... When an infected female Anopheles mosquito bites a ... the understanding of the type of infection as well as.

  17. Plasmodium infection in a Leadbeater's possum (Gymnobelideus leadbeateri).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheelings, T F; McLaren, P J; Tatarczuch, L; Slocombe, R F

    2016-08-01

    A wild-caught, adult female Leadbeater's possum (Gymnobelideus leadbeateri) died while in captivity after suffering from chronic ill-thrift that progressed to acute respiratory distress. On histopathological examination of tissues, the cause of death was determined to be severe acute pneumonia with pulmonary oedema associated with an intracellular protozoan parasite present within erythrocytes. Transmission electron microscopy was performed on lung tissues and organisms consistent for Plasmodium sp. were identified within numerous erythrocytes. Molecular characterisation of the parasite from DNA extracted from tissue blocks of fixed lung determined the organism to belong to the genus Plasmodium (100% similarity to Plasmodium species when a BLAST analysis was performed); however, speciation of the organism was not possible. This is the first report of Plasmodium sp. infection and subsequent disease in a native Australian mammal. The lifecycle of this parasite remains unknown. It is also unknown what effects haemoparasitism may have on the population dynamics of this endangered possum species. © 2016 Australian Veterinary Association.

  18. International population movements and regional Plasmodium falciparum malaria elimination strategies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Andrew J. Tatem; David L. Smith; Susan Hanson

    2010-01-01

    ... to areas targeted for elimination. Here, census-based migration data were analyzed with network analysis tools, Plasmodium falciparum malaria transmission maps, and global population databases to map globally communities of countries...

  19. Peripheral blood cell signatures of Plasmodium falciparum infection during pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibitokou, Samad; Oesterholt, Mayke; Brutus, Laurent;

    2012-01-01

    Sequestration of Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes in placental intervillous spaces causes inflammation and pathology. Knowledge of the profiles of immune cells associated with the physiopathology of pregnancy-associated malaria (PAM) is scarce. We conducted a longitudinal, prospective...

  20. Heterologous Protection against Malaria after Immunization with Plasmodium falciparum Sporozoites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schats, R.; Bijker, E.M.; Gemert, G.J.A. van; Graumans, W.; Vegte-Bolmer, M. van de; Lieshout, L. van; Haks, M.C.; Hermsen, C.C.; Scholzen, A.; Visser, L.G.; Sauerwein, R.W.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Sterile protection in >90% of volunteers against homologous Plasmodium falciparum infection has been achieved only using the controlled human malaria infection (CHMI) model. This efficient model involves whole parasite immunizations under chloroquine prophylaxis (CPS-immunization),