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Sample records for plasmodium chabaudi cir

  1. Characterization and gene expression analysis of the cir multi-gene family of plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi (AS

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    Lawton Jennifer

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The pir genes comprise the largest multi-gene family in Plasmodium, with members found in P. vivax, P. knowlesi and the rodent malaria species. Despite comprising up to 5% of the genome, little is known about the functions of the proteins encoded by pir genes. P. chabaudi causes chronic infection in mice, which may be due to antigenic variation. In this model, pir genes are called cirs and may be involved in this mechanism, allowing evasion of host immune responses. In order to fully understand the role(s of CIR proteins during P. chabaudi infection, a detailed characterization of the cir gene family was required. Results The cir repertoire was annotated and a detailed bioinformatic characterization of the encoded CIR proteins was performed. Two major sub-families were identified, which have been named A and B. Members of each sub-family displayed different amino acid motifs, and were thus predicted to have undergone functional divergence. In addition, the expression of the entire cir repertoire was analyzed via RNA sequencing and microarray. Up to 40% of the cir gene repertoire was expressed in the parasite population during infection, and dominant cir transcripts could be identified. In addition, some differences were observed in the pattern of expression between the cir subgroups at the peak of P. chabaudi infection. Finally, specific cir genes were expressed at different time points during asexual blood stages. Conclusions In conclusion, the large number of cir genes and their expression throughout the intraerythrocytic cycle of development indicates that CIR proteins are likely to be important for parasite survival. In particular, the detection of dominant cir transcripts at the peak of P. chabaudi infection supports the idea that CIR proteins are expressed, and could perform important functions in the biology of this parasite. Further application of the methodologies described here may allow the elucidation of CIR sub

  2. Characterization and gene expression analysis of the cir multi-gene family of plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi (AS)

    KAUST Repository

    Lawton, Jennifer

    2012-03-29

    Background: The pir genes comprise the largest multi-gene family in Plasmodium, with members found in P. vivax, P. knowlesi and the rodent malaria species. Despite comprising up to 5% of the genome, little is known about the functions of the proteins encoded by pir genes. P. chabaudi causes chronic infection in mice, which may be due to antigenic variation. In this model, pir genes are called cirs and may be involved in this mechanism, allowing evasion of host immune responses. In order to fully understand the role(s) of CIR proteins during P. chabaudi infection, a detailed characterization of the cir gene family was required.Results: The cir repertoire was annotated and a detailed bioinformatic characterization of the encoded CIR proteins was performed. Two major sub-families were identified, which have been named A and B. Members of each sub-family displayed different amino acid motifs, and were thus predicted to have undergone functional divergence. In addition, the expression of the entire cir repertoire was analyzed via RNA sequencing and microarray. Up to 40% of the cir gene repertoire was expressed in the parasite population during infection, and dominant cir transcripts could be identified. In addition, some differences were observed in the pattern of expression between the cir subgroups at the peak of P. chabaudi infection. Finally, specific cir genes were expressed at different time points during asexual blood stages.Conclusions: In conclusion, the large number of cir genes and their expression throughout the intraerythrocytic cycle of development indicates that CIR proteins are likely to be important for parasite survival. In particular, the detection of dominant cir transcripts at the peak of P. chabaudi infection supports the idea that CIR proteins are expressed, and could perform important functions in the biology of this parasite. Further application of the methodologies described here may allow the elucidation of CIR sub-family A and B protein

  3. Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi malaria parasites can develop stable resistance to atovaquone with a mutation in the cytochrome b gene

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    Alves Ana C

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plasmodium falciparum, has developed resistance to many of the drugs in use. The recommended treatment policy is now to use drug combinations. The atovaquone-proguanil (AP drug combination, is one of the treatment and prophylaxis options. Atovaquone (ATQ exerts its action by inhibiting plasmodial mitochondria electron transport at the level of the cytochrome bc1 complex. Plasmodium falciparum in vitro resistance to ATQ has been associated with specific point mutations in the region spanning codons 271-284 of the cytochrome b gene. ATQ -resistant Plasmodium yoelii and Plasmodium berghei lines have been obtained and resistant lines have amino acid mutations in their CYT b protein sequences. Plasmodium chabaudi model for studying drug-responses and drug-resistance selection is a very useful rodent malaria model but no ATQ resistant parasites have been reported so far. The aim of this study was to determine the ATQ sensitivity of the P. chabaudi clones, to select a resistant parasite line and to perform genotypic characterization of the cytb gene of these clones. Methods To select for ATQ resistance, Plasmodium. chabaudi chabaudi clones were exposed to gradually increasing concentrations of ATQ during several consecutive passages in mice. Plasmodium chabaudi cytb gene was amplified and sequenced. Results ATQ resistance was selected from the clone AS-3CQ. In order to confirm whether an heritable genetic mutation underlies the response of AS-ATQ to ATQ, the stability of the drug resistance phenotype in this clone was evaluated by measuring drug responses after (i multiple blood passages in the absence of the drug, (ii freeze/thawing of parasites in liquid nitrogen and (iii transmission through a mosquito host, Anopheles stephensi. ATQ resistance phenotype of the drug-selected parasite clone kept unaltered. Therefore, ATQ resistance in clone AS-ATQ is genetically encoded. The Minimum Curative Dose of AS-ATQ showed a six

  4. Cerebral Edema and Cerebral Hemorrhages in Interleukin-10-Deficient Mice Infected with Plasmodium chabaudi

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    Sanni, Latifu A; Jarra, William; Li, Ching; Langhorne, Jean

    2004-01-01

    During a Plasmodium chabaudi infection in interleukin-10 (IL-10) knockout mice, there is greater parasite sequestration, more severe cerebral edema, and a high frequency of cerebral hemorrhage compared with infection of C57BL/6 mice. Anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha treatment ameliorated both cerebral edema and hemorrhages, suggesting that proinflammatory responses contributed to cerebral complications in infected IL-10−/− mice.

  5. Transformation of the rodent malaria parasite Plasmodium chabaudi and generation of a stable fluorescent line PcGFPCON

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    Reece Sarah E

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The rodent malaria parasite Plasmodium chabaudi has proven of great value in the analysis of fundamental aspects of host-parasite-vector interactions implicated in disease pathology and parasite evolutionary ecology. However, the lack of gene modification technologies for this model has precluded more direct functional studies. Methods The development of in vitro culture methods to yield P. chabaudi schizonts for transfection and conditions for genetic modification of this rodent malaria model are reported. Results Independent P. chabaudi gene-integrant lines that constitutively express high levels of green fluorescent protein throughout their life cycle have been generated. Conclusion Genetic modification of P. chabaudi is now possible. The production of genetically distinct reference lines offers substantial advances to our understanding of malaria parasite biology, especially interactions with the immune system during chronic infection.

  6. Cytokine responses of CD4+ T cells during a Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi (ER blood-stage infection in mice initiated by the natural route of infection

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    Butcher Geoffrey

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Investigation of host responses to blood stages of Plasmodium spp, and the immunopathology associated with this phase of the life cycle are often performed on mice infected directly with infected red blood cells. Thus, the effects of mosquito bites and the pre-erythrocytic stages of the parasite, which would be present in natural infection, are ignored In this paper, Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi infections of mice injected directly with infected red blood cells were compared with those of mice infected by the bites of infected mosquitoes, in order to determine whether the courses of primary infection and splenic CD4 T cell responses are similar. Methods C57Bl/6 mice were injected with red blood cells infected with P. chabaudi (ER or infected via the bite of Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes. Parasitaemia were monitored by Giemsa-stained thin blood films. Total spleen cells, CD4+ T cells, and cytokine production (IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-4, IL-10 were analysed by flow cytometry. In some experiments, mice were subjected to bites of uninfected mosquitoes prior to infectious bites in order to determine whether mosquito bites per se could affect a subsequent P. chabaudi infection. Results P. chabaudi (ER infections initiated by mosquito bite were characterized by lower parasitaemia of shorter duration than those observed after direct blood challenge. However, splenomegaly was comparable suggesting that parasitaemia alone does not account for the increase in spleen size. Total numbers of CD4 T cells and those producing IFN-γ, IL-10 and IL-2 were reduced in comparison to direct blood challenge. By contrast, the reduction in IL-4 producing cells was less marked suggesting that there is a proportionally lower Th1-like response in mice infected via infectious mosquitoes. Strikingly, pre-exposure to bites of uninfected mosquitoes reduced the magnitude and duration of the subsequent mosquito-transmitted infection still further, but enhanced the

  7. Induction of strain-transcending immunity against Plasmodium chabaudi adami malaria with a multiepitope DNA vaccine.

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    Scorza, T; Grubb, K; Smooker, P; Rainczuk, A; Proll, D; Spithill, T W

    2005-05-01

    A major goal of current malaria vaccine programs is to develop multivalent vaccines that will protect humans against the many heterologous malaria strains that circulate in endemic areas. We describe a multiepitope DNA vaccine, derived from a genomic Plasmodium chabaudi adami DS DNA expression library of 30,000 plasmids, which induces strain-transcending immunity in mice against challenge with P. c. adami DK. Segregation of this library and DNA sequence analysis identified vaccine subpools encoding open reading frames (ORFs)/peptides of >9 amino acids [aa] (the V9+ pool, 303 plasmids) and >50 aa (V50+ pool, 56 plasmids), respectively. The V9+ and V50+ plasmid vaccine subpools significantly cross-protected mice against heterologous P. c. adami DK challenge, and protection correlated with the induction of both specific gamma interferon production by splenic cells and opsonizing antibodies. Bioinformatic analysis showed that 22 of the V50+ ORFs were polypeptides conserved among three or more Plasmodium spp., 13 of which are predicted hypothetical proteins. Twenty-nine of these ORFs are orthologues of predicted Plasmodium falciparum sequences known to be expressed in the blood stage, suggesting that this vaccine pool encodes multiple blood-stage antigens. The results have implications for malaria vaccine design by providing proof-of-principle that significant strain-transcending immunity can be induced using multiepitope blood-stage DNA vaccines and suggest that both cellular responses and opsonizing antibodies are necessary for optimal protection against P. c. adami.

  8. Augmented particle trapping and attenuated inflammation in the liver by protective vaccination against Plasmodium chabaudi malaria

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    Dkhil Mohamed A

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To date all efforts to develop a malaria vaccine have failed, reflecting the still fragmentary knowledge about protective mechanisms against malaria. In order to evaluate if vaccination changes responses of the anti-malaria effectors spleen and liver to blood stage malaria, BALB/c mice succumbing to infection with Plasmodium chabaudi were compared to those surviving after vaccination. Methods Mice were vaccinated with host cell plasma membranes isolated from P. chabaudi-infected erythrocytes. Hepatic and splenic capacity to trap particulate material was determined after injection of fluorescent polystyrol beads. Hepatic gene expression was measured using real-time RT-PCR and Northern blotting. Results Survival of BALB/c mice was raised from 0% to 80% and peak parasitaemia was decreased by about 30% by vaccination. Vaccination boosted particle trapping capacity of the liver during crisis when splenic trapping is minimal due to spleen 'closing'. It also attenuated malaria-induced inflammation, thus diminishing severe damages and hence liver failure. Vaccination increased hepatic IFN-γ production but mitigated acute phase response. Vaccination has a complex influence on infection-induced changes in expression of hepatic nuclear receptors (CAR, FXR, RXR, and PXR and of the metabolic enzymes Sult2a and Cyp7a1. Although vaccination decreased CAR mRNA levels and prevented Cyp7a1 suppression by the CAR ligand 1,2-bis [2-(3,5-dichloropyridyloxy]benzene (TCPOBOP on day 8 p.i., Sult2a-induction by TCPOBOP was restored. Conclusion These data support the view that the liver is an essential effector site for a vaccine against blood stage malaria: vaccination attenuates malaria-induced inflammation thus improving hepatic metabolic activity and particle trapping activity of the liver.

  9. Preconditioning with hemin decreases Plasmodium chabaudi adami parasitemia and inhibits erythropoiesis in BALB/c mice.

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    Esther Dalko

    Full Text Available Increased susceptibility to bacterial and viral infections and dysfunctional erythropoiesis are characteristic of malaria and other hemolytic hemoglobinopathies. High concentrations of free heme are common in these conditions but little is known about the effect of heme on adaptive immunity and erythropoiesis. Herein, we investigated the impact of heme (hemin administration on immune parameters and steady state erythropoiesis in BALB/c mice, and on parasitemia and anemia during Plasmodium chabaudi adami infection. Intra-peritoneal injection of hemin (5 mg/Kg body weight over three consecutive days decreased the numbers of splenic and bone marrow macrophages, IFN-γ responses to CD3 stimulation and T(h1 differentiation. Our results show that the numbers of erythroid progenitors decreased in the bone marrow and spleen of mice treated with hemin, which correlated with reduced numbers of circulating reticulocytes, without affecting hemoglobin concentrations. Although blunted IFN-γ responses were measured in hemin-preconditioned mice, the mice developed lower parasitemia following P.c.adami infection. Importantly, anemia was exacerbated in hemin-preconditioned mice with malaria despite the reduced parasitemia. Altogether, our data indicate that free heme has dual effects on malaria pathology.

  10. Preconditioning with Hemin Decreases Plasmodium chabaudi adami Parasitemia and Inhibits Erythropoiesis in BALB/c Mice

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    Dalko, Esther; Gaudreault, Véronique; Sanchez Dardon, Jaime; Moreau, Robert; Scorza, Tatiana

    2013-01-01

    Increased susceptibility to bacterial and viral infections and dysfunctional erythropoiesis are characteristic of malaria and other hemolytic hemoglobinopathies. High concentrations of free heme are common in these conditions but little is known about the effect of heme on adaptive immunity and erythropoiesis. Herein, we investigated the impact of heme (hemin) administration on immune parameters and steady state erythropoiesis in BALB/c mice, and on parasitemia and anemia during Plasmodium chabaudi adami infection. Intra-peritoneal injection of hemin (5 mg/Kg body weight) over three consecutive days decreased the numbers of splenic and bone marrow macrophages, IFN-γ responses to CD3 stimulation and Th1 differentiation. Our results show that the numbers of erythroid progenitors decreased in the bone marrow and spleen of mice treated with hemin, which correlated with reduced numbers of circulating reticulocytes, without affecting hemoglobin concentrations. Although blunted IFN-γ responses were measured in hemin-preconditioned mice, the mice developed lower parasitemia following P.c.adami infection. Importantly, anemia was exacerbated in hemin-preconditioned mice with malaria despite the reduced parasitemia. Altogether, our data indicate that free heme has dual effects on malaria pathology. PMID:23358441

  11. Regulatory T cell induction during Plasmodium chabaudi infection modifies the clinical course of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

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    Alessandro S Farias

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE is used as an animal model for human multiple sclerosis (MS, which is an inflammatory demyelinating autoimmune disease of the central nervous system characterized by activation of Th1 and/or Th17 cells. Human autoimmune diseases can be either exacerbated or suppressed by infectious agents. Recent studies have shown that regulatory T cells play a crucial role in the escape mechanism of Plasmodium spp. both in humans and in experimental models. These cells suppress the Th1 response against the parasite and prevent its elimination. Regulatory T cells have been largely associated with protection or amelioration in several autoimmune diseases, mainly by their capacity to suppress proinflammatory response. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, we verified that CD4(+CD25(+ regulatory T cells (T regs generated during malaria infection (6 days after EAE induction interfere with the evolution of EAE. We observed a positive correlation between the reduction of EAE clinical symptoms and an increase of parasitemia levels. Suppression of the disease was also accompanied by a decrease in the expression of IL-17 and IFN-γ and increases in the expression of IL-10 and TGF-β1 relative to EAE control mice. The adoptive transfer of CD4(+CD25(+ cells from P. chabaudi-infected mice reduced the clinical evolution of EAE, confirming the role of these T regs. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These data corroborate previous findings showing that infections interfere with the prevalence and evolution of autoimmune diseases by inducing regulatory T cells, which regulate EAE in an apparently non-specific manner.

  12. Lactobacillus casei ssp. rhamnosus enhances non specific protection against Plasmodium chabaudi AS in mice Lactobacillus casei ssp. rhamnosus aumenta la protección no específica contra Plasmodium chabaudi AS en ratones

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    Federico Martínez-Gómez

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the capacity of Lactobacillus casei ssp. rhamnosus to enhance resistance against Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi AS. MATERIAL AND METHODS: NIH mice were IP injected with viable lactobacillus casei seven days (LC1 group or 7 and 14 days (LC2 group before the challenge (day 0 with Plasmodium chabaudi parasitized red blood cells (pRBC. Control mice were inoculated with pRBC only. When parasitaemia was resolved, naive mice were injected with spleen cells from each group. The parasitaemia was measured. Nitric oxide (NO. in serum was determined. RESULTS: Mice from the LC1 group presented a reduction in parasitaemia, with a prepatent period of five days, parasitaemia lasted 11 days, and the peak was (36.3 % pRBC on the 12th day post-infection. Mice from the LC2 group showed a prepatent period of five days, parasitaemia lasted eight days, and the peak (30 % pRBC was of on the 11th day. In the control, the prepatent period was three days, the parasitaemia lasted 15 days, and the peak (51% pRBC was on day nine. Mice inoculated with spleen cells from the LC2 group showed a prepatent period of 21 days, parasitaemia lasted seven days, and the peak (13.5% pRBC was on the 26th day. CONCLUSION: L. casei enhanced nonspecific resistance to P. chabaudi, as indicated by longer prepatent periods, reduced parasitaemia, and reduction in the viability of the parasites recovered from the spleen of infected mice, along with high concentrations of NO. in serum.OBJETIVO: Evaluar la capacidad de Lactobacillus casei de aumentar la resistencia a la infección con Plasmodium chabaudi en ratones. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Ratones NIH fueron inyectados intraperitonealmente con L. casei viable 7 días (grupo LC1 o 7 y 14 días (grupo LC2 antes del reto (día 0 con glóbulos rojos parasitados (GRP con P. chabaudi. Los testigos fueron inoculados con GRP solamente. Cuando la parasitemia se resolvió, se inocularon ratones limpios con células de bazo de cada grupo. Se

  13. Antimalarial and antioxidant activities of Indigofera oblongifolia on Plasmodium chabaudi-induced spleen tissue injury in mice.

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    Lubbad, Mahmoud Y; Al-Quraishy, Saleh; Dkhil, Mohamed A

    2015-09-01

    Malaria is still one of the most common infectious diseases and leads to various public health problems worldwide. Medicinal plants are promising sources for identifying novel agents with potential antimalarial activity. This study aimed to investigate the antimalarial and the antioxidant activities of Indigofera oblongifolia on Plasmodium chabaudi-induced spleen tissue injury in mice. Mice were divided into five groups. The first group served as a vehicle control; the second, third, fourth, and fifth groups were infected with 1 × 10(6) P. chabaudi-parasitized erythrocytes. Mice of the last three groups were gavaged with 100 μl of I. oblongifolia leave extract (IOLE) at a dose of 100, 200, and 300 mg IOLE/kg, respectively, once daily for 7 days. IOLE was significantly able to lower the percentage of parasitemia. The most effective dose was the 100 mg IOLE/kg, which could reduce the parasitemia from about 38 to 12 %. The infection induced spleen injury. This was evidenced by disorganization of spleen white and red pulps, appearance of hemozoin granules and parasitized erythrocytes. These changes in spleen led to the increased histological score. Also, the infection increased the spleen oxidative damage where the levels of nitrite/nitrate, malondialdehyde, and catalase were significantly altered. All these infection-induced parameters were significantly improved during IOLE treatment. In addition, the mRNA expression of inflammatory cytokines interleukin-1beta, interleukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha were upregulated after infection with P. chabaudi, whereas IOLE significantly reduced the expression of these genes. Our results indicate that I. oblongifolia leaves extract exhibits a significant antimalarial and antioxidant effects, and protects host spleen tissue from injuries induced by P. chabaudi.

  14. Electron tomography characterization of hemoglobin uptake in Plasmodium chabaudi reveals a stage-dependent mechanism for food vacuole morphogenesis.

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    Wendt, Camila; Rachid, Rachel; de Souza, Wanderley; Miranda, Kildare

    2016-05-01

    In the course of their intraerythrocytic development, malaria parasites incorporate and degrade massive amounts of the host cell cytoplasm. This mechanism is essential for parasite development and represents a physiological step used as target for many antimalarial drugs; nevertheless, the fine mechanisms underlying these processes in Plasmodium species are still under discussion. Here, we studied the events of hemoglobin uptake and hemozoin nucleation in the different stages of the intraerythrocytic cycle of the murine malaria parasite Plasmodium chabaudi using transmission electron tomography of cryofixed and freeze-substituted cells. The results showed that hemoglobin uptake in P. chabaudi starts at the early ring stage and is present in all developmental stages, including the schizont stage. Hemozoin nucleation occurs near the membrane of small food vacuoles. At the trophozoite stage, food vacuoles are found closely localized to cytostomal tubes and mitochondria, whereas in the schizont stage, we observed a large food vacuole located in the central portion of the parasite. Taken together, these results provide new insights into the mechanisms of hemoglobin uptake and degradation in rodent malaria parasites.

  15. Acute Plasmodium chabaudi infection dampens humoral responses to a secondary T-dependent antigen but enhances responses to a secondary T-independent antigen.

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    Wilmore, Joel R; Maue, Alexander C; Lefebvre, Julie S; Haynes, Laura; Rochford, Rosemary

    2013-11-01

    High rates of coinfection occur in malaria endemic regions, leading to more severe disease outcomes. Understanding how coinfecting pathogens influence the immune system is important in the development of treatment strategies that reduce morbidity and mortality. Using the Plasmodium chabaudi mouse model of malaria and immunization with model Ags that are either T-dependent (4-hydroxy-3-nitrophenyl [NP]-OVA) or T-independent (NP-Ficoll), we analyzed the effects of acute malaria on the development of humoral immunity to secondary Ags. Total Ig and IgG1 NP-specific Ab responses to NP-OVA were significantly decreased in the P. chabaudi-infected group compared with the uninfected group, whereas NP-specific IgG2c Ab was significantly increased in the P. chabaudi-infected group. In contrast, following injection with T-independent NP-Ficoll, the P. chabaudi-infected group had significantly increased NP-specific total Ig, IgM, and IgG2c Ab titers compared with controls. Treatment with anti-IFN-γ led to an abrogation of the NP-specific IgG2c Ab induced by P. chabaudi infection but did not affect other NP-specific Ab isotypes or titers. IFN-γ depletion also increased the percentage of plasma cells in both P. chabaudi-infected and uninfected groups but decreased the percentage of B cells with a germinal center (GC) phenotype. Using immunofluorescent microscopy, we were able to detect NP(+) GCs in the spleens of noninfected mice, but there were no detectible NP(+) GCs in mice infected with P. chabaudi. These data suggest that during P. chabaudi infection, there is a shift toward an extrafollicular Ab response that could be responsible for decreased Ab responses to secondary T-dependent Ags.

  16. Interruption of the blood-stage cycle of the malaria parasite, Plasmodium chabaudi, by protein tyrosine kinase inhibitors

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    M.L. Gazarini

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Malaria is a devastating disease caused by a unicellular protozoan, Plasmodium, which affects 3.7 million people every year. Resistance of the parasite to classical treatments such as chloroquine requires the development of new drugs. To gain insight into the mechanisms that control Plasmodium cell cycle, we have examined the effects of kinase inhibitors on the blood-stage cycle of the rodent malaria parasite, Plasmodium chabaudi. In vitro incubation of red blood cells for 17 h at 37ºC with the inhibitors led to a decrease in the percent of infected cells, compared to control treatment, as follows: genistein (200 µM - 75%, staurosporine (1 µM - 58%, R03 (1 µM - 75%, and tyrphostins B44 (100 µM - 66% and B46 (100 µM - 68%. All these treatments were shown to retard or prevent maturation of the intraerythrocytic parasites. The diverse concentration ranges at which these inhibitors exert their effects give a clue as to the types of signals that initiate the transitions between the different developmental stages of the parasite. The present data support our hypothesis that the maturation of the intraerythrocytic cycle of malaria parasites requires phosphorylation. In this respect, we have recently reported a high Ca2+ microenvironment surrounding the parasite within red blood cells. Several kinase activities are modulated by Ca2+. The molecular identification of the targets of these kinases could provide new strategies against malaria.

  17. Plasmodium chabaudi-Infected Erythrocytes Adhere to CD36 and Bind to Microvascular Endothelial Cells in an Organ-Specific Way

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    Mota, Maria M.; Jarra, William; Hirst, Elizabeth; Patnaik, Pradeep K.; Holder, Anthony A.

    2000-01-01

    Adherence of erythrocytes infected with Plasmodium falciparum to microvascular endothelial cells (sequestration) is considered to play an important role in parasite virulence and pathogenesis. However, the real importance of sequestration for infection and disease has never been fully assessed. The absence of an appropriate in vivo model for sequestration has been a major barrier. We have examined the rodent malaria parasite Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi AS in mice as a potential model. Erythrocytes infected with this parasite adhere in vitro to purified CD36, a critical endothelium receptor for binding P. falciparum-infected erythrocytes. P. c. chabaudi-infected erythrocytes adhere in vitro to endothelial cells in a gamma interferon-dependent manner, suggesting the involvement of additional adhesion molecules in the binding process, as is also the case with P. falciparum-infected cells. Furthermore, plasma or sera from infected and hyperimmune mice, respectively, have the ability to block binding of infected erythrocytes to endothelial cells. In vivo, erythrocytes containing mature P. c. chabaudi parasites are sequestered from the peripheral circulation. Sequestration is organ specific, occurring primarily in the liver, although intimate contact between infected erythrocytes and endothelial cells is also observed in the spleen and brain. The results are discussed in the context of the use of this model to study (i) the relationship between endothelial cell activation and the level of sequestration and (ii) the primary function of sequestration in malaria infection. PMID:10858230

  18. Plasmodium chabaudi limits early Nippostrongylus brasiliensis-induced pulmonary immune activation and Th2 polarization in co-infected mice

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    Allen Judith E

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Larvae of several common species of parasitic nematodes obligately migrate through, and often damage, host lungs. The larvae induce strong pulmonary Type 2 immune responses, including T-helper (Th2 cells as well as alternatively activated macrophages (AAMφ and associated chitinase and Fizz/resistin family members (ChaFFs, which are thought to promote tissue repair processes. Given the prevalence of systemic or lung-resident Type 1-inducing pathogens in geographical areas in which nematodes are endemic, we wished to investigate the impact of concurrent Type 1 responses on the development of these Type 2 responses to nematode larval migration. We therefore infected BALB/c mice with the nematode Nippostrongylus brasiliensis, in the presence or absence of Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi malaria parasites. Co-infected animals received both infections on the same day, and disease was assessed daily before immunological measurements were taken at 3, 5, 7 or 20 days post-infection. Results We observed that the nematodes themselves caused transient loss of body mass and red blood cell density, but co-infection then slightly ameliorated the severity of malarial anaemia. We also tracked the development of immune responses in the lung and thoracic lymph node. By the time of onset of the adaptive immune response around 7 days post-infection, malaria co-infection had reduced pulmonary expression of ChaFFs. Assessment of the T cell response demonstrated that the Th2 response to the nematode was also significantly impaired by malaria co-infection. Conclusion P. c. chabaudi co-infection altered both local and lymph node Type 2 immune activation due to migration of N. brasiliensis larvae. Given recent work from other laboratories showing that N. brasiliensis-induced ChaFFs correlate to the extent of long-term lung damage, our results raise the possibility that co-infection with malaria might alter pulmonary repair processes following nematode

  19. Recombinant viral-vectored vaccines expressing Plasmodium chabaudi AS apical membrane antigen 1: mechanisms of vaccine-induced blood-stage protection.

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    Biswas, Sumi; Spencer, Alexandra J; Forbes, Emily K; Gilbert, Sarah C; Holder, Anthony A; Hill, Adrian V S; Draper, Simon J

    2012-05-15

    Apical membrane Ag 1 (AMA1) is one of the leading candidate Ags for inclusion in a subunit vaccine against blood-stage malaria. However, the efficacy of Ab-inducing recombinant AMA1 protein vaccines in phase IIa/b clinical trials remains disappointing. In this article, we describe the development of recombinant human adenovirus serotype 5 and modified vaccinia virus Ankara vectors encoding AMA1 from the Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi strain AS. These vectors, when used in a heterologous prime-boost regimen in BALB/c mice, are capable of inducing strong transgene-specific humoral and cellular immune responses. We show that this vaccination regimen is protective against a nonlethal P. chabaudi chabaudi strain AS blood-stage challenge, resulting in reduced peak parasitemias. The role of vaccine-induced, AMA1-specific Abs and T cells in mediating the antiparasite effect was investigated by in vivo depletion of CD4(+) T cells and adoptive-transfer studies into naive and immunodeficient mice. Depletion of CD4(+) T cells led to a loss of vaccine-induced protection. Adoptive-transfer studies confirmed that efficacy is mediated by both CD4(+) T cells and Abs functioning in the context of an intact immune system. Unlike previous studies, these results confirm that Ag-specific CD4(+) T cells, induced by a clinically relevant vaccine-delivery platform, can make a significant contribution to vaccine blood-stage efficacy in the P. chabaudi model. Given that cell-mediated immunity may also contribute to parasite control in human malaria, these data support the clinical development of viral-vectored vaccines that induce both T cell and Abs against Plasmodium falciparum blood-stage malaria Ags like AMA1.

  20. Pharmacokinetics of artemisinin delivered by oral consumption of Artemisia annua dried leaves in healthy vs. Plasmodium chabaudi-infected mice

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    Weathers, Pamela J.; Elfawal, Mostafa A.; Towler, Melissa J.; Acquaah-Mensah, George K.; Rich, Stephen M.

    2014-01-01

    Ethnopharmacological Relevance The Chinese have used Artemisia annua as a tea infusion to treat fever for > 2,000 yrs. The active component is artemisinin. Previously we showed that when compared to mice fed an equal amount of pure artemisinin, a single oral dose of dried leaves of Artemisia annua (pACT) delivered to Plasmodium chabaudi-infected mice reduced parasitemia at least fivefold. Dried leaves also delivered >40 times more artemisinin in the blood with no toxicity. The pharmacokinetics (PK) of artemisinin delivered from dried plant material has not been adequately studied. Material and Methods Healthy and P. chabaudi-infected mice were oral gavaged with pACT to deliver a 100 mg kg−1 body weight dose of artemisinin. Concentrations of serum artemisinin and one of its liver metabolites, deoxyartemisinin, were measured over two hours by GCMS. Results The first order elimination rate constant for artemisinin in pACT-treated healthy mice was estimated to be 0.80 hr−1 with an elimination half-life (T½) of 51.6 min. The first order absorption rate constant was estimated at 1.39 hr−1. Cmax and Tmax were 4.33 mg L−1 and 60 min, respectively. The area under the curve (AUC) was 299.5 mg·min L−1. In contrast, the AUC for pACT-treated infected mice was significantly greater at 435.6 mg·min L−1. Metabolism of artemisinin to deoxyartemisinin was suppressed in infected mice over the period of observation. Serum levels of artemisinin in the infected mice continued to rise over the 120 min of the study period, and as a result, the elimination T½ was not determined; the Cmax and Tmax were estimated at ≥ 6.64 mg L−1 and ≥ 120 min, respectively. Groups of healthy mice were also fed either artemisinin or artemisinin mixed in mouse chow. When compared at 60 min, artemisinin was undetectable in the serum of mice fed 100 mg AN kg−1 body weight. When plant material was present either as mouse chow or A. annua pACT, artemisinin levels in the serum rose to 2

  1. Differential miRNA Expression in the Liver of Balb/c Mice Protected by Vaccination during Crisis of Plasmodium chabaudi Blood-Stage Malaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dkhil, Mohamed A.; Al-Quraishy, Saleh A.; Abdel-Baki, Abdel-Azeem S.; Delic, Denis; Wunderlich, Frank

    2017-01-01

    MicroRNAs are increasingly recognized as epigenetic regulators for outcome of diverse infectious diseases and vaccination efficacy, but little information referring to this exists for malaria. This study investigates possible effects of both protective vaccination and P. chabaudi malaria on the miRNome of the liver as an effector against blood-stage malaria using miRNA microarrays and quantitative PCR. Plasmodium chabaudi blood-stage malaria takes a lethal outcome in female Balb/c mice, but a self-healing course after immunization with a non-infectious blood-stage vaccine. The liver robustly expresses 71 miRNA species at varying levels, among which 65 miRNA species respond to malaria evidenced as steadily increasing or decreasing expressions reaching highest or lowest levels toward the end of the crisis phase on day 11 p.i. in lethal malaria. Protective vaccination does not affect constitutive miRNA expression, but leads to significant (p malaria.

  2. Erythrocytic Iron Deficiency Enhances Susceptibility to Plasmodium chabaudi Infection in Mice Carrying a Missense Mutation in Transferrin Receptor 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lelliott, Patrick M; McMorran, Brendan J; Foote, Simon J; Burgio, Gaetan

    2015-11-01

    The treatment of iron deficiency in areas of high malaria transmission is complicated by evidence which suggests that iron deficiency anemia protects against malaria, while iron supplementation increases malaria risk. Iron deficiency anemia results in an array of pathologies, including reduced systemic iron bioavailability and abnormal erythrocyte physiology; however, the mechanisms by which these pathologies influence malaria infection are not well defined. In the present study, the response to malaria infection was examined in a mutant mouse line, Tfrc(MRI24910), identified during an N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU) screen. This line carries a missense mutation in the gene for transferrin receptor 1 (TFR1). Heterozygous mice exhibited reduced erythrocyte volume and density, a phenotype consistent with dietary iron deficiency anemia. However, unlike the case in dietary deficiency, the erythrocyte half-life, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, and intraerythrocytic ferritin content were unchanged. Systemic iron bioavailability was also unchanged, indicating that this mutation results in erythrocytic iron deficiency without significantly altering overall iron homeostasis. When infected with the rodent malaria parasite Plasmodium chabaudi adami, mice displayed increased parasitemia and succumbed to infection more quickly than their wild-type littermates. Transfusion of fluorescently labeled erythrocytes into malaria parasite-infected mice demonstrated an erythrocyte-autonomous enhanced survival of parasites within mutant erythrocytes. Together, these results indicate that TFR1 deficiency alters erythrocyte physiology in a way that is similar to dietary iron deficiency anemia, albeit to a lesser degree, and that this promotes intraerythrocytic parasite survival and an increased susceptibility to malaria in mice. These findings may have implications for the management of iron deficiency in the context of malaria.

  3. Unlike the synchronous Plasmodium falciparum and P. chabaudi infection, the P. berghei and P. yoelii asynchronous infections are not affected by melatonin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piero Bagnaresi

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Piero Bagnaresi1, Eduardo Alves1, Henrique Borges da Silva1, Sabrina Epiphanio2, Maria M Mota2, Célia RS Garcia11Departamento de Fisiologia, Instituto de Biociências, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil; 2Unidade de Malária, Instituto de Medicina Molecular, Universidade de Lisboa, Lisboa, PortugalAbstract: We have previously reported that Plasmodium chabaudi and P. falciparum sense the hormone melatonin and this could be responsible for the synchrony of malaria infection. In P. chabaudi and P. falciparum, melatonin induces calcium release from internal stores, and this response is abolished by U73122, a phospholipase C inhibitor, and luzindole, a melatoninreceptor competitive antagonist. Here we show that, in vitro, melatonin is not able to modulate cell cycle, nor to elicit an elevation in intracellular calcium concentration of the intraerythrocytic forms of P. berghei or P. yoelii, two rodent parasites that show an asynchrononous development in vivo. Interestingly, melatonin and its receptor do not seem to play a role during hepatic infection by P. berghei sporozoites either. These data strengthen the hypothesis that hostderived melatonin does not synchronize malaria infection caused by P. berghei and P. yoelii. Moreover, these data explain why infections by these parasites are asynchronous, contrary to what is observed in P. falciparum and P. chabaudi infections.Keywords: malaria, calcium, melatonin, cell cycle, rhythm, sporozoite

  4. Generation of an antibody that recognizes Plasmodium chabaudi cysteine protease (chabaupain-1) in both sexual and asexual parasite life cycle and evaluation of chabaupain-1 vaccine potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armada, Ana; Gazarini, Marcos L; Gonçalves, Lídia M; Antunes, Sandra; Custódio, Ana; Rodrigues, Armanda; Almeida, António J; Silveira, Henrique; Rosário, Virgílio do; Santos-Gomes, Gabriela; Domingos, Ana

    2013-09-01

    Malaria cysteine proteases have been shown to be immunogenic and are being exploited as serodiagnostic markers, drug and vaccine targets. Several Plasmodium spp. cysteine proteases have been described and the best characterized of these are the falcipains, a family of papain-family enzymes. Falcipain-2 and falcipain-3 act in concert with other proteases to hydrolyze host erythrocyte hemoglobin in the parasite food vacuole. Falcipain-1 has less similarity to the other falcipains and its physiological role in parasite asexual blood stage still remains uncertain. Immunolocalization studies using an antibody developed against the Plasmodium chabaudi recombinant chabaupain-1, the falcipain-1 ortholog, were performed confirming its cellular localization in both erythrocyte and mosquito ookinete stage. Immunostaining of chabaupain-1 preferentially in apical portion of parasite ookinete suggests that this protease may be related with parasite egression from mosquito midgut. Immune responses to chabaupain-1 were evaluated using two different adjuvants, chitosan nanoparticles and hydroxide aluminum. Mice immunized with the recombinant protein alone or in association with nanoparticles were challenged with P. chabaudi showing that immunization with the recombinant protein confers partial protection to blood stage infection in BALB/c animal model.

  5. Distinct kinetics of memory B-cell and plasma-cell responses in peripheral blood following a blood-stage Plasmodium chabaudi infection in mice.

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    Eunice W Nduati

    Full Text Available B cell and plasma cell responses take place in lymphoid organs, but because of the inaccessibility of these organs, analyses of human responses are largely performed using peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC. To determine whether PBMC are a useful source of memory B cells and plasma cells in malaria, and whether they reflect Plasmodium-specific B cell responses in spleen or bone marrow, we have investigated these components of the humoral response in PBMC using a model of Plasmodium chabaudi blood-stage infections in C57BL/6 mice. We detected memory B cells, defined as isotype-switched IgD(- IgM(- CD19(+ B cells, and low numbers of Plasmodium chabaudi Merozoite Surface Protein-1 (MSP1-specific memory B cells, in PBMC at all time points sampled for up to 90 days following primary or secondary infection. By contrast, we only detected CD138(+ plasma cells and MSP1-specific antibody-secreting cells within a narrow time frame following primary (days 10 to 25 or secondary (day 10 infection. CD138(+ plasma cells in PBMC at these times expressed CD19, B220 and MHC class II, suggesting that they were not dislodged bone-marrow long-lived plasma cells, but newly differentiated migratory plasmablasts migrating to the bone marrow; thus reflective of an ongoing or developing immune response. Our data indicates that PBMC can be a useful source for malaria-specific memory B cells and plasma cells, but extrapolation of the results to human malaria infections suggests that timing of sampling, particularly for plasma cells, may be critical. Studies should therefore include multiple sampling points, and at times of infection/immunisation when the B-cell phenotypes of interest are likely to be found in peripheral blood.

  6. Treatment of Plasmodium chabaudi Parasites with Curcumin in Combination with Antimalarial Drugs: Drug Interactions and Implications on the Ubiquitin/Proteasome System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoraima Neto

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Antimalarial drug resistance remains a major obstacle in malaria control. Evidence from Southeast Asia shows that resistance to artemisinin combination therapy (ACT is inevitable. Ethnopharmacological studies have confirmed the efficacy of curcumin against Plasmodium spp. Drug interaction assays between curcumin/piperine/chloroquine and curcumin/piperine/artemisinin combinations and the potential of drug treatment to interfere with the ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS were analyzed. In vivo efficacy of curcumin was studied in BALB/c mice infected with Plasmodium chabaudi clones resistant to chloroquine and artemisinin, and drug interactions were analyzed by isobolograms. Subtherapeutic doses of curcumin, chloroquine, and artemisinin were administered to mice, and mRNA was collected following treatment for RT-PCR analysis of genes encoding deubiquitylating enzymes (DUBs. Curcumin was found be nontoxic in BALB/c mice. The combination of curcumin/chloroquine/piperine reduced parasitemia to 37% seven days after treatment versus the control group’s 65%, and an additive interaction was revealed. Curcumin/piperine/artemisinin combination did not show a favorable drug interaction in this murine model of malaria. Treatment of mice with subtherapeutic doses of the drugs resulted in a transient increase in genes encoding DUBs indicating UPS interference. If curcumin is to join the arsenal of available antimalarial drugs, future studies exploring suitable drug partners would be of interest.

  7. IFN-γ and IL-21 Double Producing T Cells Are Bcl6-Independent and Survive into the Memory Phase in Plasmodium chabaudi Infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor H Carpio

    Full Text Available CD4 T cells are required to fight malaria infection by promoting both phagocytic activity and B cell responses for parasite clearance. In Plasmodium chabaudi infection, one specific CD4 T cell subset generates anti-parasitic IFN-γ and the antibody-promoting cytokine, IL-21. To determine the lineage of these multifunctional T cells, we followed IFN-γ+ effector T cells (Teff into the memory phase using Ifng-reporter mice. While Ifng+ Teff expanded, the level of the Th1 lineage-determining transcription factor T-bet only peaked briefly. Ifng+ Teff also co-express ICOS, the B cell area homing molecule CXCR5, and other Tfh lineage-associated molecules including Bcl6, the transcription factor required for germinal center (GC T follicular helper cells (Tfh differentiation. Because Bcl6 and T-bet co-localize to the nucleus of Ifng+ Teff, we hypothesized that Bcl6 controls the Tfh-like phenotype of Ifng+ Teff cells in P. chabaudi infection. We first transferred Bcl6-deficient T cells into wildtype hosts. Bcl6-deficient T cells did not develop into GC Tfh, but they still generated CXCR5+ IFN-γ+ IL-21+ IL-10+ Teff, suggesting that this predominant population is not of the Tfh-lineage. IL-10 deficient mice, which have increased IFN-γ and T-bet expression, demonstrated expansion of both IFN-γ+ IL-21+ CXCR5+ cells and IFN-γ+ GC Tfh cells, suggesting a Th1 lineage for the former. In the memory phase, all Ifng+ T cells produced IL-21, but only a small percentage of highly proliferative Ifng+ T cells maintained a T-bethi phenotype. In chronic malaria infection, serum IFN-γ correlates with increased protection, and our observation suggests Ifng+ T cells are maintained by cellular division. In summary, we found that Ifng+ T cells are not strictly Tfh derived during malaria infection. T cells provide the host with a survival advantage when facing this well-equipped pathogen, therefore, understanding the lineage of pivotal T cell players will aid in the

  8. Sequestration and histopathology in Plasmodium chabaudi malaria are influenced by the immune response in an organ-specific manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brugat, Thibaut; Cunningham, Deirdre; Sodenkamp, Jan; Coomes, Stephanie; Wilson, Mark; Spence, Philip J; Jarra, William; Thompson, Joanne; Scudamore, Cheryl; Langhorne, Jean

    2014-05-01

    Infection with the malaria parasite, Plasmodium, is associated with a strong inflammatory response and parasite cytoadhesion (sequestration) in several organs. Here, we have carried out a systematic study of sequestration and histopathology during infection of C57Bl/6 mice with Plasmodium chabaudi AS and determined the influence of the immune response. This parasite sequesters predominantly in liver and lung, but not in the brain, kidney or gut. Histopathological changes occur in multiple organs during the acute infection, but are not restricted to the organs where sequestration takes place. Adaptive immunity, and signalling through the IFNγ receptor increased sequestration and histopathology in the liver, but not in the lung, suggesting that there are differences in the adhesion molecules and/or parasite ligands utilized and mechanisms of pathogenesis in these two organs. Exacerbation of pro-inflammatory responses during infection by deletion of the il10 gene resultsin the aggravation of damage to lung and kidney irrespective of the degree of sequestration. The immune response therefore affected both sequestration and histopathology in an organ-specific manner. P.  chabaudi AS provides a good model to investigate the influence of the host response on the sequestration and specific organ pathology, which is applicable to human malaria.

  9. Dendritic cell subpopulation and phenotype variation characteristics in susceptible and resistant mice during the early phase of Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi infection%夏氏疟原虫感染早期易感和抵抗小鼠树突状细胞亚群和表型的变化特点

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武静静; 刘军; 郑伟; 潘艳艳; 李莹; 延娟; 武剑华; 曹雅明; 郑丽

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨夏氏疟原虫(Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi AS)感染早期,树突状细胞(Dendritic cells, DCs)亚群和表型的变化特点.方法 感染易感的DBA/2和抵抗的BALB/c小鼠,制备感染前和感染后第3、5、8d小鼠脾细胞悬液,采用流式细胞分析技术检测2种小鼠脾细胞悬液中髓样DCs和浆样DCs的数量以及表面表达MHC II类分子和CD80分子的DCs的百分含量.结果 DBA/2小鼠和BALB/c小鼠分别呈现以髓样DCs和浆样DCs为主的增殖模式.2种小鼠表达MHCⅡ类分子和CD80分子的DCs数量在感染后3~5d明显升高,并于感染后第8d达到最高水平,然而感染后第8d,BALB/c小鼠表达MHCⅡ类分子和CD80分子的DCs的数量明显低于DBA/2小鼠.结论 感染早期,DBA/2和BALB/c小鼠在DCs亚群的增殖模式、成熟表型特征性分子的表达水平上存在显著差异.%To investigate the dendritic cells (DCs) subpopulation and phenotype characteristics during early infection of Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi (AS). The susceptible DBA/2 mice and the resistant BALB/c mice were infected by intraperitoneal injection of 1 106 P. c. chabaudi parasitized erythrocytes. Spleen cell suspension was prepared from the mice sacrificed on days 0, 3, 5, 8 post infection (p. i. ). The percentages of myeloid DCs, plasmacytoid DCs, as well as surface molecule MHCⅡ or CD80 expressed on spleen DCs were determined by flow cytometry. The results indicated that DBA/2 mice and BALB/c mice respectively presented myeloid DCs and plasmacytoid DCs dominant proliferation pattern. The expression of MHC Ⅱ and CD80 were significantly increased on days 3-5 p.i. and reached its peak on day 8 p.i. for BALB/c and DBA/2 mice. However,their expression levels in BALB/c mice were significantly lower than that in DBA/2 mice on day 8 p. i.. These results indicated that there are significant differences in subpopulation proliferation model and the surface marker expression for DCs in BALB/c and DBA/2 mice during

  10. Genome-wide screening identifies Plasmodium chabaudi-induced modifications of DNA methylation status of Tlr1 and Tlr6 gene promoters in liver, but not spleen, of female C57BL/6 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Quraishy, Saleh; Dkhil, Mohamed A; Abdel-Baki, Abdel Azeem S; Delic, Denis; Santourlidis, Simeon; Wunderlich, Frank

    2013-11-01

    Epigenetic reprogramming of host genes via DNA methylation is increasingly recognized as critical for the outcome of diverse infectious diseases, but information for malaria is not yet available. Here, we investigate the effect of blood-stage malaria of Plasmodium chabaudi on the DNA methylation status of host gene promoters on a genome-wide scale using methylated DNA immunoprecipitation and Nimblegen microarrays containing 2,000 bp oligonucleotide features that were split into -1,500 to -500 bp Ups promoters and -500 to +500 bp Cor promoters, relative to the transcription site, for evaluation of differential DNA methylation. Gene expression was analyzed by Agilent and Affymetrix microarray technology. Challenging of female C57BL/6 mice with 10(6) P. chabaudi-infected erythrocytes resulted in a self-healing outcome of infections with peak parasitemia on day 8 p.i. These infections induced organ-specific modifications of DNA methylation of gene promoters. Among the 17,354 features on Nimblegen arrays, only seven gene promoters were identified to be hypermethylated in the spleen, whereas the liver exhibited 109 hyper- and 67 hypomethylated promoters at peak parasitemia in comparison with non-infected mice. Among the identified genes with differentially methylated Cor-promoters, only the 7 genes Pigr, Ncf1, Klkb1, Emr1, Ndufb11, and Tlr6 in the liver and Apol6 in the spleen were detected to have significantly changed their expression. Remarkably, the Cor promoter of the toll-like receptor Tlr6 became hypomethylated and Tlr6 expression increased by 3.4-fold during infection. Concomitantly, the Ups promoter of the Tlr1 was hypermethylated, but Tlr1 expression also increased by 11.3-fold. TLR6 and TLR1 are known as auxillary receptors to form heterodimers with TLR2 in plasma membranes of macrophages, which recognize different pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), as, e.g., intact 3-acyl and sn-2-lyso-acyl glycosylphosphatidylinositols of P. falciparum

  11. IL-10在Plasmodium yoelii 17XL和Plasmodium chabaud AS疟原虫混合感染宿主病理损伤中的作用研究%The Role of IL-10 on the Host Pathological Injury in DBA/2 Mice Mixed Infection with Plasmodium yoelii 17XL and Plasmodium chabaudi AS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈光; 曹雅明; 刘蕾; 蔡连顺; 毕胜; 苏菊香; 代月

    2013-01-01

    为探讨IL-10在致死型约氏疟原虫(Plasmodium yoelii 17XL,P.y17XL)和夏氏疟原虫(Plasmodium chabaudi AS,P.cAS)混合感染宿主病理损伤中的作用,用P.y17XL、P.cAS和P.y17XL+P.cAS分别感染DBA/2小鼠,计数红细胞感染率;感染后第3、5、8、10、12和19天分别尾静脉取血,肝素抗凝后短暂离心,采用高纯度DNA提取试剂盒抽提DNA,实时定量PCR检测虫负荷水平;感染后第0、1、3、5、8、10、12和15天制备脾细胞悬液,ELISA检测脾细胞培养上清中IL-10水平.实验结果发现,P.y17XL单独感染和混合感染小鼠IL-10水平在感染后第5天和第8天分别达峰值,随后开始下降至正常水平,小鼠虫血症均达中等水平,存活率100%;相比P.cAS感染小鼠IL-10在感染后第3天突然出现高水平升高并且维持时间较长;于感染后第8天达峰值,是同天P.y17XL单独感染和混合感染小鼠IL-10水平的2倍,虫血症水平较高,小鼠全部死亡.同时实时定量PCR结果发现,混合感染小鼠,于感染后3~ 12 d P.y17XL增殖占优势,而感染后15 ~ 19 d则P.cAS增殖处于优势状态.表明以IL-10为核心的免疫调节网络与疟疾感染过程中病理损伤密切相关.同时提示混合感染小鼠应答模式与P.y17XL感染小鼠的应答模式相同.%In order to investigate the role of IL-10 on the host pathological injury mixed infection with lethal Plasmodium yoelii 17XL (P. y17XL) and Plasmodium chabaudi AS (P. cAS) , DBA/2 mice were infected with P. y17XL, P. cAS, or P. y17XL + P. cAS respectively, and counted the infection rate of erythrocytes for each group of mice. Para-sitemia and mortality were monitored daily. Tail blood collected at different time points was anti-coagulated by heparin on day 3, 5, 8, 10, 12 and 19 post infection (PI) and cenlrifuged briefly for DNA extraction using a high pure blood genome DNA extraction kit, real-lime quantitative (RTQ) PCR for determining the level of parasite burden. On day 0, 1

  12. Co-infection restrains Litomosoides sigmodontis filarial load and plasmodial P. yoelii but not P. chabaudi parasitaemia in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karadjian Gregory

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Infection with multiple parasite species is clearly the norm rather than the exception, in animals as well as in humans. Filarial nematodes and Plasmodium spp. are important parasites in human public health and they are often co-endemic. Interactions between these parasites are complex. The mechanisms underlying the modulation of both the course of malaria and the outcome of filarial infection are poorly understood. Despite increasing activity in recent years, studies comparing co- and mono-infections are very much in their infancy and results are contradictory at first sight. In this study we performed controlled and simultaneous co-infections of BALB/c mice with Litomosoides sigmodontis filaria and with Plasmodium spp. (Plasmodium yoelii 17 XNL or Plasmodium chabaudi 864VD. An analysis of pathological lesions in the kidneys and lungs and a parasitological study were conducted at different times of infection. Whatever the plasmodial species, the filarial recovery rate was strongly decreased. The peak of parasitaemia in the plasmodial infection was decreased in the course of P. yoelii infection but not in that of P. chabaudi. Regarding pathological lesions, L. sigmodontis can reverse lesions in the kidneys due to the presence of both Plasmodium species but does not modify the course of pulmonary lesions. The filarial infection induces granulomas in the lungs.

  13. Plasmodium interspersed repeats: the major multigene superfamily of malaria parasites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Christoph S.; Phillips, R. Stephen; Turner, C. Michael R.; Barrett, Michael P.

    2004-01-01

    Functionally related homologues of known genes can be difficult to identify in divergent species. In this paper, we show how multi-character analysis can be used to elucidate the relationships among divergent members of gene superfamilies. We used probabilistic modelling in conjunction with protein structural predictions and gene-structure analyses on a whole-genome scale to find gene homologies that are missed by conventional similarity-search strategies and identified a variant gene superfamily in six species of malaria (Plasmodium interspersed repeats, pir). The superfamily includes rif in P.falciparum, vir in P.vivax, a novel family kir in P.knowlesi and the cir/bir/yir family in three rodent malarias. Our data indicate that this is the major multi-gene family in malaria parasites. Protein localization of products from pir members to the infected erythrocyte membrane in the rodent malaria parasite P.chabaudi, demonstrates phenotypic similarity to the products of pir in other malaria species. The results give critical insight into the evolutionary adaptation of malaria parasites to their host and provide important data for comparative immunology between malaria parasites obtained from laboratory models and their human counterparts. PMID:15507685

  14. Immunization of mice with Plasmodium TCTP delays establishment of Plasmodium infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, K J; Van, T T H; MacDonald, S M; Meshnick, S R; Fernley, R T; Macreadie, I G; Smooker, P M

    2015-01-01

    Translationally controlled tumour protein (TCTP) may play an important role in the establishment or maintenance of parasitemia in a malarial infection. In this study, the potential of TCTP as a malaria vaccine was investigated in two trials. In the initial vaccine trial, Plasmodium falciparum TCTP (PfTCTP) was expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and used to immunize BALB/c mice. Following challenge with Plasmodium yoelii YM, parasitemia was significantly reduced during the early stages of infection. In the second vaccine trial, the TCTP from P. yoelii and P. berghei was expressed in Escherichia coli and used in several mouse malaria models. A significant reduction in parasitemia in the early stages of infection was observed in BALB/c mice challenged with P. yoelii YM. A significantly reduced parasitemia at each day leading up to a delayed and reduced peak parasitemia was also observed in BALB/c mice challenged with the nonlethal Plasmodium chabaudi (P.c.) chabaudi AS. These results suggest that TCTP has an important role for parasite establishment and may be important for pathogenesis. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Mosquito appetite for blood is stimulated by Plasmodium chabaudi infections in themselves and their vertebrate hosts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferguson, H.M.; Read, A.F.

    2004-01-01

    Background - Arthropod vectors of disease may encounter more than one infected host during the course of their lifetime. The consequences of super-infection to parasite development are rarely investigated, but may have substantial epidemiological and evolutionary consequences. Methods - Using a

  16. Mosquito appetite for blood is stimulated by Plasmodium chabaudi infections in themselves and their vertebrate hosts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferguson Heather M

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Arthropod vectors of disease may encounter more than one infected host during the course of their lifetime. The consequences of super-infection to parasite development are rarely investigated, but may have substantial epidemiological and evolutionary consequences. Methods Using a rodent malaria model system, behavioural avoidance of super-infection was tested by examining whether already-infected Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes were less responsive to new vertebrate hosts if they were infected. Additionally, a second dose of parasites was given to malaria-infected mosquitoes on a biologically realistic time scale to test whether it impeded the development of a first infection. Results No effect of a second infected blood meal on either the prevalence or parasite burden arising from a first was found. Furthermore, it was found that not only were infected mosquitoes more likely to take a second blood meal than their uninfected counterparts, they were disproportionately drawn to infected hosts. Conclusions The alterations in mosquito feeding propensity reported here would occur if parasites have been selected to make infected vertebrate hosts more attractive to mosquitoes, and infected mosquitoes are more likely to seek out new blood meals. Although such a strategy might increase the risk of super-infection, this study suggests the cost to parasite development is not high and as such would be unlikely to outweigh the potential benefits of increasing the contact rate between the parasite's two obligate hosts.

  17. Main: 1CIR [RPSD[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 25to Be Published 1cir 26 ICI2_HORVU:58,20|ICI2_HORVU:83,60|EMBL; X05404; CAA28988.1; -.|PIR; A01292; E...1CIR 大麦 Barley Hordeum vulgare l. Subtilisin-Chymotrypsin Inhibitor-2a Hordeum Vulg...are Molecule: Chymotrypsin Inhibitor 2; 1cir 5 Chain: A, B; 1cir 6 Domain: Residues 1 - 40, 41 - 64; 1cir 7 Synonym: Ci2; 1cir... 8 Engineered: Yes; 1cir 9 Other_details: Cleaved Between Residues 40 And 41 1cir 10 Serin...e Protease Inhibitor B.J.Davis, A.R.Fersht 1cir 18 B.Davis, A.M.Buckle, G.De Prat Gay, A.R.Fersht 1cir

  18. Plasmodium Immunomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doolan, Denise L.

    2010-01-01

    The Plasmodium parasite, the causative agent of malaria, is an excellent model for immunomic-based approaches to vaccine development. The Plasmodium parasite has a complex life cycle with multiple stages and stage-specific expression of ~ 5,300 putative proteins. No malaria vaccine has yet been licensed. Many believe that an effective vaccine will need to target several antigens and multiple stages, and will require the generation of both antibody and cellular immune responses. Vaccine efforts to date have been stage-specific and based on only a very limited number of proteins representing Plasmodium parasite life cycle with immune responses implicated in parasite elimination and control. Immunomic approaches which enable the selection of the best possible targets by prioritizing antigens according to clinically relevant criteria may overcome the problem of poorly immunogenic, poorly protective vaccines that has plagued malaria vaccine developers for the past 25 years. Herein, current progress and perspectives regarding Plasmodium immunomics are reviewed. PMID:20816843

  19. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-04-0016 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-04-0016 ref|XP_742542.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi...] emb|CAH81944.1| conserved hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_742542.1 6e-50 43% ...

  20. Nitric Oxide is Involved in the Upregulation of IFN-γ and IL-10 mRNA Expression by CD8+ T Cells During the Blood Stages of P. chabaudi AS Infection in CBA/Ca Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legorreta-Herrera, M; Rivas-Contreras, S; Ventura-Gallegos, JL; Zentella-Dehesa, A

    2011-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is involved in the clearance of several types of bacteria, viruses and parasites. Although the roles of NO and CD8+ T cells in the immune response to malaria have been extensively studied, their actual contributions during the blood stages of malaria infection remain unclear. In this work, we corroborate that serum NO levels are not associated with the in vivo elimination of the blood stages of Plasmodium chabaudi AS. In addition, we show that CD8+ T cells exhibit increased apoptosis and up regulate the expression of TNF-α mRNA on day 4 post-infection and IFN-γ and IL-10 mRNA on day 11 post-infection. Interestingly, only the levels of IFN-γ and IL-10 expression are affected when iNOS is inhibited with aminoguanidine (AG), suggesting that NO could be involved in the activation of CD8+ T cells during the blood stages of plasmodium infection. PMID:22110391

  1. Cooperative IASCC Research (CIR) Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, J.L. [Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (United States). Nuclear Power Group

    1998-03-01

    Irradiation assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC) describes intergranular environmental cracking of material exposed to ionizing radiation. The implications of IASCC are significant, both in terms of repair and outage costs as well as the potential for cracking in components that may be extremely difficult to repair or replace. Significant advancements have been made in the understanding of IASCC. However, it is clear that major unknowns persist and must be understood and quantified before the life of a reactor component at risk from IASCC can be predicted or significantly extended. Although individual organizations are continuing to effectively address IASCC, it became apparent that a more direct form of cooperation would be more timely and efficient in addressing the technical issues. Thus in 1995 EPRI formed the Cooperative IASCC Research (CIR) Program. This is a cooperative, jointly funded effort with participants from eight countries providing financial support and technical oversight. The efforts of the CIR Program are directed at the highest priority questions in the areas of material susceptibility, water chemistry and material stress. Major research areas of the Program are: (1) evaluation of IASCC mechanisms, (2) development of methodology for predicting IASCC, and (3) quantification of irradiation effects on metallurgy, mechanics and electrochemistry. Studies to evaluate various IASCC mechanisms include work to better understand the possible roles of radiation-induced segregation (RIS), radiation microstructure, bulk and localized deformation effects, overall effects on strength and ductility, hydrogen and helium effects, and others. Experiments are being conducted to isolate individual effects and determine the relative importance of each in the overall IASCC mechanism. Screening tests will be followed by detailed testing to identify the contribution of each effect over a range of conditions. The paper describes the completed and ongoing work being

  2. NAIP_1M_CIR_2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The NAIP_1M_CIR_2008 dataset is a 1:40000 scale (1 meter) Color Infrared (CIR) extract generated from the master NAIP 2008 dataset (NAIP_1M_CLRIR_2008). Refer to...

  3. The MB2 gene family of Plasmodium species has a unique combination of S1 and GTP-binding domains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogunjumo Oluwasanmi

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Identification and characterization of novel Plasmodium gene families is necessary for developing new anti-malarial therapeutics. The products of the Plasmodium falciparum gene, MB2, were shown previously to have a stage-specific pattern of subcellular localization and proteolytic processing. Results Genes homologous to MB2 were identified in five additional parasite species, P. knowlesi, P. gallinaceum, P. berghei, P. yoelii, and P. chabaudi. Sequence comparisons among the MB2 gene products reveal amino acid conservation of structural features, including putative S1 and GTP-binding domains, and putative signal peptides and nuclear localization signals. Conclusions The combination of domains is unique to this gene family and indicates that MB2 genes comprise a novel family and therefore may be a good target for drug development.

  4. Molecular characterization and phylogenetic analysis of Plasmodium vivax, Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium ovale, Plasmodium malariae and Plasmodium cynomolgi

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chatterjee, Soumendranath; Mukhopadhyay, Priyanka; Bandyopadhyay, Raktima; Dhal, Paltu; Biswal, Debraj; Bandyopadhyay, Prabir Kumar

    18S ribosomal RNA gene sequences of different species of Plasmodium were aligned and analyzed to determine the molecular diversity among different species of Plasmodium. AT content of P. cynomolgi, P. ovale, P. falciparum, P. vivax and P...

  5. Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) on Cassini

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Donald E.; Flasar, F. M.; Kunde, V. G.; Nixon, C. A.; Segura, M. E.; Romani, P. N.; Gorius, N.; Albright, S.; Brasunas, J. C.; Carlson, R. C.; hide

    2017-01-01

    The Cassini spacecraft orbiting Saturn carries the composite infrared spectrometer (CIRS) designed to study thermal emission from Saturn and its rings and moons. CIRS, a Fourier transform spectrometer, is an indispensable part of the payload providing unique measurements and important synergies with the other instruments. It takes full advantage of Cassini's 13-year-long mission and surpasses the capabilities of previous spectrometers on Voyager 1 and 2. The instrument, consisting of two interferometers sharing a telescope and a scan mechanism, covers over a factor of 100 in wavelength in the mid and far infrared. It is used to study temperature, composition, structure, and dynamics of the atmospheres of Jupiter, Saturn, and Titan, the rings of Saturn, and surfaces of the icy moons. CIRS has returned a large volume of scientific results, the culmination of over 30 years of instrument development, operation, data calibration, and analysis. As Cassini and CIRS reach the end of their mission in 2017, we expect that archived spectra will be used by scientists for many years to come.

  6. Tick (Amblyomma chabaudi) infestation of endemic tortoises in southwest Madagascar and investigation of tick-borne pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehlers, Julian; Ganzhorn, Jörg U; Silaghi, Cornelia; Krüger, Andreas; Pothmann, Daniela; Ratovonamana, R Yedidya; Veit, Alexandra; Keller, Christian; Poppert, Sven

    2016-03-01

    Little is known about the role of endemic ticks as vectors for bacterial and protozoan pathogens for animals and humans in Madagascar and their interaction in anthropogenic habitats where humans, their livestock and native Malagasy species (vectors and hosts) come into more frequent contact than in natural forest ecosystems. The aims of the study were (1) to test whether habitat degradation is associated with increased infestation of tortoises by ticks and (2) to investigate whether ticks carried Babesia, Borrelia or Rickettsia species that might be pathogenic for humans and livestock. We studied hard ticks of two endemic Malagasy tortoises, Astrochelys radiata and Pyxis arachnoides in March and April 2013 in southwest Madagascar. Two tortoise habitats were compared, the National Park of Tsimanampetsotsa and the adjacent degraded pasture and agricultural land at the end of the wet season. Ticks were screened for protozoan and bacterial pathogens via PCR on DNA isolated from ticks using genus-specific primers. Only one out of 42 A. radiata collected from both habitats had ticks. The low prevalence did not allow further analyses of the effect of habitat degradation. Forty-two P. arachnoides were found in the anthropogenic habitat and 36 individuals in the national park. Tick infestation rates of P. arachnoides differed significantly between the two study sites. Tortoises inside the park had lower tick prevalence than outside (8 of 36 (22%) versus 32 of 42 individuals (76%)) and infected animals tended to have fewer ticks inside than outside the park. All ticks collected in both habitats were adults of the ixodid tick Amblyomma chabaudi, which is supposed to be a host-specific tick of P. arachnoides. Screening for Borrelia sp. and Babesia sp. was negative in all ticks. But all A. chabaudi ticks were infected with Rickettsia africae, known to cause spotted fever in humans. Thus, habitat degradation seems to be linked to higher infestation of tortoises with ticks with

  7. Red Blood Cells Preconditioned with Hemin Are Less Permissive to Plasmodium Invasion In Vivo and In Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudreault, Véronique; Wirbel, Jakob; Jardim, Armando; Rohrbach, Petra; Scorza, Tatiana

    2015-01-01

    Malaria is a parasitic disease that causes severe hemolytic anemia in Plasmodium-infected hosts, which results in the release and accumulation of oxidized heme (hemin). Although hemin impairs the establishment of Plasmodium immunity in vitro and in vivo, mice preconditioned with hemin develop lower parasitemia when challenged with Plasmodium chabaudi adami blood stage parasites. In order to understand the mechanism accounting for this resistance as well as the impact of hemin on eryptosis and plasma levels of scavenging hemopexin, red blood cells were labeled with biotin prior to hemin treatment and P. c. adami infection. This strategy allowed discriminating hemin-treated from de novo generated red blood cells and to follow the infection within these two populations of cells. Fluorescence microscopy analysis of biotinylated-red blood cells revealed increased P. c. adami red blood cells selectivity and a decreased permissibility of hemin-conditioned red blood cells for parasite invasion. These effects were also apparent in in vitro P. falciparum cultures using hemin-preconditioned human red blood cells. Interestingly, hemin did not alter the turnover of red blood cells nor their replenishment during in vivo infection. Our results assign a function for hemin as a protective agent against high parasitemia, and suggest that the hemolytic nature of blood stage human malaria may be beneficial for the infected host.

  8. Red Blood Cells Preconditioned with Hemin Are Less Permissive to Plasmodium Invasion In Vivo and In Vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Véronique Gaudreault

    Full Text Available Malaria is a parasitic disease that causes severe hemolytic anemia in Plasmodium-infected hosts, which results in the release and accumulation of oxidized heme (hemin. Although hemin impairs the establishment of Plasmodium immunity in vitro and in vivo, mice preconditioned with hemin develop lower parasitemia when challenged with Plasmodium chabaudi adami blood stage parasites. In order to understand the mechanism accounting for this resistance as well as the impact of hemin on eryptosis and plasma levels of scavenging hemopexin, red blood cells were labeled with biotin prior to hemin treatment and P. c. adami infection. This strategy allowed discriminating hemin-treated from de novo generated red blood cells and to follow the infection within these two populations of cells. Fluorescence microscopy analysis of biotinylated-red blood cells revealed increased P. c. adami red blood cells selectivity and a decreased permissibility of hemin-conditioned red blood cells for parasite invasion. These effects were also apparent in in vitro P. falciparum cultures using hemin-preconditioned human red blood cells. Interestingly, hemin did not alter the turnover of red blood cells nor their replenishment during in vivo infection. Our results assign a function for hemin as a protective agent against high parasitemia, and suggest that the hemolytic nature of blood stage human malaria may be beneficial for the infected host.

  9. Rapid and specific biotin labelling of the erythrocyte surface antigens of both cultured and ex-vivo Plasmodium parasites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thompson Joanne

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sensitive detection of parasite surface antigens expressed on erythrocyte membranes is necessary to further analyse the molecular pathology of malaria. This study describes a modified biotin labelling/osmotic lysis method which rapidly produces membrane extracts enriched for labelled surface antigens and also improves the efficiency of antigen recovery compared with traditional detergent extraction and surface radio-iodination. The method can also be used with ex-vivo parasites. Methods After surface labelling with biotin in the presence of the inhibitor furosemide, detergent extraction and osmotic lysis methods of enriching for the membrane fractions were compared to determine the efficiency of purification and recovery. Biotin-labelled proteins were identified on silver-stained SDS-polyacrylamide gels. Results Detergent extraction and osmotic lysis were compared for their capacity to purify biotin-labelled Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium chabaudi erythrocyte surface antigens. The pellet fraction formed after osmotic lysis of P. falciparum-infected erythrocytes is notably enriched in suface antigens, including PfEMP1, when compared to detergent extraction. There is also reduced co-extraction of host proteins such as spectrin and Band 3. Conclusion Biotinylation and osmotic lysis provides an improved method to label and purify parasitised erythrocyte surface antigen extracts from both in vitro and ex vivo Plasmodium parasite preparations.

  10. IFNAR1-Signalling Obstructs ICOS-mediated Humoral Immunity during Non-lethal Blood-Stage Plasmodium Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebina, Ismail; James, Kylie R.; Soon, Megan S. F.; Best, Shannon E.; Montes de Oca, Marcela; Amante, Fiona H.; Thomas, Bryce S.; Beattie, Lynette; Souza-Fonseca-Guimaraes, Fernando; Smyth, Mark J.; Hertzog, Paul J.; Hill, Geoffrey R.; Engwerda, Christian R.

    2016-01-01

    Parasite-specific antibodies protect against blood-stage Plasmodium infection. However, in malaria-endemic regions, it takes many months for naturally-exposed individuals to develop robust humoral immunity. Explanations for this have focused on antigenic variation by Plasmodium, but have considered less whether host production of parasite-specific antibody is sub-optimal. In particular, it is unclear whether host immune factors might limit antibody responses. Here, we explored the effect of Type I Interferon signalling via IFNAR1 on CD4+ T-cell and B-cell responses in two non-lethal murine models of malaria, P. chabaudi chabaudi AS (PcAS) and P. yoelii 17XNL (Py17XNL) infection. Firstly, we demonstrated that CD4+ T-cells and ICOS-signalling were crucial for generating germinal centre (GC) B-cells, plasmablasts and parasite-specific antibodies, and likewise that T follicular helper (Tfh) cell responses relied on B cells. Next, we found that IFNAR1-signalling impeded the resolution of non-lethal blood-stage infection, which was associated with impaired production of parasite-specific IgM and several IgG sub-classes. Consistent with this, GC B-cell formation, Ig-class switching, plasmablast and Tfh differentiation were all impaired by IFNAR1-signalling. IFNAR1-signalling proceeded via conventional dendritic cells, and acted early by limiting activation, proliferation and ICOS expression by CD4+ T-cells, by restricting the localization of activated CD4+ T-cells adjacent to and within B-cell areas of the spleen, and by simultaneously suppressing Th1 and Tfh responses. Finally, IFNAR1-deficiency accelerated humoral immune responses and parasite control by boosting ICOS-signalling. Thus, we provide evidence of a host innate cytokine response that impedes the onset of humoral immunity during experimental malaria. PMID:27812214

  11. CIRS and CIRS-Lite as Designed for the Outer Planets: TSSM, EJSM, JUICE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brasunas, J.; Abbas, M.; Bly, V.; Edgerton, M.; Hagopian, J.; Mamakos, W.; Morell, A.; Pasquale, B.; Smith, W.

    2012-01-01

    Passive spectroscopic remote sensing of planetary atmospheres and surfaces in the thermal infrared is a powerful tool for obtaining information about surface and atmospheric temperatures, composition, and dynamics (via the thermal wind equation). Due to its broad spectral coverage, the Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) is particularly suited to the exploration and discovery of molecular species. NASA Goddard's Cassini CIRS FTS has given us important new insights into stratospheric composition and jets on Jupiter and Saturn, the cryo-vo1cano and thermal stripes on Enceladus, and the polar vortex on Titan. We have designed a lightweight successor to CIRS - called CIRS-lite - with improved spectral resolution to separate blended spectral lines (such as occur with isotopes). CIRS-lite includes four key components: (1) high Tc superconductor bolometer/carbon nano-tube (CNT) absorber (approx 87K, YBCO) (2) synthetic diamond beam splitter (approx 140K) (3) moving mirror mechanism with crossed-roller bearings ( approx 110 K) (4) single crystal silicon for the input telescope primary

  12. Titan's Isotopic Menagerie: The Cassini CIRS Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixon, Conor A.; Achterberg, R. K.; Bezard, B.; Bjoraker, G. L.; Coustenis, A.; de Kok, R.; Flasar, F. M.; Hewagama, T.; Irwin, P. G. J.; Jennings, D. E.; Jolly, A.; Romani, P. N.; Teanby, N. A.; Vinatier, S.; CIRS Team

    2008-09-01

    Saturn's long-mysterious moon Titan is gradually yielding up its secrets under the intense scrutiny of the Cassini spacecraft, which has just completed a 4-year prime mission including 45 close flybys of the giant satellite. We here focus on the isotopic composition of the stratosphere, which since Voyager 1 in 1980 has been known to comprise a surprisingly rich mixture of hydrocarbons, nitriles and several oxygen species. These molecules are now understood to originate in the upper atmosphere by chemical processes initiated by the dissociation of the most abundant native species - methane and nitrogen - with some oxygen added from externally-supplied water. Measurements of isotopic ratios in these compounds are important and can provide valuable information on the formation and evolution of Titan's atmosphere. E.g. Chemical processes can cause isotopic fractionation via the 'kinetic isotope effect' (KIE). Cassini's Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS), which is sensitive to thermal infrared radiation from 10-1500 cm-1 (7-1000 micron), is an ideal tool for measuring molecular concentrations and can distinguish between isotopologues due to the shifts in the molecular bands. CIRS has now identified at least eleven isotopologue species in our spectra, with multiple new detections in the past year (13CO2, CO18O, HC13CCCN). CIRS has measured the ratios 12C/13C in a total of seven species, D/H in two species, and 14N/15N and 16O/18O each in one species - the best measurement so far of the important ratio 16O/18O on Titan (346±110). In this presentation we will summarize all our results to date on isotopic ratios, including comparison with Huygens GCMS and other determinations, a discussion of possible isotopic separation in hydrocarbon chains, and formation/evolution implications of these measurements for Titan.

  13. CIRS-lite as a lightweight atmospheric sounder for Earth trace-gas science Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — CIRS-lite is a lightweight  version of the CIRS 43-kg Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) currently returning data from Saturn.  CIRS-lite is of interest...

  14. CIRS-lite: A Fourier Transform Spectrometer for a Future Mission to Titan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brasunas, John C.; Flasar, F. Michael; Jennings, Donald E.

    2009-01-01

    The CIRS FTS, aboard the NASA/ESA Cassini-Huygens mission to Saturn, has been returning exciting science since 2004. CIRS-lire, a lightweight CIRS successor, is being designed for a follow-up Titan mission.

  15. Implementation of minimally invasive and objective humane endpoints in the study of murine Plasmodium infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dellavalle, B; Kirchhoff, J; Maretty, L

    2014-01-01

    anaemia (SMA). Furthermore, we investigate the potential of a minimally invasive, non-contact infrared thermometer for repeated BT measurement. ECM was induced with Plasmodium berghei ANKA infection in C57Bl/6 mice. SMA was induced with Plasmodium chabaudi AS infection in A/J mice. Our previous published...... endpoint was applied in ECM and 30 °C was pre-determined as the lowest permitted limit for termination in SMA according to consultation with the Danish Animal Inspectorate. Infrared thermometer was compared with the rectal probe after cervical dislocation, ECM and SMA. Linear regression analysis of rectal...... versus infrared thermometry: cervical dislocation: Pearson R = 0·99, R 2 = 0·98, slope = 1·01, y-intercept = 0·55; ECM: 0·99, 0·98, 1·06, -2·4; and SMA: 0·98, 0·97, 1·14, -5·6. Implementation of the 30 °C endpoint captured all lethal infections. However, some animals with BT below 30 °C were not deemed...

  16. Pretreatment with Cry1Ac Protoxin Modulates the Immune Response, and Increases the Survival of Plasmodium-Infected CBA/Ca Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Legorreta-Herrera

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Malaria is a major global health problem that kills 1-2 million people each year. Despite exhaustive research, naturally acquired immunity is poorly understood. Cry1A proteins are potent immunogens with adjuvant properties and are able to induce strong cellular and humoral responses. In fact, it has been shown that administration of Cry1Ac protoxin alone or with amoebic lysates induces protection against the lethal infection caused by the protozoa Naegleria fowleri. In this work, we studied whether Cry1Ac is able to activate the innate immune response to induce protection against Plasmodium berghei ANKA (lethal and P. chabaudi AS (nonlethal parasites in CBA/Ca mice. Treatment with Cry1Ac induced protection against both Plasmodium species in terms of reduced parasitaemia, longer survival time, modulation of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, and increased levels of specific antibodies against Plasmodium. Understanding how to boost innate immunity to Plasmodium infection should lead to immunologically based intervention strategies.

  17. Pretreatment with Cry1Ac Protoxin Modulates the Immune Response, and Increases the Survival of Plasmodium-Infected CBA/Ca Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legorreta-Herrera, Martha; Oviedo Meza, Rodrigo; Moreno-Fierros, Leticia

    2010-01-01

    Malaria is a major global health problem that kills 1-2 million people each year. Despite exhaustive research, naturally acquired immunity is poorly understood. Cry1A proteins are potent immunogens with adjuvant properties and are able to induce strong cellular and humoral responses. In fact, it has been shown that administration of Cry1Ac protoxin alone or with amoebic lysates induces protection against the lethal infection caused by the protozoa Naegleria fowleri. In this work, we studied whether Cry1Ac is able to activate the innate immune response to induce protection against Plasmodium berghei ANKA (lethal) and P. chabaudi AS (nonlethal) parasites in CBA/Ca mice. Treatment with Cry1Ac induced protection against both Plasmodium species in terms of reduced parasitaemia, longer survival time, modulation of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, and increased levels of specific antibodies against Plasmodium. Understanding how to boost innate immunity to Plasmodium infection should lead to immunologically based intervention strategies. PMID:20300584

  18. Plasmodium and mononuclear phagocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mac-Daniel, Laura; Ménard, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Plasmodium, the causative agent of malaria, initially multiplies inside liver cells and then in successive cycles inside erythrocytes, causing the symptoms of the disease. In this review, we discuss interactions between the extracellular and intracellular forms of the Plasmodium parasite and innate immune cells in the mammalian host, with a special emphasis on mononuclear phagocytes. We overview here what is known about the innate immune cells that interact with parasites, mechanisms used by the parasite to evade them, and the protective or detrimental contribution of these interactions on parasite progression through its life cycle and pathology in the host.

  19. CIR-XL recurring for several years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dósa, Melinda; Erdös, Géza

    2016-04-01

    The heliospheric magnetic flux is determined from the radial component of the magnetic field vector measured onboard interplanetary space probes. Earlier Ulysses research has shown remarkable independence of the flux from heliographic latitude. Here we are investigating whether any longitudinal variation exist in the 50 year long OMNI magnetic data set. When determining the heliographic longitude of the plasma source, correction was applied for the solar wind travel time. Significant recurrent enhancements of the magnetic flux was observed during the declining phase of the solar cycles. These flux enhancements are associated with co-rotating interaction regions (CIR) lasting several years. The recurrence period is slightly faster than the Carrington Rotation rate. The same, long lasting recurring features can be observed when plotting the deviation angle of the solar wind velocity vector from the radial direction. However, the deviation angle is small - in order of a few degrees - and cannot account for the observed flux increases. An increase of the magnetic field is clearly caused by the plasma compression associated to CIRs. Comparing interplanetary data with synoptic maps of the coronal magnetic field (PFSS modell) and coronal temperature data of ACE, we came to the possible explanation that these long-term structures are caused by fast speed solar wind originating from coronal holes. This results supports the idea that magnetic field lines from coronal holes spread out and reach to low latitudes as well. The recurrent longitudinal variation of the magnetic flux during the declining phase of the solar cycle has impact on the modulation of cosmic rays as well as on the frequency and intensity of space weather events.

  20. Expression of PD-1/LAG-3 and cytokine production by CD4(+) T cells during infection with Plasmodium parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doe, Henrietta T; Kimura, Daisuke; Miyakoda, Mana; Kimura, Kazumi; Akbari, Masoud; Yui, Katsuyuki

    2016-02-01

    CD4(+) T cells play critical roles in protection against the blood stage of malarial infection; however, their uncontrolled activation can be harmful to the host. In this study, in which rodent models of Plasmodium parasites were used, the expression of inhibitory receptors on activated CD4(+) T cells and their cytokine production was compared with their expression in a bacterial and another protozoan infection. CD4(+) T cells from mice infected with P. yoelii 17XL, P yoelii 17XNL, P. chabaudi, P. vinckei and P. berghei expressed the inhibitory receptors, PD-1 and LAG-3, as early as 6 days after infection, whereas those from either Listeria monocytogenes- or Leishmania major-infected mice did not. In response to T-cell receptor stimulation, CD4(+) T cells from mice infected with all the pathogens under study produced high concentrations of IFN-γ. IL-2 production was reduced in mice infected with Plasmodium species, but not in those infected with Listeria or Leishmania. In vitro blockade of the interaction between PD-1 and its ligands resulted in increased IFN-γ production in response to Plasmodium antigens, implying that PD-1 expressed on activated CD4(+) T cells actively inhibits T cell immune responses. Studies using Myd88(-/-), Trif(-/-) and Irf3(-/-) mice showed that induction of these CD4(+) T cells and their ability to produce cytokines is largely independent of TLR signaling. These studies suggest that expression of the inhibitory receptors PD-1 and LAG-3 on CD4(+) T cells and their reduced IL-2 production are common characteristic features of Plasmodium infection.

  1. Visualizing the 3D Architecture of Multiple Erythrocytes Infected with Plasmodium at Nanoscale by Focused Ion Beam-Scanning Electron Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares Medeiros, Lia Carolina; De Souza, Wanderley; Jiao, Chengge; Barrabin, Hector; Miranda, Kildare

    2012-01-01

    Different methods for three-dimensional visualization of biological structures have been developed and extensively applied by different research groups. In the field of electron microscopy, a new technique that has emerged is the use of a focused ion beam and scanning electron microscopy for 3D reconstruction at nanoscale resolution. The higher extent of volume that can be reconstructed with this instrument represent one of the main benefits of this technique, which can provide statistically relevant 3D morphometrical data. As the life cycle of Plasmodium species is a process that involves several structurally complex developmental stages that are responsible for a series of modifications in the erythrocyte surface and cytoplasm, a high number of features within the parasites and the host cells has to be sampled for the correct interpretation of their 3D organization. Here, we used FIB-SEM to visualize the 3D architecture of multiple erythrocytes infected with Plasmodium chabaudi and analyzed their morphometrical parameters in a 3D space. We analyzed and quantified alterations on the host cells, such as the variety of shapes and sizes of their membrane profiles and parasite internal structures such as a polymorphic organization of hemoglobin-filled tubules. The results show the complex 3D organization of Plasmodium and infected erythrocyte, and demonstrate the contribution of FIB-SEM for the obtainment of statistical data for an accurate interpretation of complex biological structures. PMID:22432024

  2. Visualizing the 3D architecture of multiple erythrocytes infected with Plasmodium at nanoscale by focused ion beam-scanning electron microscopy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lia Carolina Soares Medeiros

    Full Text Available Different methods for three-dimensional visualization of biological structures have been developed and extensively applied by different research groups. In the field of electron microscopy, a new technique that has emerged is the use of a focused ion beam and scanning electron microscopy for 3D reconstruction at nanoscale resolution. The higher extent of volume that can be reconstructed with this instrument represent one of the main benefits of this technique, which can provide statistically relevant 3D morphometrical data. As the life cycle of Plasmodium species is a process that involves several structurally complex developmental stages that are responsible for a series of modifications in the erythrocyte surface and cytoplasm, a high number of features within the parasites and the host cells has to be sampled for the correct interpretation of their 3D organization. Here, we used FIB-SEM to visualize the 3D architecture of multiple erythrocytes infected with Plasmodium chabaudi and analyzed their morphometrical parameters in a 3D space. We analyzed and quantified alterations on the host cells, such as the variety of shapes and sizes of their membrane profiles and parasite internal structures such as a polymorphic organization of hemoglobin-filled tubules. The results show the complex 3D organization of Plasmodium and infected erythrocyte, and demonstrate the contribution of FIB-SEM for the obtainment of statistical data for an accurate interpretation of complex biological structures.

  3. A complex environment around Cir X-1

    CERN Document Server

    D'Ai, A; Di Salvo, T; Lavagetto, G; Robba, N R

    2007-01-01

    We present the results of an archival 54 ks long Chandra observation of the peculiar source Cir X--1 during the phase passage 0.223-0.261. A comparative analysis of X-ray spectra, selected at different flux levels of the source, allows us to distinguish between a very hard state, at a low countrate, and a brighter, softer, highly absorbed spectrum during episodes of flaring activity, when the unabsorbed source luminosity is about three times the value in the hard state. The spectrum of the hard state clearly shows emission lines of highly ionized elements, while, during the flaring state, the spectrum also shows strong resonant absorption lines. The most intense and interesting feature in this latter state is present in the Fe K alpha region: a very broadened absorption line at energies ~ 6.5 keV that could result from a smeared blending of resonant absorption lines of moderately ionized iron ions (Fe XX - Fe XXIV). We also observe strong resonant absorption lines of Fe XXV and Fe XXVI, together with a smeare...

  4. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MEUG-01-0222 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MEUG-01-0222 ref|XP_738775.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaud...i] emb|CAH83762.1| hypothetical protein PC401526.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_738775.1 6e-14 40% ...

  5. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-OPRI-01-0409 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-OPRI-01-0409 ref|XP_736406.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaud...i] emb|CAH86683.1| hypothetical protein PC404847.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_736406.1 1e-06 50% ...

  6. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-07-0107 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-07-0107 ref|XP_738775.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaud...i] emb|CAH83762.1| hypothetical protein PC401526.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_738775.1 6e-51 55% ...

  7. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-07-0143 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-07-0143 ref|XP_738775.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaud...i] emb|CAH83762.1| hypothetical protein PC401526.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_738775.1 3e-20 33% ...

  8. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-03-0060 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-03-0060 ref|XP_738775.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaud...i] emb|CAH83762.1| hypothetical protein PC401526.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_738775.1 1e-44 50% ...

  9. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-04-0215 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-04-0215 ref|XP_738775.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaud...i] emb|CAH83762.1| hypothetical protein PC401526.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_738775.1 1e-53 59% ...

  10. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-PVAM-01-0985 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PVAM-01-0985 ref|XP_736860.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaud...i] emb|CAH82997.1| hypothetical protein PC400669.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_736860.1 8.6 26% ...

  11. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-01-0063 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-01-0063 ref|XP_738775.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaud...i] emb|CAH83762.1| hypothetical protein PC401526.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_738775.1 7e-44 57% ...

  12. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MEUG-01-2619 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MEUG-01-2619 ref|XP_738775.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaud...i] emb|CAH83762.1| hypothetical protein PC401526.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_738775.1 2e-17 33% ...

  13. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-02-0407 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-02-0407 ref|XP_738775.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaud...i] emb|CAH83762.1| hypothetical protein PC401526.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_738775.1 5e-37 54% ...

  14. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-09-0017 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-09-0017 ref|XP_732422.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaud...i] emb|CAH85273.1| hypothetical protein PC403258.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_732422.1 5e-38 64% ...

  15. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-01-0307 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-01-0307 ref|XP_742542.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaud...i] emb|CAH81944.1| conserved hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_742542.1 2e-71 59% ...

  16. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-09-0044 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-09-0044 ref|XP_740434.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaud...i] emb|CAH86963.1| hypothetical protein PC405176.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_740434.1 7e-04 24% ...

  17. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-TTRU-01-1302 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-TTRU-01-1302 ref|XP_740434.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaud...i] emb|CAH86963.1| hypothetical protein PC405176.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_740434.1 0.010 25% ...

  18. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-PHAM-01-1870 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PHAM-01-1870 ref|XP_738775.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaud...i] emb|CAH83762.1| hypothetical protein PC401526.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_738775.1 8e-27 44% ...

  19. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-06-0010 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-06-0010 ref|XP_742542.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaud...i] emb|CAH81944.1| conserved hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_742542.1 1e-41 37% ...

  20. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-02-0031 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-02-0031 ref|XP_738775.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaud...i] emb|CAH83762.1| hypothetical protein PC401526.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_738775.1 1e-38 53% ...

  1. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MEUG-01-2302 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MEUG-01-2302 ref|XP_738775.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaud...i] emb|CAH83762.1| hypothetical protein PC401526.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_738775.1 2e-19 32% ...

  2. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-03-0236 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-03-0236 ref|XP_738775.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaud...i] emb|CAH83762.1| hypothetical protein PC401526.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_738775.1 4e-30 48% ...

  3. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-OPRI-01-0911 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-OPRI-01-0911 ref|XP_740158.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaud...i] emb|CAH85547.1| hypothetical protein PC403595.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_740158.1 7e-21 46% ...

  4. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-05-0074 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-05-0074 ref|XP_738775.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaud...i] emb|CAH83762.1| hypothetical protein PC401526.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_738775.1 6e-41 49% ...

  5. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-03-0217 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-03-0217 ref|XP_732422.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaud...i] emb|CAH85273.1| hypothetical protein PC403258.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_732422.1 4e-37 55% ...

  6. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-05-0039 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-05-0039 ref|XP_742542.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaud...i] emb|CAH81944.1| conserved hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_742542.1 7e-68 58% ...

  7. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-08-0080 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-08-0080 ref|XP_738775.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaud...i] emb|CAH83762.1| hypothetical protein PC401526.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_738775.1 9e-57 61% ...

  8. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MEUG-01-0601 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MEUG-01-0601 ref|XP_732422.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaud...i] emb|CAH85273.1| hypothetical protein PC403258.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_732422.1 2e-29 51% ...

  9. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-02-0422 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-02-0422 ref|XP_732422.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaud...i] emb|CAH85273.1| hypothetical protein PC403258.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_732422.1 2e-22 55% ...

  10. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-01-0288 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-01-0288 ref|XP_738775.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaud...i] emb|CAH83762.1| hypothetical protein PC401526.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_738775.1 2e-15 37% ...

  11. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-02-0000 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-02-0000 ref|XP_738775.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaud...i] emb|CAH83762.1| hypothetical protein PC401526.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_738775.1 7e-45 53% ...

  12. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-06-0183 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-06-0183 ref|XP_732422.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaud...i] emb|CAH85273.1| hypothetical protein PC403258.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_732422.1 8e-31 57% ...

  13. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-03-0238 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-03-0238 ref|XP_738775.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaud...i] emb|CAH83762.1| hypothetical protein PC401526.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_738775.1 8e-48 59% ...

  14. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-04-0204 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-04-0204 ref|XP_738775.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaud...i] emb|CAH83762.1| hypothetical protein PC401526.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_738775.1 6e-46 53% ...

  15. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-VPAC-01-1208 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-VPAC-01-1208 ref|XP_738775.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaud...i] emb|CAH83762.1| hypothetical protein PC401526.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_738775.1 4e-19 32% ...

  16. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-02-0407 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-02-0407 ref|XP_732422.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaud...i] emb|CAH85273.1| hypothetical protein PC403258.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_732422.1 4e-32 54% ...

  17. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-PHAM-01-1543 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PHAM-01-1543 ref|XP_738775.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaud...i] emb|CAH83762.1| hypothetical protein PC401526.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_738775.1 1e-05 24% ...

  18. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-TTRU-01-0443 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-TTRU-01-0443 ref|XP_733882.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaud...i] emb|CAH85141.1| hypothetical protein PC403066.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_733882.1 0.22 39% ...

  19. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-01-0115 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-01-0115 ref|XP_738775.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaud...i] emb|CAH83762.1| hypothetical protein PC401526.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_738775.1 2e-47 53% ...

  20. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-01-0556 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-01-0556 ref|XP_738775.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaud...i] emb|CAH83762.1| hypothetical protein PC401526.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_738775.1 1e-50 59% ...

  1. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-06-0070 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-06-0070 ref|XP_738775.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaud...i] emb|CAH83762.1| hypothetical protein PC401526.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_738775.1 4e-25 38% ...

  2. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-09-0048 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-09-0048 ref|XP_734491.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaud...i] emb|CAH79466.1| hypothetical protein PC106124.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_734491.1 2e-05 32% ...

  3. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-03-0310 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-03-0310 ref|XP_732422.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaud...i] emb|CAH85273.1| hypothetical protein PC403258.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_732422.1 2e-34 57% ...

  4. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-01-0052 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-01-0052 ref|XP_732422.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaud...i] emb|CAH85273.1| hypothetical protein PC403258.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_732422.1 7e-38 64% ...

  5. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-04-0427 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-04-0427 ref|XP_738775.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaud...i] emb|CAH83762.1| hypothetical protein PC401526.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_738775.1 4e-49 58% ...

  6. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-PHAM-01-1219 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PHAM-01-1219 ref|XP_738775.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaud...i] emb|CAH83762.1| hypothetical protein PC401526.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_738775.1 2e-36 55% ...

  7. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-01-0060 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-01-0060 ref|XP_738775.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaud...i] emb|CAH83762.1| hypothetical protein PC401526.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_738775.1 3e-20 45% ...

  8. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-09-0083 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-09-0083 ref|XP_738775.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaud...i] emb|CAH83762.1| hypothetical protein PC401526.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_738775.1 4e-15 38% ...

  9. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-01-0050 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-01-0050 ref|XP_738775.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaud...i] emb|CAH83762.1| hypothetical protein PC401526.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_738775.1 3e-44 52% ...

  10. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-PVAM-01-1324 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PVAM-01-1324 ref|XP_732422.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaud...i] emb|CAH85273.1| hypothetical protein PC403258.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_732422.1 1e-11 45% ...

  11. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-03-0008 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-03-0008 ref|XP_738775.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaud...i] emb|CAH83762.1| hypothetical protein PC401526.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_738775.1 6e-28 43% ...

  12. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-TTRU-01-0814 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-TTRU-01-0814 ref|XP_745463.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaud...i] emb|CAH87248.1| hypothetical protein PC302387.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_745463.1 2e-07 26% ...

  13. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-01-0072 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-01-0072 ref|XP_738775.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaud...i] emb|CAH83762.1| hypothetical protein PC401526.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_738775.1 7e-57 57% ...

  14. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MEUG-01-0720 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MEUG-01-0720 ref|XP_738775.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaud...i] emb|CAH83762.1| hypothetical protein PC401526.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_738775.1 7e-50 58% ...

  15. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-04-0602 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-04-0602 ref|XP_738775.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaud...i] emb|CAH83762.1| hypothetical protein PC401526.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_738775.1 2e-54 60% ...

  16. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-02-0144 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-02-0144 ref|XP_738775.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaud...i] emb|CAH83762.1| hypothetical protein PC401526.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_738775.1 4e-12 29% ...

  17. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-04-0437 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-04-0437 ref|XP_738775.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaud...i] emb|CAH83762.1| hypothetical protein PC401526.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_738775.1 2e-41 51% ...

  18. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-TTRU-01-0610 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-TTRU-01-0610 ref|XP_738775.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaud...i] emb|CAH83762.1| hypothetical protein PC401526.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_738775.1 0.016 25% ...

  19. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-09-0043 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-09-0043 ref|XP_738775.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaud...i] emb|CAH83762.1| hypothetical protein PC401526.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_738775.1 2e-13 32% ...

  20. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MMUR-01-1259 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MMUR-01-1259 ref|XP_736406.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaud...i] emb|CAH86683.1| hypothetical protein PC404847.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_736406.1 0.009 43% ...

  1. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MEUG-01-1314 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MEUG-01-1314 ref|XP_738775.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaud...i] emb|CAH83762.1| hypothetical protein PC401526.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_738775.1 2e-41 60% ...

  2. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-01-0489 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-01-0489 ref|XP_738775.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaud...i] emb|CAH83762.1| hypothetical protein PC401526.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_738775.1 4e-28 39% ...

  3. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-04-0483 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-04-0483 ref|XP_738775.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaud...i] emb|CAH83762.1| hypothetical protein PC401526.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_738775.1 3e-44 50% ...

  4. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-07-0002 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-07-0002 ref|XP_738775.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaud...i] emb|CAH83762.1| hypothetical protein PC401526.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_738775.1 1e-51 66% ...

  5. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-02-0391 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-02-0391 ref|XP_738775.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaud...i] emb|CAH83762.1| hypothetical protein PC401526.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_738775.1 1e-19 35% ...

  6. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-04-0086 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-04-0086 ref|XP_732422.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaud...i] emb|CAH85273.1| hypothetical protein PC403258.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_732422.1 2e-32 57% ...

  7. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-05-0004 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-05-0004 ref|XP_732422.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaud...i] emb|CAH85273.1| hypothetical protein PC403258.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_732422.1 3e-34 55% ...

  8. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-01-0524 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-01-0524 ref|XP_738775.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaud...i] emb|CAH83762.1| hypothetical protein PC401526.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_738775.1 5e-38 54% ...

  9. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-03-0306 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-03-0306 ref|XP_738775.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaud...i] emb|CAH83762.1| hypothetical protein PC401526.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_738775.1 5e-52 57% ...

  10. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-09-0019 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-09-0019 ref|XP_738775.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaud...i] emb|CAH83762.1| hypothetical protein PC401526.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_738775.1 1e-13 30% ...

  11. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-04-0069 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-04-0069 ref|XP_732422.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaud...i] emb|CAH85273.1| hypothetical protein PC403258.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_732422.1 5e-37 57% ...

  12. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-05-0451 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-05-0451 ref|XP_738775.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaud...i] emb|CAH83762.1| hypothetical protein PC401526.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_738775.1 2e-46 52% ...

  13. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-OPRI-01-0136 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-OPRI-01-0136 ref|XP_736406.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaud...i] emb|CAH86683.1| hypothetical protein PC404847.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_736406.1 4e-07 52% ...

  14. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-03-0371 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-03-0371 ref|XP_738775.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaud...i] emb|CAH83762.1| hypothetical protein PC401526.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_738775.1 6e-21 35% ...

  15. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-OPRI-01-0489 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-OPRI-01-0489 ref|XP_740158.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaud...i] emb|CAH85547.1| hypothetical protein PC403595.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_740158.1 3e-20 45% ...

  16. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-04-0052 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-04-0052 ref|XP_738775.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaud...i] emb|CAH83762.1| hypothetical protein PC401526.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_738775.1 8e-39 53% ...

  17. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-07-0057 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-07-0057 ref|XP_738775.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaud...i] emb|CAH83762.1| hypothetical protein PC401526.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_738775.1 2e-36 52% ...

  18. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-08-0243 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-08-0243 ref|XP_738775.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaud...i] emb|CAH83762.1| hypothetical protein PC401526.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_738775.1 9e-49 65% ...

  19. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MEUG-01-2619 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MEUG-01-2619 ref|XP_732422.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaud...i] emb|CAH85273.1| hypothetical protein PC403258.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_732422.1 4e-15 36% ...

  20. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-02-0422 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-02-0422 ref|XP_738775.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaud...i] emb|CAH83762.1| hypothetical protein PC401526.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_738775.1 2e-27 47% ...

  1. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-09-0085 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-09-0085 ref|XP_738775.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaud...i] emb|CAH83762.1| hypothetical protein PC401526.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_738775.1 2e-27 35% ...

  2. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-03-0387 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-03-0387 ref|XP_734055.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaud...i] emb|CAH85114.1| hypothetical protein PC403034.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_734055.1 0.002 47% ...

  3. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-02-0028 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-02-0028 ref|XP_738775.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaud...i] emb|CAH83762.1| hypothetical protein PC401526.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_738775.1 2e-50 57% ...

  4. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-02-0170 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-02-0170 ref|XP_738775.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaud...i] emb|CAH83762.1| hypothetical protein PC401526.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_738775.1 2e-48 56% ...

  5. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-OPRI-01-1253 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-OPRI-01-1253 ref|XP_740158.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaud...i] emb|CAH85547.1| hypothetical protein PC403595.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_740158.1 2e-22 46% ...

  6. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-05-0088 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-05-0088 ref|XP_732422.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaud...i] emb|CAH85273.1| hypothetical protein PC403258.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_732422.1 6e-27 52% ...

  7. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-08-0124 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-08-0124 ref|XP_738775.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaud...i] emb|CAH83762.1| hypothetical protein PC401526.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_738775.1 3e-22 37% ...

  8. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-04-0045 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-04-0045 ref|XP_738775.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaud...i] emb|CAH83762.1| hypothetical protein PC401526.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_738775.1 1e-44 54% ...

  9. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-05-0110 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-05-0110 ref|XP_742542.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaud...i] emb|CAH81944.1| conserved hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_742542.1 2e-45 46% ...

  10. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-03-0290 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-03-0290 ref|XP_732422.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaud...i] emb|CAH85273.1| hypothetical protein PC403258.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_732422.1 2e-28 55% ...

  11. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-TTRU-01-0062 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-TTRU-01-0062 ref|XP_738775.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaud...i] emb|CAH83762.1| hypothetical protein PC401526.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_738775.1 4e-18 42% ...

  12. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-05-0086 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-05-0086 ref|XP_738775.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaud...i] emb|CAH83762.1| hypothetical protein PC401526.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_738775.1 1e-24 44% ...

  13. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-04-0455 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-04-0455 ref|XP_738775.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaud...i] emb|CAH83762.1| hypothetical protein PC401526.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_738775.1 2e-40 58% ...

  14. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-08-0058 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-08-0058 ref|XP_738775.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaud...i] emb|CAH83762.1| hypothetical protein PC401526.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_738775.1 4e-49 57% ...

  15. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-PHAM-01-1609 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PHAM-01-1609 ref|XP_738775.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaud...i] emb|CAH83762.1| hypothetical protein PC401526.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_738775.1 8e-20 35% ...

  16. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-03-0230 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-03-0230 ref|XP_738775.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaud...i] emb|CAH83762.1| hypothetical protein PC401526.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_738775.1 9e-30 46% ...

  17. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-01-0503 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-01-0503 ref|XP_732422.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaud...i] emb|CAH85273.1| hypothetical protein PC403258.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_732422.1 8e-31 53% ...

  18. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-03-0381 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-03-0381 ref|XP_738775.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaud...i] emb|CAH83762.1| hypothetical protein PC401526.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_738775.1 1e-44 51% ...

  19. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-03-0132 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-03-0132 ref|XP_738775.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaud...i] emb|CAH83762.1| hypothetical protein PC401526.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_738775.1 1e-56 62% ...

  20. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-05-0636 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-05-0636 ref|XP_738775.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaud...i] emb|CAH83762.1| hypothetical protein PC401526.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_738775.1 8e-43 45% ...

  1. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-TTRU-01-1393 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-TTRU-01-1393 ref|XP_740434.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaud...i] emb|CAH86963.1| hypothetical protein PC405176.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_740434.1 0.060 26% ...

  2. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-06-0186 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-06-0186 ref|XP_732422.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi...] emb|CAH85273.1| hypothetical protein PC403258.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_732422.1 2e-24 43% ...

  3. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-08-0197 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-08-0197 ref|XP_732422.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi...] emb|CAH85273.1| hypothetical protein PC403258.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_732422.1 4e-21 46% ...

  4. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-05-0149 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-05-0149 ref|XP_738775.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi...] emb|CAH83762.1| hypothetical protein PC401526.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_738775.1 1e-34 53% ...

  5. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-04-0078 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-04-0078 ref|XP_738775.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi...] emb|CAH83762.1| hypothetical protein PC401526.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_738775.1 1e-20 39% ...

  6. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-05-0046 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-05-0046 ref|XP_738775.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi...] emb|CAH83762.1| hypothetical protein PC401526.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_738775.1 8e-38 50% ...

  7. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-02-0012 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-02-0012 ref|XP_738775.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi...] emb|CAH83762.1| hypothetical protein PC401526.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_738775.1 8e-31 44% ...

  8. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-04-0652 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-04-0652 ref|XP_738775.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi...] emb|CAH83762.1| hypothetical protein PC401526.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_738775.1 3e-50 58% ...

  9. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-04-0017 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-04-0017 ref|XP_738775.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi...] emb|CAH83762.1| hypothetical protein PC401526.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_738775.1 4e-49 59% ...

  10. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-04-0069 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-04-0069 ref|XP_738775.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi...] emb|CAH83762.1| hypothetical protein PC401526.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_738775.1 6e-47 54% ...

  11. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-02-0400 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-02-0400 ref|XP_738775.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi...] emb|CAH83762.1| hypothetical protein PC401526.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_738775.1 9e-29 41% ...

  12. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-05-0064 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-05-0064 ref|XP_738775.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi...] emb|CAH83762.1| hypothetical protein PC401526.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_738775.1 4e-24 38% ...

  13. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-01-0513 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-01-0513 ref|XP_738775.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi...] emb|CAH83762.1| hypothetical protein PC401526.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_738775.1 1e-26 39% ...

  14. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-11-0023 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-11-0023 ref|XP_738775.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi...] emb|CAH83762.1| hypothetical protein PC401526.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_738775.1 1e-51 54% ...

  15. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-06-0186 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-06-0186 ref|XP_738775.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi...] emb|CAH83762.1| hypothetical protein PC401526.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_738775.1 8e-25 38% ...

  16. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-OPRI-01-1145 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-OPRI-01-1145 ref|XP_740158.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi...] emb|CAH85547.1| hypothetical protein PC403595.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_740158.1 4e-19 43% ...

  17. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-01-0002 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-01-0002 ref|XP_738775.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi...] emb|CAH83762.1| hypothetical protein PC401526.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_738775.1 2e-57 62% ...

  18. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-06-0140 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-06-0140 ref|XP_738775.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi...] emb|CAH83762.1| hypothetical protein PC401526.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_738775.1 6e-33 43% ...

  19. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-02-0032 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-02-0032 ref|XP_738775.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi...] emb|CAH83762.1| hypothetical protein PC401526.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_738775.1 4e-19 35% ...

  20. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MLUC-01-0289 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MLUC-01-0289 ref|XP_738775.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi...] emb|CAH83762.1| hypothetical protein PC401526.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_738775.1 1e-21 50% ...

  1. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-TTRU-01-0564 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-TTRU-01-0564 ref|XP_740434.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi...] emb|CAH86963.1| hypothetical protein PC405176.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_740434.1 0.008 28% ...

  2. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-01-0267 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-01-0267 ref|XP_738775.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi...] emb|CAH83762.1| hypothetical protein PC401526.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_738775.1 4e-35 56% ...

  3. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-03-0392 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-03-0392 ref|XP_738775.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi...] emb|CAH83762.1| hypothetical protein PC401526.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_738775.1 1e-38 68% ...

  4. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-01-0505 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-01-0505 ref|XP_732422.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi...] emb|CAH85273.1| hypothetical protein PC403258.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_732422.1 2e-18 45% ...

  5. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-PVAM-01-0839 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PVAM-01-0839 ref|XP_740158.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi...] emb|CAH85547.1| hypothetical protein PC403595.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_740158.1 5e-14 47% ...

  6. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-OPRI-01-0211 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-OPRI-01-0211 ref|XP_740158.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi...] emb|CAH85547.1| hypothetical protein PC403595.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_740158.1 8e-21 45% ...

  7. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-04-0421 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-04-0421 ref|XP_738775.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi...] emb|CAH83762.1| hypothetical protein PC401526.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_738775.1 2e-22 37% ...

  8. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-03-0230 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-03-0230 ref|XP_732422.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi...] emb|CAH85273.1| hypothetical protein PC403258.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_732422.1 3e-23 44% ...

  9. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MEUG-01-1167 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MEUG-01-1167 ref|XP_732422.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi...] emb|CAH85273.1| hypothetical protein PC403258.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_732422.1 2e-29 60% ...

  10. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-11-0104 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-11-0104 ref|XP_732422.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi...] emb|CAH85273.1| hypothetical protein PC403258.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_732422.1 2e-29 52% ...

  11. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-03-0287 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-03-0287 ref|XP_732422.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi...] emb|CAH85273.1| hypothetical protein PC403258.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_732422.1 2e-23 49% ...

  12. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-04-0068 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-04-0068 ref|XP_732422.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi...] emb|CAH85273.1| hypothetical protein PC403258.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_732422.1 6e-27 48% ...

  13. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-05-0143 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-05-0143 ref|XP_738775.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi...] emb|CAH83762.1| hypothetical protein PC401526.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_738775.1 5e-40 54% ...

  14. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-04-0228 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-04-0228 ref|XP_738775.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi...] emb|CAH83762.1| hypothetical protein PC401526.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_738775.1 4e-15 40% ...

  15. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-02-0062 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-02-0062 ref|XP_738775.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi...] emb|CAH83762.1| hypothetical protein PC401526.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_738775.1 1e-20 36% ...

  16. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-03-0287 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-03-0287 ref|XP_738775.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi...] emb|CAH83762.1| hypothetical protein PC401526.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_738775.1 4e-30 41% ...

  17. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-PHAM-01-1832 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PHAM-01-1832 ref|XP_732422.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi...] emb|CAH85273.1| hypothetical protein PC403258.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_732422.1 5e-27 53% ...

  18. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-OPRI-01-0074 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-OPRI-01-0074 ref|XP_740158.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi...] emb|CAH85547.1| hypothetical protein PC403595.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_740158.1 9e-22 45% ...

  19. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-04-0031 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-04-0031 ref|XP_732422.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi...] emb|CAH85273.1| hypothetical protein PC403258.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_732422.1 2e-34 58% ...

  20. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-09-0076 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-09-0076 ref|XP_738775.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi...] emb|CAH83762.1| hypothetical protein PC401526.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_738775.1 8e-22 32% ...

  1. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-04-0214 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-04-0214 ref|XP_738775.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi...] emb|CAH83762.1| hypothetical protein PC401526.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_738775.1 5e-42 53% ...

  2. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-01-0079 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-01-0079 ref|XP_738775.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi...] emb|CAH83762.1| hypothetical protein PC401526.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_738775.1 2e-17 32% ...

  3. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-08-0081 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-08-0081 ref|XP_732422.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi...] emb|CAH85273.1| hypothetical protein PC403258.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_732422.1 2e-34 60% ...

  4. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-06-0147 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-06-0147 ref|XP_738775.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi...] emb|CAH83762.1| hypothetical protein PC401526.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_738775.1 2e-34 48% ...

  5. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-09-0077 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-09-0077 ref|XP_738775.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi...] emb|CAH83762.1| hypothetical protein PC401526.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_738775.1 2e-20 37% ...

  6. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-02-0487 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-02-0487 ref|XP_738775.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi...] emb|CAH83762.1| hypothetical protein PC401526.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_738775.1 1e-17 37% ...

  7. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-08-0112 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-08-0112 ref|XP_732422.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi...] emb|CAH85273.1| hypothetical protein PC403258.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_732422.1 2e-35 56% ...

  8. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-03-0106 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-03-0106 ref|XP_738775.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi...] emb|CAH83762.1| hypothetical protein PC401526.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_738775.1 9e-18 36% ...

  9. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-05-0084 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-05-0084 ref|XP_738775.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi...] emb|CAH83762.1| hypothetical protein PC401526.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_738775.1 8e-24 38% ...

  10. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-06-0006 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-06-0006 ref|XP_732422.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi...] emb|CAH85273.1| hypothetical protein PC403258.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_732422.1 1e-26 51% ...

  11. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-OPRI-01-0822 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-OPRI-01-0822 ref|XP_740158.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi...] emb|CAH85547.1| hypothetical protein PC403595.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_740158.1 5e-21 47% ...

  12. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-PHAM-01-1050 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PHAM-01-1050 ref|XP_738775.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi...] emb|CAH83762.1| hypothetical protein PC401526.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_738775.1 1e-08 36% ...

  13. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-OPRI-01-0484 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-OPRI-01-0484 ref|XP_740158.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi...] emb|CAH85547.1| hypothetical protein PC403595.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_740158.1 1e-15 36% ...

  14. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-03-0312 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-03-0312 ref|XP_738775.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi...] emb|CAH83762.1| hypothetical protein PC401526.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_738775.1 5e-39 52% ...

  15. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MEUG-01-2523 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MEUG-01-2523 ref|XP_738775.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi...] emb|CAH83762.1| hypothetical protein PC401526.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_738775.1 2e-16 33% ...

  16. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-02-0483 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-02-0483 ref|XP_738775.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi...] emb|CAH83762.1| hypothetical protein PC401526.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_738775.1 5e-45 55% ...

  17. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-01-0542 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-01-0542 ref|XP_738775.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi...] emb|CAH83762.1| hypothetical protein PC401526.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_738775.1 5e-49 59% ...

  18. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-OPRI-01-1422 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-OPRI-01-1422 ref|XP_740158.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi...] emb|CAH85547.1| hypothetical protein PC403595.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_740158.1 2e-22 47% ...

  19. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-08-0071 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-08-0071 ref|XP_738775.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi...] emb|CAH83762.1| hypothetical protein PC401526.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_738775.1 9e-60 60% ...

  20. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MEUG-01-1761 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MEUG-01-1761 ref|XP_732422.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi...] emb|CAH85273.1| hypothetical protein PC403258.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_732422.1 1e-31 51% ...

  1. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-PVAM-01-0934 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PVAM-01-0934 ref|XP_738775.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi...] emb|CAH83762.1| hypothetical protein PC401526.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_738775.1 2e-37 52% ...

  2. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-OPRI-01-0206 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-OPRI-01-0206 ref|XP_740158.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabau...di] emb|CAH85547.1| hypothetical protein PC403595.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_740158.1 3e-21 45% ...

  3. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-05-0451 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-05-0451 ref|XP_732422.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabau...di] emb|CAH85273.1| hypothetical protein PC403258.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_732422.1 2e-41 63% ...

  4. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-02-0148 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-02-0148 ref|XP_738775.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabau...di] emb|CAH83762.1| hypothetical protein PC401526.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_738775.1 1e-30 50% ...

  5. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-PHAM-01-0751 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PHAM-01-0751 ref|XP_738775.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabau...di] emb|CAH83762.1| hypothetical protein PC401526.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_738775.1 2e-33 46% ...

  6. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-02-0472 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-02-0472 ref|XP_738775.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabau...di] emb|CAH83762.1| hypothetical protein PC401526.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_738775.1 2e-25 42% ...

  7. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-03-0376 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-03-0376 ref|XP_738775.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabau...di] emb|CAH83762.1| hypothetical protein PC401526.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_738775.1 2e-40 46% ...

  8. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-02-0448 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-02-0448 ref|XP_738775.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabau...di] emb|CAH83762.1| hypothetical protein PC401526.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_738775.1 6e-49 56% ...

  9. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-03-0375 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-03-0375 ref|XP_732422.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabau...di] emb|CAH85273.1| hypothetical protein PC403258.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_732422.1 4e-20 39% ...

  10. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-02-0051 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-02-0051 ref|XP_742542.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabau...di] emb|CAH81944.1| conserved hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_742542.1 3e-51 46% ...

  11. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-03-0046 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-03-0046 ref|XP_738775.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabau...di] emb|CAH83762.1| hypothetical protein PC401526.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_738775.1 7e-40 50% ...

  12. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-PHAM-01-1196 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PHAM-01-1196 ref|XP_738775.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabau...di] emb|CAH83762.1| hypothetical protein PC401526.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_738775.1 7e-31 43% ...

  13. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-OPRI-01-1519 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-OPRI-01-1519 ref|XP_740158.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabau...di] emb|CAH85547.1| hypothetical protein PC403595.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_740158.1 1e-19 43% ...

  14. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-08-0084 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-08-0084 ref|XP_738775.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabau...di] emb|CAH83762.1| hypothetical protein PC401526.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_738775.1 2e-48 52% ...

  15. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-PHAM-01-1212 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PHAM-01-1212 ref|XP_738775.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabau...di] emb|CAH83762.1| hypothetical protein PC401526.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_738775.1 9e-30 50% ...

  16. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-STRI-01-2357 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-STRI-01-2357 ref|XP_745682.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabau...di] emb|CAH75033.1| conserved hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_745682.1 0.096 26% ...

  17. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-01-0560 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-01-0560 ref|XP_738775.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabau...di] emb|CAH83762.1| hypothetical protein PC401526.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_738775.1 7e-43 52% ...

  18. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-05-0006 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-05-0006 ref|XP_738775.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabau...di] emb|CAH83762.1| hypothetical protein PC401526.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_738775.1 6e-48 54% ...

  19. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-02-0034 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-02-0034 ref|XP_738775.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabau...di] emb|CAH83762.1| hypothetical protein PC401526.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_738775.1 3e-20 37% ...

  20. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-07-0057 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-07-0057 ref|XP_732422.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabau...di] emb|CAH85273.1| hypothetical protein PC403258.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_732422.1 3e-26 50% ...

  1. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-04-0072 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-04-0072 ref|XP_738775.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabau...di] emb|CAH83762.1| hypothetical protein PC401526.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_738775.1 9e-19 46% ...

  2. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-OPRI-01-0975 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-OPRI-01-0975 ref|XP_740158.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabau...di] emb|CAH85547.1| hypothetical protein PC403595.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_740158.1 2e-22 46% ...

  3. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-06-0131 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-06-0131 ref|XP_738775.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabau...di] emb|CAH83762.1| hypothetical protein PC401526.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_738775.1 3e-22 36% ...

  4. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-PVAM-01-0601 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PVAM-01-0601 ref|XP_732422.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabau...di] emb|CAH85273.1| hypothetical protein PC403258.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_732422.1 5e-28 56% ...

  5. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-04-0480 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-04-0480 ref|XP_732422.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabau...di] emb|CAH85273.1| hypothetical protein PC403258.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_732422.1 2e-33 55% ...

  6. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-07-0100 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-07-0100 ref|XP_738775.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabau...di] emb|CAH83762.1| hypothetical protein PC401526.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_738775.1 3e-20 37% ...

  7. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-01-0496 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-01-0496 ref|XP_738775.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabau...di] emb|CAH83762.1| hypothetical protein PC401526.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_738775.1 2e-23 37% ...

  8. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-01-0401 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-01-0401 ref|XP_738775.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabau...di] emb|CAH83762.1| hypothetical protein PC401526.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_738775.1 4e-25 39% ...

  9. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-05-0152 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-05-0152 ref|XP_732422.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabau...di] emb|CAH85273.1| hypothetical protein PC403258.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_732422.1 2e-33 62% ...

  10. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-03-0296 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-03-0296 ref|XP_738775.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabau...di] emb|CAH83762.1| hypothetical protein PC401526.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_738775.1 2e-17 35% ...

  11. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-05-0004 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-05-0004 ref|XP_738775.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabau...di] emb|CAH83762.1| hypothetical protein PC401526.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_738775.1 3e-44 55% ...

  12. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-07-0002 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-07-0002 ref|XP_732422.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabau...di] emb|CAH85273.1| hypothetical protein PC403258.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_732422.1 2e-47 74% ...

  13. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-08-0243 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-08-0243 ref|XP_732422.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabau...di] emb|CAH85273.1| hypothetical protein PC403258.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_732422.1 2e-38 61% ...

  14. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-02-0013 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-02-0013 ref|XP_738775.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabau...di] emb|CAH83762.1| hypothetical protein PC401526.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_738775.1 2e-41 49% ...

  15. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-OPRI-01-0179 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-OPRI-01-0179 ref|XP_740158.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabau...di] emb|CAH85547.1| hypothetical protein PC403595.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_740158.1 5e-20 45% ...

  16. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-03-0131 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-03-0131 ref|XP_732422.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabau...di] emb|CAH85273.1| hypothetical protein PC403258.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_732422.1 7e-18 39% ...

  17. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-02-0037 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-02-0037 ref|XP_738775.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabau...di] emb|CAH83762.1| hypothetical protein PC401526.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_738775.1 2e-39 47% ...

  18. Action of adrenalin on the circulation of the murine Plasmodium developing stages, in different blood compartments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertani S.

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Adrenalin was used to investigate in vivo the circulation of the different stages of rodent Plasmodium present in the blood. A single dose of adrenalin injected to mice infected with P. yoelii resulted immediately in i a diminution of the parasitaemia of approximately 50 % in the peripheral large vessels (estimated in tail blood films, as well as in the capillaries (estimated in smears of blood collected from a fed Anopheles, and ii an increased parasitaemia in blood collected by cardiac puncture from the right heart. The numbers of young stages of P. yoelii in the peripheral blood were initially somewhat reduced but, unexpectedly, midterm trophozoites were preferentially expelled from the peripheral blood into major organs like the heart. With P. vinckei, parasitaemia decreased only when midterm trophozoites predominated, and with P. chabaudi no effect was observed at any time. We propose that midterm trophozoites, by their increased surface area, as compared to rings, and their flexibility which contrasts with the rigid schizonts, are particularly susceptible to haemodynamic perturbations.

  19. The utility of Plasmodium berghei as a rodent model for anti-merozoite malaria vaccine assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Anna L; Forbes, Emily K; Williams, Andrew R; Douglas, Alexander D; de Cassan, Simone C; Bauza, Karolis; Biswas, Sumi; Dicks, Matthew D J; Llewellyn, David; Moore, Anne C; Janse, Chris J; Franke-Fayard, Blandine M; Gilbert, Sarah C; Hill, Adrian V S; Pleass, Richard J; Draper, Simon J

    2013-01-01

    Rodent malaria species Plasmodium yoelii and P. chabaudi have been widely used to validate vaccine approaches targeting blood-stage merozoite antigens. However, increasing data suggest the P. berghei rodent malaria may be able to circumvent vaccine-induced anti-merozoite responses. Here we confirm a failure to protect against P. berghei, despite successful antibody induction against leading merozoite antigens using protein-in-adjuvant or viral vectored vaccine delivery. No subunit vaccine approach showed efficacy in mice following immunization and challenge with the wild-type P. berghei strains ANKA or NK65, or against a chimeric parasite line encoding a merozoite antigen from P. falciparum. Protection was not improved in knockout mice lacking the inhibitory Fc receptor CD32b, nor against a Δsmac P. berghei parasite line with a non-sequestering phenotype. An improved understanding of the mechanisms responsible for protection, or failure of protection, against P. berghei merozoites could guide the development of an efficacious vaccine against P. falciparum.

  20. Within-host competition does not select for virulence in malaria parasites; studies with Plasmodium yoelii.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussein M Abkallo

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In endemic areas with high transmission intensities, malaria infections are very often composed of multiple genetically distinct strains of malaria parasites. It has been hypothesised that this leads to intra-host competition, in which parasite strains compete for resources such as space and nutrients. This competition may have repercussions for the host, the parasite, and the vector in terms of disease severity, vector fitness, and parasite transmission potential and fitness. It has also been argued that within-host competition could lead to selection for more virulent parasites. Here we use the rodent malaria parasite Plasmodium yoelii to assess the consequences of mixed strain infections on disease severity and parasite fitness. Three isogenic strains with dramatically different growth rates (and hence virulence were maintained in mice in single infections or in mixed strain infections with a genetically distinct strain. We compared the virulence (defined as harm to the mammalian host of mixed strain infections with that of single infections, and assessed whether competition impacted on parasite fitness, assessed by transmission potential. We found that mixed infections were associated with a higher degree of disease severity and a prolonged infection time. In the mixed infections, the strain with the slower growth rate was often responsible for the competitive exclusion of the faster growing strain, presumably through host immune-mediated mechanisms. Importantly, and in contrast to previous work conducted with Plasmodium chabaudi, we found no correlation between parasite virulence and transmission potential to mosquitoes, suggesting that within-host competition would not drive the evolution of parasite virulence in P. yoelii.

  1. Tendinopatia patelar: resultados tardios do tratamento cirúrgico

    OpenAIRE

    Marcos Henrique Frauendorf Cenni; Thiago Daniel Macedo Silva; Bruno Fajardo do Nascimento; Rodrigo Cristiano de Andrade; Lúcio Flávio Biondi Pinheiro Júnior; Oscar Pinheiro Nicolai

    2015-01-01

    resumo Objetivo: Avaliar os resultados tardios do tratamento cirúrgico na tendinopatia patelar (TP) com o uso do escore Visa (Victorian Institute of Sport Tendon Study Group) e o método de Verheyden. Métodos: Estudo retrospectivo que avaliou os resultados pós-operatórios de 12 pacientes, ou 14 joelhos, entre julho de 2002 e fevereiro de 2011. Foram incluídos os pacientes com tendinopatia patelar refratários ao tratamento conservador e que não apresentavam outras lesões cirúrgicas concomitan...

  2. Simple simulation schemes for CIR and Wishart processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pisani, Camilla

    2013-01-01

    We develop some simple simulation algorithms for CIR and Wishart processes. The main idea is the splitting of their generator into the sum of the square of an Ornstein-Uhlenbeck matrix process and a deterministic process. Joint work with Paolo Baldi, Tor Vergata University, Rome......We develop some simple simulation algorithms for CIR and Wishart processes. The main idea is the splitting of their generator into the sum of the square of an Ornstein-Uhlenbeck matrix process and a deterministic process. Joint work with Paolo Baldi, Tor Vergata University, Rome...

  3. Tendinopatia patelar: resultados tardios do tratamento cirúrgico

    OpenAIRE

    Marcos Henrique Frauendorf Cenni; Thiago Daniel Macedo Silva; Bruno Fajardo do Nascimento; Rodrigo Cristiano de Andrade; Lúcio Flávio Biondi Pinheiro Júnior; Oscar Pinheiro Nicolai

    2015-01-01

    resumo Objetivo: Avaliar os resultados tardios do tratamento cirúrgico na tendinopatia patelar (TP) com o uso do escore Visa (Victorian Institute of Sport Tendon Study Group) e o método de Verheyden. Métodos: Estudo retrospectivo que avaliou os resultados pós-operatórios de 12 pacientes, ou 14 joelhos, entre julho de 2002 e fevereiro de 2011. Foram incluídos os pacientes com tendinopatia patelar refratários ao tratamento conservador e que não apresentavam outras lesões cirúrgicas concomitan...

  4. User Guide to the PDS Dataset for the Cassini Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixon, Conor A.; Kaelberer, Monte S.; Gorius, Nicolas

    2012-01-01

    This User Guide to the Cassini Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) has been written with two communities in mind. First and foremost, scientists external to the Cassini Project who seek to use the CIRS data as archived in the Planetary Data System (PDS). In addition, it is intended to be a comprehensive reference guide for those internal to the CIRS team.

  5. EuroCirCol: A key to New Physics

    CERN Multimedia

    Johannes Gutleber

    2015-01-01

    Monday 1 June saw the start of EuroCirCol, the EC-funded part of the FCC study that will develop the conceptual design for an energy-frontier hadron collider.   Attendees at the EuroCirCol meeting at CERN. The EuroCirCol kick-off event at CERN on 2 to 4 June brought together 62 participants to constitute governance bodies, commit to the project plan and align the organisation, structures and processes of 16 institutions from 10 countries. The goal of the project is to conceive a post-LHC research infrastructure around a 100 km circular energy-frontier hadron collider capable of reaching 100 TeV collisions. The project officially started on 1 June and will run for four years. The total estimated budget of 11.2 MEUR includes a 2.99 MEUR contribution from the Horizon 2020 programme dedicated to the development of new world-class research infrastructures. EuroCirCol will deliver a design for a hadron collider as part of the broader Future Circular Collider (FCC) study. It will provide input to an...

  6. Vertical Resolution Effects on CIRS Spectroscopy of Titan's Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixon, C. A.; Calcutt, S. B.; Taylor, F. W.

    1996-09-01

    The Cassini/Huygens mission to the Saturnian system, which is scheduled for launch late next year, will study the moon Titan in unprecedented detail. Onboard the orbiter will be CIRS - the Composite Infrared Spectrometer - which will, amongst many tasks, provide a wealth of information on Titan's atmosphere. This enigmatic world is known to have a massive, mainly nitrogen atmosphere, but important questions remain; in particular the abundance of argon, and the state of methane in the troposphere, where patchy clouds may form and some sort of rainfall is likely. The infrared data from CIRS will help to resolve these and other issues. When CIRS makes measurements of the limb, the field of view must be taken into account. Not only is the width important, but there is also an unusual weighting function due to the slight asymmetry in response of some of the detector elements, which must be taken into account when the spectral data is analysed. We have developed a radiative transfer code to model the infrared signature of the atmosphere from 10 to 1400 cm(-1) , for nadir and limb sightlines, at the CIRS resolution of 0.5 cm(-1) . We also present measurements made at Oxford of the responses of individual detectors. Finally, we show limb spectra calculated for different heights in the atmosphere convolved with the detector responses, to demonstrate the importance of the field-of-view effect on the scientific objectives.

  7. Protein-based signatures of functional evolution in Plasmodium falciparum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Kate B; Sinha, Ipsita; Bustamante, Leyla Y; Day, Nicholas Pj; White, Nicholas J; Woodrow, Charles J

    2011-09-14

    It has been known for over a decade that Plasmodium falciparum proteins are enriched in non-globular domains of unknown function. The potential for these regions of protein sequence to undergo high levels of genetic drift provides a fundamental challenge to attempts to identify the molecular basis of adaptive change in malaria parasites. Evolutionary comparisons were undertaken using a set of forty P. falciparum metabolic enzyme genes, both within the hominid malaria clade (P. reichenowi) and across the genus (P. chabaudi). All genes contained coding elements highly conserved across the genus, but there were also a large number of regions of weakly or non-aligning coding sequence. These displayed remarkable levels of non-synonymous fixed differences within the hominid malaria clade indicating near complete release from purifying selection (dN/dS ratio at residues non-aligning across genus: 0.64, dN/dS ratio at residues identical across genus: 0.03). Regions of low conservation also possessed high levels of hydrophilicity, a marker of non-globularity. The propensity for such regions to act as potent sources of non-synonymous genetic drift within extant P. falciparum isolates was confirmed at chromosomal regions containing genes known to mediate drug resistance in field isolates, where 150 of 153 amino acid variants were located in poorly conserved regions. In contrast, all 22 amino acid variants associated with drug resistance were restricted to highly conserved regions. Additional mutations associated with laboratory-selected drug resistance, such as those in PfATPase4 selected by spiroindolone, were similarly restricted while mutations in another calcium ATPase (PfSERCA, a gene proposed to mediate artemisinin resistance) that reach significant frequencies in field isolates were located exclusively in poorly conserved regions consistent with genetic drift. Coding sequences of malaria parasites contain prospectively definable domains subject to neutral or nearly

  8. Protein-based signatures of functional evolution in Plasmodium falciparum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Day Nicholas PJ

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has been known for over a decade that Plasmodium falciparum proteins are enriched in non-globular domains of unknown function. The potential for these regions of protein sequence to undergo high levels of genetic drift provides a fundamental challenge to attempts to identify the molecular basis of adaptive change in malaria parasites. Results Evolutionary comparisons were undertaken using a set of forty P. falciparum metabolic enzyme genes, both within the hominid malaria clade (P. reichenowi and across the genus (P. chabaudi. All genes contained coding elements highly conserved across the genus, but there were also a large number of regions of weakly or non-aligning coding sequence. These displayed remarkable levels of non-synonymous fixed differences within the hominid malaria clade indicating near complete release from purifying selection (dN/dS ratio at residues non-aligning across genus: 0.64, dN/dS ratio at residues identical across genus: 0.03. Regions of low conservation also possessed high levels of hydrophilicity, a marker of non-globularity. The propensity for such regions to act as potent sources of non-synonymous genetic drift within extant P. falciparum isolates was confirmed at chromosomal regions containing genes known to mediate drug resistance in field isolates, where 150 of 153 amino acid variants were located in poorly conserved regions. In contrast, all 22 amino acid variants associated with drug resistance were restricted to highly conserved regions. Additional mutations associated with laboratory-selected drug resistance, such as those in PfATPase4 selected by spiroindolone, were similarly restricted while mutations in another calcium ATPase (PfSERCA, a gene proposed to mediate artemisinin resistance that reach significant frequencies in field isolates were located exclusively in poorly conserved regions consistent with genetic drift. Conclusion Coding sequences of malaria parasites contain

  9. Fine-scale genetic characterization of Plasmodium falciparum chromosome 7 encompassing the antigenic var and the drug-resistant pfcrt genes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ruchi Bajaj; Sujata Mohanty; A. P. Dash; Aparup Das

    2008-04-01

    The fact that malaria is still an uncontrolled disease is reflected by the genetic organization of the parasite genome. Efforts to curb malaria should begin with proper understanding of the mechanism by which the parasites evade human immune system and evolve resistance to different antimalarial drugs. We have initiated such a study and presented herewith the results from the in silico understanding of a seventh chromosomal region of the malarial parasite Plasmodium falciparum encompassing the antigenic var genes (coding pfemp1) and the drug-resistant gene pfcrt located at a specified region of the chromosome 7. We found 60 genes of various functions and lengths, majority (61.67%) of them were performing known functions. Almost all the genes have orthologs in other four species of Plasmodium, of which P. chabaudi seems to be the closest to P. falciparum. However, only two genes were found to be paralogous. Interestingly, the drug-resistant gene, pfcrt was found to be surrounded by seven genes coding for several CG proteins out of which six were reported to be responsible for providing drug resistance to P. vivax. The intergenic regions, in this specified region were generally large in size, majority (73%) of them were of more than 500 nucleotide bp length. We also designed primers for amplification of 21 noncoding DNA fragments in the whole region for estimating genetic diversity and inferring the evolutionary history of this region of P. falciparum genome.

  10. 21 CFR 866.3402 - Plasmodium species antigen detection assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Plasmodium species antigen detection assays. 866... Plasmodium species antigen detection assays. (a) Identification. A Plasmodium species antigen detection assay... malaria caused by the four malaria species capable of infecting humans: Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium...

  11. Plasmodium vivax: who cares?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barnwell John W

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract More attention is being focused on malaria today than any time since the world's last efforts to achieve eradication over 40 years ago. The global community is now discussing strategies aimed at dramatically reducing malarial disease burden and the eventual eradication of all types of malaria, everywhere. As a consequence, Plasmodium vivax, which has long been neglected and mistakenly considered inconsequential, is now entering into the strategic debates taking place on malaria epidemiology and control, drug resistance, pathogenesis and vaccines. Thus, contrary to the past, the malaria research community is becoming more aware and concerned about the widespread spectrum of illness and death caused by up to a couple of hundred million cases of vivax malaria each year. This review brings these issues to light and provides an overview of P. vivax vaccine development, then and now. Progress had been slow, given inherent research challenges and minimal support in the past, but prospects are looking better for making headway in the next few years. P. vivax, known to invade the youngest red blood cells, the reticulocytes, presents a strong challenge towards developing a reliable long-term culture system to facilitate needed research. The P. vivax genome was published recently, and vivax researchers now need to coordinate efforts to discover new vaccine candidates, establish new vaccine approaches, capitalize on non-human primate models for testing, and investigate the unique biological features of P. vivax, including the elusive P. vivax hypnozoites. Comparative studies on both P. falciparum and P. vivax in many areas of research will be essential to eradicate malaria. And to this end, the education and training of future generations of dedicated "malariologists" to advance our knowledge, understanding and the development of new interventions against each of the malaria species infecting humans also will be essential.

  12. Tendinopatia patelar: resultados tardios do tratamento cirúrgico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Henrique Frauendorf Cenni

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available resumo Objetivo: Avaliar os resultados tardios do tratamento cirúrgico na tendinopatia patelar (TP com o uso do escore Visa (Victorian Institute of Sport Tendon Study Group e o método de Verheyden. Métodos: Estudo retrospectivo que avaliou os resultados pós-operatórios de 12 pacientes, ou 14 joelhos, entre julho de 2002 e fevereiro de 2011. Foram incluídos os pacientes com tendinopatia patelar refratários ao tratamento conservador e que não apresentavam outras lesões cirúrgicas concomitantes. Pacientes que não foram devidamente acompanhados no período pós-operatório foram excluídos. Resultados: Pelo método de Verheyden, nove pacientes foram considerados muito bons, dois bons e um ruim. Em relação ao Visa, a média foi de 92,4 pontos, com apenas dois pacientes abaixo de 70 pontos (66 e 55 pontos. Conclusão: O tratamento cirúrgico da tendinopatia patelar, quando corretamente indicado, tem bons resultados em longo prazo.

  13. Antibodies and Plasmodium falciparum merozoites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramasamy, R; Ramasamy, M; Yasawardena, S

    There is considerable interest in using merozoite proteins in a vaccine against falciparum malaria. Observations that antibodies to merozoite surface proteins block invasion are a basis for optimism. This article draws attention to important and varied aspects of how antibodies to Plasmodium

  14. Suspensão cirúrgica: perspectiva do residente de medicina em clínicas cirúrgicas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonel Alves do Nascimento

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de compreender a percepção do residente de Clínica Cirúrgica sobre a suspensão do procedimento cirúrgico, as repercussões e os desdobramentos desse evento em seu trabalho, fez-se uma pesquisa descritiva qualitativa com usodo método de análise proposto por Martins e Bicudo. Realizada num hospital universitário do Norte do Paraná, contou com a participação de dez residentes de clínicas cirúrgicas que cursam o último ano do programa de residência. A análise resultou na construção de cinco categorias: repercussões para o residente (perda de aprendizado ; sentimentos relacionados à suspensão (frustração, impotência, perda de credibilidade e resolutividade ; comunicação da suspensão (principal dificuldade , repercussões para o paciente (insatisfação, frustração, abandono e estratégias para evitar a suspensão (planejamento, cuidados pré-operatórios, ampliação dos recursos materiais/humanos . Constatou-se que o residente reconhece as repercussões da suspensão cirúrgica em seu aprendizado, identifica o sofrimento do paciente em relação à suspensão e lança mão de estratégias para evitá-la.

  15. Genetic diversity of Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum in Honduras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lopez Ana

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Understanding the population structure of Plasmodium species through genetic diversity studies can assist in the design of more effective malaria control strategies, particularly in vaccine development. Central America is an area where malaria is a public health problem, but little is known about the genetic diversity of the parasite’s circulating species. This study aimed to investigate the allelic frequency and molecular diversity of five surface antigens in field isolates from Honduras. Methods Five molecular markers were analysed to determine the genotypes of Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum from endemic areas in Honduras. Genetic diversity of ama-1, msp-1 and csp was investigated for P. vivax, and msp-1 and msp-2 for P. falciparum. Allelic frequencies were calculated and sequence analysis performed. Results and conclusion A high genetic diversity was observed within Plasmodium isolates from Honduras. A different number of genotypes were elucidated: 41 (n = 77 for pvama-1; 23 (n = 84 for pvcsp; and 23 (n = 35 for pfmsp-1. Pvcsp sequences showed VK210 as the only subtype present in Honduran isolates. Pvmsp-1 (F2 was the most polymorphic marker for P. vivax isolates while pvama-1 was least variable. All three allelic families described for pfmsp-1 (n = 30 block 2 (K1, MAD20, and RO33, and both allelic families described for the central domain of pfmsp-2 (n = 11 (3D7 and FC27 were detected. However, K1 and 3D7 allelic families were predominant. All markers were randomly distributed across the country and no geographic correlation was found. To date, this is the most complete report on molecular characterization of P. vivax and P. falciparum field isolates in Honduras with regards to genetic diversity. These results indicate that P. vivax and P. falciparum parasite populations are highly diverse in Honduras despite the low level of transmission.

  16. Retrievals of Jovian Tropospheric Phosphine from Cassini/CIRS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, P. G. J.; Parrish, P.; Fouchet, T.; Calcutt, S. B.; Taylor, F. W.; Simon-Miller, A. A.; Nixon, C. A.

    2004-01-01

    On December 30th 2000, the Cassini-Huygens spacecraft reached the perijove milestone on its continuing journey to the Saturnian system. During an extended six-month encounter, the Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) returned spectra of the Jovian atmosphere, rings and satellites from 10-1400 cm(exp -1) (1000-7 microns) at a programmable spectral resolution of 0.5 to 15 cm(exp -1). The improved spectral resolution of CIRS over previous IR instrument-missions to Jupiter, the extended spectral range, and higher signal-to-noise performance provide significant advantages over previous data sets. CIRS global observations of the mid-infrared spectrum of Jupiter at medium resolution (2.5 cm(exp -1)) have been analysed both with a radiance differencing scheme and an optimal estimation retrieval model to retrieve the spatial variation of phosphine and ammonia fractional scale height in the troposphere between 60 deg S and 60 deg N at a spatial resolution of 6 deg. The ammonia fractional scale height appears to be high over the Equatorial Zone (EZ) but low over the North Equatorial Belt (NEB) and South Equatorial Belt (SEB) indicating rapid uplift or strong vertical mixing in the EZ. The abundance of phosphine shows a similar strong latitudinal variation which generally matches that of the ammonia fractional scale height. However while the ammonia fractional scale height distribution is to a first order symmetric in latitude, the phosphine distribution shows a North/South asymmetry at mid latitudes with higher amounts detected at 40 deg N than 40 deg S. In addition the data show that while the ammonia fractional scale height at this spatial resolution appears to be low over the Great Red Spot (GRS), indicating reduced vertical mixing above the approx. 500 mb level, the abundance of phosphine at deeper levels may be enhanced at the northern edge of the GRS indicating upwelling.

  17. Complement evasion by Plasmodium falciparum

    OpenAIRE

    Holopainen, Saila

    2008-01-01

    Patologian oppiaine Malaria remains one of the major health problems in many tropical countries, especially in sub-Saharan Africa. Among the most characteristic features of the malaria pathogens, protozoan parasites of the genus Plasmodium, is their ability to evade the immune defences of the host for extended periods of time. The complement system (C) is an essential part of the innate system in the first line of defense. It consists of over 30 soluble or membrane-bound components. C...

  18. Tetany with Plasmodium falciparum infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, P S; Singh, Neha

    2012-07-01

    Plasmodium falciparum is a malarial infection with high morbidity and wide spectrum of atypical presentation. Here we report an unusual presentation of malaria as tetany with alteration in calcium,phosphate and magnesium metabolism Hypocalcaemia in malaria can cause prolonged Q-Tc interval which could be arisk factor for quinine cardiotoxicity and sudden death Hence monitoring of serum calcium in severe malarial infection and cautious use of quinine in such patients is very important in management

  19. Detection of Plasmodium sp. in capybara.

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Leonilda Correia; Curotto, Sandra Mara Rotter; de Moraes, Wanderlei; Cubas, Zalmir Silvino; Costa-Nascimento, Maria de Jesus; de Barros Filho, Ivan Roque; Biondo, Alexander Welker; Kirchgatter, Karin

    2009-07-07

    In the present study, we have microscopically and molecularly surveyed blood samples from 11 captive capybaras (Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris) from the Sanctuary Zoo for Plasmodium sp. infection. One animal presented positive on blood smear by light microscopy. Polymerase chain reaction was carried out accordingly using a nested genus-specific protocol, which uses oligonucleotides from conserved sequences flanking a variable sequence region in the small subunit ribosomal RNA (ssrRNA) of all Plasmodium organisms. This revealed three positive animals. Products from two samples were purified and sequenced. The results showed less than 1% divergence between the two capybara sequences. When compared with GenBank sequences, a 55% similarity was obtained to Toxoplasma gondii and a higher similarity (73-77.2%) was found to ssrRNAs from Plasmodium species that infect reptile, avian, rodents, and human beings. The most similar Plasmodium sequence was from Plasmodium mexicanum that infects lizards of North America, where around 78% identity was found. This work is the first report of Plasmodium in capybaras, and due to the low similarity with other Plasmodium species, we suggest it is a new species, which, in the future could be denominated "Plasmodium hydrochaeri".

  20. Plasmodium vivax malaria: An unusual presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasliwal Prasad

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute renal failure, disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS, hypoglycemia, coma, or epileptic seizures are manifestations of severe Plasmodium falciparum malaria. On the other hand, Plasmodium vivax malaria seldom results in pulmonary damage, and pulmonary complications are exceedingly rare. We report the case of a 42-year-old male living in a malaria-endemic area who presented with ARDS and was diagnosed as having Plasmodium vivax malaria. A diagnosis of Plasmodium vivax malaria was established by a positive Plasmodium LDH immunochromatographic assay while a negative PfHRP2 based assay ruled out P. falciparum malaria. After specific anti-plasmodial therapy and intensive supportive care, the patient recovered and was discharged from hospital. The use of NIPPV in vivax-malaria related ARDS was associated with a good outcome.

  1. Cirurgia de catarata: otimização de centro cirúrgico com utilização de pacote cirúrgico pré-montado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kara-José Junior Newton

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a capacidade de otimização do centro cirúrgico, para a realização de cirurgias de catarata, com a utilização do pacote cirúrgico pré-montado, quando comparada com a seleção individual dos insumos necessários para a cirurgia, no Centro Cirúrgico Ambulatorial de um hospital universitário. MÉTODOS: Estudo prospectivo, no qual 60 cirurgias de catarata por facoemulsificação foram analisadas. Avaliou-se o tempo necessário para o preparo da sala cirúrgica antes do início da cirurgia e para a remoção dos materiais utilizados após sua realização. Utilizou-se pacote cirúrgico pré-montado e procedeu-se à separação individual dos insumos necessários. Também, foram avaliadas as percepções da equipe de enfermagem em relação ao pacote pré-montado. RESULTADOS: O tempo médio necessário, antes da cirurgia, para o preparo da sala cirúrgica e, após a cirurgia, para a remoção dos materiais utilizados no pacote pré-montado, foi de aproximadamente seis minutos e treze segundos, ao passo que nas cirurgias com seleção individual dos insumos necessários foi de aproximadamente oito minutos e quatro segundos. CONCLUSÃO:No tocante às condições do hospital, objeto do estudo, estima-se que a eficiência do Centro Cirúrgico seja 6,7% maior quando o pacote cirúrgico pré-montado é utilizado, comparado à seleção individual dos insumos necessários, o que contribui significantemente para a otimização do funcionamento do Centro Cirúrgico. A utilização rotineira do pacote cirúrgico pré-montado sugere vantagens operacionais para a equipe de enfermagem.

  2. Tratamento cirúrgico para aspiração

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manrique Dayse

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Introdução: Quando o mecanismo protetor da laringe está comprometido, o paciente pode apresentar aspiração traqueal, com graves complicações pulmonares. Objetivo: Relatar 15 casos de tratamento cirúrgico para o controle da aspiração crônica, incluindo as técnicas cirúrgicas empregadas, seus resultados e complicações. Forma de estudo: Avaliação retrospectiva. Material e método: No período de 1997 a 2000, 15 pacientes foram submetidos à cirurgia para controle da aspiração, na AACD - São Paulo/SP. As técnicas cirúrgicas empregadas foram classificadas em: oclusão laríngea supraglótica; oclusão laríngea glótica; oclusão subglótica ou separação laringotraqueal. Foi avaliado o perfil dos pacientes em relação a sexo, idade, etiologia de base, traqueotomia prévia, via preferencial de alimentação, redução das infecções pulmonares, tempo de seguimento pós-operatório e complicações. Resultados: Oito pacientes eram do sexo masculino e sete do feminino, com idade média de nove anos e dois meses. A doença etiológica de base mais comum foi a encefalopatia crônica. Dez pacientes foram submetidos à traqueotomia previamente à cirurgia. Nove pacientes apresentaram, no pós-operatório, dieta via oral de pelo menos 50% do volume requerido. Os 15 pacientes evoluíram com diminuição no número e na gravidade das infecções pulmonares. O tempo de seguimento pós-operatório variou de quatro a 36 meses. Um paciente evoluiu com deiscência parcial na técnica de oclusão laríngea supraglótica. Conclusão: A cirurgia para controle da aspiração traqueal, nas três técnicas utilizadas, foi eficaz para prevenção da aspiração, refletindo na melhora clínica e na qualidade de vida dos pacientes.

  3. Control of Plasmodium knowlesi malaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullahi, Mohammed Baba; Hasan, Yahya Abu; Abdullah, Farah Aini

    2015-10-01

    The most significant and efficient measures against Plasmodium knowlesi outbreaks are efficient anti malaria drug, biological control in form of predatory mosquitoes and culling control strategies. In this paper optimal control theory is applied to a system of ordinary differential equation. It describes the disease transmission and Pontryagin's Maximum Principle is applied for analysis of the control. To this end, three control strategies representing biological control, culling and treatment were incorporated into the disease transmission model. The simulation results show that the implementation of the combination strategy during the epidemic is the most cost-effective strategy for disease transmission.

  4. The periodicity of Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum in Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grillet, María-Eugenia; El Souki, Mayida; Laguna, Francisco; León, José Rafael

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the periodicity of Plasmodium vivax and P. falciparum incidence in time-series of malaria data (1990-2010) from three endemic regions in Venezuela. In particular, we determined whether disease epidemics were related to local climate variability and regional climate anomalies such as the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO). Malaria periodicity was found to exhibit unique features in each studied region. Significant multi-annual cycles of 2- to about 6-year periods were identified. The inter-annual variability of malaria cases was coherent with that of SSTs (ENSO), mainly at temporal scales within the 3-6 year periods. Additionally, malaria cases were intensified approximately 1 year after an El Niño event, a pattern that highlights the role of climate inter-annual variability in the epidemic patterns. Rainfall mediated the effect of ENSO on malaria locally. Particularly, rains from the last phase of the season had a critical role in the temporal dynamics of Plasmodium. The malaria-climate relationship was complex and transient, varying in strength with the region and species. By identifying temporal cycles of malaria we have made a first step in predicting high-risk years in Venezuela. Our findings emphasize the importance of analyzing high-resolution spatial-temporal data to better understand malaria transmission dynamics. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Síndrome de Sweet em cicatriz cirúrgica

    OpenAIRE

    Ramos,Isadora Cavalcanti; Wiering,Cláudio Tudech; Tebcherani,Antônio José; Sanchez,Ana Paula Galli

    2006-01-01

    A síndrome de Sweet é dermatose rara, caracterizada por erupção aguda de placas e nódulos eritêmato-edematosos. Relata-se o caso de doente do sexo feminino, de 55 anos, com lesão cutânea compatível com síndrome de Sweet ao redor de cicatriz cirúrgica na face, após exérese de ceratose actínica e ingestão de dipirona. O caso relatado ressalta a possibilidade da ocorrência do fenômeno de Köebner na síndrome de Sweet, provavelmente desencadeado pelo uso da dipirona

  6. Analise de falhas em implantes cirúrgicos

    OpenAIRE

    Abud, Ibrahim de Cerqueira; Souza, Sônia Maria Coelho de; Oliveira,Marize Varella

    2011-01-01

    São apresentados casos de falha em implantes cirúrgicos fabricados em aço inoxidável AISI 316L utilizados para redução de fratura de fêmur. As técnicas empregadas na análise dos problemas foram: inspeção visual, análise química, análise metalográfica e microscopia eletrônica de varredura. As falhas dos implantes importados estavam relacionadas a fatores alheios à qualidade do material fora de especificação sob ponto de vista químico e metalúrgico. Constatou-se a necessidade de ações relativa...

  7. EuroCirCol kick-off event

    CERN Multimedia

    Hardre, Julie

    2015-01-01

    The EuroCirCol (http://cern.ch/eurocircol) kick-off event at CERN on June 2-4 brought together 62 participants to constitute governance bodies, commit to the project plan and align the organisation, structures and processes of 16 institutions from 10 countries. The goal of the project is to conceive a post-LHC research infrastructure around a 100 km circular energy-frontier hadron collider capable of reaching 100 TeV collisions. The project officially started on June 1 and will run for four years. The total estimated budget of 11.2 million Euros includes a 2.99 million Euro contribution from the Horizon 2020 programme on developing new world-class research infrastructures (http://cordis.europa.eu/project/rcn/194962_en.html).

  8. Tratamento cirúrgico para adenocarcinoma colorretal gigante

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Razuk Filho

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Introdução: O câncer colorretal acomete cerca de um milhão de pessoas a cada ano no mundo. Corresponde ao quarto tumor mais incidente nos homens e ao terceiro nas mulheres. A patogênese habitual de câncer colorretal é um pólipo adenomatoso que aumenta lentamente em tamanho, seguido pela displasia e, finalmente, o cancro. As diretrizes atuais descrevem diversas modalidades de tratamento cirúrgico do câncer de reto; Objetivos: O objetivo desse trabalho é relatar o caso de um paciente diagnosticado com adenocarcinoma de reto; Metodologia: O presente estudo foi embasado na análise do prontuário, das imagens obtidas por meio de exames subsidiários e do exame anatomopatológico; Relato do Caso: Paciente do sexo masculino, 77 anos. Apresenta queixa de sangramento anal assintomático há 20 anos e presença de lesão vegetante, de aproximadamente cinco centímetros, prolapsada pelo anus. O exame anatomopatológico comprovou o diagnostico de Adenocarcinoma de Reto. Foi realizada a Amputação Abdominoperineal do Reto. No segundo dia de pós-operatório, foi a óbito por parada cardiorrespiratória; Conclusões: O caso relatado descreve o tratamento cirúrgico dado à um paciente com o diagnostico de Adenocarcinoma esofágico que faleceu dois dias após a cirurgia;

  9. Tratamento cirúrgico da cisticircose da fossa craniana posterior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Garcia Lopes

    1971-03-01

    Full Text Available A cisticercose, um dos mais sérios problemas parasitológicos do sistema nervoso, apresenta, quando localizada na fossa posterior, um quadro clínico dramático, no qual predomina a hipertensão intracraniana. Foram estudados neste trabalho, 70 pacientes com cisticercose de fossa craniana posterior, atendidos no Serviço de Neurocirurgia do Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo de 1945 a 1968. Considerando-se a grande diversidade existente em torno das técnicas de tratamento cirúrgico, foi objetivo deste trabalho o estudo dos resultados obtidos nestes pacientes, nos quais várias técnicas foram empregadas. As cirurgias paliativas que derivam o trânsito do líquido cefalorraqueano para regiões extracranianas, quando comparadas aos outros tipos de cirurgias utilizados, foram as que proporcionaram maior índice de recuperação, exigiram menos reoperações, além de terem sido acompanhadas de menor número de complicações, bem como de menor mortalidade pós-operatória. Por outro lado, a neurocisticercose geralmente é um processo difuso, encontrando-se parasitas em várias regiões do encéfalo e/ou aracnoidite, conforme comprovou-se, também, entre os casos ora reunidos e que vieram a falecer. Baseando-se nestes fatos, não se justificam as derivações intracranianas e, a não ser eventualmente, a abordagem direta do parasita. Os casos estudados permitem cone- tatar, portanto, que as derivações extracranianas, por sua simplicidade e eficácia, apresentam-se, atualmente, como a terapêutica cirúrgica mais propriada à cisticercose de fossa craniana posterior.

  10. The Mu subunit of Plasmodium falciparum clathrin-associated adaptor protein 2 modulates in vitro parasite response to artemisinin and quinine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriques, Gisela; van Schalkwyk, Donelly A; Burrow, Rebekah; Warhurst, David C; Thompson, Eloise; Baker, David A; Fidock, David A; Hallett, Rachel; Flueck, Christian; Sutherland, Colin J

    2015-05-01

    The emergence of drug-resistant parasites is a serious threat faced by malaria control programs. Understanding the genetic basis of resistance is critical to the success of treatment and intervention strategies. A novel locus associated with antimalarial resistance, ap2-mu (encoding the mu chain of the adaptor protein 2 [AP2] complex), was recently identified in studies on the rodent malaria parasite Plasmodium chabaudi (pcap2-mu). Furthermore, analysis in Kenyan malaria patients of polymorphisms in the Plasmodium falciparum ap2-mu homologue, pfap2-mu, found evidence that differences in the amino acid encoded by codon 160 are associated with enhanced parasite survival in vivo following combination treatments which included artemisinin derivatives. Here, we characterize the role of pfap2-mu in mediating the in vitro antimalarial drug response of P. falciparum by generating transgenic parasites constitutively expressing codon 160 encoding either the wild-type Ser (Ser160) or the Asn mutant (160Asn) form of pfap2-mu. Transgenic parasites carrying the pfap2-mu 160Asn allele were significantly less sensitive to dihydroartemisinin using a standard 48-h in vitro test, providing direct evidence of an altered parasite response to artemisinin. Our data also provide evidence that pfap2-mu variants can modulate parasite sensitivity to quinine. No evidence was found that pfap2-mu variants contribute to the slow-clearance phenotype exhibited by P. falciparum in Cambodian patients treated with artesunate monotherapy. These findings provide compelling evidence that pfap2-mu can modulate P. falciparum responses to multiple drugs. We propose that this gene should be evaluated further as a potential molecular marker of antimalarial resistance.

  11. Genetic variations in genes involved in heparan sulphate biosynthesis are associated with Plasmodium falciparum parasitaemia: a familial study in Burkina Faso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atkinson Alexandre

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is accumulating evidence that host heparan sulphate proteoglycans play an important role in the life cycle of Plasmodium through their heparan sulphate chains, suggesting that genetic variations in genes involved in heparan sulphate biosynthesis may influence parasitaemia. Interestingly, Hs3st3a1 and Hs3st3b1 encoding enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of heparan sulphate are located within a chromosomal region linked to Plasmodium chabaudi parasitaemia in mice. This suggests that HS3ST3A1 and HS3ST3B1 may influence P. falciparum parasitaemia in humans. Methods Polymorphisms within HS3ST3A1 and HS3ST3B1 were identified in 270 individuals belonging to 44 pedigrees and living in Burkina Faso. Linkage and association between parasitaemia and the polymorphisms were assessed with MERLIN and FBAT. A genetic interaction analysis was also conducted based on the PGMDR approach. Results Linkage between P. falciparum parasitaemia and the chromosomal region containing HS3ST3A1 and HS3ST3B1 was detected on the basis of the 20 SNPs identified. In addition, rs28470223 located within the promoter of HS3ST3A1 was associated with P. falciparum parasitaemia, whereas the PGMDR analysis revealed a genetic interaction between HS3ST3A1 and HS3ST3B1. Seventy-three significant multi-locus models were identified after correcting for multiple tests; 37 significant multi-locus models included rs28470223, whereas 38 multi-locus models contained at least one mis-sense mutation within HS3ST3B1. Conclusion Genetic variants of HS3ST3A1 and HS3ST3B1 are associated with P. falciparum parasitaemia. This suggests that those variants alter both the function of heparan sulphate proteoglycans and P. falciparum parasitaemia.

  12. Plasmodium falciparum malaria associated with ABO blood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Plasmodium falciparum malaria associated with ABO blood phenotypes and ... out to investigate the relationship between blood group types and P. falciparum ... of long lasting treated (LLT) mosquito bed nets and the prevalence of infection.

  13. Fator de risco: enfoque na disciplina enfermagem em centro cirúrgico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estela Regina Ferraz Bianchi

    1986-09-01

    Full Text Available Foi abordado o tema da assistência de enfermagem em centro cirúrgico dentro de uma visão do "enfoque de risco" para o paciente cirúrgico, considerando os vários riscos que podem acarretar agravos à sua saúde. Os fatores de risco foram abordados em relação ao ambiente físico, material e equipamento, pessoal e ao próprio paciente. Estes aspectos foram relacionados à área do centro cirúrgico, de recuperação anestésica e ao centro de material. O trabalho foi desenvolvido com dois grupos de alunos da Escola de Enfermagem da Universidade de São Paulo, cursando o 5º semestre de graduação, visando auxiliá-los como futuros profissionais a desenvolver uma melhor assistência de enfermagem ao paciente cirúrgico.

  14. Laser Mode Behavior of the Cassini CIRS Fourier Transform Spectrometer at Saturn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brasunas, John C.

    2012-01-01

    The CIRS Fourier transform spectrometer aboard the NASA/ESA/ASI Cassini orbiter has been acquiring spectra of the Saturnian system since 2004. The CIRS reference interferometer employs a laser diode to trigger the interferogram sampling. Although the control of laser diode drive current and operating temperature are stringent enough to restrict laser wavelength variation to a small fraction of CIRS finest resolution element, the CIRS instrument does need to be restarted every year or two, at which time it may start in a new laser mode. By monitoring the Mylar absorption features in uncalibrated spectra due to the beam splitter Mylar substrate, it can be shown that these jumps are to adjacent modes and that most of the eight-year operation so far is restricted to three adjacent modes. For a given mode, the wavelength stability appears consistent with the stability of the laser diode drive curren.t and operating temperature.

  15. Limitations of microscopy to differentiate Plasmodium species in a region co-endemic for Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium knowlesi

    OpenAIRE

    Barber Bridget E; William Timothy; Grigg Matthew J; Yeo Tsin W; Anstey Nicholas M

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background In areas co-endemic for multiple Plasmodium species, correct diagnosis is crucial for appropriate treatment and surveillance. Species misidentification by microscopy has been reported in areas co-endemic for vivax and falciparum malaria, and may be more frequent in regions where Plasmodium knowlesi also commonly occurs. Methods This prospective study in Sabah, Malaysia, evaluated the accuracy of routine district and referral hospital-based microscopy, and microscopy perfor...

  16. Genome-scale comparison of expanded gene families in Plasmodium ovale wallikeri and Plasmodium ovale curtisi with Plasmodium malariae and with other Plasmodium species

    KAUST Repository

    Ansari, Hifzur Rahman

    2016-07-05

    Malaria in humans is caused by six species of Plasmodium parasites, of which the nuclear genome sequences for the two Plasmodium ovale spp., P. ovale curtisi and P. ovale wallikeri, and Plasmodium malariae have not yet been analyzed. Here we present an analysis of the nuclear genome sequences of these three parasites, and describe gene family expansions therein. Plasmodium ovale curtisi and P. ovale wallikeri are genetically distinct but morphologically indistinguishable and have sympatric ranges through the tropics of Africa, Asia and Oceania. Both P. ovale spp. show expansion of the surfin variant gene family, and an amplification of the Plasmodium interspersed repeat (pir) superfamily which results in an approximately 30% increase in genome size. For comparison, we have also analyzed the draft nuclear genome of P. malariae, a malaria parasite causing mild malaria symptoms with a quartan life cycle, long-term chronic infections, and wide geographic distribution. Plasmodium malariae shows only a moderate level of expansion of pir genes, and unique expansions of a highly diverged transmembrane protein family with over 550 members and the gamete P25/27 gene family. The observed diversity in the P. ovale wallikeri and P. ovale curtisi surface antigens, combined with their phylogenetic separation, supports consideration that the two parasites be given species status.

  17. Telomeric Heterochromatin in Plasmodium falciparum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosaura Hernandez-Rivas

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Until very recently, little was known about the chromatin structure of the telomeres and subtelomeric regions in Plasmodium falciparum. In yeast and Drosophila melanogaster, chromatin structure has long been known to be an important aspect in the regulation and functioning of these regions. Telomeres and subtelomeric regions are enriched in epigenetic marks that are specific to heterochromatin, such as methylation of lysine 9 of histone H3 and lysine 20 of histone H4. In P. falciparum, histone modifications and the presence of both the heterochromatin “writing” (PfSir2, PKMT and “reading” (PfHP1 machinery at telomeric and subtelomeric regions indicate that these regions are likely to have heterochromatic structure that is epigenetically regulated. This structure may be important for telomere functions such as the silencing of the var gene family implicated in the cytoadherence and antigenic variation of these parasites.

  18. Plasmodium vivax Transmission in Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosalind E Howes

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Malaria in sub-Saharan Africa has historically been almost exclusively attributed to Plasmodium falciparum (Pf. Current diagnostic and surveillance systems in much of sub-Saharan Africa are not designed to identify or report non-Pf human malaria infections accurately, resulting in a dearth of routine epidemiological data about their significance. The high prevalence of Duffy negativity provided a rationale for excluding the possibility of Plasmodium vivax (Pv transmission. However, review of varied evidence sources including traveller infections, community prevalence surveys, local clinical case reports, entomological and serological studies contradicts this viewpoint. Here, these data reports are weighted in a unified framework to reflect the strength of evidence of indigenous Pv transmission in terms of diagnostic specificity, size of individual reports and corroboration between evidence sources. Direct evidence was reported from 21 of the 47 malaria-endemic countries studied, while 42 countries were attributed with infections of visiting travellers. Overall, moderate to conclusive evidence of transmission was available from 18 countries, distributed across all parts of the continent. Approximately 86.6 million Duffy positive hosts were at risk of infection in Africa in 2015. Analysis of the mechanisms sustaining Pv transmission across this continent of low frequency of susceptible hosts found that reports of Pv prevalence were consistent with transmission being potentially limited to Duffy positive populations. Finally, reports of apparent Duffy-independent transmission are discussed. While Pv is evidently not a major malaria parasite across most of sub-Saharan Africa, the evidence presented here highlights its widespread low-level endemicity. An increased awareness of Pv as a potential malaria parasite, coupled with policy shifts towards species-specific diagnostics and reporting, will allow a robust assessment of the public health

  19. Tratamento cirúrgico das valvopatias: Parte 3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domingo M Braile

    Full Text Available Este trabalho, subdividido em três partes, apresentou breve histórico da cirurgia cardíaca, com ênfase a cirurgia valvar e substitutos valvulares, empregados com sucesso na década de 60, inicialmente com próteses mecânicas, seguidas pelas heterólogas após a introdução do glutaraldeído para preservação dos tecidos biológicos. As indicações básicas para operar lesões valvares consistem em alívio dos sintomas, prevenção das complicações e da mortalidade. Foram descritos, também, na primeira parte da publicação, aspectos da indicação cirúrgica, com ênfase em estenose e insuficiência das valvas mitral, aórtica, tricúspide e pulmonar, endocardite infecciosa ativa e da conduta pré-operatória, além da caracterização das diferentes próteses valvulares cardíacas mecânicas e biológicas existentes no mercado e suas complicações mais freqüentes. O tratamento cirúrgico das valvopatias, incluindo técnica operatória para troca de valvas mitral, aórtica, tricúspide e pulmonar, condutas anestésica e pós-operatória e reoperações foram abordados na segunda parte da publicação. O trabalho foi concluído considerando as situações especiais, como tratamento cirúrgico na endocardite em valvas mitral, tricúspide e aórtica, cuja incidência é maior que na mitral e a causa mais comum de insuficiência aórtica aguda. O desenvolvimento da endocardite tem fisiopatologia diferente quando comparado às próteses e valvas naturais, com morbi-mortalidade maior que a observada nas valvas nativas. Existem fatores que aumentam o risco de endocardite em valva nativa, raça negra, próteses mecânicas, sexo masculino e longo tempo de circulação extracorpórea. A interação clínico-cirúrgica parece influenciar de forma decisiva na obtenção de melhores resultados para essa lesão. Finalmente, foi registrada a nossa experiência com próteses biológicas em posição mitral e aórtica com 11 e 10 anos de seguimento

  20. Survival strategies of the malarial parasite Plasmodium falciparum

    OpenAIRE

    Ramya, TNC; Surolia, Namita; Surolia, Avadhesha

    2002-01-01

    Plasmodium falciparum, the protozoan parasite causing falciparum malaria, is undoubtedly highly versatile when it comes to survival and defence strategies. Strategies adopted by the asexual blood stages of Plasmodium range from unique pathways of nutrient uptake to immune evasion strategies and multiple drug resistance. Studying the survival strategies of Plasmodium could help us envisage strategies of tackling one of the worst scourges of mankind.

  1. Helminth Parasites Alter Protection against Plasmodium Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor H. Salazar-Castañon

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available More than one-third of the world’s population is infected with one or more helminthic parasites. Helminth infections are prevalent throughout tropical and subtropical regions where malaria pathogens are transmitted. Malaria is the most widespread and deadliest parasitic disease. The severity of the disease is strongly related to parasite density and the host’s immune responses. Furthermore, coinfections between both parasites occur frequently. However, little is known regarding how concomitant infection with helminths and Plasmodium affects the host’s immune response. Helminthic infections are frequently massive, chronic, and strong inductors of a Th2-type response. This implies that infection by such parasites could alter the host’s susceptibility to subsequent infections by Plasmodium. There are a number of reports on the interactions between helminths and Plasmodium; in some, the burden of Plasmodium parasites increased, but others reported a reduction in the parasite. This review focuses on explaining many of these discrepancies regarding helminth-Plasmodium coinfections in terms of the effects that helminths have on the immune system. In particular, it focuses on helminth-induced immunosuppression and the effects of cytokines controlling polarization toward the Th1 or Th2 arms of the immune response.

  2. Helminth Parasites Alter Protection against Plasmodium Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar-Castañon, Víctor H.; Legorreta-Herrera, Martha

    2014-01-01

    More than one-third of the world's population is infected with one or more helminthic parasites. Helminth infections are prevalent throughout tropical and subtropical regions where malaria pathogens are transmitted. Malaria is the most widespread and deadliest parasitic disease. The severity of the disease is strongly related to parasite density and the host's immune responses. Furthermore, coinfections between both parasites occur frequently. However, little is known regarding how concomitant infection with helminths and Plasmodium affects the host's immune response. Helminthic infections are frequently massive, chronic, and strong inductors of a Th2-type response. This implies that infection by such parasites could alter the host's susceptibility to subsequent infections by Plasmodium. There are a number of reports on the interactions between helminths and Plasmodium; in some, the burden of Plasmodium parasites increased, but others reported a reduction in the parasite. This review focuses on explaining many of these discrepancies regarding helminth-Plasmodium coinfections in terms of the effects that helminths have on the immune system. In particular, it focuses on helminth-induced immunosuppression and the effects of cytokines controlling polarization toward the Th1 or Th2 arms of the immune response. PMID:25276830

  3. Aspecto tumoral da cisticercose intracraniana: abordagem cirúrgica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nubor Orlando Facure

    1978-09-01

    Full Text Available A neurocisticercose pode provocar hipertensão intracraniana por bloqueio inflamatório das cisternas basais ou pela formação de lesões expansivas no parenquima cerebral e nas cavidades ventriculares. Neste último caso o quadro clínico é muito semelhante ao das neoplasias e só após a intervenção cirúrgica é possível o diagnóstico etiológico. Apresentamos 11 casos de cisticercose intracraniana operados por se comportarem como processos tumorais. Eram 7 do sexo feminino e 4 do sexo masculino. A idade variava de 4 a 65 anos e o tempo de doença de 3 dias a 6 anos. Nove pacientes foram internados com cefaléia, vômitos e perturbações visuais sugestivas de hipertensão intracraniana. Uma paciente foi internada com diagnóstico de meningite linfomonocitária e o outro com crise convulsiva focal seguida de hemiparesia. Cinco pacientes apresentavam sinais focais e em 6 havia edema de papila. Crises convulsivas ocorreram em 45,5% dos casos. A radiografia simples de crânio não revelou calcificações em nenhum dos casos mas havia sinais de hipertensão intracraniana crônica em três pacientes. O eletrencefalograma acusou sofrimento cerebral em 8 pacientes. O líquido cefalorraquiano mostrou hipercitose discreta em 4 casos, hiperproteinorraquia em outros 4 pacientes e reação para cisticercose positiva em dois pacientes. A angiografia cerebral foi o exame que localizou a lesão expansiva sendo 4 na região temporal, três frontais, dois parietais, um no terceiro ventrículo e outro no quarto ventrículo. A intervenção cirúrgica permitiu a retirada de vesículas volumosas na intimidade do parênquima cerebral em 6 casos. Havia em torno destas vesiculas uma reação glial expessa. Em outro caso a vesícula era pequena mas aderente a parede do trígono ventricular provocando dilatação do polo temporal. Em dois casos formam retiradas vesículas únicas intraventriculares sendo uma no terceiro outra no quarto ventrículo. Nas duas

  4. X-ray Spectroscopy of Dips of Cir X-1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    We present X-ray spectral analyses of the low-mass X-ray binary Cir X-1 during X-ray dips, using the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) data. Each dip was divided into several segments, and the spectrum of each segment was fitted with a three-component blackbody model, in which the first two components are affected by partial covering and the third one is unaffected. A Gaussian emission line is also included in the spectral model to represent the Fe Kα line at ~ 6.4 keV. The fitted temperatures of the two partially covered components are about 2keV and 1 keV, while the uncovered component has a temperature of ~0.5-0.6keV. The equivalent blackbody emission radius of the hottest component is the smallest and that of the coolest component is the largest. During the dips the fluxes of the two hot components are linearly correlated, while that of the third component does not show any significant variation. The Fe line flux remains constant, within the errors, during the short dips. However, during the long dips the line flux varies significantly and is positively correlated with the fluxes of the two hot components. These results suggest: (1) that the temperature of the X-ray emitting region decreases with radius, (2) that the Fe Kα line emitting region is close to the hot continuum emitting region, and (3) that the size of the Fe line emitting region is larger than that of the obscuring matter causing the short dips but smaller than the region of that causing the long dips.

  5. Tratamento cirúrgico da retinopatia diabética

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Alexandre Sabrosa

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A retinopatia diabética é a causa mais frequente de cegueira na população ativa nos países desenvolvidos. A prevalência da retinopatia diabética aumenta com a duração da diabetes, e praticamente 100% dos pacientes com diabetes tipo I (DM I e mais do que 60% dos pacientes com o tipo II (DM II apresentarão algum sinal de retinopatia após 20 anos. Além de um controle sistêmico rigoroso dos níveis glicêmicos, lipídicos, colesterol e da pressão arterial, o exame oftalmológico de rotina, com a identificação precoce da retinopatia diabética, podem detectar anormalidades em estágios primários, o que possibilita o tratamento ainda na fase inicial do problema; o uso adequado da fotocoagulação e a utilização da terapia antiangiogênica pode reduzir o número de pacientes com hemorragia vítrea ou descolamento tracional da retina. Infelizmente, em vários pacientes, a retinopatia progride mesmo com as melhores condutas tomadas pelo paciente e pelo oftalmologista, embora vários olhos podem se beneficiar com o tratamento cirúrgico, a vitrectomia posterior via pars plana. Esta revisão apresenta as indicações atuais para cirurgia vitreorretiniana em pacientes portadores de retinopatia diabética proliferativa.

  6. Tratamento Cirúrgico Conservador da Hidrossalpinge: Laparoscopia ou Microcirurgia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ribeiro Sérgio Conti

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: analisar as taxas de gravidez após realização de correção laparoscópica e microcirúrgica de hidrossalpinge. Métodos: no período de julho de 1996 a maio de 1999, foram tratadas 39 pacientes com hidrossalpinge, segundo protocolo de pesquisa previamente aprovado. As pacientes foram distribuídas, por sorteio, em dois grupos, de acordo com o tipo de acesso cirúrgico a ser utilizado: salpingostomia laparoscópica ou por laparotomia. Para análise dos resultados, as pacientes foram estratificadas de acordo com o grau de lesão tubária e as taxas de gestação nos dois grupos foram anotadas durante um intervalo de 24 meses. Resultados: as taxas de gravidez foram de 35,3 e 33,3%, respectivamente, após laparoscopia e microcirurgia. Em relação à gravidade da lesão tubária, 66,7% das pacientes com lesões leves e 21,7% das pacientes com lesões moderadas obtiveram sucesso na concepção. As taxas cumulativas de gravidez em um e dois anos, respectivamente, foram de 25,0 e 34,4%. Houve um caso de gestação ectópica, correspondendo a 9,1% de todas as gestações. Conclusões: pacientes com lesão tubária leve ou moderada podem ser tratadas inicialmente por cirurgia e o sucesso na concepção é inversamente proporcional ao grau de acometimento tubário.

  7. Accurate identification of the six human Plasmodium spp. causing imported malaria, including Plasmodium ovale wallikeri and Plasmodium knowlesi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderaro, Adriana; Piccolo, Giovanna; Gorrini, Chiara; Rossi, Sabina; Montecchini, Sara; Dell'Anna, Maria Loretana; De Conto, Flora; Medici, Maria Cristina; Chezzi, Carlo; Arcangeletti, Maria Cristina

    2013-09-13

    Accurate identification of Plasmodium infections in non-endemic countries is of critical importance with regard to the administration of a targeted therapy having a positive impact on patient health and management and allowing the prevention of the risk of re-introduction of endemic malaria in such countries. Malaria is no longer endemic in Italy where it is the most commonly imported disease, with one of the highest rates of imported malaria among European non-endemic countries including France, the UK and Germany, and with a prevalence of 24.3% at the University Hospital of Parma. Molecular methods showed high sensitivity and specificity and changed the epidemiology of imported malaria in several non-endemic countries, highlighted a higher prevalence of Plasmodium ovale, Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium malariae underestimated by microscopy and, not least, brought to light both the existence of two species of P. ovale (Plasmodium ovale curtisi and Plasmodium ovale wallikeri) and the infection in humans by Plasmodium knowlesi, otherwise not detectable by microscopy. In this retrospective study an evaluation of two real-time PCR assays able to identify P. ovale wallikeri, distinguishing it from P. ovale curtisi, and to detect P. knowlesi, respectively, was performed applying them on a subset of 398 blood samples belonging to patients with the clinical suspicion of malaria. These assays revealed an excellent analytical sensitivity and no cross-reactivity versus other Plasmodium spp. infecting humans, suggesting their usefulness for an accurate and complete diagnosis of imported malaria. Among the 128 patients with malaria, eight P. ovale curtisi and four P. ovale wallikeri infections were detected, while no cases of P. knowlesi infection were observed. Real-time PCR assays specific for P. ovale wallikeri and P. knowlesi were included in the panel currently used in the University Hospital of Parma for the diagnosis of imported malaria, accomplishing the goal of

  8. Occurrence of Plasmodium in Anatidae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, C.M.; Kocan, R.M.

    1970-01-01

    Until a little over a decade ago reports of Plasrnodium in geese, ducks, and swans were the result of examination of single blood smears from wild birds. One would gather from the earlier studies that Anatidae are infrequently infected. During the past decade we have conducted studies on prevalence of Plasmodium by an isodiagnosis technique, inoculating blood from wild birds into captive young geese, ducks, and other species of birds and determining the status of infection in the donors by examination of repetitive blood smears from the recipients. Examination by this technique of a series of adult Canada geese from the Seney National Wildlife Refuge in northern Michigan uncovered a prevalence of 60% during five successive years. Domestic geese were the primary recipients but we found that several other species of geese, ducks, and gulls were also susceptible. Similar studies on Canada geese from other areas (Maryland, New Jersey, New York, and southern Michigan) uncovered infection rates from zero to 27%. Following isolation of Plasmodlum in a single canvasback duck (Aythya valisineria) in southern Michigan by inoculation into a domestic duck, a series of 88 canvasbacks from Chesapeake Bay in Maryland this winter uncovered an infection rate of 27%. The most common parasite observed in both the geese and was as P. circumflexum.

  9. Epidemiology of Plasmodium vivax Malaria in India

    OpenAIRE

    Anvikar, Anupkumar R; Shah, Naman; Dhariwal, Akshay C.; Sonal, Gagan Singh; Pradhan, Madan Mohan; Ghosh, Susanta K; Valecha, Neena

    2016-01-01

    Historically, malaria in India was predominantly caused by Plasmodium vivax, accounting for 53% of the estimated cases. After the spread of drug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum in the 1990s, the prevalence of the two species remained equivalent at the national level for a decade. By 2014, the proportion of P. vivax has decreased to 34% nationally, but with high regional variation. In 2014, P. vivax accounted for around 380,000 malaria cases in India; almost a sixth of all P. vivax cases repor...

  10. High prevalence of drug-resistance mutations in Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax in southern Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Schunk, Mirjam; Kumma, Wondimagegn P.; Barreto Miranda, Isabel; Maha E. Osman; Roewer, Susanne; Alano, Abraham; Loescher, Thomas; Bienzle, Ulrich; Mockenhaupt, Frank P

    2006-01-01

    Background: In Ethiopia, malaria is caused by both Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax. Drug resistance of P. falciparum to sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) and chloroquine (CQ) is frequent and intense in some areas. Methods: In 100 patients with uncomplicated malaria from Dilla, southern Ethiopia, P. falciparum dhfr and dhps mutations as well as P. vivax dhfr polymorphisms associated with resistance to SP and P. falciparum pfcrt and pfmdr1 mutations conferring CQ resistance were assesse...

  11. CIRS-lite, a Fourier Transform Spectrometer for Low-Cost Planetary Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brasunas, J.; Bly, V.; Edgerton, M.; Gong, Q.; Hagopian, J.; Mamakos, W.; Morelli, A.; Pasquale, B.; Strojny, C.

    2011-01-01

    Passive spectroscopic remote sensing of planetary atmospheres and surfaces in the thermal infrared is a powerful tool for obtaining information about surface and atmospheric temperatures, composition, and dynamics (via the thermal wind equation). Due to its broad spectral coverage, the Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) is particularly suited to the exploration and discovery of molecular species. NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) developed the CIRS (Composite Infrared Spectrometer) FTS for the NASA/ESA Cassini mission to the Saturnian system. CIRS observes Saturn, Titan, icy moons such as Enceladus, and the rings in thermal self-emission over the spectral range of 7 to 1000 ell11. CIRS has given us important new insights into stratospheric composition and jets on Jupiter and Saturn, the cryo-geyser and thermal stripes on Enceladus, and the winter polar vortex on Titan. CIRS has a mass of 43 kg, contrasted with the earlier GSFC FTS, pre-Voyager IRIS (14 kg). Future low-cost planetary missions will have very tight constraints on science payload mass, thus we must endeavor to return to IRIS-level mass while maintaining CIRS-level science capabilities ("do more with less"). CIRS-lite achieves this by pursuing: a) more sensitive infrared detectors (high Tc superconductor) to enable smaller optics. b) changed long wavelength limit from 1000 to 300 microns to reduce diffraction by smaller optics. c) CVD (chemical vapor deposition) diamond beam-splitter for broad spectral coverage. d) single FTS architecture instead of a dual FTS architecture. e) novel materials, such as single crystal silicon for the input telescope primary.

  12. Tratamento cirúrgico da laringomalácia grave: estudo retrospectivo de 11 casos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio Pinto

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available A laringomalácia é a anomalia congênita da laringe mais frequente, sendo responsável por cerca de 60% a 75% dos casos de estridor congênito. Apesar de seu curso benigno e autolimitado, 10% dos casos necessitam de intervenção. Atualmente, as supraglotoplastias são consideradas o tratamento padrão da laringomalácia grave. OBJETIVO: Descrever a experiência adquirida pelos autores no tratamento cirúrgico dos pacientes com laringomalácia grave. Metodologia: Estudo retrospectivo. MÉTODO: Os prontuários de 11 casos consecutivos de laringomalácia grave, submetidos ao tratamento cirúrgico entre 2003 e 2012, foram analisados quanto à idade, gênero, sintomas, doenças associadas, técnica cirúrgica adotada, tempo de extubação, complicações cirúrgicas, tempo de internação e evolução clínica. RESULTADOS: Dos 11 casos de laringomalácia grave, seis pacientes (54,5% foram operados com o uso do laser de CO2 e em cinco pacientes (45,5% foram realizadas a técnica a frio. Apenas um paciente (9,1% necessitou reabordagem cirúrgica. Não foram observados casos de complicações cirúrgicas. Todos os pacientes apresentaram melhora clínica importante. CONCLUSÃO: A supraglotoplastia mostrou-se um procedimento eficaz e seguro no tratamento da laringomalácia grave.

  13. Promoter regions of Plasmodium vivax are poorly or not recognized by Plasmodium falciparum

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    del Portillo Hernando A

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Heterologous promoter analysis in Plasmodium has revealed the existence of conserved cis regulatory elements as promoters from different species can drive expression of reporter genes in heterologous transfection assays. Here, the functional characterization of different Plasmodium vivax promoters in Plasmodium falciparum using luciferase as the reporter gene is presented. Methods Luciferase reporter plasmids harboring the upstream regions of the msp1, dhfr, and vir3 genes as well as the full-length intergenic regions of the vir23/24 and ef-1α genes of P. vivax were constructed and transiently transfected in P. falciparum. Results Only the constructs with the full-length intergenic regions of the vir23/24 and ef-1α genes were recognized by the P. falciparum transcription machinery albeit to values approximately two orders of magnitude lower than those reported by luc plasmids harbouring promoter regions from P. falciparum and Plasmodium berghei. A bioinformatics approach allowed the identification of a motif (GCATAT in the ef-1α intergenic region that is conserved in five Plasmodium species but is degenerate (GCANAN in P. vivax. Mutations of this motif in the P. berghei ef-1α promoter region decreased reporter expression indicating it is active in gene expression in Plasmodium. Conclusion Together, this data indicates that promoter regions of P. vivax are poorly or not recognized by the P. falciparum transcription machinery suggesting the existence of P. vivax-specific transcription regulatory elements.

  14. The Sources of Bz Fluctuations within CIRs: Magnetic Storms During the Descending Phase of the Solar Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurai, R. K.; Tsurutani, B. T.; Ho, C. M.; Arballo, J. K.; Smith, E. J.; Goldstein, B. E.; Balogh, A.

    1995-01-01

    This presentation examines the magnetic field fluctuations within Corotating Interaction Regions (CIRs) detected by Ulysses at mid- and low-latitudes. CIRs are formed by the interaction of high-speed streams flowing from the polar coronal hole with slow-speed streams. Several wave modes are identified, and the effectiveness of these waves causing magnetic storms at Earth will be discussed.

  15. Afecções cirúrgicas em aves: estudo retrospectivo

    OpenAIRE

    Patricia Ferreira de Castro

    2010-01-01

    As aves representam a grande maioria das espécies da fauna silvestre mantidas como animais de companhia em nosso meio e respondem diretamente pela crescente demanda pelo atendimento médico veterinário. O avanço na área da anestesiologia viabilizou a realização de procedimentos cirúrgicos mais longos e complexos e contribuiu para o desenvolvimento e aprimoramento da técnica operatória em aves, contudo, dados nacionais de casuística relacionados às afecções cirúrgicas de aves ainda são inexiste...

  16. A espiritualidade no contexto da experiência do paciente cirúrgico

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    Denise Suzanna Siebert Hense

    1988-03-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo apresenta os resultados de uma pesquisa qualitativa que adotou a Metodologia da Teoria Fundamentada nos Dados para estudar a espiritualidade e a experiência do paciente cirúrgico. Enfoca a subjetividade e o significado para o paciente da vivência de ter que ser operado, destacando o papel e a participação que nela tem a sua espiritualidade. Aponta algumas implicações para a prática da enfermagem na assistência espiritual ao paciente cirúrgico.

  17. A espiritualidade no contexto da experiencia do paciente cirúrgico - relato de um estudo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Suzanna Siebert Hense

    Full Text Available Apresenta os resultados de uma pesquisa qualitativa que adotou a metodologia da teoria fundamentada nos dados para estudar a espiritualidade e a experiência do paciente cirúrgico. Enfoca a subjetividade e o significado para o paciente da vivencia de ter que ser operado, destacando o papel e a participação que nela tem a sua espiritualidade. Aponta algumas implicações para a prática da enfermagem na assistência espiritual de paciente cirúrgico.

  18. Epidemiology of Plasmodium vivax Malaria in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anvikar, Anupkumar R; Shah, Naman; Dhariwal, Akshay C; Sonal, Gagan Singh; Pradhan, Madan Mohan; Ghosh, Susanta K; Valecha, Neena

    2016-12-28

    Historically, malaria in India was predominantly caused by Plasmodium vivax, accounting for 53% of the estimated cases. After the spread of drug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum in the 1990s, the prevalence of the two species remained equivalent at the national level for a decade. By 2014, the proportion of P. vivax has decreased to 34% nationally, but with high regional variation. In 2014, P. vivax accounted for around 380,000 malaria cases in India; almost a sixth of all P. vivax cases reported globally. Plasmodium vivax has remained resistant to control measures, particularly in urban areas. Urban malaria is predominantly caused by P. vivax and is subject to outbreaks, often associated with increased mortality, and triggered by bursts of migration and construction. The epidemiology of P. vivax varies substantially within India, including multiple relapse phenotypes with varying latencies between primary infection and relapse. Moreover, the hypnozoite reservoir maintains transmission potential and enables reestablishment of the parasite in areas in which it was thought eradicated. The burden of malaria in India is complex because of the highly variable malaria eco-epidemiological profiles, transmission factors, and the presence of multiple Plasmodium species and Anopheles vectors. This review of P. vivax malaria in India describes epidemiological trends with particular attention to four states: Gujarat, Karnataka, Haryana, and Odisha.

  19. Plasmodium falciparum Malaria, Southern Algeria, 2007

    OpenAIRE

    Boubidi, Saïd C; Gassen, Ibrahim; Khechache, Yacine; Lamali, Karima; Tchicha, Boualem; Brengues, Cécile; Menegon, Michela; Severini, Carlo; Fontenille, Didier; Harrat, Zoubir

    2010-01-01

    An outbreak of Plasmodium falciparum malaria occurred in Tinzaouatine in southern Algeria in 2007. The likely vector, Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes, had not been detected in Algeria. Genes for resistance to chloroquine were detected in the parasite. The outbreak shows the potential for an increase in malaria vectors in Algeria.

  20. Congenital Plasmodium falciparum Malaria in Washington, DC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Castillo, Melissa; Szymanski, Ann Marie; Slovin, Ariella; Wong, Edward C C; DeBiasi, Roberta L

    2017-01-11

    Congenital malaria is rare in the United States, but is an important diagnosis to consider when evaluating febrile infants. Herein, we describe a case of congenital Plasmodium falciparum malaria in a 2-week-old infant born in the United States to a mother who had emigrated from Nigeria 3 months before delivery. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  1. Plasmodium falciparum Malaria, Southern Algeria, 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gassen, Ibrahim; Khechache, Yacine; Lamali, Karima; Tchicha, Boualem; Brengues, Cécile; Menegon, Michela; Severini, Carlo; Fontenille, Didier; Harrat, Zoubir

    2010-01-01

    An outbreak of Plasmodium falciparum malaria occurred in Tinzaouatine in southern Algeria in 2007. The likely vector, Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes, had not been detected in Algeria. Genes for resistance to chloroquine were detected in the parasite. The outbreak shows the potential for an increase in malaria vectors in Algeria. PMID:20113565

  2. Plasmodium falciparum Malaria, Southern Algeria, 2007

    OpenAIRE

    Boubidi, Saïd C; Gassen, Ibrahim; Khechache, Yacine; Lamali, Karima; Tchicha, Boualem; Brengues, Cécile; Menegon, Michela; Severini, Carlo; Fontenille, Didier; Harrat, Zoubir

    2010-01-01

    An outbreak of Plasmodium falciparum malaria occurred in Tinzaouatine in southern Algeria in 2007. The likely vector, Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes, had not been detected in Algeria. Genes for resistance to chloroquine were detected in the parasite. The outbreak shows the potential for an increase in malaria vectors in Algeria.

  3. Plasmodium knowlesi in travellers, update 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Mattia; Schlagenhauf, Patricia

    2014-05-01

    Since the initial discovery of Plasmodium knowlesi in Malaysia, cases have been reported from several neighbouring countries. Tourism has also resulted in an increasing number of cases diagnosed in Europe, America, and Oceania. In this review we focus on the risk of the travel-associated acquisition of P. knowlesi malaria. A search of the literature in PubMed was carried out to identify articles and literature on the distribution of P. knowlesi infections in Southeast Asia and details of its acquisition and importation by travellers to other continents. The cut-off date for the search was December 1, 2013. Search words used were: "Plasmodium knowlesi", "Plasmodium knowlesi infections", "Plasmodium knowlesi travellers", "Plasmodium knowlesi prevalence", "Plasmodium knowlesi host", "Plasmodium knowlesi vector" "Plasmodium knowlesi RDT", and "Plasmodium knowlesi Malaysia". Traveller numbers to Malaysia were obtained from the Tourism Malaysia website. A total of 103 articles were found. Using a selection of these and others identified from the reference lists of the papers, we based our review on a total of 66 articles. P. knowlesi malaria appears to be the most common malaria species in Malaysian Borneo and is also widely distributed on the Malaysian mainland. Furthermore, locally transmitted cases of P. knowlesi malaria have been reported in Thailand, the Philippines, Vietnam, Singapore, Myanmar, Indonesian Borneo, and Cambodia. Two cases have been reported from non-endemic countries in Asia (Japan and Taiwan) in people with a history of travel to Malaysia and the Philippines. Twelve cases were imported to their home countries by travellers from other continents: two from the USA, two from the Netherlands, two from Germany, and one each from Spain, France, Sweden, Finland, Australia, and New Zealand. In most cases, the infection was associated with a trip to or near forested areas. The symptoms were fever (n=12), headache (n=6), chills (n=6), nausea (n=4), myalgia (n

  4. Effects of the same CIR on the plasma environment of Venus, Earth and Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opitz, A.; Witasse, O.; Svedhem, H.; Sauvaud, J.-A.; Fedorov, A.

    2013-09-01

    During the recent solar activity minimum the solar wind streams were very persistent, even after a few solar rotations the global solar wind properties were unchanged. The compression regions due to the fast stream - slow stream interaction were sweeping through the ecliptic plane without large longitudinal alterations, these are named corotating interaction regions (CIR). Their persistence allows the comparison of the effects of the same CIR on the different terrestrial planets. We investigated the time period in January and February 2007, when the twin solar spacecraft STEREO were still nearby Earth observing simultaneously the solar wind and the terrestrial magnetotail. When considering the solar rotation and the corotating solar wind structures, Venus was ~10 days ahead Earth, while Mars ~10 days behind. For this reason, the Venus Express in-situ plasma and magnetic field measurements were shifted by such a timelag to Earth orbit, and respectively the Mars Express observations in order to find the corresponding CIRs. Since the investigated three planets have different magnetic characteristics, their response to the CIR passage is expected to be different. We find energetic particle bursts escaping from the magnetized Earth and the unmagnetized planets Venus and Mars have increased ion escape rates.

  5. Using Click Chemistry to Identify Potential Drug Targets in Plasmodium

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-13-1-0429 TITLE: Using "Click Chemistry" to Identify Potential Drug Targets in Plasmodium PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Dr. Purnima...SUBTITLE Sa. CONTRACT NUMBER W81XWH-1 3-1-0429 Using "Click Chemistry" to Identify Potential Drug Targets in Plasmodium 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM...Release; Distribution Unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Sporozo ite infection of the liver is the first obl igate step of the Plasmodium

  6. Filarial worms reduce Plasmodium infectivity in mosquitoes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew T Aliota

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Co-occurrence of malaria and filarial worm parasites has been reported, but little is known about the interaction between filarial worm and malaria parasites with the same Anopheles vector. Herein, we present data evaluating the interaction between Wuchereria bancrofti and Anopheles punctulatus in Papua New Guinea (PNG. Our field studies in PNG demonstrated that An. punctulatus utilizes the melanization immune response as a natural mechanism of filarial worm resistance against invading W. bancrofti microfilariae. We then conducted laboratory studies utilizing the mosquitoes Armigeres subalbatus and Aedes aegypti and the parasites Brugia malayi, Brugia pahangi, Dirofilaria immitis, and Plasmodium gallinaceum to evaluate the hypothesis that immune activation and/or development by filarial worms negatively impact Plasmodium development in co-infected mosquitoes. Ar. subalbatus used in this study are natural vectors of P. gallinaceum and B. pahangi and they are naturally refractory to B. malayi (melanization-based refractoriness. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Mosquitoes were dissected and Plasmodium development was analyzed six days after blood feeding on either P. gallinaceum alone or after taking a bloodmeal containing both P. gallinaceum and B. malayi or a bloodmeal containing both P. gallinaceum and B. pahangi. There was a significant reduction in the prevalence and mean intensity of Plasmodium infections in two species of mosquito that had dual infections as compared to those mosquitoes that were infected with Plasmodium alone, and was independent of whether the mosquito had a melanization immune response to the filarial worm or not. However, there was no reduction in Plasmodium development when filarial worms were present in the bloodmeal (D. immitis but midgut penetration was absent, suggesting that factors associated with penetration of the midgut by filarial worms likely are responsible for the observed reduction in malaria

  7. Spectroscopic studies of Cepheids in Circinus (AV Cir, BP Cir) and Triangulum Australe (R TrA, S TrA, U TrA, LR TrA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usenko, I. A.; Kniazev, A. Yu.; Berdnikov, L. N.; Kravtsov, V. V.

    2014-12-01

    Based on high-resolution spectra taken with the 1.9-m telescope of the South African Astronomical Observatory, we have determined the atmospheric parameters and chemical composition for three small-amplitude (AV Cir, BP Cir, and LR TrA), two classical (R TrA and S TrA), and one double-mode (U TrA) Cepheids. The averaged atmospheric parameters have been estimated for three Cepheids (AV Cir, BP Cir, and U TrA) observed at various pulsation phases. In all Cepheids, except U TrA, the metallicity has turned out to be higher than the solar one by 0.1-0.2 dex. The abundances of the key elements of the evolution of yellow supergiants (C, O, Na, Mg, Al) show that these objects have already passed the first dredge-up, while those of the remaining elements are nearly solar. Comparison of our results on the Cepheids from the list (except U TrA) with those of other authors shows significant differences in C and O abundance estimates for AV Cir, R TrA, S TrA, and LR TrA. For AV Cir and BP Cir, the H α line profiles are symmetric but with a slight asymmetry in the core at approximately the same phase near 0{·/ P } 7: on the "blue" side for AV Cir and on the "red" one for BP Cir. BP Cir exhibits a distinct asymmetry in the absorption lines of neutral atoms and ions at various pulsation phases, which can be explained by nonradial first-overtone pulsations. The constancy of the H α absorption line profiles with pulsation phase for AV Cir and BP Cir may suggest the presence of a hydrogen envelope around them. For the double-mode Cepheid U TrA, an asymmetry is observed in the cores of the H α line and the absorption lines of neutral atoms and ions at various pulsation phases, which can be explained by nonradial pulsations in the Cepheid's atmosphere. The absorption lines of neutral atoms and ions of metals in LR TrA closely resemble those in the well-known Cepheid BG Cru: secondary "blue" and "red" components whose line depths vary with pulsation phase are noticeable. This Cepheid

  8. Bifurcation in the chemotactic behavior of Physarum plasmodium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirakawa, Tomohiro; Gunji, Yukio-Pegio; Sato, Hiroshi; Tsubakino, Hiroto

    2017-07-01

    The plasmodium of true slime mold Physarum polycephalum is a unicellular and multinuclear giant amoeba. Since the cellular organism has some computational abilities, it is attracting much attention in the field of information science. However, previous studies have mainly focused on the optimization behavior of the plasmodium for a single-modality stimulus, and there are few studies on how the organism adapts to multi-modal stimuli. We stimulated the plasmodium with mixture of attractant and repellent stimuli, and we observed bifurcation in the chemotactic behavior of the plasmodium.

  9. Plasmodium Oocysts: Overlooked Targets of Mosquito Immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Ryan C; Barillas-Mury, Carolina

    2016-12-01

    Although the ability of mosquitoes to limit Plasmodium infection is well documented, many questions remain as to how malaria parasites are recognized and killed by the mosquito host. Recent evidence suggests that anti-Plasmodium immunity is multimodal, with different immune mechanisms regulating ookinete and oocyst survival. However, most experiments determine the number of mature oocysts, without considering that different immune mechanisms may target different developmental stages of the parasite. Complement-like proteins have emerged as important determinants of early immunity targeting the ookinete stage, yet the mechanisms by which the mosquito late-phase immune response limits oocyst survival are less understood. Here, we describe the known components of the mosquito immune system that limit oocyst development, and provide insight into their possible mechanisms of action. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Plasmodium knowlesi malaria in Vietnam: some clarifications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hung Le

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A recently published comment on a report of Plasmodium knowlesi infections in Vietnam states that this may not accurately represent the situation in the study area because the PCR primers used may cross-hybridize with Plasmodium vivax. Nevertheless, P. knowlesi infections have been confirmed by sequencing. In addition, a neighbour-joining tree based on the 18S S-Type SSUrRNA gene shows that the Vietnamese samples clearly cluster with the P. knowlesi isolates identified in Malaysia and are distinct from the corresponding P. vivax sequences. All samples came from asymptomatic individuals who did not consult for fever during the months preceding or following the survey, indicating that asymptomatic P. knowlesi infections occur in this population, although this does not exclude the occurrence of symptomatic cases. Large-scale studies to determine the extent and the epidemiology of P. knowlesi malaria in Vietnam are further needed.

  11. Engineered anopheles immunity to Plasmodium infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuemei Dong

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A causative agent of human malaria, Plasmodium falciparum, is transmitted by Anopheles mosquitoes. The malaria parasite is under intensive attack from the mosquito's innate immune system during its sporogonic development. We have used genetic engineering to create immune-enhanced Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes through blood meal-inducible expression of a transgene encoding the IMD pathway-controlled NF-kB Rel2 transcription factor in the midgut and fat-body tissue. Transgenic mosquitoes showed greater resistance to Plasmodium and microbial infection as a result of timely concerted tissue-specific immune attacks involving multiple effectors. The relatively weak impact of this genetic modification on mosquito fitness under laboratory conditions encourages further investigation of this approach for malaria control.

  12. Exploring the folate pathway in Plasmodium falciparum

    OpenAIRE

    Hyde, John E.

    2005-01-01

    As in centuries past, the main weapon against human malaria infections continues to be intervention with drugs, despite the widespread and increasing frequency of parasite populations that are resistant to one or more of the available compounds. This is a particular problem with the lethal species of parasite, Plasmodium falciparum, which claims some two million lives per year as well as causing enormous social and economic problems. Amongst the antimalarial drugs currently in clinical use, t...

  13. Plasmodium falciparum drug resistance in Angola

    OpenAIRE

    Fançony, Cláudia; Brito, Miguel; Gil, Jose Pedro

    2016-01-01

    Facing chloroquine drug resistance, Angola promptly adopted artemisinin-based combination therapy as the first-line to treat malaria. Currently, the country aims to consolidate malaria control, while preparing for the elimination of the disease, along with others African countries in the region. However, the remarkable capacity of Plasmodium to develop drug resistance represents an alarming threat for those achievements. Herein, the available, but relatively scarce and dispersed, information ...

  14. Epidemiology of Plasmodium vivax in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surjadjaja, Claudia; Surya, Asik; Baird, J Kevin

    2016-12-28

    Endemic malaria occurs across much of the vast Indonesian archipelago. All five species of Plasmodium known to naturally infect humans occur here, along with 20 species of Anopheles mosquitoes confirmed as carriers of malaria. Two species of plasmodia cause the overwhelming majority and virtually equal shares of malaria infections in Indonesia: Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax The challenge posed by P. vivax is especially steep in Indonesia because chloroquine-resistant strains predominate, along with Chesson-like strains that relapse quickly and multiple times at short intervals in almost all patients. Indonesia's hugely diverse human population carries many variants of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency, most of them exhibiting severely impaired enzyme activity. Therefore, the patients most likely to benefit from primaquine therapy by preventing aggressive relapse, may also be most likely to suffer harm without G6PD deficiency screening. Indonesia faces the challenge of controlling and eventually eliminating malaria across > 13,500 islands stretching > 5,000 km and an enormous diversity of ecological, ethnographic, and socioeconomic settings, and extensive human migrations. This article describes the occurrence of P. vivax in Indonesia and the obstacles faced in eliminating its transmission. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  15. Plasmodium simium/Plasmodium vivax infections in southern brown howler monkeys from the Atlantic Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Camargos Costa

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Blood infection by the simian parasite, Plasmodium simium, was identified in captive (n = 45, 4.4% and in wild Alouatta clamitans monkeys (n = 20, 35% from the Atlantic Forest of southern Brazil. A single malaria infection was symptomatic and the monkey presented clinical and haematological alterations. A high frequency of Plasmodium vivax-specific antibodies was detected among these monkeys, with 87% of the monkeys testing positive against P. vivax antigens. These findings highlight the possibility of malaria as a zoonosis in the remaining Atlantic Forest and its impact on the epidemiology of the disease.

  16. Mosquito transmission of wild turkey malaria, Plasmodium hermani.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, M D; Nayar, J K; Forrester, D J

    1977-04-01

    Culex nigripalpus experimentally transmitted Plasmodium hermani, a plasmodium of wild turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo) in Florida. The mosquitoes were infected by feeding upon blood induced parasitemias in domestic turkey poults. The resulting sporozoites, transmitted by either mosquito bites or injection, produced malaria infections in domestic poults.

  17. Plasmodium vivax induced myocarditis: A rare case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Gupta

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Malaria is one of the commonest parasitic disease in the tropics since ages. However the plasmodium still continues to give surprises to all of us. In the similar context we report a case of Plasmodium vivax induced myocarditis in a 20 year old male and review the literature related to this rare entitiy.

  18. Multiplicity of Infection and Disease Severity in Plasmodium vivax

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pacheco, M Andreína; Lopez-Perez, Mary; Vallejo, Andrés F

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Multiplicity of infection (MOI) refers to the average number of distinct parasite genotypes concurrently infecting a patient. Although several studies have reported on MOI and the frequency of multiclonal infections in Plasmodium falciparum, there is limited data on Plasmodium vivax. ...

  19. Severe sepsis and septic shock due to Plasmodium vivax infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalkias, Athanasios; Aridas, Sotirios; Karageorgopoulos, Drosos E; Stratiotis, Georgios; Mystrioti, Dimitra; Mallios, Athanasios; Nakos, Ioannis; Mpellos, Nikolaos; Ganotopoulou, Asimina; Xanthos, Theodoros

    2013-04-01

    Plasmodium vivax malaria is typically characterized by a mild and benign clinical course. Organ dysfunction is rarely seen, whereas acute lung injury has been found to occur after starting antimalarial treatment. We present an unusual case of severe sepsis and septic shock due to Plasmodium vivax monoinfection.

  20. Plasmodium vivax cerebral malaria complicated with venous sinus thrombosis in Colombia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Miguel A Pinzn; Juan C Pineda; Fernando Rosso; Masaru Shinchi; Fabio Bonilla-Abada

    2013-01-01

    Complicated malaria is usually due to Plasmodium falciparum. Nevertheless, Plasmodium vivax is infrequently related with life-threatening complications. Few cases have been reported of severe Plasmodium vivax infection, and most of them from Southeast Asia and India. We report the first case of cerebral malaria due to Plasmodium vivax in Latin America, complicated with sagittal sinus thrombosis and confirmed by a molecular method.

  1. Tratamento cirúrgico da siringomielia pela Técnica de Gardner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto M. Almeida

    1973-12-01

    Full Text Available O tratamento cirúrgico da siringomielia é, em geral, considerado decepcionante. Vários tipos de drenagem da cavidade siringomiélica não têm fornecido resultados satisfatórios. Gardner, em magnífica série de trabalhos, mostrou que a siringomielia e as várias malformações associadas à hidrocefalia têm fisiopatogenia única. Baseado em sua teoria, Gardner propôs, em 1958, o bloqueio da comunicação entre o IV ventrículo e o canal central da medula, para o tratamento da siringomielia. Esta técnica não tem sido realizada com muita freqüência. Empregamos o método proposto por Gardner em 4 pacientes, os quais melhoraram após a intervenção cirúrgica.

  2. Evolution of Hard X-Ray Spectra Along the Branches in Cir X-1

    CERN Document Server

    Ding, G Q; Li, T P

    2003-01-01

    Using the data from the PCA and HEXTE on board the RXTE satellite, we investigate the evolution of the 3-200 keV spectra of the peculiar low mass X-ray binary (LMXB) Cir X-1 along the branches on its hardness-intensity diagram (HID) from the vertical horizontal branch (VHB), through the horizontal horizontal branch (HHB) and normal branch (NB), to the flaring branch (FB). We detect a power-law hard component in the spectra. It is found that the derived photon indices ($\\Gamma$) of the power-law hard component are correlated with the position on the HID. The power-law component dominates the X-ray emission of Cir X-1 in the energy band higher than $\\sim 20$ keV. The fluxes of the power-law component are compared with those of the bremsstrahlung component in the spectra. A possible origin of the power-law hard component is discussed.

  3. Geoeffectiveness and efficiency of CIR, Sheath and ICME in generation of magnetic storms

    CERN Document Server

    Yermolaev, Yu I; Lodkina, I G; Yermolaev, M Yu

    2011-01-01

    We investigate relative role of various types of solar wind streams in generation of magnetic storms. On the basis of the OMNI data of interplanetary measurements for the period of 1976-2000 we analyze 798 geomagnetic storms with Dst < -50 nT and their interplanetary sources: corotating interaction regions (CIR), interplanetary CME (ICME) including magnetic clouds (MC) and Ejecta and compression regions Sheath before both types of ICME. For various types of solar wind we study following relative characteristics: occurrence rate; mass, momentum, energy and magnetic fluxes; probability of generation of magnetic storm (geoeffectiveness) and efficiency of process of this generation. Obtained results show that despite magnetic clouds have lower occurrence rate and lower efficiency than CIR and Sheath they play an essential role in generation of magnetic storms due to higher geoeffectiveness of storm generation (i.e higher probability to contain large and long-term southward IMF Bz component).

  4. Têxteis cirúrgicos reutilizáveis e seu impacte ambiental

    OpenAIRE

    Ramos, Delfina Gabriela Garrido

    2003-01-01

    As batas cirúrgicas são essenciais nos blocos operatórios, assumindo uma dupla função: proteger os pacientes das infecções que podem ocorrer durante as intervenções cirúrgicas e proteger a equipa médica para prevenir possíveis infecções do paciente (vestuário de protecção). Os materiais têxteis utilizados no fabrico das batas são tradicionalmente de algodão. No entanto, estes materiais libertam partículas e o seu efeito de barreira é baixo, sobretudo quando se encontram molhados. A normali...

  5. The Structure of the Solar Wind at Large Heliocentric Distances: CIRs and their Successors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazis, P. R.

    1999-01-01

    Co-rotating interaction regions (CIRs) and their associated shock pairs are dominant structures in the solar wind between the heliocentric distances of 2 and 8 AU. At larger heliocentric distances, these structures undergo a qualitative change. Shocks decay to a point where they are often difficult to detect, and may have little influence on the dynamics of the solar wind. Interaction regions spread and merge, though they appear to retain their identity to surprisingly large distances from the Sun. Solar wind and IMF data from the Pioneer 10, Pioneer 11, and Voyager 2 spacecraft were used to conduct a comprehensive survey of CIRs and their successors between heliocentric distances of 1 and 55 AU over the last two solar cycles. The structure of the solar wind varied in a consistent fashion with heliocentric distance. Similar structures were observed at similar heliocentric distances by all three spacecraft during different portions of the solar cycle.

  6. Frenectomia labial superior : variação de técnica cirúrgica

    OpenAIRE

    Puricelli,Edela

    2001-01-01

    A autora apresenta modificação da técnica de ARCHER para tratamento cirúrgico do freio ou frênulo labial superior hipertrófico (FLS). Foram modificados os sítios de incisão, através do uso de pinça de Halstead reta e curva. Associando-se a fricção intra-septal por compressa de gaze na fenda mediana, possibilita-se a remoção vestíbulo-palatina dos resíduos teciduais do freio, periósteo e fibra transseptais. Se necessário, permite a osteotomia no mesmo ato cirúrgico. Está indicada como terapia ...

  7. Frenectomia labial superior : variação de técnica cirúrgica

    OpenAIRE

    Puricelli, Edela

    2001-01-01

    A autora apresenta modificação da técnica de ARCHER para tratamento cirúrgico do freio ou frênulo labial superior hipertrófico (FLS). Foram modificados os sítios de incisão, através do uso de pinça de Halstead reta e curva. Associando-se a fricção intra-septal por compressa de gaze na fenda mediana, possibilita-se a remoção vestíbulo-palatina dos resíduos teciduais do freio, periósteo e fibra transseptais. Se necessário, permite a osteotomia no mesmo ato cirúrgico. Está indicada como terapia ...

  8. Construction of living cellular automata using the Physarum plasmodium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirakawa, Tomohiro; Sato, Hiroshi; Ishiguro, Shinji

    2015-04-01

    The plasmodium of Physarum polycephalum is a unicellular and multinuclear giant amoeba that has an amorphous cell body. To clearly observe how the plasmodium makes decisions in its motile and exploratory behaviours, we developed a new experimental system to pseudo-discretize the motility of the organism. In our experimental space that has agar surfaces arranged in a two-dimensional lattice, the continuous and omnidirectional movement of the plasmodium was limited to the stepwise one, and the direction of the locomotion was also limited to four neighbours. In such an experimental system, a cellular automata-like system was constructed using the living cell. We further analysed the exploratory behaviours of the plasmodium by duplicating the experimental results in the simulation models of cellular automata. As a result, it was revealed that the behaviours of the plasmodium are not reproduced by only local state transition rules; and for the reproduction, a kind of historical rule setting is needed.

  9. Response to various periods of mechanical stimuli in Physarum plasmodium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umedachi, Takuya; Ito, Kentaro; Kobayashi, Ryo; Ishiguro, Akio; Nakagaki, Toshiyuki

    2017-06-01

    Response to mechanical stimuli is a fundamental and critical ability for living cells to survive in hazardous conditions or to form adaptive and functional structures against force(s) from the environment. Although this ability has been extensively studied by molecular biology strategies, it is also important to investigate the ability from the viewpoint of biological rhythm phenomena so as to reveal the mechanisms that underlie these phenomena. Here, we use the plasmodium of the true slime mold Physarum polycephalum as the experimental system for investigating this ability. The plasmodium was repetitively stretched for various periods during which its locomotion speed was observed. Since the plasmodium has inherent oscillation cycles of protoplasmic streaming and thickness variation, how the plasmodium responds to various periods of external stretching stimuli can shed light on the other biological rhythm phenomena. The experimental results show that the plasmodium exhibits response to periodic mechanical stimulation and changes its locomotion speed depending on the period of the stretching stimuli.

  10. Mitosis in the Human Malaria Parasite Plasmodium falciparum ▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerald, Noel; Mahajan, Babita; Kumar, Sanjai

    2011-01-01

    Malaria is caused by intraerythrocytic protozoan parasites belonging to Plasmodium spp. (phylum Apicomplexa) that produce significant morbidity and mortality, mostly in developing countries. Plasmodium parasites have a complex life cycle that includes multiple stages in anopheline mosquito vectors and vertebrate hosts. During the life cycle, the parasites undergo several cycles of extreme population growth within a brief span, and this is critical for their continued transmission and a contributing factor for their pathogenesis in the host. As with other eukaryotes, successful mitosis is an essential requirement for Plasmodium reproduction; however, some aspects of Plasmodium mitosis are quite distinct and not fully understood. In this review, we will discuss the current understanding of the architecture and key events of mitosis in Plasmodium falciparum and related parasites and compare them with the traditional mitotic events described for other eukaryotes. PMID:21317311

  11. Upper limits for PH3 and H2S in Titan's Atmosphere from Cassini CIRS

    CERN Document Server

    Nixon, Conor A; Irwin, Patrick G J; Horst, Sarah M; 10.1016/j.icarus.2013.02.024

    2013-01-01

    We have searched for the presence of simple P and S-bearing molecules in Titan's atmosphere, by looking for the characteristic signatures of phosphine and hydrogen sulfide in infrared spectra obtained by Cassini CIRS. As a result we have placed the first upper limits on the stratospheric abundances, which are 1 ppb (PH3) and 330 ppb (H2S), at the 2-sigma significance level.

  12. Abundances of C3Hx Hydrocarbons in Titan's Stratosphere from Cassini CIRS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixon, C. A.; Jennings, D. E.; Bezard, B.; Vinatier, S.; Teanby, N. A.; Sung, K.; Ansty, T. M.; Irwin, P. G.; Gorius, N.; Cottini, V.; Coustenis, A.; Flasar, F. M.

    2014-12-01

    During the ten years since entry into Saturn orbit in 2004, the Cassini spacecraft has made more than 100 close flybys of Titan, measuring the properties of the atmosphere by both in situ and remote sensing techniques. Cassini's Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) senses the infrared spectrum from 7-1000 μm (1400-10 cm-1), a region which exhibits the vibrational emissions of many different molecular species. CIRS has therefore been able to map the spatial distributions and temporal variations of hydrocarbons, nitriles and other gas species in Titan's atmosphere, yielding information about the chemistry and dynamics. Recently, Nixon et al. (2013) made the first detection of a new stratospheric gas species from Cassini using CIRS - the C3H6 molecule (propene). This filled in a long-time missing link in the chemical picture of Titan's lower atmosphere, since the C3H4 (propyne) and C3H8 (propane) molecules had been detected in 1981 by Voyager 1 IRIS. The inferred abundance of C3H6 is less than both C3H8 and C3H4, and this pattern is repeated also in the C2Hx molecules where C2H4 is less abundant than C2H2 and C2H6. Therefore a pattern emerges whereby: alkanes > alkynes > alkenes within the C2Hx and C3Hx chemical families in the lower stratosphere. We comment on how this trend compares to published photochemical model predictions, and also give updates on the search for C3Hx isomers (allene: CH2CCH2, and cyclopropane: c-C3H6) and C4Hx species using CIRS.

  13. Tratamento cirúrgico da cifose patológica Surgical treatment of pathological kyphosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helton Luiz Aparecido Defino

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Foram estudados 13 pacientes com cifose patológica de diferentes etiologias (Doença de Scheuermann, espondilite anquilosante, congênita, tuberculose vertebral, sequela de laminectomia e síndrome de Morquio, que foram submetidos ao tratamento cirúrgico. A cifose pré-operatória variou de 75 a 100 graus (média 73,3 graus e a média dos valores após o tratamento cirúrgico foi de 42,3 graus. O tipo de tratamento realizado estava relacionado com as características da cifose (raio longo ou curto, flexibilidade e magnitude, e são apresentadas as diferentes técnicas e filosofia de tratamento dos autores para o tratamento cirúrgico dessa modalidade de deformidade vertebral.Thirteen patients with pathologic kyphosis from different ethiologies (Scheuermann's disease, ankylosing spondilitis, congenital, vertebral tuberculosis, post laminectomy and Morquio's syndrome who underwent surgical treatment were studied. Preoperative kyphosis ranged from 75° to 100° (average 73.3° and postoperatively averaged 42.3°. The treatment performed was based on kyphosis characteristics (long or short radius, flexibility, magnitude. The different techniques are presented as well as authors' philosophy for surgical treatment of this kind of vertebral deformity.

  14. Neuroma de Morton: estudo clínico e cirúrgico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Marcos de Andrade

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Os autores avaliaram 15 pacientes (20pés, 11 (55% no pé direito e 9 (45% no pé esquerdo. Treze (65% pacientes eram do sexo feminino e 2 (35% eram do sexo masculino. A idade variou entre 20 e 56 anos, sendo a idade média 43,13. O Neuroma de Morton ocorreu, em todos os casos, no terceiro espaço. Os parâmetros clínicos são concordantes com a literatura quanto a idade, sexo e lado acometido. Os pacientes foram submetidos ao tratamento cirúrgico para remoção da massa lobular do terceiro pedículo neurovascular interdigital do pé, na área entre as cabeças do terceiro e quarto metatársico, usando a via de acesso dorsal. Os autores descrevem minuciosamente a técnica cirúrgica empregada, bem como os cuidados pós-operátorios. Concluíram que o tratamento cirúrgico, pelo sucesso, é o de eleição, com o alivio da dor e ausência de queixas. Todos os casos foram confirmados pelo exame anatomopatológico.

  15. A visibilidade do trabalho de enfermagem no centro cirúrgico por meio da fotografia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Helena Reus

    Full Text Available O presente artigo origina-se de uma pesquisa realizada junto aos trabalhadores do centro cirúrgico do Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, Brasil, analisando os modos de trabalhar da equipe de enfermagem e sua relação com pacientes e demais profissionais da saúde. Utilizou-se o pensamento de Foucault, enfatizando-se as articulações dos jogos de saber e poder, bem como os efeitos de verdade no trabalho, sustentados pelo olhar desses trabalhadores e usando-se a estratégia da fotografia em uma perspectiva da pesquisa-intervenção. O centro cirúrgico foi retratado como um espaço do olhar, da vigilância e do controle. O saber é determinado a partir da visibilidade dos corpos, sejam de pacientes ou de trabalhadores, e este saber é legitimado quando emana do brilho do foco cirúrgico. O trabalho com fotografias possibilitou olhares diversos e a criação de um espaço de discussão.

  16. A time domain multiple-CFOs and CIRs estimation algorithm over wireless multimedia sensor networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiang Jian; Wei Jianming; Li Baoqing; Wang Yingguan; Liu Haitao; Qiu Yunzhou

    2009-01-01

    Channel parameters estimation in an orthogonal frequency division multiple access (OFDMA) system for the receiver station is a multi-dimensional (MD) optimization problem, because every user node has a separate local oscillator and every transmitter to receiver link has individual carrier frequency offset (CFO) and channel impulse response (CIR) parameters. In order to reduce the computational complexity for MD optimization, a time domain CFOs and CIRs estimation algorithm over the OFDMA based wireless multimedia sensor networks (WMSN) is proposed in this paper. In this algorithm, the receiver station can decouple the signal from every node by correlation based on specially designed training sequences, so that the MD optimization problem is simplified to an 1-D optimal problem. It is proved that the multiple CFOs can be identified from the correlation result using the phase shift of the consecutive training sequences. Based on the CFOs estimation result, the CIRs can then be estimated according to the minimum mean square error (MMSE) criterion. The theoretic analysis and simulation results show that the proposed algorithm can effectively decouple the signal from different user nodes and the bit error rate (BER) performance curves are close to the ideal estimation when the user number is not large.

  17. Completing the hypusine pathway in Plasmodium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frommholz, David; Kusch, Peter; Blavid, Robert; Scheer, Hugo; Tu, Jun-Ming; Marcus, Katrin; Zhao, Kai-Hong; Atemnkeng, Veronica; Marciniak, Jana; Kaiser, Annette E

    2009-10-01

    In searching for new targets for antimalarials we investigated the biosynthesis of hypusine present in eukaryotic initiation factor-5A (eIF-5A) in Plasmodium. Here, we describe the cloning and expression of deoxyhypusine hydroxylase (DOHH), which completes the modification of eIF-5A through hydroxylation of deoxyhypusine. The dohh cDNA sequence revealed an ORF of 1236 bp encoding a protein of 412 amino acids with a calculated molecular mass of 46.45 kDa and an isoelectric point of 4.96. Interestingly, DOHH from Plasmodium has a FASTA SCORE of only 27 compared with its human ortholog and contains several matches similar to E-Z-type HEAT-like repeat proteins (IPR004155 (InterPro), PF03130 (Pfam), SM00567 (SMART) present in the phycocyanin lyase subunits of cyanobacteria. Purified DOHH protein displayed hydroxylase activity in a novel in vitro DOHH assay, but phycocyanin lyase activity was absent. dohh is present as a single-copy gene and is transcribed in the asexual blood stages of the parasite. A signal peptide at the N-terminus might direct the protein to a different cellular compartment. During evolution, Plasmodium falciparum acquired an apicoplast that lost its photosynthetic function. It is possible that plasmodial DOHH arose from an E/F-type phycobilin lyase that gained a new role in hydroxylation. Structured digital abstract: * MINT-7255047: DHS (uniprotkb:P49366) enzymaticly reacts (MI:0414) with eIF-5A (uniprotkb:Q710D1) by enzymatic studies (MI:0415) * MINT-7255326: DOHH (uniprotkb:Q8I701) enzymaticly reacts (MI:0414) with eIF-5A (uniprotkb:Q710D1) by enzymatic studies (MI:0415).

  18. Prevalence of Malaria Plasmodium in Abeokuta, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okonko, I. O.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This study reports the prevalence of malaria caused by plasmodium between genders in Abeokuta, the capital city of Ogun State located in the forest zone of southwestern Nigeria between January 2002 and December 2004. Blood film examination for malaria parasites in 708 patients; 366 males and 342 females. Microscopic examination of thick films techniques was employed for this study. Of the 708 (100% patients examined, 577 (81.5% were Plasmodium-positive. A high malaria parasite prevalence rate of 81.5% was noted in this study. Female subjects were more infected (42.4% than males (41.9% however, there was no significant difference in the sex of the subjects studied (p=0.05. A high malaria parasite prevalence rate of 86.9% was noted in samples collected in year 2003 than in other years studied. There was significant difference in the years under study (p=0.05. This study shows that a good percentage of people were infested by malaria Plasmodium. This could be attributed to lack of adequate accommodation and poor sanitary conditions in the area under study. Although several efforts have been made to effectively control the high incidence of malaria in Nigeria, these have been largely unsuccessful due to a number of reasons such as irrigated urban agriculture which can be the malaria vector’s breeding ground in the city, stagnant gutters and swamps in our environment where mosquitoes breed in millions, and lack of political will and commitment of the government in its disease management program, low awareness of the magnitude of malaria problem, poor health practices by individuals and communities and resistance to drugs. Therefore, future interventions in Nigeria should be directed toward controlling malaria in the context of a moderate transmission setting; thus, large-scale distribution of insecticide-treated nets or widespread use of indoor residual spraying may be less cost-effective than enhanced surveillance with effective case management or

  19. Gametocitos de Plasmodium vivax y Plasmodium falciparum: etapas relegadas en el desarrollo de vacunas Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum gametocyte stages are neglected in vaccine development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Contreras-Ochoa

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Los gametocitos de Plasmodium son los responsables de la transmisión del huésped vertebrado al mosquito vector. Sufren un proceso de desarrollo complejo a partir de parásitos asexuales, que no está completamente entendido, expresando proteínas y moléculas de adhesión específicas. Son capaces de inducir una respuesta inmune humoral específica con anticuerpos IgG, y celular específica, con producción de TNFa, IFNg y proliferación de linfocitos gd+, aun cuando existen respuestas inducidas en contra de las etapas previas del parásito (esporozoito, exo-eritrocítica y eritrocítica. Las vacunas destinadas a bloquear la transmisión del parásito no contemplan a los gametocitos circulantes en el huésped como blancos de acción, sino que van enfocadas contra antígenos expresados en los gametos y en las etapas posfertilización. El estudio de los mecanismos que regulan la producción de gametocitos y de la respuesta inmune contra éstos, ofrece una oportunidad para el desarrollo de estrategias adicionales para el control de la transmisión.Plasmodium gametocytes are responsible for transmission from the vertebrate host to the mosquito. Plasmodium gametocytes undergo a complex cycle from asexual stages, through a poorly understood process characterized by expression of stage-specific proteins and adhesion molecules. Gametocytes are capable of inducing specific humoral IgG, and cellular responses, which include induction of TNFa, IFNg and gd+ lymphocyte proliferation, in addition to immune responses to other stages of the parasite (sporozoite, exo-erythrocytic stages, erythrocytic stages. Although transmission-blocking vaccines against Plasmodium do not currently include components against the gametocytes (rather they focus on gametes, zygotes or ookinetes, stages which occur in the mosquito, further understanding of the mechanisms underlying gametocytogenesis and immune responses against these stages may provide additional strategies for

  20. Gametocitos de Plasmodium vivax y Plasmodium falciparum: etapas relegadas en el desarrollo de vacunas Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum gametocyte stages are neglected in vaccine development

    OpenAIRE

    Carla Contreras-Ochoa; Ramsey, Janine M.

    2004-01-01

    Los gametocitos de Plasmodium son los responsables de la transmisión del huésped vertebrado al mosquito vector. Sufren un proceso de desarrollo complejo a partir de parásitos asexuales, que no está completamente entendido, expresando proteínas y moléculas de adhesión específicas. Son capaces de inducir una respuesta inmune humoral específica con anticuerpos IgG, y celular específica, con producción de TNFa, IFNg y proliferación de linfocitos gd+, aun cuando existen respuestas inducidas en con...

  1. Mosquito transgenic technologies to reduce Plasmodium transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Silke; Nolan, Tony; Crisanti, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    The ability to introduce genetic constructs of choice into the genome of Anopheles mosquitoes provides a valuable tool to study the molecular interactions between the Plasmodium parasite and its insect host. In the long term, this technology could potentially offer new ways to control vector-borne diseases through the suppression of target mosquito populations or through the introgression of traits that preclude pathogen transmission. Here, we describe in detail protocols for the generation of transgenic Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes based on germ-line transformation using either modified transposable elements or the site-specific PhiC31 recombinase.

  2. The novel oxygenated chalcone, 2,4-dimethoxy-4'-butoxychalcone, exhibits potent activity against human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum in vitro and rodent parasites Plasmodium berghei and Plasmodium yoelii in vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, M; Brøgger Christensen, S; Zhai, L

    1997-01-01

    growth of both a chloroquine-susceptible (3D7) and a chloroquine-resistant (Dd2) strain of Plasmodium falciparum in a [3H]hypoxanthine uptake assay. The in vivo activity of 2,4mbc was tested in mice infected with Plasmodium berghei or Plasmodium yoelii and in rats infected with P. berghei. 2,4mbc...

  3. No evidence for ape Plasmodium infections in humans in Gabon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Délicat-Loembet, Lucresse; Rougeron, Virginie; Ollomo, Benjamin; Arnathau, Céline; Roche, Benjamin; Elguero, Eric; Moukodoum, Nancy Diamella; Okougha, Alain-Prince; Mve Ondo, Bertrand; Boundenga, Larson; Houzé, Sandrine; Galan, Maxime; Nkoghé, Dieudonné; Leroy, Eric M; Durand, Patrick; Paupy, Christophe; Renaud, François; Prugnolle, Franck

    2015-01-01

    African great apes are naturally infected by a multitude of Plasmodium species most of them recently discovered, among which several are closely related to human malaria agents. However, it is still unknown whether these animals can serve as source of infections for humans living in their vicinity. To evaluate this possibility, we analysed the nature of Plasmodium infections from a bank of 4281 human blood samples collected in 210 villages of Gabon, Central Africa. Among them, 2255 were detected positive to Plasmodium using molecular methods (Plasmodium Cytochrome b amplification). A high throughput sequencing technology (454 GS-FLX Titanium technology, Roche) was then used to identify the Plasmodium species present within each positive sample. Overall, we identified with confidence only three species infecting humans in Gabon: P. falciparum, P. malariae and P. ovale. None of the species known to infect non-human primates in Central Africa was found. Our study shows that ape Plasmodium parasites of the subgenus Laverania do not constitute a frequent source of infection for humans. It also suggests that some strong host genetic barriers must exist to prevent the cross species transmission of ape Plasmodium in a context of ever increasing contacts between humans and wildlife.

  4. Prevalence and distribution of human Plasmodium infection in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khattak, Aamer A; Venkatesan, Meera; Nadeem, Muhammad F; Satti, Humayoon S; Yaqoob, Adnan; Strauss, Kathy; Khatoon, Lubna; Malik, Salman A; Plowe, Christopher V

    2013-08-28

    Both Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum are prevalent in Pakistan, yet up-to-date data on the epidemiology of malaria in Pakistan are not available. This study was undertaken to determine the current prevalence and distribution of Plasmodium species across the country. A malariometric population survey was conducted in 2011 using blood samples collected from 801 febrile patients of all ages in four provinces and the capital city of Islamabad. Microscopically confirmed Plasmodium-positive blood samples were reconfirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Confirmed parasite-positive samples were subjected to species-specific PCR capable of detecting four species of human malaria. Of the 707 PCR-positive samples, 128 (18%) were P. falciparum, 536 (76%) were P. vivax, and 43 (6%) were mixed P. falciparum and P. vivax. Ninety-four microscopy-positive samples were PCR-negative, and Plasmodium malariae and Plasmodium ovale were not detected. Prevalence of P. vivax ranged from 2.4% in Punjab Province to 10.8% in Sindh Province and prevalence of P. falciparum ranged from 0.1% in Islamabad to 3.8% in Balochistan. Plasmodium infections in Pakistan are largely attributed to P. vivax but P. falciparum and mixed species infections are also prevalent. In addition, regional variation in the prevalence and species composition of malaria is high.

  5. Plasmodium infection decreases fecundity and increases survival of mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vézilier, J; Nicot, A; Gandon, S; Rivero, A

    2012-10-07

    Long-lived mosquitoes maximize the chances of Plasmodium transmission. Yet, in spite of decades of research, the effect of Plasmodium parasites on mosquito longevity remains highly controversial. On the one hand, many studies report shorter lifespans in infected mosquitoes. On the other hand, parallel (but separate) studies show that Plasmodium reduces fecundity and imply that this is an adaptive strategy of the parasite aimed at redirecting resources towards longevity. No study till date has, however, investigated fecundity and longevity in the same individuals to see whether this prediction holds. In this study, we follow for both fecundity and longevity in Plasmodium-infected and uninfected mosquitoes using a novel, albeit natural, experimental system. We also explore whether the genetic variations that arise through the evolution of insecticide resistance modulate the effect of Plasmodium on these two life-history traits. We show that (i) a reduction in fecundity in Plasmodium-infected mosquitoes is accompanied by an increase in longevity; (ii) this increase in longevity arises through a trade-off between reproduction and survival; and (iii) in insecticide-resistant mosquitoes, the slope of this trade-off is steeper when the mosquito is infected by Plasmodium (cost of insecticide resistance).

  6. Construction and immunogenicity prediction of Plasmodium falciparum CTL epitope minigene vaccine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The minigenes encoding Plasmodium falciparum CTL epitopesrestricted to human MHC class I molecular HLA-A2 and HLA-B51, which were both at high frequency among Chinese population, were constructed as mono-epitope CTL vaccines named pcDNA3.1/tr and pcDNA3.1/ sh. The minigenes of the two epitopes were then tandem linked to form a dimeric CTL epitope minigene recombinant vaccine. After DNA transfection, the epitope minigenes were expressed respectively in two human cell lines, each bearing one MHC class I molecule named CIR/HLA-A2.1 and K562/HLA-B51. The intracellular expression of the CTL epitope minigenes not only enhanced the stability of HLA-A2.1 and HLA-B51 molecules but also increased the assemblage of MHC class I molecules on cell surfaces, which testified the specific process and presentation of those endogenous expressed epitopes. For the cells transfected with the dimeric minigene encoding two tandem linked epitopes, the expression and presentation of each epitope were also detected on cell membranes that bore different MHC class I molecules. It meant that the adjacency of the two CTL epitopes did not interfere with the specific process and presentation of each epitope. Compared with the ordinary CTL studies that inoculated synthesized epitope peptides with peripheral blood cells, this work aimed to process the epitopes directly inside HLA class I allele specific human cells, and thus theoretically imitated the same procedure in vivo. It was also an economical way to predict the immunogenicity of CTL epitopes at an early stage especially in laboratories with limited financial resource.

  7. Human infections and detection of Plasmodium knowlesi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Balbir; Daneshvar, Cyrus

    2013-04-01

    Plasmodium knowlesi is a malaria parasite that is found in nature in long-tailed and pig-tailed macaques. Naturally acquired human infections were thought to be extremely rare until a large focus of human infections was reported in 2004 in Sarawak, Malaysian Borneo. Human infections have since been described throughout Southeast Asia, and P. knowlesi is now recognized as the fifth species of Plasmodium causing malaria in humans. The molecular, entomological, and epidemiological data indicate that human infections with P. knowlesi are not newly emergent and that knowlesi malaria is primarily a zoonosis. Human infections were undiagnosed until molecular detection methods that could distinguish P. knowlesi from the morphologically similar human malaria parasite P. malariae became available. P. knowlesi infections cause a spectrum of disease and are potentially fatal, but if detected early enough, infections in humans are readily treatable. In this review on knowlesi malaria, we describe the early studies on P. knowlesi and focus on the epidemiology, diagnosis, clinical aspects, and treatment of knowlesi malaria. We also discuss the gaps in our knowledge and the challenges that lie ahead in studying the epidemiology and pathogenesis of knowlesi malaria and in the prevention and control of this zoonotic infection.

  8. Plasmodium vivax malaria during pregnancy, Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brutus, Laurent; Santalla, José; Schneider, Dominique; Avila, Juan Carlos; Deloron, Philippe

    2013-10-01

    Plasmodium vivax is a major cause of illness in areas with low transmission of malaria in Latin America, Asia, and the Horn of Africa. However, pregnancy-associated malaria remains poorly characterized in such areas. Using a hospital-based survey of women giving birth and an antenatal survey, we assessed the prevalence rates of Plasmodium spp. infections in pregnant women in Bolivia, and evaluated the consequences of malaria during pregnancy on the health of mothers and newborns. P. vivax infection was detected in 7.9% of pregnant women attending antenatal visits, and placental infection occurred in 2.8% of deliveries; these rates did not vary with parity. Forty-two percent of all P. vivax malaria episodes were symptomatic. P. vivax-infected pregnant women were frequently anemic (6.5%) and delivered babies of reduced birthweight. P. vivax infections during pregnancy are clearly associated with serious adverse outcomes and should be considered in prevention strategies of pregnancy-associated malaria.

  9. Severe Plasmodium knowlesi with dengue coinfection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Che Rahim, Mohd Jazman; Mohammad, Nurashikin; Besari, Alwi Muhd; Wan Ghazali, Wan Syamimee

    2017-02-20

    We report a case of severe Plasmodium knowlesi and dengue coinfection in a previously healthy 59-year-old Malay man who presented with worsening shortness of breath, high-grade fever with chills and rigors, dry cough, myalgia, arthralgia, chest discomfort and poor appetite of 1 week duration. There was a history mosquito fogging around his neighbourhood in his hometown. Further history revealed that he went to a forest in Jeli (northern part of Kelantan) 3 weeks prior to the event. Initially he was treated as severe dengue with plasma leakage complicated with type 1 respiratory failure as evidenced by positive serum NS1-antigen and thrombocytopenia. Blood for malarial parasite (BFMP) was sent for test as there was suspicion of malaria due to persistent thrombocytopenia despite recovering from dengue infection and the presence of a risk factor. The test revealed high count of malaria parasite. Confirmatory PCR identified the parasite to be Plasmodium knowlesi Intravenous artesunate was administered to the patient immediately after acquiring the BFMP result. Severe malaria was complicated with acute kidney injury and septicaemic shock. Fortunately the patient made full recovery and was discharged from the ward after 2 weeks of hospitalisation. 2017 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  10. RETINAL HAEMORRHAGE IN PLASMODIUM VIVAX PATIENTS- 2 RARE CASE REPORTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangeeta

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Retinal haemorrhage is commonly detected during opht halmoscopic examination of patients with Plasmodium falciparum infections. Ho wever, it is observed very rarely in Plasmodium vivax infections. Only six cases of reti nal haemorrhage have been reported so far in Plasmodium vivax infections. We review the literatu re and discuss two such cases of retinal haemorrhage that presented at our hospital. It is sug gested that retinal haemorrhage be routinely ruled out in all malaria patients, and Pla smodium vivax infection be considered in patients with unexplained retinal haemorrhage and fev er.

  11. Plasmodium falciparum full life cycle and Plasmodium ovale liver stages in humanized mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soulard, Valérie; Bosson-Vanga, Henriette; Lorthiois, Audrey; Roucher, Clémentine; Franetich, Jean- François; Zanghi, Gigliola; Bordessoulles, Mallaury; Tefit, Maurel; Thellier, Marc; Morosan, Serban; Le Naour, Gilles; Capron, Frédérique; Suemizu, Hiroshi; Snounou, Georges; Moreno-Sabater, Alicia; Mazier, Dominique

    2015-01-01

    Experimental studies of Plasmodium parasites that infect humans are restricted by their host specificity. Humanized mice offer a means to overcome this and further provide the opportunity to observe the parasites in vivo. Here we improve on previous protocols to achieve efficient double engraftment of TK-NOG mice by human primary hepatocytes and red blood cells. Thus, we obtain the complete hepatic development of P. falciparum, the transition to the erythrocytic stages, their subsequent multiplication, and the appearance of mature gametocytes over an extended period of observation. Furthermore, using sporozoites derived from two P. ovale-infected patients, we show that human hepatocytes engrafted in TK-NOG mice sustain maturation of the liver stages, and the presence of late-developing schizonts indicate the eventual activation of quiescent parasites. Thus, TK-NOG mice are highly suited for in vivo observations on the Plasmodium species of humans. PMID:26205537

  12. Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum are Common Malaria Species in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tauseef Ahmad

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The microbes have a diverse nature, it makes human laugh and cry. Some microbes are fruitful for humans while others are harmful. Infectious diseases are a key problem in the modern world. In the last few decades, million of peoples have died from different diseases, including bacterial, viral, fungal, parasitic, etc. Among these diseases, malaria is one of the major health problems for developing countries including Pakistan. This study was undertaken to provide baseline information about the prevalence of malaria, species distribution and to contribute to the data regarding epidemiology in Pakistan. For a collection of literature, the electronic search engine was used, using different key words i.e. prevalence, species distribution, epidemiology of malaria in Pakistan, etc. The time frame of the obtained articles was from 2000 to 2014. The two species of malaria Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum are common in Pakistan. [Biomed Res Ther 2016; 3(6.000: 666-672

  13. Structure of self-gravity wakes in Saturn's A ring as measured by Cassini CIRS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, C.; Brooks, S.; Edgington, S.; Leyrat, C.; Pilorz, S.; Spilker, L.

    2009-01-01

    The CIRS infrared spectrometer onboard the Cassini spacecraft has scanned Saturn's A ring azimuthally from several viewing angles since its orbit insertion in 2004. A quadrupolar asymmetry has been detected in this ring at spacecraft elevations ranging between 16° to 37°. Its fractional amplitude decreases from 22% to 8% from 20° to 37° elevations. The patterns observed in two almost complete azimuthal scans at elevations 20° and 36° strongly favor the self-gravity wakes as the origin of the asymmetry. The elliptical, infinite cylinder model of Hedman et al. [Hedman, M.M., Nicholson, P.D., Salo, H., Wallis, B.D., Buratti, B.J., Baines, K.H., Brown, R.H., Clark, R.N., 2007. Astron. J. 133, 2624-2629] can reproduce the CIRS observations well. Such wakes are found to have an average height-to-spacing ratio H/λ=0.1607±0.0002, a width-over-spacing W/λ=0.3833±0.0008. Gaps between wakes, which are filled with particles, have an optical depth τ=0.1231±0.0005. The wakes mean pitch angle Φ is 70.70°±0.07°, relative to the radial direction. The comparison of ground-based visible data with CIRS observations constrains the A ring to be a monolayer. For a surface mass density of 40 g cm -2 [Tiscarino, M.S., Burns, J.A., Nicholson, P.D., Hedman, M.M., Porco, C.C., 2007. Icarus 189, 14-34], the expected spacing of wakes is λ≈60 m. Their height and width would then be H≈10 m and W≈24 m, values that match the maximum size of particles in this ring as determined from ground-based stellar occultations [French, R.G., Nicholson, P.D., 2000. Icarus 145, 502-523].

  14. Relativistic electron acceleration during HILDCAA events: are precursor CIR magnetic storms important?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajra, Rajkumar; Tsurutani, Bruce T.; Echer, Ezequiel; Gonzalez, Walter D.; Brum, Christiano Garnett Marques; Vieira, Luis Eduardo Antunes; Santolik, Ondrej

    2015-07-01

    We present a comparative study of high-intensity long-duration continuous AE activity (HILDCAA) events, both isolated and those occurring in the "recovery phase" of geomagnetic storms induced by corotating interaction regions (CIRs). The aim of this study is to determine the difference, if any, in relativistic electron acceleration and magnetospheric energy deposition. All HILDCAA events in solar cycle 23 (from 1995 through 2008) are used in this study. Isolated HILDCAA events are characterized by enhanced fluxes of relativistic electrons compared to the pre-event flux levels. CIR magnetic storms followed by HILDCAA events show almost the same relativistic electron signatures. Cluster 1 spacecraft showed the presence of intense whistler-mode chorus waves in the outer magnetosphere during all HILDCAA intervals (when Cluster data were available). The storm-related HILDCAA events are characterized by slightly lower solar wind input energy and larger magnetospheric/ionospheric dissipation energy compared with the isolated events. A quantitative assessment shows that the mean ring current dissipation is ~34 % higher for the storm-related events relative to the isolated events, whereas Joule heating and auroral precipitation display no (statistically) distinguishable differences. On the average, the isolated events are found to be comparatively weaker and shorter than the storm-related events, although the geomagnetic characteristics of both classes of events bear no statistically significant difference. It is concluded that the CIR storms preceding the HILDCAAs have little to do with the acceleration of relativistic electrons. Our hypothesis is that ~10-100-keV electrons are sporadically injected into the magnetosphere during HILDCAA events, the anisotropic electrons continuously generate electromagnetic chorus plasma waves, and the chorus then continuously accelerates the high-energy portion of this electron spectrum to MeV energies.

  15. [Critical incidents in preclinical emergency airway management : Evaluation of the CIRS emergency medicine databank].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohenstein, C; Schultheis, K; Winning, J; Rupp, P; Fleischmann, T

    2013-09-01

    Many patients are victims of disastrous incidents during medical interventions. One of the obligations of physicians is to identify these incidents and to subsequently develop preventive strategies in order to prevent future events. Airway management and prehospital emergency medicine are of particular interest as both categories frequently show very dynamic developments. Incidents in this particular area can lead to serious injury but at the same time it has never been analyzed what kind of incidents might harm patients during prehospital airway management. The German website http://www.cirs-notfallmedizin.de (CIRS critical incident reporting systems) offers anonymous reporting of critical incidents in prehospital emergency medicine. All incidents reported between 2005 and 2012 were screened to identify those which were concerned with airway management and four experts in this field analyzed the incidents and performed a root cause analysis. The database contained 845 reports. The authors considered 144 reports to be airway management related and identified 10 root causes: indications for intubation but no intubation performed (n = 8), no indications for intubation but intubation attempt performed (n = 7), wrong medication (n = 25), insufficient practical skills (n = 46), no use of alternative airway management (n = 7), insufficient handling before or after intubation (n = 27), defect equipment (n = 28), lack of equipment (n = 31), others (n = 18) and factors that cannot be influenced (n = 12). The incidents that were reported via the website http://www.cirs-notfallmedizin.de and that occurred during airway management in prehospital emergency medicine are described. To improve practical airway management skills of emergency physicians are one of the most important tasks in order to prevent critical incidents and are discussed in the article.

  16. Pólipos de pregas vocais: aspectos clínicos e cirúrgicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecatto Suzana B.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Introdução: O pólipo de prega vocal representa uma lesão benigna comum da laringe e o seu tratamento tem diversas modalidades. O objetivo deste artigo é apresentar aspectos clínicos e cirúrgicos específicos destes pólipos. Forma de estudo: Clínico retrospectivo. Material e Método: Levantamento retrospectivo de todos os casos atendidos no ambulatório de laringe da Faculdade de Medicina do ABC durante 18 meses e análise completa de todos os dados obtidos. Discutimos ainda as possibilidades terapêuticas e os resultados relatados na literatura. Resultados: Foram atendidos 108 pacientes no período acima e o diagnóstico mais prevalente foi pólipo de prega vocal (29,62%; n = 32, sem predileção por sexo. O principal sintoma referido foi disfonia (100% e em 56,25% o tabagismo estava presente, seguido de abuso vocal (25%. Vinte seis pacientes (81,25% foram tratados por microcirurgia de laringe com laringoscópio de suspensão sob anestesia geral e fonoterapia pós-cirúrgica, além de higiene vocal e tratamento medicamentoso quando necessário. Em 95% destes houve melhora da qualidade vocal após 60 dias de pós-operatório. Conclusões: O tratamento cirúrgico do pólipo de prega vocal apresenta diversas modalidades, porém o sucesso terapêutico depende da habilidade técnica do cirurgião, dos cuidados pós-operatórios e seguimento completo fonoterápico e medicamentoso.

  17. Water Vapor in Titan’s Stratosphere from Cassini CIRS Far-infrared Spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottini, Valeria; Nixon, C. A.; Jennings, D. E.; Anderson, C. M.; Gorius, N.; Bjoraker, G. L.; Coustenis, A.; Teanby, N. A.; Achterberg, R. K.; Bézard, B.; de Kok, R.; Lellouch, E.; Irwin, P. G. J.; Flasar, F. M.; Bampasidis, G.

    2012-10-01

    We will report the measurement of water vapor in Titan’s stratosphere (Cottini et al. 2012), using the Cassini Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS, Flasar et al. 2004). CIRS senses water emissions in the far infrared spectral region near 50 microns, which we have modeled using a radiative transfer code (NEMESIS, Irwin et al. 2008). From the analysis of nadir spectra we have derived a mixing ratio of 0.14 ± 0.05 ppb at an altitude of 97 km, which corresponds to an integrated (from 0 to 600 km) surface normalized column abundance of 3.7±1.3 × 1014 molecules/cm2. In the latitude range 80°S to 30°N we see no evidence for latitudinal variations in these abundances within the error bars. Using limb observations, we obtained mixing ratios of 0.13 ± 0.04 ppb at an altitude of 115 km and 0.45 ± 0.15 ppb at an altitude of 230 km, confirming that the water abundance has a positive vertical gradient as predicted by previous photochemical models. We have also fitted our data using scaling factors of 0.1-0.6 to these photochemical model profiles, indicating that the models over-predict the water abundance in Titan’s lower stratosphere. Valeria Cottini is supported by the NASA Postdoctoral Program. References Cottini V. et al., 2012. Detection of water vapor in Titan’s atmosphere from Cassini/CIRS infrared spectra. Icarus, 220, 2, 855-862 Flasar, F.M., and 44 colleagues, 2004. Exploring the Saturn system in the thermal infrared: The Composite Infrared Spectrometer. Space Sci. Rev., 115, 169-297 Irwin, P.G.J., et al., 2008. The NEMESIS planetary atmosphere radiative transfer and retrieval tool. J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Trans., 109, 1136-1150.

  18. Plasmodium species: master renovators of their host cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Koning-Ward, Tania F; Dixon, Matthew W A; Tilley, Leann; Gilson, Paul R

    2016-08-01

    Plasmodium parasites, the causative agents of malaria, have developed elaborate strategies that they use to survive and thrive within different intracellular environments. During the blood stage of infection, the parasite is a master renovator of its erythrocyte host cell, and the changes in cell morphology and function that are induced by the parasite promote survival and contribute to the pathogenesis of severe malaria. In this Review, we discuss how Plasmodium parasites use the protein trafficking motif Plasmodium export element (PEXEL), protease-mediated polypeptide processing, a novel translocon termed the Plasmodium translocon of exported proteins (PTEX) and exomembranous structures to export hundreds of proteins to discrete subcellular locations in the host erythrocytes, which enables the parasite to gain access to vital nutrients and to evade the immune defence mechanisms of the host.

  19. STUDY ON RELATIVE ABUNDANCE OF Plasmodium SPECIES: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    2013-06-01

    Jun 1, 2013 ... Keywords: abundance, plasmodium, relative, thin blood film, malaria control programmes. INTRODUCTION ... When an infected female Anopheles mosquito bites a ... the understanding of the type of infection as well as.

  20. Plasmodium infection in a Leadbeater's possum (Gymnobelideus leadbeateri).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheelings, T F; McLaren, P J; Tatarczuch, L; Slocombe, R F

    2016-08-01

    A wild-caught, adult female Leadbeater's possum (Gymnobelideus leadbeateri) died while in captivity after suffering from chronic ill-thrift that progressed to acute respiratory distress. On histopathological examination of tissues, the cause of death was determined to be severe acute pneumonia with pulmonary oedema associated with an intracellular protozoan parasite present within erythrocytes. Transmission electron microscopy was performed on lung tissues and organisms consistent for Plasmodium sp. were identified within numerous erythrocytes. Molecular characterisation of the parasite from DNA extracted from tissue blocks of fixed lung determined the organism to belong to the genus Plasmodium (100% similarity to Plasmodium species when a BLAST analysis was performed); however, speciation of the organism was not possible. This is the first report of Plasmodium sp. infection and subsequent disease in a native Australian mammal. The lifecycle of this parasite remains unknown. It is also unknown what effects haemoparasitism may have on the population dynamics of this endangered possum species. © 2016 Australian Veterinary Association.

  1. International population movements and regional Plasmodium falciparum malaria elimination strategies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Andrew J. Tatem; David L. Smith; Susan Hanson

    2010-01-01

    ... to areas targeted for elimination. Here, census-based migration data were analyzed with network analysis tools, Plasmodium falciparum malaria transmission maps, and global population databases to map globally communities of countries...

  2. Peripheral blood cell signatures of Plasmodium falciparum infection during pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibitokou, Samad; Oesterholt, Mayke; Brutus, Laurent;

    2012-01-01

    Sequestration of Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes in placental intervillous spaces causes inflammation and pathology. Knowledge of the profiles of immune cells associated with the physiopathology of pregnancy-associated malaria (PAM) is scarce. We conducted a longitudinal, prospective...

  3. Heterologous Protection against Malaria after Immunization with Plasmodium falciparum Sporozoites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schats, R.; Bijker, E.M.; Gemert, G.J.A. van; Graumans, W.; Vegte-Bolmer, M. van de; Lieshout, L. van; Haks, M.C.; Hermsen, C.C.; Scholzen, A.; Visser, L.G.; Sauerwein, R.W.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Sterile protection in >90% of volunteers against homologous Plasmodium falciparum infection has been achieved only using the controlled human malaria infection (CHMI) model. This efficient model involves whole parasite immunizations under chloroquine prophylaxis (CPS-immunization),

  4. Guillain-Barré syndrome in Plasmodium falciparum malaria.

    OpenAIRE

    Wijesundere, A.

    1992-01-01

    A patient with Plasmodium falciparum malaria developed peripheral neuropathy. Clinical, cerebro-spinal fluid examination and nerve conduction studies confirmed Guillain-Barré syndrome, not previously reported in P. falciparum malaria.

  5. Anti-Plasmodium activity of ceramide analogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gatt Shimon

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sphingolipids are key molecules regulating many essential functions in eukaryotic cells and ceramide plays a central role in sphingolipid metabolism. A sphingolipid metabolism occurs in the intraerythrocytic stages of Plasmodium falciparum and is associated with essential biological processes. It constitutes an attractive and potential target for the development of new antimalarial drugs. Methods The anti-Plasmodium activity of a series of ceramide analogs containing different linkages (amide, methylene or thiourea linkages between the fatty acid part of ceramide and the sphingoid core was investigated in culture and compared to the sphingolipid analog PPMP (d,1-threo-1-phenyl-2-palmitoylamino-3-morpholino-1-propanol. This analog is known to inhibit the parasite sphingomyelin synthase activity and block parasite development by preventing the formation of the tubovesicular network that extends from the parasitophorous vacuole to the red cell membrane and delivers essential extracellular nutrients to the parasite. Results Analogs containing methylene linkage showed a considerably higher anti-Plasmodium activity (IC50 in the low nanomolar range than PPMP and their counterparts with a natural amide linkage (IC50 in the micromolar range. The methylene analogs blocked irreversibly P. falciparum development leading to parasite eradication in contrast to PPMP whose effect is cytostatic. A high sensitivity of action towards the parasite was observed when compared to their effect on the human MRC-5 cell growth. The toxicity towards parasites did not correlate with the inhibition by methylene analogs of the parasite sphingomyelin synthase activity and the tubovesicular network formation, indicating that this enzyme is not their primary target. Conclusions It has been shown that ceramide analogs were potent inhibitors of P. falciparum growth in culture. Interestingly, the nature of the linkage between the fatty acid part and the

  6. Placental histopathological changes associated with Plasmodium vivax infection during pregnancy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo M Souza

    Full Text Available Histological evidence of Plasmodium in the placenta is indicative of placental malaria, a condition associated with severe outcomes for mother and child. Histological lesions found in placentas from Plasmodium-exposed women include syncytial knotting, syncytial rupture, thickening of the placental barrier, necrosis of villous tissue and intervillositis. These histological changes have been associated with P. falciparum infections, but little is known about the contribution of P. vivax to such changes. We conducted a cross-sectional study with pregnant women at delivery and assigned them to three groups according to their Plasmodium exposure during pregnancy: no Plasmodium exposure (n = 41, P. vivax exposure (n = 59 or P. falciparum exposure (n = 19. We evaluated their placentas for signs of Plasmodium and placental lesions using ten histological parameters: syncytial knotting, syncytial rupture, placental barrier thickness, villi necrosis, intervillous space area, intervillous leucocytes, intervillous mononucleates, intervillous polymorphonucleates, parasitized erythrocytes and hemozoin. Placentas from P. vivax-exposed women showed little evidence of Plasmodium or hemozoin but still exhibited more lesions than placentas from women not exposed to Plasmodium, especially when infections occurred twice or more during pregnancy. In the Brazilian state of Acre, where diagnosis and primary treatment are readily available and placental lesions occur in the absence of detected placental parasites, relying on the presence of Plasmodium in the placenta to evaluate Plasmodium-induced placental pathology is not feasible. Multivariate logistic analysis revealed that syncytial knotting (odds ratio [OR], 4.21, P = 0.045, placental barrier thickness (OR, 25.59, P = 0.021 and mononuclear cells (OR, 4.02, P = 0.046 were increased in placentas from P. vivax-exposed women when compared to women not exposed to Plasmodium during pregnancy. A

  7. Transplante renal heterotópico: técnica cirúrgica

    OpenAIRE

    Botelho, Marco Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Trabalho final de mestrado integrado em Medicina, apresentado à Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de Coimbra. A implementação do transplante como terapêutica curativa, permitiu alcançar um patamar de cuidados que visam manter uma elevada qualidade e expectativa de vida. Daí decorre o objectivo deste artigo, que passa por sequenciar os procedimentos inerentes à técnica cirúrgica e às suas especificidades. A pesquisa bibliográfica teve como fontes essenciais a base de dados do Pubmed ...

  8. Tratamento cirúrgico da laringomalácia grave: estudo retrospectivo de 11 casos

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    A laringomalácia é a anomalia congênita da laringe mais frequente, sendo responsável por cerca de 60% a 75% dos casos de estridor congênito. Apesar de seu curso benigno e autolimitado, 10% dos casos necessitam de intervenção. Atualmente, as supraglotoplastias são consideradas o tratamento padrão da laringomalácia grave. OBJETIVO: Descrever a experiência adquirida pelos autores no tratamento cirúrgico dos pacientes com laringomalá...

  9. Water vapor on Titan: the stratospheric vertical profile from Cassini/CIRS infrared spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottini, V.; Jennings, D. E.; Nixon, C. A.; Anderson, C. M.; Gorius, N.; Bjoraker, G. L.; Coustenis, A.; Achterberg, R. K.; Teanby, N. A.; de Kok, R.; Irwin, P. G. J.; Bézard, B.; Lellouch, E.; Flasar, F. M.; Bampasidis, G.

    2012-04-01

    Water vapor in Titan’s middle atmosphere has previously been detected only by disk-average observations from the Infrared Space Observatory (Coustenis et al., 1998). We report here the successful detection of stratospheric water vapor using the Cassini Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS, Flasar et al., 2004) following an earlier null result (de Kok et al., 2007a). CIRS senses water emissions in the far-infrared spectral region near 50 microns, which we have modeled using two independent radiative transfer and inversion codes (NEMESIS, Irwin et al 2008 and ART, Coustenis et al., 2010). From the analysis of nadir spectra we have derived a mixing ratio of (0.14 ± 0.05) ppb at 100 km, corresponding to a column abundance of approximately (3.7 ± 1.3) × 10^14 mol/cm2. Using limb observations, we obtained mixing ratios of (0.13 ± 0.04) ppb at 125 km and (0.45 ± 0.15) ppb at 225 km of altitude, confirming that the water abundance has a positive vertical gradient as predicted by photochemical models. In the latitude range (80˚S - 30˚N) we see no evidence for latitudinal variations in these abundances within the error bars. References: Coustenis, A.; Salama, A.; Lellouch, E.; Encrenaz, Th.; Bjoraker, G. L.; Samuelson, R. E.; de Graauw, Th.; Feuchtgruber, H.; Kessler, M. F., 1998. Evidence for water vapor in Titan's atmosphere from ISO/SWS data. Astronomy and Astrophysics, v.336, p.L85-L89 Coustenis, A.; Jennings, D. E.; Nixon, C. A.; Achterberg, R. K.; Lavvas, P.; Vinatier, S.; Teanby, N. A.; Bjoraker, G. L.; Carlson, R. C.; Piani, L.; Bampasidis, G.; Flasar, F. M.; Romani, P. N., 2010. Titan trace gaseous composition from CIRS at the end of the Cassini-Huygens prime mission. Icarus, Volume 207, Issue 1, p. 461-476. de Kok, R.; Irwin, P. G. J.; Teanby, N. A.; Lellouch, E.; Bézard, B.; Vinatier, S.; Nixon, C. A.; Fletcher, L.; Howett, C.; Calcutt, S. B.; Bowles, N. E.; Flasar, F. M.; Taylor, F. W. , 2007a. Oxygen compounds in Titan's stratosphere as observed by

  10. Tratamento cirúrgico da meralgia parestésica: relato de caso

    OpenAIRE

    Holanda Maurus Marques de Almeida; Meira Ussânio Mororó; Magalhães Francisco Neuton de Oliveira; Silva José Alberto Gonçalves da

    2003-01-01

    Meralgia parestésica é caracterizada por dor, parestesia ou queimação e diminuição da sensibilidade táctil e dolorosa na face antero- lateral da coxa. Isto ocorre por uma neuropatia do nervo cutâneo femural lateral (NCFL). O tratamento conservador é frequentemente bem sucedido aliviando os sintomas na maioria dos pacientes. Descrevemos o caso de uma paciente de 37 anos de idade que necessitou de tratamento cirúrgico pelos sintomas intratáveis. Apesar da neurólise com transposição ser o proced...

  11. Estresse ocupacional entre profissionais de enfermagem do bloco cirúrgico

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Estudo descritivo e correlacional, de corte transversal cujos objetivos foram avaliar a presença de estresse ocupacional entre os profissionais de enfermagem do bloco cirúrgico e possíveis associações entre o estresse ocupacional e as características profissionais. O modelo Demanda-Controle de Karasek foi utilizado para essa avaliação. A amostra foi constituída por 211 trabalhadores de enfermagem de 11 hospitais da cidade de Londrina-PR, os quais responderam a Job Stress Scale. A coleta de da...

  12. Broad-band X-ray observations of CIR X-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maisack, M.; Staubert, R.; Balucinska-Church, M.; Skinner, G.; Doebereiner, S.; Englhauser, J.; Aref'ev, V. A.; Efremov, V. V.; Sunyaev, R. A.

    1995-08-01

    We present broad-band (2-88 keV) X-ray observations of the X-ray binary Cir X-1 with the TTM and HEXE instruments on board of the Mir space station. The observations were made in January/February 1989. The spectrum is best described by a model with 3 components: a blackbody at low energies, an iron line and a Comptonized hard continuum. The spectrum is variable during our observations; when the Comptonized component becomes harder, the spectrum becomes softer below 15 keV. The high-energy spectrum resembles that of X-ray binary pulsars.

  13. Gadamer : fundamentando uma proposta para o estudo do estresse no bloco cirúrgico

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    Este artigo faz uma reflexão sobre fundamentação filosófica sustentando a metodologia para estudar o estresse dos profissionais que trabalham no Bloco Cirúrgico. A pesquisa qualitativa permite acesso compreensivo ao mundo de cada sujeito e desvela a percepção individual de quem vivencia o fenômeno. Gadamer entende que a linguagem revela e serve para avaliar devidamente, por meio da hermenêutica, a dimensão simbólica do discurso dos sujeitos. A hermenêutica não é só uma simples teoria da arte ...

  14. The circular RNA ciRS-7 promotes APP and BACE1 degradation in an NF-κB-dependent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Zhemin; Chen, Ting; Yao, Qingbin; Zheng, Lina; Zhang, Zhen; Wang, Jingzhao; Hu, Zhimei; Cui, Hongmei; Han, Yawei; Han, Xiaohui; Zhang, Kun; Hong, Wei

    2017-03-13

    The aberrant accumulation of β-amyloid peptide (Aβ) in the brain is a key feature of Alzheimer's disease (AD), and enhanced cleavage of β-amyloid precursor protein (APP) by β-site APP-cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1) has a major causative role in AD. Despite their prominence in AD pathogenesis, the regulation of BACE1 and APP is incompletely understood. In this study, we report that the circular RNA circular RNA sponge for miR-7 (ciRS-7) has an important role in regulating BACE1 and APP protein levels. Previous studies have shown that ciRS-7, which is highly expressed in the human brain, is down-regulated in the brain of people with AD but the relevance of this finding was not clear. We have found that ciRS-7 is not involved in the regulation of APP and BACE1 gene expression, but instead reduces the protein levels of APP and BACE1 by promoting their degradation via the proteasome and lysosome. Consequently, overexpression of ciRS-7 reduces the generation of Aβ, indicating a potential neuroprotective role of ciRS-7. Our data also suggest that ciRS-7 modulates APP and BACE1 levels in a nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB)-dependent manner: ciRS-7 expression inhibits translation of NF-κB and induces its cytoplasmic localization, thus derepressing expression of UCHL1, which promotes APP and BACE1 degradation. Additionally, we demonstrated that APP reduces the level of ciRS-7, revealing a mutual regulation of ciRS-7 and APP. Taken together, our data provide a molecular mechanism implicating reduced ciRS-7 expression in AD, suggesting that ciRS-7 may represent a useful target in the development of therapeutic strategies for AD.

  15. Limitations of microscopy to differentiate Plasmodium species in a region co-endemic for Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium knowlesi

    OpenAIRE

    Barber Bridget E; William Timothy; Grigg Matthew J; Yeo Tsin W; Anstey Nicholas M

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background In areas co-endemic for multiple Plasmodium species, correct diagnosis is crucial for appropriate treatment and surveillance. Species misidentification by microscopy has been reported in areas co-endemic for vivax and falciparum malaria, and may be more frequent in regions where Plasmodium knowlesi also commonly occurs. Methods This prospective study in Sabah, Malaysia, evaluated the accuracy of routine district and referral hospital-based microscopy, and microscopy perfor...

  16. Desferrioxamine suppresses Plasmodium falciparum in Aotus monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollack, S; Rossan, R N; Davidson, D E; Escajadillo, A

    1987-02-01

    Clinical observation has suggested that iron deficiency may be protective in malaria, and we have found that desferrioxamine (DF), an iron-specific chelating agent, inhibited Plasmodium falciparum growth in vitro. It was difficult to be confident that DF would be effective in an intact animal, however, because continuous exposure to DF was required in vitro and, in vivo, DF is rapidly excreted. Also, the in vitro effect of DF was overcome by addition of iron to the culture and in vivo there are potentially high local iron concentrations when iron is absorbed from the diet or released from reticuloendothelial cells. We now show that DF given by constant subcutaneous infusion does suppress parasitemia in P. falciparum-infected Aotus monkeys.

  17. Development of vaccines for Plasmodium vivax malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Ivo; Shakri, Ahmad Rushdi; Chitnis, Chetan E

    2015-12-22

    Plasmodium vivax continues to cause significant morbidity outside Africa with more than 50% of malaria cases in many parts of South and South-east Asia, Pacific islands, Central and South America being attributed to P. vivax infections. The unique biology of P. vivax, including its ability to form latent hypnozoites that emerge months to years later to cause blood stage infections, early appearance of gametocytes before clinical symptoms are apparent and a shorter development cycle in the vector makes elimination of P. vivax using standard control tools difficult. The availability of an effective vaccine that provides protection and prevents transmission would be a valuable tool in efforts to eliminate P. vivax. Here, we review the latest developments related to P. vivax malaria vaccines and discuss the challenges as well as directions toward the goal of developing highly efficacious vaccines against P. vivax malaria.

  18. Wanted Plasmodium falciparum, dead or alive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatimata Sow

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Mechanisms of cell death in unicellular parasites have been subjects of debate for the last decade, with studies demonstrating evidence of apoptosis or non-apoptosis like mechanisms, including necrosis, and autophagy. Recent clarifications on the definition of regulated or accidental cell death by The Nomenclature Committee on Cell Death provides an opportunity to reanalyze some data, re-evaluate conclusions in the light of parasite diversity, and to propose alternative arguments in the context of malaria drug resistance, considering lack of really new drugs in the pipeline. Deciphering the mechanisms of death may help in detection of new drug targets and the design of innovative drugs. However, classifications have been evolving rapidly since initial description of “programmed cell death”, leading to some uncertainty as to whether Plasmodium cell death is accidental or regulated.

  19. Plasmodium falciparum drug resistance in Angola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fançony, Cláudia; Brito, Miguel; Gil, Jose Pedro

    2016-02-09

    Facing chloroquine drug resistance, Angola promptly adopted artemisinin-based combination therapy as the first-line to treat malaria. Currently, the country aims to consolidate malaria control, while preparing for the elimination of the disease, along with others African countries in the region. However, the remarkable capacity of Plasmodium to develop drug resistance represents an alarming threat for those achievements. Herein, the available, but relatively scarce and dispersed, information on malaria drug resistance in Angola, is reviewed and discussed. The review aims to inform but also to encourage future research studies that monitor and update the information on anti-malarial drug efficacy and prevalence of molecular markers of drug resistance, key fields in the context and objectives of elimination.

  20. Gametocytogenesis : the puberty of Plasmodium falciparum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariey Frédéric

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The protozoan Plasmodium falciparum has a complex life cycle in which asexual multiplication in the vertebrate host alternates with an obligate sexual reproduction in the anopheline mosquito. Apart from the apparent recombination advantages conferred by sex, P. falciparum has evolved a remarkable biology and adaptive phenotypes to insure its transmission despite the dangers of sex. This review mainly focuses on the current knowledge on commitment to sexual development, gametocytogenesis and the evolutionary significance of various aspects of gametocyte biology. It goes further than pure biology to look at the strategies used to improve successful transmission. Although gametocytes are inevitable stages for transmission and provide a potential target to fight malaria, they have received less attention than the pathogenic asexual stages. There is a need for research on gametocytes, which are a fascinating stage, responsible to a large extent for the success of P. falciparum.

  1. Epidemiology of Plasmodium vivax Malaria in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosas-Aguirre, Angel; Gamboa, Dionicia; Manrique, Paulo; Conn, Jan E; Moreno, Marta; Lescano, Andres G; Sanchez, Juan F; Rodriguez, Hugo; Silva, Hermann; Llanos-Cuentas, Alejandro; Vinetz, Joseph M

    2016-12-28

    Malaria in Peru, dominated by Plasmodium vivax, remains a public health problem. The 1990s saw newly epidemic malaria emerge, primarily in the Loreto Department in the Amazon region, including areas near to Iquitos, the capital city, but sporadic malaria transmission also occurred in the 1990s-2000s in both north-coastal Peru and the gold mining regions of southeastern Peru. Although a Global Fund-supported intervention (PAMAFRO, 2005-2010) was temporally associated with a decrease of malaria transmission, from 2012 to the present, both P. vivax and Plasmodium falciparum malaria cases have rapidly increased. The Peruvian Ministry of Health continues to provide artemesinin-based combination therapy for microscopy-confirmed cases of P. falciparum and chloroquine-primaquine for P. vivax Malaria transmission continues in remote areas nonetheless, where the mobility of humans and parasites facilitates continued reintroduction outside of ongoing surveillance activities, which is critical to address for future malaria control and elimination efforts. Ongoing P. vivax research gaps in Peru include the following: identification of asymptomatic parasitemics, quantification of the contribution of patent and subpatent parasitemics to mosquito transmission, diagnosis of nonparasitemic hypnozoite carriers, and implementation of surveillance for potential emergence of chloroquine- and 8-aminoquinoline-resistant P. vivax Clinical trials of tafenoquine in Peru have been promising, and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency in the region has not been observed to be a limitation to its use. Larger-scale challenges for P. vivax (and malaria in general) in Peru include logistical difficulties in accessing remote riverine populations, consequences of government policy and poverty trends, and obtaining international funding for malaria control and elimination.

  2. Plasmodium vivax adherence to placental glycosaminoglycans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kesinee Chotivanich

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Plasmodium vivax infections seldom kill directly but do cause indirect mortality by reducing birth weight and causing abortion. Cytoadherence and sequestration in the microvasculature are central to the pathogenesis of severe Plasmodium falciparum malaria, but the contribution of cytoadherence to pathology in other human malarias is less clear. METHODOLOGY: The adherence properties of P. vivax infected red blood cells (PvIRBC were evaluated under static and flow conditions. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: P. vivax isolates from 33 patients were studied. None adhered to immobilized CD36, ICAM-1, or thrombospondin, putative ligands for P. falciparum vascular cytoadherence, or umbilical vein endothelial cells, but all adhered to immobilized chondroitin sulphate A (CSA and hyaluronic acid (HA, the receptors for adhesion of P. falciparum in the placenta. PvIRBC also adhered to fresh placental cells (N = 5. Pre-incubation with chondroitinase prevented PvIRBC adherence to CSA, and reduced binding to HA, whereas preincubation with hyaluronidase prevented adherence to HA, but did not reduce binding to CSA significantly. Pre-incubation of PvIRBC with soluble CSA and HA reduced binding to the immobilized receptors and prevented placental binding. PvIRBC adhesion was prevented by pre-incubation with trypsin, inhibited by heparin, and reduced by EGTA. Under laminar flow conditions the mean (SD shear stress reducing maximum attachment by 50% was 0.06 (0.02 Pa but, having adhered, the PvIRBC could then resist detachment by stresses up to 5 Pa. At 37 °C adherence began approximately 16 hours after red cell invasion with maximal adherence at 30 hours. At 39 °C adherence began earlier and peaked at 24 hours. SIGNIFICANCE: Adherence of P. vivax-infected erythrocytes to glycosaminoglycans may contribute to the pathogenesis of vivax malaria and lead to intrauterine growth retardation.

  3. Epidemiology of Plasmodium vivax Malaria in Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosas-Aguirre, Angel; Gamboa, Dionicia; Manrique, Paulo; Conn, Jan E.; Moreno, Marta; Lescano, Andres G.; Sanchez, Juan F.; Rodriguez, Hugo; Silva, Hermann; Llanos-Cuentas, Alejandro; Vinetz, Joseph M.

    2016-01-01

    Malaria in Peru, dominated by Plasmodium vivax, remains a public health problem. The 1990s saw newly epidemic malaria emerge, primarily in the Loreto Department in the Amazon region, including areas near to Iquitos, the capital city, but sporadic malaria transmission also occurred in the 1990s–2000s in both north-coastal Peru and the gold mining regions of southeastern Peru. Although a Global Fund-supported intervention (PAMAFRO, 2005–2010) was temporally associated with a decrease of malaria transmission, from 2012 to the present, both P. vivax and Plasmodium falciparum malaria cases have rapidly increased. The Peruvian Ministry of Health continues to provide artemesinin-based combination therapy for microscopy-confirmed cases of P. falciparum and chloroquine–primaquine for P. vivax. Malaria transmission continues in remote areas nonetheless, where the mobility of humans and parasites facilitates continued reintroduction outside of ongoing surveillance activities, which is critical to address for future malaria control and elimination efforts. Ongoing P. vivax research gaps in Peru include the following: identification of asymptomatic parasitemics, quantification of the contribution of patent and subpatent parasitemics to mosquito transmission, diagnosis of nonparasitemic hypnozoite carriers, and implementation of surveillance for potential emergence of chloroquine- and 8-aminoquinoline-resistant P. vivax. Clinical trials of tafenoquine in Peru have been promising, and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency in the region has not been observed to be a limitation to its use. Larger-scale challenges for P. vivax (and malaria in general) in Peru include logistical difficulties in accessing remote riverine populations, consequences of government policy and poverty trends, and obtaining international funding for malaria control and elimination. PMID:27799639

  4. Discordance in drug resistance-associated mutation patterns in marker genes of Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium knowlesi during coinfections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyagi, Rupesh K; Das, Manoj K; Singh, Shiv S; Sharma, Yagya D

    2013-05-01

    Human Plasmodium knowlesi infections have been reported from several South-East Asian countries, excluding India, but its drug susceptibility profile in mixed-infection cases remains unknown. The chloroquine resistance transporter (CRT) and dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) genes of P. knowlesi and other Plasmodium species were sequenced from clinical isolates obtained from malaria patients living in the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, India. The merozoite surface protein-1 and 18S rRNA genes of P. knowlesi were also sequenced from these isolates. Among 445 samples analysed, only 53 of them had P. knowlesi-specific gene sequences. While 3 of the 53 cases (5.66%) had P. knowlesi monoinfection, the rest were coinfected with Plasmodium falciparum (86.79%, n = 46) or Plasmodium vivax (7.55%, n = 4), but none with Plasmodium malariae or Plasmodium ovale. There was discordance in the drug resistance-associated mutations among the coinfecting Plasmodium species. This is because the P. knowlesi isolates contained wild-type sequences, while P. falciparum isolates had mutations in the CRT and DHFR marker genes associated with a higher level of chloroquine and antifolate drug resistance, respectively. The mutation pattern indicates that the same patient, having a mixed infection, may be harbouring the drug-susceptible P. knowlesi parasite and a highly drug-resistant P. falciparum parasite. A larger human population in South-East Asia may be at risk of P. knowlesi infection than reported so far. The different drug susceptibility genotypes of P. knowlesi from its coinfecting Plasmodium species in mixed infections adds a new dimension to the malaria control programme, requiring formulation of an appropriate drug policy.

  5. 77 FR 51842 - Social Security Acquiescence Ruling (AR) 12-X(8); Petersen v. Astrue, 633 F.3d 633 (8th Cir. 2011...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-27

    ... ADMINISTRATION Social Security Acquiescence Ruling (AR) 12-X(8); Petersen v. Astrue, 633 F.3d 633 (8th Cir. 2011... Security. Acquiescence Ruling 12-X(8) Petersen v. Astrue, 633 F.3d 633 (8th Cir. 2011): Whether a National... noncovered employment under the Civil Service Retirement System (CSRS) is subject to the WEP. Statutory...

  6. Abordagem cirúrgica da efusão pleural parapneumônica e suas complicações

    OpenAIRE

    José Carlos Fraga; Peter Kim

    2002-01-01

    Objetivos: o tratamento cirúrgico do derrame parapneumônico na criança é controverso, sendo a abordagem baseada fundamentalmente na experiência pessoal e no pequeno número de casos relatados. O objetivo deste artigo é o de apresentar uma revisão bibliográfica dos principais trabalhos e experiência dos autores no tratamento cirúrgico do derrame parapneumônico na criança. Fonte dos dados: foram utilizados dados de artigos científicos pesquisados através dos bancos de dados Medline e Lilacs. Sín...

  7. Técnicas cirúrgicas para urolitíase obstrutiva em pequenos ruminantes: relato de casos

    OpenAIRE

    Dória,R.G.S.; P.A. Canola; Dias, D. P. M. [UNESP; Pereira, R. N.; C.A.A. Valadão

    2007-01-01

    Relataram-se dois casos em que a penectomia com transposição peniana perineal foram as técnicas cirúrgicas de escolha e que resultaram em 50% de sucesso. Quatro casos em que as cistotomias seguidas de cistostomias apresentaram 100% de sucesso, um caso em que só a cistotomia foi realizada e não se obteve sucesso, um caso em que apenas o tratamento clínico foi eficiente e dois casos em que houve 100% de insucesso, independentemente da técnica cirúrgica utilizada, devido ao quadro avançado de az...

  8. Protonation of phosphate on the surface of goethite as studied by CIR-FTIR and electrophoretic mobility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tejedor-Tejedor, M.I.; Anderson, M.A. (Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison (USA))

    1990-03-01

    CIR-FTIR in situ spectroscopic studies have provided evidence for the formation of three different type of complexes, protonated and nonprotonated bridging bidentate as well as a nonprotonated monodentate, between orthophosphate ions and surface Fe(III) of {alpha}-FeOOH particles in aqueous suspensions. The speciation of these complexes is a function of pH and phosphate surface coverage ({Lambda}). Furthermore, the combination of CIR-FTIR, adsorption isotherm, and electrophoretic mobility data allows them to calculate the intrinsic pK value (4.6) for the bridging bidentate iron phosphate surface complex.

  9. Tratamento cirúrgico do estrabismo: avaliação técnico-econômica

    OpenAIRE

    Rocha,Mônica Maria Vasconcelos

    2005-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Avaliar, do ponto de vista técnico-econômico, o tratamento cirúrgico da correção do estrabismo. MÉTODOS: Procedeu-se um levantamento retrospectivo, de forma consecutiva, dos prontuários médicos da Fundação Altino Ventura - Recife/PE. Incluíram-se 100 pacientes submetidos à cirurgia de estrabismo (janeiro de 2001 a fevereiro de 2003) e 100 submetidos à cirurgia de catarata (janeiro de 2003). Observou-se o tempo para a realização dos procedimentos cirúrgicos. Foi comparado o tempo par...

  10. Water Vapor in Titan's Stratosphere from Cassini CIRS Far-Infrared Spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottini, V.; Nixon, C. A.; Jennings, D. E.; Anderson, C. M.; Gorius, N.; Bjoraker, G. L.; Coustenis, A.; Teanby, N. A.; Achterberg, R. K.; Bezard, B.; deKok, R,; Lellouch, E.; Irwin, P. G. J.; Flasar, F. M.; Bampasidis, G.

    2012-01-01

    Here we report the measurement of water vapor in Titan's stratosphere using the Cassini Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS). CIRS senses water emissions in the far infrared spectral region near 50 micron, which we have modeled using two independent radiative transfer codes. From the analysis of nadir spectra we have derived a mixing ratio of 0.14 +/- 0.05 ppb at an altitude of 97 km, which corresponds to an integrated (from 0 to 600 km) surface normalized column abundance of 3.7 +/- 1.3 1014 molecules/cm2. In the latitude range 80S to 30N we see no evidence for latitudinal variations in these abundances within the error bars. Using limb observations, we obtained mixing ratios of 0.13 +/- 0.04 ppb at an altitude of 115 km and 0.45 +/- 0.15 ppb at an altitude of 230 km, confirming that the water abundance has a positive vertical gradient as predicted by photochemical models. We have also fitted our data using scaling factors of 0.1-0.6 to these photochemical model profiles, indicating that the models over-predict the water abundance in Titan's lower stratosphere.

  11. A humanização no cuidado com o cliente cirúrgico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosemari Ferigolo Medina

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available A compreensão e o respeito ao ser humano na sua individualidade, a preocupação com seus sentimentos, desejos e direitos e a busca pela melhora no cuidado com vistas à humanização na assistência ao cliente e familiar, orientou este trabalho respaldado na Teoria Humanística de Paterson & Zderad (1988, desenvolvido com quinze clientes cirúrgicos internados num Hospital de Santa Maria. O acompanhamento no pré-operatório procurou identificar e reduzir os fatores causadores de ansiedade, medo e desconfortos ocasionados frente à iminência do ato cirúrgico. Os elementos-chave utilizados, neste processo de humanização ao cliente e seu familiar, foram a capacidade de empatia e a comunicação, sendo esta, verbal ou não-verbal. A interação vivida junto aos clientes propiciou-nos unir o saber técnico (racionalidade instrumental à subjetividade (intuição e afeto, desenvolvendo, desse modo, uma assistência de enfermagem diferenciada, com maior apoio e presença, orientação e reflexão e, segurança e conforto ao cliente (ser humano assistido.

  12. Tratamento cirúrgico das valvopatias: parte 2 Valvopathies: surgical treatment. Part 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domingo M Braile

    1994-09-01

    Full Text Available Esta segunda parte abordará técnica operatória, conduta pós-operatória e reoperações de pacientes com valvopatias. Em Técnica Operatória são descritos os procedimentos de anestesia, a abordagem cirúrgica, que inclui a instalação da circulação extracorpórea, e as cirurgias das valvas mitral, aórtica, tricúspide e pulmonar. Em Conduta Pós-Operatória é relatada a rotina na Unidade de Terapia Intensiva, e em Reoperações é abordada a técnica cirúrgica.This second part will cover operative technique, postoperative approach and reoperations of valvopathy patients. In Operative Technique, there is the description of the anesthesia procedures, surgical approach which includes the assembling of the extracorporeal circulation and surgeries of mitral, aortic, tricuspid and pulmonary valves. In the Postoperative Approach, the routine in the Intensive Care Unity is reported, and in Reoperations the surgical technique is covered.

  13. Tratamento cirúrgico da hipertensão porta na esquistossomose mansoni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petroianu Andy

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Define-se a hipertensão porta pela presença de um gradiente de pressão venosa hepática superior a 5mmHg. Ela é causada geralmente pelo aumento da resistência do leito vascular porta-hepático em decorrência de obstrução ao fluxo sanguíneo. Nas formas graves da esquistossomose há aumento progressivo da pressão porta e o desenvolvimento de varizes nos órgãos intra-abdominais, no retroperitônio e na parede do abdômen. A principal complicação desse processo é o sangramento digestivo, proveniente, na maioria dos casos, das varizes esofágicas e gástricas. Para o tratamento, diversos procedimentos clínicos (propranolol, somatostatina e octeotrida, endoscópicos (escleroterapia, clipes e ligaduras de varizes, vasculares (TIPS - shunt intra-hepático transjugular portasistêmico e cirúrgicos (derivações portassistêmicas e desconexões portavarizes têm sido propostos. Neste artigo, o autor apresenta revisão crítica sobre os vários tratamentos propostos, enfatizando os procedimentos cirúrgicos.

  14. DYNAMIC OPTIMIZATION OF OVERLAPAND-ADD LENGTH OVER MBOFDM SYSTEM BASED ON SNR AND CIR ESTIMATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nouri Naziha

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available An important role performed by Zero Padding (ZP in multi-band OFDM (MB-OFDM System. This role show for low-complexity in résistance against multipath interference by reducing inter-carrier interference (ICI and eliminating the inter-symbol interference (ISI Also, zeropadded suffix can be used to eliminate ripples in the power spectral density in order to conform to FCC requirements. At the receiver of MB-OFDM system needs to use of a technique called as overlap-and-add (OLA. Which maintain the circular convolution property and take the multipath energy of the channel. In this paper, we proposed a method of performing overlap-and-add length for zero padded suffixes. Then, we studied the effect of this method, dynamic optimization of overlap-and-add (OLA equalization, on the performance of MBOFDM system on Bit Error Rate (BER with AWGN channel and Saleh-Valenzuela (S-V Multipath channel Model. In the dynamic optimization OLA, the Length of ZP depends on length of channel impulse response (CIR. These measures, based on SNR, insert the ZP according to the measurement. Dynamic optimization of length of ZP improves the Performance of MBOFDM system. In fact we developed a technique to select the length of ZP as function of SNR and CIR estimate(repetition. In our simulation this technique improve to 3 dB at BER=10-2 with a multipath channels CM4.

  15. Primate malarias: Diversity, distribution and insights for zoonotic Plasmodium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Faust

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Protozoans within the genus Plasmodium are well-known as the causative agents of malaria in humans. Numerous Plasmodium species parasites also infect a wide range of non-human primate hosts in tropical and sub-tropical regions worldwide. Studying this diversity can provide critical insight into our understanding of human malarias, as several human malaria species are a result of host switches from non-human primates. Current spillover of a monkey malaria, Plasmodium knowlesi, in Southeast Asia highlights the permeability of species barriers in Plasmodium. Also recently, surveys of apes in Africa uncovered a previously undescribed diversity of Plasmodium in chimpanzees and gorillas. Therefore, we carried out a meta-analysis to quantify the global distribution, host range, and diversity of known non-human primate malaria species. We used published records of Plasmodium parasites found in non-human primates to estimate the total diversity of non-human primate malarias globally. We estimate that at least three undescribed primate malaria species exist in sampled primates, and many more likely exist in unstudied species. The diversity of malaria parasites is especially uncertain in regions of low sampling such as Madagascar, and taxonomic groups such as African Old World Monkeys and gibbons. Presence–absence data of malaria across primates enables us to highlight the close association of forested regions and non-human primate malarias. This distribution potentially reflects a long coevolution of primates, forest-adapted mosquitoes, and malaria parasites. The diversity and distribution of primate malaria are an essential prerequisite to understanding the mechanisms and circumstances that allow Plasmodium to jump species barriers, both in the evolution of malaria parasites and current cases of spillover into humans.

  16. Plasmodium malariae and Plasmodium ovale infections in the China-Myanmar border area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Peipei; Zhao, Zhenjun; Xing, Hua; Li, Wenli; Zhu, Xiaotong; Cao, Yaming; Yang, Zhaoqing; Sattabongkot, Jetsumon; Yan, Guiyun; Fan, Qi; Cui, Liwang

    2016-11-15

    The Greater Mekong Subregion is aiming to achieve regional malaria elimination by 2030. Though a shift in malaria parasite species predominance by Plasmodium vivax has been recently documented, the transmission of the two minor Plasmodium species, Plasmodium malariae and Plasmodium ovale spp., is poorly characterized in the region. This study aims to determine the prevalence of these minor species in the China-Myanmar border area and their genetic diversity. Epidemiology study was conducted during passive case detection in hospitals and clinics in Myanmar and four counties in China along the China-Myanmar border. Cross-sectional surveys were conducted in villages and camps for internally displaced persons to determine the prevalence of malaria infections. Malaria infections were diagnosed initially by microscopy and later in the laboratory using nested PCR for the SSU rRNA genes. Plasmodium malariae and P. ovale infections were confirmed by sequencing the PCR products. The P. ovale subtypes were determined by sequencing the Pocytb, Pocox1 and Pog3p genes. Parasite populations were evaluated by PCR amplification and sequencing of the MSP-1 genes. Antifolate sensitivity was assessed by sequencing the dhfr-ts and dhps genes from the P. malariae and P. ovale isolates. Analysis of 2701 blood samples collected from the China-Myanmar border by nested PCR targeting the parasite SSU rRNA genes identified 561 malaria cases, including 161 Plasmodium falciparum, 327 P. vivax, 66 P. falciparum/P. vivax mixed infections, 4 P. malariae and 3 P. ovale spp. P. vivax and P. falciparum accounted for >60 and ~30% of all malaria cases, respectively. In comparison, the prevalence of P. malariae and P. ovale spp. was very low and only made up ~1% of all PCR-positive cases. Nevertheless, these two species were often misidentified as P. vivax infections or completely missed by microscopy even among symptomatic patients. Phylogenetic analysis of the SSU rRNA, Pocytb, Pocox1 and Pog3p genes

  17. Anti-relapse activity of mirincamycin in the Plasmodium cynomolgi sporozoite-infected Rhesus monkey model

    OpenAIRE

    Fracisco, Susan; Teja-Isavadharm, Paktiya; Gettayacamin, Montip; Berman, Jonathan; Li, Qigui; Melendez, Victor; Saunders, David; Xie, Lisa; Ohrt, Colin

    2014-01-01

    Background Mirincamycin is a close analog of the drug clindamycin used to treat Plasmodium falciparum blood stages. The clinical need to treat Plasmodium vivax dormant liver stages and prevent relapse with a drug other than primaquine led to the evaluation of mirinicamycin against liver stages in animals. Methods cis-mirinicamycin and trans-mirinicamycin were evaluated as prophylaxis against early liver stages of Plasmodium berghei in mice and as antirelapse hypnozoiticides against Plasmodium...

  18. Rediscovery and redescription of Plasmodium pifanoi and description of two additional Plasmodium parasites of Venezuelan lizards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telford, Sam R; Telford, Sam R

    2003-04-01

    Plasmodium pifanoi Scorza and Dagert B., known only from the type host, Ameiva ameiva, is redescribed from Kentropyx calcarata collected in Territorio Amazonas, Venezuela. Schizonts, 6.2 x 4.5 (4-8 x 3-6), produce on average 11.9 (7-16) merozoites. Gametocytes average 12.4 x 6.0 (8-16 x 4-10), with length x width (LW) 72.9 (52-112) and L/W 2.18 (1.1-3.3), and always contain 1-5 prominent vacuoles. Macrogametocytes in active infection are longer than microgametocytes, with greater LW, but gametocytes in chronic infection are not sexually dimorphic in dimension and are slightly smaller. Two additional malarial parasites are described from K. calcarata. Plasmodium lepidoptiformis has small schizonts, 4.6 x 3.2 (3-6 x 2.5-3), that produce 5.1 (4-8) merozoites and commonly resemble a butterfly in appearance. Gametocytes are elongate, 9.0 x 4.3 (7-10 x 3-6), with LW 38.3 (24-51) and L/W 2.2 (1.3-3.3), and sexually dimorphic, with macrogametocytes longer than microgametocytes, with greater LW. Plasmodium minasense calcaratae is characterized by very small, usually fan-shaped, schizonts. 3.4 x 2.6 (2.5-4.5 x 2.0-3.0), that produce 3.9 (3-4) merozoites. Gametocytes are spherical or ovoid, 6.7 x 5.0 (4.5-9.0 x 3.0-7.0), with LW 33.7 (15-54) and L/W 1.4 (1.0-2.3), with no sexual dimorphism in dimensions.

  19. Maternal-foetal transfer of Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax antibodies in a low transmission setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charnaud, Sarah C.; McGready, Rose; Herten-Crabb, Asha; Powell, Rosanna; Guy, Andrew; Langer, Christine; Richards, Jack S.; Gilson, Paul R.; Chotivanich, Kesinee; Tsuboi, Takafumi; Narum, David L.; Pimanpanarak, Mupawjay; Simpson, Julie A.; Beeson, James G.; Nosten, François; Fowkes, Freya J. I.

    2016-01-01

    During pregnancy immunolglobulin G (IgG) antibodies are transferred from mother to neonate across the placenta. Studies in high transmission areas have shown transfer of P. falciparum-specific IgG, but the extent and factors influencing maternal-foetal transfer in low transmission areas co-endemic for both P. falciparum and P. vivax are unknown. Pregnant women were screened weekly for Plasmodium infection. Mother-neonate paired serum samples at delivery were tested for IgG to antigens from P. falciparum, P. vivax and other infectious diseases. Antibodies to malarial and non-malarial antigens were highly correlated between maternal and neonatal samples (median [range] spearman ρ = 0.78 [0.57–0.93]), although Plasmodium spp. antibodies tended to be lower in neonates than mothers. Estimated gestational age at last P. falciparum infection, but not P. vivax infection, was positively associated with antibody levels in the neonate (P. falciparum merozoite, spearman ρ median [range] 0.42 [0.33–0.66], PfVAR2CSA 0.69; P. vivax ρ = 0.19 [0.09–0.3]). Maternal-foetal transfer of anti-malarial IgG to Plasmodium spp. antigens occurs in low transmission settings. P. vivax IgG acquisition is not associated with recent exposure unlike P. falciparum IgG, suggesting a difference in acquisition of antibodies. IgG transfer is greatest in the final weeks of pregnancy which has implications for the timing of future malaria vaccination strategies in pregnant women. PMID:26861682

  20. Genetic loci associated with delayed clearance of Plasmodium falciparum following artemisinin treatment in Southeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-02

    Genetic loci associated with delayed clearance of Plasmodium falciparum following artemisinin treatment in Southeast Asia Shannon Takala-Harrisona...resistant Plasmodium falcipa- rum malaria in western Cambodia could threaten prospects for malaria elimination. Identification of the genetic basis of...molecular markers Artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) are the lead-ing treatment for Plasmodium falciparum malaria (1), and their use with

  1. Analyzing Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 gene expression by a next generation sequencing based method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Jakob S.; Petersen, Bent; Seguin-Orlando, Andaine;

    2013-01-01

    Plasmodium falciparum is responsible for most cases of severe malaria and causes >1 million deaths every year. The particular virulence of this Plasmodium species is highly associated with the expression of certain members of the Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1(PfEMP1) family...

  2. Fotografia aplicada na pesquisa clínico-cirúrgica Photography in medical research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo Hochman

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A fotografia médica realizada de forma sistematizada e padronizada satisfaz plenamente a sua finalidade como documentação científica, principalmente em relação à sua reprodutibilidade. Uma documentação acurada é da inteira responsabilidade do autor de um trabalho, e é um pré-requisito obrigatório em publicações científicas. Na pesquisa da área cirúrgica, a Cirurgia Plástica tem estado na vanguarda da fotografia científica e, frequentemente, uma imagem torna-se mais significativa que a informação fornecida pela palavra escrita. Assim, este artigo visa transmitir os princípios desenvolvidos nessa especialidade às outras da área clínico-cirúrgica. É descrito o equipamento fotográfico básico para um pesquisador na área cirúrgica, e são propostos padrões de apresentação e posicionamento do paciente, assim como de sistematização fotográfica e enquadramento utilizando pontos de referência anatômicos. Essa padronização resulta numa fiel comparabilidade entre fotografias pré e pós-operatórias. Também são os tópicos como a documentação fotográfica intra-operatória, na Cirurgia Vídeo-Assistida, na fotogrametria computadorizada e na Cirurgia Experimental.Medical photography is an adequate scientific document when performed on a standard fashion. A proper photography is an important issue on a scientific publication. Plastic surgeons are experts in clinical photography and, frequently, an image is a more significant data than the written part of a paper. The purpose of this article is to describe the principles developed in this specialty. Basic photographic equipment used for clinical pictures is described. Standardized pictures determined by patient position and framing using anatomical references are reported. Using these rules it is possible to compare pre and post operative pictures. Topics such as intra operative pictures in endoscopic surgery, computer fotogrametry and in Experimental Surgery are

  3. Seasonal variations in Titan's stratosphere observed with Cassini/CIRS after the northern spring equinox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinatier, Sandrine; Bézard, Bruno; Teanby, Nicholas A.; Lebonnois, Sebastien; Achterberg, Richard; Gorius, Nicolas; Mamoutkine, Andrei; Flasar, F. Michael; CIRS Team

    2016-10-01

    Since 2004, Cassini has made more than 119 Titan flybys, observing its atmosphere with instruments including the Cassini Composite InfraRed Spectrometer (CIRS). We know from CIRS observations that the global dynamics drastically changed after the northern spring equinox that occurred in August 2009 ([1], [2], [3], [4]). The pole-to-pole middle atmosphere dynamics (above 100 km) experienced a global reversal in less than 2 years after the equinox [4], while the northern hemisphere was entering spring. This new pattern, with downwelling at the south pole, resulted in an enrichment of almost all molecules inside the southern polar vortex since 2011.We will present an analysis of CIRS limb observations up to 2016. We will show that many species (C2H2, HCN, HC3N, C6H6, C4H2, CH3CCH, C2H4) experienced their highest enrichments near the south pole near 500 km in March 2015, with abundances similar to in situ results from INMS at 1000 km [5], suggesting that the air inside the confined polar vortex (observed at latitudes higher than 80°S) was very efficiently transported downward from very high altitudes. In September 2015, an extension of the polar vortex towards lower latitudes (~65°S) was observed, while the molecular abundances decreased by a factor of 10 at 500 km. In the same region, unexpectedly cold stratospheric temperatures were observed below 300 km from May 2013 to the end of 2015, allowing us to detect for the first time the C6H6 ice signature at 680 cm-1. Simultaneously, after the disruption of the north polar vortex after the equinox, the enriched air that was previously confined at very high latitude gradually expended towards mid latitudes at altitudes higher than 300 km. At the beginning of 2016, a zone depleted in molecular gas and aerosol is observed in the entire northern hemisphere between 400 and 500 km, suggesting some complex unknown dynamical effect.References:[1] Teanby, N. et al., 2012, Nature, 491, pp. 733-735.[2] Achterberg et al., DPS 46

  4. Pancreatite crônica: resultados do tratamento cirúrgico em 74 pacientes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olívio Louro Costa

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar as indicações, técnicas e resultados do tratamento cirúrgico de 74 pacientes operados por complicações da pancreatite crônica. MÉTODO: Foram pacientes consecutivos, estudados prospectivamente pelo preenchimento de um protocolo individual, no período de 1971 a 2000. Foram realizadas cirurgias de derivação e ressecção. O acompanhamento foi feito pelo agendamento de consultas no ambulatório, por convocação por cartas e telefonemas. RESULTADOS: Dos 270 pacientes com pancreatite crônica, acompanhados pelo Serviço, 74 (27,4% foram operados. Destes 74 pacientes, 97,7% eram do sexo masculino e a idade variou de 15 a 63 anos, com média de 39,4 anos para alcoolistas e 33,1 para aqueles com outras etiologias. O alcoolismo foi a causa da doença em 68 pacientes (90,5% e os outros casos estiveram relacionados a hiperparatiroidismo(1, pancreatite hereditária (1, fibrose retroperitoneal (1 e em três casos a etiologia não foi definida. As seguintes causas únicas ou associadas definiram a indicação cirúrgica:1. dor em 44,6% dos pacientes; 2. compressão de vias biliares em 28,4%; 3. pseudocistos em 12,2%; 4. fístulas internas em 10,8%. Cinqüenta pacientes (67,5% foram submetidos a operações de derivação e 24 (32,5% a cirurgias de ressecção. Oito pacientes derivados (16,0% complicaram, ocorrendo três óbitos; dez ressecados (41,6% complicaram, com cinco óbitos. Os óbitos estiveram relacionados a abscessos, às deiscências e às hemorragias cirúrgicas. CONCLUSÕES: As cirurgias de derivação mostraram-se mais seguras e as complicações que evoluíram com infecção foram as mais graves e ocorreram com mais freqüência nas ressecções.

  5. Resultado do tratamento cirúrgico das neoplasias do seio piriforme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costa Claudiney C.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Os tumores da laringe e hipofaringe apresentam alta incidência no Brasil, sendo o sexto sítio mais comum entre os tumores malignos no sexo masculino. O diagnóstico inicial geralmente é realizado com lesões em estadio clínicos avançados diminuindo o sucesso do tratamento instituído. OBJETIVOS: Avaliar a evolução de 60 pacientes com carcinoma epidermóide de seio piriforme, considerando tratamento instituído, complicações e sobrevida estimada em 5 anos. FORMA DE ESTUDO: Estudo retrospectivo. MÉTODO: Os testes estatístico utilizados foram o método de Kaplan-Meier e o teste exato de Fisher. RESULTADOS: Dos 60 pacientes, 43 foram submetidos a tratamento cirúrgico seguido de radioterapia. Atualmente 27,9% estão vivos sem doença, 11,6% vivos com doença, 9,4% mortos sem doença, 34,8% mortos com doença e perda de seguimento de 16,3%. A complicação pós-operatória mais freqüente foi a fístula cutânea. A recidiva local ocorreu em 5 pacientes, regional em 6, loco-regional em 3 e metástase à distância em 6. Não houve correlação entre margem cirúrgica comprometida e sobrevida em 20 pacientes com recidiva tumoral (Teste de Fisher. Aplicando a curva de sobrevida atuarial pelo método Kaplan-Meier, obtivemos média de sobrevida em 5 anos de 23,2 meses. CONCLUSÃO: A principal complicação pós-operatória foi a fístula cutânea, sendo tratada clinicamente. A margem cirúrgica comprometida não alterou o prognóstico, apesar de ser sempre um dos princípios da cirurgia oncológica. A principal falha no tratamento foi a recidiva locorregional. A curva de sobrevida atuarial (Kaplan-Meier em cinco anos apresentou média de 23,2 meses.

  6. HST observations rule out the association between Cir X-1 and SNR G321.9-0.3

    CERN Document Server

    Mignani, R P; Caraveo, P A; Mirabel, I F

    2002-01-01

    Cir X-1 is one of the most intriguing galactic X-ray sources. It is a ~16.6 days variable X/radio source, a type-I X-ray burster and a QPO emitter. In spite of an uncertain optical counterpart classification, all these properties identify the source as an LMXB. The morphology of the surrounding radio nebula has suggested an association with the nearby (~25 arcmin) SNR G321.9-0.3, implying that Cir X-1 is a runaway binary originated from the supernova explosion 10^5 years ago. To investigate this hypothesis, we carried out a proper motion measurement of the Cir X-1 m ~19 optical counterpart using a set of HST/WFC and WFPC2 observations taken ~8.6 years apart. We obtained a 3 sigma upper limit of ~5 mas/yr on the source proper motion. Since the runaway hypothesis would have implied a proper motion due North ranging between 15 and 75 mas/yr, depending on the actual age of the SNR, our result definitively rules out the association between Cir X-1 and SNR G321.9-0.3.

  7. Wolbachia increases susceptibility to Plasmodium infection in a natural system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zélé, F; Nicot, A; Berthomieu, A; Weill, M; Duron, O; Rivero, A

    2014-03-22

    Current views about the impact of Wolbachia on Plasmodium infections are almost entirely based on data regarding artificially transfected mosquitoes. This work has shown that Wolbachia reduces the intensity of Plasmodium infections in mosquitoes, raising the exciting possibility of using Wolbachia to control or limit the spread of malaria. Whether natural Wolbachia infections have the same parasite-inhibiting properties is not yet clear. Wolbachia-mosquito combinations with a long evolutionary history are, however, key for understanding what may happen with Wolbachia-transfected mosquitoes after several generations of coevolution. We investigate this issue using an entirely natural mosquito-Wolbachia-Plasmodium combination. In contrast to most previous studies, which have been centred on the quantification of the midgut stages of Plasmodium, we obtain a measurement of parasitaemia that relates directly to transmission by following infections to the salivary gland stages. We show that Wolbachia increases the susceptibility of Culex pipiens mosquitoes to Plasmodium relictum, significantly increasing the prevalence of salivary gland stage infections. This effect is independent of the density of Wolbachia in the mosquito. These results suggest that naturally Wolbachia-infected mosquitoes may, in fact, be better vectors of malaria than Wolbachia-free ones.

  8. Chimpanzee malaria parasites related to Plasmodium ovale in Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Duval

    Full Text Available Since the 1970's, the diversity of Plasmodium parasites in African great apes has been neglected. Surprisingly, P. reichenowi, a chimpanzee parasite, is the only such parasite to have been molecularly characterized. This parasite is closely phylogenetically related to P. falciparum, the principal cause of the greatest malaria burden in humans. Studies of malaria parasites from anthropoid primates may provide relevant phylogenetic information, improving our understanding of the origin and evolutionary history of human malaria species. In this study, we screened 130 DNA samples from chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes and gorillas (Gorilla gorilla from Cameroon for Plasmodium infection, using cytochrome b molecular tools. Two chimpanzees from the subspecies Pan t. troglodytes presented single infections with Plasmodium strains molecularly related to the human malaria parasite P. ovale. These chimpanzee parasites and 13 human strains of P. ovale originated from a various sites in Africa and Asia were characterized using cytochrome b and cytochrome c oxidase 1 mitochondrial partial genes and nuclear ldh partial gene. Consistent with previous findings, two genetically distinct types of P. ovale, classical and variant, were observed in the human population from a variety of geographical locations. One chimpanzee Plasmodium strain was genetically identical, on all three markers tested, to variant P. ovale type. The other chimpanzee Plasmodium strain was different from P. ovale strains isolated from humans. This study provides the first evidence of possibility of natural cross-species exchange of P. ovale between humans and chimpanzees of the subspecies Pan t. troglodytes.

  9. Espasmo hemifacial: resultados do tratamento cirúrgico em 14 casos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui R. D. Carvalho

    1973-06-01

    Full Text Available Quatorze pacientes com espasmo hemifacial foram submetidos a exploração cirúrgica e neurolise do 7º par craniano no ângulo ponto-cerebelar. Em 7 pacientes havia indubitável compressão do nervo facial por alça anômala da artéria cerebelar anterior e inferior sendo que um paciente também apresentava malformação de Arnold-Chiari. Em um paciente havia aracnoidite envolvendo o nervo. Em 6 outros, o nervo achava-se aparentemente livre. Houve alívio imediato e duradouro do espasmo em 10 pacientes, 2 permaneceram inalterados e um apresentou recidiva após 10 meses. Houve um óbito no pós-operatório imediato, conseqüente a traumatismo craniano por queda do paciente.

  10. Estudo retrospectivo de afecções cirúrgicas em aves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia F. Castro

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se retrospectivamente as cirurgias realizadas em aves no Serviço de Cirurgia de Pequenos Animais do Hospital Veterinário da Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia, Universidade de São Paulo, durante período de oito anos. De um total de 90 intervenções cirúrgicas para diagnóstico e/ou tratamento de afecções, 27 foram ortopédicas e 63 de tecidos moles. Quanto ao percentual de cirurgias ortopédicas realizadas segundo as diferentes ordens, observou-se: Psittaciformes 85,19%, Piciformes 7,41%, Anseriformes 3,70% e Falconiformes 3,70%. Para as de tecidos moles os Psittaciformes representaram 92,06%, Columbiformes 3,17%, Passeriformes 3,17% e Anseriformes 1,60%. Entre os tipos de afecções ortopédicas encontradas as fraturas apresentaram a maior ocorrência (88,90%, seguidas de luxação (3,70%, avulsão traumática de extremidade (3,70% e artrite/osteomielite (3,70%. Dentre as afecções cirúrgicas de tecidos moles as neoplasias apresentaram a maior ocorrência (30,15%, seguidas das neoformações cutâneas ou de anexos não neoplásicos (17,46%, neoformações cutâneas sem diagnóstico (7,94%, distocia (7,94%, fístula de papo (7,94%, hérnia abdominal (4,76%, sinusite (4,76%, gangrena de extremidade de membros (3,17%, perfuração de esôfago (3,17%, prolapso de cloaca (3,17%, "Necrose avascular de dígito" (1,59%, ferida na região da quilha (1,59%, perfuração de cavidade celomática (1,59%, neoformação em cavidade celomática sem diagnóstico (1,59%, corpo estranho em trato gastrointestinal (1,59% e otite (1,59%. A distribuição das afecções cirúrgicas segundo as espécies acometidas mostrou o "grupo dos papagaios", representado em sua maioria por espécies do gênero Amazona, como prevalente. O conhecimento das afecções cirúrgicas e espécies de aves mais acometidas acrescentam informações para aqueles que já atuam nesta área e servem como indicador de estudo para futuros cirurgiões de aves.

  11. Wall-to-wall tree type classification using airborne lidar data and CIR images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schumacher, Johannes; Nord-Larsen, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    airborne light detection and ranging (lidar) data and colour infrared (CIR) images on a countrywide scale. We adjusted the classification procedure using field data from countrywide tree species trial (TST) plots, and verified it on data from the National Forest Inventory (NFI). Results of the object......Extensive ground surveys of forest resources are expensive, and remote sensing is commonly used to extend surveys to large areas for which no ground data are available to provide more accurate estimates for forest management decisions. Remote-sensing data for tree type classification are usually...... of the two tree types. In areas where lidar data were collected specifically during leaf-off conditions, 71% of the NFI plots were assigned correctly into the three categories with = 0.53. Using only NFI plots dominated by one type (broadleaf or conifer), 78% were categorized correctly with = 0...

  12. Síndrome de Sweet em cicatriz cirúrgica Sweet's syndrome on surgical scar

    OpenAIRE

    Isadora Cavalcanti Ramos; Cláudio Tudech Wiering; Antônio José Tebcherani; Ana Paula Galli Sanchez

    2006-01-01

    A síndrome de Sweet é dermatose rara, caracterizada por erupção aguda de placas e nódulos eritêmato-edematosos. Relata-se o caso de doente do sexo feminino, de 55 anos, com lesão cutânea compatível com síndrome de Sweet ao redor de cicatriz cirúrgica na face, após exérese de ceratose actínica e ingestão de dipirona. O caso relatado ressalta a possibilidade da ocorrência do fenômeno de Köebner na síndrome de Sweet, provavelmente desencadeado pelo uso da dipironaSweet's syndrome is a rare derma...

  13. O cuidado de enfermagem no puerpério cirúrgico

    OpenAIRE

    Lima, Daniele Moreira de

    2013-01-01

    Resumo: O puerpério é um período de transição, de adaptações, transformações físicas, biológicas e emocionais. Em virtude disso, a puérpera necessita de cuidados que contemplem essas dimensões. O puerpério cirúrgico, aquele decorrido após a cesariana, por se tratar de uma cirurgia, pode expor a mulher a maiores chances de alguns riscos, como hemorragia, infecção, dificuldades no aleitamento materno e na construção do vínculo entre mãe e bebê, além de aumentar o tempo de recuperação no pós-par...

  14. What causes the variations of the peak intensity of CIR accelerated energetic ion fluxes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Keppler

    Full Text Available The variation of the peak intensity of energetic ions accelerated at CIR related shocks in the interplanetary medium as observed by instruments on board of ULYSSES during its pass towards the south polar region and from the north polar region back to its aphelium is discussed. From ULYSSES measurements alone it cannot be decided whether the observed variation is a function of latitude or of radial distance, as its orbit changes distance and latitude at the same time. Therefore ULYSSES data is compared with earlier observations by the PIONEER and VOYAGER spacecraft and concluded that the major part of the observed variation of the peak intensity seems to be due to a radial distance change, on to which, however, at higher latitudes a latitude dependent feature is superimposed.

    Key words. Interplanetary physics (Energetic particles; interplanetary shocks; general

  15. Íleo pós-cirúrgico equino e o seu tratamento

    OpenAIRE

    Falcão, Slavador de Noronha de Alarcão

    2008-01-01

    Dissertação de Mestrado Integrado em Medicina Veterinária Com este estudo pretendeu-se fazer uma revisão acerca das causas e do que se sabe da fisiopatologia do íleo pós-cirúrgico equino e as suas possíveis opções de tratamento. Este estudo foi baseado na revisão bibliográfica de artigos científicos e completada com um caso clínico observado durante o estágio na universidade de Gent. O objectivo deste trabalho foi fazer uma revisão da anatomia e fisiologia do tracto gastrointestinal equ...

  16. Cellular effector mechanisms against Plasmodium liver stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frevert, Ute; Nardin, Elizabeth

    2008-10-01

    Advances in our understanding of the molecular and cell biology of the malaria parasite have led to new vaccine development efforts resulting in a pipeline of over 40 candidates undergoing clinical phase I-III trials. Vaccine-induced CD4+ and CD8+ T cells specific for pre-erythrocytic stage antigens have been found to express cytolytic and multi-cytokine effector functions that support a key role for these T cells within the hepatic environment. However, little is known of the cellular interactions that occur during the effector phase in which the intracellular hepatic stage of the parasite is targeted and destroyed. This review focuses on cell biological aspects of the interaction between malaria-specific effector cells and the various antigen-presenting cells that are known to exist within the liver, including hepatocytes, dendritic cells, Kupffer cells, stellate cells and sinusoidal endothelia. Considering the unique immune properties of the liver, it is conceivable that these different hepatic antigen-presenting cells fulfil distinct but complementary roles during the effector phase against Plasmodium liver stages.

  17. Exploring the folate pathway in Plasmodium falciparum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyde, John E

    2005-06-01

    As in centuries past, the main weapon against human malaria infections continues to be intervention with drugs, despite the widespread and increasing frequency of parasite populations that are resistant to one or more of the available compounds. This is a particular problem with the lethal species of parasite, Plasmodium falciparum, which claims some two million lives per year as well as causing enormous social and economic problems. Amongst the antimalarial drugs currently in clinical use, the antifolates have the best defined molecular targets, namely the enzymes dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) and dihydropteroate synthase (DHPS), which function in the folate metabolic pathway. The products of this pathway, reduced folate cofactors, are essential for DNA synthesis and the metabolism of certain amino acids. Moreover, their formation and interconversions involve a number of other enzymes that have not as yet been exploited as drug targets. Antifolates are of major importance as they currently represent the only inexpensive regime for combating chloroquine-resistant malaria, and are now first-line drugs in a number of African countries. Aspects of our understanding of this pathway and antifolate drug resistance are reviewed here, with a particular emphasis on approaches to analysing the details of, and balance between, folate biosynthesis by the parasite and salvage of pre-formed folate from exogenous sources.

  18. New synchronization method for Plasmodium falciparum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mwangi Jonathan M

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plasmodium falciparum is usually asynchronous during in vitro culture. Although various synchronization methods are available, they are not able to narrow the range of ages of parasites. A newly developed method is described that allows synchronization of parasites to produce cultures with an age range as low as 30 minutes. Methods Trophozoites and schizonts are enriched using Plasmion. The enriched late stage parasites are immobilized as a monolayer onto plastic Petri dishes using concanavalin A. Uninfected erythrocytes are placed onto the monolayer for a limited time period, during which time schizonts on the monolayer rupture and the released merozoites invade the fresh erythrocytes. The overlay is then taken off into a culture flask, resulting in a highly synchronized population of parasites. Results Plasmion treatment results in a 10- to 13-fold enrichment of late stage parasites. The monolayer method results in highly synchronized cultures of parasites where invasion has occurred within a very limited time window, which can be as low as 30 minutes. The method is simple, requiring no specialized equipment and relatively cheap reagents. Conclusions The new method for parasite synchronization results in highly synchronized populations of parasites, which will be useful for studies of the parasite asexual cell cycle.

  19. Temperature alters Plasmodium blocking by Wolbachia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdock, Courtney C.; Blanford, Simon; Hughes, Grant L.; Rasgon, Jason L.; Thomas, Matthew B.

    2014-02-01

    Very recently, the Asian malaria vector (Anopheles stephensi) was stably transinfected with the wAlbB strain of Wolbachia, inducing refractoriness to the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. However, conditions in the field can differ substantially from those in the laboratory. We use the rodent malaria P. yoelii, and somatically transinfected An. stephensi as a model system to investigate whether the transmission blocking potential of wAlbB is likely to be robust across different thermal environments. wAlbB reduced malaria parasite prevalence and oocyst intensity at 28°C. At 24°C there was no effect on prevalence but a marked increase in oocyst intensity. At 20°C, wAlbB had no effect on prevalence or intensity. Additionally, we identified a novel effect of wAlbB that resulted in reduced sporozoite development across temperatures, counterbalancing the oocyst enhancement at 24°C. Our results demonstrate complex effects of temperature on the Wolbachia-malaria interaction, and suggest the impacts of transinfection might vary across diverse environments.

  20. Latent Infections with Plasmodium ovale Malaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Max J.; Marcus, David M.; Cameron, Douglas G.

    1965-01-01

    Two cases of Plasmodium ovale malaria acquired in West Africa appeared as primary delayed attacks after one year's continuous residence in Canada. Both patients took full prophylactic doses of chloroquine before, during, and for several weeks after exposure. The inadequacy of the 4-aminoquinolines for protection against latent benign tertian malaria is noted, and the use of primaquine is recommended. Paroxysms occurred in the evening and were accompanied by severe muscle pain, features considered typical of ovale malaria. One patient showed electrocardiographic changes and clinical signs of cardiac malfunction; these disappeared following specific treatment for malaria. In this age of accelerated travel and international movements of people it is important that physicians in temperate regions be aware of the exotic infections of the tropics, as well as of the need for protective measures for travellers to areas where these diseases are endemic. ImagesFig. 1aFig. 1b,1cFig. 3 a-dFig. 3 e-h PMID:14296004

  1. Plasmodium falciparum secretome in erythrocyte and beyond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rani eSoni

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Plasmodium falciparum is the causative agent of deadly malaria disease. It is an intracellular eukaryote and completes its multi-stage life cycle spanning the two hosts viz, mosquito and human. In order to habituate within host environment, parasite conform several strategies to evade host immune responses such as surface antigen polymorphism or modulation of host immune system and it is mediated by secretion of proteins from parasite to the host erythrocyte and beyond, collectively known as, malaria secretome. In this review, we will discuss about the deployment of parasitic secretory protein in mechanism implicated for immune evasion, protein trafficking, providing virulence, changing permeability and cyto-adherence of infected erythrocyte. We will be covering the possibilities of developing malaria secretome as a drug/vaccine target. This gathered information will be worthwhile in depicting a well-organized picture for host-pathogen interplay during the malaria infection and may also provide some clues for development of novel anti-malarial therapies.

  2. Interplanetary drivers of daytime penetration electric field into equatorial ionosphere during CIR-induced geomagnetic storms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeeram, Thana

    2017-05-01

    Observations based on the magnetometer data of the response of the daytime equatorial electric field to the geomagnetic storms induced by corotating interaction regions (CIRs) during 2007-2010 reveal many events of striking long duration of multiple short-lived prompt penetration electric fields (PPEFs). The PPEFs essentially occurred in the main phase of the storms, which are associated with the ring current and magnetic reconnection of the southward z-component of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF Bz) in relation to the Alfvén waves. The behaviors of the electric field penetration during the storms are consistent with the shielding theory. Particularly, the PPEF is found to be complex due to transient variations in the solar wind dynamic pressure (SWDP) and the IMF Bz in the CIRs. The PPEF is temporary suppressed for about an hour under a shock in association with a drop in the SWDP. The interplanetary electric field Ey is the main driver of the PPEFs, when the solar wind speed, SWDP, and the symmetric ring current are nearly constant, even in the recovery phase. The PPEF is allowed under the condition of high and variable SWDP. The shocks with a northward IMF Bz shield the PPEFs when the SWDP is nearly constant. The partial ring current is strongest in the large and northward IMF Bz, where the shielding effect is greater than the undershielding caused by the large SWDP. The results may provide an important step to study equatorial and low latitude ionospheric electrodynamics in the solar minimum conditions.

  3. Spatial and Temporal Variations in Titan's Surface Temperatures from Cassini CIRS Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottini, V.; Nixon, C. A.; Jennings, D. E.; deKok, R.; Teanby, N. A.; Irwin, P. G. J.; Flasar, F. M.

    2012-01-01

    We report a wide-ranging study of Titan's surface temperatures by analysis of the Moon's outgoing radiance through a spectral window in the thermal infrared at 19 mm (530/cm) characterized by lower atmospheric opacity. We begin by modeling Cassini Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) far infrared spectra collected in the period 2004-2010, using a radiative transfer forward model combined with a non-linear optimal estimation inversion method. At low-latitudes, we agree with the HASI near-surface temperature of about 94 K at 101S (Fulchignoni et al., 2005). We find a systematic decrease from the equator toward the poles, hemispherically asymmetric, of approx. 1 K at 60 deg. south and approx. 3 K at 60 deg. north, in general agreement with a previous analysis of CIRS data and with Voyager results from the previous northern winter. Subdividing the available database, corresponding to about one Titan season, into 3 consecutive periods, small seasonal changes of up to 2 K at 60 deg N became noticeable in the results. In addition, clear evidence of diurnal variations of the surface temperatures near the equator are observed for the first time: we find a trend of slowly increasing temperature from the morning to the early afternoon and a faster decrease during the night. The diurnal change is approx. 1.5 K, in agreement with model predictions for a surface with a thermal inertia between 300 and 600 J/ sq. m s (exp -1/2) / K. These results provide important constraints on coupled surface-atmosphere models of Titan's meteorology and atmospheric dynamic.

  4. Tratamento cirúrgico e terapias adjuvantes na papilomatose respiratória

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Ameloti Gomes Avelino

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Papilomatose respiratória recorrente ou papilomatose laríngea recorrente é uma doença da laringe, causada pelo papiloma vírus humano, caracterizada por lesões epiteliais verrucosas e, geralmente, recorrentes. Na literatura são descritos diversos tipos de tratamento, como cirurgia a frio, a laser e/ou uso de microdebridador, além das terapias adjuvantes; todas no sentindo de diminuir possíveis sequelas permanentes da doença. OBJETIVO: Realizar uma revisão de literatura a respeito desta doença com ênfase nas técnicas cirúrgicas e terapias adjuvantes mais utilizadas atualmente. MÉTODO: Utilizou-se a metodologia de revisão bibliográfica, por meio de levantamentos em base de dados eletrônicos de domínio público, entre 1992-2012, utilizando-se as palavras-chave: papiloma, infecções por papillomavírus, laringe, terapêutica, vacinas contra papillomavírus. RESULTADOS: Foram levantados 357 artigos, dos quais 49 foram usados como base para esta revisão. Os trabalhos científicos apontam para a redução de recidiva na maioria das terapêuticas adjuvantes. Entretanto, o levantamento demonstrou metodologias e amostras diferentes, o que não permitiu comparar os tipos de tratamento e de terapias adjuvantes. CONCLUSÃO: A escolha da técnica cirúrgica varia entre os autores, porém, há uma tendência atual ao uso do microdebridador. As terapias adjuvantes recentes, como cidofovir, vacina tetravalente contra o papiloma vírus humano e bevacizumab, necessitam de estudos mais amplos.

  5. CIRS: A State-Conscious Concurrency Control Protocol for Replicated Real-Time Databases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishal Pathak,

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Replication [5] is the technique of using multiple copies of a server or a resource for better availability and performance.Each copy is called a replica. The main goal of replication is to improve availability, since a service is available even if some of its replicas are not. This helps mission critical services, such as many financial systems or reservation systems, where even a short outage can be very disruptive and expensive.A prerequisite for realizing the banefits of replication, however, is the devlopement of high erformance concurrency machenism. Current applications, such as Web-based services, electronic commerce, mobile telecommunication system, etc., are distributed in nature and manipulate time-critical databases. In order to enhance the performance and the availability of such applications, one of the main techniques is to replicate data on multiple sites of the network. Therefore, the major issue is to develop efficient replica concurrency control protocols that are able to tolerate the overload of the distributed system. In fact, if the system is not designed to handle overloads, the effects can be catastrophic and some primordial transactions of the application can miss their deadlines. In this paper we present CIRS (Concurrency control In Replicated realtime Systems a state conscious concurrency control protocol in replicated distributed environment which is specially for firm realtime database system. CIRS mechanism uses S2PL (Static Two Phase Locking for deadlock free environment.It also includes veto power given to a cohort after receiving PREPARE message from its coordinator. Also with some more assumptions like sending an extra message in execution phase but after completionof execution at local copy which is described later in this paper the proposed mechanism has a significant increased performance over O2PL and MIRROR in decreasing execution time of the current transaction and it also decreases the waiting time of

  6. Towards an Understanding of Thermal Throughput across Saturn's Rings with Cassini CIRS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, S. M.; Spilker, L. J.

    2015-12-01

    One of the more striking aspects of Saturn's main ring system is its aspect ratio. It spans over 270,000 km from ansa to ansa, yet its thickness normal to the ring plane is less than a million times its breadth. Hence, studies of the rings' structure focus mostly on radial and azimuthal features. But in the thermal infrared the vertical thickness of the main rings is clearly manifest in the measured temperature differences between that face of the rings exposed to direct solar illumination (the lit face) and the opposite (unlit) face derived from observations with Cassini's Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS). Ferrari et al. (2013) and Pilorz et al. (2015) have recently published insightful and thorough analyses of the thermal throughput across the optically thick B ring. The ultimate goal of this work is to understand these lit/unlit temperature differentials and their variation with radius and optical depth across the entire ring system. As previous work has shown (Spilker et al., 2006), the thermal flux from Saturn's rings observed by CIRS is a function of observing geometry. To control for these variations, we designed paired observations of the lit and unlit rings where observing variables such as the emission, phase and local hour angles were kept as similar as possible to facilitate direct comparison between the lit and unlit observations. Constraining the amount of thermal energy exchange between the lit and unlit sides of the rings will allow us to learn about the main rings' structure and dynamics in this third dimension. This presentation is a progress report on our analysis of such observations and our plans for future work. This research was carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under contract with NASA. Copyright 2015 California Institute of Technology. Government sponsorship acknowledged.

  7. Malaria-like symptoms associated with a natural Plasmodium reichenowi infection in a chimpanzee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbert, Anaïs; Boundenga, Larson; Meyer, Anne; Moukodoum, Diamella Nancy; Okouga, Alain Prince; Arnathau, Céline; Durand, Patrick; Magnus, Julie; Ngoubangoye, Barthélémy; Willaume, Eric; Ba, Cheikh Tidiane; Rougeron, Virginie; Renaud, François; Ollomo, Benjamin; Prugnolle, Franck

    2015-05-28

    Although Plasmodium infections have never been clearly associated with symptoms in non-human primates, the question of the pathogenicity of Plasmodium parasites in non-human primates still remains unanswered. A young chimpanzee, followed before and after release to a sanctuary, in a semi-free ranging enclosure located in an equatorial forest, showed fever and strong anaemia associated with a high Plasmodium reichenowi infection, shortly after release. The animal recovered from anaemia after several months despite recurrent infection with other Plasmodium species. This may be the first description of malaria-like symptoms in a chimpanzee infected with Plasmodium.

  8. Optimal strategy for controlling the spread of Plasmodium Knowlesi malaria: Treatment and culling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullahi, Mohammed Baba; Hasan, Yahya Abu; Abdullah, Farah Aini

    2015-05-01

    Plasmodium Knowlesi malaria is a parasitic mosquito-borne disease caused by a eukaryotic protist of genus Plasmodium Knowlesi transmitted by mosquito, Anopheles leucosphyrus to human and macaques. We developed and analyzed a deterministic Mathematical model for the transmission of Plasmodium Knowlesi malaria in human and macaques. The optimal control theory is applied to investigate optimal strategies for controlling the spread of Plasmodium Knowlesi malaria using treatment and culling as control strategies. The conditions for optimal control of the Plasmodium Knowlesi malaria are derived using Pontryagin's Maximum Principle. Finally, numerical simulations suggested that the combination of the control strategies is the best way to control the disease in any community.

  9. Diagnosis of an imported Plasmodium ovale wallikeri infection in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liew, Jonathan Wee Kent; Mahmud, Rohela; Tan, Lian Huat; Lau, Yee Ling

    2016-01-06

    Plasmodium ovale is rare and not exactly known to be autochthonous in Malaysia. There are two distinct forms of the parasite, namely P. ovale curtisi (classic form) and P. ovale wallikeri (variant form). Here, the first sequence confirmed case of an imported P. ovale wallikeri infection in Malaysia is presented. Microscopy found Plasmodium parasites with morphology similar to P. ovale or Plasmodium vivax in the blood films. Further confirmation using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting the small-subunit rRNA gene of the parasite was unsuccessful. Genus-specific PCR was then performed and the product was sequenced and analysed. Sequence analyses confirmed the aetiological agent as P. ovale wallikeri. New species-specific primers (rOVA1v and rOVA2v) were employed and P. ovale wallikeri was finally confirmed. The findings highlight the need to look out for imported malaria infections in Malaysia and the importance of a constantly updated and validated diagnostic technique.

  10. Plasmodium knowlesi: from severe zoonosis to animal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox-Singh, Janet; Culleton, Richard

    2015-06-01

    Plasmodium knowlesi malaria is a newly described zoonosis in Southeast Asia. Similarly to Plasmodium falciparum, P. knowlesi can reach high parasitaemia in the human host and both species cause severe and fatal illness. Interpretation of host-parasite interactions in studies of P. knowlesi malaria adds a counterpoint to studies on P. falciparum. However, there is no model system for testing the resulting hypotheses on malaria pathophysiology or for developing new interventions. Plasmodium knowlesi is amenable to genetic manipulation in vitro and several nonhuman primate species are susceptible to experimental infection. Here, we make a case for drawing on P. knowlesi as both a human pathogen and an experimental model to lift the roadblock between malaria research and its translation into human health benefits.

  11. Molecular identification of the chitinase genes in Plasmodium relictum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Longoria, Luz; Hellgren, Olof; Bensch, Staffan

    2014-06-18

    Malaria parasites need to synthesize chitinase in order to go through the peritrophic membrane, which is created around the mosquito midgut, to complete its life cycle. In mammalian malaria species, the chitinase gene comprises either a large or a short copy. In the avian malaria parasites Plasmodium gallinaceum both copies are present, suggesting that a gene duplication in the ancestor to these extant species preceded the loss of either the long or the short copy in Plasmodium parasites of mammals. Plasmodium gallinaceum is not the most widespread and harmful parasite of birds. This study is the first to search for and identify the chitinase gene in one of the most prevalent avian malaria parasites, Plasmodium relictum. Both copies of P. gallinaceum chitinase were used as reference sequences for primer design. Different sequences of Plasmodium spp. were used to build the phylogenetic tree of chitinase gene. The gene encoding for chitinase was identified in isolates of two mitochondrial lineages of P. relictum (SGS1 and GRW4). The chitinase found in these two lineages consists both of the long (PrCHT1) and the short (PrCHT2) copy. The genetic differences found in the long copy of the chitinase gene between SGS1 and GRW4 were higher than the difference observed for the cytochrome b gene. The identification of both copies in P. relictum sheds light on the phylogenetic relationship of the chitinase gene in the genus Plasmodium. Due to its high variability, the chitinase gene could be used to study the genetic population structure in isolates from different host species and geographic regions.

  12. [From malaria parasite point of view--Plasmodium falciparum evolution].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerka, Agata; Kaczmarek, Radosław; Jaśkiewicz, Ewa

    2015-12-31

    Malaria is caused by infection with protozoan parasites belonging to the genus Plasmodium, which have arguably exerted the greatest selection pressure on humans in the history of our species. Besides humans, different Plasmodium parasites infect a wide range of animal hosts, from marine invertebrates to primates. On the other hand, individual Plasmodium species show high host specificity. The extraordinary evolution of Plasmodium probably began when a free-living red algae turned parasitic, and culminated with its ability to thrive inside a human red blood cell. Studies on the African apes generated new data on the evolution of malaria parasites in general and the deadliest human-specific species, Plasmodium falciparum, in particular. Initially, it was hypothesized that P. falciparum descended from the chimpanzee malaria parasite P. reichenowi, after the human and the chimp lineage diverged about 6 million years ago. However, a recently identified new species infecting gorillas, unexpectedly showed similarity to P. falciparum and was therefore named P. praefalciparum. That finding spurred an alternative hypothesis, which proposes that P. falciparum descended from its gorilla rather than chimp counterpart. In addition, the gorilla-to-human host shift may have occurred more recently (about 10 thousand years ago) than the theoretical P. falciparum-P. reichenowi split. One of the key aims of the studies on Plasmodium evolution is to elucidate the mechanisms that allow the incessant host shifting and retaining the host specificity, especially in the case of human-specific species. Thorough understanding of these phenomena will be necessary to design effective malaria treatment and prevention strategies.

  13. The SLC4A1 gene is under differential selective pressure in primates infected by Plasmodium falciparum and related parasites

    OpenAIRE

    Steiper, Michael E.; Walsh, Fiona; Zichello, Julia M.

    2012-01-01

    Malaria is a disease caused by Plasmodium parasites and is responsible for high mortality in humans. This disease is caused by four different species of Plasmodium though the main source of mortality is Plasmodium falciparum. Humans have a number of genetic adaptations that act to combat Plasmodium. One adaptation is a deletion in the SLC4A1 gene that leads to Southeast Asian ovalocytosis (SAO). There is evidence that SAO erythrocytes are resistant to multiple Plasmodium species. Here we anal...

  14. [Erythrocytes infected by Plasmodium falciparum activate human platelets].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polack, B; Peyron, F; Sheick Zadiuddin, I; Kolodié, L; Ambroise-Thomas, P

    1990-01-01

    Blood platelets are involved in Plasmodium falciparum malaria pathology as shown by thrombocytopenia and increased plasma level of two alpha granule proteins: beta thromboglobulin (beta TG) and platelet factor 4 (PF4). In this study we demonstrate that Plasmodium falciparum parasitized erythrocytes activate directly the secretion of beta TG and PF4 by human platelets. This secretion is related to parasitemia and occurs immediately after contact. Treatment of parasited erythrocytes by trypsin and diffusion chamber experiments suggest that platelet activation is triggered by parasitic substances shed on erythrocyte membrane and released in the culture medium.

  15. Analysis of expressed sequence tags from Plasmodium falciparum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrabarti, D; Reddy, G R; Dame, J B; Almira, E C; Laipis, P J; Ferl, R J; Yang, T P; Rowe, T C; Schuster, S M

    1994-07-01

    An initiative was undertaken to sequence all genes of the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum in an effort to gain a better understanding at the molecular level of the parasite that inflicts much suffering in the developing world. 550 random complimentary DNA clones were partially sequenced from the intraerythrocytic form of the parasite as one of the approaches to analyze the transcribed sequences of its genome. The sequences, after editing, generated 389 expressed sequence tag sites and over 105 kb of DNA sequences. About 32% of these clones showed significant homology with other genes in the database. These clones represent 340 new Plasmodium falciparum expressed sequence tags.

  16. Backward bifurcation and optimal control of Plasmodium Knowlesi malaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullahi, Mohammed Baba; Hasan, Yahya Abu; Abdullah, Farah Aini

    2014-07-01

    A deterministic model for the transmission dynamics of Plasmodium Knowlesi malaria with direct transmission is developed. The model is analyzed using dynamical system techniques and it shows that the backward bifurcation occurs for some range of parameters. The model is extended to assess the impact of time dependent preventive (biological and chemical control) against the mosquitoes and vaccination for susceptible humans, while treatment for infected humans. The existence of optimal control is established analytically by the use of optimal control theory. Numerical simulations of the problem, suggest that applying the four control measure can effectively reduce if not eliminate the spread of Plasmodium Knowlesi in a community.

  17. Associação entre glicemia de jejum e morbimortalidade perioperatória: estudo retrospectivo em pacientes idosos cirúrgicos

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: As relações entre valores alterados de glicemia e complicações perioperatórias na população de idosos submetidos a procedimentos cirúrgicos ainda não são conhecidas. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a associação entre glicemia de jejum e morbimortalidade perioperatória em pacientes cirúrgicos idosos. MÉTODO: Foram analisados os prontuários de pacientes acima de 60 anos submetidos a diversos procedimentos cirúrgicos num período de seis meses, divididos de acordo c...

  18. Artemisinin-Resistant Plasmodium falciparum Malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairhurst, Rick M; Dondorp, Arjen M

    2016-06-01

    For more than five decades, Southeast Asia (SEA) has been fertile ground for the emergence of drug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum malaria. After generating parasites resistant to chloroquine, sulfadoxine, pyrimethamine, quinine, and mefloquine, this region has now spawned parasites resistant to artemisinins, the world's most potent antimalarial drugs. In areas where artemisinin resistance is prevalent, artemisinin combination therapies (ACTs)-the first-line treatments for malaria-are failing fast. This worrisome development threatens to make malaria practically untreatable in SEA, and threatens to compromise global endeavors to eliminate this disease. A recent series of clinical, in vitro, genomics, and transcriptomics studies in SEA have defined in vivo and in vitro phenotypes of artemisinin resistance, identified its causal genetic determinant, explored its molecular mechanism, and assessed its clinical impact. Specifically, these studies have established that artemisinin resistance manifests as slow parasite clearance in patients and increased survival of early-ring-stage parasites in vitro; is caused by single nucleotide polymorphisms in the parasite's K13 gene, is associated with an upregulated "unfolded protein response" pathway that may antagonize the pro-oxidant activity of artemisinins, and selects for partner drug resistance that rapidly leads to ACT failures. In SEA, clinical studies are urgently needed to monitor ACT efficacy where K13 mutations are prevalent, test whether new combinations of currently available drugs cure ACT failures, and advance new antimalarial compounds through preclinical pipelines and into clinical trials. Intensifying these efforts should help to forestall the spread of artemisinin and partner drug resistance from SEA to sub-Saharan Africa, where the world's malaria transmission, morbidity, and mortality rates are highest.

  19. Combating multidrug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thu, Aung Myint; Phyo, Aung Pyae; Landier, Jordi; Parker, Daniel M; Nosten, François H

    2017-08-01

    Over the past 50 years, Plasmodium falciparum has developed resistance against all antimalarial drugs used against it: chloroquine, sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine, quinine, piperaquine and mefloquine. More recently, resistance to the artemisinin derivatives and the resulting failure of artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) are threatening all major gains made in malaria control. Each time resistance has developed progressively, with delayed clearance of parasites first emerging only in a few regions, increasing in prevalence and geographic range, and then ultimately resulting in the complete failure of that antimalarial. Drawing from this repeated historical chain of events, this article presents context-specific approaches for combating drug-resistant P. falciparum malaria. The approaches begin with a context of drug-sensitive parasites and focus on the prevention of the emergence of drug resistance. Next, the approaches address a scenario in which resistance has emerged and is increasing in prevalence and geographic extent, with interventions focused on disrupting transmission through vector control, early diagnosis and treatment, and the use of new combination therapies. Elimination is also presented as an approach for addressing the imminent failure of all available antimalarials. The final drug resistance context presented is one in which all available antimalarials have failed; leaving only personal protection and the use of new antimalarials (or new combinations of antimalarials) as a viable strategy for dealing with complete resistance. All effective strategies and contexts require a multipronged, holistic approach. © 2017 The Authors. The FEBS Journal published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  20. The dynamics of natural Plasmodium falciparum infections.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Felger

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Natural immunity to Plasmodium falciparum has been widely studied, but its effects on parasite dynamics are poorly understood. Acquisition and clearance rates of untreated infections are key elements of the dynamics of malaria, but estimating these parameters is challenging because of frequent super-infection and imperfect detectability of parasites. Consequently, information on effects of host immune status or age on infection dynamics is fragmentary. METHODS: An age-stratified cohort of 347 individuals from Northern Ghana was sampled six times at 2 month intervals. High-throughput capillary electrophoresis was used to genotype the msp-2 locus of all P. falciparum infections detected by PCR. Force of infection (FOI and duration were estimated for each age group using an immigration-death model that allows for imperfect detection of circulating parasites. RESULTS: Allowing for imperfect detection substantially increased estimates of FOI and duration. Effects of naturally acquired immunity on the FOI and duration would be reflected in age dependence in these indices, but in our cohort data FOI tended to increase with age in children. Persistence of individual parasite clones was characteristic of all age-groups. Duration peaked in 5-9 year old children (average duration 319 days, 95% confidence interval 318;320. CONCLUSIONS: The main age-dependence is on parasite densities, with only small age-variations in the FOI and persistence of infections. This supports the hypothesis that acquired immunity controls transmission mainly by limiting blood-stage parasite densities rather than changing rates of acquisition or clearance of infections.

  1. Unique properties of Plasmodium falciparum porphobilinogen deaminase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaraj, Viswanathan Arun; Arumugam, Rajavel; Gopalakrishnan, Bulusu; Jyothsna, Yeleswarapu Sri; Rangarajan, Pundi N; Padmanaban, Govindarajan

    2008-01-04

    The hybrid pathway for heme biosynthesis in the malarial parasite proposes the involvement of parasite genome-coded enzymes of the pathway localized in different compartments such as apicoplast, mitochondria, and cytosol. However, knowledge on the functionality and localization of many of these enzymes is not available. In this study, we demonstrate that porphobilinogen deaminase encoded by the Plasmodium falciparum genome (PfPBGD) has several unique biochemical properties. Studies carried out with PfPBGD partially purified from parasite membrane fraction, as well as recombinant PfPBGD lacking N-terminal 64 amino acids expressed and purified from Escherichia coli cells (DeltaPfPBGD), indicate that both the proteins are catalytically active. Surprisingly, PfPBGD catalyzes the conversion of porphobilinogen to uroporphyrinogen III (UROGEN III), indicating that it also possesses uroporphyrinogen III synthase (UROS) activity, catalyzing the next step. This obviates the necessity to have a separate gene for UROS that has not been so far annotated in the parasite genome. Interestingly, DeltaPfP-BGD gives rise to UROGEN III even after heat treatment, although UROS from other sources is known to be heat-sensitive. Based on the analysis of active site residues, a DeltaPfPBGDL116K mutant enzyme was created and the specific activity of this recombinant mutant enzyme is 5-fold higher than DeltaPfPBGD. More interestingly, DeltaPfPBGDL116K catalyzes the formation of uroporphyrinogen I (UROGEN I) in addition to UROGEN III, indicating that with increased PBGD activity the UROS activity of PBGD may perhaps become rate-limiting, thus leading to non-enzymatic cyclization of preuroporphyrinogen to UROGEN I. PfPBGD is localized to the apicoplast and is catalytically very inefficient compared with the host red cell enzyme.

  2. A nuclear targeting system in Plasmodium falciparum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kochakarn Theerarat

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The distinct differences in gene control mechanisms acting in the nucleus between Plasmodium falciparum and the human host could lead to new potential drug targets for anti-malarial development. New molecular toolkits are required for dissecting molecular machineries in the P. falciparum nucleus. One valuable tool commonly used in model organisms is protein targeting to specific sub-cellular locations. Targeting proteins to specified locations allows labeling of organelles for microscopy, or testing of how the protein of interest modulates organelle function. In recent years, this approach has been developed for various malaria organelles, such as the mitochondrion and the apicoplast. A tool for targeting a protein of choice to the P. falciparum nucleus using an exogenous nuclear localization sequence is reported here. Methods To develop a nuclear targeting system, a putative nuclear localization sequence was fused with green fluorescent protein (GFP. The nuclear localization sequence from the yeast transcription factor Gal4 was chosen because of its well-defined nuclear localization signal. A series of truncated Gal4 constructs was also created to narrow down the nuclear localization sequence necessary for P. falciparum nuclear import. Transfected parasites were analysed by fluorescent and laser-scanning confocal microscopy. Results The nuclear localization sequence of Gal4 is functional in P. falciparum. It effectively transported GFP into the nucleus, and the first 74 amino acid residues were sufficient for nuclear localization. Conclusions The Gal4 fusion technique enables specific transport of a protein of choice into the P. falciparum nucleus, and thus provides a tool for labeling nuclei without using DNA-staining dyes. The finding also indicates similarities between the nuclear transport mechanisms of yeast and P. falciparum. Since the nuclear transport system has been thoroughly studied in yeast, this could give clues

  3. Distribution of two species of malaria, Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax, on Lombok Island, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagao, Yoshiro; Dachlan, Yoes Prijatna; Soedarto; Hidajati, Sri; Yotopranoto, Subagyo; Kusmartisnawati; Subekti, Sri; Ideham, Bariah; Tsuda, Yoshio; Kawabata, Masato; Takagi, Masahiro; Looareesuwan, Somchai

    2003-09-01

    Medical and entomological surveys were conducted to determine the risk factors of Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax infections on Lombok Island, Indonesia, to find the risk factors and the main mosquito vectors for each malaria. Multivariate longitudinal analysis demonstrated two significant risk factors for infection with P. falciparum: disappearance of P. vivax parasitemia (p<0.001) and a specific study site (p<0.001). In contrast, younger age (p=0.024) and the interpolated virtual density of An. subpictus (p=0.041) were significantly associated with increased risk of infection with P. vivax. Thus, it seems that the distribution of P. vivax was determined largely by the presence of An. subpictus, whilst that of P. falciparum was influenced by antagonism with P. vivax. This result shows the importance of following-up treated P. vivax patients to identify recrudescence of P. falciparum in this area.

  4. Modelling the incidence of Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Afghanistan 2006-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alegana, Victor A; Wright, Jim A; Nahzat, Sami M; Butt, Waqar; Sediqi, Amad W; Habib, Naeem; Snow, Robert W; Atkinson, Peter M; Noor, Abdisalan M

    2014-01-01

    Identifying areas that support high malaria risks and where populations lack access to health care is central to reducing the burden in Afghanistan. This study investigated the incidence of Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum using routine data to help focus malaria interventions. To estimate incidence, the study modelled utilisation of the public health sector using fever treatment data from the 2012 national Malaria Indicator Survey. A probabilistic measure of attendance was applied to population density metrics to define the proportion of the population within catchment of a public health facility. Malaria data were used in a Bayesian spatio-temporal conditional-autoregressive model with ecological or environmental covariates, to examine the spatial and temporal variation of incidence. From the analysis of healthcare utilisation, over 80% of the population was within 2 hours' travel of the nearest public health facility, while 64.4% were within 30 minutes' travel. The mean incidence of P. vivax in 2009 was 5.4 (95% Crl 3.2-9.2) cases per 1000 population compared to 1.2 (95% Crl 0.4-2.9) cases per 1000 population for P. falciparum. P. vivax peaked in August while P. falciparum peaked in November. 32% of the estimated 30.5 million people lived in regions where annual incidence was at least 1 case per 1,000 population of P. vivax; 23.7% of the population lived in areas where annual P. falciparum case incidence was at least 1 per 1000. This study showed how routine data can be combined with household survey data to model malaria incidence. The incidence of both P. vivax and P. falciparum in Afghanistan remain low but the co-distribution of both parasites and the lag in their peak season provides challenges to malaria control in Afghanistan. Future improved case definition to determine levels of imported risks may be useful for the elimination ambitions in Afghanistan.

  5. Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax specific lactate dehydrogenase: genetic polymorphism study from Indian isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keluskar, Priyadarshan; Singh, Vineeta; Gupta, Purva; Ingle, Sanjay

    2014-08-01

    Control and eradication of malaria is hindered by the acquisition of drug resistance by Plasmodium species. This has necessitated a persistent search for novel drugs and more efficient targets. Plasmodium species specific lactate dehydrogenase is one of the potential therapeutic and diagnostic targets, because of its indispensable role in endoerythrocytic stage of the parasite. A target molecule that is highly conserved in the parasite population can be more effectively used in diagnostics and therapeutics, hence, in the present study polymorphism in PfLDH (Plasmodiumfalciparum specific LDH) and PvLDH (Plasmodiumvivax specific LDH) genes was analyzed using PCR-single strand confirmation polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) and sequencing. Forty-six P. falciparum and thirty-five P. vivax samples were screened from different states of India. Our findings have revealed presence of a single PfLDH genotype and six PvLDH genotypes among the studied samples. Interestingly, along with synonymous substitutions, nonsynonymous substitutions were reported to be present for the first time in the PvLDH genotypes. Further, through amino acid sequence alignment and homology modeling studies we observed that the catalytic residues were conserved in all PvLDH genotypes and the nonsynonymous substitutions have not altered the enzyme structure significantly. Evolutionary genetics studies have confirmed that PfLDH and PvLDH loci are under strong purifying selection. Phylogenetic analysis of the pLDH gene sequences revealed that P. falciparum compared to P. vivax, has recent origin. The study therefore supports PfLDH and PvLDH as suitable therapeutic and diagnostic targets as well as phylogenetic markers to understand the genealogy of malaria species.

  6. Avaliação de conforto térmico em ambientes cirúrgicos utilizando método de Fanger e temperaturas equivalentes

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Em ambientes cirúrgicos as condições de conforto térmico precisam ser as melhores possíveis para que o cirurgião e a equipe médica trabalhem em ambientes cirúrgicos as condições de conforto térmico precisam ser as melhores possíveis para que o cirurgião e a equipe médica trabalhem em condições favoráveis para o sucesso do procedimento cirúrgico. Neste trabalho são avaliadas condições de conforto térmico em salas cirúrgicas utilizando o método de Fanger e temperaturas equivalentes. Foram reali...

  7. Biguanide-Atovaquone Synergy against Plasmodium falciparum In Vitro

    OpenAIRE

    2002-01-01

    The synergistic potential of a range of biguanides, their triazine metabolites, tetracyclines, and pyrimethamine in combination with atovaquone has been assessed. All five biguanides tested interacted synergistically with atovaquone against Plasmodium falciparum in vitro. All of the other compounds tested were either additive or antagonistic.

  8. Antibodies to a recombinant glutamate-rich Plasmodium falciparum protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hogh, B; Petersen, E; Dziegiel, Morten Hanefeld

    1992-01-01

    A Plasmodium falciparum antigen gene coding for a 220-kD glutamate-rich protein (GLURP) has been cloned, and the 783 C-terminal amino acids of this protein (GLURP489-1271) have been expressed as a beta-galactosidase fusion protein in Escherichia coli. The encoded 783 amino acid residues contain two...

  9. Positive blood culture with Plasmodium falciparum : Case report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Vries, Jutte J. C.; Van Assen, Sander; Mulder, André B.; Kampinga, Greetje A.

    2007-01-01

    An adult traveler presented with fever and malaise after returning from Sierra Leone. Young trophozoites of Plasmodium falciparum were seen in a blood smear, with parasitemia being 10%. Moreover, blood cultures drawn on admission signaled as "positive" after 1 day of incubation, but no bacteria were

  10. Genotyping Plasmodium vivax isolates from the 2011 outbreak in Greece

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spanakos, Gregory; Alifrangis, Michael; Schousboe, Mette L

    2013-01-01

    Plasmodium vivax malaria was common in Greece until the 1950s with epidemics involving thousands of cases every year. Greece was declared free of malaria by the World Health Organization in 1974. From 1974 to 2010, an average of 39 cases per year were reported, which were mainly imported. However...

  11. The isoprenoid-precursor dependence of Plasmodium spp

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Meer, Jan-Ytzen; Hirsch, Anna K. H.

    2012-01-01

    Due to the increase in resistance of Plasmodium spp. against available antimalarials, there is a need for new, effective and innovative drugs. The non-mevalonate pathway for the biosynthesis of the universal isoprenoid precursors, which is absent in humans, is suggested as an attractive source of

  12. Structural Differences Explain Diverse Functions of Plasmodium Actins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahokoski, Juha; Martinez, Silvia Muñico; Ignatev, Alexander; Lepper, Simone; Frischknecht, Friedrich; Sidén-Kiamos, Inga; Sachse, Carsten; Kursula, Inari

    2014-01-01

    Actins are highly conserved proteins and key players in central processes in all eukaryotic cells. The two actins of the malaria parasite are among the most divergent eukaryotic actins and also differ from each other more than isoforms in any other species. Microfilaments have not been directly observed in Plasmodium and are presumed to be short and highly dynamic. We show that actin I cannot complement actin II in male gametogenesis, suggesting critical structural differences. Cryo-EM reveals that Plasmodium actin I has a unique filament structure, whereas actin II filaments resemble canonical F-actin. Both Plasmodium actins hydrolyze ATP more efficiently than α-actin, and unlike any other actin, both parasite actins rapidly form short oligomers induced by ADP. Crystal structures of both isoforms pinpoint several structural changes in the monomers causing the unique polymerization properties. Inserting the canonical D-loop to Plasmodium actin I leads to the formation of long filaments in vitro. In vivo, this chimera restores gametogenesis in parasites lacking actin II, suggesting that stable filaments are required for exflagellation. Together, these data underline the divergence of eukaryotic actins and demonstrate how structural differences in the monomers translate into filaments with different properties, implying that even eukaryotic actins have faced different evolutionary pressures and followed different paths for developing their polymerization properties. PMID:24743229

  13. Plasmodium cellular effector mechanisms and the hepatic microenvironment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frevert, Ute; Krzych, Urszula

    2015-01-01

    Plasmodium falciparum malaria remains one of the most serious health problems globally. Immunization with attenuated parasites elicits multiple cellular effector mechanisms capable of eliminating Plasmodium liver stages. However, malaria liver stage (LS) immunity is complex and the mechanisms effector T cells use to locate the few infected hepatocytes in the large liver in order to kill the intracellular LS parasites remain a mystery to date. Here, we review our current knowledge on the behavior of CD8 effector T cells in the hepatic microvasculature, in malaria and other hepatic infections. Taking into account the unique immunological and lymphogenic properties of the liver, we discuss whether classical granule-mediated cytotoxicity might eliminate infected hepatocytes via direct cell contact or whether cytokines might operate without cell–cell contact and kill Plasmodium LSs at a distance. A thorough understanding of the cellular effector mechanisms that lead to parasite death hence sterile protection is a prerequisite for the development of a successful malaria vaccine to protect the 40% of the world’s population currently at risk of Plasmodium infection. PMID:26074888

  14. Phospholipid organization in monkey erythrocytes upon Plasmodium knowlesi infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaft, P.H. van der; Beaumelle, B.; Vial, H.; Roelofsen, B.; Kamp, J.A.F. op den; Deenen, L.L.M. van

    1987-01-01

    The phospholipid organization in monkey erythrocytes upon Plasmodium knowlesi infection has been studied. Parasitized and nonparasitized erythrocytes from malaria-infected blood were separated and pure erythrocyte membranes from parasitized cells were isolated using Affi-Gel beads. In this way, the

  15. Plasmodium falciparum transcriptome analysis reveals pregnancy malaria associated gene expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tuikue Ndam, Nicaise; Bischoff, Emmanuel; Proux, Caroline

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pregnancy-associated malaria (PAM) causing maternal anemia and low birth weight is among the multiple manifestations of Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Infected erythrocytes (iEs) can acquire various adhesive properties that mediate the clinical severity of malaria. Recent advances...

  16. Artemether-lumefantrine treatment of uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Poul-Erik

    2015-01-01

    -lumefantrine for uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria, to define therapeutic day 7 lumefantrine concentrations and identify patient factors that substantially alter these concentrations. A systematic review of PubMed, Embase, Google Scholar, ClinicalTrials.gov and conference proceedings identified all relevant studies...

  17. Acute kidney injury in imported Plasmodium falciparum malaria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.C. Koopmans (Liese); M.E. van Wolfswinkel (Marlies); D.A. Hesselink (Dennis); E.J. Hoorn (Ewout); R. Koelewijn (Rob); J.J. van Hellemond (Jaap); P.J.J. van Genderen (Perry)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a known complication of malaria, and is reported to occur in up to 40 % of adult patients with a severe Plasmodium falciparum infection in endemic regions. To gain insight in the incidence and risk factors of AKI in imported P. falciparum malaria,

  18. Exploring Anopheles gut bacteria for Plasmodium blocking activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahia, Ana C; Dong, Yuemei; Blumberg, Benjamin J; Mlambo, Godfree; Tripathi, Abhai; BenMarzouk-Hidalgo, Omar J; Chandra, Ramesh; Dimopoulos, George

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Malaria parasite transmission requires the successful development of Plasmodium gametocytes into flagellated microgametes upon mosquito blood ingestion, and the subsequent fertilization of microgametes and macrogametes for the development of motile zygotes, called ookinetes, which invade and transverse the Anopheles vector mosquito midgut at around 18-36 h after blood ingestion. Within the mosquito midgut, the malaria parasite has to withstand the mosquito's innate immune response and the detrimental effect of its commensal bacterial flora. We have assessed the midgut colonization capacity of 5 gut bacterial isolates from field-derived, and 2 from laboratory colony, mosquitoes and their effect on Plasmodium development in vivo and in vitro, along with their impact on mosquito survival. Some bacterial isolates activated the mosquito's immune system, affected the mosquito's life span, and were capable of blocking Plasmodium development. We have also shown that the ability of these bacteria to inhibit the parasites is likely to involve different mechanisms and factors. A Serratia marcescens isolate was particularly efficient in colonizing the mosquitoes’ gut, compromising mosquito survival, and inhibiting both sexual- and asexual-stage Plasmodium through secreted factors, thereby rendering it a potential candidate for the development of a malaria transmission intervention strategy. PMID:24428613

  19. Molecular make-up of the Plasmodium parasitophorous vacuolar membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spielmann, Tobias; Montagna, Georgina N; Hecht, Leonie; Matuschewski, Kai

    2012-10-01

    Plasmodium, the causative agent of malaria, is an obligate, intracellular, eukaryotic cell that invades, replicates, and differentiates within hepatocytes and erythrocytes. Inside a host cell, a second membrane delineates the developing pathogen in addition to the parasite plasma membrane, resulting in a distinct cellular compartment, termed parasitophorous vacuole (PV). The PV membrane (PVM) constitutes the parasite-host cell interface and is likely central to nutrient acquisition, host cell remodeling, waste disposal, environmental sensing, and protection from innate defense. Over the past two decades, a number of parasite-encoded PVM proteins have been identified. They include multigene families and protein complexes, such as early-transcribed membrane proteins (ETRAMPs) and the Plasmodium translocon for exported proteins (PTEX). Nearly all Plasmodium PVM proteins are restricted to this genus and display transient and stage-specific expression. Here, we provide an overview of the PVM proteins of Plasmodium blood and liver stages. Biochemical and experimental genetics data suggest that some PVM proteins are ideal targets for novel anti-malarial intervention strategies.

  20. Plasmodium falciparum infection causes proinflammatory priming of human TLR responses.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McCall, M.B.B.; Netea, M.G.; Hermsen, C.C.; Jansen, T.; Jacobs, L.; Golenbock, D.; Ven, A.J.A.M. van der; Sauerwein, R.W.

    2007-01-01

    TLRs are a major group of pattern recognition receptors that are crucial in initiating innate immune responses and are capable of recognizing Plasmodium ligands. We have investigated TLR responses during acute experimental P. falciparum (P.f.) infection in 15 malaria-naive volunteers. TLR-4 response

  1. Scavenger receptor BI boosts hepatocyte permissiveness to Plasmodium infection.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yalaoui, S.; Huby, T.; Franetich, J.F.; Gego, A.; Rametti, A.; Moreau, M.; Collet, X.; Siau, A.; Gemert, G.J.A. van; Sauerwein, R.W.; Luty, A.J.F.; Vaillant, J.C.; Hannoun, L.; Chapman, J.; Mazier, D.; Froissard, P.

    2008-01-01

    Infection of hepatocytes by Plasmodium falciparum sporozoites requires the host tetraspanin CD81. CD81 is also predicted to be a coreceptor, along with scavenger receptor BI (SR-BI), for hepatitis C virus. Using SR-BI-knockout, SR-BI-hypomorphic and SR-BI-transgenic primary hepatocytes, as well as s

  2. Positive blood culture with Plasmodium falciparum: Case report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Vries, Jutte J. C.; Van Assen, Sander; Mulder, André B.; Kampinga, Greetje A.

    2007-01-01

    An adult traveler presented with fever and malaise after returning from Sierra Leone. Young trophozoites of Plasmodium falciparum were seen in a blood smear, with parasitemia being 10%. Moreover, blood cultures drawn on admission signaled as "positive" after 1 day of incubation, but no bacteria were

  3. Positive blood culture with Plasmodium falciparum : Case report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Vries, Jutte J. C.; Van Assen, Sander; Mulder, André B.; Kampinga, Greetje A.

    2007-01-01

    An adult traveler presented with fever and malaise after returning from Sierra Leone. Young trophozoites of Plasmodium falciparum were seen in a blood smear, with parasitemia being 10%. Moreover, blood cultures drawn on admission signaled as "positive" after 1 day of incubation, but no bacteria were

  4. The prognostic value of schizontaemia in imported Plasmodium falciparum malaria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.E. van Wolfswinkel (Marlies); M. De Mendonça Melo (Mariana); K. Vliegenthart-Jongbloed (Klaske); R. Koelewijn (Rob); J.J. van Hellemond (Jaap); P.J.J. van Genderen (Perry)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractBackground: In Plasmodium falciparum infection, peripheral parasite counts do not always correlate well with the sequestered parasite burden. As erythrocytes parasitized with mature trophozoites and schizonts have a high tendency to adhere to the microvascular endothelium, they are often

  5. The prognostic value of schizontaemia in imported Plasmodium falciparum malaria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.E. van Wolfswinkel (Marlies); M. De Mendonça Melo (Mariana); K. Vliegenthart-Jongbloed (Klaske); R. Koelewijn (Rob); J.J. van Hellemond (Jaap); P.J.J. van Genderen (Perry)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractBackground: In Plasmodium falciparum infection, peripheral parasite counts do not always correlate well with the sequestered parasite burden. As erythrocytes parasitized with mature trophozoites and schizonts have a high tendency to adhere to the microvascular endothelium, they are often

  6. Acute kidney injury in imported Plasmodium falciparum malaria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.C. Koopmans, L.C. (Liese); M.E. van Wolfswinkel (Marlies); D.A. Hesselink (Dennis); E.J. Hoorn (Ewout); R. Koelewijn (Rob); J.J. van Hellemond (Jaap); P.J. van Genderen (P.)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a known complication of malaria, and is reported to occur in up to 40 % of adult patients with a severe Plasmodium falciparum infection in endemic regions. To gain insight in the incidence and risk factors of AKI in imported P. falciparum malaria,

  7. The epidemiology of Plasmodium falciparum gametocytes: weapons of mass dispersion.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drakeley, C.; Sutherland, C.; Bousema, J.T.; Sauerwein, R.W.; Targett, G.A.T.

    2006-01-01

    Much of the epidemiology of Plasmodium falciparum in Sub-Saharan Africa focuses on the prevalence patterns of asexual parasites in people of different ages, whereas the gametocytes that propagate the disease are often neglected. One expected benefit of the widespread introduction of artemisinin-base

  8. Genomics and epigenetics of sexual commitment in Plasmodium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechtsi, D P; Waters, A P

    2017-06-01

    Malaria is the disease caused by the apicomplexan parasites belonging to the genus Plasmodium. Expanding our arsenal to include transmission-blocking agents in our fight against malaria is becoming increasingly important. Such an implementation requires detailed understanding of the biology of the Plasmodium life cycle stages that are transmissible. Plasmodium gametocytes are the only parasite stage that can be transmitted to the mosquito vector and are the product of sexual development in a small percentage of parasites that continually proliferate in host blood. The critical decision made by asexual erythrocytic stages to cease further proliferation and differentiate into gametocytes, as well as the first steps they take into maturity, have long remained unknown. Recent studies have contributed to a breakthrough in our understanding of this branch point in development. In this review, we will discuss the findings that have allowed us to make this major leap forward in our knowledge of sexual commitment in Plasmodium. We will further propose a model for the mechanism triggering the switch to sexual development, constructed around the proteins currently known to regulate this process. Further insight into sexual commitment and gametocyte development will help identify targets for the development of transmission-blocking malaria therapies. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  9. The isoprenoid-precursor dependence of Plasmodium spp

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Meer, Jan-Ytzen; Hirsch, Anna K. H.

    2012-01-01

    Due to the increase in resistance of Plasmodium spp. against available antimalarials, there is a need for new, effective and innovative drugs. The non-mevalonate pathway for the biosynthesis of the universal isoprenoid precursors, which is absent in humans, is suggested as an attractive source of ta

  10. The Importance of CIR Aerial Imagery in Inventory, Monitoring and Predicting Forest Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Kolić

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: The main goal of this paper was to highlight the importance of colour infrared (CIR aerial photographs for efficient inventory, monitoring and predicting the health status of forests in changed site conditions. CIR aerial photographs from two aerial surveys conducted in 1989 and 2008 were used to identify and analyze the damage in lowland pedunculated oak (Quercus robur L. forests during each period, as well as to obtain a dieback trend in the observed period. Material and Methods: The research was conducted in lowland pedunculated oak forests of Josip Kozarac management unit. CIR aerial photographs (1989 of the research area were taken with a classical camera, while aerial images in 2008 were taken with a digital camera and then converted from digital to analogue form (contact copy - photograph in order to perform photointerpretation with a SOKKIA MS27 Carl ZEISS Jena mirror stereoscope, magnified by 8x. The health status of particular trees (crowns was assessed by means of photointerpretation keys in a stereomodel over a systematic 100x100 m sample grid on both 1989 and 2008 aerial photographs. The degree of damage of 4 individual trees was assessed at every grid point in the surveying strips covering the surveyed area. Damage indicators were calculated and thematic maps were constructed on the basis of the interpretation of data for all the grid points. Results: For the research area a damage index (IO of 68.36% for oak was determined by photointerpreting individual trees (2008; in other words, this percentage of pedunculate oak trees in the surveyed area was found to be in the damage degree of 2.1 and more. Of 68.36% trees classified in the damage degree of 2.1 or more, mean damage (SO1 amounted to 52.16% and could be classified in the damage degree of 2.2. In 1989, the mean damage index (IO for pedunculate oak was 48.00%, and pedunculate oak trees with mean damage degree of 2.1 or more (SO1 amounted to 36.03%. The

  11. The composition of Titan's stratosphere from Cassini/CIRS mid-infrared spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coustenis, Athena; Achterberg, Richard K.; Conrath, Barney J.; Jennings, Donald E.; Marten, André; Gautier, Daniel; Nixon, Conor A.; Flasar, F. Michael; Teanby, Nick A.; Bézard, Bruno; Samuelson, Robert E.; Carlson, Ronald C.; Lellouch, Emmanuel; Bjoraker, Gordon L.; Romani, Paul N.; Taylor, Fred W.; Irwin, Patrick G. J.; Fouchet, Thierry; Hubert, Augustin; Orton, Glenn S.; Kunde, Virgil G.; Vinatier, Sandrine; Mondellini, Jacqueline; Abbas, Mian M.; Courtin, Regis

    2007-07-01

    We have analyzed data recorded by the Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) aboard the Cassini spacecraft during the Titan flybys T0-T10 (July 2004-January 2006). The spectra characterize various regions on Titan from 70° S to 70° N with a variety of emission angles. We study the molecular signatures observed in the mid-infrared CIRS detector arrays (FP3 and FP4, covering roughly the 600-1500 cm -1 spectral range with apodized resolutions of 2.54 or 0.53 cm -1). The composite spectrum shows several molecular signatures: hydrocarbons, nitriles and CO 2. A firm detection of benzene (C 6H 6) is provided by CIRS at levels of about 3.5×10 around 70° N. We have used temperature profiles retrieved from the inversion of the emission observed in the methane ν band at 1304 cm -1 and a line-by-line radiative transfer code to infer the abundances of the trace constituents and some of their isotopes in Titan's stratosphere. No longitudinal variations were found for these gases. Little or no change is observed generally in their abundances from the south to the equator. On the other hand, meridional variations retrieved for these trace constituents from the equator to the North ranged from almost zero (no or very little meridional variations) for C 2H 2, C 2H 6, C 3H 8, C 2H 4 and CO 2 to a significant enhancement at high northern (early winter) latitudes for HCN, HC 3N, C 4H 2, C 3H 4 and C 6H 6. For the more important increases in the northern latitudes, the transition occurs roughly between 30 and 50 degrees north latitude, depending on the molecule. Note however that the very high-northern latitude results from tours TB-T10 bear large uncertainties due to few available data and problems with latitude smearing effects. The observed variations are consistent with some, but not all, of the predictions from dynamical-photochemical models. Constraints are set on the vertical distribution of C 2H 2, found to be compatible with 2-D equatorial predictions by global circulation

  12. Papiloma invertido: experiência e tratamento cirúrgico Inverted Papilloma: experience and surgical treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alcioni B. Vicenti

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Introdução: O papiloma invertido é uma neoplasia epitelial benigna de caráter invasivo, constituindo de 0,5 a 4% de todos os tumores nasais. Tem potencial de malignização que varia de 5 a 13% e recorrência freqüente. Objetivo: Avaliar os aspectos epidemiológicos e o tratamento cirúrgico dessa patologia no Serviço de Otorrinolaringologia do Hospital do Servidor Público Estadual de São Paulo, nos últimos quatro anos. Forma de estudo: Retrospectivo clínico. Material e método: Foram avaliados oito pacientes, operados de agosto de 1996 a julho de 2000, com diagnóstico de papiloma invertido, observando-se idade, sexo, sintomas pré-operatórios, localização do tumor, recorrência, transformação maligna e tratamento cirúrgico realizado. Resultados: Dos oito pacientes estudados, cinco (62,5% eram do sexo masculino; e três (37,5%, do feminino. O sintoma pré-operatório principal foi a obstrução nasal. A localização principal foi na parede lateral nasal (62,5%. Foram feitas três sinusectomias maxiloetmoidais via degloving medio-facial; três ressecções endoscópicas e duas ressecções via Caldwell-Luc. O seguimento variou de um a 47 meses. Conclusão: O papiloma invertido apresentou comportamento benigno; porém, invasivo. Acometeu mais indivíduos na quinta e sexta décadas de vida, preferencialmente os do sexo masculino. A abordagem cirúrgica foi ampla, variando de acordo com a localização e tamanho da lesão. Embora não tenhamos observado recidiva ou transformação maligna, os pacientes devem ser acompanhados durante vários anos para confirmação da cura clínica.Introduction: The inverted papilloma is a benign epithelial neoplasia corresponding from 0,5 to 4% of all nasal tumors. It has a malignant potential that vary from 5 to 13% and the recurrence is frequent. Aim: The aim of this study is to evaluate the experience and surgical treatment with inverted papilloma at Hospital do Servidor Público Estadual de S

  13. Tratamento cirúrgico da hemorragia cerebral: considerações a propósito de 11 casos

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    Walter C. Pereira

    1977-03-01

    Full Text Available Após breves comentários sobre os achados angiográficos em 298 doentes com acidente vascular cerebral isquêmico ou hemorrágico, é realçada a importância da angiografia cerebral como o método ideal de diagnóstico, tendo em vista a variedade de fatores fisiopatogênicos e etiológicos envolvidos na gênese dessas síndromes. São discutidos a seguir, particularmente, os resultados obtidos com o tratamento cirúrgico de 11 pacientes com hematoma intracerebral espontâneo. Apesar da divergência de opiniões a este propósito, a melhora acentuada que observamos em 54,6% de nossos doentes, motiva-nos a considerar o tratamento cirúrgico indicado na maioria dos casos de hemorragia cerebral primária.

  14. Condições de conforto térmico e desconforto local em salas cirúrgicas.

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Hospitais e demais instalações médicas constituem-se em ambientes complexos, que requerem sistemas de tratamento de ar e de ventilação adequados para o conforto e segurança de pacientes, de pessoal e de visitantes. Em ambientes cirúrgicos as condições de conforto térmico precisam ser as melhores possíveis, para que o cirurgião e a equipe médica trabalhem em condições favoráveis para o sucesso do procedimento cirúrgico. Simultaneamente, os riscos de infecção do paciente e dos profissionais de ...

  15. Toracotomia minimamente invasiva nas intervenções cirúrgicas valvares

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    PEREIRA Marcelo Balestro

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Introdução: é tema atual a realização de procedimentos cirúrgicos por minitoracotomias que, inicialmente utilizadas para operações de revascularização do miocárdio, têm sido também propostas como acesso às operações valvares. O objetivo deste trabalho é analisar resultados da minitoracotomia em relação à técnica tradicional nas intervenções valvares, em estudo prospectivo. Casuística e métodos: entre novembro de 1996 e fevereiro de 1998, dois grupos, 8 pacientes operados por minitoracotomia (Grupo 1 e 8 controles (Grupo 2 equiparáveis nas variáveis sexo, idade, peso/altura, classe funcional pré-operatória, doença de base e operação proposta, foram submetidos a reparo ou troca valvar aórtica ou mitral. Os pacientes do Grupo 1 foram operados através de incisão paraesternal direita de até 8 cm, com circulação extracorpórea (CEC estabelecida através de canulação arterial e venosa femorais e os do Grupo 2 (controles por esternotomia mediana. Ambos os grupos foram acompanhados até a alta hospitalar. Resultados: Os parâmetros avaliados no trans-operatório e pós-operatório, bem como a análise estatística constam nas Tabelas 1 e 2. Não ocorreram óbitos imediatos. Duas complicações foram registradas: um infarto per-operatório e um acidente vascular cerebral no Grupo 2. Conclusão: os resultados parciais permitem inferir que a abordagem através de pequenas toracotomias é factível sem aumento na morbimortalidade, do tempo cirúrgico ou da estadia hospitalar. Possíveis vantagens objetivas de um método em relação a outro, exceto o aspecto estético, não estão evidentes até esta etapa do estudo.

  16. Evolution and search for new molecules in Titan's stratosphere from Cassini CIRS observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coustenis, Athena; Jennings, Donald; Lavvas, Panayotis; Achterberg, Richard; Bampasidis, Georgios; Nixon, Conor; Bjoraker, Gordon; Flasar, F. Michael

    2016-10-01

    We observe the onset and enhancement at Titan's south pole in several trace species, such as complex hydrocarbons like C6H6 and nitriles like HC3N, observed only at high northern latitudes before equinox. We analyze Cassini/CIRS nadir spectra taken from 2012 to 2015 at high resolution at several latitudes from 70°S to 70°N after the Southern Autumnal Equinox [1-4]. In the more recent dates, most molecules show dramatic increases in the south. The 70°S and 50°S or mid-latitudes show different behavior demonstrating that they are subject to different dynamical processes in and out of the polar vortex region. For most species, we find higher abundances at 50°N compared to 50°S, with the exception of C3H8, CO2, C6H6 and HC3N, which arrive at similar mixing ratios after mid-2013 [3,4]. While the 70°N data show generally no change with a trend rather to a small decrease for most species within 2014, the 70°S results indicate a strong enhancement in trace stratospheric gases after 2012. In particular, HC3N, HCN and C6H6 have increased by 3 orders of magnitude over the past 3-4 years while other molecules, including C2H4, C3H4 and C4H2, have increased less sharply (by 1-2 orders of magnitude). This is a strong indication of the rapid and sudden buildup of the gaseous inventory in the southern stratosphere during 2013-2014, as expected as the pole moves deeper into winter shadow. Subsidence gases that accumulate in the absence of ultraviolet sunlight, evidently increased quickly since 2012 and some of them may be responsible also for the reported haze decrease in the north and its appearance in the south at the same time [5]. We also look for the appearance of new molecules (complex hydrocarbons and nitriles) in large averages of CIRS spectra, based on model predictions.References[1] Coustenis, et al., Icarus 207, 461, 2010 ; [2] Bampasidis et al., ApJ 760, 144, 8 p., 2012; [3] Coustenis et al., Astrophys. J. 799, 177, 9p, 2013 ; [4] Coustenis, A., et al., Icarus

  17. Pancreatite aguda grave: resultados do tratamento cirúrgico em 68 pacientes

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    Olívio Louro Costa

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar os resultados do tratamento cirúrgico das formas necrosantes, ou graves, da pancreatite aguda e da forma crônica agudizada. MÉTODO: Foi preenchido um protocolo, de modo consecutivo e prospectivo, de 68 pacientes operados por pancreatite aguda grave e crônica agudizada, no período de 1982 a 2000. Os pacientes foram classificados em três categorias: 1. Pancreatite aguda biliar; 2. Pancreatite aguda de causa indeterminada; 3. Pancreatite crônica agudizada. RESULTADOS: As indicações para o tratamento cirúrgico foram: diagnóstico incerto (32,3%; necrose infectada (60,3% e para necrosectomia (7,4%. As operações realizadas foram: desbridamento de necrose infectada(70,6%; operações sobre as vias biliares (20,6% e desbridamento de grandes necroses (7,4%. Os óbitos hospitalares incidentes, por categoria foram: 1. Pancreatite aguda biliar (33,3%; 2. Pancreatite aguda indeterminada (45,0%; 3. Pancreatite crônica agudizada (37,0%. A média de óbitos foi de 38,2%. Vinte e cinco pacientes foram reoperados, uma ou várias vezes, e nestes a mortalidade foi de 40,0%. Os abscessos foram responsáveis por 52,0% dos óbitos e as outras complicações que resultaram em óbitos, sempre evoluiram para infecção. CONCLUSÕES: Ocorreu um alto índice de operações por diagnóstico incerto. Esta indicação deve se restringir aos casos onde não seja possível o diagnóstico diferencial com certas causas de abdome agudo. As indicações para tratar precocemente a litíase biliar devem ser evitadas ou reduzidas a situações específicas. As reoperações são freqüentemente indicadas nesses pacientes e a infecção foi a principal causa de morte.

  18. Diagnóstico nutricional de pacientes cirúrgicos Nutritional diagnosis of surgical patients

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    Celina de Azevedo Dias

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available RACIONAL: A desnutrição pode afetar pacientes cirúrgicos, aumentando o tempo de permanência hospitalar, a incidência de complicações pós-operatórias e retardo na cicatrização de feridas, levando ao aumento da morbimortalidade. OBJETIVO: Diagnosticar o estado nutricional de pacientes cirúrgicos. MÉTODO: Avaliaram-se 70 pacientes através de parâmetros antropométricos (peso, altura, Índice de Massa Corporal e percentual de perda de peso e bioquímicos (albumina, hematócrito e hemoglobina na admissão e em dois períodos do internamento hospitalar. RESULTADOS: Na admissão detectarou-se maior percentual de desnutrição em idosos (32,4% e de excesso de peso em adultos (33,4%. Na evolução ponderal durante os 15 dias de internamento, 88,6% teve perda de peso BACKGROUND: Malnutrition can affect surgical patients by increasing length of hospital stay, the incidence of postoperative complications and delayed wound healing, in addition to higher mortality rate. AIM: To diagnose nutritional status of surgical patients. METHODS: Seventy patients were evaluated by anthropometric parameters (weight, height, Body Mass Index and percentage of weight loss and biochemical (albumin, hemoglobin and hematocrit in admission and in two periods of hospitalization. RESULTS: On admission malnutrition percentage was higher in the elderly (32.4% and excess weight in adults (33.4%. Weight during the 15 days of hospitalization presented 88.6% weight loss and significant reduction of Body Mass Index, while remaining within the normal range. Patients with malignant disease had higher nutritional risk in admission, positive association with hypoalbuminemia and weight loss (63%, Body Mass Index (38% and albumin (17.1%. CONCLUSIONS: 1. There was no severe weight loss throughout the hospitalization; 2 - on admission and during the hospital stay, the weight loss was the best tool for assessing the nutritional status of surgical patients, compared with Body Mass

  19. The Science from Cassini CIRS, Today and over the Next Three Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flasar, F. M.

    2014-12-01

    The longevity of the Cassini Mission has provided an unusual opportunity to study the Saturn system, and we report major results on temperatures, atmospheric composition, and condensates from CIRS thermal-infrared spectra. Titan has a pronounced seasonal cycle, and its winter poles are characterized by strong circumpolar winds enclosing a region of cold stratospheric temperatures, enhanced trace organic gases, and condensates. Cassini arrived in early northern winter and now it is mid-spring. The northern vortex has dissolved gradually, but the buildup of Titan's south polar vortex has been quite rapid, evidenced by the marked increase of trace organic gases and condensates. Saturn has seasonal and more irregular behavior. Like Earth, its stratosphere has an equatorial oscillation, with a descending pattern detected in Cassini's extended tour. The great northern storm that erupted in late 2010 was unexpected, leading to perturbations in tropospheric composition, and stratospheric anticyclones. Although the visible storm died out in a few months, the highly disturbed stratosphere persisted until this year. In the remainder of Cassini's tour, there will also be new observations of the thermally anomalous "Pac-Man" features on Mimas, Tethys, and Dione, which will provide better constraints on their physical surface properties and spatial distribution. Regions of Hyperion, Epimetheus, Janus, Pandora and Atlas will be mapped for the first time or at significantly better spatial-resolution than before. Two close flybys of Enceladus in late 2015 will allow the sampling of the structure of tiger stripe thermal emission on sub-kilometer scales. As the southern winter deepens, its endogenic signature will be less polluted by passive emission, providing the best opportunity to determine its heat flow and constrain its source. The F-ring and Proximal orbits will provide close views to obtain limb sounding of Saturn's equatorial region and map the thermal structure and

  20. Apreçamento de opções de IDI usando o modelo CIR

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    José Santiago Fajardo Barbachan

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available A opção de IDI da BM&F possui características peculiares que torna o seu apreçamento diferente das opções de taxa de juros mais comuns, como as de títulos de renda fixa. Este artigo desenvolve uma fórmula para apreçamento dessas opções de IDI, utilizando a precificação livre de arbitragem. O modelo utilizado considera apenas um fator estocástico: a taxa de juros livre de risco de curto prazo. A equação diferencial usada para modelar o comportamento da taxa de juros é a do modelo CIR (COX INGERSOLL & ROSS, 1985, que possui reversão à média e não permite a existência de taxas de juros nominais negativas. Também é feita uma estimação dos parâmetros do modelo proposto baseando-se em dados históricos, para então comparar o preço teórico da opção baseado nestes parâmetros com os preços de mercado e com o preço teórico considerando a modelagem de Vasicek (1977.The IDI option from the BM&F (Commodities and Futures Exchange has unusual characteristics, that make its pricing different from common interest rate options. This paper develops a closed form formula for the pricing of these IDI options, using an arbitrage-free pricing approach. The model used considers only one stochastic factor: the short-term risk-free interest rate. The differential equation used to model the behavior of the interest rate comes from the CIR (COX INGERSOLL & ROSS, 1985 model, which has mean reversion property and does not allow negative nominal interest rates. It is also done a parameter estimation of the proposed model based on historic data, and then compares the theoretical price of the option based on these parameters with the market price and with the theoretical price considering the Vasicek (1977 model.