WorldWideScience

Sample records for plasmodiophora brassicae utilizando

  1. Preservação do inóculo de Plasmodiophora brassicae utilizando o método de congelamento Preservation of Plasmodiophora brassicae inoculum using the freezing method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Cristina Sodário Cruz

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available A preservação das estruturas de resistência de Plasmodiophora brassicae, em condições laboratoriais, é dificultada pelo fato de se tratar de um parasita obrigatório. O método de congelamento, utilizando freezer, comum foi testado com o objetivo de viabilizar a sobrevivência e a preservação de suas características infectivas. Raízes de diferentes brássicas, naturalmente infectadas por P. brassicae, contendo sintomas típicos de hérnia, de uma mesma propriedade localizada no município de Pardinho, Estado de São Paulo, foram coletadas em diferentes épocas e imediatamente congeladas, em freezer, a aproximadamente -20ºC. Os tratamentos foram divididos da seguinte maneira: T1: hérnias congeladas por 389 dias (rúcula; T2: hérnias congeladas por 242 dias (brócolis; T3: hérnias congeladas por 21 dias (couve chinesa e T4: testemunha (sem inóculo. Os testes de patogenicidade, após diferentes períodos de armazenamento, foram realizados em condições de casa de vegetação (25±2ºC. Cada planta de uma variedade suscetível de couve-chinesa (Pak choi foi inoculada com 2mL da suspensão de esporos de cada tratamento, na concentração de 10(7 esporos.mL-1. Cada tratamento contou com seis repetições distribuídas em blocos ao acaso. Passadas cinco semanas após a inoculação, as raízes das plantas foram lavadas e avaliadas. Houve diferença significativa entre os tratamentos. Os materiais congelados, entre 21 a 242 dias preservaram suas características infectivas, mostrando que o método de congelamento em freezer, nesse período, pode ser uma boa opção para a preservação das estruturas de resistência deste patógeno.The preservation of Plasmodiophora brassicae resistance structures under laboratory conditions is difficult since this is an obligate parasite. The freezing method using an ordinary household freezer was tested to ensure the pathogen's survival and the preservation of its infective traits. Roots of different

  2. Clubroot in the cole crops: the interaction between Plasmodiophora brassicae and Brassica oleracea.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voorrips, R.E.

    1996-01-01

    The clubroot disease of the cole crops ( Brassica oleracea ) and other crucifers is caused by the fungus Plasmodiophora brassicae . It is an important disease, affecting an estimated 10 % of the total cultured area world-wide. The potential of cultural practices to reduce crop losses due to clubroot

  3. Arabidopsis mutant bik1 exhibits strong resistance to Plasmodiophora brassicae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Chen

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Botrytis-induced kinase1 (BIK1, a receptor-like cytoplasmic kinase, plays an important role in resistance against pathogens and insects in Arabidopsis thaliana. However, it remains unknown whether BIK1 functions against Plasmodiophora brassicae, an obligate biotrophic protist that attacks cruciferous plants and induces gall formation on roots. Here, we investigated the potential roles of receptors FLS2, BAK1 and BIK1 in the infection of P. brassicae cruciferous plants. Wild-type plants, fls2 and bak1 mutants showed typical symptom on roots, and the galls were filled with large quantities of resting spores, while bik1 mutant plants exhibited strong resistance to P. brassicae. Compared with that of the wild-type plants, the root hair and cortical infection rate of bik1 mutant were significantly reduced by about 40-50%. A considerable portion of bik1 roots failed to form typical galls. Even if some small galls were formed, they were filled with multinucleate secondary plasmodia. The bik1 plants accumulated less reactive oxygen species (ROS at infected roots than other mutants and wild-type plants. Exogenous salicylic acid (SA treatment alleviated the clubroot symptoms in wild-type plants, and the expression of the SA signaling marker gene PR1 was significantly increased in bik1. Both sid2 (salicylic acid induction-deficient 2 and npr1-1 (non-expresser of PR genes that regulate systemic acquired resistance (SAR mutants showed increased susceptibility to P. brassicae compared with wild-type plants. These results suggest that the resistance of bik1 to P. brassicae is possibly mediated by SA inducible mechanisms enhance the resistance to clubroot disease.

  4. Wybrane zagadnienia z biologii grzyba Plasmodiophora brassicae Wor. [Some problems in the life-cycle of fungus Plasmodiophora brassicae, Wor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Nowicki

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The quickest loss of infectivity of Plasmodiophora brassicae Wor. resting spores was observed in acid soil. Jnlectivity was ratained longer in neutral and alkaline soils. The infection of cabbage seedlings took place in a broad pH range from 3.3 to 8.1, the optimum soil pH for infection being at 5.3 - 5.7. When the number of spores in the soil increased the infection took place in the infection took place in the broader pH range. The plants which were planted as seedlings in infested soil were infected in a broader pH range than plants which were grown from seeds in infested soil.

  5. Diversity and Active Mechanism of Fengycin-Type Cyclopeptides from Bacillus subtilis XF-1 Against Plasmodiophora brassicae

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Xing Yu Li; ; Zi Chao Mao; Yue Hu Wang; Yi Xing Wu; Yue Qiu He; Chun Lin Long

    2013-01-01

    Bacillus subtilis XF-1, a strain with demonstrated ability to control clubroot disease caused by Plasmodiophora brassicae, was studied to elucidate its mechanism of antifungal activity against P. brassicae...

  6. A novel methyltransferase from the intracellular pathogen Plasmodiophora brassicae methylates salicylic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig-Müller, Jutta; Jülke, Sabine; Geiß, Kathleen; Richter, Franziska; Mithöfer, Axel; Šola, Ivana; Rusak, Gordana; Keenan, Sandi; Bulman, Simon

    2015-05-01

    The obligate biotrophic pathogen Plasmodiophora brassicae causes clubroot disease in Arabidopsis thaliana, which is characterized by large root galls. Salicylic acid (SA) production is a defence response in plants, and its methyl ester is involved in systemic signalling. Plasmodiophora brassicae seems to suppress plant defence reactions, but information on how this is achieved is scarce. Here, we profile the changes in SA metabolism during Arabidopsis clubroot disease. The accumulation of SA and the emission of methylated SA (methyl salicylate, MeSA) were observed in P. brassicae-infected Arabidopsis 28 days after inoculation. There is evidence that MeSA is transported from infected roots to the upper plant. Analysis of the mutant Atbsmt1, deficient in the methylation of SA, indicated that the Arabidopsis SA methyltransferase was not responsible for alterations in clubroot symptoms. We found that P. brassicae possesses a methyltransferase (PbBSMT) with homology to plant methyltransferases. The PbBSMT gene is maximally transcribed when SA production is highest. By heterologous expression and enzymatic analyses, we showed that PbBSMT can methylate SA, benzoic and anthranilic acids.

  7. Pathotype Classification of Plasmodiophora brassicae Isolates Using Clubroot-Resistant Cultivars of Chinese Cabbage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hun Kim

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Clubroot disease caused by Plasmodiophora brassicae is one of the most serious diseases in Brassica crops worldwide. In this study, the pathotypes of 12 Korean P. brassicae field isolates were determined using various Chinese cabbage including 22 commercial cultivars from Korea, China, and Japan, and 15 inbred lines. All P. brassicae isolates exhibited the typical clubroot disease on non-clubroot resistant cultivar, indicating that the isolates were highly pathogenic. According to the reactions on the Williams’ hosts, the 12 field isolates were initially classified into five races. However, when these isolates were inoculated onto clubroot-resistant (CR cultivars of Chinese cabbage, several isolates led to different disease responses even though the isolates have been assigned to the same race by the Williams’ host responses. Based on the pathogenicity results, the 12 field isolates were reclassified into four different groups: pathotype 1 (GN1, GN2, GS, JS, and HS, 2 (DJ and KS, 3 (HN1, PC, and YC, and 4 (HN2 and SS. In addition, the CR cultivars from Korea, China, and Japan exhibited distinguishable disease responses to the P. brassicae isolates, suggesting that the 22 cultivars used in this study, including the non-CR cultivars, are classified into four different host groups based on their disease resistance. Combining these findings, the four differential hosts of Chinese cabbage and four pathotype groups of P. brassicae might provide an efficient screening system for resistant cultivars and a new foundation of breeding strategies for CR Chinese cabbage.

  8. The detection of Plasmodiophora brassicae using loop-mediated isothermal DNA amplification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Kaczmarek

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Plasmodiophora brassicae, the cause of clubroot, is a very serious problem preventing from successful and profitable cultivation of oilseed rape in Poland. The pathogen was found in all main growing areas of oilseed rape; it also causes considerable problems in growing of vegetable brassicas. The aim of this work was to elaborate fast, cheap and reliable screening method to detect P. brassicae. To achieve this aim the Loop-mediated isothermal DNA amplification (LAMP technique has been elaborated. The set of three primer pairs was designed using LAMP software. The detection was performed with the GspSSD polymerase, isolated from bacteria Geobacillus sp., with strand displacement activity. DNA extraction from clubbed roots obtained from farmers’ fields of oilseed rape infected by P. brassicae was done using a modified CTAB method. The reaction was performed for 60 min at 62oC. The visual detection was done using CFX96 Real Time PCR Detection System (BioRad or Gerie II Amplicatior (Optigen. The detection with LAMP proved its usefulness; it was easy, fast and accurate and independent of plant age. The detection limit was 5 spores per 1 µl of the spore suspension, so LAMP was less sensitive than quantitative PCR tests reported in the literature. However, the method is cheap and simple, so it is a good alternative, when it comes to practical use and the assessment of numerous samples.

  9. Development of an Effective Nonchemical Method against Plasmodiophora brassicae on Chinese Cabbage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Gao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Clubroot disease, caused by Plasmodiophora brassicae, is a serious soil-borne disease of crucifer worldwide, and it can significantly reduce yield and quality. Although some agrochemicals have been used to manage clubroot and can provide effective control, increasing use of chemical inputs causes several negative effects. In this study, using Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L. subsp. chinensis as the test crop, we developed an effective nonchemical method that would protect the roots against P. brassicae infection by using a combination heat treatment and a cocktail of biocontrol agents. The data showed that this method could cause 91.7% inhibition of P. brassicae infection. The average height of plants (13.5 cm using this method was about twice higher than that in control group (6.7 cm, and the average plant weight (3.19 g was about three times increased compared to that in control set (1.23 g.

  10. Quantification of Plasmodiophora brassicae Using a DNA-Based Soil Test Facilitates Sustainable Oilseed Rape Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann-Charlotte Wallenhammar

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Outbreaks of clubroot disease caused by the soil-borne obligate parasite Plasmodiophora brassicae are common in oilseed rape (OSR in Sweden. A DNA-based soil testing service that identifies fields where P. brassicae poses a significant risk of clubroot infection is now commercially available. It was applied here in field surveys to monitor the prevalence of P. brassicae DNA in field soils intended for winter OSR production and winter OSR field experiments. In 2013 in Scania, prior to planting, P. brassicae DNA was detected in 60% of 45 fields on 10 of 18 farms. In 2014, P. brassicae DNA was detected in 44% of 59 fields in 14 of 36 farms, in the main winter OSR producing region in southern Sweden. P. brassicae was present indicative of a risk for >10% yield loss with susceptible cultivars (>1300 DNA copies g soil−1 in 47% and 44% of fields in 2013 and 2014 respectively. Furthermore, P. brassicae DNA was indicative of sites at risk of complete crop failure if susceptible cultivars were grown (>50 000 copies g−1 soil in 14% and 8% of fields in 2013 and 2014, respectively. A survey of all fields at Lanna research station in western Sweden showed that P. brassicae was spread throughout the farm, as only three of the fields (20% showed infection levels below the detection limit for P.brassicae DNA, while the level was >50,000 DNA copies g−1 soil in 20% of the fields. Soil-borne spread is of critical importance and soil scraped off footwear showed levels of up to 682 million spores g−1 soil. Soil testing is an important tool for determining the presence of P. brassicae and providing an indication of potential yield loss, e.g., in advisory work on planning for a sustainable OSR crop rotation. This soil test is gaining acceptance as a tool that increases the likelihood of success in precision agriculture and in applied research conducted in commercial oilseed fields and at research stations. The present application highlights the importance of

  11. The Clubroot Pathogen (Plasmodiophora brassicae Influences Auxin Signaling to Regulate Auxin Homeostasis in Arabidopsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Jahn

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The clubroot disease, caused by the obligate biotrophic protist Plasmodiophora brassicae, affects cruciferous crops worldwide. It is characterized by root swellings as symptoms, which are dependent on the alteration of auxin and cytokinin metabolism. Here, we describe that two different classes of auxin receptors, the TIR family and the auxin binding protein 1 (ABP1 in Arabidopsis thaliana are transcriptionally upregulated upon gall formation. Mutations in the TIR family resulted in more susceptible reactions to the root pathogen. As target genes for the different pathways we have investigated the transcriptional regulation of selected transcriptional repressors (Aux/IAA and transcription factors (ARF. As the TIR pathway controls auxin homeostasis via the upregulation of some auxin conjugate synthetases (GH3, the expression of selected GH3 genes was also investigated, showing in most cases upregulation. A double gh3 mutant showed also slightly higher susceptibility to P. brassicae infection, while all tested single mutants did not show any alteration in the clubroot phenotype. As targets for the ABP1-induced cell elongation the effect of potassium channel blockers on clubroot formation was investigated. Treatment with tetraethylammonium (TEA resulted in less severe clubroot symptoms. This research provides evidence for the involvement of two auxin signaling pathways in Arabidopsis needed for the establishment of the root galls by P. brassicae.

  12. Evaluación de la gallinaza en el control de Plasmodiophora brassicae en repollo Poultry manure Evaluation in the control of Plasmodiophora brassicae in cabbage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velandia Jorge

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available En el campo no se cuenta con un control químico eficaz para la hernia de las crucíferas, causada por Plasmodiophora brassicae. En el presente ensayo, se utilizó un lote de repollo sembrado en la Sabana de Bogotá e infestado naturalmente por el patógeno, para evaluar la aplicación de gallinaza
    como medio de control cultural de la enfermedad. Plántulas de la variedad Bola Verde de repollo de 60 días de  germinadas, fueron transplantadas al terreno con la aplicación de gallinaza pura y de piso, de dos y cuatro
    meses de descomposición, respectivamente. Se probaron dosis de 100, 200, 300 y 400 g de gallinaza de piso por planta y 50, 100, 200 y 300 g de gallinaza pura por planta. A los 120 días del trasplante, se cosecharon las plantas y se midió la producción del cultivo y los niveles de daño causados por el patógeno. Todas las plantas muestreadas presentaron
    síntomas. El índice de enfermedad en la parcela testigo fue de 9.9. En las parcelas con gallinaza, la severidad de la enfermedad disminuyó significativamente, especialmente cuando se empleó gallinaza pura. El índice de enfermedad mínimo (6.6 se obtuvo aplicando 300 g de gallinaza pura.Club root, a disease of crucifers caused by Plasmodiophora brassicae fields does not have an ettsctive chemical control in Colombian cabbage crops. In this experiment, both poultry litter and poultry manure application were tested as a means to control the occurrence of the in a naturally infested
    cabbage field in the savanna of Bogotá (Colombia, South America. Cabbage seedlings of Bola Verde variety received the application of poultry litter or poultry manure at transplanting, sixty days after germination. Four doses were used, in g/plant: 100,200, 300 and 400 of poultry litter, and 50, 100, 200 y 300 of poultry manure. At harvest, 120 days after transplanting, cabbage was harvested and yield, incidence and severity were recorded. All plants showed the presence of the

  13. Effects of inoculum potential on screening for resistance to Plasmodiophora brassicae in greenhouse trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Józef Robak

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Several factors, including growth medium, inoculum density, and inoculum storage affected the reaction of resistant and susceptible Brassicas to Plasmodiophora brassicae in the greenhouse. A high level of disease was achieved using Peat-litte mix R and a commercial greenhouse mix. There was litte difference in disease incidence when spore suspensions were pipeted into planting holes or when seedlings were dipped into spore suspensions. Seedlings transplanted from sand or Petri dishes gave higher levels of disease than direct seeding. Two-year frozen storage of clubs reduced the inoculum potential to a level unable to define resistance. Inoculum levels of 103-7 spores per ml from fresh clubs, or 105-7 spores per ml from clubs frozen for 2 or 4 years, produced 90% club incidence of susceptible cauliflower and Chinese cabbage, A concentration of only 106-8 spores per ml from fresh clubs was required for maximum disease expression in a cauliflower line partially resistant to clubroot.

  14. Shotgun label-free proteomic analysis of clubroot (Plasmodiophora brassicae resistance conferred by the gene Rcr1 in Brassica rapa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Song

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Clubroot, caused by the plasmodiophorid pathogen Plasmodiophora brassicae, is one of the most serious diseases on Brassica crops worldwide and a major threat to canola production in western Canada. Host resistance is the key strategy for clubroot management on canola. Several clubroot resistance (CR genes have been identified, but the mechanisms associated with these CR genes are poorly understood. In the current study, a label-free shotgun proteomic approach was used to profile and compare the proteomes of B. rapa carrying and not carrying the CR gene Rcr1 upon P. brassicae infection. A total of 527 differentially accumulated proteins (DAPs were identified between the resistant and susceptible samples, and functional annotation of these DAPs indicates that the perception of P. brassicae and activation of defense responses is triggered via an unique signaling pathway distinct from common modes of recognition receptors reported with many other plant-pathogen interactions; this pathway appears to act in a calcium-independent manner through a not-well defined cascade of mitogen-activated protein kinases and may require the ubiquitin-26S proteasome related to abiotic stresses, especially the cold-stress tolerance. Both up-regulation of defense-related and down-regulation of pathogenicity-related metabolism were observed in plants carrying Rcr1, and these functions may all contribute to the clubroot resistance mediated by this CR gene. These results, combined with those of transcriptomic analysis reported earlier, improved our understanding of molecular mechanisms associated with Rcr1 and clubroot resistance at large, and identified candidate metabolites or pathways for further confirmation of specific resistance mechanisms. Deploying CR genes with different modes of action may help improve the durability of clubroot resistance.

  15. Infestation of Polish Agricultural Soils by Plasmodiophora Brassicae Along The Polish-Ukrainian Border

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jędryczka Małgorzata

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available There has been a rapid, worldwide increase in oilseed rape production that has resulted in enormous intensification of oilseed rape cultivation, leading to tight rotations. This in turn, has caused an accumulation of pests as well as foliar and soil-borne diseases. Recently, clubroot has become one of the biggest concerns of oilseed rape growers. Clubroot is caused by the soil-borne protist Plasmodiophora brassicae Woronin. The pathogen may be present in groundwater, lakes, and irrigation water used in sprinkling systems. It can be easily transmitted from one field to another not only by water, but also by soil particles and dust transmitted by wind and on machinery. The aim of our overall study was to check for P. brassicae infestation of Polish agricultural soils. This paper presents the 2012 results of a study performed along the Polish-Ukrainian border in two provinces: Lublin (Lubelskie Voivodeship and the Carpathian Foothills (Podkarpackie Voivodeship, in south-east Poland. Monitoring was done in 11 counties, including nine rural and two municipal ones. In total, 40 samples were collected, out of which 36 were collected from fields located in rural areas and four from municipal areas, with two per municipal region. Each sample was collected at 8-10 sites per field, using a soil auger. The biotest to detect the presence of P. brassicae was done under greenhouse conditions using seedlings of the susceptible Brassicas: B. rapa ssp. pekinensis and the Polish variety of oilseed rape B. napus cv. Monolit. Susceptible plants grown in heavily infested soils produced galls on their roots. A county was regarded as free from the pathogen, if none of the bait plants became infected. The pathogen was found in three out of 40 fields monitored (7.5% in the Carpathian Foothill region. The fields were located in two rural counties. The pathogen was not found in Lublin province, and was also not detected in any of the municipal counties. The detection with

  16. Detection of Ribosomal DNA Sequence Polymorphisms in the Protist Plasmodiophora brassicae for the Identification of Geographical Isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rawnak Laila

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Clubroot is a soil-borne disease caused by the protist Plasmodiophora brassicae (P. brassicae. It is one of the most economically important diseases of Brassica rapa and other cruciferous crops as it can cause remarkable yield reductions. Understanding P. brassicae genetics, and developing efficient molecular markers, is essential for effective detection of harmful races of this pathogen. Samples from 11 Korean field populations of P. brassicae (geographic isolates, collected from nine different locations in South Korea, were used in this study. Genomic DNA was extracted from the clubroot-infected samples to sequence the ribosomal DNA. Primers and probes for P. brassicae were designed using a ribosomal DNA gene sequence from a Japanese strain available in GenBank (accession number AB526843; isolate NGY. The nuclear ribosomal DNA (rDNA sequence of P. brassicae, comprising 6932 base pairs (bp, was cloned and sequenced and found to include the small subunits (SSUs and a large subunit (LSU, internal transcribed spacers (ITS1 and ITS2, and a 5.8s. Sequence variation was observed in both the SSU and LSU. Four markers showed useful differences in high-resolution melting analysis to identify nucleotide polymorphisms including single- nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs, oligonucleotide polymorphisms, and insertions/deletions (InDels. A combination of three markers was able to distinguish the geographical isolates into two groups.

  17. Genome-wide Investigation of microRNAs and Their Targets in Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis Root with Plasmodiophora brassicae Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaochun Wei

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Increasing evidence has revealed that microRNAs play a pivotal role in the post transcriptional regulation of gene expression in response to pathogens in plants. However, there is little information available about the expression patterns of miRNAs and their targets in Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis under Plasmodiophora brassicae stress. In the present study, using deep sequencing and degradome analysis, a genome-wide identification of miRNAs and their targets during P. brassicae stress was performed. A total of 221 known and 93 potentially novel miRNAs were successfully identified from two root libraries of one control (635-10CK and P. brassicae-treated Chinese cabbage samples (635-10T. Of these, 14 known and 10 potentially novel miRNAs were found to be differentially expressed after P. brassicae treatment. Degradome analysis revealed that the 223 target genes of the 75 miRNAs could be potentially cleaved. KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway analysis suggested that the putative target genes of the miRNAs were predominately involved in selenocompound metabolism and plant hormone signal transduction. Then the expression of 12 miRNAs was validated by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR. These results provide insights into the miRNA-mediated regulatory networks underlying the stress response to the plant pathogen P. brassicae.

  18. Development of A Real-Time PCR Assay for Plasmodiophora brassicae and Its Detection in Soil Samples

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jin-ping; LI Yan; SHI Yan-xia; XIE Xue-wen; Chai A-li; LI Bao-ju

    2013-01-01

    A SYBR Green I real-time PCR assay was developed to detect and quantify Plasmodiophora brassicae ribosomal DNA (rDNA) and internal transcribed spacer (ITS). A pair of primers PBF1/PBR1 was designed based on the conservative region of rDNA-ITS of P. brassicae. The positive plasmid pB12 was obtained and used as the template to create standard curve. The specificity, sensitivity, and reproducibility of real-time PCR were evaluated respectively. Naturally and artificially infested soil samples containing different concentrations of P. brassicae were detected. The results demonstrated that standard curve established by recombinant plasmid was shown a fine linear relationship between threshold cycle and template concentration. The melting curve was specific with the correlation coefficient of 0.995 and that the amplification efficiency was 93.8%. The detection limit of P. brassicae genomic DNA was approximately 40 copies per 25μL. The sensitivity of the assay was at least 100-fold higher than conventional PCR. Only DNA from P. brassicae could be amplified and detected using this assay, suggesting the highly specific of this assay. The coefficient of variation was less than 3%, indicating the PCR method revealed high reproducibility. The detection limit in soil samples corresponded to 1 000 resting spores g-1 soil. Bait plants were used to validate the real-time PCR assay. This developed real-time PCR assay allows for fast and sensitive detection of P. brassicae in soil and should be useful in disease management and pest interception so as to prevent further spread of P. brassicae.

  19. 芸薹根肿菌(Plasmodiophora brassicae)单孢分离接种及生理小种的鉴定%Separate inoculation of single resting spores and identification of Plasmodiophora brassicae races

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李茜; 沈向群; 耿新翠; 李林

    2012-01-01

    Plasmodiophora brassicae single-spore separate inoculation method has ever been reported. This trial improved foreign method of single-spore isolation. The dormant spore suspensions were diluted to 1/0.5 μL, and dropped on a sterile glass slide. Then it was placed under a microscope to check it repeatedly and make sure it contains only one spore. The spores were then inhaled into the microtube and inoculated on the two-day-old cabbage seedling's root hairs, with greenhouse culture in the nutrient solution for 21 days. To bring it closer to the conditions of field incidence, the suspected infected root was later developed in the sterile soil to improve the proliferation of P. Brassicae. The method could effectively speed up the infection and breeding of P. Brassicae, and promote the success rate of separate inoculation. This separate inoculation experiment was carried out using a large number of single spores of different physiological pathogens. The number of pathogen inoculated in the three regions added up to 950, and 27 of them worked. The Williams root swelling P. Brassicae helped to isolate 9 physiological races.%芸薹根肿菌(Plasmodiophora brassicae)单孢分离接种方法曾有报道,本试验改进了国外单孢分离技术.将休眠孢子悬浮液稀释到1个/0.5 μL,滴在一块消过毒的载玻片上,放置在显微镜下反复检查,以确保它精确只含有一个孢子.用微管将孢子吸入接种在2日龄白菜幼苗根毛上,营养液培养3周.为使其更接近田间发病环境条件,后期将疑似发病根在无菌土中继续进行病菌增繁.该方法能够有效地加快病菌繁殖感染,提高单孢分离接种成功率.对不同地区病菌进行大量单孢分离接种.本试验对3个地区的病菌单孢接种共950株,接种成功27株,使用Williams根肿病菌鉴别寄主鉴定,共9个生理小种.

  20. Effects of Trichoderma harzianum Rifai over Plasmodiophora brassicae Woronin in broccoli, in Escagüey, municipality of Rangel, Mérida State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirna Labrador Morales

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of Trichoderma harzianum in suppressing clubroot of brassicas, which is caused by Plasmodiophora brassicae, was tested on broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica Plenck, in field conditions, in Escagüey, municipality of Rangel, Merida State, Venezuela. The experiment showed that the applications of a biopesticide based on this antagonist had a significant effect on the percentage of health plants and the crop yields, in dependence of the dose used. In addition, the relation benefits/cost was also favorable. These results showed that, for these particular conditions, P. brassicae is an adequate biological alternative to control the clubroot of brassicas, no aggressive to environment and human beings, useful for the transition phase toward a sustainable agriculture, without chemical pesticides.

  1. Efeito do pré-plantio com plantas medicinais e aromáticas no controle de Plasmodiophora brassicae The effect of pre-plantation with medicinal plants in the Plasmodiophora brassicae control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionete Hasse

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available A "hérnia das crucíferas" é a principal doença na produção de brássicas na Região Metropolitana de Curitiba-PR. Fatores ambientais favoráveis, ausência de cultivares resistentes e de controle químico eficiente, aliados ao plantio sucessivo de espécies da mesma família, têm colaborado para sua disseminação. Com o objetivo de controlar a doença com menor impacto ambiental, o presente estudo verificou o efeito do pré-plantio de plantas medicinais e aromáticas na redução de inóculo de Plasmodiophora brassicae. Dois experimentos foram conduzidos em casa de vegetação no Setor de Ciências Agrárias da Universidade Federal do Paraná, nos períodos de junho a novembro de 2003 e julho a dezembro de 2004. O delineamento foi inteiramente casualizado com nove tratamentos e seis repetições. As plantas utilizadas nos tratamentos foram: menta (Mentha piperita L.; alfavaca (Ocimum basilicum L.; bardana (Arctium minus Hill; calêndula (Calendula officinalis L.; cebolinha (Allium fistulosum L.; salsa (Petroselinum hortense Hoffm e sálvia (Salvia officinalis L., e como testemunhas foram utilizados solos sem patógeno e solo infestado, ambos em pousio. Utilizaram-se vasos contendo 3 Kg de solo esterilizado via vapor e como inóculo de P. brassicae foram utilizados 2,5 g de galhas por vaso. A rúcula (Eruca sativa Mill foi o hospedeiro suscetível utilizado. Após 45 dias do plantio da rúcula foram determinadas a massa aérea fresca, incidência de galhas galhas e o índice de severidade. A maior massa aérea fresca e as menores severidades foram obtidas no experimento de 2003, nos tratamentos com o pré-plantio das medicinais bardana, salsa, menta, alfavaca e cebolinha.Clubroot of crucifers is main disease in the brassica production in the Metropolitan Region of Curitiba, Paraná State. Favorable environmental factors, lack of resistant varieties and efficient chemical control along with successive plantation of the same family species

  2. High avidity binding of engineered papaya mosaic virus virus-like particles to resting spores of Plasmodiophora brassicae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, Hélène; Tremblay, Marie-Hélène; Plante, Edith; Paré, Christine; Majeau, Nathalie; Hogue, Richard; Leclerc, Denis

    2007-02-01

    Papaya mosaic virus (PapMV) like particles (VLPs) were used as a platform for fusion of affinity peptides binding to resting spores of Plasmodiophora brassicae-a major pathogen of crucifers. Three peptides with specific affinity to the target were isolated and cloned at the C-terminus of the PapMV coat protein (CP), generating three different high avidity VLPs. The peptides were exposed at the surface of the VLPs and their avidity to resting spores of P. brassicae was measured by flow cytometry. NLP-A, with the peptide DPAPRPR, showed the highest avidity. The binding avidity of NLP-A to P. brassicae spores was comparable to that of a polyclonal antibody. NLP-A was also shown to be more specific than the antibody. Fusion of the affinity peptide to a monomeric form (mCP) of the CP [Lecours, K., Tremblay, M.-H., Laliberté Gagné, M.-E., Gagné, S.M., Leclerc, D., 2006. Purification and biochemical characterization of a monomeric form of papaya mosaic potexvirus coat protein. Protein Express. Purific. 47, 273-280] generated a fusion protein that was unable to assemble into VLPs, and mCP-A fusions failed to bind resting spores. The avidity of VLP-A was increased by adding a glycine spacer between the C-terminus of the PapMV CP and the peptide, and improved even further by using a duplicated A peptide in the fusion protein. The use of high avidity VLPs has advantages over polyclonal antibodies because of target specificity. VLPs offers the specificity of monoclonal antibodies but can be more easily generated using the powerful selection of phage display.

  3. 甘兰根肿病菌生物学特性%BIOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF PLASMODIOPHORA BRASSICAE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭向华; 肖崇刚; 曾艳

    2001-01-01

    对甘兰根肿病菌生物学特性研究表明,该菌休眠孢子萌发的最适温度为24℃,最适pH值为6.0~6.7,致死温度为45℃,且光对孢子i萌发有明显抑制作用。该菌休眠孢子在感病寄主的根分泌物溶液中萌发率最高,达75%。此外,耐病甘兰品种及非十字花科番茄作物的根分泌物均能刺激其孢子萌发。%The optimum temperature for the germination of dormant spores of Plasmodiophora brassicae was sbown to be 24℃ and the optimum pH was in the rawae of 6.0~6.7. The lethal temperature for the pathogen was45℃ and light had a marked inhihiting effect on the germination of the spores. The dormant spores of the fungus had the higbest germination percentage( 75% ) in the root exudate of the suaceptible host. The root exudate of a resistant cabbage variety or of tormato,whichis not a crucifer, showed stimnulating effect to the germination of the spores.

  4. Kajian Penggunaan Pupuk Hayati untuk Mengendalikan Penyakit Akar Gada (Plasmodiophora brassicae pada Tanaman Sawi Daging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diding Rachmawati

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Pada budidaya tanaman sawi daging (pakcoi  dijumpai berbagai masalah  serius  yang menghambat upaya peningkatan produksi dan kualitas hasil. Salah satu kendala utama adalah penyakit tular tanah yang disebabkan oleh cendawan Plasmopara brassicae Wor . Serangan patogen tular tanah dapat menekan produksi tanaman hortikultura secara significan. Berbagai upaya telah dilakukan untuk mengendalikan patogen tular tanah antara lain dengan menggunakan bekterisida sistemik . Salah satu alternatif pengendalian yang paling prospektif adalah dengan menggunakan pupuk hayati yang telah diperkaya dengan mikroorganisme. antara lain bakteri selulotik, Azotobacter sp., Azospirillium sp., Rhizobium sp., Pseudomonas sp., Lactobacillus sp., dan  bakteri pelarut fosfat yang bertujuan untuk memperbaiki struktur tanah dan mengendalikan penyakit tular tanah. Penelitian dilakukan di kebun percobaan Karangploso BPTP Jatim,  pada bulan Januari sampai dengan April 2014, menggunakan rancangan acak kelompok, 4 perlakuan dan 6 ulangan. Perlakuan  terdiri dari  : A = Pupuk hayati dosis 15 kg/ha,   B = Pupuk hayati dosis 30 kg/ha,  C = Pupuk hayati dosis 45 kg/ha, D = Cara petani. Tujuan penelitian adalah untuk mengetahui efektifitas pupuk hayati dalam mengendalikan penyakit akar gada  P.brassicae  pada tanaman sawi daging. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa pemberian pupuk hayati dosis 45 kg/ha dapat memberikan pertumbuhan yang baik terhadap tinggi tanaman ( 26,50 cm, jumlah daun (21 helai, lebar tajuk (33,25 cm, panjang akar (14,38 cm dan bobot/tanaman (380 g/tanaman. Persentase serangan penyakit akar gada terendah juga ditunjukkan oleh pemberian pupuk hayati dosis 45 kg/ha, yaitu sebesar 1,75 % dan penekanan penyakit sebesar 70,83 %.Kata Kunci : Brassica juncea, pupuk hayati, penyakit bengkak akar

  5. Analysis of salicylic acid-dependent pathways in Arabidopsis thaliana following infection with Plasmodiophora brassicae and the influence of salicylic acid on disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovelock, David A; Šola, Ivana; Marschollek, Sabine; Donald, Caroline E; Rusak, Gordana; van Pée, Karl-Heinz; Ludwig-Müller, Jutta; Cahill, David M

    2016-10-01

    Salicylic acid (SA) biosynthesis, the expression of SA-related genes and the effect of SA on the Arabidopsis-Plasmodiophora brassicae interaction were examined. Biochemical analyses revealed that, in P. brassicae-infected Arabidopsis, the majority of SA is synthesized from chorismate. Real-time monitored expression of a gene for isochorismate synthase was induced on infection. SA can be modified after accumulation, either by methylation, improving its mobility, or by glycosylation, as one possible reaction for inactivation. Quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) confirmed the induction of an SA methyltransferase gene, whereas SA glucosyltransferase expression was not changed after infection. Col-0 wild-type (wt) did not provide a visible phenotypic resistance response, whereas the Arabidopsis mutant dnd1, which constitutively activates the immune system, showed reduced gall scores. As dnd1 showed control of the pathogen, exogenous SA was applied to Arabidopsis in order to test whether it could suppress clubroot. In wt, sid2 (SA biosynthesis), NahG (SA-deficient) and npr1 (SA signalling-impaired) mutants, SA treatment did not alter the gall score, but positively affected the shoot weight. This suggests that SA alone is not sufficient for Arabidopsis resistance against P. brassicae. Semi-quantitative PCR revealed that wt, cpr1, dnd1 and sid2 showed elevated PR-1 expression on P. brassicae and SA + P. brassicae inoculation at 2 and 3 weeks post-inoculation (wpi), whereas NahG and npr1 showed no expression. This work contributes to the understanding of SA involvement in the Arabidopsis-P. brassicae interaction.

  6. Enhancement of Biocontrol Activities and Cyclic Lipopeptides Production by Chemical Mutagenesis of Bacillus subtilis XF-1, a Biocontrol Agent of Plasmodiophora brassicae and Fusarium solani.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xing-Yu; Yang, Jing-Jing; Mao, Zi-Chao; Ho, Hon-Hing; Wu, Yi-Xing; He, Yue-Qiu

    2014-12-01

    Bacillus subtilis XF-1 has been used as a biocontrol agent of clubroot disease of crucifers infected by Plasmodiophora brassicae, an obligate pathogen. In order to maximize the growth inhibition of the pathogen, random mutagenesis using N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine was applied to strain XF-1. The efficacy of 226 selected mutants was assessed against the growth of an indicator fungal pathogen: Fusarium solani using agar plate assay and the disruptive effects on the resting spores of P. brassicae. Four mutants exhibited inhibition activity significantly higher than the wild type. The cell extracts of these mutants and the XF-1 were subjected to matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectra analysis, and three families of cyclic lipopeptides (CLPs) fengycin, surfactin and iturin were identified from the parental strain and the screened mutants. However, the relative contents and compound diversity changed after mutagenesis, and there was slight variation in the surfactin and fengycin. Notably, only 5 iturin components were discovered from the wild strain XF-1, but 13 were obtained from the mutant strains, and the relative CLPs contents of all mutant strains increased substantially. The results suggested that CLPs might be one of main biocontrol mechanisms of the clubroot disease by XF-1. The 4 mutants are far more effective than the parental strain, and they would be promising biocontrol candidates not only against P. brassicae but probably other plant diseases caused by fungi.

  7. Both the Jasmonic Acid and the Salicylic Acid Pathways Contribute to Resistance to the Biotrophic Clubroot Agent Plasmodiophora brassicae in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemarié, Séverine; Robert-Seilaniantz, Alexandre; Lariagon, Christine; Lemoine, Jocelyne; Marnet, Nathalie; Jubault, Mélanie; Manzanares-Dauleux, Maria J; Gravot, Antoine

    2015-11-01

    The role of salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA) signaling in resistance to root pathogens has been poorly documented. We assessed the contribution of SA and JA to basal and partial resistance of Arabidopsis to the biotrophic clubroot agent Plasmodiophora brassicae. SA and JA levels as well as the expression of the SA-responsive genes PR2 and PR5 and the JA-responsive genes ARGAH2 and THI2.1 were monitored in infected roots of the accessions Col-0 (susceptible) and Bur-0 (partially resistant). SA signaling was activated in Bur-0 but not in Col-0. The JA pathway was weakly activated in Bur-0 but was strongly induced in Col-0. The contribution of both pathways to clubroot resistance was then assessed using exogenous phytohormone application and mutants affected in SA or JA signaling. Exogenous SA treatment decreased clubroot symptoms in the two Arabidopsis accessions, whereas JA treatment reduced clubroot symptoms only in Col-0. The cpr5-2 mutant, in which SA responses are constitutively induced, was more resistant to clubroot than the corresponding wild type, and the JA signaling-deficient mutant jar1 was more susceptible. Finally, we showed that the JA-mediated induction of NATA1 drove N(δ)-acetylornithine biosynthesis in infected Col-0 roots. The 35S::NATA1 and nata1 lines displayed reduced or enhanced clubroot symptoms, respectively, thus suggesting that in Col-0 this pathway was involved in the JA-mediated basal clubroot resistance. Overall, our data support the idea that, depending on the Arabidopsis accession, both SA and JA signaling can play a role in partial inhibition of clubroot development in compatible interactions with P. brassicae.

  8. Identification of expressed genes during infection of chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa subsp. pekinensis) by Plasmodiophora brassicae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sundelin, Thomas; Jensen, Dan Funck; Lübeck, Mette

    2011-01-01

    is impossible. Discovery of genes expressed during infection and gene organization are the first steps toward a better understanding of the pathogen–host interaction. Here, suppression subtractive hybridization was used to search for the P. brassicae genes expressed during plant infection. One-hundred and forty...... ESTs were found of which 49% proved to be P. brassicae genes. Ten novel P. brassicae genes were identified, and the genomic sequences surrounding four of the ESTs were acquired using genome walking. Alignment of the ESTs and the genomic DNA sequences confirmed that P. brassicae genes are intron rich...... and that the introns are small. These results show that it is possible to discover new P. brassicae genes from a mixed pool of both plant and pathogen cDNA. The results also revealed that some of the P. brassicae genes expressed in Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa subsp. pekinensis) were identical to the genes expressed...

  9. Screening of Antagonistic Microorganisms against Plasmodiophora brassicae and Evaluation of Their Control Effect%白菜根肿病菌拮抗微生物的筛选及防治效果评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙良菲; 任佐华; 彭沙莎; 黄小莉; 董俊; 刘二明

    2013-01-01

    To screen antagonistic microorganisms against Plasmodiophora brassicae, 21 diseased soil samples were collected from Hunan Province and Yunnan Province, and then be isolated to screen antagonistic microorganisms against Plasmodiophora brassicae.Moreover, the control effect of screened antagonistic microorganisms was evaluated.The results indicated that a total of 471 strains, among which 236 bacteria, 107 fungi and 128 actinomycetes strains were screened from the 21 diseased soil samples.17 strains were screened from the above 471 strains using the dual culture method with seven species of indicator plant pathogenic fungi.Then, the inhibition effect of the 17 strains against germination of resting spores of Plasmodiophora brassicae was determined by orcein staining method.The results showed that the inhibition rate of actinomycete YN-6 and fungus XP-F2 on the germination of resting spore of Plasmodiophora brassicae was 61.75% and 56.84%, respectively.In addition, the results of greenhouse pot experiment showed that the controlling efficacy of YN-6 and XP-F2 on cabbage clubroot was 56.30% and 61.80%, respectively.So they may have certain capacity for controlling Chinese cabbage clubroot.%为了筛选对白菜根肿病菌具有拮抗作用的微生物,从湖南和云南等地采集了21份感病土样,并对其进行了分离筛选和防治白菜根肿病效果评价.结果表明:在21份感病土样中分离到471株菌株,其中细菌236株、真菌107株、放线菌128株.利用7种指示菌进行平板对峙测定,从中筛选出17个抗菌谱广的菌株.采用地衣红染色法测定这17个菌株对白菜根肿病菌休眠孢子萌发的抑制效果,筛选出了放线菌YN-6、真菌XP-F2,其对白菜根肿病菌休眠孢子抑制率分别为61.75%、56.84%.温室盆栽试验结果显示,放线菌YN-6、真菌XP-F2对白菜根肿病的防病效果分别为56.30%、61.80%,对白菜根肿病具有一定的生防潜力.

  10. Molecular biology of Plasmodiophora brassicae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siemens, Johannes; Bulman, Simon; Rehn, Frank

    2009-01-01

    of several genes have been revealed, and the expression of those genes has been linked to development of clubroot to some extent. In addition, the sequence data have reinforced the inclusion of the plasmodiophorids within the Cercozoa. The recent successes in molecular biology have produced new approaches...

  11. Control of rapeseed clubroot by screened antagonistic microorganisms against Plasmodiophora brassicae%油菜根肿病菌拮抗微生物的筛选及其防治效果测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王靖; 黄云; 张艳; 姚佳

    2011-01-01

    Hundreds of microbes were isolated from rhizosphere soil, root, stem and twigs of plants species for rapeseed clubroot (Plasmodiophora brassicae) control. The plant species included ginkgo tree ( Ginkgo biloba ), tea tree ( Camellia sinensis), Ormosia yaanensis, Chinese cabbage ( Brassica rapa), and also rapeseed ( Brassica napus). A total of 421 bacterias, 155 fungi and 368 actinomycete strains were isolated. From the results of gemination rate investigation of P. brassicae resting spore after inoculation of isolated strains, 5.46% of bacteria, 0.65% of fungi and 4.35% of actinomycetes were found, all of them could decrease the gemination rates of P. brassicae below 45%. Among these strains, antagonistic strains actinomycete A316, Al0 and fungi T1 had the best potential in biological control of rapeseed clubroot. The resting spore germination inhibition rates reached 77.11%, 72.54% and 69.01%, respectively. Their control efficiencies were 73.60%, 70.94%, 67.10% in pot experiment and 65.84%, 59.59%, 61.24% in field experiment.%以寻找对油菜根肿病菌具有生物防治作用的拮抗微生物为主要目的,采集茶树、红豆树、银杏树、白菜和油菜的根际土壤及根、茎、叶、枝条等样品进行分离,通过测定根肿病菌休眠孢子接种这些微生物后的萌发率来筛选拮抗菌株,并在室内盆栽及大田试验中评价了10株拮抗微生物的防治效果.实验共分离出细菌421株、真菌155株、放线菌368株,使休眠孢子萌发率低于45%的菌株仅分别占5.4%、0.65%、4.35%.其中放线菌A316、A10和真菌T1对根肿病的生防潜力最大,对休眠孢子萌发的抑制率分别高达77.11%、72.54%、69.01%,室内盆栽防效分别为73.60%、70.94%、67.10%,大田防效依次达65.84%、59.59%、61.24%.

  12. Change of 3 Kinds of Enzyme Activity and Soluble Sugar in 3 Chinese Cabbage Varieties with Different Resistance Level During the Process of Plasmodiophora brassicae lnfecting Their Roots

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zuohua REN; Hu ZHOU; Xiaoli HUANG; Qiong SONG; Minjie LlU; Erming LlU

    2015-01-01

    There are different levels of resistance in Chinese cabbage varieties a-gainst clubroot. The content of catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POD), phenylalanin am-monia-lyase (PAL), Super Oxide Dismutase (SOD) and soluble sugar activities of 3 cultivars with different clubroot-resistant levelswere detected after inoculation in this study. The results suggest that the changing rates of CAT, PAL and SOD contents of resistance cultivars after inoculation were higher than those of susceptible culti-vars (Baigengbaiye > Zaobaicaitai > Huangjinxiaobaicai); the POD activities of resis-tance cultivars reached a peak on an earlier day than those of susceptible cultivars;the increasing rate of soluble sugar of susceptible cultivars was higher than that of the resistance cultivars, and ended with two peaks. Therefore, the four enzymes (CAT, POD, PAL and SOD) and soluble sugar may be used as physiological and biochemical reference indexes for the resistance identification to clubroot after inoc-ulation with P. brassicae.

  13. A genome-wide association study reveals new loci for resistance to clubroot disease in Brassica napus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lixia Li

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Rapeseed (Brassica napus L. is one of the most important oil crops in the world. However, the yield and quality of rapeseed were largely decreased by clubroot (Plasmodiophora brassicae Woronin. Therefore, it is of great importance for screening more resistant germplasms or genes and improving the resistance to P. brassicae in rapeseed breeding. In this study, a massive resistant identification for a natural global population was conducted in two environments with race/pathotype 4 of P. brassicae which was the most predominant in China, and a wide range of phenotypic variation was found in the population. In addition, a genome-wide association study of 472 accessions for clubroot resistance (CR was performed with 60K Brassica Infinium SNP arrays for the first time. In total, 9 QTLs were detected, 7 of which were novel through integrative analysis. Furthermore, additive effects in genetic control of CR in rapeseed among the above loci were found. By bioinformatic analyses, the candidate genes of these loci were predicted, which indicated that TIR-NBS gene family might play an important role in CR. It is believable that the results presented in our study could provide valuable information for understanding the genetic mechanism and molecular regulation of CR.

  14. Effects of the endophyte Acremonium alternatum on oilseed rape (Brassica napus development and clubroot progression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUSANN AUER

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The clubroot pathogen Plasmodiophora brassicae infects economically important Brassica crops such as oilseed rape and vegetable brassicas. Clubroot results in abnormally growing roots and restricts the flow of water and nutrients to the upper plant parts, thereby inducing wilting. Yield loss affects about half the percentage of infected plants. Due to its complex and well-adapted life cycle the pathogen is difficult to control by chemical and cultural means and therefore continues to spread around the globe. Infested fields can no longer be used effectively for cultivation of crop plants for at least the next ten years. Despite costly breeding of resistant cultivars, recent research leans towards alternative, low-impact and environmentally friendly methods to control clubroot. To this end we have previously identified the endophyte Acremonium alternatum, a known biological control agent in several countries, to show promising antagonistic effects in clubroot-infected A. thaliana and Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa. Here, we will describe its effect on the growth, development and clubroot control of oilseed rape (Brassica napus. While the clubroot symptoms were not clearly reduced after co-inoculation with A. alternatum and P. brassicae on oilseed rape roots, the aboveground plant parts were delayed in senescence and produced more seeds, which is indicative of an increase in yield after A. alternatum treatment. The long-term goal of this work is to contribute to a fundamental understanding of endophyte-plant interactions and an effective reduction of clubroot to be used in integrated pest management for oilseed rape and other cabbage varieties.

  15. Genomic Changes in Resynthesized Brassica napus and Their Effect on Gene Expression and Phenotype

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Robert T. Gaeta; J. Chris Pires; Federico Iniguez-Luy; Enrique Leon; Thomas C. Osborn

    2007-01-01

    .... We analyzed genetic, epigenetic, gene expression, and phenotypic changes in ∼50 resynthesized Brassica napus lines independently derived by hybridizing double haploids of Brassica oleracea and Brassica rapa...

  16. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of Brassica napus and Brassica oleracea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhalla, Prem L; Singh, Mohan B

    2008-01-01

    Agrobacterium-mediated transformation is widely used for gene delivery in plants. However, commercial cultivars of crop plants are often recalcitrant to transformation because the protocols established for model varieties are not directly applicable to them. The genus Brassica includes the oil seed crop, canola (B. napus), and vegetable crop varieties of Brassica oleracea, including cauliflower, broccoli and cabbage. Here, we describe an efficient protocol for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation using seedling explants that is applicable to various Brassica varieties; this protocol has been used to genetically engineer commercial cultivars of canola and cauliflower in our laboratory. Young seedling explants are inoculated with Agrobacterium on the day of explant preparation. Explants are grown for 1 week in the absence of a selective agent before being transferred to a selective medium to recover transgenic shoots. Transgenic shoots are subjected to an additional round of selection on medium containing higher levels of the selective agent and a low-carbohydrate source; this helps to eliminate false-positive plants. Use of seedling explants offers flexible experiment planning and a convenient explant source. Using this protocol, transgenic plants can be obtained in 2.5 to 3.5 months.

  17. Subgenome parallel selection is associated with morphotype diversification and convergent crop domestication in Brassica rapa and Brassica oleracea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cheng, Feng; Sun, Rifei; Hou, Xilin; Zheng, Hongkun; Zhang, Fenglan; Zhang, Yangyong; Liu, Bo; Liang, Jianli; Zhuang, Mu; Liu, Yunxia; Liu, Dongyuan; Wang, Xiaobo; Li, Pingxia; Liu, Yumei; Lin, Ke; Bucher, Johan; Zhang, Ningwen; Wang, Yan; Wang, Hui; Deng, Jie; Liao, Yongcui; Wei, Keyun; Zhang, Xueming; Fu, Lixia; Hu, Yunyan; Liu, Jisheng; Cai, Chengcheng; Zhang, Shujiang; Zhang, Shifan; Li, Fei; Zhang, Hui; Zhang, Jifang; Guo, Ning; Liu, Zhiyuan; Liu, Jin; Sun, Chao; Ma, Yuan; Zhang, Haijiao; Cui, Yang; Freeling, Micheal R.; Borm, Theo; Bonnema, Guusje; Wu, Jian; Wang, Xiaowu

    2016-01-01

    Brassica species, including crops such as cabbage, turnip and oilseed, display enormous phenotypic variation. Brassica genomes have all undergone a whole-genome triplication (WGT) event with unknown effects on phenotype diversification. We resequenced 199 Brassica rapa and 119 Brassica oleracea a

  18. Subgenome parallel selection is associated with morphotype diversification and convergent crop domestication in Brassica rapa and Brassica oleracea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cheng, Feng; Sun, Rifei; Hou, Xilin; Zheng, Hongkun; Zhang, Fenglan; Zhang, Yangyong; Liu, Bo; Liang, Jianli; Zhuang, Mu; Liu, Yunxia; Liu, Dongyuan; Wang, Xiaobo; Li, Pingxia; Liu, Yumei; Lin, Ke; Bucher, Johan; Zhang, Ningwen; Wang, Yan; Wang, Hui; Deng, Jie; Liao, Yongcui; Wei, Keyun; Zhang, Xueming; Fu, Lixia; Hu, Yunyan; Liu, Jisheng; Cai, Chengcheng; Zhang, Shujiang; Zhang, Shifan; Li, Fei; Zhang, Hui; Zhang, Jifang; Guo, Ning; Liu, Zhiyuan; Liu, Jin; Sun, Chao; Ma, Yuan; Zhang, Haijiao; Cui, Yang; Freeling, Micheal R.; Borm, Theo; Bonnema, Guusje; Wu, Jian; Wang, Xiaowu

    2016-01-01

    Brassica species, including crops such as cabbage, turnip and oilseed, display enormous phenotypic variation. Brassica genomes have all undergone a whole-genome triplication (WGT) event with unknown effects on phenotype diversification. We resequenced 199 Brassica rapa and 119 Brassica oleracea a

  19. Screening Brassica species for glucosinolate content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonious, George F; Bomford, Michael; Vincelli, Paul

    2009-03-01

    Glucosinolates (GSLs), a group of compounds found in Brassica plants, are toxic to some soil-borne plant pathogens because of the toxicity of their hydrolysis products, isothiocyanates. Other phytochemicals found in Brassica plants, such as phenols and ascorbic acid, may compliment the activity of GSLs. A survey of Brassica accessions from the national germplasm repository was conducted to identify potential cover crops that could be soil-incorporated for use as biofumigants. Ten Brassica accessions that demonstrated relative cold tolerance, rapid maturity, and superior biomass production were selected. The selected accessions were grown under three climatic conditions (fall greenhouse, winter high tunnel, and spring field) to investigate whether growing conditions affect their GSL, phenol, and ascorbic acid content. The selected accessions included seven accessions of Brassica juncea (Indian mustard), one of Brassica napus (oil seed rape), one of Brassica campestris (field mustard), and one of Eruca sativa (arugula). Separation of GSLs from the selected Brassica accessions was achieved using ion-exchange sephadex in disposable pipette tips. Quantification of total GSLs was based on inactivation of the endogenous thioglucosidase and liberation of the glucose moiety from the GSL molecule by addition of standardized thioglucosidase (myrosinase) and colorimetry. GSL concentration of greenhouse, high tunnel, and field-grown shoots (leaves and stems) averaged 24, 40 and 76 micromoles g(-1) fresh weight, respectively. Accessions of B. juncea generally had the highest GSL content. A comparison of accessions revealed that Ames 8887 of B. juncea contained the greatest GSL concentration, but had the lowest biomass yield and ascorbic acid concentration, in part because phytochemical concentration tended to be negatively correlated with biomass yield. More promising was B. juncea accession 'Pacific Gold' which coupled high biomass yield with above-average GSL production, but

  20. Identification of Genome-Wide Variants and Discovery of Variants Associated with Brassica rapa Clubroot Resistance Gene Rcr1 through Bulked Segregant RNA Sequencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Fengqun; Zhang, Xingguo; Huang, Zhen; Chu, Mingguang; Song, Tao; Falk, Kevin C.; Deora, Abhinandan; Chen, Qilin; Zhang, Yan; McGregor, Linda; Gossen, Bruce D.; McDonald, Mary Ruth; Peng, Gary

    2016-01-01

    Clubroot, caused by Plasmodiophora brassicae, is an important disease on Brassica species worldwide. A clubroot resistance gene, Rcr1, with efficacy against pathotype 3 of P. brassicae, was previously mapped to chromosome A03 of B. rapa in pak choy cultivar “Flower Nabana”. In the current study, resistance to pathotypes 2, 5 and 6 was shown to be associated with Rcr1 region on chromosome A03. Bulked segregant RNA sequencing was performed and short read sequences were assembled into 10 chromosomes of the B. rapa reference genome v1.5. For the resistant (R) bulks, a total of 351.8 million (M) sequences, 30,836.5 million bases (Mb) in length, produced 120-fold coverage of the reference genome. For the susceptible (S) bulks, 322.9 M sequences, 28,216.6 Mb in length, produced 109-fold coverage. In total, 776.2 K single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and 122.2 K insertion / deletion (InDels) in R bulks and 762.8 K SNPs and 118.7 K InDels in S bulks were identified; each chromosome had about 87% SNPs and 13% InDels, with 78% monomorphic and 22% polymorphic variants between the R and S bulks. Polymorphic variants on each chromosome were usually below 23%, but made up 34% of the variants on chromosome A03. There were 35 genes annotated in the Rcr1 target region and variants were identified in 21 genes. The numbers of poly variants differed significantly among the genes. Four out of them encode Toll-Interleukin-1 receptor / nucleotide-binding site / leucine-rich-repeat proteins; Bra019409 and Bra019410 harbored the higher numbers of polymorphic variants, which indicates that they are more likely candidates of Rcr1. Fourteen SNP markers in the target region were genotyped using the Kompetitive Allele Specific PCR method and were confirmed to associate with Rcr1. Selected SNP markers were analyzed with 26 recombinants obtained from a segregating population consisting of 1587 plants, indicating that they were completely linked to Rcr1. Nine SNP markers were used for marker

  1. Inheritance of oilseed rape (Brassica napus) RAPD markers in a backcross progeny with Brassica campestris

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, T.R.; Jensen, J.; Bagger Jørgensen, Rikke

    1996-01-01

    Different cultivars/transgenic lines of oilseed rape (Brassica napus) were crossed (as females) with different cultivars/populations of Brassica campestris. All cross combinations produced seed, with an average seed set per pollination of 9.8. Backcrossing of selected interspecific hybrids (as...

  2. Ozone affects growth and development of Pieris brassicae on the wild host plant Brassica nigra

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khaling, E.; Papazian, S.; Poelman, E.H.; Holopainen, J.K.; Albrectsen, B.R.; Blande, J.D.

    2015-01-01

    When plants are exposed to ozone they exhibit changes in both primary and secondary metabolism, which may affect their interactions with herbivorous insects. Here we investigated the performance and preferences of the specialist herbivore Pieris brassicae on the wild plant Brassica nigra under eleva

  3. Phylogenetic relationships within and among Brassica species from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phylogenetic relationships within and among Brassica species from RAPD loci ... The genus Brassica comprises economically important oilseed and vegetable crops. ... genetic diversity for conservation, cultivar classification and molecular ...

  4. SSR marker variations in Brassica species provide insight into the origin and evolution of Brassica amphidiploids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, Ajay Kumar; Singh, Kunwar Harendra; Singh, Lal; Nanjundan, Joghee; Khan, Yasin Jeshima; Singh, Dhiraj

    2018-01-01

    Oilseed Brassica represents an important group of oilseed crops with a long history of evolution and cultivation. To understand the origin and evolution of Brassica amphidiploids, simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers were used to unravel genetic variations in three diploids and three amphidiploid Brassica species of U's triangle along with Eruca sativa as an outlier. Of 124 Brassica-derived SSR loci assayed, 100% cross-transferability was obtained for B. juncea and three subspecies of B. rapa, while lowest cross-transferability (91.93%) was obtained for Eruca sativa. The average % age of cross-transferability across all the seven species was 98.15%. The number of alleles detected at each locus ranged from one to six with an average of 3.41 alleles per primer pair. Neighbor-Joining-based dendrogram divided all the 40 accessions into two main groups composed of B. juncea/B. nigra/B. rapa and B. carinata/B. napus/B. oleracea. C-genome of oilseed Brassica species remained relatively more conserved than A- and B-genome. A- genome present in B. juncea and B. napus seems distinct from each other and hence provides great opportunity for generating diversity through synthesizing amphidiploids from different sources of A- genome. B. juncea had least intra-specific distance indicating narrow genetic base. B. rapa appears to be more primitive species from which other two diploid species might have evolved. The SSR marker set developed in this study will assist in DNA fingerprinting of various Brassica species cultivars, evaluating the genetic diversity in Brassica germplasm, genome mapping and construction of linkage maps, gene tagging and various other genomics-related studies in Brassica species. Further, the evolutionary relationship established among various Brassica species would assist in formulating suitable breeding strategies for widening the genetic base of Brassica amphidiploids by exploiting the genetic diversity present in diploid progenitor gene pools.

  5. Transfer of auxinic herbicide resistance from Brassica kaber to Brassica juncea and Brassica rapa through embryo rescue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mithila, J; Hall, J Christopher

    2013-01-01

    Auxinic herbicides are widely used in agriculture to selectively control broadleaf weeds. Prolonged use of auxinic herbicides has resulted in the evolution of resistance to these herbicides in some biotypes of Brassica kaber (wild mustard), a common weed in agricultural crops. In this study, auxinic herbicide resistance from B. kaber was transferred to Brassica juncea and Brassica rapa, two commercially important Brassica crops, by traditional breeding coupled with in vitro embryo rescue. A high frequency of embryo regeneration and hybrid plant establishment was achieved. Transfer of auxinic herbicide resistance from B. kaber to the hybrids was assessed by whole-plant screening of hybrids with dicamba, a widely used auxinic herbicide. Furthermore, the hybrids were tested for fertility (both pollen and pistil) and their ability to produce backcross progeny. The auxinic herbicide-resistant trait was introgressed into B. juncea by backcross breeding. DNA ploidy of the hybrids as well as of the backcross progeny was estimated by flow cytometry. Creation of auxinic herbicide-resistant Brassica crops by non-transgenic approaches should facilitate effective weed control, encourage less tillage, provide herbicide rotation options, minimize occurrence of herbicide resistance, and increase acceptance of these crops.

  6. Standardized gene nomenclature for the Brassica genus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    King Graham J

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The genus Brassica (Brassicaceae, Brassiceae is closely related to the model plant Arabidopsis, and includes several important crop plants. Against the background of ongoing genome sequencing, and in line with efforts to standardize and simplify description of genetic entities, we propose a standard systematic gene nomenclature system for the Brassica genus. This is based upon concatenating abbreviated categories, where these are listed in descending order of significance from left to right (i.e. genus – species – genome – gene name – locus – allele. Indicative examples are provided, and the considerations and recommendations for use are discussed, including outlining the relationship with functionally well-characterized Arabidopsis orthologues. A Brassica Gene Registry has been established under the auspices of the Multinational Brassica Genome Project that will enable management of gene names within the research community, and includes provisional allocation of standard names to genes previously described in the literature or in sequence repositories. The proposed standardization of Brassica gene nomenclature has been distributed to editors of plant and genetics journals and curators of sequence repositories, so that it can be adopted universally.

  7. Analysis of Carbohydrate Metabolism Genes of Spongospora subterranea Using 454 Pyrosequencing / Análisis de Genes del Metabolismo de Carbohidratos de Spongospora subterranea Utilizando Pirosecuenciación 454

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Andrés Gutiérrez Sánchez

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Spongospora subterranea, the causal agent of Potato powdery scab, is an important soil-borne obligate protozoan commonly found in Andean soils. This is a serious problem that causes cosmetic damage on the skin of tubers and induces root gall formation, diminishing the yield and commercial value of the potato. Genetic studies on S. subterranea are difficult due to its obligate parasitism, which explains the lack of available knowledge on its basic biology. S. subterranea is a member of the Plasmodiophorida order, a protist taxa that includes other important plant pathogens such as Plasmodiophora brassicae and Spongospora nasturtii. Little is known about the genomes of Plasmodiophorida; however, with the use of Next-GenerationSequencing technologies combined with appropriate bioinformatic techniques, it is possible to obtain genomic sequences from obligate pathogens such as S. subterranea. To gain a better understanding of the biology of this pathogen and Plasmodiophorida in general, DNA sequences from a cystosori-enriched sample of S. subterranea were obtained using 454 pyrosequencing technology. As a first step in understanding the nutritional requirements ofS. subterranea as well as its infective and resistance structures, we present a bioinformatic analysis of 24 contigs related to genes involved in the glycolysis, starch, celullose and chitin metabolism. Intron structure and codon usage is also discussed. The genes analyzed in this study are a good source of information for studies aimed at characterizing these enzymes in vitro, as well as the generation of new methods for the molecular detection of S. subterranea in either soils or infected plants. / Resumen. Spongospora subterranea, el agente causal de la sarna polvosa de la papa, es un protozoo y patógeno obligado presente en los suelos andinos. Esta enfermedad es un serio problema para el cultivo de papa, al causar lesiones cosméticas en la piel de los

  8. Complete mitochondrial genome sequence of black mustard (Brassica nigra; BB) and comparison with Brassica oleracea (CC) and Brassica carinata (BBCC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamagishi, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Yoshiyuki; Terachi, Toru

    2014-11-01

    Crop species of Brassica (Brassicaceae) consist of three monogenomic species and three amphidiploid species resulting from interspecific hybridizations among them. Until now, mitochondrial genome sequences were available for only five of these species. We sequenced the mitochondrial genome of the sixth species, Brassica nigra (nuclear genome constitution BB), and compared it with those of Brassica oleracea (CC) and Brassica carinata (BBCC). The genome was assembled into a 232 145 bp circular sequence that is slightly larger than that of B. oleracea (219 952 bp). The genome of B. nigra contained 33 protein-coding genes, 3 rRNA genes, and 17 tRNA genes. The cox2-2 gene present in B. oleracea was absent in B. nigra. Although the nucleotide sequences of 52 genes were identical between B. nigra and B. carinata, the second exon of rps3 showed differences including an insertion/deletion (indel) and nucleotide substitutions. A PCR test to detect the indel revealed intraspecific variation in rps3, and in one line of B. nigra it amplified a DNA fragment of the size expected for B. carinata. In addition, the B. carinata lines tested here produced DNA fragments of the size expected for B. nigra. The results indicate that at least two mitotypes of B. nigra were present in the maternal parents of B. carinata.

  9. Distribution of Glucosinolates in Brassica oleracea cultivars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castro, A; Aires, A; Rosa, E; Bloem, E; Stulen, I.; De Kok, LJ

    2004-01-01

    Glucosinolates are important secondary compounds, commonly found in Brassicaceae. To what extent these sulfur and nitrogen containing compounds contribute to the total sulfur pool was investigated. In various cultivars of Brassica oleracea viz. curly kale, pointed cabbage, red cabbage, savoy cabbage

  10. Cytogenetics of intergeneric hybrids between Brassica species and Orychophragmus violaceus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    In the sexual intergeneric hybrids between the cultivated Brassica species and Orychophragmus violaceus, both complete separation and partial separation of the parental genomes were found to occur during mitosis and meiosis under genetic control. The cytogenetics of these hybrids was species-specific for Brassica parents. The different chromosome behavior of hybrids with three Brassica diploids ( B. campestris , B. nigra and B. oleracea ) might contribute to the different cytogenetics of hybrids with three tetraploids ( B. napus, B. juncea and B. carinata). Owing to the parental genome separation, Brassica homozygous plants and aneuploids with various chromosome constitutions were identifiable in the progenies of these hybrids, which were valuable for the study of the structure and evolution of Brassica genome and for the breeding of Brassica crops.

  11. The complete chloroplast genome of two Brassica species, Brassica nigra and B. Oleracea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seol, Young-Joo; Kim, Kyunghee; Kang, Sang-Ho; Perumal, Sampath; Lee, Jonghoon; Kim, Chang-Kug

    2017-03-01

    The two Brassica species, Brassica nigra and Brassica oleracea, are important agronomic crops. The chloroplast genome sequences were generated by de novo assembly using whole genome next-generation sequences. The chloroplast genomes of B. nigra and B. oleracea were 153 633 bp and 153 366 bp in size, respectively, and showed conserved typical chloroplast structure. The both chloroplast genomes contained a total of 114 genes including 80 protein-coding genes, 30 tRNA genes, and 4 rRNA genes. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that B. oleracea is closely related to B. rapa and B. napus but B. nigra is more diverse than the neighbor species Raphanus sativus.

  12. RAPESEED (Brassica napus and Brassica campestris) A NEW OILSEED CROP FOR TURKEY

    OpenAIRE

    KURAL, Aynur

    1995-01-01

    Rapeseed (Brassica napus and Brassica campestris L.) is an important oil crop in many parts of the world. Rapeseed is well-adapted to cool, moist growing conditions and requires fewer heat units than either soybean or sunflower for maturity. Rapeseed oil can be used for human consumption (Canola) and ındustrial purposes. Oil from Canola cultivars must contain less than 2% erucic acid compared with 40-45% in industrial use rape varieties. The meal remaining after oil extraction of Canola seed ...

  13. Dispersal behaviour of Trichogramma brassicae in maize fields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suverkropp, B.P.; Bigler, F.; Lenteren, van J.C.

    2009-01-01

    Glue-sprayed maize plants were used to study dispersal behaviour of the egg parasitoid Trichogramma brassicae Bezdenko (Hymenoptera Trichogrammatidae) in maize fields. To estimate the distance covered during an initial flight, T. brassicae were studied in a field cage with 73 glue-sprayed plants. Mo

  14. Epidemiological studies on Brassica vegetables and cancer risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeven, D.T.H.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Poppel, G. van; Verhagen, H.; Brandt, P.A. van den

    1996-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of the epidemiological data concerning the cancer-preventive effect of brassica vegetables, including cabbage, kale, broccoli, Brussels sprouts, and cauliflower. The protective effect of brassicas against cancer may be due to their relatively high content of glucosinolat

  15. A review of mechanisms underlying anticarcinogenicity by brassica vegetables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeven, D.T.H.; Verhagen, H.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Brandt, P.A. van den; Poppel, G. van

    1997-01-01

    The mechanisms by which brassica vegetables might decrease the risk of cancer are reviewed in this paper. Brassicas, including all types of cabbages, broccoli, cauliflower and Brussels sprouts, may be protective against cancer due to their relatively high glucosinolate content. Glucosinolates are us

  16. Screening of Chinese brassica species for anti-cancer sulforaphane ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2008-01-18

    Jan 18, 2008 ... different Chinese Brassica oleracea L. varieties were analyzed by HPLC ... Key words: Sulforaphane, erucin, brassica seed, diet supplement. ... broccoli (B. Capitata L. var. italica) and shepherd's purse (Capsella ... extracts was determined by GC-FID or HPLC. ..... Antioxidant functions of sulforaphane: a.

  17. Control adaptable utilizando Redes Neuronales Artificiales Polinomiales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Gómez

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Existen en la literatura de Control Adaptable, diferentes procedimientos en los que es posible identificar un sistema lineal. El problema fundamental es que una cantidad importante de fenómenos de la vida real son de tipo no lineal y no es tan sencillo el modelar este tipo de dinámicas. En este trabajo se presenta una forma de identificar sistemas no lineales utilizando las propiedades de las Redes Neuronales Artificiales y las técnicas de Algoritmo Genético en la optimización de su arquitectura. Adicionalmente se presenta una técnica novedosa de control adaptable para cancelar la dinámica no lineal del sistema y colocar los polos en el punto de operación deseado. Se presenta el comportamiento del algoritmo para el caso lineal yno lineal y finalmente se analiza la importancia teórica y operacional de estas técnicas.

  18. Subgenome parallel selection is associated with morphotype diversification and convergent crop domestication in Brassica rapa and Brassica oleracea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Feng; Sun, Rifei; Hou, Xilin; Zheng, Hongkun; Zhang, Fenglan; Zhang, Yangyong; Liu, Bo; Liang, Jianli; Zhuang, Mu; Liu, Yunxia; Liu, Dongyuan; Wang, Xiaobo; Li, Pingxia; Liu, Yumei; Lin, Ke; Bucher, Johan; Zhang, Ningwen; Wang, Yan; Wang, Hui; Deng, Jie; Liao, Yongcui; Wei, Keyun; Zhang, Xueming; Fu, Lixia; Hu, Yunyan; Liu, Jisheng; Cai, Chengcheng; Zhang, Shujiang; Zhang, Shifan; Li, Fei; Zhang, Hui; Zhang, Jifang; Guo, Ning; Liu, Zhiyuan; Liu, Jin; Sun, Chao; Ma, Yuan; Zhang, Haijiao; Cui, Yang; Freeling, Micheal R; Borm, Theo; Bonnema, Guusje; Wu, Jian; Wang, Xiaowu

    2016-10-01

    Brassica species, including crops such as cabbage, turnip and oilseed, display enormous phenotypic variation. Brassica genomes have all undergone a whole-genome triplication (WGT) event with unknown effects on phenotype diversification. We resequenced 199 Brassica rapa and 119 Brassica oleracea accessions representing various morphotypes and identified signals of selection at the mesohexaploid subgenome level. For cabbage morphotypes with their typical leaf-heading trait, we identified four subgenome loci that show signs of parallel selection among subgenomes within B. rapa, as well as four such loci within B. oleracea. Fifteen subgenome loci are under selection and are shared by these two species. We also detected strong subgenome parallel selection linked to the domestication of the tuberous morphotypes, turnip (B. rapa) and kohlrabi (B. oleracea). Overall, we demonstrated that the mesohexaploidization of the two Brassica genomes contributed to their diversification into heading and tuber-forming morphotypes through convergent subgenome parallel selection of paralogous genes.

  19. UTILIZACIÓN DEL SUBPRODUCTO DE FIQUE: LICOR VERDE, COMO CONTROLADOR DE PLAGAS EN EL CULTIVO DE REPOLLO (Brassica oleracea DO FIQUE SUBPRODUTOS UTILIZAÇÃO: LICOR VERDE COMO UM CONTROLADOR DE PRAGAS NA CULTURA DO REPOLHO (Brassica oleracea FIQUE SUBPRODUCT UTILIZATION: GREEN LIQUOR AS A PEST CONTROL IN THE CULTURE OFCABBAGE (Brassica oleracea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JHON F. IMBACHÍ-HOYOS

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available En el vivero forestal 'La Florida' de la Corporación Autónoma Regional del Cauca CRC, se evaluó el efecto del extracto de fique (Furcraea sp como controlador de plagas en el cultivo de repollo (Brassica oleracea. Se utilizaron cuatro tratamientos (blanco, solución extracto de fique al 30% v/v, 20% v/v, 10% v/v. Las mediciones se hicieron durante seis semanas para vigor, altura, diámetro, daño por plagas y daño por enfermedades. La aplicación fue de una vez durante las tres primeras semanas; y las tres siguientes la aplicación fue de dos por semana. Los resultados se analizaron utilizando el paquete estadístico SPSS 11.5, se realizó una ANOVA con un nivel de confianza del 95% (p = 0,05 y una prueba de Tuckey. El análisis muestra que la aplicación del extracto dos veces por semana (extracto de fique al 30% v/v, presentó el mejor control de plagas, disminuyendo la presencia de daños por las plagas: mariposa blanca (Pieris sp. palomilla (Plutella xylostella y áfidos (Brevicoryne brassicae y Myzus persicae.No viveiro floresta 'La Florida' da Corporação Autônoma Regional do Cauca (CRC se abalizou o efeito do extrato de fique (Furcraea sp como controlador de plagas no cultivo de repolho (Brassica oleracea. Utilizarão- se quatro tratamentos (Branco, solução extrato de fique a 30% v/v, 20% v/v e 10% v/v. As medições fizeram-se durante seis semanas para vigor, altura, diâmetro, dano por pragas y dano por enfermidades. A aplicação foi de uma vez durante as três primeiras semanas; y as três seguintes a aplicação foi de duas por semanas. Os resultados analisaram-se utilizando o paquete estadístico SPSS 11.5, realizaram-se uma ANOVA com um nível de confiança dos 95% (p = 0,05 e uma proba de Tuckey. A análise mostra que a aplicação do extrato duas vezes por semana (extrato de fique a 30% v/v, apresentou o melhor controle de pragas reduzindo a presencia de danos por as pragas: Borboleta branca (Pieris sp, mariposa (Plutella

  20. BRAD, the genetics and genomics database for Brassica plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Pingxia

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Brassica species include both vegetable and oilseed crops, which are very important to the daily life of common human beings. Meanwhile, the Brassica species represent an excellent system for studying numerous aspects of plant biology, specifically for the analysis of genome evolution following polyploidy, so it is also very important for scientific research. Now, the genome of Brassica rapa has already been assembled, it is the time to do deep mining of the genome data. Description BRAD, the Brassica database, is a web-based resource focusing on genome scale genetic and genomic data for important Brassica crops. BRAD was built based on the first whole genome sequence and on further data analysis of the Brassica A genome species, Brassica rapa (Chiifu-401-42. It provides datasets, such as the complete genome sequence of B. rapa, which was de novo assembled from Illumina GA II short reads and from BAC clone sequences, predicted genes and associated annotations, non coding RNAs, transposable elements (TE, B. rapa genes' orthologous to those in A. thaliana, as well as genetic markers and linkage maps. BRAD offers useful searching and data mining tools, including search across annotation datasets, search for syntenic or non-syntenic orthologs, and to search the flanking regions of a certain target, as well as the tools of BLAST and Gbrowse. BRAD allows users to enter almost any kind of information, such as a B. rapa or A. thaliana gene ID, physical position or genetic marker. Conclusion BRAD, a new database which focuses on the genetics and genomics of the Brassica plants has been developed, it aims at helping scientists and breeders to fully and efficiently use the information of genome data of Brassica plants. BRAD will be continuously updated and can be accessed through http://brassicadb.org.

  1. Anthocyanins facilitate tungsten accumulation in Brassica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hale, K.L.

    2002-11-01

    Accumulation of molybdenum in Brassica was recently found to be correlated with anthocyanin content, involving the formation of a blue complex. Here the role of anthocyanins in tungsten sequestration was investigated using three species of Brassica: B. rapa (cv. Fast plants), B. juncea (Indian mustard) and B. oleracea (red cabbage). Seedlings of B. rapa and B. juncea turned blue when supplied with colourless tungstate. The blue compound co-localized with anthocyanins in the peripheral cell layers, and the degree of blueness was correlated with anthocyanin content. The direct involvement of anthocyanins in the blue coloration was evident when purified anthocyanins showed a colour change from pink to blue in vitro upon addition of tungstate, over a wide pH range. Anthocyanin production was upregulated 3-fold by W in B. juncea, possibly reflecting a function for anthocyanins in W tolerance or sequestration. The presence of anthocyanins facilitated W accumulation in B. rapa: anthocyanin-containing seedlings accumulated 3-fold more W than an anthocyaninless mutant. There was no correlation between anthocyanin content and W tolerance under these conditions. The nature of the interaction between anthocyanins and tungstate was investigated. X-ray absorption spectroscopy showed no change in the local chemical environment of Wupon uptake of tungstate by the plant; HPLC analysis of purified anthocyanin with or without tungstate showed no peak shift after metal treatment.

  2. Metabolic profiling and biological capacity of Pieris brassicae fed with kale (Brassica oleracea L. var. acephala).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreres, Federico; Fernandes, Fátima; Oliveira, Jorge M A; Valentão, Patrícia; Pereira, José A; Andrade, Paula B

    2009-06-01

    Phenolic and organic acid profiles of aqueous extracts from Pieris brassicae material and the host kale (Brassica oleracea L. var. acephala) leaves were determined by HPLC/UV-DAD/MS(n)-ESI and HPLC-UV, respectively. The identified phenolics included acylated and nonacylated flavonoid glycosides, hydroxycinnamic acyl gentiobiosides, and sulphate phenolics. Kale exhibited the highest content (11g/kg lyophilized extract), while no phenolics were identified in the butterflies or exuviae. Nine different organic acids were characterized in the materials, with kale showing the highest amount (112g/kg lyophilized extract). With the exception of the exuviae extract, the rest were screened for bioactivity. Using spectrophotometric microassays, all exhibited antiradical capacity against DPPH and NO in a concentration-dependent way, whereas only kale and excrement extracts were active against superoxide. All displayed activity on intestinal smooth muscle, albeit with distinct relaxation-contraction profiles. Larvae and butterfly extracts were more efficacious for intestinal relaxation than was kale extract, whereas excrement extract evoked only contractions, thus evidencing their different compositions. Collectively, these results show that P. brassicae sequesters and metabolizes kale's phenolic compounds. Moreover, the extract's bioactivities suggest that they may constitute an interesting source of bioactive compounds whose complex chemical structures preclude either synthesis or isolation.

  3. THE BRINE SHRIMP (ARTEMIA SALINA) LETHALITY OF Brassica oleracea var. capitata

    OpenAIRE

    O.T. TÜZÜN, E. GÜRKAN, F. HIRLAK,

    2015-01-01

    This work covers up the bio-activities of the five fractions obtained from the ethanolic extract of Brassica oleracea var. capitata (Cruciferae).Key Words: Brassica oleracea var. capitata, Brine shrimp (Artemia salina)

  4. Numerical and structural chromosome aberrations in cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis) and Arabidopsis thaliana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ji, X.

    2014-01-01

    Numerical and structural chromosome aberrations in cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis) and Arabidopsis thaliana. I studied numerical and structural chromosome aberrations in cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis) and Arabidopsis thaliana. The large genomic changes are important for

  5. Numerical and structural chromosome aberrations in cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis) and Arabidopsis thaliana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ji, X.

    2014-01-01

    Numerical and structural chromosome aberrations in cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis) and Arabidopsis thaliana. I studied numerical and structural chromosome aberrations in cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis) and Arabidopsis thaliana. The large genomic changes are important for

  6. CARACTERIZAÇÃO DA VARIABILIDADE GENÉTICA EM COUVE-MANTEIGA UTILIZANDO ISOENZIMAS E RAPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SAWAZAKI HAIKO ENOK

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se a variabilidade genética em couve (Brassica oleracea L. var. acephala D.C. tipo manteiga por intermédio do polimorfismo enzimático em gel de poliacrilamida e do polimorfismo de DNA, denominado RAPD (Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA, com base na amplificação de segmentos de DNA ao acaso. Avaliaram-se quinze clones de couve-manteiga do Banco Ativo de Germoplasma do Instituto Agronômico (IAC, utilizando-se extratos de folhas para análise de isoenzimas e marcador RAPD com os "primers" dos kits A e B da Operon Technologies. Entre as isoenzimas estudadas, as mais polimórficas foram as fosfoglucomutase (PGM, peroxidase (PRX e esterase (EST, tendo o sistema PGM realizado a melhor caracterização. Verificou-se a ocorrência de variabilidade genética por meio de isoenzimas e RAPD, porém não foi observada a similaridade entre os dendrogramas obtidos por ambos os tipos de marcadores, sugerindo que as isoenzimas forneceram menos informação sobre o genoma. A maior eficácia do RAPD foi devida à possibilidade de processar maior número de análises, evidenciando mais detalhes sobre o genoma.

  7. Oil Body Biogenesis during Brassica napus Embryogenesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu-Qing He; Yan Wu

    2009-01-01

    Although the oil body is known to be an important membrane enclosed compartment for oil storage in seeds, we have little understanding about its biogenesis during embryogenesis. In the present study we investigated the oil body emergence and variations in Brassica napus cv. Topas. The results demonstrate that the oil bodies could be detected already at the heart stage, at the same time as the embryos began to tum green, and the starch grains accumulated in the chloroplast stroma. In comparison, we have studied the development of oil bodies between Arabidopsis thaliana wild type (Col) and the low-seed-oil mutant wrinkled1-3. We observed that the oil body development in the embryos of Col is similar to that of B. napus cv. Topas, and that the size of the oil bodies was obviously smaller in the embryos of wrinkled1-3. Our results suggest that the oil body biogenesis might be coupled with the embryo chloroplast.

  8. Could nitrile derivatives of turnip (Brassica rapa) glucosinolates be Hepato-and/or cholangiotoxic in cattle?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turnip (Brassica rapa ssp. rapa) and rape (Brassica napus ssp. biennis) and other brassica forage crops are generally regarded as “safe” feed for cattle during late summer and fall in New Zealand. However, when Pithomyces chartarum spore counts are high there are epidemics of sporidesmin toxicity (...

  9. Phosphate-assisted phytoremediation of arsenic by Brassica napus and Brassica juncea: Morphological and physiological response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niazi, Nabeel Khan; Bibi, Irshad; Fatimah, Ayesha; Shahid, Muhammad; Javed, Muhammad Tariq; Wang, Hailong; Ok, Yong Sik; Bashir, Safdar; Murtaza, Behzad; Saqib, Zulfiqar Ahmad; Shakoor, Muhammad Bilal

    2017-07-03

    In this study, we examined the potential role of phosphate (P; 0, 50, 100 mg kg(-1)) on growth, gas exchange attributes, and photosynthetic pigments of Brassica napus and Brassica juncea under arsenic (As) stress (0, 25, 50, 75 mg kg(-1)) in a pot experiment. Results revealed that phosphate supplementation (P100) to As-stressed plants significantly increased shoot As concentration, dry biomass yield, and As uptake, in addition to the improved morphological and gas exchange attributes and photosynthetic pigments over P0. However, phosphate-assisted increase in As uptake was substantially (up to two times) greater for B. napus, notably due to higher shoot As concentration and dry biomass yield, compared to B. juncea at the P100 level. While phosphate addition in soil (P100) led to enhanced shoot As concentration in B. juncea, it reduced shoot dry biomass, primarily after 50 and 75 mg kg(-1) As treatments. The translocation factor and bioconcentration factor values of B. napus were higher than B. juncea for all As levels in the presence of phosphate. This study demonstrates that phosphate supplementation has a potential to improve As phytoextraction efficiency, predominantly for B. napus, by minimizing As-induced damage to plant growth, as well as by improving the physiological and photosynthetic attributes.

  10. Genome-wide microsatellite characterization and marker development in the sequenced Brassica crop species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jiaqin; Huang, Shunmou; Zhan, Jiepeng; Yu, Jingyin; Wang, Xinfa; Hua, Wei; Liu, Shengyi; Liu, Guihua; Wang, Hanzhong

    2014-02-01

    Although much research has been conducted, the pattern of microsatellite distribution has remained ambiguous, and the development/utilization of microsatellite markers has still been limited/inefficient in Brassica, due to the lack of genome sequences. In view of this, we conducted genome-wide microsatellite characterization and marker development in three recently sequenced Brassica crops: Brassica rapa, Brassica oleracea and Brassica napus. The analysed microsatellite characteristics of these Brassica species were highly similar or almost identical, which suggests that the pattern of microsatellite distribution is likely conservative in Brassica. The genomic distribution of microsatellites was highly non-uniform and positively or negatively correlated with genes or transposable elements, respectively. Of the total of 115 869, 185 662 and 356 522 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers developed with high frequencies (408.2, 343.8 and 356.2 per Mb or one every 2.45, 2.91 and 2.81 kb, respectively), most represented new SSR markers, the majority had determined physical positions, and a large number were genic or putative single-locus SSR markers. We also constructed a comprehensive database for the newly developed SSR markers, which was integrated with public Brassica SSR markers and annotated genome components. The genome-wide SSR markers developed in this study provide a useful tool to extend the annotated genome resources of sequenced Brassica species to genetic study/breeding in different Brassica species.

  11. Classification of temperature response in germination of Brassicas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Since soil temperature affects germination and emergence of canola (Brassica napus L.), mustard [B. juncea (L.) Czerniak. and Sinapsis alba L.], and camelina [Camelina sativa (L.) Crantz.], planting dates have to be adjusted to prevent crop failures. These crops can be used as biofuel feedstocks, a...

  12. Low Temperature Affects Stem Cell Maintenance in Brassica oleracea Seedlings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonge, de Jennifer; Kodde, Jan; Severing, Edouard I.; Bonnema, Guusje; Angenent, Gerco C.; Immink, Richard G.H.; Groot, Steven P.C.

    2016-01-01

    Most of the above ground tissues in higher plants originate from stem cells located in the shoot apical meristem (SAM). Several plant species can suffer from spontaneous stem cell arrest resulting in lack of further shoot development. In Brassica oleracea this SAM arrest is known as blindness and oc

  13. Proteomic analysis of Brassica alboglabra in Response to Herbicide ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aishah

    2013-05-15

    May 15, 2013 ... enzymatic antioxidant system and also enzymes in photorespiratory ... effects of environmental stresses on Brassica by using 2-. DE have been ..... the effects of ABA treatments on ripening Vitis vinifera berries. J. Exp. Bot. ... mildew infection of leaf tissues of Cabernet Sauvignon grapevine. (Vitis vinifera L.).

  14. Movement and host finding of Trichogramma brassicae on maize plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suverkropp, B.P.; Bigler, F.; Lenteren, van J.C.

    2010-01-01

    Direct observation of searching patterns and residence times of Trichogramma brassicae Bezdenko on maize plants were made at 18 degrees C and 25 degrees C. Temperature had a strong effect on the residence times: parasitoids spent an average of 44.9 minutes on the plant at 18 degrees C and 20.8 minut

  15. Quantitative trait loci for glucosinolate accumulation in Brassica rapa leaves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lou, P.; Jianjun Zhao, Jianjun; He, Hongju; Hanhart, C.J.; Pino del Carpio, D.; Verkerk, R.; Custers, J.B.M.; Koornneef, M.; Bonnema, A.B.

    2008-01-01

    Glucosinolates and their breakdown products have been recognized for their effects on plant defense, human health, flavor and taste of cruciferous vegetables. Despite this importance, little is known about the regulation of the biosynthesis and degradation in Brassica rapa. Here, the identification

  16. Factors affecting the density of Brassica napus seeds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Young, L.; Jalink, H.; Denkert, R.; Reaney, M.

    2006-01-01

    Brassica napus seed is composed of low density oil (0.92 g.cm(-3)) and higher density solids (1.3-1.45 g.cm(-3)). Seed buoyant density may potentially be used to determine seed oil content and to separate seeds with different oil contents, however, we have found that seeds with the lowest buoyant

  17. Processing of Brassica seeds for feedstock in biofuels production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Several Brassica species are currently being evaluated to develop regionalized production systems based on their suitability to the environment and with the prevailing practices of growing commodity food crops like wheat, corn, and soybeans. This integrated approach to farming will provide high qual...

  18. Manganese toxicity hardly affects sulfur metabolism in Brassica rapa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neves, M.I.; Prajapati, D.H.; Parmar, S.; Aghajanzadeh, T.; Hawkesford, M.J.; De Kok, L.J.; De Kok, L.J.; Haneklaus, S.H.; Hawkesford, M.J.; Schnug, E.

    2017-01-01

    Manganese (Mn) is an essential plant nutrient, though at elevated levels in plant tissues it may become toxic. The physiological basis for phytotoxicity is largely unclear. Exposure of Brassica rapa to elevated levels of Mn2+ in the nutrient solution resulted in decreased biomass production at ≥ 20

  19. Oxygen dependency of germinating Brassica seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Myoung Ryoul; Hasenstein, Karl H.

    2016-02-01

    Establishing plants in space, Moon or Mars requires adaptation to altered conditions, including reduced pressure and composition of atmospheres. To determine the oxygen requirements for seed germination, we imbibed Brassica rapa seeds under varying oxygen concentrations and profiled the transcription patterns of genes related to early metabolism such as starch degradation, glycolysis, and fermentation. We also analyzed the activity of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), and measured starch degradation. Partial oxygen pressure (pO2) greater than 10% resulted in normal germination (i.e., protrusion of radicle about 18 hours after imbibition) but lower pO2 delayed and reduced germination. Imbibition in an oxygen-free atmosphere for three days resulted in no germination but subsequent transfer to air initiated germination in 75% of the seeds and the root growth rate was transiently greater than in roots germinated under ambient pO2. In hypoxic seeds soluble sugars degraded faster but the content of starch after 24 h was higher than at ambient oxygen. Transcription of genes related to starch degradation, α-amylase (AMY) and Sucrose Synthase (SUS), was higher under ambient O2 than under hypoxia. Glycolysis and fermentation pathway-related genes, glucose phosphate isomerase (GPI), 6-phosphofructokinase (PFK), fructose 1,6-bisphosphate aldolase (ALD), glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), pyruvate decarboxylase (PDC), LDH, and ADH, were induced by low pO2. The activity of LDH and ADH was the highest in anoxic seeds. Germination under low O2 conditions initiated ethanolic fermentation. Therefore, sufficient oxygen availability is important for germination before photosynthesis provides necessary oxygen and the determination of an oxygen carrying capacity is important for uniform growth in space conditions.

  20. Genetic diversity in Brassica species and Eruca sativa for yield associated parameters

    OpenAIRE

    Kanwal Mahwish; Farhatullah; Rabbani Ashiq M.; Iqbal Sidra; Fayyaz Laila; Afzal M.

    2014-01-01

    Brassica species are vulnerable to narrow genetic base due to the ignorance of their wild relatives which possess many superior characters. This study was aimed to explore the genetic diversity in five Brassica species from U triangle as well as in their wild relative Eruca sativa. For the complete insight of genetic diversity, four accessions, each from five species of genus Brassica along with one species of Eruca collected from different geographical loc...

  1. Genomic and transcriptomic alterations following hybridisation and genome doubling in trigenomic allohexaploid Brassica carinata × Brassica rapa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Y; Zhao, Q; Mei, S; Wang, J

    2012-09-01

    Allopolyploidisation is a prominent evolutionary force that involves two major events: interspecific hybridisation and genome doubling. Both events have important functional consequences in shaping the genomic architecture of the neo-allopolyploids. The respective effects of hybridisation and genome doubling upon genomic and transcriptomic changes in Brassica allopolyploids are unresolved. In this study, amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP), methylation-sensitive amplification polymorphism (MSAP) and cDNA-AFLP approaches were used to track genetic, epigenetic and transcriptional changes in both allohexaploid Brassica (ArArBcBcCcCc genome) and triploid hybrids (ArBcCc genome). Results from these groups were compared with each other and also to their parents Brassica carinata (BBCC genome) and Brassica rapa (AA genome). Rapid and dramatic genetic, DNA methylation and gene expression changes were detected in the triploid hybrids. During the shift from triploidy to allohexaploidy, some of the hybridisation-induced alterations underwent reversion. Additionally, novel genetic, epigenetic and transcriptional alterations were also detected. The proportions of A-genome-specific DNA methylation and gene expression alterations were significantly greater than those of BC-genome-specific alterations in the triploid hybrids. However, the two parental genomes were equally affected during the ploidy shift. Hemi-CCG methylation changes induced by hybridisation were recovered after genome doubling. Full-CG methylation changes were a more general process initiated in the hybrid and continued after genome doubling. These results indicate that genome doubling could ameliorate genomic and transcriptomic alterations induced by hybridisation and instigate additional alterations in trigenomic Brassica allohexaploids. Moreover, genome doubling also modified hybridisation-induced progenitor genome-biased alterations and epigenetic alteration characteristics.

  2. REFRIGERAÇÃO UTILIZANDO PASTILHAS DE EFEITO PELTIER

    OpenAIRE

    Antonio Luiz P. S. Campos; Aécio Vinícius Amorim Farias; Jainne Daniele F. S. Fernandes; Alailson de Freitas Braz; Machado, Ludmila Sayonara S. X.; Edfranklin de Souza Pimentel

    2010-01-01

    Pastilhas de Peltier são dispositivos baseados no efeito Peltier e são aplicadas para produzir efeito refrigerador ou aquecedor. Este trabalho aborda conceitos envolvidos na fabricação e funcionamento desses dispositivos tais como: histórico do efeito Peltier e desenvolvimento de placas de efeito Peltier. É feito um estudo de eficiência da refrigeração de água utilizando uma placa de efeito Peltier existente no Campus Natal – Zona Norte. Para isso, é implementada uma estrutura de refrigeração...

  3. Un administrador de procesamiento distribuido utilizando Windows Sockets

    OpenAIRE

    Naiouf, Marcelo; De Giusti, Armando Eduardo; Chaer, R.; Fonseca, A.

    1996-01-01

    Se presenta un administrador de procesamiento distribuido utilizando Windows Sockets, que permite la comunicación y distribución de tareas entre máquinas de una red, para la ejecución de algoritmos paralelos. La plataforma del sistema es una red en al cual la única restricción es que las estaciones estén ejecutando Windows. El soporte de comunicaciones se realiza a través de una librería que permite utilizar canales de comunicación sobre la red administrando la señalización mediante el env...

  4. Radiation effects on Brassica seeds and seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deoli, Naresh; Hasenstein, Karl H.

    2016-07-01

    Space radiation consists of high energy charged particles and affects biological systems, but because of its stochastic, non-directional nature is difficult to replicate on Earth. Radiation damages biological systems acutely at high doses or cumulatively at low doses through progressive changes in DNA organization. These damages lead to death or cause of mutations. While radiation biology typically focuses on mammalian or human systems, little is known as to how radiation affects plants. In addition, energetic ion beams are widely used to generate new mutants in plants considering their high-LET (Linear Energy Transfer) as compared to gamma rays and X-rays. Understanding the effect of ionizing radiation on plant provides a basis for studying effects of radiation on biological systems and will help mitigate (space) radiation damage in plants. We exposed dry and imbibed Brassica rapa seeds and seedling roots to proton beams of varying qualities and compared the theoretical penetration range of different energy levels with observable growth response. We used 1, 2 and 3 MeV protons in air at the varying fluences to investigate the effect of direct irradiation on the seeds (1012 - 1015 ions/cm2) and seedlings (1013 ions/cm2). The range of protons in the tissue was calculated using Monte-Carlo based SRIM (Stopping and Range of Ions in Matter) software. The simulation and biological results indicate that ions did not penetrate the tissue of dry or hydrated seeds at all used ion energies. Therefore the entire energy was transferred to the treated tissue. Irradiated seeds were germinated vertically under dim light and roots growth was observed for two days after imbibition. The LD50 of the germination was about 2×1014 ions/cm2 and about 5×1014 ions/cm2 for imbibed and dry seeds, respectively. Since seedlings are most sensitive to gravity, the change in gravitropic behavior is a convenient means to assess radiation damage on physiological responses other than direct tissue

  5. Effect of Heavy Metals in Plants of the Genus Brassica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourato, Miguel P.; Moreira, Inês N.; Leitão, Inês; Pinto, Filipa R.; Sales, Joana R.; Louro Martins, Luisa

    2015-01-01

    Several species from the Brassica genus are very important agricultural crops in different parts of the world and are also known to be heavy metal accumulators. There have been a large number of studies regarding the tolerance, uptake and defense mechanism in several of these species, notably Brassica juncea and B. napus, against the stress induced by heavy metals. Numerous studies have also been published about the capacity of these species to be used for phytoremediation purposes but with mixed results. This review will focus on the latest developments in the study of the uptake capacity, oxidative damage and biochemical and physiological tolerance and defense mechanisms to heavy metal toxicity on six economically important species: B. juncea, B. napus, B. oleracea, B. carinata, B. rapa and B. nigra. PMID:26247945

  6. Erosion of Brassica incana Genetic Resources: Causes and Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muscolo, A.; Settineri, G.; Mallamaci, C.; Papalia, T.; Sidari, M.

    2017-07-01

    Brassica incana Ten., possessing a number of useful agronomic traits, represents a precious genetic resource to be used in plant breeding programs to broaden the genetic base in most Brassica crop species. B. incana that grows on limestone cliffs is at risk of genetic erosion for environmental constraints and human activities. We studied the pedological conditions of a Calabrian site where the B. incana grows, and we correlated the soil properties to the physiological and biochemical aspects of B. incana to identify the causes and effects of the genetic erosion of this species. Our results evidenced that physical soil conditions did not affect B. incana growth and nutraceutical properties; conversely, biological soil properties modified its properties. We identified leaf pigments and secondary metabolites that can be used routinely as early warning indicators of plant threat, to evaluate in a short term the dynamic behavior of plants leading to species extinction.

  7. Intraspecific Variation in Carotenoids of Brassica oleracea var. sabellica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mageney, Vera; Baldermann, Susanne; Albach, Dirk C

    2016-04-27

    Carotenoids are best known as a source of natural antioxidants. Physiologically, carotenoids are part of the photoprotection in plants as they act as scavengers of reactive oxygen species (ROS). An important source of carotenoids in European food is Brassica oleracea. Focusing on the most abundant carotenoids, we estimated the contents of ß-carotene, (9Z)-neoxanthin, zeaxanthin, and lutein as well as those of chlorophylls a and b to assess their variability in Brassica oleracea var. sabellica. Our analyses included more than 30 cultivars categorized in five distinct sets grouped according to morphological characteristics or geographical origin. Our results demonstrated specific carotenoid patterns characteristic for American, Italian, and red-colored kale cultivars. Moreover, we demonstrated a tendency of high zeaxanthin proportions under traditional harvest conditions, which accord to low-temperature regimes. We also compared the carotenoid patterns of self-generated hybrid lines. Corresponding findings indicated that crossbreeding has a high potential for carotenoid content optimization in kale.

  8. Effect of Heavy Metals in Plants of the Genus Brassica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel P. Mourato

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Several species from the Brassica genus are very important agricultural crops in different parts of the world and are also known to be heavy metal accumulators. There have been a large number of studies regarding the tolerance, uptake and defense mechanism in several of these species, notably Brassica juncea and B. napus, against the stress induced by heavy metals. Numerous studies have also been published about the capacity of these species to be used for phytoremediation purposes but with mixed results. This review will focus on the latest developments in the study of the uptake capacity, oxidative damage and biochemical and physiological tolerance and defense mechanisms to heavy metal toxicity on six economically important species: B. juncea, B. napus, B. oleracea, B. carinata, B. rapa and B. nigra.

  9. Pollination and embryo development in Brassica rapa L. in microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuang, A.; Popova, A.; Xiao, Y.; Musgrave, M. E.

    2000-01-01

    Plant reproduction under spaceflight conditions has been problematic in the past. In order to determine what aspect of reproductive development is affected by microgravity, we studied pollination and embryo development in Brassica rapa L. during 16 d in microgravity on the space shuttle (STS-87). Brassica is self-incompatible and requires mechanical transfer of pollen. Short-duration access to microgravity during parabolic flights on the KC-135A aircraft was used initially to confirm that equal numbers of pollen grains could be collected and transferred in the absence of gravity. Brassica was grown in the Plant Growth Facility flight hardware as follows. Three chambers each contained six plants that were 13 d old at launch. As these plants flowered, thin colored tape was used to indicate the date of hand pollination, resulting in silique populations aged 8-15 d postpollination at the end of the 16-d mission. The remaining three chambers contained dry seeds that germinated on orbit to produce 14-d-old plants just beginning to flower at the time of landing. Pollen produced by these plants had comparable viability (93%) with that produced in the 2-d-delayed ground control. Matched-age siliques yielded embryos of equivalent developmental stage in the spaceflight and ground control treatments. Carbohydrate and protein storage reserves in the embryos, assessed by cytochemical localization, were also comparable. In the spaceflight material, growth and development by embryos rescued from siliques 15 d after pollination lagged behind the ground controls by 12 d; however, in the subsequent generation, no differences between the two treatments were found. The results demonstrate that while no stage of reproductive development in Brassica is absolutely dependent upon gravity, lower embryo quality may result following development in microgravity.

  10. The recovery of cytokinins during extraction and purification of clubroot tissue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekhuijzen, H.M.; Gevers, E.C.T.

    1975-01-01

    Losses of one naturally occurring cytokinin (zeatin) and one synthetic cytoknin (kinetin) were determined during purification of turnips (Brassica compestris) infected by Plasmodiophora brassicae (clubroot). A known amount of zeatin and 8‐14C‐kinetin was added after homogenization of plant material

  11. The recovery of cytokinins during extraction and purification of clubroot tissue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekhuijzen, H.M.; Gevers, E.C.T.

    1975-01-01

    Losses of one naturally occurring cytokinin (zeatin) and one synthetic cytoknin (kinetin) were determined during purification of turnips (Brassica compestris) infected by Plasmodiophora brassicae (clubroot). A known amount of zeatin and 8‐14C‐kinetin was added after homogenization of plant material

  12. Enteric methane production and ruminal fermentation from forage brassica diets fed in continuous culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brassicas provide forage for livestock during the late fall when traditional perennial cool-season forages are not productive. However, little research exists on ruminal fermentation and methane(CH4) production of brassicas fed as forage. A continuous culture fermentor system was used to assess nutr...

  13. Nutritional and nutraceutical potential of rape (Brassica napus L. Var. napus) and "tronchuda" cabbage (Brassica oleraceae L. Var. costata) inflorescences

    OpenAIRE

    Batista, Cátia Emanuela Oliveira; Barros, Lillian; Carvalho, Ana Maria; Isabel C. F. R. Ferreira

    2011-01-01

    Two traditional cultivated vegetables highly consumed among Northern Portuguese regions were tested for their chemical composition, nutritional profile and in vitro antioxidant properties using four assays: 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals scavenging activity, reducing power, inhibition of -carotene bleaching and inhibition of lipid peroxidation by thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) assay. The studied varieties of two Brassica species, locally known as “grelos” (rap...

  14. Integration of linkage maps for the Amphidiploid Brassica napus and comparative mapping with Arabidopsis and Brassica rapa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delourme Régine

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The large number of genetic linkage maps representing Brassica chromosomes constitute a potential platform for studying crop traits and genome evolution within Brassicaceae. However, the alignment of existing maps remains a major challenge. The integration of these genetic maps will enhance genetic resolution, and provide a means to navigate between sequence-tagged loci, and with contiguous genome sequences as these become available. Results We report the first genome-wide integration of Brassica maps based on an automated pipeline which involved collation of genome-wide genotype data for sequence-tagged markers scored on three extensively used amphidiploid Brassica napus (2n = 38 populations. Representative markers were selected from consolidated maps for each population, and skeleton bin maps were generated. The skeleton maps for the three populations were then combined to generate an integrated map for each LG, comparing two different approaches, one encapsulated in JoinMap and the other in MergeMap. The BnaWAIT_01_2010a integrated genetic map was generated using JoinMap, and includes 5,162 genetic markers mapped onto 2,196 loci, with a total genetic length of 1,792 cM. The map density of one locus every 0.82 cM, corresponding to 515 Kbp, increases by at least three-fold the locus and marker density within the original maps. Within the B. napus integrated map we identified 103 conserved collinearity blocks relative to Arabidopsis, including five previously unreported blocks. The BnaWAIT_01_2010a map was used to investigate the integrity and conservation of order proposed for genome sequence scaffolds generated from the constituent A genome of Brassica rapa. Conclusions Our results provide a comprehensive genetic integration of the B. napus genome from a range of sources, which we anticipate will provide valuable information for rapeseed and Canola research.

  15. REFRIGERAÇÃO UTILIZANDO PASTILHAS DE EFEITO PELTIER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Luiz P. S. Campos

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Pastilhas de Peltier são dispositivos baseados no efeito Peltier e são aplicadas para produzir efeito refrigerador ou aquecedor. Este trabalho aborda conceitos envolvidos na fabricação e funcionamento desses dispositivos tais como: histórico do efeito Peltier e desenvolvimento de placas de efeito Peltier. É feito um estudo de eficiência da refrigeração de água utilizando uma placa de efeito Peltier existente no Campus Natal – Zona Norte. Para isso, é implementada uma estrutura de refrigeração de água e são feitas medições para determinar a eficiência de sistema. Por fim, são apresentadas conclusões sobre o estudo desenvolvido.

  16. Planeamento de uma estrada utilizando CCS Candy - Caso de estudo

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, Sara Maria de

    2013-01-01

    O tema desta dissertação foi escolhido tendo em consideração a crescente necessidade de planeamento de empreitadas de construção de estradas, sendo um dos objetivos desta dissertação o de oferecer uma visão global do processo de planeamento da construção de uma estrada, focado apenas no fator tempo, recorrendo a ferramentas informáticas e utilizando um caso de estudo de uma estrada real e já construída. Inicialmente, faz-se uma breve descrição dos métodos de planeamento mais aplicados em p...

  17. Comparative mapping of Brassica juncea and Arabidopsis thaliana using Intron Polymorphism (IP markers: homoeologous relationships, diversification and evolution of the A, B and C Brassica genomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta Vibha

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Extensive mapping efforts are currently underway for the establishment of comparative genomics between the model plant, Arabidopsis thaliana and various Brassica species. Most of these studies have deployed RFLP markers, the use of which is a laborious and time-consuming process. We therefore tested the efficacy of PCR-based Intron Polymorphism (IP markers to analyze genome-wide synteny between the oilseed crop, Brassica juncea (AABB genome and A. thaliana and analyzed the arrangement of 24 (previously described genomic block segments in the A, B and C Brassica genomes to study the evolutionary events contributing to karyotype variations in the three diploid Brassica genomes. Results IP markers were highly efficient and generated easily discernable polymorphisms on agarose gels. Comparative analysis of the segmental organization of the A and B genomes of B. juncea (present study with the A and B genomes of B. napus and B. nigra respectively (described earlier, revealed a high degree of colinearity suggesting minimal macro-level changes after polyploidization. The ancestral block arrangements that remained unaltered during evolution and the karyotype rearrangements that originated in the Oleracea lineage after its divergence from Rapa lineage were identified. Genomic rearrangements leading to the gain or loss of one chromosome each between the A-B and A-C lineages were deciphered. Complete homoeology in terms of block organization was found between three linkage groups (LG each for the A-B and A-C genomes. Based on the homoeology shared between the A, B and C genomes, a new nomenclature for the B genome LGs was assigned to establish uniformity in the international Brassica LG nomenclature code. Conclusion IP markers were highly effective in generating comparative relationships between Arabidopsis and various Brassica species. Comparative genomics between the three Brassica lineages established the major rearrangements

  18. Efeito de extratos de plantas silvestres da família Solanaceae sobre o controle de Brevicoryne brassicae em couve (Brassica oleracea var. acephala Extracts effect of wild plants of the Solanaceae family on Brevicoryne brassicae control in cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. acephala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Braga Lovatto

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo principal deste trabalho foi testar o efeito de extratos de plantas silvestres da família Solanaceae disponíveis na região do Vale do Rio Pardo, RS, sobre o pulgão-da-couve (Brevicoryne brassicae, praga agrícola de significativa importância. Nove espécies tóxicas de Solanaceae estão disponíveis na região de estudo: seis pertencem ao gênero Solanum, uma ao gênero Brugmansia e duas são cultivadas e pertencem ao gênero Nicotiana e Capsicum. A fim de determinar a capacidade de repelência e o efeito inseticida, foram testadas as seguintes espécies: B. suaveolens (trombeteira, C. annuum var. variegated (pimenta-de-jardim, N. tabacum var. virginia (fumo, S. aculeatissimum (joá-bravo, S. americanum (erva-moura, S. diflorum (tomatinho, S. fastigiatum var. acicularium (jurubeba, S. fastigiatum var. fastigiatum (jurubeba e S. sisymbriifolium (arrebenta-cavalo. Para obtenção dos extratos foram utilizadas folhas, flores e frutos aplicando-se duas técnicas distintas de elaboração: decocção do material fresco e extração a frio do material seco. Quanto à capacidade de repelência dos extratos, os tratamentos utilizando material fresco de S. fastigiatum var. acicularium (frutos verdes e maduros, 2,5% e 5% de concentração e S. diflorum (frutos verdes e maduros, 2,5% e 5% de concentração demonstraram maior eficácia. Nos testes sobre a biologia do inseto os tratamentos mais eficazes como inseticida foram S. fastigiatum var. fastigiatum e var. acicularium (folhas a 10% de concentração.The objective of this study was to test the effect of plant extracts from Solanaceae available in Vale do Rio Pardo region, RS, on the aphid Brevicoryne brassicae, agricultural pest of significant importance. Nine toxic Solanaceae species are available in the area of study: six are wild belonging to the genus Solanum, one to the genus Brugmansia, and two are cultivated and belong to the genus Nicotiana and Capsicum. To determine the

  19. Study on the spectral response of Brassica Campestris L. leaf to the copper pollution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Brassica Campestis L. was cultivated in the soil at the laboratory. The red edge,the visual spectrum and the near-infrared spectrum of Brassica Campestis L. leaf were used to explore the spectral response of Brassica Campestis L. leaf to the copper stress. As the Cu content in the soil gets increased,the copper level in Brassica Campestris L. leaf would be increased,and the chlorophyll level in Brassica Campestris L. leaf would be decreased. As a result,the visual spectral reflectance (A1) of Brassica Campestris L. leaf is increased,and the blue-shift (moving towards the shorter waveband) degree (S) of the red edge (the ascending region of the re-flectivity at 680―740 nm) gets increased. However,the near-infrared spectral re-flectance (A2) decreases. With the correlation coefficient R2 more than 0.95,these parameters of A1,A2 and S can be perfectly used to simulate and predict the copper level in Brassica Campestris L. leaf.

  20. Tracing the transcriptomic changes in synthetic Trigenomic allohexaploids of Brassica using an RNA-Seq approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qin Zhao

    Full Text Available Polyploidization has played an important role in plant evolution and speciation, and newly formed allopolyploids have experienced rapid transcriptomic changes. Here, we compared the transcriptomic differences between a synthetic Brassica allohexaploid and its parents using a high-throughput RNA-Seq method. A total of 35,644,409 sequence reads were generated, and 32,642 genes were aligned from the data. Totals of 29,260, 29,060, and 29,697 genes were identified in Brassicarapa, Brassicacarinata, and Brassica allohexaploid, respectively. We compared 7,397 differentially expressed genes (DEGs between Brassica hexaploid and its parents, as well as 2,545 nonadditive genes of Brassica hexaploid. We hypothesized that the higher ploidy level as well as secondary polyploidy might have influenced these changes. The majority of the 3,184 DEGs between Brassica hexaploid and its paternal parent, B. rapa, were involved in the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites, plant-pathogen interactions, photosynthesis, and circadian rhythm. Among the 2,233 DEGs between Brassica hexaploid and its maternal parent, B. carinata, several played roles in plant-pathogen interactions, plant hormone signal transduction, ribosomes, limonene and pinene degradation, photosynthesis, and biosynthesis of secondary metabolites. There were more significant differences in gene expression between the allohexaploid and its paternal parent than between it and its maternal parent, possibly partly because of cytoplasmic and maternal effects. Specific functional categories were enriched among the 2,545 nonadditive genes of Brassica hexaploid compared with the additive genes; the categories included response to stimulus, immune system process, cellular process, metabolic process, rhythmic process, and pigmentation. Many transcription factor genes, methyltransferases, and methylation genes showed differential expression between Brassica hexaploid and its parents. Our results demonstrate that the

  1. The pangenome of an agronomically important crop plant Brassica oleracea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golicz, Agnieszka A; Bayer, Philipp E; Barker, Guy C; Edger, Patrick P; Kim, HyeRan; Martinez, Paula A; Chan, Chon Kit Kenneth; Severn-Ellis, Anita; McCombie, W Richard; Parkin, Isobel A P; Paterson, Andrew H; Pires, J Chris; Sharpe, Andrew G; Tang, Haibao; Teakle, Graham R; Town, Christopher D; Batley, Jacqueline; Edwards, David

    2016-11-11

    There is an increasing awareness that as a result of structural variation, a reference sequence representing a genome of a single individual is unable to capture all of the gene repertoire found in the species. A large number of genes affected by presence/absence and copy number variation suggest that it may contribute to phenotypic and agronomic trait diversity. Here we show by analysis of the Brassica oleracea pangenome that nearly 20% of genes are affected by presence/absence variation. Several genes displaying presence/absence variation are annotated with functions related to major agronomic traits, including disease resistance, flowering time, glucosinolate metabolism and vitamin biosynthesis.

  2. EFFECT OF EXTRACTS FROM GERANIACEAE PLANTS ON PIERIS BRASSICAE L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIA WAWRZYNIAK

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The conducted studies comprised the analyses of activity of extracts derived from selected plants of the Geranium family on some processes of large white butterfly (Pieris brassicae development (oviposition, survival of eggs and caterpillar feeding. The results proved that all tested extracts showed activity against large white butterfly. Geranium pratense L. and Geranium senquineum L. showed better activity than other Geranium plants. Water extracts from these species protected cabbage plants against laying eggs, while applied on eggs caused their mortality. Alcohol and water extracts from G. pratense L. and water extracts from G. senquineum L. increased an amount of food put on mass gain of caterpillars.

  3. Genome-wide identification of aquaporin encoding genes in Brassica oleracea and their phylogenetic sequence comparison to Brassica crops and Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diehn, Till A; Pommerrenig, Benjamin; Bernhardt, Nadine; Hartmann, Anja; Bienert, Gerd P

    2015-01-01

    Aquaporins (AQPs) are essential channel proteins that regulate plant water homeostasis and the uptake and distribution of uncharged solutes such as metalloids, urea, ammonia, and carbon dioxide. Despite their importance as crop plants, little is known about AQP gene and protein function in cabbage (Brassica oleracea) and other Brassica species. The recent releases of the genome sequences of B. oleracea and Brassica rapa allow comparative genomic studies in these species to investigate the evolution and features of Brassica genes and proteins. In this study, we identified all AQP genes in B. oleracea by a genome-wide survey. In total, 67 genes of four plant AQP subfamilies were identified. Their full-length gene sequences and locations on chromosomes and scaffolds were manually curated. The identification of six additional full-length AQP sequences in the B. rapa genome added to the recently published AQP protein family of this species. A phylogenetic analysis of AQPs of Arabidopsis thaliana, B. oleracea, B. rapa allowed us to follow AQP evolution in closely related species and to systematically classify and (re-) name these isoforms. Thirty-three groups of AQP-orthologous genes were identified between B. oleracea and Arabidopsis and their expression was analyzed in different organs. The two selectivity filters, gene structure and coding sequences were highly conserved within each AQP subfamily while sequence variations in some introns and untranslated regions were frequent. These data suggest a similar substrate selectivity and function of Brassica AQPs compared to Arabidopsis orthologs. The comparative analyses of all AQP subfamilies in three Brassicaceae species give initial insights into AQP evolution in these taxa. Based on the genome-wide AQP identification in B. oleracea and the sequence analysis and reprocessing of Brassica AQP information, our dataset provides a sequence resource for further investigations of the physiological and molecular functions of

  4. Identification of antioxidant capacity -related QTLs in Brassica oleracea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotelo, Tamara; Cartea, María Elena; Velasco, Pablo; Soengas, Pilar

    2014-01-01

    Brassica vegetables possess high levels of antioxidant metabolites associated with beneficial health effects including vitamins, carotenoids, anthocyanins, soluble sugars and phenolics. Until now, no reports have been documented on the genetic basis of the antioxidant activity (AA) in Brassicas and the content of metabolites with AA like phenolics, anthocyanins and carotenoids. For this reason, this study aimed to: (1) study the relationship among different electron transfer (ET) methods for measuring AA, (2) study the relationship between these methods and phenolic, carotenoid and anthocyanin content, and (3) find QTLs of AA measured with ET assays and for phenolic, carotenoid and anthocyanin contents in leaves and flower buds in a DH population of B. oleracea as an early step in order to identify genes related to these traits. Low correlation coefficients among different methods for measuring AA suggest that it is necessary to employ more than one method at the same time. A total of 19 QTLs were detected for all traits. For AA methods, seven QTLs were found in leaves and six QTLs were found in flower buds. Meanwhile, for the content of metabolites with AA, two QTLs were found in leaves and four QTLs were found in flower buds. AA of the mapping population is related to phenolic compounds but also to carotenoid content. Three genomic regions determined variation for more than one ET method measuring AA. After the syntenic analysis with A. thaliana, several candidate genes related to phenylpropanoid biosynthesis are proposed for the QTLs found.

  5. Retention of glucosinolates during fermentation of Brassica juncea: a case study on production of sayur asin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nugrahedi, P.Y.; Widianarko, B.; Dekker, M.; Verkerk, R.; Oliviero, T.

    2015-01-01

    Fermentation can reduce the concentration of health-promoting glucosinolates in Brassica vegetables. The endogenous enzyme myrosinase is hypothesised to mainly responsible for the degradation of glucosinolates during fermentation. In order to retain glucosinolates in the final fermented product, the

  6. PERTUMBUHAN DAN PRODUKSI TANAMAN SAWI HIJAU Brassica juncea L. PADA BERBAGAI DESAIN HIDROPONIK

    OpenAIRE

    Anjeliza, Rispa Yeusy

    2013-01-01

    The research about growth and production of green mustard Brassica juncea L. on a variety of hydroponic design took place at the Laboratory Division of Biotechnology Activities Research Center, University of Hasanuddin, Makassar and runs from January to March 2013. This research aimed to determine which is more effective hydroponic design to optimize growth and production of green mustard Brassica juncea L. This research was based on a completely randomized design (CRD) with 4 treatments hydr...

  7. Genome-wide identification of aquaporin encoding genes in Brassica oleracea and their phylogenetic sequence comparison to Brassica crops and Arabidopsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Till Arvid Diehn

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Aquaporins (AQPs are essential channel proteins that regulate plant water homeostasis and the uptake and distribution of uncharged solutes such as metalloids, urea, ammonia and carbon dioxide. Despite their importance as crop plants, little is known about AQP gene and protein function in cabbage (Brassica oleracea and other Brassica species. The recent releases of the genome sequences of B. oleracea and B. rapa allow comparative genomic studies in these species to investigate the evolution and features of Brassica genes and proteins.In this study, we identified all AQP genes in B. oleracea by a genome-wide survey. In total, 67 genes of four plant AQP subfamilies were identified. Their full-length gene sequences and locations on chromosomes and scaffolds were manually curated. The identification of six additional full-length AQP sequences in the B. rapa genome added to the recently published AQP protein family of this species. A phylogenetic analysis of AQPs of A. thaliana, B. oleracea, B. rapa allowed us to follow AQP evolution in closely related species and to systematically classify and (re- name these isoforms. Thirty-three groups of AQP-orthologous genes were identified between B. oleracea and Arabidopsis and their expression was analyzed in different organs. The two selectivity filters, gene structure and coding sequences were highly conserved within each AQP subfamily while sequence variations in some introns and untranslated regions were frequent. These data suggest a similar substrate selectivity and function of Brassica AQPs compared to Arabidopsis orthologs. The comparative analyses of all AQP subfamilies in three Brassicaceae species give initial insights into AQP evolution in these taxa. Based on the genome-wide AQP identification in B. oleracea and the sequence analysis and reprocessing of Brassica AQP information, our dataset provides a sequence resource for further investigations of the physiological and molecular functions of

  8. Valor nutricional e potencial nutracêutico de inflorescências de couve-nabo (Brassica napus var napus) e couve-tronchuda (Brassica oleraceae var costata).

    OpenAIRE

    Barros, Lillian; Batista, Cátia Emanuela Oliveira; Carvalho, Ana Maria; FERREIRA, ISABEL C.F.R.

    2012-01-01

    Na Península Ibérica as verduras (silvestres ou tradicionalmente cultivadas) têm sido alimentos importantes na dieta humana. O valor nutricional de verduras e os seus benefícios para a saúde têm sido reconhecidos como importantes alvos de investigação. Os grelos, inflorescências da couve-nabo (Brassica napus L. var. napus) e os espigos, inflorescências da couve-tronchuda (Brassica oleracea L. var. costata DC.) são exemplos de espécies tradicionalmente cultivadas e amplamente consumidas nas re...

  9. Valor nutricional e potencial nutracêutico de inflorescências de couve-nabo (Brassica napus var napus) e couve-tronchuda (Brassica oleraceae var costata).

    OpenAIRE

    Barros, Lillian; Batista, Cátia Emanuela Oliveira; Carvalho, Ana Maria; Isabel C. F. R. Ferreira

    2012-01-01

    Na Península Ibérica as verduras (silvestres ou tradicionalmente cultivadas) têm sido alimentos importantes na dieta humana. O valor nutricional de verduras e os seus benefícios para a saúde têm sido reconhecidos como importantes alvos de investigação. Os grelos, inflorescências da couve-nabo (Brassica napus L. var. napus) e os espigos, inflorescências da couve-tronchuda (Brassica oleracea L. var. costata DC.) são exemplos de espécies tradicionalmente cultivadas e amplamente consumidas nas re...

  10. NAPUS 2000 Rapeseed (Brassica napus breeding for improved human nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Friedt Wolfgang

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Following a competition announcement of the Federal Ministry of Research and Education (BMBF a project dealing with the improvement of the nutritional value of oilseed rape (Brassica napus for food applications and human nutrition was worked out and started in autumn 1999. A number of partners (Figure 2 are carrying out a complex project reaching from the discovery, characterisation, isolation and transfer of genes of interest up to breeding of well performing varieties combined with important agronomic traits. Economic studies and processing trials as well as nutritional investigations of the new qualities are undertaken. B. napus seed quality aspects with respect to seed coat colour, oil composition, lecithin and protein fractions and antioxidants like tocopherols and resveratrol will be improved.

  11. Temperature Distribution Pattern of Brassica chinensis during Vacuum Cooling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-yan Song

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The temperature distribution of leafy vegetables is often less uniform than that of other vegetables during the vacuum cooling process, a factor that can cause undesired effects such as frostbite. Brassica chinensis, a type of classical leafy vegetable, was used as a model in this paper to optimize vacuum cooling technology for the whole and fresh-cut leafy vegetables. We found that noticeable temperature differences between the leaf and the petiole occurred, which resulted from their structural difference. Temperature variations of different parts of the leaf were also observed, indicating that cooling rate of leaf margin was quicker than the other parts. Our experiments show that using a moderate volumetric displacement of the chamber (0.033 s−1 is beneficial for obtaining a relative uniform temperature distribution of the leaf part.

  12. Transgene directionally integrated into C-genome of Brassica napus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANG Xiaoping; WANG Zhuan; LI Jun; LUO Lixia; HU Qiong

    2006-01-01

    Integration of a transgene into a C-genome chromosome plays an important role in reducing ecological risk of transgenic Brassica napus.To obtain C-genome transgenic B. napus, herbicide-resistant bar gene was firstly transferred into B.oleracea var. a/bog/abra mediated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain LBA4404. Then using the transgenic B. oleracea as paternal plants and 8 nontransgenic varieties of B. rapa as maternal plants, Cgenome transgenic B. napus with bar gene was artificially resynthesized by means of ovary culture and chromosome doubling. Among 67 lines of the resynthesized B. napus, 31 were positive, and 36 were negative according to PCR test for bar gene. At least 2 plants from each line were kept for PPT spray confirmation. The result was in consistence with the PCR test. Genomic Southern blotting of three randomly chosen lines also showed that bar gene had been integrated into the genome of resynthesized B. napus lines.

  13. Plant defence responses in oilseed rape MINELESS plants after attack by the cabbage moth Mamestra brassicae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahuja, Ishita; van Dam, Nicole Marie; Winge, Per; Trælnes, Marianne; Heydarova, Aysel; Rohloff, Jens; Langaas, Mette; Bones, Atle Magnar

    2015-02-01

    The Brassicaceae family is characterized by a unique defence mechanism known as the 'glucosinolate-myrosinase' system. When insect herbivores attack plant tissues, glucosinolates are hydrolysed by the enzyme myrosinase (EC 3.2.1.147) into a variety of degradation products, which can deter further herbivory. This process has been described as 'the mustard oil bomb'. Additionally, insect damage induces the production of glucosinolates, myrosinase, and other defences. Brassica napus seeds have been genetically modified to remove myrosinase-containing myrosin cells. These plants are termed MINELESS because they lack myrosin cells, the so-called toxic mustard oil mines. Here, we examined the interaction between B. napus wild-type and MINELESS plants and the larvae of the cabbage moth Mamestra brassicae. No-choice feeding experiments showed that M. brassicae larvae gained less weight and showed stunted growth when feeding on MINELESS plants compared to feeding on wild-type plants. M. brassicae feeding didn't affect myrosinase activity in MINELESS plants, but did reduce it in wild-type seedlings. M. brassicae feeding increased the levels of indol-3-yl-methyl, 1-methoxy-indol-3-yl-methyl, and total glucosinolates in both wild-type and MINELESS seedlings. M. brassicae feeding affected the levels of glucosinolate hydrolysis products in both wild-type and MINELESS plants. Transcriptional analysis showed that 494 and 159 genes were differentially regulated after M. brassicae feeding on wild-type and MINELESS seedlings, respectively. Taken together, the outcomes are very interesting in terms of analysing the role of myrosin cells and the glucosinolate-myrosinase defence system in response to a generalist cabbage moth, suggesting that similar studies with other generalist or specialist insect herbivores, including above- and below-ground herbivores, would be useful.

  14. A Brassica exon array for whole-transcript gene expression profiling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher G Love

    Full Text Available Affymetrix GeneChip® arrays are used widely to study transcriptional changes in response to developmental and environmental stimuli. GeneChip® arrays comprise multiple 25-mer oligonucleotide probes per gene and retain certain advantages over direct sequencing. For plants, there are several public GeneChip® arrays whose probes are localised primarily in 3' exons. Plant whole-transcript (WT GeneChip® arrays are not yet publicly available, although WT resolution is needed to study complex crop genomes such as Brassica, which are typified by segmental duplications containing paralogous genes and/or allopolyploidy. Available sequence data were sampled from the Brassica A and C genomes, and 142,997 gene models identified. The assembled gene models were then used to establish a comprehensive public WT exon array for transcriptomics studies. The Affymetrix GeneChip® Brassica Exon 1.0 ST Array is a 5 µM feature size array, containing 2.4 million 25-base oligonucleotide probes representing 135,201 gene models, with 15 probes per gene distributed among exons. Discrimination of the gene models was based on an E-value cut-off of 1E(-5, with ≤98% sequence identity. The 135 k Brassica Exon Array was validated by quantifying transcriptome differences between leaf and root tissue from a reference Brassica rapa line (R-o-18, and categorisation by Gene Ontologies (GO based on gene orthology with Arabidopsis thaliana. Technical validation involved comparison of the exon array with a 60-mer array platform using the same starting RNA samples. The 135 k Brassica Exon Array is a robust platform. All data relating to the array design and probe identities are available in the public domain and are curated within the BrassEnsembl genome viewer at http://www.brassica.info/BrassEnsembl/index.html.

  15. Effect of microwave treatment on the efficacy of expeller pressing of Brassica napus rapeseed and Brassica juncea mustard seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Yanxing; Rogiewicz, Anna; Wan, Chuyun; Guo, Mian; Huang, Fenghong; Slominski, Bogdan A

    2015-04-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the effect of microwave heating on the efficacy of expeller pressing of rapeseed and mustard seed and the composition of expeller meals in two types of Brassica napus rapeseed (intermediate- and low-glucosinolate) and in Brassica juncea mustard (high-glucosinolate). Following microwave treatment, the microstructure of rapeseed using transmission electron microscopy showed a significant disappearance of oil bodies and myrosin cells. After 6 min of microwave heating (400 g, 800 W), the oil content of rapeseed expeller meal decreased from 44.9 to 13.5% for intermediate-glucosinolate B. napus rapeseed, from 42.6 to 11.3% for low-glucosinolate B. napus rapeseed, and from 44.4 to 14.1% for B. juncea mustard. The latter values were much lower than the oil contents of the corresponding expeller meals derived from the unheated seeds (i.e., 26.6, 22.6, and 29.8%, respectively). Neutral detergent fiber (NDF) contents showed no differences except for the expeller meal from the intermediate-glucosinolate B. napus rapeseed, which increased from 22.7 to 29.2% after 6 min of microwave heating. Microwave treatment for 4 and 5 min effectively inactivated myrosinase enzyme of intermediate-glucosinolate B. napus rapeseed and B. juncea mustard seed, respectively. In low-glucosinolate B. napus rapeseed the enzyme appeared to be more heat stable, with some activity being present after 6 min of microwave heating. Myrosinase enzyme inactivation had a profound effect on the glucosinolate content of expeller meals and prevented their hydrolysis to toxic breakdown products during the expelling process. It appeared evident from this study that microwave heating for 6 min was an effective method of producing expeller meal without toxic glucosinolate breakdown products while at the same time facilitating high yield of oil during the expelling process.

  16. Sublethal effects of imidacloprid and pymetrozine on population growth parameters of cabbage aphid, Brevicoryne brassicae on rapeseed, Brassica napus L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MOHAMMAD REZA LASHKARI; AHAD SAHRAGARD; MOHAMMAD GHADAMYARI

    2007-01-01

    Efficiency of imidacloprid and pymetrozine on population growth parameters of cabbage aphid, Brevicoryne brassicae L. (Homoptera: Aphididae) was determined using demographic toxicology by leaf dip method. At first, bioassay tests were performed. The LC50 value and confidence limit for imidacloprid and pymetrozine were 1.61×10-5 mol/L (0.74×10-5-2.66×10-5) and 2.14×10-4 mol/L (1.24×10-4-3.40×10-4), respectively. To evaluate the sublethal effect of two insecticides on population growth parameters of cabbage aphid, LC30 concentrations of imidacloprid and pymetrozine were used at 5 mol/L and 30 mol/L. The experiments were carried out in a incubator at 20 +-1℃, 60% +-5% RH and 16: 8 (L: D) photoperiod on canola seedlings, Brassica napus L. var.' PF'. Net fecundity rate decreased in both insecticide-treated populations. Intrinsic rates of increase (rm) were lower in imidacloprid and pymetrozine treatments than in controls. Intrinsic birth rates also decreased in treated populations. There was a relative increase in intrinsic death rates of treated populations. The mean generation times and doubling time were also lower in populations treated with insecticides than in controls. There was a considerable reduction in the average numbers of nymphs reproduced per female as compared with the control. The average longevity of female adults in the control was significantly different from those treated with imidacloprid and pymetrozine. However, there was no significant differences in aphid life-table parameters between the two insecticide-treated populations (P > 0.01).

  17. Filmcoating the seed of cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. convar. Capitata L.) and cauliflower (Brassica oleracea L. var. Botrytis L.) with imidacloprid and spinosad to control insect pests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ester, A.; Putter, de H.; Bilsen, van J.G.P.M.

    2003-01-01

    Four field experiments were carried out between 1999 and 2001, to assess the protection against cabbage root fly larvae (Delia radicum), flea beetle (Phyllotreta nemorum and P. undulata), cabbage aphid (Brevicoryne brassicae) and caterpillars achieved in white cabbage and cauliflower crops by filmco

  18. BrFLC2 (flowering locus C) as a candidate gene for a vernalization response QTL in Brassica rapa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jianjun Zhao, Jianjun; Kulkarni, V.; Liu, Nini; Pino del Carpio, D.; Bonnema, A.B.

    2010-01-01

    Flowering time is an important agronomic trait, and wide variation exists among Brassica rapa. In Arabidopsis, FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC) plays an important role in modulating flowering time and the response to vernalization. Brassica rapa contains several paralogues of FLC at syntenic regions. BrFLC2

  19. A naturally occurring splicing site mutation in the Brassica rapa FLC1 gene is associated with variation in flowering time

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yuan, Y.X.; Wu, J.; Sun, R.F.; Zhang, X.W.; Xu, D.H.; Bonnema, A.B.; Wang, X.W.

    2009-01-01

    FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC), encoding a MADS-domain transcription factor in Arabidopsis, is a repressor of flowering involved in the vernalization pathway. This provides a good reference for Brassica species. Genomes of Brassica species contain several FLC homologues and several of these colocalize with

  20. Transcriptional responses of Brassica nigra to feeding by specialist insects of different feeding guilds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Colette Broekgaarden; Roeland E. Voorrips; Marcel Dicke; Ben Vosman

    2011-01-01

    Plants show phenotypic changes when challenged with herbivorous insects. The mechanisms underlying these changes include the activation of transcriptional responses, which are dependent on the attacking insect. Most transcriptomic studies on crucifer-insect interactions have focused on the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, a species that faces low herbivore pressure in nature. Here, we study the transcriptional responses of plants from a wild black mustard (Brassica nigra) population to herbivores of different feeding guilds using an A. thaliana-bused whole-genome microarray that has previously been shown to be suitable for transcriptomic analyses in Brassica. Transcriptional responses of 5. nigra after infestation with either Pieris rapae caterpillars or Brevicoryne brassicae aphids are analyzed and compared. Additionally, the insect-induced expression changes of some individual genes are analyzed through quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. The results show that feeding by both insect species results in the accumulation of transcripts encoding proteins involved in the detoxification of reactive oxygen species, defensive proteins and glucosinolates and this is correlated with experimental evidence in the literature on such biochemical effects. Although genes encoding proteins involved in similar processes are regulated by both insects, there was little overlap in the induction or repression of individual genes. Furthermore, P. rapae and B. brassicae seem to affect different phytohormone signaling pathways. In conclusion, our results indicate that B. nigra activates several defense-related genes in response to P. rapae or B. brassicae feeding, but that the response is dependent on the attacking insect species.

  1. The intensity of tyrosine nitration is associated with selenite and selenate toxicity in Brassica juncea L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molnár, Árpád; Feigl, Gábor; Trifán, Vanda; Ördög, Attila; Szőllősi, Réka; Erdei, László; Kolbert, Zsuzsanna

    2017-08-21

    Selenium phytotoxicity involves processes like reactive nitrogen species overproduction and nitrosative protein modifications. This study evaluates the toxicity of two selenium forms (selenite and selenate at 0µM, 20µM, 50µM and 100µM concentrations) and its correlation with protein tyrosine nitration in the organs of hydroponically grown Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L.). Selenate treatment resulted in large selenium accumulation in both Brassica organs, while selenite showed slight root-to-shoot translocation resulting in a much lower selenium accumulation in the shoot. Shoot and root growth inhibition and cell viability loss revealed that Brassica tolerates selenate better than selenite. Results also show that relative high amounts of selenium are able to accumulate in Brassica leaves without obvious visible symptoms such as chlorosis or necrosis. The more severe phytotoxicity of selenite was accompanied by more intense protein tyrosine nitration as well as alterations in nitration pattern suggesting a correlation between the degree of Se forms-induced toxicities and nitroproteome size, composition in Brassica organs. These results imply the possibility of considering protein tyrosine nitration as novel biomarker of selenium phytotoxicity, which could help the evaluation of asymptomatic selenium stress of plants. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Cytoplasmic male sterility and inter and intra subgenomic heterosis studies in Brassica species: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rameeh Valiollah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Plants of the genus Brassica comprise a remarkably diverse group of crops and encompass varieties that are grown as oilseeds, vegetables, condiment mustards and forages. One of the basic requirements for developing hybrid varieties in oilseed Brassica is the availability of proven heterosis. The development of hybrid cultivars has been successful in many Brassica spp. Midparent heterosis and high-parent heterosis (heterobeltiosis have extensively been explored and utilized for boosting various quantity and quality traits in rapeseed. Heterosis is commercially exploited in rapeseed and its potential use has been demonstrated in turnip rape (B. rapa L. and Indian mustard (B. juncea L. for seed yield and most of the agronomic traits. The oilseed rape plant, B. napus, possesses two endogenous male sterile cytoplasms, nap and pol. Ogura type of cytoplasmic male sterility was first discovered in Japanese wild radish and other male-sterile Brassicas (Ogura bearing cytoplasm derived from interspecific crosses. Information concerning the allelic frequencies of restorers can be useful in trying to understand their evolutionary origins. The ogu, pol and nap cytoplasms of B. napus induce sterility in all, some, and only a few cultivars, respectively. In this study, different kinds of male sterility, combining ability and heterosis of qualitative and quantitative traits in different Brassica species will be reviеwed.

  3. The effect of Ni on concentration of the most abundant essential cations in several Brassica species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Putnik-Delić Marina I.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Some plants from the genus Brassica have the ability to tolerate excessive concentrations of heavy metals, including Ni. Considering the fact that Ni is a very toxic element for living beings we wanted to examine its influence on some species from genus Brassicaceae. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of Ni on distribution and accumulation of essential macronutrients from the standpoint of food quality and phytoremediation potential. Experiments were performed using winter (W and spring (S varieties of rapeseed (Brassica napus, L., white mustard (Brassica alba, L., black mustard (Brassica nigra, L. and turnip (Brassica rapa, L.. The seeds were exposed to 10 μM Ni from the beginning of germination. Plants were grown in water cultures, in semi-controlled conditions of a greenhouse, on ½ strength Hoagland solution to which was added Ni in the same concentration as during germination. Concentrations and distribution of Ca, Mg, K in leaf and stem were altered in the presence of increased concentration of Ni. Significant differences were found between the control and Ni-treated plants as well as among the genotypes. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31036 i br. TR 31016

  4. Genomic advances will herald new insights into the Brassica: Leptosphaeria maculans pathosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayward, A; McLanders, J; Campbell, E; Edwards, D; Batley, J

    2012-03-01

    The study of the relationship between plants and phytopathogenic fungi is one of the most rapidly moving fields in the plant sciences, the findings of which have contributed to the development of new strategies and technologies to protect crops. Plants employ sophisticated mechanisms to perceive and appropriately defend themselves against pathogens. A good example of plant and pathogen evolution is the gene-for-gene interaction between the fungal pathogen Leptosphaeria maculans, the causal agent of blackleg disease, and Brassica crops. This interaction has been studied at the genetic and physiological level due to its agro-economic importance. The newly available genome sequence for Brassica spp. and L. maculans will provide the resources to study the co-evolution of this plant and pathogen. Particularly, an understanding of the co-evolution of genes responsible for virulence and resistance will lead to improved plant protection strategies for Brassica canola and provide a model to understand plant-pathogen interactions in other major crops. This review summarises the research-to-date in the study of the Brassica-L. maculans gene-for-gene interaction, with a focus on the genetics of resistance in Brassica and the wealth of information to be gained from genome sequencing efforts.

  5. Seed-borne viral dsRNA elements in three cultivated Raphanus and Brassica plants suggest three cryptoviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Liqiang; Liu, Jianning; Zhang, Qiong; Fu, Runying; Zhu, Xiwu; Li, Chao; Chen, Jishuang

    2016-04-01

    Since the 1970s, several dsRNA viruses, including Radish yellow edge virus, Raphanus sativus virus 1, Raphanus sativus virus 2, and Raphanus sativus virus 3, have been identified and reported as infecting radish. In the present study, in conjunction with a survey of seed-borne viruses in cultivated Brassica and Raphanus using the dsRNA diagnostic method, we discovered 3 novel cryptoviruses that infect Brassica and Raphanus: Raphanus sativus partitivirus 1, which infects radish (Raphanus sativus); Sinapis alba cryptic virus 1, which infects Sinapis alba; and Brassica rapa cryptic virus 1 (BrCV1), which infects Brassica rapa. The genomic organization of these cryptoviruses was analyzed and characterized. BrCV1 might represent the first plant partitivirus found in Gammapartitivirus. Additionally, the evolutionary relationships among all of the partitiviruses reported in Raphanus and Brassica were analyzed.

  6. Lecitina, silicone e amido na adubação foliar de couve (Brassica oleracea L. Lecithin, silicon and starch in the foliar feeding on collard green (Brassica oleracea L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosmany Aires Cunha Martins

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, no presente trabalho, avaliar os efeitos que a lecitina, amido e silicone possam ter na eficiência da adubação foliar, utilizando-se sais e quelatos como fonte de micronutrientes. Para isso foi realizado um experimento em que avaliaram-se os efeitos da adição de diferentes adjuvantes em relação à absorção e translocação de zinco e manganês na forma de sais e quelatos. O delineamento utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado, com seis repetições, com quatro fatores em estudo e dois níveis cada, perfazendo um fatorial 2x2x2x2, totalizando dezesseis tratamentos. Além dos tratamentos, foi adicionada testemunha como tratamento adicional, perfazendo, assim, um total de 102 parcelas. Cada parcela foi constituída por um vaso, contendo uma planta de couve-manteiga (Brassica oleracea L. var. acephala DC.. Os tratamentos constaram de combinações entre 2 fontes (sulfato e quelato e de presença ou ausência de três substâncias na calda de pulverização: lecitina de soja desengordurada, um siliconado comercial e gel de amido de mandioca. A determinação dos efeitos constituiu-se na análise do teor de zinco e manganês nas folhas novas 30 dias após a pulverização. A adição de lecitina aumentou a absorção do sulfato de zinco ao passo que o produto siliconado aumentou a absorção do zinco quelatizado. Tanto a lecitina quanto o produto siliconado, quando adicionados à calda de pulverização, aumentaram o teor de manganês. O gel de amido não aumentou a absorção de nenhum micronutriente.The objective of the present work was to evaluate the effect of lecithin, starch and silicon may have in the efficiency of foliar feeding, using salts and chelates as source of nutrients. The experiment was carried out under greenhouse condition at Univerdidade Federal de Goiás (Jataí unit - GO, set in a completely randomized design, with six replications, four factors in study and two levels each, making a 2x2x2x2 factorial

  7. Dieta cetogênica utilizando jejum fracionado: emprego ambulatorial em epilepsia refratária

    OpenAIRE

    Barros, Carlos Roberto de Moraes Rego

    2006-01-01

    Introdução Estudos experimentais clássicos têm sido realizados desde o início do século passado, utilizando métodos alternativos para tratamento das epilepsias. Entre eles, o emprego de uma dieta, denominada dieta cetogênica, que mimetizando os efeitos de um jejum prolongado, provoca a produção de corpos cetônicos, que seriam responsáveis por inibir a hiperexcitabilidade neuronal. Baseado nestes conceitos metabólicos e bioquímicos, foi aplicado tratamento utilizando dieta cetogênica em pacien...

  8. [Somatic hybridization between Brassica napus and Eruca sativa mill].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chuanli; Yang, Zhixin; Gui, Xuemei; Liu, Yating; Mao, Xiaoqiang; Xia, Guoyin; Lin, Liangbin

    2008-05-01

    In order to expand gene resources and improve Brassica napus cultivars, protoplasts isolated from hypocotyls of Brassica napus cv. Huayou No. 3 and Eruca sativa were fused by PEG-high Ca2+-high pH. Fusion frequency was up to 18.2% when fusion system contained 5 x 10(5) protoplasts/mL, and when PEG concentration of fusion agents were 35% and when fusion time was 25 min. Then the fused protoplasts were cultured by the method of thin liquid layer at the density of 1 x 10(5) protoplasts/mL in improved KM8p medium supplemented with 1.0 mg/L 2,4-D, 0.5 mg/L NAA, 0.5 mg/L 6-BA, 200 mg/L inositol, 300 mg/L protein hydrolysate, and the combinations of 0.1 mol/L sucrose and 0.2 mol/L glucose and 0.2 mol/L mannitol for osmotic regulator, the frequency of callus regeneration was up to 6.8%. When the micro-calli transferred to the proliferation medium that contained B5 salts, 0.087 mol/L sucrose, 0.2 mg/L 2,4-D, 0.5 mg/L NAA, 0.2 mg/L 6-BA and 0.5% Agar, pH 5.8, have grown up to 3-5 mm of diameter, the calli were transferred to the differentiation medium that contained MS salts, 0.087 mol/L sucrose, 0.1 mg/L IAA, 0.8 mg/L 6-BA, 0.8% Agar, pH5.8, the shoots were regenerated in 4 weeks and its frequency was up to 32.8%. Then 2-3 cm shoots were transferred to 1/2 MS medium with 0.5 mg/L IBA+0.2mg/L 6-BA, plantlets were obtained in 14 days and the plantlet frequency was up to 88%. When the protoplasts of Eruca sativa were treated with UV radiation for 2 minutes calli and plantlets have been regenerated, treated for 4 min only calli have been regenerated, and treated for more than 5 min calli have not been regenerated. The callus regeneration and callus proliferation and plant regeneration from symmetric fusion were more than from asymmetric fusion. 16 hybrid plantlets have been regenerated on 21 piece of hybrid calli identified by cytology method.

  9. Hypoglycemic effect of Brassica juncea (seeds) on streptozotocin induced diabetic male albino rat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    T Thirumalai; S Viviyan Therasa; EK Elumalai; E David

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the hypoglycemic effect of Brassica juncea (seeds) on streptozotocin induced diabetic male albino rats. Methods: Hypoglycemic activity of Brassica juncea (seeds) aqueous extract at a dose of 250, 350 and 450 mg/kg body weight was evaluated. Adult male Swiss albino rats of six numbers in each group was undertaken for study and evaluated. Results: The serum insulin levels were recorded a significant depletion in all groups, short term as well as long term diabetic animals, when compared to that of normal animals. A significant dosage dependent augmenting effect of the seed extract on the serum insulin was recorded in both short term as well as long term groups. Conclusions: The aqueous seed extract of Brassica juncea has potent hypoglycemic activity in male albino rat.

  10. First record of parasitic wasp Trichogramma brassicae Bezdenko, 1968 (Hymenoptera, Trichogrammatidae in Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja BOHINC

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the parasitic wasp, which occurrence in Slovenia was first confirmed in August 2014 on egg layers of cabbage moth (Mamestra brassicae from cabbage. The wasp Trichogrammma brassicae belongs among egg parasitoids and it is especially known as biological control agent of lepidopteran pests. In the beginning the wasp was used for controlling European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis, later it becomes an important biological control agent of some other economically important lepidopteran pests. With the first confirmation of occurrence of T. brassicae in Slovenia first condition for its placing on the List of indegenous biological control agents - it contains the organisms which practical use in Slovenia is allowed - is fulfilled.

  11. Improvement of tissue culture, genetic transformation, and applications of biotechnology to Brassica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravanfar, Seyed Ali; Orbovic, Vladimir; Moradpour, Mahdi; Abdul Aziz, Maheran; Karan, Ratna; Wallace, Simon; Parajuli, Saroj

    2017-04-01

    Development of in vitro plant regeneration method from Brassica explants via organogenesis and somatic embryogenesis is influenced by many factors such as culture environment, culture medium composition, explant sources, and genotypes which are reviewed in this study. An efficient in vitro regeneration system to allow genetic transformation of Brassica is a crucial tool for improving its economical value. Methods to optimize transformation protocols for the efficient introduction of desirable traits, and a comparative analysis of these methods are also reviewed. Hence, binary vectors, selectable marker genes, minimum inhibitory concentration of selection agents, reporter marker genes, preculture media, Agrobacterium concentration and regeneration ability of putative transformants for improvement of Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of Brassica are discussed.

  12. The variability of processes involved in transgene dispersal - case studies from Brassica and related genera

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger Jørgensen, Rikke; Hauser, Thure Pavlo; D'Hertefeldt, T.

    2009-01-01

    Background, aim, and scope We strive to predict consequences of genetically modified plants (GMPs) being cultivated openly in the environment, as human and animal health, biodiversity, agricultural practise and farmers’ economy could be affected. Therefore, it is unfortunate that the risk...... of fitness parameters. Monitoring of the extent of spontaneous introgression in natural populations was also performed. Modelling was used as an additional tool to identify key parameters in gene flow. Results The GM plant may affect the environment directly or indirectly by dispersal of the transgene....... In the present review, this is illustrated through a bunch of examples mostly from our own research on oilseed rape, Brassica napus. In the Brassica cases, the variability affected all five main steps in the process of gene dispersal. The modelling performed suggests that in Brassica, differences in fitness...

  13. A Phylogenetic Analysis of Chloroplast Genomes Elucidates the Relationships of the Six Economically Important Brassica Species Comprising the Triangle of U

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Peirong; Zhang, Shujiang; Li, Fei; Zhang, Shifan; Zhang, Hui; Wang, Xiaowu; Sun, Rifei; Bonnema, Guusje; Borm, Theo J. A.

    2017-01-01

    The Brassica genus comprises many economically important worldwide cultivated crops. The well-established model of the Brassica genus, U’s triangle, consists of three basic diploid plant species (Brassica rapa, Brassica oleracea, and Brassica nigra) and three amphidiploid species (Brassica napus, Brassica juncea, and Brassica carinata) that arose through interspecific hybridizations. Despite being extensively studied because of its commercial relevance, several aspects of the origin of the Brassica species and the relationships within and among these six species still remain open questions. Here, we successfully de novo assembled 60 complete chloroplast genomes of Brassica genotypes of all six species. A complete map of the single nucleotide variants and insertions and deletions in the chloroplast genomes of different Brassica species was produced. The chloroplast genome consists of a Large and a Small Single Copy (LSC and SSC) region between two inverted repeats, and while these regions of chloroplast genomes have very different molecular evolutionary rates, phylogenetic analyses of different regions yielded no contradicting topologies and separated the Brassica genus into four clades. B. carinata and B. juncea share their chloroplast genome with one of their hybridization donors B. nigra and B. rapa, respectively, which fits the U model. B. rapa, surprisingly, shows evidence of two types of chloroplast genomes, with one type specific to some Italian broccoletto accessions. B. napus clearly has evidence for two independent hybridization events, as it contains either B. rapa chloroplast genomes. The divergence estimation suggests that B. nigra and B. carinata diverged from the main Brassica clade 13.7 million years ago (Mya), while B. rapa and B. oleracea diverged at 2.18 Mya. The use of the complete chloroplast DNA sequence not only provides insights into comparative genome analysis but also paves the way for a better understanding of the phylogenetic

  14. Occurrence of Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (Pammel, 1895 Dowson 1939, on Brassicas in Montenegro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragana Radunović

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Brassicas form the most important group of vegetable crops in Montenegro. The cabbage(Brassica oleracea var. capitata is most commonly grown, although other brassicas,particularly kale, Brussels sprout, cauliflower and broccoli, have been increasingly producedsince recently. One of the specialties of vegetable production in Montenegro is growing ofcollard (Brassica oleracea var. acephala, which is the simplest variety of the Brassica oleraceaspecies and in the nearest relation with their wild ancestor – the sylvestris variety.Diseases are the main restrictive factors for successful production of these vegetables.Susceptibility of the cultivars and inadequate control often result in more or less damagedcrops in some plots.Causal agents of brassica diseases, especially bacterial, have not been investigated inMontenegro until 2009. Since the symptoms observed in 2009 were „V” shaped leaf edgenecrosis and black rot of vascular tissue, it was assumed that they were caused by plantpathogenic bacterium Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris.Samples of the infected plants were collected from different localities in Montenegro.Isolation and identification of the bacterium were performed using laboratory methodsaccording to Schaad (1980, Lelliott and Stead (1987 and Arsenijević (1997. Examinationof chosen bacterial isolates was conducted using both, classical bacteriological methods(examination of their pathogenic, morphological, cultivation and biochemical and physiologicalcharacteristics, and ELISA test.The obtained results confirmed the presence of X.campestris pv. campestris (Pammel,1895 Dowson 1939, on cabbage, kale, broccoli and collard in Montenegro. This is the firstexperimental evidence that collard is the host of X. campestris pv. campestris in Montenegro.

  15. EVALUACIÓN DE LA BIOESTIMULACION (NUTRIENTES) EN SUELOS CONTAMINADOS CON HIDROCARBUROS UTILIZANDO RESPIROMETRIA

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Erika garcia; Fabio Roldán

    2011-01-01

      Se evaluó el proceso de bioestimulación por nutrientes: fertilizantes inorgánicos compuestos (FIC) N:P:K 28:12:7 y sales inorgánicas simples (SIS) NH4NO3 y K2HPO4 en suelos contaminados con hidrocarburos utilizando...

  16. Storage oil breakdown during embryo development of Brassica napus (L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chia, Tansy Y P; Pike, Marilyn J; Rawsthorne, Stephen

    2005-05-01

    In this study it is shown that at least 10% of the major storage product of developing embryos of Brassica napus (L.), triacylglycerol, is lost during the desiccation phase of seed development. The metabolism of this lipid was studied by measurements of the fate of label from [1-(14)C]decanoate supplied to isolated embryos, and by measurements of the activities of enzymes of fatty acid catabolism. Measurements on desiccating embryos have been compared with those made on embryos during lipid accumulation and on germinating seedlings. Enzymes of beta-oxidation and the glyoxylate cycle, and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase were present in embryos during oil accumulation, and increased in activity and abundance as the seeds matured and became desiccated. Although the activities were less than those measured during germination, they were at least comparable to the in vivo rate of fatty acid synthesis in the embryo during development. The pattern of labelling, following metabolism of decanoate by isolated embryos, indicated a much greater involvement of the glyoxylate cycle during desiccation than earlier in oil accumulation, and showed that much of the (14)C-label from decanoate was released as CO(2) at both stages. Sucrose was not a product of decanoate metabolism during embryo development, and therefore lipid degradation was not associated with net gluconeogenic activity. These observations are discussed in the context of seed development, oil yield, and the synthesis of novel fatty acids in plants.

  17. Marker-aided genetic divergence analysis in Brassica

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    V. Arunachalam; Shefali Verma; V. Sujata; K. V. Prabhu

    2005-08-01

    Genetic divergence was evaluated in 31 breeding lines from four Brassica species using Mahalanobis’ $D^{2}$. A new method of grouping using $D^{2}$ values was used to group the 31 lines, based on diagnostic morphological traits (called morphoqts). Isozyme variation of the individual enzymes esterase and glutamate oxaloacetate was quantified by five parameters (called isoqts) developed earlier. Grouping by the same method was also done based on the isoqts, and the grouping by isozymes was compared with that by morphoqts. Overall, there was an agreement of 73% suggesting that isoqts can be used in the choice of parents and also first stage selection of segregants in the laboratory. It was suggested that such an exercise would help to take care of season-bound and field-related problems of breeding. The new isozyme QTs, within lane variance of relative mobility and relative absorption, accounted for about 50% of the total divergence. The utility of the new method and isoqts in cost-effective breeding were highlighted.

  18. Transcriptomic basis for drought-resistance in Brassica napus L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pei; Yang, Cuiling; Chen, Hao; Song, Chunpeng; Zhang, Xiao; Wang, Daojie

    2017-01-01

    Based on transcriptomic data from four experimental settings with drought-resistant and drought-sensitive cultivars under drought and well-watered conditions, statistical analysis revealed three categories encompassing 169 highly differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in response to drought in Brassica napus L., including 37 drought-resistant cultivar-related genes, 35 drought-sensitive cultivar-related genes and 97 cultivar non-specific ones. We provide evidence that the identified DEGs were fairly uniformly distributed on different chromosomes and their expression patterns are variety specific. Except commonly enriched in response to various stimuli or stresses, different categories of DEGs show specific enrichment in certain biological processes or pathways, which indicated the possibility of functional differences among the three categories. Network analysis revealed relationships among the 169 DEGs, annotated biological processes and pathways. The 169 DEGs can be classified into different functional categories via preferred pathways or biological processes. Some pathways might simultaneously involve a large number of shared DEGs, and these pathways are likely to cross-talk and have overlapping biological functions. Several members of the identified DEGs fit to drought stress signal transduction pathway in Arabidopsis thaliana. Finally, quantitative real-time PCR validations confirmed the reproducibility of the RNA-seq data. These investigations are profitable for the improvement of crop varieties through transgenic engineering. PMID:28091614

  19. The elucidation of stress memory inheritance in Brassica rapa plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilichak, Andriy; Ilnytskyy, Yaroslav; Wóycicki, Rafal; Kepeshchuk, Nina; Fogen, Dawson; Kovalchuk, Igor

    2015-01-01

    Plants are able to maintain the memory of stress exposure throughout their ontogenesis and faithfully propagate it into the next generation. Recent evidence argues for the epigenetic nature of this phenomenon. Small RNAs (smRNAs) are one of the vital epigenetic factors because they can both affect gene expression at the place of their generation and maintain non-cell-autonomous gene regulation. Here, we have made an attempt to decipher the contribution of smRNAs to the heat-shock-induced transgenerational inheritance in Brassica rapa plants using sequencing technology. To do this, we have generated comprehensive profiles of a transcriptome and a small RNAome (smRNAome) from somatic and reproductive tissues of stressed plants and their untreated progeny. We have demonstrated that the highest tissue-specific alterations in the transcriptome and smRNAome profile are detected in tissues that were not directly exposed to stress, namely, in the endosperm and pollen. Importantly, we have revealed that the progeny of stressed plants exhibit the highest fluctuations at the smRNAome level but not at the transcriptome level. Additionally, we have uncovered the existence of heat-inducible and transgenerationally transmitted tRNA-derived small RNA fragments in plants. Finally, we suggest that miR168 and braAGO1 are involved in the stress-induced transgenerational inheritance in plants.

  20. THE ELUCIDATION OF STRESS MEMORY INHERITANCE IN BRASSICA RAPA PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andriy eBilichak

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Plants are able to maintain the memory of stress exposure throughout their ontogenesis and faithfully propagate it into the next generation. Recent evidence argues for the epigenetic nature of this phenomenon. Small RNAs (smRNAs are one of the vital epigenetic factors because they can both affect gene expression at the place of their generation and maintain non-cell-autonomous gene regulation. Here, we have made an attempt to decipher the contribution of smRNAs to the heat-shock-induced transgenerational inheritance in Brassica rapa plants using sequencing technology. To do this, we have generated comprehensive profiles of a transcriptome and a small RNAome (smRNAome from somatic and reproductive tissues of stressed plants and their untreated progeny. We have demonstrated that the highest tissue-specific alterations in the transcriptome and smRNAome profile are detected in tissues that were not directly exposed to stress, namely, in the endosperm and pollen. Importantly, we have revealed that the progeny of stressed plants exhibit the highest fluctuations at the smRNAome level but not at the transcriptome level. Additionally, we have uncovered the existence of heat-inducible and transgenerationally transmitted tRNA-derived small RNA fragments in plants. Finally, we suggest that miR168 and braAGO1 are involved in the stress-induced transgenerational inheritance in plants.

  1. Effect of salinity on zinc uptake by Brassica juncea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novo, Luís A B; Covelo, Emma F; González, Luís

    2014-01-01

    Salinity is a major worldwide problem that affects agricultural soils and limits the reclamation of contaminated sites. Despite the large number of research papers published about salt tolerance in Brassica juncea L., there are very few accounts concerning the influence of salinity on the uptake of trace metals. In this study, B. juncea plants divided through soil sets comprising 0, 900 and 1800 mg Zn kg(-1), were treated with solutions containing 0, 60 and 120 mmol L(-1) of NaCl, with the purpose of observing the effect of salt on Zn uptake, and some physiological responses throughout the 90 days experiment. Increasing concentrations of NaCl and Zn produced a decline in the ecophysiological and biochemical properties of the plants, with observable synergistic effects on parameters like shoot dry weight, leaf area, or photochemical efficiency. Nevertheless, plants treated with 60 mmol L(-1) of NaCl accumulated striking harvestable amounts of Zn per plant that largely exceed those reported for Thlaspi caerulescens. It was concluded that salinity could play an important role on the uptake of Zn by B. juncea. The potential mechanisms behind these results are discussed, as well as the implications for phytoremediation of Zn on saline and non-saline soils.

  2. Red Cabbage (Brassica oleracea Ameliorates Diabetic Nephropathy in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hazem A. H. Kataya

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The protective action against oxidative stress of red cabbage (Brassica oleracea extract was investigated. Diabetes was induced in male Wistar rats using streptozotocin (60 mg/kg body weight. Throughout the experimental period (60 days, diabetic rats exhibited many symptoms including loss of body weight, hyperglycemia, polyuria, polydipsia, renal enlargement and renal dysfunction. Significant increase in malondialdehyde, a lipid peroxidation marker, was observed in diabetic kidney. This was accompanied by a significant increase in reduced glutathione and superoxide dismutase activity and a decrease in catalase activity and in the total antioxidant capacity of the kidneys. Daily oral ingestion (1 g/kg body weight of B. oleracea extract for 60 days reversed the adverse effect of diabetes in rats. B. oleracea extract lowered blood glucose levels and restored renal function and body weight loss. In addition, B. oleracea extract attenuated the adverse effect of diabetes on malondialdehyde, glutathione and superoxide dismutase activity as well as catalase activity and total antioxidant capacity of diabetic kidneys. In conclusion, the antioxidant and antihyperglycemic properties of B. oleracea extract may offer a potential therapeutic source for the treatment of diabetes.

  3. Phytoremediation of aspirin and tetracycline by Brassica juncea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gahlawat, Sonal; Gauba, Pammi

    2016-09-01

    With the increasing release of pharmaceutical drugs in the environment, research is in progress for investigating alternative methods for their remediation. Various studies have shown the phytoremediation potential of Brassica juncea for metals. The current study was aimed at evaluating the phytoremediation potential of B. juncea for two different pharmaceutical drugs i.e. aspirin and tetracycline in in-vitro conditions. The seeds of B. juncea were germinated and grown for a period of 28 and 24 days for aspirin and tetracycline, respectively. The study analyzed the remediation rate of B. juncea for the selected drugs in three different sets of varying concentration along with any phytotoxic effects exerted by the drugs on the seeds. Preliminary results showed that the average remediation rate of aspirin and tetracycline at the end of experiment was approximately 90% and 71%, respectively. As initial drug concentrations were increased in the media, the remediation rate also improved. However, at higher concentrations, the plants showed phytotoxicity as depicted by the decrease in shoot length of the germinated seeds. These preliminary results indicated that B. juncea could tolerate and remediate pharmaceutical drugs such as analgesics and antibiotics.

  4. Transcriptomic basis for drought-resistance in Brassica napus L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pei; Yang, Cuiling; Chen, Hao; Song, Chunpeng; Zhang, Xiao; Wang, Daojie

    2017-01-01

    Based on transcriptomic data from four experimental settings with drought-resistant and drought-sensitive cultivars under drought and well-watered conditions, statistical analysis revealed three categories encompassing 169 highly differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in response to drought in Brassica napus L., including 37 drought-resistant cultivar-related genes, 35 drought-sensitive cultivar-related genes and 97 cultivar non-specific ones. We provide evidence that the identified DEGs were fairly uniformly distributed on different chromosomes and their expression patterns are variety specific. Except commonly enriched in response to various stimuli or stresses, different categories of DEGs show specific enrichment in certain biological processes or pathways, which indicated the possibility of functional differences among the three categories. Network analysis revealed relationships among the 169 DEGs, annotated biological processes and pathways. The 169 DEGs can be classified into different functional categories via preferred pathways or biological processes. Some pathways might simultaneously involve a large number of shared DEGs, and these pathways are likely to cross-talk and have overlapping biological functions. Several members of the identified DEGs fit to drought stress signal transduction pathway in Arabidopsis thaliana. Finally, quantitative real-time PCR validations confirmed the reproducibility of the RNA-seq data. These investigations are profitable for the improvement of crop varieties through transgenic engineering.

  5. Crossovers get a boost in Brassica allotriploid and allotetraploid hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leflon, Martine; Grandont, Laurie; Eber, Frédérique; Huteau, Virginie; Coriton, Olivier; Chelysheva, Liudmila; Jenczewski, Eric; Chèvre, Anne-Marie

    2010-07-01

    Meiotic crossovers are necessary to generate balanced gametes and to increase genetic diversity. Even if crossover number is usually constrained, recent results suggest that manipulating karyotype composition could be a new way to increase crossover frequency in plants. In this study, we explored this hypothesis by analyzing the extent of crossover variation in a set of related diploid AA, allotriploid AAC, and allotetraploid AACC Brassica hybrids. We first used cytogenetic methods to describe the meiotic behavior of the different hybrids. We then combined a cytogenetic estimation of class I crossovers in the entire genome by immunolocalization of a key protein, MutL Homolog1, which forms distinct foci on meiotic chromosomes, with genetic analyses to specifically compare crossover rates between one pair of chromosomes in the different hybrids. Our results showed that the number of crossovers in the allotriploid AAC hybrid was higher than in the diploid AA hybrid. Accordingly, the allotetraploid AACC hybrid showed an intermediate behavior. We demonstrated that this increase was related to hybrid karyotype composition (diploid versus allotriploid versus allotetraploid) and that interference was maintained in the AAC hybrids. These results could provide another efficient way to manipulate recombination in traditional breeding and genetic studies.

  6. Reduction of antinutritional glucosinolates in Brassica oilseeds by mutation of genes encoding transporters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nour-Eldin, Hussam Hassan; Madsen, Svend Roesen; Engelen, Steven

    2017-01-01

    The nutritional value of Brassica seed meals is reduced by the presence of glucosinolates, which are toxic compounds involved in plant defense. Mutation of the genes encoding two glucosinolate transporters (GTRs) eliminated glucosinolates from Arabidopsis thaliana seeds, but translation of loss...... over multiple generations and maintained in field trials of two mutant populations at three locations. Successful translation of the gtr loss-of-function phenotype from model plant to two Brassica crops suggests that our transport engineering approach could be broadly applied to reduce seed...

  7. Nutritional and nutraceutical potential of rape (Brassica napus L. var. napus) and "tronchuda" cabbage (Brassica oleraceae L. var. costata) inflorescences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batista, Cátia; Barros, Lillian; Carvalho, Ana Maria; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2011-06-01

    Two traditional cultivated vegetables highly consumed among Northern Portuguese regions were tested for their chemical composition, nutritional profile and in vitro antioxidant properties using four assays: 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals scavenging activity, reducing power, inhibition of β-carotene bleaching and inhibition of lipid peroxidation by thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) assay. The studied varieties of two Brassica species, locally known as "grelos" (rape) and "espigos" ("tronchuda" cabbage) are nutritionally well-balanced vegetables; particularly "tronchuda" cabbage revealed the highest levels of moisture, proteins, fat, energy, β-carotene and vitamin C; rape gave the highest contents of ash, carbohydrates, sugars (including fructose, glucose, sucrose and raffinose), essential n-3 fatty acid α-linolenic acid, and the best ratios of PUFA/SFA and n-6/n-3 fatty acids, tocopherols, lycopene, chlorophylls, phenolics, flavonoids, and also the highest antioxidant properties. The health benefits associated to the antioxidant properties reinforce their contribution to a healthy and balanced diet, highlight the interest of their consumption, validate the empirical use and add new values to traditional/regional products which have been used for a long time.

  8. Optimization of medium composition and cultural conditions for production of antifungal substances by Streptomyces platensis 3-10 and evaluation of its efficacy in suppression of clubroot disease of oilseed rape

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study was conducted to optimize the medium composition and cultural conditions for improving production of antifungal substances (AFS) by Streptomyces 3-10 and for enhancing its efficacy in suppression of clubroot disease of oilseed rape caused by Plasmodiophora brassicae. Results showed that t...

  9. Dicty_cDB: VHA813 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 2189 |pid:none) Sorosphaera veronicae actin 1 gene... 308 2e-82 AF363539_1( AF363539 |pid:none) Cercomonas s...pid:none) Plasmodiophora brassicae actin 3 g... 305 3e-81 AY452190_1( AY452190 |pid:none) Sorosphaera veronica

  10. Biofumigation using a wild Brassica oleracea accession with high glucosinolate content affects beneficial soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuluaga, D.L.; Ommen Kloeke van, A.E.E.; Verkerk, R.; Röling, W.F.M.; Ellers, J.; Roelofs, D.; Aarts, M.G.M.

    2015-01-01

    Aims This study explores the biofumigation effects of glucosinolate (GSL) containing Brassica oleracea plant material on beneficial, non-target soil organisms, and aims to relate those effects to differences in GSL profiles. Methods Leaf material of purple sprouting broccoli ‘Santee’, Savoy cabbage

  11. Genetic variation in the hTAS2R38 taste receptor and brassica vegetable intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorovic, Nela; Afzal, Shoaib; Tjonneland, Anne

    2011-01-01

    investigated the relationship between genetic variation in the hTAS2R38 receptor and the actual consumption of brassica vegetables with the hypothesis that taster status was associated with intake of these vegetables. Furthermore, secondary intake information on alcohol, chocolate, coffee, smoking, BMI...

  12. The genome of the mesopolyploid crop species Brassica rapa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Xiaowu; Wang, Hanzhong; Wang, Jun;

    2011-01-01

    We report the annotation and analysis of the draft genome sequence of Brassica rapa accession Chiifu-401-42, a Chinese cabbage. We modeled 41,174 protein coding genes in the B. rapa genome, which has undergone genome triplication. We used Arabidopsis thaliana as an outgroup for investigating the ...

  13. Powdery mildew suppresses herbivore-induced plant volatiles and interferes with parasitoid attraction in Brassica rapa

    Science.gov (United States)

    The co-occurrence of different antagonists on a plant can greatly affect infochemicals with ecological consequences for higher trophic levels. Here we investigated how the presence of a plant pathogen, the powdery mildew Erysiphe cruciferarum, on Brassica rapa affects 1) plant volatiles emitted in r...

  14. Characterization of rDNAs and Tandem Repeats in the Heterochromatin of Brassica rapa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lim, K.B.; Jong, de J.H.S.G.M.; Yang, T.J.; Park, J.Y.; Kwon, S.J.; Kim, J.S.; Lim, M.H.; Kim, J.A.; Jin, M.; Jin, Y.M.; Kim, S.H.; Lim, Y.P.; Bang, J.W.; Kim, H.I.; Park, B.S.

    2005-01-01

    We describe the morphology and molecular organization of heterochromatin domains in the interphase nuclei, and mitotic and meiotic chromosomes, of Brassica rapa, using DAPI staining and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) of rDNA and pericentromere tandem repeats. We have developed a simple me

  15. Linkage mapping of a dominant male sterility gene Ms-cd1 in Brassica oleracea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, X.; Lou, P.; Bonnema, A.B.; Yang, Boujun; He, H.; Zhang, Y.; Fang, Z.

    2005-01-01

    The dominant male sterility gene Ms-cd1 (c, cabbage; d, dominant) was identified as a spontaneous mutation in the spring cabbage line 79-399-3. The Ms-cd1 gene is successfully applied in hybrid seed production of several Brassica oleracea cultivars in China. Amplified fragment length polymorphism

  16. Quantitative trait loci for flowering time and morphological traits in multiple populations of Brassica rapa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lou, P.; Jianjun Zhao, Jianjun; Kim, J.S.; Shen, Shuxing; Pino del Carpio, D.; Song, Xiaofei; Jin, M.; Vreugdenhil, D.; Wang, Xiaowu; Koornneef, M.; Bonnema, A.B.

    2007-01-01

    Wide variation for morphological traits exists in Brassica rapa and the genetic basis of this morphological variation is largely unknown. Here is a report on quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis of flowering time, seed and pod traits, growth-related traits, leaf morphology, and turnip formation in

  17. Genetic diversity and population structure of collard landraces and their relationship to other Brassica oleracea crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landraces have the potential to provide a reservoir of genetic diversity for crop improvement to combat the genetic erosion of the food supply. A landrace collection of the vitamin-rich specialty crop collard (Brassica oleracea var. viridis) was genetically characterized to assess its potential for ...

  18. Oviposition behaviour as influenced by the oviposition deterring pheromone in the large white butterfly, Pieris brassicae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klijnstra, J.W.

    1985-01-01

    This thesis deals with a detailed analysis of egglaying behaviour of adult females of the Large White Butterfly, Pieris brassicae, and the way this behaviour is influenced by the oviposition deterring pheromone (ODP) in order to investigate the prospects for field application of this pheromone in ca

  19. Host plant resistance towards the cabbage whitefly in Brassica oleracea and its wild relatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pelgrom, K. T B; Broekgaarden, C.; Voorrips, R. E.; Bas, N.; Visser, R. G F; Vosman, B.

    2014-01-01

    The cabbage whitefly (Aleyrodes proletella) is a phloem-feeding insect that is a serious problem in Brassica oleracea crops like Brussels sprouts, kale and savoy cabbage. In order to develop whitefly-resistant varieties it is essential to identify effective sources of resistance. In this study, we s

  20. Quantitative trait loci for flowering time and morphological traits in multiple populations of Brassica rapa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lou, P.; Jianjun Zhao, Jianjun; Kim, J.S.; Shen, Shuxing; Pino del Carpio, D.; Song, Xiaofei; Jin, M.; Vreugdenhil, D.; Wang, Xiaowu; Koornneef, M.; Bonnema, A.B.

    2007-01-01

    Wide variation for morphological traits exists in Brassica rapa and the genetic basis of this morphological variation is largely unknown. Here is a report on quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis of flowering time, seed and pod traits, growth-related traits, leaf morphology, and turnip formation in

  1. Genetic diversity in Brassica species and Eruca sativa for yield associated parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanwal Mahwish

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Brassica species are vulnerable to narrow genetic base due to the ignorance of their wild relatives which possess many superior characters. This study was aimed to explore the genetic diversity in five Brassica species from U triangle as well as in their wild relative Eruca sativa. For the complete insight of genetic diversity, four accessions, each from five species of genus Brassica along with one species of Eruca collected from different geographical locations (exotic and indigenous were selected. Six yield associated parameters viz., primary branches plant-1, plant height, main raceme length, silique length, silique width and silique main raceme-1 were studied. Highly significant variations among all species were observed. Mean performance showed that wild relative E. sativa was superior for primary branches plant -1 and plant height, which are the main yield associated traits. In case of Brassica species, B. campestris gave the lengthiest main racemes, B. nigra produced more silique main raceme-1 and B. carinata produced the longest and widest silique.

  2. Anaerobic soil disinfestation and Brassica seed meal amendment alter soil microbiology and system resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brassica seed meal amendments and anaerobic soil disinfestation control a spectrum of soil-borne plant pathogens via a diversity of mechanisms. Transformations in microbial community structure and function in certain instances were determinants of disease control and enhanced plant performance. Fo...

  3. A homolog of the RPS2 disease resistance gene is constitutively expressed in Brassica oleracea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malvas Celia C.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we identified disease resistance gene homologs in Brassica oleracea and assessed their expression in lines resistant and susceptible to Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (Xcc. Two DNA fragments of approximately 2.5 kb (BI-16/RPS2 and Lc201/RPS2 were amplified by PCR from two Brassica lines using primers based on an RPS2 homologous sequence previously described in the Brassica oleracea ecotype B117. The sequences of these fragments shared high similarity (95-98% with RPS2 homologs from various Brassica species. The digestion of these fragments with restriction enzymes revealed polymorphisms at the Xba I restriction sites. The length polymorphisms were used as a co-dominant marker in an F2 population developed to segregate for resistance to Xcc, the causal agent of black rot. Linkage analysis showed no significant association between the marker and quantitative trait loci for black rot. RT-PCR with specific primers yielded an expected 453 bp fragment that corresponded to the RPS2 homologs in both resistant and susceptible lines inoculated with the pathogen, as well as in non-inoculated control plants. These results suggest that these homologs are constitutively expressed in B. oleracea.

  4. Synthesis and fertility of Brassicoraphanus and ways of transferring Raphanus chracters to Brassica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dolstra, O.

    1982-01-01

    About 250 intergeneric hybrids with the genome constitution AR, AARR or ARR were obtained from over 15 000 crosses between Brassicacampestris (AA or AAAA, female parent) and Raphanussativus (RR or RRRR). The poor crossability was shown to be a consequence of various breed

  5. Induction and purification of chitinase in Brassica napus L. ssp. oleifera infected with Phoma lingam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, U.; Giese, H.; Dalgaard Mikkelsen, J.

    1992-01-01

    A pathogen-induced chitinase (EC 3.2.1.14) was isolated from cotyledons of oilseed rape (Brassica napus cv. Bienvenu) 8 d after inoculation with Phoma lingam. The purified chitinase has a molecular weight of 30 kDa, and an isoelectric point of approx. 9.1. A partial amino-acid sequence obtained a...

  6. Phloem-specific resistance in Brassica oleracea against the whitefly Aleyrodes proletella

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broekgaarden, C.; Riviere, P.; Steenhuis-Broers, M.M.; Cuenca, M.; Kos, M.; Vosman, B.

    2012-01-01

    The cabbage whitefly [Aleyrodes proletella L. (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae)] is becoming a serious pest in Brassica oleracea L. (Brassicaceae) crops. However, almost nothing is known about the interaction of this insect with its host plants. Previous studies have shown differences in the natural occurren

  7. Characterization of Nuclear Polyhedrosis Viruses obtained from Adoxophes orana and from Barathra brassicae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jurkovicova, M.

    1979-01-01

    ln infectivity experiments some A. orana larvae died after being inoculated with an inoculum containing NW isolated from B. brassicae. The polyhedra formed upon infection occluded single virus particles, whereas the inoculum contained polyhedra with bundles of virus particles. This change could be e

  8. Evaluation of genotypic variation of broccoli (brassica oleracea var. italic) in response to selenium treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italic) fortified with selenium (Se) has been promoted as a functional food. Here we evaluated 38 broccoli accessions for their capacity to accumulate Se and for their responses to selenate treatment in terms of nutritional qualities and sulfur gene expression. We fo...

  9. Integration of apple rootstock genotype with reduced Brassica seed meal application rates for replant disease control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pre-plant soil application of Brassica seed meal (SM) formulations can provide fumigant level control of apple replant disease. However, due to high cost of the SM treatment relative to non-tarped soil fumigation, reduced application rates would likely accelerate commercial adoption of this technolo...

  10. Partitioning of K, Cl, S and P during combustion of poplar and brassica energy crops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Díaz-Ramírez, Maryori; Jappe Frandsen, Flemming; Glarborg, Peter

    2014-01-01

    . Low-temperature [500-700 °C] Cl-release from the high-Cl brassica appeared to be primarily limited by the fuel chemical composition and secondarily by interactions of the ash-forming elements with the fuel organic matrix. Below 700 °C, Cl-release was nearly 50%, whereas complete dechlorination...

  11. Physical Localization and Genetic Mapping of Fertility Restoration Gene Rfo in Canola (Brassica napus L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Ogu cytoplasm for male fertility and its fertility restorer gene Rfo in canola (Brassica napus L.) were originally introgressed from radish (Raphanus sativus L.) and have been widely used for canola hybrid production and breeding. The objective of this study was to determine the physical locati...

  12. Quantitative trait loci analysis of phytate and phosphate concentrations in seeds and leaves of Brassica rapa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jianjun Zhao, Jianjun; Jamar, D.C.L.; Lou, P.; Wang, Y.; Wu, J.; Wang, X.; Bonnema, A.B.; Koornneef, M.; Vreugdenhil, D.

    2008-01-01

    Phytate, being the major storage form of phosphorus in plants, is considered to be an anti-nutritional substance for human, because of its ability to complex essential micronutrients. In the present study, we describe the genetic analysis of phytate and phosphate concentrations in Brassica rapa usin

  13. Paving the way for genetic improvement of zinc accumulation in Brassica rapa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, J.

    2007-01-01

    Brassica rapa L. comprises several vegetable crops, some of which are among the most important vegetables in China, serving as one of the main resources of mineral nutrition for Chinese people. However, the knowledge on the genetics of micronutrient accumulation, including Zn, Fe and Mn, is lacking

  14. PCIB an antiauxin enhances microspore embryogenisis in microspore culture of Brassica juncea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agarwal, P.K.; Agarwal, P.; Custers, J.B.M.; Liu, C.M.; Bhojwani, S.S.

    2006-01-01

    An efficient protocol to improve microspore embryogenesis is established in an important oleiferous crop, Brassica juncea (Indian mustard). Colchicine was used for enhancing microspore embryogenesis and also to obtain doubled haploid embryos. Colchicine at high concentrations (>10 mg l¿1), for 24

  15. Linkage mapping of a dominant male sterility gene Ms-cd1 in Brassica oleracea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, X.; Lou, P.; Bonnema, A.B.; Yang, Boujun; He, H.; Zhang, Y.; Fang, Z.

    2005-01-01

    The dominant male sterility gene Ms-cd1 (c, cabbage; d, dominant) was identified as a spontaneous mutation in the spring cabbage line 79-399-3. The Ms-cd1 gene is successfully applied in hybrid seed production of several Brassica oleracea cultivars in China. Amplified fragment length polymorphism (A

  16. Genetic Analysis of Health-Related Secondary Metabolites in a Brassica rapa Recombinant Inbred Line Population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bagheri, H.; Soda, El M.; Kim, H.K.; Fritsche, S.; Jung, C.; Aarts, M.G.M.

    2013-01-01

    The genetic basis of the wide variation for nutritional traits in Brassica rapa is largely unknown. A new Recombinant Inbred Line (RIL) population was profiled using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) analysis to detect quantitative trait loci (QTLs) c

  17. Development of a leafy Brassica rapa fixed line collection for genetic diversity and population structure analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pang, W.; Li, X.; Choi, S.R.; Dhandapani, V.; Im, S.; Park, M.Y.; Jang, C.S.; Yang, M.S.; Ham, I.K.; Lee, E.M.; Kim, W.; Lee, S.S.; Bonnema, A.B.; Park, S.; Piao, Z.; Lim, Y.P.

    2015-01-01

    Brassica rapa is an economically important crop with a wide range of morphologies. Developing a set of fixed lines and understanding their diversity has been challenging, but facilitates resource conservation. We investigated the genetic diversity and population structure of 238 fixed lines of leafy

  18. Cloning and characterization of a pathogen-induced chitinase in Brassica napus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, U.; Bojsen, K.; Collinge, D.B.

    1992-01-01

    A chitinase cDNA clone from rapeseed (Brassica napus L. ssp. oleifera) was isolated. The cDNA clone, ChB4, represents a previously purified and characterized basic chitinase isozyme. The longest open reading frame in ChB4 encodes a polypeptide of 268 amino acids. This polypeptide consists of a 24...

  19. Metabolism of the insecticide metofluthrin in cabbage (Brassica oleracea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, Daisuke; Fukushima, Masao; Fujisawa, Takuo; Katagi, Toshiyuki

    2012-03-14

    The metabolic fate of metofluthrin [2,3,5,6-tetrafluoro-4-(methoxymethyl)benzyl (E,Z)-(1R,3R)-2,2-dimethyl-3-(prop-1-enyl)cyclopropanecarboxylate] separately labeled with (14)C at the carbonyl carbon and the α-position of the 4-methoxymethylbenzyl ring was studied in cabbage ( Brassica oleracea ). An acetonitrile solution of (14)C-metofluthrin at 431 g ai ha(-1) was once applied topically to cabbage leaves at head-forming stage, and the plants were grown for up to 14 days. Each isomer of metofluthrin applied onto the leaf surface rapidly volatilized into the air and was scarcely translocated to the untreated portion. On the leaf surface, metofluthrin was primarily degraded through ozonolysis of the propenyl side chain to produce the secondary ozonide, which further decomposed to the corresponding aldehyde and carboxylic acid derivatives. In the leaf tissues, the 1R-trans-Z isomer was mainly metabolized to its dihydrodiol derivative probably via an epoxy intermediate followed by saccharide conjugation in parallel with the ester cleavage, whereas no specific metabolite was dominant for the 1R-trans-E isomer. Isomerization of metofluthrin at the cyclopropyl ring was negligible for both isomers. In this study, the chemical structure of each secondary ozonide derivative was fully elucidated by the various modes of liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy together with cochromatography with the synthetic standard, and their cis/trans configuration was examined by the nuclear Overhauser effect (NOE) difference NMR spectrum.

  20. BRASSICA NIGRA AND CUMINUM CYMINUM: INHIBITORS OF FOOD BORNE PATHOGENS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamta Bhatia

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Dried seeds of spices namely Brassica nigra (mustard and Cuminum cyminum (cumin were screened independently, in culture media, in their different forms (aqueous extracts, essential oils and powders against some bacterial strains of spoilage and health significance. Test microorganisms included one gram+ve bacterial strain i.e. Bacillus cereus (MTCC 430 and three gram-ve bacterial strains viz. Enterococcus faecalis (MTCC 439, Psuedomonas aeruginosa (MTCC 1688 and Shigella sonnei (MTCC 2957. Spice agar method was opted for screening antibacterial activities of powdered forms of aforementioned spices at their different concentration levels (0.0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5, 3.0, 3.5, 4.0, 4.5, 5.0, 5.5, 6.0 (% (w/v. B.nigra more effectively inhibited bacterial strains in culture media. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC of powdered form of B.nigra were also determined. It was the concentration of spice which arrested the growth of bacterial strain upto 80% level of the total incubation period of 30 days. Agar-well assay was followed for antibacterial screening of aqueous extracts and essential oils of test spices. Aqueous extracts of reference spice samples did not exhibit growth inhibitory zones towards any test bacterial strains. On the other hand, essential oils of B.nigra and C.cyminum showed distinct growth inhibitory zones against all the bacterial strains under observation. Results obtained from agar well assay revealed that essential oil of B.nigra was more potent in inhibiting bacterial strains followed by C. cyminum . It was also noticed that B. cereus (gram+ve was inhibited at lower concentrations of test substances as compared to all the other three gram-ve bacterial strains under investigation.

  1. Plant growth regulators enhance gold uptake in Brassica juncea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Manoj G; Stirk, Wendy A; Southway, Colin; Papenfus, Heino B; Swart, Pierre A; Lux, Alexander; Vaculík, Marek; Martinka, Michal; Van Staden, Johannes

    2013-01-01

    The use of plant growth regulators is well established and they are used in many fields of plant science for enhancing growth. Brassica juncea plants were treated with 2.5, 5.0 and 7.5 microM auxin indole-3-butyric acid (IBA), which promotes rooting. The IBA-treated plants were also sprayed with 100 microM gibberellic acid (GA3) and kinetin (Kin) to increase leaf-foliage. Gold (I) chloride (AuCl) was added to the growth medium of plants to achieve required gold concentration. The solubilizing agent ammonium thiocyanate (1 g kg(-1)) (commonly used in mining industries to solubilize gold) was added to the nutrient solution after six weeks of growth and, two weeks later, plants were harvested. Plant growth regulators improved shoot and root dry biomass of B. juncea plants. Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometry analysis showed the highest Au uptake for plants treated with 5.0 microM IBA. The average recovery of Au with this treatment was significantly greater than the control treatment by 45.8 mg kg(-1) (155.7%). The other IBA concentrations (2.5 and 7.5 microM) also showed a significant increase in Au uptake compared to the control plants by 14.7 mg kg(-1) (50%) and 42.5 mg kg(-1) (144.5%) respectively. A similar trend of Au accumulation was recorded in the roots of B. juncea plants. This study conducted in solution culture suggests that plant growth regulators can play a significant role in improving phytoextraction of Au.

  2. Patterns of mitochondrial DNA instability in Brassica campestris cultured cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirzadegan, M; Palmer, J D; Christey, M; Earle, E D

    1991-01-01

    We previously showed that the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) of a Brassica campestris callus culture had undergone extensive rearrangements (i.e. large inversions and a duplication) relative to DNA of the control plant [54]. In this study we observed that after continued growth, the mtDNA of this culture continues to change, with rearranged forms amplifying and diminishing to varying proportions. Strikingly similar changes were detected in the mtDNA profiles of a variety of other long- and short-term callus and cell suspension lines. However, the proportions of parental ('unrearranged') and novel ('rearranged') forms varied in different cultured cell mtDNAs. To address the source of this heterogeneity, we compared the mtDNA organization of 28 individual plants from the parental seed stock. With the exception of one plant containing high levels of a novel plasmid-like mtDNA molecule, no significant variation was detected among individual plants and therefore source plant variation is unlikely to have contributed to the diversity of mitochondrial genomes observed in cultured cells. The source of this culture-induced heterogeneity was also investigated in 16 clones derived from single protoplasts. A mixed population of unrearranged and rearranged mtDNA molecules was apparent in each protoclone, suggesting that the observed heterogeneity in various cultures might reflect the genomic composition of each individual cell; however, the induction of an intercellular heterogeneity subsequent to the protoplast isolation was not tested and therefore cannot be ruled out. The results of this study support our earlier model that the rapid structural alteration of B. campestris mtDNA in vitro results from preferential amplification and reassortment of minor pre-existing forms of the genome rather than de novo rearrangement. Infrequent recombination between short dispersed repeated elements is proposed as the underlying mechanism for the formation of these minor mtDNA molecules.

  3. Citric acid assisted phytoremediation of cadmium by Brassica napus L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehsan, Sana; Ali, Shafaqat; Noureen, Shamaila; Mahmood, Khalid; Farid, Mujahid; Ishaque, Wajid; Shakoor, Muhammad Bilal; Rizwan, Muhammad

    2014-08-01

    Phytoextraction is an eco-friendly and cost-effective technique for removal of toxins, especially heavy metals and metalloids from contaminated soils by the roots of high biomass producing plant species with subsequent transport to aerial parts. Lower metal bioavailability often limits the phytoextraction. Organic chelators can help to improve this biological technique by increasing metal solubility. The aim of the present study was to investigate the possibility of improving the phytoextraction of Cd by the application of citric acid. For this purpose, plants were grown in hydroponics under controlled conditions. Results indicated that Cd supply significantly decreased the plant growth, biomass, pigments, photosynthetic characteristics and protein contents which were accompanied by a significant increase in Cd concentration, hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂), electrolyte leakage, malondialdehyde (MDA) accumulation and decrease in antioxidant capacity. The effects were dose dependent with obvious effects at higher Cd concentration. Application of CA significantly enhanced Cd uptake and its accumulation in plant roots, stems and leaves. Citric acid alleviated Cd toxicity by increasing plant biomass and photosynthetic and growth parameters alone and in combination with Cd and by reducing oxidative stress as observed by reduction in MDA and H₂O₂ production and decreased electrolyte leakage induced by Cd stress. Application of CA also enhanced the antioxidant enzymes activity alone and under Cd stress. Thus, the data indicate that exogenous CA application can increase Cd uptake and minimize Cd stress in plants and may be beneficial in accelerating the phytoextraction of Cd through hyper-accumulating plants such as Brassica napus L.

  4. Citric acid assisted phytoremediation of copper by Brassica napus L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaheer, Ihsan Elahi; Ali, Shafaqat; Rizwan, Muhammad; Farid, Mujahid; Shakoor, Muhammad Bilal; Gill, Rafaqa Ali; Najeeb, Ullah; Iqbal, Naeem; Ahmad, Rehan

    2015-10-01

    Use of organic acids for promoting heavy metals phytoextraction is gaining worldwide attention. The present study investigated the influence of citric acid (CA) in enhancing copper (Cu) uptake by Brassica napus L. seedlings. 6 Weeks old B. napus seedlings were exposed to different levels of copper (Cu, 0, 50 and 100µM) alone or with CA (2.5mM) in a nutrient medium for 40 days. Exposure to elevated Cu levels (50 and 100µM) significantly reduced the growth, biomass production, chlorophyll content, gas exchange attributes and soluble proteins of B. napus seedlings. In addition, Cu toxicity increased the production of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), malondialdehyde (MDA) and electrolyte leakage (EL) in leaf and root tissues of B. napus. Activities of antioxidant enzymes such as guaiacol peroxidase (POD), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalases (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX) in root and shoot tissues of B. napus were increased in response to lower Cu concentration (50µM) but increased under higher Cu concentration (100µM). Addition of CA into nutrient medium significantly alleviated Cu toxicity effects on B. napus seedlings by improving photosynthetic capacity and ultimately plant growth. Increased activities of antioxidant enzymes in CA-treated plants seems to play a role in capturing of stress-induced reactive oxygen species as was evident from lower level of H2O2, MDA and EL in CA-treated plants. Increasing Cu concentration in the nutrient medium significantly increased Cu concentration in in B. napus tissues. Cu uptake was further increased by CA application. These results suggested that CA might be a useful strategy for increasing phytoextraction of Cu from contaminated soils.

  5. The first generation of a BAC-based physical map of Brassica rapa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Soo

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The genus Brassica includes the most extensively cultivated vegetable crops worldwide. Investigation of the Brassica genome presents excellent challenges to study plant genome evolution and divergence of gene function associated with polyploidy and genome hybridization. A physical map of the B. rapa genome is a fundamental tool for analysis of Brassica "A" genome structure. Integration of a physical map with an existing genetic map by linking genetic markers and BAC clones in the sequencing pipeline provides a crucial resource for the ongoing genome sequencing effort and assembly of whole genome sequences. Results A genome-wide physical map of the B. rapa genome was constructed by the capillary electrophoresis-based fingerprinting of 67,468 Bacterial Artificial Chromosome (BAC clones using the five restriction enzyme SNaPshot technique. The clones were assembled into contigs by means of FPC v8.5.3. After contig validation and manual editing, the resulting contig assembly consists of 1,428 contigs and is estimated to span 717 Mb in physical length. This map provides 242 anchored contigs on 10 linkage groups to be served as seed points from which to continue bidirectional chromosome extension for genome sequencing. Conclusion The map reported here is the first physical map for Brassica "A" genome based on the High Information Content Fingerprinting (HICF technique. This physical map will serve as a fundamental genomic resource for accelerating genome sequencing, assembly of BAC sequences, and comparative genomics between Brassica genomes. The current build of the B. rapa physical map is available at the B. rapa Genome Project website for the user community.

  6. Rhizosphere competent Mesorhizobiumloti MP6 induces root hair curling, inhibits Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and enhances growth of Indian mustard (Brassica campestris)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shikha Chandra; Kamlesh Choure; Ramesh C. Dubey; Dinesh K. Maheshwari

    2007-01-01

    .... loti MP6 in rhizosphere due to root exudates of B. campestris. In dual culture technique the strain showed a strong antagonistic effect against Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, a white rot pathogen of Brassica campestris. The growth of S...

  7. Gene expression programs during Brassica oleracea seed maturation, osmopriming and germination process and the stress tolerance level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soeda, Y.; Konings, M.C.J.M.; Vorst, O.F.J.; Houwelingen, van A.M.M.L.; Stoopen, G.M.; Maliepaard, C.A.; Kodde, J.; Bino, R.J.; Groot, S.P.C.; Geest, van der A.H.M.

    2005-01-01

    During seed maturation and germination, major changes in physiological status, gene expression, and metabolic events take place. Using chlorophyll sorting, osmopriming, and different drying regimes, Brassica oleracea seed lots of different maturity, stress tolerance, and germination behavior were cr

  8. Diseño de un sistema de estabilización utilizando sensores inteligentes

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Diseño de un sistema de estabilización utilizando sensores inteligentes. This final project proposes the development of an intelligent sensor system low cost based on accelerometers and PICs to create a stabilization system for detecting tilt of a platform. This system will maintain the platform in an equilibrium position, regardless of the movement of the brackets that supports it. Hence, the system will be able to interpret and process the data output by the accelerometer detecting chang...

  9. Whole genome shotgun sequencing of Brassica oleracea and its application to gene discovery and annotation in Arabidopsis

    OpenAIRE

    Ayele, Mulu; Haas, Brian J.; Kumar, Nikhil; Wu, Hank; Xiao, Yongli; Van Aken, Susan; Utterback, Teresa R.; WORTMAN, Jennifer R.; White, Owen R.; Town, Christopher D

    2005-01-01

    Through comparative studies of the model organism Arabidopsis thaliana and its close relative Brassica oleracea, we have identified conserved regions that represent potentially functional sequences overlooked by previous Arabidopsis genome annotation methods. A total of 454,274 whole genome shotgun sequences covering 283 Mb (0.44×) of the estimated 650 Mb Brassica genome were searched against the Arabidopsis genome, and conserved Arabidopsis genome sequences (CAGSs) were identified. Of these ...

  10. Inheritance and expression patterns of BN28, a low temperature induced gene in Brassica napus, throughout the Brassicaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, G P; Nykiforuk, C L; Johnson-Flanagan, A M; Boothe, J G

    1996-08-01

    Molecular genetics is becoming an important tool in the breeding and selection of agronomically important traits. BN28 is a low temperature induced gene in Brassicaceae species. PCR and Southern blot analysis indicate that BN28 is polymorphic in the three diploid genomes: Brassica rapa (AA), Brassica nigra (BB), and Brassica oleracea (CC). Of the allotetraploids, Brassica napus (AACC) is the only species to have inherited homologous genes from both parental genomes. Brassica juncea (AABB) and Brassica carinata (BBCC) have inherited homologues from the AA and CC genomes, respectively, while Sinapsis arvensis (SS) contains a single homologue from the BB genome and Sinapsis alba (dd) appears to be different from all the diploid parents. All species show message induction when exposed to low temperature. However, differences in expression were noticed at the protein level, with silencing occurring in the BB genome at the level of translation. Results suggest that silencing is occurring in diploid species where duplication may not have occurred. Molecular characterization and inheritance of BN28 homologues in the Brassicaceae may play an important role in determining their quantitative function during exposure to low temperature. Key words : Brassicaceae, BN28, inheritance, polymorphism.

  11. Oviposition Preference for Young Plants by the Large Cabbage Butterfly (Pieris brassicae ) Does not Strongly Correlate with Caterpillar Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fei, Minghui; Harvey, Jeffrey A; Yin, Yi; Gols, Rieta

    2017-06-01

    The effects of temporal variation in the quality of short-lived annual plants on oviposition preference and larval performance of insect herbivores has thus far received little attention. This study examines the effects of plant age on female oviposition preference and offspring performance in the large cabbage white butterfly Pieris brassicae. Adult female butterflies lay variable clusters of eggs on the underside of short-lived annual species in the family Brassicaceae, including the short-lived annuals Brassica nigra and Sinapis arvensis, which are important food plants for P. brassicae in The Netherlands. Here, we compared oviposition preference and larval performance of P. brassicae on three age classes (young, mature, and pre-senescing) of B. nigra and S. arvensis plants. Oviposition preference of P. brassicae declined with plant age in both plant species. Whereas larvae performed similarly on all three age classes in B. nigra, preference and performance were weakly correlated in S. arvensis. Analysis of primary (sugars and amino acids) and secondary (glucosinolates) chemistry in the plant shoots revealed that differences in their quality and quantity were more pronounced with respect to tissue type (leaves vs. flowers) than among different developmental stages of both plant species. Butterflies of P. brassicae may prefer younger and smaller plants for oviposition anticipating that future plant growth and size is optimally synchronized with the final larval instar, which contributes >80% of larval growth before pupation.

  12. A consensus map of rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) based on diversity array technology markers: applications in genetic dissection of qualitative and quantitative traits

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Raman, Harsh; Raman, Rosy; Kilian, Andrzej; Detering, Frank; Long, Yan; Edwards, David; Parkin, Isobel A P; Sharpe, Andrew G; Nelson, Matthew N; Larkan, Nick; Zou, Jun; Meng, Jinling; Aslam, M Naveed; Batley, Jacqueline; Cowling, Wallace A; Lydiate, Derek

    2013-01-01

    Dense consensus genetic maps based on high-throughput genotyping platforms are valuable for making genetic gains in Brassica napus through quantitative trait locus identification, efficient predictive...

  13. A rich TILLING resource for studying gene function in Brassica rapa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amoah Stephen

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Brassicaceae family includes the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana as well as a number of agronomically important species such as oilseed crops (in particular Brassica napus, B. juncea and B. rapa and vegetables (eg. B. rapa and B. oleracea. Separated by only 10-20 million years, Brassica species and Arabidopsis thaliana are closely related, and it is expected that knowledge obtained relating to Arabidopsis growth and development can be translated into Brassicas for crop improvement. Moreover, certain aspects of plant development are sufficiently different between Brassica and Arabidopsis to warrant studies to be carried out directly in the crop species. However, mutating individual genes in the amphidiploid Brassicas such as B. napus and B. juncea may, on the other hand, not give rise to expected phenotypes as the genomes of these species can contain up to six orthologues per single-copy Arabidopsis gene. In order to elucidate and possibly exploit the function of redundant genes for oilseed rape crop improvement, it may therefore be more efficient to study the effects in one of the diploid Brassica species such as B. rapa. Moreover, the ongoing sequencing of the B. rapa genome makes this species a highly attractive model for Brassica research and genetic resource development. Results Seeds from the diploid Brassica A genome species, B. rapa were treated with ethyl methane sulfonate (EMS to produce a TILLING (Targeting Induced Local Lesions In Genomes population for reverse genetics studies. We used the B. rapa genotype, R-o-18, which has a similar developmental ontogeny to an oilseed rape crop. Hence this resource is expected to be well suited for studying traits with relevance to yield and quality of oilseed rape. DNA was isolated from a total of 9,216 M2 plants and pooled to form the basis of the TILLING platform. Analysis of six genes revealed a high level of mutations with a density of about one per 60 kb. This

  14. Genetic differentiation among sexually compatible relatives of Brassica napus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pipan Barbara

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of gene flow between Brassica napus L. and its sexually compatible relatives that could be found in the wild in Slovenia was performed by microsatellite analysis using fifteen selected primer pairs. Genotypes included in the study were obtained from the field survey of sexually compatible relatives of B. napus in natural habitats around Slovenia and from reference collections. Two different wild species of all the presented sexually compatible relatives of B. napus were found in Slovenia, B. rapa and Sinapis arvensis. The reference genotypes included varieties and wild forms from internal collections as marketable seeds or from gene banks. Reference genotypes were represented by the following species and subspecies: B. napus ssp. napobrassica, B. napus ssp. napus, B. nigra, B. oleracea, B. rapa ssp. oleifera, Diplotaxis muralis; D. tenuifolia, Raphanus raphanistrum, R. sativus, R. sativus var. oleiformis, Rapistrum rugosum, S. alba and S. arvensis. Estimation of gene flow described by average number of migrants was 0.72 followed by 0.20 migrants. Due to the observed gene migrations, genetic drift and selection, Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium was not met. The mean number of alleles over all loci was 16.9, the average polymorphic information content was 0.43. We found four highly divergent and polymorphic loci (Na12-C08, Na10-A08, Ni3-G04b and BRMS-050 at statistically significant level (p<0.05 of gene flow detected. Over all gene diversity intra-individual among populations (0.55 was lower than inter-individual among population (0.77. The results of genetic linkages based standard genetic distance and unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean clustering method, generally divided the genotypes in three divergent groups. Similar results were obtained by principal coordinate analysis where three main groups were constructed according to three factors. A real number of genetic clusters demonstrated a clear separation between populations

  15. Endogenous Gibberellins and Shoot Growth and Development in Brassica napus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rood, S B; Mandel, R; Pharis, R P

    1989-01-01

    Greenhouse-grown oilseed rape (Brassica napus, annual Canola variety ;Westar') plants were harvested at six dates from the vegetative phase until the early pod (silique)-fill/late flowering stage. Endogenous gibberellin (GA)-like substances were extracted from stems, purified, and chromatographed on silica gel partition columns prior to bioassay in serial dilution using the ;Tan-ginbozu' dwarf rice microdrop assay. The concentrations of total endogenous GA-like substances were low during vegetative stages (1 nanogram GA(3) equivalents/gram dry weight), and rose 300-fold by the time of floral initiation. After floral initiation the concentration of GA-like substances fell, then rose again during bolting to maximal levels during the early pod-fill stage (940 nanograms per gram dry weight). The qualitative profiles of GA-like substances varied across harvests, with higher proportions of a GA(1)-like substance at the early pod-fill stage. In a second study stems were similarly harvested at eight dates and the concentrations of endogenous GA(1), the principal bioactive native GA of oilseed rape, were determined by gas chromatography-selected ion monitoring using [17,17-(2)H]GA(1) as a quantitative internal standard. The concentration of GA(1) increased at about the time of floral initiation and then subsequently fell, thus confirming the pattern noted above for total GA-like substances. The exogenous application of paclobutrazol (PP333), a persistent triazole plant growth regulator (PGR) which blocks GA biosynthesis, or another triazole, triapenthenol (RSW0411), prevented flowering as well as bolting; plants remained at the vegetative rosette stage. These results imply a causal role for endogenous GA, in the control of bolting, which normally precedes anthesis. Further, the rise in the concentration of total endogenous GA-like substances, including GA(1), which was associated with floral initiation, and the prevention of visable floral development by the triazole PGRs

  16. Brassica carinata for control of Phytophthora spp. in strawberry field crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Barrau

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Soil biofumigation (SB and soil solarization (SS are nonchemical methods for the control of soilborne pathogens. SS uses solar radiation to heat soil and SB is based on the action of volatile compounds produced by the decomposition of Cruciferae, essentially glucosinolates (Gs and isothiocyanates (ITCs. Brassica spp. are used as biofumigant because of their different concentrations and types of ITCs that are different in their toxicity against pathogenic fungi. Suppressiveness of the Brassica varies between species. Biofumigant effect depends on plant age and environmental growth conditions. Brassica carinata, the most effective species on the in vitro control of Phytophthora spp., was selected as biofumigant to evaluate and compare the ability of SB and SS to control Phytophthora spp. in soil and to enhance field production of strawberry. SB with B. carinata + SS reduce P. cactorum in soil and increases strawberry yield and fruit weigh.A biofumigação do solo (SB e a solarização do solo (SS são métodos não químicos para a luta contra os micróbios patogénicos do solo. A SS usa a radiação solar para aquecer o solo e o SB é baseado na acção dos compostos temporários produzidos pela decomposição das Crucíferas, essencialmente glucosinolatos (Gs e isothiocianatos (ITCs. Brassica spp. é usada como biofumigante por causa da concentração de compostos biofumigantes e tipos diferentes de ITCs que diferem na toxicidade face aos fungos patogénicos. A capacidade supressiva de Brassica varia com a espécie. O efeito de Biofumigação depende da idade de planta e das condições ambientais de crescimento. Brassica carinata é a espécie mais eficaz in vitro, na luta contra Phytophthora spp., foi seleccionada como biofumigante para avaliar e comparar a capacidade de SB e SS na luta contra este fungo no solo, e para avaliar a produção de morango. A SB com B. carinata + SS reduz P. cactorum no solo e aumenta o rendimento da produção de

  17. Complete sequence of heterogenous-composition mitochondrial genome (Brassica napus and its exogenous source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Juan

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Unlike maternal inheritance of mitochondria in sexual reproduction, somatic hybrids follow no obvious pattern. The introgressed segment orf138 from the mitochondrial genome of radish (Raphanus sativus to its counterpart in rapeseed (Brassica napus demonstrates that this inheritance mode derives from the cytoplasm of both parents. Sequencing of the complete mitochondrial genome of five species from Brassica family allowed the prediction of other extraneous sources of the cybrids from the radish parent, and the determination of their mitochondrial rearrangement. Results We obtained the complete mitochondrial genome of Ogura-cms-cybrid (oguC rapeseed. To date, this is the first time that a heterogeneously composed mitochondrial genome was sequenced. The 258,473 bp master circle constituted of 33 protein-coding genes, 3 rRNA sequences, and 23 tRNA sequences. This mitotype noticeably holds two copies of atp9 and is devoid of cox2-2. Relative to nap mitochondrial genome, 40 point mutations were scattered in the 23 protein-coding genes. atp6 even has an abnormal start locus whereas tatC has an abnormal end locus. The rearrangement of the 22 syntenic regions that comprised 80.11% of the genome was influenced by short repeats. A pair of large repeats (9731 bp was responsible for the multipartite structure. Nine unique regions were detected when compared with other published Brassica mitochondrial genome sequences. We also found six homologous chloroplast segments (Brassica napus. Conclusions The mitochondrial genome of oguC is quite divergent from nap and pol, which are more similar with each other. We analyzed the unique regions of every genome of the Brassica family, and found that very few segments were specific for these six mitotypes, especially cam, jun, and ole, which have no specific segments at all. Therefore, we conclude that the most specific regions of oguC possibly came from radish. Compared with the chloroplast genome

  18. Effect of cooking on the concentration of bioactive compounds in broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. Avenger) and cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. Alphina F1) grown in an organic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Reis, Luzia Caroline Ramos; de Oliveira, Viviani Ruffo; Hagen, Martine Elisabeth Kienzle; Jablonski, André; Flôres, Simone Hickmann; de Oliveira Rios, Alessandro

    2015-04-01

    Brassica vegetables have been shown to have antioxidant capacities due to the presence of carotenoids, flavonoids and vitamins. This study evaluates the influence of different processing conditions (boiling, steaming, microwaving and sous vide) on the stability of flavonoids, carotenoids and vitamin A in broccoli and cauliflower inflorescences grown in an organic system. Results indicated that sous vide processing resulted in greater antioxidant capacity and that all processes contributed in some way to an increased content of antioxidant compounds in both cauliflower and broccoli. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Colorless Chlorophyll Catabolites in Senescent Florets of Broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Typical postharvest storage of broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) causes degreening of this common vegetable with visible loss of chlorophyll (Chl). As shown here, colorless Chl-catabolites are generated. In fresh extracts of degreening florets of broccoli, three colorless tetrapyrrolic Chl-catabolites accumulated and were detected by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC): two “nonfluorescent” Chl-catabolites (NCCs), provisionally named Bo-NCC-1 and Bo-NCC-2, and a colorless 1,19-dioxobilin-type “nonfluorescent” Chl-catabolite (DNCC), named Bo-DNCC. Analysis by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and mass spectrometry of these three linear tetrapyrroles revealed their structures. In combination with a comparison of their HPL-chromatographic properties, this allowed their identification with three known catabolites from two other brassicacea, namely two NCCs from oil seed rape (Brassica napus) and a DNCC from degreened leaves of Arabidopsis thaliana. PMID:25620234

  20. Genetic diversity and population structure of leafy kale and Brassica rupestris Raf. in south Italy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maggioni, Lorenzo; von Bothmer, Roland; Poulsen, Gert

    2014-01-01

    Local varieties of leafy kales (Brassica oleracea L.) are grown in home gardens in Calabria and Sicily for self-consumption, in the same area where the wild relative Brassica rupestris Raf. also grows. With the use of AFLP markers, comparisons were made of the genetic diversity and population...... structure of ten wild and 22 cultivated populations, as well as of a hybrid population and of four commercial cultivars of different B. oleracea crops. The level of genetic diversity was higher in leafy kales than in wild populations and this diversity was mainly distributed within populations. Wild...... populations remained distinct from cultivated material. Additionally, most wild populations were distinctively isolated from each other. On the other hand, it was not possible to molecularly distinguish even geographically distant leafy kale populations from each other or from different B. oleracea crops...

  1. [Gene flow and its ecological risks of transgenic oilseed rape ( Brassica napus)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Guixiang; Song, Wenjian; Zhou, Weijun

    2005-12-01

    Transgenic oilseed rape Brassica napus, one of the first genetically modified crops, has now been released to commercial use in Canada and Australia. As a cross-pollinating crop, its natural crossing rate is 30%, and it is liable to cross with other Brassica species. The ecological risk of transgenic oilseed rape has been concerned by the scientists all over the world. There are two ways for the pollens flow of transgenic oilseed rape, one takes place between transgenic oilseed rape and other related wild species, and the other occurs between transgenic and nontransgenic oilseed rape. The gene may flow to other related wild species, but it is unlikely to get hybrids in field. Because the gene can really flow to the conventional oilseed rape, it is necessary to have a sufficient isolation distance in cultivating transgenic oilseed rape.

  2. First isolation of an antifungal lipid transfer peptide from seeds of a Brassica species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Peng; Xia, Lixin; Ng, T B

    2007-08-01

    An antifungal peptide with a molecular mass of 9412 and an N-terminal sequence exhibiting notable homology to those of lipid transfer proteins was isolated from seeds of the vegetable Brassica campestris. The purification protocol entailed ion exchange chromatography on Q-Sepharose, affinity chromatography on Affi-gel blue gel, ion exchange chromatography by fast protein liquid chromatography (FPLC) on Mono S, and gel filtration by FPLC on a Superdex peptide column. The antifungal peptide was adsorbed on Affi-gel blue gel and Mono S. It inhibited mycelial growth in Fusarium oxysporum and Mycosphaerella arachidicola with an IC(50) value of 8.3 microM and 4.5 microM, respectively. It exhibited dose-dependent binding to lyso-alpha-lauroyl phosphatidylcholine. The present findings constitute the first report on a non-specific lipid transfer protein from the seeds of a Brassica species.

  3. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles from seed extract of Brassica nigra and its antibacterial activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RAKSHA PANDIT

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Pandit R. 2015. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles from seed extract of Brassica nigra and its antibacterial activity. Nusantara Bioscience 7: 15-19. We report the green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using seed extract of Brassica nigra. UV-visible spectroscopic analysis showed the absorbance peak at 432 nm which indicated the synthesis of silver nanoparticles. Nanoparticles Tracking and Analysis (NTA was used to determine the size of synthesized silver nanoparticles. Zeta potential analysis was carried out to study the stability of nanoparticles while FTIR analysis confirmed the presence of proteins as capping agents that provided stability to nanoparticles in colloid. Antibacterial activity of silver nanoparticles was evaluated against Propionibacterium acnes, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumoniae. The activity of Vancomycin was significantly increased in combination with silver nanoparticles showing synergistic activity against all bacteria while the maximum activity was noted against P. acnes.

  4. Plastid transformation in cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata L.) by the biolistic process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Menq-Jiau; Yang, Ming-Te; Chu, Wan-Ru; Liu, Cheng-Wei

    2014-01-01

    Cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata L.) is one of the most important vegetable crops grown worldwide. Scientists are using biotechnology in addition to traditional breeding methods to develop new cabbage varieties with desirable traits. Recent biotechnological advances in chloroplast transformation technology have opened new avenues for crop improvement. In 2007, we developed a stable plastid transformation system for cabbage and reported the successful transformation of the cry1Ab gene into the cabbage chloroplast genome. This chapter describes the methods for cabbage transformation using biolistic procedures. The following sections are included in this protocol: preparation of donor materials, coating gold particles with DNA, biolistic bombardment, as well as the regeneration and selection of transplastomic cabbage plants. The establishment of a plastid transformation system for cabbage offers new possibilities for introducing new agronomic and horticultural traits into Brassica crops.

  5. The relationship between antibrowning, anti-radical and reducing capacity of Brassica and Allium extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariela C Bustos

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Aqueous vegetable extracts from Allium and Brassica families were assayed for antibrowning capacity and related to their anti-radical and reducing power activities. The treatment  of mushrooms and avocado slices, with white cabbage, cauliflower, garlic and scallion extracts, reduced color changes during storage at 4 °C and -18 °C. Storage temperature and the type of extract employed influenced change of color variables. The contribution of polyphenols on measured antioxidant activity of extracts was also discussed. Allium antibrowning properties were closely related to antioxidant capacity, while the Brassica extracts were less effective. Treatment with Allium extracts extended the storage time of frozen and refrigerated mushrooms and avocado slices, in comparison with untreated samples.

  6. Establishment of Ecotilling for Discovery of DNA Polymorphisms in Brassica rapa Natural Population

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Jian; SUN Ri-fei; ZHANG Yan-guo; WANG Xiao-wu

    2005-01-01

    Ecotilling is a new approach based on enzyme-mediated heteroduplex cleavage to discover DNA polymorphisms in natural population. We used mung bean nuclease(MBN) instead of routinely used CELI to cleave single base pair mismatches in heteroduplex DNA templates. Nested set of primers were designed to amplify targeted region to avoid the influence of the variation in quality and quantity of the genomic DNA. To reduce the costs in fluorescently labeled primers, we added M13 adapter to 5'end of gene specific primers to make IRD dye labeled M13 forward and reverse primers possibly universal for different genes. A Brassica rapa ZIP gene homologue was subjected to the analysis to practise the feasibility of the method in polymorphisms detection. Our experiment showed this method is efficient in discovering DNA polymorphisms in Brassica rapa natural population.

  7. Genomes and transcriptomes of partners in plant-fungal-interactions between canola (Brassica napus and two Leptosphaeria species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohan G T Lowe

    Full Text Available Leptosphaeria maculans 'brassicae' is a damaging fungal pathogen of canola (Brassica napus, causing lesions on cotyledons and leaves, and cankers on the lower stem. A related species, L. biglobosa 'canadensis', colonises cotyledons but causes few stem cankers. We describe the complement of genes encoding carbohydrate-active enzymes (CAZys and peptidases of these fungi, as well as of four related plant pathogens. We also report dual-organism RNA-seq transcriptomes of these two Leptosphaeria species and B. napus during disease. During the first seven days of infection L. biglobosa 'canadensis', a necrotroph, expressed more cell wall degrading genes than L. maculans 'brassicae', a hemi-biotroph. L. maculans 'brassicae' expressed many genes in the Carbohydrate Binding Module class of CAZy, particularly CBM50 genes, with potential roles in the evasion of basal innate immunity in the host plant. At this time, three avirulence genes were amongst the top 20 most highly upregulated L. maculans 'brassicae' genes in planta. The two fungi had a similar number of peptidase genes, and trypsin was transcribed at high levels by both fungi early in infection. L. biglobosa 'canadensis' infection activated the jasmonic acid and salicylic acid defence pathways in B. napus, consistent with defence against necrotrophs. L. maculans 'brassicae' triggered a high level of expression of isochorismate synthase 1, a reporter for salicylic acid signalling. L. biglobosa 'canadensis' infection triggered coordinated shutdown of photosynthesis genes, and a concomitant increase in transcription of cell wall remodelling genes of the host plant. Expression of particular classes of CAZy genes and the triggering of host defence and particular metabolic pathways are consistent with the necrotrophic lifestyle of L. biglobosa 'canadensis', and the hemibiotrophic life style of L. maculans 'brassicae'.

  8. Research Advances on Ethiopian Mustard (Brassica carinata)%埃塞俄比亚芥研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江莹芬; 胡宝成; 陈凤祥; 李强生; 孟金陵

    2011-01-01

    埃塞俄比亚芥(Brassica carinata)拥有很多优良的农艺性状:耐热,耐干旱,抗倒伏,抗黑胫病、霜霉病等多种病害,抗蚜虫、跳甲等多种害虫;并且其种质资源非常丰富.介绍了埃塞俄比亚芥的品质改良、遗传多样性分析、可交配性研究以及种质资源利用四个方面的研究进展,希望这些信息能为埃塞俄比亚芥的遗传改良以及油菜育种中如何高效利用埃塞俄比亚芥的优良性状提供指导.%Ethiopian mustard (Brassica carinata) possesses many desirable agronomical characteristics,such as heat tolerance,drought tolerance,lodging resistance,resistance to diseases (blackleg,downy mildew etc. ) and insects (aphid,flea beetle etc. ). Furthermore,germplasm resources of Brassica carinata are rich. This paper summarized and discussed research results of Brassica carinata in four aspects;improvement of seed quality,analysis of genetic diversity, research on crossing ability and utilization of germplasm resources. The information will benefit for genetic improvement of Brassica carinata and also provide guidance for Brassica breeders to efficiently use valuable traits of Brassica catinata.

  9. A novel method for efficient and abundant production of Phytophthora brassicae zoospores on Brussels sprout leaf discs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Govers Francine

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Phytophthora species are notorious oomycete pathogens that cause diseases on a wide range of plants. Our understanding how these pathogens are able to infect their host plants will benefit greatly from information obtained from model systems representative for plant-Phytophthora interactions. One attractive model system is the interaction between Arabidopsis and Phytophthora brassicae. Under laboratory conditions, Arabidopsis can be easily infected with mycelial plugs as inoculum. In the disease cycle, however, sporangia or zoospores are the infectious propagules. Since the current P. brassicae zoospore isolation methods are generally regarded as inefficient, we aimed at developing an alternative method for obtaining high concentrations of P. brassicae zoospores. Results P. brassicae isolates were tested for pathogenicity on Brussels sprout plants (Brassica oleracea var. gemmifera. Microscopic examination of leaves, stems and roots infected with a GFP-tagged transformant of P. brassicae clearly demonstrated the susceptibility of the various tissues. Leaf discs were cut from infected Brussels sprout leaves, transferred to microwell plates and submerged in small amounts of water. In the leaf discs the hyphae proliferated and abundant formation of zoosporangia was observed. Upon maturation the zoosporangia released zoospores in high amounts and zoospore production continued during a period of at least four weeks. The zoospores were shown to be infectious on Brussels sprouts and Arabidopsis. Conclusion The in vitro leaf disc method established from P. brassicae infected Brussels sprout leaves facilitates convenient and high-throughput production of infectious zoospores and is thus suitable to drive small and large scale inoculation experiments. The system has the advantage that zoospores are produced continuously over a period of at least one month.

  10. QTL Mapping of Leafy Heads by Genome Resequencing in the RIL Population of Brassica rapa

    OpenAIRE

    Xiang Yu; Han Wang; Weili Zhong; Jinjuan Bai; Pinglin Liu; Yuke He

    2013-01-01

    Leaf heads of cabbage (Brassica oleracea), Chinese cabbage (B. rapa), and lettuce (Lactuca sativa) are important vegetables that supply mineral nutrients, crude fiber and vitamins in the human diet. Head size, head shape, head weight, and heading time contribute to yield and quality. In an attempt to investigate genetic basis of leafy head in Chinese cabbage (B. rapa), we took advantage of recent technical advances of genome resequencing to perform quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping using...

  11. Phylogenetic Analysis on SLG and SRK Genes in Brassica and Raphanus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Yu-tang; MA Chao-zhi; FU Ting-dong; TU Jin-xing

    2005-01-01

    S-locus genes were cloned from three Brassica napus and three B. campestris lines by using PCR walking and homologue sequence methods. A phylogenetic gene tree was constructed based on the six cloned genes and fifty-one previously reported SLG/SRK genes of Brassica and Raphanus. The SLGs from R. sativus were dispersed in the phylogenetic tree intermingling with SLG/SRKs from B. oleracea, B. napus and B. campestris. The SLG/SRK genes of class Ⅱ clustered independently in one group. The SLG/SRK genes of class Ⅰ showed to be more divergent than class Ⅱ genes. These results suggested that the divergence of class Ⅰ and class Ⅱ should have occurred before the differentiation of the genera Brassica and Raphanus. In addition, SLG and SRK of the same S haplotypes belonged to the same class. It suggested that class-Ⅰ and class-Ⅱ group divergence occurred first, and then SLG and SRK diverged. The three SC SRK genes from B. napus and B. campestris were grouped into one cluster, displaying difference from the SC SLG of B.oleracea. These three SC SRK genes were close to SI SRK of SI1300, SI271 and guanyou in phylogenetic relationships.These results indicated that SC and SI genes diverged more recently. It is not clear yet whether the differentiation of SC and SI genes was earlier than the differentiation of Brassica and Raphanus. Studies based on more genes are necessary for a comprehensive elucidation of the phylogenetic relationships in Brassicaceae.

  12. Carotenoid biosynthetic genes in Brassica rapa: comparative genomic analysis, phylogenetic analysis, and expression profiling

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Peirong; Zhang, Shujiang; Zhang, Shifan; Li, Fei; Zhang, Hui; Cheng, Feng; Wu, Jian; Wang, Xiaowu; Sun, Rifei

    2015-01-01

    Background Carotenoids are isoprenoid compounds synthesized by all photosynthetic organisms. Despite much research on carotenoid biosynthesis in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, there is a lack of information on the carotenoid pathway in Brassica rapa. To better understand its carotenoid biosynthetic pathway, we performed a systematic analysis of carotenoid biosynthetic genes at the genome level in B. rapa. Results We identified 67 carotenoid biosynthetic genes in B. rapa, which were ort...

  13. A Simplified Seed Transformation Method for Obtaining Transgenic Brassica napus Plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Li; ZHAO De-gang; WU Yong-jun; TIAN Xiao-e

    2009-01-01

    We report here a seed transformation of sonication-assisted,no-tissue culture to rapidly produce transgenic Brassica napus plants.This method comprises the steps of treating seeds by ultrasonic wave,inoculating Agrobacterium tumefaciens with a recombinant ChlFN-a gene and germinating directly of treatment seed on wet filter papers.The obtained transformants were verified by GUS histochemical assay and nested PCR amplification.It suggests that seed transformation has a potential use in genetic transformation of rape.

  14. Brassica cytogenetics-a historical journey and my personal reminiscence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shyam Prakash

    2010-01-01

    本文综述了芸薹属细胞遗传学从染色体数目鉴定到分子细胞生物学的发展历程.芸薹属细胞遗传学研究始于日本科学家N. Takamine对白菜型油菜Brassica rapa (syn. B.campestris)体细胞染色体数目的鉴定.俄国植物学家G.D. Karpechenko首次成功地合成了萝卜甘蓝(Raphanobrassica),这项成果的获得是实验室杂交合成新物种的里程碑.日本科学家Morinaga和Nagaharu U率先开展了基因组研究,揭示了芸薹属作物的细胞遗传学结构.二十世纪三十年代广泛开展了体细胞染色体的核型研究.随后,G. Rbbelen在1960年对粗线期染色体进行研究,提出了原始核型的遗传结构.但由于芸薹属染色体非常小,没有明显的形态标识,因此很难获得可靠的核型,近年来由于分子细胞遗传学的迅速发展,科学家采用以rDNA为探针的荧光原位杂交(FISH)技术成功地构建了分子核型.二十世纪50年代初期以来,由于组织培养技术的发展,人工合成了自然界已有的芸薹属栽培异源多倍体种,并进行了芸薹属作物和野生种之间的远缘杂交研究.1980年后发展起来的原生质体再生和融合技术更加促进了大量体细胞杂种的合成,包括相当数量的族间组合.虽然野生种质的基因尚待发掘,但这些实验大大拓展了异源倍性物种已有的遗传基础,增加了近缘野生种质资源的可利用价值.近年来开展的拟南芥和芸薹属物种之间的比较基因组学研究,不仅阐述了进化过程,也使芸薹和拟南芥成为近年来实验生物学的模式植物,为进一步开展细胞遗传学研究奠定了基础.

  15. Desarrollo de apio minimamente procesado fortificado con vitamina e, utilizando la ingenieria de matrices

    OpenAIRE

    YISELL JOHAN MARTELO CASTAÑO; MISAEL CORTES RODRIGUEZ; HÉCTOR SUAREZ MAHECHA

    2011-01-01

    El objetivo de este trabajo fue desarrollar un producto minimamente procesado fortificado con vitamina E, a partir de apio (Apium graveolens L. var.dulce), utilizando la ingenieria de matrices como metodologia de obtencion de alimentos funcionales. Trozos de apio impregnados al vacio con dl¿¿tocoferol acetato emulsificado en una solucion isotonica al vegetal de NaCl, 1,2%, fueron evaluados en funcion del tiempo de almacenamiento y el envasado (con y sin vacio), en terminos de la cuantificacio...

  16. Productividad en una celda de manufactura flexible simulada en promodel utilizando path networks type crane

    OpenAIRE

    María Elena Bernal Loaiza; German Cock Sarmiento; Jorge Hernán Restrepo Correa

    2015-01-01

    Esta investigación se centra en el diseño de una simulación del proceso de una celda de manufactura flexible (FMC) de la Facultad de Ingeniería Industrial de la Universidad Tecnológica de Pereira, con el propósito de medir y elegir aquella alternativa de solución que mejore en mayor grado la productividad del sistema actual utilizando los resultados que proporciona el software Promodel. Para realizar lo anterior se utilizaron etapas de la simulación como definición del sistema, formulación de...

  17. Sistemas microfluídicos amperométricos utilizando enzimas imobilizadas

    OpenAIRE

    Luís Marcos Cerdeira Ferreira

    2011-01-01

    Este trabalho descreve o desenvolvimento de um sistema microfluídico, contendo, como componente principal, um reator enzimático constituído de um microcanal fabricado em substrato de poli(metacrilato de metila) e um sistema amperométrico como detector. Para a construção de microcanais foi utilizando equipamento de usinagem a laser de CO2 para escavar os microcanais, que a seguir foram selados termicamente. A superfície interna desse microcanal foi submetida à modificação química com poli(etil...

  18. Monitoramento dos extratos brutos de espécies de Polygala (Polygalaceae utilizando Artemia salina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.B.P. Montanher

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Extratos de duas espécies de Polygala foram submetidos a um biomonitoramento utilizando o teste de toxicidade frente a Artemia salina, com a finalidade de detectar atividade citotóxica. Os resultados obtidos para o extrato bruto, frações hexânica e diclorometano de Polygala sabulosa Aw. Benn. mostraram-se promissores. No entanto, bioensaios mais específicos devem ser encorajados nos extratos vegetais que apresentam atividade diante deste bioensaio, a fim de confirmar estas conclusões.

  19. Clasificación de los elementos de una muestra de sangre utilizando Redes Neuronales

    OpenAIRE

    Lanzarini, Laura Cristina; Vargas Camacho, María Teresa; Badrán, Amado F.; De Giusti, Armando Eduardo

    1996-01-01

    El análisis de una muestra de sangre es una de las prácticas más comunes solicitadas por los médicos para un diagnóstico y pronóstico adecuados. Mediante su estudio es posible detectar distintas. patologías que van desde los más simples procesos fisiológicos o inflamatorios a los más complejos procesos neoplásicos (leucemias) y de allí su importancia. El presente trabajo es una aplicación de reconocimiento de patrones utilizando redes neuronales actualmente en desarrollo, que permite clasi...

  20. Seguimiento de la reactogenicidad de la vacuna DTP cubana, utilizando dos métodos paralelos

    OpenAIRE

    María de los Ángeles Peña Machado; Telma María Triana Rodríguez; Jorge Menéndez Hernández; Mayelin Mirabal Sosa; Marlen Armesto del Río; Morelia Baró Suárez; Lorenzo la Rosa Ocampo; Marlen Raymundo Valdés; Liudmila Ibelin Egües Torres; Giset Jiménez López

    2005-01-01

    Con el objetivo de caracterizar la reactogenicidad de la vacuna Antidiftérica-Antitetánica- Antipertusis (DTP) cubana, desarrollada por el Instituto Finlay, se realizó un estudio utilizando dos métodos o fuentes de información diferentes y paralelos. La primera se obtuvo de un ensayo clínico (EC) Fase IV, abierto, no controlado, en el que se incluyeron 57 lactantes. La segunda fuente de información se obtuvo de los reportes de los eventos temporalmente asociados a la vacunación (ETAV), recepc...

  1. Recent progress in drought and salt tolerance studies in Brassica crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuekun; Lu, Guangyuan; Long, Weihua; Zou, Xiling; Li, Feng; Nishio, Takeshi

    2014-05-01

    Water deficit imposed by either drought or salinity brings about severe growth retardation and yield loss of crops. Since Brassica crops are important contributors to total oilseed production, it is urgently needed to develop tolerant cultivars to ensure yields under such adverse conditions. There are various physiochemical mechanisms for dealing with drought and salinity in plants at different developmental stages. Accordingly, different indicators of tolerance to drought or salinity at the germination, seedling, flowering and mature stages have been developed and used for germplasm screening and selection in breeding practices. Classical genetic and modern genomic approaches coupled with precise phenotyping have boosted the unravelling of genes and metabolic pathways conferring drought or salt tolerance in crops. QTL mapping of drought and salt tolerance has provided several dozen target QTLs in Brassica and the closely related Arabidopsis. Many drought- or salt-tolerant genes have also been isolated, some of which have been confirmed to have great potential for genetic improvement of plant tolerance. It has been suggested that molecular breeding approaches, such as marker-assisted selection and gene transformation, that will enhance oil product security under a changing climate be integrated in the development of drought- and salt-tolerant Brassica crops.

  2. The Influence of pH on Microspore Embryogenesis of White Cabbage (Brassica oleracea L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina Oana CRISTEA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In vitro microspore culture is one of the top techniques utilised now-a-days for the obtaining of double haploid plants in many plant species, including Brassica. The pH of the medium is a critical factor for the success of In vitro microspore culture as it influences the invertase enzyme activity, translated at cellular level through an acceleration or reduction of sucrose cleavage. The results published until now shows rather contradictory findings, as the response of microspores have been proved to be highly depending on genotypes, most of them being focused on Brassica napus. Thus, in the present study, the effect of different NLN liquid medium pH, ranging between 5.0 to 7.0 were tested in order to establish the most suitable pH for the expression of embryogenic competences of microspores cultivated on medium In vitro and ultimately for the obtaining of microspore-derived embryos. Among the 11 values of pH tested, the best results were obtained on variants with pH 5.8 and 6.0, both in what concern the maintaining of microspores viability and the number of microspore-derived embryos. The findings of the present study provide a strong base for the establishment of an efficient protocol for the In vitro culture of microspore at Brassica oleracea L. genotypes with Romanian origin.

  3. Could nitrile derivatives of turnip (Brassica rapa) glucosinolates be hepato- or cholangiotoxic in cattle?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collett, Mark G; Stegelmeier, Bryan L; Tapper, Brian A

    2014-07-30

    Turnip (Brassica rapa ssp. rapa) and rape (Brassica napus ssp. biennis) and other brassica forage crops are regarded as "safe" feed for cattle during late summer and fall in the North Island of New Zealand when high Pithomyces chartarum spore counts in pastures frequently lead to sporidesmin toxicity (facial eczema). Sporadic acute severe cases of turnip photosensitization in dairy cows characteristically exhibit high γ-glutamyl transferase and glutamate dehydrogenase serum enzyme activities that mimic those seen in facial eczema. The two diseases can, however, be distinguished by histopathology of the liver, where lesions, in particular those affecting small bile ducts, differ. To date, the hepato-/cholangiotoxic phytochemical causing liver damage in turnip photosensitization in cattle is unknown. Of the hydrolysis products of the various glucosinolate secondary compounds found in high concentrations in turnip and rape, work has shown that nitriles and epithionitriles can be hepatotoxic (and nephro- or pancreatotoxic) in rats. These derivatives include β-hydroxy-thiiranepropanenitrile and 3-hydroxy-4-pentenenitrile from progoitrin; thiiranepropanenitrile and 4-pentenenitrile from gluconapin; thiiranebutanenitrile and 5-hexenenitrile from glucobrassicanapin; phenyl-3-propanenitrile from gluconasturtiin; and indole-3-acetonitrile from glucobrassicin. This perspective explores the possibility of the preferential formation of such derivatives, especially the epithionitriles, in acidic conditions in the bovine rumen, followed by absorption, hepatotoxicity, and secondary photosensitization.

  4. Elevated Ozone Modulates Herbivore-Induced Volatile Emissions of Brassica nigra and Alters a Tritrophic Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaling, Eliezer; Li, Tao; Holopainen, Jarmo K; Blande, James D

    2016-05-01

    Plants damaged by herbivores emit volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that are used by parasitoids for host location. In nature, however, plants are exposed to multiple abiotic and biotic stresses of varying intensities, which may affect tritrophic interactions. Here, we studied the effects of ozone exposure and feeding by Pieris brassicae larvae on the VOCs emitted by Brassica nigra and the effects on oriented flight of the parasitoid Cotesia glomerata. We also investigated the oriented flight of C. glomerata in a wind-tunnel with elevated ozone levels. Herbivore-feeding induced the emission of several VOCs, while ozone alone had no significant effect. However, exposure to 120 ppb ozone, followed by 24 hr of herbivore-feeding, induced higher emissions of all VOCs as compared to herbivore-feeding alone. In accordance, herbivore-damaged plants elicited more oriented flights than undamaged plants, whereas plants exposed to 120 ppb ozone and 24 hr of herbivore-feeding elicited more oriented flights than plants subjected to herbivore-feeding alone. Ozone enrichment of the wind-tunnel air appeared to negatively affect orientation of parasitoids at 70 ppb, but not at 120 ppb. These results suggest that the combination of ozone and P. brassicae-feeding modulates VOC emissions, which significantly influence foraging efficiency of C. glomerata.

  5. Simultaneous extraction and quantitation of carotenoids, chlorophylls, and tocopherols in Brassica vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman, Ivette; Yousef, Gad G; Brown, Allan F

    2012-07-25

    Brassica oleracea vegetables, such as broccoli (B. oleracea L. var. italica) and cauliflower (B. oleracea L. var. botrytis), are known to contain bioactive compounds associated with health, including three classes of photosynthetic lipid-soluble compounds: carotenoids, chlorophylls, and tocopherols. Carotenoids and chlorophylls are photosynthetic pigments. Tocopherols have vitamin E activity. Due to genetic and environmental variables, the amounts present in vegetables are not constant. To aid breeders in the development of Brassica cultivars with higher provitamin A and vitamin E contents and antioxidant activity, a more efficient method was developed to quantitate carotenoids, chlorophylls, and tocopherols in the edible portions of broccoli and cauliflower. The novel UPLC method separated five carotenoids, two chlorophylls, and two tocopherols in a single 30 min run, reducing the run time by half compared to previously published protocols. The objective of the study was to develop a faster, more effective extraction and quantitation methodology to screen large populations of Brassica germplasm, thus aiding breeders in producing superior vegetables with enhanced phytonutrient profiles.

  6. Comparison of bioactive phytochemical content and release of isothiocyanates in selected brassica sprouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Nicola, Gina Rosalinda; Bagatta, Manuela; Pagnotta, Eleonora; Angelino, Donato; Gennari, Lorenzo; Ninfali, Paolino; Rollin, Patrick; Iori, Renato

    2013-11-01

    The consumption of brassica sprouts as raw vegetables provides a fair amount of glucosinolates (GLs) and active plant myrosinase, which enables the breakdown of GLs into health-promoting isothiocyanates (ITCs). This study reports the determination of the main constituents related to human health found in edible sprouts of two Brassica oleracea varieties, broccoli and Tuscan black kale, and two Raphanus sativus varieties, Daikon and Sango. Radish sprouts exhibited the highest ability to produce ITCs, with Daikon showing the greatest level of conversion of GLs into bioactive ITCs (96.5%), followed by Sango (90.0%). Tuscan black kale gave a value of 68.5%, whereas broccoli displayed the lowest with 18.7%. ITCs were not the exclusive GL breakdown products in the two B. oleracea varieties, since nitriles were also produced, thus accounting for the lower conversion observed. Measuring the release of plant ITCs is a valuable tool in predicting the potential level of exposure to these bioactive compounds after the consumption of raw brassica sprouts. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Nucleotide polymorphism affecting FLC expression underpins heading date variation in horticultural brassicas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, Judith A; Soumpourou, Eleni; Lister, Clare; Ligthart, Jan-Dick; Kennedy, Sue; Dean, Caroline

    2016-09-01

    Variation in flowering time and response to overwintering has been exploited to breed brassica vegetables that can be harvested year-round. Our knowledge of flowering time control now enables the investigation of the molecular basis of this important variation. Here, we show that a major determinant of heading date variation in Brassica oleracea is from variation in vernalization response through allelic variation at FLOWERING LOCUS C.C2 (BoFLC4). We characterize two alleles of BoFLC.C2 that are both functional and confer a requirement for vernalization, but they show distinct expression dynamics in response to cold. Complementation experiments in Arabidopsis thaliana revealed that the allelic variation results from cis polymorphism at BoFLC.C2, which quantitatively influences the degree of cold-induced epigenetic silencing. This results in one allelic variant conferring consistently later heading under both glasshouse and field conditions through reduced environmental sensitivity. Our results suggest that breeding of brassica varieties for commercially valuable variation in heading date has been achieved through the selection of cis polymorphism at FLC, similar to that underpinning natural variation in A. thaliana. This understanding will allow for the selection of alleles with distinct sensitivities to cold and robust heading dates under variable climatic conditions, and will facilitate the breeding of varieties more resistant to climate change.

  8. Insecticidal activity of bio-oil from the pyrolysis of straw from Brassica spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suqi, Liu; Cáceres, Luis A; Caceres, Luis; Schieck, Katie; McGarvey, Brian D; Booker, Christina J; McGarvey, Brian M; Yeung, Ken K-C; Pariente, Stephane; Briens, Cedric; Berruti, Franco; Scott, Ian M

    2014-04-23

    Agricultural crop residues can be converted through thermochemical pyrolysis to bio-oil, a sustainable source of biofuel and biochemicals. The pyrolysis bio-oil is known to contain many chemicals, some of which have insecticidal activity and can be a potential source of value-added pest control products. Brassicacae crops, cabbage, broccoli, and mustards, contain glucosinolates and isocyanates, compounds with recognized anti-herbivore activity. In Canada, canola Brassica napus straw is available from over 6 000 000 ha and mustard Brassica carinata and Brassica juncea straw is available from 200 000 ha. The straw can be converted by microbial lignocellulosic enzymes as a substrate for bioethanol production but can also be converted to bio-oil by thermochemical means. Straw from all three species was pyrolyzed, and the insecticidal components in the bio-oil were isolated by bioassay-guided solvent fractionation. Of particular interest were the mustard straw bio-oil aqueous fractions with insecticidal and feeding repellent activity to Colorado potato beetle larvae. Aqueous fractions further analyzed for active compounds were found not to contain many of the undesirable phenol compounds, which were previously found in other bio-oils seen in the dichloromethane (DCM) and ethyl acetate (EA) solvent phases of the present study. Identified within the most polar fractions were hexadecanoic and octadecanoic fatty acids, indicating that separation of these compounds during bio-oil production may provide a source of effective insecticidal compounds.

  9. Flutuação populacional e distribuição vertical de Brevicoryne brassicae (L. (Hemiptera: Aphididae em couve Populational fluctuation and vertical (within-plant distribution of Brevicoryne brassicae (L. (Hemiptera: Aphididae on kale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco J. Cividanes

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available O conhecimento da dinâmica populacional e da distribuição vertical de insetos pragas em plantas hospedeiras é fundamental para o desenvolvimento de programas de manejo integrado de pragas. No presente trabalho efetuou-se um levantamento populacional de formas ápteras do pulgão Brevicoryne brassicae (L., visando determinar a época de maior densidade populacional e a distribuição vertical em plantas de couve, (Brassica oleracea L. var. acephala DC., cultivadas em Jaboticabal, SP. O estudo foi realizado durante as safras de brássicas de 1998 e 1999, efetuando-se correção da acidez do solo por meio de aplicação de calcário apenas no campo utilizado em 1998. A amostragem dos pulgões foi feita visualmente em folhas classificadas em três categorias: apical, mediana e basal. Nas duas safras estudadas, a infestação de B. brassicae na couve atingiu a maior densidade populacional em setembro, diminuindo rapidamente a seguir. Nos dois campos não se observou a mesma distribuição de B. brassicae em folhas apicais, medianas e basais. Os fatores que podem ter contribuído para as diferenças observadas no padrão de distribuição do pulgão devem estar relacionados com a precipitação pluvial e o calcário magnesiano.The knowledge of the population dynamics and vertical distribution of insect pests in host plants are fundamental for the development of programs of integrated pest management. In the present work, a population survey of apterous cabbage aphid, Brevicoryne brassicae (L., was carried out aiming to determine the period when this aphid reachs the highest population density and the within-plant distributions on its common host, kale, Brassica oleracea L. var. acephala DC., cultivated in Jaboticabal, State of São Paulo. The study took place during the 1998 and 1999 Brassica seasons, and limestone treatment was only made in the field cultivated in 1998. The cabbage aphid was sampled by visual search on leaves classified in three

  10. Kinetics of Changes in Glucosinolate Concentrations during Long-Term Cooking of White Cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. ssp. capitata f. alba)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Volden, J.; Wicklund, T.; Verkerk, R.; Dekker, M.

    2008-01-01

    Brassica vegetables are the predominant dietary source of glucosinolates (GLS) that can be degraded in the intestinal tract into isothiocyanates, which have been shown to possess anticarcinogenic properties. The effects of pilot-scale long-term boiling on GLS in white cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. s

  11. ANTIULCER ACTIVITY OF AQUEOUS EXTRACT OF FRESH LEAF OF BRASSICA OLERACEAE LINN. VAR. ACEPHALA (D.C ALEF (BRASSICACEAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agbaje, Esther Oluwatoyin

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Brassica oleraceae (BOL is the common cabbage and a familiar garden plant, widely used as spice all over the world. Cabbage is an excellent source of Vitamin C and has been widely employed locally to treat acute inflammation and peptic ulcers. The present study aimed at evaluating the anti¬ulcer activity of Brassica oleraceae, while identifying the phytoconstituents responsible for the observed effects and exploring some of the possible mechanisms of its anti¬ulcer activity, using standard laboratory procedures. Doses of 100, 300 and 750 mg / kg of Brassica oleraceae were separately administered to groups of overnight fasted rats, with appropriate standard drugs using Ethanol / HCl, Indomethacin and Cysteamine models to explore anti¬ulcer property of BOL on the stomach and duodenum respectively. The extract in a dose¬ dependent fashion, offered better protection against the ulcerogens in the gastric ulcer models, when compared with the positive control groups. However, the smallest dose of 100 mg / kg recorded the highest percentage protection in the cysteamine group. Up to 1200 mg / kg i.p and 10,000 mg / kg oral doses of Brassica oleraceae did not produce any mortality in mice. Phytochemical constituents identified included alkaloids, tannins, cardiac glycosides, flavonoids, phlobatannins, anthraquinones and saponins. The pH was 8.5. The present study has validated the local use of Brassica oleraceae in the treatment of peptic ulcer and the speculated mechanisms of action could be through acid neutralization, cytoprotection and antioxidation by flavonoids.

  12. EST sequencing and fosmid library construction in a non-model moth, Mamestra brassicae, for comparative mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamimura, Manabu; Tateishi, Ken; Tanaka-Okuyama, Makiko; Okabe, Takuya; Shibata, Fukashi; Sahara, Ken; Yasukochi, Yuji

    2012-11-01

    Genome data are useful for both basic and applied research; however, it is difficult to carry out large-scale genome analyses using species with limited genetic or genomic resources. Here, we describe a cost-effective method to analyze the genome of a non-model species, using the cabbage moth, Mamestra brassicae (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). First, we conducted expression sequence tag (EST) analysis. In this analysis, we performed PCR-based prescreening of a non-normalized embryonic cDNA library to eliminate already sequenced cDNAs from further sequencing, which significantly increased the percentage of unique genes. Next, we constructed a fosmid library of M. brassicae and isolated 120 clones containing 119 putative single copy genes by PCR-based screening with primer sets designed from the ESTs. Finally, we showed that the isolated fosmid clones could be used as probes for multicolor fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis against an M. brassicae chromosome and confirmed conserved gene order between M. brassicae and the silkworm, Bombyx mori. Thus, we developed new genomic resources for comparative genome analysis in M. brassicae using robust and relatively low cost methods that can be applied to any non-model organism.

  13. MODELO CONCEPTUAL DE UN PROYECTO DE SOFTWARE UTILIZANDO EL RAZONAMIENTO BASADO EN CASOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Delgado Dapena

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available

    Este trabajo tiene por objetivo aprovechar el conocimiento acumulado por los diseñadores (proyectistas de software en nuevos proyectos, utilizando el razonamiento basado en casos (RBC, para obtener un modelo conceptual de UML (lenguaje de modelación unificado partiendo de una lista de requerimientos candidatos definidos por los analistas. Con esta información, de carácter preliminar, los grupos de desarrollo pueden simplificar de manera notable algunos aspectos de las fases de modelación iniciales que permitan aprovechar el trabajo y las experiencias previas y aceleren por vías probadas el proceso total de elaboración de software. En este trabajo se describen las características generales del funcionamiento de un sistema que se desarrolla en el Centro de Estudios de Ingeniería de Sistemas (CEIS, que aborda estos temas de la ingeniería de software, utilizando la técnica de inteligencia artificial de razonamiento basado en casos.

  14. Control de velocidad de un motor de inducción utilizando un controlador Fuzzy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madelín Lima Álvarez

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Se realiza la simulación del sistema de control de velocidad del motor de inducción. Se parte del enfoquevectorial y de un sistema de coordenadas adecuado a su futura utilización, utilizando para esto el lenguaje desimulación de sistemas dinámicos Simulink. En cuanto a la simulación del método de control vectorial porcampo orientado se ha empleado el denominado método de control vectorial indirecto. El control de la velocidaddel motor se simuló utilizando un controlador Fuzzy, comparándose posteriormente estos resultados con losobtenidos mediante la utilización de un controlador PI digital.  This work carries out the simulation of speed control of induction motor. It is based on the field orientation theoryand on a system of coordinates adapted to its future use. The language that has been used for the simulation ofdynamics systems is Simulink. The indirect method of the field orientation control theory was used in themathematical analysis of the induction motor. The speed control of the induction motor was simulated using aFuzzy controller and these results were compared with those obtained by means of the use of a PI digitalcontroller.

  15. CONTROLE QUÍMICO DOS PULG��ES Mysus persicae E Brevicoryne brassicae NA CULTURA DA COUVE-FLOR COM INSETICIDAS APLICADOS NA FORMA DE ESGUICHO CHEMICAL CONTROL OF APHIDS Mizus persicae AND Brevicoryne brassicae ON CAULIFLOWER WITH INSECTICIDES APPLIED IN TRANSPLANT HOLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selby Pereira dos Santos

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Avaliou-se o controle químico dos pulgões Mysus persicae e Brevicoryne brassicae, em couve-flor, através dos inseticidas Confidor 700 GRDA e Confidor 200 SC, na área experimental da Escola de Agronomia da Universidade Federal de Goiás em maio de 1998. Foram utilizadas duas dosagens para cada um dos inseticidas, um inseticida padrão (Tamaron Br e uma testemunha. Confidor 700 GRDA e Confidor 200 SC, ambos em duas dosagens, foram aplicados em uma única vez nas covas de transplante, com um pulverizador costal, utilizando bico de esguicho. A avaliação dos resultados de M. persicae constou de contagens de ninfas e adultos em folhas escolhidas ao acaso, nas plantas da linha central das parcelas, 35 dias após os tratamentos. A mesma metodologia foi utilizada para a avaliação de B. brassicae 48 dias após o tratamento. O tratamento com Tamaron Br foi aplicado na forma de pulverizações semanais, ocorrendo as avalia

  16. Growth of Brassica juncea under chromium stress: influence of siderophores and indole 3 acetic acid producing rhizosphere bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajkumar, M; Lee, Kui Jae; Lee, Wang Hyu; Banu, J Rajesh

    2005-10-01

    Plant growth promoting rhizobacterial (PGPR) strains A3 and S32 have been shown to promote the growth of Brassica juncea under chromium stress which has been related to the microbial production of siderophores and indole 3 acetic acid (IAA). The aim of the present study is to evaluate the importance of siderophores and IAA producing PGPR on the growth of Brassica juncea under chromium stress. The production of IAA and siderophores were observed in the strains A3 and S32, respectively. Both PGPR strains promote the growth of Brassica juncea under chromium stress. The maximum growth was observed in plants inoculated with siderophores producing strain 32. Both the bacterial inoculum did not influence the uptake of chromium by plants. The present observation showed that PGPR isolates A3 and S32 are capable of protecting the plants against the inhibitory effects of chromium by producing the siderophores and IAA.

  17. EFFECTS OF ARSENIC CONCENTRATIONS AND FORMS ON GROWTH AND ARSENIC UPTAKE AND ACCUMULATION BY INDIAN MUSTARD (BRASSICA JUNCEA L. GENOTYPES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    INDIRA CHATURVEDI

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available By using two Brassica juncea genotypes (Varuna and DHR-9504 a green house experiment was carried out during crop cycle (2003-2004, at Agricultural Farm, Bilaspur, Chhattisgarh, India. In Indian mustard, arsenic extraction by plants increased signifi cantly with increasing arsenic concentrations in soils. Uptake of arsenite by Indian mustard genotypes was higher than that of arsenate. Stunted growth of the plants was also observed in this study. This experiment clearly demonstrated the existence of genotypical variations in tolerance to As toxicity among Brassica juncea genotypes.

  18. Potencial alelopático de Brassica campestris subsp. rapa y Lolium temulentum sobre la germinación de semillas de tomate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Zamorano

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Con el objeto de evaluar el potencial alelopático de los extractos de hojas de nabo (Brassica campestris subsp. rapa y raigrás (Lolium temulentum, utilizando dos solventes (agua y metanol, se desarrollaron bioensayos con semillas pregerminadas de tomate en el laboratorio de Malherbología de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia, sede Bogotá. Los bioensayos tuvieron un diseño de bloques al azar con tres repeticiones y se replicaron tres veces. Las concentraciones de los extractos utilizados fueron 10, 25, 50 y 100 g. L-1. Como variables se midieron: el porcentaje de germinación, la longitud del brote aéreo y raíz y, adicionalmente, se calculó el porcentaje de elongación con respecto al control. No hubo efectos de los extractos sobre la germinación de semillas de tomate. Los extractos acuosos de nabo tuvieron efectos estimulantes sobre la elongación de la raíz del tomate, con concentraciones de 10 g. L-1, y detrimentales en el rango de 25 a 100 g. L-1; la concentración que redujo el crecimiento en 50% (DC50 estuvo entre 44 y 49 g. L-1, para la longitud de raíz y de brote aéreo, respectivamente. Los extractos metanólicos de nabo disminuyeron la elongación de la raíz de tomate a medida que aumentaba la concentración del extracto. El efecto de los extractos de raigrás sobre la elongación de la raíz del tomate fue similar con los dos solventes, disminuyéndola 40% en promedio con las concentraciones de 10 a 100 g. L-1; la DC50 se calculó para el porcentaje de elongación de la raíz con extracto acuoso y fue 10 g. L-1.

  19. Una experiencia en formación inicial del profesorado utilizando la red social ELGG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Javier Álvarez Lires

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Una experiencia de investigación-innovación educativa en forma- ción inicial del profesorado de Grados universitarios en Educación In- fantil, Primaria y Máster de Educación Secundaria y Formación Profe- sional, sobre las posibilidades que ofrece la red social de comunidad de aprendizaje ELGG, utilizando una metodología docente focalizada en el alumnado, hacia un aprendizaje colaborativo y cooperativo. Los resulta - dos muestran amplia participación, percepción de beneficios de aprendi - zaje, por parte del alumnado, coordinación entre docentes de áreas dife - rentes y cumplimiento de objetivos en cuanto a promoción de espacios y formas de aprendizaje que rompen con modelos tradicionales aprove - chando las posibilidades educativas de las TIC.

  20. Tratamento de efluente tÃxtil utilizando o processo foto-fenton

    OpenAIRE

    Diego Ricieri Manenti

    2011-01-01

    O objetivo deste trabalho à avaliar o desempenho do processo foto-Fenton, utilizando energia solar e artificial como fontes de irradiaÃÃo UV, no tratamento de efluentes tÃxteis. Foram realizados experimentos preliminares para avaliar a eficiÃncia do processo foto-Fenton na mineralizaÃÃo e degradaÃÃo dos poluentes orgÃnicos e inorgÃnicos, bem como dos corantes sintÃticos. Para tanto, foi preparado o efluente tÃxtil sintÃtico pela mistura de seis corantes: Laranja TGL (C25H33ClN6O6S2), Azul FGL...

  1. Una propuesta para mejorar la completitud de requisitos utilizando un enfoque lingüístico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos M. Zapata J.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available La calidad de los productos de software está estrechamente relacionada con la calidad de los requisitos especificados desde las primeras etapas del proceso de desarrollo; las propuestas encaminadas a la especificación de requisitos realizan incipientes esfuerzos para lograr que los requisitos del software sean lo suficientemente completos como para lograr la traducción de las necesidades y expectativas de los usuarios al producto final. En este artículo se presenta una propuesta para mejorar la calidad, en cuanto a completitud, de especificaciones de requisitos escritas en un subconjunto del español denominado español restringido, utilizando para ello un enfoque lingüístico basado en la gramática de casos.

  2. PRODUCCION DE HIDROGENO POR FOTOELECTROLISIS DEL AGUA UTILIZANDO UN FOTOCATALIZADOR BASADO EN MEMBRANAS DE ALUMINA POROSA

    OpenAIRE

    HOMM JARA, PIA

    2013-01-01

    La producción de hidrógeno a partir del proceso de fotoelectrólisis del agua utilizando luz solar, es uno de los desafíos más importantes para los investigadores en el área de producción de energía en estos días. La obtención de hidrógeno por medio de una celda fotoelectroquímica (PEC) requiere de fotocatalizadores que satisfagan, simultáneamente, requerimientos como la absorción eficiente de luz solar, promover un rápido transporte de las cargas foto -generadas y además, poder llevar a...

  3. Trazado de rutas migratorias utilizando alelos HLA clase II de indígenas Wayuu venezolanos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Echeverria

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio comparativo utilizando las frecuencias alélicas HLA-DRB1* de la poblaciónWayuú venezolana, con datos reportados de las poblaciones Caucásicas, Negroides Americanas y Amerindias siguientes: Barí, Warao y Yucpa (venezolanas, Wayúu colombiana, Australianos, Atahabaskans, Indios americanos, Seri, Maya, Taraumara, Kogi, Cayapa, indígenas brasileros, Mataco-Wichi, Toba Pilaga y Eastern Toba, con el fin de evaluar su posible contribución al origen de esta población indígena. Los alelos DRB1*03:01, 04:01, 04:03, 04:04, 04:07, 08:02, 13:01, 14:02 y 16:02 de los Wayuú venezolanos son los únicos comunes a todas las poblaciones amerindias desde Norte América hasta la Patagonia; igualmente analizamos otras contribuciones.

  4. Projeto e desenvolvimento de um carro robô controlado por smartphone, utilizando a plataforma Amarino

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otávio Souza Martins Gomes

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo mostra a construção de um carro robô controlado por dispositivos móveis utilizando o sistema operacional Android e uma placa de prototipagem open source (Arduino. Utilizou-se de motores para sua movimentação e sensores para interação com o ambiente. O envio de comandos foi realizado utilizando a tecnologia Bluetooth e é capaz de movimentar o carro robô em todas as direções de acordo com os comandos do usuário. Sensores instalados no carro coletam informações do ambiente que são enviadas ao dispositivo Android. A construção bem sucedida deste carro robô mostra que é possível implementar novas funcionalidades para esse produto, bem como apoiar outros projetos relacionados a esse tema.Palavras-chave: Arduino. Android. Bluetooth. Carro robô. Robótica. Project and development of a robot car controlled by smartphone, using the platform amarinoABSTRACTThis work shows the build of a robot car controlled by mobile devices employing Android operating system and an open source prototyping board (Arduino. Motors for its movements and sensors for its environment interaction were employed. The commands are transmitted using Bluetooth technology which can move the robot car in all directions according to the user commands. Sensors installed in the car collect the environment information which is sent to the Android device. The success build of this robot car shows that new features can be possible implemented as well as to support other projects related to this research area.Keywords: Arduino. Android. Bluetooth. Robot car. Robotic.

  5. Perspectivas de manejo de capororoca (Myrsine umbellata Mart. utilizando análise retrospectiva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Farinha Watzlawick

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available A análise retrospectiva é um instrumento para avaliação rápida do potencial de crescimento utilizando-se a periodicidade do incremento em diâmetro, isto é, o crescimento dos anéis anuais. Utilizando-se esta técnica, foi avaliado o desenvolvimento e o crescimento da capororoca (Myrsine umbellata Mart., espécie nativa da Florestal Ombrofila Mista. O presente estudo foi realizado no Município de General Carneiro - PR, em área pertencente às Indústrias Pedro N. Pizzatto. Foi feita a análise de tronco e a medição dos anéis anuais em fatias retiradas nas alturas relativas a 10%, 50% e 75% da altura do ponto de inversão morfológico, bem como também na altura do DAP em quatro árvores, nas quais foram analisados o incremento em diâmetro e altura. Pelos resultados obtidos, pode-se considerar que as árvores analisadas mostraram um crescimento em diâmetro forte no estado inicial, mas seguindo uma tendência de crescimento lento e contínuo a médio prazo, até a idade de 5 anos. Com relação à altura comercial (ponto de inversão morfológico com 2 a 4 metros, nas árvores analisadas são alcançadas dentro dos primeiros dois anos de vida.

  6. A physical map of Brassica oleracea shows complexity of chromosomal changes following recursive paleopolyploidizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giattina Emily

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evolution of the Brassica species has been recursively affected by polyploidy events, and comparison to their relative, Arabidopsis thaliana, provides means to explore their genomic complexity. Results A genome-wide physical map of a rapid-cycling strain of B. oleracea was constructed by integrating high-information-content fingerprinting (HICF of Bacterial Artificial Chromosome (BAC clones with hybridization to sequence-tagged probes. Using 2907 contigs of two or more BACs, we performed several lines of comparative genomic analysis. Interspecific DNA synteny is much better preserved in euchromatin than heterochromatin, showing the qualitative difference in evolution of these respective genomic domains. About 67% of contigs can be aligned to the Arabidopsis genome, with 96.5% corresponding to euchromatic regions, and 3.5% (shown to contain repetitive sequences to pericentromeric regions. Overgo probe hybridization data showed that contigs aligned to Arabidopsis euchromatin contain ~80% of low-copy-number genes, while genes with high copy number are much more frequently associated with pericentromeric regions. We identified 39 interchromosomal breakpoints during the diversification of B. oleracea and Arabidopsis thaliana, a relatively high level of genomic change since their divergence. Comparison of the B. oleracea physical map with Arabidopsis and other available eudicot genomes showed appreciable 'shadowing' produced by more ancient polyploidies, resulting in a web of relatedness among contigs which increased genomic complexity. Conclusions A high-resolution genetically-anchored physical map sheds light on Brassica genome organization and advances positional cloning of specific genes, and may help to validate genome sequence assembly and alignment to chromosomes. All the physical mapping data is freely shared at a WebFPC site (http://lulu.pgml.uga.edu/fpc/WebAGCoL/brassica/WebFPC/; Temporarily password-protected: account

  7. Multiple Evolutionary Events Involved in Maintaining Homologs of Resistance to Powdery Mildew 8 in Brassica napus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qin; Li, Jing; Sun, Jin-Long; Ma, Xian-Feng; Wang, Ting-Ting; Berkey, Robert; Yang, Hui; Niu, Ying-Ze; Fan, Jing; Li, Yan; Xiao, Shunyuan; Wang, Wen-Ming

    2016-01-01

    The Resistance to Powdery Mildew 8 (RPW8) locus confers broad-spectrum resistance to powdery mildew in Arabidopsis thaliana. There are four Homologous to RPW8s (BrHRs) in Brassica rapa and three in Brassica oleracea (BoHRs). Brassica napus (Bn) is derived from diploidization of a hybrid between B. rapa and B. oleracea, thus should have seven homologs of RPW8 (BnHRs). It is unclear whether these genes are still maintained or lost in B. napus after diploidization and how they might have been evolved. Here, we reported the identification and sequence polymorphisms of BnHRs from a set of B. napus accessions. Our data indicated that while the BoHR copy from B. oleracea is highly conserved, the BrHR copy from B. rapa is relatively variable in the B. napus genome owing to multiple evolutionary events, such as gene loss, point mutation, insertion, deletion, and intragenic recombination. Given the overall high sequence homology of BnHR genes, it is not surprising that both intragenic recombination between two orthologs and two paralogs were detected in B. napus, which may explain the loss of BoHR genes in some B. napus accessions. When ectopically expressed in Arabidopsis, a C-terminally truncated version of BnHRa and BnHRb, as well as the full length BnHRd fused with YFP at their C-termini could trigger cell death in the absence of pathogens and enhanced resistance to powdery mildew disease. Moreover, subcellular localization analysis showed that both BnHRa-YFP and BnHRb-YFP were mainly localized to the extra-haustorial membrane encasing the haustorium of powdery mildew. Taken together, our data suggest that the duplicated BnHR genes might have been subjected to differential selection and at least some may play a role in defense and could serve as resistance resource in engineering disease-resistant plants. PMID:27493652

  8. Multiple Evolutionary Events Involved in Maintaining Homologs of Resistance to Powdery Mildew 8 in Brassica napus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qin; Li, Jing; Sun, Jin-Long; Ma, Xian-Feng; Wang, Ting-Ting; Berkey, Robert; Yang, Hui; Niu, Ying-Ze; Fan, Jing; Li, Yan; Xiao, Shunyuan; Wang, Wen-Ming

    2016-01-01

    The Resistance to Powdery Mildew 8 (RPW8) locus confers broad-spectrum resistance to powdery mildew in Arabidopsis thaliana. There are four Homologous to RPW8s (BrHRs) in Brassica rapa and three in Brassica oleracea (BoHRs). Brassica napus (Bn) is derived from diploidization of a hybrid between B. rapa and B. oleracea, thus should have seven homologs of RPW8 (BnHRs). It is unclear whether these genes are still maintained or lost in B. napus after diploidization and how they might have been evolved. Here, we reported the identification and sequence polymorphisms of BnHRs from a set of B. napus accessions. Our data indicated that while the BoHR copy from B. oleracea is highly conserved, the BrHR copy from B. rapa is relatively variable in the B. napus genome owing to multiple evolutionary events, such as gene loss, point mutation, insertion, deletion, and intragenic recombination. Given the overall high sequence homology of BnHR genes, it is not surprising that both intragenic recombination between two orthologs and two paralogs were detected in B. napus, which may explain the loss of BoHR genes in some B. napus accessions. When ectopically expressed in Arabidopsis, a C-terminally truncated version of BnHRa and BnHRb, as well as the full length BnHRd fused with YFP at their C-termini could trigger cell death in the absence of pathogens and enhanced resistance to powdery mildew disease. Moreover, subcellular localization analysis showed that both BnHRa-YFP and BnHRb-YFP were mainly localized to the extra-haustorial membrane encasing the haustorium of powdery mildew. Taken together, our data suggest that the duplicated BnHR genes might have been subjected to differential selection and at least some may play a role in defense and could serve as resistance resource in engineering disease-resistant plants.

  9. Nitrogen fertilizer improves boron phytoextraction by Brassica juncea grown in contaminated sediments and alleviates plant stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giansoldati, Virginia; Tassi, Eliana; Morelli, Elisabetta; Gabellieri, Edi; Pedron, Francesca; Barbafieri, Meri

    2012-06-01

    In this study we evaluated the effect of different fertilizer treatments on Brassica plants grown on boron-contaminated sediments. Experiments were conducted in the laboratory and on the lysimeter scale. At laboratory scale (microcosm), five different fertilizers were tested for a 35-d period. On the lysimeter scale, nitrogen fertilization was tested at three different doses and plants were allowed to grow until the end of the vegetative phase (70 d). Results showed that nitrogen application had effectively increased plant biomass production, while B uptake was not affected. Total B phytoextracted increased three-fold when the highest nitrogen dose was applied. Phytotoxicity on Brassica was evaluated by biochemical parameters. In plants grown in unfertilized B-contaminated sediments, the activity of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and pyrogallol peroxidase (PPX) increased, whereas catalase (CAT) decreased with respect to control plants. Addition of N progressively mitigated the alteration of enzymatic activity, thus suggesting that N can aid in alleviating B-induced oxidative stress. SOD activity was restored to control levels just at the lowest N treatment, whereas the CAT inhibition was partially restored only at the highest one. N application also lowered the B-induced increase in APX and PPX activities. Increased glutathione reductase activity indicated the need to restore the oxidative balance of glutathione. Data also suggest a role of glutathione and phytochelatins in B defense mechanisms. Results suggest that the nitrogen fertilizer was effective in improving B phytoextraction by increasing Brassica biomass and by alleviating B-induced oxidative stress. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. High efficiency production and genomic in situ hybridization analysis of Brassica aneuploids and homozygous plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Interspecific and intergeneric hybridizations have been widely used in plant genetics and breeding to construct stocks for genetic analysis and to introduce into crops the desirable traits and genes from their relatives. The intergeneric crosses between Brassica juncea (L.) Czern. & Coss., B. carinata A. Braun and Orychophragmus violaceus (L.) O. E. Schulz were made and the plants produced were subjected to genomic in situ hybridization analysis. The mixoploids from the cross with B. juncea were divided into three groups. The partially fertile mixoploids in the first group (2n = 36-42) mainly contained the somatic cells and pollen mother cells (PMCs) with the 36 chromosomes of B. juncea and additional chromosomes of O. violaceus. The mixoploids (2n = 30-36) in the second and third groups were morphologically quite similar to the mother plants B. juncea and showed nearly normal fertility. The plants in the second group produced the majority of PMCs (2n = 36) with their chromosomes paired and segregated normally, but 1-4 pairs of the O. violaceus chromosomes were included in some PMCs. The plants in the third group produced only PMCs with the 36 B. juncea chromosomes, which were paired and segregated normally. The mixoploids (2n = 29-34) from the cross with B. carinata produced the majority of PMCs (2n = 34) with normal chromosome pairing and segregation, but some plants had some PMCs with 1-3 pairs of chromosomes from O. violaceus and other plants had only PMCs with the B. carinata chromosomes. The Brassica homozygous plants and aneuploids with complete or partial chromosome complements of Brassica parents and various numbers of O. violaceus chromosomes were derived from these progeny plants. The results in this study provided the molecular cytogenetic evidence for the separation of parental genomes which was previously proposed to occur in the hybridizations of these two genera.

  11. A survey of brassica vegetable smallholder farmers in the Gauteng and Limpopo provinces of South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Mandiriza-Mukwirimba

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available A study was taken to investigate the types of brassica vegetables mostly grown by smallholder farmers in two provinces of South Africa. Thirty-one smallholder vegetable farmers in the Gauteng province and Waterberg district in the Limpopo province were surveyed. In addition, the study also sought to establish the common diseases, the management strategies used and problems encountered by the farmers. Farmers were interviewed using a questionnaire with closed and open–ended questions. The results indicated that the smallholder farmers mostly grew cabbage (93.6% as their main brassica crop followed by rape (41.2%. Thirty percent of farmers could not identify or name the predominant disease/s encountered in their fields. Major diseases encountered by farmers surveyed were an unknown disease/s (33.3%, black rot (26.7%, Alternaria leaf spot (6.7% and white rust (6.7%. Smallholder farmers have inadequate technical information available especially relating to crop diseases, their identification and control. Farmers encountered challenges with black rot disease especially on cabbage, rape and kale and the disease was a problem during winter and summer. Generally, the smallholder farmers used crop rotation (74.2% as a major practice to manage the diseases experienced. They rotated their brassica vegetables with other crops/vegetables like tomatoes, onions, beetroots and maize. Most of the farmers interviewed (61.3% did not use chemicals to control diseases, whereas 38.7% of them used chemicals. This was mostly because they lacked information and knowledge, high costs associated with use of chemical fungicides and some were shifting towards organic farming. From the study it was noted that there was a need for technical support to improve farmers’ knowledge on disease identification and control within the surveyed areas.

  12. An Efficient Method for Adventitious Root Induction from Stem Segments of Brassica Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srikanth, Sandhya; Choong, Tsui Wei; Yan, An; He, Jie; Chen, Zhong

    2016-01-01

    Plant propagation via in vitro culture is a very laborious and time-consuming process. The growth cycle of some of the crop species is slow even in the field and the consistent commercial production is hard to maintain. Enhanced methods of reduced cost, materials and labor significantly impact the research and commercial production of field crops. In our studies, stem-segment explants of Brassica species were found to generate adventitious roots (AR) in aeroponic systems in less than a week. As such, the efficiency of rooting from stem explants of six cultivar varieties of Brassica spp was tested without using any plant hormones. New roots and shoots were developed from Brassica alboglabra (Kai Lan), B. oleracea var. acephala (purple kale), B. rapa L. ssp. chinensis L (Pai Tsai, Nai Bai C, and Nai Bai T) explants after 3 to 5 days of growing under 20 ± 2°C cool root zone temperature (C-RZT) and 4 to 7 days in 30 ± 2°C ambient root zone temperature (A-RZT). At the base of cut end, anticlinal and periclinal divisions of the cambial cells resulted in secondary xylem toward pith and secondary phloem toward cortex. The continuing mitotic activity of phloem parenchyma cells led to a ring of conspicuous white callus. Root initials formed from the callus which in turn developed into ARs. However, B. rapa var. nipposinica (Mizuna) explants were only able to root in C-RZT. All rooted explants were able to develop into whole plants, with higher biomass obtained from plants that grown in C-RZT. Moreover, explants from both RZTs produced higher biomass than plants grown from seeds (control plants). Rooting efficiency was affected by RZTs and explant cuttings of donor plants. Photosynthetic CO2 assimilation rate (Asat ) and stomatal conductance (gssat ) were significantly differentiated between plants derived from seeds and explants at both RZTs. All plants in A-RZT had highest transpiration rates.

  13. Chromosome Doubling of Microspore-Derived Plants from Cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata L.) and Broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Suxia; Su, Yanbin; Liu, Yumei; Li, Zhansheng; Fang, Zhiyuan; Yang, Limei; Zhuang, Mu; Zhang, Yangyong; Lv, Honghao; Sun, Peitian

    2015-01-01

    Chromosome doubling of microspore-derived plants is an important factor in the practical application of microspore culture technology because breeding programs require a large number of genetically stable, homozygous doubled haploid plants with a high level of fertility. In the present paper, 29 populations of microspore-derived plantlets from cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata) and broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) were used to study the ploidy level and spontaneous chromosome doubling of these populations, the artificial chromosome doubling induced by colchicine, and the influence of tissue culture duration on the chromosomal ploidy of the microspore-derived regenerants. Spontaneous chromosome doubling occurred randomly and was genotype dependent. In the plant populations derived from microspores, there were haploids, diploids, and even a low frequency of polyploids and mixed-ploidy plantlets. The total spontaneous doubling in the 14 cabbage populations ranged from 0 to 76.9%, compared with 52.2 to 100% in the 15 broccoli populations. To improve the rate of chromosome doubling, an efficient and reliable artificial chromosome doubling protocol (i.e., the immersion of haploid plantlet roots in a colchicine solution) was developed for cabbage and broccoli microspore-derived haploids. The optimal chromosome doubling of the haploids was obtained with a solution of 0.2% colchicine for 9-12 h or 0.4% colchicine for 3-9 h for cabbage and 0.05% colchicine for 6-12 h for broccoli. This protocol produced chromosome doubling in over 50% of the haploid genotypes for most of the populations derived from cabbage and broccoli. Notably, after 1 or more years in tissue culture, the chromosomes of the haploids were doubled, and most of the haploids turned into doubled haploid or mixed-ploidy plants. This is the first report indicating that tissue culture duration can change the chromosomal ploidy of microspore-derived regenerants.

  14. Phytotoxic Effects of Cinnamic Acid on Cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh, N. B.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study deals with the effects of exogenous application of cinnamic acid (CA on growth and metabolism in growing seedlings of Brassica oleracea var. capitata (cabbage in hydroponic culture. CA was added at 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 mM concentrations. CA has shown inhibitory effects on shoot and root length, fresh and dry weight of seedlings. CA significantly decreased the photosynthetic pigments, nitrate reductase activity and protein content. Graded concentrations of CA increased lipid peroxidation and sugar content. The increasing concentrations of CA significantly increased the antioxidative enzyme activities viz. superoxide dismutase, catalase, peroxidase against the oxidative stress caused by CA.

  15. Phenolic compounds in external leaves of tronchuda cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. costata DC)

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreres, F; Valentão, P; Llorach, R.; Pinheiro, C.; Cardoso, L; Pereira, J.A.; Seabra, R.M.; Andrade, P.B.

    2005-01-01

    Glycosylated kaempferol derivatives from the external leaves of tronchuda cabbage ( Brassica oleracea L. var. costataDC) characterized by reversed-phase HPLC-DAD-MS/MS-ESI were kaempferol 3- Osophorotrioside- 7-O-glucoside, kaempferol 3-O- (methoxycaffeoyl/caffeoyl)sophoroside-7- O-glucoside, kaempferol 3-O-sophoroside-7-O-glucoside, kaempferol 3-O-sophorotrioside-7-O-sophoroside, kaempferol 3- O-sophoroside-7- O-sophoroside, kaempferol 3- O-tetraglucoside-7- O-sophoroside, kaempf...

  16. Distribution, Transportation and Cytolocalization of Neodymium in Oilseed Rape (Brassica napus L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏幼璋

    2001-01-01

    Observation with the transmission electronic microscopy shows that Nd can not enter into the cytoplasm of oilseed rape (brassica napus L.) in solution culture. It combines with the cell wall or amasses in the intercellular space. Nd accumulates in root tip after it enters into the plants, while only a small amount of Nd is transferred to the stem and leaf via apoplasm, and the leaf contains the least of Nd. Such observations are consistent with the analytical results of Nd distribution in rape tissues in soil culture experiment. It suggests that the physiological effects of Nd in plants might mainly function on plasmalemma of root system.

  17. Molecular regulation and genetic improvement of seed oil content in Brassica napus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei HUA,Jing LIU,Hanzhong WANG

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available As an important oil crop and a potential bioenergy crop, Brassica napus L. is becoming a model plant for basic research on seed lipid biosynthesis as well as seed oil content, which has always been the key breeding objective. In this review, we present current progress in understanding of the regulation of oil content in B. napus, including genetics, biosynthesis pathway, transcriptional regulation, maternal effects and QTL analysis. Furthermore, the history of breeding for high oil content in B. napus is summarized and the progress in breeding ultra-high oil content lines is described. Finally, prospects for breeding high oil content B. napus cultivars are outlined.

  18. Grünkohl (Brassica oleracea var. sabellica): Untersuchungen zur Diversität verschiedener Sorten

    OpenAIRE

    Hahn, Christoph

    2013-01-01

    Grünkohl ist besonders im Norden Deutschlands jedem ein Begriff und beliebt als wohlschmeckendes und traditionelles Wintergemüse. Doch Grünkohl ist nicht gleich Grünkohl. Das sollte im Rahmen dieser Arbeit schnell deutlich werden, als 12 kommerziell im Handel erhältliche sowie 12 alte ostfriesische Landsorten dieser zum Gemüsekohl (Brassica oleracea) gehörenden Pflanze untersucht worden sind. Das Augenmerk dieser Arbeit richtet sich auf den Anbau der Pflanzen (Wachstumsgeschwindigkeit und -ve...

  19. Genetic linkage map of Brassica campestris L. Using AFLP and RAPD markers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢钢; 曹家树; 陈杭

    2002-01-01

    A genetic linkage map comprised of 131 loci was constructed with an F2 population derived from an inter-subspecific cross between Brassica 'qisihai'. The genetic map included 93 RAPD loci, 36 AFLP loci and 2 morphological loci organized into 10 main linkage groups (LGs) and 2 small groups, covering 1810.9cM with average distance between adjacent markers being approximately 13.8cM. The map is suitable for identification of molecular markers linked to important agronomic traits, QTL analysis, and even for marker-assisted selection in breeding programs of Chinese cabbage and turnip.

  20. Disruption of germination and seedling development in Brassica napus by mutations causing severe seed hormonal imbalance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tung eNguyen

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The Brassica napus (oilseed rape accession 1012-98 shows a disturbed germination phenotype that was thought to be associated with its lack of testa pigmentation and thin seed coat. Here we demonstrate that the disturbed germination and seedling development are actually due to independent mutations that disrupt the balance of hormone metabolites and their regulators in the seeds. High-throughput UPLC-MS/MS hormone profiling of seeds and seedlings before and after germination revealed that 1012-98 has a severely disturbed hormone balance with extremely atypical, excessive quantities of auxin and ABA metabolites. The resulting hypersensitivity to abscisic acid (ABA and a corresponding increase in dormancy often results in death of the embryo after imbibition or high frequencies of disturbed, often lethal developmental phenotypes, resembling Arabidopsis mutants for the auxin regulatory factor gene ARF10 or the auxin-overproducing transgenic line iaaM-OX. Molecular cloning of Brassica ARF10 orthologues revealed four loci in normal B. napus, two derived from the Brassica A genome and two from the C genome. On the other hand, the phenotypic mutant 1012-98 exhibited amplification of C-genome BnaC.ARF10 copy number along with a chimeric allele originating from recombination between homoeologous A and C genome loci which lead to minor increase of Bna.ARF10 transcription on the critical timepoint for seed germination, the indirect regulator of ABI3, the germinative inhibitor. Bna.GH3.5 expression was upregulated to conjugate free auxin to IAA-asp between 2-6 DAS. Functional amino acid changes were also found in important DNA binding domains of one BnaC.ARF10 locus, suggesting that regulatory changes in Bna.ARF10 are collectively responsible for the observed phenotpyes in 1012-98. To our knowledge, this study is the first to report disruption of germination and seedling development in Brassica napus caused by the crosstalk of auxin-ABA and the

  1. Characterization of two coexisting pathogen populations of Leptosphaeria spp., the cause of stem canker of brassicas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Kaczmarek

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Stem canker of brassicas, also known as blackleg is the most damaging disease of many Brassicaceae. The disease is caused by Leptosphaeria maculans (Desm. Ces et de Not. and L. biglobosa sp. nov., Shoemaker & Brun, which coexist in plants and resulting in disease symptoms and decreased yield, quantity and quality of cultivated vegetables and oilseed rape. The paper presents taxonomic relationships between these coexisting pathogen species, describes particular stages of their life cycles, summarizes the differences between the species, and reviews methods for their identification.

  2. Field tolerance to fungal pathogens of Brassica napus constitutively expressing a chimeric chitinase gene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grison, R.; Grezes-Besset, B.; Lucante, N. [Rustica Prograin Genetique, Mondonville (France)] [and others

    1996-05-01

    Constitutive overexpression of a protein involved in plant defense mechanisms to disease is one of the strategies proposed to increase plant tolerance to fungal pathogens. A hybrid endochitinase gene under a constitutive promoter was introduced by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation into a winter-type oilseed rape (Brassica napus var. oleifera) inbred line. Progeny from transformed plants was challenged using three different fungal pathogens (Cylindrosporium concentricum, Phoma lingam, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum) in field trials at two different geographical locations. These plants exhibited an increased tolerance to disease as compared with the nontransgenic parental plants. 31 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  3. Screening different Brassica spp. germplasm for resistance to Rhizoctonia solani AG-2-1 and AG-8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poor stands of canola seedlings in Pacific Northwest (PNW) have been associated with Rhizoctonia solani AG-2-1 and AG-8. A total of eighty five genotypes of Brassica napus, B. rapa, B. carinata, B. juncea and Sinapsis alba were evaluated in the growth chamber for their resistance to both R. solani A...

  4. Evaluation of glucosinolate levels throughout the production chain of Brassica vegetables towards a novel predictive modelling approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkerk, R.

    2002-01-01

     Glucosinolates are a group of plant secondary metabolites, that can have important implications for human health. Vegetables of the Brassica genus, including cabbage, Brussels sprouts, broccoli, cauliflower and kohlrabi contribute almost exclusively to our intake of

  5. Concentrations of thiocyanate and goitrin in human plasma, their precursor concentrations in brassica vegetables, and associated potential risk for hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felker, Peter; Bunch, Ronald; Leung, Angela M

    2016-04-01

    Brassica vegetables are common components of the diet and have beneficial as well as potentially adverse health effects. Following enzymatic breakdown, some glucosinolates in brassica vegetables produce sulforaphane, phenethyl, and indolylic isothiocyanates that possess anticarcinogenic activity. In contrast, progoitrin and indolylic glucosinolates degrade to goitrin and thiocyanate, respectively, and may decrease thyroid hormone production. Radioiodine uptake to the thyroid is inhibited by 194 μmol of goitrin, but not by 77 μmol of goitrin. Collards, Brussels sprouts, and some Russian kale (Brassica napus) contain sufficient goitrin to potentially decrease iodine uptake by the thyroid. However, turnip tops, commercial broccoli, broccoli rabe, and kale belonging to Brassica oleracae contain less than 10 μmol of goitrin per 100-g serving and can be considered of minimal risk. Using sulforaphane plasma levels following glucoraphanin ingestion as a surrogate for thiocyanate plasma concentrations after indole glucosinolate ingestion, the maximum thiocyanate contribution from indole glucosinolate degradation is estimated to be 10 μM, which is significantly lower than background plasma thiocyanate concentrations (40-69 μM). Thiocyanate generated from consumption of indole glucosinolate can be assumed to have minimal adverse risks for thyroid health.

  6. Occurrence of Escherichia coli in Brassica rapa L. chinensis irrigated with low quality water in urban areas of Morogoro, Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mhongole, Ofred J.; Mdegela, Robinson H.; Kusiluka, Lughano J. M.;

    2016-01-01

    Low quality water has become valuable resource with restricted or unrestricted use in food production depending on its quality. This study has quantified the occurrence of Escherichia coli in Brassica rapa L. chinensis (Chinese cabbage) vegetables and low quality irrigation water. A total of 106 ...

  7. Effect of cytokinins on shoot regeneration from cotyledon and leaf segment of stem mustard (Brassica juncea var. tsatsai)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guo, D.P.; Zhu, Z.J.; Hu, X.X.; Zheng Sijun, S.J.

    2005-01-01

    Cotyledon and leaf segments of stem mustard (Brassica juncea var. tsatsai) were cultured on Murashige and Skoog medium supplemented with various concentrations of different cytokinins [6-benzyladenine (BA), N-(2-chloro-4-pyridyl)-n-phenylurea (CPPU), 6-furfurylaminopurine (KT) and thidiazuron (TDZ)

  8. PEMANFAATAN LIMBAH KOTORAN SAPI DAN JERAMI KACANG TANAH SEBAGAI BOKASHI CAIR BAGI PERTUMBUHAN TANAMAN SAWI (Brassica juncea L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artiana Artiana

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Has conducted a study entitled " Cow Manure Waste Utilization and Straw Peanut For Liquid Bokashi For Plant Growth mustard (Brassica juncea L.". This study aimed to analyze the nutrient content in the liquid Bokashi is derived from cow dung and straw peanuts, and study the effect of dosing Bokashi different liquid to the growth of the mustard plant (Brassica juncea L.. Methods using a completely randomized design with one factor at a dose of 125 ml, 250 ml, 375 ml and 500 ml, and as control using Bokashi solid. This research was conducted with four replications. Bokashi liquid nutrient content of C of 0,1045%, 0,0461% of N, P and K amounted to 0.0172% at 0.2500%. The content of nutrient dense Bokashi C of 6,0874%, 2,0169% of N, P and K amounted to 0,0218% at 5,7802%. Bokashi dosing different liquid to the growth of mustard (Brassica juncea L. significant effect on the growth of mustard, but still lower than the solid Bokashi. Dose liquid Bokashi most optimal for growing mustard (Brassica juncea L. is at 375 ml.

  9. Herbivore-induced plant responses in Brassica oleracea prevail over effects of constitutive resistance and result in enhanced herbivore attack

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poelman, E.H.; Loon, van J.J.A.; Dam, van N.M.; Vet, L.E.M.; Dicke, M.

    2010-01-01

    2. Here we studied the effect of early-season herbivory by caterpillars of Pieris rapae on the composition of the insect herbivore community on domesticated Brassica oleracea plants. We compared the effect of herbivory on two cultivars that differ in the degree of susceptibility to herbivores to ana

  10. Effect of cytokinins on shoot regeneration from cotyledon and leaf segment of stem mustard (Brassica juncea var. tsatsai)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guo, D.P.; Zhu, Z.J.; Hu, X.X.; Zheng Sijun, S.J.

    2005-01-01

    Cotyledon and leaf segments of stem mustard (Brassica juncea var. tsatsai) were cultured on Murashige and Skoog medium supplemented with various concentrations of different cytokinins [6-benzyladenine (BA), N-(2-chloro-4-pyridyl)-n-phenylurea (CPPU), 6-furfurylaminopurine (KT) and thidiazuron (TDZ)

  11. Fast Plants for Finer Science--An Introduction to the Biology of Rapid-Cycling Brassica Campestris (rapa) L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomkins, Stephen P.; Williams, Paul H.

    1990-01-01

    Rapid-cycling brassicas can be used in the classroom to teach concepts such as plant growth, tropisms, floral reproduction, pollination, embryonic development, and plant genetics. Directions on how to obtain them for classroom use and how they may be grown are included. Practical physiology and genetics exercises are listed. (KR)

  12. Differential effects of H2S on cytoplasmic and nuclear thiol concentrations in different tissues of Brassica roots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Müller, M; De Kok, LJ; Weidner, W; Tausz, M

    2002-01-01

    H2S-fumigation experiments with the sulphur-demanding plant Brassica oleracea L. (hybrid curly kale) were carried out to modulate glutathione levels in root tip cells. Plants were exposed in small fumigation cabinets to 0.4 mul 1(-1) H2S for 96 h. The data obtained by HPLC analysis of bimane-labeled

  13. Sequence-level analysis of the diploidization process in the triplicated FLOWERING LOCUS C region of Brassica rapa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tae-Jin; Kim, Jung Sun; Kwon, Soo-Jin; Lim, Ki-Byung; Choi, Beom-Soon; Kim, Jin-A; Jin, Mina; Park, Jee Young; Lim, Myung-Ho; Kim, Ho-Il; Lim, Yong Pyo; Kang, Jason Jongho; Hong, Jin-Han; Kim, Chang-Bae; Bhak, Jong; Bancroft, Ian; Park, Beom-Seok

    2006-06-01

    Strong evidence exists for polyploidy having occurred during the evolution of the tribe Brassiceae. We show evidence for the dynamic and ongoing diploidization process by comparative analysis of the sequences of four paralogous Brassica rapa BAC clones and the homologous 124-kb segment of Arabidopsis thaliana chromosome 5. We estimated the times since divergence of the paralogous and homologous lineages. The three paralogous subgenomes of B. rapa triplicated 13 to 17 million years ago (MYA), very soon after the Arabidopsis and Brassica divergence occurred at 17 to 18 MYA. In addition, a pair of BACs represents a more recent segmental duplication, which occurred approximately 0.8 MYA, and provides an exception to the general expectation of three paralogous segments within the B. rapa genome. The Brassica genome segments show extensive interspersed gene loss relative to the inferred structure of the ancestral genome, whereas the Arabidopsis genome segment appears little changed. Representatives of all 32 genes in the Arabidopsis genome segment are represented in Brassica, but the hexaploid complement of 96 has been reduced to 54 in the three subgenomes, with compression of the genomic region lengths they occupy to between 52 and 110 kb. The gene content of the recently duplicated B. rapa genome segments is identical, but intergenic sequences differ.

  14. Characterization of natural variation for zinc, iron and manganese accumulation and zinc exposure response in Brassica rapa L.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, J.; Schat, H.; Koornneef, M.; Wang, X.; Aarts, M.G.M.

    2007-01-01

    Brassica rapa L. is an important vegetable crop in eastern Asia. The objective of this study was to investigate the genetic variation in leaf Zn, Fe and Mn accumulation, Zn toxicity tolerance and Zn efficiency in B. rapa. In total 188 accessions were screened for their Zn-related characteristics in

  15. Development of Mamestra brassicae and its solitary endoparasitoid Microplitis mediator on two populations of the invasive weed Bunias orientalis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harvey, J.A.; Gols, R.

    2011-01-01

    The warty cabbage Bunias orientalis is an invasive pest in much of central Europe, including much of Germany since the 1980s, whereas in other countries, such as The Netherlands, it is a less common exotic species. Here, healthy larvae of Mamestra brassicae, which has been found feeding on B. orient

  16. Development of Mamestra brassicae and its solitary endoparasitoid Microplitis mediator on two populations of the invasive weed, Bunias orientalis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harvey, J.A.; Gols, R.

    2011-01-01

    The warty cabbage Bunias orientalis is an invasive pest in much of central Europe, including much of Germany since the 1980s, whereas in other countries, such as The Netherlands, it is a less common exotic species. Here, healthy larvae of Mamestra brassicae, which has been found feeding on B. orient

  17. Dynamics of feeding responses in Pieris brassicae Linn. as a function of chemosensory input : a behavioural, ultrastructural and electrophysiological study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ma, W.C.

    1972-01-01

    The present study of contact chemoreception in Pieris brassicae L. is divided into three major parts, viz. 1. behavioural analyses, 2. the identification and description of sense organs and 3. investigations concerning the sensory physiology. In a separate section some of the results were put into a

  18. Fast Plants for Finer Science--An Introduction to the Biology of Rapid-Cycling Brassica Campestris (rapa) L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomkins, Stephen P.; Williams, Paul H.

    1990-01-01

    Rapid-cycling brassicas can be used in the classroom to teach concepts such as plant growth, tropisms, floral reproduction, pollination, embryonic development, and plant genetics. Directions on how to obtain them for classroom use and how they may be grown are included. Practical physiology and genetics exercises are listed. (KR)

  19. Microtubule configurations and nuclear DNA synthesis during initiation of suspensor-bearing embryos from Brassica napus cv. Topas microspores

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dubas, E.; Custers, J.B.M.; Kieft, H.; Wedzony, M.; Lammeren, van A.A.M.

    2011-01-01

    In the new Brassica napus microspore culture system, wherein embryos with suspensors are formed, ab initio mimics zygotic embryogenesis. The system provides a powerful in vitro tool for studying the diverse developmental processes that take place during early stages of plant embryogenesis. Here, we

  20. Genetic dissection of seed oil and protein content and identification of networks associated with oil content in Brassica napus

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hongbo Chao; Hao Wang; Xiaodong Wang; Liangxing Guo; Jianwei Gu; Weiguo Zhao; Baojun Li; Dengyan Chen; Nadia Raboanatahiry; Maoteng Li

    2017-01-01

    ... 3072.7 cM of the Brassica napus genome was constructed in the KenC-8 × N53-2 (KNDH) population. A total of 67 and 38 QTLs for seed oil and protein content were identified with an average confidence interval...

  1. Aphrodisiac pheromones from the wings of the Small Cabbage White and Large Cabbage White butterflies, Pieris rapae and Pieris brassicae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yildizhan, S.; Loon, van J.J.A.; Sramkova, A.; Ayasse, M.; Arsene, C.; Broeke, ten C.J.M.; Schulz, S.

    2009-01-01

    The small and large cabbage butterflies, Pieris rapae and P. brassicae, are found worldwide and are of considerable economic importance. The composition of the male scent-producing organs present on the wings was investigated. More than 120 components were identified, but only a small portion proved

  2. ‘Carolina Broadleaf’ mustard green (Brassica juncea L.) resistant to the bacterial leaf blight pathogen Pseudomonas cannabina pv. alisalensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    A leafy-green mustard (Brassica juncea L.) cultivar designated ‘Carolina Broadleaf’ has been released by the Agricultural Research Service of the U.S. Dept. of Agriculture in 2015. This released cultivar is a narrow-based population of leafy-green mustard derived from a U.S. plant introduction (PI)...

  3. Distribution of splicing proteins and putative coiled bodies during pollen development and androgenesis in Brassica napus L.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Straatman, K.R.; Schel, J.H.N.

    2001-01-01

    Small nuclear ribonucleoprotein particles (snRNPs) are subunits of splicing complexes, which show a transcription-dependent localization pattern. We have analyzed the labelling pattern of snRNPs during pollen development and microspore and pollen embryogenesis in Brassica napus with an antibody

  4. Characterization of natural variation for zinc, iron and manganese accumulation and zinc exposure response in Brassica rapa L.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, J.; Schat, H.; Koornneef, M.; Wang, X.; Aarts, M.G.M.

    2007-01-01

    Brassica rapa L. is an important vegetable crop in eastern Asia. The objective of this study was to investigate the genetic variation in leaf Zn, Fe and Mn accumulation, Zn toxicity tolerance and Zn efficiency in B. rapa. In total 188 accessions were screened for their Zn-related characteristics in

  5. Preliminary Studies on Isozymes and Protein of Hybrid from Brassica napus × Brassica oleracea%甘蓝型油菜(Eru CMS)与甘蓝种间杂种的同工酶和蛋白质分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴红美; 徐跃进; 万正杰

    2011-01-01

    经胚抢救获得甘蓝型油菜(Brassica napus L.)(Eru CMS)与甘蓝(Brassica oleracea L.var.capitata L.)种间杂种,前期经过流式细胞仪、柱头染色体数目、花粉活力等分析获得一些真杂种.利用电泳法,对真杂种植株的3种同工酶(SOD、EST、COD)和蛋白质进行详细分析,了解了杂种与亲本的同工酶和蛋白质的特性差异.结果表明,杂种与亲本之间的同工酶和蛋白质存在较明显的差异:杂种的SOD、COD的酶带表现为偏父本甘蓝型;杂种的EST的酶带表现为偏母本油菜型;杂种的蛋白质电泳表现为不仅具有双亲的特征蛋白带,也有其自身特征蛋白带.%Brassica napus x Brassica oleracea hybrids were obtained by embryo rescue technology and identified by flow cytometry analysis, chromosome count of stigma cells, and pollen viability tests. Patterns of isozyme and protein of the real hybrids were studied by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. In addition, isozyme (SOD, EST, and COD) and protein patterns were compared with those of the parents, with obvious variations observed. Results also showed that the SOD and COD patterns of the hybrids were similar to Brassica oleracea, while the EST pattern was similar to the female parent. The protein pattern mainly showed parental complements, with new bonds also possessing their own characters.

  6. Influência de genótipos de couve (Brassica oleracea L. var. acephala DC. na biologia de Plutella xylostella (L., 1758 (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae Influence of cabbage genotypes (Brassica oleracea L. var. acephala DC. on the biology of Plutella xylostella (L., 1758 (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arlindo Leal Boiça Junior

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, com este trabalho, avaliar a influência de alguns genótipos de couve (Brassica oleracea L. var. acephala DC. no desenvolvimento de Plutella xylostella (L., 1758 (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae. Os genótipos avaliados foram: Manteiga de Ribeirão Pires I-2620, Roxa I-919, Manteiga de São José, Manteiga de Monte Alegre, Pires 2 de Campinas, Couve Comum, Couve de Arthur Nogueira 2, Couve de Arthur Nogueira 1. Lagartas recém-eclodidas foram mantida em discos foliares de 8 cm de diâmetro para cada genótipo. Foram analisados os seguintes parâmetros: duração e viabilidade das fases larval e pupal, longevidade e fecundidade de adultos, utilizando análises paramétricas e de agrupamentos para interpretação dos dados. Observou-se um prolongamento em dias no ciclo de P. xylostella, aumento no peso de pupa e maiores valores de viabilidade e fecundidade, durante a segunda geração. O genótipo Couve de Arthur Nogueira 2 foi menos favorável ao desenvolvimento de P. xylostella nas duas gerações, e Couve Comum demonstrou maior influência negativa ao inseto na segunda geração. Manteiga de Ribeirão Pires I-2620 foi o mais suscetível nas duas gerações, agrupando com este na segunda geração Pires 2 de Campinas e Manteiga de São José.The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of cabbage genotypes (Brassica oleracea L. var. acephala DC. on growth of Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae. The genotypes evaluated were: Manteiga of Ribeirão Pires I-2620, Roxa I919, Manteiga of São José, Manteiga of Monte Alegre, Pires 2 of Campinas, Couve Comum, Couve of Arthur Nogueira 2, Couve of Arthur Nogueira 1. Neonate larvae were reared in 8 cm leaf discs of each genotype. The parameters evaluated were: period and viability of the larval and pupal stages, sex ratio, longevity and fecundity of adults. Parametric and Cluster analyses were used for data analysis. Overall, it was observed a developmental delay in the P

  7. Cloning and functions analysis of a pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase in Brassica napus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rong-Jun; Hu, Zhi-Yong; Zhang, Hua-Shan; Zhan, Gao-Miao; Wang, Han-Zhong; Hua, Wei

    2011-08-01

    Pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase (PDK) is a negative regulator of the mitochondrial pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (mtPDC), which plays a key role in intermediary metabolism. In this study, a 1,490-bp PDK in Brassica napus (BnPDK1) was isolated and cloned from Brassica cDNA library. BnPDK1 has an 1,104 open reading frame encoding 367 amino acids. Genomic DNA gel blot analysis result indicated that BnPDK1 is a multi-copy gene. RNA gel blot analysis and RNA in situ hybridization were used to determine the expression of BnPDK1 in different organs. BnPDK1 gene was ubiquitously expressed in almost all the tissues tested, having the highest expression in the stamen and the young silique. Over-expression of BnPDK1 in transgenic Arabidopsis lines would repress the PDC activity, and resulted in the decrease of seed oil content and leaf photosynthesis. These results implied that BnPDK1 was involved in the regulation of fatty acid biosynthesis in developing seeds.

  8. Effect of Calcium Chloride and Cooling on Post-Harvest Brussels Cabbage (Brassica Oleracea L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Rincón Pérez

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the demand of crucifers has increased and particularly of Brussels sprouts (Brassica genus, species Brassica oleracea L.; mainly due to their functional properties; however, this vegetable is perishable and with inadequate techniques in postharvest handling, considerable losses are generated. The objective of this research was to determine the effect of calcium chloride and cooling on postharvest behavior of Brussels sprouts. A completely randomized design was performed, treatments corresponded to three storage temperatures (4°C, 8°C and temperature (18°C and three concentrations of calcium chloride (0%, 2% and 4% were used. Sprouts were harvested at commercial maturity on a farm irrigation district in Usochicamocha, Boyacá Department; of uniform size, excellent plant health and free from mechanical damage conditions. For 19 days of storage, weight loss, respiratory rate and total chlorophyll were measured. Sprouts stored at room temperature lasted 11days postharvest, while cooled lasted for 19 days. A significant effect in reducing weight loss between those sprouts which were stored at 4°C and 8°C and treated with calcium chloride solution at 4% was observed. For the respiratory rate was observed a significant reduction insprouts stored at 4°C. Therefore the most favorable temperature for the storage of Brussels sprouts is 4°C and calcium chloride solution 4%,useful information for producers and marketers.

  9. Increased susceptibility to fungal disease accompanies adaptation to drought in Brassica rapa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hara, Niamh B; Rest, Joshua S; Franks, Steven J

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated adaptive evolutionary responses to climate change, but little is known about how these responses may influence ecological interactions with other organisms, including natural enemies. We used a resurrection experiment in the greenhouse to examine the effect of evolutionary responses to drought on the susceptibility of Brassica rapa plants to a fungal pathogen, Alternaria brassicae. In agreement with previous studies in this population, we found an evolutionary shift to earlier flowering postdrought, which was previously shown to be adaptive. Here, we report the novel finding that postdrought descendant plants were also more susceptible to disease, indicating a rapid evolutionary shift to increased susceptibility. This was accompanied by an evolutionary shift to increased specific leaf area (thinner leaves) following drought. We found that flowering time and disease susceptibility displayed plastic responses to experimental drought treatments, but that this plasticity did not match the direction of evolution, indicating that plastic and evolutionary responses to changes in climate can be opposed. The observed evolutionary shift to increased disease susceptibility accompanying adaptation to drought provides evidence that even if populations can rapidly adapt in response to climate change, evolution in other traits may have ecological effects that could make species more vulnerable.

  10. Effect of some plant growth regulators on lindane and alpha-endosulfan toxicity to Brassica chinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chouychai, Waraporn

    2012-07-01

    The effect of indolebutyric acid (IBA) and gibberellic acid (GA3), to alleviate the organochlorine phytotoxicity were studied in Brassica chinensis. Presence of organochlorine decreased Brassica chinensis seedlings growth in contaminated alkaline soil. One mg l(-1) IBA could enhance 14 and 26% shoot and root length of B. chinensis seedlings grown at 40 mg kg(-1) lindane contaminated soil, respectively. Ten mg l(-1) IBA also increased 80 and 40% root fresh weight of seedling grown in 40 mg kg(-1) lindane and alpha-endosulfan contaminated soils, respectively. However, IBAhad no effect on shoot and root length of seedlings grown in endosulfan contaminated soil. On the other hand, 10 mg l(-1) GA3 only increased 80% of shoot and root fresh weigh of B. chinensisin 40 mg kg(-1) endosulfan contaminated soil. External auxin addition could increase B. chinensis growth in lindane more than endosulfan contaminated soil. External gibberellin was less effective than external auxin to increase B. chinensis growth in organochlorine contaminated soil. There is possibility that auxin could decrease organochlorine phytotoxicity in plants and hence can be useful for organochlorine phytoremediation.

  11. BoS: a large and diverse family of short interspersed elements (SINEs) in Brassica oleracea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoyu; Wessler, Susan R

    2005-05-01

    Short interspersed elements (SINEs) are nonautonomous non-LTR retrotransposons that populate eukaryotic genomes. Numerous SINE families have been identified in animals, whereas only a few have been described in plants. Here we describe a new family of SINEs, named BoS, that is widespread in Brassicaceae and present at approximately 2000 copies in Brassica oleracea. In addition to sharing a modular structure and target site preference with previously described SINEs, BoS elements have several unusual features. First, the head regions of BoS RNAs can adopt a distinct hairpin-like secondary structure. Second, with 15 distinct subfamilies, BoS represents one of the most diverse SINE families described to date. Third, several of the subfamilies have a mosaic structure that has arisen through the exchange of sequences between existing subfamilies, possibly during retrotransposition. Analysis of BoS subfamilies indicate that they were active during various time periods through the evolution of Brassicaceae and that active elements may still reside in some Brassica species. As such, BoS elements may be a valuable tool as phylogenetic makers for resolving outstanding issues in the evolution of species in the Brassicaceae family.

  12. Purification and protein composition of oil bodies from Brassica napus seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolivet Pascale

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Seed oil bodies are intracellular particles to store lipids as food reserves in oleaginous plants. Description of oil body-associated proteins of Arabidopsis thaliana has been recently reported whereas only few data are available in the case of rapeseed. Oil bodies have been prepared from two double-low varieties of Brassica napus seeds, a standard variety (Explus and an oleic variety (Cabriolet. Oil bodies have been purified using floatation technique in the successive presence of high salt concentration, detergent or urea in order to remove non-specifically trapped proteins. The integrity of the oil bodies has been verified and their size estimated. Their protein and fatty acid contents have been determined. The proteins composing these organelles were extracted, separated by denaturing gel electrophoresis, digested by trypsin and their peptides were subsequently analyzed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Protein identification was performed using Arabidopsis thaliana protein sequence database and a collection of Expressed Sequence Tag (EST of Brassica napus generated from the framework of the French plant genomics programme “Genoplante”. This led to the identification of a limited number of proteins: eight oleosins showing a high similarity each other and representing up to 75% of oil body proteins, a 11 β hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase-like protein highly homologous to the same protein from A. thaliana, and only few contaminating proteins associated with myrosinase activity.

  13. Heterodera schachtii nematodes interfere with aphid-plant relations on Brassica oleracea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hol, W H Gera; De Boer, Wietse; Termorshuizen, Aad J; Meyer, Katrin M; Schneider, Johannes H M; Van Der Putten, Wim H; Van Dam, Nicole M

    2013-09-01

    Aboveground and belowground herbivore species modify plant defense responses differently. Simultaneous attack can lead to non-additive effects on primary and secondary metabolite composition in roots and shoots. We previously found that aphid (Brevicoryne brassicae) population growth on Brassica oleracea was reduced on plants that were infested with nematodes (Heterodera schachtii) prior (4 weeks) to aphid infestation. Here, we examined how infection with root-feeding nematodes affected primary and secondary metabolites in the host plant and whether this could explain the increase in aphid doubling time from 3.8 to 6.7 days. We hypothesized that the effects of herbivores on plant metabolites would depend on the presence of the other herbivore and that nematode-induced changes in primary metabolites would correlate with reduced aphid performance. Total glucosinolate concentration in the leaves was not affected by nematode presence, but the composition of glucosinolates shifted, as gluconapin concentrations were reduced, while gluconapoleiferin concentrations increased in plants exposed to nematodes. Aphid presence increased 4-methoxyglucobrassicin concentrations in leaves, which correlated positively with the number of aphids per plant. Nematodes decreased amino acid and sugar concentrations in the phloem. Aphid population doubling time correlated negatively with amino acids and glucosinolate levels in leaves, whereas these correlations were non-significant when nematodes were present. In conclusion, the effects of an herbivore on plant metabolites were independent of the presence of another herbivore. Nematode presence reduced aphid population growth and disturbed feeding relations between plants and aphids.

  14. Relationship Between Hybrid Performance and Genetic Diversity Based on SSRs and ISSRs in Brassica napus L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Jin-xiong; FU Ting-dong; YANG Guang-sheng

    2003-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between genetic distance (GD) and hybrid performance, twotypes of molecular markers, microsatellites (simple sequence repeats, SSRs) and intro-simple sequence repeats(ISSRs), were employed to detect the genetic diversity of 3 double low self-incompatible lines and 22 male pa-rental varieties of Brassica napus from different geographical origins. Hybrids were produced in a NC Ⅱ mat-ing design by hand-pollination. The result indicated that 25 parental varieties (lines) could be divided into sixgroups by Un-weighted Pair Group Mathematics Average (UPGMA) clustering based on GDs. SI-1300 and SI-1320 could be singly clustered into one group, respectively. Varieties from China could be separated into an-other group, SI-1310 and varieties from foreign countries could be separated into other three groups. Thegrouping was generally consistent with parental pedigrees and geographical origins. Significant differences inyield, quality and phenological period traits were observed among these parent groups. Although hybrid yield/plant showed significantly positive correlation with genetic distance based on SSR and ISSR markers, but thedetermination coefficient was iow. It appeared to be unsuitable for using the genetic distance based on SSR andISSR markers to predict heterosis and hybrid performance in Brassica napus.

  15. QTL Analysis of the Oil Content and the Hull Content in Brassica napus L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIN Meng-yang; LI Jia-na; FU Fu-you; ZHANG Zheng-sheng; ZHANG Xue-kun; LIU Lie-zhao

    2007-01-01

    The QTLs of the oil content and the hull content were analyzed in Brassica napus L. By constructing the linkage map. The F2:6 RIL population with 188 lines, derived from the cross of GH06 × P147, was used as the mapping population. The SRAP, SSR, AFLP, and TRAP markers were used to construct the linkage map, and the composite interval mapping (CIM) to identify the quantitative trait loci associated with the oil content and the hull content. 300 markers were integrated into 19 linkage groups, covering 1 248.5 cM in total. Seven QTLs were found to be responsible for the oil content with the single contribution to phenotypic variance ranging from 3.73 to 10.46%; four QTLs were found for the hull content with the single contribution to phenotypic variance ranging from 4.89 to 6.84%. The yellow-seeded Brassica napus L. Has the advantage of higher oil content and the hull content has a significant effect on the oil content. In addition, the SRAP marker is good for detecting QTL.

  16. Endocrine Mechanisms Regulating Post-Diapause Development in the Cabbage Armyworm, Mamestra brassicae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuto Yamada

    Full Text Available Diapause, a programmed developmental arrest at a specific stage, is common in insects and is regulated by hormones. It is well established that in pupal diapause, cessation of ecdysteroid secretion from the prothoracic glands (PGs after pupal ecdysis leads to diapause initiation, while resumption of its secretion induces post-diapause development. However, what regulates the activity of the glands is poorly understood, especially for the glands of diapause-terminated pupae. In the present study, we investigate the mechanisms by which post-diapause development is regulated in the cabbage armyworm Mamestra brassicae. We demonstrate that the brain is necessary for the initiation of post-diapause development and that the factor in the brain responsible for the activation of the PGs is the prothoracicotropic hormone (PTTH. Further, through measuring the hemolymph PTTH titers by time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay, we show that PTTH is actually released into the hemolymph prior to the activation of the PGs. Although its peak titer is much lower than expected, this low concentration of PTTH is most likely still effective to activate the PGs of post-diapause pupae, because the responsiveness to PTTH of the glands at this stage is very high compared to that of nondiapause pupal PGs. These results strongly suggest that in M. brassicae, PTTH serves as a trigger to initiate pupa-adult development after diapause termination by stimulating the PGs to secrete ecdysteroid.

  17. Endocrine Mechanisms Regulating Post-Diapause Development in the Cabbage Armyworm, Mamestra brassicae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Nobuto; Okamoto, Naoki; Kataoka, Hiroshi; Mizoguchi, Akira

    2016-01-01

    Diapause, a programmed developmental arrest at a specific stage, is common in insects and is regulated by hormones. It is well established that in pupal diapause, cessation of ecdysteroid secretion from the prothoracic glands (PGs) after pupal ecdysis leads to diapause initiation, while resumption of its secretion induces post-diapause development. However, what regulates the activity of the glands is poorly understood, especially for the glands of diapause-terminated pupae. In the present study, we investigate the mechanisms by which post-diapause development is regulated in the cabbage armyworm Mamestra brassicae. We demonstrate that the brain is necessary for the initiation of post-diapause development and that the factor in the brain responsible for the activation of the PGs is the prothoracicotropic hormone (PTTH). Further, through measuring the hemolymph PTTH titers by time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay, we show that PTTH is actually released into the hemolymph prior to the activation of the PGs. Although its peak titer is much lower than expected, this low concentration of PTTH is most likely still effective to activate the PGs of post-diapause pupae, because the responsiveness to PTTH of the glands at this stage is very high compared to that of nondiapause pupal PGs. These results strongly suggest that in M. brassicae, PTTH serves as a trigger to initiate pupa-adult development after diapause termination by stimulating the PGs to secrete ecdysteroid.

  18. Anthocyanin biosynthesis for cold and freezing stress tolerance and desirable color in Brassica rapa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Nasar Uddin; Park, Jong-In; Jung, Hee-Jeong; Hur, Yoonkang; Nou, Ill-Sup

    2015-07-01

    Flavonoids are divided into several structural classes, including anthocyanins, which provide flower and leaf colors and other derivatives that play diverse roles in plant development and interactions with the environment. This study characterized four anthocyanidin synthase (ANS) genes of Brassica rapa, a structural gene of the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway, and investigated their association with pigment formation, cold and freezing tolerance in B. rapa. Sequences of these genes were analyzed and compared with similar gene sequences from other species, and a high degree of homology with their respective functions was found. Organ-specific expression analysis revealed that these genes were only expressed in the colored portion of leaves of different lines of B. rapa. Conversely, B. rapa anthocyanidin synthase (BrANS) genes also showed responses to cold and freezing stress treatment in B. rapa. BrANSs were also shown to be regulated by two transcription factors, BrMYB2-2 and BrTT8, contrasting with anthocyanin accumulation and cold stress. Thus, the above results suggest the association of these genes with anthocyanin biosynthesis and cold and freezing stress tolerance and might be useful resources for development of cold-resistant Brassica crops with desirable colors as well.

  19. Agronomic and seed quality traits dissected by genome-wide association mapping in Brassica napus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niklas eKörber

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In Brassica napus breeding, traits related to commercial success are of highest importance for plant breeders. However, such traits can only be assessed in an advanced developmental stage. % as well as require high experimental effort due to their quantitative inheritance and the importance of genotype*environment interaction. Molecular markers genetically linked to such traits have the potential to accelerate the breeding process of B. napus by marker-assisted selection. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to identify (i genome regions associated with the examined agronomic and seed quality traits, (ii the interrelationship of population structure and the detected associations, and (iii candidate genes for the revealed associations. The diversity set used in this study consisted of 405 Brassica napus inbred lines which were genotyped using a 6K single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP array and phenotyped for agronomic and seed quality traits in field trials. In a genome-wide association study, we detected a total of 112 associations between SNPs and the seed quality traits as well as 46 SNP-trait associations for the agronomic traits with a P-value 100 and a sequence identity of > 70 % to A. thaliana or B. rapa could be found for the agronomic SNP-trait associations and 187 hits of potential candidate genes for the seed quality SNP-trait associations.

  20. Growth responses of Brassica juncea to phosphorus application from different sources of fertilizer under salt stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badar-uz-Zaman

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Under salt-stress conditions, available phosphorus may not be in adequate amounts or in accessible forms for timely utilization by plants. This study was carried out to observe the growth and Na+ /K+ ratio in Brassica juncea having phosphorus supplied from commercial fertilizers under salt stress. Seeds of Brassica juncea (cv. Raya Anmol were germinated and the seedlings raised in standard nutrient solution under controlled conditions. Phosphorus was applied from three sources of fertilizers i.e. DAP, SSP and TSP @ 2 (as control and 10 mmol L-1. Salt stress was developed with NaCl (150 mmol L-1. Under salt stress and elevated P application as SSP and TSP, fresh mass was higher than with DAP source. Dry mass was higher with SSP source than with DAP and TSP. Na+ /K+ ratio was low using SSP. P-uptake by the plants was highest using TSP. For growth parameters and Na+ /K+ ratio, phosphate fertilizers contributed differentially under salt stress.

  1. The effect of Bt-transgene introgression on plant growth and reproduction in wild Brassica juncea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yong-Bo; Darmency, Henry; Stewart, C Neal; Wei, Wei; Tang, Zhi-Xi; Ma, Ke-Ping

    2015-06-01

    This study aims to investigate the relative plant growth and reproduction of insect-resistant and susceptible plants following the introgression of an insect-resistance Bt-transgene from Brassica napus, oilseed rape, to wild Brassica juncea. The second backcrossed generation (BC2) from a single backcross family was grown in pure and mixed stands of Bt-transgenic and non-transgenic siblings under two insect treatments. Various proportions of Bt-transgenic plants were employed in mixed stands to study the interaction between resistant and susceptible plants. In the pure stands, Bt-transgenic BC2 plants performed better than non-transgenic plants with or without insect treatments. In mixed stands, Bt-transgenic BC2 plants produced fewer seeds than their non-Bt counterparts at low proportions of Bt-transgenic BC2 plants in the absence of insects. Reproductive allocation of non-transgenic plants marginally increased with increasing proportions of Bt-transgenic plants under herbivore pressure, which resulted in increased total biomass and seed production per stand. The results showed that the growth of non-transgenic plants was protected by Bt-transgenic plants under herbivore pressure. The Bt-transgene might not be advantageous in mixed stands of backcrossed hybrids; thus transgene introgression would not be facilitated when herbivorous insects are not present. However, a relatively large initial population of Bt-transgenic plants might result in transgene persistence when target herbivores are present.

  2. Transcriptome analysis of canola (Brassica napus under salt stress at the germination stage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weihua Long

    Full Text Available Canola (Brassica napus is one of the most important oil crops in the world. However, its yield has been constrained by salt stress. In this study, transcriptome profiles were explored using Digital Gene Expression (DGE at 0, 3, 12 and 24 hours after H2O (control and NaCl treatments on B. napus roots at the germination stage. Comparisons of gene-expression between the control and the treatment were conducted after tag-mapping to the sequenced Brassica rapa genome. The differentially expressed genes during the time course of salt stress were focused on, and 163 genes were identified to be differentially expressed at all the time points. Gene Ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes enrichment analyses revealed that some of the genes were involved in proline metabolism, inositol metabolism, carbohydrate metabolic processes and oxidation-reduction processes and may play vital roles in the salt-stress response at the germination stage. Thus, this study provides new candidate salt stress responding genes, which may function in novel putative nodes in the molecular pathways of salt stress resistance.

  3. Naturally-assisted metal phytoextraction by Brassica carinata: Role ofroot exudates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quartacci, Mike F., E-mail: mfquart@agr.unipi.i [Dipartimento di Chimica e Biotecnologie Agrarie, Universita di Pisa, Via del Borghetto 80, 56124 Pisa (Italy); Irtelli, Barbara [Dipartimento di Chimica e Biotecnologie Agrarie, Universita di Pisa, Via del Borghetto 80, 56124 Pisa (Italy); Gonnelli, Cristina; Gabbrielli, Roberto [Dipartimento di Biologia Vegetale, Sezione di Ecologia e Fisiologia Vegetale, Universita di Firenze, Via Micheli 1, 50121 Firenze (Italy); Navari-Izzo, Flavia [Dipartimento di Chimica e Biotecnologie Agrarie, Universita di Pisa, Via del Borghetto 80, 56124 Pisa (Italy)

    2009-10-15

    Due to relatively high chelant dosages and potential environmental risks it is necessary to explore different approaches in the remediation of metal-contaminated soils. The present study focussed on the removal of metals (As, Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn) from a multiple metal-contaminated soil by growing Brassica carinata plants in succession to spontaneous metallicolous populations of Pinus pinaster, Plantago lanceolata and Silene paradoxa. The results showed that the growth of the metallicolous populations increased the extractable metal levels in the soil, which resulted in a higher accumulation of metals in the above-ground parts of B. carinata. Root exudates of the three metallicolous species were analysed to elucidate their possible role in the enhanced metal availability. The presence of metals stimulated the exudation of organic and phenolic acids as well as flavonoids. It was suggested that root exudates played an important role in solubilising metals in soil and in favouring their uptake by roots. - Phytoextraction of metals is enhanced in Brassica carinata grown in succession to metallicolous populations of spontaneous species.

  4. Effects of a Lectin from Polygonum Persicaria L. on Pieris Brassicae L. (Lepidoptera: Pieridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zibaee Arash

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In the current study, the entomotoxic effects of a lectin, extracted from Polygonum persicaria, were determined on Pieris brassicae larvae. The purified molecule significantly decreased larval survival, weight, and mass protein. Different concentrations of P. persicaria agglutinin (PPA (0.5, 1 and 2 mg/ml significantly decreased nutritional indices including: the efficiency of conversion of ingested food (ECI, the efficiency of conversion of digested food (ECD, and approximate digestibility (AD in a dose-dependent manner. There was a significant decrease in larval α-amylase activity after larval fed on PPA. The decreased activity was found in both the biochemical assessment and gel electrophoresis; sharpness of one isozyme decreased and another completely disappeared. Meanwhile, PPA significantly decreased activities of glucosidases mainly β-glucosidase. Fed of P. brassicae larvae on different concentrations of PPA, significantly decreased activity of TAG-lipase in both the biochemical assessment and gel electrophoresis. It was found that alkaline phosphatase (ALP and acid phosphatase (ACP were also affected by PPA but concentrations of 1 and 2 mg/ml showed statistical differences compared to the control. General and specific proteolytic activities statistically decreased after larvae fed on different concentrations of PPA. Results of our study could bring attention to this molecule, showing it to be a safe and efficient control of the pest worldwide.

  5. Effects of Salinity on Yield and Component Characters in Canola (Brassica napus L. Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad BYBORDI

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Cultivars �Okapi�, �SLM046�, �Elite�, �Fornax� and �Licord� Brassica napus were tested for yield and component characters under different levels of salinity. The variations due to salinity levels, cultivars and cultivarxsalinity (interaction were significant for different characters. The variable degrees of increase and decrease of regression coefficient estimate mates (curve estimation showed the performance as influenced by different salinity levels. The performance of Brassica napus variety in plant height and days to first flowering was the best for �SLM046�, �Okapi� �SLM046� and �Okapi� cultivars. �SLM046� showed the best performance in days to maturity, followed by �Licord� and �Elite�. �Okapi� performed better than others regarding the increased number of seeds per plant and seed yield per plant, followed by �Fornax�. Considering all characters, the most tolerance ability was found in �SLM046� and �Okapi�, against different levels of salinity.

  6. Signalling of Arabidopsis thaliana response to Pieris brassicae eggs shares similarities with PAMP-triggered immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouhier-Darimont, Caroline; Schmiesing, André; Bonnet, Christelle; Lassueur, Steve; Reymond, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    Insect egg deposition activates plant defence, but very little is known about signalling events that control this response. In Arabidopsis thaliana, oviposition by Pieris brassicae triggers salicylic acid (SA) accumulation and induces the expression of defence genes. This is similar to the recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), which are involved in PAMP-triggered immunity (PTI). Here, the involvement of known signalling components of PTI in response to oviposition was studied. Treatment with P. brassicae egg extract caused a rapid induction of early PAMP-responsive genes. In addition, expression of the defence gene PR-1 required EDS1, SID2, and, partially, NPR1, thus implicating the SA pathway downstream of egg recognition. PR-1 expression was triggered by a non-polar fraction of egg extract and by an oxidative burst modulated through the antagonistic action of EDS1 and NUDT7, but which did not depend on the NADPH oxidases RBOHD and RBOHF. Searching for receptors of egg-derived elicitors, a receptor-like kinase mutant, lecRK-I.8, was identified which shows a much reduced induction of PR-1 in response to egg extract treatment. These results demonstrate the importance of the SA pathway in response to egg-derived elicitor(s) and unravel intriguing similarities between the detection of insect eggs and PTI in Arabidopsis.

  7. Genetic diversity and population structure of leafy kale and Brassica rupestris Raf. in south Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggioni, Lorenzo; von Bothmer, Roland; Poulsen, Gert; Branca, Ferdinando; Bagger Jørgensen, Rikke

    2014-12-01

    Local varieties of leafy kales (Brassica oleracea L.) are grown in home gardens in Calabria and Sicily for self-consumption, in the same area where the wild relative Brassica rupestris Raf. also grows. With the use of AFLP markers, comparisons were made of the genetic diversity and population structure of ten wild and 22 cultivated populations, as well as of a hybrid population and of four commercial cultivars of different B. oleracea crops. The level of genetic diversity was higher in leafy kales than in wild populations and this diversity was mainly distributed within populations. Wild populations remained distinct from cultivated material. Additionally, most wild populations were distinctively isolated from each other. On the other hand, it was not possible to molecularly distinguish even geographically distant leafy kale populations from each other or from different B. oleracea crops. It was possible to detect inter-crossing between leafy kales and B. rupestris. Findings from this study illustrate the existing level of genetic diversity in the B. oleracea gene pool. Individual populations (either wild or leafy kales) with higher levels of genetic diversity have been identified and suggestions are given for an informed conservation strategy. Domestication hypotheses are also discussed.

  8. Characterization and stress-induced expression analysis of Alfin-like transcription factors in Brassica rapa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayum, Md Abdul; Park, Jong-In; Ahmed, Nasar Uddin; Jung, Hee-Jeong; Saha, Gopal; Kang, Jong-Goo; Nou, Ill-Sup

    2015-08-01

    The Alfin-like (AL) transcription factors (TFs) family is involved in many developmental processes, including the growth and development of roots, root hair elongation, meristem development, etc. However, stress resistance-related function and the regulatory mechanism of these TFs have yet to be elucidated. This study identified 15 Brassica rapa AL (BrAL) TFs from BRAD database, analyzed the sequences and profiled their expression first time in response to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. conglutinans and Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum in fection, cold, salt and drought stresses in B. rapa. Structural and phylogenetic analyses of 15 BrAL TFs revealed four distinct groups (groups I-IV) with AL TFs of Arabidopsis thaliana. In the expression analyses, ten BrAL TFs showed responsive expression after F. oxysporum f. sp. conglutinans infection, while all BrAL TFs showed responses under cold, salt and drought stresses in B. rapa. Interestingly, ten BrAL TFs showed responses to both biotic and abiotic stress factors tested here. The differentially expressed BrAL TFs thus represent potential resources for molecular breeding of Brassica crops resistant against abiotic and biotic stresses. Our findings will also help to elucidate the complex regulatory mechanism of AL TFs in stress resistance and provide a foundation for further functional genomics studies and applications.

  9. Ionizing radiation mediated cytological manifestation in microsporogenesis of Brassica campestris L.(Brassicaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Girjesh KUMAR

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of the present work is to investigate the mutagenic effects of ionizing radiations (gamma rays on Brassica campestris L. accession no - IC363713. Homogeneous seeds of Brassica were irradiated at four doses of gamma rays i.e. 150 Gy, 300 Gy, 450 Gy and 600 Gy by the gamma-chamber type 60Co at the dose rate of 2 second/Gy. During microsporogenesis, meiotic analysis of young floral buds was carried out in irradiated as well as non-irradiated plant materials. Meiotic study clearly revealed the meiotic malfunctioning of pollen mother cells (PMCs that had shared copious count of cytological abnormalities namely unorientation, stickiness, precocious movement or fragmentation, secondary association of bivalents, asynchronous division, laggards, tripolarity and chromatin bridge. These aberrations were found to be distributed in all the phases of male meiosis. However, this impairing during meiosis has found to be collinearly associated with doses i.e. inclining tendency of abnormality percentage alongwith increasing doses were registered. Perhaps aforementioned chromosomal aberrations may be introduced by asymmetrical distribution of chromatin material in PMCs, had definitely compromised with pollen fertility, resulting the increased frequency of pollen sterility. Hence, pollen fertility registered, simultaneously, a moderate to sharp fall depending upon the intensity of doses.

  10. ANALISIS WAKTU PEMUPUKAN TANAMAN SAWI HIJAU (Brassica rapa var. parachinensis DENGAN TEKNIK PERUNUT RADIOAKTIF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gusti Ngurah Sutapa

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Telah dilakukan penelitian analisis waktu pemupukan pada tanaman sawi hijau (Brassica rapa var. parachinensisdengan teknik perunut radioaktif. Untuk menuju sistem pertanian berkelanjutan perlu adanya perbaikan pertanian(intensifikasi selama beberapa tahun yang lalu masih signifikan, karena ketersediaan sumber daya alam danteknologi pertanian cukup memadai dan berimbang dengan ketersediaan lahan dan peningkatan jumlah penduduk.Keadaan ini sulit untuk dipertahankan dimasa yang akan datang, kecuali ada pendekatan baru yang menawarkan ide dan teknik untuk meningkatkan produktifitas pertanian. Efesiensi pemupukan tanaman dengan teknik perunut (tracer radioisotop adalah salah satu potensi menujusistem pertanian berkelanjutan. Teknik perunut dapat digunakan antara lain untuk mempelajari hubungan antaratanah dan tanaman, menentukan kondisi optimal dalam penggunaan pupuk (waktu pemupukan, pola perakaranaktif tanaman, jenis dan takaran pupuk, mempelajari proses dekomposisi dan mineralisasi bahan organik, sertamempelajari proses fotosintesis tanaman,baik dengan metoda langsung maupun tidak langsung.Waktu pemupukanyang lebih tepat dapat ditentukan dengan teknik perunut tersebut, sehingga optimalisasi pemupukan dapat dicapai,tanpa pemborosan yang tidak berguna.Dari penelitian dengan menggunakan radioisotop P, ternyata waktupemupukan pada tanaman sawi hijau (Brassica rapa var. parachinensis yang paling signifikan adalah padapukul 9.00 pagi. Waktu siang hari mulai pukul 11.00 sampai pukul 15.00 adalah waktu pemupukan yang sangatburuk. Sedangkan waktu sore hari yaitu pukul 15.00 sampai 17.00 menunjukkan waktu pemupukan yang semakinbaik namun tidak signifikan.32

  11. ANALISIS WAKTU PEMUPUKAN TANAMAN SAWI HIJAU (Brassica rapa var. parachinensis DENGAN TEKNIK PERUNUT RADIOAKTIF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gusti Ngurah Sutapa

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Telah dilakukan penelitian analisis waktu pemupukan pada tanaman sawi hijau (Brassica rapa var. parachinensisdengan teknik perunut radioaktif. Untuk menuju sistem pertanian berkelanjutan perlu adanya perbaikan pertanian(intensifikasi selama beberapa tahun yang lalu masih signifikan, karena ketersediaan sumber daya alam danteknologi pertanian cukup memadai dan berimbang dengan ketersediaan lahan dan peningkatan jumlah penduduk.Keadaan ini sulit untuk dipertahankan dimasa yang akan datang, kecuali ada pendekatan baru yang menawarkan ide dan teknik untuk meningkatkan produktifitas pertanian. Efesiensi pemupukan tanaman dengan teknik perunut (tracer radioisotop adalah salah satu potensi menujusistem pertanian berkelanjutan. Teknik perunut dapat digunakan antara lain untuk mempelajari hubungan antaratanah dan tanaman, menentukan kondisi optimal dalam penggunaan pupuk (waktu pemupukan, pola perakaranaktif tanaman, jenis dan takaran pupuk, mempelajari proses dekomposisi dan mineralisasi bahan organik, sertamempelajari proses fotosintesis tanaman,baik dengan metoda langsung maupun tidak langsung.Waktu pemupukanyang lebih tepat dapat ditentukan dengan teknik perunut tersebut, sehingga optimalisasi pemupukan dapat dicapai,tanpa pemborosan yang tidak berguna.Dari penelitian dengan menggunakan radioisotop P, ternyata waktupemupukan pada tanaman sawi hijau (Brassica rapa var. parachinensis yang paling signifikan adalah padapukul 9.00 pagi. Waktu siang hari mulai pukul 11.00 sampai pukul 15.00 adalah waktu pemupukan yang sangatburuk. Sedangkan waktu sore hari yaitu pukul 15.00 sampai 17.00 menunjukkan waktu pemupukan yang semakinbaik namun tidak signifikan.32

  12. Diversity array technology markers: genetic diversity analyses and linkage map construction in rapeseed (Brassica napus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raman, Harsh; Raman, Rosy; Nelson, Matthew N; Aslam, M N; Rajasekaran, Ravikesavan; Wratten, Neil; Cowling, Wallace A; Kilian, A; Sharpe, Andrew G; Schondelmaier, Joerg

    2012-01-01

    We developed Diversity Array Technology (DArT) markers for application in genetic studies of Brassica napus and other Brassica species with A or C genomes. Genomic representation from 107 diverse genotypes of B. napus L. var. oleifera (rapeseed, AACC genomes) and B. rapa (AA genome) was used to develop a DArT array comprising 11 520 clones generated using PstI/BanII and PstI/BstN1 complexity reduction methods. In total, 1547 polymorphic DArT markers of high technical quality were identified and used to assess molecular diversity among 89 accessions of B. napus, B. rapa, B. juncea, and B. carinata collected from different parts of the world. Hierarchical cluster and principal component analyses based on genetic distance matrices identified distinct populations clustering mainly according to their origin/pedigrees. DArT markers were also mapped in a new doubled haploid population comprising 131 lines from a cross between spring rapeseed lines 'Lynx-037DH' and 'Monty-028DH'. Linkage groups were assigned on the basis of previously mapped simple sequence repeat (SSRs), intron polymorphism (IP), and gene-based markers. The map consisted of 437 DArT, 135 SSR, 6 IP, and 6 gene-based markers and spanned 2288 cM. Our results demonstrate that DArT markers are suitable for genetic diversity analysis and linkage map construction in rapeseed.

  13. Avaliacao da Relacao entre a Doenca Hepatica Nao Gordurosa e CAD utilizando TCMF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duran Efe

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Fundamento: Alguns fatores de risco para a aterosclerose são acompanhados pela doença hepática gordurosa não alcoólica (DHGNA. Desejamos usar a tomografia computadorizada multi-fatias (TCMF como a técnica para encontrar relação entre a DHGNA e a doença arterial coronariana (DAC. Objetivo: A relação entre a DHGNA e a DAC foi investigada através de TCMF. Métodos: Um total de 372 indivíduos com ou sem sintomas cardíacos, que foram submetidos à angiografia por TCMF, foram incluídos no estudo. Os pacientes foram divididos em dois grupos, de acordo com a presença da DHGNA. Os segmentos arteriais coronarianos foram avaliados visualmente via angiografia por TCMF. Com base no grau de estenose arterial coronariana, aqueles com placas ausentes ou mínimas foram considerados como normais, enquanto aqueles que apresentavam estenose de menos do que 50% e no mínimo uma placa foram considerados como portadores da doença arterial coronariana não obstrutiva (não-obsDAC. Os pacientes que apresentaram no mínimo uma placa e estenose arterial coronariana de 50% ou mais foram considerados como portadores de doença arterial coronariana obstrutiva (obsDAC. A DHGNA foi determinada de acordo com o protocolo de TCMF, utilizando a densidade hepática. Resultados: De acordo com a densidade hepática, o número de pacientes com doença hepática gordurosa não alcoólica (grupo 1 foi de 204 (149 homens, 54,8% e com fígado normal (grupos 2 foi de 168 (95 homens, 45.2%. Houve 50 (24,5% não-obsDAC e 57 (27,9% casos de obsDAC no Grupo 1, e 39 (23,2% não-obsDAC e 23 (13,7% casos de obsDAC no Grupo 2. Conclusões: O presente estudo utilizando TCMF demonstrou que a frequência da doença arterial coronariana em pacientes com NAFDL foi significativamente superior do que nos pacientes em NAFDL.

  14. Relationship of Enhanced Butyrate Production by Colonic Butyrate-Producing Bacteria to Immunomodulatory Effects in Normal Mice Fed an Insoluble Fraction of Brassica rapa L

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tanaka, Sachi; Yamamoto, Kana; Yamada, Kazuki; Furuya, Kanon; Uyeno, Yutaka

    2016-01-01

    This study was performed to determine the effects of feeding a fiber-rich fraction of Brassica vegetables on the immune response through changes in enteric bacteria and short-chain fatty acid (SCFA...

  15. A search of Brassica SI-involved orthologs in buckwheat leads to novel buckwheat sequence identification: MLPK possibly involved in SI response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banović Bojana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Self-incompatibility (SI systems, gamethophytic (GSI and sporophytic (SSI, prevent self-pollination in angiosperms. Buckwheat displays heteromorphic SSI, with pollination allowed only between different flower morphs - thrum and pin. The physiology of thrum and pin morph SI responses are entirely different, resembling homomorphic Brassica SSI and Prunus GSI responses, respectively. Considering angiosperm species may share ancestral SI genes, we examined the presence of Brassica and Prunus SI-involved gene orthologs in the buckwheat genome. We did not find evidence of SRK, SLG and SP11 Brassica or S-RNase and SFB Prunus orthologs in the buckwheat genome, but we found a Brassica MLPK ortholog. We report the partial nucleotide sequence of the buckwheat MLPK and discuss the possible implications of this finding.

  16. Role of Relative Humidity in Processing and Storage of Seeds and Assessment of Variability in Storage Behaviour in Brassica spp. and Eruca sativa

    OpenAIRE

    Suma, A; Kalyani Sreenivasan; Singh, A. K.; Radhamani, J.

    2013-01-01

    The role of relative humidity (RH) while processing and storing seeds of Brassica spp. and Eruca sativa was investigated by creating different levels of relative humidity, namely, 75%, 50%, 32%, and 11% using different saturated salt solutions and 1% RH using concentrated sulphuric acid. The variability in seed storage behaviour of different species of Brassica was also evaluated. The samples were stored at 40 ± 2°C in sealed containers and various physiological parameters were assessed at di...

  17. Hypersensitivity to pollen of four different species of Brassica: a clinico-immunologic evaluation in patients of respiratory allergy in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahi, Shipra; Katiyar, Raj Kishore; Gaur, Shailendra; Jain, Vikram

    2014-01-01

    Background Rapeseed-mustard is the second most important source of edible oil in India. Several species of Brassica are grown in different parts of country for its oilseeds. Objective The objective was to investigate allergenicity to antigenic extracts of pollen of 4 species of Brassica. Methods Brassica campestris, Brassica juncea, Brassica nigra, and Brassica napus were selected for the detailed investigation. Pollen samples from each of the four species were collected from the polliniferous materials. The antigenic and allergenic profiles of these extracts were evaluated by means of sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, Skin prick test, enzyme linked immuno sorbent assay and Western blot on atopic individuals. Results Out of the 159 atopic subjects tested, 21.38% were positive to at least one or other species of Brassica pollen, with highest skin positivity (13.20%) to B. campestris extract. Raised IgE with significant linear correlation with intensity of skin reactions was obtained. Protein fractions of 20, 25, 32, 37, 56, and 90 kDa were recognized by B. campestris and B. juncea whereas 56, 76, 87, and 90 kDa were recognized by B. nigra and B. napus as major IgE binding protein fractions. The patients also showed positivity to other inhalant pollen allergens tested. Conclusion IgE mediated hypersensitivity varied from 4.40% to 13.20% in Indian atopic subjects to pollen of one or the other species of Brassica. Protein fractions of 47, 56, 76, 87, and 90 kDa were identified as IgE binding by all the four species, however individual heterogeneity exists. Thus a local species may be more pertinent for immunotherapy. The major allergen needs to be further characterized. PMID:25379479

  18. The respective effects of soil heavy metal fractions by sequential extraction procedure and soil properties on the accumulation of heavy metals in rice grains and brassicas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Ling; Guan, Dongsheng; Peart, M R; Chen, Yujuan; Li, Qiqi

    2017-01-01

    This study was carried out to examine heavy metal accumulation in rice grains and brassicas and to identify the different controls, such as soil properties and soil heavy metal fractions obtained by the Community Bureau of Reference (BCR) sequential extraction, in their accumulation. In Guangdong Province, South China, rice grain and brassica samples, along with their rhizospheric soil, were collected from fields on the basis of distance downstream from electroplating factories, whose wastewater was used for irrigation. The results showed that long-term irrigation using the electroplating effluent has not only enriched the rhizospheric soil with Cd, Cr, Cu, and Zn but has also increased their mobility and bioavailability. The average concentrations of Cd and Cr in rice grains and brassicas from closest to the electroplating factories were significantly higher than those from the control areas. Results from hybrid redundancy analysis (hRDA) and redundancy analysis (RDA) showed that the BCR fractions of soil heavy metals could explain 29.0 and 46.5 % of total eigenvalue for heavy metal concentrations in rice grains and brassicas, respectively, while soil properties could only explain 11.1 and 33.4 %, respectively. This indicated that heavy metal fractions exerted more control upon their concentrations in rice grains and brassicas than soil properties. In terms of metal interaction, an increase of residual Zn in paddy soil or a decrease of acid soluble Cd in the brassica soil could enhance the accumulation of Cd, Cu, Cr, and Pb in both rice grains and brassicas, respectively, while the reducible or oxidizable Cd in soil could enhance the plants' accumulation of Cr and Pb. The RDA showed an inhibition effect of sand content and CFO on the accumulation of heavy metals in rice grains and brassicas. Moreover, multiple stepwise linear regression could offer prediction for Cd, Cu, Cr, and Zn concentrations in the two crops by soil heavy metal fractions and soil properties.

  19. Modelaje geológico y de recursos del yacimiento Pastelillo utilizando el krigeaje de indicadores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Q. Cuador-Gil

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available En ocasiones la complejidad y variabilidad de un yacimiento mineral hace dificil establecer dominios geológicos homogéneos que puedan ser utilizados para aplicar control geológico a la estimación de los parámetros más relevantes. La imposibilidad de crear un modelo geológico con unidades bien definidas conduce a trabajar con poblaciones heterogéneas, lo cual degrada considerablemente la calidad de las estimaciones. Tal es el caso de Pastelillo, yacimiento de materia prima para cemento, en el que es difícil reproducir la geometría de los distintos tipos tecnológicos utilizando el método tradicional de correlación geológica. Las distintas litologías que conforman el yacimientos están completamente mezcladas tanto en el plano como en la vertical y estos frecuentes cambios faciales provocan una gran variabilidad litológica y tecnológica en el yacimiento. Teniendo en cuenta lo anterior se propone emplear un método de interpolación espacial que permita hacer estimaciones en presencia de poblaciones complejas. En el artículo se establece un modelo tecnológico y de recursos para el yacimiento Pastelillo a partir del empleo de una técnica de estimación de la geoestadística no lineal: el krigeaje de indicadores.

  20. UTILIZANDO O MÉTODO TODIM PARA AVALIAR AS MELHORES EMPRESAS PARA TRABALHAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Teixeira da Silva

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo expõe uma nova proposta de ordenação das 5 melhores empresas para trabalhar em termos de qualidade do ambiente de trabalho e qualidade na gestão de pessoas utilizando-se do método TODIM como suporte científico para tal. A ordenação inicial, proposta pela revista Você/SA Exame, utiliza como método classificador o índice de felicidade no trabalho, uma soma ponderada de índices resultantes da percepção dos funcionários, das práticas da empresa e da constatação feita por jornalistas em visitas às empresas. Este trabalho, que utiliza o método TODIM, considera esses itens como critérios de avaliação e realiza uma análise comparativa das alternativas. Ao final, é executada uma comparação entre as ordenações e uma análise de sensibilidade, analisando as especificidades de cada método de ordenação e a consistência de seus resultados.

  1. del aceite superficial en aluminio utilizando plasma frío

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eneas Ramos Nascimento Neto

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available La creciente preocupación por el desarrollo sustentable unido al aumento de la concienciación relacionada con la preservación del medio ambiente han impulsado investigaciones científicas en diversas áreas que utilizan tecnologías ambientalmente aceptables. Dentro de este contexto la tecnología de aplicación de plasma frío representa una alternativa eficiente, limpia y económica para la remoción de aceites en superficies metálicas. El objetivo de este trabajo consiste en medir la remoción del aceite de la superficie del aluminio utilizando el proceso de plasma frío. Para evaluar estos resultados se realizaron medidas de ángulo de contacto y XPS. Este trabajo trata sobre el tipo de modificación que se produce sobre superficies metálicas por la acción de plasmas.

  2. DETERMINANTES DEL LOGRO ESCOLAR EN MÉXICO. Primeros resultados utilizando la prueba ENLACE media superior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael E. de Hoyos

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aunque los años de escolaridad de los mexicanos aumentaron significativamente en los pasados 20 años, la calidad del sistema educativo —un determinante importante del crecimiento económico de largo plazo— dista mucho de ser satisfactorio. Utilizando los resultados de la primera prueba estandarizada en educación media superior (ENLACE-MS, este estudio muestra que un modelo que incluye las características del hogar, individuales, institucionales y escolares puede explicar más de 40% de las diferencias observadas en las calificaciones de matemáticas. Desde el punto de vista de la política pública, los resultados de este trabajo sugieren que, a fin de aumentar la calidad de la educación, las autoridades educativas deberían concentrarse en mejorar la infraestructura escolar, la calidad de los docentes y la relación entre los estudiantes y las autoridades escolares.

  3. Monitoramento do processo de compressão de ibuprofeno utilizando controle estatístico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Elis Bianchi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available O Controle Estatístico de Processo (CEP é uma ferramenta bastante utilizada para auxiliar no controle da qualidade de parâmetros físicos como peso médio, dureza e friabilidade. Através das cartas de controle é possível detectar desvios dos parâmetros do processo, reduzindo a quantidade de produtos fora da especificação e, consequentemente, os custos da produção. A avaliação de trinta lotes de ibuprofeno em uma indústria farmacêutica, utilizando controle estatístico de processo, permitiu o fornecimento de informações imprescindíveis para a investigação detalhada dos pontos críticos do processo, diagnosticando as possíveis não conformidades na etapa de compressão deste fármaco. Desta maneira, podem-se propor atividades de melhoria, através da identificação e eliminação das causas especiais de variação no processo, com a finalidade de produzir comprimidos com qualidade.

  4. Biossorção de azul de metileno utilizando resíduos agroindustriais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andressa C. Honorato

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho avaliou a capacidade de adsorção do corante azul de metileno nos resíduos da palha de milho e da bainha do palmito pupunha in natura. A caracterização dos resíduos foi determinada utilizando-se a microscopia eletrônica de varredura e espectroscopia na região do infravermelho a qual indicou a presença de grupos carboxílicos, hidroxila e carbonila. O tempo necessário para que o sistema atingisse o equilíbrio para ambos os resíduos foi de 240 min, seguindo uma cinética descrita pelo modelo de pseudo-segunda ordem. A capacidade máxima de adsorção foi de 102,8 mg g-1 para o resíduo da palha de milho, seguindo o modelo de isoterma de Langmuir e 50,9 mg g-1 para o resíduo de palmito pupunha, sendo que o modelo que melhor se ajusta foi Freundlich. Desta forma, esses resíduos são promissores para a adsorção do corante azul de metileno em efluentes.

  5. DESARROLLO DE APIO MINIMAMENTE PROCESADO FORTIFICADO CON VITAMINA E, UTILIZANDO LA INGENIERIA DE MATRICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YISELL JOHAN MARTELO CASTAÑO

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue desarrollar un producto minimamente procesado fortificado con vitamina E, a partir de apio (Apium graveolens L. var.dulce, utilizando la ingenieria de matrices como metodologia de obtencion de alimentos funcionales. Trozos de apio impregnados al vacio con dl¿¿tocoferol acetato emulsificado en una solucion isotonica al vegetal de NaCl, 1,2%, fueron evaluados en funcion del tiempo de almacenamiento y el envasado (con y sin vacio, en terminos de la cuantificacion de sus propiedades fisicoquimicas, color, textura, estabilidad de la vitamina E y caracteristicas sensoriales. Se formulo la emulsion con el objetivo de adicionar teoricamente un 73% del Valor Diario Recomendado (VDR vitamina E/100 g de apio fresco y su cuantificacion se realizo por HPLC. La respuesta a la impregnacion en la matriz fue de 12,10+-1,15%, lo cual permitio alcanzar un 112% VDR vitamina E/100g apio fresco, manteniendose este contenido durante el almacenamiento de 9 dias en ambos tipos de envasado. Los parametros fisicoquimicos del producto fueron afectados por la IV, el tiempo y el envasado, manteniendo su coloracion verdosa y presentando disminucion en la firmeza. La ingenieria de matrices constituye una metodologia efectiva para el desarrollo de apio minimamente procesado adicionado con vitamina E.

  6. Cálculo del factor de efectividad utilizando colocación ortogonal sobre elementos finitos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Fontalvo Alzate

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available En el presente documento se resuelve el problema del cálculo del factor de efectividad para la transferencia de masa y calor con reacción química en un pellet catalítico utilizando una técnica adecuada especialmente para números de Thiele elevados en donde la solución se restringe a una pequeña zona muy cercana a la superficie. La técnica aprovecha la rapidez de convergencia de la colocación ortogonal y la facilidad de ubicación de elementos en zonas en donde se presentan grandes gradientes del método para las diferencias finitas. La eficiencia del método está basada en la utilización del método LV para la descomposición de matrices. Se muestran comparaciones con otros métodos numéricos de solución del problema.

  7. Evaluación de un generador de vapor de la industria petroquímica utilizando radiotrazadores

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    El presente estudio consistió en evaluar un generador de vapor de la industria petroquímica, utilizando ácido oleico marcado con Yodo-131 como radiotrazador para la fase hidrocarburo e Indio-113m para la fase acuosa, con la finalidad de determinar eventuales fugas durante el transporte de agua y de los fondos de la columna principal durante sus respectivos recorridos en el interior del sistema.

  8. Localización y mapeo simultáneo (SLAM) utilizando un sensor de profundidad por infrarrojo

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    El propósito de este proyecto es diseñar y desarrollar un robot que implemente una solución al problema de SLAM (Simultaneous Localization And Mapping), utilizando una cámara y un sensor de profundidad por infrarrojo (Kinect). Para este fin se dividió el proyecto en tres etapas: a) robot: estructura con notebook y Kinect; b) software de procesamiento de imágenes; c) Mapeo y localización.

  9. Avaliação da eficácia clínica de uma nova modalidade de fototerapia utilizando diodos emissores de luz

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bianca M. R. Martins; Manoel de Carvalho; Maria E. L. Moreira; José M. A. Lopes

    2007-01-01

    ...) de alta intensidade no tratamento da hiperbilirrubinemia em recém-nascidos prematuros. MÉTODOS: Ensaio clínico, randomizado e controlado, utilizando a fototerapia Super LED no grupo experimental e duas fototerapias...

  10. A novel technique to collect root exudates from mustard (Brassica juncea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadhwa, Kunal; Narula, Neeru

    2012-10-01

    A very simple, novel, cost effective, easy to use technique has been developed for the collection of root exudates from small seeded plants, under laboratory conditions. 200-1000 μl micro tips (Tarsons), kept in 100 ml glass beakers, were used as holders for the small seeds of Indian mustard (Brassica juncea) and the exudates were trapped in liquid culture medium. The exudates, so obtained, were authenticated and analyzed for organic compounds such as sugars, amino acids and organic acids, as well as chemotactic response towards rhizobacteria. Method was found to be suitable and easy to handle for small seeds. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Biologically active cis-cinnamic acid occurs naturally in Brassica parachinensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The biologically active cis-cinnamic acid (cis-CA) has been perceived as a synthetic plant growth regulator for decades. However, in the present study, we found that cis-CA actually exists as a naturally occurring compound in a Brassica plant. This natural growth- regulating substance presents in both the sunlight-irradiated leaf tissue and the non-irradiated root tissue. The concentrations of cis-CA in both tissues are comparable to the biologically effective levels of those major plant hormones. The presence of cis-CA in root tissue suggests that it may be produced through both light-dependent and -independent path- ways or it can be transported from a plant organ to another.

  12. Soxhlet-assisted matrix solid phase dispersion to extract flavonoids from rape (Brassica campestris) bee pollen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Shuangqin; Tu, Xijuan; Dong, Jiangtao; Long, Peng; Yang, Wenchao; Miao, Xiaoqing; Chen, Wenbin; Wu, Zhenhong

    2015-11-15

    Soxhlet-assisted matrix solid phase dispersion (SA-MSPD) method was developed to extract flavonoids from rape (Brassica campestris) bee pollen. Extraction parameters including the extraction solvent, the extraction time, and the solid support conditions were investigated and optimized. The best extraction yields were obtained using ethanol as the extraction solvent, silica gel as the solid support with 1:2 samples to solid support ratio, and the extraction time of one hour. Comparing with the conventional solvent extraction and Soxhlet method, our results show that SA-MSPD method is a more effective technique with clean-up ability. In the test of six different samples of rape bee pollen, the extracted content of flavonoids was close to 10mg/g. The present work provided a simple and effective method for extracting flavonoids from rape bee pollen, and it could be applied in the studies of other kinds of bee pollen.

  13. Tissue-specific distribution of secondary metabolites in rapeseed (Brassica napus L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingjing Fang

    Full Text Available Four different parts, hypocotyl and radicle (HR, inner cotyledon (IC, outer cotyledon (OC, seed coat and endosperm (SE, were sampled from mature rapeseed (Brassica napus L. by laser microdissection. Subsequently, major secondary metabolites, glucosinolates and sinapine, as well as three minor ones, a cyclic spermidine conjugate and two flavonoids, representing different compound categories, were qualified and quantified in dissected samples by high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection and mass spectrometry. No qualitative and quantitative difference of glucosinolates and sinapine was detected in embryo tissues (HR, IC and OC. On the other hand, the three minor compounds were observed to be distributed unevenly in different rapeseed tissues. The hypothetic biological functions of the distribution patterns of different secondary metabolites in rapeseed are discussed.

  14. Plant genetics. Early allopolyploid evolution in the post-Neolithic Brassica napus oilseed genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalhoub, Boulos; Denoeud, France; Liu, Shengyi; Parkin, Isobel A P; Tang, Haibao; Wang, Xiyin; Chiquet, Julien; Belcram, Harry; Tong, Chaobo; Samans, Birgit; Corréa, Margot; Da Silva, Corinne; Just, Jérémy; Falentin, Cyril; Koh, Chu Shin; Le Clainche, Isabelle; Bernard, Maria; Bento, Pascal; Noel, Benjamin; Labadie, Karine; Alberti, Adriana; Charles, Mathieu; Arnaud, Dominique; Guo, Hui; Daviaud, Christian; Alamery, Salman; Jabbari, Kamel; Zhao, Meixia; Edger, Patrick P; Chelaifa, Houda; Tack, David; Lassalle, Gilles; Mestiri, Imen; Schnel, Nicolas; Le Paslier, Marie-Christine; Fan, Guangyi; Renault, Victor; Bayer, Philippe E; Golicz, Agnieszka A; Manoli, Sahana; Lee, Tae-Ho; Thi, Vinh Ha Dinh; Chalabi, Smahane; Hu, Qiong; Fan, Chuchuan; Tollenaere, Reece; Lu, Yunhai; Battail, Christophe; Shen, Jinxiong; Sidebottom, Christine H D; Wang, Xinfa; Canaguier, Aurélie; Chauveau, Aurélie; Bérard, Aurélie; Deniot, Gwenaëlle; Guan, Mei; Liu, Zhongsong; Sun, Fengming; Lim, Yong Pyo; Lyons, Eric; Town, Christopher D; Bancroft, Ian; Wang, Xiaowu; Meng, Jinling; Ma, Jianxin; Pires, J Chris; King, Graham J; Brunel, Dominique; Delourme, Régine; Renard, Michel; Aury, Jean-Marc; Adams, Keith L; Batley, Jacqueline; Snowdon, Rod J; Tost, Jorg; Edwards, David; Zhou, Yongming; Hua, Wei; Sharpe, Andrew G; Paterson, Andrew H; Guan, Chunyun; Wincker, Patrick

    2014-08-22

    Oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) was formed ~7500 years ago by hybridization between B. rapa and B. oleracea, followed by chromosome doubling, a process known as allopolyploidy. Together with more ancient polyploidizations, this conferred an aggregate 72× genome multiplication since the origin of angiosperms and high gene content. We examined the B. napus genome and the consequences of its recent duplication. The constituent An and Cn subgenomes are engaged in subtle structural, functional, and epigenetic cross-talk, with abundant homeologous exchanges. Incipient gene loss and expression divergence have begun. Selection in B. napus oilseed types has accelerated the loss of glucosinolate genes, while preserving expansion of oil biosynthesis genes. These processes provide insights into allopolyploid evolution and its relationship with crop domestication and improvement. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  15. EFFECTS OF INORGANIC AND ORGANIC FERTILIZERS ON GROWTH AND PRODUCTION OF BROCOLI (BRASSICA OLERACEA L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hala Kandil

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment was conducted in research and production station, El- Nubaria location, National Research Centre, Egypt during winter season, 2008, to study the effect of different solution fertilizers formula and organic manure on vegetative growth, heads yield quantity and quality as well as nutrient composition of broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica.The obtained results showed that all mineral solution fertilizers gave a significant synergistic effect for broccoli growth, yield quantity and quality as well as nutrients composition compared the control (mineral N, P, K recommended fertilizers. The mineral formula 19: 19: 19 recorded the highest growth heads, yield and quality along with mineral content in broccoli. Using farmyard manure plus inorganic fertilizers enhanced all growth and yield parameters. Applying farmyard manure plus the mineral solution fertilizer formula 19: 19: 19 caused the superior and optimum figures of broccoli growth, mineral composition as well as heads yield quantity and quality. Organic manure alone recorded the lowest one.

  16. Morphological characterization of local landraces of rapeseed (Brassica campestris L. var toria of Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salik Ram Gupta

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Rapeseed (Brassica campestris L. var toria is the main source of edible oil for Nepalese people. 54 rapeseed lines were collected from different hilly district of Nepal ranging from 987 m to 2550 m altitude. These lines were planted in augmented design for its traits characterization in Khumaltar 2013. Different traits of local rapeseed were characterized, and evaluated. NGRC 02778 performed better followed by SR-02 than local checks Morang-2, Chitwan Local and Unnati in terms of yield, days to maturity and pest infestation. Similarly, genotype SR-18 was late and SR-16 was earlier in terms of days to maturity. In conclusion, SR-02 was found better genotype based on different characteristics measured among all local rapeseeds planted in Khumaltar 2013. Thus SR-2 can be used as parents in crossing material for further breeding purposes and it can also be tested in further trial.

  17. Effect of Different Growth State of Broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) on Low Temperature Induction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Xin-mei; LI Yue-fang; YU Xi-hong

    2005-01-01

    In order to study the responding of different growth state on low temperature in Broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica), we took prematurity broccoli hybrid as the objects. It was found that growth state was varied under different sowing time , moreover, stem became wider with the increasing of light density at the same leaf age.Seedling age of responding to low temperature vernalization only when they grew five leaves above and with over 3.03± 0.07 centimeter stalk width in "Qingfeng Broccoli 103". The older leaf age was and the stronger plant was, the more sensitive and the shorter demanded duration time on low temperature was, and the shorter time required when the plants entered into critical period of floral bud differentiation.

  18. Myosuppressin is involved in the regulation of pupal diapause in the cabbage army moth Mamestra brassicae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Nobuto; Kataoka, Hiroshi; Mizoguchi, Akira

    2017-01-01

    Diapause, a programmed developmental arrest, is common in insects, enabling them to survive adverse seasons. It is well established that pupal diapause is regulated by ecdysteroids secreted by the prothoracic glands (PGs), with cessation of ecdysteroid secretion after pupal ecdysis leading to pupal diapause. A major factor regulating the gland activity is prothoracicotropic hormone (PTTH) secreted from the brain. In our previous study, we demonstrated that the cessation of PTTH release after pupal ecdysis resulted in the inactivation of the PGs, leading to pupal diapause in the cabbage army moth Mamestra brassicae. Here we show that a neuropeptide myosuppressin also contributes to the inactivation of PGs at the initiation of diapause. Myosuppressin suppresses PTTH-stimulated activation of the PGs in vitro. Concentrations of myosuppressin in the hemolymph after pupal ecdysis are higher in diapause pupae than in nondiapause pupae. PMID:28139750

  19. Herbaspirillum sp. strain GW103 alleviates salt stress in Brassica rapa L. ssp. pekinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Gun Woong; Lee, Kui-Jae; Chae, Jong-Chan

    2016-05-01

    Mutual interactions between plant and rhizosphere bacteria facilitate plant growth and reduce risks of biotic and abiotic stresses. The present study demonstrates alleviation of salt stress in Brassica rapa L. ssp. perkinensis (Chinese cabbage) by Herbaspirillum sp. strain GW103 isolated from rhizosphere soil of Phragmites australis. The strain was capable of producing plant beneficial factors, such as auxin, siderophore, and 1-aminocylopropane-1-carboxylic acid deaminase. Treatment of strain GW103 on Chinese cabbage under salt stress increased K(+)/Na(+) ratio in roots generating balance in the ratio of ion homeostasis and consequently contributed to the increase of biomass. In addition, root colonization potential of the strain was observed by green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagging approach. These results strongly suggest the beneficial impact of strain GW103 by inducing the alleviation of salt stress and development of stress tolerance in Chinese cabbage via plant-microbe interaction.

  20. Efek Paparan Musik dan Noise pada Karakteristik Morfologi dan Produktivitas Tanaman Sawi Hijau (Brassica Juncea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joko Prasetyo

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of present study was to investigate the effect of various sounds on the green mustard’s (Brassica Juncea morphology characteristic and productivity. The plant has been subjected to three various sound, namely classical music (rhythmic violin music, machine and traffic noise, and mixed sound (classical music and traffic noise with 70-75 dB sound pressure level, from germination to harvest for three hours (7-10 am. each day. Six parameters, i.e. germination, plant height, leaf width, leaf lenght, total plant lenght, and fresh weight, related with growth and productivity of plant were been monitored on regular basis.The results showed classical music improves germination up to 15% for 36 hours, plant height 13,5%, leaf width 14,8%, leaf length 14,2%, and wet weight 57,1%. In general, exposure to classical music gives the best results on the morphological characteristics and productivity of green mustard.

  1. Phytoextraction of heavy metals by canola (Brassica napus) and radish (Raphanus sativus) grown on multicontaminated soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchiol, L.; Assolari, S.; Sacco, P.; Zerbi, G

    2004-11-01

    Phytoextraction can provide an effective in situ technique for removing heavy metals from polluted soils. The experiment reported in this paper was undertaken to study the basic potential of phytoextraction of Brassica napus (canola) and Raphanus sativus (radish) grown on a multi-metal contaminated soil in the framework of a pot-experiment. Chlorophyll contents and gas exchanges were measured during the experiment; the heavy metal phytoextraction efficiency of canola and radish were also determined and the phytoextraction coefficient for each metal calculated. Data indicated that both species are moderately tolerant to heavy metals and that radish is more so than canola. These species showed relatively low phytoremediation potential of multicontaminated soils. They could possibly be used with success in marginally polluted soils where their growth would not be impaired and the extraction of heavy metals could be maintained at satisfying levels.

  2. Genetic linkage map of Brassica campestris L.using AFLP and RAPD markers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢钢; 陈杭; 等

    2002-01-01

    A genetic linkage map comprised of 131 loci was constructed with an F2 population derived from an inter-subspecific cross between Brassica campestris L.ssp.chinensis cv.aijiaohang” and ssp.rapifera cv.,”'isihai”.The genetic map included 93 RAPD loci,36 AFLP loci and 2 morphological loci organized into 10 main linkage groups(LGs) and 2 small groups,covering 1810.9cM with average distance between adjacent markers being approximately 13.8cM.The map is suitable for identification of molecular markers linked to important agronomic traits.QTL analysis,and even for marker-assisted selection in breeding programs of Chinese cabbage and turnip.

  3. Anthocyanin Accumulation and Molecular Analysis of Correlated Genes in Purple Kohlrabi (Brassica oleracea var. gongylodes L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanjie; Hu, Zongli; Zhu, Mingku; Zhu, Zhiguo; Wang, Zhijin; Tian, Shibing; Chen, Guoping

    2015-04-29

    Kohlrabi (Brassica oleracea var. gongylodes L.) is an important dietary vegetable cultivated and consumed widely for the round swollen stem. Purple kohlrabi shows abundant anthocyanin accumulation in the leaf and swollen stem. Here, different kinds of anthocyanins were separated and identified from the purple kohlrabi cultivar (Kolibri) by high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. In order to study the molecular mechanism of anthocyanin biosynthesis in purple kohlrabi, the expression of anthocyanin biosynthetic genes and regulatory genes in purple kohlrabi and a green cultivar (Winner) was examined by quantitative PCR. In comparison with the colorless parts in the two cultivars, most of the anthocyanin biosynthetic genes and two transcription factors were drastically upregulated in the purple tissues. To study the effects of light shed on the anthocyanin accumulation of kohlrabi, total anthocyanin contents and transcripts of associated genes were analyzed in sprouts of both cultivars grown under light and dark conditions.

  4. Indications of selenium protection against cadmium and lead toxicity in oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhilin Wu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the beneficial role of selenium (Se in protecting oilseed rape (Brassica napus L. plants from cadmium (Cd+2 and lead (Pb+2 toxicity. Exogenous Se markedly reduced Cd and Pb concentration in both roots and shoots. Supplementation of the medium with Se (5, 10 and 15 mg kg-1 alleviated the negative effect of Cd and Pb on growth and led to a decrease in oxidative damages caused by Cd and Pb. Furthermore, Se enhanced superoxide free radicals (O2-, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 and lipid peroxidation, as indicated by malondialdehyde (MDA accumulation, but decreased superoxide dismutase (SOD and glutathione peroxidase (GPx activities. Meanwhile, the presence of Cd and Pb in the medium affected Se speciation in shoots. The results suggest that Se could alleviate Cd and Pb toxicity by preventing oxidative stress in oilseed rape plant.

  5. Identification of Heat Tolerance Linked Molecular Markers of Chinese Cabbage (Brassica campestris L.ssp. pekinensis)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Xiao-ying; WANG Yong-jian; SONG Shun-hua; LI Li; YU Shuan-cang

    2002-01-01

    Genetically stable population of recombination inbred line (RIL) was derived from a cross between a heat tolerant line 177 and a heat sensitive line 276 of Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris L. ssp.pekinensis ) by single seed descent. The RILs were analyzed using isozyme, RAPD and AFLP techniques in order to find molecular markers that are linked to heat tolerance quantitative trait loci (QTL). The results of variance analysis of single factor indicated that there were 9 molecular markers closely linked with heat tolerance QTL, including 5 AFLP markers, 3 RAPD markers and 1 PGM isozyme marker. Total genetic contribution of these makers to heat tolerance was 46.7%. Five of the nine markers distributed in one linkage group,the remaining 4 markers were located in separate groups. Thus the 9 heat tolerance linked markers distributed in 5 independent locations in the genome of Chinese cabbage.

  6. Effects of Partially N-acetylated Chitosans to Elicit Resistance Reaction on Brassica napus L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xue-kun; TANG Zhang-lin; CHEN Li; GUO Yi-hong; CHEN Yun-ping; LI Jia-na

    2002-01-01

    The effects to elicit resistance reaction on oilseed rape (Brassica napus L. cv Xinongchangjiao )by four partially N-acetylated chitosan 7B, 8B, 9B and 10B (Degree of acetylation (D. A. ) is 30%, 20%,10%, 0%, respectively) and Glycol chitosan (GC, D.A. is 0%) were investigated and compared. Results showed that chitosan were similar to salicylic acid (SA), and could induce resistance reaction, but the reaction was influenced by the degree of acetylation of chitosan. Fully deacetylated chitosans, 10B and GC, elicited chitinase activity, but partially acetylated chitosan, 7B, 8B and 9B, inhibited chitinase activity. Phenyalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) was also elicited. Elicitor activity increased with on increasing degree of acetylation, 7B induced highest PAL activity among all chitosans. All chitosans induced peroxidase (POD) in a similar level.After elicited by glycol chitosan, like SA treatment, the seedlings increased disease resistance to Sclerotinia sclerotiorum significantly.

  7. Diversity of Kale (Brassica oleracea var. sabellica): Glucosinolate Content and Phylogenetic Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Christoph; Müller, Anja; Kuhnert, Nikolai; Albach, Dirk

    2016-04-27

    Recently, kale has become popular due to nutritive components beneficial for human health. It is an important source of phytochemicals such as glucosinolates that trigger associated cancer-preventive activity. However, nutritional value varies among glucosinolates and among cultivars. Here, we start a systematic determination of the content of five glucosinolates in 25 kale varieties and 11 non-kale Brassica oleracea cultivars by HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS(n) and compare the profiles with results from the analysis of SNPs derived from a KASP genotyping assay. Our results demonstrate that the glucosinolate levels differ markedly among varieties of different origin. Comparison of the phytochemical data with phylogenetic relationships revealed that the common name kale refers to at least three different groups. German, American, and Italian kales differ morphologically and phytochemically. Landraces do not show outstanding glucosinolate levels. Our results demonstrate the diversity of kale and the importance of preserving a broad genepool for future breeding purposes.

  8. The use of protein patterns in genetic diversity analysis in some Brassica napus cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roya Razavizadeh

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study, protein variations of seeds and five-day old cotyledonal leaves of four selected Brassica napus cultivars including Elite, Ocapy, Tasilo and Zarfam were analyzed by SDS-PAGE to identify protein markers. The amount of total soluble protein of seed storage proteins did not show significant differences in all cultivars whereas it was different in cotyledonal leaves. Protein patterns of seeds and cotyledonal leaves showed significant differences using SDS-PAGE and consequence analysis of bands by ImageJ program. Relative expression of six protein bands in seeds and five-day old cotyledonal leaves were significantly different. Three protein markers were identified by protein patterns of seed and cotyledonal leaves. The results of relationship analysis based on presence and absence of the specific protein bands in protein pattern of seed storage proteins showed that Tasilo and Elite cultivars had the highest similarities.

  9. CÓMO MEJORAR LA EFICIENCIA OPERATIVA UTILIZANDO EL TRABAJO EN EQUIPO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Franco

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se presenta un modelo para aumentar la eficiencia operativa de diversas organizaciones de la economía con el fin de mejorar sus resultados financieros y por consiguiente su competitividad. Este modelo permite aprovechar los talentos de las personas que laboran en la empresa, organizándolos en equipos o grupos para que puedan identificar y aprovechar oportunidades de mejoramiento que conduzcan a un aumento significativo de la eficiencia productiva. La metodología que aquí se expone es particularmente útil para las empresas medianas y pequeñas que regularmente no cuentan con recursos ni infraestructura suficiente para introducir los cambios que CÓMO MEJORAR LA EFICIENCIA OPERATIVA UTILIZANDO EL TRABAJO EN EQUIPO CARLOS ALBERTO FRANCO Director MBA de la Universidad Icesi en convenio con la Universidad de Tulane. Ingeniero Eléctrico de la Universidad del Valle. Máster en Ingeniería de Carnegie Mellon University, Pisttsburg. Ph.D. en Ingeniería Eléctrica de USC (U.S.A. FRANCISCO VELÁSQUEZ V. Director del Programa de Administración de Empresas Plan Diurno. Ingeniero Electricista de la Universidad del Valle. Magister en Administración del Instituto de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey, Campus ciudad de México. mejoren su productividad. El modelo se puede aplicar directamente por los jefes o supervisores de cada una de las áreas de la empresa, sin necesidad de recurrir a asesorías costosas.

  10. Evaluación de ataques UDP Flood utilizando escenarios virtuales como plataforma experimental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deyci Toscano

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Los ataques por denegación de servicio (DoS tienen como propósito imposibilitar el acceso a los servicios de una organización durante un periodo indefinido; por lo general, están dirigidos a los servidores de una empresa, para que no puedan ser accedidos por usuarios autorizados. El presente trabajo se enfoca en la evaluación de ataques DoS tipo UDP Flood, utilizando como plataforma de experimentación un entorno virtual de red que permite identificar cómo actúan dichos ataques en la saturación del ancho de banda; para llevarlo a cabo se diseñó e implementó una red híbrida con segmentación WAN, LAN y DMZ que inhabilita el acceso interno y externo a un servicio Web expuesto. Las herramientas evaluadas fueron UPD Unicorn, Longcat Flooder y UDPl.pl Script de Perl; las dos primeras instaladas sobre Windows, y la última, sobre Linux. Para validar está investigación se desarrolló un mecanismo de detección y mitigación de los ataques a nivel del firewall e IDS/IPS, evitando de este modo la saturación de la red. Finalmente, se evaluó el consumo dememoria, CPUy ancho de banda durante el ataque, la detección y la evasión, con el fin de determinar cuál genera mayor impacto. Los resultados demuestran que el mecanismo detecta, controla y mitiga los ataques.

  11. Evaluación de ataques UDP Flood utilizando escenarios virtuales como plataforma experimental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Fuertes

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Los ataques por denegación de servicio (DoS tienen como propósito imposibilitar el acceso a los servicios de una organización durante un periodo indefinido; por lo general, están dirigidos a los servidores de una empresa, para que no puedan ser accedidos por usuarios autorizados. El presente trabajo se enfoca en la evaluación de ataques DoS tipo UDP Flood, utilizando como plataforma de experimentación un entorno virtual de red que permite identificar cómo actúan dichos ataques en la saturación del ancho de banda; para llevarlo a cabo se diseñó e implementó una red híbrida con segmentación WAN, LAN y DMZ que inhabilita el acceso interno y externo a un servicio Web expuesto. Las herramientas evaluadas fueron UPD Unicorn, Longcat Flooder y UDPl.pl Script de Perl; las dos primeras instaladas sobre Windows, y la última, sobre Linux. Para validar está investigación se desarrolló un mecanismo de detección y mitigación de los ataques a nivel del firewall e IDS/IPS, evitando de este modo la saturación de la red. Finalmente, se evaluó el consumo dememoria, CPUy ancho de banda durante el ataque, la detección y la evasión, con el fin de determinar cuál genera mayor impacto. Los resultados demuestran que el mecanismo detecta, controla y mitiga los ataques. 

  12. Productividad en una celda de manufactura flexible simulada en promodel utilizando path networks type crane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Elena Bernal Loaiza

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Esta investigación se centra en el diseño de una simulación del proceso de una celda de manufactura flexible (FMC de la Facultad de Ingeniería Industrial de la Universidad Tecnológica de Pereira, con el propósito de medir y elegir aquella alternativa de solución que mejore en mayor grado la productividad del sistema actual utilizando los resultados que proporciona el software Promodel. Para realizar lo anterior se utilizaron etapas de la simulación como definición del sistema, formulación del modelo, identificación de variables, recolección de datos, implementación e interpretación.Como resultado, se calculó la productividad teniendo en cuenta las variables del modelo y tiempo de la simulación, al mismo tiempo se interpretó la información de cada una de las locaciones, hallando el porcentaje de utilización y total de entidades para las locaciones con capacidad unitaria; para las locaciones con mayor capacidad se encuentra información referente al porcentaje de tiempo vacío, parcialmente ocupado, lleno y no disponible respecto del tiempo disponible. A diferencia de otras simulaciones, en este diseño en la parte de redes se utilizó el tipo de red Crane, asociado a los recursos del modelo. El cual facilita el desplazamiento de los brazos robots con las piezas que circulan a través del sistema.

  13. Acceso remoto seguro a cuentas de usuario utilizando plataformas de virtualización

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Fuertes, Maritza Enríquez y Diego Veloz

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available En  las  universidades  persiste  el  problema  de  la subutilización de recursos tecnológicos; sin embargo, sesigue  incurriendo en gastos por adquisición de servidores,hardware  y  software. Frente  a  este  escenario,  en  laindustria se han venido desarrollando las tecnologías devirtualización, que ahorran energía y costos de inversiónde hardware. En  consecuencia,  el  artículo propone  elacceso remoto seguro a cuentas de usuario en un servidoruniversitario  virtualizado;  para  llevarlo  a  cabo  sediseñaron  e  implementaron  varias  topologías  deexperimentación, utilizando Virtual Box 3.1.3 y VMwareServer 2.0.2,  y  se  evaluaron diversas  tecnologías  deconexiones remotas seguras, bajo  idénticas condicionesy parámetros de  comprobación. En  cada  topología  seevaluó el rendimiento del servidor, el performance y  laseguridad  de  la  red  en  producción. Los  resultadosmuestran  la  funcionalidad  de  este  proyecto  deinvestigación  que  facilita  el  acceso  remoto  seguro deusuarios a los recursos informáticos universitarios.

  14. Caracterización de depósitos de suelo utilizando geo-radar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moreno V. Francisco Javier

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available

    The radar technique prospects the subsoil with electromagnetic waves with frequencies between 10 and 1200 Mhz. A reflection radar image shows contrasts of the subsoil generated by its inhomogeneous electromagnetic properties. The velocity of the dielectric constant, correlated with mineral fabric, structure and water contained in rocks. Meanwhile lab assays, correlations between this properties for sand, cloy and a mixture of the, were stablished.

    La técnica del geo-radar, o G.P.R. por su sigla en inglés (Ground Penetrating Radar, es una forma de prospección del subsuelo utilizando ondas  electromagnéticas con frecuencias entre 10 y 1200 Mhz. Una imagen de geo-radar obtenida por reflexión contiene contrastes generados por la variación espacial de las propiedades electromagnéticas. La velocidad de las ondas electromagnéticas en un suelo depende fundamentalmente de la constante dieléctrica equivalente, la cual se puede correlacionar con la fábrica, la estructura y el contenido de agua. Por medio de pruebas en laboratorio se establecieron correlaciones para arena, recebo y arcilla.

  15. Cardiomioplastia celular utilizando el factor estimulante del crecimiento de colonias de granulocitos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabián Alberto Jaimes Barragán

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCCIÓN: el presente estudio tuvo como objetivo evaluar la eficacia y seguridad de la cardiomioplastia celular utilizando el factor estimulante de colonias de granulocitos en pacientes con cardiopatía isquémica. MÉTODOS: se llevó a cabo un estudio de “antes y despúes” para datos longitudinales comparando variables ecocardiográficas, número de Mets alcanzados en la prueba de esfuerzo antes, 2, 6 y 12 meses después del procedimiento, también se evaluaron la mortalidad y los efectos adversos de la terapia. RESULTADOS: la mediana de la fracción de eyección antes de implantar las células fue de 30% con un rango intercuartil de 28-35%; la media de los Mets fue de 6 con un rango intercuartil de 5-7; ambas variables, al igual que los volúmenes ventriculares en fin de diástole y sístole se incrementaron de forma significativa después del procedimiento. Un paciente presentó infección de la herida quirúrgica y tres murieron dos meses después de la implantación (uno por choque séptico y dos por choque cardiogénico. CONCLUSIÓN: en Medellín, Colombia, es factible hacer la cardiomioplastia celular; se trata de un procedimiento seguro que logra una mejoría sostenida de la fracción de eyección y los Mets más allá de los beneficios obtenidos con la revascularización y la terapia farmacológica óptima.

  16. EVALUACIÓN DE LA BIOESTIMULACION (NUTRIENTES EN SUELOS CONTAMINADOS CON HIDROCARBUROS UTILIZANDO RESPIROMETRIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roldán Fabio

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó el proceso de bioestimulación por nutrientes: fertilizantes inorgánicos compuestos (FIC N:P:K 28:12:7 y sales inorgánicas simples (SIS NH4NO3 y K2HPO4 en suelos contaminados con hidrocarburos utilizando respirometría. El suelo fue contaminado con lodos aceitosos a una concentración ~40,000 mgTPH/kgps. Para cuantificar el consumo de oxigeno se utilizaron dos respirómetros de medición manométrica HACH® 2173b y OXITOP® PF600 durante ensayos de trece días. Se evaluaron dos tratamientos (FIC y SIS y tres controles (abiótico, sustrato de referencia y sin nutrientes. Se analizaron parámetros físico-químicos (pH, nutrientes y TPH y microbiológicos (heterótrofos y degradadores al inicio y al final de cada ensayo. SIS y el control sin nutrientes presentaron las mayores tasas de respiración, en el equipo HACH se obtuvieron valores de: 802.28 y 850.72 mgO2kgps-1d-1 respectivamente mientras que en el OXITOP fueron de 936.65 y 502.05 mgO2kgps-1d-1, respectivamente. En ninguno de los equipos se observo un aumento significativo de los degradadores, indicando que la bioestimulación no tuvo un efecto sobre la densidad microbiana. Por otro lado FIC, presentó los recuentos y tasas de respiración más bajas (188.18 y 139.87 mgO2kgps-1d-1 en HACH y OXITOP, respectivamente, esto pudo estar correlacionado a un efecto toxico generado por la acumulación de amoniaco.

  17. Interspecific Hybridization of Brassica campestris x B.Oleracea Through Ovary Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Guo-qing; SONG Wen-jian; TANG Gui-xiang; ZHOU Wei-jun

    2004-01-01

    Using three varieties of Brassica campestris, Hauarad (708), Maoshan-3 (714) and Youbai (715),as the maternal plants and one variety of Brassica oleracea Jingfeng-1 (6012) as paternal plants, crosses were made to produce interspecific hybrids through ovary culture techniques.The ovaries from the cross between B. campestris × B.oleracea (708 × 6012 and 714 × 6012) were cultured and ovary culture was more effective in terms of obtained seeds when ovaries were cultured in vitro at 9 d after pollination (DAP). While for the cross of 715 × 6012, it was better when ovaries in vitro cultured at 12 DAP. Among three cross combinations, the cross of 714 × 6012 showed the best response and 43 seeds per ovary were obtained. Among the media studied, the ovaries from the cross of 708 × 6012 cultured on MS media supplemented with 3.0 mg L-1 BA × 0.1 mg L-1 NAA showed better response, and its rate of seeds per ovary reached 44.0%.While the ovaries from the other two crosses (714 × 6012 and 715 × 6012) showed the best response when cultured on B5 media supplemented with 3.0 mg L-1 BA + 0.2 mg L-1 NAA, and the rates of seeds per ovary reached 72.0 and 60.0%, respectively. All seeds obtained from the three cross combinations were cultured on the MS media supplemented with 1.0 mg L-1 BA + 0.05 mg L-1 NAA,and the seeds from the cross of 715 × 6012 showed the best germination response and the percentage of germinations reached 66.7%. The regenerated plantlets were obtained from these seedlings after cultured on the MS media supplemented with 0.05 mg L-1 NAA. Cytological study showed that these regenerated plants were all true hybrids of B.campestris × B.oleracea.

  18. Scale up of 2,4-dichlorophenol removal from aqueous solutions using Brassica napus hairy roots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angelini, Vanina A. [Departamento de Biologia Molecular, FCEFQN, Universidad Nacional de Rio Cuarto, 5800 Rio Cuarto, Cordoba (Argentina); Orejas, Joaquin [Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Nacional de Rio Cuarto, 5800 Rio Cuarto, Cordoba (Argentina); Medina, Maria I. [Departamento de Biologia Molecular, FCEFQN, Universidad Nacional de Rio Cuarto, 5800 Rio Cuarto, Cordoba (Argentina); Agostini, Elizabeth, E-mail: eagostini@exa.unrc.edu.ar [Departamento de Biologia Molecular, FCEFQN, Universidad Nacional de Rio Cuarto, 5800 Rio Cuarto, Cordoba (Argentina)

    2011-01-15

    Research highlights: {yields}B. napus hairy roots were effectively used for a large scale removal of 2,4-DCP. {yields} High removal efficiencies were obtained (98%) in a short time (30 min). {yields} Roots were re-used for six consecutive cycles with high efficiency. {yields} Post removal solutions showed no toxicity. {yields} This method could be used for continuous and safe treatment of phenolic effluents. - Abstract: Chlorophenols are harmful pollutants, frequently found in the effluents of several industries. For this reason, many environmental friendly technologies are being explored for their removal from industrial wastewaters. The aim of the present work was to study the scale up of 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP) removal from synthetic wastewater, using Brassica napus hairy roots and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} in a discontinuous stirred tank reactor. We have analyzed some operational conditions, because the scale up of such process was poorly studied. High removal efficiencies were obtained (98%) in a short time (30 min). When roots were re-used for six consecutive cycles, 2,4-DCP removal efficiency decreased from 98 to 86%, in the last cycle. After the removal process, the solutions obtained from the reactor were assessed for their toxicity using an acute test with Lactuca sativa L. seeds. Results suggested that the treated solution was less toxic than the parent solution, because neither inhibition of lettuce germination nor effects in root and hypocotyl lengths were observed. Therefore, we provide evidence that Brassica napus hairy roots could be effectively used to detoxify solutions containing 2,4-DCP and they have considerable potential for a large scale removal of this pollutant. Thus, this study could help to design a method for continuous and safe treatment of effluents containing chlorophenols.

  19. Performance of generalist and specialist herbivores and their endoparasitoids differs on cultivated and wild Brassica populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gols, Rieta; Bukovinszky, Tibor; van Dam, Nicole M; Dicke, Marcel; Bullock, James M; Harvey, Jeffrey A

    2008-02-01

    Through artificial selection, domesticated plants often contain modified levels of primary and secondary metabolites compared to their wild progenitors. It is hypothesized that the changed chemistry of cultivated plants will affect the performance of insects associated with these plants. In this paper, the development of several specialist and generalist herbivores and their endoparasitoids were compared when reared on a wild and cultivated population of cabbage, Brassica oleracea, and a recently established feral Brassica species. Irrespective of insect species or the degree of dietary specialization, herbivores and parasitoids developed most poorly on the wild population. For the specialists, plant population influenced only development time and adult body mass, whereas for the generalists, plant populations also affected egg-to-adult survival. Two parasitoid species, a generalist (Diadegma fenestrale) and a specialist (D. semiclausum), were reared from the same host (Plutella xylostella). Performance of D. semiclausum was closely linked to that of its host, whereas the correlation between survival of D. fenestrale and host performance was less clear. Plants in the Brassicaceae characteristically produce defense-related glucosinolates (GS). Levels of GS in leaves of undamaged plants were significantly higher in plants from the wild population than from the domesticated populations. Moreover, total GS concentrations increased significantly in wild plants after herbivory, but not in domesticated or feral plants. The results of this study reveal that a cabbage cultivar and plants from a wild cabbage population exhibit significant differences in quality in terms of their effects on the growth and development of insect herbivores and their natural enemies. Although cultivated plants have proved to be model systems in agroecology, we argue that some caution should be applied to evolutionary explanations derived from studies on domesticated plants, unless some knowledge

  20. New Insights into Nested Long Terminal Repeat Retrotransposons in Brassica Species

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lijuan Wei; Meili Xiao; Zeshan An; Bi Ma; Annaliese S.Mason; Wei Qian; Jiana Li

    2013-01-01

    Long terminal repeat (LTR) retrotransposons,one of the foremost types of transposons,continually change or modify gene function and reorganize the genome through bursts of dramatic proliferation.Many LTR-TEs preferentially insert within other LTR-TEs,but the cause and evolutionary significance of these nested LTR-TEs are not well understood.In this study,a total of 1.52 Gb of Brassica sequence containing 2020 bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs) was scanned,and six bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones with extremely nested LTR-TEs (LTR-TEs density:7.24/kb)were selected for further analysis.The majority of the LTR-TEs in four of the six BACs were found to be derived from the rapid proliferation of retrotransposons originating within the BAC regions,with only a few LTR-TEs originating from the proliferation and insertion of retrotransposons from outside the BAC regions approximately 5-23 Mya.LTR-TEs also preferably inserted into TA-rich repeat regions.Gene prediction by Genescan identified 207 genes in the 0.84 Mb of total BAC sequences.Only a few genes (3/207) could be matched to the Brassica expressed sequence tag (EST) database,indicating that most genes were inactive after retrotransposon insertion.Five of the six BACs were putatively centromeric.Hence,nested LTR-TEs in centromere regions are rapidly duplicated,repeatedly inserted,and act to suppress activity of genes and to reshuffle the structure of the centromeric sequences.Our results suggest that LTR-TEs burst and proliferate on a local scale to create nested LTR-TE regions,and that these nested LTR-TEs play a role in the formation of centromeres.

  1. Agronomic performance for biodiesel production potential of Brassica carinata A. Braun in Mediterranean marginal areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Montemurro

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Brassicaceae are promising oil feedstock for cultivation in centralsouthern Italy. Therefore, a two-year investigation on Brassica carinata A. Braun (cv. CT 204 was carried out in three sites of Apulia region [Site 1, Alberobello - Murgia foreland; Site 2, Troia (Foggia - Daunian sub-Apennines; Site 3, Monteroni (Lecce - Area of Salento], and in one site of Basilicata region (Site 4, Hill of Matera. The aim was to identify site-specific management practices [by comparing minimum vs conventional tillage, low sowing density vs high sowing density; different levels of nitrogen (N supply and organic fertilisers] in the four different marginal areas, to achieve optimum yield performance for biodiesel prospective production. The crop showed a good adaptability in the study sites, and the highest N level positively influenced the yield performance in Sites 1, 2 and 3. Moreover, the reduction of mechanical operations (minimum tillage did not negatively influence crop production and seed oil content. The highest density of sowing tested determined the best crop performance in Site 3, particularly showing the maximum seed oil content with the lowest N supply. Finally, in Site 4 the compost mixed with mineral N fertiliser as well as the sewage sludge from urban wastewater determined productive results comparable to those obtained with mineral fertiliser, evidencing that organic fertilisers could (partially or completely substitute the mineral one for this crop in the study site. On the whole, seed yield and oil content showed a potential for biodiesel production of Brassica carinata cultivated with site-specific agronomic techniques in four different marginal areas of Southern Italy, suggesting it can be likely achieved the crop environmental adaptation.

  2. Isolation and Functional Characterisation of the Genes Encoding △8-Sphingolipid Desaturase from Brassica rapa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shu-Fen Li; Li-Ying Song; Wei-Bo Yin; Yu-Hong Chen; Liang Chen; Ji-Lin Li; Richard R.-C. Wang; Zan-Min Hu

    2012-01-01

    △8-Sphingolipid desaturase is the key enzyme that catalyses desaturation at the C8 position of the long-chain base of sphingolipids in higher plants.There have been no previous studies on the genes encoding △8-sphingolipid desaturases in Brassica rapa.In this study,four genes encoding △8-sphingolipid desaturases from B.rapa were isolated and characterised.Phylogenetic analyses indicated that these genes could be divided into two groups:BrD8A,BrD8C and BrD8D in group Ⅰ,and BrD8B in group Ⅱ.The two groups of genes diverged before the separation of Arabidopsis and Brassica.Though the four genes shared a high sequence similarity,and their coding desaturases all located in endoplasmic reticulum,they exhibited distinct expression patterns.Heterologous expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae revealed that BrD8A/B/C/D were functionally diverse △8-sphingolipid desaturases that catalyse different ratios of the two products 8(Z)- and 8(E)-C18-phytosphingenine.The aluminium tolerance of transgenic yeasts expressing BrD8A/B/C/D was enhanced compared with that of control cells.Expression of BrD8A in A rabidopsis changed the ratio of 8(Z):8(E)-C 18-phytosphingenine in transgenic plants.The information reported here provides new insights into the biochemical functional diversity and evolutionary relationship of △8-sphingolipid desaturase in plants and lays a foundation for further investigation of the mechanism of 8(Z)- and 8(E)-C18-phytosphingenine biosynthesis.

  3. Comparative transcriptome analyses reveal a special glucosinolate metabolism mechanism in Brassica alboglabra sprouts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rongfang Guo

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Brassica sprouts contain abundant phytochemicals, especially glucosinolates (GSs. Various methods have been used to enhance GS content in sprouts. However, the molecular basis of GS metabolism in sprouts remains an open question. Here we employed RNA-seq analysis to compare the transcriptomes of high-GS (JL-08 and low-GS (JL-09 Brassica alboglabra sprouts. Paired-end Illumina RNA-seq reads were generated and mapped to the B. oleracea reference genome. The differentially expressed genes were analyzed between JL-08 and JL-09. Among these, 1,477 genes were up-regulated and 1,239 down-regulated in JL-09 compared with JL-08. Enrichment analysis of these differentially expressed genes showed that the GS biosynthesis had the smallest enrichment factor and the highest Q value of all metabolic pathways in Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes database, indicating the main metabolic difference between JL-08 and JL-09 is the GS biosynthetic pathway. Thirty-seven genes of the sequenced data were annotated as putatively involved in GS biosynthesis, degradation and regulation, of which 11 were differentially expressed in JL-08 and JL-09. The expression level of GS degradation enzyme myrosinase in high-GS JL-08 was lower compared with low-GS JL-09. Surprisingly, in high-GS JL-08, the expression levels of GS biosynthesis genes were also lower than those in low-GS JL-09. As the GS contents in sprouts are determined by dynamic equilibrium of seed stored GS mobilization, de novo synthesis, degradation, and extra transport, the result of this study leads us to suggest that efforts to increase GS content should focus on either raising GS content in seeds or decreasing myrosinase activity, rather than improving the expression level of GS biosynthesis genes in sprouts.

  4. Interação tritrófica e influência de produtos químicos e vegetais no complexo: brássicas x traça-das-crucíferas x parasitóides de ovos Tritrofic interaction and influence of insecticides and plant products on the complex: brassica diamondback moth egg parasitoids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robson Thomaz Thuler

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar a interação tritrófica no complexo hospedeiro-vegetal (brássicas x praga/hospedeiro-natural Plutella xylostella Linnaeus x inseto-entomófago (parasitóides - Trichogrmma pretiosum Riley e T. exiguum Pinto & Platner, associada a alguns produtos químicos e vegetais com efeito inseticida, utilizando-se os cultivares de repolho verde - Chato de quintal e híbrido Midori; roxo - Roxo precoce e Híbrido roxo - TPC00682; e couve manteiga - Geórgia e hibrido Geórgia HS20, pulverizadas com os inseticidas: lufenuron (2,52 ml/100L e deltametrina (32 ml/100L, os produtos vegetais óleo de nim a 0,16 % e extrato pirolenhoso a 3,0 %, controle (água. Foi avaliada a interação das cultivares com os compostos por meio da exposição de lagartas recém-eclodidas aos produtos, avaliando-se os insetos nas fases de desenvolvimento até a emergência dos adultos. Para avaliar o efeito desses compostos sobre os parasitóides, foram empregados ovos de uma geração F2 de P. xylostella oriunda de lagartas alimentadas com folhas de brássicas, pulverizadas com esses produtos. A associação de produtos químicos ou vegetais, com efeito inseticida, com as cultivares de brássicas permitiu o manejo mais eficaz, especialmente na interação extrato pirolenhoso x a cultivar de repolho Chato de quintal. Observa-se que a interação entre as cultivares e os produtos pode ser prejudicial à atuação do parasitóide Trichogramma, sendo necessária uma avaliação criteriosa para minimizar o efeito sobre inimigos naturais.The aim of this work was to evaluate the tritrofic interaction in brassica complex: host-vegetable (brassica vs. pest/natural-host (Plutella xylostella vs. entomophagous-insect (parasitoid - Trichogramma pretiosum and Trichogramma exiguum, combined with chemical and vegetable products with insecticide action. The cultivar used were: green cabbage - Chato de quintal and Midori hybrid; purple cabbage - Roxo Precoce and purple hybrid

  5. The Secondary Metabolites of the Crinoid(Comanthina schlegeli) Epipsymbiosis Fungus Alternaria brassicae 93%海百合 Comanthina schlegeli 共附生真菌Alternaria brassicae 93次级代谢产物研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李永芳; 王宏维; 许佳怡; 李静; 刘岚

    2015-01-01

    利用硅胶、Sephadex LH -20凝胶柱层析和高效液相色谱(HPLC)等方法对采自湛江海百合共附生真菌 Alternaria brassicae 93的次级代谢产物进行分离纯化,根据化合物的理化性质、波谱数据以及与文献数据对照的方法确定化合物的结构。从海百合共生真菌 Alternaria brassicae 93的次级代谢产物中分离得到5个化合物,分别鉴定为 clavatol (1)、3R,14S-ochratoxin A (2)、3R,14S-ochratoxin B (3)、chaetoquadrin F (4)、ent-cyclo-echinulin (5)。化合物1,2,3,4,5,均为首次从海洋真菌中得到。%Secondary metabolities of the crinoid epipsymbiosis fungus Altermaria brassicae 93 from South China Sea were studied.The metabolities of Alternaria brassicae 93 were isolated by silica gel column chromatography,Sephadex LH -20 gel column chromatography and HPLC,the structures of compounds were eventually identified and confirmed on the basis of physicochemical properties,spectral data and compared with the published spectral information.Five compounds were isolated from marine fungi for the first time and their structures were identified as clavatol (1),3R,14S-ochratoxin A (2),3R,14S-ochratoxin B (3),chaetoquadrin F (4)and ent-cycloechinulin (5).

  6. Activity of cellulase from Thermoactinomycetes and Bacillus spp. isolated from Brassica waste compost Atividade de celulase de Termoactinomicetos e Bacillus spp. isolados de resíduos derivados de compostos de Brassica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen-Chin Chang

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Plant wastes present a high cellulose content, which is an ideal organic material for composting. Five strains of thermophiles from processed Brassica waste were isolated, and the hydrolytic activity on various cellulosic biomass substrata and their temperature profiles were determined. 16S rRNA sequencing identified these strains as Thermoactinomyces and Bacillus spp. Maximal cellulase activity corresponded to 2.3 U mL-1 of enzyme. The application of these strains on Brassica rapa residues demonstrates increased total nitrogen content. TA-3, a Thermoactinomycetes sp. strain, performs best among all inoculants, increasing the nitrogen content from 0.74 to 0.91%, and decreasing the carbon content from 15.4 to 12.2%, showing its high efficiency and bioactivity during compositing.Resíduos vegetais apresentam alta concentração de celulose, que é um material orgânico ideal para preparação de composto. Cinco linhagens de termófilos foram isoladas de resíduos processados de Brassica e a atividade hidrolítica em vários substratos contendo celulose e seus padrões de temperatura foram determinados. O seqüenciamento de rRNA 16S permitiu a identificação dessas isolados como Thermoactinomyces e Bacillus spp. A atividade máxima de celulase foi determinada como de 2,3 U mL-1 de enzima. O uso dessas linhagens em resíduos de Brassica rapa resultou em um aumento total do conteúdo de nitrogênio. TA-3, uma linhagem de Thermoactinomycetes sp., apresentou melhor desempenho entre os inoculantes, aumentando o conteúdo de nitrogênio de 0,74 para 0,91%, e diminuindo o conteúdo de carbono de 15,4 para 12,2%, mostrando sua alta eficiência e bioatividade durante a compostagem.

  7. Identification of a potential structural marker for embryogenic competency in the Brassica napus spp. oleifera embryogenic tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namasivayam, Parameswari; Skepper, Jeremy; Hanke, David

    2006-09-01

    The Brassica napus secondary embryogenesis system requires no exogenous growth regulator to stimulate embryo development. It is stable embryogenically over a long period of culture and has a distinct pre-embryogenic stage. This system was used to investigate the morphological and cellular changes occurring in the embryogenic tissue compared to non-embryogenic tissue using various microscopy techniques. A unique ultrastructural feature designated the extracellular matrix (ECM) was observed on the surface of pre-embryogenic embryoids but not on the non-embryogenic individuals. The ECM layer was found to be dominant in the pre-embryogenic stage and reduced to fragments during embryo growth and development in mature embryogenic tissue. This is a novel aspect of the phenotype previously unreported in the Brassica system. This structure might be linked to acquisition of embryogenic competence.

  8. Detection of the Diversity of Cytoplasmic Male Sterility Sources in Broccoli (Brassica Oleracea var. Italica) Using Mitochondrial Markers

    OpenAIRE

    Shu, Jinshuai; Liu, Yumei; Li, Zhansheng; Zhang, Lili; Fang, Zhiyuan; Yang, Limei; Zhuang, Mu; Zhang, Yangyong; Lv, Honghao

    2016-01-01

    Broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) is an important commercial vegetable crop. As part of an efficient pollination system, cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) has been widely used for broccoli hybrid production. Identifying the original sources of CMS in broccoli accessions has become an important part of broccoli breeding. In this study, the diversity of the CMS sources of 39 broccoli accessions, including 19 CMS lines and 20 hybrids, were analyzed using mitochondrial markers. All CMS acc...

  9. Brassica juncea Lines with Substituted Chimeric GFP-CENH3 Give Haploid and Aneuploid Progenies on Crossing with Other Lines

    OpenAIRE

    Watts, Anshul; Singh, Sunil K.; Bhadouria, Jyoti; Naresh, Vasupalli; Bishoyi, Ashok K.; K.A. Geetha; Chamola, Rohit; Pattanayak, Debasis; Bhat, Shripad R.

    2017-01-01

    Haploids and doubled haploids are invaluable for basic genetic studies and in crop improvement. A novel method of haploid induction through genetic engineering of the Centromere Histone Protein gene, CENH3, has been demonstrated in Arabidopsis. The present study was undertaken to develop haploid inducer (HI) lines of Brassica juncea based on the principles elaborated in Arabidopsis. B. juncea was found to carry three copies of CENH3 which generated five different transcripts, of which three t...

  10. Different zinc sensitivity of Brassica organs is accompanied by distinct responses in protein nitration level and pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feigl, Gábor; Kolbert, Zsuzsanna; Lehotai, Nóra; Molnár, Árpád; Ördög, Attila; Bordé, Ádám; Laskay, Gábor; Erdei, László

    2016-03-01

    Zinc is an essential microelement, but its excess exerts toxic effects in plants. Heavy metal stress can alter the metabolism of reactive oxygen (ROS) and nitrogen species (RNS) leading to oxidative and nitrosative damages; although the participation of these processes in Zn toxicity and tolerance is not yet known. Therefore this study aimed to evaluate the zinc tolerance of Brassica organs and the putative correspondence of it with protein nitration as a relevant marker for nitrosative stress. Both examined Brassica species (B. juncea and B. napus) proved to be moderate Zn accumulators; however B. napus accumulated more from this metal in its organs. The zinc-induced damages (growth diminution, altered morphology, necrosis, chlorosis, and the decrease of photosynthetic activity) were slighter in the shoot system of B. napus than in B. juncea. The relative zinc tolerance of B. napus shoot was accompanied by moderate changes of the nitration pattern. In contrast, the root system of B. napus suffered more severe damages (growth reduction, altered morphology, viability loss) and slighter increase in nitration level compared to B. juncea. Based on these, the organs of Brassica species reacted differentially to excess zinc, since in the shoot system modification of the nitration pattern occurred (with newly appeared nitrated protein bands), while in the roots, a general increment in the nitroproteome could be observed (the intensification of the same protein bands being present in the control samples). It can be assumed that the significant alteration of nitration pattern is coupled with enhanced zinc sensitivity of the Brassica shoot system and the general intensification of protein nitration in the roots is attached to relative zinc endurance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Turnip mosaic potyvirus probably first spread to Eurasian brassica crops from wild orchids about 1000 years ago.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huy D Nguyen

    Full Text Available Turnip mosaic potyvirus (TuMV is probably the most widespread and damaging virus that infects cultivated brassicas worldwide. Previous work has indicated that the virus originated in western Eurasia, with all of its closest relatives being viruses of monocotyledonous plants. Here we report that we have identified a sister lineage of TuMV-like potyviruses (TuMV-OM from European orchids. The isolates of TuMV-OM form a monophyletic sister lineage to the brassica-infecting TuMVs (TuMV-BIs, and are nested within a clade of monocotyledon-infecting viruses. Extensive host-range tests showed that all of the TuMV-OMs are biologically similar to, but distinct from, TuMV-BIs and do not readily infect brassicas. We conclude that it is more likely that TuMV evolved from a TuMV-OM-like ancestor than the reverse. We did Bayesian coalescent analyses using a combination of novel and published sequence data from four TuMV genes [helper component-proteinase protein (HC-Pro, protein 3(P3, nuclear inclusion b protein (NIb, and coat protein (CP]. Three genes (HC-Pro, P3, and NIb, but not the CP gene, gave results indicating that the TuMV-BI viruses diverged from TuMV-OMs around 1000 years ago. Only 150 years later, the four lineages of the present global population of TuMV-BIs diverged from one another. These dates are congruent with historical records of the spread of agriculture in Western Europe. From about 1200 years ago, there was a warming of the climate, and agriculture and the human population of the region greatly increased. Farming replaced woodlands, fostering viruses and aphid vectors that could invade the crops, which included several brassica cultivars and weeds. Later, starting 500 years ago, inter-continental maritime trade probably spread the TuMV-BIs to the remainder of the world.

  12. Genome-Wide Identification and Characterization of bZIP Transcription Factors in Brassica oleracea under Cold Stress

    OpenAIRE

    Hwang, Indeok; Manoharan, Ranjith Kumar; Kang, Jong-Goo; Chung, Mi-Young; Kim, Young-Wook; Nou, Ill-Sup

    2016-01-01

    Cabbages (Brassica oleracea L.) are an important vegetable crop around world, and cold temperature is among the most significant abiotic stresses causing agricultural losses, especially in cabbage crops. Plant bZIP transcription factors play diverse roles in biotic/abiotic stress responses. In this study, 119 putative BolbZIP transcription factors were identified using amino acid sequences from several bZIP domain consensus sequences. The BolbZIP members were classified into 63 categories bas...

  13. Development of new restorer lines for CMS ogura system with the use of resynthesized oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Szała, Laurencja; Sosnowska, Katarzyna; Popławska, Wiesława; Liersch, Alina; Olejnik, Anna; Kozłowska, Katarzyna; Bocianowski,Jan; Cegielska-Taras, Teresa

    2016-01-01

    Resynthesized (RS) oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) is potentially of great interest for hybrid breeding. However, a major problem with the direct use of RS B. napus is the quality of seed oil (high level of erucic acid) and seed meal (high glucosinolate content), which does not comply with double-low quality oilseed rape. Thus, additional developments are needed before RS B. napus can be introduced into breeding practice. In this study, RS oilseed rape was obtained through crosses between B....

  14. Acute pulmonary emphysema cum pulmonary edema apparently associated with feeding of Brassica juncea in a dairy buffalo

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad, Ghulam; Saqib, Muhammad; Naureen, Abeera

    2010-01-01

    This preliminary report describes the occurrence of acute pulmonary emphysema cum pulmonary edema ensuing in extensive subcutaneous emphysematous swellings in a dairy buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) apparently associated with a sudden shift from berseem (Trifolium alexendrinum) to Brassica juncea fodder. Tachypnea, expiratory dyspnea, open-mouth breathing, loud expiratory grunt with abdominal lift, and crackles in ventral aspects of the lungs with normal rectal temperature characterized the conditi...

  15. Mining for Candidate Genes in an Introgression Line by Using RNA Sequencing: The Anthocyanin Overaccumulation Phenotype in Brassica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lulu Xie

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Introgression breeding is a widely used method for the genetic improvement of crop plants; however, the mechanism underlying candidate gene flow patterns during hybridization is poorly understood. In this study, we used a powerful pipeline to investigate a Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L. ssp. pekinensis introgression line with the anthocyanin overaccumulation phenotype. Our purpose was to analyze the gene flow patterns during hybridization and elucidate the genetic factors responsible for the accumulation of this important pigment compound. We performed RNA-seq analysis by using two pipelines, one with and one without a reference sequence, to obtain transcriptome data. We identified 930 significantly differentially expressed genes (DEGs between the purple-leaf introgression line and B. rapa green cultivar, namely, 389 up-regulated and 541 down-regulated DEGs that mapped to the B. rapa reference genome. Since only one anthocyanin pathway regulatory gene was identified, i.e., Bra037887 (bHLH, we mined unmapped reads, revealing 2,031 de novo assembled unigenes, including c3563g1i2. Phylogenetic analysis suggested that c3563g1i2, which was transferred from the Brassica B genome of the donor parental line Brassica juncea, may represent an R2R3-MYB transcription factor that participates in the ternary transcriptional activation complex responsible for the anthocyanin overaccumulation phenotype of the B. rapa introgression line. We also identified genes involved in cold and light reaction pathways that were highly upregulated in the introgression line, as confirmed using quantitative real-time PCR analysis. The results of this study shed light on the mechanisms underlying the purple leaf trait in Brassica plants and may facilitate the use of introgressive hybridization for many traits of interest.

  16. Comparative Leave Transcriptome Analysis Emphasizing on Accumulation of Anthocyanins in Brassica: Molecular Regulation and Potential Interaction with Photosynthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Adnan Mushtaq

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The purple leaf pigmentation mainly associated with anthocyanins accumulation is common in Brassica but the mechanisms of its production and its potential physiological functions are poorly understood. Here, we performed the phenotypic, cytological, physiological and comparative leaves transcriptome analyses of 11 different varieties belonging to five Brassica species with purple or green leaves. We observed that the anthocyanin was accumulated in most of vegetative tissues in all Brassica species and also in reproduction organs of B. carinata. Anthocyanin accumulated in different part of purple leaves including adaxial and abaxial epidermal cells as well as palisade and spongy mesophyll cells. Leave transcriptome analysis showed that almost all late biosynthetic genes of anthocyanin especially Dihydroflavonol 4-Reductase (DFR, Anthocyanidin Synthase (ANS and Transparent Testa 19 (TT19, were highly up-regulated in all purple leaves. However, only one of transcript factors in anthocyanin biosynthesis pathway, Transparent Testa 8 (TT8, was co-up regulated along with those genes in all purple leaves, indicating its pivotal role for anthocyanin production in Brassica. Interestingly, with the up-regulation of genes for anthocyanin synthesis, Cytosolic 6-phosphogluconolactonase (PLG5 which involved in the oxidative pentose-phosphate pathway was up-regulated in all purple leaves and three genes FTSH PROTEASE 8 (FTS8, GLYCOLATE OXIDASE 1 (GOX1 and GLUTAMINE SYNTHETASE 1;4 (GLN1;4 related to degradation of photo-damaged proteins in photosystem II and light respiration were down-regulated. These results highlighted the potential physiological functions of anthocyanin accumulation related to photosynthesis which might be of great worth in future.

  17. Toxic effects of Al-based coagulants on Brassica chinensis and Raphanus sativus growing in acid and neutral conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kaisong; Zhou, Qixing

    2005-04-01

    The ecotoxicological effects of aluminum (Al)-based coagulants are of concern because of their wide-ranging applications in wastewater treatment and water purification. As important Al-based coagulants, AlCl(3) and PAC (polyaluminum-chloride) were selected as examples to examine the toxic effects on representative vegetables including the cabbage Brassica chinensis and the radish Raphanus sativus over a range of exposure concentrations in neutral (pH 7.00) and acidic (pH 4.00) conditions, using seed germination and root elongation in the early-growth stage as indicators of toxicity. The results showed that root elongation of the two vegetables was a more sensitive indicator than was seed germination for evaluating the toxicity of Al. As a single influencing factor, H(+) had no significant direct effects on root elongation of Brassica chinensis and Raphanus sativus under the experimental conditions. The toxicity of Al played the main role in inhibiting root elongation and seed germination and was strongly related to changes in pH. There was a markedly positive relationship between the inhibitory rate of root elongation, seed germination, and the concentration of Al at pH 4.00 (p < 0.01). The toxic effect of AlCl(3) on Brassica chinensis was less with a neutral pH than at pH 4.00, but Raphanus sativus was more susceptible to AlCl(3) toxicity at a neutral pH than at pH 4.00. Both Raphanus sativus and Brassica chinensis had a more toxic response to a low concentration (<64 mg . L(-1)) of PAC in a neutral condition than in an acidic condition. Undoubtedly, the Al toxicity caused by Al-based coagulants at a neutral pH is relevant when treatment solids are used in agriculture.

  18. Identification and characterization of orthologs of AtNHX5 and AtNHX6 in Brassica napus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brett Andrew Ford

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Improving crop species by breeding for salt tolerance or introducing salt tolerant traits is one method of increasing crop yields in saline affected areas. The model plant species Arabidopsis thaliana has been extensively studied and there is substantial information available about the function and importance of many genes and proteins involved in salt tolerance. The identification and characterization of A. thaliana orthologs in species such as Brassica napus (oilseed rape can prove difficult due to the significant genomic changes that have occurred since their divergence approximately 20 million years ago. The recently released B. rapa genome provides an excellent resource for comparative studies of Arabidopsis and the cultivated Brassica species, and facilitates the identification of Brassica species orthologs which may be of agronomic importance. Sodium hydrogen antiporter (NHX proteins transport a sodium or potassium ion in exchange for a hydrogen ion in the other direction across a membrane. In A. thaliana there are eight members of the NHX family designated AtNHX1-8 that can be sub-divided into three clades (plasma membrane (PM, intracellular class I (IC-I and intracellular class II (IC-II based on their subcellular localization. In plants, many NHX proteins are primary determinants of salt tolerance and act by transporting Na+ out of the cytosol where it would otherwise accumulate to toxic levels. Significant work has been done analyzing both PM and IC-I clade members role in salt tolerance in a variety of plant species but relatively little analysis has been described for the IC-II clade. Here we describe the identification of B. napus orthologs of AtNHX5 and AtNHX6, using the Brassica rapa genome sequence, macro- and micro-synteny analysis, comparative expression and promoter motif analysis, and highlight the value of these multiple approaches for identifying true orthologs in closely related species with multiple paralogs.

  19. Sub-lethal glyphosate exposure alters flowering phenology and causes transient male-sterility in Brassica spp

    OpenAIRE

    Londo, Jason Paul; McKinney, John; Schwartz, Matthew; Bollman, Mike; Sagers, Cynthia; Watrud, Lidia

    2014-01-01

    Background Herbicide resistance in weedy plant populations can develop through different mechanisms such as gene flow of herbicide resistance transgenes from crop species into compatible weedy species or by natural evolution of herbicide resistance or tolerance following selection pressure. Results from our previous studies suggest that sub-lethal levels of the herbicide glyphosate can alter the pattern of gene flow between glyphosate resistant Canola®, Brassica napus, and glyphosate sensitiv...

  20. 24-epibrassinolide mitigates the adverse effects of manganese induced toxicity through improved antioxidant system and photosynthetic attributes in Brassica juncea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fariduddin, Qazi; Ahmed, Mumtaz; Mir, Bilal A; Yusuf, Mohammad; Khan, Tanveer A

    2015-08-01

    The objective of this study was to establish relationship between manganese-induced toxicity and antioxidant system response in Brassica juncea plants and also to investigate whether brassinosteroids activate antioxidant system to confer tolerance to the plants affected with manganese induced oxidative stress. Brassica juncea plants were administered with 3, 6, or 9 mM manganese at 10-day stage for 3 days. At 31-day stage, the seedlings were sprayed with deionized water (control) or 10(-8) M of 24-epibrassinolide, and plants were harvested at 45-day stage to assess growth, leaf gas-exchange traits, and biochemical parameters. The manganese treatments diminished growth along with photosynthetic attributes and carbonic anhydrase activity in the concentration-dependent manner, whereas it enhanced lipid peroxidation, electrolyte leakage, accumulation of H2O2 as well as proline, and various antioxidant enzymes in the leaves of Brassica juncea which were more pronounced at higher concentrations of manganese. However, the follow-up application of 24-epibrassinolide to the manganese stressed plants improved growth, water relations, and photosynthesis and further enhanced the various antioxidant enzymes viz. catalase, peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase and content of proline. The elevated level of antioxidant enzymes as well as proline could have conferred tolerance to the manganese-stressed plants resulting in improved growth and photosynthetic attributes.

  1. Isolation and characterization of juncin, an antifungal protein from seeds of Japanese Takana (Brassica juncea Var. integrifolia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Xiujuan; Ng, Tzi Bun

    2009-05-27

    An 18.9 kDa antifungal protein designated juncin was isolated from seeds of the Japanese takana (Brassica juncea var. integrifolia). The purification protocol employed comprised anion-exchange chromatography on Q-Sepharose, affinity chromatography on Affi-gel blue gel, cation exchange chromatography on SP-Sepharose, and gel filtration on Superdex 75. Juncin was adsorbed on Affi-gel blue gel and SP-Sepharose but unadsorbed on Q-Sepharose. The protein exhibited antifungal activity toward the phytopathogens Fusarium oxysporum, Helminthosporium maydis, and Mycosphaerella arachidicola with IC(50) values of 13.5, 27, and 10 μM, respectively. It was devoid of mitogenic activity toward splenocytes and nitric oxide inducing activity toward macrophages. It inhibited the proliferation of hepatoma (HepG2) and breast cancer (MCF7) cells with IC(50) values of 5.6 and 6.4 μM, respecitvely, and the activity of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase with an IC(50) of 4.5 μM. Its N-terminal sequence differed from those of antifungal proteins that have been reported to date. Compared with Brassica campestris and Brassica alboglabra antifungal peptides, juncin exhibits a different molecular mass and N-terminal amino acid sequence but similar biological activities.

  2. DNA Methylation Alterations at 5'-CCGG Sites in the Interspecific and Intraspecific Hybridizations Derived from Brassica rapa and B. napus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanshan Xiong

    Full Text Available DNA methylation is an important regulatory mechanism for gene expression that involved in the biological processes of development and differentiation in plants. To investigate the association of DNA methylation with heterosis in Brassica, a set of intraspecific hybrids in Brassica rapa and B. napus and interspecific hybrids between B. rapa and B. napus, together with parental lines, were used to monitor alterations in cytosine methylation at 5'-CCGG sites in seedlings and buds by methylation-sensitive amplification polymorphism analysis. The methylation status of approximately a quarter of the methylation sites changed between seedlings and buds. These alterations were related closely to the genomic structure and heterozygous status among accessions. The methylation status in the majority of DNA methylation sites detected in hybrids was the same as that in at least one of the parental lines in both seedlings and buds. However, the association between patterns of cytosine methylation and heterosis varied among different traits and between tissues in hybrids of Brassica, although a few methylation loci were associated with heterosis. Our data suggest that changes in DNA methylation at 5'-CCGG sites are not associated simply with heterosis in the interspecific and intraspecific hybridizations derived from B. rapa and B. napus.

  3. Improving Growth and Productivity of Oleiferous Brassicas under Changing Environment: Significance of Nitrogen and Sulphur Nutrition, and Underlying Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naser A. Anjum

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Mineral nutrients are the integral part of the agricultural systems. Among important plant nutrients, nitrogen (N and sulphur (S are known essential elements for growth, development, and various physiological functions in plants. Oleiferous brassicas (rapeseed and mustard require higher amounts of S in addition to N for optimum growth and yield. Therefore, balancing S-N fertilization, optimization of nutrient replenishment, minimization of nutrient losses to the environment, and the concept of coordination in action between S and N could be a significant strategy for improvement of growth and productivity of oleiferous brassicas. Additionally, positive interaction between S and N has been reported to be beneficial for various aspects of oilseed brassicas. The current paper updates readers on the significance of N and S for the improvement of plant growth, development, and productivity in detail. In addition, S-N nutrition-mediated control of major plant antioxidant defense system components involved in the removal and/or metabolism of stress-induced/generated reactive oxygen species in plants (hence, the control of plant growth, development, and productivity has been overviewed.

  4. Root traits and microbial community interactions in relation to phosphorus availability and acquisition, with particular reference to Brassica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul John Hunter

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Brassicas are among the most widely grown and important crops worldwide. Phosphorus (P is a key mineral element in the growth of all plants and is largely supplied as inorganic rock-phosphate, a dwindling resource, which is likely to be an increasingly significant factor in global agriculture. In order to develop crops which can abstract P from the soil, utilize it more efficiently, require less of it or obtain more from other sources such as soil organic P reservoirs, a detailed understanding the factors that influence P metabolism and cycling in plants and associated soil is required. This review focuses on the current state of understanding of root trait, rhizodeposition and rhizosphere community interaction as it applies to P solubilization and acquisition, with particular reference to Brassica species. Physical root characteristics, exudation of organic acids (particularly malate and citrate and phosphatase enzymes are considered and the potential mechanisms of control of these responses to P deficiency examined. The influence of rhizodeposits on the development of the rhizosphere microbial community is discussed and the specific features of this community in response to P deficiency are considered; specifically production of phosphatases, phytases and phosphonate hydrolases. Finally various potential approaches for improving overall P use efficiency in Brassica production are discussed.

  5. Improving growth and productivity of Oleiferous Brassicas under changing environment: significance of nitrogen and sulphur nutrition, and underlying mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anjum, Naser A; Gill, Sarvajeet S; Umar, Shahid; Ahmad, Iqbal; Duarte, Armando C; Pereira, Eduarda

    2012-01-01

    Mineral nutrients are the integral part of the agricultural systems. Among important plant nutrients, nitrogen (N) and sulphur (S) are known essential elements for growth, development, and various physiological functions in plants. Oleiferous brassicas (rapeseed and mustard) require higher amounts of S in addition to N for optimum growth and yield. Therefore, balancing S-N fertilization, optimization of nutrient replenishment, minimization of nutrient losses to the environment, and the concept of coordination in action between S and N could be a significant strategy for improvement of growth and productivity of oleiferous brassicas. Additionally, positive interaction between S and N has been reported to be beneficial for various aspects of oilseed brassicas. The current paper updates readers on the significance of N and S for the improvement of plant growth, development, and productivity in detail. In addition, S-N nutrition-mediated control of major plant antioxidant defense system components involved in the removal and/or metabolism of stress-induced/generated reactive oxygen species in plants (hence, the control of plant growth, development, and productivity) has been overviewed.

  6. Cosecha de café con aire utilizando aspiración.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Campillo O. Pablo Ignacio

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Las ventosas son utilizadas para sujetar y para transportar productos industriales, avícolas y agrícolas. Por su diseño, por los materiales utilizados en su fabricación y por la amplia gama de tamaños, las ventosas se adaptan a diferentes formas y rugosidades superficiales. Estos dispositivos pueden ser empleados para desprender frutos maduros en cosechadores operados por el hombre o en equipos robotizados. En este estudio se evaluaron cuatro tipos de ventosas en la sujeción y el desprendimiento de frutos maduros de café (Coffea arabica var. Colombia: de Fuelle 1, Fuelle 2, Multifuelle y Profunda. Se midieron las siguientes variables: área de contacto de la ventosa, proporción de agarre (proporción de frutos agarrados en una rama, proporción de desprendimiento (proporción de frutos maduros desprendidos en una rama, fuerza media de desprendimiento (N y presión media de vacío (kPa. Los resultados obtenidos, indicaron que la proporción de agarre fue del 100 % y la proporción de desprendimiento fue superior al 86 % para todas las ventosas estudiadas. La presión media de vacío varió entre valores de –57 kPa y –45 kPa para todas las ventosas. La fuerza media de desprendimiento varió para cada ángulo y cada ventosa, encontrándose valores entre 3,0 y 10 N. El desprendimiento del fruto de café, utilizando un sistema neumático de vacío con ventosas, depende del tipo de ventosa utilizada, siendo independiente del ángulo en el que actúa. La ventosa más adecuada, según los resultados obtenidos, para agarrar y desprender frutos maduros de café, fue la de tipo Multifuelle.

  7. Seguimiento de la reactogenicidad de la vacuna DTP cubana, utilizando dos métodos paralelos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María de los Ángeles Peña Machado

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de caracterizar la reactogenicidad de la vacuna Antidiftérica-Antitetánica- Antipertusis (DTP cubana, desarrollada por el Instituto Finlay, se realizó un estudio utilizando dos métodos o fuentes de información diferentes y paralelos. La primera se obtuvo de un ensayo clínico (EC Fase IV, abierto, no controlado, en el que se incluyeron 57 lactantes. La segunda fuente de información se obtuvo de los reportes de los eventos temporalmente asociados a la vacunación (ETAV, recepcionados por la Unidad Coordinadora Nacional de Farmacovigilancia (UCNFv que incluyen a 86 lactantes que fueron atendidos por sospechas de ETAV. En el EC se aplicaron 167 dosis, los eventos adversos esperados e inesperados se observaron en un escaso número de lactantes, fueron mayoritariamente ligeros y autolimitados en el tiempo y su frecuencia de aparición se redujo en la 2da y 3ra dosis. El dolor fue el evento local más frecuente y la fiebre fue el evento general que más se presentó. No se reportaron vómitos y la anorexia, la somnolencia, y el llanto persistente aparecieron en un número limitado de sujetos vacunados.Se presentaron 12 eventos no esperados, solo en 2 de ellos se consideró que existía relación causal con la vacunación. Se reportó un evento adverso grave (niña hospitalizada por síndrome febril prolongado postvacunación, que se estudió y demostró que fue causado por una sepsis urinaria persistente provocada por una malformación vesico-ureteral. Los 86 reportes recepcionados por la UCNFv incluían un total de 141 ETAV, dentro de los síntomas locales, el eritema alcanzó un 9,30% y la induración un 5,81%, la fiebre fue un síntoma frecuente aunque no se especifica la temperatura corporal alcanzada. Aunque existen varias diferencias con relación a las condiciones en que se realiza la vigilancia de eventos adversos en un EC o en la práctica clínica habitual, los resultados aquí analizados nos confirman que la

  8. Inversión de efectos de sitio y factor Q utilizando cocientes espectrales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moya Fernández, A.

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Site effects and Q factor were inverted using the spectral ratio technique. The study area corresponds to central Costa Rica where the Earthquake Engineering Laboratory (INII-UCR runs a strong motion network. The technique differs from the usual approach in that it makes use of a reference earthquake instead of a reference site. For that reason, the amplitude of the site effects that are obtained corresponds to the absolute amplification. The results indicate that stations located on soft sediment sites tend to have larger amplification values compared to other stations located on more compacted soils. The Q factor we obtained was frequency dependent with an approximate value of Q(f = (131,6 ± 0,1f (1,1 ± 0,2.En este estudio se llevó a cabo la inversión de los efectos de sitio y del valor de la atenuación Q, utilizando la técnica de cocientes espectrales. La zona de estudio corresponde a la parte central de Costa Rica y los datos utilizados provienen de la red de movimiento fuerte que el Laboratorio de Ingeniería Sísmica (INII-UCR tiene instalada en el país. La técnica empleada utiliza un evento como referencia en lugar de una estación sísmica, por esa razón, los efectos de sitio que se obtienen son los valores absolutos de amplificación. Los resultados muestran que varias de las estaciones ubicadas en sitios sobre suelo blando tienen mayores factores de amplificación que las que se encuentran sobre terrenos relativamente mejor consolidados. También, el valor de la atenuación en la forma de factor Q se encontró que era dependiente de la frecuencia con un valor aproximado de Q(f = (131,6 ± 0,1f (1,1 ± 0,2.

  9. Impact of Vermicompost on Growth and Development of Cabbage, Brassica oleracea Linn. and their Sucking Pest, Brevicoryne brassicae Linn. (Homoptera: Aphididae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mulusew Getnet

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the present study was to produce vermicompost from organic solid wastes by using red earth worm, Eisenia fetida and to check growth promoting and pest suppression properties on cabbage, Brassica oleracea. The mass of 100 kg of various organic waste sources were collected from Gondar and used to prepare vermicompost. The vermicompost was prepared in the month of June-August 2011 and tested on cabbage, B. oleracea from October 2011 to February 2012. Vermicompost was applied at the rate of 25, 50, 100 and 200 gm/plant individually. Each application 10 plants were selected and vermicompost application was continued on bimonthly basis. Totally 40 plants were used for control group in which 10 plants were selected randomly. Total number of leaves per plant; leaf length and width; plant stand height and root length; cabbage head round distance and weight and aphid population built-up were the parameters studied in experimental and control cabbage plants. Significant differences (p<0.05; LSD were observed in the growth and development and pest infestation level between vermicompost applied and control plants. The number of plant stand height, cabbage head, leaves of cabbage were also significantly different (p<0.05; LSD in experimental cabbage compared to control. Maximum number of cabbage plant was infested by aphid in control than experimental groups. In conclusion vermicompost have significant impact on cabbage growth promotion and reduce the aphid infestation. In future using vermicompost to all kinds of crops and adopting it as commercial fertilizer may create job opportunity to small scale farming society. Also, in this ever escalating cost of chemical fertilizers, the use of vermicompost seems to be quite reasonable in agro-management and should be inclusive as one of the elements of poverty alleviation strategies in such as Ethiopian context.

  10. PEMANFAATAN PESTISIDA NABATI PADA PENGENDALIAN HAMA PLUTELLA XYLOSTELLA TANAMAN SAWI (Brassica juncea L. MENUJU PERTANIAN RAMAH LINGKUNGAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    suhartini suhartini

    2017-05-01

    ABSTRACT The use of chemical pesticides has many negative impacts on the environment, it is necessary for the use of biological pesticide towards sustainable agriculture or environmentally friendly agriculture. In the village were encountered many types of leaves that can be used as a biological pesticide, and therefore this study aims to determine the effectiveness of pesticide plant extracts of the leaves of some plants covering the leaves of tobacco, elephantopus, yellow wood and green betel on mortality of Plutella xylostella pests in plants mustard greens (Brassica juncea L, heavy wet mustard and mustard leaf damage    This study uses a completely randomized design with the treatment of various crops as a pesticide vegetable. The treatments used 6 kinds (degree ie negative control (P0, the leaves of tobacco (P1, the leaves of elephantopus (P2, the leaves of yellow wood (P3, the leaves of greens betel (P4 and chemical pesticides as a positive control (P5 with each grade of 10 %. Parameters measured were mortality pests, heavy wet mustard greens and mustard greens leaf damage rate. The analysis was performed by one-way ANOVA.    The results showed that the extract from the leaves of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum, the leaves of elephantopus, the leaves of yellow wood (Arcangelisia flava L. and the leaves of green betel (Piper betle Linn. With a 10 percent concentration of the extract on a variety of  leaves are not yet significant effect on mortality pests Plutella xylostella, heavy wet of mustard greens (brassica juncea l. and severity of leaf mustard greens (brassica juncea l.. The leaf extract the most influence on mortality Plutella xylostella sequential is an extract of the leaves tobacco, the leaves of greens betel, the leaves of yellow wood and the leaves of elephantopus. While the effect on weight of wet mustard greens (Brassica juncea l. in order are as follows: the leaves of yellow wood, the leaves of green betel, the leaves of elephantopus, and the

  11. Atributos AVO/AVA de alta resolución utilizando very fast simulated anneling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel O Pérez

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo presentamos un nuevo método de inversión para obtener atributos AVO/AVA de tipo sparse-spike a partir de datos sísmicos prestack. El método propuesto apunta a obtener el menor número de reflectores que, convolucionados con la ondícula, ajustan al dato. Este método es una extensión, aplicada a datos prestack, de un trabajo anterior sobre deconvolución sparse-spike aplicado a datos poststack. Debido a la alta no linealidad del problema inverso, que incluye la determinación en tiempo de un número dado de reflectores, se busca la solución usando el algoritmo de optimización global conocido como Very Fast Simulated Annealing (VFSA. Contrariamente a otros métodos que también buscan soluciones de tipo sparse, y donde el número de incógnitas coincide con el número de muestras del dato sísmico, en la estrategia propuesta el número de incógnitas es mucho menor. Como consecuencia, las matrices a invertir son pequeñas y el proceso de inversión resulta relativamente económico en términos de costo computacional, aún cuando la inversión se realiza utilizando simulated annealing. La técnica permite, además, determinar incógnitas adicionales como por ejemplo una rotación de fase de la ondícula (para su calibración a partir de la estimación inicial o su frecuencia central (para compensar efectos de atenuación. Una ventaja de utilizar VFSA es que la incertidumbre de las soluciones puede ser estimada estocásticamente, aprovechando el gran número de soluciones que se ponen a prueba durante el proceso de inversión. Los atributos AVO/AVA de alta resolución que se obtienen luego de la inversión incluyen el Intercept y el Gradient, o sea los coeficientes de la aproximación de Shuey de dos términos de las ecuaciones de Zoeppritz, las que son utilizadas para modelar la variación con el ángulo de incidencia del coeficiente de reflexión. No obstante, la incorporación de otras aproximaciones es inmediata. Los

  12. Degradação de poliolefinas utilizando catalisadores zeolíticos Degradation of polyolefins using zeolitic catalysts

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Letícia M. Valle; Maria José O. C. Guimarães; Cristiane M. S. Sampaio

    2004-01-01

    Neste trabalho foi estudada a degradação de alguns dos principais constituintes dos rejeitos plásticos (polietileno de alta densidade (HDPE), polietileno de baixa densidade (LDPE) e polipropileno (PP)), empregando-se um catalisador exausto de unidades de craqueamento de fluidos (FCC) e um catalisador zeolítico (ADZ3) sintetizado em laboratório. Utilizando técnicas de termogravimetria (TG-DTG) e cromatografia gasosa (CG), foi possível avaliar os produtos gerados no craqueamento destas poliolef...

  13. Estudo do rejuvenescimento de membranas de poliamida de osmose reserva utilizando ácido tânico

    OpenAIRE

    João Batista Azevedo da Silva

    2001-01-01

    Neste trabalho é apresentado um estudo sobre o rejuvenescimento de membranas de poliamida de osmose reversa utilizando ácido tânico como agente de rejuvenescimento. Em uma primeira etapa foram estudadas oxidações de membranas por cloro livre catalisadas por ferro e alumínio, e degradações promovidas por procedimentos de limpeza química. Posteriormente, testes de rejuvenescimento foram realizados para encontrar as melhores condições para a recuperação da eficiência das membranas. Parâmetros op...

  14. La geometría del método Simplex y sus aplicaciones utilizando Matlab®

    OpenAIRE

    Raffo Lecca, Eduardo; Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos; Ruiz Lizama, Edgar; Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos

    2014-01-01

    El artículo revisa los conceptos de la geometría computacional aplicados al método simplex utilizando MATLAB®. Dado un modelo de programación lineal o PL, una solución factible es un vector que especifica un valor para cada variable en el problema, el cual sustituyéndolo satisface todas las restricciones; incluidas las de signo. El trabajo revisa los conceptos de la geometría computacional, el método simplex y presenta la manera de aplicar la forma gráfica a un problema PL. Se incluye archivo...

  15. Predicción de ingresos de causas penales utilizando programación genética lineal

    OpenAIRE

    Garcete Rodríguez, Alberto David; Barán, Benjamín

    2015-01-01

    Este trabajo propone una metodología de predicción de ingresos de causas penales utilizando Programación Genética Lineal (Linear Genetic Programming - LGP). El estudio se realizó en base a datos mensuales recogidos durante siete años (2007 a 2013), en los siete Juzgados Penales de Garantías de Ciudad del Este - Paraguay. La verificación del método propuesto se hizo mediante la comparación del método LGP implementado con modelos estadísticos conocidos como la regresión lineal, promedio móvil, ...

  16. Controle de um pré-regulador com alto fator de potência utilizando microcontrolador PIC /

    OpenAIRE

    Grosse, Alexandre de Souza

    1999-01-01

    Dissertação (Mestrado) - Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Centro Tecnológico. Estudo de controle digital em eletrônica de potência utilizando um microcontrolador especial PIC17C756 em um pré-regulador para correção ativa do fator de potência. O enfoque principal é dado no controle da malha de corrente do conversor elevador utilizado. Parte-se da caracterização do microcontrolador e seus periféricos e prossegue-se através do projeto do conversor BOOST. São apresentadas as técnicas de...

  17. Infección urinaria en pacientes con cateterismo vesical con sistema de drenaje cerrado, utilizando un frasco colector recambiable.

    OpenAIRE

    Valdez, Rosario; Miyahira Arakaki, Juan

    2014-01-01

    Con el objetivo de determinar la incidencia de ITU asociado a cateterismo vesical con sistema de drenaje cerrado utilizando un frasco recambiable, fueron evaluados 20 pacientes no críticos, cateterizados por 5 días. Se encontró una incidencia de bacteriuria asociada a cateterismo vesical de 5%, mientras que la contaminación del frasco de drenaje se documento en el 10% de los pacientes. Tanto la bacteriuría, como la contaminación del frasco colector ocurrieron a las 96 horas de cateterismo ves...

  18. Procedimiento para la gestión de mantenimiento utilizando herramientas de la cuarta generación

    OpenAIRE

    Aracelis Barrios; Maritza Ortiz

    2013-01-01

    El presente artículo presenta el diseño de un procedimiento para una gestión de mantenimiento sistémico, utilizando un conjunto de herramientas, que enfocan el uso de los recursos de la empresa asociados con las Personas, los Procesos y la Tecnología, orientados a mejorar la productividad, la toma de decisiones acertadas y a maximizar el rendimiento de los equipos, considerando entre otros, los factores de Confiabilidad, Mantenibilidad, Seguridad, Calidad y Medio Ambiente. El desarrollo del p...

  19. Genome-Wide Analysis and Characterization of Aux/IAA Family Genes in Brassica rapa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parameswari Paul

    Full Text Available Auxins are the key players in plant growth development involving leaf formation, phototropism, root, fruit and embryo development. Auxin/Indole-3-Acetic Acid (Aux/IAA are early auxin response genes noted as transcriptional repressors in plant auxin signaling. However, many studies focus on Aux/ARF gene families and much less is known about the Aux/IAA gene family in Brassica rapa (B. rapa. Here we performed a comprehensive genome-wide analysis and identified 55 Aux/IAA genes in B. rapa using four conserved motifs of Aux/IAA family (PF02309. Chromosomal mapping of the B. rapa Aux/IAA (BrIAA genes facilitated understanding cluster rearrangement of the crucifer building blocks in the genome. Phylogenetic analysis of BrIAA with Arabidopsis thaliana, Oryza sativa and Zea mays identified 51 sister pairs including 15 same species (BrIAA-BrIAA and 36 cross species (BrIAA-AtIAA IAA genes. Among the 55 BrIAA genes, expression of 43 and 45 genes were verified using Genebank B. rapa ESTs and in home developed microarray data from mature leaves of Chiifu and RcBr lines. Despite their huge morphological difference, tissue specific expression analysis of BrIAA genes between the parental lines Chiifu and RcBr showed that the genes followed a similar pattern of expression during leaf development and a different pattern during bud, flower and siliqua development stages. The response of the BrIAA genes to abiotic and auxin stress at different time intervals revealed their involvement in stress response. Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms between IAA genes of reference genome Chiifu and RcBr were focused and identified. Our study examines the scope of conservation and divergence of Aux/IAA genes and their structures in B. rapa. Analyzing the expression and structural variation between two parental lines will significantly contribute to functional genomics of Brassica crops and we belive our study would provide a foundation in understanding the Aux/IAA genes in B. rapa.

  20. Analysis of gene expression in resynthesized Brassica napus Allopolyploids using arabidopsis 70mer oligo microarrays.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert T Gaeta

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Studies in resynthesized Brassica napus allopolyploids indicate that homoeologous chromosome exchanges in advanced generations (S(5ratio6 alter gene expression through the loss and doubling of homoeologous genes within the rearrangements. Rearrangements may also indirectly affect global gene expression if homoeologous copies of gene regulators within rearrangements have differential affects on the transcription of genes in networks. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We utilized Arabidopsis 70mer oligonucleotide microarrays for exploring gene expression in three resynthesized B. napus lineages at the S(0ratio1 and S(5ratio6 generations as well as their diploid progenitors B. rapa and B. oleracea. Differential gene expression between the progenitors and additive (midparent expression in the allopolyploids were tested. The S(5ratio6 lines differed in the number of genetic rearrangements, allowing us to test if the number of genes displaying nonadditive expression was related to the number of rearrangements. Estimates using per-gene and common variance ANOVA models indicated that 6-15% of 26,107 genes were differentially expressed between the progenitors. Individual allopolyploids showed nonadditive expression for 1.6-32% of all genes. Less than 0.3% of genes displayed nonadditive expression in all S(0ratio1 lines and 0.1-0.2% were nonadditive among all S(5ratio6 lines. Differentially expressed genes in the polyploids were over-represented by genes differential between the progenitors. The total number of differentially expressed genes was correlated with the number of genetic changes in S(5ratio6 lines under the common variance model; however, there was no relationship using a per-gene variance model, and many genes showed nonadditive expression in S(0ratio1 lines. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Few genes reproducibly demonstrated nonadditive expression among lineages, suggesting few changes resulted from a general response to polyploidization

  1. Abiotic Stresses Downregulate Key Genes Involved in Nitrogen Uptake and Assimilation in Brassica juncea L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parul Goel

    Full Text Available Abiotic stresses such as salinity, drought and extreme temperatures affect nitrogen (N uptake and assimilation in plants. However, little is known about the regulation of N pathway genes at transcriptional level under abiotic stress conditions in Brassica juncea. In the present work, genes encoding nitrate transporters (NRT, ammonium transporters (AMT, nitrate reductase (NR, nitrite reductase (NiR, glutamine synthetase (GS, glutamate synthase (GOGAT, glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH, asparagines synthetase (ASN were cloned from Brassica juncea L. var. Varuna. The deduced protein sequences were analyzed to predict their subcellular localization, which confirmed localization of all the proteins in their respective cellular organelles. The protein sequences were also subjected to conserved domain identification, which confirmed presence of characteristic domains in all the proteins, indicating their putative functions. Moreover, expression of these genes was studied after 1h and 24h of salt (150 mM NaCl, osmotic (250 mM Mannitol, cold (4°C and heat (42°C stresses. Most of the genes encoding nitrate transporters and enzymes responsible for N assimilation and remobilization were found to be downregulated under abiotic stresses. The expression of BjAMT1.2, BjAMT2, BjGS1.1, BjGDH1 and BjASN2 was downregulated after 1hr, while expression of BjNRT1.1, BjNRT2.1, BjNiR1, BjAMT2, BjGDH1 and BjASN2 was downregulated after 24h of all the stress treatments. However, expression of BjNRT1.1, BjNRT1.5 and BjGDH2 was upregulated after 1h of all stress treatments, while no gene was found to be upregulated after 24h of stress treatments, commonly. These observations indicate that expression of most of the genes is adversely affected under abiotic stress conditions, particularly under prolonged stress exposure (24h, which may be one of the reasons of reduction in plant growth and development under abiotic stresses.

  2. The Effects of Crude Methanol Seed Extract of Brassica juncea on Haematological Parameters in Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.A. Ufelle

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Brassica juncea, (B. juncea also known as Indian Oriental or Brown Mustard is widely used as a medicinal crop, oil seed, condiment and vegetable and much hematological effects have not been recorded on B. juncea. Thirty (30 male wistar rats aged 2-3 months, weighing 100-200 g were obtained and housed at the Animal House of College of Medicine, University of Nigeria Enugu Campus for this study. The rats were divided into five (5 groups of six (6 rats per group, labeled A to E and were acclimatized for two (2 weeks and were fed with commercially available rat feed. They had access to water and feed ad libitum. Groups A to D were orally administered with graded doses of the crude seed extract (50, 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg body weight respectively daily for 30 days while group E which served as control received no extract. Blood samples (2.0 mL were collected from each rat through the retro orbital plexus of the median canthus into K3- EDTA containers for analysis using standard operative procedures. The results obtained, revealed that the mean Hemoglobin (Hb values of groups C and D (C = 12.6±0.57 and D = 11.1±1.4 g/dL were significantly decreased (p<0.05 when compared with control (E = 14.2±0.74 g/dL. The mean Hematocrit (PCV values of groups C and D (C = 0.38±0.02, and D = 0.34±0.04 L/L were also significantly decreased (p<0.05 compared with control (E = 0.43±0.02 L/L. The mean Total WBC values of all the treated groups were significantly increased (A = 6.45±0.3, B = 6.23±0.83, C = 6.0±0.34, and D = 6.05±0.41 x 109/L when compared with control E = 4.28±0.17×109/L (p<0.05. The mean platelet values were significantly decreased in all the treated groups (A = 30.00±4.1, B = 30.00±5.8, C = 46.25±7.5 and D = 33.75±2.5 x 109/L when compared with control E = 86.25±4.8×109/L. This study revealed that crude methanol seed extract of Brassica juncea affects some hematological parameters when orally administered at different concentrations.

  3. Complexity of genome evolution by segmental rearrangement in Brassica rapa revealed by sequence-level analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paterson Andrew H

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Brassica species, related to Arabidopsis thaliana, include an important group of crops and represent an excellent system for studying the evolutionary consequences of polyploidy. Previous studies have led to a proposed structure for an ancestral karyotype and models for the evolution of the B. rapa genome by triplication and segmental rearrangement, but these have not been validated at the sequence level. Results We developed computational tools to analyse the public collection of B. rapa BAC end sequence, in order to identify candidates for representing collinearity discontinuities between the genomes of B. rapa and A. thaliana. For each putative discontinuity, one of the BACs was sequenced and analysed for collinearity with the genome of A. thaliana. Additional BAC clones were identified and sequenced as part of ongoing efforts to sequence four chromosomes of B. rapa. Strikingly few of the 19 inter-chromosomal rearrangements corresponded to the set of collinearity discontinuities anticipated on the basis of previous studies. Our analyses revealed numerous instances of newly detected collinearity blocks. For B. rapa linkage group A8, we were able to develop a model for the derivation of the chromosome from the ancestral karyotype. We were also able to identify a rearrangement event in the ancestor of B. rapa that was not shared with the ancestor of A. thaliana, and is represented in triplicate in the B. rapa genome. In addition to inter-chromosomal rearrangements, we identified and analysed 32 BACs containing the end points of segmental inversion events. Conclusion Our results show that previous studies of segmental collinearity between the A. thaliana, Brassica and ancestral karyotype genomes, although very useful, represent over-simplifications of their true relationships. The presence of numerous cryptic collinear genome segments and the frequent occurrence of segmental inversions mean that inference of the positions

  4. Characterization of a Digestive α-Amylase in the Midgut of Pieris brassicae L. (Lepidoptera: Pieridae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharifloo, Ali; Zibaee, Arash; Sendi, Jalal J.; Jahroumi, Khalil Talebi

    2016-01-01

    The current study deals with a digestive α-amylase in the larvae of Pieris brassicae L. through purification, enzymatic characterization, gene expression, and in vivo effect of a specific inhibitor, Acarbose. Although α-amylase activity was the highest in the whole gut homogenate of larvae but compartmentalization of amylolytic activity showed an equal activity in posterior midgut (PM) and anterior midgut (AM). A three step purification using ammonium sulfate, Sepharyl G-100 and DEAE-Cellulose Fast flow revealed an enzyme with a specific activity of 5.18 U/mg, recovery of 13.20, purification fold of 19.25 and molecular weight of 88 kDa. The purified α-amylase had the highest activity at optimal pH and temperature of 8 and 35°C. Also, the enzyme had Vmax values of 4.64 and 3.02 U/mg protein and Km values of 1.37 and 1.74% using starch and glycogen as substrates, respectively. Different concentrations of acarbose, ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid, and ethylene glycol-bis (β-aminoethylether) N, N, N′, N′-tetraacetic acid significantly decreased activity of the purified α-amylase. The 4th instar larvae of P. brassicae were fed on the treated leaves of Raphanus sativus L. with 0.22 mM of Acarbose to find in vivo effects on nutritional indices, α-amylase activity, and gene expression. The significant differences were only found in conversion efficiency of digested food, relative growth rate, and metabolic cost of control and fed larvae on Acarbose. Also, amylolytic activity significantly decreased in the treated larvae by both biochemical and native-PAGE experiments. Results of RT-PCR revealed a gene with 621 bp length responsible for α-amylase expression that had 75% identity with Papilio xuthus and P. polytes. Finally, qRT-PCR revealed higher expression of α-amylase in control larvae compared to acarbose-fed ones. PMID:27014094

  5. Composition and antioxidant activity of kale (Brassica oleracea L. var. acephala raw and cooked

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabela Bodziarczyk

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available   Background. Cabbage vegetables, like Brassica group, are perceived as very valuable food products. They have a very good nutritive value, high antioxidant activity and pro-healthy potential. Especially, kale (Brassica oleraceaL. var.acephala is characterized by good nutritional and pro-healthy properties, but this vegetable is not popular in Poland. The aim of this work was to assess the chemical composition and antioxidant activity of kale variety Winterbor F1 and investigation of cooking process on selected characteristics. Material and methods. The chemical composition and antioxidant activity were determined in leaves of kale Winterbor F1 variety after three subsequent years of growing. In one season, analyses were performed on raw and cooked leaves. Results. The investigated kale was characterized by high average contents of: β-carotene (6.40 mg/100 g f.m., vitamin C (62.27 mg/100 g f.m., alimentary fiber (8.39 g/100 g f.m. and ash (2.11 g/100 g f.m.. The average amounts of nitrites (III and (V were 3.36 mg NaNO2/kg f.m. and 1206.4 mg NaNO3/kg f.m., respectively. The investigated kale contained polyphenolic compounds at average level of 574.9 mg of chlorogenic acid/100 g f.m., and its antioxidant activity measured as ABTS radical scavenging ability was 33.22 μM Trolox/g of fresh vegetable. It was observed a significant lowering of antioxidant compounds as a result of cooking. The losses of vitamin C were at about 89%, polyphenols at the level of 56%, in calculation on dry mass of the product. The highest stability was shown in the case of beta-carotene, for which the losses were at about 5%. Antioxidant activity of cooked vegetable lowered and reached the level of 38%. There were also some losses observed in macro-components from 13% for zinc to 47% for sodium. The contents of harmful nitrites and nitrates in calculation on dry mass were significantly lower as a result of cooking, by 67% and 78%, respectively. Conclusion. Winterbor F1

  6. Assessment of genetic diversity in Brassica juncea Brassicaceae genotypes using phenotypic differences and SSR markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinu V.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Las especies de mostaza del género Brassica representan uno de los cultivos de semillas oleaginosas más importantes en India, sin embargo, su diversidad genética es poco conocida. Para la utilización de genotipos en programas de cultivos resulta esencial un mayor conocimiento sobre este tema. Debido a ello, se evaluó la diversidad genética entre 44 genotipos de mostaza de la India Brassica juncea incluyendo variedades y líneas puras de diferentes zonas agro-climáticas de la India y algunos genotipos exóticos Australia, Polonia y China. Para ello, se utilizaron marcadores SSR específicos del genoma A y B y datos fenotípicos del rendimiento de 12 cosechas y sus características. De los 143 primers evaluados, 134 reportaron polimorfismo y un total de 355 alelos fueron amplificados. Se generaron dendrogramas a partir de los coeficientes de similitud de Jaccard y de disimilitud Manhattan, basados en un algoritmo de vinculación promedio UPGMA. Se utilizaron datos de marcadores genéticos y datos fenotípicos. Los genotipos se agruparon en cuatro grupos basados en las distancias genéticas. Ambos patrones de agrupamiento, tanto los basados en los coeficientes de similitud de Jaccard como los basados en los de disimilitud Manhattan, separaron independientemente los genotipos por su genealogía y origen, de una manera efectiva. El PCoA reveló que la agrupación de genotipos basada en datos de marcadores SSR, es más convincente que los datos fenotípicos, sin embargo, se observó que la correlación entre las matrices de distancia fenotípica y genética resultó muy baja r=0.11. Por lo tanto, para estudios de diversidad basados en marcadores moleculares es necesario realizar más pruebas. Los marcadores SSR constituyen herramientas más eficientes para discriminar entre genotipos de B. juncea, que las características cuantitativas.

  7. Identification of MiRNAs Affecting the Establishment of Brassica Alboglabra Seedling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rongfang Guo

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs are important for plant development including seed formation, dormancy, and germination, as well as seedling establishment. The Brassica vegetable seedling establishment stage influences the development of high quality seedlings, but also affects the nutrient content of sprouts. Chinese kale (Brassica alboglabra seedlings at different growth stages were used to construct two small-RNA (sRNA libraries. We comprehensively analyzed the miRNAs in 2- and 9-day-old seedlings. An average of 11,722,490 clean reads were generated after removing low-quality reads and adapter contaminants. The results revealed that 37.65% and 26.69% of the sRNAs in 2- and 9-day-old seedlings, respectively, were 24 nt long. In total, 254 known mature miRNA sequences from 228 miRNA families and 343 novel miRNAs were identified. Of these miRNAs, 224 were differentially expressed between the two analyzed libraries. The most abundant miRNAs identified by sequence homology were miR156, miR167, and miR157, each with more than 100,000 sequenced reads. Compared with the expression levels in 2-day-old seedlings, MiR8154 and miR390 were the most up- and down-regulated miRNAs respectively in 9-day-old seedlings. Gene ontology enrichment analysis of the differentially expressed-miRNA target genes affecting biological processes revealed that most genes were in the regulation of transcription category. Additionally, the expression patterns of some miRNAs and target genes were validated by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. We determined that development-associated miRNAs (e.g., bal-miR156/157/159/166/167/172/396, were highly-expressed during seedling-establishment stage, as were stress-related (bal-miR408 and metabolism-related (bal-miR826 miRNAs. Combined with the low level of targets SPL9 and AP2, it was concluded that miR156-SPL9 and miR172-AP modules play key roles during the B. alboglabra seedling establishment stage.

  8. Origins of the amphiploid species Brassica napus L. investigated by chloroplast and nuclear molecular markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allender Charlotte J

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The amphiploid species Brassica napus (oilseed rape, Canola is a globally important oil crop yielding food, biofuels and industrial compounds such as lubricants and surfactants. Identification of the likely ancestors of each of the two genomes (designated A and C found in B. napus would facilitate incorporation of novel alleles from the wider Brassica genepool in oilseed rape crop genetic improvement programmes. Knowledge of the closest extant relatives of the genotypes involved in the initial formation of B. napus would also allow further investigation of the genetic factors required for the formation of a stable amphiploid and permit the more efficient creation of fully fertile re-synthesised B. napus. We have used a combination of chloroplast and nuclear genetic markers to investigate the closest extant relatives of the original maternal progenitors of B. napus. This was based on a comprehensive sampling of the relevant genepools, including 83 accessions of A genome B. rapa L. (both wild and cultivated types, 94 accessions of B. napus and 181 accessions of C genome wild and cultivated B. oleracea L. and related species. Results Three chloroplast haplotypes occurred in B. napus. The most prevalent haplotype (found in 79% of accessions was not present within the C genome accessions but was found at low frequencies in B. rapa. Chloroplast haplotypes characteristic of B. napus were found in a small number of wild and weedy B. rapa populations, and also in two accessions of cultivated B. rapa 'brocoletto'. Whilst introgression of the B. napus chloroplast type in the wild and weedy B. rapa populations has been proposed by other studies, the presence of this haplotype within the two brocoletto accessions is unexplained. Conclusions The distribution of chloroplast haplotypes eliminate any of the C genome species as being the maternal ancestor of the majority of the B. napus accessions. The presence of multiple chloroplast

  9. Radiopacity of restorative materials using digital images Radiopacidade de materiais restauradores utilizando imagens digitais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leda Maria Pescinini Salzedas

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available The radiopacity of esthetic restorative materials has been established as an important requirement, improving the radiographic diagnosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the radiopacity of six restorative materials using a direct digital image system, comparing them to the dental tissues (enamel-dentin, expressed as equivalent thickness of aluminum (millimeters of aluminum. Five specimens of each material were made. Three 2-mm thick longitudinal sections were cut from an intact extracted permanent molar tooth (including enamel and dentin. An aluminum step wedge with 9 steps was used. The samples of different materials were placed on a phosphor plate together with a tooth section, aluminum step wedge and metal code letter, and were exposed using a dental x-ray unit. Five measurements of radiographic density were obtained from each image of each item assessed (restorative material, enamel, dentin, each step of the aluminum step wedge and the mean of these values was calculated. Radiopacity values were subsequently calculated as equivalents of aluminum thickness. Analysis of variance (ANOVA indicated significant differences in radiopacity values among the materials (PA radiopacidade dos materiais tem sido valorizada como importante requisito, incrementando o diagnóstico radiográfico. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar, no sistema digital Digora, as densidades radiográficas de 06 materiais restauradores comparando-os aos tecidos dentais (esmalte e dentina, expressos em milímetros de alumínio (mm Al. Foram confeccionadas 05 amostras de cada material e três cortes de um molar extraído hígido (incluindo esmalte e dentina, com 2 mm de espessura, e um penetrômetro de alumínio com 09 degraus. Sobre cada placa óptica foram colocados amostras dos diferentes materiais, um corte do dente humano, o penetrômetro e a identificação, e feita a exposição utilizando um aparelho de raios X. Foram obtidas 05 medidas de densidade radiográfica de

  10. Medial meniscus transplantation using cyanoacrylate in rabbits Transplante de menisco medial utilizando cianoacrilato em coelhos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro José Reckers

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate meniscal transplantation using as fixation method a synthetic glue derived from cyanoacrylate acid. METHODS: Twenty rabbits were used, of which 10 for autologous transplantation and 10 for homologous transplantation. For the autologous transplantation the meniscus was removed, and then transplanted in the same animal, using the synthetic glue. For the homologous transplantation, the study was divided into two stages: 1- Removal of the meniscus which was maintained at a temperature of 73ºC. 2- Use of cyanoacrylate acid-derived surgical adhesive for meniscal retransplantation in a different rabbit 30 days after the transplant. RESULTS: Due to complications, euthanasia had to be anticipated to the 15th day in the homologous group and to the 18th day in the autologous group. Macroscopically, knees submitted to transplantation presented whitish secretions from the surgical incision up to deep planes. Necrosis was observed in both groups. Statistical analysis has shown that mild (p=0.043 and moderate (p=0.001 complications emerged in a significantly earlier way in the homologous group, where euthanasia was also performed earlier (p=0,005. CONCLUSION: Synthetic surgical adhesives derived from cyanoacrylate acid promoted cortical to medullary bone necrosis bone in both groups.OBJETIVO: Avaliar macroscópica e histologicamente o transplante meniscal, utilizando-se a cola sintética derivada do ácido cianoacrilato como método de fixação. MÉTODOS: Foram utilizados 20 coelhos, tendo 10 realizado transplante autólogo e 10, homólogo. Para o transplante autólogo, o menisco foi retirado e em seguida transplantado no mesmo animal, sendo fixado com a cola sintética. Para o transplante homólogo o estudo foi dividido em duas etapas: 1- retirada do menisco e manutenção a uma temperatura de 73°C negativos. 2- Utilização do adesivo cirúrgico derivado do ácido cianoacrilato para reimplantar num coelho diferente 30 dias após o

  11. MODELACIÓN DE LA DISTRIBUCIÓN DE VIAJES EN EL VALLE DE ABURRÁ UTILIZANDO EL MODELO GRAVITATORIO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARLOS GONZÁLEZ

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo se basa en los últimos estudios de transporte que se realizaron en el ÁreaMetropolitana del Valle de Aburrá: Encuesta Origen/Destino 2005 y Estudio de rutas de buses, Modelación de la Red Vial del Valle de Aburrá, y Plan Maestro de Movilidad. Se realiza el análisis y desarrollo del modelo de distribución de viajes para el Área Metropolitana del Valle de Aburrá utilizando el software TransCAD con los datos del año 2005, utilizando el modelo gravitatorio, el cual determina los viajes que existen entre una y otra zona de acuerdo con la generación y la atracción de viajes que existen entre las zonas relacionadas y una función de impedancia que depende del tiempo de viaje entre zonas. Se analizó el modelo para diferentes períodos y motivos y se encontró que la función de impedancia que mejor se adapta al modelo estudiado es la exponencial negativa.

  12. Adquisición de variables de tráfico peatonal utilizando visión por computador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julián Quiroga

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El problema de tráfico tiene diferentes componentes que pueden ser analizados: los vehículos, los peatones y la interacción entre ellos. En este trabajo se propone un método de adquisición de variables de tráfico peatonal, utilizando técnicas de visión por computador. A partir de una secuencia de vídeo son detectados los peatones aislados, los grupos de peatones y los vehículos de la escena, utilizando un modelo del fondo. Los peatones son seguidos en la imagen por medio de características de su contorno y flujo óptico. El conteo de peatones es realizado sobre cualquier zona de la escena para estimar el flujo y la dirección de movimiento. El método propuesto puede ser configurado bajo diferentes perspectivas a partir de un conjunto de ejemplos. Los resultados experimentales en cruces peatonales demuestran que el método permite estimar las variables de interés en escenas complejas.

  13. EVALUACIÓN DE LA VULNERABILIDAD SÍSMICA DE ESTRUCTURAS UTILIZANDO UN DISEÑO POR DESEMPEÑO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JULIÁN CARRILLO

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Debido a la actualización de los códigos de diseño sísmico, los requerimientos y la demanda sísmica con los cuales deben diseñarse las nuevas estructuras, comúnmente son mayores que los utilizados durante la etapa de diseño de edificaciones existentes. La mayoría de los estudios de vulnerabilidad que deben realizarse, se efectúan utilizando métodos simplificados incluidos en los códigos de diseño sísmico. Sin embargo, en la mayoría de los casos, son demasiado conservadores y poco representativos del comportamiento real de las estructuras. Usando un enfoque de diseño por desempeño, es posible tener una estimación más acertada de dicho comportamiento, permitiendo, en la mayoría de los casos, disminuir o eliminar los costos de una rehabilitaón estructural. En el artículo se presenta la descripción detallada y un caso de estudio de una de las técnicas disponibles para la realizar un estudio de vulnerabilidad sísmica utilizando un enfoque de diseño por desempeño.

  14. Identificação de artrite em suínos utilizando imagem termográfica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Espangue Graciano

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nos sistemas intensivos de produção de suíno uma das afecções mais prevalentes são as artrites, que causam dor aos animais podendo afetar seu desempenho e bem-estar. Deste modo, o diagnóstico precoce torna-se importante para que se dispense aos animais tratamento adequado em tempo hábil. Objetivou-se com este estudo de caso, avaliar a eficiência do uso das imagens termográficas para identificação de artrite, ou de lesões em suínos. Foram utilizados cinco animais com suspeita de artrite nos membros posteriores. A temperatura superficial (TS dos membros posteriores foi registrada por meio de imagens termográficas utilizando o termovisor da Testo®. Foram calculadas as médias de 10 pontos da TS de cada membro posterior dos suínos, sendo posteriormente comparadas utilizando o teste t-Student, com confiabilidade de 95%. Os valores médios de TS foram menores (P≤0,05 no membro sadio (33,6°C, do que naquele com artrite (35,6°C evidenciando que, por meio de imagens termográficas, é possível a identificação de processos inflamatórios em suínos.

  15. Plant extracts in the control of aphids Brevicoryne brassicae (L. and Myzus persicae (SulzerExtratos vegetais no controle dos afídeos Brevicoryne brassicae (L. e Myzus persicae (Sulzer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Reginato Ávila

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Were accomplished the effect of plant extracts of clove basil (Ocimum gratissimum L., horsetail (Equisetum hyemale L., coriander (Coriandrum sativum L. and tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L. on Brevicoryne brassicae (L., 1758 and Myzus persicae (Sulzer, 1776 aphids in cabbage Brassica oleracea (L.. The treatments consisted of plant extracts prepared fresh and dry (concentrations of 2.5; 5.0; and 10% and the controls insecticide acephate and water. These solutions were sprayed on cabbage discs placed on agar in Petri dishes, containing twenty adult aphids. In sequence, the Petri dishes were sealed with plastic film and this procedure was repeated for the two aphid species studied. The assessment of the number of live nymphs and adults occurred at 1, 12, 24, and 72 hours after installation. The extracts of coriander and tobacco prepared in a concentration of 10% showed toxic effects similar to the organophosphate insecticide acephate, on adults and nymphs of the aphids Brevicoryne brassicae and Myzus persicae. Coriander revealed a promising alternative that deserves detailed studies regarding the performance of its active ingredients and dosage determination in order to provide a safe herbal product to control insects.Avaliou-se o efeito de extratos vegetais de alfavaca-cravo (Ocimum gratissimum L., cavalinha (Equisetum hyemale L., coentro (Coriandrum sativum L. e fumo (Nicotiana tabacum L. sobre os pulgões Brevicoryne brassicae (L., 1758 e Myzus persicae (Sulzer, 1776 em couve Brassica oleracea (L.. Os tratamentos consistiram de extratos vegetais preparados a fresco e seco (nas concentrações de 2,5; 5,0 e 10%, do padrão inseticida acefato e de água. As soluções assim obtidas foram pulverizadas em discos de couve colocados sobre agar em placas de Petri, contendo vinte pulgões adultos. Na sequência, as placas de Petri foram vedadas com filme plástico transparente, sendo este procedimento repetido para as duas espécies de afídeos. A avalia

  16. Antigenotoxicity and Tumor Growing Inhibition by Leafy Brassica carinata and Sinigrin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María-Dolores Lozano-Baena

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Cruciferous vegetables are well known and worldwide consumed due to their health benefits and cancer prevention properties. As a desirable cruciferous plant, Ethiopian mustard (Brassica carinata A. Braun and its glucosinolate sinigrin were tested in the in vivo Drosophila melanogaster (SMART and the in vitro HL60 (human promyelocytic leukaemia cell line systems. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC analysis of plant samples confirmed the presence of sinigrin as principal B. carinata glucosinolate. SMART was performed by feeding D. melanogaster larvae either with different concentrations of plant/compound samples or combining them with hydrogen peroxide (a potent oxidative mutagen being both antimutagenics. HL60 assays showed the tumoricidal activity of plant samples (IC50 = 0.28 mg·mL−1 and the breakdown products of sinigrin hydrolysis (IC50 = 2.71 µM. Our results enhance the potential of B. carinata as health promoter and chemopreventive in both systems and the leading role of sinigrin in these effects.

  17. Determintation of sulfor containing glucosides in Brassica nepus L. and Sinappis alba L. tissue cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suleiman Afsharypuor

    1993-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, hypocotyls of 5 day old seedlings of Brassica nepus L. and Sinappis alba L.. were explanted onto Murashige and Skoog's revised Tobaco Medium(lcontaining different concentrations of suitable plant growth regulators (a cytokinin and an auxin. In addition to the plant growth regulators, potassium sulfate(in a concentration of 3 m. eq./liter was added to some solid and liquid media in an attempt to raise available sulfate levels, to other medium, L - B- Phenylalanine was added (in a concentration of 30 m. eq./liter to act possibly as a precursor for the biosynthesis of sulfor containing glucoside (glucosinolate. Suspension cell cultures were initiated from callus and grown in the same medium without agar. Calli which were harvested at 20 weeks and cells at 6 weeks after subculture, were dried and examined by capillary GC for the presences of sulfor containing glucosides. The obtained results indicated the absence of such glucosides in the cells and calli.

  18. Effects of microgravityon the structural organization of Brassica rapa photosynthetic appartus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamchuk, N.; Kordyum, E.; Guikema, J.

    Leaf mesophyll cells of 13- and 15-day old Brassica rapa plants grown on board the space shuttle Columbia (STS-87) and in the ground control have been investigated using the methods of light and electron microscopy. 13-day old plants were fixed on orbit and 15-day old plants were fixed after landing. It was shown the essential differences in leaf mesophyll quantitative anatomical and ultrastructural characteristics between spaceflight and ground control variants. Both the volume of palisade parenchyma cells and a number of chloroplasts in those cells increased in spaceflight samples. Simultaneusly, a chloroplast size decreased together with increasing of a relative volume of stromal thylakoids, starch grains and plastoglobuli. It was also noted increasing of stromal thylakoid length. In the same time, both a total length of thylakoids in granae and the grana number diminished in space flight. In addition, the interthylakoid space could be expended and the thylakoid length was more variable in chloroplast granae on microgravity, that correlated with a shrinkage of thylakoids in granal stacks. The obtained data a er discussed with the questions on both the photosynthetic apparatus sensitivity to gravity and its adaptive possibility to microgravity.

  19. QTL mapping of leafy heads by genome resequencing in the RIL population of Brassica rapa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Yu

    Full Text Available Leaf heads of cabbage (Brassica oleracea, Chinese cabbage (B. rapa, and lettuce (Lactuca sativa are important vegetables that supply mineral nutrients, crude fiber and vitamins in the human diet. Head size, head shape, head weight, and heading time contribute to yield and quality. In an attempt to investigate genetic basis of leafy head in Chinese cabbage (B. rapa, we took advantage of recent technical advances of genome resequencing to perform quantitative trait locus (QTL mapping using 150 recombinant inbred lines (RILs derived from the cross between heading and non-heading Chinese cabbage. The resequenced genomes of the parents uncovered more than 1 million SNPs. Genotyping of RILs using the high-quality SNPs assisted by Hidden Markov Model (HMM generated a recombination map. The raw genetic map revealed some physical assembly error and missing fragments in the reference genome that reduced the quality of SNP genotyping. By deletion of the genetic markers in which recombination rates higher than 20%, we have obtained a high-quality genetic map with 2209 markers and detected 18 QTLs for 6 head traits, from which 3 candidate genes were selected. These QTLs provide the foundation for study of genetic basis of leafy heads and the other complex traits.

  20. QTL mapping of leafy heads by genome resequencing in the RIL population of Brassica rapa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiang; Wang, Han; Zhong, Weili; Bai, Jinjuan; Liu, Pinglin; He, Yuke

    2013-01-01

    Leaf heads of cabbage (Brassica oleracea), Chinese cabbage (B. rapa), and lettuce (Lactuca sativa) are important vegetables that supply mineral nutrients, crude fiber and vitamins in the human diet. Head size, head shape, head weight, and heading time contribute to yield and quality. In an attempt to investigate genetic basis of leafy head in Chinese cabbage (B. rapa), we took advantage of recent technical advances of genome resequencing to perform quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping using 150 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from the cross between heading and non-heading Chinese cabbage. The resequenced genomes of the parents uncovered more than 1 million SNPs. Genotyping of RILs using the high-quality SNPs assisted by Hidden Markov Model (HMM) generated a recombination map. The raw genetic map revealed some physical assembly error and missing fragments in the reference genome that reduced the quality of SNP genotyping. By deletion of the genetic markers in which recombination rates higher than 20%, we have obtained a high-quality genetic map with 2209 markers and detected 18 QTLs for 6 head traits, from which 3 candidate genes were selected. These QTLs provide the foundation for study of genetic basis of leafy heads and the other complex traits.

  1. Effect of Salicylic Acid on Salinity-induced Changes in Brassica juncea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohammad Yusuf; Syed Aiman Hasan; Barket Ali; Shamsul Hayat; Qazi Fariduddin; Aqil Ahmad

    2008-01-01

    Seeds of Indian mustard (Brassica juncea (L.) Czern.et Coss.) were exposed to 0,50,100 and 150 mmol/L NaCl for 8h and seeds were sown in an earthen pot.These stressed seedlings were subsequently sprayed with 10 μrnol/L salicylic acid (SA) at 30 d and were sampled at 60 d to assess the changes in growth,photosynthesis and antioxidant enzymes.The seedlings raised from the seeds treated with NaCl had significantly reduced growth and the activities of carbonic anhydrase,nitrate reductase and photosynthesis,and the decrease was proportional to the increase in NaCl concentration.However,the antioxidant enzymes (catalase,peroxidase and superoxide dismutase) and proline content was enhanced in response to NaCl and/or SA treatment,where their interaction had an additive effect.Moreover,the toxic effects generated by the lower concentration of NaCl (50 mmol/L) were completely overcome by the application of SA.It was,therefore,concluded that SA ameliorated the stress generated by NaCl through the alleviated antioxidant system.

  2. The impact of genome triplication on tandem gene evolution in Brassica rapa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu eFang

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Whole genome duplication (WGD and tandem duplication (TD are both important modes of gene expansion. However, how whole genome duplication influences tandemly duplicated genes is not well studied. We used Brassica rapa, which has undergone an additional genome triplication (WGT and shares a common ancestor with Arabidopsis thaliana, Arabidopsis lyrata and Thellungiella parvula, to investigate the impact of genome triplication on tandem gene evolution. We identified 2,137, 1,569, 1,751 and 1,135 tandem gene arrays in B. rapa, A. thaliana, A. lyrata and T. parvula respectively. Among them, 414 conserved tandem arrays are shared by the 3 species without WGT, which were also considered as existing in the diploid ancestor of B. rapa. Thus, after genome triplication, B. rapa should have 1,242 tandem arrays according to the 414 conserved tandems. Here, we found 400 out of the 414 tandems had at least one syntenic ortholog in the genome of B. rapa. Furthermore, 294 out of the 400 shared syntenic orthologs maintain tandem arrays (more than one gene for each syntenic hit in B. rapa. For the 294 tandem arrays, we obtained 426 copies of syntenic paralogous tandems in the triplicated genome of B. rapa. In this study, we demonstrated that tandem arrays in B. rapa were dramatically fractionated after WGT when compared either to non-tandem genes in the B. rapa genome or to the tandem arrays in closely related species that have not experienced a recent whole-genome polyploidization event.

  3. Effect of Diffusion on Discoloration of Congo Red by Alginate Entrapped Turnip (Brassica rapa Peroxidase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afaf Ahmedi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Enzymatic discoloration of the diazo dye, Congo red (CR, by immobilized plant peroxidase from turnip “Brassica rapa” is investigated. Partially purified turnip peroxidase (TP was immobilized by entrapment in spherical particles of calcium alginate and was assayed for the discoloration of aqueous CR solution. Experimental data revealed that pH, reaction time, temperature, colorant, and H2O2 concentration play a significant role in dye degradation. Maximum CR removal was found at pH 2.0, constant temperature of 40°C in the presence of 10 mM H2O2, and 180 mg/L of CR. More than 94% of CR was removed by alginate immobilized TP after 1 h of incubation in a batch process under optimal conditions. About 74% removal efficiency was retained after four recycles. Diffusional limitations in alginate beads such as effectiveness factor η, Thiele modulus Φ, and effective diffusion coefficients (De of Congo red were predicted assuming a first-order biodegradation kinetic. Results showed that intraparticle diffusion resistance has a significant effect on the CR biodegradation rate.

  4. Genetic Diversity of European and Chinese Oilseed Brassica rapa Cultivars from Different Breeding Periods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Yong-guo; Ofori Atta1; LU Chang-ming

    2009-01-01

    The Brassica oilseed crops went through two major breeding bottlenecks during the introgression of genes for zero erucic acid and low glucosinolate content, respectively, which may lead to reduced genetic biodiversity of the crop. This study investigates the impact of these bottlenecks on the genetic diversity within and across European and Chinese winter B. Rapa cultivars. We compared eight cultivars from Europe and China, representing three different seed qualities from three different breeding periods: (1) high erucic acid, high glucosinolates (++); (2) zero erucic acid, high glucosinolates (0+); (3) zero erueic acid, low glueosonolates (00, canola quality). Diversity was estimated on 32 plants per cultivar, with 16 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers covering each of the B. Rapa linkage groups. The analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) showed that genetic variations within cultivars, across cultivars and across regions (Europe and China) were significant, with about 60% of the total variation within cultivars. There was a slight, but non-significant loss in genetic diversity within cultivars when comparing the three breeding periods as indicated by effective number of alleles (2.39,2.23, and 1.99 for breeding periods 1, 2, and 3, respectively), Shannon information index (0.93, 0.90, 0.75), and expected heterozygosity (0.51, 0.49, 0.42). By cluster analysis (UPGMA dendrogram) and principal coordinate analysis, Chinese and European cultivars were clearly divided into two distinct groups. In conclusion, quality improvement did not significantly reduce the genetic diversity of European and Chinese B. Rapa cultivars.

  5. Germination and Early Growth of Brassica juncea in Copper Mine Tailings Amended with Technosol and Compost

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Luís

    2014-01-01

    Mine tailings represent a serious threat to the environment and human health; thus their restoration has become a major concern. In this study, the interactions between Brassica juncea and different mine soil treatments were evaluated in order to understand their effect on germination and early growth. Three soil treatments containing 25% and 50% of technosol and 30% of compost were prepared. Germination and early growth were assessed in soil and pore water extracts from the treatments. Unlike the untreated mine soil, the three treatments allowed germination and growth, achieving levels comparable to those of seedlings from the same species developed in normal conditions. The seedlings grown in 50% of technosol and 30% of compost exhibited greater germination percentages, higher growth, and more efficient mechanisms against oxidative stress, ascribed to the organic matter and nutrients content of these treatments. Considering the unequivocal ability of B. juncea for phytoremediation, the results suggest that technosol and compost may be an auspicious solution to allow the germination and early growth of this species in mine tailings. PMID:25386602

  6. Phytohormone profile in Lactuca sativa and Brassica oleracea plants grown under Zn deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro-León, Eloy; Albacete, Alfonso; Torre-González, Alejandro de la; Ruiz, Juan M; Blasco, Begoña

    2016-10-01

    Phytohormones, structurally diverse compounds, are involved in multiple processes within plants, such as controlling plant growth and stress response. Zn is an essential micronutrient for plants and its deficiency causes large economic losses in crops. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to analyse the role of phytohormones in the Zn-deficiency response of two economically important species, i.e. Lactuca sativa and Brassica oleracea. For this, these two species were grown hydroponically with different Zn-application rates: 10 μM Zn as control and 0.1 μM Zn as deficiency treatment and phytohormone concentration was determined by U-HPLC-MS. Zn deficiency resulted in a substantial loss of biomass in L. sativa plants that was correlated with a decline in growth-promoting hormones such as indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), cytokinins (CKs), and gibberellins (GAs). However these hormones increased or stabilized their concentrations in B. oleracea and could help to maintain the biomass in this species. A lower concentration of stress-signaling hormones such as ethylene precursor aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC), abscisic acid (ABA), salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA) and also CKs might be involved in Zn uptake in L. sativa while a rise in GA4, isopentenyl adenine (iP), and ACC and a fall in JA and SA might contribute to a better Zn-utilization efficiency (ZnUtE), as observed in B. oleracea plants.

  7. Physiological and biochemical adverse effects of heavy metals on Brassica oleracea grown in Sanganer area, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marwari, Richa; Khan, T I

    2012-04-01

    The paper reveals results of a study carried out in agricultural fields of Sanganer town in India. This town is situated 20 km away from the heart of Jaipur city. In the study area (Amanishah Nalla Sanganer, Jaipur) vegetables are grown in the fields receiving sewerage and textile wastewater. Water, soil and crop (plant samples) were collected from the agricultural fields of Sanganer for analysis. Wastewater (from Amanishsh Nalla) used as irrigation water in agricultural fields of Sanganer town was found to contain 6.127 mg/ L of zinc, 7.116 mg/L of Copper, 5.114 mg/L of Chromium and 4.774 mg/L of lead as the highest amount of respective heavy metals. Soil from agricultural fields was found to contain 11.247 mg/g of zinc, 6.410 mg/g of Copper, 3.514 mg/g of Chromium and 2.619 mg/g of lead. Brassica oleracea (plant material) grown in the Sanganer area was analysed for heavy metal contents. Plant fruit contained 5.730 mg/g of zinc, 7.380 mg/g of Copper, 5.940 mg/g of Chromium and 2.170 mg/g of lead as the highest amount of heavy metals. Use of wasterwater alters the nutritional value of the vegetables grown here and in long run consumption of such vegetables may impose health hazards in human beings, which is a matter of concern.

  8. Gene flow from transgenic oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) to cruciferous weeds under mentor pollen inducement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The alien gene flow between genetically modified glyphosate-resistant rapeseed variety Q3 ( Brassica napus L. ) and four cruciferous weeds was studied under mentor pollen inducement. The results showed that when Thlaspi arvense L., Capsella bursapastoris (L.) Medic, Cardamine hirsuta L. and Rorippa palustris (L.) Besser were pollinated with mentor pollen, the mixed Q3 and the weed, pollen grains aggregated largely and germinated quickly, and the numbers of pollen tubes penetrating into the style and the ovary were greatly increased as compared with corresponding self-pollination groups. Twenty four to forty eight hours after pollination, several pollen tubes were observed to penetrate into the ovule via micropyle in each mentor combination. However, when the mentor progenies were analyzed by PCR, all of them showed negative for the Q3 herbicide-resistant gene. Collectively, these results indicated that crossing between T. arvense, C. bursa-pastoris, C. hirsuta, R. palustris (as female) and Q3 (as male) was highly incompatible and the herbicide-resistant gene could not flow from Q3 to these four weeds.

  9. Phytoremediating a copper mine soil with Brassica juncea L., compost and biochar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Vila, Alfonso; Covelo, Emma F; Forján, Rubén; Asensio, Verónica

    2014-10-01

    The soils at a depleted copper mine in Touro (Galicia, Spain) are chemically degraded. In order to determine the effect of amendments and vegetation on the chemical characteristics of a mine soil and on the plant uptake of metals, a greenhouse experiment was carried out for 3 months. A settling pond soil was amended with different percentages of a compost and biochar mixture and vegetated with Brassica juncea L. The results showed that the untreated settling pond soil was polluted by Cu. Amendments and planting mustards decreased the pseudototal concentration of this metal, reduced the extreme soil acidity and increased the soil concentrations of C and TN. Both treatments also decreased the CaCl2-extractable Co, Cu and Ni concentrations. However, the amendments increased the pseudototal concentration of Zn in the soil, provided by the compost that was used. The results also showed that mustards extracted Ni efficiently from soils, suggesting that B. juncea L. is a good phytoextractor of Ni in mine soils.

  10. Effects of Fe deficiency on the protein profile of Brassica napus phloem sap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez-Carbonell, Elain; Lattanzio, Giuseppe; Albacete, Alfonso; Rios, Juan José; Kehr, Julia; Abadía, Anunciación; Grusak, Michael A; Abadía, Javier; López-Millán, Ana Flor

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this work was to study the effect of Fe deficiency on the protein profile of phloem sap exudates from Brassica napus using 2DE (IEF-SDS-PAGE). The experiment was repeated thrice and two technical replicates per treatment were done. Phloem sap purity was assessed by measuring sugar concentrations. Two hundred sixty-three spots were consistently detected and 15.6% (41) of them showed significant changes in relative abundance (22 decreasing and 19 increasing) as a result of Fe deficiency. Among them, 85% (35 spots), were unambiguously identified. Functional categories containing the largest number of protein species showing changes as a consequence of Fe deficiency were signaling and regulation (32%), and stress and redox homeostasis (17%). The Phloem sap showed a higher oxidative stress and significant changes in the hormonal profile as a result of Fe deficiency. Results indicate that Fe deficiency elicits major changes in signaling pathways involving Ca and hormones, which are generally associated with flowering and developmental processes, causes an alteration in ROS homeostasis processes, and induces decreases in the abundances of proteins involved in sieve element repair, suggesting that Fe-deficient plants may have an impaired capacity to heal sieve elements upon injury.

  11. The EDTA Amendment in Phytoextraction of (134)Cs From Soil by Indian Mustard (Brassica juncea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tjahaja, Poppy Intan; Sukmabuana, Putu; Roosmini, Dwina

    2015-01-01

    Soil contamination with radiocaesium is a significant problem at any countries when a nuclear accident occurred. Recently, phytoextraction technique is developed to remediate the contaminated environment. However, the application is limited by the availability of the contaminant for root uptake. Therefore, a green house trial experiment of soil amendment with ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) has been conducted to examine (134)Cs availability for root uptake. Two groups of Indian mustard (Brassica juncea) were cultivated in (134)Cs contaminated soil. The soil in the first group was treated with EDTA amendment, while the other was not. Plant growth was observed gravimetrically and the (134)Cs concentration in soil as well as plants were determined using gamma spectrometry. The plant uptake capacity was determined as transfer factor (Fv), and the Fv values of 0.22 ± 0.0786 and 0.12 ± 0.039 were obtained for the soil treated with and without EDTA amendment, respectively. The phytoextraction efficiency of the plant cultivated in (134)Cs contaminated soil both with and without EDTA amendment was low. The EDTA amendment to the soil seems to enhance the (134)Cs availability for root uptake of Indian mustard and can still be considered to assist the field phytoremediation of contaminated soil.

  12. Detection of Fungus Infection on Petals of Rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) Using NIR Hyperspectral Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yan-Ru; Yu, Ke-Qiang; Li, Xiaoli; He, Yong

    2016-12-01

    Infected petals are often regarded as the source for the spread of fungi Sclerotinia sclerotiorum in all growing process of rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) plants. This research aimed to detect fungal infection of rapeseed petals by applying hyperspectral imaging in the spectral region of 874–1734 nm coupled with chemometrics. Reflectance was extracted from regions of interest (ROIs) in the hyperspectral image of each sample. Firstly, principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to conduct a cluster analysis with the first several principal components (PCs). Then, two methods including X-loadings of PCA and random frog (RF) algorithm were used and compared for optimizing wavebands selection. Least squares-support vector machine (LS-SVM) methodology was employed to establish discriminative models based on the optimal and full wavebands. Finally, area under the receiver operating characteristics curve (AUC) was utilized to evaluate classification performance of these LS-SVM models. It was found that LS-SVM based on the combination of all optimal wavebands had the best performance with AUC of 0.929. These results were promising and demonstrated the potential of applying hyperspectral imaging in fungus infection detection on rapeseed petals.

  13. Molecular Modeling of Myrosinase from Brassica oleracea: A Structural Investigation of Sinigrin Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sathishkumar Natarajan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Myrosinase, which is present in cruciferous plant species, plays an important role in the hydrolysis of glycosides such as glucosinolates and is involved in plant defense. Brassicaceae myrosinases are diverse although they share common ancestry, and structural knowledge about myrosinases from cabbage (Brassica oleracea was needed. To address this, we constructed a three-dimensional model structure of myrosinase based on Sinapis alba structures using Iterative Threading ASSEmbly Refinement server (I-TASSER webserver, and refined model coordinates were evaluated with ProQ and Verify3D. The resulting model was predicted with β/α fold, ten conserved N-glycosylation sites, and three disulfide bridges. In addition, this model shared features with the known Sinapis alba myrosinase structure. To obtain a better understanding of myrosinase–sinigrin interaction, the refined model was docked using Autodock Vina with crucial key amino acids. The key nucleophile residues GLN207 and GLU427 were found to interact with sinigrin to form a hydrogen bond. Further, 20-ns molecular dynamics simulation was performed to examine myrosinase–sinigrin complex stability, revealing that residue GLU207 maintained its hydrogen bond stability throughout the entire simulation and structural orientation was similar to that of the docked state. This conceptual model should be useful for understanding the structural features of myrosinase and their binding orientation with sinigrin.

  14. Genome-wide characterization of the Pectate Lyase-like (PLL) genes in Brassica rapa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jingjing; Yao, Lina; Miao, Ying; Cao, Jiashu

    2013-11-01

    Pectate lyases (PL) depolymerize demethylated pectin (pectate, EC 4.2.2.2) by catalyzing the eliminative cleavage of α-1,4-glycosidic linked galacturonan. Pectate Lyase-like (PLL) genes are one of the largest and most complex families in plants. However, studies on the phylogeny, gene structure, and expression of PLL genes are limited. To understand the potential functions of PLL genes in plants, we characterized their intron-exon structure, phylogenetic relationships, and protein structures, and measured their expression patterns in various tissues, specifically the reproductive tissues in Brassica rapa. Sequence alignments revealed two characteristic motifs in PLL genes. The chromosome location analysis indicated that 18 of the 46 PLL genes were located in the least fractionated sub-genome (LF) of B. rapa, while 16 were located in the medium fractionated sub-genome (MF1) and 12 in the more fractionated sub-genome (MF2). Quantitative RT-PCR analysis showed that BrPLL genes were expressed in various tissues, with most of them being expressed in flowers. Detailed qRT-PCR analysis identified 11 pollen specific PLL genes and several other genes with unique spatial expression patterns. In addition, some duplicated genes showed similar expression patterns. The phylogenetic analysis identified three PLL gene subfamilies in plants, among which subfamily II might have evolved from gene neofunctionalization or subfunctionalization. Therefore, this study opens the possibility for exploring the roles of PLL genes during plant development.

  15. Frying stability of rapeseed Kizakinonatane (Brassica napus) oil in comparison with canola oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jin-Kui; Zhang, Han; Tsuchiya, Tomohiro; Akiyama, Yoshinobu; Chen, Jie-Yu

    2015-04-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the frying performance of Kizakinonatane (Brassica napus) oil during deep-fat frying of frozen French fries with/without replenishment. Commercial regular canola oil was used for comparison. The frying oils were used during intermittent frying of frozen French fries at 180, 200, and 220 ℃ for 7 h daily over four consecutive days. The Kizakinonatane oil exhibited lower levels of total polar compounds, carbonyl value, and viscosity as well as comparable color (optical density) values to that of the canola oil. The monounsaturated fatty acid/polyunsaturated fatty acid ratios were lower than that of canola oil, whereas the polyunsaturated fatty acid/saturated fatty acid ratios are higher than that of canola oil after heating. Results showed that fresh Kizakinonatane oil contains higher levels of acid value, viscosity, optical density values, tocopherols, and total phenolics contents than that of canola oil. Replenishment with fresh oil had significant effects on all chemical and physical parameters, except the acid value of the Kizakinonatane oil during frying processes. Based on the results, the Kizakinonatane oil is inherently suitable for preparing deep-fried foods at high temperatures.

  16. Early biochemical responses of Brassica napus var Exagone seed germination at salt treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lacramioara Oprica

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The rapeseed is the third most important edible oil source in the world, after soybean and palm. This plant is very sensitive to salt stress throughout the growth and development cycle. Salt stress reduces plant growth and productivity and can affected several physiological and biochemical process. For this reason, this study was carried out to determine early the effects of NaCl treatment on the protein content, amylase (EC 3.2.1.1, acide phosphatase (E.C. 3.1.3.2, peroxidase (EC 1.11.1.7 and catalase (EC 1.11.1.6 in young rape plant (Brassica napus L. var Exagone. The rape seed were treated four hour with three NaCl solutions (50mM, 100mM, 150mM comparatively with a control who wasn’t exposed at treatment. Amylase activity was inhibited by all used salts concentrations at both time intervals studied. Salinity stimulated the acid phosphatase activity, more intense at 4 days and moderately at 7 days after treatment. The activity of the two assayed antioxidant enzymes (except peroxidase in the second period increase in salinity conditions with increasing salt concentration. Soluble protein content is reduced compared to the control at both studied intervals.

  17. QTL analysis of leaf photosynthesis rate and related physiological traits in Brassica napus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Xing-ying; QU Cun-min; LI Jia-na; CHEN Li; LIU Lie-zhao

    2015-01-01

    Rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) oil is the crucial source of edible oil in China. In addition, it can become a major renewable and sustainable feedstock for biodiesel production in the future. It is known that photosynthesis products are the primary sources for dry matter accumulation in rapeseed. Therefore, increasing the photosynthetic efifciency is desirable for the raise of rapeseed yield. The objective of the present study was to identify the genetic mechanism of photosynthesis based on the description of relationships between different photosynthetic traits and their quantitative trait loci (QTL) by using a recombinant inbred line (RIL) population with 172 lines. Speciifcal y, correlation analysis in this study showed that internal CO2 concentration has negative correlations with other three physiological traits under two different stages. Total y, 11 and 12 QTLs of the four physiological traits measured at the stages 1 and 2 were detected by using a high-density single nu-cleotidepolymorphism (SNP) markers linkage map with composite interval mapping (CIM), respectively. Three co-localized QTLs on A03 were detected at stage 1 with 5, 5, and 10%of the phenotypic variation, respectively. Other two co-localized QTLs were located on A05 at stage 2, which explained up to 12 and 5%of the phenotypic variation, respectively. The results are beneifcial for our understanding of genetic control of photosynthetic physiological characterizations and improvement of rapeseed yield in the future.

  18. Roseomonas soli sp. nov., isolated from an agricultural soil cultivated with Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong-Uk; Ka, Jong-Ok

    2014-03-01

    A bacterial strain, designated 5N26(T), was isolated from an agricultural soil cultivated with Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris). Cells of this strain were Gram-reaction-negative, strictly aerobic, motile, non-spore-forming rods, and catalase- and urease-negative. The major fatty acids of strain 5N26(T) were C16 : 0 (7.5 %), C18 : 1 2-OH (13.4 %) and summed feature 8 (C18:1ω6c and/or C18:1ω7c; 63.2%). The polar lipid profile contained diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylmonomethylethanolamine and one unidentified aminolipid. The G+C content of the genomic DNA of strain 5N26(T) was 68.3 mol%. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that strain 5N26(T) was phylogenetically related to Roseomonas lacus TH-G33(T) and Roseomonas terrae DS-48(T) (97.0 % and 96.6 % sequence similarity, respectively). The results of genotypic and phenotypic data showed that strain 5N26(T) could be distinguished from phylogenetically related species, and that this strain represented a novel species within the genus Roseomonas, for which the name Roseomonas soli sp. nov. (type strain 5N26(T) = KACC 16376(T) = NBRC 109097(T)) is proposed.

  19. Graphene oxide modulates root growth of Brassica napus L. and regulates ABA and IAA concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Fan; Liu, Yu-Feng; Lu, Guang-Yuan; Zhang, Xue-Kun; Xie, Ling-Li; Yuan, Cheng-Fei; Xu, Ben-Bo

    2016-04-01

    Researchers have proven that nanomaterials have a significant effect on plant growth and development. To better understand the effects of nanomaterials on plants, Zhongshuang 11 was treated with different concentrations of graphene oxide. The results indicated that 25-100mg/l graphene oxide treatment resulted in shorter seminal root length compared with the control samples. The fresh root weight decreased when treated with 50-100mg/l graphene oxide. The graphene oxide treatment had no significant effect on the Malondialdehyde (MDA) content. Treatment with 50mg/l graphene oxide increased the transcript abundance of genes involved in ABA biosynthesis (NCED, AAO, and ZEP) and some genes involved in IAA biosynthesis (ARF2, ARF8, IAA2, and IAA3), but inhibited the transcript levels of IAA4 and IAA7. The graphene oxide treatment also resulted in a higher ABA content, but a lower IAA content compared with the control samples. The results indicated that graphene oxide modulated the root growth of Brassica napus L. and affected ABA and IAA biosynthesis and concentration.

  20. A Pin gene families encoding components of auxin efflux carriers in Brassica juncea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Based on the sequence information of Arabidopsis PIN1, two cDNAs encoding PIN homologues fromBrassica juncea, Bjpin2 and Bjpin3, were isolated through cDNA library screening. Bjpin2 and Bjpin3encoded proteins containing 640 and 635 amino acid residues, respectively, which shared 97.5% identities witheach other and were highly homologous to Arabidopsis PIN1, PIN2 and other putative PIN proteins. BjPIN2and BjPIN3 had similar structures as AtPIN proteins. Northern blot analysis indicated that Bjpin2 wasexpressed in stem, leaf and floral tissues, while Bjpin3 was expressed predominantly in stem and hypocotyls.Two promoter fragments of pin genes, Bjpin-X and Bjpin-Z, were isolated by 'genome walking' techniqueusing primers at 5'-end of pin cDNA. Promoter-gus fusion studies revealed the GUS activities driven byBjpin-X were at internal side of xylem and petal; while those driven by Bjpin-Z were detected at leaf vein,epidermal cell and cortex of stem, vascular tissues and anther. Results of the pin genes with differentexpression patterns in B. juncea suggested the presence of a gene family.

  1. Arsenic and lead uptake by Brassicas grown on an old orchard site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Maya P; McBride, Murray B

    2015-12-15

    Arugula (Eruca sativa) and collards (Brassica oleracea var. acephala), were grown at a former orchard where soils had been variably contaminated by lead arsenate pesticides. To test for the effect of compost on As and Pb transfer into plants, compost was added (0, 5, and 10% DW) to five plots representing a wide range of soil Pb and As. Arugula accumulated about 5 times higher As concentrations in above-ground tissues than collards, with high variability in individual plant concentrations. Soil to arugula transfer (uptake) coefficients were higher for As than for Pb, and increased with soil As. Crop concentrations of Pb varied widely within replicate samples of both arugula and collards. Arugula contamination by Pb was significantly correlated to soil total Pb, but collard contamination was not. Evidence was found using Al as an indicator of soil particle contamination of plant tissues that Pb in arugula was primarily due to soil particle deposition on foliar surfaces. Compost amendments reduced 0.01 M CaCl2 -extractable Pb but increased extractable As in the orchard soils. However, compost had the beneficial effect of reducing both As and Pb concentrations in harvested arugula grown on most of the plots.

  2. Isolation and functional analysis of a Brassica juncea gene encoding a component of auxin efflux carrier

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI; MIN; NI; XIAO; YA; CHEN; ZHI; HONG; XU; HONG; WEI; XUE

    2002-01-01

    Polar auxin transport plays a divergent role in plant growth and developmental processes including rootand embryo development, vascular pattern formation and cell elongation. Recently isolated Arabidopsispin gene family was believed to encode a component of auxin efflux carrier (Galweiler et al, 1998). Basedon the Arabidopsis pin1 sequence we have isolated a Brassica juncea cDNA (designated Bjpinl), whichencoded a 70-kDa putative auxin efflux carrier. Deduced BjPIN1 shared 65% identities at protein level withAtPIN1 and was highly homologous to other putative PIN proteins of Arabidopsis (with highest homologyto AtPIN3). Hydrophobic analysis showed similar structures between BjPIN1 and AtPIN proteins. Presenceof 6 exons (varying in size between 65 bp and 1229 bp) and 5 introns (sizes between 89 bp and 463 bp)in the genomic fragment was revealed by comparing the genomic and cDNA sequences. Northern blotanalysis indicated that Bjpinl was expressed in most of the tissues tested, with a relatively higher levelof transcript in flowers and a lower level in root tissues. Promoter-reporter gene fusion studies furtherrevealed the expression of Bjpinl in the mature pollen grains, young seeds, root tip, leaf vascular tissue andtrace bundle, stem epidermis, cortex and vascular cells. BjPIN1 was localized on the plasma membraneas demonstrated through fusion expression of green fluorescent protein (GFP). Auxin efflux carrier activitywas elevated in transgenic Arabidopsis expressing BjPIN1.

  3. LMI1-like genes involved in leaf margin development of Brassica napus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Xiyuan; Liu, Han; Huang, Jixiang; Zhao, Jianyi

    2017-06-01

    In rapeseed (Brassica napus L.), leaf margins are variable and can be entire, serrate, or lobed. In our previous study, the lobed-leaf gene (LOBED-LEAF 1, BnLL1) was mapped to a 32.1 kb section of B. napus A10. Two LMI1-like genes, BnaA10g26320D and BnaA10g26330D, were considered the potential genes that controlled the lobed-leaf trait in rapeseed. In the present study, these two genes and another homologous gene (BnaC04g00850D) were transformed into Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. plants to identify their functions. All three LMI1-like genes of B. napus produced serrate leaf margins. The expression analysis indicated that the expression level of BnaA10g26320D determined the difference between lobed- and entire-leaved lines in rapeseed. Therefore, it is likely that BnaA10g26320D corresponds to BnLL1.

  4. The endogenous nitric oxide mediates selenium-induced phytotoxicity by promoting ROS generation in Brassica rapa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Chen

    Full Text Available Selenium (Se is suggested as an emerging pollutant in agricultural environment because of the increasing anthropogenic release of Se, which in turn results in phytotoxicity. The most common consequence of Se-induced toxicity in plants is oxidative injury, but how Se induces reactive oxygen species (ROS burst remains unclear. In this work, histofluorescent staining was applied to monitor the dynamics of ROS and nitric oxide (NO in the root of Brassica rapa under Se(IV stress. Se(IV-induced faster accumulation of NO than ROS. Both NO and ROS accumulation were positively correlated with Se(IV-induced inhibition of root growth. The NO accumulation was nitrate reductase (NR- and nitric oxide synthase (NOS-dependent while ROS accumulation was NADPH oxidase-dependent. The removal of NO by NR inhibitor, NOS inhibitor, and NO scavenger could alleviate Se(IV-induced expression of Br_Rbohs coding for NADPH oxidase and the following ROS accumulation in roots, which further resulted in the amelioration of Se(IV-induced oxidative injury and growth inhibition. Thus, we proposed that the endogenous NO played a toxic role in B. rapa under Se(IV stress by triggering ROS burst. Such findings can be used to evaluate the toxic effects of Se contamination on crop plants.

  5. A developmentally regulated Cre-lox system to generate marker-free transgenic Brassica napus plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopertekh, Lilya; Broer, Inge; Schiemann, Joachim

    2012-01-01

    In this chapter, a strategy for engineering marker-free Brassica napus plants is described. It is based on the Cre-lox site-specific recombination system and includes three essential steps. At first, the binary vector pLH-nap-lx-cre-35S-bar-lx-vst has been designed. In this vector, the cre gene and the bar expression cassette are flanked by two lox sites in direct orientation. The lox-flanked sequence is placed between a seed-specific napin promoter and a coding region for the vstI gene. At the second step, the cre-bar vector was transferred into B. napus hypocotyl explants by Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. Finally, T1 progeny was tested for excision of the marker gene at phenotypic and molecular levels. PCR, sequencing, and Southern blot analysis confirmed complete and precise deletion of the lox-flanked DNA region. This developmentally regulated Cre-lox system can be applied to remove undesirable DNA in transgenic plants propagated by seeds.

  6. Biorefinery process for protein extraction from oriental mustard (Brassica juncea (L.) Czern.) using ethanol stillage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratanapariyanuch, Kornsulee; Tyler, Robert T; Shim, Youn Young; Reaney, Martin Jt

    2012-01-12

    Large volumes of treated process water are required for protein extraction. Evaporation of this water contributes greatly to the energy consumed in enriching protein products. Thin stillage remaining from ethanol production is available in large volumes and may be suitable for extracting protein rich materials. In this work protein was extracted from ground defatted oriental mustard (Brassica juncea (L.) Czern.) meal using thin stillage. Protein extraction efficiency was studied at pHs between 7.6 and 10.4 and salt concentrations between 3.4 × 10-2 and 1.2 M. The optimum extraction efficiency was pH 10.0 and 1.0 M NaCl. Napin and cruciferin were the most prevalent proteins in the isolate. The isolate exhibited high in vitro digestibility (74.9 ± 0.80%) and lysine content (5.2 ± 0.2 g/100 g of protein). No differences in the efficiency of extraction, SDS-PAGE profile, digestibility, lysine availability, or amino acid composition were observed between protein extracted with thin stillage and that extracted with NaCl solution. The use of thin stillage, in lieu of water, for protein extraction would decrease the energy requirements and waste disposal costs of the protein isolation and biofuel production processes.

  7. The influence of different hydroponic conditions on thorium uptake by Brassica juncea var. foliosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dingna; Zhou, Sai; Liu, Li; Du, Liang; Wang, Jianmei; Huang, Zhenling; Ma, Lijian; Ding, Songdong; Zhang, Dong; Wang, Ruibing; Jin, Yongdong; Xia, Chuanqin

    2015-05-01

    The effects of different hydroponic conditions (such as concentration of thorium (Th), pH, carbonate, phosphate, organic acids, and cations) on thorium uptake by Brassica juncea var. foliosa were evaluated. The results showed that acidic cultivation solutions enhanced thorium accumulation in the plants. Phosphate and carbonate inhibited thorium accumulation in plants, possibly due to the formation of Th(HPO4)(2+), Th(HPO4)2, or Th(OH)3CO3 (-) with Th(4+), which was disadvantageous for thorium uptake in the plants. Organic aids (citric acid, oxalic acid, lactic acid) inhibited thorium accumulation in roots and increased thorium content in the shoots, which suggested that the thorium-organic complexes did not remain in the roots and were beneficial for thorium transfer from the roots to the shoots. Among three cations (such as calcium ion (Ca(2+)), ferrous ion (Fe(2+)), and zinc ion (Zn(2+))) in hydroponic media, Zn(2+) had no significant influence on thorium accumulation in the roots, Fe(2+) inhibited thorium accumulation in the roots, and Ca(2+) was found to facilitate thorium accumulation in the roots to a certain extent. This research will help to further understand the mechanism of thorium uptake in plants.

  8. Impact of copper toxicity on stone-head cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata) in hydroponics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Sajid; Shahbaz, Muhammad; Shahzad, Ahmad Naeem; Khan, Hafiz Azhar Ali; Anees, Moazzam; Haider, Muhammad Saleem; Fatima, Ammara

    2015-01-01

    Arable soils are frequently subjected to contamination with copper as the consequence of imbalanced fertilization with manure and organic fertilizers and/or extensive use of copper-containing fungicides. In the present study, the exposure of stone-head cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata) to elevated Cu(2+) levels resulted in leaf chlorosis and lesser biomass yield at ≥2 µ M. Root nitrate content was not statistically affected by Cu(2+) levels, although it was substantially decreased at ≥5 µ M Cu(2+) in the shoot. The decrease in nitrate contents can be related to lower nitrate uptake rates because of growth inhibition by Cu-toxicity. Shoot sulfate content increased strongly at ≥2 µ M Cu(2+) indicating an increase in demand for sulfur under Cu stress. Furthermore, at ≥2 µM concentration, concentration of water-soluble non-protein thiol increased markedly in the roots and to a smaller level in the shoot. When exposed to elevated concentrations of Cu(2+) the improved sulfate and water-soluble non-protein thiols need further studies for the evaluation of their direct relation with the synthesis of metal-chelating compounds (i.e., phytochelatins).

  9. Impact of copper toxicity on stone-head cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata in hydroponics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajid Ali

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Arable soils are frequently subjected to contamination with copper as the consequence of imbalanced fertilization with manure and organic fertilizers and/or extensive use of copper-containing fungicides. In the present study, the exposure of stone-head cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata to elevated Cu2+ levels resulted in leaf chlorosis and lesser biomass yield at ≥2 µ M. Root nitrate content was not statistically affected by Cu2+ levels, although it was substantially decreased at ≥5 µ M Cu2+ in the shoot. The decrease in nitrate contents can be related to lower nitrate uptake rates because of growth inhibition by Cu-toxicity. Shoot sulfate content increased strongly at ≥2 µ M Cu2+ indicating an increase in demand for sulfur under Cu stress. Furthermore, at ≥2 µM concentration, concentration of water-soluble non-protein thiol increased markedly in the roots and to a smaller level in the shoot. When exposed to elevated concentrations of Cu2+ the improved sulfate and water-soluble non-protein thiols need further studies for the evaluation of their direct relation with the synthesis of metal-chelating compounds (i.e., phytochelatins.

  10. Relationships of Leaf Area Index and NDVI for 12 Brassica Cultivars in Northeastern Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabro, Jay; Allen, Brett; Long, Dan; Isbell, Terry; Gesch, Russ; Brown, Jack; Hatfield, Jerry; Archer, David; Oblath, Emily; Vigil, Merle; Kiniry, Jim; Hunter, Kimberly; Shonnard, David

    2017-04-01

    To our knowledge, there is limited information on the relationship of the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and leaf area index (LAI) in spring Brassica oilseed crops. The 2014 results of NDVI and LAI of 12 spring varieties of oilseed crops were measured in a field study conducted in Sidney, Montana, USA under dryland conditions. These 12 varieties were grouped under six species (B. napus, B. rapa, B. juncea, B. carinata, Sinapis alba, and Camelina sativa). The NDVI and LAI were measured weekly throughout the growing season. The NDVI was continually measured at one sample per second across the whole plot using a Crop Circle ACS-470 active crop canopy sensor. The LAI was measured at two locations at 12 samples per plot using an AccuPar model LP-80 Ceptometer. Treatments were replicated four times in a randomized complete block design in plots of 3 m×9 m. Temporal dynamics of NDVI and LAI in various growth stages of 12 varieties were evaluated throughout the growing season. Significant relationships and models between NDVI and LAI were obtained when 12 varieties were grouped under six species.

  11. Subcellular distribution and chemical forms of thorium in Brassica juncea var. foliosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Sai; Kai, Hailu; Zha, Zhongyong; Fang, Zhendong; Wang, Dingna; Du, Liang; Zhang, Dong; Feng, Xiaojie; Jin, Yongdong; Xia, Chuanqin

    2016-06-01

    Brassica juncea var. foliosa (B. juncea var. foliosa) is a promising species for thorium (Th) phytoextraction due to its large biomass, fast growth rate and high tolerance toward Th. To further understand the mechanisms of Th tolerance, the present study investigated the subcellular distribution and chemical forms of Th found in B. juncea var. foliosa Our results indicated that in both roots and leaves, Th contents in different parts of the cells follow the order of cell wall > membranes and soluble fraction > organelles. In particular, Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) analysis showed that Th was abundantly located in cell walls of the roots. Additionally, when plants were exposed to different concentrations of Th, we have found that Th existed in B. juncea var. foliosa with different chemical forms. Much of the Th extracted by 2% acetic acid (HAc), 1 M NaCl and HCl in roots with the percentage distribution varied from 47.2% to 62.5%, while in leaves, most of the Th was in the form of residue and the subdominant amount of Th was extracted by HCl, followed by 2% HAc. This suggested that Th compartmentation in cytosol and integration with phosphate or proteins in cell wall might be responsible for the tolerance of B. juncea var. foliosa to the stress of Th.

  12. Studies on the cost-effective management of Alternaria blight of rapeseed-mustard (Brassica spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M. Khan

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Three systemic fungicides: Topsin-M (Thiophanate methyl, 70%WP, Ridomil MZ (Mancozeb, 64% + Metalaxyl, 8%WP, and Bavistin (Carbendazim, 50%WP alone and in combination with four non-systemic fungicides Captaf (Captan, 50%WP, Indofil M-45 (Mancozeb, 75%WP, Indofil Z-78 (Zineb, 75%WP, and Thiram (Thiram, 75%WP were evaluated both in vitro and in vivo for their effectiveness to manage Alternaria blight of rapeseedmustard caused by Alternaria brassicae. A pure culture of the pathogenic fungus was applied in the field at 2 g colonized sorghum seeds kg-1 soil. All the fungicides were evaluated for their efficacy at various concentrations, 50, 100, 150, 200 and 500 ppm, and were sprayed in the field at 0.2% a.i. l-1. All fungicides significantly reduced the severity of the disease but Ridomil MZ was most effective. Topsin-M at a concentration of 500 ppm was the most effective in reducing radial growth of the pathogenic fungi (74.2%. Ridomil MZ reduced disease severity by 32% and was followed in effectiveness by the combination Bavistin+Captaf (26.5%. Maximum yield was obtained in plots sprayed with Bavistin+Captaf (1198 kg ha-1 followed by Bavistin+Indofil Z-78 (1172 kg ha-1. It was worth noting that the highest net profit as well as the highest cost-benefit ratio was obtained with Bavistin+Indofil Z-78 (1:3.2, followed by Bavistin+Captaf (1:1.3.

  13. Joint enhancement of lead accumulation in Brassica plants by EDTA and ammonium sulfate in sand culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    When EDTA was added alone in the Pb-contaminated sand, the plant biomass and the total Pb amount in plant decreased in both species, Brassica pekinensis and B. juncea var. multiceps, though the shoot Pb amount increased. In contrast, when (NH4)2 SO4 was added alone in the Pb-contaminated sand, little effect was observed on the shoot Pb amount, though the root Pb amount was significantly increased in B. juncea var. multiceps. When amending EDTA and (NH4)2SO4 in combination, however, the shoot Pb amount in both species substantially increased, being, on an average, 2 times and 9 times higher than that in EDTA alone or (NH4)2 SO4 alone amended treatment, respectively.The two amendments showed antagonism for plant growth, but synergism for Pb bioaccumulation. B. pekinensis showed its highest level of shoot and total Pb amount in the treatment amended with EDTA and (NH4)2 SO4 only a half as much as in the other treatments. It is inferred that the mechanisms responsible for the joint-enhanced Pb accumulation might be concerned with the acidification of the growth medium, cation exchange reaction and relieving EDTA induced toxicity as results by amending ammonium sulfate.

  14. In vivo tracing of organophosphorus pesticides in cabbage (Brassica parachinensis) and aloe (Barbadensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Junlang; Chen, Guosheng; Zhou, Hong; Xu, Jianqiao; Wang, Fuxin; Zhu, Fang; Ouyang, Gangfeng

    2016-04-15

    In vivo solid-phase microextraction (SPME) sampling method coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis was employed to trace the uptake and elimination of organophosphorus pesticides (OPPs) in two kinds of edible plants, cabbage (Brassica parachinensis) and aloe (Barbadensis). The metabolism of fenthion in aloe was also investigated by the liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry analysis (LC-MS/MS) to understand the fate of OPPs in living plants better. Transpiration stream concentration factor (TSCF) and depuration rate constants of the OPPs in living plants were obtained therein. The health risk of the OPPs treated aloe was estimated by the maximum residue limit (MRL) approach, and it revealed that the OPPs were rather safe for their fast degradable property. However, peak concentration of fenthion-sulfoxide was found to exceed the MRL and was higher than that of the parent fenthion, which indicated the potential risk of pesticide metabolites. This study highlighted the application of in vivo SPME for contaminant tracing in different living edible plants. The in vivo tracing method is very convenient and can provide more data to evaluate the risk of different pesticides, which are very important for the safety of agriculture production.

  15. Glutathione Transferases Superfamily: Cold-Inducible Expression of Distinct GST Genes in Brassica oleracea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayakumar, Harshavardhanan; Thamilarasan, Senthil Kumar; Shanmugam, Ashokraj; Natarajan, Sathishkumar; Jung, Hee-Jeong; Park, Jong-In; Kim, HyeRan; Chung, Mi-Young; Nou, Ill-Sup

    2016-07-27

    Plants, as sessile organisms, can suffer serious growth and developmental consequences under cold stress conditions. Glutathione transferases (GSTs, EC 2.5.1.18) are ubiquitous and multifunctional conjugating proteins, which play a major role in stress responses by preventing oxidative damage by reactive oxygen species (ROS). Currently, understanding of their function(s) during different biochemical and signaling pathways under cold stress condition remain unclear. In this study, using combined computational strategy, we identified 65 Brassica oleracea glutathione transferases (BoGST) and characterized them based on evolutionary analysis into 11 classes. Inter-species and intra-species duplication was evident between BoGSTs and Arabidopsis GSTs. Based on localization analyses, we propose possible pathways in which GST genes are involved during cold stress. Further, expression analysis of the predicted putative functions for GST genes were investigated in two cold contrasting genotypes (cold tolerance and susceptible) under cold condition, most of these genes were highly expressed at 6 h and 1 h in the cold tolerant (CT) and cold susceptible (CS) lines, respectively. Overall, BoGSTU19, BoGSTU24, BoGSTF10 are candidate genes highly expressed in B. oleracea. Further investigation of GST superfamily in B. oleracea will aid in understanding complex mechanism underlying cold tolerance in plants.

  16. Glutathione Transferases Superfamily: Cold-Inducible Expression of Distinct GST Genes in Brassica oleracea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harshavardhanan Vijayakumar

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Plants, as sessile organisms, can suffer serious growth and developmental consequences under cold stress conditions. Glutathione transferases (GSTs, EC 2.5.1.18 are ubiquitous and multifunctional conjugating proteins, which play a major role in stress responses by preventing oxidative damage by reactive oxygen species (ROS. Currently, understanding of their function(s during different biochemical and signaling pathways under cold stress condition remain unclear. In this study, using combined computational strategy, we identified 65 Brassica oleracea glutathione transferases (BoGST and characterized them based on evolutionary analysis into 11 classes. Inter-species and intra-species duplication was evident between BoGSTs and Arabidopsis GSTs. Based on localization analyses, we propose possible pathways in which GST genes are involved during cold stress. Further, expression analysis of the predicted putative functions for GST genes were investigated in two cold contrasting genotypes (cold tolerance and susceptible under cold condition, most of these genes were highly expressed at 6 h and 1 h in the cold tolerant (CT and cold susceptible (CS lines, respectively. Overall, BoGSTU19, BoGSTU24, BoGSTF10 are candidate genes highly expressed in B. oleracea. Further investigation of GST superfamily in B. oleracea will aid in understanding complex mechanism underlying cold tolerance in plants.

  17. Chelate-assisted phytoextraction: effect of EDTA and EDDS on copper uptake by Brassica napus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TIJANA M. ZEREMSKI-ŠKORIĆ

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Chelate-assisted phytoextraction is proposed as an effective approach for the removal of heavy metals from contaminated soil through the use of high biomass plants. The aim of the present study was to compare the efficiency of the two chelators: EDTA and biodegradable EDDS in enhancing Cu uptake and translocation by Brassica napus L. grown on moderately contaminated soil and treated with increasing concentrations of EDTA or EDDS. Increasing amounts of EDDS caused serious growth suppression of B. napus and an increase in shoot metal concentrations. Growth suppression limited the actual amount of phytoextracted Cu at high concentrations of EDDS. The maximum amount of extracted Cu was achieved by the application of 8.0 and 4.0+4.0 mmol kg-1 EDDS. The shoot Cu concentrations after EDTA application were much lower than with EDDS at the same doses. According to these experiments, EDTA does not appear to be an efficient amendment if Cu phytoextraction with B. napus is considered but EDDS is.

  18. Intergeneric Somatic Hybridization Between Brassica napus L. And Sinapis alba L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    You-Ping WANG; Karin SONNTAG; Eicke RUDLOFF; Jian-Min CHEN

    2005-01-01

    Electrically induced protoplast fusion was used to produce somatic hybrids between Brassica napus L. and Sinapis alba L. Seven hybrids were obtained and verified by the simple sequence repeat and cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence analysis of the genefael, indicating that the characteristic bands from S. alba were present in the hybrids. The hybridity was also confirmed by chromosome number counting because the hybrids possessed 62 chromosomes, corresponding to the sum of fusion-parent chromosomes. Chromosome pairing at meiosis was predominantly normal, which led to high pollen fertility,ranging from 66% to 77%. All hybrids were grown to full maturity and could be fertilized and set seed after self-pollination or back-crosses with B. napus. The morphology of the hybrids resembled characteristics from both parental species. An analysis of the fatty acid composition in the seeds of F1 plants was conducted and the seeds were found to contain different amounts of erucic acid, ranging from 11.0% to 52.1%.

  19. Proteomic Dissection of Seed Germination and Seedling Establishment in Brassica napus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Jianwei; Chao, Hongbo; Gan, Lu; Guo, Liangxing; Zhang, Kai; Li, Yonghong; Wang, Hao; Raboanatahiry, Nadia; Li, Maoteng

    2016-01-01

    The success of seed germination and establishment of a normal seedling are key determinants of plant species propagation. At present, only a few studies have focused on the genetic control of seed germination by using a proteomic approach in Brassica napus. In the present study, the protein expression pattern of seed germination was investigated using differential fluorescence two-dimensional gel electrophoresis in B. napus. One hundred and thirteen differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) that were mainly involved in storage (23.4%), energy metabolism (18.9%), protein metabolism (16.2%), defense/disease (12.6%), seed maturation (11.7%), carbohydrate metabolism (4.5%), lipid metabolism (4.5%), amino acids metabolism (3.6%), cell growth/division (3.6%), and some unclear functions (2.7%) were observed by proteomic analysis. Seventeen genes corresponding to 11 DEPs were identified within or near the associated linkage disequilibrium regions related to seed germination and vigor quantitative traits reported in B. napus in previous studies. The expression pattern of proteins showed that heterotrophic metabolism could be activated in the process of seed germination and that the onset of defense mechanisms might start during seed germination. These findings will help generate a more in-depth understanding of the mobilization of seed storage reserves and regulation mechanisms of the germination process in B. napus.

  20. Brassica oleracea MATE encodes a citrate transporter and enhances aluminum tolerance in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xinxin; Li, Ren; Shi, Jin; Wang, Jinfang; Sun, Qianqian; Zhang, Haijun; Xing, Yanxia; Qi, Yan; Zhang, Na; Guo, Yang-Dong

    2014-08-01

    The secretion of organic acid anions from roots is an important mechanism for plant aluminum (Al) tolerance. Here we report cloning and characterizing BoMATE (KF031944), a multidrug and toxic compound extrusion (MATE) family gene from cabbage (Brassica oleracea). The expression of BoMATE was more abundant in roots than in shoots, and it was highly induced by Al treatment. The (14)C-citrate efflux experiments in oocytes demonstrated that BoMATE is a citrate transporter. Electrophysiological analysis and SIET analysis of Xenopus oocytes expressing BoMATE indicated BoMATE is activated by Al. Transient expression of BoMATE in onion epidermal cells demonstrated that it localized to the plasma membrane. Compared with the wild-type Arabidopsis, the transgenic lines constitutively overexpressing BoMATE enhanced Al tolerance and increased citrate secretion. In addition, Arabidopsis transgenic lines had a lower K(+) efflux and higher H(+) efflux, in the presence of Al, than control wild type in the distal elongation zone (DEZ). This is the first direct evidence that MATE protein is involved in the K(+) and H(+) flux in response to Al treatment. Taken together, our results show that BoMATE is an Al-induced citrate transporter and enhances aluminum tolerance in Arabidopsis thaliana.

  1. Molecular cloning and characterization of the Dicer-like 2 gene from Brassica rapa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Fei; Peng, Jiejun; Lu, Yuwen; Lin, Lin; Zheng, Hongying; Chen, Hairu; Chen, Jianping; Adams, Michael J

    2009-07-01

    Dicer-like proteins (DCLs) are involved in small RNA-mediated development and viral defense in plants. In model plants, at least four DCLs have been found and a number of studies have helped to understand their function. However, the function of the Dicer or DCLs in other plants is still unclear. Here, we report the full-length cDNA sequence of Brassica rapa ssp. chinensis DCL2 (BrDCL2) gene, which contains a 4,179 bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding a protein of 1,392 amino acids. At the 3' end of BrDCL2, clones with three different lengths of 3' untranslated region were found. An alternative splice variant of BrDCL2, BrDCL2sv, in which one intron was retained between exon9 and exon10, was also cloned. Because of a change in the coding sequence resulting in a premature terminal codon, BrDCL2sv was expected to translate a short peptide containing the whole DEXHc domain.

  2. Pol IV-Dependent siRNA Production is Reduced in Brassica rapa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca A. Mosher

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Plants produce a diverse array of small RNA molecules capable of gene regulation, including Pol IV-dependent short interfering (p4-siRNAs that trigger transcriptional gene silencing. Small RNA transcriptomes are available for many plant species, but mutations affecting the synthesis of Pol IV-dependent siRNAs are characterized only in Arabidopsis and maize, leading to assumptions regarding nature of p4-siRNAs in all other species. We have identified a mutation in the largest subunit of Pol IV, NRPD1, that impacts Pol IV activity in Brassica rapa, an agriculturally important relative of the reference plant Arabidopsis. Using this mutation we characterized the Pol IV-dependent and Pol IV-independent small RNA populations in B. rapa. In addition, our analysis demonstrates reduced production of p4-siRNAs in B. rapa relative to Arabidopsis. B. rapa genomic regions are less likely to generate p4-siRNAs than Arabidopsis but more likely to generate Pol IV-independent siRNAs, including 24 nt RNAs mapping to transposable elements. These observations underscore the diversity of small RNAs produced by plants and highlight the importance of genetic studies during small RNA analysis.

  3. In vivo tracing of organophosphorus pesticides in cabbage (Brassica parachinensis) and aloe (Barbadensis)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiu, Junlang; Chen, Guosheng; Zhou, Hong; Xu, Jianqiao; Wang, Fuxin; Zhu, Fang, E-mail: ceszf@mail.sysu.edu.cn; Ouyang, Gangfeng, E-mail: cesoygf@mail.sysu.edu.cn

    2016-04-15

    In vivo solid-phase microextraction (SPME) sampling method coupled with gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS) analysis was employed to trace the uptake and elimination of organophosphorus pesticides (OPPs) in two kinds of edible plants, cabbage (Brassica parachinensis) and aloe (Barbadensis). The metabolism of fenthion in aloe was also investigated by the liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry analysis (LC–MS/MS) to understand the fate of OPPs in living plants better. Transpiration stream concentration factor (TSCF) and depuration rate constants of the OPPs in living plants were obtained therein. The health risk of the OPPs treated aloe was estimated by the maximum residue limit (MRL) approach, and it revealed that the OPPs were rather safe for their fast degradable property. However, peak concentration of fenthion-sulfoxide was found to exceed the MRL and was higher than that of the parent fenthion, which indicated the potential risk of pesticide metabolites. This study highlighted the application of in vivo SPME for contaminant tracing in different living edible plants. The in vivo tracing method is very convenient and can provide more data to evaluate the risk of different pesticides, which are very important for the safety of agriculture production. - Highlights: • In vivo SPME was employed to sample organophosphorus pesticides in vegetables. • Uptake and elimination of OPPs were traced in cabbage and aloe. • In vivo tracing of fenthion demonstrated its metabolites could be rather dangerous. • The risks of OPPs were assessed based on the in vivo tracing data.

  4. Sulfate resupply accentuates protein synthesis in coordination with nitrogen metabolism in sulfur deprived Brassica napus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qian; Lee, Bok-Rye; Park, Sang-Hyun; Zaman, Rashed; Avice, Jean-Christophe; Ourry, Alain; Kim, Tae-Hwan

    2015-02-01

    To investigate the regulatory interactions between S assimilation and N metabolism in Brassica napus, de novo synthesis of amino acids and proteins was quantified by (15)N and (34)S tracing, and the responses of transporter genes, assimilatory enzymes and metabolites pool involving in nitrate and sulfate metabolism were assessed under continuous sulfur supply, sulfur deprivation and sulfate resupply after 3 days of sulfur (S) deprivation. S-deprived plants were characterized by a strong induction of sulfate transporter genes, ATP sulfurylase (ATPS) and adenosine 5'-phosphosulfate reductase (APR), and by a repressed activity of nitrate reductase (NR) and glutamine synthetase (GS). Sulfate resupply to the S-deprived plants strongly increased cysteine, amino acids and proteins concentration. The increase in sulfate and cysteine concentration caused by sulfate resupply was not matched with the expression of sulfate transporters and the activity of ATPS and APR which were rapidly decreased by sulfate resupply. A strong induction of O-acetylserine(thiol)lyase (OASTL), NR and GS upon sulfate resupply was accompanied with the increase in cysteine, amino acids and proteins pool. Sulfate resupply resulted in a strong increase in de novo synthesis of amino acids and proteins, as evidenced by the increases in N and S incorporation into amino acids (1.8- and 2.4-fold increase) and proteins (2.2-and 6.3-fold increase) when compared to S-deprived plants. The results thus indicate that sulfate resupply followed by S-deprivation accelerates nitrate assimilation for protein synthesis.

  5. 28-Homobrassinolide Modulate Antenna Complexes and Carbon Skeleton of Brassica juncea L. under Temperature Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harpreet Kaur

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of present study was to explore the ameliorative impact of 28-homoBL on morpho-physiological attributes, photosynthetic pigments and sugars of Brassica juncea L. exposed to oxidative stress caused by extreme temperatures (4 and 44 °C. For this, experiments were carried out at the Plant Physiology Laboratory, Department of Botany, Punjabi University, Patiala. Effect of different degrees of temperature (4 and 44 °C taking 24 °C as control was studied. 28-homoBL (10-6, 10-9 and 10-12M primed and unprimed seeds of B. juncea L. in terms of antenna complexes and end products of photosynthesis that is total carbohydrates and total soluble sugars was investigated. All concentrations of 28-homoBL used in present study showed different effects on morphology and light quenching pigments. All concentrations of 28-homoBL showed promoting effect on growth and light quenching pigments. The carbon makeup ameliorated positively in stressed and non-stressed components of photosynthetic machinery and 10-9 M 28-homoBL showed best results. In conclusion 28-homoBL showed great potential in protecting the reaction centre of photosynthetic machinery from oxidative stress caused by extreme low and high temperatures but in very dose dependent manner and thus modulate the carbon skeleton of the plant.

  6. Multitrait plant growth promoting (PGP) rhizobacterial isolates from Brassica juncea rhizosphere : Keratin degradation and growth promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anwar, Mohmmad Shahbaz; Siddique, Mohammad Tahir; Verma, Amit; Rao, Yalaga Rama; Nailwal, Tapan; Ansari, Mohammad; Pande, Veena

    2014-01-01

    Plant growth promoting (PGP) rhizobacteria, a beneficial microbe colonizing plant roots, enhanced crop productivity and offers an attractive way to replace chemical fertilizers, pesticides, and supplements. The keratinous waste which comprises feathers, hairs, nails, skin and wool creates problem of solid waste management due to presence of highly recalcitrant keratin. The multi traits rhizobacteria effective to remove both keratine from the environment by producing keratinase enzyme and to eradicate the chemical fertilizer by providing different PGP activity is novel achievement. In the present study, the effective PM2 strain of PGPR was isolated from rhizospheric soil of mustard (Brassica juncea) field, Pantnagar and they were identified on the basis of different biochemical tests as belonging to Bacillus genera. Different plant growth promoting activity, feather degradation and keratinolytic activity was performed and found very effective toward all the parameters. Furthermore, the efficient strain PM2 was identified on the basis of 16s rRNA sequencing and confirmed as Bacillus cereus. The strain PM2 might be used efficiently for keratinous waste management and PGP activity. Therefore, the present study suggests that Bacillus cereus have multi traits activity which extremely useful for different PGP activity and biotechnological process involving keratin hydrolysis, feather biodegradation or in the leather industry.

  7. Variation of glucoraphanin and glucobrassicin: anticancer components in Brassica during processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Me-Hea Park

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Effects of cold storage and three common cooking practices, blanching, sauteing, and microwave cooking at different time intervals, on the content of glucosinolate (GSL anticancer components in six Brassica vegetables were investigated. Eleven GSLs including progoitrin, glucoraphanin, sinigrin, glucoalyssin, gluconapin, glucobrassicanapin, glucoerucin, glucobrassicin, 4-methoxyglucobrassicin, gluconasturtiin, and neoglucobrassicin were quantified using LC-MS and HPLC. Storage at 4 ºC indicated no significant loss of GSLs in broccoli, kohlrabi, and cabbage, and approximately 90-100% of the total concentration of aliphatic and indolyl GSLs were detected. Interestingly, glucoraphanin and glucobrassicin, known as a cancer prevention agents, increased approximately above 50% in broccoli, kohlrabi, and cabbage, while the amount of glucobrassicin decreased by 5% in cauliflower for 5 days at 4 ºC. Blanching of broccoli at 120 sec significantly (36% decreased total GSLs; however, sautéing and microwaving decreased by13-26%. Individual GSLs have different response at blanching. These findings suggest that different processing methods for each vegetable would be preferred to preserve the nutritional qualities.

  8. Growth response modulation by putrescine in Indian mustard Brassica juncea L. under multiple stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakra, Nita; Tomar, Pushpa C; Mishra, S N

    2016-04-01

    Plants, in general, are put to various kinds of stress, biotic and abiotic, both natural and manmade. Infestation by insect pests and diseases, and extreme conditions such as salinity, temperature, etc., as well as heavy metal contamination affect their growth performance. Here, we studied the impact of salinity and heavy metal pollution on the growth performance of Indian Mustard Brassica juncea L. and its amelioration by the diamine, putrescine, a known media supplement. We evaluated the putrescine (Put) modulation potential on multiple stress effect in 7-day old Indian mustard. The germination, seedlings length and photosynthetic pigments decline under salinity and metal (Cd/Pb) stress condition, alone or in combination, were checked by putrescine. The stress induced increase in root-shoot ratio, RNA and total amino acids content, as well as Na⁺/K⁺ ratio in leaf tissues were also comparatively less. The increased endogenous Cd/Pb accumulation in plants exposed to either metal further elevated under salinity was also found decelerated. However, the multiple stressed seedlings showed increase in glutathione content, which was further elevated with putrescine application. The increase in protein contents in leaf under single or combined stresses in the presence of putrescine could be a qualitative change. The differential changes in parameters examined here resulted in improved growth (> 10%) suggests stress mitigation by the putrescine up to an extent.

  9. Fibrillarin methylates H2A in RNA polymerase I trans-active promoters in Brassica oleracea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    lloyd eLoza-Muller

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Fibrillarin is a well conserved methyltransferase involved in several if not all of the more than 100 methylations sites in rRNA which are essential for proper ribosome function. It is mainly localized in the nucleoli and Cajal bodies inside the cell nucleus where it exerts most of its functions. In plants, fibrillarin binds directly the guide RNA together with Nop56, Nop58 and 15.5ka proteins to form a snoRNP complex that selects the sites to be methylated in pre-processing of ribosomal RNA. Recently, the yeast counterpart NOP1 was found to methylate histone H2A in the nucleolar regions. Here we show that plant fibrillarin can also methylate histone H2A. In Brassica floral meristem cells the methylated histone H2A is mainly localized in the nucleolus but unlike yeast or human cells it also localize in the periphery of the nucleus. In specialized transport cells the pattern is altered and it exhibits a more diffuse staining in the nucleus for methylated histone H2A as well as for fibrillarin. Here we also show that plant fibrillarin is capable of interacting with H2A and carry out its methylation in the rDNA promoter.

  10. Heme oxygenase 1 defects lead to reduced chlorophyll in Brassica napus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Lixia; Yang, Zonghui; Zeng, Xinhua; Gao, Jie; Liu, Jie; Yi, Bin; Ma, Chaozhi; Shen, Jinxiong; Tu, Jinxing; Fu, Tingdong; Wen, Jing

    2017-04-01

    We previously described a Brassica napus chlorophyll-deficient mutant (ygl) with yellow-green seedling leaves and mapped the related gene, BnaC.YGL, to a 0.35 cM region. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in this chlorophyll defect are still unknown. In this study, the BnaC07.HO1 gene (equivalent to BnaC.YGL) was isolated by the candidate gene approach, and its function was confirmed by genetic complementation. Comparative sequencing analysis suggested that BnaC07.HO1 was lost in the mutant, while a long noncoding-RNA was inserted into the promoter of the homologous gene BnaA07.HO1. This insert was widely present in B. napus cultivars and down-regulated BnaA07.HO1 expression. BnaC07.HO1 was highly expressed in the seedling leaves and encoded heme oxygenase 1, which was localized in the chloroplast. Biochemical analysis showed that BnaC07.HO1 can catalyze heme conversion to form biliverdin IXα. RNA-seq analysis revealed that the loss of BnaC07.HO1 impaired tetrapyrrole metabolism, especially chlorophyll biosynthesis. According, the levels of chlorophyll intermediates were reduced in the ygl mutant. In addition, gene expression in multiple pathways was affected in ygl. These findings provide molecular evidences for the basis of the yellow-green leaf phenotype and further insights into the crucial role of HO1 in B. napus.

  11. Proteomic dissection of seed germination and seedling establishment in Brassica napus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianwei Gu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The success of seed germination and the establishment of a normal seedling are key determinants of plant species propagation. At present, only few studies have focused on the genetic control of the seed germination by proteomic approach in Brassica napus. In the present study, the protein expression pattern of seed germination was investigated using differential fluorescence two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-D DIGE in B. napus. One hundred thirteen differentially expressed proteins (DEPs, which were mainly involved in storage proteins (23.4%, energy metabolism (18.9%, protein metabolism (16.2%, defense/disease (12.6%, seed maturation (11.7%, carbohydrate metabolism (4.5%, lipid metabolism (4.5%, amino acids metabolism (3.6%, cell growth/division (3.6%, and some unclear proteins (2.7% were observed by proteomic analysis. Seventeen genes corresponding to 11 DEPs were identified within or near the associated linkage disequilibrium regions related to seed germination and vigor quantitative traits reported in B. napus in previous studies. The expression pattern of proteins showed the heterotrophic metabolism could be activated in the process of seed germination and the onset of defense system might start during seed germination. These findings will help us more in-depth understanding of the mobilization of seed storage reserves and regulation mechanisms of germination process in B. napus.

  12. Cytogenetic diversity of simple sequences repeats in morphotypes of Brassica rapa ssp. chinensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinshuang Zheng

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A significant fraction of the nuclear DNA of all eukaryotes is occupied by simple sequence repeats (SSRs. Although thesis sequences have sparked great interest as a means of studying genetic variation, linkage mapping and evolution, little attention had been paid to the chromosomal distribution and cytogenetic diversity of these sequences. This paper report the long-range organization of all possible classes of mono-, di- and tri-nucleotide SSRs in Brassica rapa. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH was used to characterize the cytogenetic diversity of SSRs among morphotypes of B. rapa ssp. chinensis. The proportion of different SSR motifs varied among morphtypes of B. rapa, with trinucleotide SSRs more prevalent in the genome of B. rapa ssp. chinensis. The chromosomal characterizations of mono-, di- and tri-nucleotide repeats have been acquired. The data has revealed the non-random and motif-dependent chromosome distribution of SSRs in different morphtypes, and allowed the relative variability characterized by SSRs amount and similar chromosomal distribution in centromeric/peri-centromeric heterochromatin. The differences of SSRs in the abundance and distribution indicated the driving force of SSRs in relationship with the evolution of B. rapa species. The results provided a comprehensive view on the SSR sequence distribution and evolution for comparison among morphtypes B. rapa ssp. chinensis.

  13. Genetic Analysis of Health-Related Secondary Metabolites in a Brassica rapa Recombinant Inbred Line Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark G. M. Aarts

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The genetic basis of the wide variation for nutritional traits in Brassica rapa is largely unknown. A new Recombinant Inbred Line (RIL population was profiled using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR analysis to detect quantitative trait loci (QTLs controlling seed tocopherol and seedling metabolite concentrations. RIL population parent L58 had a higher level of glucosinolates and phenylpropanoids, whereas levels of sucrose, glucose and glutamate were higher in the other RIL population parent, R-o-18. QTL related to seed tocopherol (α-, β-, γ-, δ-, α-⁄γ- and total tocopherol concentrations were detected on chromosomes A3, A6, A9 and A10, explaining 11%–35% of the respective variation. The locus on A3 co-locates with the BrVTE1gene, encoding tocopherol cyclase. NMR spectroscopy identified the presence of organic/amino acid, sugar/glucosinolate and aromatic compounds in seedlings. QTL positions were obtained for most of the identified compounds. Compared to previous studies, novel loci were found for glucosinolate concentrations. This work can be used to design markers for marker-assisted selection of nutritional compounds in B. rapa.

  14. Evaluation of repeated biodisinfestation using Brassica carinata pellets to control Meloidogyne incognita in protected pepper crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Guerrero-Díaz

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The nematode Meloidogyne incognita is responsible for substantial losses in greenhouse-grown peppers in south-eastern Spain. This study evaluates the use of biodisinfestation (BS (organic amendment + solarisation as an alternative to using methyl bromide (MB over three consecutive years to control the nematode in greenhouse conditions. Brassica carinata (BP pellets or B. carinata (BP + fresh sheep manure (M were evaluated in treatments which began on two different dates (August and October and the results were compared with MB-disinfested and untreated controls. During the third year, the gall index for BP was lower than that obtained for BP+M and in the August treatment than in the October treatment. The commercial crop of pepper fruit obtained with the biodisinfestation treatments begun in August was similar to or higher than that obtained with MB, and higher than that obtained with both October biodisinfestation treatments. The yield of the October biodisinfestation treatments was higher than that of the untreated one. In August of all the years studied, the accumulated exposure times were greater than the thresholds required to kill M. incognita populations at 15 cm depth. The incidence of the nematode did not correspond to the reduction achieved during solarisation, and seemed to increase during the crop cycle. Further studies should look at why high temperatures do not produce a sustained reduction in the populations of Meloidogyne incognita.

  15. Quantitative trait loci × environment interactions for plant morphology vary over ontogeny in Brassica rapa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dechaine, Jennifer M; Brock, Marcus T; Iniguez-Luy, Federico L; Weinig, Cynthia

    2014-01-01

    Growth in plants occurs via the addition of repeating modules, suggesting that the genetic architecture of similar subunits may vary between earlier- and later-developing modules. These complex environment × ontogeny interactions are not well elucidated, as studies examining quantitative trait loci (QTLs) expression over ontogeny have not included multiple environments. Here, we characterized the genetic architecture of vegetative traits and onset of reproduction over ontogeny in recombinant inbred lines of Brassica rapa in the field and glasshouse. The magnitude of genetic variation in plasticity of seedling internodes was greater than in those produced later in ontogeny. We correspondingly detected that QTLs for seedling internode length were environment-specific, whereas later in ontogeny the majority of QTLs affected internode lengths in all treatments. The relationship between internode traits and onset of reproduction varied with environment and ontogenetic stage. This relationship was observed only in the glasshouse environment and was largely attributable to one environment-specific QTL. Our results provide the first evidence of a QTL × environment × ontogeny interaction, and provide QTL resolution for differences between early- and later-stage plasticity for stem elongation. These results also suggest potential constraints on morphological evolution in early vs later modules as a result of associations with reproductive timing.

  16. PECTATE LYASE-LIKE10 is associated with pollen wall development in Brassica campestris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jingjing; Yao, Lina; Yu, Youjian; Lv, Meiling; Miao, Ying; Cao, Jiashu

    2014-11-01

    PECTATE LYASE-LIKE10 (PLL10) was previously identified as one of the differentially expressed genes both in microspores during the late pollen developmental stages and in pistils during the fertilization process in Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris ssp. chinensis). Here, antisense-RNA was used to study the functions of BcPLL10 in Chinese cabbage. Abnormal pollen was identified in the transgenic lines (bcpll10-4, -5, and -6). In fertilization experiments, fewer seeds were harvested when the antisense-RNA lines were used as pollen donor. In vivo and in vitro pollen germination assays less germinated pollen tubes were observed in bcpll10 lines. Scanning electron microscopy observation verified that the tryphine materials were over accumulated around the pollen surface and sticked them together in bcpll10. Moreover, transmission electron microscopy observation revealed that the internal endintine was overdeveloped and predominantly occupied the intine, and disturbed the normal proportional distribution of the two layers in the non-germinal furrow region; and no obvious demarcation existed between them in the germinal furrow region in the bcpll10 pollen. Collectively, this study presented a novel PLL gene that played an important role during the pollen wall development in B. campestris, which may also possess potential importance for male sterility usage in agriculture.

  17. PECTATE LYASE-LIKE10 is associated with pollen wall development in Brassica campestris

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jingjing Jiang; Lina Yao; Youjian Yu; Meiling Lv; Ying Miao; Jiashu Cao

    2014-01-01

    PECTATE LYASE‐LIKE10 (PLL10) was previously identified as one of the differentially expressed genes both in microspores during the late pollen developmental stages and in pistils during the fertilization process in Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris ssp. chinensis). Here, antisense‐RNA was used to study the functions of BcPLL10 in Chinese cabbage. Abnormal pollen was identified in the transgenic lines (bcpll10‐4,‐5, and‐6). In fertilization experiments, fewer seeds were harvested when the antisense‐RNA lines were used as pollen donor. In vivo and in vitro pollen germination assays less germinated pollen tubes were observed in bcpll10 lines. Scanning electron microscopy observation verified that the tryphine materials were over accumulated around the pollen surface and sticked them together in bcpll10. Moreover, transmission electron microscopy observation revealed that the internal endintine was overdeveloped and predominantly occupied the intine, and disturbed the normal proportional distribution of the two layers in the non‐germinal furrow region; and no obvious demarcation existed between them in the germinal furrow region in the bcpll10 pollen. Collectively, this study presented a novel PLL gene that played an important role during the pollen wall development in B. campestris, which may also possess potential importance for male sterility usage in agriculture.

  18. Non-lethal freezing effects on seed degreening in Brassica napus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonham-Smith, P C; Gilmer, S; Zhou, R; Galka, M; Abrams, S R

    2006-06-01

    The effects of a non-lethal freezing stress on chlorophyll content, moisture level and distribution, and abscisic acid (ABA) levels were examined in siliques and seeds of Brassica napus (canola). A non-lethal freezing stress resulted in the retention of chlorophyll in seed at harvest that was most pronounced for seeds 28, 32 and 36 days after flowering (DAF). This increase was primarily due to an increased retention of chlorophyll a relative to chlorophyll b. Chlorophyll retention in seeds exposed to a non-lethal freezing stress correlated with an increased ABA catabolism, as measured 1, 3 or 7 days after the stress treatment. Although the non-lethal freezing stress had no significant effect on moisture content in seeds of siliques stressed at 28-44 DAF, moisture distribution, as viewed by magnetic resonance imaging, showed an uneven drying of 32 and 40 DAF siliques after exposure to the non-lethal freezing stress. Moisture was initially lost more rapidly from the silique wall between seeds, than in control non-stressed siliques. Increased moisture loss was not due to structural changes in the vasculature of the silique/seed of stressed tissues. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that a non-lethal freezing stress-induced decrease in ABA level, during seed maturation, effects an inhibition of normal chlorophyll a catabolism resulting in mature but green B. napus seed.

  19. Comparison of Glucosinolate Profiles in Different Tissues of Nine Brassica Crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiva Ram Bhandari

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Glucosinolate (GSL profiles and concentrations in various tissues (seeds, sprouts, mature root, and shoot were determined and compared across nine Brassica species, including cauliflower, cabbage, broccoli, radish, baemuchae, pakchoi, Chinese cabbage, leaf mustard, and kale. The compositions and concentrations of individual GSLs varied among crops, tissues, and growth stages. Seeds had highest total GSL concentrations in most of crops, whereas shoots had the lowest GSL concentrations. Aliphatic GSL concentrations were the highest in seeds, followed by that in sprouts, shoots, and roots. Indole GSL concentration was the highest in the root or shoot tissues in most of the crops. In contrast, aromatic GSL concentrations were highest in roots. Of the nine crops examined, broccoli exhibited the highest total GSL concentration in seeds (110.76 µmol·g−1 and sprouts (162.19 µmol·g−1, whereas leaf mustard exhibited the highest total GSL concentration in shoots (61.76 µmol·g−1 and roots (73.61 µmol·g−1. The lowest GSL concentrations were observed in radish across all tissues examined.

  20. Genetic Diversity in Commercial Rapeseed (Brassica napus L. Varieties from Turkey as Revealed by RAPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özlem ÖZBEK

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In cultivated commercial crop species, genetic diversity tends to decrease because of the extensive breeding processes. Therefore, germplasm of commercial crop species, such as Brassica napus L. should be evaluated and the genotypes, which have higher genetic diversity index, should be addressed as potential parental cross materials in breeding programs. In this study, the genetic diversity was analysed by using randomly amplified polymorphic DNA analysis (RAPD technique in nine Turkish commercial rapeseed varieties. The RAPD primers (10-mer oligonucleotides produced 51 scorable loci, 31 loci of which were polymorphic (60.78% and 20 loci (39.22% were monomorphic The RAPD bands were scored as binary matrix data and were analysed using POPGENE version 1.32. At locus level, the values of genetic diversity within population (Hs and total (HT were 0.15 and 0.19 respectively. The genetic differentiation (GST and the gene flow (Nm values between the populations were 0.20 and 2.05 respectively. The mean number of alleles (na, the mean number of effective alleles (nae, and the mean value of genetic diversity (He were 2.00, 1.26, and 0.19 respectively. According to Pearson’s correlation, multiple regression and principal component analyses, eco-geographical conditions in combination had significant effect on genetic indices of commercial B. napus L. varieties were discussed.

  1. Mapping of quantitative trait loci for the bolting trait in Brassica rapa under vernalizing conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y G; Zhang, L; Ji, X H; Yan, J F; Liu, Y T; Lv, X X; Feng, H

    2014-05-23

    Premature bolting can occur occasionally during spring cultivation of heading Chinese cabbage in East Asia when the plants encounter low temperatures (vernalization), leading to economic loss. Breeding bolting-resistant cultivars is the best choice for solving this problem. We looked for QTLs responsible for varietal differences in the bolting trait in Brassica rapa under environmental conditions that promote vernalization. To achieve this goal, we constructed a linkage map with 107 simple sequence repeats and 54 insertion/deletion markers based on a segregating population of 186 F2 individuals. The resulting map consisted of 10 linkage groups and covered a total length of 947.1 cM, with an average genetic distance of 5.84 cM between adjacent markers. QTL analysis of the bolting trait was performed by two phenotypic evaluations (bolting index and flowering time) based on the scores in an F2 population in the spring of 2010, and scores in F2:3 families in autumn 2010 and spring 2011, respectively. Twenty-six QTLs that controlled bolting were detected, accounting for 2.6 to 31.2% of the phenotypic variance. The detected QTLs with large effects co-localized mainly on linkage groups A02, A06, and A07. These QTLs may provide useful information for marker-assisted selection in a breeding program for late bolting or bolting-resistant cultivars in B. rapa crops.

  2. Functional properties of a chitinase promoter from cabbage (Brassica oleracea var.capitata)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANGGUOQING; YONGYANBAI; 等

    1996-01-01

    The 5'-region of the chitinase gene cabch29,derived from Brassica oleracea var.capitata,has been sequenced and analyzed for cis-acting elements important in controlling gene expression in transgenic tobacco plants.Different 5'-deletion fragments were linked to reporter gene β-glucuronidase (GUS) as translational fusions,and the expression of these chimeric genes was analyzed in vegetative organs and tissues.Sequences up to-651 showed some basal GUS activity with nearly equal levels in wounded and intact tissues.The addition of further upstream sequences(-651 to-1284) enhanced expression level,and the expression driven by this fragment was inducible by a factor of two to three-fold by wounding.Histochemical analysis of different tissue from transgenic plants that contain cabch29 promoter-gus fusion gene demonstrated woundinducible and tissue-specific cabch29 promoter activity in plants containing the 1308 base pair fragment.The location of GUS activity appears to be cell-specific,being highest in vascular cells and epidermal cells of stem,leaf and roots.Meanwhile,the temporal and spatial expression of cabch29-GUS fusion gene has been investigated.Among the different vegetative organs,a high level of GUS activity was observed in stem and a moderate one in roots;whereas,wounding stress led to a high level of GUS in stem and moderate one in leaf.

  3. Purification and characterization of broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) myrosinase (β-thioglucosidase glucohydrolase).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahn, Andrea; Angulo, Alejandro; Cabañas, Fernanda

    2014-12-03

    Myrosinase (β-thioglucosidase glucohydrolase, EC 3.2.1.147) from broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) was purified by ammonium sulfate precipitation followed by concanavalin A affinity chromatography, with an intermediate dialysis step, resulting in 88% recovery and 1318-fold purification. These are the highest values reported for the purification of any myrosinase. The subunits of broccoli myrosinase have a molecular mass of 50-55 kDa. The native molecular mass of myrosinase was 157 kDa, and accordingly, it is composed of three subunits. The maximum activity was observed at 40 °C and at pH below 5.0. Kinetic assays demonstrated that broccoli myrosinase is subjected to substrate (sinigrin) inhibition. The Michaelis-Menten model, considering substrate inhibition, gave Vmax equal to 0.246 μmol min(-1), Km equal to 0.086 mM, and K(I) equal to 0.368 mM. This is the first study about purification and characterization of broccoli myrosinase.

  4. Response of Nitrate Metabolism in Seedlings of Oilseed Rape (Brassica napus L.) to Low Oxygen Stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Chang-bing; XIE Yu-yun; HOU Jia-jia; FU You-qiang; SHEN Hong; LIAO Xing

    2014-01-01

    In order to understand the response of nitrate metabolism in seedlings of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) to low oxygen stress (LOS), two cultivars were studied at different light, LOS time and exogenous nitrate concentrations under hydroponic stress. Results show that N-uptake and dry matter of rape seedlings were decreased after LOS stress while nitrate accumulation (NA) under LOS was induced by darkness. Nitrate accumulation peaked at 3 d while root activity (RA, deifned as dehydrogenase activity) decreased with prolonged waterlogging exposure. Exogenous nitrate signiifcantly elevated NA and RA. Tungstate (TS) and LOS inhibited nitrate reductase (NR) activity while NR transcription and activity were enhanced by exogenous nitrate. Low oxygen stress stimulated the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD) slightly, but inhibited that of catalase (CAT). B. napus L. Zhongshuang 10 (ZS10), a LOS tolerant cultivar, displayed smaller decrease upon dry matter under LOS, higher NA in darkness and lower NA in light than B. napus L. Ganlan CC (GAC), a LOS sensitive variety. ZS10 had lower NA and higher RA after waterlogging and exogenous nitrate treatment, and higher NR activity under TS inhibition than GAC, but the activity of antioxidant enzymes did not change under LOS. The results indicate that nitrate metabolism involved tolerance of rape seedlings to LOS, with lower accumulation and higher reduction of nitrate being related to higher LOS tolerance of rape seedlings exposed to waterlogging.

  5. Anthocyanin accumulation and transcriptional regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis in purple bok choy (Brassica rapa var. chinensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanjie; Chen, Guoping; Dong, Tingting; Pan, Yu; Zhao, Zhiping; Tian, Shibing; Hu, Zongli

    2014-12-24

    Bok choy (Brassica rapa var. chinensis) is an important dietary vegetable cultivated and consumed worldwide for its edible leaves. The purple cultivars rich in health-promoting anthocyanins are usually more eye-catching and valuable. Fifteen kinds of anthocyanins were separated and identified from a purple bok choy cultivar (Zi He) by high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. To investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying anthocyanin accumulation in bok choy, the expression profiles of anthocyanin biosynthetic and regulatory genes were analyzed in seedlings and leaves of the purple cultivar and the green cultivar (Su Zhouqing). Compared with the other tissues, BrTT8 and most of the anthocyanin biosynthetic genes were significantly up-regulated in the leaves and light-grown seedlings of Zi He. The results that heterologous expression of BrTT8 promotes the transcription of partial anthocyanin biosynthetic genes in regeneration shoots of tomato indicate that BrTT8 plays an important role in the regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis.

  6. Fibrillarin methylates H2A in RNA polymerase I trans-active promoters in Brassica oleracea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loza-Muller, Lloyd; Rodríguez-Corona, Ulises; Sobol, Margarita; Rodríguez-Zapata, Luis C.; Hozak, Pavel; Castano, Enrique

    2015-01-01

    Fibrillarin is a well conserved methyltransferase involved in several if not all of the more than 100 methylations sites in rRNA which are essential for proper ribosome function. It is mainly localized in the nucleoli and Cajal bodies inside the cell nucleus where it exerts most of its functions. In plants, fibrillarin binds directly the guide RNA together with Nop56, Nop58, and 15.5ka proteins to form a snoRNP complex that selects the sites to be methylated in pre-processing of ribosomal RNA. Recently, the yeast counterpart NOP1 was found to methylate histone H2A in the nucleolar regions. Here we show that plant fibrillarin can also methylate histone H2A. In Brassica floral meristem cells the methylated histone H2A is mainly localized in the nucleolus but unlike yeast or human cells it also localize in the periphery of the nucleus. In specialized transport cells the pattern is altered and it exhibits a more diffuse staining in the nucleus for methylated histone H2A as well as for fibrillarin. Here we also show that plant fibrillarin is capable of interacting with H2A and carry out its methylation in the rDNA promoter. PMID:26594224

  7. Changes in Protein Synthesis in Rapeseed (Brassica napus) Seedlings during a Low Temperature Treatment 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meza-Basso, Luis; Alberdi, Miren; Raynal, Monique; Ferrero-Cadinanos, Maria-Luz; Delseny, Michel

    1986-01-01

    Changes induced by cold treatment in young rapeseed (Brassica napus) seedlings were investigated at the molecular level. Following germination at 18°C for 48 hours, one half of the seedlings was transferred to 0°C for another 48 hour period, the other half being kept at 18°C as a control. Newly synthesized proteins were labeled for the last 6 hours of incubation with [35S]methionine. The different polypeptides were separated by two-dimensional electrophoresis in polyacrylamide gels. Newly synthesized proteins were revealed by fluorography. Protein synthesis clearly continues at 0°C and some polypeptides preferentially accumulate at this temperature. On the other hand, synthesis of several others is repressed while many are insensitive to cold treatment. Similar changes are also observed when mRNA is prepared from cold treated seedlings, translated in vitro in a reticulocyte cell free system and compared with the products of mRNA extracted from control samples. Among the genes which are repressed we identified the small subunit of ribulose 1,6-bisphosphate carboxylase. These changes are also detectable after shorter treatments. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:16665102

  8. In vivo examination of the anticoagulant effect of the Brassica oleracea methanol extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan Rafeeq Alam

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The anticoagulant effect of the methanol extract of Brassica oleracea var. capitata (MEB was examined in rabbits. The animals were divided into five groups, each comprising seven animals. Three groups were administered increasing doses of MEB (200, 300, and 500 mg/kg, respectively; one group received warfarin (0.54 mg/kg; animals in the control group received saline (1 ml/day equivalent to the volume of doses applied to the treated and standard animals. Biochemical tests were performed on the 16th and 31st days of dosing. Animals that were administered MEB (500 mg MEB/kg 30 days displayed increases of 24.07 s, 28.79 s and 4.08 s in activated partial thromboplastin (aPTT, fibrinogen (Fg and thrombin time (TT. Compared to the control, the increase in aPTT and Fg was highly significant and the increase in TT was significant. The anticoagulant effect exhibited by MEB in rabbits may be due to inactivation or inhibition of factors affecting coagulation.

  9. Transcriptome analysis of stem and globally comparison with other tissues in Brassica napus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liyun Miao

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Brassica napus is one of the most important oilseed crops in the world. However, there is currently no enough stem transcriptome information and comparative transcriptome analysis of different tissues, which impedes further functional genomics research on B. napus. In this study, the stem transcriptome of B. napus was characterized by RNA-seq technology. Approximately 13.4 Gb high-quality clean reads with an average length of 100 bp were generated and used for comparative transcriptome analysis with the existing transcriptome sequencing data of roots, leaves, flower buds and immature embryos of B. napus. All the transcripts were annotated against GO and KEGG databases. The common genes in five tissues, differentially expressed genes (DEGs of the common genes between stems and other tissues, and tissue-specific genes were detected, and the main biochemical activities and pathways implying the common genes, DEGs and tissue-specific genes were investigated. Accordingly, the common transcription factors (TFs in the five tissues and tissue-specific TFs were identified, and a TFs-based regulation network between TFs and the target genes involved in Phenylpropanoid biosynthesis pathway were constructed to show several important TFs and key nodes in the regulation process. Collectively, this study not only provided an available stem transcriptome resource in B. napus, but also revealed a valuable comparative transcriptome information of five tissues of B. napus for future investigation on specific processes, functions and pathways.

  10. Brassinosteroids Denigrate the Seasonal Stress through Antioxidant Defense System in Seedlings of Brassica juncea L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Kumar

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The present work has been undertaken to study the effect of exogenously application of 24-epiBL and 28-homoBL on soluble protein, proline contents and antioxidant defense system of Brassica juncea L. RLM 619 under the influence of seasonal stress. It was observed that 24-epiBL and 28-homoBL treatment enhance the soluble protein, dry weight and shoot length of B. juncea seedlings under seasonal stress. If seeds treated with the different concentrations (10-6, 10-8 and 10-10 M of 24-epiBL and 28-homoBL revealed batter growth, protein and proline contents as compare to untreated seedlings. Similarly the activities of antioxidant enzymes SOD, CAT, APOX, DHAR, PPO and Auxinases were enhanced by the application of different concentration of both brassinosteroids, whereas MDA content was decrease with both brassinosteroids treatments. Then we have concluded that both brassinolides have the seasonal stress ameliorative properties in B. juncea seedlings grown under the influence of seasonal stress. This study culminates to the role of brassinolides as an anti-stress property for protection of plant from various types of stresses.

  11. Breeding double low super hybrids with dominant genic male sterility three lines in Brassica napus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Maolin; Zhao Yun

    2005-01-01

    A double low homozygous two-type sterile line ZY-2AB, its near-isogenic temporary maintainer line ZY-4, and the full sterile line ZY-3 derived from the cross of ZY-2A with ZY-4, were developed to breed three-line dominant GMS hybrid in Brassica napus. Three years data showed that the ratios of sterile and fertile plants fit the expected 1:1 ratio in ZY-2AB, and the 1:0 ratio in ZY-3, respectively. Some double low super hybrid combinations were screened out when the full sterile line ZY-3 was used as female parent, among which the combination 01Z24 increased 36.88 percent more yield than control and the combination 98Z131 has been passed through the Sichuan Provincial Regional Test and registered in Sichuan Province. Two years data showed that the agronomic performance of the two-line hybrids derived from crosses of ZY-2A with restorer lines versus that of the three-line hybrids produced by ZY-3 was not different for any of the nine most important agronomic characteristics, revealing that near-isogenic line of homozygous two-type line was used as temporary maintainer could effectively avoid the disadvantage of three-way cross hybrid in breeding three-line dominant GMS hybrid.

  12. Effects of herbicide-treated host plants on the development of Mamestra brassicae L. caterpillars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Melanie; Geisthardt, Martin; Brühl, Carsten A

    2014-11-01

    Herbicides are widely used pesticides that affect plants by changing their chemistry. In doing so, herbicides might also influence the quality of plants as food for herbivores. To study the effects of herbicides on host plant quality, 3 plant species (Plantago lanceolata L., P. major L., and Ranunculus acris L.) were treated with sublethal rates of either a sulfonylurea (Atlantis WG, Bayer CropScience) or a glyphosate (Roundup LB Plus, Monsanto) herbicide, and the development of caterpillars of the cabbage moth Mamestra brassicae L. that fed on these plants was observed. Of the 6 tested plant-herbicide combinations, 1 combination (R. acris + sulfonylurea herbicide) resulted in significantly lower caterpillar weight, increased time to pupation, and increased overall development time compared with larvae that were fed unsprayed plants. These results might be caused by a lower nutritional value of these host plants or increased concentrations of secondary metabolites that are involved in plant defense. The results of the present and other studies suggest potential risks to herbivores that feed on host plants treated with sublethal rates of herbicides. However, as the effects of herbicides on host plant quality appear to be species-specific and as there are numerous plant-herbicide-herbivore relationships in agricultural landscapes, a general reduction in herbicide contamination of nontarget habitats (e.g., field margins) might mitigate the negative effects of herbicides on host plant quality.

  13. Analysis of plants regenerated from protoplast fusions between Brassica napus and Eruca sativa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahleson, J; Råhlén, L; Glimelius, K

    1988-10-01

    Protoplasts from etiolated hypocotyls of Brassica napus stained with carboxyfluorescein were fused with mesophyll protoplasts from Eruca sativa. Hybrid cells could be identified under the light microscope by (1) fully developed chloroplasts derived from E. sativa and (2) the cytoplasmic strands of the B. napus hypocotyl protoplasts, or (3) by the presence of both red and green fluorescence when investigated under UV light. The heterokaryons were selected using either a micro-manipulator or a flow sorter. On average, 5.4% of the calli obtained after selection differentiated into shoots. Regenerated shoots were subjected to isozyme analysis for verification of their hybrid character. Of the 23 hybrids successfully transferred to the greenhouse, 11 were asymmetric according to isozyme analysis. The nuclear DNA content of the hybrids was determined by flow cytometry, which gives an estimate of chromosome number. Most of the hybrids had a DNA content, and thus a chromosome number, that deviated from the expected sum of the parents. Almost all of the hybrids had some degree of fertility and produced seeds. Seed set, expressed as seeds per pollinated flower, was on average 7% of that of B. napus in the case of self-pollination and 26% of that of B. napus when backcrossed to B. napus. The chloroplast genotype was investigated in 13 hybrids. Of these, 11 had chloroplasts derived from B. napus, while only 2 had chloroplasts of E. sativa origin.

  14. Correlation, Stepwise Regressionand Path Analysis of Traits Affecting Grain Yield of canola (Brassica napus L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Soltani Hoveize

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency of a breeding program depends mainly on the direction of the correlation between yield and its components and the relative importance of each component involved in contributing to seed yield. This study was conducted to analysis the correlation among seed yield and some important traits in seventhin spring canola (Brassica napus L. cultivars at the farm in safi abad, from 2014 to 2015. A randomized complete block design with four replications was used. Results analysis of variance showed that highly significant differences were detected among cultivars for all studied traits. The correlation coefficients among the seed yield and 1000-seed weight, number of seed per pod, duration of flowering, and days to physiological maturity were positive and significant (0.61**, 0.72**, 0.66** and 0.65**, respectively. According to stepwise regression seed yield trait is cosidered by dependent variable and other traits by independent variables. Model determination coefficient is R2=0.897. The most of determination coefficients there were for duration of flowering, number of seed per pod and days to physiological maturity (0.51, 0.54 and 0.38, respectively. Path coefficient analysis revealed that the number of seed per pod, duration of flowering and days to physiological maturity had the largest direct effects on the seed yield, its seams possible to use there traits as a selection criteria in breeding programs for improve seed yield of spring rapeseed cultivars.

  15. Over-Expression of BnMAPK1 in Brassica napus Enhances Tolerance to Drought Stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WENG Chang-mei; LU Jun-xing; WAN Hua-fang; WANG Shu-wen; WANG Zhen; LU Kun; LIANG Ying

    2014-01-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) are a family of Ser/Thr protein kinases widely conserved in all eukaryotes and involved in responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. In this study, two over-expressing BnMAPK1 oilseed rape lines, ov3 and ov11, were used to study the drought-resistant mechanism of BnMAPK1 under natural drought and simulation drought through spraying 10%PEG 8000 in seedlings. Zhongyou 821 (WT) was used as control. Compared with wild type, transgenic seedlings had higher leaf water content, higher root activity, slightly higher peroxidase (POD) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, higher proline content and lower malondialdehyde (MDA) content. The expression of drought-resistant related genes, including P5CSB, PLC, LEA4 and SCE1, have been up-regulated in some degree and the expressed time of transgenic lines were earlier than that of wild type. These results suggested that over-expression of BnMAPK1 can enhance the resistance to drought in oilseed rape (Brassica napus).

  16. Multitrait plant growth promoting (PGP) rhizobacterial isolates from Brassica juncea rhizosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anwar, Mohmmad Shahbaz; Siddique, Mohammad Tahir; Verma, Amit; Rao, Yalaga Rama; Nailwal, Tapan; Ansari, Mohammad; Pande, Veena

    2014-01-01

    Plant growth promoting (PGP) rhizobacteria, a beneficial microbe colonizing plant roots, enhanced crop productivity and offers an attractive way to replace chemical fertilizers, pesticides, and supplements. The keratinous waste which comprises feathers, hairs, nails, skin and wool creates problem of solid waste management due to presence of highly recalcitrant keratin. The multi traits rhizobacteria effective to remove both keratine from the environment by producing keratinase enzyme and to eradicate the chemical fertilizer by providing different PGP activity is novel achievement. In the present study, the effective PM2 strain of PGPR was isolated from rhizospheric soil of mustard (Brassica juncea) field, Pantnagar and they were identified on the basis of different biochemical tests as belonging to Bacillus genera. Different plant growth promoting activity, feather degradation and keratinolytic activity was performed and found very effective toward all the parameters. Furthermore, the efficient strain PM2 was identified on the basis of 16s rRNA sequencing and confirmed as Bacillus cereus. The strain PM2 might be used efficiently for keratinous waste management and PGP activity. Therefore, the present study suggests that Bacillus cereus have multi traits activity which extremely useful for different PGP activity and biotechnological process involving keratin hydrolysis, feather biodegradation or in the leather industry. PMID:24778758

  17. Cloning of Lactate dehydrogenase Gene and Effect on the Waterlogging Tolerance of Brassica napus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben-bo Xu

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the mechanism on waterlogging tolerance in Brassica napus, 12 B. napus cultivars with different waterlogging tolerance were used in the research and Waterlogging Tolerance Index (WTI was calculated by multiplying relative percentage germination and the relative seedling height. The results indicated that Lactate Dehydrogenase (LDH enzyme activity rapidly increased at 24 h after waterlogging treatment and reached peak between 48-72 h. WTI was correlated with LDH enzyme activity at 24 h after water logging treatment and the correlation coefficient between them was 0.84. Transcription level of the BnLDH had significant difference in the 12 lines after waterlogging treatment. BnLDH expression level was very low before waterlogging treatment and induced by waterlogging treatment and arrived at peak at 48 h. Correlation analysis indicated correlation coefficient between WTI and BnLDH expression at 24 and 48 h after waterlogging treatment was 0.56 and 0.72, respectively. An LDH gene, denoted BnLDH-1, was cloned from oilseeds by the Rapid Amplification of CDNA Ends (RACE from 12 materials and the results indicated all of them had same protein sequence.

  18. High Quality Komatsuna (Brassica rapa L. nothovar Production by Using Silicate Minerals Treated Nutrient Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheheli Islam

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Good water quality not only produces good crop yield, but also maintains environmental quality and so with plant, animal and human health. Therefore, protecting the quality of water by using non chemical materials is an emerging issue to be solved. Bakuhan seki having additional negative charge were found to have the capacity of improving condition of water while emitting important minerals essential to life. Because of high cost and scarcity of Bakuhan-seki, experiments continued to find out low cost materials. In this study, a very timely and relevant and costefficient procedure has been described for determining the potential of three minerals of Shikoku Island to improve water quality affecting growth of plants. Approach: Firstly, tap water of Kochi, Japan was treated with different mixtures of silicate minerals and then applied for the germination of Komatsuna (Brassica rapa L. nothovar seeds. The feasibility of these treatments was investigated by measuring root and shoot length of early seedlings. Results: Treatment with Q4S1 showed the highest elongation of seedling parameters compared to other treatments. Where as results of growth tests using Komatsuna in the NFT (Nutrient Film Technique system, showed degree of leaf freshness (SPAD and dry matter contents were higher than controls. Also amount of K and Mg was found higher in applying silicate mineral treated nutrient solution to Komatsuna plants. Conclusion: Therefore, this nutrient solution treatment system can be expected to be applicable in nutri-culture and hydroponics.

  19. Sequential light programs shape kale (Brassica napus) sprout appearance and alter metabolic and nutrient content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Sofia D; Folta, Kevin M

    2014-01-01

    Different light wavelengths have specific effects on plant growth and development. Narrow-bandwidth light-emitting diode (LED) lighting may be used to directionally manipulate size, color and metabolites in high-value fruits and vegetables. In this report, Red Russian kale (Brassica napus) seedlings were grown under specific light conditions and analyzed for photomorphogenic responses, pigment accumulation and nutraceutical content. The results showed that this genotype responds predictably to darkness, blue and red light, with suppression of hypocotyl elongation, development of pigments and changes in specific metabolites. However, these seedlings were relatively hypersensitive to far-red light, leading to uncharacteristically short hypocotyls and high pigment accumulation, even after growth under very low fluence rates (<1 μmol m(-2) s(-1)). General antioxidant levels and aliphatic glucosinolates are elevated by far-red light treatments. Sequential treatments of darkness, blue light, red light and far-red light were applied throughout sprout development to alter final product quality. These results indicate that sequential treatment with narrow-bandwidth light may be used to affect key economically important traits in high-value crops.

  20. A novel and exploitable antifungal peptide from kale (Brassica alboglabra) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Peng; Ng, Tzi Bun

    2008-10-01

    The aim of this study was to purify and characterize antifungal peptides from kale seeds in view of the paucity of information on antifungal peptides from the family Brassicaceae, and to compare its characteristics with those of published Brassica antifungal peptides. A 5907-Da antifungal peptide was isolated from kale seeds. The isolation procedure comprised affinity chromatography on Affi-gel blue gel, ion exchange chromatography on SP-Sepharose and Mono S, and gel filtration on Superdex Peptide. The peptide was adsorbed on the first three chromatographic media. It inhibited mycelial growth in a number of fungal species including Fusarium oxysporum, Helminthosporium maydis, Mycosphaerella arachidicola and Valsa mali, with an IC(50) of 4.3microM, 2.1microM, 2.4microM, and 0.15microM, respectively and exhibited pronounced thermostability and pH stability. It inhibited proliferation of hepatoma (HepG2) and breast cancer (MCF7) cells with an IC(50) of 2.7microM and 3.4microM, and the activity of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase with an IC(50) of 4.9microM. Its N-terminal sequence differed from those of antifungal proteins which have been reported to date.