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Sample records for plasmodium bennettinia juxtanucleare

  1. Culex saltanensis Dyar, 1928: natural vector of Plasmodium juxtanucleare in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

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    Ricardo Lourenço-de-Oliveira

    1991-03-01

    Full Text Available Searching for the natural vector of Plasmodium juxtanucleare in an enzootic locality: Granjas Calábria (33% of the chickens infected, Jacarepaguá, in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 13 comparative captures of mosquitoes were carried out, simultaneously on man (out-doors and on chiken (in a poultry-yard, between 6 and 9 p.m., from September to March 1989. Culex saltanensis was the most frequent species in captures on chicken, accounting for 41.7% of the mosquitoes collected on this bait, showing to be highly ornithophilic (90% captured on chicken versus 10% on man. Seven specimens of Cx. saltanensis were found naturally infected in granjas Calábria: five with mature pedunculate oocysts and two with sporozoites (on in the haemocoele and one in the salivary glands. These sporozoites porudced an infection by P. juxtanucleare in a chick, which had parasitemia on day 41 after inoculation. One Cx. coronator was found with mature pedunculate oocysts. Culex saltanensis was regarded as primary vector of P. juxtanucleare in Rio de Janeiro for being highly ornithophilic and in enough density to maintain the transmission, having been found with infective sporozoites in its salivary glands, and being susceptible to the parasite and able to transmit experimentally it by the bite.

  2. Hepatic profile of Gallus gallus Linnaeus, 1758 experimentally infected by Plasmodium juxtanucleare Versiani & Gomes, 1941.

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    Vashist, Usha; Falqueto, Aline Duarte; Lustrino, Danilo; Tunholi, Victor Menezes; Tunholi-Alves, Vinícius Menezes; dos Santos, Marcos Antônio José; D'Agosto, Marta; Massard, Carlos Luiz; Pinheiro, Jairo

    2011-02-10

    One of the species that causes avian malaria is Plasmodium juxtanucleare. It is commonly found in poultry, especially when the birds receive food free of coccidiostats. Since industrial and organic poultry breeding is increasing in the world and few studies have been conducted examining the clinical parameters of both healthy and infected birds, this work evaluated whether the infection caused by P. juxtanucleare in Gallus gallus provokes alterations in the birds' hepatic profile. We analyzed the activity of ALT and AST and carried out histological analyses of liver sections of infected fowls by intracelomic inoculation with infected blood from a donor fowl with a parasite load of around 7%. The infected birds' parasite load was evaluated during 45 days by means of blood smears. There was a positive correlation between the increase in parasite load and higher ALT activity in the infected fowls, but there was no significant variation of the AST activity between the control and infected groups, possibly because of the non-specificity of this enzyme as an indicator of hepatic lesion. The results show that infection caused by P. juxtanucleare in G. gallus provokes hepatic alterations, indicated by the increase in the ALT enzyme activity and by the inflammatory infiltrates found in the liver sections of the infected fowls.

  3. Morphology and morphometry of three Plasmodium juxtanucleare (Apicomplexa: Plasmodiidae isolates Morfologia e morfometria de três isolados de Plasmodium juxtanucleare (Apicomplexa: Plasmodiidae

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    Carina Elisei

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available In this work, three isolates of Plasmodium juxtanucleare have been analyzed based on morphological, morphometric and parasitic parameters. Each isolate was sampled from naturally infected adult chicken (Gallus gallus from rural areas of three Brazilian municipalities: Seropédica (22º 48' S; 43º 41'W, in the state of Rio de Janeiro; Cruzeiro (22º 33' S; 44º 57'W, in the state of São Paulo; and Santa Bárbara do Tugúrio (21º 15' S; 43º 27' W, in the state of Minas Gerais. The blood samples taken from each infected chicken were inoculated in three groups of ten young chicken (21 days old. Blood smears of the experimentally infected chicken were sampled every two days until the 69th day in order to evaluate the parasitemia. For the morphological-descriptive and morphometric analyses, we measured 30 individuals from each of the intraerythocytic states, measures of the major (MD and minor diameters (md, the estimation of morphometric index (Mi=md/MD and size (T=pab, a= md/2; b=MD/2. The results indicated low and homogeneous parasitemia rates in the three strains, which showed differences among shape and size of the parasitic stadia displayed.Neste trabalho, três isolados de Plasmodium juxtanucleare foram analisados com base na morfologia, morfometria e parâmetros parasitológicos. Cada isolado foi coletado de aves (Gallus gallus adultas infectadas naturalmente de áreas rurais de três municípios brasileiros: Seropédica (22º 48' S; 43º 41' W, no estado do Rio de Janeiro; Cruzeiro (22º 33' S; 44º 57' W, no estado de São Paulo; e Santa Bárbara do Tugúrio (21º 15' S; 43º 27' W, no estado de Minas Gerais. As amostras de sangue coletadas de cada ave infectada foram inoculadas em três grupos de dez aves (21 dias de idade. Esfregaços sangüíneos das aves infectadas experimentalmente foram realizados de dois em dois dias durante um período de 69 dias para avaliar a parasitemia. Para análises morfofisiológica e morfométrica, foram

  4. Avian Plasmodium infection in field-collected mosquitoes during 2012-2013 in Tarlac, Philippines.

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    Chen, Tien-Huang; Aure, Wilfredo E; Cruz, Estrella Irlandez; Malbas, Fedelino F; Teng, Hwa-Jen; Lu, Liang-Chen; Kim, Kyeong Soon; Tsuda, Yoshio; Shu, Pei-Yun

    2015-12-01

    Global warming threatens to increase the spread and prevalence of mosquito-transmitted diseases. Certain pathogens may be carried by migratory birds and transmitted to local mosquito populations. Mosquitoes were collected in the northern Philippines during bird migration seasons to detect avian malaria parasites as well as for the identification of potential vector species and the estimation of infections among local mosquito populations. We used the nested PCR to detect the avian malaria species. Culex vishnui (47.6%) was the most abundant species collected and Cx. tritaeniorhynchus (13.8%) was the second most abundant. Avian Plasmodium parasites were found in eight mosquito species, for which the infection rates were between 0.5% and 6.2%. The six Plasmodium genetic lineages found in this study included P. juxtanucleare -GALLUS02, Tacy7 (Donana04), CXBIT01, Plasmodium species LIN2 New Zealand, and two unclassified lineages. The potential mosquito vectors for avian Plasmodium parasites in the Philippines were Cq. crassipes, Cx. fuscocephala, Cx. quinquefasciatus, Cx. sitiens, Cx. vishnui, and Ma. Uniformis; two major genetic lineages, P. juxtanucleare and Tacy7, were identified. © 2015 The Society for Vector Ecology.

  5. Bap31 is an itinerant protein that moves between the peripheral endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and a juxtanuclear compartment related to ER-associated Degradation.

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    Wakana, Yuichi; Takai, Sawako; Nakajima, Ken-Ichi; Tani, Katsuko; Yamamoto, Akitsugu; Watson, Peter; Stephens, David J; Hauri, Hans-Peter; Tagaya, Mitsuo

    2008-05-01

    Certain endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-associated degradation (ERAD) substrates with transmembrane domains are segregated from other ER proteins and sorted into a juxtanuclear subcompartment, known as the ER quality control compartment. Bap31 is an ER protein with three transmembrane domains, and it is assumed to be a cargo receptor for ER export of some transmembrane proteins, especially those prone to ERAD. Here, we show that Bap31 is a component of the ER quality control compartment and that it moves between the peripheral ER and a juxtanuclear ER or ER-related compartment distinct from the conventional ER-Golgi intermediate compartment. The third and second transmembrane domains of Bap31 are principally responsible for the movement to and recycling from the juxtanuclear region, respectively. This cycling was blocked by depolymerization of microtubules and disruption of dynein-dynactin function. Overexpression of Sar1p and Arf1 mutants affected Bap31 cycling, suggesting that this cycling pathway is related to the conventional vesicular transport pathways.

  6. Plasmodium Immunomics

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    Doolan, Denise L.

    2010-01-01

    The Plasmodium parasite, the causative agent of malaria, is an excellent model for immunomic-based approaches to vaccine development. The Plasmodium parasite has a complex life cycle with multiple stages and stage-specific expression of ~ 5,300 putative proteins. No malaria vaccine has yet been licensed. Many believe that an effective vaccine will need to target several antigens and multiple stages, and will require the generation of both antibody and cellular immune responses. Vaccine efforts to date have been stage-specific and based on only a very limited number of proteins representing Plasmodium parasite life cycle with immune responses implicated in parasite elimination and control. Immunomic approaches which enable the selection of the best possible targets by prioritizing antigens according to clinically relevant criteria may overcome the problem of poorly immunogenic, poorly protective vaccines that has plagued malaria vaccine developers for the past 25 years. Herein, current progress and perspectives regarding Plasmodium immunomics are reviewed. PMID:20816843

  7. Molecular characterization and phylogenetic analysis of Plasmodium vivax, Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium ovale, Plasmodium malariae and Plasmodium cynomolgi

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chatterjee, Soumendranath; Mukhopadhyay, Priyanka; Bandyopadhyay, Raktima; Dhal, Paltu; Biswal, Debraj; Bandyopadhyay, Prabir Kumar

    18S ribosomal RNA gene sequences of different species of Plasmodium were aligned and analyzed to determine the molecular diversity among different species of Plasmodium. AT content of P. cynomolgi, P. ovale, P. falciparum, P. vivax and P...

  8. Plasmodium and mononuclear phagocytes.

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    Mac-Daniel, Laura; Ménard, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Plasmodium, the causative agent of malaria, initially multiplies inside liver cells and then in successive cycles inside erythrocytes, causing the symptoms of the disease. In this review, we discuss interactions between the extracellular and intracellular forms of the Plasmodium parasite and innate immune cells in the mammalian host, with a special emphasis on mononuclear phagocytes. We overview here what is known about the innate immune cells that interact with parasites, mechanisms used by the parasite to evade them, and the protective or detrimental contribution of these interactions on parasite progression through its life cycle and pathology in the host.

  9. 21 CFR 866.3402 - Plasmodium species antigen detection assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Plasmodium species antigen detection assays. 866... Plasmodium species antigen detection assays. (a) Identification. A Plasmodium species antigen detection assay... malaria caused by the four malaria species capable of infecting humans: Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium...

  10. Plasmodium vivax: who cares?

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    Barnwell John W

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract More attention is being focused on malaria today than any time since the world's last efforts to achieve eradication over 40 years ago. The global community is now discussing strategies aimed at dramatically reducing malarial disease burden and the eventual eradication of all types of malaria, everywhere. As a consequence, Plasmodium vivax, which has long been neglected and mistakenly considered inconsequential, is now entering into the strategic debates taking place on malaria epidemiology and control, drug resistance, pathogenesis and vaccines. Thus, contrary to the past, the malaria research community is becoming more aware and concerned about the widespread spectrum of illness and death caused by up to a couple of hundred million cases of vivax malaria each year. This review brings these issues to light and provides an overview of P. vivax vaccine development, then and now. Progress had been slow, given inherent research challenges and minimal support in the past, but prospects are looking better for making headway in the next few years. P. vivax, known to invade the youngest red blood cells, the reticulocytes, presents a strong challenge towards developing a reliable long-term culture system to facilitate needed research. The P. vivax genome was published recently, and vivax researchers now need to coordinate efforts to discover new vaccine candidates, establish new vaccine approaches, capitalize on non-human primate models for testing, and investigate the unique biological features of P. vivax, including the elusive P. vivax hypnozoites. Comparative studies on both P. falciparum and P. vivax in many areas of research will be essential to eradicate malaria. And to this end, the education and training of future generations of dedicated "malariologists" to advance our knowledge, understanding and the development of new interventions against each of the malaria species infecting humans also will be essential.

  11. Antibodies and Plasmodium falciparum merozoites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramasamy, R; Ramasamy, M; Yasawardena, S

    There is considerable interest in using merozoite proteins in a vaccine against falciparum malaria. Observations that antibodies to merozoite surface proteins block invasion are a basis for optimism. This article draws attention to important and varied aspects of how antibodies to Plasmodium

  12. Genetic diversity of Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum in Honduras

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    Lopez Ana

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Understanding the population structure of Plasmodium species through genetic diversity studies can assist in the design of more effective malaria control strategies, particularly in vaccine development. Central America is an area where malaria is a public health problem, but little is known about the genetic diversity of the parasite’s circulating species. This study aimed to investigate the allelic frequency and molecular diversity of five surface antigens in field isolates from Honduras. Methods Five molecular markers were analysed to determine the genotypes of Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum from endemic areas in Honduras. Genetic diversity of ama-1, msp-1 and csp was investigated for P. vivax, and msp-1 and msp-2 for P. falciparum. Allelic frequencies were calculated and sequence analysis performed. Results and conclusion A high genetic diversity was observed within Plasmodium isolates from Honduras. A different number of genotypes were elucidated: 41 (n = 77 for pvama-1; 23 (n = 84 for pvcsp; and 23 (n = 35 for pfmsp-1. Pvcsp sequences showed VK210 as the only subtype present in Honduran isolates. Pvmsp-1 (F2 was the most polymorphic marker for P. vivax isolates while pvama-1 was least variable. All three allelic families described for pfmsp-1 (n = 30 block 2 (K1, MAD20, and RO33, and both allelic families described for the central domain of pfmsp-2 (n = 11 (3D7 and FC27 were detected. However, K1 and 3D7 allelic families were predominant. All markers were randomly distributed across the country and no geographic correlation was found. To date, this is the most complete report on molecular characterization of P. vivax and P. falciparum field isolates in Honduras with regards to genetic diversity. These results indicate that P. vivax and P. falciparum parasite populations are highly diverse in Honduras despite the low level of transmission.

  13. Complement evasion by Plasmodium falciparum

    OpenAIRE

    Holopainen, Saila

    2008-01-01

    Patologian oppiaine Malaria remains one of the major health problems in many tropical countries, especially in sub-Saharan Africa. Among the most characteristic features of the malaria pathogens, protozoan parasites of the genus Plasmodium, is their ability to evade the immune defences of the host for extended periods of time. The complement system (C) is an essential part of the innate system in the first line of defense. It consists of over 30 soluble or membrane-bound components. C...

  14. Tetany with Plasmodium falciparum infection.

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    Singh, P S; Singh, Neha

    2012-07-01

    Plasmodium falciparum is a malarial infection with high morbidity and wide spectrum of atypical presentation. Here we report an unusual presentation of malaria as tetany with alteration in calcium,phosphate and magnesium metabolism Hypocalcaemia in malaria can cause prolonged Q-Tc interval which could be arisk factor for quinine cardiotoxicity and sudden death Hence monitoring of serum calcium in severe malarial infection and cautious use of quinine in such patients is very important in management

  15. Detection of Plasmodium sp. in capybara.

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    dos Santos, Leonilda Correia; Curotto, Sandra Mara Rotter; de Moraes, Wanderlei; Cubas, Zalmir Silvino; Costa-Nascimento, Maria de Jesus; de Barros Filho, Ivan Roque; Biondo, Alexander Welker; Kirchgatter, Karin

    2009-07-07

    In the present study, we have microscopically and molecularly surveyed blood samples from 11 captive capybaras (Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris) from the Sanctuary Zoo for Plasmodium sp. infection. One animal presented positive on blood smear by light microscopy. Polymerase chain reaction was carried out accordingly using a nested genus-specific protocol, which uses oligonucleotides from conserved sequences flanking a variable sequence region in the small subunit ribosomal RNA (ssrRNA) of all Plasmodium organisms. This revealed three positive animals. Products from two samples were purified and sequenced. The results showed less than 1% divergence between the two capybara sequences. When compared with GenBank sequences, a 55% similarity was obtained to Toxoplasma gondii and a higher similarity (73-77.2%) was found to ssrRNAs from Plasmodium species that infect reptile, avian, rodents, and human beings. The most similar Plasmodium sequence was from Plasmodium mexicanum that infects lizards of North America, where around 78% identity was found. This work is the first report of Plasmodium in capybaras, and due to the low similarity with other Plasmodium species, we suggest it is a new species, which, in the future could be denominated "Plasmodium hydrochaeri".

  16. Plasmodium vivax malaria: An unusual presentation

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    Kasliwal Prasad

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute renal failure, disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS, hypoglycemia, coma, or epileptic seizures are manifestations of severe Plasmodium falciparum malaria. On the other hand, Plasmodium vivax malaria seldom results in pulmonary damage, and pulmonary complications are exceedingly rare. We report the case of a 42-year-old male living in a malaria-endemic area who presented with ARDS and was diagnosed as having Plasmodium vivax malaria. A diagnosis of Plasmodium vivax malaria was established by a positive Plasmodium LDH immunochromatographic assay while a negative PfHRP2 based assay ruled out P. falciparum malaria. After specific anti-plasmodial therapy and intensive supportive care, the patient recovered and was discharged from hospital. The use of NIPPV in vivax-malaria related ARDS was associated with a good outcome.

  17. Control of Plasmodium knowlesi malaria

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    Abdullahi, Mohammed Baba; Hasan, Yahya Abu; Abdullah, Farah Aini

    2015-10-01

    The most significant and efficient measures against Plasmodium knowlesi outbreaks are efficient anti malaria drug, biological control in form of predatory mosquitoes and culling control strategies. In this paper optimal control theory is applied to a system of ordinary differential equation. It describes the disease transmission and Pontryagin's Maximum Principle is applied for analysis of the control. To this end, three control strategies representing biological control, culling and treatment were incorporated into the disease transmission model. The simulation results show that the implementation of the combination strategy during the epidemic is the most cost-effective strategy for disease transmission.

  18. The periodicity of Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum in Venezuela.

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    Grillet, María-Eugenia; El Souki, Mayida; Laguna, Francisco; León, José Rafael

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the periodicity of Plasmodium vivax and P. falciparum incidence in time-series of malaria data (1990-2010) from three endemic regions in Venezuela. In particular, we determined whether disease epidemics were related to local climate variability and regional climate anomalies such as the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO). Malaria periodicity was found to exhibit unique features in each studied region. Significant multi-annual cycles of 2- to about 6-year periods were identified. The inter-annual variability of malaria cases was coherent with that of SSTs (ENSO), mainly at temporal scales within the 3-6 year periods. Additionally, malaria cases were intensified approximately 1 year after an El Niño event, a pattern that highlights the role of climate inter-annual variability in the epidemic patterns. Rainfall mediated the effect of ENSO on malaria locally. Particularly, rains from the last phase of the season had a critical role in the temporal dynamics of Plasmodium. The malaria-climate relationship was complex and transient, varying in strength with the region and species. By identifying temporal cycles of malaria we have made a first step in predicting high-risk years in Venezuela. Our findings emphasize the importance of analyzing high-resolution spatial-temporal data to better understand malaria transmission dynamics. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Plasmodium falciparum malaria associated with ABO blood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Plasmodium falciparum malaria associated with ABO blood phenotypes and ... out to investigate the relationship between blood group types and P. falciparum ... of long lasting treated (LLT) mosquito bed nets and the prevalence of infection.

  20. Limitations of microscopy to differentiate Plasmodium species in a region co-endemic for Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium knowlesi

    OpenAIRE

    Barber Bridget E; William Timothy; Grigg Matthew J; Yeo Tsin W; Anstey Nicholas M

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background In areas co-endemic for multiple Plasmodium species, correct diagnosis is crucial for appropriate treatment and surveillance. Species misidentification by microscopy has been reported in areas co-endemic for vivax and falciparum malaria, and may be more frequent in regions where Plasmodium knowlesi also commonly occurs. Methods This prospective study in Sabah, Malaysia, evaluated the accuracy of routine district and referral hospital-based microscopy, and microscopy perfor...

  1. Genome-scale comparison of expanded gene families in Plasmodium ovale wallikeri and Plasmodium ovale curtisi with Plasmodium malariae and with other Plasmodium species

    KAUST Repository

    Ansari, Hifzur Rahman

    2016-07-05

    Malaria in humans is caused by six species of Plasmodium parasites, of which the nuclear genome sequences for the two Plasmodium ovale spp., P. ovale curtisi and P. ovale wallikeri, and Plasmodium malariae have not yet been analyzed. Here we present an analysis of the nuclear genome sequences of these three parasites, and describe gene family expansions therein. Plasmodium ovale curtisi and P. ovale wallikeri are genetically distinct but morphologically indistinguishable and have sympatric ranges through the tropics of Africa, Asia and Oceania. Both P. ovale spp. show expansion of the surfin variant gene family, and an amplification of the Plasmodium interspersed repeat (pir) superfamily which results in an approximately 30% increase in genome size. For comparison, we have also analyzed the draft nuclear genome of P. malariae, a malaria parasite causing mild malaria symptoms with a quartan life cycle, long-term chronic infections, and wide geographic distribution. Plasmodium malariae shows only a moderate level of expansion of pir genes, and unique expansions of a highly diverged transmembrane protein family with over 550 members and the gamete P25/27 gene family. The observed diversity in the P. ovale wallikeri and P. ovale curtisi surface antigens, combined with their phylogenetic separation, supports consideration that the two parasites be given species status.

  2. Telomeric Heterochromatin in Plasmodium falciparum

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    Rosaura Hernandez-Rivas

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Until very recently, little was known about the chromatin structure of the telomeres and subtelomeric regions in Plasmodium falciparum. In yeast and Drosophila melanogaster, chromatin structure has long been known to be an important aspect in the regulation and functioning of these regions. Telomeres and subtelomeric regions are enriched in epigenetic marks that are specific to heterochromatin, such as methylation of lysine 9 of histone H3 and lysine 20 of histone H4. In P. falciparum, histone modifications and the presence of both the heterochromatin “writing” (PfSir2, PKMT and “reading” (PfHP1 machinery at telomeric and subtelomeric regions indicate that these regions are likely to have heterochromatic structure that is epigenetically regulated. This structure may be important for telomere functions such as the silencing of the var gene family implicated in the cytoadherence and antigenic variation of these parasites.

  3. Plasmodium vivax Transmission in Africa.

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    Rosalind E Howes

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Malaria in sub-Saharan Africa has historically been almost exclusively attributed to Plasmodium falciparum (Pf. Current diagnostic and surveillance systems in much of sub-Saharan Africa are not designed to identify or report non-Pf human malaria infections accurately, resulting in a dearth of routine epidemiological data about their significance. The high prevalence of Duffy negativity provided a rationale for excluding the possibility of Plasmodium vivax (Pv transmission. However, review of varied evidence sources including traveller infections, community prevalence surveys, local clinical case reports, entomological and serological studies contradicts this viewpoint. Here, these data reports are weighted in a unified framework to reflect the strength of evidence of indigenous Pv transmission in terms of diagnostic specificity, size of individual reports and corroboration between evidence sources. Direct evidence was reported from 21 of the 47 malaria-endemic countries studied, while 42 countries were attributed with infections of visiting travellers. Overall, moderate to conclusive evidence of transmission was available from 18 countries, distributed across all parts of the continent. Approximately 86.6 million Duffy positive hosts were at risk of infection in Africa in 2015. Analysis of the mechanisms sustaining Pv transmission across this continent of low frequency of susceptible hosts found that reports of Pv prevalence were consistent with transmission being potentially limited to Duffy positive populations. Finally, reports of apparent Duffy-independent transmission are discussed. While Pv is evidently not a major malaria parasite across most of sub-Saharan Africa, the evidence presented here highlights its widespread low-level endemicity. An increased awareness of Pv as a potential malaria parasite, coupled with policy shifts towards species-specific diagnostics and reporting, will allow a robust assessment of the public health

  4. Survival strategies of the malarial parasite Plasmodium falciparum

    OpenAIRE

    Ramya, TNC; Surolia, Namita; Surolia, Avadhesha

    2002-01-01

    Plasmodium falciparum, the protozoan parasite causing falciparum malaria, is undoubtedly highly versatile when it comes to survival and defence strategies. Strategies adopted by the asexual blood stages of Plasmodium range from unique pathways of nutrient uptake to immune evasion strategies and multiple drug resistance. Studying the survival strategies of Plasmodium could help us envisage strategies of tackling one of the worst scourges of mankind.

  5. Helminth Parasites Alter Protection against Plasmodium Infection

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    Víctor H. Salazar-Castañon

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available More than one-third of the world’s population is infected with one or more helminthic parasites. Helminth infections are prevalent throughout tropical and subtropical regions where malaria pathogens are transmitted. Malaria is the most widespread and deadliest parasitic disease. The severity of the disease is strongly related to parasite density and the host’s immune responses. Furthermore, coinfections between both parasites occur frequently. However, little is known regarding how concomitant infection with helminths and Plasmodium affects the host’s immune response. Helminthic infections are frequently massive, chronic, and strong inductors of a Th2-type response. This implies that infection by such parasites could alter the host’s susceptibility to subsequent infections by Plasmodium. There are a number of reports on the interactions between helminths and Plasmodium; in some, the burden of Plasmodium parasites increased, but others reported a reduction in the parasite. This review focuses on explaining many of these discrepancies regarding helminth-Plasmodium coinfections in terms of the effects that helminths have on the immune system. In particular, it focuses on helminth-induced immunosuppression and the effects of cytokines controlling polarization toward the Th1 or Th2 arms of the immune response.

  6. Helminth Parasites Alter Protection against Plasmodium Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar-Castañon, Víctor H.; Legorreta-Herrera, Martha

    2014-01-01

    More than one-third of the world's population is infected with one or more helminthic parasites. Helminth infections are prevalent throughout tropical and subtropical regions where malaria pathogens are transmitted. Malaria is the most widespread and deadliest parasitic disease. The severity of the disease is strongly related to parasite density and the host's immune responses. Furthermore, coinfections between both parasites occur frequently. However, little is known regarding how concomitant infection with helminths and Plasmodium affects the host's immune response. Helminthic infections are frequently massive, chronic, and strong inductors of a Th2-type response. This implies that infection by such parasites could alter the host's susceptibility to subsequent infections by Plasmodium. There are a number of reports on the interactions between helminths and Plasmodium; in some, the burden of Plasmodium parasites increased, but others reported a reduction in the parasite. This review focuses on explaining many of these discrepancies regarding helminth-Plasmodium coinfections in terms of the effects that helminths have on the immune system. In particular, it focuses on helminth-induced immunosuppression and the effects of cytokines controlling polarization toward the Th1 or Th2 arms of the immune response. PMID:25276830

  7. Accurate identification of the six human Plasmodium spp. causing imported malaria, including Plasmodium ovale wallikeri and Plasmodium knowlesi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderaro, Adriana; Piccolo, Giovanna; Gorrini, Chiara; Rossi, Sabina; Montecchini, Sara; Dell'Anna, Maria Loretana; De Conto, Flora; Medici, Maria Cristina; Chezzi, Carlo; Arcangeletti, Maria Cristina

    2013-09-13

    Accurate identification of Plasmodium infections in non-endemic countries is of critical importance with regard to the administration of a targeted therapy having a positive impact on patient health and management and allowing the prevention of the risk of re-introduction of endemic malaria in such countries. Malaria is no longer endemic in Italy where it is the most commonly imported disease, with one of the highest rates of imported malaria among European non-endemic countries including France, the UK and Germany, and with a prevalence of 24.3% at the University Hospital of Parma. Molecular methods showed high sensitivity and specificity and changed the epidemiology of imported malaria in several non-endemic countries, highlighted a higher prevalence of Plasmodium ovale, Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium malariae underestimated by microscopy and, not least, brought to light both the existence of two species of P. ovale (Plasmodium ovale curtisi and Plasmodium ovale wallikeri) and the infection in humans by Plasmodium knowlesi, otherwise not detectable by microscopy. In this retrospective study an evaluation of two real-time PCR assays able to identify P. ovale wallikeri, distinguishing it from P. ovale curtisi, and to detect P. knowlesi, respectively, was performed applying them on a subset of 398 blood samples belonging to patients with the clinical suspicion of malaria. These assays revealed an excellent analytical sensitivity and no cross-reactivity versus other Plasmodium spp. infecting humans, suggesting their usefulness for an accurate and complete diagnosis of imported malaria. Among the 128 patients with malaria, eight P. ovale curtisi and four P. ovale wallikeri infections were detected, while no cases of P. knowlesi infection were observed. Real-time PCR assays specific for P. ovale wallikeri and P. knowlesi were included in the panel currently used in the University Hospital of Parma for the diagnosis of imported malaria, accomplishing the goal of

  8. Occurrence of Plasmodium in Anatidae

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    Herman, C.M.; Kocan, R.M.

    1970-01-01

    Until a little over a decade ago reports of Plasrnodium in geese, ducks, and swans were the result of examination of single blood smears from wild birds. One would gather from the earlier studies that Anatidae are infrequently infected. During the past decade we have conducted studies on prevalence of Plasmodium by an isodiagnosis technique, inoculating blood from wild birds into captive young geese, ducks, and other species of birds and determining the status of infection in the donors by examination of repetitive blood smears from the recipients. Examination by this technique of a series of adult Canada geese from the Seney National Wildlife Refuge in northern Michigan uncovered a prevalence of 60% during five successive years. Domestic geese were the primary recipients but we found that several other species of geese, ducks, and gulls were also susceptible. Similar studies on Canada geese from other areas (Maryland, New Jersey, New York, and southern Michigan) uncovered infection rates from zero to 27%. Following isolation of Plasmodlum in a single canvasback duck (Aythya valisineria) in southern Michigan by inoculation into a domestic duck, a series of 88 canvasbacks from Chesapeake Bay in Maryland this winter uncovered an infection rate of 27%. The most common parasite observed in both the geese and was as P. circumflexum.

  9. Epidemiology of Plasmodium vivax Malaria in India

    OpenAIRE

    Anvikar, Anupkumar R; Shah, Naman; Dhariwal, Akshay C.; Sonal, Gagan Singh; Pradhan, Madan Mohan; Ghosh, Susanta K; Valecha, Neena

    2016-01-01

    Historically, malaria in India was predominantly caused by Plasmodium vivax, accounting for 53% of the estimated cases. After the spread of drug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum in the 1990s, the prevalence of the two species remained equivalent at the national level for a decade. By 2014, the proportion of P. vivax has decreased to 34% nationally, but with high regional variation. In 2014, P. vivax accounted for around 380,000 malaria cases in India; almost a sixth of all P. vivax cases repor...

  10. High prevalence of drug-resistance mutations in Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax in southern Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Schunk, Mirjam; Kumma, Wondimagegn P.; Barreto Miranda, Isabel; Maha E. Osman; Roewer, Susanne; Alano, Abraham; Loescher, Thomas; Bienzle, Ulrich; Mockenhaupt, Frank P

    2006-01-01

    Background: In Ethiopia, malaria is caused by both Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax. Drug resistance of P. falciparum to sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) and chloroquine (CQ) is frequent and intense in some areas. Methods: In 100 patients with uncomplicated malaria from Dilla, southern Ethiopia, P. falciparum dhfr and dhps mutations as well as P. vivax dhfr polymorphisms associated with resistance to SP and P. falciparum pfcrt and pfmdr1 mutations conferring CQ resistance were assesse...

  11. Promoter regions of Plasmodium vivax are poorly or not recognized by Plasmodium falciparum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    del Portillo Hernando A

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Heterologous promoter analysis in Plasmodium has revealed the existence of conserved cis regulatory elements as promoters from different species can drive expression of reporter genes in heterologous transfection assays. Here, the functional characterization of different Plasmodium vivax promoters in Plasmodium falciparum using luciferase as the reporter gene is presented. Methods Luciferase reporter plasmids harboring the upstream regions of the msp1, dhfr, and vir3 genes as well as the full-length intergenic regions of the vir23/24 and ef-1α genes of P. vivax were constructed and transiently transfected in P. falciparum. Results Only the constructs with the full-length intergenic regions of the vir23/24 and ef-1α genes were recognized by the P. falciparum transcription machinery albeit to values approximately two orders of magnitude lower than those reported by luc plasmids harbouring promoter regions from P. falciparum and Plasmodium berghei. A bioinformatics approach allowed the identification of a motif (GCATAT in the ef-1α intergenic region that is conserved in five Plasmodium species but is degenerate (GCANAN in P. vivax. Mutations of this motif in the P. berghei ef-1α promoter region decreased reporter expression indicating it is active in gene expression in Plasmodium. Conclusion Together, this data indicates that promoter regions of P. vivax are poorly or not recognized by the P. falciparum transcription machinery suggesting the existence of P. vivax-specific transcription regulatory elements.

  12. Epidemiology of Plasmodium vivax Malaria in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anvikar, Anupkumar R; Shah, Naman; Dhariwal, Akshay C; Sonal, Gagan Singh; Pradhan, Madan Mohan; Ghosh, Susanta K; Valecha, Neena

    2016-12-28

    Historically, malaria in India was predominantly caused by Plasmodium vivax, accounting for 53% of the estimated cases. After the spread of drug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum in the 1990s, the prevalence of the two species remained equivalent at the national level for a decade. By 2014, the proportion of P. vivax has decreased to 34% nationally, but with high regional variation. In 2014, P. vivax accounted for around 380,000 malaria cases in India; almost a sixth of all P. vivax cases reported globally. Plasmodium vivax has remained resistant to control measures, particularly in urban areas. Urban malaria is predominantly caused by P. vivax and is subject to outbreaks, often associated with increased mortality, and triggered by bursts of migration and construction. The epidemiology of P. vivax varies substantially within India, including multiple relapse phenotypes with varying latencies between primary infection and relapse. Moreover, the hypnozoite reservoir maintains transmission potential and enables reestablishment of the parasite in areas in which it was thought eradicated. The burden of malaria in India is complex because of the highly variable malaria eco-epidemiological profiles, transmission factors, and the presence of multiple Plasmodium species and Anopheles vectors. This review of P. vivax malaria in India describes epidemiological trends with particular attention to four states: Gujarat, Karnataka, Haryana, and Odisha.

  13. Plasmodium falciparum Malaria, Southern Algeria, 2007

    OpenAIRE

    Boubidi, Saïd C; Gassen, Ibrahim; Khechache, Yacine; Lamali, Karima; Tchicha, Boualem; Brengues, Cécile; Menegon, Michela; Severini, Carlo; Fontenille, Didier; Harrat, Zoubir

    2010-01-01

    An outbreak of Plasmodium falciparum malaria occurred in Tinzaouatine in southern Algeria in 2007. The likely vector, Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes, had not been detected in Algeria. Genes for resistance to chloroquine were detected in the parasite. The outbreak shows the potential for an increase in malaria vectors in Algeria.

  14. Congenital Plasmodium falciparum Malaria in Washington, DC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Castillo, Melissa; Szymanski, Ann Marie; Slovin, Ariella; Wong, Edward C C; DeBiasi, Roberta L

    2017-01-11

    Congenital malaria is rare in the United States, but is an important diagnosis to consider when evaluating febrile infants. Herein, we describe a case of congenital Plasmodium falciparum malaria in a 2-week-old infant born in the United States to a mother who had emigrated from Nigeria 3 months before delivery. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  15. Plasmodium falciparum Malaria, Southern Algeria, 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gassen, Ibrahim; Khechache, Yacine; Lamali, Karima; Tchicha, Boualem; Brengues, Cécile; Menegon, Michela; Severini, Carlo; Fontenille, Didier; Harrat, Zoubir

    2010-01-01

    An outbreak of Plasmodium falciparum malaria occurred in Tinzaouatine in southern Algeria in 2007. The likely vector, Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes, had not been detected in Algeria. Genes for resistance to chloroquine were detected in the parasite. The outbreak shows the potential for an increase in malaria vectors in Algeria. PMID:20113565

  16. Plasmodium falciparum Malaria, Southern Algeria, 2007

    OpenAIRE

    Boubidi, Saïd C; Gassen, Ibrahim; Khechache, Yacine; Lamali, Karima; Tchicha, Boualem; Brengues, Cécile; Menegon, Michela; Severini, Carlo; Fontenille, Didier; Harrat, Zoubir

    2010-01-01

    An outbreak of Plasmodium falciparum malaria occurred in Tinzaouatine in southern Algeria in 2007. The likely vector, Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes, had not been detected in Algeria. Genes for resistance to chloroquine were detected in the parasite. The outbreak shows the potential for an increase in malaria vectors in Algeria.

  17. Plasmodium knowlesi in travellers, update 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Mattia; Schlagenhauf, Patricia

    2014-05-01

    Since the initial discovery of Plasmodium knowlesi in Malaysia, cases have been reported from several neighbouring countries. Tourism has also resulted in an increasing number of cases diagnosed in Europe, America, and Oceania. In this review we focus on the risk of the travel-associated acquisition of P. knowlesi malaria. A search of the literature in PubMed was carried out to identify articles and literature on the distribution of P. knowlesi infections in Southeast Asia and details of its acquisition and importation by travellers to other continents. The cut-off date for the search was December 1, 2013. Search words used were: "Plasmodium knowlesi", "Plasmodium knowlesi infections", "Plasmodium knowlesi travellers", "Plasmodium knowlesi prevalence", "Plasmodium knowlesi host", "Plasmodium knowlesi vector" "Plasmodium knowlesi RDT", and "Plasmodium knowlesi Malaysia". Traveller numbers to Malaysia were obtained from the Tourism Malaysia website. A total of 103 articles were found. Using a selection of these and others identified from the reference lists of the papers, we based our review on a total of 66 articles. P. knowlesi malaria appears to be the most common malaria species in Malaysian Borneo and is also widely distributed on the Malaysian mainland. Furthermore, locally transmitted cases of P. knowlesi malaria have been reported in Thailand, the Philippines, Vietnam, Singapore, Myanmar, Indonesian Borneo, and Cambodia. Two cases have been reported from non-endemic countries in Asia (Japan and Taiwan) in people with a history of travel to Malaysia and the Philippines. Twelve cases were imported to their home countries by travellers from other continents: two from the USA, two from the Netherlands, two from Germany, and one each from Spain, France, Sweden, Finland, Australia, and New Zealand. In most cases, the infection was associated with a trip to or near forested areas. The symptoms were fever (n=12), headache (n=6), chills (n=6), nausea (n=4), myalgia (n

  18. Using Click Chemistry to Identify Potential Drug Targets in Plasmodium

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-13-1-0429 TITLE: Using "Click Chemistry" to Identify Potential Drug Targets in Plasmodium PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Dr. Purnima...SUBTITLE Sa. CONTRACT NUMBER W81XWH-1 3-1-0429 Using "Click Chemistry" to Identify Potential Drug Targets in Plasmodium 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM...Release; Distribution Unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Sporozo ite infection of the liver is the first obl igate step of the Plasmodium

  19. Filarial worms reduce Plasmodium infectivity in mosquitoes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew T Aliota

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Co-occurrence of malaria and filarial worm parasites has been reported, but little is known about the interaction between filarial worm and malaria parasites with the same Anopheles vector. Herein, we present data evaluating the interaction between Wuchereria bancrofti and Anopheles punctulatus in Papua New Guinea (PNG. Our field studies in PNG demonstrated that An. punctulatus utilizes the melanization immune response as a natural mechanism of filarial worm resistance against invading W. bancrofti microfilariae. We then conducted laboratory studies utilizing the mosquitoes Armigeres subalbatus and Aedes aegypti and the parasites Brugia malayi, Brugia pahangi, Dirofilaria immitis, and Plasmodium gallinaceum to evaluate the hypothesis that immune activation and/or development by filarial worms negatively impact Plasmodium development in co-infected mosquitoes. Ar. subalbatus used in this study are natural vectors of P. gallinaceum and B. pahangi and they are naturally refractory to B. malayi (melanization-based refractoriness. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Mosquitoes were dissected and Plasmodium development was analyzed six days after blood feeding on either P. gallinaceum alone or after taking a bloodmeal containing both P. gallinaceum and B. malayi or a bloodmeal containing both P. gallinaceum and B. pahangi. There was a significant reduction in the prevalence and mean intensity of Plasmodium infections in two species of mosquito that had dual infections as compared to those mosquitoes that were infected with Plasmodium alone, and was independent of whether the mosquito had a melanization immune response to the filarial worm or not. However, there was no reduction in Plasmodium development when filarial worms were present in the bloodmeal (D. immitis but midgut penetration was absent, suggesting that factors associated with penetration of the midgut by filarial worms likely are responsible for the observed reduction in malaria

  20. Bifurcation in the chemotactic behavior of Physarum plasmodium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirakawa, Tomohiro; Gunji, Yukio-Pegio; Sato, Hiroshi; Tsubakino, Hiroto

    2017-07-01

    The plasmodium of true slime mold Physarum polycephalum is a unicellular and multinuclear giant amoeba. Since the cellular organism has some computational abilities, it is attracting much attention in the field of information science. However, previous studies have mainly focused on the optimization behavior of the plasmodium for a single-modality stimulus, and there are few studies on how the organism adapts to multi-modal stimuli. We stimulated the plasmodium with mixture of attractant and repellent stimuli, and we observed bifurcation in the chemotactic behavior of the plasmodium.

  1. Plasmodium Oocysts: Overlooked Targets of Mosquito Immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Ryan C; Barillas-Mury, Carolina

    2016-12-01

    Although the ability of mosquitoes to limit Plasmodium infection is well documented, many questions remain as to how malaria parasites are recognized and killed by the mosquito host. Recent evidence suggests that anti-Plasmodium immunity is multimodal, with different immune mechanisms regulating ookinete and oocyst survival. However, most experiments determine the number of mature oocysts, without considering that different immune mechanisms may target different developmental stages of the parasite. Complement-like proteins have emerged as important determinants of early immunity targeting the ookinete stage, yet the mechanisms by which the mosquito late-phase immune response limits oocyst survival are less understood. Here, we describe the known components of the mosquito immune system that limit oocyst development, and provide insight into their possible mechanisms of action. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Plasmodium knowlesi malaria in Vietnam: some clarifications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hung Le

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A recently published comment on a report of Plasmodium knowlesi infections in Vietnam states that this may not accurately represent the situation in the study area because the PCR primers used may cross-hybridize with Plasmodium vivax. Nevertheless, P. knowlesi infections have been confirmed by sequencing. In addition, a neighbour-joining tree based on the 18S S-Type SSUrRNA gene shows that the Vietnamese samples clearly cluster with the P. knowlesi isolates identified in Malaysia and are distinct from the corresponding P. vivax sequences. All samples came from asymptomatic individuals who did not consult for fever during the months preceding or following the survey, indicating that asymptomatic P. knowlesi infections occur in this population, although this does not exclude the occurrence of symptomatic cases. Large-scale studies to determine the extent and the epidemiology of P. knowlesi malaria in Vietnam are further needed.

  3. Engineered anopheles immunity to Plasmodium infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuemei Dong

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A causative agent of human malaria, Plasmodium falciparum, is transmitted by Anopheles mosquitoes. The malaria parasite is under intensive attack from the mosquito's innate immune system during its sporogonic development. We have used genetic engineering to create immune-enhanced Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes through blood meal-inducible expression of a transgene encoding the IMD pathway-controlled NF-kB Rel2 transcription factor in the midgut and fat-body tissue. Transgenic mosquitoes showed greater resistance to Plasmodium and microbial infection as a result of timely concerted tissue-specific immune attacks involving multiple effectors. The relatively weak impact of this genetic modification on mosquito fitness under laboratory conditions encourages further investigation of this approach for malaria control.

  4. Exploring the folate pathway in Plasmodium falciparum

    OpenAIRE

    Hyde, John E.

    2005-01-01

    As in centuries past, the main weapon against human malaria infections continues to be intervention with drugs, despite the widespread and increasing frequency of parasite populations that are resistant to one or more of the available compounds. This is a particular problem with the lethal species of parasite, Plasmodium falciparum, which claims some two million lives per year as well as causing enormous social and economic problems. Amongst the antimalarial drugs currently in clinical use, t...

  5. Plasmodium falciparum drug resistance in Angola

    OpenAIRE

    Fançony, Cláudia; Brito, Miguel; Gil, Jose Pedro

    2016-01-01

    Facing chloroquine drug resistance, Angola promptly adopted artemisinin-based combination therapy as the first-line to treat malaria. Currently, the country aims to consolidate malaria control, while preparing for the elimination of the disease, along with others African countries in the region. However, the remarkable capacity of Plasmodium to develop drug resistance represents an alarming threat for those achievements. Herein, the available, but relatively scarce and dispersed, information ...

  6. Epidemiology of Plasmodium vivax in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surjadjaja, Claudia; Surya, Asik; Baird, J Kevin

    2016-12-28

    Endemic malaria occurs across much of the vast Indonesian archipelago. All five species of Plasmodium known to naturally infect humans occur here, along with 20 species of Anopheles mosquitoes confirmed as carriers of malaria. Two species of plasmodia cause the overwhelming majority and virtually equal shares of malaria infections in Indonesia: Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax The challenge posed by P. vivax is especially steep in Indonesia because chloroquine-resistant strains predominate, along with Chesson-like strains that relapse quickly and multiple times at short intervals in almost all patients. Indonesia's hugely diverse human population carries many variants of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency, most of them exhibiting severely impaired enzyme activity. Therefore, the patients most likely to benefit from primaquine therapy by preventing aggressive relapse, may also be most likely to suffer harm without G6PD deficiency screening. Indonesia faces the challenge of controlling and eventually eliminating malaria across > 13,500 islands stretching > 5,000 km and an enormous diversity of ecological, ethnographic, and socioeconomic settings, and extensive human migrations. This article describes the occurrence of P. vivax in Indonesia and the obstacles faced in eliminating its transmission. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  7. Plasmodium simium/Plasmodium vivax infections in southern brown howler monkeys from the Atlantic Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Camargos Costa

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Blood infection by the simian parasite, Plasmodium simium, was identified in captive (n = 45, 4.4% and in wild Alouatta clamitans monkeys (n = 20, 35% from the Atlantic Forest of southern Brazil. A single malaria infection was symptomatic and the monkey presented clinical and haematological alterations. A high frequency of Plasmodium vivax-specific antibodies was detected among these monkeys, with 87% of the monkeys testing positive against P. vivax antigens. These findings highlight the possibility of malaria as a zoonosis in the remaining Atlantic Forest and its impact on the epidemiology of the disease.

  8. Mosquito transmission of wild turkey malaria, Plasmodium hermani.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, M D; Nayar, J K; Forrester, D J

    1977-04-01

    Culex nigripalpus experimentally transmitted Plasmodium hermani, a plasmodium of wild turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo) in Florida. The mosquitoes were infected by feeding upon blood induced parasitemias in domestic turkey poults. The resulting sporozoites, transmitted by either mosquito bites or injection, produced malaria infections in domestic poults.

  9. Plasmodium vivax induced myocarditis: A rare case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Gupta

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Malaria is one of the commonest parasitic disease in the tropics since ages. However the plasmodium still continues to give surprises to all of us. In the similar context we report a case of Plasmodium vivax induced myocarditis in a 20 year old male and review the literature related to this rare entitiy.

  10. Multiplicity of Infection and Disease Severity in Plasmodium vivax

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pacheco, M Andreína; Lopez-Perez, Mary; Vallejo, Andrés F

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Multiplicity of infection (MOI) refers to the average number of distinct parasite genotypes concurrently infecting a patient. Although several studies have reported on MOI and the frequency of multiclonal infections in Plasmodium falciparum, there is limited data on Plasmodium vivax. ...

  11. Severe sepsis and septic shock due to Plasmodium vivax infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalkias, Athanasios; Aridas, Sotirios; Karageorgopoulos, Drosos E; Stratiotis, Georgios; Mystrioti, Dimitra; Mallios, Athanasios; Nakos, Ioannis; Mpellos, Nikolaos; Ganotopoulou, Asimina; Xanthos, Theodoros

    2013-04-01

    Plasmodium vivax malaria is typically characterized by a mild and benign clinical course. Organ dysfunction is rarely seen, whereas acute lung injury has been found to occur after starting antimalarial treatment. We present an unusual case of severe sepsis and septic shock due to Plasmodium vivax monoinfection.

  12. Plasmodium vivax cerebral malaria complicated with venous sinus thrombosis in Colombia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Miguel A Pinzn; Juan C Pineda; Fernando Rosso; Masaru Shinchi; Fabio Bonilla-Abada

    2013-01-01

    Complicated malaria is usually due to Plasmodium falciparum. Nevertheless, Plasmodium vivax is infrequently related with life-threatening complications. Few cases have been reported of severe Plasmodium vivax infection, and most of them from Southeast Asia and India. We report the first case of cerebral malaria due to Plasmodium vivax in Latin America, complicated with sagittal sinus thrombosis and confirmed by a molecular method.

  13. Construction of living cellular automata using the Physarum plasmodium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirakawa, Tomohiro; Sato, Hiroshi; Ishiguro, Shinji

    2015-04-01

    The plasmodium of Physarum polycephalum is a unicellular and multinuclear giant amoeba that has an amorphous cell body. To clearly observe how the plasmodium makes decisions in its motile and exploratory behaviours, we developed a new experimental system to pseudo-discretize the motility of the organism. In our experimental space that has agar surfaces arranged in a two-dimensional lattice, the continuous and omnidirectional movement of the plasmodium was limited to the stepwise one, and the direction of the locomotion was also limited to four neighbours. In such an experimental system, a cellular automata-like system was constructed using the living cell. We further analysed the exploratory behaviours of the plasmodium by duplicating the experimental results in the simulation models of cellular automata. As a result, it was revealed that the behaviours of the plasmodium are not reproduced by only local state transition rules; and for the reproduction, a kind of historical rule setting is needed.

  14. Response to various periods of mechanical stimuli in Physarum plasmodium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umedachi, Takuya; Ito, Kentaro; Kobayashi, Ryo; Ishiguro, Akio; Nakagaki, Toshiyuki

    2017-06-01

    Response to mechanical stimuli is a fundamental and critical ability for living cells to survive in hazardous conditions or to form adaptive and functional structures against force(s) from the environment. Although this ability has been extensively studied by molecular biology strategies, it is also important to investigate the ability from the viewpoint of biological rhythm phenomena so as to reveal the mechanisms that underlie these phenomena. Here, we use the plasmodium of the true slime mold Physarum polycephalum as the experimental system for investigating this ability. The plasmodium was repetitively stretched for various periods during which its locomotion speed was observed. Since the plasmodium has inherent oscillation cycles of protoplasmic streaming and thickness variation, how the plasmodium responds to various periods of external stretching stimuli can shed light on the other biological rhythm phenomena. The experimental results show that the plasmodium exhibits response to periodic mechanical stimulation and changes its locomotion speed depending on the period of the stretching stimuli.

  15. Mitosis in the Human Malaria Parasite Plasmodium falciparum ▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerald, Noel; Mahajan, Babita; Kumar, Sanjai

    2011-01-01

    Malaria is caused by intraerythrocytic protozoan parasites belonging to Plasmodium spp. (phylum Apicomplexa) that produce significant morbidity and mortality, mostly in developing countries. Plasmodium parasites have a complex life cycle that includes multiple stages in anopheline mosquito vectors and vertebrate hosts. During the life cycle, the parasites undergo several cycles of extreme population growth within a brief span, and this is critical for their continued transmission and a contributing factor for their pathogenesis in the host. As with other eukaryotes, successful mitosis is an essential requirement for Plasmodium reproduction; however, some aspects of Plasmodium mitosis are quite distinct and not fully understood. In this review, we will discuss the current understanding of the architecture and key events of mitosis in Plasmodium falciparum and related parasites and compare them with the traditional mitotic events described for other eukaryotes. PMID:21317311

  16. Completing the hypusine pathway in Plasmodium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frommholz, David; Kusch, Peter; Blavid, Robert; Scheer, Hugo; Tu, Jun-Ming; Marcus, Katrin; Zhao, Kai-Hong; Atemnkeng, Veronica; Marciniak, Jana; Kaiser, Annette E

    2009-10-01

    In searching for new targets for antimalarials we investigated the biosynthesis of hypusine present in eukaryotic initiation factor-5A (eIF-5A) in Plasmodium. Here, we describe the cloning and expression of deoxyhypusine hydroxylase (DOHH), which completes the modification of eIF-5A through hydroxylation of deoxyhypusine. The dohh cDNA sequence revealed an ORF of 1236 bp encoding a protein of 412 amino acids with a calculated molecular mass of 46.45 kDa and an isoelectric point of 4.96. Interestingly, DOHH from Plasmodium has a FASTA SCORE of only 27 compared with its human ortholog and contains several matches similar to E-Z-type HEAT-like repeat proteins (IPR004155 (InterPro), PF03130 (Pfam), SM00567 (SMART) present in the phycocyanin lyase subunits of cyanobacteria. Purified DOHH protein displayed hydroxylase activity in a novel in vitro DOHH assay, but phycocyanin lyase activity was absent. dohh is present as a single-copy gene and is transcribed in the asexual blood stages of the parasite. A signal peptide at the N-terminus might direct the protein to a different cellular compartment. During evolution, Plasmodium falciparum acquired an apicoplast that lost its photosynthetic function. It is possible that plasmodial DOHH arose from an E/F-type phycobilin lyase that gained a new role in hydroxylation. Structured digital abstract: * MINT-7255047: DHS (uniprotkb:P49366) enzymaticly reacts (MI:0414) with eIF-5A (uniprotkb:Q710D1) by enzymatic studies (MI:0415) * MINT-7255326: DOHH (uniprotkb:Q8I701) enzymaticly reacts (MI:0414) with eIF-5A (uniprotkb:Q710D1) by enzymatic studies (MI:0415).

  17. Prevalence of Malaria Plasmodium in Abeokuta, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okonko, I. O.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This study reports the prevalence of malaria caused by plasmodium between genders in Abeokuta, the capital city of Ogun State located in the forest zone of southwestern Nigeria between January 2002 and December 2004. Blood film examination for malaria parasites in 708 patients; 366 males and 342 females. Microscopic examination of thick films techniques was employed for this study. Of the 708 (100% patients examined, 577 (81.5% were Plasmodium-positive. A high malaria parasite prevalence rate of 81.5% was noted in this study. Female subjects were more infected (42.4% than males (41.9% however, there was no significant difference in the sex of the subjects studied (p=0.05. A high malaria parasite prevalence rate of 86.9% was noted in samples collected in year 2003 than in other years studied. There was significant difference in the years under study (p=0.05. This study shows that a good percentage of people were infested by malaria Plasmodium. This could be attributed to lack of adequate accommodation and poor sanitary conditions in the area under study. Although several efforts have been made to effectively control the high incidence of malaria in Nigeria, these have been largely unsuccessful due to a number of reasons such as irrigated urban agriculture which can be the malaria vector’s breeding ground in the city, stagnant gutters and swamps in our environment where mosquitoes breed in millions, and lack of political will and commitment of the government in its disease management program, low awareness of the magnitude of malaria problem, poor health practices by individuals and communities and resistance to drugs. Therefore, future interventions in Nigeria should be directed toward controlling malaria in the context of a moderate transmission setting; thus, large-scale distribution of insecticide-treated nets or widespread use of indoor residual spraying may be less cost-effective than enhanced surveillance with effective case management or

  18. Gametocitos de Plasmodium vivax y Plasmodium falciparum: etapas relegadas en el desarrollo de vacunas Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum gametocyte stages are neglected in vaccine development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Contreras-Ochoa

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Los gametocitos de Plasmodium son los responsables de la transmisión del huésped vertebrado al mosquito vector. Sufren un proceso de desarrollo complejo a partir de parásitos asexuales, que no está completamente entendido, expresando proteínas y moléculas de adhesión específicas. Son capaces de inducir una respuesta inmune humoral específica con anticuerpos IgG, y celular específica, con producción de TNFa, IFNg y proliferación de linfocitos gd+, aun cuando existen respuestas inducidas en contra de las etapas previas del parásito (esporozoito, exo-eritrocítica y eritrocítica. Las vacunas destinadas a bloquear la transmisión del parásito no contemplan a los gametocitos circulantes en el huésped como blancos de acción, sino que van enfocadas contra antígenos expresados en los gametos y en las etapas posfertilización. El estudio de los mecanismos que regulan la producción de gametocitos y de la respuesta inmune contra éstos, ofrece una oportunidad para el desarrollo de estrategias adicionales para el control de la transmisión.Plasmodium gametocytes are responsible for transmission from the vertebrate host to the mosquito. Plasmodium gametocytes undergo a complex cycle from asexual stages, through a poorly understood process characterized by expression of stage-specific proteins and adhesion molecules. Gametocytes are capable of inducing specific humoral IgG, and cellular responses, which include induction of TNFa, IFNg and gd+ lymphocyte proliferation, in addition to immune responses to other stages of the parasite (sporozoite, exo-erythrocytic stages, erythrocytic stages. Although transmission-blocking vaccines against Plasmodium do not currently include components against the gametocytes (rather they focus on gametes, zygotes or ookinetes, stages which occur in the mosquito, further understanding of the mechanisms underlying gametocytogenesis and immune responses against these stages may provide additional strategies for

  19. Gametocitos de Plasmodium vivax y Plasmodium falciparum: etapas relegadas en el desarrollo de vacunas Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum gametocyte stages are neglected in vaccine development

    OpenAIRE

    Carla Contreras-Ochoa; Ramsey, Janine M.

    2004-01-01

    Los gametocitos de Plasmodium son los responsables de la transmisión del huésped vertebrado al mosquito vector. Sufren un proceso de desarrollo complejo a partir de parásitos asexuales, que no está completamente entendido, expresando proteínas y moléculas de adhesión específicas. Son capaces de inducir una respuesta inmune humoral específica con anticuerpos IgG, y celular específica, con producción de TNFa, IFNg y proliferación de linfocitos gd+, aun cuando existen respuestas inducidas en con...

  20. Mosquito transgenic technologies to reduce Plasmodium transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Silke; Nolan, Tony; Crisanti, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    The ability to introduce genetic constructs of choice into the genome of Anopheles mosquitoes provides a valuable tool to study the molecular interactions between the Plasmodium parasite and its insect host. In the long term, this technology could potentially offer new ways to control vector-borne diseases through the suppression of target mosquito populations or through the introgression of traits that preclude pathogen transmission. Here, we describe in detail protocols for the generation of transgenic Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes based on germ-line transformation using either modified transposable elements or the site-specific PhiC31 recombinase.

  1. The novel oxygenated chalcone, 2,4-dimethoxy-4'-butoxychalcone, exhibits potent activity against human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum in vitro and rodent parasites Plasmodium berghei and Plasmodium yoelii in vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, M; Brøgger Christensen, S; Zhai, L

    1997-01-01

    growth of both a chloroquine-susceptible (3D7) and a chloroquine-resistant (Dd2) strain of Plasmodium falciparum in a [3H]hypoxanthine uptake assay. The in vivo activity of 2,4mbc was tested in mice infected with Plasmodium berghei or Plasmodium yoelii and in rats infected with P. berghei. 2,4mbc...

  2. No evidence for ape Plasmodium infections in humans in Gabon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Délicat-Loembet, Lucresse; Rougeron, Virginie; Ollomo, Benjamin; Arnathau, Céline; Roche, Benjamin; Elguero, Eric; Moukodoum, Nancy Diamella; Okougha, Alain-Prince; Mve Ondo, Bertrand; Boundenga, Larson; Houzé, Sandrine; Galan, Maxime; Nkoghé, Dieudonné; Leroy, Eric M; Durand, Patrick; Paupy, Christophe; Renaud, François; Prugnolle, Franck

    2015-01-01

    African great apes are naturally infected by a multitude of Plasmodium species most of them recently discovered, among which several are closely related to human malaria agents. However, it is still unknown whether these animals can serve as source of infections for humans living in their vicinity. To evaluate this possibility, we analysed the nature of Plasmodium infections from a bank of 4281 human blood samples collected in 210 villages of Gabon, Central Africa. Among them, 2255 were detected positive to Plasmodium using molecular methods (Plasmodium Cytochrome b amplification). A high throughput sequencing technology (454 GS-FLX Titanium technology, Roche) was then used to identify the Plasmodium species present within each positive sample. Overall, we identified with confidence only three species infecting humans in Gabon: P. falciparum, P. malariae and P. ovale. None of the species known to infect non-human primates in Central Africa was found. Our study shows that ape Plasmodium parasites of the subgenus Laverania do not constitute a frequent source of infection for humans. It also suggests that some strong host genetic barriers must exist to prevent the cross species transmission of ape Plasmodium in a context of ever increasing contacts between humans and wildlife.

  3. Prevalence and distribution of human Plasmodium infection in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khattak, Aamer A; Venkatesan, Meera; Nadeem, Muhammad F; Satti, Humayoon S; Yaqoob, Adnan; Strauss, Kathy; Khatoon, Lubna; Malik, Salman A; Plowe, Christopher V

    2013-08-28

    Both Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum are prevalent in Pakistan, yet up-to-date data on the epidemiology of malaria in Pakistan are not available. This study was undertaken to determine the current prevalence and distribution of Plasmodium species across the country. A malariometric population survey was conducted in 2011 using blood samples collected from 801 febrile patients of all ages in four provinces and the capital city of Islamabad. Microscopically confirmed Plasmodium-positive blood samples were reconfirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Confirmed parasite-positive samples were subjected to species-specific PCR capable of detecting four species of human malaria. Of the 707 PCR-positive samples, 128 (18%) were P. falciparum, 536 (76%) were P. vivax, and 43 (6%) were mixed P. falciparum and P. vivax. Ninety-four microscopy-positive samples were PCR-negative, and Plasmodium malariae and Plasmodium ovale were not detected. Prevalence of P. vivax ranged from 2.4% in Punjab Province to 10.8% in Sindh Province and prevalence of P. falciparum ranged from 0.1% in Islamabad to 3.8% in Balochistan. Plasmodium infections in Pakistan are largely attributed to P. vivax but P. falciparum and mixed species infections are also prevalent. In addition, regional variation in the prevalence and species composition of malaria is high.

  4. Plasmodium infection decreases fecundity and increases survival of mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vézilier, J; Nicot, A; Gandon, S; Rivero, A

    2012-10-07

    Long-lived mosquitoes maximize the chances of Plasmodium transmission. Yet, in spite of decades of research, the effect of Plasmodium parasites on mosquito longevity remains highly controversial. On the one hand, many studies report shorter lifespans in infected mosquitoes. On the other hand, parallel (but separate) studies show that Plasmodium reduces fecundity and imply that this is an adaptive strategy of the parasite aimed at redirecting resources towards longevity. No study till date has, however, investigated fecundity and longevity in the same individuals to see whether this prediction holds. In this study, we follow for both fecundity and longevity in Plasmodium-infected and uninfected mosquitoes using a novel, albeit natural, experimental system. We also explore whether the genetic variations that arise through the evolution of insecticide resistance modulate the effect of Plasmodium on these two life-history traits. We show that (i) a reduction in fecundity in Plasmodium-infected mosquitoes is accompanied by an increase in longevity; (ii) this increase in longevity arises through a trade-off between reproduction and survival; and (iii) in insecticide-resistant mosquitoes, the slope of this trade-off is steeper when the mosquito is infected by Plasmodium (cost of insecticide resistance).

  5. Human infections and detection of Plasmodium knowlesi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Balbir; Daneshvar, Cyrus

    2013-04-01

    Plasmodium knowlesi is a malaria parasite that is found in nature in long-tailed and pig-tailed macaques. Naturally acquired human infections were thought to be extremely rare until a large focus of human infections was reported in 2004 in Sarawak, Malaysian Borneo. Human infections have since been described throughout Southeast Asia, and P. knowlesi is now recognized as the fifth species of Plasmodium causing malaria in humans. The molecular, entomological, and epidemiological data indicate that human infections with P. knowlesi are not newly emergent and that knowlesi malaria is primarily a zoonosis. Human infections were undiagnosed until molecular detection methods that could distinguish P. knowlesi from the morphologically similar human malaria parasite P. malariae became available. P. knowlesi infections cause a spectrum of disease and are potentially fatal, but if detected early enough, infections in humans are readily treatable. In this review on knowlesi malaria, we describe the early studies on P. knowlesi and focus on the epidemiology, diagnosis, clinical aspects, and treatment of knowlesi malaria. We also discuss the gaps in our knowledge and the challenges that lie ahead in studying the epidemiology and pathogenesis of knowlesi malaria and in the prevention and control of this zoonotic infection.

  6. Plasmodium vivax malaria during pregnancy, Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brutus, Laurent; Santalla, José; Schneider, Dominique; Avila, Juan Carlos; Deloron, Philippe

    2013-10-01

    Plasmodium vivax is a major cause of illness in areas with low transmission of malaria in Latin America, Asia, and the Horn of Africa. However, pregnancy-associated malaria remains poorly characterized in such areas. Using a hospital-based survey of women giving birth and an antenatal survey, we assessed the prevalence rates of Plasmodium spp. infections in pregnant women in Bolivia, and evaluated the consequences of malaria during pregnancy on the health of mothers and newborns. P. vivax infection was detected in 7.9% of pregnant women attending antenatal visits, and placental infection occurred in 2.8% of deliveries; these rates did not vary with parity. Forty-two percent of all P. vivax malaria episodes were symptomatic. P. vivax-infected pregnant women were frequently anemic (6.5%) and delivered babies of reduced birthweight. P. vivax infections during pregnancy are clearly associated with serious adverse outcomes and should be considered in prevention strategies of pregnancy-associated malaria.

  7. Severe Plasmodium knowlesi with dengue coinfection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Che Rahim, Mohd Jazman; Mohammad, Nurashikin; Besari, Alwi Muhd; Wan Ghazali, Wan Syamimee

    2017-02-20

    We report a case of severe Plasmodium knowlesi and dengue coinfection in a previously healthy 59-year-old Malay man who presented with worsening shortness of breath, high-grade fever with chills and rigors, dry cough, myalgia, arthralgia, chest discomfort and poor appetite of 1 week duration. There was a history mosquito fogging around his neighbourhood in his hometown. Further history revealed that he went to a forest in Jeli (northern part of Kelantan) 3 weeks prior to the event. Initially he was treated as severe dengue with plasma leakage complicated with type 1 respiratory failure as evidenced by positive serum NS1-antigen and thrombocytopenia. Blood for malarial parasite (BFMP) was sent for test as there was suspicion of malaria due to persistent thrombocytopenia despite recovering from dengue infection and the presence of a risk factor. The test revealed high count of malaria parasite. Confirmatory PCR identified the parasite to be Plasmodium knowlesi Intravenous artesunate was administered to the patient immediately after acquiring the BFMP result. Severe malaria was complicated with acute kidney injury and septicaemic shock. Fortunately the patient made full recovery and was discharged from the ward after 2 weeks of hospitalisation. 2017 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  8. RETINAL HAEMORRHAGE IN PLASMODIUM VIVAX PATIENTS- 2 RARE CASE REPORTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangeeta

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Retinal haemorrhage is commonly detected during opht halmoscopic examination of patients with Plasmodium falciparum infections. Ho wever, it is observed very rarely in Plasmodium vivax infections. Only six cases of reti nal haemorrhage have been reported so far in Plasmodium vivax infections. We review the literatu re and discuss two such cases of retinal haemorrhage that presented at our hospital. It is sug gested that retinal haemorrhage be routinely ruled out in all malaria patients, and Pla smodium vivax infection be considered in patients with unexplained retinal haemorrhage and fev er.

  9. Plasmodium falciparum full life cycle and Plasmodium ovale liver stages in humanized mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soulard, Valérie; Bosson-Vanga, Henriette; Lorthiois, Audrey; Roucher, Clémentine; Franetich, Jean- François; Zanghi, Gigliola; Bordessoulles, Mallaury; Tefit, Maurel; Thellier, Marc; Morosan, Serban; Le Naour, Gilles; Capron, Frédérique; Suemizu, Hiroshi; Snounou, Georges; Moreno-Sabater, Alicia; Mazier, Dominique

    2015-01-01

    Experimental studies of Plasmodium parasites that infect humans are restricted by their host specificity. Humanized mice offer a means to overcome this and further provide the opportunity to observe the parasites in vivo. Here we improve on previous protocols to achieve efficient double engraftment of TK-NOG mice by human primary hepatocytes and red blood cells. Thus, we obtain the complete hepatic development of P. falciparum, the transition to the erythrocytic stages, their subsequent multiplication, and the appearance of mature gametocytes over an extended period of observation. Furthermore, using sporozoites derived from two P. ovale-infected patients, we show that human hepatocytes engrafted in TK-NOG mice sustain maturation of the liver stages, and the presence of late-developing schizonts indicate the eventual activation of quiescent parasites. Thus, TK-NOG mice are highly suited for in vivo observations on the Plasmodium species of humans. PMID:26205537

  10. Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum are Common Malaria Species in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tauseef Ahmad

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The microbes have a diverse nature, it makes human laugh and cry. Some microbes are fruitful for humans while others are harmful. Infectious diseases are a key problem in the modern world. In the last few decades, million of peoples have died from different diseases, including bacterial, viral, fungal, parasitic, etc. Among these diseases, malaria is one of the major health problems for developing countries including Pakistan. This study was undertaken to provide baseline information about the prevalence of malaria, species distribution and to contribute to the data regarding epidemiology in Pakistan. For a collection of literature, the electronic search engine was used, using different key words i.e. prevalence, species distribution, epidemiology of malaria in Pakistan, etc. The time frame of the obtained articles was from 2000 to 2014. The two species of malaria Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum are common in Pakistan. [Biomed Res Ther 2016; 3(6.000: 666-672

  11. Immunization of mice with Plasmodium TCTP delays establishment of Plasmodium infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, K J; Van, T T H; MacDonald, S M; Meshnick, S R; Fernley, R T; Macreadie, I G; Smooker, P M

    2015-01-01

    Translationally controlled tumour protein (TCTP) may play an important role in the establishment or maintenance of parasitemia in a malarial infection. In this study, the potential of TCTP as a malaria vaccine was investigated in two trials. In the initial vaccine trial, Plasmodium falciparum TCTP (PfTCTP) was expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and used to immunize BALB/c mice. Following challenge with Plasmodium yoelii YM, parasitemia was significantly reduced during the early stages of infection. In the second vaccine trial, the TCTP from P. yoelii and P. berghei was expressed in Escherichia coli and used in several mouse malaria models. A significant reduction in parasitemia in the early stages of infection was observed in BALB/c mice challenged with P. yoelii YM. A significantly reduced parasitemia at each day leading up to a delayed and reduced peak parasitemia was also observed in BALB/c mice challenged with the nonlethal Plasmodium chabaudi (P.c.) chabaudi AS. These results suggest that TCTP has an important role for parasite establishment and may be important for pathogenesis. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Plasmodium species: master renovators of their host cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Koning-Ward, Tania F; Dixon, Matthew W A; Tilley, Leann; Gilson, Paul R

    2016-08-01

    Plasmodium parasites, the causative agents of malaria, have developed elaborate strategies that they use to survive and thrive within different intracellular environments. During the blood stage of infection, the parasite is a master renovator of its erythrocyte host cell, and the changes in cell morphology and function that are induced by the parasite promote survival and contribute to the pathogenesis of severe malaria. In this Review, we discuss how Plasmodium parasites use the protein trafficking motif Plasmodium export element (PEXEL), protease-mediated polypeptide processing, a novel translocon termed the Plasmodium translocon of exported proteins (PTEX) and exomembranous structures to export hundreds of proteins to discrete subcellular locations in the host erythrocytes, which enables the parasite to gain access to vital nutrients and to evade the immune defence mechanisms of the host.

  13. STUDY ON RELATIVE ABUNDANCE OF Plasmodium SPECIES: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    2013-06-01

    Jun 1, 2013 ... Keywords: abundance, plasmodium, relative, thin blood film, malaria control programmes. INTRODUCTION ... When an infected female Anopheles mosquito bites a ... the understanding of the type of infection as well as.

  14. Plasmodium infection in a Leadbeater's possum (Gymnobelideus leadbeateri).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheelings, T F; McLaren, P J; Tatarczuch, L; Slocombe, R F

    2016-08-01

    A wild-caught, adult female Leadbeater's possum (Gymnobelideus leadbeateri) died while in captivity after suffering from chronic ill-thrift that progressed to acute respiratory distress. On histopathological examination of tissues, the cause of death was determined to be severe acute pneumonia with pulmonary oedema associated with an intracellular protozoan parasite present within erythrocytes. Transmission electron microscopy was performed on lung tissues and organisms consistent for Plasmodium sp. were identified within numerous erythrocytes. Molecular characterisation of the parasite from DNA extracted from tissue blocks of fixed lung determined the organism to belong to the genus Plasmodium (100% similarity to Plasmodium species when a BLAST analysis was performed); however, speciation of the organism was not possible. This is the first report of Plasmodium sp. infection and subsequent disease in a native Australian mammal. The lifecycle of this parasite remains unknown. It is also unknown what effects haemoparasitism may have on the population dynamics of this endangered possum species. © 2016 Australian Veterinary Association.

  15. International population movements and regional Plasmodium falciparum malaria elimination strategies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Andrew J. Tatem; David L. Smith; Susan Hanson

    2010-01-01

    ... to areas targeted for elimination. Here, census-based migration data were analyzed with network analysis tools, Plasmodium falciparum malaria transmission maps, and global population databases to map globally communities of countries...

  16. Peripheral blood cell signatures of Plasmodium falciparum infection during pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibitokou, Samad; Oesterholt, Mayke; Brutus, Laurent;

    2012-01-01

    Sequestration of Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes in placental intervillous spaces causes inflammation and pathology. Knowledge of the profiles of immune cells associated with the physiopathology of pregnancy-associated malaria (PAM) is scarce. We conducted a longitudinal, prospective...

  17. Heterologous Protection against Malaria after Immunization with Plasmodium falciparum Sporozoites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schats, R.; Bijker, E.M.; Gemert, G.J.A. van; Graumans, W.; Vegte-Bolmer, M. van de; Lieshout, L. van; Haks, M.C.; Hermsen, C.C.; Scholzen, A.; Visser, L.G.; Sauerwein, R.W.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Sterile protection in >90% of volunteers against homologous Plasmodium falciparum infection has been achieved only using the controlled human malaria infection (CHMI) model. This efficient model involves whole parasite immunizations under chloroquine prophylaxis (CPS-immunization),

  18. Guillain-Barré syndrome in Plasmodium falciparum malaria.

    OpenAIRE

    Wijesundere, A.

    1992-01-01

    A patient with Plasmodium falciparum malaria developed peripheral neuropathy. Clinical, cerebro-spinal fluid examination and nerve conduction studies confirmed Guillain-Barré syndrome, not previously reported in P. falciparum malaria.

  19. Anti-Plasmodium activity of ceramide analogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gatt Shimon

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sphingolipids are key molecules regulating many essential functions in eukaryotic cells and ceramide plays a central role in sphingolipid metabolism. A sphingolipid metabolism occurs in the intraerythrocytic stages of Plasmodium falciparum and is associated with essential biological processes. It constitutes an attractive and potential target for the development of new antimalarial drugs. Methods The anti-Plasmodium activity of a series of ceramide analogs containing different linkages (amide, methylene or thiourea linkages between the fatty acid part of ceramide and the sphingoid core was investigated in culture and compared to the sphingolipid analog PPMP (d,1-threo-1-phenyl-2-palmitoylamino-3-morpholino-1-propanol. This analog is known to inhibit the parasite sphingomyelin synthase activity and block parasite development by preventing the formation of the tubovesicular network that extends from the parasitophorous vacuole to the red cell membrane and delivers essential extracellular nutrients to the parasite. Results Analogs containing methylene linkage showed a considerably higher anti-Plasmodium activity (IC50 in the low nanomolar range than PPMP and their counterparts with a natural amide linkage (IC50 in the micromolar range. The methylene analogs blocked irreversibly P. falciparum development leading to parasite eradication in contrast to PPMP whose effect is cytostatic. A high sensitivity of action towards the parasite was observed when compared to their effect on the human MRC-5 cell growth. The toxicity towards parasites did not correlate with the inhibition by methylene analogs of the parasite sphingomyelin synthase activity and the tubovesicular network formation, indicating that this enzyme is not their primary target. Conclusions It has been shown that ceramide analogs were potent inhibitors of P. falciparum growth in culture. Interestingly, the nature of the linkage between the fatty acid part and the

  20. Placental histopathological changes associated with Plasmodium vivax infection during pregnancy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo M Souza

    Full Text Available Histological evidence of Plasmodium in the placenta is indicative of placental malaria, a condition associated with severe outcomes for mother and child. Histological lesions found in placentas from Plasmodium-exposed women include syncytial knotting, syncytial rupture, thickening of the placental barrier, necrosis of villous tissue and intervillositis. These histological changes have been associated with P. falciparum infections, but little is known about the contribution of P. vivax to such changes. We conducted a cross-sectional study with pregnant women at delivery and assigned them to three groups according to their Plasmodium exposure during pregnancy: no Plasmodium exposure (n = 41, P. vivax exposure (n = 59 or P. falciparum exposure (n = 19. We evaluated their placentas for signs of Plasmodium and placental lesions using ten histological parameters: syncytial knotting, syncytial rupture, placental barrier thickness, villi necrosis, intervillous space area, intervillous leucocytes, intervillous mononucleates, intervillous polymorphonucleates, parasitized erythrocytes and hemozoin. Placentas from P. vivax-exposed women showed little evidence of Plasmodium or hemozoin but still exhibited more lesions than placentas from women not exposed to Plasmodium, especially when infections occurred twice or more during pregnancy. In the Brazilian state of Acre, where diagnosis and primary treatment are readily available and placental lesions occur in the absence of detected placental parasites, relying on the presence of Plasmodium in the placenta to evaluate Plasmodium-induced placental pathology is not feasible. Multivariate logistic analysis revealed that syncytial knotting (odds ratio [OR], 4.21, P = 0.045, placental barrier thickness (OR, 25.59, P = 0.021 and mononuclear cells (OR, 4.02, P = 0.046 were increased in placentas from P. vivax-exposed women when compared to women not exposed to Plasmodium during pregnancy. A

  1. Limitations of microscopy to differentiate Plasmodium species in a region co-endemic for Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium knowlesi

    OpenAIRE

    Barber Bridget E; William Timothy; Grigg Matthew J; Yeo Tsin W; Anstey Nicholas M

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background In areas co-endemic for multiple Plasmodium species, correct diagnosis is crucial for appropriate treatment and surveillance. Species misidentification by microscopy has been reported in areas co-endemic for vivax and falciparum malaria, and may be more frequent in regions where Plasmodium knowlesi also commonly occurs. Methods This prospective study in Sabah, Malaysia, evaluated the accuracy of routine district and referral hospital-based microscopy, and microscopy perfor...

  2. Desferrioxamine suppresses Plasmodium falciparum in Aotus monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollack, S; Rossan, R N; Davidson, D E; Escajadillo, A

    1987-02-01

    Clinical observation has suggested that iron deficiency may be protective in malaria, and we have found that desferrioxamine (DF), an iron-specific chelating agent, inhibited Plasmodium falciparum growth in vitro. It was difficult to be confident that DF would be effective in an intact animal, however, because continuous exposure to DF was required in vitro and, in vivo, DF is rapidly excreted. Also, the in vitro effect of DF was overcome by addition of iron to the culture and in vivo there are potentially high local iron concentrations when iron is absorbed from the diet or released from reticuloendothelial cells. We now show that DF given by constant subcutaneous infusion does suppress parasitemia in P. falciparum-infected Aotus monkeys.

  3. Development of vaccines for Plasmodium vivax malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Ivo; Shakri, Ahmad Rushdi; Chitnis, Chetan E

    2015-12-22

    Plasmodium vivax continues to cause significant morbidity outside Africa with more than 50% of malaria cases in many parts of South and South-east Asia, Pacific islands, Central and South America being attributed to P. vivax infections. The unique biology of P. vivax, including its ability to form latent hypnozoites that emerge months to years later to cause blood stage infections, early appearance of gametocytes before clinical symptoms are apparent and a shorter development cycle in the vector makes elimination of P. vivax using standard control tools difficult. The availability of an effective vaccine that provides protection and prevents transmission would be a valuable tool in efforts to eliminate P. vivax. Here, we review the latest developments related to P. vivax malaria vaccines and discuss the challenges as well as directions toward the goal of developing highly efficacious vaccines against P. vivax malaria.

  4. Wanted Plasmodium falciparum, dead or alive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatimata Sow

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Mechanisms of cell death in unicellular parasites have been subjects of debate for the last decade, with studies demonstrating evidence of apoptosis or non-apoptosis like mechanisms, including necrosis, and autophagy. Recent clarifications on the definition of regulated or accidental cell death by The Nomenclature Committee on Cell Death provides an opportunity to reanalyze some data, re-evaluate conclusions in the light of parasite diversity, and to propose alternative arguments in the context of malaria drug resistance, considering lack of really new drugs in the pipeline. Deciphering the mechanisms of death may help in detection of new drug targets and the design of innovative drugs. However, classifications have been evolving rapidly since initial description of “programmed cell death”, leading to some uncertainty as to whether Plasmodium cell death is accidental or regulated.

  5. Plasmodium falciparum drug resistance in Angola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fançony, Cláudia; Brito, Miguel; Gil, Jose Pedro

    2016-02-09

    Facing chloroquine drug resistance, Angola promptly adopted artemisinin-based combination therapy as the first-line to treat malaria. Currently, the country aims to consolidate malaria control, while preparing for the elimination of the disease, along with others African countries in the region. However, the remarkable capacity of Plasmodium to develop drug resistance represents an alarming threat for those achievements. Herein, the available, but relatively scarce and dispersed, information on malaria drug resistance in Angola, is reviewed and discussed. The review aims to inform but also to encourage future research studies that monitor and update the information on anti-malarial drug efficacy and prevalence of molecular markers of drug resistance, key fields in the context and objectives of elimination.

  6. Gametocytogenesis : the puberty of Plasmodium falciparum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariey Frédéric

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The protozoan Plasmodium falciparum has a complex life cycle in which asexual multiplication in the vertebrate host alternates with an obligate sexual reproduction in the anopheline mosquito. Apart from the apparent recombination advantages conferred by sex, P. falciparum has evolved a remarkable biology and adaptive phenotypes to insure its transmission despite the dangers of sex. This review mainly focuses on the current knowledge on commitment to sexual development, gametocytogenesis and the evolutionary significance of various aspects of gametocyte biology. It goes further than pure biology to look at the strategies used to improve successful transmission. Although gametocytes are inevitable stages for transmission and provide a potential target to fight malaria, they have received less attention than the pathogenic asexual stages. There is a need for research on gametocytes, which are a fascinating stage, responsible to a large extent for the success of P. falciparum.

  7. Epidemiology of Plasmodium vivax Malaria in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosas-Aguirre, Angel; Gamboa, Dionicia; Manrique, Paulo; Conn, Jan E; Moreno, Marta; Lescano, Andres G; Sanchez, Juan F; Rodriguez, Hugo; Silva, Hermann; Llanos-Cuentas, Alejandro; Vinetz, Joseph M

    2016-12-28

    Malaria in Peru, dominated by Plasmodium vivax, remains a public health problem. The 1990s saw newly epidemic malaria emerge, primarily in the Loreto Department in the Amazon region, including areas near to Iquitos, the capital city, but sporadic malaria transmission also occurred in the 1990s-2000s in both north-coastal Peru and the gold mining regions of southeastern Peru. Although a Global Fund-supported intervention (PAMAFRO, 2005-2010) was temporally associated with a decrease of malaria transmission, from 2012 to the present, both P. vivax and Plasmodium falciparum malaria cases have rapidly increased. The Peruvian Ministry of Health continues to provide artemesinin-based combination therapy for microscopy-confirmed cases of P. falciparum and chloroquine-primaquine for P. vivax Malaria transmission continues in remote areas nonetheless, where the mobility of humans and parasites facilitates continued reintroduction outside of ongoing surveillance activities, which is critical to address for future malaria control and elimination efforts. Ongoing P. vivax research gaps in Peru include the following: identification of asymptomatic parasitemics, quantification of the contribution of patent and subpatent parasitemics to mosquito transmission, diagnosis of nonparasitemic hypnozoite carriers, and implementation of surveillance for potential emergence of chloroquine- and 8-aminoquinoline-resistant P. vivax Clinical trials of tafenoquine in Peru have been promising, and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency in the region has not been observed to be a limitation to its use. Larger-scale challenges for P. vivax (and malaria in general) in Peru include logistical difficulties in accessing remote riverine populations, consequences of government policy and poverty trends, and obtaining international funding for malaria control and elimination.

  8. Plasmodium vivax adherence to placental glycosaminoglycans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kesinee Chotivanich

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Plasmodium vivax infections seldom kill directly but do cause indirect mortality by reducing birth weight and causing abortion. Cytoadherence and sequestration in the microvasculature are central to the pathogenesis of severe Plasmodium falciparum malaria, but the contribution of cytoadherence to pathology in other human malarias is less clear. METHODOLOGY: The adherence properties of P. vivax infected red blood cells (PvIRBC were evaluated under static and flow conditions. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: P. vivax isolates from 33 patients were studied. None adhered to immobilized CD36, ICAM-1, or thrombospondin, putative ligands for P. falciparum vascular cytoadherence, or umbilical vein endothelial cells, but all adhered to immobilized chondroitin sulphate A (CSA and hyaluronic acid (HA, the receptors for adhesion of P. falciparum in the placenta. PvIRBC also adhered to fresh placental cells (N = 5. Pre-incubation with chondroitinase prevented PvIRBC adherence to CSA, and reduced binding to HA, whereas preincubation with hyaluronidase prevented adherence to HA, but did not reduce binding to CSA significantly. Pre-incubation of PvIRBC with soluble CSA and HA reduced binding to the immobilized receptors and prevented placental binding. PvIRBC adhesion was prevented by pre-incubation with trypsin, inhibited by heparin, and reduced by EGTA. Under laminar flow conditions the mean (SD shear stress reducing maximum attachment by 50% was 0.06 (0.02 Pa but, having adhered, the PvIRBC could then resist detachment by stresses up to 5 Pa. At 37 °C adherence began approximately 16 hours after red cell invasion with maximal adherence at 30 hours. At 39 °C adherence began earlier and peaked at 24 hours. SIGNIFICANCE: Adherence of P. vivax-infected erythrocytes to glycosaminoglycans may contribute to the pathogenesis of vivax malaria and lead to intrauterine growth retardation.

  9. Epidemiology of Plasmodium vivax Malaria in Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosas-Aguirre, Angel; Gamboa, Dionicia; Manrique, Paulo; Conn, Jan E.; Moreno, Marta; Lescano, Andres G.; Sanchez, Juan F.; Rodriguez, Hugo; Silva, Hermann; Llanos-Cuentas, Alejandro; Vinetz, Joseph M.

    2016-01-01

    Malaria in Peru, dominated by Plasmodium vivax, remains a public health problem. The 1990s saw newly epidemic malaria emerge, primarily in the Loreto Department in the Amazon region, including areas near to Iquitos, the capital city, but sporadic malaria transmission also occurred in the 1990s–2000s in both north-coastal Peru and the gold mining regions of southeastern Peru. Although a Global Fund-supported intervention (PAMAFRO, 2005–2010) was temporally associated with a decrease of malaria transmission, from 2012 to the present, both P. vivax and Plasmodium falciparum malaria cases have rapidly increased. The Peruvian Ministry of Health continues to provide artemesinin-based combination therapy for microscopy-confirmed cases of P. falciparum and chloroquine–primaquine for P. vivax. Malaria transmission continues in remote areas nonetheless, where the mobility of humans and parasites facilitates continued reintroduction outside of ongoing surveillance activities, which is critical to address for future malaria control and elimination efforts. Ongoing P. vivax research gaps in Peru include the following: identification of asymptomatic parasitemics, quantification of the contribution of patent and subpatent parasitemics to mosquito transmission, diagnosis of nonparasitemic hypnozoite carriers, and implementation of surveillance for potential emergence of chloroquine- and 8-aminoquinoline-resistant P. vivax. Clinical trials of tafenoquine in Peru have been promising, and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency in the region has not been observed to be a limitation to its use. Larger-scale challenges for P. vivax (and malaria in general) in Peru include logistical difficulties in accessing remote riverine populations, consequences of government policy and poverty trends, and obtaining international funding for malaria control and elimination. PMID:27799639

  10. Discordance in drug resistance-associated mutation patterns in marker genes of Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium knowlesi during coinfections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyagi, Rupesh K; Das, Manoj K; Singh, Shiv S; Sharma, Yagya D

    2013-05-01

    Human Plasmodium knowlesi infections have been reported from several South-East Asian countries, excluding India, but its drug susceptibility profile in mixed-infection cases remains unknown. The chloroquine resistance transporter (CRT) and dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) genes of P. knowlesi and other Plasmodium species were sequenced from clinical isolates obtained from malaria patients living in the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, India. The merozoite surface protein-1 and 18S rRNA genes of P. knowlesi were also sequenced from these isolates. Among 445 samples analysed, only 53 of them had P. knowlesi-specific gene sequences. While 3 of the 53 cases (5.66%) had P. knowlesi monoinfection, the rest were coinfected with Plasmodium falciparum (86.79%, n = 46) or Plasmodium vivax (7.55%, n = 4), but none with Plasmodium malariae or Plasmodium ovale. There was discordance in the drug resistance-associated mutations among the coinfecting Plasmodium species. This is because the P. knowlesi isolates contained wild-type sequences, while P. falciparum isolates had mutations in the CRT and DHFR marker genes associated with a higher level of chloroquine and antifolate drug resistance, respectively. The mutation pattern indicates that the same patient, having a mixed infection, may be harbouring the drug-susceptible P. knowlesi parasite and a highly drug-resistant P. falciparum parasite. A larger human population in South-East Asia may be at risk of P. knowlesi infection than reported so far. The different drug susceptibility genotypes of P. knowlesi from its coinfecting Plasmodium species in mixed infections adds a new dimension to the malaria control programme, requiring formulation of an appropriate drug policy.

  11. Primate malarias: Diversity, distribution and insights for zoonotic Plasmodium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Faust

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Protozoans within the genus Plasmodium are well-known as the causative agents of malaria in humans. Numerous Plasmodium species parasites also infect a wide range of non-human primate hosts in tropical and sub-tropical regions worldwide. Studying this diversity can provide critical insight into our understanding of human malarias, as several human malaria species are a result of host switches from non-human primates. Current spillover of a monkey malaria, Plasmodium knowlesi, in Southeast Asia highlights the permeability of species barriers in Plasmodium. Also recently, surveys of apes in Africa uncovered a previously undescribed diversity of Plasmodium in chimpanzees and gorillas. Therefore, we carried out a meta-analysis to quantify the global distribution, host range, and diversity of known non-human primate malaria species. We used published records of Plasmodium parasites found in non-human primates to estimate the total diversity of non-human primate malarias globally. We estimate that at least three undescribed primate malaria species exist in sampled primates, and many more likely exist in unstudied species. The diversity of malaria parasites is especially uncertain in regions of low sampling such as Madagascar, and taxonomic groups such as African Old World Monkeys and gibbons. Presence–absence data of malaria across primates enables us to highlight the close association of forested regions and non-human primate malarias. This distribution potentially reflects a long coevolution of primates, forest-adapted mosquitoes, and malaria parasites. The diversity and distribution of primate malaria are an essential prerequisite to understanding the mechanisms and circumstances that allow Plasmodium to jump species barriers, both in the evolution of malaria parasites and current cases of spillover into humans.

  12. Plasmodium malariae and Plasmodium ovale infections in the China-Myanmar border area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Peipei; Zhao, Zhenjun; Xing, Hua; Li, Wenli; Zhu, Xiaotong; Cao, Yaming; Yang, Zhaoqing; Sattabongkot, Jetsumon; Yan, Guiyun; Fan, Qi; Cui, Liwang

    2016-11-15

    The Greater Mekong Subregion is aiming to achieve regional malaria elimination by 2030. Though a shift in malaria parasite species predominance by Plasmodium vivax has been recently documented, the transmission of the two minor Plasmodium species, Plasmodium malariae and Plasmodium ovale spp., is poorly characterized in the region. This study aims to determine the prevalence of these minor species in the China-Myanmar border area and their genetic diversity. Epidemiology study was conducted during passive case detection in hospitals and clinics in Myanmar and four counties in China along the China-Myanmar border. Cross-sectional surveys were conducted in villages and camps for internally displaced persons to determine the prevalence of malaria infections. Malaria infections were diagnosed initially by microscopy and later in the laboratory using nested PCR for the SSU rRNA genes. Plasmodium malariae and P. ovale infections were confirmed by sequencing the PCR products. The P. ovale subtypes were determined by sequencing the Pocytb, Pocox1 and Pog3p genes. Parasite populations were evaluated by PCR amplification and sequencing of the MSP-1 genes. Antifolate sensitivity was assessed by sequencing the dhfr-ts and dhps genes from the P. malariae and P. ovale isolates. Analysis of 2701 blood samples collected from the China-Myanmar border by nested PCR targeting the parasite SSU rRNA genes identified 561 malaria cases, including 161 Plasmodium falciparum, 327 P. vivax, 66 P. falciparum/P. vivax mixed infections, 4 P. malariae and 3 P. ovale spp. P. vivax and P. falciparum accounted for >60 and ~30% of all malaria cases, respectively. In comparison, the prevalence of P. malariae and P. ovale spp. was very low and only made up ~1% of all PCR-positive cases. Nevertheless, these two species were often misidentified as P. vivax infections or completely missed by microscopy even among symptomatic patients. Phylogenetic analysis of the SSU rRNA, Pocytb, Pocox1 and Pog3p genes

  13. Anti-relapse activity of mirincamycin in the Plasmodium cynomolgi sporozoite-infected Rhesus monkey model

    OpenAIRE

    Fracisco, Susan; Teja-Isavadharm, Paktiya; Gettayacamin, Montip; Berman, Jonathan; Li, Qigui; Melendez, Victor; Saunders, David; Xie, Lisa; Ohrt, Colin

    2014-01-01

    Background Mirincamycin is a close analog of the drug clindamycin used to treat Plasmodium falciparum blood stages. The clinical need to treat Plasmodium vivax dormant liver stages and prevent relapse with a drug other than primaquine led to the evaluation of mirinicamycin against liver stages in animals. Methods cis-mirinicamycin and trans-mirinicamycin were evaluated as prophylaxis against early liver stages of Plasmodium berghei in mice and as antirelapse hypnozoiticides against Plasmodium...

  14. Rediscovery and redescription of Plasmodium pifanoi and description of two additional Plasmodium parasites of Venezuelan lizards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telford, Sam R; Telford, Sam R

    2003-04-01

    Plasmodium pifanoi Scorza and Dagert B., known only from the type host, Ameiva ameiva, is redescribed from Kentropyx calcarata collected in Territorio Amazonas, Venezuela. Schizonts, 6.2 x 4.5 (4-8 x 3-6), produce on average 11.9 (7-16) merozoites. Gametocytes average 12.4 x 6.0 (8-16 x 4-10), with length x width (LW) 72.9 (52-112) and L/W 2.18 (1.1-3.3), and always contain 1-5 prominent vacuoles. Macrogametocytes in active infection are longer than microgametocytes, with greater LW, but gametocytes in chronic infection are not sexually dimorphic in dimension and are slightly smaller. Two additional malarial parasites are described from K. calcarata. Plasmodium lepidoptiformis has small schizonts, 4.6 x 3.2 (3-6 x 2.5-3), that produce 5.1 (4-8) merozoites and commonly resemble a butterfly in appearance. Gametocytes are elongate, 9.0 x 4.3 (7-10 x 3-6), with LW 38.3 (24-51) and L/W 2.2 (1.3-3.3), and sexually dimorphic, with macrogametocytes longer than microgametocytes, with greater LW. Plasmodium minasense calcaratae is characterized by very small, usually fan-shaped, schizonts. 3.4 x 2.6 (2.5-4.5 x 2.0-3.0), that produce 3.9 (3-4) merozoites. Gametocytes are spherical or ovoid, 6.7 x 5.0 (4.5-9.0 x 3.0-7.0), with LW 33.7 (15-54) and L/W 1.4 (1.0-2.3), with no sexual dimorphism in dimensions.

  15. Maternal-foetal transfer of Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax antibodies in a low transmission setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charnaud, Sarah C.; McGready, Rose; Herten-Crabb, Asha; Powell, Rosanna; Guy, Andrew; Langer, Christine; Richards, Jack S.; Gilson, Paul R.; Chotivanich, Kesinee; Tsuboi, Takafumi; Narum, David L.; Pimanpanarak, Mupawjay; Simpson, Julie A.; Beeson, James G.; Nosten, François; Fowkes, Freya J. I.

    2016-01-01

    During pregnancy immunolglobulin G (IgG) antibodies are transferred from mother to neonate across the placenta. Studies in high transmission areas have shown transfer of P. falciparum-specific IgG, but the extent and factors influencing maternal-foetal transfer in low transmission areas co-endemic for both P. falciparum and P. vivax are unknown. Pregnant women were screened weekly for Plasmodium infection. Mother-neonate paired serum samples at delivery were tested for IgG to antigens from P. falciparum, P. vivax and other infectious diseases. Antibodies to malarial and non-malarial antigens were highly correlated between maternal and neonatal samples (median [range] spearman ρ = 0.78 [0.57–0.93]), although Plasmodium spp. antibodies tended to be lower in neonates than mothers. Estimated gestational age at last P. falciparum infection, but not P. vivax infection, was positively associated with antibody levels in the neonate (P. falciparum merozoite, spearman ρ median [range] 0.42 [0.33–0.66], PfVAR2CSA 0.69; P. vivax ρ = 0.19 [0.09–0.3]). Maternal-foetal transfer of anti-malarial IgG to Plasmodium spp. antigens occurs in low transmission settings. P. vivax IgG acquisition is not associated with recent exposure unlike P. falciparum IgG, suggesting a difference in acquisition of antibodies. IgG transfer is greatest in the final weeks of pregnancy which has implications for the timing of future malaria vaccination strategies in pregnant women. PMID:26861682

  16. Genetic loci associated with delayed clearance of Plasmodium falciparum following artemisinin treatment in Southeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-02

    Genetic loci associated with delayed clearance of Plasmodium falciparum following artemisinin treatment in Southeast Asia Shannon Takala-Harrisona...resistant Plasmodium falcipa- rum malaria in western Cambodia could threaten prospects for malaria elimination. Identification of the genetic basis of...molecular markers Artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) are the lead-ing treatment for Plasmodium falciparum malaria (1), and their use with

  17. Analyzing Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 gene expression by a next generation sequencing based method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Jakob S.; Petersen, Bent; Seguin-Orlando, Andaine;

    2013-01-01

    Plasmodium falciparum is responsible for most cases of severe malaria and causes >1 million deaths every year. The particular virulence of this Plasmodium species is highly associated with the expression of certain members of the Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1(PfEMP1) family...

  18. Wolbachia increases susceptibility to Plasmodium infection in a natural system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zélé, F; Nicot, A; Berthomieu, A; Weill, M; Duron, O; Rivero, A

    2014-03-22

    Current views about the impact of Wolbachia on Plasmodium infections are almost entirely based on data regarding artificially transfected mosquitoes. This work has shown that Wolbachia reduces the intensity of Plasmodium infections in mosquitoes, raising the exciting possibility of using Wolbachia to control or limit the spread of malaria. Whether natural Wolbachia infections have the same parasite-inhibiting properties is not yet clear. Wolbachia-mosquito combinations with a long evolutionary history are, however, key for understanding what may happen with Wolbachia-transfected mosquitoes after several generations of coevolution. We investigate this issue using an entirely natural mosquito-Wolbachia-Plasmodium combination. In contrast to most previous studies, which have been centred on the quantification of the midgut stages of Plasmodium, we obtain a measurement of parasitaemia that relates directly to transmission by following infections to the salivary gland stages. We show that Wolbachia increases the susceptibility of Culex pipiens mosquitoes to Plasmodium relictum, significantly increasing the prevalence of salivary gland stage infections. This effect is independent of the density of Wolbachia in the mosquito. These results suggest that naturally Wolbachia-infected mosquitoes may, in fact, be better vectors of malaria than Wolbachia-free ones.

  19. Chimpanzee malaria parasites related to Plasmodium ovale in Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Duval

    Full Text Available Since the 1970's, the diversity of Plasmodium parasites in African great apes has been neglected. Surprisingly, P. reichenowi, a chimpanzee parasite, is the only such parasite to have been molecularly characterized. This parasite is closely phylogenetically related to P. falciparum, the principal cause of the greatest malaria burden in humans. Studies of malaria parasites from anthropoid primates may provide relevant phylogenetic information, improving our understanding of the origin and evolutionary history of human malaria species. In this study, we screened 130 DNA samples from chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes and gorillas (Gorilla gorilla from Cameroon for Plasmodium infection, using cytochrome b molecular tools. Two chimpanzees from the subspecies Pan t. troglodytes presented single infections with Plasmodium strains molecularly related to the human malaria parasite P. ovale. These chimpanzee parasites and 13 human strains of P. ovale originated from a various sites in Africa and Asia were characterized using cytochrome b and cytochrome c oxidase 1 mitochondrial partial genes and nuclear ldh partial gene. Consistent with previous findings, two genetically distinct types of P. ovale, classical and variant, were observed in the human population from a variety of geographical locations. One chimpanzee Plasmodium strain was genetically identical, on all three markers tested, to variant P. ovale type. The other chimpanzee Plasmodium strain was different from P. ovale strains isolated from humans. This study provides the first evidence of possibility of natural cross-species exchange of P. ovale between humans and chimpanzees of the subspecies Pan t. troglodytes.

  20. Cellular effector mechanisms against Plasmodium liver stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frevert, Ute; Nardin, Elizabeth

    2008-10-01

    Advances in our understanding of the molecular and cell biology of the malaria parasite have led to new vaccine development efforts resulting in a pipeline of over 40 candidates undergoing clinical phase I-III trials. Vaccine-induced CD4+ and CD8+ T cells specific for pre-erythrocytic stage antigens have been found to express cytolytic and multi-cytokine effector functions that support a key role for these T cells within the hepatic environment. However, little is known of the cellular interactions that occur during the effector phase in which the intracellular hepatic stage of the parasite is targeted and destroyed. This review focuses on cell biological aspects of the interaction between malaria-specific effector cells and the various antigen-presenting cells that are known to exist within the liver, including hepatocytes, dendritic cells, Kupffer cells, stellate cells and sinusoidal endothelia. Considering the unique immune properties of the liver, it is conceivable that these different hepatic antigen-presenting cells fulfil distinct but complementary roles during the effector phase against Plasmodium liver stages.

  1. Exploring the folate pathway in Plasmodium falciparum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyde, John E

    2005-06-01

    As in centuries past, the main weapon against human malaria infections continues to be intervention with drugs, despite the widespread and increasing frequency of parasite populations that are resistant to one or more of the available compounds. This is a particular problem with the lethal species of parasite, Plasmodium falciparum, which claims some two million lives per year as well as causing enormous social and economic problems. Amongst the antimalarial drugs currently in clinical use, the antifolates have the best defined molecular targets, namely the enzymes dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) and dihydropteroate synthase (DHPS), which function in the folate metabolic pathway. The products of this pathway, reduced folate cofactors, are essential for DNA synthesis and the metabolism of certain amino acids. Moreover, their formation and interconversions involve a number of other enzymes that have not as yet been exploited as drug targets. Antifolates are of major importance as they currently represent the only inexpensive regime for combating chloroquine-resistant malaria, and are now first-line drugs in a number of African countries. Aspects of our understanding of this pathway and antifolate drug resistance are reviewed here, with a particular emphasis on approaches to analysing the details of, and balance between, folate biosynthesis by the parasite and salvage of pre-formed folate from exogenous sources.

  2. New synchronization method for Plasmodium falciparum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mwangi Jonathan M

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plasmodium falciparum is usually asynchronous during in vitro culture. Although various synchronization methods are available, they are not able to narrow the range of ages of parasites. A newly developed method is described that allows synchronization of parasites to produce cultures with an age range as low as 30 minutes. Methods Trophozoites and schizonts are enriched using Plasmion. The enriched late stage parasites are immobilized as a monolayer onto plastic Petri dishes using concanavalin A. Uninfected erythrocytes are placed onto the monolayer for a limited time period, during which time schizonts on the monolayer rupture and the released merozoites invade the fresh erythrocytes. The overlay is then taken off into a culture flask, resulting in a highly synchronized population of parasites. Results Plasmion treatment results in a 10- to 13-fold enrichment of late stage parasites. The monolayer method results in highly synchronized cultures of parasites where invasion has occurred within a very limited time window, which can be as low as 30 minutes. The method is simple, requiring no specialized equipment and relatively cheap reagents. Conclusions The new method for parasite synchronization results in highly synchronized populations of parasites, which will be useful for studies of the parasite asexual cell cycle.

  3. Temperature alters Plasmodium blocking by Wolbachia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdock, Courtney C.; Blanford, Simon; Hughes, Grant L.; Rasgon, Jason L.; Thomas, Matthew B.

    2014-02-01

    Very recently, the Asian malaria vector (Anopheles stephensi) was stably transinfected with the wAlbB strain of Wolbachia, inducing refractoriness to the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. However, conditions in the field can differ substantially from those in the laboratory. We use the rodent malaria P. yoelii, and somatically transinfected An. stephensi as a model system to investigate whether the transmission blocking potential of wAlbB is likely to be robust across different thermal environments. wAlbB reduced malaria parasite prevalence and oocyst intensity at 28°C. At 24°C there was no effect on prevalence but a marked increase in oocyst intensity. At 20°C, wAlbB had no effect on prevalence or intensity. Additionally, we identified a novel effect of wAlbB that resulted in reduced sporozoite development across temperatures, counterbalancing the oocyst enhancement at 24°C. Our results demonstrate complex effects of temperature on the Wolbachia-malaria interaction, and suggest the impacts of transinfection might vary across diverse environments.

  4. Latent Infections with Plasmodium ovale Malaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Max J.; Marcus, David M.; Cameron, Douglas G.

    1965-01-01

    Two cases of Plasmodium ovale malaria acquired in West Africa appeared as primary delayed attacks after one year's continuous residence in Canada. Both patients took full prophylactic doses of chloroquine before, during, and for several weeks after exposure. The inadequacy of the 4-aminoquinolines for protection against latent benign tertian malaria is noted, and the use of primaquine is recommended. Paroxysms occurred in the evening and were accompanied by severe muscle pain, features considered typical of ovale malaria. One patient showed electrocardiographic changes and clinical signs of cardiac malfunction; these disappeared following specific treatment for malaria. In this age of accelerated travel and international movements of people it is important that physicians in temperate regions be aware of the exotic infections of the tropics, as well as of the need for protective measures for travellers to areas where these diseases are endemic. ImagesFig. 1aFig. 1b,1cFig. 3 a-dFig. 3 e-h PMID:14296004

  5. Plasmodium falciparum secretome in erythrocyte and beyond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rani eSoni

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Plasmodium falciparum is the causative agent of deadly malaria disease. It is an intracellular eukaryote and completes its multi-stage life cycle spanning the two hosts viz, mosquito and human. In order to habituate within host environment, parasite conform several strategies to evade host immune responses such as surface antigen polymorphism or modulation of host immune system and it is mediated by secretion of proteins from parasite to the host erythrocyte and beyond, collectively known as, malaria secretome. In this review, we will discuss about the deployment of parasitic secretory protein in mechanism implicated for immune evasion, protein trafficking, providing virulence, changing permeability and cyto-adherence of infected erythrocyte. We will be covering the possibilities of developing malaria secretome as a drug/vaccine target. This gathered information will be worthwhile in depicting a well-organized picture for host-pathogen interplay during the malaria infection and may also provide some clues for development of novel anti-malarial therapies.

  6. Malaria-like symptoms associated with a natural Plasmodium reichenowi infection in a chimpanzee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbert, Anaïs; Boundenga, Larson; Meyer, Anne; Moukodoum, Diamella Nancy; Okouga, Alain Prince; Arnathau, Céline; Durand, Patrick; Magnus, Julie; Ngoubangoye, Barthélémy; Willaume, Eric; Ba, Cheikh Tidiane; Rougeron, Virginie; Renaud, François; Ollomo, Benjamin; Prugnolle, Franck

    2015-05-28

    Although Plasmodium infections have never been clearly associated with symptoms in non-human primates, the question of the pathogenicity of Plasmodium parasites in non-human primates still remains unanswered. A young chimpanzee, followed before and after release to a sanctuary, in a semi-free ranging enclosure located in an equatorial forest, showed fever and strong anaemia associated with a high Plasmodium reichenowi infection, shortly after release. The animal recovered from anaemia after several months despite recurrent infection with other Plasmodium species. This may be the first description of malaria-like symptoms in a chimpanzee infected with Plasmodium.

  7. Optimal strategy for controlling the spread of Plasmodium Knowlesi malaria: Treatment and culling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullahi, Mohammed Baba; Hasan, Yahya Abu; Abdullah, Farah Aini

    2015-05-01

    Plasmodium Knowlesi malaria is a parasitic mosquito-borne disease caused by a eukaryotic protist of genus Plasmodium Knowlesi transmitted by mosquito, Anopheles leucosphyrus to human and macaques. We developed and analyzed a deterministic Mathematical model for the transmission of Plasmodium Knowlesi malaria in human and macaques. The optimal control theory is applied to investigate optimal strategies for controlling the spread of Plasmodium Knowlesi malaria using treatment and culling as control strategies. The conditions for optimal control of the Plasmodium Knowlesi malaria are derived using Pontryagin's Maximum Principle. Finally, numerical simulations suggested that the combination of the control strategies is the best way to control the disease in any community.

  8. Diagnosis of an imported Plasmodium ovale wallikeri infection in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liew, Jonathan Wee Kent; Mahmud, Rohela; Tan, Lian Huat; Lau, Yee Ling

    2016-01-06

    Plasmodium ovale is rare and not exactly known to be autochthonous in Malaysia. There are two distinct forms of the parasite, namely P. ovale curtisi (classic form) and P. ovale wallikeri (variant form). Here, the first sequence confirmed case of an imported P. ovale wallikeri infection in Malaysia is presented. Microscopy found Plasmodium parasites with morphology similar to P. ovale or Plasmodium vivax in the blood films. Further confirmation using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting the small-subunit rRNA gene of the parasite was unsuccessful. Genus-specific PCR was then performed and the product was sequenced and analysed. Sequence analyses confirmed the aetiological agent as P. ovale wallikeri. New species-specific primers (rOVA1v and rOVA2v) were employed and P. ovale wallikeri was finally confirmed. The findings highlight the need to look out for imported malaria infections in Malaysia and the importance of a constantly updated and validated diagnostic technique.

  9. Plasmodium knowlesi: from severe zoonosis to animal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox-Singh, Janet; Culleton, Richard

    2015-06-01

    Plasmodium knowlesi malaria is a newly described zoonosis in Southeast Asia. Similarly to Plasmodium falciparum, P. knowlesi can reach high parasitaemia in the human host and both species cause severe and fatal illness. Interpretation of host-parasite interactions in studies of P. knowlesi malaria adds a counterpoint to studies on P. falciparum. However, there is no model system for testing the resulting hypotheses on malaria pathophysiology or for developing new interventions. Plasmodium knowlesi is amenable to genetic manipulation in vitro and several nonhuman primate species are susceptible to experimental infection. Here, we make a case for drawing on P. knowlesi as both a human pathogen and an experimental model to lift the roadblock between malaria research and its translation into human health benefits.

  10. Molecular identification of the chitinase genes in Plasmodium relictum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Longoria, Luz; Hellgren, Olof; Bensch, Staffan

    2014-06-18

    Malaria parasites need to synthesize chitinase in order to go through the peritrophic membrane, which is created around the mosquito midgut, to complete its life cycle. In mammalian malaria species, the chitinase gene comprises either a large or a short copy. In the avian malaria parasites Plasmodium gallinaceum both copies are present, suggesting that a gene duplication in the ancestor to these extant species preceded the loss of either the long or the short copy in Plasmodium parasites of mammals. Plasmodium gallinaceum is not the most widespread and harmful parasite of birds. This study is the first to search for and identify the chitinase gene in one of the most prevalent avian malaria parasites, Plasmodium relictum. Both copies of P. gallinaceum chitinase were used as reference sequences for primer design. Different sequences of Plasmodium spp. were used to build the phylogenetic tree of chitinase gene. The gene encoding for chitinase was identified in isolates of two mitochondrial lineages of P. relictum (SGS1 and GRW4). The chitinase found in these two lineages consists both of the long (PrCHT1) and the short (PrCHT2) copy. The genetic differences found in the long copy of the chitinase gene between SGS1 and GRW4 were higher than the difference observed for the cytochrome b gene. The identification of both copies in P. relictum sheds light on the phylogenetic relationship of the chitinase gene in the genus Plasmodium. Due to its high variability, the chitinase gene could be used to study the genetic population structure in isolates from different host species and geographic regions.

  11. [From malaria parasite point of view--Plasmodium falciparum evolution].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerka, Agata; Kaczmarek, Radosław; Jaśkiewicz, Ewa

    2015-12-31

    Malaria is caused by infection with protozoan parasites belonging to the genus Plasmodium, which have arguably exerted the greatest selection pressure on humans in the history of our species. Besides humans, different Plasmodium parasites infect a wide range of animal hosts, from marine invertebrates to primates. On the other hand, individual Plasmodium species show high host specificity. The extraordinary evolution of Plasmodium probably began when a free-living red algae turned parasitic, and culminated with its ability to thrive inside a human red blood cell. Studies on the African apes generated new data on the evolution of malaria parasites in general and the deadliest human-specific species, Plasmodium falciparum, in particular. Initially, it was hypothesized that P. falciparum descended from the chimpanzee malaria parasite P. reichenowi, after the human and the chimp lineage diverged about 6 million years ago. However, a recently identified new species infecting gorillas, unexpectedly showed similarity to P. falciparum and was therefore named P. praefalciparum. That finding spurred an alternative hypothesis, which proposes that P. falciparum descended from its gorilla rather than chimp counterpart. In addition, the gorilla-to-human host shift may have occurred more recently (about 10 thousand years ago) than the theoretical P. falciparum-P. reichenowi split. One of the key aims of the studies on Plasmodium evolution is to elucidate the mechanisms that allow the incessant host shifting and retaining the host specificity, especially in the case of human-specific species. Thorough understanding of these phenomena will be necessary to design effective malaria treatment and prevention strategies.

  12. The SLC4A1 gene is under differential selective pressure in primates infected by Plasmodium falciparum and related parasites

    OpenAIRE

    Steiper, Michael E.; Walsh, Fiona; Zichello, Julia M.

    2012-01-01

    Malaria is a disease caused by Plasmodium parasites and is responsible for high mortality in humans. This disease is caused by four different species of Plasmodium though the main source of mortality is Plasmodium falciparum. Humans have a number of genetic adaptations that act to combat Plasmodium. One adaptation is a deletion in the SLC4A1 gene that leads to Southeast Asian ovalocytosis (SAO). There is evidence that SAO erythrocytes are resistant to multiple Plasmodium species. Here we anal...

  13. [Erythrocytes infected by Plasmodium falciparum activate human platelets].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polack, B; Peyron, F; Sheick Zadiuddin, I; Kolodié, L; Ambroise-Thomas, P

    1990-01-01

    Blood platelets are involved in Plasmodium falciparum malaria pathology as shown by thrombocytopenia and increased plasma level of two alpha granule proteins: beta thromboglobulin (beta TG) and platelet factor 4 (PF4). In this study we demonstrate that Plasmodium falciparum parasitized erythrocytes activate directly the secretion of beta TG and PF4 by human platelets. This secretion is related to parasitemia and occurs immediately after contact. Treatment of parasited erythrocytes by trypsin and diffusion chamber experiments suggest that platelet activation is triggered by parasitic substances shed on erythrocyte membrane and released in the culture medium.

  14. Analysis of expressed sequence tags from Plasmodium falciparum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrabarti, D; Reddy, G R; Dame, J B; Almira, E C; Laipis, P J; Ferl, R J; Yang, T P; Rowe, T C; Schuster, S M

    1994-07-01

    An initiative was undertaken to sequence all genes of the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum in an effort to gain a better understanding at the molecular level of the parasite that inflicts much suffering in the developing world. 550 random complimentary DNA clones were partially sequenced from the intraerythrocytic form of the parasite as one of the approaches to analyze the transcribed sequences of its genome. The sequences, after editing, generated 389 expressed sequence tag sites and over 105 kb of DNA sequences. About 32% of these clones showed significant homology with other genes in the database. These clones represent 340 new Plasmodium falciparum expressed sequence tags.

  15. Backward bifurcation and optimal control of Plasmodium Knowlesi malaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullahi, Mohammed Baba; Hasan, Yahya Abu; Abdullah, Farah Aini

    2014-07-01

    A deterministic model for the transmission dynamics of Plasmodium Knowlesi malaria with direct transmission is developed. The model is analyzed using dynamical system techniques and it shows that the backward bifurcation occurs for some range of parameters. The model is extended to assess the impact of time dependent preventive (biological and chemical control) against the mosquitoes and vaccination for susceptible humans, while treatment for infected humans. The existence of optimal control is established analytically by the use of optimal control theory. Numerical simulations of the problem, suggest that applying the four control measure can effectively reduce if not eliminate the spread of Plasmodium Knowlesi in a community.

  16. Artemisinin-Resistant Plasmodium falciparum Malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairhurst, Rick M; Dondorp, Arjen M

    2016-06-01

    For more than five decades, Southeast Asia (SEA) has been fertile ground for the emergence of drug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum malaria. After generating parasites resistant to chloroquine, sulfadoxine, pyrimethamine, quinine, and mefloquine, this region has now spawned parasites resistant to artemisinins, the world's most potent antimalarial drugs. In areas where artemisinin resistance is prevalent, artemisinin combination therapies (ACTs)-the first-line treatments for malaria-are failing fast. This worrisome development threatens to make malaria practically untreatable in SEA, and threatens to compromise global endeavors to eliminate this disease. A recent series of clinical, in vitro, genomics, and transcriptomics studies in SEA have defined in vivo and in vitro phenotypes of artemisinin resistance, identified its causal genetic determinant, explored its molecular mechanism, and assessed its clinical impact. Specifically, these studies have established that artemisinin resistance manifests as slow parasite clearance in patients and increased survival of early-ring-stage parasites in vitro; is caused by single nucleotide polymorphisms in the parasite's K13 gene, is associated with an upregulated "unfolded protein response" pathway that may antagonize the pro-oxidant activity of artemisinins, and selects for partner drug resistance that rapidly leads to ACT failures. In SEA, clinical studies are urgently needed to monitor ACT efficacy where K13 mutations are prevalent, test whether new combinations of currently available drugs cure ACT failures, and advance new antimalarial compounds through preclinical pipelines and into clinical trials. Intensifying these efforts should help to forestall the spread of artemisinin and partner drug resistance from SEA to sub-Saharan Africa, where the world's malaria transmission, morbidity, and mortality rates are highest.

  17. Combating multidrug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thu, Aung Myint; Phyo, Aung Pyae; Landier, Jordi; Parker, Daniel M; Nosten, François H

    2017-08-01

    Over the past 50 years, Plasmodium falciparum has developed resistance against all antimalarial drugs used against it: chloroquine, sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine, quinine, piperaquine and mefloquine. More recently, resistance to the artemisinin derivatives and the resulting failure of artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) are threatening all major gains made in malaria control. Each time resistance has developed progressively, with delayed clearance of parasites first emerging only in a few regions, increasing in prevalence and geographic range, and then ultimately resulting in the complete failure of that antimalarial. Drawing from this repeated historical chain of events, this article presents context-specific approaches for combating drug-resistant P. falciparum malaria. The approaches begin with a context of drug-sensitive parasites and focus on the prevention of the emergence of drug resistance. Next, the approaches address a scenario in which resistance has emerged and is increasing in prevalence and geographic extent, with interventions focused on disrupting transmission through vector control, early diagnosis and treatment, and the use of new combination therapies. Elimination is also presented as an approach for addressing the imminent failure of all available antimalarials. The final drug resistance context presented is one in which all available antimalarials have failed; leaving only personal protection and the use of new antimalarials (or new combinations of antimalarials) as a viable strategy for dealing with complete resistance. All effective strategies and contexts require a multipronged, holistic approach. © 2017 The Authors. The FEBS Journal published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  18. The dynamics of natural Plasmodium falciparum infections.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Felger

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Natural immunity to Plasmodium falciparum has been widely studied, but its effects on parasite dynamics are poorly understood. Acquisition and clearance rates of untreated infections are key elements of the dynamics of malaria, but estimating these parameters is challenging because of frequent super-infection and imperfect detectability of parasites. Consequently, information on effects of host immune status or age on infection dynamics is fragmentary. METHODS: An age-stratified cohort of 347 individuals from Northern Ghana was sampled six times at 2 month intervals. High-throughput capillary electrophoresis was used to genotype the msp-2 locus of all P. falciparum infections detected by PCR. Force of infection (FOI and duration were estimated for each age group using an immigration-death model that allows for imperfect detection of circulating parasites. RESULTS: Allowing for imperfect detection substantially increased estimates of FOI and duration. Effects of naturally acquired immunity on the FOI and duration would be reflected in age dependence in these indices, but in our cohort data FOI tended to increase with age in children. Persistence of individual parasite clones was characteristic of all age-groups. Duration peaked in 5-9 year old children (average duration 319 days, 95% confidence interval 318;320. CONCLUSIONS: The main age-dependence is on parasite densities, with only small age-variations in the FOI and persistence of infections. This supports the hypothesis that acquired immunity controls transmission mainly by limiting blood-stage parasite densities rather than changing rates of acquisition or clearance of infections.

  19. Unique properties of Plasmodium falciparum porphobilinogen deaminase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaraj, Viswanathan Arun; Arumugam, Rajavel; Gopalakrishnan, Bulusu; Jyothsna, Yeleswarapu Sri; Rangarajan, Pundi N; Padmanaban, Govindarajan

    2008-01-04

    The hybrid pathway for heme biosynthesis in the malarial parasite proposes the involvement of parasite genome-coded enzymes of the pathway localized in different compartments such as apicoplast, mitochondria, and cytosol. However, knowledge on the functionality and localization of many of these enzymes is not available. In this study, we demonstrate that porphobilinogen deaminase encoded by the Plasmodium falciparum genome (PfPBGD) has several unique biochemical properties. Studies carried out with PfPBGD partially purified from parasite membrane fraction, as well as recombinant PfPBGD lacking N-terminal 64 amino acids expressed and purified from Escherichia coli cells (DeltaPfPBGD), indicate that both the proteins are catalytically active. Surprisingly, PfPBGD catalyzes the conversion of porphobilinogen to uroporphyrinogen III (UROGEN III), indicating that it also possesses uroporphyrinogen III synthase (UROS) activity, catalyzing the next step. This obviates the necessity to have a separate gene for UROS that has not been so far annotated in the parasite genome. Interestingly, DeltaPfP-BGD gives rise to UROGEN III even after heat treatment, although UROS from other sources is known to be heat-sensitive. Based on the analysis of active site residues, a DeltaPfPBGDL116K mutant enzyme was created and the specific activity of this recombinant mutant enzyme is 5-fold higher than DeltaPfPBGD. More interestingly, DeltaPfPBGDL116K catalyzes the formation of uroporphyrinogen I (UROGEN I) in addition to UROGEN III, indicating that with increased PBGD activity the UROS activity of PBGD may perhaps become rate-limiting, thus leading to non-enzymatic cyclization of preuroporphyrinogen to UROGEN I. PfPBGD is localized to the apicoplast and is catalytically very inefficient compared with the host red cell enzyme.

  20. A nuclear targeting system in Plasmodium falciparum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kochakarn Theerarat

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The distinct differences in gene control mechanisms acting in the nucleus between Plasmodium falciparum and the human host could lead to new potential drug targets for anti-malarial development. New molecular toolkits are required for dissecting molecular machineries in the P. falciparum nucleus. One valuable tool commonly used in model organisms is protein targeting to specific sub-cellular locations. Targeting proteins to specified locations allows labeling of organelles for microscopy, or testing of how the protein of interest modulates organelle function. In recent years, this approach has been developed for various malaria organelles, such as the mitochondrion and the apicoplast. A tool for targeting a protein of choice to the P. falciparum nucleus using an exogenous nuclear localization sequence is reported here. Methods To develop a nuclear targeting system, a putative nuclear localization sequence was fused with green fluorescent protein (GFP. The nuclear localization sequence from the yeast transcription factor Gal4 was chosen because of its well-defined nuclear localization signal. A series of truncated Gal4 constructs was also created to narrow down the nuclear localization sequence necessary for P. falciparum nuclear import. Transfected parasites were analysed by fluorescent and laser-scanning confocal microscopy. Results The nuclear localization sequence of Gal4 is functional in P. falciparum. It effectively transported GFP into the nucleus, and the first 74 amino acid residues were sufficient for nuclear localization. Conclusions The Gal4 fusion technique enables specific transport of a protein of choice into the P. falciparum nucleus, and thus provides a tool for labeling nuclei without using DNA-staining dyes. The finding also indicates similarities between the nuclear transport mechanisms of yeast and P. falciparum. Since the nuclear transport system has been thoroughly studied in yeast, this could give clues

  1. Distribution of two species of malaria, Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax, on Lombok Island, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagao, Yoshiro; Dachlan, Yoes Prijatna; Soedarto; Hidajati, Sri; Yotopranoto, Subagyo; Kusmartisnawati; Subekti, Sri; Ideham, Bariah; Tsuda, Yoshio; Kawabata, Masato; Takagi, Masahiro; Looareesuwan, Somchai

    2003-09-01

    Medical and entomological surveys were conducted to determine the risk factors of Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax infections on Lombok Island, Indonesia, to find the risk factors and the main mosquito vectors for each malaria. Multivariate longitudinal analysis demonstrated two significant risk factors for infection with P. falciparum: disappearance of P. vivax parasitemia (p<0.001) and a specific study site (p<0.001). In contrast, younger age (p=0.024) and the interpolated virtual density of An. subpictus (p=0.041) were significantly associated with increased risk of infection with P. vivax. Thus, it seems that the distribution of P. vivax was determined largely by the presence of An. subpictus, whilst that of P. falciparum was influenced by antagonism with P. vivax. This result shows the importance of following-up treated P. vivax patients to identify recrudescence of P. falciparum in this area.

  2. Modelling the incidence of Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Afghanistan 2006-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alegana, Victor A; Wright, Jim A; Nahzat, Sami M; Butt, Waqar; Sediqi, Amad W; Habib, Naeem; Snow, Robert W; Atkinson, Peter M; Noor, Abdisalan M

    2014-01-01

    Identifying areas that support high malaria risks and where populations lack access to health care is central to reducing the burden in Afghanistan. This study investigated the incidence of Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum using routine data to help focus malaria interventions. To estimate incidence, the study modelled utilisation of the public health sector using fever treatment data from the 2012 national Malaria Indicator Survey. A probabilistic measure of attendance was applied to population density metrics to define the proportion of the population within catchment of a public health facility. Malaria data were used in a Bayesian spatio-temporal conditional-autoregressive model with ecological or environmental covariates, to examine the spatial and temporal variation of incidence. From the analysis of healthcare utilisation, over 80% of the population was within 2 hours' travel of the nearest public health facility, while 64.4% were within 30 minutes' travel. The mean incidence of P. vivax in 2009 was 5.4 (95% Crl 3.2-9.2) cases per 1000 population compared to 1.2 (95% Crl 0.4-2.9) cases per 1000 population for P. falciparum. P. vivax peaked in August while P. falciparum peaked in November. 32% of the estimated 30.5 million people lived in regions where annual incidence was at least 1 case per 1,000 population of P. vivax; 23.7% of the population lived in areas where annual P. falciparum case incidence was at least 1 per 1000. This study showed how routine data can be combined with household survey data to model malaria incidence. The incidence of both P. vivax and P. falciparum in Afghanistan remain low but the co-distribution of both parasites and the lag in their peak season provides challenges to malaria control in Afghanistan. Future improved case definition to determine levels of imported risks may be useful for the elimination ambitions in Afghanistan.

  3. Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax specific lactate dehydrogenase: genetic polymorphism study from Indian isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keluskar, Priyadarshan; Singh, Vineeta; Gupta, Purva; Ingle, Sanjay

    2014-08-01

    Control and eradication of malaria is hindered by the acquisition of drug resistance by Plasmodium species. This has necessitated a persistent search for novel drugs and more efficient targets. Plasmodium species specific lactate dehydrogenase is one of the potential therapeutic and diagnostic targets, because of its indispensable role in endoerythrocytic stage of the parasite. A target molecule that is highly conserved in the parasite population can be more effectively used in diagnostics and therapeutics, hence, in the present study polymorphism in PfLDH (Plasmodiumfalciparum specific LDH) and PvLDH (Plasmodiumvivax specific LDH) genes was analyzed using PCR-single strand confirmation polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) and sequencing. Forty-six P. falciparum and thirty-five P. vivax samples were screened from different states of India. Our findings have revealed presence of a single PfLDH genotype and six PvLDH genotypes among the studied samples. Interestingly, along with synonymous substitutions, nonsynonymous substitutions were reported to be present for the first time in the PvLDH genotypes. Further, through amino acid sequence alignment and homology modeling studies we observed that the catalytic residues were conserved in all PvLDH genotypes and the nonsynonymous substitutions have not altered the enzyme structure significantly. Evolutionary genetics studies have confirmed that PfLDH and PvLDH loci are under strong purifying selection. Phylogenetic analysis of the pLDH gene sequences revealed that P. falciparum compared to P. vivax, has recent origin. The study therefore supports PfLDH and PvLDH as suitable therapeutic and diagnostic targets as well as phylogenetic markers to understand the genealogy of malaria species.

  4. Biguanide-Atovaquone Synergy against Plasmodium falciparum In Vitro

    OpenAIRE

    2002-01-01

    The synergistic potential of a range of biguanides, their triazine metabolites, tetracyclines, and pyrimethamine in combination with atovaquone has been assessed. All five biguanides tested interacted synergistically with atovaquone against Plasmodium falciparum in vitro. All of the other compounds tested were either additive or antagonistic.

  5. Antibodies to a recombinant glutamate-rich Plasmodium falciparum protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hogh, B; Petersen, E; Dziegiel, Morten Hanefeld

    1992-01-01

    A Plasmodium falciparum antigen gene coding for a 220-kD glutamate-rich protein (GLURP) has been cloned, and the 783 C-terminal amino acids of this protein (GLURP489-1271) have been expressed as a beta-galactosidase fusion protein in Escherichia coli. The encoded 783 amino acid residues contain two...

  6. Positive blood culture with Plasmodium falciparum : Case report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Vries, Jutte J. C.; Van Assen, Sander; Mulder, André B.; Kampinga, Greetje A.

    2007-01-01

    An adult traveler presented with fever and malaise after returning from Sierra Leone. Young trophozoites of Plasmodium falciparum were seen in a blood smear, with parasitemia being 10%. Moreover, blood cultures drawn on admission signaled as "positive" after 1 day of incubation, but no bacteria were

  7. Genotyping Plasmodium vivax isolates from the 2011 outbreak in Greece

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spanakos, Gregory; Alifrangis, Michael; Schousboe, Mette L

    2013-01-01

    Plasmodium vivax malaria was common in Greece until the 1950s with epidemics involving thousands of cases every year. Greece was declared free of malaria by the World Health Organization in 1974. From 1974 to 2010, an average of 39 cases per year were reported, which were mainly imported. However...

  8. The isoprenoid-precursor dependence of Plasmodium spp

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Meer, Jan-Ytzen; Hirsch, Anna K. H.

    2012-01-01

    Due to the increase in resistance of Plasmodium spp. against available antimalarials, there is a need for new, effective and innovative drugs. The non-mevalonate pathway for the biosynthesis of the universal isoprenoid precursors, which is absent in humans, is suggested as an attractive source of

  9. Structural Differences Explain Diverse Functions of Plasmodium Actins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahokoski, Juha; Martinez, Silvia Muñico; Ignatev, Alexander; Lepper, Simone; Frischknecht, Friedrich; Sidén-Kiamos, Inga; Sachse, Carsten; Kursula, Inari

    2014-01-01

    Actins are highly conserved proteins and key players in central processes in all eukaryotic cells. The two actins of the malaria parasite are among the most divergent eukaryotic actins and also differ from each other more than isoforms in any other species. Microfilaments have not been directly observed in Plasmodium and are presumed to be short and highly dynamic. We show that actin I cannot complement actin II in male gametogenesis, suggesting critical structural differences. Cryo-EM reveals that Plasmodium actin I has a unique filament structure, whereas actin II filaments resemble canonical F-actin. Both Plasmodium actins hydrolyze ATP more efficiently than α-actin, and unlike any other actin, both parasite actins rapidly form short oligomers induced by ADP. Crystal structures of both isoforms pinpoint several structural changes in the monomers causing the unique polymerization properties. Inserting the canonical D-loop to Plasmodium actin I leads to the formation of long filaments in vitro. In vivo, this chimera restores gametogenesis in parasites lacking actin II, suggesting that stable filaments are required for exflagellation. Together, these data underline the divergence of eukaryotic actins and demonstrate how structural differences in the monomers translate into filaments with different properties, implying that even eukaryotic actins have faced different evolutionary pressures and followed different paths for developing their polymerization properties. PMID:24743229

  10. Plasmodium cellular effector mechanisms and the hepatic microenvironment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frevert, Ute; Krzych, Urszula

    2015-01-01

    Plasmodium falciparum malaria remains one of the most serious health problems globally. Immunization with attenuated parasites elicits multiple cellular effector mechanisms capable of eliminating Plasmodium liver stages. However, malaria liver stage (LS) immunity is complex and the mechanisms effector T cells use to locate the few infected hepatocytes in the large liver in order to kill the intracellular LS parasites remain a mystery to date. Here, we review our current knowledge on the behavior of CD8 effector T cells in the hepatic microvasculature, in malaria and other hepatic infections. Taking into account the unique immunological and lymphogenic properties of the liver, we discuss whether classical granule-mediated cytotoxicity might eliminate infected hepatocytes via direct cell contact or whether cytokines might operate without cell–cell contact and kill Plasmodium LSs at a distance. A thorough understanding of the cellular effector mechanisms that lead to parasite death hence sterile protection is a prerequisite for the development of a successful malaria vaccine to protect the 40% of the world’s population currently at risk of Plasmodium infection. PMID:26074888

  11. Phospholipid organization in monkey erythrocytes upon Plasmodium knowlesi infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaft, P.H. van der; Beaumelle, B.; Vial, H.; Roelofsen, B.; Kamp, J.A.F. op den; Deenen, L.L.M. van

    1987-01-01

    The phospholipid organization in monkey erythrocytes upon Plasmodium knowlesi infection has been studied. Parasitized and nonparasitized erythrocytes from malaria-infected blood were separated and pure erythrocyte membranes from parasitized cells were isolated using Affi-Gel beads. In this way, the

  12. Plasmodium falciparum transcriptome analysis reveals pregnancy malaria associated gene expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tuikue Ndam, Nicaise; Bischoff, Emmanuel; Proux, Caroline

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pregnancy-associated malaria (PAM) causing maternal anemia and low birth weight is among the multiple manifestations of Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Infected erythrocytes (iEs) can acquire various adhesive properties that mediate the clinical severity of malaria. Recent advances...

  13. Artemether-lumefantrine treatment of uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Poul-Erik

    2015-01-01

    -lumefantrine for uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria, to define therapeutic day 7 lumefantrine concentrations and identify patient factors that substantially alter these concentrations. A systematic review of PubMed, Embase, Google Scholar, ClinicalTrials.gov and conference proceedings identified all relevant studies...

  14. Acute kidney injury in imported Plasmodium falciparum malaria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.C. Koopmans (Liese); M.E. van Wolfswinkel (Marlies); D.A. Hesselink (Dennis); E.J. Hoorn (Ewout); R. Koelewijn (Rob); J.J. van Hellemond (Jaap); P.J.J. van Genderen (Perry)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a known complication of malaria, and is reported to occur in up to 40 % of adult patients with a severe Plasmodium falciparum infection in endemic regions. To gain insight in the incidence and risk factors of AKI in imported P. falciparum malaria,

  15. Exploring Anopheles gut bacteria for Plasmodium blocking activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahia, Ana C; Dong, Yuemei; Blumberg, Benjamin J; Mlambo, Godfree; Tripathi, Abhai; BenMarzouk-Hidalgo, Omar J; Chandra, Ramesh; Dimopoulos, George

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Malaria parasite transmission requires the successful development of Plasmodium gametocytes into flagellated microgametes upon mosquito blood ingestion, and the subsequent fertilization of microgametes and macrogametes for the development of motile zygotes, called ookinetes, which invade and transverse the Anopheles vector mosquito midgut at around 18-36 h after blood ingestion. Within the mosquito midgut, the malaria parasite has to withstand the mosquito's innate immune response and the detrimental effect of its commensal bacterial flora. We have assessed the midgut colonization capacity of 5 gut bacterial isolates from field-derived, and 2 from laboratory colony, mosquitoes and their effect on Plasmodium development in vivo and in vitro, along with their impact on mosquito survival. Some bacterial isolates activated the mosquito's immune system, affected the mosquito's life span, and were capable of blocking Plasmodium development. We have also shown that the ability of these bacteria to inhibit the parasites is likely to involve different mechanisms and factors. A Serratia marcescens isolate was particularly efficient in colonizing the mosquitoes’ gut, compromising mosquito survival, and inhibiting both sexual- and asexual-stage Plasmodium through secreted factors, thereby rendering it a potential candidate for the development of a malaria transmission intervention strategy. PMID:24428613

  16. Molecular make-up of the Plasmodium parasitophorous vacuolar membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spielmann, Tobias; Montagna, Georgina N; Hecht, Leonie; Matuschewski, Kai

    2012-10-01

    Plasmodium, the causative agent of malaria, is an obligate, intracellular, eukaryotic cell that invades, replicates, and differentiates within hepatocytes and erythrocytes. Inside a host cell, a second membrane delineates the developing pathogen in addition to the parasite plasma membrane, resulting in a distinct cellular compartment, termed parasitophorous vacuole (PV). The PV membrane (PVM) constitutes the parasite-host cell interface and is likely central to nutrient acquisition, host cell remodeling, waste disposal, environmental sensing, and protection from innate defense. Over the past two decades, a number of parasite-encoded PVM proteins have been identified. They include multigene families and protein complexes, such as early-transcribed membrane proteins (ETRAMPs) and the Plasmodium translocon for exported proteins (PTEX). Nearly all Plasmodium PVM proteins are restricted to this genus and display transient and stage-specific expression. Here, we provide an overview of the PVM proteins of Plasmodium blood and liver stages. Biochemical and experimental genetics data suggest that some PVM proteins are ideal targets for novel anti-malarial intervention strategies.

  17. Plasmodium falciparum infection causes proinflammatory priming of human TLR responses.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McCall, M.B.B.; Netea, M.G.; Hermsen, C.C.; Jansen, T.; Jacobs, L.; Golenbock, D.; Ven, A.J.A.M. van der; Sauerwein, R.W.

    2007-01-01

    TLRs are a major group of pattern recognition receptors that are crucial in initiating innate immune responses and are capable of recognizing Plasmodium ligands. We have investigated TLR responses during acute experimental P. falciparum (P.f.) infection in 15 malaria-naive volunteers. TLR-4 response

  18. Scavenger receptor BI boosts hepatocyte permissiveness to Plasmodium infection.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yalaoui, S.; Huby, T.; Franetich, J.F.; Gego, A.; Rametti, A.; Moreau, M.; Collet, X.; Siau, A.; Gemert, G.J.A. van; Sauerwein, R.W.; Luty, A.J.F.; Vaillant, J.C.; Hannoun, L.; Chapman, J.; Mazier, D.; Froissard, P.

    2008-01-01

    Infection of hepatocytes by Plasmodium falciparum sporozoites requires the host tetraspanin CD81. CD81 is also predicted to be a coreceptor, along with scavenger receptor BI (SR-BI), for hepatitis C virus. Using SR-BI-knockout, SR-BI-hypomorphic and SR-BI-transgenic primary hepatocytes, as well as s

  19. Positive blood culture with Plasmodium falciparum: Case report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Vries, Jutte J. C.; Van Assen, Sander; Mulder, André B.; Kampinga, Greetje A.

    2007-01-01

    An adult traveler presented with fever and malaise after returning from Sierra Leone. Young trophozoites of Plasmodium falciparum were seen in a blood smear, with parasitemia being 10%. Moreover, blood cultures drawn on admission signaled as "positive" after 1 day of incubation, but no bacteria were

  20. Positive blood culture with Plasmodium falciparum : Case report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Vries, Jutte J. C.; Van Assen, Sander; Mulder, André B.; Kampinga, Greetje A.

    2007-01-01

    An adult traveler presented with fever and malaise after returning from Sierra Leone. Young trophozoites of Plasmodium falciparum were seen in a blood smear, with parasitemia being 10%. Moreover, blood cultures drawn on admission signaled as "positive" after 1 day of incubation, but no bacteria were

  1. The prognostic value of schizontaemia in imported Plasmodium falciparum malaria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.E. van Wolfswinkel (Marlies); M. De Mendonça Melo (Mariana); K. Vliegenthart-Jongbloed (Klaske); R. Koelewijn (Rob); J.J. van Hellemond (Jaap); P.J.J. van Genderen (Perry)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractBackground: In Plasmodium falciparum infection, peripheral parasite counts do not always correlate well with the sequestered parasite burden. As erythrocytes parasitized with mature trophozoites and schizonts have a high tendency to adhere to the microvascular endothelium, they are often

  2. The prognostic value of schizontaemia in imported Plasmodium falciparum malaria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.E. van Wolfswinkel (Marlies); M. De Mendonça Melo (Mariana); K. Vliegenthart-Jongbloed (Klaske); R. Koelewijn (Rob); J.J. van Hellemond (Jaap); P.J.J. van Genderen (Perry)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractBackground: In Plasmodium falciparum infection, peripheral parasite counts do not always correlate well with the sequestered parasite burden. As erythrocytes parasitized with mature trophozoites and schizonts have a high tendency to adhere to the microvascular endothelium, they are often

  3. Acute kidney injury in imported Plasmodium falciparum malaria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.C. Koopmans, L.C. (Liese); M.E. van Wolfswinkel (Marlies); D.A. Hesselink (Dennis); E.J. Hoorn (Ewout); R. Koelewijn (Rob); J.J. van Hellemond (Jaap); P.J. van Genderen (P.)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a known complication of malaria, and is reported to occur in up to 40 % of adult patients with a severe Plasmodium falciparum infection in endemic regions. To gain insight in the incidence and risk factors of AKI in imported P. falciparum malaria,

  4. The epidemiology of Plasmodium falciparum gametocytes: weapons of mass dispersion.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drakeley, C.; Sutherland, C.; Bousema, J.T.; Sauerwein, R.W.; Targett, G.A.T.

    2006-01-01

    Much of the epidemiology of Plasmodium falciparum in Sub-Saharan Africa focuses on the prevalence patterns of asexual parasites in people of different ages, whereas the gametocytes that propagate the disease are often neglected. One expected benefit of the widespread introduction of artemisinin-base

  5. Genomics and epigenetics of sexual commitment in Plasmodium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechtsi, D P; Waters, A P

    2017-06-01

    Malaria is the disease caused by the apicomplexan parasites belonging to the genus Plasmodium. Expanding our arsenal to include transmission-blocking agents in our fight against malaria is becoming increasingly important. Such an implementation requires detailed understanding of the biology of the Plasmodium life cycle stages that are transmissible. Plasmodium gametocytes are the only parasite stage that can be transmitted to the mosquito vector and are the product of sexual development in a small percentage of parasites that continually proliferate in host blood. The critical decision made by asexual erythrocytic stages to cease further proliferation and differentiate into gametocytes, as well as the first steps they take into maturity, have long remained unknown. Recent studies have contributed to a breakthrough in our understanding of this branch point in development. In this review, we will discuss the findings that have allowed us to make this major leap forward in our knowledge of sexual commitment in Plasmodium. We will further propose a model for the mechanism triggering the switch to sexual development, constructed around the proteins currently known to regulate this process. Further insight into sexual commitment and gametocyte development will help identify targets for the development of transmission-blocking malaria therapies. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  6. The isoprenoid-precursor dependence of Plasmodium spp

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Meer, Jan-Ytzen; Hirsch, Anna K. H.

    2012-01-01

    Due to the increase in resistance of Plasmodium spp. against available antimalarials, there is a need for new, effective and innovative drugs. The non-mevalonate pathway for the biosynthesis of the universal isoprenoid precursors, which is absent in humans, is suggested as an attractive source of ta

  7. Plasmodium knowlesi in humans, macaques and mosquitoes in peninsular Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NorParina Ismail

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since a large focus of human infection with Plasmodium knowlesi, a simian malaria parasite naturally found in long-tailed and pig tailed macaques, was reported in Sarawak, Malaysian Borneo, it was pertinent to study the situation in peninsular Malaysia. A study was thus initiated to screen human cases of Plasmodium malariae using molecular techniques, to determine the presence of P. knowlesi in non- human primates and to elucidate its vectors. Methods Nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR was used to identify all Plasmodium species present in the human blood samples sent to the Parasitology laboratory of Institute for Medical Research. At the same time, non-human primates were also screened for malaria parasites and nested PCR was carried out to determine the presence of P. knowlesi. Mosquitoes were collected from Pahang by human landing collection and monkey-baited-traps situated on three different levels. All mosquitoes were identified and salivary glands and midguts of anopheline mosquitoes were dissected to determine the presence of malaria parasites and nested PCR was carried out on positive glands. Sequencing of the csp genes were carried on P. knowlesi samples from humans, monkeys and mosquitoes, positive by PCR. Results and Discussion Plasmodium knowlesi was detected in 77 (69.37% of the 111 human samples, 10 (6.90% of the 145 monkey blood and in 2 (1.7% Anopheles cracens. Sequence of the csp gene clustered with other P. knowlesi isolates. Conclusion Human infection with Plasmodium knowlesi is occurring in most states of peninsular Malaysia. An. cracens is the main vector. Economic exploitation of the forest is perhaps bringing monkeys, mosquitoes and humans into increased contact. A single bite from a mosquito infected with P. knowlesi is sufficient to introduce the parasite to humans. Thus, this zoonotic transmission has to be considered in the future planning of malaria control.

  8. Small molecule screen for candidate antimalarials targeting Plasmodium Kinesin-5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Liqiong; Richard, Jessica; Kim, Sunyoung; Wojcik, Edward J

    2014-06-06

    Plasmodium falciparum and vivax are responsible for the majority of malaria infections worldwide, resulting in over a million deaths annually. Malaria parasites now show measured resistance to all currently utilized drugs. Novel antimalarial drugs are urgently needed. The Plasmodium Kinesin-5 mechanoenzyme is a suitable "next generation" target. Discovered via small molecule screen experiments, the human Kinesin-5 has multiple allosteric sites that are "druggable." One site in particular, unique in its sequence divergence across all homologs in the superfamily and even within the same family, exhibits exquisite drug specificity. We propose that Plasmodium Kinesin-5 shares this allosteric site and likewise can be targeted to uncover inhibitors with high specificity. To test this idea, we performed a screen for inhibitors selective for Plasmodium Kinesin-5 ATPase activity in parallel with human Kinesin-5. Our screen of nearly 2000 compounds successfully identified compounds that selectively inhibit both P. vivax and falciparum Kinesin-5 motor domains but, as anticipated, do not impact human Kinesin-5 activity. Of note is a candidate drug that did not biochemically compete with the ATP substrate for the conserved active site or disrupt the microtubule-binding site. Together, our experiments identified MMV666693 as a selective allosteric inhibitor of Plasmodium Kinesin-5; this is the first identified protein target for the Medicines of Malaria Venture validated collection of parasite proliferation inhibitors. This work demonstrates that chemical screens against human kinesins are adaptable to homologs in disease organisms and, as such, extendable to strategies to combat infectious disease. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  9. Small Molecule Screen for Candidate Antimalarials Targeting Plasmodium Kinesin-5*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Liqiong; Richard, Jessica; Kim, Sunyoung; Wojcik, Edward J.

    2014-01-01

    Plasmodium falciparum and vivax are responsible for the majority of malaria infections worldwide, resulting in over a million deaths annually. Malaria parasites now show measured resistance to all currently utilized drugs. Novel antimalarial drugs are urgently needed. The Plasmodium Kinesin-5 mechanoenzyme is a suitable “next generation” target. Discovered via small molecule screen experiments, the human Kinesin-5 has multiple allosteric sites that are “druggable.” One site in particular, unique in its sequence divergence across all homologs in the superfamily and even within the same family, exhibits exquisite drug specificity. We propose that Plasmodium Kinesin-5 shares this allosteric site and likewise can be targeted to uncover inhibitors with high specificity. To test this idea, we performed a screen for inhibitors selective for Plasmodium Kinesin-5 ATPase activity in parallel with human Kinesin-5. Our screen of nearly 2000 compounds successfully identified compounds that selectively inhibit both P. vivax and falciparum Kinesin-5 motor domains but, as anticipated, do not impact human Kinesin-5 activity. Of note is a candidate drug that did not biochemically compete with the ATP substrate for the conserved active site or disrupt the microtubule-binding site. Together, our experiments identified MMV666693 as a selective allosteric inhibitor of Plasmodium Kinesin-5; this is the first identified protein target for the Medicines of Malaria Venture validated collection of parasite proliferation inhibitors. This work demonstrates that chemical screens against human kinesins are adaptable to homologs in disease organisms and, as such, extendable to strategies to combat infectious disease. PMID:24737313

  10. Changing trends in prevalence of different Plasmodium species with dominance of Plasmodium falciparum malaria infection in Aligarh (India).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Haris M; Shujatullah, Fatima; Ashfaq, Mohammad; Raza, Adil

    2011-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of malaria in Aligarh and analyze species dominance in different years over a decade. Diagnosis of malaria was done using microscopy as gold standard, rapid antigen detection assays and quantitative buffy coat (QBC) assays. Giemsa stained blood smear examination was done, thick and thin films were examined for presence of different Plasmodium spp. Rapid antigen detection assays employing detection of HRP-2 and parasite lactate dehydrogenase antigen (pLDH) by immunochromatography was done in patients whose blood smear found to be negative by conventional Giemsa slide examination. QBC was done in cases where there is strong clinical suspicion of malaria with blood smear negative, in patients with chronic malaria, splenomegaly, or in those patients who had inadequate treatment and for post-treatment follow up. Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum were only species detected in our hospital. Overall prevalence of malaria in Aligarh was found to be 8.8%. The maximum prevalence of 20.1% was observed in year 2008 and lowest 2.3% in 2002. High prevalence of malaria is observed in this part of country with dominance of both species particularly Plasmodium falciparum should be monitored and factors accounting for occurrence should be studied to employ effective control measures. Copyright © 2011 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Anopheles moucheti and Anopheles vinckei are candidate vectors of ape Plasmodium parasites, including Plasmodium praefalciparum in Gabon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paupy, Christophe; Makanga, Boris; Ollomo, Benjamin; Rahola, Nil; Durand, Patrick; Magnus, Julie; Willaume, Eric; Renaud, François; Fontenille, Didier; Prugnolle, Franck

    2013-01-01

    During the last four years, knowledge about the diversity of Plasmodium species in African great apes has considerably increased. Several new species were described in chimpanzees and gorillas, and some species that were previously considered as strictly of human interest were found to be infecting African apes. The description in gorillas of P. praefalciparum, the closest relative of P. falciparum which is the main malignant agent of human malaria, definitively changed the way we understand the evolution and origin of P. falciparum. This parasite is now considered to have appeared recently, following a cross-species transfer from gorillas to humans. However, the Plasmodium vector mosquito species that have served as bridge between these two host species remain unknown. In order to identify the vectors that ensure ape Plasmodium transmission and evaluate the risk of transfer of these parasites to humans, we carried out a field study in Gabon to capture Anopheles in areas where wild and semi-wild ape populations live. We collected 1070 Anopheles females belonging to 15 species, among which An. carnevalei, An. moucheti and An. marshallii were the most common species. Using mtDNA-based PCR tools, we discovered that An. moucheti, a major human malaria vector in Central Africa, could also ensure the natural transmission of P. praefalciparum among great apes. We also showed that, together with An. vinckei, An. moucheti was infected with P. vivax-like parasites. An. moucheti constitutes, therefore, a major candidate for the transfer of Plasmodium parasites from apes to humans.

  12. Plasmodium-specific molecular assays produce uninterpretable results and non-Plasmodium spp. sequences in field-collected Anopheles vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Genelle F; Foley, Desmond H; Rueda, Leopoldo M; Melanson, Vanessa R; Wilkerson, Richard C; Long, Lewis S; Richardson, Jason H; Klein, Terry A; Kim, Heung-Chul; Lee, Won-Ja

    2013-12-01

    The Malaria Research and Reference Reagent Resource-recommended PLF/UNR/VIR polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to detect Plasmodium vivax in Anopheles spp. mosquitoes collected in South Korea. Samples that were amplified were sequenced and compared with known Plasmodium spp. by using the PlasmoDB.org Basic Local Alignment Search Tool/n and the National Center for Biotechnology Information Basic Local Alignment Search Tool/n tools. Results show that the primers PLF/UNR/VIR used in this PCR can produce uninterpretable results and non-specific sequences in field-collected mosquitoes. Three additional PCRs (PLU/VIV, specific for 18S small subunit ribosomal DNA; Pvr47, specific for a nuclear repeat; and GDCW/PLAS, specific for the mitochondrial marker, cytB) were then used to find a more accurate and interpretable assay. Samples that were amplified were again sequenced. The PLU/VIV and Pvr47 assays showed cross-reactivity with non-Plasmodium spp. and an arthropod fungus (Zoophthora lanceolata). The GDCW/PLAS assay amplified only Plasmodium spp. but also amplified the non-human specific parasite P. berghei from an Anopheles belenrae mosquito. Detection of P. berghei in South Korea is a new finding.

  13. Changing trends in prevalence of different Plasmodium species with dominance of Plasmodium falciparum malaria infection in Aligarh (India)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Haris M Khan; Fatima Shujatullah; Mohammad Ashfaq; Adil Raza

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To determine the prevalence of malaria in Aligarh and analyze species dominance in different years over a decade. Methods: Diagnosis of malaria was done using microscopy as gold standard, rapid antigen detection assays and quantitative buffy coat (QBC) assays. Giemsa stained blood smear examination was done, thick and thin films were examined for presence of different Plasmodium spp. Rapid antigen detection assays employing detection of HRP-2 and parasite lactate dehydrogenase antigen (pLDH) by immunochromatography was done in patients whose blood smear found to be negative by conventional Giemsa slide examination. QBC was done in cases where there is strong clinical suspicion of malaria with blood smear negative, in patients with chronic malaria, splenomegaly, or in those patients who had inadequate treatment and for post-treatment follow up. Results: Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum were only species detected in our hospital. Overall prevalence of malaria in Aligarh was found to be 8.8%. The maximum prevalence of 20.1% was observed in year 2008 and lowest 2.3% in 2002.Conclusions:High prevalence of malaria is observed in this part of country with dominance of both species particularly Plasmodium falciparum should be monitored and factors accounting for occurrence should be studied to employ effective control measures.

  14. Physarum boats: If plasmodium sailed it would never leave a port

    CERN Document Server

    Adamatzky, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    Plasmodium of \\emph{Physarum polycephalum} is a single huge (visible by naked eye) cell with myriad of nuclei. The plasmodium is a promising substrate for non-classical, nature-inspired, computing devices. It is capable for approximation of shortest path, computation of planar proximity graphs and plane tessellations, primitive memory and decision-making. The unique properties of the plasmodium make it an ideal candidate for a role of amorphous biological robots with massive parallel information processing and distributed inputs and outputs. We show that when adhered to light-weight object resting on a water surface the plasmodium can propel the object by oscillating its protoplasmic pseudopodia. In experimental laboratory conditions and computational experiments we study phenomenology of the plasmodium-floater system, and possible mechanisms of controlling motion of objects propelled by on board plasmodium.

  15. Physarum Boats: If Plasmodium Sailed It Would Never Leave a Port

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Adamatzky

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Plasmodium of Physarum polycephalum is a single huge (visible by naked eye cell with a myriad of nuclei. The plasmodium is a promising substrate for non-classical, nature-inspired computing devices. It is capable of approximation of the shortest path in a maze, computation of planar proximity graphs and plane tessellations, primitive memory and decision making. The unique properties of the plasmodium make it an ideal candidate for a role of amorphous biological robots with massive parallel information processing and distributed inputs and outputs. We show that when adhered to a lightweight object resting on a water surface the plasmodium can propel the object by oscillating its protoplasmic pseudopodia. In experimental laboratory conditions and computational experiments we study phenomenology of the plasmodium-floater system, and possible mechanisms of controlling motion of objects propelled by on-board plasmodium.

  16. Plasmodium Genus Assay Transition to the Joint Biological Agent Identification and Diagnostic System (JBAIDS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-12

    AFRIMS), Bangkok, Thailand Final Report AFMSA O&M FY09 Project (FWH20090036H): Plasmodium Genus Assay Transition to the Joint Biological Agent...evaluation data to support AFPMB approval of the RAPID- based Plasmodium genus assay for use in vector/vector-borne disease surveillance on the RAPID...Objective 1 Results: Plasmodium genus RAPID/JBAIDS assay development activities conducted during the FY09 study did not resolve cross-reactivity

  17. Hemozoin activates the innate immune system and reduces Plasmodium berghei infection in Anopheles gambiae

    OpenAIRE

    Simões, Maria L; Gonçalves, Luzia; Silveira, Henrique

    2015-01-01

    Background Malaria is a worldwide infectious disease caused by Plasmodium parasites and transmitted by female Anopheles mosquitoes. The malaria vector mosquito Anopheles can trigger effective mechanisms to control completion of the Plasmodium lifecycle; the mosquito immune response to the parasite involves several pathways which are not yet well characterized. Plasmodium metabolite hemozoin has emerged as a potent immunostimulator of mammalian tissues. In this study, we aim to investigate the...

  18. Comparative population structure of Plasmodium malariae and Plasmodium falciparum under different transmission settings in Malawi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molyneux Malcolm E

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Described here is the first population genetic study of Plasmodium malariae, the causative agent of quartan malaria. Although not as deadly as Plasmodium falciparum, P. malariae is more common than previously thought, and is frequently in sympatry and co-infection with P. falciparum, making its study increasingly important. This study compares the population parameters of the two species in two districts of Malawi with different malaria transmission patterns - one seasonal, one perennial - to explore the effects of transmission on population structures. Methods Six species-specific microsatellite markers were used to analyse 257 P. malariae samples and 257 P. falciparum samples matched for age, gender and village of residence. Allele sizes were scored to within 2 bp for each locus and haplotypes were constructed from dominant alleles in multiple infections. Analysis of multiplicity of infection (MOI, population differentiation, clustering of haplotypes and linkage disequilibrium was performed for both species. Regression analyses were used to determine association of MOI measurements with clinical malaria parameters. Results Multiple-genotype infections within each species were common in both districts, accounting for 86.0% of P. falciparum and 73.2% of P. malariae infections and did not differ significantly with transmission setting. Mean MOI of P. falciparum was increased under perennial transmission compared with seasonal (3.14 vs 2.59, p = 0.008 and was greater in children compared with adults. In contrast, P. malariae mean MOI was similar between transmission settings (2.12 vs 2.11 and there was no difference between children and adults. Population differentiation showed no significant differences between villages or districts for either species. There was no evidence of geographical clustering of haplotypes. Linkage disequilibrium amongst loci was found only for P. falciparum samples from the seasonal transmission

  19. Plasmodium knowlesi: from Malaysia, a novel health care threat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabbatani, Sergio; Fiorino, Sirio; Manfredi, Roberto

    2012-03-01

    Epidemic foci of Plasmodium knowlesi malaria have been identified during the past ten years in Malaysia, in particular in the States of Sarawak and Sabah (Malaysia Borneo), and in the Pahang region (peninsular Malaysia). Based on a review of the available recent international literature, the authors underline the importance of molecular biology examinations, polymerase chain reactions (PCR), performed with primers specific for P. knowlesi, since the current microscopic examination (haemoscope) may fail to distinguish P. knowlesi from Plasmodium malariae, due to the very similar appearance of the two parasites. P. knowlesi has been described as the causal agent of life-threatening and lethal forms of malaria: its clinical picture is more severe when compared with that of P. malariae, since the disease is characterized by greater parasitaemia, as opposed to that documented in the course of P. malariae disease. The most effective carrier is Anopheles leucosphyrus: this mosquito is attracted by both humans and monkeys. Among primates, the natural hosts of P. knowlesi are Macaca fascicularis and Macaca nemestina, while Saimiri scirea and Macaca mulatta, which cannot become infected in nature, may be useful in experimental models. When underlining the potentially severe evolution, we note the key role played by prompt disease recognition, which is expected to be more straightforward in patients monitored in endemic countries at high risk, but should be carefully implemented for subjects being admitted to hospital in Western countries suffering from the typical signs and symptoms of malaria, after travelling in South-East Asia where they were engaged in excursions in the tropical forest (trekking, and similar outdoor activities). In these cases, the diagnosis should be prompt, and suitable treatment should follow. According to data in the literature, in non-severe cases chloroquine proves very effective against P. knowlesi, achieving the disappearance of signs and

  20. Trafficking of STEVOR to the Maurer's clefts in Plasmodium falciparum -infected erythrocytes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Przyborski, Jude M; Miller, Susanne K; Rohrbach, Petra; Pfahler, Judith M; Crabb, Brendan S; Henrich, Philipp P; Lanzer, Michael

    2005-01-01

    The human malarial parasite Plasmodium falciparum exports proteins to destinations within its host erythrocyte, including cytosol, surface and membranous profiles of parasite origin termed Maurer's clefts...

  1. Plasmodium cynomolgi genome sequences provide insight into Plasmodium vivax and the monkey malaria clade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tachibana, Shin-Ichiro; Sullivan, Steven A; Kawai, Satoru; Nakamura, Shota; Kim, Hyunjae R; Goto, Naohisa; Arisue, Nobuko; Palacpac, Nirianne M Q; Honma, Hajime; Yagi, Masanori; Tougan, Takahiro; Katakai, Yuko; Kaneko, Osamu; Mita, Toshihiro; Kita, Kiyoshi; Yasutomi, Yasuhiro; Sutton, Patrick L; Shakhbatyan, Rimma; Horii, Toshihiro; Yasunaga, Teruo; Barnwell, John W; Escalante, Ananias A; Carlton, Jane M; Tanabe, Kazuyuki

    2012-09-01

    P. cynomolgi, a malaria-causing parasite of Asian Old World monkeys, is the sister taxon of P. vivax, the most prevalent malaria-causing species in humans outside of Africa. Because P. cynomolgi shares many phenotypic, biological and genetic characteristics with P. vivax, we generated draft genome sequences for three P. cynomolgi strains and performed genomic analysis comparing them with the P. vivax genome, as well as with the genome of a third previously sequenced simian parasite, Plasmodium knowlesi. Here, we show that genomes of the monkey malaria clade can be characterized by copy-number variants (CNVs) in multigene families involved in evasion of the human immune system and invasion of host erythrocytes. We identify genome-wide SNPs, microsatellites and CNVs in the P. cynomolgi genome, providing a map of genetic variation that can be used to map parasite traits and study parasite populations. The sequencing of the P. cynomolgi genome is a critical step in developing a model system for P. vivax research and in counteracting the neglect of P. vivax.

  2. In vivo resistance to chloroquine by Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum at Nabire, Irian Jaya, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, J K; Wiady, I; Fryauff, D J; Sutanihardja, M A; Leksana, B; Widjaya, H; Kysdarmanto; Subianto, B

    1997-06-01

    A survey of resistance to chloroquine by Plasmodium vivax and P. falciparum was conducted during May 1995 at three mesoendemic villages 30 km southeast of Nabire, near the central northern coast of Irian Jaya, Indonesia. The prevalence of malaria at Urusumu (n = 157), Margajaya (n = 573), and Topo (n = 199) was 18%. 9%, and 9%, respectively, with spleen rates among children of 79%, 10%, and 27%. Infected patients among those screened formed a study population of 64 subjects eligible for a 28-day in vivo test of resistance to chloroquine. Sixty-three patients successfully completed the test; 45 males and 18 females 1-60 years of age, of whom 29 were Javanese transmigrants of five years residence in Irian Jaya and 34 were native to Irian Jaya. The seven-day day cumulative incidence of therapeutic failure for P. vivax and P. falciparum was 15% (n = 34) and 30% (n = 37). The 14- and 28-day estimates of cumulative incidence were 45% and 64% for P. vivax and 58% and 89% for P. falciparum. Almost all recurrences appeared in the face of ordinarily effective levels of chloroquine and its major metabolite, desethylchloroquine, in whole blood (> or = 100 ng/ml). Four infections by P. malariae in subjects enrolled in this study cleared by day 2 and none reappeared within 28 days. Chloroquine no longer provides effective therapy for falciparum or vivax malaria along the northern coast of Irian Jaya, Indonesia.

  3. MOLECULAR SURVEILLANCE OF Plasmodium vivax AND Plasmodium falciparum DHFR MUTATIONS IN ISOLATES FROM SOUTHERN IRAN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharifi-Sarasiabi, Khojasteh; Haghighi, Ali; Kazemi, Bahram; Taghipour, Niloofar; Mojarad, Ehsan Nazemalhosseini; Gachkar, Latif

    2016-01-01

    In Iran, both Plasmodium vivax and P. falciparum malaria have been detected, but P. vivax is the predominant species. Point mutations in dihydrofolate reductase (dhfr) gene in both Plasmodia are the major mechanisms of pyrimethamine resistance. From April 2007 to June 2009, a total of 134 blood samples in two endemic areas of southern Iran were collected from patients infected with P. vivax and P. falciparum. The isolates were analyzed for P. vivax dihydrofolate reductase (pvdhfr) and P. falciparum dihydrofolate reductase (pfdhfr) point mutations using various PCR-based methods. The majority of the isolates (72.9%) had wild type amino acids at five codons of pvdhfr. Amongst mutant isolates, the most common pvdhfr alleles were double mutant in 58 and 117 amino acids (58R-117N). Triple mutation in 57, 58, and 117 amino acids (57L/58R/117N) was identified for the first time in the pvdhfr gene of Iranian P. vivax isolates. All the P. falciparumsamples analyzed (n = 16) possessed a double mutant pfdhfrallele (59R/108N) and retained a wild-type mutation at position 51. This may be attributed to the fact that the falciparum malaria patients were treated using sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) in Iran. The presence of mutant haplotypes in P. vivax is worrying, but has not yet reached an alarming threshold regarding drugs such as SP. The results of this study reinforce the importance of performing a molecular surveillance by means of a continuous chemoresistance assessment.

  4. Deaths due to Plasmodium knowlesi malaria in Sabah, Malaysia: association with reporting as Plasmodium malariae and delayed parenteral artesunate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajahram Giri S

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The simian parasite Plasmodium knowlesi is recognized as a common cause of severe and fatal human malaria in Sabah, Malaysia, but is morphologically indistinguishable from and still commonly reported as Plasmodium malariae, despite the paucity of this species in Sabah. Since December 2008 Sabah Department of Health has recommended intravenous artesunate and referral to a general hospital for all severe malaria cases of any species. This paper reviews all malaria deaths in Sabah subsequent to the introduction of these measures. Reporting of malaria deaths in Malaysia is mandatory. Methods Details of reported malaria deaths during 2010-2011 were reviewed to determine the proportion of each Plasmodium species. Demographics, clinical presentations and management of severe malaria caused by each species were compared. Results Fourteen malaria deaths were reported, comprising seven Plasmodium falciparum, six P. knowlesi and one Plasmodium vivax (all PCR-confirmed. Of the six P. knowlesi deaths, five were attributable to knowlesi malaria and one was attributable to P. knowlesi-associated enterobacter sepsis. Patients with directly attributable P. knowlesi deaths (N = 5 were older than those with P. falciparum (median age 51 [IQR 50-65] vs 22 [IQR 9-55] years, p = 0.06. Complications in fatal P. knowlesi included respiratory distress (N = 5, 100%, hypotension (N = 4, 80%, and renal failure (N = 4, 80%. All patients with P. knowlesi were reported as P. malariae by microscopy. Only two of five patients with severe knowlesi malaria on presentation received immediate parenteral anti-malarial treatment. The patient with P. vivax-associated severe illness did not receive parenteral treatment. In contrast six of seven patients with severe falciparum malaria received immediate parenteral treatment. Conclusion Plasmodium knowlesi was responsible, either directly or through gram-negative bacteraemia, for almost half of

  5. Predictions of avian Plasmodium expansion under climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loiseau, Claire; Harrigan, Ryan J.; Bichet, Coraline; Julliard, Romain; Garnier, Stéphane; Lendvai, Ádám Z.; Chastel, Olivier; Sorci, Gabriele

    2013-01-01

    Vector-borne diseases are particularly responsive to changing environmental conditions. Diurnal temperature variation has been identified as a particularly important factor for the development of malaria parasites within vectors. Here, we conducted a survey across France, screening populations of the house sparrow (Passer domesticus) for malaria (Plasmodium relictum). We investigated whether variation in remotely-sensed environmental variables accounted for the spatial variation observed in prevalence and parasitemia. While prevalence was highly correlated to diurnal temperature range and other measures of temperature variation, environmental conditions could not predict spatial variation in parasitemia. Based on our empirical data, we mapped malaria distribution under climate change scenarios and predicted that Plasmodium occurrence will spread to regions in northern France, and that prevalence levels are likely to increase in locations where transmission already occurs. Our findings, based on remote sensing tools coupled with empirical data suggest that climatic change will significantly alter transmission of malaria parasites. PMID:23350033

  6. Plasmodium vivax vaccine research - we've only just begun.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tham, Wai-Hong; Beeson, James G; Rayner, Julian C

    2017-02-01

    Plasmodium vivax parasites cause the majority of malaria cases outside Africa, and are increasingly being acknowledged as a cause of severe disease. The unique attributes of P. vivax biology, particularly the capacity of the dormant liver stage, the hypnozoite, to maintain blood-stage infections even in the absence of active transmission, make blood-stage vaccines particularly attractive for this species. However, P. vivax vaccine development remains resolutely in first gear, with only a single blood-stage candidate having been evaluated in any depth. Experience with Plasmodium falciparum suggests that a much broader search for new candidates and a deeper understanding of high priority targets will be required to make significant advances. This review discusses some of the particular challenges of P. vivax blood-stage vaccine development, highlighting both recent advances and key remaining barriers to overcome in order to move development forward.

  7. Plasmodium vivax Landscape in Brazil: Scenario and Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siqueira, Andre M; Mesones-Lapouble, Oscar; Marchesini, Paola; Sampaio, Vanderson de Souza; Brasil, Patricia; Tauil, Pedro L; Fontes, Cor Jesus; Costa, Fabio T M; Daniel-Ribeiro, Cláudio Tadeu; Lacerda, Marcus V G; Damasceno, Camila P; Santelli, Ana Carolina S

    2016-12-28

    Brazil is the largest country of Latin America, with a considerable portion of its territoritory within the malaria-endemic Amazon region in the North. Furthermore, a considerable portion of its territory is located within the Amazon region in the north. As a result, Brazil has reported half of the total malaria cases in the Americas in the last four decades. Recent progress in malaria control has been accompanied by an increasing proportion of Plasmodium vivax, underscoring a need for a better understanding of management and control of this species and associated challenges. Among these challenges, the contribution of vivax malaria relapses, earlier production of gametocytes (compared with Plasmodium falciparum), inexistent methods to diagnose hypnozoite carriers, and decreasing efficacy of available antimalarials need to be addressed. Innovative tools, strategies, and technologies are needed to achieve further progress toward sustainable malaria elimination. Further difficulties also arise from dealing with the inherent socioeconomic and environmental particularities of the Amazon region and its dynamic changes.

  8. Imaging Plasmodium immunobiology in the liver, brain, and lung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frevert, Ute; Nacer, Adéla; Cabrera, Mynthia; Movila, Alexandru; Leberl, Maike

    2014-02-01

    Plasmodium falciparum malaria is responsible for the deaths of over half a million African children annually. Until a decade ago, dynamic analysis of the malaria parasite was limited to in vitro systems with the typical limitations associated with 2D monocultures or entirely artificial surfaces. Due to extremely low parasite densities, the liver was considered a black box in terms of Plasmodium sporozoite invasion, liver stage development, and merozoite release into the blood. Further, nothing was known about the behavior of blood stage parasites in organs such as the brain where clinical signs manifest and the ensuing immune response of the host that may ultimately result in a fatal outcome. The advent of fluorescent parasites, advances in imaging technology, and availability of an ever-increasing number of cellular and molecular probes have helped illuminate many steps along the pathogenetic cascade of this deadly tropical parasite. © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Imaging Plasmodium Immunobiology in Liver, Brain, and Lung

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frevert, Ute; Nacer, Adéla; Cabrera, Mynthia; Movila, Alexandru; Leberl, Maike

    2013-01-01

    Plasmodium falciparum malaria is responsible for the deaths of over half a million African children annually. Until a decade ago, dynamic analysis of the malaria parasite was limited to in vitro systems with the typical limitations associated with 2D monocultures or entirely artificial surfaces. Due to extremely low parasite densities, the liver was considered a black box in terms of Plasmodium sporozoite invasion, liver stage development, and merozoite release into the blood. Further, nothing was known about the behavior of blood stage parasites in organs such as brain where clinical signs manifest and the ensuing immune response of the host that may ultimately result in a fatal outcome. The advent of fluorescent parasites, advances in imaging technology, and availability of an ever-increasing number of cellular and molecular probes have helped illuminate many steps along the pathogenetic cascade of this deadly tropical parasite. PMID:24076429

  10. [Plasmodium falciparum malaria: epidemiology and clinical features at Tarapoto Hospital].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderon, J; Rodriguez, J; Romero, D

    1997-01-01

    A retrospective study was conducted of the clinical records of 41 patients discharged from a hospital in Tarapoto, Peru, between August 1992 and June 1996 following treatment for Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Patients ranged in age from 18 to 65 years; 25 were male. The cases were uniformly distributed throughout the year. The duration of illness averaged 11 days. At admission, 40 patients had fever, 36 had shaking chills, 29 had headache, 21 had nausea and vomiting, 21 had hyporexia, 15 had pallor, and 13 had splenomegaly. 3 of the 16 women were pregnant. 7 patients reported a history of malaria. The admission diagnosis was malaria in 33 cases. 31 patients were treated with chloroquine; 18 were subsequently treated with pyrimethamine-sulfadoxin and 1 received doxycycline. No cases of grave illness or death occurred. The increasing presence of Plasmodium falciparum malaria in the Peruvian lowlands should promote review of the adequacy of control programs.

  11. Driving mosquito refractoriness to Plasmodium falciparum with engineered symbiotic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sibao; Dos-Santos, André L A; Huang, Wei; Liu, Kun Connie; Oshaghi, Mohammad Ali; Wei, Ge; Agre, Peter; Jacobs-Lorena, Marcelo

    2017-09-29

    The huge burden of malaria in developing countries urgently demands the development of novel approaches to fight this deadly disease. Although engineered symbiotic bacteria have been shown to render mosquitoes resistant to the parasite, the challenge remains to effectively introduce such bacteria into mosquito populations. We describe a Serratia bacterium strain (AS1) isolated from Anopheles ovaries that stably colonizes the mosquito midgut, female ovaries, and male accessory glands and spreads rapidly throughout mosquito populations. Serratia AS1 was genetically engineered for secretion of anti-Plasmodium effector proteins, and the recombinant strains inhibit development of Plasmodium falciparum in mosquitoes. Copyright © 2017 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.

  12. Mosquito Vectors and the Globalization of Plasmodium falciparum Malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-Cruz, Alvaro; Zilversmit, Martine M; Neafsey, Daniel E; Hartl, Daniel L; Barillas-Mury, Carolina

    2016-11-23

    Plasmodium falciparum malaria remains a devastating public health problem. Recent discoveries have shed light on the origin and evolution of Plasmodium parasites and their interactions with their vertebrate and mosquito hosts. P. falciparum malaria originated in Africa from a single horizontal transfer between an infected gorilla and a human, and became global as the result of human migration. Today, P. falciparum malaria is transmitted worldwide by more than 70 different anopheline mosquito species. Recent studies indicate that the mosquito immune system can be a barrier to malaria transmission and that the P. falciparum Pfs47 gene allows the parasite to evade mosquito immune detection. Here, we review the origin and globalization of P. falciparum and integrate this history with analysis of the biology, evolution, and dispersal of the main mosquito vectors. This new perspective broadens our understanding of P. falciparum population structure and the dispersal of important parasite genetic traits.

  13. RIFINs are adhesins implicated in severe Plasmodium falciparum malaria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goel, Suchi; Palmkvist, Mia; Moll, Kirsten

    2015-01-01

    Rosetting is a virulent Plasmodium falciparum phenomenon associated with severe malaria. Here we demonstrate that P. falciparum–encoded repetitive interspersed families of polypeptides (RIFINs) are expressed on the surface of infected red blood cells (iRBCs), where they bind to RBCs—preferentiall......Rosetting is a virulent Plasmodium falciparum phenomenon associated with severe malaria. Here we demonstrate that P. falciparum–encoded repetitive interspersed families of polypeptides (RIFINs) are expressed on the surface of infected red blood cells (iRBCs), where they bind to RBCs......—preferentially of blood group A—to form large rosettes and mediate microvascular binding of iRBCs. We suggest that RIFINs have a fundamental role in the development of severe malaria and thereby contribute to the varying global distribution of ABO blood groups in the human population....

  14. Peptide Inhibition of Topoisomerase IB from Plasmodium falciparum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Roy

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Control of diseases inflicted by protozoan parasites such as Leishmania, Trypanosoma, and Plasmodium, which pose a serious threat to human health worldwide, depends on a rather small number of antiparasite drugs, of which many are toxic and/or inefficient. Moreover, the increasing occurrence of drug-resistant parasites emphasizes the need for new and effective antiprotozoan drugs. In the current study, we describe a synthetic peptide, WRWYCRCK, with inhibitory effect on the essential enzyme topoisomerase I from the malaria-causing parasite Plasmodium falciparum. The peptide inhibits specifically the transition from noncovalent to covalent DNA binding of P. falciparum topoisomerase I, while it does not affect the ligation step of catalysis. A mechanistic explanation for this inhibition is provided by molecular docking analyses. Taken together the presented results suggest that synthetic peptides may represent a new class of potential antiprotozoan drugs.

  15. Parasite virulence and disease severity in Plasmodium falciparum malaria.

    OpenAIRE

    Ribacke, Ulf

    2009-01-01

    Malaria stands out as one of the most important infectious diseases and one of the world s leading causes of death. Plasmodium falciparum is the parasite responsible for the great majority of severe disease syndromes and mortality, and affects mainly children and pregnant women. Despite intensive research efforts, the understanding of P. falciparum virulence is limited. Infections with the parasite cause everything from asymptomatic parasitemia to severe disease and death, a...

  16. Surface antigens and virulence in Plasmodium falciparum malaria

    OpenAIRE

    Normark, Johan

    2008-01-01

    Plasmodium falciparum is an intracellular protozoan that may cause severe forms of malaria. It is a major world health hazard and reaps the highest toll among the children and pregnant mothers of the developing world. An Anopheles mosquito vector injects the pathogen when taking a blood meal. After multiplication in cells of the liver, the parasite escapes and infects red blood cells in a cyclic manner and this is when the clinical manifestations of malaria as a disease beco...

  17. Cryo scanning electron microscopy of Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hempel, Casper

    2017-01-01

    Plasmodium falciparum invades erythrocytes as an essential part of their life cycle. While living inside erythrocytes, the parasite remodels the cell's intracellular organization as well as its outer surface. Late trophozoite-stage parasites and schizonts introduce numerous small protrusions on t...... microscopy under cryogenic conditions allowing for high resolution and magnification of erythrocytes. This novel technique can be used for precise estimates of knob density and for studies on cytoadhesion....

  18. Plasmodium vivax Landscape in Brazil: Scenario and Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Siqueira, Andre M.; Mesones-Lapouble, Oscar; Marchesini, Paola; Sampaio, Vanderson Souza; Brasil, Patricia; Tauil, Pedro L; Fontes, Cor Jesus; COSTA, Fabio T. M.; Daniel-Ribeiro, Cláudio Tadeu; Lacerda, Marcus V. G.; Damasceno, Camila P.; Santelli, Ana Carolina S.

    2016-01-01

    Brazil is the largest country of Latin America, with a considerable portion of its territoritory within the malaria-endemic Amazon region in the North. Furthermore, a considerable portion of its territory is located within the Amazon region in the north. As a result, Brazil has reported half of the total malaria cases in the Americas in the last four decades. Recent progress in malaria control has been accompanied by an increasing proportion of Plasmodium vivax, underscoring a need for a bett...

  19. Genes for Glycosylphosphatidylinositol Toxin Biosynthesis in Plasmodium falciparum

    OpenAIRE

    Delorenzi, Mauro; Sexton, Adrienne; Shams-Eldin, Hosam; Schwarz, Ralph T.; Speed, Terry; Schofield, Louis

    2002-01-01

    About 2.5 million people die of Plasmodium falciparum malaria every year. Fatalities are associated with systemic and organ-specific inflammation initiated by a parasite toxin. Recent studies show that glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) functions as the dominant parasite toxin in the context of infection. GPIs also serve as membrane anchors for several of the most important surface antigens of parasite invasive stages. GPI anchoring is a complex posttranslational modification produced through...

  20. Structure of Plasmodium falciparum ADP-ribosylation factor 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, William J.; Smith, Craig D.; Senkovich, Olga; Holder, Anthony A.; Chattopadhyay, Debasish (UAB); (NIMR)

    2011-09-26

    Vesicular trafficking may play a crucial role in the pathogenesis and survival of the malaria parasite. ADP-ribosylation factors (ARFs) are among the major components of vesicular trafficking pathways in eukaryotes. The crystal structure of ARF1 GTPase from Plasmodium falciparum has been determined in the GDP-bound conformation at 2.5 {angstrom} resolution and is compared with the structures of mammalian ARF1s.

  1. Using Click Chemistry to Identify Potential Drug Targets in Plasmodium

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    both enzymes are expressed cytoplasmically in sporozoites and liver stages. Using a specific and potent inhibitor of Plasmodium PKG and inhibitor... originally planned. Therefore, we modified our approach so that we could still fulfill the objective of identifying Tsp’s target in sporozoites. To fulfill...essential Ca(2)(+) signals at key decision points in the life cycle of malaria parasites. PLoS Biol 12: e1001806. 2. Falae A, Combe A, Amaladoss A

  2. CRISPR-mediated genome editing of Plasmodium falciparum malaria parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Marcus Cs; Fidock, David A

    2014-01-01

    The development of the CRISPR-Cas system is revolutionizing genome editing in a variety of organisms. The system has now been used to manipulate the genome of Plasmodium falciparum, the most lethal malaria-causing species. The ability to generate gene deletions or nucleotide substitutions rapidly and economically promises to accelerate the analysis of novel drug targets and to help elucidate the function of specific genes or gene families, while complementing genome-wide association studies.

  3. Editing the Plasmodium vivax Genome, Using Zinc-Finger Nucleases

    OpenAIRE

    Moraes Barros, Roberto R.; Straimer, Judith; Sa, Juliana M; Salzman, Rebecca E.; Melendez-Muniz, Viviana A.; Mu, Jianbing; David A Fidock; Thomas E. Wellems

    2014-01-01

    Plasmodium vivax is a major cause of malaria morbidity worldwide yet has remained genetically intractable. To stably modify this organism, we used zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs), which take advantage of homology-directed DNA repair mechanisms at the site of nuclease action. Using ZFNs specific to the gene encoding P. vivax dihydrofolate reductase (pvdhfr), we transfected blood specimens from Saimiri boliviensis monkeys infected with the pyrimethamine (Pyr)–susceptible Chesson strain with a ZFN ...

  4. CRISPR-mediated genome editing of Plasmodium falciparum malaria parasites

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Marcus CS; David A Fidock

    2014-01-01

    The development of the CRISPR-Cas system is revolutionizing genome editing in a variety of organisms. The system has now been used to manipulate the genome of Plasmodium falciparum, the most lethal malaria-causing species. The ability to generate gene deletions or nucleotide substitutions rapidly and economically promises to accelerate the analysis of novel drug targets and to help elucidate the function of specific genes or gene families, while complementing genome-wide association studies.

  5. Artesunate plus pyronaridine for treating uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria

    OpenAIRE

    Bukirwa, Hasifa; Unnikrishnan, B; Kramer, Christine V; Sinclair, David; Nair, Suma; Tharyan, Prathap

    2014-01-01

    Background The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends that people with uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria are treated using Artemisinin-based Combination Therapy (ACT). ACT combines three-days of a short-acting artemisinin derivative with a longer-acting antimalarial which has a different mode of action. Pyronaridine has been reported as an effective antimalarial over two decades of use in parts of Asia, and is currently being evaluated as a partner drug for artesunate. Objective...

  6. Subinoculation as a technique in the diagnosis of avian plasmodium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, C.M.; Knisley, J.O.; Snyder, E.L.

    1966-01-01

    In two successive years, 1964 and 1965, blood subinoculated from wild Canada geese, negative for Plasmodium by examination of peripheral blood smears, into 5-day-old domestic geese produced 60 % infection in the recipients. Prepatent and patent periods, as well as intensity of parasitemia showed much variation. Intramuscular inoculation produced the same prevalence as the intravenous route, but longer prepatent periods and less intensity of parasitemia.

  7. Antimalarial activity of Malaysian Plectranthus amboinicus against Plasmodium berghei

    OpenAIRE

    Norazsida Ramli; Pakeer Oothuman Syed Ahamed; Hassan Mohamed Elhady; Muhammad Taher

    2014-01-01

    Context: Malaria is a mosquito-borne disease caused by parasitic protozoa from the genus of Plasmodium. The protozoans have developed resistance against many of current drugs. It is urgent to find an alternative source of new antimalarial agent. In the effort to discover new antimalarial agents, this research has been conducted on Plectranthus amboinicus. Aims: This study was conducted to evaluate the toxicity and antiplasmodial properties of P. amboinicus. Materials and Methods: Acute oral t...

  8. Insulin reduces the requirement for serum in Plasmodium falciparum culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Tosta

    1984-03-01

    Full Text Available Insulin added to Plasmodium falciparum cultures (0.2 IU/ml reduced the requirement for human serum from ten to five percent. This represents an obvious advantage by its serum-sparing effect and by reducing the chances of using contaminated serum in cultures. The growth-promoting ability of insulin was observed eitherin culture- adapted P. falciparum or in newly-isolated samples.

  9. World Malaria Report: time to acknowledge Plasmodium knowlesi malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Bridget E; Rajahram, Giri S; Grigg, Matthew J; William, Timothy; Anstey, Nicholas M

    2017-03-31

    The 2016 World Health Organization (WHO) World Malaria Report documents substantial progress towards control and elimination of malaria. However, major challenges remain. In some regions of Southeast Asia, the simian parasite Plasmodium knowlesi has emerged as an important cause of human malaria, and the authors believe this species warrants regular inclusion in the World Malaria Report. Plasmodium knowlesi is the most common cause of malaria in Malaysia, and cases have also been reported in nearly all countries of Southeast Asia. Outside of Malaysia, P. knowlesi is frequently misdiagnosed by microscopy as Plasmodium falciparum or Plasmodium vivax. Thus, P. knowlesi may be underdiagnosed in affected regions and its true incidence underestimated. Acknowledgement in the World Malaria Report of the regional importance of P. knowlesi will facilitate efforts to improve surveillance of this emerging parasite. Furthermore, increased recognition will likely lead to improved delivery of effective treatment for this potentially fatal infection, as has occurred in Malaysia where P. knowlesi case-fatality rates have fallen despite rising incidence. In a number of knowlesi-endemic countries, substantial progress has been made towards the elimination of P. vivax and P. falciparum. However, efforts to eliminate these human-only species should not preclude efforts to reduce human malaria from P. knowlesi. The regional importance of knowlesi malaria was recognized by the WHO with its recent Evidence Review Group meeting on knowlesi malaria to address strategies for prevention and mitigation. The WHO World Malaria Report has an appropriate focus on falciparum and vivax malaria, the major causes of global mortality and morbidity. However, the authors hope that in future years this important publication will also incorporate data on the progress and challenges in reducing knowlesi malaria in regions where transmission occurs.

  10. Aislamiento y mantenimiento in vitro de Plasmodium falciparum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanca Pardave L

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available Se aislaron 08 cepas de Plasmodium falciparum a partir de 10 pacientes. Luego fueron adaptadas y mantenidas en cultivo in vitro durante 60 días en eritrocitos humanos grupo O, en medio RPMI 1640 enriquecido con plasma humano grupo O, bajo una atmósfera de 5% de CO2, 5% de O2 y 90% de Nitrógeno y luego preservados a -70ºC.

  11. Plasmodium serine hydroxymethyltransferase: indispensability and display of distinct localization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pornthanakasem Wichai

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Serine hydroxymethyltransferase (SHMT, a pyridoxal phosphate-dependent enzyme, plays a vital role in the de novo pyrimidine biosynthesis pathway in malaria parasites. Two genes have been identified in Plasmodium spp. encoding a cytosolic SHMT (cSHMT and putative mitochondria SHMT (mSHMT, but their roles have not been fully investigated. Methods The presence of Plasmodium SHMT isoforms in the intra-erythrocytic stage was assessed based on their gene expression using reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR. Localization studies of Plasmodium SHMT isoforms were performed by transfection of fluorescent-tagged gene constructs into P. falciparum and expressions of fluorescent fusion proteins in parasites were observed using a laser scanning confocal microscope. Genetic targeting through homologous recombination was used to study the essentiality of SHMT in Plasmodium spp. Results Semi-quantitative RT-PCR revealed the expression of these two genes throughout intra-erythrocytic development. Localization studies using P. falciparum expressing fluorescent-tagged SHMT showed that PfcSHMT-red fluorescent fusion protein (PfcSHMT-DsRed is localized in the cytoplasm, while PfmSHMT-green fluorescent fusion protein (PfmSHMT-GFP co-localized with Mitotracker™-labelled mitochondria as predicted. The essentiality of plasmodial cSHMT was inferred from transfection experiments where recovery of viable knock-out parasites was not achieved, unless complemented with a functional equivalent copy of shmt. Conclusions Distinct compartment localizations of PfSHMT were observed between cytoplasmic and mitochondrial isoforms, and evidence was provided for the indispensable role of plasmodial cSHMT indicating it as a valid target for development of novel anti-malarials.

  12. Plasmodium activates the innate immune response of Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes.

    OpenAIRE

    Richman, A M; Dimopoulos, G; Seeley, D; Kafatos, F C

    1997-01-01

    Innate immune-related gene expression in the major disease vector mosquito Anopheles gambiae has been analyzed following infection by the malaria parasite, Plasmodium berghei. Substantially increased levels of mRNAs encoding the antibacterial peptide defensin and a putative Gram-negative bacteria-binding protein (GNBP) are observed 20-30 h after ingestion of an infected blood-meal, at a time which indicates that this induction is a response to parasite invasion of the midgut epithelium. The i...

  13. Caspar controls resistance to Plasmodium falciparum in diverse anopheline species.

    OpenAIRE

    Garver, Lindsey S.; Yuemei Dong; George Dimopoulos

    2009-01-01

    Immune responses mounted by the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae are largely regulated by the Toll and Imd (immune deficiency) pathways via the NF-kappaB transcription factors Rel1 and Rel2, which are controlled by the negative regulators Cactus and Caspar, respectively. Rel1- and Rel2-dependent transcription in A. gambiae has been shown to be particularly critical to the mosquito's ability to manage infection with the rodent malaria parasite Plasmodium berghei. Using RNA interference to depl...

  14. Myocarditis associated with Plasmodium vivax malaria: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Revoredo da Silva Ventura

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Malaria remains a major public health problem in Brazil where Plasmodium vivax is the predominant species, responsible for 82% of registered cases in 2013. Though benign, P. vivax infection may sometimes evolve with complications and a fatal outcome. Here, we report a severe case of P. vivax malaria in a 35-year-old Brazilian man from a malaria endemic area, who presented with reversible myocarditis.

  15. Malaria risk factor assessment using active and passive surveillance data from Aceh Besar, Indonesia, a low endemic, malaria elimination setting with Plasmodium knowlesi, Plasmodium vivax, and Plasmodium falciparum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herdiana, Herdiana; Cotter, Chris; Coutrier, Farah N; Zarlinda, Iska; Zelman, Brittany W; Tirta, Yusrifar Kharisma; Greenhouse, Bryan; Gosling, Roly D; Baker, Peter; Whittaker, Maxine; Hsiang, Michelle S

    2016-09-13

    As malaria transmission declines, it becomes more geographically focused and more likely due to asymptomatic and non-falciparum infections. To inform malaria elimination planning in the context of this changing epidemiology, local assessments on the risk factors for malaria infection are necessary, yet challenging due to the low number of malaria cases. A population-based, cross-sectional study was performed using passive and active surveillance data collected in Aceh Besar District, Indonesia from 2014 to 2015. Malaria infection was defined as symptomatic polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-confirmed infection in index cases reported from health facilities, and asymptomatic or symptomatic PCR-confirmed infection identified in reactive case detection (RACD). Potential risk factors for any infection, species-specific infection, or secondary-case detection in RACD were assessed through questionnaires and evaluated for associations. Nineteen Plasmodium knowlesi, 12 Plasmodium vivax and six Plasmodium falciparum cases were identified passively, and 1495 community members screened in RACD, of which six secondary cases were detected (one P. knowlesi, three P. vivax, and two P. falciparum, with four being asymptomatic). Compared to non-infected subjects screened in RACD, cases identified through passive or active surveillance were more likely to be male (AOR 12.5, 95 % CI 3.0-52.1), adult (AOR 14.0, 95 % CI 2.2-89.6 for age 16-45 years compared to malaria infection in index and RACD identified cases was associated with forest exposure, particularly overnights in the forest for work. In low-transmission settings, utilization of data available through routine passive and active surveillance can support efforts to target individuals at high risk.

  16. Interleukin-10 regulates hepcidin in Plasmodium falciparum malaria

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Honglei

    2014-02-10

    Background: Acute malarial anemia remains a major public health problem. Hepcidin, the major hormone controlling the availability of iron, is raised during acute and asymptomatic parasitemia. Understanding the role and mechanism of raised hepcidin and so reduced iron availability during infection is critical to establish evidence-based guidelines for management of malaria anemia. Our recent clinical evidence suggests a potential role of IL-10 in the regulation of hepcidin in patients with acute P. falciparum malaria. Methods: We have measured secretion of hepcidin by primary macrophages and the hepatoma cell line HepG2 stimulated with IL-10, IL-6 and Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes. Findings: We have observed that IL-10 and IL-6 production increased in primary macrophages when these cells were co-cultured with Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes. We found that IL-10 induced hepcidin secretion in primary macrophages in a dose-dependent manner but not in HepG2 cells. These effects were mediated through signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) 3-phosphorylation and completely abrogated by a specific STAT3 inhibitor. Conclusion: IL-10 can directly regulate hepcidin in primary macrophages but not in HepG2 cells. This effect can be modulated by Plasmodium falciparum. The results are consistent with a role for IL-10 in modulating iron metabolism during acute phase of infection. 2014 Huang et al.

  17. Targeting Plasmodium PI(4)K to eliminate malaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Case W.; Lee, Marcus C. S.; Lim, Chek Shik; Lim, Siau Hoi; Roland, Jason; Nagle, Advait; Simon, Oliver; Yeung, Bryan K. S.; Chatterjee, Arnab K.; McCormack, Susan L.; Manary, Micah J.; Zeeman, Anne-Marie; Dechering, Koen J.; Kumar, T. R. Santha; Henrich, Philipp P.; Gagaring, Kerstin; Ibanez, Maureen; Kato, Nobutaka; Kuhen, Kelli L.; Fischli, Christoph; Rottmann, Matthias; Plouffe, David M.; Bursulaya, Badry; Meister, Stephan; Rameh, Lucia; Trappe, Joerg; Haasen, Dorothea; Timmerman, Martijn; Sauerwein, Robert W.; Suwanarusk, Rossarin; Russell, Bruce; Renia, Laurent; Nosten, Francois; Tully, David C.; Kocken, Clemens H. M.; Glynne, Richard J.; Bodenreider, Christophe; Fidock, David A.; Diagana, Thierry T.; Winzeler, Elizabeth A.

    2013-12-01

    Achieving the goal of malaria elimination will depend on targeting Plasmodium pathways essential across all life stages. Here we identify a lipid kinase, phosphatidylinositol-4-OH kinase (PI(4)K), as the target of imidazopyrazines, a new antimalarial compound class that inhibits the intracellular development of multiple Plasmodium species at each stage of infection in the vertebrate host. Imidazopyrazines demonstrate potent preventive, therapeutic, and transmission-blocking activity in rodent malaria models, are active against blood-stage field isolates of the major human pathogens P. falciparum and P. vivax, and inhibit liver-stage hypnozoites in the simian parasite P. cynomolgi. We show that imidazopyrazines exert their effect through inhibitory interaction with the ATP-binding pocket of PI(4)K, altering the intracellular distribution of phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate. Collectively, our data define PI(4)K as a key Plasmodium vulnerability, opening up new avenues of target-based discovery to identify drugs with an ideal activity profile for the prevention, treatment and elimination of malaria.

  18. [Therapeutic response of Plasmodium vivax to chloroquine in Bolivia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Añez, Arletta; Navarro-Costa, Dennis; Yucra, Omar; Garnica, Cecilia; Melgar, Viviana; Moscoso, Manuel; Arteaga, Ricardo; Nakao, Gladys

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge of the therapeutic efficacy of chloroquine for Plasmodium vivax infections improves the capacity for surveillance of anti-malarial drug resistance. The therapeutic efficacy of chloroquine as treatment was evaluated for uncomplicated Plasmodium vivax malaria in Bolivia. An in vivo efficacy study of chloroquine was undertaken in three regions of Bolivia--Riberalta, Guayaramerín and Yacuiba. Two hundred and twenty-three patients (84, 80, and 59 in the three regions, respectively) aged over 5 years old were administered with chloroquine (25 mg/kg/three days) and followed for 28 days. Blood levels of chloroquine and desethylchloroquine were measured on day 2 and on the day of reappearance of parasitemia. The cumulative incidence of treatment failure was calculated using the Kaplan and Meier survival analysis. The mean parasitemias (asexual) on day 0 were 6,147 parasites/μl of blood in the Riberalta population, 4,251 in Guayaramerín and 5,214 in Yacuiba. The average blood concentrations of chloroquine-desethylchloroquine during day 2 were 783, 817, and 815 ng/ml, respectively. No treatment failures were observed in Yacuiba, whereas in Riberalta and Guayaramerín, the frequencies of treatment failures were 6.2% and 10%. Blood levels of chloroquine and desethylchloroquine in patients with treatment failure showed values below 70 ng/ml on the day of reappearance of parasitemia. Resistance of Plasmodium vivax to chloroquine was not demonstrated in three regions of Bolivia.

  19. Targeting Plasmodium PI(4)K to eliminate malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Case W; Lee, Marcus C S; Lim, Chek Shik; Lim, Siau Hoi; Roland, Jason; Nagle, Advait; Simon, Oliver; Yeung, Bryan K S; Chatterjee, Arnab K; McCormack, Susan L; Manary, Micah J; Zeeman, Anne-Marie; Dechering, Koen J; Kumar, T R Santha; Henrich, Philipp P; Gagaring, Kerstin; Ibanez, Maureen; Kato, Nobutaka; Kuhen, Kelli L; Fischli, Christoph; Rottmann, Matthias; Plouffe, David M; Bursulaya, Badry; Meister, Stephan; Rameh, Lucia; Trappe, Joerg; Haasen, Dorothea; Timmerman, Martijn; Sauerwein, Robert W; Suwanarusk, Rossarin; Russell, Bruce; Renia, Laurent; Nosten, Francois; Tully, David C; Kocken, Clemens H M; Glynne, Richard J; Bodenreider, Christophe; Fidock, David A; Diagana, Thierry T; Winzeler, Elizabeth A

    2013-12-12

    Achieving the goal of malaria elimination will depend on targeting Plasmodium pathways essential across all life stages. Here we identify a lipid kinase, phosphatidylinositol-4-OH kinase (PI(4)K), as the target of imidazopyrazines, a new antimalarial compound class that inhibits the intracellular development of multiple Plasmodium species at each stage of infection in the vertebrate host. Imidazopyrazines demonstrate potent preventive, therapeutic, and transmission-blocking activity in rodent malaria models, are active against blood-stage field isolates of the major human pathogens P. falciparum and P. vivax, and inhibit liver-stage hypnozoites in the simian parasite P. cynomolgi. We show that imidazopyrazines exert their effect through inhibitory interaction with the ATP-binding pocket of PI(4)K, altering the intracellular distribution of phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate. Collectively, our data define PI(4)K as a key Plasmodium vulnerability, opening up new avenues of target-based discovery to identify drugs with an ideal activity profile for the prevention, treatment and elimination of malaria.

  20. Role and Regulation of Glutathione Metabolism in Plasmodium falciparum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylke Müller

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Malaria in humans is caused by one of five species of obligate intracellular protozoan parasites of the genus Plasmodium. P. falciparum causes the most severe disease and is responsible for 600,000 deaths annually, primarily in Sub-Saharan Africa. It has long been suggested that during their development, malaria parasites are exposed to environmental and metabolic stresses. One strategy to drug discovery was to increase these stresses by interfering with the parasites’ antioxidant and redox systems, which may be a valuable approach to disease intervention. Plasmodium possesses two redox systems—the thioredoxin and the glutathione system—with overlapping but also distinct functions. Glutathione is the most abundant low molecular weight redox active thiol in the parasites existing primarily in its reduced form representing an excellent thiol redox buffer. This allows for an efficient maintenance of the intracellular reducing environment of the parasite cytoplasm and its organelles. This review will highlight the mechanisms that are responsible for sustaining an adequate concentration of glutathione and maintaining its redox state in Plasmodium. It will provide a summary of the functions of the tripeptide and will discuss the potential of glutathione metabolism for drug discovery against human malaria parasites.

  1. Malária por Plasmodium falciparum: estudos proteômicos Plasmodium falciparum malaria: proteomic studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Siqueira-Batista

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A despeito dos avanços no tratamento e das campanhas de prevenção e de controle da malária nos distintos continentes nos quais a moléstia grassa, a entidade mórbida permanece com significativa relevância no mundo contemporâneo. O Plasmodium falciparum é o grande responsável pela malária grave, caracterizada por distúrbios em diferentes órgãos e sistemas, com possibilidade de evolução ao óbito. Embora incipientes, os estudos proteômicos na malária têm trazido boas perspectivas para melhor compreensão dos aspectos biológicos do Plasmodium, assim como dos mecanismos fisiopatológicos, diagnósticos, terapêuticos e profiláticos da enfermidade. Desse modo, o objetivo do presente artigo é apresentar uma breve revisão das aplicações da análise proteômica na malária por P. falciparum.Despite advances in treatment and campaigns for prevention and control of malaria on the various continents where it is still rampant, this disease remains significantly relevant to the contemporary world. Plasmodium falciparum is the organism that is mainly responsible for severe malaria, which is characterized by disturbances in different organs and systems, with possibly fatal outcomes. Although incipient, proteomic studies of malaria have yielded favorable prospects for elucidating the biological aspects of Plasmodium as well as the pathophysiological, diagnostic, prophylactic, and therapeutic mechanisms of the disease. Thus, the aim of the present article is to present a brief review of the applications of proteomic analysis in P. falciparum malaria.

  2. A bioinformatic survey of RNA-binding proteins in Plasmodium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, B P Niranjan; Shrestha, Sony; Hart, Kevin J; Liang, Xiaoying; Kemirembe, Karen; Cui, Liwang; Lindner, Scott E

    2015-11-02

    The malaria parasites in the genus Plasmodium have a very complicated life cycle involving an invertebrate vector and a vertebrate host. RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) are critical factors involved in every aspect of the development of these parasites. However, very few RBPs have been functionally characterized to date in the human parasite Plasmodium falciparum. Using different bioinformatic methods and tools we searched P. falciparum genome to list and annotate RBPs. A representative 3D models for each of the RBD domain identified in P. falciparum was created using I-TESSAR and SWISS-MODEL. Microarray and RNAseq data analysis pertaining PfRBPs was performed using MeV software. Finally, Cytoscape was used to create protein-protein interaction network for CITH-Dozi and Caf1-CCR4-Not complexes. We report the identification of 189 putative RBP genes belonging to 13 different families in Plasmodium, which comprise 3.5% of all annotated genes. Almost 90% (169/189) of these genes belong to six prominent RBP classes, namely RNA recognition motifs, DEAD/H-box RNA helicases, K homology, Zinc finger, Puf and Alba gene families. Interestingly, almost all of the identified RNA-binding helicases and KH genes have cognate homologs in model species, suggesting their evolutionary conservation. Exploration of the existing P. falciparum blood-stage transcriptomes revealed that most RBPs have peak mRNA expression levels early during the intraerythrocytic development cycle, which taper off in later stages. Nearly 27% of RBPs have elevated expression in gametocytes, while 47 and 24% have elevated mRNA expression in ookinete and asexual stages. Comparative interactome analyses using human and Plasmodium protein-protein interaction datasets suggest extensive conservation of the PfCITH/PfDOZI and PfCaf1-CCR4-NOT complexes. The Plasmodium parasites possess a large number of putative RBPs belonging to most of RBP families identified so far, suggesting the presence of extensive post

  3. Molecular Detection of Plasmodium malariae/Plasmodium brasilianum in Non-Human Primates in Captivity in Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes-Ramírez, Alicia; Jiménez-Soto, Mauricio; Castro, Ruth; Romero-Zuñiga, Juan José; Dolz, Gaby

    2017-01-01

    One hundred and fifty-two blood samples of non-human primates of thirteen rescue centers in Costa Rica were analyzed to determine the presence of species of Plasmodium using thick blood smears, semi-nested multiplex polymerase chain reaction (SnM-PCR) for species differentiation, cloning and sequencing for confirmation. Using thick blood smears, two samples were determined to contain the Plasmodium malariae parasite, with SnM-PCR, a total of five (3.3%) samples were positive to P. malariae, cloning and sequencing confirmed both smear samples as P. malariae. One sample amplified a larger and conserved region of 18S rDNA for the genus Plasmodium and sequencing confirmed the results obtained microscopically and through SnM-PCR tests. Sequencing and construction of a phylogenetic tree of this sample revealed that the P. malariae/P. brasilianum parasite (GenBank KU999995) found in a howler monkey (Alouatta palliata) is identical to that recently reported in humans in Costa Rica. The SnM-PCR detected P. malariae/P. brasilianum parasite in different non-human primate species in captivity and in various regions of the southern Atlantic and Pacific coast of Costa Rica. The similarity of the sequences of parasites found in humans and a monkey suggests that monkeys may be acting as reservoirs of P.malariae/P. brasilianum, for which reason it is important, to include them in control and eradication programs.

  4. Molecular epidemiology of Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum malaria among Duffy-positive and Duffy-negative populations in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Eugenia; Yewhalaw, Delenasaw; Zhong, Daibin; Zemene, Endalew; Degefa, Teshome; Tushune, Kora; Ha, Margaret; Lee, Ming-Chieh; James, Anthony A; Yan, Guiyun

    2015-02-19

    Malaria is the most prevalent communicable disease in Ethiopia, with 75% of the country's landmass classified as endemic for malaria. Accurate information on the distribution and clinical prevalence of Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum malaria in endemic areas, as well as in Duffy-negative populations, is essential to develop integrated control strategies. A total of 390 and 416 community and clinical samples, respectively, representing different localities and age groups across Ethiopia were examined. Malaria prevalence was estimated using nested PCR of the 18S rRNA region. Parasite gene copy number was measured by quantitative real-time PCR and compared between symptomatic and asymptomatic samples, as well as between children/adolescents and adults from the local community. An approximately 500-bp segment of the human DARC gene was amplified and sequenced to identify Duffy genotype at the -33rd nucleotide position for all the clinical and community samples. Plasmodium vivax prevalence was higher in the south while P. falciparum was higher in the north. The prevalence of P. vivax and P. falciparum malaria is the highest in children compared to adolescents and adults. Four P. vivax infections were detected among the Duffy-negative samples. Samples from asymptomatic individuals show a significantly lower parasite gene copy number than those from symptomatic infections for P. vivax and P. falciparum. Geographical and age differences influence the distribution of P. vivax and P. falciparum malaria in Ethiopia. These findings offer evidence-based guidelines in targeting malaria control efforts in the country.

  5. Molecular Detection of Plasmodium malariae/Plasmodium brasilianum in Non-Human Primates in Captivity in Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes-Ramírez, Alicia; Jiménez-Soto, Mauricio; Castro, Ruth; Romero-Zuñiga, Juan José

    2017-01-01

    One hundred and fifty-two blood samples of non-human primates of thirteen rescue centers in Costa Rica were analyzed to determine the presence of species of Plasmodium using thick blood smears, semi-nested multiplex polymerase chain reaction (SnM-PCR) for species differentiation, cloning and sequencing for confirmation. Using thick blood smears, two samples were determined to contain the Plasmodium malariae parasite, with SnM-PCR, a total of five (3.3%) samples were positive to P. malariae, cloning and sequencing confirmed both smear samples as P. malariae. One sample amplified a larger and conserved region of 18S rDNA for the genus Plasmodium and sequencing confirmed the results obtained microscopically and through SnM-PCR tests. Sequencing and construction of a phylogenetic tree of this sample revealed that the P. malariae/P. brasilianum parasite (GenBank KU999995) found in a howler monkey (Alouatta palliata) is identical to that recently reported in humans in Costa Rica. The SnM-PCR detected P. malariae/P. brasilianum parasite in different non-human primate species in captivity and in various regions of the southern Atlantic and Pacific coast of Costa Rica. The similarity of the sequences of parasites found in humans and a monkey suggests that monkeys may be acting as reservoirs of P.malariae/P. brasilianum, for which reason it is important, to include them in control and eradication programs. PMID:28125696

  6. Cytokine balance in human malaria: does Plasmodium vivax elicit more inflammatory responses than Plasmodium falciparum?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel M Gonçalves

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The mechanisms by which humans regulate pro- and anti-inflammatory responses on exposure to different malaria parasites remains unclear. Although Plasmodium vivax usually causes a relatively benign disease, this parasite has been suggested to elicit more host inflammation per parasitized red blood cell than P. falciparum. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We measured plasma concentrations of seven cytokines and two soluble tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α receptors, and evaluated clinical and laboratory outcomes, in Brazilians with acute uncomplicated infections with P. vivax (n = 85, P. falciparum (n = 30, or both species (n = 12, and in 45 asymptomatic carriers of low-density P. vivax infection. Symptomatic vivax malaria patients, compared to those infected with P. falciparum or both species, had more intense paroxysms, but they had no clear association with a pro-inflammatory imbalance. To the contrary, these patients had higher levels of the regulatory cytokine interleukin (IL-10, which correlated positively with parasite density, and elevated IL-10/TNF-α, IL-10/interferon (IFN-γ, IL-10/IL-6 and sTNFRII/TNF-α ratios, compared to falciparum or mixed-species malaria patient groups. Vivax malaria patients had the highest levels of circulating soluble TNF-α receptor sTNFRII. Levels of regulatory cytokines returned to normal values 28 days after P. vivax clearance following chemotherapy. Finally, asymptomatic carriers of low P. vivax parasitemias had substantially lower levels of both inflammatory and regulatory cytokines than did patients with clinical malaria due to either species. CONCLUSIONS: Controlling fast-multiplying P. falciparum blood stages requires a strong inflammatory response to prevent fulminant infections, while reducing inflammation-related tissue damage with early regulatory cytokine responses may be a more cost-effective strategy in infections with the less virulent P. vivax parasite. The early induction

  7. Towards high-throughput molecular detection of Plasmodium: new approaches and molecular markers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Steenkeste, Nicolas; Incardona, Sandra; Chy, Sophy; Duval, Linda; Ekala, Marie-Thérèse; Lim, Pharath; Hewitt, Sean; Sochantha, Tho; Socheat, Doung; Rogier, Christophe; Mercereau-Puijalon, Odile; Fandeur, Thierry; Ariey, Frédéric

    2009-01-01

    .... Two new molecular methods were developed: dot18S, a Plasmodium-specific nested PCR based on the 18S rRNA gene followed by dot-blot detection of species by using species-specific probes and CYTB, a Plasmodium-specific nested PCR based...

  8. New approach for high-throughput screening of drug activity on Plasmodium liver stages.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gego, A.; Silvie, O.; Franetich, J.F.; Farhati, K.; Hannoun, L.; Luty, A.J.F.; Sauerwein, R.W.; Boucheix, C.; Rubinstein, E.; Mazier, D.

    2006-01-01

    Plasmodium liver stages represent potential targets for antimalarial prophylactic drugs. Nevertheless, there is a lack of molecules active on these stages. We have now developed a new approach for the high-throughput screening of drug activity on Plasmodium liver stages in vitro, based on an

  9. [Nuclei in the plasmodium of Intoshia variabili (Orthonectida) as revealed by DAPI staining].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sliusarev, G S; Manylov, O G; Cherkasov, A S

    2002-01-01

    DAPI staining of wholeamounts was used to reveal the parasitic plasmodium of the orthonectid Intoshia variabili in its host, the turbellarian Macrorhynchus crocea. The nuclei of the parasite differ drastically from those of the host in size, morphology, and the estimated DNA content. Our findings indirectly support the idea that the orthonectid plasmodium is a distinct parasitic organism, rather than modified host cells.

  10. The genome of the simian and human malaria parasite Plasmodium knowlesi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pain, A; Böhme, U; Berry, A E

    2008-01-01

    Plasmodium knowlesi is an intracellular malaria parasite whose natural vertebrate host is Macaca fascicularis (the 'kra' monkey); however, it is now increasingly recognized as a significant cause of human malaria, particularly in southeast Asia. Plasmodium knowlesi was the first malaria parasite ...

  11. New approach for high-throughput screening of drug activity on Plasmodium liver stages.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gego, A.; Silvie, O.; Franetich, J.F.; Farhati, K.; Hannoun, L.; Luty, A.J.F.; Sauerwein, R.W.; Boucheix, C.; Rubinstein, E.; Mazier, D.

    2006-01-01

    Plasmodium liver stages represent potential targets for antimalarial prophylactic drugs. Nevertheless, there is a lack of molecules active on these stages. We have now developed a new approach for the high-throughput screening of drug activity on Plasmodium liver stages in vitro, based on an infrare

  12. HIV nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole inhibit plasmodium liver stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbs, Charlotte V; Voza, Tatiana; De La Vega, Patricia; Vanvliet, Jillian; Conteh, Solomon; Penzak, Scott R; Fay, Michael P; Anders, Nicole; Ilmet, Tiina; Li, Yonghua; Borkowsky, William; Krzych, Urszula; Duffy, Patrick E; Sinnis, Photini

    2012-12-01

    Although nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) are usually part of first-line treatment regimens for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), their activity on Plasmodium liver stages remains unexplored. Additionally, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX), used for opportunistic infection prophylaxis in HIV-exposed infants and HIV-infected patients, reduces clinical episodes of malaria; however, TMP-SMX effect on Plasmodium liver stages requires further study. We characterized NNRTI and TMP-SMX effects on Plasmodium liver stages in vivo using Plasmodium yoelii. On the basis of these results, we conducted in vitro studies assessing TMP-SMX effects on the rodent parasites P. yoelii and Plasmodium berghei and on the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. Our data showed NNRTI treatment modestly reduced P. yoelii liver stage parasite burden and minimally extended prepatent period. TMP-SMX administration significantly reduced liver stage parasite burden, preventing development of patent parasitemia in vivo. TMP-SMX inhibited development of rodent and P. falciparum liver stage parasites in vitro. NNRTIs modestly affect liver stage Plasmodium parasites, whereas TMP-SMX prevents patent parasitemia. Because drugs that inhibit liver stages target parasites when they are present in lower numbers, these results may have implications for eradication efforts. Understanding HIV drug effects on Plasmodium liver stages will aid in optimizing treatment regimens for HIV-exposed and HIV-infected infected patients in malaria-endemic areas.

  13. The Plasmodium apicoplast genome: conserved structure and close relationship of P. ovale to rodent malaria parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arisue, Nobuko; Hashimoto, Tetsuo; Mitsui, Hideya; Palacpac, Nirianne M Q; Kaneko, Akira; Kawai, Satoru; Hasegawa, Masami; Tanabe, Kazuyuki; Horii, Toshihiro

    2012-09-01

    Apicoplast, a nonphotosynthetic plastid derived from secondary symbiotic origin, is essential for the survival of malaria parasites of the genus Plasmodium. Elucidation of the evolution of the apicoplast genome in Plasmodium species is important to better understand the functions of the organelle. However, the complete apicoplast genome is available for only the most virulent human malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum. Here, we obtained the near-complete apicoplast genome sequences from eight Plasmodium species that infect a wide variety of vertebrate hosts and performed structural and phylogenetic analyses. We found that gene repertoire, gene arrangement, and other structural attributes were highly conserved. Phylogenetic reconstruction using 30 protein-coding genes of the apicoplast genome inferred, for the first time, a close relationship between P. ovale and rodent parasites. This close relatedness was robustly supported using multiple evolutionary assumptions and models. The finding suggests that an ancestral host switch occurred between rodent and human Plasmodium parasites.

  14. Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification Assay for Identification of Five Human Plasmodium Species in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Yee-Ling; Lai, Meng-Yee; Fong, Mun-Yik; Jelip, Jenarun; Mahmud, Rohela

    2016-02-01

    The lack of rapid, affordable, and accurate diagnostic tests represents the primary hurdle affecting malaria surveillance in resource- and expertise-limited areas. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) is a sensitive, rapid, and cheap diagnostic method. Five species-specific LAMP assays were developed based on 18S rRNA gene. Sensitivity and specificity of LAMP results were calculated as compared with microscopic examination and nested polymerase chain reaction. LAMP reactions were highly sensitive with the detection limit of one copy for Plasmodium vivax, Plasmodium falciparum, and Plasmodium malariae and 10 copies for Plasmodium knowlesi and Plasmodium ovale. LAMP positively detected all human malaria species in all positive samples (N = 134; sensitivity = 100%) within 35 minutes. All negative samples were not amplified by LAMP (N = 67; specificity = 100%). LAMP successfully detected two samples with very low parasitemia. LAMP may offer a rapid, simple, and reliable test for the diagnosis of malaria in areas where malaria is prevalent.

  15. Avian malaria on Madagascar: bird hosts and putative vector mosquitoes of different Plasmodium lineages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Sandrine; Dinkel, Anke; Mackenstedt, Ute; Tantely, Michaël Luciano; Randrianambinintsoa, Fano José; Boyer, Sébastien; Woog, Friederike

    2017-01-05

    Avian malaria occurs almost worldwide and is caused by Haemosporida parasites (Plasmodium, Haemoproteus and Leucocytozoon). Vectors such as mosquitoes, hippoboscid flies or biting midges are required for the transmission of these parasites. There are few studies about avian malaria parasites on Madagascar but none about suitable vectors. To identify vectors of avian Plasmodium parasites on Madagascar, we examined head, thorax and abdomen of 418 mosquitoes from at least 18 species using a nested PCR method to amplify a 524 bp fragment of the haemosporidian mitochondrial cytochrome b gene. Sequences obtained were then compared with a large dataset of haemosporidian sequences detected in 45 different bird species (n = 686) from the same area in the Maromizaha rainforest. Twenty-one mosquitoes tested positive for avian malaria parasites. Haemoproteus DNA was found in nine mosquitoes (2.15%) while Plasmodium DNA was found in 12 mosquitoes (2.87%). Seven distinct lineages were identified among the Plasmodium DNA samples. Some lineages were also found in the examined bird samples: Plasmodium sp. WA46 (EU810628.1) in the Madagascar bulbul, Plasmodium sp. mosquito 132 (AB308050.1) in 15 bird species belonging to eight families, Plasmodium sp. PV12 (GQ150194.1) in eleven bird species belonging to eight families and Plasmodium sp. P31 (DQ839060.1) was found in three weaver bird species. This study provides the first insight into avian malaria transmission in the Maromizaha rainforest in eastern Madagascar. Five Haemoproteus lineages and seven Plasmodium lineages were detected in the examined mosquitoes. Complete life-cycles for the specialist lineages WA46 and P31 and for the generalist lineages mosquito132 and PV12 of Plasmodium are proposed. In addition, we have identified for the first time Anopheles mascarensis and Uranotaenia spp. as vectors for avian malaria and offer the first description of vector mosquitoes for avian malaria in Madagascar.

  16. Epidemiology and Control of Plasmodium vivax in Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslie, Toby; Nahzat, Sami; Sediqi, Walid

    2016-01-01

    Around half of the population of Afghanistan resides in areas at risk of malaria transmission. Two species of malaria (Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum) account for a high burden of disease—in 2011, there were more than 300,000 confirmed cases. Around 80–95% of malaria is P. vivax. Transmission is seasonal and focal, below 2,000 m in altitude, and in irrigated areas which allow breeding of anopheline mosquito vectors. Malaria risk is stratified to improve targeting of interventions. Sixty-three of 400 districts account for ∼85% of cases, and are the target of more intense control efforts. Pressure on the disease is maintained through case management, surveillance, and use of long-lasting insecticide-treated nets. Plasmodium vivax treatment is hampered by the inability to safely treat latent hypnozoites with primaquine because G6PD deficiency affects up to 10% of males in some ethnic groups. The risk of vivax malaria recurrence (which may be as a result of reinfection or relapse) is around 30–45% in groups not treated with primaquine but 3–20% in those given 14-day or 8-week courses of primaquine. Greater access to G6PD testing and radical treatment would reduce the number of incident cases, reduce the infectious reservoir in the population, and has the potential to reduce transmission as a result. Alongside the lack of G6PD testing, under-resourcing and poor security hamper the control of malaria. Recent gains in reducing the burden of disease are fragile and at risk of reversal if pressure on the disease is not maintained. PMID:27708189

  17. [Monkey malaria (Plasmodium knowlesi infection) after travelling to Thailand].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroidl, Inge; Seilmaier, Michael; Berens-Riha, Nicole; Bretzel, Gisela; Wendtner, Clemens; Löscher, Thomas

    2015-05-01

    A case of malaria caused by Plasmodium knowlesi is described in a 52-year-old female German traveler after returning from Thailand. P. knowlesi is a parasite of macaques in Southeast Asia and has been recognized in recent years as an important and probably increasing cause of human malaria in some areas. At least 16 cases in international travelers have been published so far. This includes four cases imported to Germany. All German patients visited forested areas in Southern Thailand inhabited by the natural monkey host prior to their illness. Most cases diagnosed in endemic areas present as mild disease. However in some patients P. knowlesi may take a severe and life-threatening course. Diagnosis is usually is based on microscopy whereas rapid tests are not reliable. However, microscopic differentiation of P. knowlesi from other plasmodium species (eg, P. malariae, P. falciparum) is difficult, especially when parasitemia is low. Thus PCR methods are required for definite species determination. Changing endemicity as well as changing tourism patterns such as the trend towards eco-tourism might increase the risk of infection for travelers even in areas which are considered as low endemic for malaria. Malaria has to be considered in all febrile patients returning from endemic areas. In Southeast Asia this has to include Plasmodium knowlesi infection. Especially if microscopy suggests P. falciparum/P. malariae double infection, or when results indicate P. malariae but the clinical presentation differs from that of quartan malaria (eg, daily fever), diagnostic procedures for P. knowlesi should be initiated. Currently available rapid diagnostic tests are not reliable for the detection of P. knowlesi. The definite diagnosis of P. knowlesi infection usually requires PCR techniques Changing tourism patterns such as the trend towards eco-tourism might increase the risk of infection for travelers even in low prevalence areas. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  18. Cell based assays for anti-Plasmodium activity evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokgethi-Morule, Thabang; N'Da, David D

    2016-03-10

    Malaria remains one of the most common and deadly infectious diseases worldwide. The severity of this global public health challenge is reflected by the approximately 198 million people, who were reportedly infected in 2013 and by the more than 584,000 related deaths in that same year. The rising emergence of drug resistance towards the once effective artemisinin combination therapies (ACTs) has become a serious concern and warrants more robust drug development strategies, with the objective of eradicating malaria infections. The intricate biology and life cycle of Plasmodium parasites complicate the understanding of the disease in such a way that would enhance the development of more effective chemotherapies that would achieve radical clinical cure and that would prevent disease relapse. Phenotypic cell based assays have for long been a valuable approach and involve the screening and analysis of diverse compounds with regards to their activities towards whole Plasmodium parasites in vitro. To achieve the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) of malaria eradication by 2020, new generation drugs that are active against all parasite stages (erythrocytic (blood), exo-erythrocytic (liver stages and gametocytes)) are needed. Significant advances are being made in assay development to overcome some of the practical challenges of assessing drug efficacy, particularly in the liver and transmission stage Plasmodium models. This review discusses primary screening models and the fundamental progress being made in whole cell based efficacy screens of anti-malarial activity. Ongoing challenges and some opportunities for improvements in assay development that would assist in the discovery of effective, safe and affordable drugs for malaria treatments are also discussed.

  19. Multiplicity of Infection and Disease Severity in Plasmodium vivax.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Andreína Pacheco

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiplicity of infection (MOI refers to the average number of distinct parasite genotypes concurrently infecting a patient. Although several studies have reported on MOI and the frequency of multiclonal infections in Plasmodium falciparum, there is limited data on Plasmodium vivax. Here, MOI and the frequency of multiclonal infections were studied in areas from South America where P. vivax and P. falciparum can be compared.As part of a passive surveillance study, 1,328 positive malaria patients were recruited between 2011 and 2013 in low transmission areas from Colombia. Of those, there were only 38 P. vivax and 24 P. falciparum clinically complicated cases scattered throughout the time of the study. Samples from uncomplicated cases were matched in time and location with the complicated cases in order to compare the circulating genotypes for these two categories. A total of 92 P. vivax and 57 P. falciparum uncomplicated cases were randomly subsampled. All samples were genotyped by using neutral microsatellites. Plasmodium vivax showed more multiclonal infections (47.7% than P. falciparum (14.8%. Population genetics and haplotype network analyses did not detect differences in the circulating genotypes between complicated and uncomplicated cases in each parasite. However, a Fisher exact test yielded a significant association between having multiclonal P. vivax infections and complicated malaria. No association was found for P. falciparum infections.The association between multiclonal infections and disease severity in P. vivax is consistent with previous observations made in rodent malaria. The contrasting pattern between P. vivax and P. falciparum could be explained, at least in part, by the fact that P. vivax infections have lineages that were more distantly related among them than in the case of the P. falciparum multiclonal infections. Future research should address the possible role that acquired immunity and exposure may have on multiclonal

  20. Distinct temporal recruitment of Plasmodium alveolins to the subpellicular network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremp, Annie Z; Al-Khattaf, Fatimah S; Dessens, Johannes T

    2014-11-01

    The zoite stages of malaria parasites (merozoite, ookinete and sporozoite) possess a distinctive cortical structure termed the pellicle, which is defined by a double membrane layer named the inner membrane complex (IMC). The IMC is supported by a cytoskeleton of intermediate filaments, termed the subpellicular network (SPN). Plasmodium IMC1 proteins, or alveolins, make up a conserved family of structurally related proteins that comprise building blocks of the SPN. Here, using green fluorescent protein (GFP) tagging in P. berghei, we show that the alveolins PbIMC1c and PbIMC1e are expressed in all three zoite stages. Our data reveal that PbIMC1e is assembled into the SPN concurrent with pellicle development, while PbIMC1c is assembled after pellicle formation. In the sexual stages, these processes are accompanied by different gene expressions from maternal and paternal alleles: PbIMC1e is expressed uniquely from the maternal allele, while PbIMC1c is expressed from the maternal allele in gametocytes, but from both parental alleles during ookinete development. These findings establish biogenesis of the cortical cytoskeleton in Plasmodium to be a complex and dynamic process, involving distinct parental gene expression and chronological recruitment of its protein constituents. While allelic replacement of the pbimc1c and pbimc1e genes with GFP-tagged versions was readily achieved using double crossover homologous recombination, attempts to disrupt these genes by this strategy only resulted in the integration of the selectable marker and GFP reporter into non-specific genomic locations. The recurrent inability to disrupt these genes provides the first genetic evidence that alveolins are necessary for asexual blood-stage parasite development in Plasmodium.

  1. Experimental systems for studying Plasmodium/HIV coinfection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frischknecht, Friedrich; Fackler, Oliver T

    2016-07-01

    Coinfections with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and Plasmodium, the causative agents of AIDS and malaria, respectively, are frequent and their comorbidity especially in sub-Saharan Africa is high. While clinical studies suggest an influence of the two pathogens on the outcome of the respective infections, experimental studies on the molecular and immunological impact of coinfections are rare. This reflects the limited availability of suitable model systems that reproduce key properties of both pathologies. Here, we discuss key aspects of coinfection with a focus on currently established experimental systems, their limitations for coinfection studies and potential strategies for their improvement.

  2. Loss of cellular immune reactivity during acute Plasmodium falciparum malaria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hviid, L; Theander, T G; Abu-Zeid, Y A;

    1991-01-01

    Sixteen patients suffering from acute Plasmodium falciparum malaria were studied. All were residents of an area of unstable malaria-transmission in Eastern Sudan. Blood-samples were drawn at diagnosis, and 7 and 30 days later. Blood-samples from thirteen donors, drawn outside the malaria...... convalescence. Five donors examined by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) showed no increase in surface expression of IL-2 receptor on peripheral lymphocytes. The data indicate that acute P. falciparum malaria causes a depletion of antigen-reactive T-cells from the peripheral circulation, probably due...

  3. Serological evidence of discrete spatial clusters of Plasmodium falciparum parasites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bejon, Philip; Turner, Louise; Lavstsen, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Malaria transmission may be considered to be homogenous with well-mixed parasite populations (as in the classic Ross/Macdonald models). Marked fine-scale heterogeneity of transmission has been observed in the field (i.e., over a few kilometres), but there are relatively few data on the degree of ...... of mixing. Since the Plasmodium falciparum Erythrocyte Membrane Protein 1 (PfEMP1) is highly polymorphic, the host's serological responses may be used to infer exposure to parasite sub-populations....

  4. The Plasmodium bottleneck: malaria parasite losses in the mosquito vector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Ryan C; Vega-Rodríguez, Joel; Jacobs-Lorena, Marcelo

    2014-01-01

    Nearly one million people are killed every year by the malaria parasite Plasmodium. Although the disease-causing forms of the parasite exist only in the human blood, mosquitoes of the genus Anopheles are the obligate vector for transmission. Here, we review the parasite life cycle in the vector and highlight the human and mosquito contributions that limit malaria parasite development in the mosquito host. We address parasite killing in its mosquito host and bottlenecks in parasite numbers that might guide intervention strategies to prevent transmission. PMID:25185005

  5. Loss of cellular immune reactivity during acute Plasmodium falciparum malaria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hviid, L; Theander, T G; Abu-Zeid, Y A

    1991-01-01

    Sixteen patients suffering from acute Plasmodium falciparum malaria were studied. All were residents of an area of unstable malaria-transmission in Eastern Sudan. Blood-samples were drawn at diagnosis, and 7 and 30 days later. Blood-samples from thirteen donors, drawn outside the malaria...... convalescence. Five donors examined by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) showed no increase in surface expression of IL-2 receptor on peripheral lymphocytes. The data indicate that acute P. falciparum malaria causes a depletion of antigen-reactive T-cells from the peripheral circulation, probably due...

  6. Naturally acquired immunity to Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hviid, Lars

    2005-01-01

    protective immunity to P. falciparum malaria is acquired following natural exposure to the parasites is beginning to emerge, not least thanks to studies that have combined clinical and epidemiological data with basic immunological research. This framework involves IgG with specificity for clonally variant......Infection by Plasmodium falciparum parasites can lead to substantial protective immunity to malaria, and available evidence suggest that acquisition of protection against some severe malaria syndromes can be fairly rapid. Although these facts have raised hopes that the development of effective...

  7. Variant-specific immunity to Plasmodium berghei in pregnant mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Megnekou, Rosette; Hviid, Lars; Staalsoe, Trine

    2009-01-01

    to the P. falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 adhesins, which are of key importance in P. falciparum malaria. The study of P. berghei malaria in pregnant, immune mice can be used to gain significant new insights regarding malaria pathogenesis and immunity in general and regarding PAM in particular.......We have investigated the immunological basis of pregnancy-related Plasmodium berghei recrudescence in immune mice with substantial preexisting immunity. Specifically, we examined the relevance of this experimental model to the study of pregnancy-associated malaria (PAM) caused by P. falciparum...

  8. Pseudomonas aeruginosa septicaemia in a patient with severe Plasmodium falciparum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kharazmi, A; Høiby, N; Theander, T G

    1987-01-01

    presented with severe form of malaria, progressing rapidly into coma and died within a short time. P. aeruginosa was isolated from his blood taken on the day of admission. His neutrophils were all occupied by P. falciparum. The unusual combination of severe falciparum malaria infection and P. aeruginosa......This report describes a Danish patient with severe Plasmodium falciparum infection and Pseudomonas aeruginosa septicaemia. The patient had been sailing along the coast of West Africa for ten years without taking any antimalaria prophylaxis and without any apparent previous history of malaria. He...

  9. An extracellular inducer of asexual plasmodium formation in Physarum polycephalum.

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    Youngman, P J; Adler, P N; Shinnick, T M; Holt, C E

    1977-01-01

    Asexual conversion of amoebae to plasmodia was studied in the Colonia isolate of the myxomycete, Physarum polycephalum. When a culture of Colonia amoebae is grown on a bacterial lawn, a period of amoebic growth precedes the appearance of cells committed to the plasmodial state. The onset of plasmodium production appears to be related to amoebic nutrition since cultures supplied with fewer bacteria display earlier differentiation. For a period of time after differentiation is initiated, conversion of amoebae to plasmodia is rapid and proceeds as an exponential function of time. A filter-transmissible substance, apparently released by differentiating cells, is implicated in the control of this rapid conversion. Images PMID:265558

  10. The Plasmodium bottleneck: malaria parasite losses in the mosquito vector

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    Ryan C Smith

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Nearly one million people are killed every year by the malaria parasite Plasmodium. Although the disease-causing forms of the parasite exist only in the human blood, mosquitoes of the genus Anopheles are the obligate vector for transmission. Here, we review the parasite life cycle in the vector and highlight the human and mosquito contributions that limit malaria parasite development in the mosquito host. We address parasite killing in its mosquito host and bottlenecks in parasite numbers that might guide intervention strategies to prevent transmission.

  11. Penemuan Baru Plasmodium Knowlesi pada Manusia di Kalimantan Tengah

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    Sahat Ompusunggu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available AbstractUntil 2012, four Plasmodium knowlesi malaria cases had been found in South Kalimantan. Objectives of this study were to determine the proporsion of P. knowlesi among microscopically positive malaria cases, clinical symptoms and morphology of P. knowlesi. This study is conductedin Central Kalimantan and South Kalimantan in 2013-2014. Samples were microscopically positive malaria cases obtained by surveys and passive case findings. Finger’s blood absorbed on filter papers or scraping of thick blood films were examined by polymerase chain reaction. Patients were also examined clinically and interviewed to investigate the history of infections. The results showed that among the 287 samples examined, three samples (1.05% positive P. knowlesi. All of the three cases were infected locally, which consist of two in Central Kalimantan and one in South Kalimantan. The cases in Central Kalimantan were the first finding of Plasmodium knowlesi malaria cases in the province. Clinical symptoms in two cases were mild but in another case was rather severe. Morphology of P. knowlesi has a special characteristic although it resembles P. falciparum, P. vivax and P. malariae. Further research is needed in order to find other spreading area of P. knowlesi malaria in Indonesia.Keywords : Plasmodium knowlesi, human, clinical symptoms, morphology, Central Kalimantan.AbstrakSampai tahun 2012, empat kasus malaria Plamodium knowlesi pada manusia yang penularannya di sekitar hutan telah ditemukan di Kalimantan Selatan. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui besarnya proporsi P. knowlesi di antara kasus malaria positif mikroskopis, gejala klinis dan morfologi P. knowlesi. Penelitian ini dilakukan di Kalimantan Tengah dan Kalimantan Selatan pada tahun 2013-2014. Sampel adalah kasus malaria positif mikroskopis yang diperoleh melalui survei dan penemuan kasus secara pasif. Serapan darah pada kertas saring atau kerokan sediaan apus darah tebal diperiksa dengan

  12. Plasmodium vivax in Africa: hidden in plain sight?

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    Rosenberg, Ronald

    2007-05-01

    People who live in tropical Africa, south of the Sahara, are predominantly negative for the Duffy blood-group antigen, which mediates invasion of reticulocytes by Plasmodium vivax. Recent reports of a parasite that was molecularly diagnosed as P. vivax from populations who are suspected, or known, to be Duffy negative confound a large body of evidence that states that invasion of P. vivax requires the Duffy antigen. If confirmed, one of several possible explanations is that P. vivax, which originated in Asia, is now evolving to exploit alternate invasion receptors in Africa.

  13. PLASMODIUM KNOWLESI: DISTRIBUSI, GAMBARAN MIKROSKOPIS, GEJALA PENDERITA DAN VEKTOR POTENSIAL

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    Lasbudi Pertama Ambarita

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTMalaria in humans is caused by an infection of genus Plasmodium, especially P. falciparum, P. vivax.P.mulariae and P. ovate. Types of Plasmodium in animals that can inject humans is P. knowlesi. Animalswhich are found parasites in their body are long tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis and pig-tailedmacaques (Macaca nemestrina. .There have been many cases with positive malaria knowlesi as ithappened in Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand, Philippines, Myanmar, China, Vietnam and Indonesia. Studyof P. knowlesi aims to give an overview of the • case distribution, microscopic. features, patient characteristic, potential vector, as well as potential spread of malaria knowlesi in Indonesia. The methodused in this study is study literature from various sources. The microscopic features of the parasite inpatient blood films is pretty similar to P. falciparum and P. malariae in certain stadium. Therefore more awareness are needed regarding the spread of this parasite, especially in border areas of malaria endemiccountries and newly arrived immigrants in endemic areas of P. knowlesi.Keywords: Plasmodium knowlesi, malaria, parasite, vector ABSTRAKMalaria pada manusia selama ini disebabkan oleh infeksi genusPlasmodiumkhususnyaP. falciparum, P.vivax, P. malariaedanP. ovate. JenisPlasmodiumpada hewan yang dapat menginfeksi manusia adalahP.knowlesi.Hewan yang banyak ditemukan parasit ini dalam tubuhnya adalah kera ekor panjang(Macacajascicularisdan kera ekor babi(Macaca nemestrina.Sudah banyak kasus penderita malaria yang positif parasit ini seperti yang terjadi di Malaysia, Singapura, Thailand, Filipina, Myanmar, Cina, Vietnam danIndonesia. Kajian tentangP. knowlesiini bertujuan untuk memberikan gambaran tentang penyebarankasus, gambaran mikroskopis, karakteristik penderita, vektor potensial serta potensi penyebaran malaria knowlesidi Indonesia. Metode yang digunakan dalam kajian ini adalah studi kepustakaan (literatur dariberbagai sumber. Secara

  14. The Plasmodium sporozoite journey: a rite of passage.

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    Kappe, Stefan H I; Kaiser, Karine; Matuschewski, Kai

    2003-03-01

    Sporozoites are the most versatile of the invasive stages of the Plasmodium life cycle. During their passage within the mosquito vector and the vertebrate host, sporozoites display diverse behaviors, including gliding locomotion and invasion of, migration through and egress from target cells. At the end of the journey, sporozoites invade hepatocytes and transform into exoerythrocytic stages, marking the transition from the pre-erythrocytic to the erythrocytic part of the life cycle. This article discusses recent work, mostly done with rodent malaria parasites, that has contributed to a better understanding of the sporozoites' complex biology and which has opened up new avenues for future sporozoite research.

  15. Attempted isolation of the gene encoding the 21 Kd Plasmodium berghei ookinete transmission blocking antigen from Plasmodium yoelli and Plasmodium vivax

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    G. C. Barker

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available The 21kD ookinete antigen of Plasmodium berghei (Pbs 21 has been shown to elicit an effective and long lasting transmission blocking immune response in mice. Having cloned and sequenced this antigen (Paton et al. 1993 the sequence was compared to the genes of the same family previously identified in P. falciparum, P. gallinaceum (Kaslow et al. 1989 and P. reichenowi (Lal et al. 1990. Four conserved areas were identified in this comparison, to which degenerate oligonucleotides were designed. PCR amplification and screening of genomic libraries was then carried out using these oligonucleotides. The P. yoelii gene was successfully cloned and a number of novel P. vivax genes identified but the P. vivax homologue of Pbs21 remains elusive.

  16. Detection of avian Plasmodium spp. DNA sequences from mosquitoes captured in Minami Daito Island of Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ejiri, Hiroko; Sato, Yukita; Sasaki, Emi; Sumiyama, Daisuke; Tsuda, Yoshio; Sawabe, Kyoko; Matsui, Shin; Horie, Sayaka; Akatani, Kana; Takagi, Masaoki; Omori, Sumie; Murata, Koichi; Yukawa, Masayoshi

    2008-11-01

    Several species of birds in Minami Daito Island, an oceanic island located in the far south from the main islands of Japan, were found to be infected with avian Plasmodium. However, no vector species of the avian malaria in this island have been revealed yet. To speculate potential vectors, we collected mosquitoes there and investigated using a PCR procedure whether the mosquitoes harbor avian malaria or not. Totally 1,264 mosquitoes including 9 species were collected during March 2006 to February 2007. The mosquitoes collected were stored every species, sampled date and location for DNA extraction. Fifteen out of 399 DNA samples showed positive for the partial mtDNA cytb gene of avian Plasmodium. Estimated minimum infection rate among collected mosquitoes was 1.2% in this study. Four species of mosquitoes; Aedes albopictus, Culex quinquefasciatus, Lutzia fuscanus and Mansonia sp. had avian Plasmodium gene sequences. Detected DNA sequences from A. albopictus and L. fuscanus were identical to an avian Plasmodium lineage detected in bull-headed shrike (Lanius bucephalus) captured in the island. Different sequences were detected from C. quinquefasciatus, which were corresponding to an avian Plasmodium from a sparrow (Passer montanus) and Plasmodium gallinaceum. Our results suggest that A. albopictus, Lutzia fuscanus, C. quinquefasciatus, and Mansonia sp. could be potential vectors of avian malaria in Minami Daito Island. This study was the first report of molecular detection of avian Plasmodium from mosquitoes in Japan.

  17. [Involvement of cyclic adenosine monophosphate in the control of motile behavior of Physarum polycephalum plasmodium].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matveeva, N B; Teplov, V A; Nezvetskiĭ, A R; Orlova, T G; Beĭlina, S I

    2012-01-01

    Possible involvement of autocrine factors into the control of motile behavior via a receptor-mediated mechanism was investigated in Physarum polycephalum plasmodium, a multinuclear amoeboid cell with the auto-oscillatory mode of motility. Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and extracellular cAMP-specific phosphodiesterase, its involvement into the control of plasmodium motile behavior was proved by action of its strong inhibitor, were regarded as putative autocrine factors. It was shown that the plasmodium secreted cAMP. When it was introduced into agar support, 0,1-1 mM cAMP induced a delay of the plasmodium spreading and its transition to migration. When locally applied, cAMP at the same concentrations induced typical for attractant action the increase in oscillation frequency and the decrease of ectoplasm elasticity. The ability to exhibit positive chemotaxis in cAMP gradient and the dependence of its realization were shown to depend on the plasmodium state. Chemotaxis test specimens obtained from the migrating plasmodium, unlike those obtained from growing culture, generate alternative fronts which compete effectively with fronts oriented towards the attractant increment. The results obtained support our supposition stated earlier that advance of the Physarum polycephalum plasmodium leading edge is determined by local extracellular cAMP gradients arising from a time delay between secretion and hydrolysis of the nucleotide.

  18. Effect of meteorological variables on Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum malaria in outbreak prone districts of Rajasthan, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lingala, Mercy A L

    2017-03-09

    Malaria is a public health problem caused by Plasmodium parasite and transmitted by anopheline mosquitoes. Arid and semi-arid regions of western India are prone to malaria outbreaks. Malaria outbreak prone districts viz. Bikaner, Barmer and Jodhpur were selected to study the effect of meteorological variables on Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum malaria outbreaks for the period of 2009-2012. The data of monthly malaria cases and meteorological variables was analysed using SPSS 20v. Spearman correlation analysis was conducted to examine the strength of the relationship between meteorological variables, P. vivax and P. falciparum malaria cases. Pearson's correlation analysis was carried out among the meteorological variables to observe the independent effect of each independent variable on the outcome. Results indicate that malaria outbreaks have occurred in Bikaner and Barmer due to continuous rains for more than two months. Rainfall has shown to be an important predictor of malaria outbreaks in Rajasthan. P. vivax is more significantly correlated with rainfall, minimum temperature (P<0.01) and less significantly with relative humidity (P<0.05); whereas P. falciparum is significantly correlated with rainfall, relative humidity (P<0.01) and less significantly with temperature (P<0.05). The determination of the lag period for P. vivax is relative humidity and for P. falciparum is temperature. The lag period between malaria cases and rainfall is shorter for P. vivax than P. falciparum. In conclusion, the knowledge generated is not only useful to take prompt malaria control interventions but also helpful to develop better forecasting model in outbreak prone regions. Copyright © 2017 The Author. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. New potential Plasmodium brasilianum hosts: tamarin and marmoset monkeys (family Callitrichidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarenga, Denise A M; Pina-Costa, Anielle; Bianco, Cesare; Moreira, Silvia B; Brasil, Patricia; Pissinatti, Alcides; Daniel-Ribeiro, Claudio T; Brito, Cristiana F A

    2017-02-10

    Non-human primates (NHPs) as a source for Plasmodium infections in humans are a challenge for malaria elimination. In Brazil, two species of Plasmodium have been described infecting NHPs, Plasmodium brasilianum and Plasmodium simium. Both species are infective to man. Plasmodium brasilianum resembles morphologically, genetically and immunologically the human quartan Plasmodium malariae. Plasmodium brasilianum naturally infects species of non-human primates from all New World monkey families from a large geographic area. In the family Callitrichidae only the genus Saguinus has been described infected so far. The present study describes the natural infection of P. brasilianum in tamarins and marmosets of the genera Callithrix, Mico and Leontopithecus in the Atlantic forest. One hundred and twenty-two NHPs of the family Callitrichidae housed in the Primate Centre of Rio de Janeiro (CPRJ) were sampled in June 2015, and January and July 2016. The CPRJ is located in the Atlantic forest in the Guapimirim municipality, in the Rio de Janeiro state, where human autochthonous cases of malaria have been reported. The samples were screened for the presence of Plasmodium using optical microscopy and nested PCR for detection of 18S small subunit rRNA gene. The amplicon was sequenced to confirm the molecular diagnosis. The frequency of Plasmodium infections detected by nested PCR in New World monkeys of the family Callitrichidae was 6.6%. For the first time, Callitrichidae primates of genera Callithrix, Mico and Leontopithecus were found naturally infected with P. brasilianum. Infection was confirmed by sequencing a small fragment of 18S rRNA gene, although no parasites were detected in blood smears. The reported P. brasilianum infection in NHP species maintained in captivity suggests that infection can be favoured by the presence of vectors and the proximity between known (and unknown) hosts of malaria. Thus, the list of potential malaria reservoirs needs to be further explored.

  20. Concurrent infection of Japanese encephalitis and mixed plasmodium infection

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    Girish Chandra Bhatt

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Japanese encephalitis (JE and malaria would coexist in the areas where both illnesses are endemic with overlapping clinical pictures, especially in a case of febrile encephalopathy with hepatosplenomegaly. However, there are no published data till date showing concurrent infection of these two agents despite both diseases being coendemic in many areas. We report a case of concurrent infection of JE and mixed plasmodium infection, where the case, initially diagnosed as cerebral malaria did not improve on antimalarials and alternative diagnosis of JEV encephalitis was thought which was confirmed by a serological test. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report of concurrent Japanese encephalitis with mixed plasmodium infection. We report a case of 3-year-old male child, who presented with febrile encephalopathy with hepatosplenomegaly. Based on a rapid diagnostic test and peripheral smear examination, a diagnosis of mixed P.Vivax and P.falciparum infection was made and the patient was treated with quinine and doxycycline. However, besides giving antimalarials the patient did not improve and an alternative diagnosis of JE was considered as the patient was from the endemic zone of Japanese encephalitis. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF of the patient was sent for a virological study which came out to be positive for JE IgM in CSF, which is confirmatory of JE infection. In a patient with febrile encephalopathy with hepatosplenomegaly especially in areas coendemic for JE and malaria, the possibility of mixed infection should be kept in mind.

  1. Implications of Plasmodium vivax Biology for Control, Elimination, and Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olliaro, Piero L.; Barnwell, John W.; Barry, Alyssa; Mendis, Kamini; Mueller, Ivo; Reeder, John C.; Shanks, G. Dennis; Snounou, Georges; Wongsrichanalai, Chansuda

    2016-01-01

    This paper summarizes our current understanding of the biology of Plasmodium vivax, how it differs from Plasmodium falciparum, and how these differences explain the need for P. vivax-tailored interventions. The article further pinpoints knowledge gaps where investments in research are needed to help identify and develop such specific interventions. The principal obstacles to reduce and eventually eliminate P. vivax reside in 1) its higher vectorial capacity compared with P. falciparum due to its ability to develop at lower temperature and over a shorter sporogonic cycle in the vector, allowing transmission in temperate zones and making it less sensitive to vector control measures that are otherwise effective on P. falciparum; 2) the presence of dormant liver forms (hypnozoites), sustaining multiple relapsing episodes from a single infectious bite that cannot be diagnosed and are not susceptible to any available antimalarial except primaquine, with routine deployment restricted by toxicity; 3) low parasite densities, which are difficult to detect with current diagnostics leading to missed diagnoses and delayed treatments (and protracted transmission), coupled with 4) transmission stages (gametocytes) occurring early in acute infections, before infection is diagnosed. PMID:27799636

  2. STUDI IMUNOSTIMULAN EKSTRAK TOMAT PADA INFEKSI PLASMODIUM BERGHEI

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    Retno Sri Iswari

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak. Alternatif penanggulangan kasus malaria melalui peningkatan status imunitas tubuh sehingga tidak terjadi penyakit karena infeksi Plasmodium atau untuk mengurangi bahkan membunuh parasit tersebut adalah menggunakan tomat (Lycopersicum esculentum Mill. Penelitian dilakukan menggunakan disain penelitian Posttest Randomized Control Group Desain. Rancangan penelitian menggunakan Rancangan Acak Lengkap dengan 5 perlakuan, setiap perlakuan dengan 7 ulangan. Kelompok kontrol negatif (K diberi pakan standart, Kelompok kontrol positif (K + - , diberi pakan standart dan klorokuin dan diberi klorokuin. Kelompok perlakuan (P 1 .P 2 dan P diberi pakan standart dan ekstrak tomat dengan dosis 0,1. 1, dan 10 mg/kgBB/hari per oral selama 16 hari. Pada hari ke-17 semua kelompok diinfeksi dengan 10 7 3 Plasmodium berghei intraperitonial. Pada hari ke-8 setelah mencit diinfeksi mencit dibunuh, kemudian dilakukan pemeriksaan IFN-?, IL-4 dan IL-12. Data dianalisis dengan analisa varians (ANOVA satu jalan, dilanjutkan dengan Least Significant Difference (LSD. Hasil uji LSD pada kadar IFN-?, IL-4 dan IL-12 menunjukkan perbedaan yang bermakna (p?0,05, antara yang diberi ekstrak tomat (P 2 dan P dengan yang tidak diberi ekstrak tomat (K - dan K + 3 , kecuali untuk yang diberi ekstrak tomat 0,1 mg/KgBB tidak menunjukkan perbedaan yang bermakna dengan yang tidak diberi ekstrak tomat. Kesimpulan penelitian adalah dosis yang paling efektif meningkatkan status imunitas tubuh untuk mengurangi bahkan membunuh parasit dalam tubuh adalah pemberian ekstrak tomat dengan dosis 10 mg/kgBB/hari.

  3. Muerte materna por malaria grave por Plasmodium vivax

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    Nancy Arróspide

    Full Text Available Se presenta el caso de una mujer de 19 años con 29 semanas de gestación, procedente de Llumpe (Ancash con antecedentes de viajes a las localidades de Chanchamayo (Junín y Rinconada (Ancash. Ingresó al Hospital de Chacas (Ancash por presentar mal estado general, deshidratación, dificultad respiratoria, ictericia, sensación de alza térmica y dolor abdominal, tuvo reporte de: hemoparásitos 60% en frotis sanguíneo. Fue transferida al Hospital Ramos Guardia (Huaraz donde presentó mayor dificultad respiratoria, coluria, hematuria, disminución del débito urinario y reporte de Plasmodium (+, luego fue transferida al Hospital Cayetano Heredia (Lima donde ingresó a la Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos (UCI, con evolución a falla multiorgánica, óbito fetal y muerte materna. Se confirmó infección por Plasmodium vivax. Destacamos la importancia de mejorar nuestras capacidades de diagnóstico y manejo para brindar un tratamiento adecuado y oportuno.

  4. [Maternal death from severe malaria due to Plasmodium vivax].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arróspide, Nancy; Espinoza, Máximo Manuel; Miranda-Choque, Edwin; Mayta-Tristán, Percy; Legua, Pedro; Cabezas, César

    2016-06-01

    Here we describe the case of a 19-year-old woman, in her 29th week of gestation, who was from Llumpe (Ancash, Peru) and had a history of traveling to Chanchamayo (Junín, Peru) and Rinconada (Ancash, Peru). The patient presented at Chacas Hospital (Chacas, Ancash, Peru) with general malaise, dehydration, respiratory distress, jaundice, the sensation of thermal rise, and abdominal pain. Analysis of blood smears revealed 60% hemoparasites. She was transferred to Ramos Guardia Hospital (Huaraz, Peru) where she presented increasing respiratory distress, choluria, hematuria, and decreased urine output, moreover she was positive for Plasmodium. From there she was transferred to Cayetano Heredia Hospital (Lima, Peru), where she was admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) with multiple organ failure, stillbirth, and leading to death. She underwent mechanical ventilation, was administered clindamycin, and was prescribed quinine, which she did not received due a lack by availability. The evolution of the illness was torpid, and she ultimately developed multiple organ failure and died. Plasmodium vivax infection was confirmed. Accordingly, we emphasize the importance of improving our diagnostic capabilities and management techniques to enable clinicians to provide adequate and timely treatment.

  5. Plasmodium vivax Landscape in Brazil: Scenario and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siqueira, Andre M.; Mesones-Lapouble, Oscar; Marchesini, Paola; Sampaio, Vanderson de Souza; Brasil, Patricia; Tauil, Pedro L.; Fontes, Cor Jesus; Costa, Fabio T. M.; Daniel-Ribeiro, Cláudio Tadeu; Lacerda, Marcus V. G.; Damasceno, Camila P.; Santelli, Ana Carolina S.

    2016-01-01

    Brazil is the largest country of Latin America, with a considerable portion of its territoritory within the malaria-endemic Amazon region in the North. Furthermore, a considerable portion of its territory is located within the Amazon region in the north. As a result, Brazil has reported half of the total malaria cases in the Americas in the last four decades. Recent progress in malaria control has been accompanied by an increasing proportion of Plasmodium vivax, underscoring a need for a better understanding of management and control of this species and associated challenges. Among these challenges, the contribution of vivax malaria relapses, earlier production of gametocytes (compared with Plasmodium falciparum), inexistent methods to diagnose hypnozoite carriers, and decreasing efficacy of available antimalarials need to be addressed. Innovative tools, strategies, and technologies are needed to achieve further progress toward sustainable malaria elimination. Further difficulties also arise from dealing with the inherent socioeconomic and environmental particularities of the Amazon region and its dynamic changes. PMID:27708190

  6. Plasmodium vivax malaria among pregnant women in Eastern Sudan

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    Duria Abdulwhab Rayis

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the epidemiology of malaria [especially Plasmodium vivax (P. vivax] among pregnant women in Eastern Sudan. Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted in the antenatal care of New Halfa hospital, Eastern Sudan to investigate the prevalence, manifestations and determinants of malaria (especially P. vivax among pregnant women. Results: Out of 2 378 pregnant women, there were 48 (2.0% and 36 (1.5% Plasmodium falciparum (P. falciparum and P. vivax infection, respectively. There was no significant difference in the age, parity, gestational age between women with malaria and healthy controls. The mean ± SD of the temperature was significantly higher in patients with P. vivax than in patient with P. falciparum malaria [(38.6 ± 0.7 °C vs. (38.1 ± 0.6 °C, P = 0.001]. Patients with P. vivax malaria had slightly (not reach statistical significance lower hemoglobin level compared with P. falciparum malaria and healthy controls. The geometric parasite count showed no significant difference between patients with P. vivax and P. falciparum malaria infections (12 189.9 vs. 9 755.1 trophozoite/µL, P = 0.356. Conclusions: P. vivax malaria is an existing health problem in Eastern Sudan. Further research is also needed.

  7. Genetic diversity of Plasmodium vivax isolates from Azerbaijan

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    Majori Giancarlo

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plasmodium vivax, although causing a less serious disease than Plasmodium falciparum, is the most widespread of the four human malarial species. Further to the recent recrudescence of P. vivax cases in the Newly Independent States (NIS of central Asia, a survey on the genetic diversity and dissemination in Azerbaijan was undertaken. Azerbaijan is at the crossroads of Asia and, as such, could see a rise in the number of cases, although an effective malaria control programme has been established in the country. Methods Thirty-six P. vivax isolates from Central Azerbaijan were characterized by analysing the genetic polymorphism of the circumsporozoite protein (CSP and the merozoite surface protein 1 (MSP-1 genes, using PCR amplifications and amplicons sequencing. Results Analysis of CSP sequences showed that all the processed isolates belong to the VK 210 type, with variations in the alternation of alanine residue (A or aspartic acid residue (D in the repeat motif GDRA(A/DGQPA along the sequence. As far as MSP-1 genotyping is concerned, it was found that the majority of isolates analysed belong to Belem and Sal I types. Five recombinant isolates were also identified. Combined analysis with the two genetic markers allowed the identification of 19 plasmodial sub-types. Conclusion The results obtained in the present study indicate that there are several P. vivax clones circulating in Azerbaijan and, consequently, a careful malaria surveillance could be of paramount importance to identify, at early stage, the occurrence of possible P. vivax malaria outbreaks.

  8. Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte invasion: combining function with immune evasion.

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    Gavin J Wright

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available All the symptoms and pathology of malaria are caused by the intraerythrocytic stages of the Plasmodium parasite life cycle. Because Plasmodium parasites cannot replicate outside a host cell, their ability to recognize and invade erythrocytes is an essential step for both parasite survival and malaria pathogenesis. This makes invasion a conceptually attractive vaccine target, especially because it is one of the few stages when the parasite is directly exposed to the host humoral immune system. This apparent vulnerability, however, has been countered by the parasite, which has evolved sophisticated molecular mechanisms to evade the host immune response so that parasites asymptomatically replicate within immune individuals. These mechanisms include the expansion of parasite invasion ligands, resulting in multiple and apparently redundant invasion "pathways", highly polymorphic parasite surface proteins that are immunologically distinct, and parasite proteins which are poorly immunogenic. These formidable defences have so far thwarted attempts to develop an effective blood-stage vaccine, leading many to question whether there really is an exploitable chink in the parasite's immune evasion defences. Here, we review recent advances in the molecular understanding of the P. falciparum erythrocyte invasion field, discuss some of the challenges that have so far prevented the development of blood-stage vaccines, and conclude that the parasite invasion ligand RH5 represents an essential pinch point that might be vulnerable to vaccination.

  9. Late relapse of imported Plasmodium ovale malaria: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siala, Emna; Gastli, Mondher; Essid, Rym; Jemal, Sana; Ben Abdallah, Rym; Ben Abda, Imène; Aoun, Karim; Bouratbine, Aida

    2015-06-01

    We report the first case of an imported Plasmodium ovale relapse in a Tunisian man who developed malaria three years after leaving sub- Saharan Africa. A 29-year-old Tunisian man consulted in September 2011 because of a fever, myalgia, and headache that had begun eight days earlier and persisted despite treatment with oral antibiotics. On questioning, the patient stated that he had resided three years ago for six months in Ivory Coast, where he acquired malaria. He was treated with artemether-lumefantrine. The patient said he had no recent travel to any other malaria-endemic area and had not received a blood transfusion. A first microscopy of peripheral blood smears was negative for malaria parasites. The diagnosis was established 17 days after onset of symptoms. A repeat microscopic examination of blood smears confirmed the presence of Plasmodium ovale with a parasitemia lower than 0.1%. The patient was treated with artemether lumefantrine, followed by primaquine. This case emphasizes the possibility of relapse of some plasmodial species. It highlights the importance of repeating microscopic examination of blood when the diagnosis of malaria is suspected.

  10. Quinolone-based drugs against Toxoplasma gondii and Plasmodium spp.

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    Anquetin, Guillaume; Greiner, Jacques; Vierling, Pierre

    2005-09-01

    Owing to the rapid emergence of multi-resistant strains of Plasmodium spp. (the causative agents of malaria) and the limitations of drugs used against Toxoplasma gondii (an important opportunistic pathogen associated with AIDS and congenital birth defects), the discovery of new therapeutical targets and the development of new drugs are needed. The presence of the prokaryotic-like organelle in apicomplexan parasites (i.e. plastids), which comprise these major human pathogens, may represent a unique target for antibiotics against these protozoa. Quinolones which are known to be highly potent against bacteria were also found to specifically disrupt these parasites. They inhibit DNA replication by interacting with two essential bacterial type II topoisomerases, DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV. There are some clues that quinolones act on plastids with a similar mechanism of action. After a brief presentation of plasmodium and toxoplasma dedicated to their life cycle, the chemotherapies presently used in clinics to fight against these protozoa and the potential new targets and drugs, we will focus our attention on their plastid which is one of these promising new targets. Then, we will present the various drugs and generations of quinolones, the leading molecules, and their inhibitory effects against these parasites together with their pharmacological properties that have been established from in vitro and in vivo studies. We will also discuss their possible mode of action.

  11. Plasmodium activates the innate immune response of Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richman, A M; Dimopoulos, G; Seeley, D; Kafatos, F C

    1997-01-01

    Innate immune-related gene expression in the major disease vector mosquito Anopheles gambiae has been analyzed following infection by the malaria parasite, Plasmodium berghei. Substantially increased levels of mRNAs encoding the antibacterial peptide defensin and a putative Gram-negative bacteria-binding protein (GNBP) are observed 20-30 h after ingestion of an infected blood-meal, at a time which indicates that this induction is a response to parasite invasion of the midgut epithelium. The induction is dependent upon the ingestion of infective, sexual-stage parasites, and is not due to opportunistic co-penetration of resident gut micro-organisms into the hemocoel. The response is activated following infection both locally (in the midgut) and systemically (in remaining tissues, presumably fat body and/or hemocytes). The observation that Plasmodium can trigger a molecularly defined immune response in the vector constitutes an important advance in our understanding of parasite-vector interactions that are potentially involved in malaria transmission, and extends knowledge of the innate immune system of insects to encompass responses to protozoan parasites. PMID:9321391

  12. Platform for Plasmodium vivax vaccine discovery and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valencia, Sócrates Herrera; Rodríguez, Diana Carolina; Acero, Diana Lucía; Ocampo, Vanessa; Arévalo-Herrera, Myriam

    2011-08-01

    Plasmodium vivax is the most prevalent malaria parasite on the American continent. It generates a global burden of 80-100 million cases annually and represents a tremendous public health problem, particularly in the American and Asian continents. A malaria vaccine would be considered the most cost-effective measure against this vector-borne disease and it would contribute to a reduction in malaria cases and to eventual eradication. Although significant progress has been achieved in the search for Plasmodium falciparum antigens that could be used in a vaccine, limited progress has been made in the search for P. vivax components that might be eligible for vaccine development. This is primarily due to the lack of in vitro cultures to serve as an antigen source and to inadequate funding. While the most advanced P. falciparum vaccine candidate is currently being tested in Phase III trials in Africa, the most advanced P. vivax candidates have only advanced to Phase I trials. Herein, we describe the overall strategy and progress in P. vivax vaccine research, from antigen discovery to preclinical and clinical development and we discuss the regional potential of Latin America to develop a comprehensive platform for vaccine development.

  13. A genetic analysis of Plasmodium falciparum RNA polymerase II subunits in yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazoume, Adonis; Naderi, Kambiz; Candolfi, Ermanno; Kedinger, Claude; Chatton, Bruno; Vigneron, Marc

    2011-04-01

    RNA polymerase II is an essential nuclear multi subunit enzyme that transcribes nearly the whole genome. Its inhibition by the alpha-amanitin toxin leads to cell death. The enzyme of Plasmodium falciparum remains poorly characterized. Using a complementation assay in yeast as a genetic test, we demonstrate that five Plasmodium putative RNA polymerase subunits are indeed functional in vivo. The active site of this enzyme is built from the two largest subunits. Using site directed mutagenesis we were able to modify the active site of the yeast RNA polymerase II so as to introduce Plasmodium or human structural motifs. The resulting strains allow the screening of chemical libraries for potential specific inhibitors.

  14. In vitro Potentiation of Antimalarial Activities by Daphnetin Derivatives Against Plasmodium falciparum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANG HUANG; LIN-HUA TANG; LIN-QIAN YU; YI-CHANG NI; QIN-MEI WANG; FA-JUN NAN

    2006-01-01

    Objective To screen the antimalarial compounds of daphnetin derivatives against Plasmodium falciparum in vitro. Method Plasmodium faciparum (FCC1) was cultured in vitro by a modified method of Trager and Jensen. Antimalarial compounds were screened by microscopy-based assay and microfluorimetric method. Results DA79 and DA78 showed potent antimalarial activity against Plasmodium falciparum cultured in vitro. Conclusion Though the relationship between the structures of daphnetin derivatives and their antimalarial activities has not been clarified yet, this study may provide a new direction for discovery of more potential antimalarial compounds.

  15. Prevalence patterns of avian Plasmodium and Haemoproteus parasites and the influence of host relative abundance in southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanhua; Wu, Yuchun; Zhang, Qiang; Su, Dongdong; Zou, Fasheng

    2014-01-01

    Infectious diseases threaten the health and survival of wildlife populations. Consequently, relationships between host diversity, host abundance, and parasite infection are important aspects of disease ecology and conservation research. Here, we report on the prevalence patterns of avian Plasmodium and Haemoproteus infections and host relative abundance influence based on sampling 728 wild-caught birds representing 124 species at seven geographically widespread sites in southern China. The overall prevalence of two haemoprotozoan parasites, Plasmodium and Haemoproteus, was 29.5%, with 22.0% attributable to Haemoproteus and 7.8% to Plasmodium. Haemoproteus prevalence differed significantly among different avian host families, with the highest prevalence in Nectariniidae, Pycnonotidae and Muscicapidae, whereas Plasmodium prevalence varied significantly among host species. Seventy-nine mitochondrial lineages including 25 from Plasmodium and 54 from Haemoproteus were identified, 80% of which were described here for the first time. The phylogenetic relationships among these parasites indicated stronger host-species specificity for Haemoproteus than Plasmodium. Well-supported host-family (Timaliidae) specific clades were found in both Plasmodium and Haemoproteus. The Haemoproteus tree shows regional subclades, whereas the Plasmodium clades are "scattered" among different geographical regions. Interestingly, there were statistically significant variations in the prevalence of Plasmodium and Haemoproteus among the geographical regions. Furthermore, the prevalence of Plasmodium and Haemoproteus were not significantly correlated with host relative abundance. Further efforts will focus on exploring the relationships between parasite prevalence and sex, age, and immune defense of the host.

  16. Alterations in cytokines and haematological parameters during the acute and convalescent phases of Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Nunes Rodrigues-da-Silva

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Haematological and cytokine alterations in malaria are a broad and controversial subject in the literature. However, few studies have simultaneously evaluated various cytokines in a single patient group during the acute and convalescent phases of infection. The aim of this study was to sequentially characterise alterations in haematological patters and circulating plasma cytokine and chemokine levels in patients infected with Plasmodium vivax or Plasmodium falciparum from a Brazilian endemic area during the acute and convalescent phases of infection. During the acute phase, thrombocytopaenia, eosinopaenia, lymphopaenia and an increased number of band cells were observed in the majority of the patients. During the convalescent phase, the haematologic parameters returned to normal. During the acute phase, P. vivax and P. falciparum patients had significantly higher interleukin (IL-6, IL-8, IL-17, interferon-γ, tumour necrosis factor (TNF-α, macrophage inflammatory protein-1β and granulocyte-colony stimulating factor levels than controls and maintained high levels during the convalescent phase. IL-10 was detected at high concentrations during the acute phase, but returned to normal levels during the convalescent phase. Plasma IL-10 concentration was positively correlated with parasitaemia in P. vivax and P. falciparum-infected patients. The same was true for the TNF-α concentration in P. falciparum-infected patients. Finally, the haematological and cytokine profiles were similar between uncomplicated P. falciparum and P. vivax infections.

  17. Functional analysis of Plasmodium vivax dihydrofolate reductase-thymidylate synthase genes through stable transformation of Plasmodium falciparum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alyson M Auliff

    Full Text Available Mechanisms of drug resistance in Plasmodium vivax have been difficult to study partially because of the difficulties in culturing the parasite in vitro. This hampers monitoring drug resistance and research to develop or evaluate new drugs. There is an urgent need for a novel method to study mechanisms of P. vivax drug resistance. In this paper we report the development and application of the first Plasmodium falciparum expression system to stably express P. vivax dhfr-ts alleles. We used the piggyBac transposition system for the rapid integration of wild-type, single mutant (117N and quadruple mutant (57L/58R/61M/117T pvdhfr-ts alleles into the P. falciparum genome. The majority (81% of the integrations occurred in non-coding regions of the genome; however, the levels of pvdhfr transcription driven by the P. falciparum dhfr promoter were not different between integrants of non-coding and coding regions. The integrated quadruple pvdhfr mutant allele was much less susceptible to antifolates than the wild-type and single mutant pvdhfr alleles. The resistance phenotype was stable without drug pressure. All the integrated clones were susceptible to the novel antifolate JPC-2067. Therefore, the piggyBac expression system provides a novel and important tool to investigate drug resistance mechanisms and gene functions in P. vivax.

  18. Functional analysis of Plasmodium vivax dihydrofolate reductase-thymidylate synthase genes through stable transformation of Plasmodium falciparum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auliff, Alyson M; Balu, Bharath; Chen, Nanhua; O'Neil, Michael T; Cheng, Qin; Adams, John H

    2012-01-01

    Mechanisms of drug resistance in Plasmodium vivax have been difficult to study partially because of the difficulties in culturing the parasite in vitro. This hampers monitoring drug resistance and research to develop or evaluate new drugs. There is an urgent need for a novel method to study mechanisms of P. vivax drug resistance. In this paper we report the development and application of the first Plasmodium falciparum expression system to stably express P. vivax dhfr-ts alleles. We used the piggyBac transposition system for the rapid integration of wild-type, single mutant (117N) and quadruple mutant (57L/58R/61M/117T) pvdhfr-ts alleles into the P. falciparum genome. The majority (81%) of the integrations occurred in non-coding regions of the genome; however, the levels of pvdhfr transcription driven by the P. falciparum dhfr promoter were not different between integrants of non-coding and coding regions. The integrated quadruple pvdhfr mutant allele was much less susceptible to antifolates than the wild-type and single mutant pvdhfr alleles. The resistance phenotype was stable without drug pressure. All the integrated clones were susceptible to the novel antifolate JPC-2067. Therefore, the piggyBac expression system provides a novel and important tool to investigate drug resistance mechanisms and gene functions in P. vivax.

  19. An innovative shape equation to quantify the morphological characteristics of parasitized red blood cells by Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Alireza; Navidbakhsh, Mahdi; Motevalli Haghi, Afsaneh; Faghihi, Shahab

    2013-04-01

    The morphology of red blood cells is affected significantly during maturation of malaria parasites, Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax. A novel shape equation is presented that defines shape of parasitized red blood cells by P. falciparum (Pf-red blood cells) and P. vivax (Pv-red blood cells) at four stages of infection. The Giemsa-stained thin blood films are prepared using blood samples collected from healthy donors, patients having P. falciparum and P. vivax malaria. The diameter and thickness of healthy red blood cells plus Pf-red blood cells and Pv-red blood cells at each stage of infection are measured from their optical images using Olysia and Scanning Probe Image Processor softwares, respectively. Using diameters and thicknesses of parasitized red blood cells, a shape equation is fitted and relative two-dimensional shapes are plotted using MATHEMATICA. The shape of Pf-red blood cell drastically changes at ring stage as its thickness increases by 82%, while Pv-red blood cell remains biconcave (30% increase in thickness). By trophozoite and subsequent schizont stage, the Pf-red blood cell entirely loses its biconcave shape and becomes near spherical (diameter and thickness of ~8 µm). The Pv-red blood cell remains biconcave throughout the parasite development even though its volume increases. These results could have practical use for faster diagnosis, prediction, and treatment of human malaria and sickle-cell diseases.

  20. Susceptibility of Anopheles campestris-like and Anopheles barbirostris species complexes to Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thongsahuan, Sorawat; Baimai, Visut; Junkum, Anuluck; Saeung, Atiporn; Min, Gi-Sik; Joshi, Deepak; Park, Mi-Hyun; Somboon, Pradya; Suwonkerd, Wannapa; Tippawangkosol, Pongsri; Jariyapan, Narissara; Choochote, Wej

    2011-02-01

    Nine colonies of five sibling species members of Anopheles barbirostris complexes were experimentally infected with Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax. They were then dissected eight and 14 days after feeding for oocyst and sporozoite rates, respectively, and compared with Anopheles cracens. The results revealed that Anopheles campestris-like Forms E (Chiang Mai) and F (Udon Thani) as well as An. barbirostris species A3 and A4 were non-potential vectors for P. falciparum because 0% oocyst rates were obtained, in comparison to the 86.67-100% oocyst rates recovered from An. cracens. Likewise, An. campestris-like Forms E (Sa Kaeo) and F (Ayuttaya), as well as An. barbirostris species A4, were non-potential vectors for P. vivax because 0% sporozoite rates were obtained, in comparison to the 85.71-92.31% sporozoite rates recovered from An. cracens. An. barbirostris species A1, A2 and A3 were low potential vectors for P. vivax because 9.09%, 6.67% and 11.76% sporozoite rates were obtained, respectively, in comparison to the 85.71-92.31% sporozoite rates recovered from An. cracens. An. campestris-like Forms B and E (Chiang Mai) were high-potential vectors for P. vivax because 66.67% and 64.29% sporozoite rates were obtained, respectively, in comparison to 90% sporozoite rates recovered from An. cracens.

  1. Susceptibility of Anopheles campestris-like and Anopheles barbirostris species complexes to Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorawat Thongsahuan

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Nine colonies of five sibling species members of Anopheles barbirostris complexes were experimentally infected with Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax. They were then dissected eight and 14 days after feeding for oocyst and sporozoite rates, respectively, and compared with Anopheles cracens. The results revealed that Anopheles campestris-like Forms E (Chiang Mai and F (Udon Thani as well as An. barbirostris species A3 and A4 were non-potential vectors for P. falciparum because 0% oocyst rates were obtained, in comparison to the 86.67-100% oocyst rates recovered from An. cracens. Likewise, An. campestris-like Forms E (Sa Kaeo and F (Ayuttaya, as well as An. barbirostris species A4, were non-potential vectors for P. vivax because 0% sporozoite rates were obtained, in comparison to the 85.71-92.31% sporozoite rates recovered from An. cracens. An. barbirostris species A1, A2 and A3 were low potential vectors for P. vivax because 9.09%, 6.67% and 11.76% sporozoite rates were obtained, respectively, in comparison to the 85.71-92.31% sporozoite rates recovered from An. cracens. An. campestris-like Forms B and E (Chiang Mai were high-potential vectors for P. vivax because 66.67% and 64.29% sporozoite rates were obtained, respectively, in comparison to 90% sporozoite rates recovered from An. cracens.

  2. Binding of Plasmodium falciparum to CD36 can be shielded by the glycocalyx

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hempel, Casper; Wang, Christian William; Kurtzhals, Jorgen Anders Lindholm

    2017-01-01

    Background: Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes sequester in the microcirculation due to interaction between surface-expressed parasite proteins and endothelial receptors. Endothelial cells are covered in a carbohydrate-rich glycocalyx that shields against undesired leukocyte adhesion...

  3. A plethora of Plasmodium species in wild apes: a source of human infection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayner, Julian C.; Liu, Weimin; Peeters, Martine; Sharp, Paul M.; Hahn, Beatrice H.

    2011-01-01

    Recent studies of captive and wild-living apes in Africa have uncovered evidence of numerous new Plasmodium species, one of which was identified as the immediate precursor of human Plasmodium falciparum. These findings raise the question whether wild apes could be a recurrent source of Plasmodium infections in humans. This question is not new, but was the subject of intense investigation by researchers in the first half of the last century. Re-examination of their work in the context of recent molecular findings provides a new framework to understand the diversity of Plasmodium species and to assess the risk of future cross-species transmissions to humans in the context of proposed malaria eradication programs. PMID:21354860

  4. Molecular detection of Plasmodium in free-ranging birds and captive flamingos (Phoenicopterus chilensis) in Chicago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurber, Mary Irene; Gamble, Kathryn C; Krebs, Bethany; Goldberg, Tony L

    2014-12-01

    Frozen blood samples from 13 species of free-ranging birds (n = 65) and captive Chilean flamingos (Phoenicopterus chilensis) (n = 46) housed outdoors in the Chicago area were screened for Plasmodium. With the use of a modified polymerase chain reaction, 20/65 (30.8%) of free-ranging birds and 26/46 (56.5%) of flamingos were classified as positive for this parasite genus. DNA sequencing of the parasite cytochrome b gene in positive samples demonstrated that eight species of free-ranging birds were infected with five different Plasmodium spp. cytochrome b lineages, and all positive Chilean flamingos were infected with Plasmodium spp. cytochrome b lineages most closely related to organisms in the Novyella subgenus. These results show that Chilean flamingos may harbor subclinical malaria infections more frequently than previously estimated, and that they may have increased susceptibility to some Plasmodium species.

  5. Loading of erythrocyte membrane with pentacyclic triterpenes inhibits Plasmodium falciparum invasion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ziegler, Hanne L; Staalsø, Trine; Jaroszewski, Jerzy W

    2006-01-01

    Lupeol and betulinic acid inhibit the proliferation of Plasmodium falciparum parasites by inhibition of the invasion of merozoites into erythrocytes. This conclusion is based on experiments employing parasite cultures synchronized by magnetic cell sorting (MACS). Identical inhibitory effects were...

  6. Longevity and composition of cellular immune responses following experimental Plasmodium falciparum malaria infection in humans.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teirlinck, A.C.; McCall, M.B.B.; Roestenberg, M.; Scholzen, A.; Woestenenk, R.M.; Mast, Q. de; Ven, A.J.A.M. van der; Hermsen, C.C.; Luty, A.J.F.; Sauerwein, R.W.

    2011-01-01

    Cellular responses to Plasmodium falciparum parasites, in particular interferon-gamma (IFNgamma) production, play an important role in anti-malarial immunity. However, clinical immunity to malaria develops slowly amongst naturally exposed populations, the dynamics of cellular responses in relation

  7. Drug resistance to sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine in Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Mlimba, Tanzania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mbugi, E.V.; Mutayoba, B.M.; Malisa, A.L.; Balthazary, S.T.; Nyambo, T.B.; Mshinda, H.

    2006-01-01

    Background - Sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) has been and is currently used for treatment of uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in many African countries. Nevertheless, the response of parasites to SP treatment has shown significant variation between individuals. Methods - The genes for

  8. Transcriptomic evidence for modulation of host inflammatory responses during febrile Plasmodium falciparum malaria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tran, T.M.; Jones, M.B.; Ongoiba, A.; Bijker, E.M.; Schats, R.; Venepally, P.; Skinner, J.; Doumbo, S.; Quinten, E.; Visser, L.G.; Whalen, E.; Presnell, S.; O'Connell, E.M.; Kayentao, K.; Doumbo, O.K.; Chaussabel, D.; Lorenzi, H.; Nutman, T.B.; Ottenhoff, T.H.; Haks, M.C.; Traore, B.; Kirkness, E.F.; Sauerwein, R.W.; Crompton, P.D.

    2016-01-01

    Identifying molecular predictors and mechanisms of malaria disease is important for understanding how Plasmodium falciparum malaria is controlled. Transcriptomic studies in humans have so far been limited to retrospective analysis of blood samples from clinical cases. In this prospective,

  9. Molecular modelling of calcium dependent protein kinase 4 (CDPK4) from Plasmodium falciparum

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Tsekoa, Tsepo L

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Malaria continues to be one of the most serious global health challenges. The increasing incidence of drug resistant Plasmodium strains has emphasised the need for urgent action in the development of new therapeutic strategies against this disease...

  10. Polymorphisms in Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine resistance transporter and multidrug resistance 1 genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Venkatesan, Meera; Gadalla, Nahla B; Stepniewska, Kasia

    2014-01-01

    Adequate clinical and parasitologic cure by artemisinin combination therapies relies on the artemisinin component and the partner drug. Polymorphisms in the Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine resistance transporter (pfcrt) and P. falciparum multidrug resistance 1 (pfmdr1) genes are associated...

  11. Reducing Plasmodium falciparum malaria transmission in Africa: a model-based evaluation of intervention strategies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Griffin, Jamie T; Hollingsworth, T Deirdre; Okell, Lucy C; Churcher, Thomas S; White, Michael; Hinsley, Wes; Bousema, Teun; Drakeley, Chris J; Ferguson, Neil M; Basáñez, María-Gloria; Ghani, Azra C

    2010-01-01

    .... We developed an individual-based simulation model for Plasmodium falciparum transmission in an African context incorporating the three major vector species (Anopheles gambiae s.s., An. arabiensis, and An. funestus...

  12. Comparative assessment of genomic DNA extraction processes for Plasmodium: Identifying the appropriate method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Riti; Sharma, Supriya; Mishra, Neelima; Valecha, Neena; Anvikar, Anupkumar R

    2015-12-01

    Plasmodium DNA, in addition to being used for molecular diagnosis of malaria, find utility in monitoring patient responses to antimalarial drugs, drug resistance studies, genotyping and sequencing purposes. Over the years, numerous protocols have been proposed for extracting Plasmodium DNA from a variety of sources. Given that DNA isolation is fundamental to successful molecular studies, here we review the most commonly used methods for Plasmodium genomic DNA isolation, emphasizing their pros and cons. A comparison of these existing methods has been made, to evaluate their appropriateness for use in different applications and identify the method suitable for a particular laboratory based study. Selection of a suitable and accessible DNA extraction method for Plasmodium requires consideration of many factors, the most important being sensitivity, cost-effectiveness and, purity and stability of isolated DNA. Need of the hour is to accentuate on the development of a method that upholds well on all these parameters.

  13. Genomes of cryptic chimpanzee Plasmodium species reveal key evolutionary events leading to human malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundararaman, Sesh A; Plenderleith, Lindsey J; Liu, Weimin; Loy, Dorothy E; Learn, Gerald H; Li, Yingying; Shaw, Katharina S; Ayouba, Ahidjo; Peeters, Martine; Speede, Sheri; Shaw, George M; Bushman, Frederic D; Brisson, Dustin; Rayner, Julian C; Sharp, Paul M; Hahn, Beatrice H

    2016-03-22

    African apes harbour at least six Plasmodium species of the subgenus Laverania, one of which gave rise to human Plasmodium falciparum. Here we use a selective amplification strategy to sequence the genome of chimpanzee parasites classified as Plasmodium reichenowi and Plasmodium gaboni based on the subgenomic fragments. Genome-wide analyses show that these parasites indeed represent distinct species, with no evidence of cross-species mating. Both P. reichenowi and P. gaboni are 10-fold more diverse than P. falciparum, indicating a very recent origin of the human parasite. We also find a remarkable Laverania-specific expansion of a multigene family involved in erythrocyte remodelling, and show that a short region on chromosome 4, which encodes two essential invasion genes, was horizontally transferred into a recent P. falciparum ancestor. Our results validate the selective amplification strategy for characterizing cryptic pathogen species, and reveal evolutionary events that likely predisposed the precursor of P. falciparum to colonize humans.

  14. Plasmodium falciparum population dynamics in a cohort of pregnant women in Senegal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guitard, Juliette; Andersen, Pernille; Ermont, Caroline

    2010-01-01

    Background: Pregnant women acquire protective antibodies that cross-react with geographically diverse placental Plasmodium falciparum isolates, suggesting that surface molecules expressed on infected erythrocytes by pregnancy-associated malaria (PAM) parasites have conserved epitopes and, that de...

  15. REVERSAL OF HALOFANTRINE RESISTANCE IN PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM BY PENFLURIDOL IN VITRO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Nateghpour

    1998-10-01

    Full Text Available Penfluridol, a neuroleptic drug, considerably reversed halofantrine resistance in T9.96HF halofantrine resistant strain of Plasmodium falicparum (originally chloroquine sensitive parasites, but not in K1HF halofantrine resistant strain (originally chloroquine resistant parasites

  16. Caspar controls resistance to Plasmodium falciparum in diverse anopheline species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsey S Garver

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Immune responses mounted by the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae are largely regulated by the Toll and Imd (immune deficiency pathways via the NF-kappaB transcription factors Rel1 and Rel2, which are controlled by the negative regulators Cactus and Caspar, respectively. Rel1- and Rel2-dependent transcription in A. gambiae has been shown to be particularly critical to the mosquito's ability to manage infection with the rodent malaria parasite Plasmodium berghei. Using RNA interference to deplete the negative regulators of these pathways, we found that Rel2 controls resistance of A. gambiae to the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum, whereas Rel 1 activation reduced infection levels. The universal relevance of this defense system across Anopheles species was established by showing that caspar silencing also prevents the development of P. falciparum in the major malaria vectors of Asia and South America, A. stephensi and A. albimanus, respectively. Parallel studies suggest that while Imd pathway activation is most effective against P. falciparum, the Toll pathway is most efficient against P. berghei, highlighting a significant discrepancy between the human pathogen and its rodent model. High throughput gene expression analyses identified a plethora of genes regulated by the activation of the two Rel factors and revealed that the Toll pathway played a more diverse role in mosquito biology than the Imd pathway, which was more immunity-specific. Further analyses of key anti-Plasmodium factors suggest they may be responsible for the Imd pathway-mediated resistance phenotype. Additionally, we found that the fitness cost caused by Rel2 activation through caspar gene silencing was undetectable in sugar-fed, blood-fed, and P. falciparum-infected female A. gambiae, while activation of the Toll pathway's Rel1 had a major impact. This study describes for the first time a single gene that influences an immune mechanism that is able to abort

  17. Caspar controls resistance to Plasmodium falciparum in diverse anopheline species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garver, Lindsey S; Dong, Yuemei; Dimopoulos, George

    2009-03-01

    Immune responses mounted by the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae are largely regulated by the Toll and Imd (immune deficiency) pathways via the NF-kappaB transcription factors Rel1 and Rel2, which are controlled by the negative regulators Cactus and Caspar, respectively. Rel1- and Rel2-dependent transcription in A. gambiae has been shown to be particularly critical to the mosquito's ability to manage infection with the rodent malaria parasite Plasmodium berghei. Using RNA interference to deplete the negative regulators of these pathways, we found that Rel2 controls resistance of A. gambiae to the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum, whereas Rel 1 activation reduced infection levels. The universal relevance of this defense system across Anopheles species was established by showing that caspar silencing also prevents the development of P. falciparum in the major malaria vectors of Asia and South America, A. stephensi and A. albimanus, respectively. Parallel studies suggest that while Imd pathway activation is most effective against P. falciparum, the Toll pathway is most efficient against P. berghei, highlighting a significant discrepancy between the human pathogen and its rodent model. High throughput gene expression analyses identified a plethora of genes regulated by the activation of the two Rel factors and revealed that the Toll pathway played a more diverse role in mosquito biology than the Imd pathway, which was more immunity-specific. Further analyses of key anti-Plasmodium factors suggest they may be responsible for the Imd pathway-mediated resistance phenotype. Additionally, we found that the fitness cost caused by Rel2 activation through caspar gene silencing was undetectable in sugar-fed, blood-fed, and P. falciparum-infected female A. gambiae, while activation of the Toll pathway's Rel1 had a major impact. This study describes for the first time a single gene that influences an immune mechanism that is able to abort development of P. falciparum

  18. Plasmodium infection and its risk factors in eastern Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snow Robert W

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria is a leading cause of disease burden in Uganda, although surprisingly few contemporary, age-stratified data exist on malaria epidemiology in the country. This report presents results from a total population survey of malaria infection and intervention coverage in a rural area of eastern Uganda, with a specific focus on how risk factors differ between demographic groups in this population. Methods In 2008, a cross-sectional survey was conducted in four contiguous villages in Mulanda, sub-county in Tororo district, eastern Uganda, to investigate the epidemiology and risk factors of Plasmodium species infection. All permanent residents were invited to participate, with blood smears collected from 1,844 individuals aged between six months and 88 years (representing 78% of the population. Demographic, household and socio-economic characteristics were combined with environmental data using a Geographical Information System. Hierarchical models were used to explore patterns of malaria infection and identify individual, household and environmental risk factors. Results Overall, 709 individuals were infected with Plasmodium, with prevalence highest among 5-9 year olds (63.5%. Thin films from a random sample of 20% of parasite positive participants showed that 94.0% of infections were Plasmodium falciparum and 6.0% were P. malariae; no other species or mixed infections were seen. In total, 68% of households owned at least one mosquito although only 27% of school-aged children reported sleeping under a net the previous night. In multivariate analysis, infection risk was highest amongst children aged 5-9 years and remained high in older children. Risk of infection was lower for those that reported sleeping under a bed net the previous night and living more than 750 m from a rice-growing area. After accounting for clustering within compounds, there was no evidence for an association between infection prevalence and socio

  19. Major Histocompatibility Complex and Malaria: Focus on Plasmodium vivax infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josué Costa Lima-Junior

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The importance of host and parasite genetic factors in malaria resistance or susceptibility has been investigated since the middle of the last century. Nowadays, of all diseases that affect man, malaria still plays one of the highest levels of selective pressure on human genome. Susceptibility to malaria depends on exposure profile, epidemiological characteristics and several components of the innate and adaptive immune system that influences the quality of the immune response generated during the Plasmodium lifecycle in the vertebrate host. But it is well known that the parasite’s enormous capacity of genetic variation in conjunction with the host genetics polymorphism is also associated with a wide spectrum of susceptibility degrees to complicated or severe forms of the disease. In this scenario, variations in genes of the Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC associated with host resistance or susceptibility to malaria, have been identified and used as markers in host-pathogen interaction studies, mainly those evaluating the impact on the immune response, acquisition of resistance or increased susceptibility to infection or vulnerability to disease. However, due to the intense selective pressure, number of cases and mortality rates, the majority of the reported associations reported concerned Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Studies on the MHC polymorphism and its association with P. vivax, which is the most widespread Plasmodium and the most prevalent species outside the African continent, are less frequent but equally important. Despite punctual contributions, there are accumulated evidences of human genetic control in P. vivax infection and disease. Herein we review the current knowledge in the field of MHC and derived molecules (HLA Class I, Class II, TNF-α, LTA, BAT1 and CTL4 regarding P. vivax malaria. We discuss particularly the results of P. vivax studies on HLA class I and II polymorphisms in relation to host susceptibility

  20. A natural Anopheles-associated Penicillium chrysogenum enhances mosquito susceptibility to Plasmodium infection

    OpenAIRE

    Yesseinia I. Angleró-Rodríguez; Benjamin J. Blumberg; Yuemei Dong; Sandiford, Simone L.; Andrew Pike; Clayton, April M.; George Dimopoulos

    2016-01-01

    Whereas studies have extensively examined the ability of bacteria to influence Plasmodium infection in the mosquito, the tripartite interactions between non-entomopathogenic fungi, mosquitoes, and Plasmodium parasites remain largely uncharacterized. Here we report the isolation of a common mosquito-associated ascomycete fungus, Penicillium chrysogenum, from the midgut of field-caught Anopheles mosquitoes. Although the presence of Pe. chrysogenum in the Anopheles gambiae midgut does not affect...

  1. High Mobility Group Protein HMGB2 Is a Critical Regulator of Plasmodium Oocyst Development*S⃞

    OpenAIRE

    Gissot, Mathieu; Ting, Li-Min; Daly, Thomas M.; Bergman, Lawrence W.; Sinnis, Photini; Kim, Kami

    2008-01-01

    The sexual cycle of Plasmodium is required for transmission of malaria from mosquitoes to mammals, but how parasites induce the expression of genes required for the sexual stages is not known. We disrupted the Plasmodium yoelii gene encoding high mobility group nuclear factor hmgb2, which encodes a DNA-binding protein potentially implicated in transcriptional regulation of malaria gene expression. We investigated its function in vivo in the vertebrate and invertebrate ...

  2. [Survey on status of staff for Plasmodium microscopy examinations in Changzhou City].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yi-Qing; He, Ming-Zhen; Zhu, Shi-Ying; Zou, Yong-Gen; Chen, Hong

    2014-02-01

    To understand the current state of staff for Plasmodium microscopy examinations in Changzhou City in the early stage of eliminating malaria action, so as to provide the evidence for achieving the target of malaria elimination. The staff for Plasmodium microscopy examinations from medical institutions and centers for disease control and prevention at different levels were investigated by questionnaires and tests of the malaria related theory and microscopic operation. Totally 95 people were investigated, and among them, 40.0% had college degree and 45.3% were university educated. There were 18.9% of them working on Plasmodium microscopy examinations for less than 1 year, 40.0% for 2-5 years, 18.9% for 6-10 years and 22.1% for more than 10 years. The numbers of person-time of provincial and municipal level training, district-level training, and unit-level training in the last year were 0.57, 0.59, and 0.14, respectively. Totally 18.9% of them had the experience of finding Plasmodium at work, and 97.9% of them considered it was necessary or very necessary to do Plasmodium microscopy examinations. However, 57.9% and 8.4% of them considered Plasmodium microscopy examinations increased their work load and work difficulty, respectively. The average correct rates of knowledge tests on malaria before and after training were 72.5% and 91.6% respectively (P Plasmodium microscopic tests was 25.3 points (full mark being 50 points), and the passing rate (> or = 30 points) was 58.9%. The working experience of staff for Plasmodium microscopy examinations in Changzhou City is relatively poor, and the related training should be enhanced.

  3. Innexin AGAP001476 is critical for mediating anti-Plasmodium responses in Anopheles mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Michelle W M; Wang, Jiuling; Zhao, Yang O; Fikrig, Erol

    2014-09-05

    The Toll and IMD pathways are known to be induced upon Plasmodium berghei and Plasmodium falciparum infection, respectively. It is unclear how Plasmodium or other pathogens in the blood meal and their invasion of the midgut epithelium would trigger the innate immune responses in immune cells, in particular hemocytes. Gap junctions, which can mediate both cell-to-cell and cell-to-extracellular communication, may participate in this signal transduction. This study examined whether innexins, gap junction proteins in insects, are involved in anti-Plasmodium responses in Anopheles gambiae. Inhibitor studies using carbenoxolone indicated that blocking innexons resulted in an increase in Plasmodium oocyst number and infection prevalence. This was accompanied by a decline in TEP1 levels in carbenoxolone-treated mosquitoes. Innexin AGAP001476 mRNA levels in midguts were induced during Plasmodium infection and a knockdown of AGAP001476, but not AGAP006241, caused an induction in oocyst number. Silencing AGAP001476 caused a concurrent increase in vitellogenin levels, a TEP1 inhibitor, in addition to a reduced level of TEP1-LRIM1-APL1C complex in hemolymph. Both vitellogenin and TEP1 are regulated by Cactus under the Toll pathway. Simultaneous knockdown of cactus and AGAP001476 failed to reverse the near refractoriness induced by the knockdown of cactus, suggesting that the AGAP001476-mediated anti-Plasmodium response is Cactus-dependent. These data demonstrate a critical role for innexin AGAP001476 in mediating innate immune responses against Plasmodium through Toll pathway in mosquitoes. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  4. Effect of gamma radiation on the delay of synchronous division of Physarium polycephalum plasmodium nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gushcha, N.I.; Dmitriev, A.P.; Grodzinskij, D.M. (AN Ukrainskoj SSR, Kiev. Inst. Fiziologii Rastenij)

    Irradiation of P. polycephalum plasmodium both at the middle of the S- and at the G/sub 2/-stages caused a linear increase in the delay of a synchronous division of nuclei at doses of up to 3000 Gy. High radiosensitivity of the plasmodium at the S phase was shown to correlate with the increased yield of abnormal multinucleolate nuclei and with the partial asynchronization of the postirradiation mitosis.

  5. Real-time PCR detection of Plasmodium directly from whole blood and filter paper samples

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, Brian. J.; Martin, Kimberly A; Arango, Eliana; Agudelo, Olga M; Maestre, Amanda; Yanow, Stephanie K.

    2011-01-01

    Background Real-time PCR is a sensitive and specific method for the analysis of Plasmodium DNA. However, prior purification of genomic DNA from blood is necessary since PCR inhibitors and quenching of fluorophores from blood prevent efficient amplification and detection of PCR products. Methods Reagents designed to specifically overcome PCR inhibition and quenching of fluorescence were evaluated for real-time PCR amplification of Plasmodium DNA directly from blood. Whole blood from clinical s...

  6. Disruption of Plasmodium Sporozoite Transmission by Depletion of Sporozoite Invasion-Associated Protein 1▿ §

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Accumulation of infectious Plasmodium sporozoites in Anopheles spp. salivary glands marks the final step of the complex development of the malaria parasite in the insect vector. Sporozoites are formed inside midgut-associated oocysts and actively egress into the mosquito hemocoel. Traversal of the salivary gland acinar cells correlates with the sporozoite's capacity to perform continuous gliding motility. Here, we characterized the cellular role of the Plasmodium berghei sporozoite invasion-a...

  7. Anopheles gambiae immune responses to human and rodent Plasmodium parasite species.

    OpenAIRE

    Yuemei Dong; Ruth Aguilar; Zhiyong Xi; Emma Warr; Emmanuel Mongin; George Dimopoulos

    2006-01-01

    Transmission of malaria is dependent on the successful completion of the Plasmodium lifecycle in the Anopheles vector. Major obstacles are encountered in the midgut tissue, where most parasites are killed by the mosquito's immune system. In the present study, DNA microarray analyses have been used to compare Anopheles gambiae responses to invasion of the midgut epithelium by the ookinete stage of the human pathogen Plasmodium falciparum and the rodent experimental model pathogen P. berghei. I...

  8. Anopheles gambiae immune responses to human and rodent Plasmodium parasite species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuemei Dong

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Transmission of malaria is dependent on the successful completion of the Plasmodium lifecycle in the Anopheles vector. Major obstacles are encountered in the midgut tissue, where most parasites are killed by the mosquito's immune system. In the present study, DNA microarray analyses have been used to compare Anopheles gambiae responses to invasion of the midgut epithelium by the ookinete stage of the human pathogen Plasmodium falciparum and the rodent experimental model pathogen P. berghei. Invasion by P. berghei had a more profound impact on the mosquito transcriptome, including a variety of functional gene classes, while P. falciparum elicited a broader immune response at the gene transcript level. Ingestion of human malaria-infected blood lacking invasive ookinetes also induced a variety of immune genes, including several anti-Plasmodium factors. Twelve selected genes were assessed for effect on infection with both parasite species and bacteria using RNAi gene silencing assays, and seven of these genes were found to influence mosquito resistance to both parasite species. An MD2-like receptor, AgMDL1, and an immunolectin, FBN39, showed specificity in regulating only resistance to P. falciparum, while the antimicrobial peptide gambicin and a novel putative short secreted peptide, IRSP5, were more specific for defense against the rodent parasite P. berghei. While all the genes that affected Plasmodium development also influenced mosquito resistance to bacterial infection, four of the antimicrobial genes had no effect on Plasmodium development. Our study shows that the impact of P. falciparum and P. berghei infection on A. gambiae biology at the gene transcript level is quite diverse, and the defense against the two Plasmodium species is mediated by antimicrobial factors with both universal and Plasmodium-species specific activities. Furthermore, our data indicate that the mosquito is capable of sensing infected blood constituents in the absence

  9. Plasmodium circumflexum in a Shikra (Accipiter badius): Phylogeny and ultra-structure of the haematozoa

    OpenAIRE

    Salakij, Jarernsak; LERTWATCHARASARAKUL, Preeda; Kasorndorkbua, Chaiyan; Salakij, Chaleow

    2012-01-01

    A wild-caught, juvenile Shikra (Accipiter badius) was evaluated for rehabilitation at the Kasetsart University Raptor Rehabilitation Unit (KURRU) with a history of weakness. Plasmodium sp. was observed by both light and electron microscopy in blood obtained on day 1 of evaluation. Based on the appearance of erythrocytic meronts and gametocytes, the parasites were defined as Plasmodium (Giovannolaia) circumflexum. The sequence analysis of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene from the plasmodia ...

  10. A sensitive, specific and reproducible real-time polymerase chain reaction method for detection of Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum infection in field-collected anophelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickersmith, Sara A; Lainhart, William; Moreno, Marta; Chu, Virginia M; Vinetz, Joseph M; Conn, Jan E

    2015-06-01

    We describe a simple method for detection of Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum infection in anophelines using a triplex TaqMan real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay (18S rRNA). We tested the assay on Anopheles darlingi and Anopheles stephensi colony mosquitoes fed with Plasmodium-infected blood meals and in duplicate on field collected An. darlingi. We compared the real-time PCR results of colony-infected and field collected An. darlingi, separately, to a conventional PCR method. We determined that a cytochrome b-PCR method was only 3.33% as sensitive and 93.38% as specific as our real-time PCR assay with field-collected samples. We demonstrate that this assay is sensitive, specific and reproducible.

  11. Perfil clínico y parasitológico de la malaria por Plasmodium falciparum y Plasmodium vivax no complicada en Córdoba, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angélica Knudson-Ospina

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Antecedentes. En Colombia existen pocos estudios que buscan encontrar diferencias clínicas y parasitológicas en la malaria causada por Plasmodium falciparum y Plasmodium vivax. Objetivo. Describir el perfil clínico y parasitológico de las malarias por Plasmodium falciparum y Plasmodium vivax no complicadas en Tierralta, Córdoba, Colombia. Materiales y métodos. Se evaluaron pacientes con paludismo no complicado por Plasmodium falciparum y Plasmodium vivax según los protocolos estandarizados por la Organización Panamericana de la Salud y se recolectó información clínica y parasitológica. De igual forma, se utilizó análisis multivariado por correspondencias múltiples para describir diferentes perfiles de pacientes con paludismo no complicado por estas dos especies antes de recibir tratamiento. Resultados. Se evaluaron 112 pacientes con edad entre 6 y 64 años, 59 (52.7% con Plasmodium falciparum y 53 (47.3% con Plasmodium vivax. Los síntomas más frecuentes fueron fiebre en 111 pacientes (99.1%; IC 95%: 81.5-100, sudoración en 105 (93.8%; IC 95%: 76.7-100 y dolor osteomuscular en 105 (93.8%; IC 95%: 76.7-100. Se presentaron con mayor frecuencia, y con diferencia significativa, en las infecciones por Plasmodium falciparum: diarrea en 18 pacientes (30.5%; IC 95%: 18.1-48.2; decaimiento en 49 (83%; IC 95%: 61.4-109.8; palidez palmar en 39 (66.1%; IC 95%: 47-90.4 y sequedad de mucosas en 12 (20.3%; IC 95%: 10.5-35.5. El escalofrío se presentó con mayor frecuencia en Plasmodium vivax (98.1%; IC 95%: 73.4-128.1. El análisis multivariado agrupó las variables en cuatro perfiles distintos de presentaciones clínicas así: 1 síntomas clínicos y su relación con el recuento parasitario, 2 características clínicas en relación con la edad y sexo, 3 antecedentes de malaria en relación con características demográficas y clínicas y 4 especie del parásito en relación con antecedentes, clínica y variables demográficas. Conclusi

  12. A natural Anopheles-associated Penicillium chrysogenum enhances mosquito susceptibility to Plasmodium infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angleró-Rodríguez, Yesseinia I; Blumberg, Benjamin J; Dong, Yuemei; Sandiford, Simone L; Pike, Andrew; Clayton, April M; Dimopoulos, George

    2016-09-28

    Whereas studies have extensively examined the ability of bacteria to influence Plasmodium infection in the mosquito, the tripartite interactions between non-entomopathogenic fungi, mosquitoes, and Plasmodium parasites remain largely uncharacterized. Here we report the isolation of a common mosquito-associated ascomycete fungus, Penicillium chrysogenum, from the midgut of field-caught Anopheles mosquitoes. Although the presence of Pe. chrysogenum in the Anopheles gambiae midgut does not affect mosquito survival, it renders the mosquito significantly more susceptible to Plasmodium infection through a secreted heat-stable factor. We further provide evidence that the mechanism of the fungus-mediated modulation of mosquito susceptibility to Plasmodium involves an upregulation of the insect's ornithine decarboxylase gene, which sequesters arginine for polyamine biosynthesis. Arginine plays an important role in the mosquito's anti-Plasmodium defense as a substrate of nitric oxide production, and its availability therefore has a direct impact on the mosquito's susceptibility to the parasite. While this type of immunomodulatory mechanism has already been demonstrated in other host-pathogen interaction systems, this is the first report of a mosquito-associated fungus that can suppress the mosquito's innate immune system in a way that would favor Plasmodium infection and possibly malaria transmission.

  13. Plasmodium immobilization of Physarella oblonga (Berk. & Curt.) Morgan (Myxomycetes) using kaolinite as a matrix of entrapment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Sheyla M; Cavalcanti, Laise H; Pereira, Eugênia C; Silva, Nicácio H

    2003-01-01

    The possibility of using kaolinite-immobilized plasmodium fragments of Physarella oblonga (Berk. & Curt.) Morgan to maintain their metabolic activity was examined. The immobilization process was carried out with 1 mg of plasmodium of P. oblonga entrapped in 10 g of kaolinite. Sodium acetate (1 mM) was used as a metabolic precursor. The collection of fractions was carried out during a one month period, and extracted with ether/ethyl acetate and chloroform/acetonitrile. The extractions from plasmodium in natura were accomplished with the same solvents. The extracts obtained were analyzed in a spectrophotometer at 266 nm and 310 nm, and by thin layer chromatography to assess the productivity of the immobilized plasmodium. The absorbances of the extracts in both wavelengths and the chromatographic tests showed the synthesis of compounds by the immobilized material. Three chromatographic spots were observed in the extracts obtained from the immobilized plasmodium. Two spots coincided with the R(f) values and coloration of the spots observed for the material in natura used as a reference. The kaolinite-immobilized plasmodium of P. oblonga can remain metabolically active for at least one month at room temperature and ambient light conditions.

  14. A natural Anopheles-associated Penicillium chrysogenum enhances mosquito susceptibility to Plasmodium infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angleró-Rodríguez, Yesseinia I.; Blumberg, Benjamin J.; Dong, Yuemei; Sandiford, Simone L.; Pike, Andrew; Clayton, April M.; Dimopoulos, George

    2016-01-01

    Whereas studies have extensively examined the ability of bacteria to influence Plasmodium infection in the mosquito, the tripartite interactions between non-entomopathogenic fungi, mosquitoes, and Plasmodium parasites remain largely uncharacterized. Here we report the isolation of a common mosquito-associated ascomycete fungus, Penicillium chrysogenum, from the midgut of field-caught Anopheles mosquitoes. Although the presence of Pe. chrysogenum in the Anopheles gambiae midgut does not affect mosquito survival, it renders the mosquito significantly more susceptible to Plasmodium infection through a secreted heat-stable factor. We further provide evidence that the mechanism of the fungus-mediated modulation of mosquito susceptibility to Plasmodium involves an upregulation of the insect’s ornithine decarboxylase gene, which sequesters arginine for polyamine biosynthesis. Arginine plays an important role in the mosquito’s anti-Plasmodium defense as a substrate of nitric oxide production, and its availability therefore has a direct impact on the mosquito’s susceptibility to the parasite. While this type of immunomodulatory mechanism has already been demonstrated in other host-pathogen interaction systems, this is the first report of a mosquito-associated fungus that can suppress the mosquito’s innate immune system in a way that would favor Plasmodium infection and possibly malaria transmission. PMID:27678168

  15. Serial Analysis of Gene Expression in Plasmodium berghei salivary gland sporozoites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ménard Robert

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The invasion of Anopheles salivary glands by Plasmodium sporozoites is an essential step for transmission of the parasite to the vertebrate host. Salivary gland sporozoites undergo a developmental programme to express genes required for their journey from the site of the mosquito bite to the liver and subsequent invasion of, and development within, hepatocytes. A Serial Analysis of Gene Expression was performed on Anopheles gambiae salivary glands infected or not with Plasmodium berghei and we report here the analysis of the Plasmodium sporozoite transcriptome. Results Annotation of 530 tag sequences homologous to Plasmodium berghei genomic sequences identified 123 genes expressed in salivary gland sporozoites and these genes were classified according to their transcript abundance. A subset of these genes was further studied by quantitative PCR to determine their expression profiles. This revealed that sporozoites modulate their RNA amounts not only between the midgut and salivary glands, but also during their storage within the latter. Among the 123 genes, the expression of 66 is described for the first time in sporozoites of rodent Plasmodium species. Conclusion These novel sporozoite expressed genes, especially those expressed at high levels in salivary gland sporozoites, are likely to play a role in Plasmodium infectivity in the mammalian host.

  16. Anti-phospholipid antibodies in patients with Plasmodium falciparum malaria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, P H; Morris-Jones, S D; Hviid, L;

    1993-01-01

    Plasma levels of antibodies against phosphatidylinositol (PI), phosphatidylcholine (PC) and cardiolipin (CL) were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in patients from malaria endemic area of Sudan and The Gambia. Some Sudanese adults produced IgM antibodies against all three types...... of phospholipids (PL) during an acute Plasmodium falciparum infection. The anti-PL antibody titre returned to preinfection levels in most of the donors 30 days after the disease episode. IgG titres against PI, PC and CL were low. In Gambian children with malaria, IgM antibody titres against PI and PC were...... significantly higher in those with severe malaria than in those with mild malaria. These results show that a proportion of malaria patients produce anti-PL antibodies during infection and that titres of these antibodies are associated with the severity of disease....

  17. Variant Plasmodium ovale isolated from a patient infected in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petersen Eskild

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Recent data have found that Plasmodium ovale can be separated in two distinct species: classic and variant P. ovale based on multilocus typing of different genes. This study presents a P. ovale isolate from a patient infected in Ghana together with an analysis of the small subunit RNA, cytochrome b, cytochrome c oxidase I, cysteine protease and lactate dehydrogenase genes, which show that the sample is a variant P. ovale and identical or highly similar to variant P. ovale isolated from humans in South-East Asia and Africa, and from a chimpanzee in Cameroon. The split between the variant and classic P. ovale is estimated to have occurred 1.7 million years ago.

  18. Energy-saving with low dimensional network in Physarum plasmodium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takamatsu, Atsuko; Gomi, Takuma; Endo, Tatsuya; Hirai, Tomo; Sasaki, Takato

    2017-04-01

    An adaptation process in the transportation network of Physarum plasmodium was investigated by measuring oxygen consumption during network formation. Simultaneously, the fractal dimension as a measure of network structure was estimated. Oxygen consumption decreased during the development of the network, whereas the network structure changed from a thin mesh-type to a thick dendritic type. Our data suggested that the morphology of the plasmodial network governed energy consumption; a low dimensional network in the sense of the fractal dimension reduced energy consumption. These data were supported by experimental results excluding biological reasons, such as differences in starvation/nutrient-fullness states, and aspects of mitochondrial distribution. Model analysis using the Physarum algorithm with volume conservation constraints confirmed the above findings.

  19. On Programmed Cell Death in Plasmodium falciparum: Status Quo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelbrecht, Dewaldt; Durand, Pierre Marcel; Coetzer, Thérèsa Louise

    2012-01-01

    Conflicting arguments and results exist regarding the occurrence and phenotype of programmed cell death (PCD) in the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. Inconsistencies relate mainly to the number and type of PCD markers assessed and the different methodologies used in the studies. In this paper, we provide a comprehensive overview of the current state of knowledge and empirical evidence for PCD in the intraerythrocytic stages of P. falciparum. We consider possible reasons for discrepancies in the data and offer suggestions towards more standardised investigation methods in this field. Furthermore, we present genomic evidence for PCD machinery in P. falciparum. We discuss the potential adaptive or nonadaptive role of PCD in the parasite life cycle and its possible exploitation in the development of novel drug targets. Lastly, we pose pertinent unanswered questions concerning the PCD phenomenon in P. falciparum to provide future direction. PMID:22287973

  20. Origins and spread of pfdhfr mutant alleles in Plasmodium falciparum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mita, Toshihiro

    2010-06-01

    The emergence and spread of Plasmodium falciparum parasite resistant to sulfadoxine and pyrimethamine (SP) poses a serious public health problem. Resistance is caused by point mutations in dihydrofolate reductase (pfdhfr) and dihydropteroate synthase (pfdhps), the two key enzymes in the folate biosynthetic pathway. The use of microsatellite markers flanking pfdhfr has recently shown that the invasion of limited resistant lineages may explain the widespread SP resistance in many endemic regions. In Africa, however, multiple indigenous origins of pfdhfr triple mutants have been demonstrated. More new independent lineages and routes of geographical spread of resistance may be found by further molecular evolutionary analyses using samples from various endemic regions. Here, I review recent studies about the history of SP usage and the evolution and spread of resistant lineages while addressing the technical issue of microsatellite analysis.

  1. Editing the Plasmodium vivax genome, using zinc-finger nucleases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraes Barros, Roberto R; Straimer, Judith; Sa, Juliana M; Salzman, Rebecca E; Melendez-Muniz, Viviana A; Mu, Jianbing; Fidock, David A; Wellems, Thomas E

    2015-01-01

    Plasmodium vivax is a major cause of malaria morbidity worldwide yet has remained genetically intractable. To stably modify this organism, we used zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs), which take advantage of homology-directed DNA repair mechanisms at the site of nuclease action. Using ZFNs specific to the gene encoding P. vivax dihydrofolate reductase (pvdhfr), we transfected blood specimens from Saimiri boliviensis monkeys infected with the pyrimethamine (Pyr)-susceptible Chesson strain with a ZFN plasmid carrying a Pyr-resistant mutant pvdhfr sequence. We obtained Pyr-resistant parasites in vivo that carried mutant pvdhfr and additional silent mutations designed to confirm editing. These results herald the era of stable P. vivax genetic modifications.

  2. Endoplasmic motility spectral characteristics in plasmodium of Physarum polycephalum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avsievich, T. I.; Ghaleb, K. E. S.; Frolov, S. V.; Proskurin, S. G.

    2015-03-01

    Spectral Fourier analysis of experimentally acquired velocity time dependencies, V(t), of shuttle endoplasmic motility in an isolated strand of plasmodium of slime mold Physarum Polycephalum has been realized. V(t) registration was performed in normal conditions and after the treatment by respiration inhibitors, which lead to a complete cessation of endoplasmic motion in the strand. Spectral analysis of the velocity time dependences of the endoplasm allows obtaining two distinct harmonic components in the spectra. Their ratio appeared to be constant in all cases, ν2/ν1=1.97±0.17. After the inhibitors are washed out respiratory system becomes normal, gradually restoring the activity of both harmonic oscillatory sources with time. Simulated velocity time dependences correspond to experimental data with good accuracy.

  3. Reduced erythrocyte deformability associated with hypoargininemia during Plasmodium falciparum malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, Juliana; Buffet, Pierre A; Ciceron, Liliane; Milon, Geneviève; Mercereau-Puijalon, Odile; Safeukui, Innocent

    2014-01-20

    The mechanisms underlying reduced red blood cell (RBC) deformability during Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) malaria remain poorly understood. Here, we explore the possible involvement of the L-arginine and nitric oxide (NO) pathway on RBC deformability in Pf-infected patients and parasite cultures. RBC deformability was reduced during the acute attack (day0) and returned to normal values upon convalescence (day28). Day0 values correlated with plasma L-arginine levels (r = 0.69; p = 0.01) and weakly with parasitemia (r = -0.38; p = 0.006). In vitro, day0 patient's plasma incubated with ring-stage cultures at 41°C reduced RBC deformability, and this effect correlated strongly with plasma L-arginine levels (r = 0.89; p falciparum malaria may altogether impair NO production and reduce RBC deformability, particularly at febrile temperature.

  4. Complement activation in Ghanaian children with severe Plasmodium falciparum malaria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helegbe, Gideon K; Goka, Bamenla Q; Kurtzhals, Jørgen

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Severe anaemia (SA), intravascular haemolysis (IVH) and respiratory distress (RD) are severe forms of Plasmodium falciparum malaria, with RD reported to be of prognostic importance in African children with malarial anaemia. Complement factors have been implicated in the mechanism......55)] in children with discrete clinical forms of P. falciparum malaria. The relationship between the findings and clinical parameters including coma, haemoglobin (Hb) levels and RD were investigated. RESULTS: Of the 484 samples tested, 131(27%) were positive in DCT, out of which 115/131 (87.8%) were...... falciparum malaria, possibly through induction of erythrophagocytosis and haemolysis. In contrast to other studies, this study did not find association between levels of the complement...

  5. Artemisinin resistance in Plasmodium falciparum: A process linked to dormancy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Qin; Kyle, Dennis E; Gatton, Michelle L

    2012-12-01

    Artemisinin (ART) based combination therapy (ACT) is used as the first line treatment of uncomplicated falciparum malaria in over 100 countries and is the cornerstone of malaria control and elimination programs in these areas. However, despite the high potency and rapid parasite killing action of ART derivatives there is a high rate of recrudescence associated with ART monotherapy and recrudescence is not uncommon even when ACT is used. Compounding this problem are reports that some parasites in Cambodia, a known foci of drug resistance, have decreased in vivo sensitivity to ART. This raises serious concerns for the development of ART resistance in the field even though no major phenotypic and genotypic changes have yet been identified in these parasites. In this article we review available data on the characteristics of ART, its effects on Plasmodium falciparum parasites and present a hypothesis to explain the high rate of recrudescence associated with this potent class of drugs and the current enigma surrounding ART resistance.

  6. Sickle Cell Trait Protects Against Plasmodium falciparum Infection

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    Billo, Mounkaila A.; Johnson, Eric S.; Doumbia, Seydou O.; Poudiougou, Belco; Sagara, Issaka; Diawara, Sory I.; Diakité, Mahamadou; Diallo, Mouctar; Doumbo, Ogobara K.; Tounkara, Anatole; Rice, Janet; James, Mark A.; Krogstad, Donald J.

    2012-01-01

    Although sickle cell trait protects against severe disease due to Plasmodium falciparum, it has not been clear whether sickle trait also protects against asymptomatic infection (parasitemia). To address this question, the authors identified 171 persistently smear-negative children and 450 asymptomatic persistently smear-positive children in Bancoumana, Mali (June 1996 to June 1998). They then followed both groups for 2 years using a cohort-based strategy. Among the 171 children with persistently negative smears, the median time for conversion to smear-positive was longer for children with sickle trait than for children without (274 vs. 108 days, P sickle trait than for children without (190 vs. 365 days; P = 0.02). These protective effects of sickle trait against asymptomatic P. falciparum infection under conditions of natural transmission were demonstrable using a cohort-based approach but not when the same data were examined using a cross-sectional approach. PMID:23035141

  7. Plasmodium falciparum In Vitro Resistance to Monodesethylamodiaquine, Dakar, Senegal, 2014.

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    Fall, Bécaye; Madamet, Marylin; Camara, Cheikhou; Amalvict, Rémy; Fall, Mansour; Nakoulima, Aminata; Diatta, Bakary; Diémé, Yaya; Wade, Boubacar; Pradines, Bruno

    2016-05-01

    We successfully cultured 36 Plasmodium falciparum isolates from blood samples of 44 malaria patients admitted to the Hôpital Principal de Dakar (Dakar, Senegal) during August-December 2014. The prevalence of isolates with in vitro reduced susceptibility was 30.6% for monodesethylamodiaquine, 52.8% for chloroquine, 44.1% for mefloquine, 16.7% for doxycycline, 11.8% for piperaquine, 8.3% for artesunate, 5.9% for pyronaridine, 2.8% for quinine and dihydroartemisinin, and 0.0% for lumefantrine. The prevalence of isolates with reduced in vitro susceptibility to the artemisinin-based combination therapy partner monodesethylamodiaquine increased from 5.6% in 2013 to 30.6% in 2014. Because of the increased prevalence of P. falciparum parasites with impaired in vitro susceptibility to monodesethylamodiaquine, the implementation of in vitro and in vivo surveillance of all artemisinin-based combination therapy partners is warranted.

  8. Engineered resistance to Plasmodium falciparum development in transgenic Anopheles stephensi.

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    Alison T Isaacs

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Transposon-mediated transformation was used to produce Anopheles stephensi that express single-chain antibodies (scFvs designed to target the human malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum. The scFvs, m1C3, m4B7, and m2A10, are derived from mouse monoclonal antibodies that inhibit either ookinete invasion of the midgut or sporozoite invasion of salivary glands. The scFvs that target the parasite surface, m4B7 and m2A10, were fused to an Anopheles gambiae antimicrobial peptide, Cecropin A. Previously-characterized Anopheles cis-acting DNA regulatory elements were included in the transgenes to coordinate scFv production with parasite development. Gene amplification and immunoblot analyses showed promoter-specific increases in transgene expression in blood-fed females. Transgenic mosquito lines expressing each of the scFv genes had significantly lower infection levels than controls when challenged with P. falciparum.

  9. PENGEMBANGAN BIAKAN IN-VITRO PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM SECARA KONTINU

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    Sekar Tuti

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available To support malaria research on its' serology/immunology, chemotherapy, drug sensitivity aspects etc. especially for falciparum malaria, a large amount of antigen (parasites is needed. These antigen could not be obtained from patients in the field only. Considering this situation, attempts have been made to develop a Plasmodium falciparum continuous culture   in-vitro following a method introduced  by Trager and Jensen (1976. In our laboratory, the parasite grew and multiplied nicely for 60 days. During that period of cultivation, a large amount of parasites (mostly mature trophozoite and schizont stages have been collected for antigen production. Several tubes of mostly young trophozoites stage have been preserved, it can be cultured again in the future or transported to another laboratory for further culture.

  10. Plasmodium falciparum: growth response to potassium channel blocking compounds.

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    Waller, Karena L; Kim, Kami; McDonald, Thomas V

    2008-11-01

    Potassium channels are essential for cell survival and regulate the cell membrane potential and electrochemical gradient. During its lifecycle, Plasmodium falciparum parasites must rapidly adapt to dramatically variant ionic conditions within the mosquito mid-gut, the hepatocyte and red blood cell (RBC) cytosols, and the human circulatory system. To probe the participation of K(+) channels in parasite viability, growth response assays were performed in which asexual stage P. falciparum parasites were cultured in the presence of various Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channel blocking compounds. These data describe the novel anti-malarial effects of bicuculline methiodide and tubocurarine chloride and the novel lack of effect of apamine and verruculogen. Taken together, the data herein imply the presence of K(+) channels, or other parasite-specific targets, in P. falciparum-infected RBCs that are sensitive to blockade with Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channel blocking compounds.

  11. Cryo scanning electron microscopy of Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes.

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    Hempel, Casper

    2017-07-01

    Plasmodium falciparum invades erythrocytes as an essential part of their life cycle. While living inside erythrocytes, the parasite remodels the cell's intracellular organization as well as its outer surface. Late trophozoite-stage parasites and schizonts introduce numerous small protrusions on the erythrocyte surface, called knobs. Current methods for studying these knobs include atomic force microscopy and electron microscopy. Standard electron microscopy methods rely on chemical fixation and dehydration modifying cell size. Here, a novel method is presented using rapid freezing and scanning electron microscopy under cryogenic conditions allowing for high resolution and magnification of erythrocytes. This novel technique can be used for precise estimates of knob density and for studies on cytoadhesion. © 2017 APMIS. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Pharmacophore model for pentamidine analogs active against Plasmodium falciparum.

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    Athri, Prashanth; Wenzler, Tanja; Tidwell, Richard; Bakunova, Svetlana M; Wilson, W David

    2010-12-01

    Pentamidine and its analogs constitute a class of compounds that are known to be active against Plasmodium falciparum, which causes the most dangerous malarial infection. Malaria is a widespread disease known to affect hundreds of millions of people and presents a perceivable threat of spreading. Hence, there is a need for well-defined scaffolds that lead to new, effective treatment. Here we present a pentamidine-based pharmacophore constructed using GALAHAD that would aid targeted synthesis of leads with enhanced properties, as well as the development of lead scaffolds. The study was supported by high-quality biological in vitro data of 22 compounds against the P. falciparum strains NF54 and K1. The model established reveals the importance of hydrophobic phenyl rings with polar oxygen and amidine substituents and the hydrophobic linking chain for the activity against malaria.

  13. Molecular monitoring of Plasmodium falciparum resistance to artemisinin in Tanzania

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    Genton Blaise

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs are recommended for use against uncomplicated malaria in areas of multi-drug resistant malaria, such as sub-Saharan Africa. However, their long-term usefulness in these high transmission areas remains unclear. It has been suggested that documentation of the S769N PfATPase6 mutations may indicate an emergence of artemisinin resistance of Plasmodium falciparum in the field. The present study assessed PfATPase6 mutations (S769N and A623E in 615 asymptomatic P. falciparum infections in Tanzania but no mutant genotype was detected. This observation suggests that resistance to artemisinin has not yet been selected in Tanzania, supporting the Ministry of Health's decision to adopt artemether+lumefantrine as first-line malaria treatment. The findings recommend further studies to assess PfATPase6 mutations in sentinel sites and verify their usefulness in monitoring emergency of ACT resistance.

  14. [Research Progress on Artemisinin Resistance in Plasmodium falciparum].

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    Zhang, Yi-long; Pan, Wei-qing

    2015-12-01

    Artemisinin (ART) is a novel and effective antimalarial drug discovered in China. As recommended by the World Health Organization, the ART-based combination therapies (ACTs) have become the first-line drugs for the treatment of falciparum malaria. ART and its derivatives have contributed greatly to the effective control of malaria globally, leading to yearly decrease of malaria morbidity and mortality. However, there have recently been several reports on the resistance of Plasmodium falciparum to ART in Southeast Asia. This is deemed a serious threat to the global malaria control programs. In this paper, we reviewed recent research progress on ART resistance to P. falciparum, including new tools for resistance measurement, resistance-associated molecular markers, and the origin and spread of the ART-resistant parasite strains.

  15. Early Transcriptional Responses of HepG2-A 16 Liver Cells to Infection by Plasmodium falciparum Sporozoites

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-29

    286, ’JC 30, pp Early Transcriptional Responses of HepG2-A 16 Liver Cells to Infection by Plasmodium falciparum Sporozoites*[i] Received for...7500 and󈧏Sun BioMedical Technologies Inc., Ridgecrest, California 93555 Invasion of hepatocytes by Plasmodium sporozoites depos- ited by Anopheles...expression profiling of human HepG2-A16liver cells infected with Plasmodium falciparum sporozoites to understand the host early cellular events and

  16. Spatiotemporal dynamics and demographic profiles of imported Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax infections in Ontario, Canada (1990-2009.

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    Mark P Nelder

    Full Text Available We examined malaria cases reported to Ontario's public health surveillance systems from 1990 through 2009 to determine how temporal scale (longitudinal, seasonal, spatial scale (provincial, health unit, and demography (gender, age contribute to Plasmodium infection in Ontario travellers. Our retrospective study included 4,551 confirmed cases of imported malaria reported throughout Ontario, with additional analysis at the local health unit level (i.e., Ottawa, Peel, and Toronto. During the 20-year period, Plasmodium vivax accounted for 50.6% of all cases, P. falciparum (38.6%, Plasmodium sp. (6.0%, P. ovale (3.1%, and P. malariae (1.8%. During the first ten years of the study (1990-1999, P. vivax (64% of all cases was the dominant agent, followed by P. falciparum (28%; however, during the second ten years (2000-2009 the situation reversed and P. falciparum (55% dominated, followed by P. vivax (30%. The prevalence of P. falciparum and P. vivax cases varied spatially (e.g., P. falciparum more prevalent in Toronto, P. vivax more prevalent in Peel, temporally (e.g. P. falciparum incidence increased during the 20-year study, and demographically (e.g. preponderance of male cases. Infection rates per 100,000 international travellers were estimated: rates of infection were 2× higher in males compared to females; rates associated with travel to Africa were 37× higher compared to travel to Asia and 126× higher compared to travel to the Americas; rates of infection were 2.3-3.5× higher in June and July compared to October through March; and rates of infection were highest in those 65-69 years old. Where exposure country was reported, 71% of P. falciparum cases reported exposure in Ghana or Nigeria and 63% of P. vivax cases reported exposure in India. Our study provides insights toward improving pre-travel programs for Ontarians visiting malaria-endemic regions and underscores the changing epidemiology of imported malaria in the province.

  17. Antimalarial activity of Malaysian Plectranthus amboinicus against Plasmodium berghei

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    Norazsida Ramli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Malaria is a mosquito-borne disease caused by parasitic protozoa from the genus of Plasmodium. The protozoans have developed resistance against many of current drugs. It is urgent to find an alternative source of new antimalarial agent. In the effort to discover new antimalarial agents, this research has been conducted on Plectranthus amboinicus. Aims: This study was conducted to evaluate the toxicity and antiplasmodial properties of P. amboinicus. Materials and Methods: Acute oral toxicity dose at 5000 mg/kg was conducted to evaluate the safety of this extract. Twenty mice were divided into control and experimental group. All the mice were observed for signs of toxicity, mortality, weight changes and histopathological changes. Antimalarial activity of different extract doses of 50, 200, 400 and 1000 mg/kg were tested in vivo against Plasmodium berghei infections in mice (five mice for each group during early, established and residual infections. Results: The acute oral toxicity test revealed that no mortality or evidence of adverse effects was seen in the treated mice. The extract significantly reduced the parasitemia by the 50 (P = 0.000, 200 (P = 0.000 and 400 mg/kg doses (P = 0.000 in the in vivo prophylactic assay. The percentage chemo-suppression was calculated as 83.33% for 50 mg/kg dose, 75.62% for 200 mg/kg dose and 90.74% for 400 mg/kg dose. Body weight of all treated groups; T1, T2, T3 and T4 also showed enhancement after 7 days posttreatment. Statistically no reduction of parasitemia calculated for curative and suppressive test. Conclusion: Thus, this extract may give a promising agent to be used as a prophylactic agent of P. berghei infection.

  18. Antimalarial Benzoxaboroles Target Plasmodium falciparum Leucyl-tRNA Synthetase.

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    Sonoiki, Ebere; Palencia, Andres; Guo, Denghui; Ahyong, Vida; Dong, Chen; Li, Xianfeng; Hernandez, Vincent S; Zhang, Yong-Kang; Choi, Wai; Gut, Jiri; Legac, Jennifer; Cooper, Roland; Alley, M R K; Freund, Yvonne R; DeRisi, Joseph; Cusack, Stephen; Rosenthal, Philip J

    2016-08-01

    There is a need for new antimalarials, ideally with novel mechanisms of action. Benzoxaboroles have been shown to be active against bacteria, fungi, and trypanosomes. Therefore, we investigated the antimalarial activity and mechanism of action of 3-aminomethyl benzoxaboroles against Plasmodium falciparum Two 3-aminomethyl compounds, AN6426 and AN8432, demonstrated good potency against cultured multidrug-resistant (W2 strain) P. falciparum (50% inhibitory concentration [IC50] of 310 nM and 490 nM, respectively) and efficacy against murine Plasmodium berghei infection when administered orally once daily for 4 days (90% effective dose [ED90], 7.4 and 16.2 mg/kg of body weight, respectively). To characterize mechanisms of action, we selected parasites with decreased drug sensitivity by culturing with stepwise increases in concentration of AN6426. Resistant clones were characterized by whole-genome sequencing. Three generations of resistant parasites had polymorphisms in the predicted editing domain of the gene encoding a P. falciparum leucyl-tRNA synthetase (LeuRS; PF3D7_0622800) and in another gene (PF3D7_1218100), which encodes a protein of unknown function. Solution of the structure of the P. falciparum LeuRS editing domain suggested key roles for mutated residues in LeuRS editing. Short incubations with AN6426 and AN8432, unlike artemisinin, caused dose-dependent inhibition of [(14)C]leucine incorporation by cultured wild-type, but not resistant, parasites. The growth of resistant, but not wild-type, parasites was impaired in the presence of the unnatural amino acid norvaline, consistent with a loss of LeuRS editing activity in resistant parasites. In summary, the benzoxaboroles AN6426 and AN8432 offer effective antimalarial activity and act, at least in part, against a novel target, the editing domain of P. falciparum LeuRS.

  19. Congenital Plasmodium falciparum infection in neonates in Muheza District, Tanzania

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    Kimera Sharadhuli I

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although recent reports on congenital malaria suggest that the incidence is increasing, it is difficult to determine whether the clinical disease is due to parasites acquired before delivery or as a result of contamination by maternal blood at birth. Understanding of the method of parasite acquisition is important for estimating the time incidence of congenital malaria and design of preventive measures. The aim of this study was to determine whether the first Plasmodium falciparum malaria disease in infants is due to same parasites present on the placenta at birth. Methods Babies born to mothers with P. falciparum parasites on the placenta detected by PCR were followed up to two years and observed for malaria episodes. Paired placental and infant peripheral blood samples at first malaria episode within first three months of life were genotyped (msp2 to determine genetic relatedness. Selected amplifications from nested PCR were sequenced and compared between pairs. Results Eighteen (19.1% out of 95 infants who were followed up developed clinical malaria within the first three months of age. Eight pairs (60% out of 14 pairs of sequenced placental and cord samples were genetically related while six (40% were genetically unrelated. One pair (14.3% out of seven pairs of sequenced placental and infants samples were genetically related. In addition, infants born from primigravidae mothers were more likely to be infected with P. falciparum (P P. falciparum infection earlier than those from secundigravidae and primigravidae mothers (RR = 1.43. Conclusion Plasmodium falciparum malaria parasites present on the placenta as detected by PCR are more likely to result in clinical disease (congenital malaria in the infant during the first three months of life. However, sequencing data seem to question the validity of this likelihood. Therefore, the relationship between placental parasites and first clinical disease need to be confirmed in

  20. A molecular survey of acute febrile illnesses reveals Plasmodium vivax infections in Kedougou, southeastern Senegal.

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    Niang, Makhtar; Thiam, Laty Gaye; Sow, Abdourahmane; Loucoubar, Cheikh; Bob, Ndeye Sakha; Diop, Fode; Diouf, Babacar; Niass, Oumy; Mansourou, Annick; Varela, Marie Louise; Perraut, Ronald; Sall, Amadou A; Toure-Balde, Aissatou

    2015-07-19

    Control efforts towards malaria due to Plasmodium falciparum significantly decreased the incidence of the disease in many endemic countries including Senegal. Surprisingly, in Kedougou (southeastern Senegal) P. falciparum malaria remains highly prevalent and the relative contribution of other Plasmodium species to the global malaria burden is very poorly documented, partly due to the low sensitivity of routine diagnostic tools. Molecular methods offer better estimate of circulating Plasmodium species in a given area. A molecular survey was carried out to document circulating malaria parasites in Kedougou region. A total of 263 long-term stored sera obtained from patients presenting with acute febrile illness in Kedougou between July 2009 and July 2013 were used for malaria parasite determination. Sera were withdrawn from a collection established as part of a surveillance programme of arboviruses infections in the region. Plasmodium species were characterized by a nested PCR-based approach targeting the 18S small sub-unit ribosomal RNA genes of Plasmodium spp. Of the 263 sera screened in this study, Plasmodium genomic DNA was amplifiable by nested PCR from 62.35% (164/263) of samples. P. falciparum accounted for the majority of infections either as single in 85.97% (141/164) of Plasmodium-positive samples or mixed with Plasmodium ovale (11.58%, 19/164) or Plasmodium vivax (1.21%, 2/164). All 19 (11.58%) P. ovale-infected patients were mixed with P. falciparum, while no Plasmodium malariae was detected in this survey. Four patients (2.43%) were found to be infected by P. vivax, two of whom were mixed with P. falciparum. P. vivax infections originated from Bandafassi and Ninefesha villages and concerned patients aged 4, 9, 10, and 15 years old, respectively. DNA sequences alignment and phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that sequences from Kedougou corresponded to P. vivax, therefore confirming the presence of P. vivax infections in Senegal. The results confirm the

  1. Clustered local transmission and asymptomatic Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax malaria infections in a recently emerged, hypoendemic Peruvian Amazon community

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    Alvarez Eugenia

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a low incidence of malaria in Iquitos, Peru, suburbs detected by passive case-detection. This low incidence might be attributable to infections clustered in some households/regions and/or undetected asymptomatic infections. Methods Passive case-detection (PCD during the malaria season (February-July and an active case-detection (ACD community-wide survey (March surveyed 1,907 persons. Each month, April-July, 100-metre at-risk zones were defined by location of Plasmodium falciparum infections in the previous month. Longitudinal ACD and PCD (ACP+PCD occurred within at-risk zones, where 137 houses (573 persons were randomly selected as sentinels, each with one month of weekly active sampling. Entomological captures were conducted in the sentinel houses. Results The PCD incidence was 0.03 P. falciparum and 0.22 Plasmodium vivax infections/person/malaria-season. However, the ACD+PCD prevalence was 0.13 and 0.39, respectively. One explanation for this 4.33 and 1.77-fold increase, respectively, was infection clustering within at-risk zones and contiguous households. Clustering makes PCD, generalized to the entire population, artificially low. Another attributable-factor was that only 41% and 24% of the P. falciparum and P. vivax infections were associated with fever and 80% of the asymptomatic infections had low-density or absent parasitaemias the following week. After accounting for asymptomatic infections, a 2.6-fold increase in ACD+PCD versus PCD was attributable to clustered transmission in at-risk zones. Conclusion Even in low transmission, there are frequent highly-clustered asymptomatic infections, making PCD an inadequate measure of incidence. These findings support a strategy of concentrating ACD and insecticide campaigns in houses adjacent to houses were malaria was detected one month prior.

  2. Spatial and space-time distribution of Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum malaria in China, 2005-2014.

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    Hundessa, Samuel H; Williams, Gail; Li, Shanshan; Guo, Jinpeng; Chen, Linping; Zhang, Wenyi; Guo, Yuming

    2016-12-19

    Despite the declining burden of malaria in China, the disease remains a significant public health problem with periodic outbreaks and spatial variation across the country. A better understanding of the spatial and temporal characteristics of malaria is essential for consolidating the disease control and elimination programme. This study aims to understand the spatial and spatiotemporal distribution of Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum malaria in China during 2005-2009. Global Moran's I statistics was used to detect a spatial distribution of local P. falciparum and P. vivax malaria at the county level. Spatial and space-time scan statistics were applied to detect spatial and spatiotemporal clusters, respectively. Both P. vivax and P. falciparum malaria showed spatial autocorrelation. The most likely spatial cluster of P. vivax was detected in northern Anhui province between 2005 and 2009, and western Yunnan province between 2010 and 2014. For P. falciparum, the clusters included several counties of western Yunnan province from 2005 to 2011, Guangxi from 2012 to 2013, and Anhui in 2014. The most likely space-time clusters of P. vivax malaria and P. falciparum malaria were detected in northern Anhui province and western Yunnan province, respectively, during 2005-2009. The spatial and space-time cluster analysis identified high-risk areas and periods for both P. vivax and P. falciparum malaria. Both malaria types showed significant spatial and spatiotemporal variations. Contrary to P. vivax, the high-risk areas for P. falciparum malaria shifted from the west to the east of China. Further studies are required to examine the spatial changes in risk of malaria transmission and identify the underlying causes of elevated risk in the high-risk areas.

  3. A 20-year longitudinal study of Plasmodium ovale and Plasmodium malariae prevalence and morbidity in a West African population.

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    Clémentine Roucher

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Plasmodium ovale and Plasmodium malariae have long been reported to be widely distributed in tropical Africa and in other major malaria-endemic areas of the world. However, little is known about the burden caused by these two malaria species. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We did a longitudinal study of the inhabitants of Dielmo village, Senegal, between June, 1990, and December, 2010. We monitored the inhabitants for fever during this period and performed quarterly measurements of parasitemia. We analyzed parasitological and clinical data in a random-effect logistic regression model to investigate the relationship between the level of parasitemia and the risk of fever and to establish diagnostic criteria for P. ovale and P. malariae clinical attacks. The prevalence of P. ovale and P. malariae infections in asymptomatic individuals were high during the first years of the project but decreased after 2004 and almost disappeared in 2010 in relation to changes in malaria control policies. The average incidence densities of P. ovale and P. malariae clinical attacks were 0.053 and 0.093 attacks per person per year in children <15 years and 0.024 and 0.009 attacks per person per year in adults ≥ 15 years, respectively. These two malaria species represented together 5.9% of the malaria burden. CONCLUSIONS: P. ovale and P. malariae were a common cause of morbidity in Dielmo villagers until the recent dramatic decrease of malaria that followed the introduction of new malaria control policies. P. ovale and P. malariae may constitute an important cause of morbidity in many areas of tropical Africa.

  4. Evaluation of a rapid whole blood immunochromatographic assay for the diagnosis of Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax malaria.

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    Fernando, S D; Karunaweera, N D; Fernando, W P

    2004-03-01

    Microscopic examination of blood smears is the 'gold standard' for malaria diagnosis, but is labour intensive and requires skilled operators. Plasmodium vivax malaria accounts for up to 70% of infections in Sri Lanka. The objective of this study was to determine the effectiveness of an immunochromatographic test which can detect both the species of Plasmodium, P. vivax and P. falciparum, present in Sri Lanka. Prospective study from May 2001 to March 2002. All persons above 5 years of age who presented to the Malaria Research Station, Kataragama or the Anti-malaria Clinic, Kurunegala, with a history of fever were recruited to the study. Thick and thin blood smears were examined for malarial parasites. The rapid diagnostic test (RDT), ICT Malaria P.f/P.v (AMRAD ICT, Australia) was performed simultaneously by an independent investigator. The severity of clinical disease of all patients was evaluated. The study sample comprised 328 individuals of whom 126 (38%) were infected, 102 with P. vivax (31.1%) and 24 with P. falciparum (7.3%). The RDT was found to be highly sensitive (100%) and specific (100%) for the diagnosis of P. falciparum when compared with field microscopy. The sensitivity for the diagnosis of P. vivax malaria was only 70%. When P. vivax parasitaemia was greater than 5000 parasites/microL the RDT was 96.2% sensitive. A significant association was noted between the band intensity on the dipstick and both peripheral blood parasitaemia (p ICT Malaria P.f/P.v test can be used in Sri Lanka in the absence of microscopists.

  5. Morbidity and mortality associated with Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum infection in a tertiary care kidney hospital

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    Salman Imtiaz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Malaria is a disease of tropical regions and both types of plasmodia, i.e. Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax, cause significant morbidity and mortality. P. vivax was thought to be benign and cause less morbidity and mortality. Many reports showed the devastating effect of vivax malaria too. We compared the clinical symptoms, laboratory markers, treatment and outcome of both the plasmodia. This is a retrospective analysis of 95 patients admitted to The Kidney Center, Karachi in a duration of 15 years (1997-2012; 45 patients with falciparum malaria and 50 patients with vivax malaria, and compared the clinical presentation, laboratory workup, treatment and outcome in both groups. The two groups constitute a mixed population of diabetes, chronic kidney disease (CKD and hemodialysis patients. Both plasmodia have an equal clinical impact in terms of fever and rigors, anorexia, nausea, feeling of dyspnea, change in the mental status, changes in the urine color, diarrhea, volume depletion and pedal edema. However, patients with falciparum had significantly more vomiting (P = 0.02, oliguria (P = 0.003 and jaundice (P = 0.003. Laboratory parameters also showed a severe impact of falciparum, as there was more severe anemia and kidney and liver dysfunction. More patients were treated with dialysis and blood transfusion in the falciparum group. The outcome in the two groups was not significantly different in terms of death and days of hospitalization. Falciparum malaria has a higher clinical impact than the vivax malaria, but vivax is not as benign as it was once thought to be. It also has devastating effects on vulnerable populations like patients with CKD and diabetes.

  6. Anopheles gambiae PRS1 modulates Plasmodium development at both midgut and salivary gland steps.

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    Thomas Chertemps

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Invasion of the mosquito salivary glands by Plasmodium is a critical step for malaria transmission. From a SAGE analysis, we previously identified several genes whose expression in salivary glands was regulated coincident with sporozoite invasion of salivary glands. To get insights into the consequences of these salivary gland responses, here we have studied one of the genes, PRS1 (Plasmodium responsive salivary 1, whose expression was upregulated in infected glands, using immunolocalization and functional inactivation approaches. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: PRS1 belongs to a novel insect superfamily of genes encoding proteins with DM9 repeat motifs of uncharacterized function. We show that PRS1 is induced in response to Plasmodium, not only in the salivary glands but also in the midgut, the other epithelial barrier that Plasmodium has to cross to develop in the mosquito. Furthermore, this induction is observed using either the rodent parasite Plasmodium berghei or the human pathogen Plasmodium falciparum. In the midgut, PRS1 overexpression is associated with a relocalization of the protein at the periphery of invaded cells. We also find that sporozoite invasion of salivary gland cells occurs sequentially and induces intra-cellular modifications that include an increase in PRS1 expression and a relocalization of the corresponding protein into vesicle-like structures. Importantly, PRS1 knockdown during the onset of midgut and salivary gland invasion demonstrates that PRS1 acts as an agonist for the development of both parasite species in the two epithelia, highlighting shared vector/parasite interactions in both tissues. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: While providing insights into potential functions of DM9 proteins, our results reveal that PRS1 likely contributes to fundamental interactions between Plasmodium and mosquito epithelia, which do not depend on the specific Anopheles/P. falciparum coevolutionary history.

  7. Hexaplex PCR detection system for identification of five human Plasmodium species with an internal control.

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    Chew, Ching Hoong; Lim, Yvonne Ai Lian; Lee, Ping Chin; Mahmud, Rohela; Chua, Kek Heng

    2012-12-01

    Malaria remains one of the major killers of humankind and persists to threaten the lives of more than one-third of the world's population. Given that human malaria can now be caused by five species of Plasmodium, i.e., Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax, Plasmodium malariae, Plasmodium ovale, and the recently included Plasmodium knowlesi, there is a critical need not only to augment global health efforts in malaria control but also, more importantly, to develop a rapid, accurate, species-sensitive/species-specific, and economically effective diagnostic method for malaria caused by these five species. Therefore, in the present study, a straightforward single-step hexaplex PCR system targeting five human Plasmodium 18S small-subunit rRNAs (ssu rRNAs) was designed, and the system successfully detected all five human malaria parasites. In addition, this system enables the differentiation of single infection as well as mixed infections up to the two-species level. This assay was validated with 50 randomly blinded test and 184 clinical samples suspected to indicate malaria. This hexaplex PCR system is not only an ideal alternative for routine malaria diagnosis in laboratories with conventional PCR machines but also adds value to diagnoses when there is a lack of an experienced microscopist or/and when the parasite morphology is confusing. Indeed, this system will definitely enhance the accuracy and accelerate the speed in the diagnosis of malaria, as well as improve the efficacy of malaria treatment and control, in addition to providing reliable data from epidemiological surveillance studies.

  8. Plasmodium falciparum Plasmodium helical interspersed subtelomeric proteins contribute to cytoadherence and anchor P. falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 to the host cell cytoskeleton

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oberli, Alexander; Zurbrügg, Laura; Rusch, Sebastian;

    2016-01-01

    Adherence of Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes to host endothelium is conferred through the parasite-derived virulence factor P. falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1), the major contributor to malaria severity. PfEMP1 located at knob structures on the erythrocyte surface is...

  9. Análisis proteómico de Plasmodium, el agente causal de la malaria Proteomic analysis of Plasmodium, the causal agent of Malaria

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    Ivone Castro R

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Los plasmodios son protozoarios cuyo complejo ciclo de vida se lleva a cabo en dos hospederos, el vertebrado y el mosquito. La infección de los seres humanos produce la enfermedad conocida como malaria. La secuenciación del genoma de Plasmodium falciparum y el desarrollo de la proteómica han permitido un gran avance en el conocimiento de la biología de este letal parásito. La presente revisión se centra en describir los logros recientes en el estudio del proteoma de Plasmodium falciparum y algunas de las implicaciones en la búsqueda de nuevos fármacos antimaláricos, así como en la generación de vacunas para el control de la enfermedad.Plasmodia are protozoa whose complex life cycle takes place in two different hosts, the vertebrate and the mosquito. The human infection produces the malaria disease. The genome sequence of Plasmodium falciparum and the proteomic tools have enabled a huge advance in knowledge of the biology of this parasite. This review will focus on the recent advances in proteomic studies of Plasmodium falciparum and some implications for the search of new antimalarial drugs as well as vaccines for the control of the disease.

  10. Distinct biochemical properties of human serine hydroxymethyltransferase compared with the Plasmodium enzyme: implications for selective inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinthong, Chatchadaporn; Maenpuen, Somchart; Amornwatcharapong, Watcharee; Yuthavong, Yongyuth; Leartsakulpanich, Ubolsree; Chaiyen, Pimchai

    2014-06-01

    Serine hydroxymethyltransferase (SHMT) catalyzes the transfer of a hydroxymethyl group from l-serine to tetrahydrofolate to yield glycine and 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate. Our previous investigations have shown that SHMTs from Plasmodium spp. (P. falciparum, Pf; P. vivax, Pv) are different from the enzyme from rabbit liver in that Plasmodium SHMT can use d-serine as a substrate. In this report, the biochemical and biophysical properties of the Plasmodium and the human cytosolic form (hcSHMT) enzymes including ligand binding and kinetics were investigated. The data indicate that, similar to Plasmodium enzymes, hcSHMT can use d-serine as a substrate. However, hcSHMT displays many properties that are different from those of the Plasmodium enzymes. The molar absorption coefficient of hcSHMT-bound pyridoxal-5'-phosphate (PLP) is much greater than PvSHMT-bound or PfSHMT-bound PLP. The binding interactions of hcSHMT and Plasmodium SHMT with d-serine are different, as only the Plasmodium enzyme undergoes formation of a quinonoid-like species upon binding to d-serine. Furthermore, it has been noted that hcSHMT displays strong substrate inhibition by tetrahydrofolate (THF) (at THF > 40 μm), compared with SHMTs from Plasmodium and other species. The pH-activity profile of hcSHMT shows higher activities at lower pH values corresponding to a pKa value of 7.8 ± 0.1. Thiosemicarbazide reacts with hcSHMT following a one-step model [k1 of 12 ± 0.6 m(-1) ·s(-1) and k-1 of (1.0 ± 0.6) × 10(-3) s(-1) ], while the same reaction with PfSHMT involves at least three steps. All data indicated that the ligand binding environment of SHMT from human and Plasmodium are different, indicating that it should be possible to develop species-selective inhibitors in future studies. serine hydroxymethyltransferase, EC 2.1.2.1; 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase, EC 1.5.1.5. © 2014 FEBS.

  11. The effects of urbanization on global Plasmodium vivax malaria transmission

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    Qi Qiuyin

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many recent studies have examined the impact of urbanization on Plasmodium falciparum malaria endemicity and found a general trend of reduced transmission in urban areas. However, none has examined the effect of urbanization on Plasmodium vivax malaria, which is the most widely distributed malaria species and can also cause severe clinical syndromes in humans. In this study, a set of 10,003 community-based P. vivax parasite rate (PvPR surveys are used to explore the relationships between PvPR in urban and rural settings. Methods The PvPR surveys were overlaid onto a map of global urban extents to derive an urban/rural assignment. The differences in PvPR values between urban and rural areas were then examined. Groups of PvPR surveys inside individual city extents (urban and surrounding areas (rural were identified to examine the local variations in PvPR values. Finally, the relationships of PvPR between urban and rural areas within the ranges of 41 dominant Anopheles vectors were examined. Results Significantly higher PvPR values in rural areas were found globally. The relationship was consistent at continental scales when focusing on Africa and Asia only, but in the Americas, significantly lower values of PvPR in rural areas were found, though the numbers of surveys were small. Moreover, except for the countries in the Americas, the same trends were found at national scales in African and Asian countries, with significantly lower values of PvPR in urban areas. However, the patterns at city scales among 20 specific cities where sufficient data were available were less clear, with seven cities having significantly lower PvPR values in urban areas and two cities showing significantly lower PvPR in rural areas. The urban–rural PvPR differences within the ranges of the dominant Anopheles vectors were generally, in agreement with the regional patterns found. Conclusions Except for the Americas, the patterns of significantly lower

  12. Exitoso cultivo in vitro de gametocitos de Plasmodium falciparum

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    Silvia Blair

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Introducción. Los estadios sexuales de Plasmodium falciparum han sido menos estudiados que los estadios asexuales. Al parecer, esto se debe a la carencia de cultivos estandarizados in vitro y a la dificultad de reconocer sus estadios de desarrollo. Estos hechos no permiten el estudio de aspectos biológicos, aspectos metabólicos, expresión de genes y síntesis de proteínas durante los estadios sexuales, temas de interés en la investigación de nuevos medicamentos antipalúdicos, principalmente los aislados de plantas, y la identificación de un potencial blanco contra Plasmodium. Objetivos. Establecer un cultivo in vitro de gametocitos, con la identificación de sus cinco estadios de desarrollo, y asegurar su continua producción. Materiales y métodos. El cultivo in vitro de gametocitos se realizó a partir de la cepa NF54 de P. falciparum en medio RPMI, con determinación de la parasitemia asexual y sexual, adición de glóbulos rojos A-Rh+ sólo el primer día de cultivo y cambio diario del medio con adición de mezcla de gases (90% N2, 5% O2; 5% CO2, asegurándose que el cultivo se mantuviera a 37 °C. Cuando la parasitemia asexual estuvo entre 3% y 5%, se comenzó a agregar el doble de volumen de medio. Resultados. Se obtuvieron gametocitos en estadios I, II y III a partir del día 11 de cultivo y estadios IV y V a partir del día 14 de cultivo. Conclusiones. Se estandarizó un cultivo in vitro para estadios sexuales de P. falciparum que puede usarse para futuros estudios de evaluación de compuestos, naturales o sintéticos, que actúen sobre los gametocitos, lo cual podría permitir el desarrollo de nuevas estrategias de control contra el paludismo.

  13. Plasmodium falciparum Malaria Endemicity in Indonesia in 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elyazar, Iqbal R. F.; Gething, Peter W.; Patil, Anand P.; Rogayah, Hanifah; Kusriastuti, Rita; Wismarini, Desak M.; Tarmizi, Siti N.; Baird, J. Kevin; Hay, Simon I.

    2011-01-01

    Background Malaria control programs require a detailed understanding of the contemporary spatial distribution of infection risk to efficiently allocate resources. We used model based geostatistics (MBG) techniques to generate a contemporary map of Plasmodium falciparum malaria risk in Indonesia in 2010. Methods Plasmodium falciparum Annual Parasite Incidence (PfAPI) data (2006–2008) were used to map limits of P. falciparum transmission. A total of 2,581 community blood surveys of P. falciparum parasite rate (PfPR) were identified (1985–2009). After quality control, 2,516 were included into a national database of age-standardized 2–10 year old PfPR data (PfPR2–10) for endemicity mapping. A Bayesian MBG procedure was used to create a predicted surface of PfPR2–10 endemicity with uncertainty estimates. Population at risk estimates were derived with reference to a 2010 human population count surface. Results We estimate 132.8 million people in Indonesia, lived at risk of P. falciparum transmission in 2010. Of these, 70.3% inhabited areas of unstable transmission and 29.7% in stable transmission. Among those exposed to stable risk, the vast majority were at low risk (93.39%) with the reminder at intermediate (6.6%) and high risk (0.01%). More people in western Indonesia lived in unstable rather than stable transmission zones. In contrast, fewer people in eastern Indonesia lived in unstable versus stable transmission areas. Conclusion While further feasibility assessments will be required, the immediate prospects for sustained control are good across much of the archipelago and medium term plans to transition to the pre-elimination phase are not unrealistic for P. falciparum. Endemicity in areas of Papua will clearly present the greatest challenge. This P. falciparum endemicity map allows malaria control agencies and their partners to comprehensively assess the region-specific prospects for reaching pre-elimination, monitor and evaluate the effectiveness of

  14. Plasmodium vivax: paroxysm-associated lipids mediate leukocyte aggregation

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    Mendis Kamini

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Paroxysms are recurrent febrile episodes, characteristic of Plasmodium vivax infections, which coincide with the rupture of schizont-infected erythrocytes in the patients' circulation. The present study describes the formation of prominent aggregates of leukocytes in vitro in the presence of parasite and host factors released during paroxysms. Methods Whole blood cells from uninfected malaria-naïve donors were incubated with plasma taken during a paroxysm or normal human plasma as a control and cell smears were observed under the microscope for the presence of leukocyte aggregates. Plasma factors involved in mediating the leukocyte aggregation were identified using immune depletion and reconstitution experiments. Furthermore, biochemical characterization was carried out to determine the chemical nature of the active moieties in plasma present during paroxysms. Results Leukocyte aggregates were seen exclusively when cells were incubated in plasma collected during a paroxysm. Immune depletion and reconstitution experiments revealed that the host cytokines TNF-alpha, GM-CSF, IL-6 and IL-10 and two lipid fractions of paroxysm plasma comprise the necessary and sufficient mediators of this phenomenon. The two lipid components of the paroxysm plasmas speculated to be of putative parasite origin, were a phospholipid-containing fraction and another containing cholesterol and triglycerides. The phospholipid fraction was dependent upon the presence of cytokines for its activity unlike the cholesterol/triglyceride-containing fraction which in the absence of added cytokines was much more active than the phospholipids fraction. The biological activity of the paroxysm plasmas from non-immune patients who presented with acute P. vivax infections was neutralized by immune sera raised against schizont extracts of either P. vivax or Plasmodium falciparum. However, immune sera against P. vivax were more effective than that against P. falciparum

  15. Anopheline species and their Plasmodium infection status in Aligarh, India

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    Muheet Alam Saifi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Malaria is a global issue and India contributes substantially to global malaria incidence. Information related to malaria vectors is very limited in Aligarh. The environmental and climatological situations permit the continual breeding of vectors in permanent breeding sites. This study was designed with the aim to screen all the anophelines species and possible malaria vectors in three different localities of Aligarh. Anopheles mosquitoes were collected from three different localities (Fort, Jalali and Tappal during peak malaria transmission season (July to November by using mouth aspirator and CDC light traps. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA was done to detect Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax-210 and P. vivax-247 circumsporozoite proteins (CSP from the collected female species. A total of 794 female anopheline mosquitoes belonging to 7 species were collected by different methods. Circumsporozoite protein–enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was performed with 780 anopheline mosquitoes out of which 13 mosquitoes were positive in CSP–ELISA. Thus, the overall infection rate was 1.66% (13/780. Four (0.51% mosquitoes belonging to three species were positive for P. falciparum, 7 (0.89% mosquitoes belonging to three species were positive for VK 210 and 2 (0.25% mosquitoes belonging to Anopheles culicifacies and Anopheles stephensi species were positive for VK 247. No mixed infection was found in this study. According to species, the highest infection rate was observed in An. culicifacies (7/288, 2.43% followed by An. stephensi (2.40% and Anopheles annularis (1.98%. An. culicifacies and An. stephensi were previously incriminated as malaria vectors in Aligarh. There was, however, no previous report in favor of infections in An. annularis in Aligarh. The on-going Malaria Control Program in India needs up to date information on malaria vectors. A major challenge is the lack of knowledge about vectors and their role in malaria transmission

  16. Plasmodium P-Type Cyclin CYC3 Modulates Endomitotic Growth during Oocyst Development in Mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roques, Magali; Wall, Richard J; Douglass, Alexander P; Ramaprasad, Abhinay; Ferguson, David J P; Kaindama, Mbinda L; Brusini, Lorenzo; Joshi, Nimitray; Rchiad, Zineb; Brady, Declan; Guttery, David S; Wheatley, Sally P; Yamano, Hiroyuki; Holder, Anthony A; Pain, Arnab; Wickstead, Bill; Tewari, Rita

    2015-11-01

    Cell-cycle progression and cell division in eukaryotes are governed in part by the cyclin family and their regulation of cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs). Cyclins are very well characterised in model systems such as yeast and human cells, but surprisingly little is known about their number and role in Plasmodium, the unicellular protozoan parasite that causes malaria. Malaria parasite cell division and proliferation differs from that of many eukaryotes. During its life cycle it undergoes two types of mitosis: endomitosis in asexual stages and an extremely rapid mitotic process during male gametogenesis. Both schizogony (producing merozoites) in host liver and red blood cells, and sporogony (producing sporozoites) in the mosquito vector, are endomitotic with repeated nuclear replication, without chromosome condensation, before cell division. The role of specific cyclins during Plasmodium cell proliferation was unknown. We show here that the Plasmodium genome contains only three cyclin genes, representing an unusual repertoire of cyclin classes. Expression and reverse genetic analyses of the single Plant (P)-type cyclin, CYC3, in the rodent malaria parasite, Plasmodium berghei, revealed a cytoplasmic and nuclear location of the GFP-tagged protein throughout the lifecycle. Deletion of cyc3 resulted in defects in size, number and growth of oocysts, with abnormalities in budding and sporozoite formation. Furthermore, global transcript analysis of the cyc3-deleted and wild type parasites at gametocyte and ookinete stages identified differentially expressed genes required for signalling, invasion and oocyst development. Collectively these data suggest that cyc3 modulates oocyst endomitotic development in Plasmodium berghei.

  17. The evolution of genomic GC content undergoes a rapid reversal within the genus Plasmodium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikbakht, Hamid; Xia, Xuhua; Hickey, Donal A

    2014-09-01

    The genome of the malarial parasite Plasmodium falciparum is extremely AT rich. This bias toward a low GC content is a characteristic of several, but not all, species within the genus Plasmodium. We compared 4283 orthologous pairs of protein-coding sequences between Plasmodium falciparum and the less AT-biased Plasmodium vivax. Our results indicate that the common ancestor of these two species was also extremely AT rich. This means that, although there was a strong bias toward A+T during the early evolution of the ancestral Plasmodium lineage, there was a subsequent reversal of this trend during the more recent evolution of some species, such as P. vivax. Moreover, we show that not only is the P. vivax genome losing its AT richness, it is actually gaining a very significant degree of GC richness. This example illustrates the potential volatility of nucleotide content during the course of molecular evolution. Such reversible fluxes in nucleotide content within lineages could have important implications for phylogenetic reconstruction based on molecular sequence data.

  18. Plasmodium prevalence across avian host species is positively associated with exposure to mosquito vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medeiros, Matthew C I; Ricklefs, Robert E; Brawn, Jeffrey D; Hamer, Gabriel L

    2015-11-01

    The prevalence of vector-borne parasites varies greatly across host species, and this heterogeneity has been used to relate infectious disease susceptibility to host species traits. However, a few empirical studies have directly associated vector-borne parasite prevalence with exposure to vectors across hosts. Here, we use DNA sequencing of blood meals to estimate utilization of different avian host species by Culex mosquitoes, and relate utilization by these malaria vectors to avian Plasmodium prevalence. We found that avian host species that are highly utilized as hosts by avian malaria vectors are significantly more likely to have Plasmodium infections. However, the effect was not consistent among individual Plasmodium taxa. Exposure to vector bites may therefore influence the relative number of all avian Plasmodium infections among host species, while other processes, such as parasite competition and host-parasite coevolution, delimit the host distributions of individual Plasmodium species. We demonstrate that links between avian malaria susceptibility and host traits can be conditioned by patterns of exposure to vectors. Linking vector utilization rates to host traits may be a key area of future research to understand mechanisms that produce variation in the prevalence of vector-borne pathogens among host species.

  19. Host-cell sensors for Plasmodium activate innate immunity against liver-stage infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liehl, Peter; Zuzarte-Luís, Vanessa; Chan, Jennie; Zillinger, Thomas; Baptista, Fernanda; Carapau, Daniel; Konert, Madlen; Hanson, Kirsten K; Carret, Céline; Lassnig, Caroline; Müller, Mathias; Kalinke, Ulrich; Saeed, Mohsan; Chora, Angelo Ferreira; Golenbock, Douglas T; Strobl, Birgit; Prudêncio, Miguel; Coelho, Luis P; Kappe, Stefan H; Superti-Furga, Giulio; Pichlmair, Andreas; Vigário, Ana M; Rice, Charles M; Fitzgerald, Katherine A; Barchet, Winfried; Mota, Maria M

    2014-01-01

    Before they infect red blood cells and cause malaria, Plasmodium parasites undergo an obligate and clinically silent expansion phase in the liver that is supposedly undetected by the host. Here, we demonstrate the engagement of a type I interferon (IFN) response during Plasmodium replication in the liver. We identified Plasmodium RNA as a previously unrecognized pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP) capable of activating a type I IFN response via the cytosolic pattern recognition receptor Mda5. This response, initiated by liver-resident cells through the adaptor molecule for cytosolic RNA sensors, Mavs, and the transcription factors Irf3 and Irf7, is propagated by hepatocytes in an interferon-α/β receptor-dependent manner. This signaling pathway is critical for immune cell-mediated host resistance to liver-stage Plasmodium infection, which we find can be primed with other PAMPs, including hepatitis C virus RNA. Together, our results show that the liver has sensor mechanisms for Plasmodium that mediate a functional antiparasite response driven by type I IFN.

  20. Molecular investigation of sub-microscopic and mixed Plasmodium species infection in North-Central Nigeria

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    Segun Isaac Oyedeji

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the level of sub-microscopic and mixed Plasmodium species infection in children in North-Central Nigeria. Methods: Blood sample was obtained from 960 apparently healthy children aged 2–18 years. Plasmodial parasites were identified by Giemsa-stained light microscopy and by DNA amplification of the 18S rRNA gene. Results: A total of 126 out of 960 samples (13.1% were positive for plasmodial parasites by microscopy while 284 of the 960 samples (29.6% were positive by the nested PCR assay. The prevalence of sub-microscopic infection was 16.5% (158/960. The proportion of microscopic asymptomatic infections was found to be significantly higher in younger children than in older children (χ2 = 16.86; df= 2; P = 0.014, while sub-microscopic infections were more frequent in older children than in younger ones. Mono-infections of Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium malariae, and Plasmodium ovale were 96.1%, 1.1%, and 0.7%, respectively while 2.1% of the samples had mixed infections. Conclusions: Our results showed that sub-microscopic infections were more prevalent in the study region and this has consequences for sustaining malaria transmission in the area. The inability of microscopy to correctly identify non-falciparum species and mixed Plasmodium species infection in this study clearly shows the importance of molecular screening tools for active field surveillance.

  1. Plasmodium P-Type Cyclin CYC3 Modulates Endomitotic Growth during Oocyst Development in Mosquitoes

    KAUST Repository

    Roques, Magali

    2015-11-13

    Cell-cycle progression and cell division in eukaryotes are governed in part by the cyclin family and their regulation of cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs). Cyclins are very well characterised in model systems such as yeast and human cells, but surprisingly little is known about their number and role in Plasmodium, the unicellular protozoan parasite that causes malaria. Malaria parasite cell division and proliferation differs from that of many eukaryotes. During its life cycle it undergoes two types of mitosis: endomitosis in asexual stages and an extremely rapid mitotic process during male gametogenesis. Both schizogony (producing merozoites) in host liver and red blood cells, and sporogony (producing sporozoites) in the mosquito vector, are endomitotic with repeated nuclear replication, without chromosome condensation, before cell division. The role of specific cyclins during Plasmodium cell proliferation was unknown. We show here that the Plasmodium genome contains only three cyclin genes, representing an unusual repertoire of cyclin classes. Expression and reverse genetic analyses of the single Plant (P)-type cyclin, CYC3, in the rodent malaria parasite, Plasmodium berghei, revealed a cytoplasmic and nuclear location of the GFP-tagged protein throughout the lifecycle. Deletion of cyc3 resulted in defects in size, number and growth of oocysts, with abnormalities in budding and sporozoite formation. Furthermore, global transcript analysis of the cyc3-deleted and wild type parasites at gametocyte and ookinete stages identified differentially expressed genes required for signalling, invasion and oocyst development. Collectively these data suggest that cyc3 modulates oocyst endomitotic development in Plasmodium berghei.

  2. An impossible journey? The development of Plasmodium falciparum NF54 in Culex quinquefasciatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knöckel, Julia; Molina-Cruz, Alvaro; Fischer, Elizabeth; Muratova, Olga; Haile, Ashley; Barillas-Mury, Carolina; Miller, Louis H

    2013-01-01

    Although Anopheles mosquitoes are the vectors for human Plasmodium spp., there are also other mosquito species-among them culicines (Culex spp., Aedes spp.)-present in malaria-endemic areas. Culicine mosquitoes transmit arboviruses and filarial worms to humans and are vectors for avian Plasmodium spp., but have never been observed to transmit human Plasmodium spp. When ingested by a culicine mosquito, parasites could either face an environment that does not allow development due to biologic incompatibility or be actively killed by the mosquito's immune system. In the latter case, the molecular mechanism of killing must be sufficiently powerful that Plasmodium is not able to overcome it. To investigate how human malaria parasites develop in culicine mosquitoes, we infected Culex quinquefasciatus with Plasmodium falciparum NF54 and monitored development of parasites in the blood bolus and midgut epithelium at different time points. Our results reveal that ookinetes develop in the midgut lumen of C. quinquefasciatus in slightly lower numbers than in Anopheles gambiae G3. After 30 hours, parasites have invaded the midgut and can be observed on the basal side of the midgut epithelium by confocal and transmission electron microscopy. Very few of the parasites in C. quinquefasciatus are alive, most of them are lysed. Eight days after the mosquito's blood meal, no oocysts can be found in C. quinquefasciatus. Our results suggest that the mosquito immune system could be involved in parasite killing early in development after ookinetes have crossed the midgut epithelium and come in contact with the mosquito hemolymph.

  3. A rapid and scalable density gradient purification method for Plasmodium sporozoites

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    Kennedy Mark

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria remains a major human health problem, with no licensed vaccine currently available. Malaria infections initiate when infectious Plasmodium sporozoites are transmitted by Anopheline mosquitoes during their blood meal. Investigations of the malaria sporozoite are, therefore, of clear medical importance. However, sporozoites can only be produced in and isolated from mosquitoes, and their isolation results in large amounts of accompanying mosquito debris and contaminating microbes. Methods Here is described a discontinuous density gradient purification method for Plasmodium sporozoites that maintains parasite infectivity in vitro and in vivo and greatly reduces mosquito and microbial contaminants. Results This method provides clear advantages over previous approaches: it is rapid, requires no serum components, and can be scaled to purify >107 sporozoites with minimal operator involvement. Moreover, it can be effectively applied to both human (Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax and rodent (Plasmodium yoelii infective species with excellent recovery rates. Conclusions This novel method effectively purifies viable malaria sporozoites by greatly reducing contaminating mosquito debris and microbial burdens associated with parasite isolation. Large-scale preparations of purified sporozoites will allow for enhanced in vitro infections, proteomics, and biochemical characterizations. In conjunction with aseptic mosquito rearing techniques, this purification technique will also support production of live attenuated sporozoites for vaccination.

  4. ZIPCO, a putative metal ion transporter, is crucial for Plasmodium liver-stage development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Tejram; Boisson, Bertrand; Lacroix, Céline; Bischoff, Emmanuel; Richier, Quentin; Formaglio, Pauline; Thiberge, Sabine; Dobrescu, Irina; Ménard, Robert; Baldacci, Patricia

    2014-11-01

    The malaria parasite, Plasmodium, requires iron for growth, but how it imports iron remains unknown. We characterize here a protein that belongs to the ZIP (Zrt-, Irt-like Protein) family of metal ion transport proteins and have named ZIP domain-containing protein (ZIPCO). Inactivation of the ZIPCO-encoding gene in Plasmodium berghei, while not affecting the parasite's ability to multiply in mouse blood and to infect mosquitoes, greatly impairs its capacity to develop inside hepatocytes. Iron/zinc supplementation and depletion experiments suggest that ZIPCO is required for parasite utilization of iron and possibly zinc, consistent with its predicted function as a metal transporter. This is the first report of a ZIP protein having a crucial role in Plasmodium liver-stage development, as well as the first metal ion transporter identified in Plasmodium pre-erythrocytic stages. Because of the drastic dependence on iron of Plasmodium growth, ZIPCO and related proteins might constitute attractive drug targets to fight against malaria. © 2014 Institut Pasteur. Published under the terms of the CC BY 4.0 license.

  5. In silico identification of genetically attenuated vaccine candidate genes for Plasmodium liver stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Hirdesh; Frischknecht, Friedrich; Mair, Gunnar R; Gomes, James

    2015-12-01

    Genetically attenuated parasites (GAPs) that lack genes essential for the liver stage of the malaria parasite, and therefore cause developmental arrest, have been developed as live vaccines in rodent malaria models and recently been tested in humans. The genes targeted for deletion were often identified by trial and error. Here we present a systematic gene - protein and transcript - expression analyses of several Plasmodium species with the aim to identify candidate genes for the generation of novel GAPs. With a lack of liver stage expression data for human malaria parasites, we used data available for liver stage development of Plasmodium yoelii, a rodent malaria model, to identify proteins expressed in the liver stage but absent from blood stage parasites. An orthology-based search was then employed to identify orthologous proteins in the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum resulting in a total of 310 genes expressed in the liver stage but lacking evidence of protein expression in blood stage parasites. Among these 310 possible GAP candidates, we further studied Plasmodium liver stage proteins by phyletic distribution and functional domain analyses and shortlisted twenty GAP-candidates; these are: fabB/F, fabI, arp, 3 genes encoding subunits of the PDH complex, dnaJ, urm1, rS5, ancp, mcp, arh, gk, lisp2, valS, palm, and four conserved Plasmodium proteins of unknown function. Parasites lacking one or several of these genes might yield new attenuated malaria parasites for experimental vaccination studies.

  6. Detection of Plasmodium in faeces of the New World primate Alouatta clamitans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assis, Gabriela Maíra Pereira de; Alvarenga, Denise Anete Madureira de; Costa, Daniela Camargos; Souza, Júlio César de; Hirano, Zelinda Maria Braga; Kano, Flora Satiko; Sousa, Taís Nóbrega de; Brito, Cristiana Ferreira Alves de

    2016-09-01

    Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax have evolved with host switches between non-human primates (NHPs) and humans. Studies on the infection dynamics of Plasmodium species in NHPs will improve our understanding of the evolution of these parasites; however, such studies are hampered by the difficulty of handling animals in the field. The aim of this study was to detect genomic DNA of Plasmodium species from the faeces of New World monkeys. Faecal samples from 23 Alouatta clamitans from the Centre for Biological Research of Indaial (Santa Catarina, Brazil) were collected. Extracted DNA from faecal samples was used for molecular diagnosis of malaria by nested polymerase chain reaction. One natural infection with Plasmodium simium was identified by amplification of DNA extracted from the faeces of A. clamitans. Extracted DNA from a captive NHP was also used for parasite genotyping. The detection limit of the technique was evaluated in vitro using an artificial mixture of cultured P. falciparum in NHP faeces and determined to be 6.5 parasites/µL. Faecal samples of New World primates can be used to detect malaria infections in field surveys and also to monitor the genetic variability of parasites and dynamics of infection.

  7. Contribution of Plasmodium knowlesi to Multispecies Human Malaria Infections in North Sumatera, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubis, Inke N D; Wijaya, Hendri; Lubis, Munar; Lubis, Chairuddin P; Divis, Paul C S; Beshir, Khalid B; Sutherland, Colin J

    2017-04-01

    As Indonesia works toward the goal of malaria elimination, information is lacking on malaria epidemiology from some western provinces. As a basis for studies of antimalarial efficacy, we set out to survey parasite carriage in 3 communities in North Sumatera Province. A combination of active and passive detection of infection was carried out among communities in Batubara, Langkat, and South Nias regencies. Finger-prick blood samples from consenting individuals of all ages provided blood films for microscopic examination and blood spots on filter paper. Plasmodium species were identified using nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of ribosomal RNA genes and a novel assay that amplifies a conserved sequence specific for the sicavar gene family of Plasmodium knowlesi. Of 3731 participants, 614 (16.5%) were positive for malaria parasites by microscopy. PCR detected parasite DNA in samples from 1169 individuals (31.3%). In total, 377 participants (11.8%) harbored P. knowlesi. Also present were Plasmodium vivax (14.3%), Plasmodium falciparum (10.5%) and Plasmodium malariae (3.4%). Amplification of sicavar is a specific and sensitive test for the presence of P. knowlesi DNA in humans. Subpatent and asymptomatic multispecies parasitemia is relatively common in North Sumatera, so PCR-based surveillance is required to support control and elimination activities.

  8. Detection of avian malaria (Plasmodium spp.) in native land birds of American Samoa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvi, S.I.; Farias, M.E.M.; Baker, H.; Freifeld, H.B.; Baker, P.E.; Van Gelder, E.; Massey, J.G.; Atkinson, C.T.

    2003-01-01

    This study documents the presence of Plasmodium spp. in landbirds of central Polynesia. Blood samples collected from eight native and introduced species from the island of Tutuila, American Samoa were evaluated for the presence of Plasmodium spp. by nested rDNA PCR, serology and/or microscopy. A total of 111/188 birds (59%) screened by nested PCR were positive. Detection of Plasmodium spp. was verified by nucleotide sequence comparisons of partial 18S ribosomal RNA and TRAP (thrombospondin-related anonymous protein) genes using phylogenetic analyses. All samples screened by immunoblot to detect antibodies that cross-react with Hawaiian isolates of Plasmodium relictum (153) were negative. Lack of cross-reactivity is probably due to antigenic differences between the Hawaiian and Samoan Plasmodium isolates. Similarly, all samples examined by microscopy (214) were negative. The fact that malaria is present, but not detectable by blood smear evaluation is consistent with low peripheral parasitemia characteristic of chronic infections. High prevalence of apparently chronic infections, the relative stability of the native land bird communities, and the presence of mosquito vectors which are considered endemic and capable of transmitting avian Plasmodia, suggest that these parasites are indigenous to Samoa and have a long coevolutionary history with their hosts.

  9. Plasmodium falciparum malaria in infants under 5 kg: retrospective surveillance of hospital records in five sub-saharan African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alao, Maroufou J; Gbadoé, Adama D; Meremikwu, Martin; Tshefu, Antoinette; Tiono, Alfred B; Cousin, Marc; Hamed, Kamal

    2013-04-01

    To investigate the disease burden, clinical features, treatment and outcomes of Plasmodium falciparum malaria in neonates and infants weighing Plasmodium falciparum malaria exists in this subpopulation. Further epidemiological data are needed to estimate malaria morbidity and mortality in young infants. Moreover, clinical evidence on the efficacy and safety of artemisinin-based combination therapies in this subpopulation is warranted.

  10. Global and local genetic diversity at two microsatellite loci in Plasmodium vivax parasites from Asia, Africa and South America

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schousboe, Mette L; Ranjitkar, Samir; Rajakaruna, Rupika S

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Even though Plasmodium vivax has the widest worldwide distribution of the human malaria species and imposes a serious impact on global public health, the investigation of genetic diversity in this species has been limited in comparison to Plasmodium falciparum. Markers of genetic dive...

  11. Genome-wide discovery and verification of novel structured RNAs in Plasmodium falciparum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mourier, Tobias; Carret, Celine; Kyes, Sue;

    2008-01-01

    We undertook a genome-wide search for novel noncoding RNAs (ncRNA) in the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. We used the RNAz program to predict structures in the noncoding regions of the P. falciparum 3D7 genome that were conserved with at least one of seven other Plasmodium spp. genome seq...

  12. Invasion of erythrocytes in vitro by Plasmodium falciparum can be inhibited by monoclonal antibody directed against an S antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saul, A; Cooper, J; Ingram, L; Anders, R F; Brown, G V

    1985-11-01

    A monoclonal antibody has been produced which binds to the heat stable S antigen present in the FCQ-27/PNG isolate of Plasmodium falciparum. This monoclonal antibody also inhibits the invasion in vitro of erythrocytes by malarial merozoites thus demonstrating that the S antigens of Plasmodium falciparum may be a target of protective immune responses.

  13. Sharing of antigens between Plasmodium falciparum and Anopheles albimanus Antígenos compartidos entre Plasmodium falciparum y Anopheles albimanus

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    Albina Wide

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The presence of common antigens between Plasmodium falciparum and Anopheles albimanus was demonstrated. Different groups of rabbits were immunized with: crude extract from female An. albimanus (EAaF, red blood cells infected with Plasmodium falciparum (EPfs, and the SPf66 synthetic malaria vaccine. The rabbit's polyclonal antibodies were evaluated by ELISA, Multiple Antigen Blot Assay (MABA, and immunoblotting. All extracts were immunogenic in rabbits according to these three techniques, when they were evaluated against the homologous antigens. Ten molecules were identified in female mosquitoes and also in P. falciparum antigens by the autologous sera. The electrophoretic pattern by SDS-PAGE was different for the three antigens evaluated. Cross-reactions between An. albimanus and P. falciparum were found by ELISA, MABA, and immunoblotting. Anti-P. falciparum and anti-SPf66 antibodies recognized ten and five components in the EAaF crude extract, respectively. Likewise, immune sera against female An. albimanus identified four molecules in the P. falciparum extract antigen. As far as we know, this is the first work that demonstrates shared antigens between anophelines and malaria parasites. This finding could be useful for diagnosis, vaccines, and the study of physiology of the immune response to malaria.Epítopes de antígenos compartidos entre Plasmodium falciparum y Anopheles albimanus fueron identificados. Diferentes grupos de conejos fueron inmunizados con: extracto crudo de mosquito hembra de An. albimanus (EAaH, glóbulos rojos infectados con P. falciparum (EPfs y la vacuna antimalárica sintética SPf66. Los anticuerpos policlonales producidos en conejos fueron evaluados por ELISA, inmunoensayo simultáneo de múltiples antígenos (MABA e Immunoblotting. Todos los extractos resultaron inmunogénicos cuando se evaluaron por ELISA, MABA e Immunoblotting. Diez moléculas fueron identificadas en los mosquitos hembras y diez en los antígenos de

  14. [The role of phosphoinositide-3-kinase in controlling the shape and directional movement in Physarum polycephalum plasmodium].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matveeva, N B; Beĭlina, S I; Teplov, V A

    2008-01-01

    The influence of wortmannin and LY294002, specific inhibitors of phosphoinosite-3-kinase, on the shape, motile behavior, and chemotaxis toward glucose has been investigated in Physarum polycephalum plasmodium, a multinuclear amoeboid cell with the autooscillatory mode of motion. Both inhibitors were shown to cause a reduction of the plasmodium frontal edge and a decrease in the efficiency of mass transfer during migration. They also suppress chemotaxis toward glucose and eliminate characteristic changes in autooscillatory behavior normally observed in response to the treatment of the whole plasmodium with glucose. The manifestation of these effects depends on the inhibitor concentration, the duration of treatment, and the size of plasmodium. The involvement of phosphoinosite-3-kinase in creating the frontal edge and in controlling the chemotaxis of Physarum plasmodium suggests that the interrelation of polar shape and directional movement of amoeboid cells with the distribution of phosphoinositides in the plasma membrane has the universal nature.

  15. Sero-epidemiological evaluation of changes in Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax transmission patterns over the rainy season in Cambodia

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    Cook Jackie

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Cambodia, malaria transmission is low and most cases occur in forested areas. Sero-epidemiological techniques can be used to identify both areas of ongoing transmission and high-risk groups to be targeted by control interventions. This study utilizes repeated cross-sectional data to assess the risk of being malaria sero-positive at two consecutive time points during the rainy season and investigates who is most likely to sero-convert over the transmission season. Methods In 2005, two cross-sectional surveys, one in the middle and the other at the end of the malaria transmission season, were carried out in two ecologically distinct regions in Cambodia. Parasitological and serological data were collected in four districts. Antibodies to Plasmodium falciparum Glutamate Rich Protein (GLURP and Plasmodium vivax Merozoite Surface Protein-119 (MSP-119 were detected using Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA. The force of infection was estimated using a simple catalytic model fitted using maximum likelihood methods. Risks for sero-converting during the rainy season were analysed using the Classification and Regression Tree (CART method. Results A total of 804 individuals participating in both surveys were analysed. The overall parasite prevalence was low (4.6% and 2.0% for P. falciparum and 7.9% and 6.0% for P. vivax in August and November respectively. P. falciparum force of infection was higher in the eastern region and increased between August and November, whilst P. vivax force of infection was higher in the western region and remained similar in both surveys. In the western region, malaria transmission changed very little across the season (for both species. CART analysis for P. falciparum in the east highlighted age, ethnicity, village of residence and forest work as important predictors for malaria exposure during the rainy season. Adults were more likely to increase their antibody responses to P. falciparum during the

  16. Comparison of the antibody responses to Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum antigens in residents of Mandalay, Myanmar

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    Kim Yeon-Joo

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to investigate the profile of antibodies against several antigens of Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum in Mandalay, Myanmar. Methods Malaria parasites were identified by microscopic examination. To test the antibodies against P. vivax and P. falciparum in sera, an indirect immunofluorescence antibody test (IFAT was performed using asexual blood parasite antigens. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA was performed with circumsporozoite protein (CSP, Pvs25 and Pvs28 recombinant proteins of transmission-blocking vaccine candidates for P. vivax, and liver stage specific antigen-1 and -3 (PfLSA-1, PfLSA-3 for P. falciparum. Results Fourteen patients among 112 were found to be infected with P. vivax and 26 with P. falciparum by thick smear examination. Twenty-three patients were found to be infected with P. vivax, 19 with P. falciparum and five with both by thin smear examination. Blood samples were divided into two groups: Group I consisted of patients who were positive for infection by microscopic examination, and Group II consisted of those who showed symptoms, but were negative in microscopic examination. In P. falciparum, IgG against the blood stage antigen in Group I (80.8% was higher than in Group II (70.0%. In P. vivax, IgG against the blood stage antigen in Group I (53.8% was higher than in Group II (41.7%. However, the positivity rate of the PvCSP VK210 subtype in Group II (40.0% was higher than in Group I (23.1%. Similarly for the PvCSP VK247 subtype, Group II (21.7% was higher than that for Group I (9.6%. A similar pattern was observed in the ELISA using Pvs25 and Pvs28: positive rates of Group II were higher than those for Group I. However, those differences were not shown significant in statistics. Conclusions The positive rates for blood stage antigens of P. falciparum were higher in Group I than in Group II, but the positive rates for antigens of other stages (PfLSA-1 and -3

  17. Comparison of the antibody responses to Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum antigens in residents of Mandalay, Myanmar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tong-Soo; Kim, Hyung-Hwan; Kim, Jung-Yeon; Kong, Yoon; Na, Byoung-Kuk; Lin, Khin; Moon, Sung-Ung; Kim, Yeon-Joo; Kwon, Myoung-Hee; Sohn, Youngjoo; Kim, Hyuck; Lee, Hyeong-Woo

    2011-08-06

    The aim of this study was to investigate the profile of antibodies against several antigens of Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum in Mandalay, Myanmar. Malaria parasites were identified by microscopic examination. To test the antibodies against P. vivax and P. falciparum in sera, an indirect immunofluorescence antibody test (IFAT) was performed using asexual blood parasite antigens. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was performed with circumsporozoite protein (CSP), Pvs25 and Pvs28 recombinant proteins of transmission-blocking vaccine candidates for P. vivax, and liver stage specific antigen-1 and -3 (PfLSA-1, PfLSA-3) for P. falciparum. Fourteen patients among 112 were found to be infected with P. vivax and 26 with P. falciparum by thick smear examination. Twenty-three patients were found to be infected with P. vivax, 19 with P. falciparum and five with both by thin smear examination. Blood samples were divided into two groups: Group I consisted of patients who were positive for infection by microscopic examination, and Group II consisted of those who showed symptoms, but were negative in microscopic examination. In P. falciparum, IgG against the blood stage antigen in Group I (80.8%) was higher than in Group II (70.0%). In P. vivax, IgG against the blood stage antigen in Group I (53.8%) was higher than in Group II (41.7%). However, the positivity rate of the PvCSP VK210 subtype in Group II (40.0%) was higher than in Group I (23.1%). Similarly for the PvCSP VK247 subtype, Group II (21.7%) was higher than that for Group I (9.6%). A similar pattern was observed in the ELISA using Pvs25 and Pvs28: positive rates of Group II were higher than those for Group I. However, those differences were not shown significant in statistics. The positive rates for blood stage antigens of P. falciparum were higher in Group I than in Group II, but the positive rates for antigens of other stages (PfLSA-1 and -3) showed opposite results. Similar to P. falciparum, the

  18. Amplification of LDH gene from Indian strains of Plasmodium vivax

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    Ritu Berwal, N. Gopalan, Kshitij Chandel, Shri Prakash ,K. Sekhar

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Plasmodium vivax is geographically widespread and responsible for >50% of malaria cases in India. Increased drug resistance of the parasite highlights the immediaterequirement of early and accurate diagnosis as well as new therapeutics. In view of this, the presentstudy was undertaken to amplify P. vivax (Indian strains lactate dehydrogenase gene (PvLDHwhich has been identified as a good target for antimalarials as well as diagnostics.Methods: P. vivax infected clinical blood samples were collected from southern part of India andwere tested with established diagnostic parameters (ICT, Giemsa staining. Total DNA was extractedfrom blood samples and subjected to PCR using two sets of primers, one for the amplification of fullPvLDH gene (951bp and the other for a partial PvLDH gene fragment (422bp, covering a variableantigenic region (140aa as compared to other plasmodial species.Results & conclusion: PCRs for both the full and partial gene targets were optimised and found to beconsistent when tested on several P. vivax positive clinical samples. In addition, full gene PCR wasfound to specifically detect only P. vivax DNA and could be used as a specific molecular diagnostictool. These amplified products can be cloned and expressed as a recombinant protein that might beuseful for the development and screening of antimalarials as well as for diagnostic purposes.

  19. Glycerol inhibits water permeation through Plasmodium falciparum aquaglyceroporin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liao Y

    2013-01-01

    Plasmodium falciparum aquaglyceroporin (PfAQP) is a multifunctional membrane protein in the plasma membrane of P. falciparum, the parasite that causes the most severe form of malaria. The current literature has established the science of PfAQP's structure, functions, and hydrogen-bonding interactions but left unanswered the following fundamental question: does glycerol modulate water permeation through aquaglyceroporin that conducts both glycerol and water? This paper provides an affirmative answer to this question of essential importance to the protein's functions. On the basis of the chemical-potential profile of glycerol from the extracellular bulk region, throughout PfAQP's conducting channel, to the cytoplasmic bulk region, this study shows the existence of a bound state of glycerol inside aquaglyceroporin's permeation pore, from which the dissociation constant is approximately 14μM. A glycerol molecule occupying the bound state occludes the conducting pore through which permeating molecules line up in single file by hydrogen-bonding with one another and with the luminal residues of aquaglyceroporin. In this way, glycerol inhibits permeation of water and other permeants through aquaglyceroporin. The biological implications of this theory are discussed and shown to agree with the existent in vitro data. It turns out that the structure of aquaglyceroporin is perfect for the van der Waals interactions between the protein and glycerol to cause the existence of the bound state deep inside the conducting pore and, thus to play an unexpected but significant role in aquaglyceroporin's functions.

  20. Expression and biochemical characterization of Plasmodium falciparum DNA ligase I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buguliskis, Jeffrey S; Casta, Louis J; Butz, Charles E; Matsumoto, Yoshihiro; Taraschi, Theodore F

    2007-10-01

    We report that Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) encodes a 912 amino acid ATP-dependent DNA ligase. Protein sequence analysis of Pf DNA ligase I indicates a strong sequence similarity, particularly in the C-terminal region, to DNA ligase I homologues. The activity of recombinant Pf DNA ligase I (PfLigI) was investigated using protein expressed in HEK293 cells. The PfLigI gene product is approximately 94kDa and catalyzes phosphodiester bond formation on a singly nicked DNA substrate. The enzyme is most active at alkaline pH (8.5) and with Mg(2+) or Mn(2+) and ATP as cofactors. Kinetic studies of PfLigI revealed that the enzyme has similar substrate affinity (K(m) 2.6nM) as compared to human DNA ligase I and k(cat) (2.3x10(-3)s(-1)) and k(cat)/K(m) (8.8x10(5)M(-1)s(-1)) which are similar to other ATP-dependent DNA ligases. PfLigI was able to join RNA-DNA substrates only when the RNA sequence was upstream of the nick, confirming that it is DNA ligase I and has no associated DNA ligase III like activity.

  1. Molecular Aspects of Plasmodium falciparum Infection during Pregnancy

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    Nicaise Tuikue Ndam

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Cytoadherence of Plasmodium-falciparum-parasitized red blood cells (PRBCs to host receptors is the key phenomenon in the pathological process of the malaria disease. Some of these interactions can originate poor outcomes responsible for 1 to 3 million annual deaths mostly occurring among children in sub-Saharan Africa. Pregnancy-associated malaria (PAM represents an important exception of the disease occurring at adulthood in malaria endemic settings. Consequences of this are shared between the mother (maternal anemia and the baby (low birth weight and infant mortality. Demonstrating that parasites causing PAM express specific variant surface antigens (VSAPAM, including the P. falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1 variant VAR2CSA, that are targets for protective immunity has strengthened the possibility for the development of PAM-specific vaccine. In this paper, we review the molecular basis of malaria pathogenesis attributable to the erythrocyte stages of the parasites, and findings supporting potential anti-PAM vaccine components evidenced in PAM.

  2. Targeting NAD+ metabolism in the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum.

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    Jessica K O'Hara

    Full Text Available Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+ is an essential metabolite utilized as a redox cofactor and enzyme substrate in numerous cellular processes. Elevated NAD+ levels have been observed in red blood cells infected with the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum, but little is known regarding how the parasite generates NAD+. Here, we employed a mass spectrometry-based metabolomic approach to confirm that P. falciparum lacks the ability to synthesize NAD+ de novo and is reliant on the uptake of exogenous niacin. We characterized several enzymes in the NAD+ pathway and demonstrate cytoplasmic localization for all except the parasite nicotinamidase, which concentrates in the nucleus. One of these enzymes, the P. falciparum nicotinate mononucleotide adenylyltransferase (PfNMNAT, is essential for NAD+ metabolism and is highly diverged from the human homolog, but genetically similar to bacterial NMNATs. Our results demonstrate the enzymatic activity of PfNMNAT in vitro and demonstrate its ability to genetically complement the closely related Escherichia coli NMNAT. Due to the similarity of PfNMNAT to the bacterial enzyme, we tested a panel of previously identified bacterial NMNAT inhibitors and synthesized and screened twenty new derivatives, which demonstrate a range of potency against live parasite culture. These results highlight the importance of the parasite NAD+ metabolic pathway and provide both novel therapeutic targets and promising lead antimalarial compounds.

  3. [Thermostable extracellular cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase from Physarum polycephalum plasmodium].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nezvetskiĭ, A R; Orlova, T G; Beĭlina, S I; Orlov, N Ia

    2006-01-01

    The cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase secreted by Physarum polycephalum plasmodium into extracellular medium has been partially purified by DEAE cellulose chromatography, ultrafiltration, and HPLC. The results obtained by gel filtration, HPLC, electrophoresis, and isoelectric focusing suggest that, the native enzyme in solution is a monomer with a molecular mass of about 90 kDa and pI in the range 3.6 - 4.0. The Km values were estimated to be about 0.9 mM and 7.7 mM, respectively, and Vm for both substrates were similar (up to several thousand micromoles of cAMP hydrolyzed/hour per mg of enzyme). The partially purified enzyme was shown to be extremely stable. It did not lose the activity after heat treatment at 100 degrees C during 30 min. The enzyme was active in the presence of 1% SDS, but it was fully inactivated under the same conditions in the presence of beta-mercaptoethanol. The properties of the phosphodiesterase from Physarum polycephalum are discussed.

  4. A molecular marker of artemisinin-resistant Plasmodium falciparum malaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariey, Frédéric; Witkowski, Benoit; Amaratunga, Chanaki; Beghain, Johann; Langlois, Anne-Claire; Khim, Nimol; Kim, Saorin; Duru, Valentine; Bouchier, Christiane; Ma, Laurence; Lim, Pharath; Leang, Rithea; Duong, Socheat; Sreng, Sokunthea; Suon, Seila; Chuor, Char Meng; Bout, Denis Mey; Ménard, Sandie; Rogers, William O.; Genton, Blaise; Fandeur, Thierry; Miotto, Olivo; Ringwald, Pascal; Le Bras, Jacques; Berry, Antoine; Barale, Jean-Christophe; Fairhurst, Rick M.; Benoit-Vical, Françoise; Mercereau-Puijalon, Odile; Ménard, Didier

    2014-01-01

    Plasmodium falciparum resistance to artemisinin derivatives in southeast Asia threatens malaria control and elimination activities worldwide. To monitor the spread of artemisinin resistance, a molecular marker is urgently needed. Here, using whole-genome sequencing of an artemisinin-resistant parasite line from Africa and clinical parasite isolates from Cambodia, we associate mutations in the PF3D7_1343700 kelch propeller domain (`K13-propeller') with artemisinin resistance in vitro and in vivo. Mutant K13-propeller alleles cluster in Cambodian provinces where resistance is prevalent, and the increasing frequency of a dominant mutant K13-propeller allele correlates with the recent spread of resistance in western Cambodia. Strong correlations between the presence of a mutant allele, in vitro parasite survival rates and in vivo parasite clearance rates indicate that K13-propeller mutations are important determinants of artemisinin resistance. K13-propeller polymorphism constitutes a useful molecular marker for large-scale surveillance efforts to contain artemisinin resistance in the Greater Mekong Subregion and prevent its global spread.

  5. Molecular mechanisms and biological importance of Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte rosetting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mats Wahlgren

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available Rosetting, i.e. the spontaneous binding of uninfected to malaria infected erythrocytes and endothelial cytoadherence may hinder the blood flow and lead to serve Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Falciparum isolates obtained from unconscious patients all form rosettes and/or express a significantly higher man rosetting rate than isolates from patients with uncomplicated malaria. Furthermore, sera of patients with cerebral malaria are devoid of anti-rosetting activity while sera from patients with mild disease carry high levels of anti-rosetting antibodies. The presence of anti-rosetting antibodies also seems important for the efficient interaction of rosetting infected rbc and leucocytes. Two parasite derived rosetting ligands of Mr 22k and Mr28K named "rosettins, have been found on the surface of rosetting infected erythrocytes. CD36 has in at least some strains of parasites been found to function as a rosetting receptor on the uninfectederythrocyte. Heparin disrupts rosettes of P. falciparum in vitro and inhibits the sequestration of rosetting cells ex vivo. In conclusion, rosetting seems a crucial factor in the development of cerebral malaria and treatment of patients with anti-rosetting substances might become an effectivew adjunct in the treatment of severe malaria.

  6. Serum enzymes activities in Plasmodium falciparum infection in Southern Pakistan

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    Koay Yen Chin

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Serum levels of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH,aspartate aminotranferase (AST, alanine aminotransferase(ALT, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP were assessed todetermine the liver functions of patients infected withPlasmodium falciparum. The enzyme activities were assessedin 60 malarial patients and a control group of 44 people.Materials and Methods: The data for the study was collectedfrom the survey conducted from Liaquat University of medicaland health sciences Hospital, Hyderabad, Pakaistan. Sample of60 patients aged between 20 and 50 years were collected. Acontrol group of 44 healthy individual adults was also assessedfor comparative purposes. All the malaria patients who visitedthe OPD during the study period enrolled in the study.Results: The LDH activity in male patients was found to be674.89 ± 33.354 IU/L. This is above the control LDH activity of296.59 ± 14.476 IU/L. Similarly, in female patients, the serumLDH activity of 580.25 ± 24.507 IU/L is over twice the controlfemale serum LDH activity of 302.18 ± 18.082 IU/L. Furtherone-way anova test was performed to find any significance ininfected and control male and female.Conclusion: Hepatic dysfunction was found to be associated toP. falciparum malaria infection.

  7. The role of cytokines in Plasmodium vivax malaria

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    K. N. Mendis

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available The cytokine tumor necrosis factor and other as yet unidentified factor(s which together mediate the killing of intraerythrocytic malaria parasites are transiently elevated in sera during paroxysms in human Plasmodium vivax infections in non-immunes. These factors which included TNF and parasite killing factor(s are associated with the clinical disease in malaria to the extent that their transient presence in infection sera coincided with paroxysms, the most pronounced clinical disturbances of P. vivax malaria and secondly because their levels were markedly lower in paroxysm sera of semi-immune patients who were resident of an endemic area. Further, a close parallel was obtained between serum TFN levels and changes in body temperature that occur during a P. vivax paroxysm in non-immune patients, suggesting a causative role for TNF in the fever in malaria. P. vivax rarely if ever cause complicated clinical syndromes. Nevertheles serum TFN levels reached in acutely ill P. vivax patients were as high as in patients suffering from cerebral complications of P. falciparum malaria as reported in studies from the Gambia. Cytokine profiles and other changes accompanying clinical disease in P. vivax and P. falciparum malaria are compared in this paper with a view to discussing the potential role of cytokines in the causation of disease in malaria.

  8. Antimalarial effect of agmatine on Plasmodium berghei K173 strain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SURui-Bin; WEIXiao-Li; LIUYin; LIJin

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To study the antimalarial effect of agmatine (Agm) on chloroquine-susceptible Plasmodium berghei K173strain (S strain) and the P berghei K173 resistant strain (R strain). METHODS: The antimalarial effects of Agm onP berghei K173 S strain and R strain were evaluated by Peters 4-d suppression test in mice. RESULTS: Agm(12.5-200 mg/kg,ig,daily) decreased the parasitemia for both P berghei K173 S strain (IC50=139 mg/kg) and Rstrain (IC50=126mg/kg) in mice. Subcutaneous injection (sc) of Agm (5-40mg/kg,tid) showed relatively strongerantimalarial effect than intragastric gavage (IC50=30 mg/kg) in P berghei K 173 S strain. Spermidine antagonized theantimalarial effect of Agm for P berghei K173 S strain and R strain. Agm did not reverse the chloroquine resistanceof P berghei K173 S strain, dl-α-Difluoromethylornithine (DFMO, sc) decreased the parasitemia of P BergheiK173 S strain and this effect was antagonized by spermidine. CONCLUSION: Agm has an antimalarial effect andthe mechanism is related to its inhibition of polyamine synthesis.

  9. Polycyclic amines as chloroquine resistance modulating agents in Plasmodium falciparum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joubert, Jacques; Kapp, Erika; Taylor, Dale; Smith, Peter J; Malan, Sarel F

    2016-02-15

    Pentacycloundecylamines (PCUs) and adamantane amines, such as NGP1-01 (1) and amantadine, have shown significant channel blocking activities. They are postulated to act as chemosensitizers and circumvent the resistance of the plasmodia parasite against chloroquine (CQ) by inhibiting the p-glycoprotein efflux pump and enabling the accumulation of CQ inside the parasite digestive vacuole. Twelve polycyclic amines containing either a PCU or adamantane amine moiety conjugated to different aromatic functionalities through various tethered linkers were selected based on their channel blocking abilities and evaluated as potential chemosensitizers. Compounds 2, 4, 5 and 10 showed significant voltage-gated calcium channel (VGCC) blocking ability (IC50=0.27-35 μM) and were able to alter the CQ IC50 in differing degrees (45-81%) in the multidrug resistant Plasmodium falciparum Dd2 isolate. Among them, the PCU-dansyl amine compound (4) displayed the best potential to act as a chemosensitizer against the Dd2 strain at a 1 μM concentration (RMI=0.19) while displaying moderate antiplasmodial activity (Dd2 IC50=6.25 μM) and low in vitro cytotoxicity against a mammalian cell line (CHO, IC50=119 μM). Compounds 2 and 10 also showed some promising chemosensitizing abilities (RMI=0.36 and 0.35 respectively). A direct correlation was found between the VGCC blocking ability of these polycyclic amines and their capacity to act as CQ resistance modulating agents.

  10. Key Knowledge Gaps for Plasmodium vivax Control and Elimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassat, Quique; Velarde, Mar; Mueller, Ivo; Lin, Jessica; Leslie, Toby; Wongsrichanalai, Chansuda; Baird, J. Kevin

    2016-01-01

    There is inadequate understanding of the biology, pathology, transmission, and control of Plasmodium vivax, the geographically most widespread cause of human malaria. During the last decades, study of this species was neglected, in part due to the erroneous belief that it is intrinsically benign. In addition, many technical challenges in culturing the parasite also hampered understanding its fundamental biology and molecular and cellular responses to chemotherapeutics. Research on vivax malaria needs to be substantially expanded over the next decade to accelerate its elimination and eradication. This article summarizes key knowledge gaps identified by researchers, national malaria control programs, and other stakeholders assembled by the World Health Organization to develop strategies for controlling and eliminating vivax malaria. The priorities presented in this article emerged in these technical discussions, and were adopted by expert consensus of the authors. All involved understood the priority placed upon pragmatism in this research agenda, that is, focus upon tools delivering better prevention, diagnosis, treatment, and surveillance of P. vivax. PMID:27430544

  11. Comparative genomics of the neglected human malaria parasite Plasmodium vivax

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlton, Jane M.; Adams, John H.; Silva, Joana C.; Bidwell, Shelby L.; Lorenzi, Hernan; Caler, Elisabet; Crabtree, Jonathan; Angiuoli, Samuel V.; Merino, Emilio F.; Amedeo, Paolo; Cheng, Qin; Coulson, Richard M. R.; Crabb, Brendan S.; del Portillo, Hernando A.; Essien, Kobby; Feldblyum, Tamara V.; Fernandez-Becerra, Carmen; Gilson, Paul R.; Gueye, Amy H.; Guo, Xiang; Kang’a, Simon; Kooij, Taco W. A.; Korsinczky, Michael; Meyer, Esmeralda V.-S.; Nene, Vish; Paulsen, Ian; White, Owen; Ralph, Stuart A.; Ren, Qinghu; Sargeant, Tobias J.; Salzberg, Steven L.; Stoeckert, Christian J.; Sullivan, Steven A.; Yamamoto, Marcio Massao; Hoffman, Stephen L.; Wortman, Jennifer R.; Gardner, Malcolm J.; Galinski, Mary R.; Barnwell, John W.; Fraser-Liggett, Claire M.

    2008-01-01

    The human malaria parasite Plasmodium vivax is responsible for 25-40% of the ~515 million annual cases of malaria worldwide. Although seldom fatal, the parasite elicits severe and incapacitating clinical symptoms and often relapses months after a primary infection has cleared. Despite its importance as a major human pathogen, P. vivax is little studied because it cannot be propagated in the laboratory except in non-human primates. We determined the genome sequence of P. vivax in order to shed light on its distinctive biologic features, and as a means to drive development of new drugs and vaccines. Here we describe the synteny and isochore structure of P. vivax chromosomes, and show that the parasite resembles other malaria parasites in gene content and metabolic potential, but possesses novel gene families and potential alternate invasion pathways not recognized previously. Completion of the P. vivax genome provides the scientific community with a valuable resource that can be used to advance scientific investigation into this neglected species. PMID:18843361

  12. Effects of mefloquine use on Plasmodium vivax multidrug resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khim, Nimol; Andrianaranjaka, Voahangy; Popovici, Jean; Kim, Saorin; Ratsimbasoa, Arsene; Benedet, Christophe; Barnadas, Celine; Durand, Remy; Thellier, Marc; Legrand, Eric; Musset, Lise; Menegon, Michela; Severini, Carlo; Nour, Bakri Y M; Tichit, Magali; Bouchier, Christiane; Mercereau-Puijalon, Odile; Ménard, Didier

    2014-10-01

    Numerous studies have indicated a strong association between amplification of the multidrug resistance-1 gene and in vivo and in vitro mefloquine resistance of Plasmodium falciparum. Although falciparum infection usually is not treated with mefloquine, incorrect diagnosis, high frequency of undetected mixed infections, or relapses of P. vivax infection triggered by P. falciparum infections expose non-P. falciparum parasites to mefloquine. To assess the consequences of such unintentional treatments on P. vivax, we studied variations in number of Pvmdr-1 (PlasmoDB accession no. PVX_080100, NCBI reference sequence NC_009915.1) copies worldwide in 607 samples collected in areas with different histories of mefloquine use from residents and from travelers returning to France. Number of Pvmdr-1 copies correlated with drug use history. Treatment against P. falciparum exerts substantial collateral pressure against sympatric P. vivax, jeopardizing future use of mefloquine against P. vivax. A drug policy is needed that takes into consideration all co-endemic species of malaria parasites.

  13. Targeting glycolysis in the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Niekerk, David D; Penkler, Gerald P; du Toit, Francois; Snoep, Jacky L

    2016-02-01

    Glycolysis is the main pathway for ATP production in the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum and essential for its survival. Following a sensitivity analysis of a detailed kinetic model for glycolysis in the parasite, the glucose transport reaction was identified as the step whose activity needed to be inhibited to the least extent to result in a 50% reduction in glycolytic flux. In a subsequent inhibitor titration with cytochalasin B, we confirmed the model analysis experimentally and measured a flux control coefficient of 0.3 for the glucose transporter. In addition to the glucose transporter, the glucokinase and phosphofructokinase had high flux control coefficients, while for the ATPase a small negative flux control coefficient was predicted. In a broader comparative analysis of glycolytic models, we identified a weakness in the P. falciparum pathway design with respect to stability towards perturbations in the ATP demand. The mathematical model described here has been submitted to the JWS Online Cellular Systems Modelling Database and can be accessed at http://jjj.bio.vu.nl/database/vanniekerk1. The SEEK-study including the experimental data set is available at DOI 10.15490/seek.1. 56 (http://dx.doi.org/10.15490/seek.1. 56). © 2015 FEBS.

  14. BIOLOGY OF HUMAN MALARIA PLASMODIA INCLUDING PLASMODIUM KNOWLESI

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    Spinello Antinori

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Malaria is a vector-borne infection caused by unicellular parasite of the genus Plasmodium. Plasmodia are obligate intracellular parasites that in humans after a clinically silent replication phase in the liver are able to infect and replicate within the erythrocytes. Four species (P.falciparum, P.malariae, P.ovale and P.vivax are traditionally recognized as responsible of natural infection in human beings but the recent upsurge of P.knowlesi malaria in South-East Asia has led clinicians to consider it as the fifth human malaria parasite. Recent studies in wild-living apes in Africa have revealed that P.falciparum, the most deadly form of human malaria, is not only human-host restricted as previously believed and its phylogenetic lineage is much more complex with new species identified in gorilla, bonobo and chimpanzee. Although less impressive, new data on biology of P.malariae, P.ovale and P.vivax are also emerging and will be briefly discussed in this review.

  15. Indigofera pulchra leaves extracts contain anti-Plasmodium berghei agents

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    Sani Ibrahim

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to investigate the anti-Plasmodium berghei activities of some extracts from Indigofera pulchra leaves. Six groups of mice were intraperitoneally infected with chloroquine sensitive P. berghei (NK 65 among which two groups were orally treated with 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight of methanol leaves extract while another two groups were treated with 100 and 200 mg/kg of n-butanol fraction derived from the methanol extract. Another infected group was treated with chloroquine (25 mg/kg whereas the remaining infected group was left untreated. All infected treated groups possessed a significantly (p<0.05 lowered number of parasitized erythrocytes than the infected untreated group throughout the experimental period except at day 6 post-infection. However, the 200 mg/kg n-butanol fraction treated group demonstrated a persistently lower number of parasitized erythrocytes than other extract-treated groups after day 9 post infection to the termination of the experiment. The P. berghei was found to induce anemia whose severity was significantly (p<0.05 ameliorated by all the treatments. It was concluded that the methanol extract and n-butanol fraction of I. pulchra contains anti-P. berghei phytochemicals that could ameliorate the parasite-induced anemia.

  16. Analysis of Breath Specimens for Biomarkers of Plasmodium falciparum Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berna, Amalia Z; McCarthy, James S; Wang, Rosalind X; Saliba, Kevin J; Bravo, Florence G; Cassells, Julie; Padovan, Benjamin; Trowell, Stephen C

    2015-10-01

    Currently, the majority of diagnoses of malaria rely on a combination of the patient's clinical presentation and the visualization of parasites on a stained blood film. Breath offers an attractive alternative to blood as the basis for simple, noninvasive diagnosis of infectious diseases. In this study, breath samples were collected from individuals during controlled malaria to determine whether specific malaria-associated volatiles could be detected in breath. We identified 9 compounds whose concentrations varied significantly over the course of malaria: carbon dioxide, isoprene, acetone, benzene, cyclohexanone, and 4 thioethers. The latter group, consisting of allyl methyl sulfide, 1-methylthio-propane, (Z)-1-methylthio-1-propene, and (E)-1-methylthio-1-propene, had not previously been associated with any disease or condition. Before the availability of antimalarial drug treatment, there was evidence of concurrent 48-hour cyclical changes in the levels of both thioethers and parasitemia. When thioether concentrations were subjected to a phase shift of 24 hours, a direct correlation between the parasitemia and volatile levels was revealed. Volatile levels declined monotonically approximately 6.5 hours after initial drug treatment, correlating with clearance of parasitemia. No thioethers were detected in in vitro cultures of Plasmodium falciparum. The metabolic origin of the thioethers is not known, but results suggest that interplay between host and parasite metabolic pathways is involved in the production of these thioethers.

  17. Plasmodium yoelii: induction of attenuated mutants by irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waki, S.; Yonome, I.; Suzuki, M.

    1986-12-01

    When erythrocytic forms of Plasmodium yoelii nigeriensis, which is invariably fatal in mice, were exposed to X rays, the dose to reduce surviving parasites to one millionth was 100 gray (10 Krad). A suspension of 5 X 10(6) per ml of parasitized erythrocyte was irradiated at 100 gray, and 0.2 ml aliquots were inoculated into 22 mice. Eleven mice showed patent parasitemia, and in these the growth curves were less steep than that found in nonirradiated parasites. The infections of 8 mice of the 11 were self-resolving, and the attenuated feature of the parasites maintained following a limited number of blood passages. The parasites were slowly growing even in nude mice and cause self-resolving infections in intact mice. BALB/c mice immunized with the attenuated parasites were protected against subsequent challenge infections with the original virulent erythrocytic and sporogonic forms. These findings indicate that attenuated mutants of malaria parasites can be readily induced by this method.

  18. Plasmodium interspersed repeats: the major multigene superfamily of malaria parasites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Christoph S.; Phillips, R. Stephen; Turner, C. Michael R.; Barrett, Michael P.

    2004-01-01

    Functionally related homologues of known genes can be difficult to identify in divergent species. In this paper, we show how multi-character analysis can be used to elucidate the relationships among divergent members of gene superfamilies. We used probabilistic modelling in conjunction with protein structural predictions and gene-structure analyses on a whole-genome scale to find gene homologies that are missed by conventional similarity-search strategies and identified a variant gene superfamily in six species of malaria (Plasmodium interspersed repeats, pir). The superfamily includes rif in P.falciparum, vir in P.vivax, a novel family kir in P.knowlesi and the cir/bir/yir family in three rodent malarias. Our data indicate that this is the major multi-gene family in malaria parasites. Protein localization of products from pir members to the infected erythrocyte membrane in the rodent malaria parasite P.chabaudi, demonstrates phenotypic similarity to the products of pir in other malaria species. The results give critical insight into the evolutionary adaptation of malaria parasites to their host and provide important data for comparative immunology between malaria parasites obtained from laboratory models and their human counterparts. PMID:15507685

  19. Plasmodium genetic loci linked to host cytokine and chemokine responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattaradilokrat, S; Li, J; Wu, J; Qi, Y; Eastman, R T; Zilversmit, M; Nair, S C; Huaman, M C; Quinones, M; Jiang, H; Li, N; Zhu, J; Zhao, K; Kaneko, O; Long, C A; Su, X-z

    2014-01-01

    Both host and parasite factors contribute to disease severity of malaria infection; however, the molecular mechanisms responsible for the disease and the host-parasite interactions involved remain largely unresolved. To investigate the effects of parasite factors on host immune responses and pathogenesis, we measured levels of plasma cytokines/chemokines (CCs) and growth rates in mice infected with two Plasmodium yoelii strains having different virulence phenotypes and in progeny from a genetic cross of the two parasites. Quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis linked levels of many CCs, particularly IL-1β, IP-10, IFN-γ, MCP-1 and MIG, and early parasite growth rate to loci on multiple parasite chromosomes, including chromosomes 7, 9, 10, 12 and 13. Comparison of the genome sequences spanning the mapped loci revealed various candidate genes. The loci on chromosomes 7 and 13 had significant (P<0.005) additive effects on IL-1β, IL-5 and IP-10 responses, and the chromosome 9 and 12 loci had significant (P=0.017) interaction. Infection of knockout mice showed critical roles of MCP-1 and IL-10 in parasitemia control and host mortality. These results provide important information for a better understanding of malaria pathogenesis and can be used to examine the role of these factors in human malaria infection.

  20. Identification of Pfdhfr mutant variants in Plasmodium berghei model

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    Chairat Uthaipibull

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Parasite resistance to antimalarials is a major burden in controlling malaria disease. Genetic mutations within the parasites are found to be the factor in conferring resistance to drugs. In this study, the power of random mutant library and transgenic parasite systems were employed to identify mutations on the antimalarial drug target, viz. Plasmodium falciparum dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR, which could contribute to resistance, and to elucidate the functionality of resistant mutant parasites in P. berghei. Using the moderate drug-resistant PfdhfrS108N gene as template, we generated a library of Pfdhfr mutants by error-prone PCR followed by transfection and selection in P. berghei. Two clones of transgenic P. berghei expressing PfDHFR of interest due to the position of mutations, i.e. PbPfDHFR3m1 (M55I+S108N+S189C and PbPfDHFR3m2 (C50Y+S108N+F116S, were selected for drug sensitivity test. Although these transgenic parasite clones showed similar reproducibility with the parental transgenic P. berghei, expressing PfDHFR with mutation at S108N (PbPfS108N in response to antifolate pyrimethamine, this study reconfirms that this P. berghei model is effective in predicting the evolution of Pfdhfr mutations in vivo. This approach can be applied during the development of new antifolates with better effective properties against drug resistant parasites.

  1. The role of Plasmodium falciparum food vacuole plasmepsins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jun; Gluzman, Ilya Y; Drew, Mark E; Goldberg, Daniel E

    2005-01-14

    Plasmepsins (PMs) are thought to have an important function in hemoglobin degradation in the malarial parasite Plasmodium falciparum and have generated interest as antimalarial drug targets. Four paralogous plasmepsins reside in the food vacuole of P. falciparum. Targeted gene disruption by double crossover homologous recombination has been employed to study food vacuole plasmepsin function in cultured parasites. Parasite clones with deletions in each of the individual PM I, PM II, and HAP genes as well as clones with a double PM IV/PM I disruption have been generated. All of these clones lack the corresponding PMs, are viable, and appear morphologically normal. PM II and PM IV/I disruptions have longer doubling times than the 3D7 parental line in rich RPMI medium. This appears to be because of a decreased level of productive progeny rather than an increased cell cycle time. In amino acid-limited medium, all four knockouts exhibit slower growth than the parental strain. Compared with 3D7, knock-out clone sensitivity to aspartic and cysteine protease inhibitors is changed minimally. These results suggest substantial functional redundancy and have important implications for the design of antimalarial drugs. The slow growth phenotype may explain why P. falciparum has maintained four plasmepsin genes with overlapping functions.

  2. The homeostasis of Plasmodium falciparum-infected red blood cells.

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    Jakob M A Mauritz

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The asexual reproduction cycle of Plasmodium falciparum, the parasite responsible for severe malaria, occurs within red blood cells. A merozoite invades a red cell in the circulation, develops and multiplies, and after about 48 hours ruptures the host cell, releasing 15-32 merozoites ready to invade new red blood cells. During this cycle, the parasite increases the host cell permeability so much that when similar permeabilization was simulated on uninfected red cells, lysis occurred before approximately 48 h. So how could infected cells, with a growing parasite inside, prevent lysis before the parasite has completed its developmental cycle? A mathematical model of the homeostasis of infected red cells suggested that it is the wasteful consumption of host cell hemoglobin that prevents early lysis by the progressive reduction in the colloid-osmotic pressure within the host (the colloid-osmotic hypothesis. However, two critical model predictions, that infected cells would swell to near prelytic sphericity and that the hemoglobin concentration would become progressively reduced, remained controversial. In this paper, we are able for the first time to correlate model predictions with recent experimental data in the literature and explore the fine details of the homeostasis of infected red blood cells during five model-defined periods of parasite development. The conclusions suggest that infected red cells do reach proximity to lytic rupture regardless of their actual volume, thus requiring a progressive reduction in their hemoglobin concentration to prevent premature lysis.

  3. In vitro susceptibility of Plasmodium vivax to antimalarials in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Diana; Segura, César; Arboleda, Margarita; Garavito, Giovanny; Blair, Silvia; Pabón, Adriana

    2014-11-01

    The in vitro susceptibilities of 30 isolates of Plasmodium vivax to a number of antimalarials (chloroquine [CQ], mefloquine, amodiaquine, quinine, and artesunate [AS]) were evaluated. The isolates came from the region of Urabá in Colombia, in which malaria is endemic, and were evaluated by the schizont maturation test. The 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) was 0.6 nM (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.3 to 1.0 nM) for artesunate, 8.5 nM (95% CI, 5.6 to 13.0 nM) for amodiaquine, 23.3 nM (95% CI, 12.4 to 44.1 nM) for chloroquine, 55.6 nM (95% CI, 36.8 to 84.1 nM) for mefloquine, and 115.3 nM (95% CI, 57.7 to 230.5 nM) for quinine. The isolates were classified according to whether the initial parasites were mature or immature trophozoites (Tfz). It was found that the IC50s for chloroquine and artesunate were significantly different in the two aforementioned groups (P Colombia, P. vivax continues to be susceptible to antimalarials. This is the first report, to our knowledge, showing in vitro susceptibilities of P. vivax isolates to antimalarials in Colombia.

  4. Surface-expressed enolases of Plasmodium and other pathogens

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    Anil Kumar Ghosh

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Enolase is the eighth enzyme in the glycolytic pathway, a reaction that generates ATP from phosphoenol pyruvate in cytosolic compartments. Enolase is essential, especially for organisms devoid of the Krebs cycle that depend solely on glycolysis for energy. Interestingly, enolase appears to serve a separate function in some organisms, in that it is also exported to the cell surface via a poorly understood mechanism. In these organisms, surface enolase assists in the invasion of their host cells by binding plasminogen, an abundant plasma protease precursor. Binding is mediated by the interaction between a lysine motif of enolase with Kringle domains of plasminogen. The bound plasminogen is then cleaved by specific proteases to generate active plasmin. Plasmin is a potent serine protease that is thought to function in the degradation of the extracellular matrix surrounding the targeted host cell, thereby facilitating pathogen invasion. Recent work revealed that the malaria parasite Plasmodium also expresses surface enolase, and that this feature may be essential for completion of its life cycle. The therapeutic potential of targeting surface enolases of pathogens is discussed.

  5. Atorvastatin prevents Plasmodium falciparum cytoadherence and endothelial damage

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    Soubrier Florent

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The adhesion of Plasmodium falciparum parasitized red blood cell (PRBC to human endothelial cells (EC induces inflammatory processes, coagulation cascades, oxidative stress and apoptosis. These pathological processes are suspected to be responsible for the blood-brain-barrier and other organs' endothelial dysfunctions observed in fatal cases of malaria. Atorvastatin, a drug that belongs to the lowering cholesterol molecule family of statins, has been shown to ameliorate endothelial functions and is widely used in patients with cardiovascular disorders. Methods The effect of this compound on PRBC induced endothelial impairments was assessed using endothelial co-culture models. Results Atorvastatin pre-treatment of EC was found to reduce the expression of adhesion molecules and P. falciparum cytoadherence, to protect cells against PRBC-induced apoptosis and to enhance endothelial monolayer integrity during co-incubation with parasites. Conclusions These results might suggest a potential interest use of atorvastatin as a protective treatment to interfere with the pathophysiological cascades leading to severe malaria.

  6. Interactive transcriptome analysis of malaria patients and infecting Plasmodium falciparum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamagishi, Junya; Natori, Anna; Tolba, Mohammed E M; Mongan, Arthur E; Sugimoto, Chihiro; Katayama, Toshiaki; Kawashima, Shuichi; Makalowski, Wojciech; Maeda, Ryuichiro; Eshita, Yuki; Tuda, Josef; Suzuki, Yutaka

    2014-09-01

    To understand the molecular mechanisms of parasitism in vivo, it is essential to elucidate how the transcriptomes of the human hosts and the infecting parasites affect one another. Here we report the RNA-seq analysis of 116 Indonesian patients infected with the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum (Pf). We extracted RNAs from their peripheral blood as a mixture of host and parasite transcripts and mapped the RNA-seq tags to the human and Pf reference genomes to separate the respective tags. We were thus able to simultaneously analyze expression patterns in both humans and parasites. We identified human and parasite genes and pathways that correlated with various clinical data, which may serve as primary targets for drug developments. Of particular importance, we revealed characteristic expression changes in the human innate immune response pathway genes including TLR2 and TICAM2 that correlated with the severity of the malaria infection. We also found a group of transcription regulatory factors, JUND, for example, and signaling molecules, TNFAIP3, for example, that were strongly correlated in the expression patterns of humans and parasites. We also identified several genetic variations in important anti-malaria drug resistance-related genes. Furthermore, we identified the genetic variations which are potentially associated with severe malaria symptoms both in humans and parasites. The newly generated data should collectively lay a unique foundation for understanding variable behaviors of the field malaria parasites, which are far more complex than those observed under laboratory conditions.

  7. Increasing prevalence of Plasmodium vivax among febrile patients in Nouakchott, Mauritania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ould Ahmedou Salem, Mohamed Salem; Mint Lekweiry, Khadijetou; Mint Deida, Jemila; Ould Emouh, Ahmed; Ould Weddady, Mohamed; Ould Mohamed Salem Boukhary, Ali; Basco, Leonardo K

    2015-03-01

    The occurrence of Plasmodium vivax malaria was reported in Nouakchott, Mauritania in the 1990s. Several studies have suggested the frequent occurrence of P. vivax malaria among Nouakchott residents, including those without recent travel history to the southern part of the country where malaria is known to be endemic. To further consolidate the evidence for P. vivax endemicity and the extent of malaria burden in one district in the city of Nouakchott, febrile illnesses were monitored in 2012-2013 in the Teyarett health center. The number of laboratory-confirmed P. vivax cases has attained more than 2,000 cases in 2013. Malaria transmission occurs locally, and P. vivax is diagnosed throughout the year. Plasmodium vivax malaria is endemic in Nouakchott and largely predominates over Plasmodium falciparum. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  8. The remarkable journey of adaptation of the Plasmodium falciparum malaria parasite to New World anopheline mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-Cruz, Alvaro; Barillas-Mury, Carolina

    2014-08-01

    Plasmodium falciparum originated in Africa, dispersed around the world as a result of human migration and had to adapt to several different indigenous anopheline mosquitoes. Anophelines from the New World are evolutionary distant form African ones and this probably resulted in a more stringent selection of Plasmodium as it adapted to these vectors. It is thought that Plasmodium has been genetically selected by some anopheline species through unknown mechanisms. The mosquito immune system can greatly limit infection and P. falciparum evolved a strategy to evade these responses, at least in part mediated by Pfs47, a highly polymorphic gene. We propose that adaptation of P. falciparum to new vectors may require evasion of their immune system. Parasites with a Pfs47 haplotype compatible with the indigenous mosquito vector would be able to survive and be transmitted. The mosquito antiplasmodial response could be an important determinant of P. falciparum population structure and could affect malaria transmission in the Americas.

  9. The remarkable journey of adaptation of the Plasmodium falciparum malaria parasite to New World anopheline mosquitoes

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    Alvaro Molina-Cruz

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Plasmodium falciparum originated in Africa, dispersed around the world as a result of human migration and had to adapt to several different indigenous anopheline mosquitoes. Anophelines from the New World are evolutionary distant form African ones and this probably resulted in a more stringent selection of Plasmodium as it adapted to these vectors. It is thought that Plasmodium has been genetically selected by some anopheline species through unknown mechanisms. The mosquito immune system can greatly limit infection and P. falciparum evolved a strategy to evade these responses, at least in part mediated by Pfs47, a highly polymorphic gene. We propose that adaptation of P. falciparum to new vectors may require evasion of their immune system. Parasites with a Pfs47 haplotype compatible with the indigenous mosquito vector would be able to survive and be transmitted. The mosquito antiplasmodial response could be an important determinant of P. falciparum population structure and could affect malaria transmission in the Americas.

  10. Kanizsa illusory contours appearing in the plasmodium pattern of Physarumpolycephalum

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    Iori eTani

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The plasmodium of Physarum polycephalum is often used in the implementation of non-linear computation to solve optimization problems, and this organismal feature was not used in this analysis to compute perception and/or sensation in humans. In this paper, we focused on the Kanizsa illusion, which is a well-known visual illusion resulting from the differentiation-integration of the visual field, and compared the illusion with the adaptive network in the plasmodium of P. polycephalum. We demonstrated that the network pattern mimicking the Kanizsa illusion can be produced by an asynchronous automata-fashioned model of the foraging slime mold and by the real plasmodia of P. polycephalum. Because the protoplasm of the plasmodium is transported depending on both local and global computation, it may contain differentiation-integration processes. In this sense, we can extend the idea of perception and computation.

  11. Kanizsa illusory contours appearing in the plasmodium pattern of Physarum polycephalum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tani, Iori; Yamachiyo, Masaki; Shirakawa, Tomohiro; Gunji, Yukio-Pegio

    2014-01-01

    The plasmodium of Physarum polycephalum is often used in the implementation of non-linear computation to solve optimization problems, and this organismal feature was not used in this analysis to compute perception and/or sensation in humans. In this paper, we focused on the Kanizsa illusion, which is a well-known visual illusion resulting from the differentiation-integration of the visual field, and compared the illusion with the adaptive network in the plasmodium of P. polycephalum. We demonstrated that the network pattern mimicking the Kanizsa illusion can be produced by an asynchronous automata-fashioned model of the foraging slime mold and by the real plasmodia of P. polycephalum. Because the protoplasm of the plasmodium is transported depending on both local and global computation, it may contain differentiation-integration processes. In this sense, we can extend the idea of perception and computation.

  12. Frequency Coupling Model for Dynamics of Responses to Stimuli in Plasmodium of Physarum Polycephalum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takamatsu, Atsuko; Takahashi, Kengo; Nagao, Makoto; Tsuchiya, Yoshimi

    1997-06-01

    Gathering or escaping behavior in the plasmodium of Physarum polycephalum is considered to relate to an entrainment of the coupled nonlinear oscillators. The behavior has been explained to be caused by the formation of phase gradient between those oscillators, which results from the local frequency modulation at the stimulated site. However, it has not yet been elucidated how the formation process relates to the migration of the plasmodium. In this paper, we have introduced a model with frequency coupling besides the phase coupling in the system of coupled oscillators. By the simulation, we have shown that not only the phase gradient but also the concentration gradient of substances such as Ca2+ and ATP are self-organized and their reverse by the stimulus results in the migration of plasmodium.

  13. A Review of Plasmodium coatneyi-Macaque Models of Severe Malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardini, E D; Gettayacamin, M; Turner, G D H; Brown, A E

    2015-11-01

    Malaria remains one of the most significant public health concerns in the world today. Approximately half the human population is at risk for infection, with children and pregnant women being most vulnerable. More than 90% of the total human malaria burden, which numbers in excess of 200 million annually, is due to Plasmodium falciparum. Lack of an effective vaccine and a dwindling stockpile of antimalarial drugs due to increased plasmodial resistance underscore the critical need for valid animal models. Plasmodium coatneyi was described in Southeast Asia 50 years ago. This plasmodium of nonhuman primates has been used sporadically as a model for severe malaria, as it mimics many of the pathophysiologic features of human disease. This review covers the reported macroscopic, microscopic, ultrastructural, and molecular pathology of P. coatneyi infection in macaques, specifically focusing on the rhesus macaque, as well as describing the critical needs still outstanding in the validation of this crucial model of human disease.

  14. Plasmodium circumflexum in a Shikra (Accipiter badius): phylogeny and ultra-structure of the haematozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salakij, Jarernsak; Lertwatcharasarakul, Preeda; Kasorndorkbua, Chaiyan; Salakij, Chaleow

    2012-08-01

    A wild-caught, juvenile Shikra (Accipiter badius) was evaluated for rehabilitation at the Kasetsart University Raptor Rehabilitation Unit (KURRU) with a history of weakness. Plasmodium sp. was observed by both light and electron microscopy in blood obtained on day 1 of evaluation. Based on the appearance of erythrocytic meronts and gametocytes, the parasites were defined as Plasmodium (Giovannolaia) circumflexum. The sequence analysis of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene from the plasmodia was closely related to parasites found in the Grey-headed woodpecker from Myanmar and the Brown hawk-owl from Singapore. Transmission electron microscopic examination revealed organelles in the haematozoa and heterophils that ingested the plasmodia. This is the first recorded case of Plasmodium circumflexum in a wild Shikra. This note emphasises the molecular characterisation and ultra-structure of the haematozoa.

  15. The increasing importance of Plasmodium ovale and Plasmodium malariae in a malaria elimination setting: an observational study of imported cases in Jiangsu Province, China, 2011-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yuanyuan; Wang, Weiming; Liu, Yaobao; Cotter, Chris; Zhou, Huayun; Zhu, Guoding; Tang, Jianxia; Tang, Feng; Lu, Feng; Xu, Sui; Gu, Yaping; Zhang, Chao; Li, Julin; Cao, Jun

    2016-09-07

    Following initiation of China's National Malaria Elimination Action Plan in 2010, indigenous malaria infections in Jiangsu Province decreased significantly. Meanwhile imported Plasmodium infections have increased substantially, particularly Plasmodium ovale and Plasmodium malariae. Given the risk for malaria resurgence, there is an urgent need to understand the increase in imported P. ovale and P. malariae infections as China works to achieve national malaria elimination. An observational study of imported malaria cases in Jiangsu Province, China was carried out for the period of 2011-2014. A total of 1268 malaria cases were reported in Jiangsu Province from 2011 to 2014. Although imported Plasmodium falciparum cases (n = 1058) accounted for 83.4 % of all reported cases in Jiangsu, P. ovale cases (14, 19, 30, and 46) and their proportion (3.7, 9.6, 8.8, and 13.0 %) of all malaria cases increased over the 4 years. Similarly, P. malariae cases (seven, two, nine, and 10) and proportion (1.9, 1.0, 2.6, and 2.8 %) of all malaria cases increased slightly during this time. A total of 98 cases of Plasmodium ovale curtisi (47/98, 48 %) and Plasmodium ovale wallikeri (51/98, 52 %) were identified as well. Latency periods were significant among these Plasmodium infections (p = 0.00). Also, this study found that the latency periods of P. ovale sp., P. malariae and Plasmodium vivax were significantly longer than P. falciparum. However, for both P. ovale curtisi and P. ovale wallikeri infections, the latency period analysis was not significant (p = 0.81). Misdiagnosis of both P. ovale and P. malariae was greater than 71.5 and 71.4 %, respectively. The P. ovale cases were misdiagnosed as P. falciparum (35 cases, 32.1 %), P. vivax (43 cases, 39.4 %) by lower levels of CDCs or hospitals. And, the P. malariae cases were misdiagnosed as P. falciparum (ten cases, 35.7 %), P. vivax (nine cases, 32.1 %) and P. ovale sp. (one case, 3.6 %). Geographic distribution of

  16. Epidemiology of Plasmodium infections in Flores Island, Indonesia using real-time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaisar, Maria M M; Supali, Taniawati; Wiria, Aprilianto E; Hamid, Firdaus; Wammes, Linda J; Sartono, Erliyani; Luty, Adrian J F; Brienen, Eric A T; Yazdanbakhsh, Maria; van Lieshout, Lisette; Verweij, Jaco J

    2013-05-24

    DNA-based diagnostic methods have been shown to be highly sensitive and specific for the detection of malaria. An 18S-rRNA-based, real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to determine the prevalence and intensity of Plasmodium infections on Flores Island, Indonesia. Microscopy and real-time multiplex PCR for the detection of Plasmodium species was performed on blood samples collected in a population-based study in Nangapanda Flores Island, Indonesia. A total 1,509 blood samples were analysed. Real-time PCR revealed prevalence for Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax, and Plasmodium malariae to be 14.5%, 13.2%, and 1.9% respectively. Sub-microscopic parasitaemia were found in more than 80% of all positive cases. The prevalence of P. falciparum and P. vivax was significantly higher in subjects younger than 20 years (p ≤ 0.01). In the present study, among non-symptomatic healthy individuals, anaemia was strongly correlated with the prevalence and load of P. falciparum infections (p ≤ 0.01; p = 0.02) and with the load of P. vivax infections (p = 0.01) as detected with real-time PCR. Subjects with AB blood group tend to have a higher risk of being infected with P. falciparum and P. vivax when compared to other blood groups. The present study has shown that real-time PCR provides more insight in the epidemiology of Plasmodium infections and can be used as a monitoring tool in the battle against malaria. The unsurpassed sensitivity of real-time PCR reveals that sub microscopic infections are common in this area, which are likely to play an important role in transmission and control. Trials number ISRCTN83830814.

  17. Identification and characterization of a liver stage-specific promoter region of the malaria parasite Plasmodium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Helm

    Full Text Available During the blood meal of a Plasmodium-infected mosquito, 10 to 100 parasites are inoculated into the skin and a proportion of these migrate via the bloodstream to the liver where they infect hepatocytes. The Plasmodium liver stage, despite its clinical silence, represents a highly promising target for antimalarial drug and vaccine approaches. Successfully invaded parasites undergo a massive proliferation in hepatocytes, producing thousands of merozoites that are transported into a blood vessel to infect red blood cells. To successfully develop from the liver stage into infective merozoites, a tight regulation of gene expression is needed. Although this is a very interesting aspect in the biology of Plasmodium, little is known about gene regulation in Plasmodium parasites in general and in the liver stage in particular. We have functionally analyzed a novel promoter region of the rodent parasite Plasmodium berghei that is exclusively active during the liver stage of the parasite. To prove stage-specific activity of the promoter, GFP and luciferase reporter assays have been successfully established, allowing both qualitative and accurate quantitative analysis. To further characterize the promoter region, the transcription start site was mapped by rapid amplification of cDNA ends (5'-RACE. Using promoter truncation experiments and site-directed mutagenesis within potential transcription factor binding sites, we suggest that the minimal promoter contains more than one binding site for the recently identified parasite-specific ApiAP2 transcription factors. The identification of a liver stage-specific promoter in P. berghei confirms that the parasite is able to tightly regulate gene expression during its life cycle. The identified promoter region might now be used to study the biology of the Plasmodium liver stage, which has thus far proven problematic on a molecular level. Stage-specific expression of dominant-negative mutant proteins and

  18. Epidemiology and Infectivity of Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax Gametocytes in Relation to Malaria Control and Elimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bousema, Teun; Drakeley, Chris

    2011-01-01

    Summary: Malaria remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the tropics, with Plasmodium falciparum responsible for the majority of the disease burden and P. vivax being the geographically most widely distributed cause of malaria. Gametocytes are the sexual-stage parasites that infect Anopheles mosquitoes and mediate the onward transmission of the disease. Gametocytes are poorly studied despite this crucial role, but with a recent resurgence of interest in malaria elimination, the study of gametocytes is in vogue. This review highlights the current state of knowledge with regard to the development and longevity of P. falciparum and P. vivax gametocytes in the human host and the factors influencing their distribution within endemic populations. The evidence for immune responses, antimalarial drugs, and drug resistance influencing infectiousness to mosquitoes is reviewed. We discuss how the application of molecular techniques has led to the identification of submicroscopic gametocyte carriage and to a reassessment of the human infectious reservoir. These components are drawn together to show how control measures that aim to reduce malaria transmission, such as mass drug administration and a transmission-blocking vaccine, might better be deployed. PMID:21482730

  19. Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum at the crossroads of exchange among islands in Vanuatu: implications for malaria elimination strategies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chim W Chan

    Full Text Available Understanding the transmission and movement of Plasmodium parasites is crucial for malaria elimination and prevention of resurgence. Located at the limit of malaria transmission in the Pacific, Vanuatu is an ideal candidate for elimination programs due to low endemicity and the isolated nature of its island setting. We analyzed the variation in the merozoite surface protein 1 (msp1 and the circumsporozoite protein (csp of P. falciparum and P. vivax populations to examine the patterns of gene flow and population structures among seven sites on five islands in Vanuatu. Genetic diversity was in general higher in P. vivax than P. falciparum from the same site. In P. vivax, high genetic diversity was likely maintained by greater extent of gene flow among sites and among islands. Consistent with the different patterns of gene flow, the proportion of genetic variance found among islands was substantially higher in P. falciparum (28.81-31.23% than in P. vivax (-0.53-3.99%. Our data suggest that the current island-by-island malaria elimination strategy in Vanuatu, while adequate for P. falciparum elimination, might need to be complemented with more centrally integrated measures to control P. vivax movement across islands.

  20. Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum at the crossroads of exchange among islands in Vanuatu: implications for malaria elimination strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Chim W; Sakihama, Naoko; Tachibana, Shin-Ichiro; Idris, Zulkarnain Md; Lum, J Koji; Tanabe, Kazuyuki; Kaneko, Akira

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the transmission and movement of Plasmodium parasites is crucial for malaria elimination and prevention of resurgence. Located at the limit of malaria transmission in the Pacific, Vanuatu is an ideal candidate for elimination programs due to low endemicity and the isolated nature of its island setting. We analyzed the variation in the merozoite surface protein 1 (msp1) and the circumsporozoite protein (csp) of P. falciparum and P. vivax populations to examine the patterns of gene flow and population structures among seven sites on five islands in Vanuatu. Genetic diversity was in general higher in P. vivax than P. falciparum from the same site. In P. vivax, high genetic diversity was likely maintained by greater extent of gene flow among sites and among islands. Consistent with the different patterns of gene flow, the proportion of genetic variance found among islands was substantially higher in P. falciparum (28.81-31.23%) than in P. vivax (-0.53-3.99%). Our data suggest that the current island-by-island malaria elimination strategy in Vanuatu, while adequate for P. falciparum elimination, might need to be complemented with more centrally integrated measures to control P. vivax movement across islands.

  1. Assessment of Therapeutic Response of Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum to Chloroquine in a Malaria Transmission Free Area in Colombia

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    Castillo Carmen Manuela

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to determine the frequency of therapeutic failures to chloroquine (CQ in patients with malaria due to either Plasmodium falciparum or P. vivax, and to explore the usefulness of a malaria-free city as a sentinel site to monitor the emergence of drug resistance, 53 patients (44 infected with P. vivax and 9 with P. falciparum were evaluated at the Laboratory of Parasitology, Universidad del Valle in Cali, Colombia. Patients received 25 mg/kg of CQ divided in three doses over 48 h; they were followed during 28 days according to WHO/PAHO protocols. While therapeutic failures to CQ in the P. vivax group were not detected, the proportion of therapeutic failures in the P. falciparum group was high (78% and consistent with the reports from endemic areas in Colombia. The diverse origin of cases presenting therapeutic failure confirmed that P. falciparum resistant to CQ is widespread in Colombia, and further supports the change in the national antimalarial drug scheme. Monitoring of drug resistance in malaria free areas would be useful to identify sites requiring efficacy evaluation, and in some situations could be the most appropriate alternative to collect information from endemic areas where therapeutic efficacy studies are not feasible.

  2. A Next-generation Genetically Attenuated Plasmodium falciparum Parasite Created by Triple Gene Deletion

    OpenAIRE

    Mikolajczak, Sebastian A.; Lakshmanan, Viswanathan; Fishbaugher, Matthew; Camargo, Nelly; Harupa, Anke; Kaushansky, Alexis; Douglass, Alyse N.; Baldwin, Michael; Healer, Julie; O'Neill, Matthew; Phuong, Thuan; Cowman, Alan; Kappe, Stefan H. I.

    2014-01-01

    Immunization with live-attenuated Plasmodium sporozoites completely protects against malaria infection. Genetic engineering offers a versatile platform to create live-attenuated sporozoite vaccine candidates. We previously generated a genetically attenuated parasite (GAP) by deleting the P52 and P36 genes in the NF54 wild-type (WT) strain of Plasmodium falciparum (Pf p52−/p36− GAP). Preclinical assessment of p52−/p36− GAP in a humanized mouse model indicated an early and severe liver stage gr...

  3. Capture ELISA for IgM antibodies against Plasmodium falciparum glutamate rich protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dziegiel, Morten Hanefeld; Borre, M B; Petersen, E

    1992-01-01

    This report describes a novel mu chain capture ELISA for the detection of IgM antibodies against a Plasmodium falciparum antigen. A fragment of the 220 kDa P. falciparum glutamate rich protein containing amino acid residues 489-1271 was expressed in E. coli as a recombinant chimeric beta-galactos......This report describes a novel mu chain capture ELISA for the detection of IgM antibodies against a Plasmodium falciparum antigen. A fragment of the 220 kDa P. falciparum glutamate rich protein containing amino acid residues 489-1271 was expressed in E. coli as a recombinant chimeric beta...

  4. Genetic diversity and population structure of Plasmodium vivax isolates from Sudan, Madagascar, French Guiana and Armenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menegon, Michela; Durand, Patrick; Menard, Didier; Legrand, Eric; Picot, Stéphane; Nour, Bakri; Davidyants, Vladimir; Santi, Flavia; Severini, Carlo

    2014-10-01

    Polymorphic genetic markers and especially microsatellite analysis can be used to investigate multiple aspects of the biology of Plasmodium species. In the current study, we characterized 7 polymorphic microsatellites in a total of 281 Plasmodium vivax isolates to determine the genetic diversity and population structure of P. vivax populations from Sudan, Madagascar, French Guiana, and Armenia. All four parasite populations were highly polymorphic with 3-32 alleles per locus. Mean genetic diversity values was 0.83, 0.79, 0.78 and 0.67 for Madagascar, French Guiana, Sudan, and Armenia, respectively. Significant genetic differentiation between all four populations was observed.

  5. Fatal Plasmodium falciparum, Clostridium perfringens, and Candida spp. Coinfections in a Traveler to Haiti

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genrich, Gillian L.; Bhatnagar, Julu; Paddock, Christopher D.; Zaki, Sherif R.

    2009-01-01

    Malaria is one of the most common causes of febrile illness in travelers. Coinfections with bacterial, viral, and fungal pathogens may not be suspected unless a patient fails to respond to malaria treatment. Using novel immunohistochemical and molecular techniques, Plasmodium falciparum, Clostridium perfringens, and Candida spp. coinfections were confirmed in a German traveler to Haiti. Plasmodium falciparum-induced ischemia may have increased this patient's susceptibility to C. perfringens and disseminated candidiasis leading to his death. When a patient presents with P. falciparum and shock and is unresponsive to malaria treatment, secondary infections should be suspected to initiate appropriate treatment. PMID:20339463

  6. Plasmodium spp. In a captive raptor collection of a Safaripark in northwest Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scaglione, F E; Cannizzo, F T; Chiappino, L; Sereno, A; Ripepi, M; Salamida, S; Manuali, E; Bollo, E

    2016-02-01

    Blood parasites infect all vertebrates (Clayton and Moore 1997). Avian malaria parasites (Plasmodium spp., Plasmodiidae) are cosmopolitan in their distribution and are responsible for severe diseases in domestic and wild birds.In September 2009, nine raptorial birds that either arrived recently or were maintained as permanent residents at the Safaripark Pombia (northwest Italy) showed loss of stamina, developing listlessness, anorexia and regurgitation. Within one month three animals died and were necropsied.Following the diagnosis of Plasmodium infection all other raptorial birds were treated: clinical improvement was observed in all birds, and blood smears made after one month resulted negative for parasites.

  7. Multiple splenic infarcts in acute Plasmodium vivax malaria:A rare case report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hari Krishan Aggarwal; Deepak Jain; Vipin Kaverappa; Promil Jain; Ashwani Kumar; Sachin Yadav

    2013-01-01

    In tropical countries like India, malaria has been one of the most common parasitic illnesses leading to frequent hospitalization and causing major economic burden among the masses. Although Plasmodium vivax infection is considered to be benign, in contrast to Plasmodium falciparum infection which is notorious for its severe splenic complications can occur frequently. Splenomegaly tends not to receive special attention, as it is not usually accompanied by any symptoms and can be gradually resolved via standard antimalarial therapy. Splenic infarction, although rarely attributable to malaria in an endemic region with high parasitemia, can be a rare presentation of this disease entity.

  8. High Degree of Plasmodium vivax Diversity in the Peruvian Amazon Demonstrated by Tandem Repeat Polymorphism Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Kosek, Margaret; Yori, Pablo P.; Gilman, Robert H.; Calderon, Maritza; Zimic, Mirko; CHUQUIYAURI, RAUL; JERI, CESAR; Pinedo-Cancino, Viviana; Michael A Matthias; Llanos-Cuentas, Alejandro; Vinetz, Joseph M.

    2012-01-01

    Molecular tools to distinguish strains of Plasmodium vivax are important for studying the epidemiology of malaria transmission. Two sets of markers—tandem repeat (TR) polymorphisms and MSP3α—were used to study Plasmodium vivax in patients in the Peruvian Amazon region of Iquitos. Of 110 patients, 90 distinct haplotypes were distinguished using 9 TR markers. An MSP3α polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) using HhaI and AluI revealed 8 and 9 profiles, res...

  9. Plasmodium falciparum Na+/H+ Exchanger 1 Transporter Is Involved in Reduced Susceptibility to Quinine ▿

    OpenAIRE

    Henry, Maud; Briolant, Sébastien; Zettor, Agnès; Pelleau, Stéphane; Baragatti, Meili; Baret, Eric; Mosnier, Joel; Amalvict, Rémy; Fusai, Thierry; Rogier, Christophe; Pradines, Bruno

    2009-01-01

    Polymorphisms in the Plasmodium falciparum crt (Pfcrt), Pfmdr1, and Pfmrp genes were not significantly associated with quinine (QN) 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC50s) in 23 strains of Plasmodium falciparum. An increased number of DNNND repeats in Pfnhe-1 microsatellite ms4760 was associated with an increased IC50 of QN (P = 0.0007). Strains with only one DNNND repeat were more susceptible to QN (mean IC50 of 154 nM). Strains with two DNNND repeats had intermediate susceptibility to QN (mea...

  10. Proteomic profiling of Plasmodium sporozoite maturation identifies new proteins essential for parasite development and infectivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lasonder, Edwin; Janse, Chris J; van Gemert, Geert-Jan

    2008-01-01

    Plasmodium falciparum sporozoites that develop and mature inside an Anopheles mosquito initiate a malaria infection in humans. Here we report the first proteomic comparison of different parasite stages from the mosquito -- early and late oocysts containing midgut sporozoites, and the mature...... three previously uncharacterized Plasmodium proteins that appear to be essential for sporozoite development at distinct points of maturation in the mosquito. This study sheds light on the development and maturation of the malaria parasite in an Anopheles mosquito and also identifies proteins that may...

  11. Characterisation of pvmdr1 and pvdhfr genes associated with chemoresistance in Brazilian Plasmodium vivax isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca Ervatti Gama

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Plasmodium vivax control is now being hampered by drug resistance. Orthologous Plasmodium falciparum genes linked to chloroquine or sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine chemoresistance have been identified in P. vivax parasites, but few studies have been performed. The goal of the present work is to characterise pvmdr1 and pvdhfr genes in parasite isolates from a Brazilian endemic area where no molecular investigation had been previously conducted. The pvmdr1 analysis revealed the existence of single (85.7% and double (14.3% mutant haplotypes, while the pvdhfr examination showed the presence of double (57.2% and triple (42.8% mutant haplotypes. The implications of these findings are discussed.

  12. Functional analysis of sirtuin genes in multiple Plasmodium falciparum strains.

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    Catherine J Merrick

    Full Text Available Plasmodium falciparum, the causative agent of severe human malaria, employs antigenic variation to avoid host immunity. Antigenic variation is achieved by transcriptional switching amongst polymorphic var genes, enforced by epigenetic modification of chromatin. The histone-modifying 'sirtuin' enzymes PfSir2a and PfSir2b have been implicated in this process. Disparate patterns of var expression have been reported in patient isolates as well as in cultured strains. We examined var expression in three commonly used laboratory strains (3D7, NF54 and FCR-3 in parallel. NF54 parasites express significantly lower levels of var genes compared to 3D7, despite the fact that 3D7 was originally a clone of the NF54 strain. To investigate whether this was linked to the expression of sirtuins, genetic disruption of both sirtuins was attempted in all three strains. No dramatic changes in var gene expression occurred in NF54 or FCR-3 following PfSir2b disruption, contrasting with previous observations in 3D7. In 3D7, complementation of the PfSir2a genetic disruption resulted in a significant decrease in previously-elevated var gene expression levels, but with the continued expression of multiple var genes. Finally, rearranged chromosomes were observed in the 3D7 PfSir2a knockout line. Our results focus on the potential for parasite genetic background to contribute to sirtuin function in regulating virulence gene expression and suggest a potential role for sirtuins in maintaining genome integrity.

  13. Functional analysis of sirtuin genes in multiple Plasmodium falciparum strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrick, Catherine J; Jiang, Rays H Y; Skillman, Kristen M; Samarakoon, Upeka; Moore, Rachel M; Dzikowski, Ron; Ferdig, Michael T; Duraisingh, Manoj T

    2015-01-01

    Plasmodium falciparum, the causative agent of severe human malaria, employs antigenic variation to avoid host immunity. Antigenic variation is achieved by transcriptional switching amongst polymorphic var genes, enforced by epigenetic modification of chromatin. The histone-modifying 'sirtuin' enzymes PfSir2a and PfSir2b have been implicated in this process. Disparate patterns of var expression have been reported in patient isolates as well as in cultured strains. We examined var expression in three commonly used laboratory strains (3D7, NF54 and FCR-3) in parallel. NF54 parasites express significantly lower levels of var genes compared to 3D7, despite the fact that 3D7 was originally a clone of the NF54 strain. To investigate whether this was linked to the expression of sirtuins, genetic disruption of both sirtuins was attempted in all three strains. No dramatic changes in var gene expression occurred in NF54 or FCR-3 following PfSir2b disruption, contrasting with previous observations in 3D7. In 3D7, complementation of the PfSir2a genetic disruption resulted in a significant decrease in previously-elevated var gene expression levels, but with the continued expression of multiple var genes. Finally, rearranged chromosomes were observed in the 3D7 PfSir2a knockout line. Our results focus on the potential for parasite genetic background to contribute to sirtuin function in regulating virulence gene expression and suggest a potential role for sirtuins in maintaining genome integrity.

  14. Transmission and control of Plasmodium knowlesi: a mathematical modelling study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natsuko Imai

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Plasmodium knowlesi is now recognised as a leading cause of malaria in Malaysia. As humans come into increasing contact with the reservoir host (long-tailed macaques as a consequence of deforestation, assessing the potential for a shift from zoonotic to sustained P. knowlesi transmission between humans is critical.A multi-host, multi-site transmission model was developed, taking into account the three areas (forest, farm, and village where transmission is thought to occur. Latin hypercube sampling of model parameters was used to identify parameter sets consistent with possible prevalence in macaques and humans inferred from observed data. We then explore the consequences of increasing human-macaque contact in the farm, the likely impact of rapid treatment, and the use of long-lasting insecticide-treated nets (LLINs in preventing wider spread of this emerging infection.Identified model parameters were consistent with transmission being sustained by the macaques with spill over infections into the human population and with high overall basic reproduction numbers (up to 2267. The extent to which macaques forage in the farms had a non-linear relationship with human infection prevalence, the highest prevalence occurring when macaques forage in the farms but return frequently to the forest where they experience higher contact with vectors and hence sustain transmission. Only one of 1,046 parameter sets was consistent with sustained human-to-human transmission in the absence of macaques, although with a low human reproduction number (R(0H = 1.04. Simulations showed LLINs and rapid treatment provide personal protection to humans with maximal estimated reductions in human prevalence of 42% and 95%, respectively.This model simulates conditions where P. knowlesi transmission may occur and the potential impact of control measures. Predictions suggest that conventional control measures are sufficient at reducing the risk of infection in humans, but they must

  15. Plasmodium vivax Diversity and Population Structure across Four Continents.

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    Cristian Koepfli

    Full Text Available Plasmodium vivax is the geographically most widespread human malaria parasite. To analyze patterns of microsatellite diversity and population structure across countries of different transmission intensity, genotyping data from 11 microsatellite markers was either generated or compiled from 841 isolates from four continents collected in 1999-2008. Diversity was highest in South-East Asia (mean allelic richness 10.0-12.8, intermediate in the South Pacific (8.1-9.9 Madagascar and Sudan (7.9-8.4, and lowest in South America and Central Asia (5.5-7.2. A reduced panel of only 3 markers was sufficient to identify approx. 90% of all haplotypes in South Pacific, African and SE-Asian populations, but only 60-80% in Latin American populations, suggesting that typing of 2-6 markers, depending on the level of endemicity, is sufficient for epidemiological studies. Clustering analysis showed distinct clusters in Peru and Brazil, but little sub-structuring was observed within Africa, SE-Asia or the South Pacific. Isolates from Uzbekistan were exceptional, as a near-clonal parasite population was observed that was clearly separated from all other populations (FST>0.2. Outside Central Asia FST values were highest (0.11-0.16 between South American and all other populations, and lowest (0.04-0.07 between populations from South-East Asia and the South Pacific. These comparisons between P. vivax populations from four continents indicated that not only transmission intensity, but also geographical isolation affect diversity and population structure. However, the high effective population size results in slow changes of these parameters. This persistency must be taken into account when assessing the impact of control programs on the genetic structure of parasite populations.

  16. Hemoglobinopathies: slicing the Gordian knot of Plasmodium falciparum malaria pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Steve M; Cerami, Carla; Fairhurst, Rick M

    2013-01-01

    Plasmodium falciparum malaria kills over 500,000 children every year and has been a scourge of humans for millennia. Owing to the co-evolution of humans and P. falciparum parasites, the human genome is imprinted with polymorphisms that not only confer innate resistance to falciparum malaria, but also cause hemoglobinopathies. These genetic traits--including hemoglobin S (HbS), hemoglobin C (HbC), and α-thalassemia--are the most common monogenic human disorders and can confer remarkable degrees of protection from severe, life-threatening falciparum malaria in African children: the risk is reduced 70% by homozygous HbC and 90% by heterozygous HbS (sickle-cell trait). Importantly, this protection is principally present for severe disease and largely absent for P. falciparum infection, suggesting that these hemoglobinopathies specifically neutralize the parasite's in vivo mechanisms of pathogenesis. These hemoglobin variants thus represent a "natural experiment" to identify the cellular and molecular mechanisms by which P. falciparum produces clinical morbidity, which remain partially obscured due to the complexity of interactions between this parasite and its human host. Multiple lines of evidence support a restriction of parasite growth by various hemoglobinopathies, and recent data suggest this phenomenon may result from host microRNA interference with parasite metabolism. Multiple hemoglobinopathies mitigate the pathogenic potential of parasites by interfering with the export of P. falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1) to the surface of the host red blood cell. Few studies have investigated their effects upon the activation of the innate and adaptive immune systems, although recent murine studies suggest a role for heme oxygenase-1 in protection. Ultimately, the identification of mechanisms of protection and pathogenesis can inform future therapeutics and preventive measures. Hemoglobinopathies slice the "Gordian knot" of host and parasite

  17. Biochemical and structural characterization of Plasmodium falciparum glutamate dehydrogenase 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zocher, Kathleen; Fritz-Wolf, Karin; Kehr, Sebastian; Fischer, Marina; Rahlfs, Stefan; Becker, Katja

    2012-05-01

    Glutamate dehydrogenases (GDHs) play key roles in cellular redox, amino acid, and energy metabolism, thus representing potential targets for pharmacological interventions. Here we studied the functional network provided by the three known glutamate dehydrogenases of the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. The recombinant production of the previously described PfGDH1 as hexahistidyl-tagged proteins was optimized. Additionally, PfGDH2 was cloned, recombinantly produced, and characterized. Like PfGDH1, PfGDH2 is an NADP(H)-dependent enzyme with a specific activity comparable to PfGDH1 but with slightly higher K(m) values for its substrates. The three-dimensional structure of hexameric PfGDH2 was solved to 3.1 Å resolution. The overall structure shows high similarity with PfGDH1 but with significant differences occurring at the subunit interface. As in mammalian GDH1, in PfGDH2 the subunit-subunit interactions are mainly assisted by hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions, whereas in PfGDH1 these contacts are mediated by networks of salt bridges and hydrogen bonds. In accordance with this, the known bovine GDH inhibitors hexachlorophene, GW5074, and bithionol were more effective on PfGDH2 than on PfGDH1. Subcellular localization was determined for all three plasmodial GDHs by fusion with the green fluorescent protein. Based on our data, PfGDH1 and PfGDH3 are cytosolic proteins whereas PfGDH2 clearly localizes to the apicoplast, a plastid-like organelle specific for apicomplexan parasites. This study provides new insights into the structure and function of GDH isoenzymes of P. falciparum, which represent potential targets for the development of novel antimalarial drugs.

  18. Peripheral blood cell signatures of Plasmodium falciparum infection during pregnancy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samad Ibitokou

    Full Text Available Sequestration of Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes in placental intervillous spaces causes inflammation and pathology. Knowledge of the profiles of immune cells associated with the physiopathology of pregnancy-associated malaria (PAM is scarce. We conducted a longitudinal, prospective study, both in Benin and Tanzania, including ∼1000 pregnant women in each site with systematic follow-up at scheduled antenatal visits until delivery. We used ex vivo flow cytometry to identify peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC profiles that are associated with PAM and anaemia, determining the phenotypic composition and activation status of PBMC in selected sub-groups with and without PAM both at inclusion and at delivery in a total of 302 women. Both at inclusion and at delivery PAM was associated with significantly increased frequencies both of B cells overall and of activated B cells. Infection-related profiles were otherwise quite distinct at the two different time-points. At inclusion, PAM was associated with anaemia, with an increased frequency of immature monocytes and with a decreased frequency of regulatory T cells (Treg. At delivery, infected women presented with significantly fewer plasmacytoid dendritic cells (DC, more myeloid DC expressing low levels of HLA-DR, and more effector T cells (Teff compared to uninfected women. Independent associations with an increased risk of anaemia were found for altered antigen-presenting cell frequencies at inclusion, but for an increased frequency of Teff at delivery. Our findings emphasize the prominent role played by B cells during PAM whenever it arises during pregnancy, whilst also revealing signature changes in other circulating cell types that, we conclude, primarily reflect the relative duration of the infections. Thus, the acute, recently-acquired infections present at delivery were marked by changes in DC and Teff frequencies, contrasting with infections at inclusion, considered chronic in

  19. The prognostic value of schizontaemia in imported Plasmodium falciparum malaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background In Plasmodium falciparum infection, peripheral parasite counts do not always correlate well with the sequestered parasite burden. As erythrocytes parasitized with mature trophozoites and schizonts have a high tendency to adhere to the microvascular endothelium, they are often absent in peripheral blood samples. The appearance of schizonts in peripheral blood smears is thought to be a marker of high sequestered parasite burden and severe disease. In the present study, the value of schizontaemia as an early marker for severe disease in non-immune individuals with imported malaria was evaluated. Methods All patients in the Rotterdam Malaria Cohort diagnosed with P. falciparum malaria between 1 January 1999 and 1 January 2012 were included. Thick and thin blood films were examined for the presence of schizontaemia. The occurrence of WHO defined severe malaria was the primary endpoint. The diagnostic performance of schizontaemia was compared with previously evaluated biomarkers C-reactive protein and lactate. Results Schizonts were present on admission in 49 of 401 (12.2%) patients. Patients with schizontaemia were more likely to present with severe malaria, a more complicated course and had longer duration of admission in hospital. Schizontaemia had a specificity of 0.95, a sensitivity of 0.53, a negative predictive value of 0.92 and a positive predictive value of 0.67 for severe malaria. The presence of schizonts was an independent predictor for severe malaria. Conclusion Absence of schizonts was found to be a specific marker for exclusion of severe malaria. Presence of schizonts on admission was associated with a high positive predictive value for severe malaria. This may be of help to identify patients who are at risk of a more severe course than would be expected when considering peripheral parasitaemia alone. PMID:22929647

  20. Sero-epidemiological evaluation of Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Senegal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sylla, Khadime; Tine, Roger Clément Kouly; Ndiaye, Magatte; Sow, Doudou; Sarr, Aïssatou; Mbuyi, Marie Louise Tshibola; Diouf, Ibrahima; Lô, Amy Colé; Abiola, Annie; Seck, Mame Cheikh; Ndiaye, Mouhamadou; Badiane, Aïda Sadikh; N'Diaye, Jean Louis A; Ndiaye, Daouda; Faye, Oumar; Dieng, Thérèse; Dieng, Yémou; Ndir, Oumar; Gaye, Oumar; Faye, Babacar

    2015-07-16

    In Senegal, a significant decrease of malaria transmission intensity has been noted the last years. Parasitaemia has become lower and, therefore, more difficult to detect by microscopy. In the context of submicroscopic parasitaemia, it has become relevant to rely on relevant malaria surveillance tools to better document malaria epidemiology in such settings. Serological markers have been proposed as an essential tool for malaria surveillance. This study aimed to evaluate the sero-epidemiological situation of Plasmodium falciparum malaria in two sentinel sites in Senegal. Cross-sectional surveys were carried out in Velingara (south Senegal) and Keur Soce (central Senegal) between September and October 2010. Children under 10 years old, living in these areas, were enrolled using two-level, random sampling methods. P. falciparum infection was diagnosed using microscopy. P. falciparum antibodies against circumsporozoite protein (CSP), apical membrane protein (AMA1) and merozoite surface protein 1_42 (MSP1_42) were measured by ELISA method. A stepwise logistic regression analysis was done to assess factors associated with P. falciparum antibodies carriage. A total of 1,865 children under 10 years old were enrolled. The overall falciparum malaria prevalence was 4.99% with high prevalence in Velingara of 10.03% compared to Keur Soce of 0.3%. Symptomatic malaria cases (fever associated with parasitaemia) represented 17.37%. Seroprevalence of anti-AMA1, anti-MSP1_42 and anti-CSP antibody was 38.12, 41.55 and 40.38%, respectively. The seroprevalence was more important in Velingara and increased with age, active malaria infection and area of residence. The use of serological markers can contribute to improved malaria surveillance in areas with declining malaria transmission. This study provided useful baseline information about the sero-epidemiological situation of malaria in Senegal and can contribute to the identification of malaria hot spots in order to concentrate

  1. Correlation between 'H' blood group antigen and Plasmodium falciparum invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, Vrushali; Colah, Roshan; Ghosh, Kanjaksha

    2016-06-01

    The ABO blood group system is the most important blood group system in clinical practice. The relationship between Plasmodium falciparum and ABO blood groups has been studied for many years. This study was undertaken to investigate the abilities of different blood group erythrocytes to support in vitro growth of P. falciparum parasites. P. falciparum parasites of four different strains (3D7, 7G8, Dd2 and RKL9) were co-cultured with erythrocytes of blood group 'A', 'B', 'O' (n = 10 for each) and 'O(h)' (Bombay group) (n = 7) for 5 days. Statistically significant differences were observed on the fourth day among the mean percent parasitemias of 'O', non-'O' ('A' and 'B') and 'O(h)' group cultures. The parasitemias of four strains ranged from 12.23 to 14.66, 11.68 to 13.24, 16.89 to 22.3, and 7.37 to 11.27 % in 'A', 'B', 'O' and Bombay group cultures, respectively. As the expression of H antigen decreased from 'O' blood group to 'A' and 'B' and then to Bombay blood group, parasite invasion (percent parasitemia) also decreased significantly (p group erythrocytes were virtually converted to Bombay group-like erythrocytes by the treatment of anti-H lectins extracted from Ulex europaeus seeds. Mean percent parasitemia of lectin-treated cultures on the fourth day was significantly lower (p Bombay group erythrocyte cultures, thus further strengthening the hypothesis.

  2. Resistance of infection by Plasmodium vivax to chloroquine in Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Añez, Arletta; Moscoso, Manuel; Laguna, Ángel; Garnica, Cecilia; Melgar, Viviana; Cuba, Mauren; Gutierrez, Sonia; Ascaso, Carlos

    2015-07-01

    Chloroquine (CQ) over three days plus primaquine (PQ) for seven days is the treatment of choice of infections by Plasmodium vivax in Bolivia, where 95% of the cases of malaria are attributed to this species. The aim of this study was to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of CQ in this setting. Patients in the Amazon region of northern Bolivia, were included in the study from May to November 2011 and the therapeutic efficacy of CQ was evaluated over a 28-day follow-up period. Patients with P. vivax mono-infection received 25 mg/Kg body weight of CQ over three days. The concentrations of CQ + desethylchloroquine (DCQ) in blood were determined at days 7 and 28 of follow up; at follow-up and on the day of treatment failure was administered PQ. One hundred patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria, two were lost to follow up and another two were later excluded for protocol violation. Of the 96 patients who completed the follow up 10 showed TF; one presented continued parasitaemia until day 7 of follow up, three on day 21 and six on day 28 of follow up. The geometric mean of CQ + DCQ on day 7 was 321.7 ng/ml (range 197-535 ng/ml). In six patients with TF the CQ + DCQ concentrations in blood on the day of TF were >100 ng/ml. The rate of resistance was 6.5%. The present study demonstrates the presence of resistance to CQ in the treatment of malaria by P. vivax in the Amazon region of Bolivia. New clinical trials are needed to establish alternative treatments against these parasites in this region of South America.

  3. Hemoglobinopathies: Slicing the Gordian Knot of Plasmodium falciparum Malaria Pathogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Steve M.; Cerami, Carla; Fairhurst, Rick M.

    2013-01-01

    Plasmodium falciparum malaria kills over 500,000 children every year and has been a scourge of humans for millennia. Owing to the co-evolution of humans and P. falciparum parasites, the human genome is imprinted with polymorphisms that not only confer innate resistance to falciparum malaria, but also cause hemoglobinopathies. These genetic traits—including hemoglobin S (HbS), hemoglobin C (HbC), and α-thalassemia—are the most common monogenic human disorders and can confer remarkable degrees of protection from severe, life-threatening falciparum malaria in African children: the risk is reduced 70% by homozygous HbC and 90% by heterozygous HbS (sickle-cell trait). Importantly, this protection is principally present for severe disease and largely absent for P. falciparum infection, suggesting that these hemoglobinopathies specifically neutralize the parasite's in vivo mechanisms of pathogenesis. These hemoglobin variants thus represent a “natural experiment” to identify the cellular and molecular mechanisms by which P. falciparum produces clinical morbidity, which remain partially obscured due to the complexity of interactions between this parasite and its human host. Multiple lines of evidence support a restriction of parasite growth by various hemoglobinopathies, and recent data suggest this phenomenon may result from host microRNA interference with parasite metabolism. Multiple hemoglobinopathies mitigate the pathogenic potential of parasites by interfering with the export of P. falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1) to the surface of the host red blood cell. Few studies have investigated their effects upon the activation of the innate and adaptive immune systems, although recent murine studies suggest a role for heme oxygenase-1 in protection. Ultimately, the identification of mechanisms of protection and pathogenesis can inform future therapeutics and preventive measures. Hemoglobinopathies slice the “Gordian knot” of host and parasite

  4. Assessment of in vitro sensitivity of Plasmodium vivax fresh isolates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Poonuch; Muhamad; Wanna; Chacharoenkul; Kanchana; Rungsihirunrat; Ronnatrai; Ruengweerayut; Kesara; NaBangchang

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To compare the applicability of the SYBK Grcen-Ⅰ assay with the standard schizont maturalion assay,for determination of sensitivity of Plasmodium vivax(P.vivax) to chloroquine and a new antifolale WR 99210.Methods:The study was conducted at Mae Tao Clinic for migrant workers,Tak Province during April 2009 to July 2010.A total of 64 blood samples(1 mL blood collected into sodium heparinized plastic tube) were collected from patients with monoinfection with P.vivax malaria prior to treatment with standard regimen of a 3-day chloroquine. In vitro sensitivity of P.vivax isolates was evaluated by schizont maturation inhibition and SYBR Green-Ⅰ assays.Results:A total of 30 out of 64 blood samples collected from patients with P.vivax malaria were successfully analyzed using both the microscopic schizont maturation inhibition and SYBR Green-I assays.The failure rates of the schizont maturation inhibition assay(50%) and the SYBR Green-I assay(54%) were similar(P=0.51).The median IC10s,IC50s and IC90s of both chloroquine and WR99210 were not significantly different from the clinical isolates of P.vivax tested.Based on the cut-off of 100 nM,the prevalences of chloroquine resistance determined by schizont maturation inhibition and SYBR Green-I assays were 19 and 11 isolates,respectively.The strength of agreement between the two methods was very poor for both chloroquine and WR992I0.Conclusions:On the basis of this condition and its superior sensitivity,the microscopic method appears better than the SYUK Green-I Green assay for assessing in vitro sensitivity of fresh P.vivax isolates to antimalarial drugs.

  5. Assessment of in vitro sensitivity of Plasmodium vivax fresh isolates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Poonuch Muhamad; Wanna Chacharoenkul; Kanchana Rungsihirunrat; Ronnatrai Ruengweerayut; Kesara Na-Bangchang

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To compare the applicability of the SYBR Green-I assay with the standard schizont maturation assay, for determination of sensitivity of Plasmodium vivax (P. vivax) to chloroquine and a new antifolate WR 99210. Methods: The study was conducted at Mae Tao Clinic for migrant workers, Tak Province during April 2009 to July 2010. A total of 64 blood samples (1 mL blood collected into sodium heparinized plastic tube) were collected from patients with mono-infection with P. vivax malaria prior to treatment with standard regimen of a 3-day chloroquine.In vitro sensitivity of P. vivax isolates was evaluated by schizont maturation inhibition and SYBR Green-I assays. Results: A total of 30 out of 64 blood samples collected from patients withP. vivax malaria were successfully analyzed using both the microscopic schizont maturation inhibition and SYBR Green-I assays. The failure rates of the schizont maturation inhibition assay (50%) and the SYBR Green-I assay (54%) were similar (P=0.51). The median IC10s, IC50s and IC90s of both chloroquine and WR99210 were not significantly different from the clinical isolates of P. vivax tested. Based on the cut-off of 100 nM, the prevalences of chloroquine resistance determined by schizont maturation inhibition and SYBR Green-I assays were 19 and 11 isolates, respectively. The strength of agreement between the two methods was very poor for both chloroquine and WR99210. Conclusions: On the basis of this condition and its superior sensitivity, the microscopic method appears better than the SYBR Green-I Green assay for assessing in vitro sensitivity of fresh P. vivax isolates to antimalarial drugs.

  6. Volatile organic compounds associated with Plasmodium falciparum infection in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa, Ricardo; Coronado, Lorena M; Garrido, Anette C; Durant-Archibold, Armando A; Spadafora, Carmenza

    2017-05-02

    In order to identify new ways to prevent transmission of vector-borne diseases such as malaria, efforts have been made to understand how insects are attracted to humans. Vector-host interaction studies have shown that several volatile compounds play an important role in attracting mosquitoes to human targets. A headspace solid-phase micro-extraction/gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HSPME GC-MS) analysis of the volatile organic composition of extracellular vesicles (EVs) and supernatants of ultracentrifugation (SNUs) was carried out in Plasmodium falciparum-infected cultures with high and low parasitemias. A list of 18 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) was obtained from the EVs of both infected and uninfected RBCs with 1,2,3-Propanetriol, diacetate (diacetin) increased in the infected EVs, regardless of the parasitemia of the culture. The supernatant analysis, however, gave off 56 VOCs, with pentane 2,2,4-trimethyl being present in all the SNUs of uninfected erythrocytes but absent from the parasite-infected ones. Standing out in this study was hexanal, a reported insect attractant, which was the only VOC present in all samples from SNUs from infected erythrocytes and absent from uninfected ones, suggesting that it originates during parasite infection. The hexanal compound, reportedly a low-level component found in healthy human samples such as breath and plasma, had not been found in previous analyses of P. falciparum-infected patients or cultures. This compound has been reported as an Anopheles gambiae attractant in plants. While the compound could be produced during infection by the malaria parasite in human erythrocytes, the A. gambiae attraction could be used by the parasite as a strategy for transmission.

  7. Molecular characterisation of drug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum from Thailand

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    Gil José

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The increasing levels of Plasmodium falciparum resistance to chloroquine (CQ in Thailand have led to the use of alternative antimalarials, which are at present also becoming ineffective. In this context, any strategies that help improve the surveillance of drug resistance, become crucial in overcoming the problem. Methods In the present study, we have established the in vitro sensitivity to CQ, mefloquine (MF, quinine (QUIN and amodiaquine (AMQ of 52 P. falciparum isolates collected in Thailand, and assessed the prevalence of four putative genetic polymorphisms of drug resistance, pfcrt K76T, pfmdr1 N86Y, pfmdr1 D1042N and pfmdr1 Y1246D, by PCR-RFLP. Results The percentage of isolates resistant to CQ, MF, and AMQ was 96% (50/52, 62% (32/52, and 58% (18/31, respectively, while all parasites were found to be sensitive to QUIN. In addition, 41 (79% of the isolates assayed were resistant simultaneously to more than one drug; 25 to CQ and MF, 9 to CQ and AMQ, and 7 to all three drugs, CQ, MF and AMQ. There were two significant associations between drug sensitivity and presence of particular molecular markers, i CQ resistance / pfcrt 76T (P = 0.001, and ii MF resistance / pfmdr1 86N (P Conclusions i In Thailand, the high levels of CQ pressure have led to strong selection of the pfcrt 76T polymorphism and ii pfmdr1 86N appears to be a good predictor of in vitro MF resistance.

  8. Complement activation in Ghanaian children with severe Plasmodium falciparum malaria

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    Ofori Michael F

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Severe anaemia (SA, intravascular haemolysis (IVH and respiratory distress (RD are severe forms of Plasmodium falciparum malaria, with RD reported to be of prognostic importance in African children with malarial anaemia. Complement factors have been implicated in the mechanism leading to excess anaemia in acute P. falciparum infection. Methods The direct Coombs test (DCT and flow cytometry were used to investigate the mean levels of RBC-bound complement fragments (C3d and C3bαβ and the regulatory proteins [complement receptor 1 (CD35 and decay accelerating factor (CD55] in children with discrete clinical forms of P. falciparum malaria. The relationship between the findings and clinical parameters including coma, haemoglobin (Hb levels and RD were investigated. Results Of the 484 samples tested, 131(27% were positive in DCT, out of which 115/131 (87.8% were positive for C3d alone while 16/131 (12.2% were positive for either IgG alone or both. 67.4% of the study population were below 5 years of age and DCT positivity was more common in this age group relative to children who were 5 years or older (Odds ratio, OR = 3.8; 95%CI, 2.2–6.7, p Conclusion These results suggest that complement activation contributed to anaemia in acute childhood P. falciparum malaria, possibly through induction of erythrophagocytosis and haemolysis. In contrast to other studies, this study did not find association between levels of the complement regulatory proteins, CD35 and CD55 and malarial anaemia. These findings suggest that complement activation could also be involved in the pathogenesis of RD but larger studies are needed to confirm this finding.

  9. Chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium vivax malaria in Debre Zeit, Ethiopia

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    Muchohi Simon

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plasmodium vivax accounts for about 40% of all malaria infection in Ethiopia. Chloroquine (CQ is the first line treatment for confirmed P. vivax malaria in the country. The first report of CQ treatment failure in P. vivax was from Debre Zeit, which suggested the presence of chloroquine resistance. Methods An in vivo drug efficacy study was conducted in Debre Zeit from June to August 2006. Eighty-seven patients with microscopically confirmed P. vivax malaria, aged between 8 months and 52 years, were recruited and treated under supervision with CQ (25 mg/kg over three days. Clinical and parasitological parameters were assessed during the 28 day follow-up period. CQ and desethylchloroquine (DCQ blood and serum concentrations were determined with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC in patients who showed recurrent parasitaemia. Results Of the 87 patients recruited in the study, one was lost to follow-up and three were excluded due to P. falciparum infection during follow-up. A total of 83 (95% of the study participants completed the follow-up. On enrolment, 39.8% had documented fever and 60.2% had a history of fever. The geometric mean parasite density of the patients was 7045 parasites/μl. Among these, four patients had recurrent parasitaemia on Day 28. The blood CQ plus DCQ concentrations of these four patients were all above the minimal effective concentration (> 100 ng/ml. Conclusion Chloroquine-resistant P. vivax parasites are emerging in Debre Zeit, Ethiopia. A multi-centre national survey is needed to better understand the extent of P. vivax resistance to CQ in Ethiopia.

  10. Origin and evolution of sulfadoxine resistant Plasmodium falciparum.

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    Sumiti Vinayak

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The Thailand-Cambodia border is the epicenter for drug-resistant falciparum malaria. Previous studies have shown that chloroquine (CQ and pyrimethamine resistance originated in this region and eventually spread to other Asian countries and Africa. However, there is a dearth in understanding the origin and evolution of dhps alleles associated with sulfadoxine resistance. The present study was designed to reveal the origin(s of sulfadoxine resistance in Cambodia and its evolutionary relationship to African and South American dhps alleles. We sequenced 234 Cambodian Plasmodium falciparum isolates for the dhps codons S436A/F, A437G, K540E, A581G and A613S/T implicated in sulfadoxine resistance. We also genotyped 10 microsatellite loci around dhps to determine the genetic backgrounds of various alleles and compared them with the backgrounds of alleles prevalent in Africa and South America. In addition to previously known highly-resistant triple mutant dhps alleles SGEGA and AGEAA (codons 436, 437, 540, 581, 613 are sequentially indicated, a large proportion of the isolates (19.3% contained a 540N mutation in association with 437G/581G yielding a previously unreported triple mutant allele, SGNGA. Microsatellite data strongly suggest the strength of selection was greater on triple mutant dhps alleles followed by the double and single mutants. We provide evidence for at least three independent origins for the double mutants, one each for the SGKGA, AGKAA and SGEAA alleles. Our data suggest that the triple mutant allele SGEGA and the novel allele SGNGA have common origin on the SGKGA background, whereas the AGEAA triple mutant was derived from AGKAA on multiple, albeit limited, genetic backgrounds. The SGEAA did not share haplotypes with any of the triple mutants. Comparative analysis of the microsatellite haplotypes flanking dhps alleles from Cambodia, Kenya, Cameroon and Venezuela revealed an independent origin of sulfadoxine resistant alleles in each

  11. Origin and evolution of sulfadoxine resistant Plasmodium falciparum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinayak, Sumiti; Alam, Md Tauqeer; Mixson-Hayden, Tonya; McCollum, Andrea M; Sem, Rithy; Shah, Naman K; Lim, Pharath; Muth, Sinuon; Rogers, William O; Fandeur, Thierry; Barnwell, John W; Escalante, Ananias A; Wongsrichanalai, Chansuda; Ariey, Frederick; Meshnick, Steven R; Udhayakumar, Venkatachalam

    2010-03-26

    The Thailand-Cambodia border is the epicenter for drug-resistant falciparum malaria. Previous studies have shown that chloroquine (CQ) and pyrimethamine resistance originated in this region and eventually spread to other Asian countries and Africa. However, there is a dearth in understanding the origin and evolution of dhps alleles associated with sulfadoxine resistance. The present study was designed to reveal the origin(s) of sulfadoxine resistance in Cambodia and its evolutionary relationship to African and South American dhps alleles. We sequenced 234 Cambodian Plasmodium falciparum isolates for the dhps codons S436A/F, A437G, K540E, A581G and A613S/T implicated in sulfadoxine resistance. We also genotyped 10 microsatellite loci around dhps to determine the genetic backgrounds of various alleles and compared them with the backgrounds of alleles prevalent in Africa and South America. In addition to previously known highly-resistant triple mutant dhps alleles SGEGA and AGEAA (codons 436, 437, 540, 581, 613 are sequentially indicated), a large proportion of the isolates (19.3%) contained a 540N mutation in association with 437G/581G yielding a previously unreported triple mutant allele, SGNGA. Microsatellite data strongly suggest the strength of selection was greater on triple mutant dhps alleles followed by the double and single mutants. We provide evidence for at least three independent origins for the double mutants, one each for the SGKGA, AGKAA and SGEAA alleles. Our data suggest that the triple mutant allele SGEGA and the novel allele SGNGA have common origin on the SGKGA background, whereas the AGEAA triple mutant was derived from AGKAA on multiple, albeit limited, genetic backgrounds. The SGEAA did not share haplotypes with any of the triple mutants. Comparative analysis of the microsatellite haplotypes flanking dhps alleles from Cambodia, Kenya, Cameroon and Venezuela revealed an independent origin of sulfadoxine resistant alleles in each of these regions.

  12. Spatial prediction of Plasmodium falciparum prevalence in Somalia

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    Shewchuk Tanya

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Maps of malaria distribution are vital for optimal allocation of resources for anti-malarial activities. There is a lack of reliable contemporary malaria maps in endemic countries in sub-Saharan Africa. This problem is particularly acute in low malaria transmission countries such as those located in the horn of Africa. Methods Data from a national malaria cluster sample survey in 2005 and routine cluster surveys in 2007 were assembled for Somalia. Rapid diagnostic tests were used to examine the presence of Plasmodium falciparum parasites in finger-prick blood samples obtained from individuals across all age-groups. Bayesian geostatistical models, with environmental and survey covariates, were used to predict continuous maps of malaria prevalence across Somalia and to define the uncertainty associated with the predictions. Results For analyses the country was divided into north and south. In the north, the month of survey, distance to water, precipitation and temperature had no significant association with P. falciparum prevalence when spatial correlation was taken into account. In contrast, all the covariates, except distance to water, were significantly associated with parasite prevalence in the south. The inclusion of covariates improved model fit for the south but not for the north. Model precision was highest in the south. The majority of the country had a predicted prevalence of Conclusion The maps showed that malaria transmission in Somalia varied from hypo- to meso-endemic. However, even after including the selected covariates in the model, there still remained a considerable amount of unexplained spatial variation in parasite prevalence, indicating effects of other factors not captured in the study. Nonetheless the maps presented here provide the best contemporary information on malaria prevalence in Somalia.

  13. Release of hepatic Plasmodium yoelii merozoites into the pulmonary microvasculature.

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    Kerstin Baer

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Plasmodium undergoes one round of multiplication in the liver prior to invading erythrocytes and initiating the symptomatic blood phase of the malaria infection. Productive hepatocyte infection by sporozoites leads to the generation of thousands of merozoites capable of erythrocyte invasion. Merozoites are released from infected hepatocytes as merosomes, packets of hundreds of parasites surrounded by host cell membrane. Intravital microscopy of green fluorescent protein-expressing P. yoelii parasites showed that the majority of merosomes exit the liver intact, adapt a relatively uniform size of 12-18 microm, and contain 100-200 merozoites. Merosomes survived the subsequent passage through the right heart undamaged and accumulated in the lungs. Merosomes were absent from blood harvested from the left ventricle and from tail vein blood, indicating that the lungs effectively cleared the blood from all large parasite aggregates. Accordingly, merosomes were not detectable in major organs such as brain, kidney, and spleen. The failure of annexin V to label merosomes collected from hepatic effluent indicates that phosphatidylserine is not exposed on the surface of the merosome membrane suggesting the infected hepatocyte did not undergo apoptosis prior to merosome release. Merosomal merozoites continued to express green fluorescent protein and did not incorporate propidium iodide or YO-PRO-1 indicating parasite viability and an intact merosome membrane. Evidence of merosomal merozoite infectivity was provided by hepatic effluent containing merosomes being significantly more infective than blood with an identical low-level parasitemia. Ex vivo analysis showed that merosomes eventually disintegrate inside pulmonary capillaries, thus liberating merozoites into the bloodstream. We conclude that merosome packaging protects hepatic merozoites from phagocytic attack by sinusoidal Kupffer cells, and that release into the lung microvasculature enhances the

  14. Heterologous Protection against Malaria after Immunization with Plasmodium falciparum Sporozoites.

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    Remko Schats

    Full Text Available Sterile protection in >90% of volunteers against homologous Plasmodium falciparum infection has been achieved only using the controlled human malaria infection (CHMI model. This efficient model involves whole parasite immunizations under chloroquine prophylaxis (CPS-immunization, requiring only 30-45 mosquitoes bites infected with P. falciparum-sporozoites. Given the large diversity of P. falciparum parasites, it is essential to assess protection against heterologous parasite strains.In an open-label follow-up study, 16 volunteers previously CPS-immunized and challenged with P. falciparum NF54 (West-Africa in a dose de-escalation and challenge trial were re-challenged with clone NF135.C10 (Cambodia at 14 months after the last immunization (NCT01660854.Two out of thirteen NF54 protected volunteers previously fully protected against NF54 were also fully protected against NF135.C10, while 11/13 showed a delayed patency (median prepatent period of 10.5 days (range 9.0-15.5 versus 8.5 days in 5 malaria-naïve controls (p = 0.0005. Analysis of patency by qPCR indicated a 91 to >99% estimated reduction of liver parasite load in 7/11 partially protected subjects. Three volunteers previously not protected against NF54, were also not protected against NF135.C10.This study shows that CPS-immunization can induce heterologous protection for a period of more than one year, which is a further impetus for clinical development of whole parasite vaccines.Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01660854.

  15. Prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum infection in pregnant women in Gabon

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    Kendjo Eric

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In areas where malaria is endemic, pregnancy is associated with increased susceptibility to malaria. It is generally agreed that this risk ends with delivery and decreases with the number of pregnancies. Our study aimed to demonstrate relationships between malarial parasitaemia and age, gravidity and anaemia in pregnant women in Libreville, the capital city of Gabon. Methods Peripheral blood was collected from 311 primigravidae and women in their second pregnancy. Thick blood smears were checked, as were the results of haemoglobin electrophoresis. We also looked for the presence of anaemia, fever, and checked whether the volunteers had had chemoprophylaxis. The study was performed in Gabon where malaria transmission is intense and perennial. Results A total of 177 women (57% had microscopic parasitaemia; 139 (64%of them were primigravidae, 38 (40% in their second pregnancy and 180 (64% were teenagers. The parasites densities were also higher in primigravidae and teenagers. The prevalence of anaemia was 71% and was associated with microscopic Plasmodium falciparum parasitaemia: women with moderate or severe anaemia had higher parasite prevalences and densities. However, the sickle cell trait, fever and the use of chemoprophylaxis did not have a significant association with the presence of P. falciparum. Conclusions These results suggest that the prevalence of malaria and the prevalence of anaemia, whether associated with malaria or not, are higher in pregnant women in Gabon. Primigravidae and young pregnant women are the most susceptible to infection. It is, therefore, urgent to design an effective regimen of malaria prophylaxis for this high risk population.

  16. Hemoglobinopathies: slicing the Gordian knot of Plasmodium falciparum malaria pathogenesis.

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    Steve M Taylor

    Full Text Available Plasmodium falciparum malaria kills over 500,000 children every year and has been a scourge of humans for millennia. Owing to the co-evolution of humans and P. falciparum parasites, the human genome is imprinted with polymorphisms that not only confer innate resistance to falciparum malaria, but also cause hemoglobinopathies. These genetic traits--including hemoglobin S (HbS, hemoglobin C (HbC, and α-thalassemia--are the most common monogenic human disorders and can confer remarkable degrees of protection from severe, life-threatening falciparum malaria in African children: the risk is reduced 70% by homozygous HbC and 90% by heterozygous HbS (sickle-cell trait. Importantly, this protection is principally present for severe disease and largely absent for P. falciparum infection, suggesting that these hemoglobinopathies specifically neutralize the parasite's in vivo mechanisms of pathogenesis. These hemoglobin variants thus represent a "natural experiment" to identify the cellular and molecular mechanisms by which P. falciparum produces clinical morbidity, which remain partially obscured due to the complexity of interactions between this parasite and its human host. Multiple lines of evidence support a restriction of parasite growth by various hemoglobinopathies, and recent data suggest this phenomenon may result from host microRNA interference with parasite metabolism. Multiple hemoglobinopathies mitigate the pathogenic potential of parasites by interfering with the export of P. falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1 to the surface of the host red blood cell. Few studies have investigated their effects upon the activation of the innate and adaptive immune systems, although recent murine studies suggest a role for heme oxygenase-1 in protection. Ultimately, the identification of mechanisms of protection and pathogenesis can inform future therapeutics and preventive measures. Hemoglobinopathies slice the "Gordian knot" of host and

  17. A molecular mechanism of artemisinin resistance in Plasmodium falciparum malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbengue, Alassane; Bhattacharjee, Souvik; Pandharkar, Trupti; Liu, Haining; Estiu, Guillermina; Stahelin, Robert V; Rizk, Shahir S; Njimoh, Dieudonne L; Ryan, Yana; Chotivanich, Kesinee; Nguon, Chea; Ghorbal, Mehdi; Lopez-Rubio, Jose-Juan; Pfrender, Michael; Emrich, Scott; Mohandas, Narla; Dondorp, Arjen M; Wiest, Olaf; Haldar, Kasturi

    2015-04-30

    Artemisinins are the cornerstone of anti-malarial drugs. Emergence and spread of resistance to them raises risk of wiping out recent gains achieved in reducing worldwide malaria burden and threatens future malaria control and elimination on a global level. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have revealed parasite genetic loci associated with artemisinin resistance. However, there is no consensus on biochemical targets of artemisinin. Whether and how these targets interact with genes identified by GWAS, remains unknown. Here we provide biochemical and cellular evidence that artemisinins are potent inhibitors of Plasmodium falciparum phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PfPI3K), revealing an unexpected mechanism of action. In resistant clinical strains, increased PfPI3K was associated with the C580Y mutation in P. falciparum Kelch13 (PfKelch13), a primary marker of artemisinin resistance. Polyubiquitination of PfPI3K and its binding to PfKelch13 were reduced by the PfKelch13 mutation, which limited proteolysis of PfPI3K and thus increased levels of the kinase, as well as its lipid product phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphate (PI3P). We find PI3P levels to be predictive of artemisinin resistance in both clinical and engineered laboratory parasites as well as across non-isogenic strains. Elevated PI3P induced artemisinin resistance in absence of PfKelch13 mutations, but remained responsive to regulation by PfKelch13. Evidence is presented for PI3P-dependent signalling in which transgenic expression of an additional kinase confers resistance. Together these data present PI3P as the key mediator of artemisinin resistance and the sole PfPI3K as an important target for malaria elimination.

  18. Plasmodium falciparum Plasmodium helical interspersed subtelomeric proteins contribute to cytoadherence and anchor P. falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 to the host cell cytoskeleton

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oberli, Alexander; Zurbrügg, Laura; Rusch, Sebastian;

    2016-01-01

    Adherence of Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes to host endothelium is conferred through the parasite-derived virulence factor P. falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1), the major contributor to malaria severity. PfEMP1 located at knob structures on the erythrocyte surface...... is anchored to the cytoskeleton, and the Plasmodium helical interspersed subtelomeric (PHIST) gene family plays a role in many host cell modifications including binding the intracellular domain of PfEMP1. Here, we show that conditional reduction of the PHIST protein PFE1605w strongly reduces adhesion...... of infected erythrocytes to the endothelial receptor CD36. Adhesion to other endothelial receptors was less affected or even unaltered by PFE1605w depletion, suggesting that PHIST proteins might be optimized for subsets of PfEMP1 variants. PFE1605w does not play a role in PfEMP1 transport, but it directly...

  19. Prevalence of molecular markers of anti-malarial drug resistance in Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum in two districts of Nepal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ranjitkar, Samir; Schousboe, Mette L; Thomsen, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) and chloroquine (CQ) have been used in treatment of falciparum and vivax malaria in Nepal. Recently, resistance to both drugs have necessitated a change towards artemisinin combination therapy (ACT) against Plasmodium falciparum in highly...... endemic areas. However, SP is still used against P. falciparum infections in low endemic areas while CQ is used in suspected cases in areas with lack of diagnostic facilities. This study examines the prevalence of molecular markers of P. falciparum and Plasmodium vivax CQ and SP resistance to determine...... if high levels of in vivo resistance are reflected at molecular level as well. METHODS: Finger prick blood samples (n=189) were collected from malaria positive patients from two high endemic districts and analysed for single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the resistance related genes of P. falciparum...

  20. In vitro alterations do not reflect a requirement for host cell cycle progression during Plasmodium liver stage infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Kirsten K; March, Sandra; Ng, Shengyong; Bhatia, Sangeeta N; Mota, Maria M

    2015-01-01

    Prior to invading nonreplicative erythrocytes, Plasmodium parasites undergo their first obligate step in the mammalian host inside hepatocytes, where each sporozoite replicates to generate thousands of merozoites. While normally quiescent, hepatocytes retain proliferative capacity and can readily reenter the cell cycle in response to diverse stimuli. Many intracellular pathogens, including protozoan parasites, manipulate the cell cycle progression of their host cells for their own benefit, but it is not known whether the hepatocyte cell cycle plays a role during Plasmodium liver stage infection. Here, we show that Plasmodium parasites can be observed in mitotic hepatoma cells throughout liver stage development, where they initially reduce the likelihood of mitosis and ultimately lead to significant acquisition of a binucleate phenotype. However, hepatoma cells pharmacologically arrested in S phase still support robust and complete Plasmodium liver stage development, which thus does not require cell cycle progression in the infected cell in vitro. Furthermore, murine hepatocytes remain quiescent throughout in vivo infection with either Plasmodium berghei or Plasmodium yoelii, as do Plasmodium falciparum-infected primary human hepatocytes, demonstrating that the rapid and prodigious growth of liver stage parasites is accomplished independent of host hepatocyte cell cycle progression during natural infection. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  1. The SLC4A1 gene is under differential selective pressure in primates infected by Plasmodium falciparum and related parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiper, Michael E; Walsh, Fiona; Zichello, Julia M

    2012-07-01

    Malaria is a disease caused by Plasmodium parasites and is responsible for high mortality in humans. This disease is caused by four different species of Plasmodium though the main source of mortality is Plasmodium falciparum. Humans have a number of genetic adaptations that act to combat Plasmodium. One adaptation is a deletion in the SLC4A1 gene that leads to Southeast Asian ovalocytosis (SAO). There is evidence that SAO erythrocytes are resistant to multiple Plasmodium species. Here we analyze SLC4A1 in 23 primates and mammals to test for differential selective pressures among different primate lineages. Because primates are infected with both human Plasmodium parasites and their relatives, this analysis can be used to test which human Plasmodium parasite is the likely target of SAO. A significantly different pattern of molecular evolution was found in humans and African apes, species that are infected by P. falciparum and its relatives. This effect was restricted to the cytosolic domain of the SLC4A1 gene. The evidence is consistent with a different selective regime operating on this gene domain in humans and African apes, when compared to other primates and mammals. Alternatively, this pattern is consistent with a relaxation of selection or weak adaptive evolution operating on a small number of amino acids. The adaptive interpretation of the results is consistent with the SAO allele of the SLC4A1 gene interacting with P. falciparum in humans, rather than other Plasmodium parasites. However, additional investigation of the relationship between SLC4A1 variants and Plasmodium in humans and African apes is required to test whether the different selective regime in humans and African apes is due to natural selection or relaxed constraint. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Characteristics of Travel-Related Severe Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum Malaria in Individuals Hospitalized at a Tertiary Referral Center in Lima, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llanos-Chea, Fiorella; Martínez, Dalila; Rosas, Angel; Samalvides, Frine; Vinetz, Joseph M; Llanos-Cuentas, Alejandro

    2015-12-01

    Severe Plasmodium falciparum malaria is uncommon in South America. Lima, Peru, while not endemic for malaria, is home to specialized centers for infectious diseases that admit and manage patients with severe malaria (SM), all of whom contracted infection during travel. This retrospective study describes severe travel-related malaria in individuals admitted to one tertiary care referral hospital in Lima, Peru; severity was classified based on criteria published by the World Health Organization in 2000. Data were abstracted from medical records of patients with SM admitted to Hospital Nacional Cayetano Heredia from 2006 to 2011. Of 33 SM cases with complete clinical data, the mean age was 39 years and the male/female ratio was 2.8. Most cases were contracted in known endemic regions within Peru: Amazonia (47%), the central jungle (18%), and the northern coast (12%); cases were also found in five (15%) travelers returning from Africa. Plasmodium vivax was most commonly identified (71%) among the severe infections, followed by P. falciparum (18%); mixed infections composed 11% of the group. Among the criteria of severity, jaundice was most common (58%), followed by severe thrombocytopenia (47%), hyperpyrexia (32%), and shock (15%). Plasmodium vivax mono-infection predominated as the etiology of SM in cases acquired in Peru.

  3. A Plasmodium falciparum Homologue of Plasmodium vivax Reticulocyte Binding Protein (PvRBP1) Defines a Trypsin-resistant Erythrocyte Invasion Pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayner, Julian C.; Vargas-Serrato, Esmeralda; Huber, Curtis S.; Galinski, Mary R.; Barnwell, John W.

    2001-01-01

    Invasion of erythrocytes by Plasmodium merozoites is an intricate process involving multiple receptor-ligand interactions. The glycophorins and an unknown trypsin sensitive factor are all erythrocyte receptors used during invasion by the major human pathogen Plasmodium falciparum. However, only one erythrocyte receptor, Glycophorin A, has a well-established cognate parasite ligand, the merozoite protein erythrocyte binding antigen-175 (EBA-175). The involvement of several other parasite proteins during invasion have been proposed, but no direct evidence links them with a specific invasion pathway. Here we report the identification and characterization of P. falciparum normocyte binding protein 1 (PfNBP1), an ortholog of Plasmodium vivax reticulocyte binding protein-1. PfNBP1 binds to a sialic acid dependent trypsin-resistant receptor on the erythrocyte surface that appears to be distinct from known invasion receptors. Antibodies against PfNBP1 can inhibit invasion of trypsinized erythrocytes and two P. falciparum strains that express truncated PfNBP1 are unable to invade trypsinized erythrocytes. One of these strain, 7G8, also does not invade Glycophorin B–negative erythrocytes. PfNBP1 therefore defines a novel trypsin-resistant invasion pathway and adds a level of complexity to current models for P. falciparum erythrocyte invasion. PMID:11733572

  4. Paludismo por Plasmodium falciparum adquirido en África subsahariana Plasmodium falciparum malaria acquired in Subsaharian Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Durlach

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo es presentar los casos de paludismo por Plasmodium falciparum ocurridos en viajeros provenientes del África tropical, atendidos en el Hospital Alemán. Se definió paludismo de origen africano como la infección adquirida en un país del África subsahariana, diagnosticado y tratado en la Argentina. El diagnóstico se realizó por la clínica y la microscopía óptica en frotis de sangre periférica coloreados con Giemsa. Se revieron las historias clínicas de 11 pacientes adultos -cinco turistas y seis marineros mercantes- no oriundos de área endémica, sin condición inmunosupresora, ni morbilidad asociada, internados entre 1993 y 2007. El rango de edad fue de 21 a 48 años; nueve hombres y dos mujeres. Los pacientes fueron clasificados retrospectivamente en malaria grave (seis o no grave (cinco según cumplieran con uno o más de los criterios de gravedad de la Organización Mundial de la Salud. Todos presentaron fiebre como signo más significativo. Como complicaciones graves se observaron casos de insuficiencia renal, epistaxis, hemoglobinuria, hipoglucemia, edema pulmonar, acidosis y coma. Tres pacientes requirieron internación en la unidad de terapia intensiva. Todos sobrevivieron y solamente tres habían recibido la quimioprofilaxis correcta antes de viajar. El tratamiento se realizó con una o más de las siguientes drogas: mefloquina, quinidina, clindamicina y cotrimoxazol.The purpose of this paper is to present the cases of malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum in travelers coming from tropical Africa, who were treated at the Hospital Alemán (Buenos Aires. African malaria was defined as an infection acquired in any country within Africa, diagnosed and treated in Argentina. Diagnostic tools included clinical features and optic microscopy with Giemsa stained peripheral blood films. We reviewed the medical records of 11 adult patients -five tourists and six sailors- with no history of malaria

  5. Emergence and transitions of dynamic patterns of thickness oscillation of the plasmodium of the true slime mold Physarum polycephalum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takagi, Seiji; Ueda, Tetsuo

    2008-03-01

    The emergence and transitions of various spatiotemporal patterns of thickness oscillation were studied in the freshly isolated protoplasm of the Physarum plasmodium. New patterns, such as standing waves, and chaotic and rotating spirals, developed successively before the well-documented synchronous pattern appeared. There was also a spontaneous opposite transition from synchrony to chaotic and rotating spirals. Rotating spiral waves were observed in the large migrating plasmodium, where the vein structures were being destroyed. Thus, the Physarum plasmodium exhibits versatile patterns, which are generally expected in coupled oscillator systems. This paper discusses the physiological roles of spatiotemporal patterns, comparing them with other biological systems.

  6. Plasmodium serine hydroxymethyltransferase as a potential anti-malarial target: inhibition studies using improved methods for enzyme production and assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sopitthummakhun Kittipat

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is an urgent need for the discovery of new anti-malarial drugs. Thus, it is essential to explore different potential new targets that are unique to the parasite or that are required for its viability in order to develop new interventions for treating the disease. Plasmodium serine hydroxymethyltransferase (SHMT, an enzyme in the dTMP synthesis cycle, is a potential target for such new drugs, but convenient methods for producing and assaying the enzyme are still lacking, hampering the ability to screen inhibitors. Methods Production of recombinant Plasmodium falciparum SHMT (PfSHMT and Plasmodium vivax SHMT (PvSHMT, using auto-induction media, were compared to those using the conventional Luria Bertani medium with isopropyl thio-β-D-galactoside (LB-IPTG induction media. Plasmodium SHMT activity, kinetic parameters, and response to inhibitors were measured spectrophotometrically by coupling the reaction to that of 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase (MTHFD. The identity of the intermediate formed upon inactivation of Plasmodium SHMTs by thiosemicarbazide was investigated by spectrophotometry, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC, and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS. The active site environment of Plasmodium SHMT was probed based on changes in the fluorescence emission spectrum upon addition of amino acids and folate. Results Auto-induction media resulted in a two to three-fold higher yield of Pf- and PvSHMT (7.38 and 29.29 mg/L compared to that produced in cells induced in LB-IPTG media. A convenient spectrophotometric activity assay coupling Plasmodium SHMT and MTHFD gave similar kinetic parameters to those previously obtained from the anaerobic assay coupling SHMT and 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR; thus demonstrating the validity of the new assay procedure. The improved method was adopted to screen for Plasmodium SHMT inhibitors, of which some were originally designed

  7. Pan-Plasmodium band sensitivity for Plasmodium falciparum detection in combination malaria rapid diagnostic tests and implications for clinical management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatton, Michelle L; Rees-Channer, Roxanne R; Glenn, Jeffrey; Barnwell, John W; Cheng, Qin; Chiodini, Peter L; Incardona, Sandra; González, Iveth J; Cunningham, Jane

    2015-03-18

    Malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) are appropriate for case management, but persistent antigenaemia is a concern for HRP2-detecting RDTs in endemic areas. It has been suggested that pan-pLDH test bands on combination RDTs could be used to distinguish persistent antigenaemia from active Plasmodium falciparum infection, however this assumes all active infections produce positive results on both bands of RDTs, an assertion that has not been demonstrated. In this study, data generated during the WHO-FIND product testing programme for malaria RDTs was reviewed to investigate the reactivity of individual test bands against P. falciparum in 18 combination RDTs. Each product was tested against multiple wild-type P. falciparum only samples. Antigen levels were measured by quantitative ELISA for HRP2, pLDH and aldolase. When tested against P. falciparum samples at 200 parasites/μL, 92% of RDTs were positive; 57% of these on both the P. falciparum and pan bands, while 43% were positive on the P. falciparum band only. There was a relationship between antigen concentration and band positivity; ≥4 ng/mL of HRP2 produced positive results in more than 95% of P. falciparum bands, while ≥45 ng/mL of pLDH was required for at least 90% of pan bands to be positive. In active P. falciparum infections it is common for combination RDTs to return a positive HRP2 band combined with a negative pan-pLDH band, and when both bands are positive, often the pan band is faint. Thus active infections could be missed if the presence of a HRP2 band in the absence of a pan band is interpreted as being caused solely by persistent antigenaemia.

  8. Efficacy of dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine for treatment of uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax in Cambodia, 2008 to 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leang, Rithea; Barrette, Amy; Bouth, Denis Mey; Menard, Didier; Abdur, Rashid; Duong, Socheat; Ringwald, Pascal

    2013-02-01

    We describe here the results of antimalarial therapeutic efficacy studies conducted in Cambodia from 2008 to 2010. A total of 15 studies in four sentinel sites were conducted using dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DP) for the treatment of Plasmodium falciparum infection and chloroquine (CQ) and DP for the treatment of P. vivax infection. All studies were performed according to the standard World Health Organization protocol for the assessment of antimalarial treatment efficacy. Among the studies of DP for the treatment of P. falciparum, an increase in treatment failure was observed in the western provinces. In 2010, the PCR-corrected treatment failure rates for DP on day 42 were 25% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 10 to 51%) in Pailin and 10.7% (95% CI = 4 to 23%) in Pursat, while the therapeutic efficacy of DP remained high (100%) in Ratanakiri and Preah Vihear provinces, located in northern and eastern Cambodia. For the studies of P. vivax, the day 28 uncorrected treatment failure rate among patients treated with CQ ranged from 4.4 to 17.4%; DP remained 100% effective in all sites. Further study is required to investigate suspected P. falciparum resistance to piperaquine in western Cambodia; the results of in vitro and molecular studies were not found to support the therapeutic efficacy findings. The emergence of artemisinin resistance in this region has likely put additional pressure on piperaquine. Although DP appears to be an appropriate new first-line treatment for P. vivax in Cambodia, alternative treatments are urgently needed for P. falciparum-infected patients in western Cambodia.

  9. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction of malate dehydrogenase from Plasmodium falciparum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wrenger, Carsten; Mueller, Ingrid B.; Butzloff, Sabine; Jordanova, Rositsa; Lunev, Sergey; Groves, Matthew R.

    2012-01-01

    The expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction characterization of malate dehydrogenase (MDH) from the malarial parasite Plasmodium falciparum (PfMDH) are reported. In order to gain a deeper understanding of the function and role of PfMDH, the protein was purified to

  10. Sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine impairs Plasmodium falciparum gametocyte infectivity and Anopheles mosquito survival.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kone, A.; Vegte-Bolmer, M.G. van de; Siebelink-Stoter, R.; Gemert, G.J.A. van; Dara, A.; Niangaly, H.; Luty, A.J.F.; Doumbo, O.K.; Sauerwein, R.W.; Djimde, A.A.

    2010-01-01

    Sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) is currently the drug of choice for intermittent preventive treatment of Plasmodium falciparum both in pregnancy and infancy. A prolonged parasite clearance time conferred by dhfr and dhps mutations is believed to be responsible for increased gametocyte prevalence in

  11. Whole-Genome Scans Provide Evidence of Adaptive Evolution in Malawian Plasmodium falciparum Isolates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ocholla, Harold; Preston, Mark D; Mipando, Mwapatsa

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND:  Selection by host immunity and antimalarial drugs has driven extensive adaptive evolution in Plasmodium falciparum and continues to produce ever-changing landscapes of genetic variation. METHODS:  We performed whole-genome sequencing of 69 P. falciparum isolates from Malawi and used ...

  12. Inhibition of Plasmodium falciparum oocyst production by membrane-permeant cysteine protease inhibitor E64d.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eksi, S.; Czesny, B.; Gemert, G.J.A. van; Sauerwein, R.W.; Eling, W.M.C.; Williamson, K.C.

    2007-01-01

    During asexual intraerythrocytic growth, Plasmodium falciparum utilizes hemoglobin obtained from the host red blood cell (RBC) as a nutrient source. Papain-like cysteine proteases, falcipains 2 and 3, have been reported to be involved in hemoglobin digestion and are targets of current antimalarial d

  13. Lack of Evidence for Chloroquine-Resistant Plasmodium falciparum Malaria, Leogane, Haiti

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuberger, Ami; Zhong, Kathleen; Kain, Kevin C

    2012-01-01

    Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Haiti is considered chloroquine susceptible, although resistance transporter alleles associated with chloroquine resistance were recently detected. Among 49 patients with falciparum malaria, we found neither parasites carrying haplotypes associated with chloroquine resistance nor instances of chloroquine treatment failure. Continued vigilance to detect emergence of chloroquine resistance is needed. PMID:22932030

  14. Effect of daily antenatal iron supplementation on plasmodium infection in Kenyan women. A randomized clinical trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mwangi, M.N.; Roth, J.M.; Smit, M.R.; Trijsburg, Laura; Mwangi, A.M.; Demir, A.Y.; Wielders, J.P.M.; Mens, P.F.; Verweij, J.J.; Cox, S.E.; Prentice, A.M.; Brouwer, I.D.; Savelkoul, H.F.J.; Andang'o, P.E.A.; Verhoef, J.C.M.

    2015-01-01

    Importance Anemia affects most pregnant African women and is predominantly due to iron deficiency, but antenatal iron supplementation has uncertain health benefits and can increase the malaria burden. Objective To measure the effect of antenatal iron supplementation on maternal Plasmodium infection

  15. Features of autophagic cell death in Plasmodium liver-stage parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eickel, Nina; Kaiser, Gesine; Prado, Monica; Burda, Paul-Christian; Roelli, Matthias; Stanway, Rebecca R; Heussler, Volker T

    2013-04-01

    Analyzing molecular determinants of Plasmodium parasite cell death is a promising approach for exploring new avenues in the fight against malaria. Three major forms of cell death (apoptosis, necrosis and autophagic cell death) have been described in multicellular organisms but which cell death processes exist in protozoa is still a matter of debate. Here we suggest that all three types of cell death occur in Plasmodium liver-stage parasites. Whereas typical molecular markers for apoptosis and necrosis have not been found in the genome of Plasmodium parasites, we identified genes coding for putative autophagy-marker proteins and thus concentrated on autophagic cell death. We characterized the Plasmodium berghei homolog of the prominent autophagy marker protein Atg8/LC3 and found that it localized to the apicoplast. A relocalization of PbAtg8 to autophagosome-like vesicles or vacuoles that appear in dying parasites was not, however, observed. This strongly suggests that the function of this protein in liver-stage parasites is restricted to apicoplast biology.

  16. Structural determinants of the 5'-methylthioinosine specificity of Plasmodium purine nucleoside phosphorylase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teraya M Donaldson

    Full Text Available Plasmodium parasites rely upon purine salvage for survival. Plasmodium purine nucleoside phosphorylase is part of the streamlined Plasmodium purine salvage pathway that leads to the phosphorylysis of both purines and 5'-methylthiopurines, byproducts of polyamine synthesis. We have explored structural features in Plasmodium falciparum purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PfPNP that affect efficiency of catalysis as well as those that make it suitable for dual specificity. We used site directed mutagenesis to identify residues critical for PfPNP catalytic activity as well as critical residues within a hydrophobic pocket required for accommodation of the 5'-methylthio group. Kinetic analysis data shows that several mutants had disrupted binding of the 5'-methylthio group while retaining activity for inosine. A triple PfPNP mutant that mimics Toxoplasma gondii PNP had significant loss of 5'-methylthio activity with retention of inosine activity. Crystallographic investigation of the triple mutant PfPNP with Tyr160Phe, Val66Ile, andVal73Ile in complex with the transition state inhibitor immucillin H reveals fewer hydrogen bond interactions for the inhibitor in the hydrophobic pocket.

  17. The heat shock protein 90 of Plasmodium falciparum and antimalarial activity of its inhibitor, geldanamycin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barik Sailen

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The naturally occurring benzoquinone ansamycin compound, geldanamycin (GA, is a specific inhibitor of heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90 and is a potential anticancer agent. Since Plasmodium falciparum has been reported to have an Hsp90 ortholog, we tested the possibility that GA might inhibit it and thereby display antiparasitic activity. Results We provide direct recombinant DNA evidence for the Hsp90 protein of Plasmodium falciparum, the causative agent of fatal malaria. While the mRNA of Hsp90 was mainly expressed in ring and trophozoite stages, the protein was found in all stages, although schizonts contained relatively lower amounts. In vitro the parasitic Hsp90 exhibited an ATP-binding activity that could be specifically inhibited by GA. Plasmodium growth in human erythrocyte culture was strongly inhibited by GA with an IC50 of 20 nM, compared to the IC50 of 15 nM for chloroquine (CQ under identical conditions. When used in combination, the two drugs acted synergistically. GA was equally effective against CQ-sensitive and CQ-resistant strains (3D7 and W2, respectively and on all erythrocytic stages of the parasite. Conclusions Together, these results suggest that an active and essential Hsp90 chaperone cycle exists in Plasmodium and that the ansamycin antibiotics will be an important tool to dissect its role in the parasite. Additionally, the favorable pharmacology of GA, reported in human trials, makes it a promising antimalarial drug.

  18. A simple and fast method to exclude high Plasmodium falciparum parasitaemia in travellers with imported malaria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. van Gool (Tom); M.E. van Wolfswinkel (Marlies); R. Koelewijn (Rob); P.P.A.M. van Thiel (Pieter); J. Jacobs (Jan); J.J. van Hellemond (Jaap); P.J.J. van Genderen (Perry)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Counts of malaria parasites in peripheral blood are important to assess severity of Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Thin and thick smears are routinely used for this purpose. Methods. In this study the Binax NOW® Malaria Test, an easy-to-perform rapid diagnostic test, with His

  19. Plasmodium species: Flow cytometry and microfluorometry assessments of DNA content and synthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janse, C.J.; Vianen, P.H. van; Tanke, H.J.; Mons, B.; Ponnudurai, T.; Overdulve, J.P.

    1987-01-01

    Fluorescence intensities were established by flow cytometry of different erythrocytic stages of Plasmodium berghei after staining of their DNA with Hoechst-33258 or Hoechst-33342. Parasites were obtained from highly synchronized infections or in vitro cultures. Most fluorescence measurements were pe

  20. Plasmodium falciparum Serine/Threonine Phosphoprotein Phosphatases (PPP): From Housekeeper to 'Holy Grail'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Availability of complete genome sequence for Plasmodium falciparum has been useful in drawing a comprehensive metabolic map of the parasite. Distinct and unique metabolic characteristics of the parasite may be exploited as potential targets for new antimalarial drug discovery research. Reversible ph...

  1. Detection of persistent Plasmodium spp. infections in Ugandan children after artemether-lumefantrine treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betson, Martha; Sousa-Figueiredo, José C; Atuhaire, Aaron; Arinaitwe, Moses; Adriko, Moses; Mwesigwa, Gerald; Nabonge, Juma; Kabatereine, Narcis B; Sutherland, Colin J; Stothard, J Russell

    2014-12-01

    During a longitudinal study investigating the dynamics of malaria in Ugandan lakeshore communities, a consistently high malaria prevalence was observed in young children despite regular treatment. To explore the short-term performance of artemether-lumefantrine (AL), a pilot investigation into parasite carriage after treatment(s) was conducted in Bukoba village. A total of 163 children (aged 2-7 years) with a positive blood film and rapid antigen test were treated with AL; only 8.7% of these had elevated axillary temperatures. On day 7 and then on day 17, 40 children (26.3%) and 33 (22.3%) were positive by microscopy, respectively. Real-time PCR analysis demonstrated that multi-species Plasmodium infections were common at baseline, with 41.1% of children positive for Plasmodium falciparum/Plasmodium malariae, 9.2% for P. falciparum/ Plasmodium ovale spp. and 8.0% for all three species. Moreover, on day 17, 39.9% of children infected with falciparum malaria at baseline were again positive for the same species, and 9.2% of those infected with P. malariae at baseline were positive for P. malariae. Here, chronic multi-species malaria infections persisted in children after AL treatment(s). Better point-of-care diagnostics for non-falciparum infections are needed, as well as further investigation of AL performance in asymptomatic individuals.

  2. Observations on the periodicity of Plasmodium falciparum gametocytes in natural human infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magesa, S M; Mdira, Y K; Akida, J A

    2000-01-01

    The circadian periodicity of Plasmodium falciparum gametocytes in peripheral blood was analysed in a group of children from an holoendemic community of north-eastern Tanzania. No periodicity was observed with asexual stage parasites. Gametocytes were shown to display a diurnal subperiodic pattern...

  3. Dynamic histone H3 epigenome marking during the intraerythrocytic cycle of Plasmodium falciparum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salcedo-Amaya, Adriana M; van Driel, Marc A; Alako, Blaise T

    2009-01-01

    Epigenome profiling has led to the paradigm that promoters of active genes are decorated with H3K4me3 and H3K9ac marks. To explore the epigenome of Plasmodium falciparum asexual stages, we performed MS analysis of histone modifications and found a general preponderance of H3/H4 acetylation and H3K4...

  4. Cytoadhesion of Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes to chondroitin-4-sulfate is cooperative and shear enhanced

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rieger, Harden; Yoshikawa, Hiroshi Y; Quadt, Katharina

    2015-01-01

    Infections with the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum during pregnancy can lead to severe complications for both mother and child, resulting from the cytoadhesion of parasitized erythrocytes in the intervillous space of the placenta. Cytoadherence is conferred by the specific interaction...

  5. Ingested human insulin inhibits the mosquito NF-¿B-dependent immune response to Plasmodium falciparum

    Science.gov (United States)

    We showed previously that ingested human insulin activates the insulin/IGF-1 signaling pathway in Anopheles stephensi and increases the susceptibility of these mosquitoes to Plasmodium falciparum. In other organisms insulin can alter immune responsiveness through regulation of NF-kB transcription fa...

  6. High level of resistance of Plasmodium falciparum to sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine in children in Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rønn, A M; Msangeni, H A; Mhina, J

    1996-01-01

    In many areas of tropical Africa affected by chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium falciparum, a combination of sulfadoxine and pyrimethamine (S-P) is used for alternative medication, especially in young children. In Magoda village in Muheza District, north-eastern Tanzania, 38 children 1-10 years...

  7. Transportproteiner som drug-targets hos Plasmodium falciparum. Nye perspektiver i behandlingen af malaria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellekvist, Peter; Colding, Hanne

    2006-01-01

    The malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum, infects and replicates in human erythrocytes. Through the use of substrate-specific transport proteins, P. falciparum takes up nutrients from the erythrocyte's cytoplasm. The sequencing and publishing of the P. falciparum genome have made it possible...

  8. Plasmodium falciparum infection increases Anopheles gambiae attraction to nectar sources and sugar uptake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plasmodium parasites are known to manipulate the behaviour of their vectors so as to enhance their transmission. However, it is unknown if this vector manipulation also affects mosquito-plant interaction and sugar uptake. Dual-choice olfactometer and probing assays were used to study plant seeking b...

  9. Differences in gene transcriptomic pattern of Plasmodium falciparum in children with cerebral malaria and asymptomatic carriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almelli, Talleh; Nuel, Grégory; Bischoff, Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    , transcriptional factor proteins, proteins implicated in protein transport, as well as Plasmodium conserved and hypothetical proteins. Interestingly, UPs A1, A2, A3 and UPs B1 of var genes were predominantly found in cerebral malaria-associated isolates and those containing architectural domains of DC4, DC5, DC13...

  10. Distribution pattern of Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine transporter (pfcrt) gene haplotypes in Sri Lanka 1996-2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Jenny J; Senaratne, Tharanga N; Daniels, Rachel

    2011-01-01

    Abstract. Widespread antimalarial resistance has been a barrier to malaria elimination efforts in Sri Lanka. Analysis of genetic markers in historic parasites may uncover trends in the spread of resistance. We examined the frequency of Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine transporter (pfcrt; codons 72...

  11. Plasmodium falciparum Erythrocyte Membrane Protein 1 Diversity in Seven Genomes – Divide and Conquer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rask, Thomas Salhøj; Hansen, Daniel Aaen; Theander, Thor G.

    2010-01-01

    The var gene encoded hyper-variable Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1) family mediates cytoadhesion of infected erythrocytes to human endothelium. Antibodies blocking cytoadhesion are important mediators of malaria immunity acquired by endemic populations. The development...

  12. PfSETvs methylation of histone H3K36 represses virulence genes in Plasmodium falciparum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Lubin; Mu, Jianbing; Zhang, Qingfeng

    2013-01-01

    The variant antigen Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1), which is expressed on the surface of P. falciparum-infected red blood cells, is a critical virulence factor for malaria. Each parasite has 60 antigenically distinct var genes that each code for a different PfEMP1...

  13. How malaria modulates memory: activation and dysregulation of B cells in Plasmodium infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholzen, A.; Sauerwein, R.W.

    2013-01-01

    Humoral immune responses play a major role in naturally acquired immunity to malaria, but are slow to develop and ineffectively maintained. Although this may be partially due to the complex nature of Plasmodium parasites and the high degree of antigenic variation, there is evidence that the parasite

  14. Human Plasmodium knowlesi infection detected by rapid diagnostic tests for malaria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.J. van Hellemond (Jaap); M. Rutten (Martine); R. Koelewijn (Rob); A.M. Zeeman (Anne Marie); J. Verweij (Jaap); P.J. Wismans (Pieter); C.H. Kocken (Clemens); P.J.J. van Genderen (Perry)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractWe describe a PCR-confirmed case of Plasmodium knowlesi infection with a high parasitemia level and clinical signs of severe malaria in a migrant worker from Malaysian Borneo in the Netherlands. Investigations showed that commercially available rapid antigen tests for detection of human

  15. High level of var2csa transcription by Plasmodium falciparum isolated from the placenta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tuikue Ndam, Nicaise G; Salanti, Ali; Bertin, Gwladys;

    2005-01-01

    Plasmodium falciparum parasites that bind to chondroitin sulphate A (CSA) express unique variant surface antigens that are involved in the placental sequestration that precipitates pregnancy-associated malaria (PAM). Two var gene subfamilies, var1csa and var2csa, have been associated with CSA bin...

  16. The efficacy of artemether in the treatment of Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Sudan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elhassan, I M; Satti, G H; Ali, A E

    1994-01-01

    The efficacy of artemether (a qinghaosu derivative) administered intramuscularly for the treatment of Plasmodium falciparum malaria was compared to quinine in an open randomized trial including 54 patients in eastern Sudan, where chloroquine resistance is common. The artemether treatment (5 d...

  17. Lymphocyte response to purified Plasmodium falciparum antigens during and after malaria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bygbjerg, I C; Jepsen, S; Theander, T G

    1986-01-01

    The peripheral blood lymphocyte response to affinity purified soluble Plasmodium falciparum antigens from in vitro cultures was studied in seven patients with acute falciparum malaria, on eight occasions, and in 15 persons having had malaria, at various times post infection, on 24 occasions. During...

  18. In vivo switching between variant surface antigens in human Plasmodium falciparum infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staalsoe, Trine; Hamad, Amel A; Hviid, Lars

    2002-01-01

    A semi-immune individual was retrospectively found to have maintained an apparently monoclonal and genotypically stable asymptomatic infection for months after clinical cure of a Plasmodium falciparum malaria episode. Before the attack, the individual had no antibodies to variant surface antigens...

  19. Lack of evidence for chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium falciparum malaria, Leogane, Haiti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuberger, Ami; Zhong, Kathleen; Kain, Kevin C; Schwartz, Eli

    2012-09-01

    Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Haiti is considered chloroquine susceptible, although resistance transporter alleles associated with chloroquine resistance were recently detected. Among 49 patients with falciparum malaria, we found neither parasites carrying haplotypes associated with chloroquine resistance nor instances of chloroquine treatment failure. Continued vigilance to detect emergence of chloroquine resistance is needed.

  20. A simple and fast method to exclude high Plasmodium falciparum parasitaemia in travellers with imported malaria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. van Gool (Tom); M.E. van Wolfswinkel (Marlies); R. Koelewijn (Rob); P.P.A.M. van Thiel (Pieter); J. Jacobs (Jan); J.J. van Hellemond (Jaap); P.J.J. van Genderen (Perry)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Counts of malaria parasites in peripheral blood are important to assess severity of Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Thin and thick smears are routinely used for this purpose. Methods. In this study the Binax NOW® Malaria Test, an easy-to-perform rapid diagnostic test, with

  1. Cytokine production and apoptosis among T cells from patients under treatment for Plasmodium falciparum malaria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kemp, K; Akanmori, B D; Adabayeri, V

    2002-01-01

    Available evidence suggests that Plasmodium falciparum malaria causes activation and reallocation of T cells, and that these in vivo primed cells re-emerge into the periphery following drug therapy. Here we have examined the cytokine production capacity and susceptibility to programmed cell death...

  2. Increased levels of soluble CD30 in plasma of patients with Plasmodium falciparum malaria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kemp, Kåre; Kurtzhals, Jørgen; Akanmori, Bartholomew D

    2002-01-01

    Levels of soluble CD30 (sCD30) in serum were elevated in patients with Plasmodium falciparum malaria but showed decline following treatment. The levels of sCD30 in serum were correlated significantly with the expression of gamma interferon by peripheral T cells. These data suggest that CD30...

  3. Fatal complications of Plasmodium vivax malaria: A series of three case reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak Sundriyal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Plasmodium vivax malaria once thought to be benign, is now being seen increasingly as complicated disease in various manifestations. These complications include cerebral malaria, acute respiratory distress syndrome, acute pancreatitis, hepatic dysfunction, coagulopathy-associated hemorrhages, and others. Even if at the onset, disease appears benign, clinicians should be careful to watch for the complications and timely management.

  4. Independent origin of Plasmodium falciparum antifolate super-resistance, Uganda, Tanzania, and Ethiopia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alifrangis, Michael; Nag, Sidsel; Schousboe, Mette L

    2014-01-01

    Super-resistant Plasmodium falciparum threatens the effectiveness of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine in intermittent preventive treatment for malaria during pregnancy. It is characterized by the A581G Pfdhps mutation on a background of the double-mutant Pfdhps and the triple-mutant Pfdhfr. Using sample...

  5. Soluble Plasmodium falciparum antigens contain carbohydrate moieties important for immune reactivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, P H; Theander, T G; Jensen, J B

    1987-01-01

    The importance of carbohydrate moieties for the antigenicity of purified soluble Plasmodium falciparum antigens from the asexual blood stage was tested. Digestion of the soluble antigens with alpha-D-galactosidase clearly affected the ability of the antigen to react with malaria-immune sera from ...

  6. Anaemia caused by asymptomatic Plasmodium falciparum infection in semi-immune African schoolchildren

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kurtzhals, J A; Addae, M M; Akanmori, B D;

    1999-01-01

    A cohort of 250 Ghanaian schoolchildren aged 5-15 years was followed clinically and parasitologically for 4 months in 1997/98 in order to study the effect of asymptomatic Plasmodium falciparum infections on haematological indices and bone-marrow responses. Of the 250 children 65 met the predefine...

  7. Inhibition of human lymphocyte proliferative response by serum from Plasmodium falciparum infected patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Theander, T G; Svenson, M; Bygbjerg, I C

    1987-01-01

    initiation of treatment suppressed the in vitro lymphocyte proliferative response to both Plasmodium-derived antigens and an unrelated antigen (PPD-tuberculin). The suppressive effect was lost if the serum was incubated at 56 degrees C for 30 min, and the effect was not HLA-restricted since the inhibition...

  8. RELATIONSHIP OF HEPATIC AND RENAL DYSFUNCTION WITH HAEMORRHEOLOGICAL PARAMETERS IN PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM MALARIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valluri Satya

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The clinical pattern of malaria has changed worldwide including India in last decade. Earlier cerebral malaria was the predominant manifestation of severe malaria, whereas now the combination of jaundice and renal failure are more common. Severe haemorrhage is seen in upto 5% of patients with severe malaria. Studies on renal and hepatic dys function in Plasmodium falciparum malaria are a plenty, but there is a paucity of studies correlating haemorrheological abnormalities with hepatic and renal dysfunction in Plasmodium falciparum malaria. METHODS : 100 patients of malaria with positive periph eral blood smear for plasmodium falciparum , out of which 50 cases with AKI and Hepatic failure during the period January 2012 - June 2013. I n department of general medicine, Government General Hospital, Kakinada. GROUP A : Comprising 50 consecutive adult pat ients of all age groups and both genders who had jaundice or renal failure or both at the time of admission. GROUP B: comprising 50 consecutive cases of plasmodium falciparum malaria and had no complications. RESULTS: In group A patients all parameters are significantly raised as compared to group B patients. CONCLUSION: 10% of patients had clinically overt bleeding manifestations, this indicates subclinical haemorrheological dysfunction in patients suffering from falciparum malaria with hepatic and renal d ysfunction, high incidence of subclinical DIC, evidenced by prolonged aPTT (56%, low total platelet count (58%, and PT (20%. An observational, screening, analytical prospective study. 100 cases of PF positive complicated and uncomplicated cases during t he period - January 2012 - June 2013

  9. Cord blood dendritic cell subsets in African newborns exposed to Plasmodium falciparum in utero.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breitling, L.P.; Fendel, R.; Mordmueller, B.; Adegnika, A.A.; Kremsner, P.G.; Luty, A.J.F.

    2006-01-01

    Placental Plasmodium falciparum infection affects birth outcomes and sensitizes fetal lymphocytes to parasite antigens. We assessed the influence of maternal P. falciparum infection on fetal myeloid dendritic cells (mDC) and plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDC), analyzing the cord blood of offspring o

  10. Analysis of the plasmodium falciparum proteome by high-accuracy mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lasonder, Edwin; Ishihama, Yasushi; Andersen, Jens S;

    2002-01-01

    -accuracy (average deviation less than 0.02 Da at 1,000 Da) mass spectrometric proteome analysis of selected stages of the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. The analysis revealed 1,289 proteins of which 714 proteins were identified in asexual blood stages, 931 in gametocytes and 645 in gametes. The last...

  11. Immunoglobulin M and G antibody responses to Plasmodium falciparum glutamate-rich protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dziegiel, M; Rowe, P; Bennett, S;

    1993-01-01

    The aims of the present study were to describe the age-related immunoglobulin M (IgM) and IgG response to part of a 220-kDa glutamate-rich protein (GLURP) from Plasmodium falciparum and to determine possible correlations of possession of these antibodies with malaria morbidity. IgM and IgG levels...

  12. Comparative histopathology of mice infected with the 17XL and 17XNL strains of Plasmodium yoelii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yong; Ding, Yan; Zhou, Tao-li; Ou, Qian-yi; Xu, Wen-yue

    2012-04-01

    Plasmodium yoelii 17XL was used to investigate the mechanism of Plasmodium falciparum-caused cerebral malaria, although its histological effect on other mouse organs is still unclear. Here, histological examination was performed on mice infected with P. yoelii 17XL; the effect of P. yoelii 17XL infection on anemia and body weight loss, as well as its lesions in the brain, liver, kidney, lung, and spleen, also was investigated. Plasmodium yoelii 17XL-infected red blood cells were sequestered in the microcirculation of the brain and in the kidney. Compared with the nonlethal P. yoelii 17XNL strain, infection by P. yoelii 17XL caused substantial pulmonary edema, severe anemia, and significant body weight loss. Although P. yoelii 17XNL and 17XL produced a similar focal necrosis in the mouse liver, infection of P. yoelii 17XL induced coalescing of red and white pulp. Mortality caused by P. yoelii 17XL may be due to cerebral malaria, as well as respiratory distress syndrome and severe anemia. Plasmodium yoelii 17XL-infected rodent malaria seems to be a useful model for investigating severe malaria caused by P. falciparum.

  13. Effect of daily antenatal iron supplementation on plasmodium infection in Kenyan women. A randomized clinical trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mwangi, M.N.; Roth, J.M.; Smit, M.R.; Trijsburg, Laura; Mwangi, A.M.; Demir, A.Y.; Wielders, J.P.M.; Mens, P.F.; Verweij, J.J.; Cox, S.E.; Prentice, A.M.; Brouwer, I.D.; Savelkoul, H.F.J.; Andang'o, P.E.A.; Verhoef, J.C.M.

    2015-01-01

    Importance Anemia affects most pregnant African women and is predominantly due to iron deficiency, but antenatal iron supplementation has uncertain health benefits and can increase the malaria burden. Objective To measure the effect of antenatal iron supplementation on maternal Plasmodium infection

  14. Influence of antimalarial treatment on acquisition of immunity in Plasmodium berghei NK65 malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Ton That Ai; Nakazawa, Shusuke; Huaman, Maria Cecilia; Kanbara, Hiroji

    2002-07-01

    Antimalarial treatments during primary Plasmodium berghei NK65 infection in BALB/c mice influenced the acquisition of protective immunity against reinfection. Among subcurative treatments, lower doses better enable mice to acquire protective immunity than do higher doses. Eradication of parasites from the start of infection did not promote protective immunity.

  15. Protective Efficacy of Plasmodium vivax Radiation-Attenuated Sporozoites in Colombian Volunteers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arévalo-Herrera, Myriam; Vásquez-Jiménez, Juan M; Lopez-Perez, Mary;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Immunizing human volunteers by mosquito bite with radiation-attenuated Plasmodium falciparum sporozoites (RAS) results in high-level protection against infection. Only two volunteers have been similarly immunized with P. vivax (Pv) RAS, and both were protected. A phase 2 controlled cl...

  16. First case of Plasmodium knowlesi infection in a Japanese traveller returning from Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanizaki, Ryutaro; Ujiie, Mugen; Kato, Yasuyuki; Iwagami, Moritoshi; Hashimoto, Aki; Kutsuna, Satoshi; Takeshita, Nozomi; Hayakawa, Kyoko; Kanagawa, Shuzo; Kano, Shigeyuki; Ohmagari, Norio

    2013-04-15

    This is the first case of Plasmodium knowlesi infection in a Japanese traveller returning from Malaysia. In September 2012, a previously healthy 35-year-old Japanese man presented to National Center for Global Health and Medicine in Tokyo with a two-day history of daily fever, mild headaches and mild arthralgia. Malaria parasites were found in the Giemsa-stained thin blood smear, which showed band forms similar to Plasmodium malariae. Although a nested PCR showed the amplification of the primer of Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium knowlesi, he was finally diagnosed with P. knowlesi mono-infection by DNA sequencing. He was treated with mefloquine, and recovered without any complications. DNA sequencing of the PCR products is indispensable to confirm P. knowlesi infection, however there is limited access to DNA sequencing procedures in endemic areas. The extent of P. knowlesi transmission in Asia has not been clearly defined. There is limited availability of diagnostic tests and routine surveillance system for reporting an accurate diagnosis in the Asian endemic regions. Thus, reporting accurately diagnosed cases of P. knowlesi infection in travellers would be important for assessing the true nature of this emerging human infection.

  17. Acute respiratory distress syndrome and acute renal failure from Plasmodium ovale infection with fatal outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Yee-Ling; Lee, Wenn-Chyau; Tan, Lian-Huat; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba; Syed Omar, Sharifah Faridah; Fong, Mun-Yik; Cheong, Fei-Wen; Mahmud, Rohela

    2013-11-04

    Plasmodium ovale is one of the causative agents of human malaria. Plasmodium ovale infection has long been thought to be non-fatal. Due to its lower morbidity, P. ovale receives little attention in malaria research. Two Malaysians went to Nigeria for two weeks. After returning to Malaysia, they fell sick and were admitted to different hospitals. Plasmodium ovale parasites were identified from blood smears of these patients. The species identification was further confirmed with nested PCR. One of them was successfully treated with no incident of relapse within 12-month medical follow-up. The other patient came down with malaria-induced respiratory complication during the course of treatment. Although parasites were cleared off the circulation, the patient's condition worsened. He succumbed to multiple complications including acute respiratory distress syndrome and acute renal failure. Sequencing of the malaria parasite DNA from both cases, followed by multiple sequence alignment and phylogenetic tree construction suggested that the causative agent for both malaria cases was P. ovale curtisi. In this report, the differences between both cases were discussed, and the potential capability of P. ovale in causing severe complications and death as seen in this case report was highlighted. Plasmodium ovale is potentially capable of causing severe complications, if not death. Complete travel and clinical history of malaria patient are vital for successful diagnoses and treatment. Monitoring of respiratory and renal function of malaria patients, regardless of the species of malaria parasites involved is crucial during the course of hospital admission.

  18. A simple and fast method to exclude high Plasmodium falciparum parasitaemia in travellers with imported malaria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. van Gool (Tom); M.E. van Wolfswinkel (Marlies); R. Koelewijn (Rob); P.P.A.M. van Thiel (Pieter); J. Jacobs (Jan); J.J. van Hellemond (Jaap); P.J.J. van Genderen (Perry)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Counts of malaria parasites in peripheral blood are important to assess severity of Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Thin and thick smears are routinely used for this purpose. Methods. In this study the Binax NOW® Malaria Test, an easy-to-perform rapid diagnostic test, with His

  19. The systematic functional analysis of plasmodium protein kinases identifies essential regulators of mosquito transmission

    KAUST Repository

    Tewari, Rita

    2010-10-21

    Although eukaryotic protein kinases (ePKs) contribute to many cellular processes, only three Plasmodium falciparum ePKs have thus far been identified as essential for parasite asexual blood stage development. To identify pathways essential for parasite transmission between their mammalian host and mosquito vector, we undertook a systematic functional analysis of ePKs in the genetically tractable rodent parasite Plasmodium berghei. Modeling domain signatures of conventional ePKs identified 66 putative Plasmodium ePKs. Kinomes are highly conserved between Plasmodium species. Using reverse genetics, we show that 23 ePKs are redundant for asexual erythrocytic parasite development in mice. Phenotyping mutants at four life cycle stages in Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes revealed functional clusters of kinases required for sexual development and sporogony. Roles for a putative SR protein kinase (SRPK) in microgamete formation, a conserved regulator of clathrin uncoating (GAK) in ookinete formation, and a likely regulator of energy metabolism (SNF1/KIN) in sporozoite development were identified. 2010 Elsevier Inc.

  20. Plasmodium/intestinal helminth co-infections among pregnant Nigerian women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AO Egwunyenga

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available Hospital based studies were conducted to investigate the occurrence of Plasmodium/intestinal helminth co-infections among pregnant Nigerian women, and their effects on birthweights, anaemia and spleen size. From 2,104 near-term pregnant women examined, 816 (38.8% were found to be infected with malaria parasites. Among the 816 parasitaemic subjects, 394 (48.3% were also infected with intestinal helminths, 102 (12.5% having mixed helminth infections. The prevalence of the helminth species found in stool samples of parasitaemic subjects examined was, Ascaris lumbricoides (19.1%, hookworm (14.2%, Trichuris trichiura (7% Schistosoma mansoni (3.4%, Enterobius vermicularis (2%, Hymenolepis sp. (1.6% and Taenia sp. (1%. Mothers with Plasmodium infection but without intestinal helminth infection had neonates of higher mean birthweights than those presenting both Plasmodium and intestinal helminth infections and this effect was more pronounced in primigravids. The mean haemoglobin values of malarial mothers with intestinal helminth infections were lower than those with Plasmodium infection but without intestinal helminth infections but these were not statistically significant. Severe splenomegaly was predominant among parasitaemic gravidae who also harboured S. mansoni infection in two of the hospitals studied.