Sample records for plasmodial slime molds

  1. Chemotaxis in the Plasmodial Slime Mold, Physarum polycephalum. (United States)

    Bozzone, Donna M.; Martin, Denise A.


    Describes a biology unit designed so that students pose their own questions and perform experiments to answer these questions. Plasmodial slime mold is employed as the focus of the study with background information about the mold provided. (DDR)

  2. Spatiotemporal Symmetry in Rings of Coupled Biological Oscillators of Physarum Plasmodial Slime Mold

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    Takamatsu, Atsuko; Tanaka, Reiko; Yamada, Hiroyasu; Nakagaki, Toshiyuki; Fujii, Teruo; Endo, Isao


    Spatiotemporal patterns in rings of coupled biological oscillators of the plasmodial slime mold, Physarum polycephalum, were investigated by comparing with results analyzed by the symmetric Hopf bifurcation theory based on group theory. In three-, four-, and five-oscillator systems, all types of oscillation modes predicted by the theory were observed including a novel oscillation mode, a half period oscillation, which has not been reported anywhere in practical systems. Our results support the effectiveness of the symmetric Hopf bifurcation theory in practical systems.

  3. Species-specific cell mobility of bacteria-feeding myxamoebae in plasmodial slime molds. (United States)

    Hoppe, Thomas; Kutschera, Ulrich


    On decaying wood or litter in forests, plasmodial slime molds (myxomycetes) represent a large fraction of eukaryotic protists that feed on bacteria. In his seminal book Experimental Physiology of Plants (1865), Julius Sachs referred to the multinucleate plasmodium of myxomycetes, which were considered at that time as primitive plants (or fungi). Today it is well established that myxomycetes are members of the Amoebozoa (Protista). In this study we compare the mobility of myxamoebae of 3 European species, Lycogala epidendrum (order Liceales), Tubulifera arachnoidea, and Trichia decipiens (order Trichiales). Using agar plates, on which 3 separate bacterial species were cultivated as prey organisms (Methylobacterium mesophilicum, Escherichia coli, Agrobacterium tumefaciens), we document large differences in cell motility between the myxomycetes investigated. In addition, we show that the 3 species of myxamoebae can be distinguished based on their average cell size. These data shed light on the mode of co-occurrence via differential substrate utilization in these members of the Amoebozoa.

  4. On the role of the plasmodial cytoskeleton in facilitating intelligent behavior in slime mold Physarum polycephalum. (United States)

    Mayne, Richard; Adamatzky, Andrew; Jones, Jeff


    The plasmodium of slime mold Physarum polycephalum behaves as an amorphous reaction-diffusion computing substrate and is capable of apparently 'intelligent' behavior. But how does intelligence emerge in an acellular organism? Through a range of laboratory experiments, we visualize the plasmodial cytoskeleton-a ubiquitous cellular protein scaffold whose functions are manifold and essential to life-and discuss its putative role as a network for transducing, transmitting and structuring data streams within the plasmodium. Through a range of computer modeling techniques, we demonstrate how emergent behavior, and hence computational intelligence, may occur in cytoskeletal communications networks. Specifically, we model the topology of both the actin and tubulin cytoskeletal networks and discuss how computation may occur therein. Furthermore, we present bespoke cellular automata and particle swarm models for the computational process within the cytoskeleton and observe the incidence of emergent patterns in both. Our work grants unique insight into the origins of natural intelligence; the results presented here are therefore readily transferable to the fields of natural computation, cell biology and biomedical science. We conclude by discussing how our results may alter our biological, computational and philosophical understanding of intelligence and consciousness.

  5. In the shadow of Darwin: Anton de Bary's origin of myxomycetology and a molecular phylogeny of the plasmodial slime molds. (United States)

    Hoppe, T; Kutschera, U


    In his Origin of Species (John Murray, London, 1859), Charles Darwin described the theory of descent with modification by means of natural selection and postulated that all life may have evolved from one or a few simple kinds of organisms. However, Darwin's concept of evolutionary change is entirely based on observations of populations of animals and plants. He briefly mentioned 'lower algae', but ignored amoebae, bacteria and other micro-organisms. In 1859, Anton de Bary, the founder of mycology and plant pathology, published a seminal paper on the biology and taxonomy of the plasmodial slime molds (myxomycetes). These heterotrophic protists are known primarily as a large composite mass, the plasmodium, in which single nuclei are suspended in a common 'naked' cytoplasm that is surrounded by a plasma membrane. Here we summarize the contents of de Bary's 1859 publication and highlight the significance of this scientific classic with respect to the establishment of the kingdom Protoctista (protists such as amoebae), the development of the protoplasmic theory of the cell, the introduction of the concept of symbiosis and the rejection of the dogma of spontaneous generation. We describe the life cycle of the myxomycetes, present new observations on the myxamoebae and propose a higher-order phylogeny based on elongation factor-1 alpha gene sequences. Our results document the congruence between the morphology-based taxonomy of the myxomycetes and molecular data. In addition, we show that free-living amoebae, common protists in the soil, are among the closest living relatives of the myxomycetes and conclude that de Bary's 'Amoeba-hypothesis' on the evolutionary origin of the plasmodial slime molds may have been correct.


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    Full Text Available Myxomycetes are ubiquitous in terrestrial forest ecosystems. Thus, this research study looks at the taxonomic diversity and distribution of plasmodial myxomycetes in La Mesa Ecopark in Quezon City, Philippines. A total of 240 moist chambers were prepared from four substrates (aerial and ground leaf litter, twigs and barks collected within this ecopark. Following incubation of moist chambers for eight weeks, a total of 28 species belonging to 10 genera were collected and identified: Arcyria (3, Diderma (2, Didymium (5, Lamproderma (2, Perichaena (3, Physarum (8, Macbrideola (1, Metatrichia (1, Trichia (1 and Stemonitis (2. Highest myxomycete yield (85% was observed in aerial leaf litter. In terms of taxonomic diversity, highest diversity was observed in bark microhabitats, although the lowest number of species was recorded in it. Assessment of their abundance and distribution showed similarities in species composition between aerial and ground leaf litter. This research study is the first report of plasmodial myxomycetes in La Mesa Ecopark in Quezon City, Philippines.

  7. Secondary metabolites of slime molds (myxomycetes). (United States)

    Dembitsky, Valery M; Rezanka, Tomás; Spízek, Jaroslav; Hanus, Lumír O


    The compounds reported from the slime molds (myxomycetes) species are described. Almost 100 natural compounds including their chemical structures and biological activities are described in this review article. Only metabolites with a well-defined structure are included.

  8. Introducing the slime mold graph repository (United States)

    Dirnberger, M.; Mehlhorn, K.; Mehlhorn, T.


    We introduce the slime mold graph repository or SMGR, a novel data collection promoting the visibility, accessibility and reuse of experimental data revolving around network-forming slime molds. By making data readily available to researchers across multiple disciplines, the SMGR promotes novel research as well as the reproduction of original results. While SMGR data may take various forms, we stress the importance of graph representations of slime mold networks due to their ease of handling and their large potential for reuse. Data added to the SMGR stands to gain impact beyond initial publications or even beyond its domain of origin. We initiate the SMGR with the comprehensive Kist Europe data set focusing on the slime mold Physarum polycephalum, which we obtained in the course of our original research. It contains sequences of images documenting growth and network formation of the organism under constant conditions. Suitable image sequences depicting the typical P. polycephalum network structures are used to compute sequences of graphs faithfully capturing them. Given such sequences, node identities are computed, tracking the development of nodes over time. Based on this information we demonstrate two out of many possible ways to begin exploring the data. The entire data set is well-documented, self-contained and ready for inspection at

  9. Star Mapping with Slime Mold Physarum Polycephalum (United States)

    Mihklepp, M.; Domnitch, E.; Gelfand, D.; Foing, B. H.; van der Heide, E.


    Human curiosity and exploration towards outer space has led to many fantastic inventions and given way to alternative scenarios about the origins of life. In the Space Science in the Arts course together with ESTEC with support from ILEWG. I got interested about unicellular slime mold Physarum polycephalum. There has been and still is a lot of research on Physarum polycephalum. This brainless eucaryotic microbe has its smartness and external memory strategies. Physarum can navigate through a maze made of agar using the shortest route possible when two pieces of food are placed at two separate exits of the maze. It can build efficient networks - Physarum created network similar to the existing Tokyo train system. It is being used to control a robot, in USB-sensor and in sound synthesis. Right now there is a lot of research about using Physarum in bio-computing.

  10. Ozone reaction on slime mold. [Physarum polycephalum

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    Kanoh, F.


    To determine the effect of ozone, the motive force responsible for protoplasmic streaming in the slime mold, Physarum polycephalum was measured by the Double chamber method which was developed by Kamiya. The effects of ozone on the motive force were investigated by comparison of the Dynamoplasmogram of controls with that of ozone exposure. In the case of high concentration exposure, thickening of plasmagel, inversion of the period of flow and reduction of the extreme point were observed. Succinoxidase of exposed homogenates showed stronger activity than that of controls. It is certain that the Pasteur reaction takes place when plasmodium is kept under high ozone exposure condition. It appears that ozone inhibited a part of the process of glycolysis. 32 references, 8 figures.

  11. Plant hairy root cultures as plasmodium modulators of the slime mold emergent computing substrate Physarum polycephalum. (United States)

    Ricigliano, Vincent; Chitaman, Javed; Tong, Jingjing; Adamatzky, Andrew; Howarth, Dianella G


    Roots of the medicinal plant Valeriana officinalis are well-studied for their various biological activities. We applied genetically transformed V. officinalis root biomass to exert control of Physarum polycephalum, an amoeba-based emergent computing substrate. The plasmodial stage of the P. polycephalum life cycle constitutes a single, multinucleate cell visible by unaided eye. The plasmodium modifies its network of oscillating protoplasm in response to spatial configurations of attractants and repellents, a behavior that is interpreted as biological computation. To program the computing behavior of P. polycephalum, a diverse and sustainable library of plasmodium modulators is required. Hairy roots produced by genetic transformation with Agrobacterium rhizogenes are a metabolically stable source of bioactive compounds. Adventitious roots were induced on in vitro V. officinalis plants following infection with A. rhizogenes. A single hairy root clone was selected for massive propagation and the biomass was characterized in P. polycephalum chemotaxis, maze-solving, and electrical activity assays. The Agrobacterium-derived roots of V. officinalis elicited a positive chemotactic response and augmented maze-solving behavior. In a simple plasmodium circuit, introduction of hairy root biomass stimulated the oscillation patterns of slime mold's surface electrical activity. We propose that manipulation of P. polycephalum with the plant root culture platform can be applied to the development of slime mold microfluidic devices as well as future models for engineering the plant rhizosphere.

  12. Route 20, Autobahn 7, and Slime Mold: Approximating the Longest Roads in USA and Germany With Slime Mold on 3-D Terrains. (United States)

    Adamatzky, Andrew I


    A cellular slime mould Physarum polycephalum is a monstrously large single cell visible by an unaided eye. The slime mold explores space in parallel, is guided by gradients of chemoattractants, and propagates toward sources of nutrients along nearly shortest paths. The slime mold is a living prototype of amorphous biological computers and robotic devices capable of solving a range of tasks of graph optimization and computational geometry. When presented with a distribution of nutrients, the slime mold spans the sources of nutrients with a network of protoplasmic tubes. This protoplasmic network matches a network of major transport routes of a country when configuration of major urban areas is represented by nutrients. A transport route connecting two cities should ideally be a shortest path, and this is usually the case in computer simulations and laboratory experiments with flat substrates. What searching strategies does the slime mold adopt when exploring 3-D terrains? How are optimal and transport routes approximated by protoplasmic tubes? Do the routes built by the slime mold on 3-D terrain match real-world transport routes? To answer these questions, we conducted pioneer laboratory experiments with Nylon terrains of USA and Germany. We used the slime mold to approximate route 20, the longest road in USA, and autobahn 7, the longest national motorway in Europe. We found that slime mold builds longer transport routes on 3-D terrains, compared to flat substrates yet sufficiently approximates man-made transport routes studied. We demonstrate that nutrients placed in destination sites affect performance of slime mold, and show how the mold navigates around elevations. In cellular automaton models of the slime mold, we have shown variability of the protoplasmic routes might depends on physiological states of the slime mold. Results presented will contribute toward development of novel algorithms for sensorial fusion, information processing, and decision making, and

  13. Plant hairy root cultures as plasmodium modulators of the slime mold emergent computing substrate Physarum polycephalum

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    Vincent eRicigliano


    Full Text Available Roots of the medicinal plant Valeriana officinalis are well studied for their various biological activities. We applied genetically transformed V. officinalis root cultures to exert control of Physarum polycephalum, an amoeba-based emergent computing substrate. The plasmodial stage of the P. polycephalum life cycle constitutes a single, multinucleate cell visible by unaided eye. The plasmodium modifies its network of oscillating protoplasm in response to spatial configurations of attractants and repellents, a behavior that is interpreted as biological computation. To program the computing behavior of P. polycephalum, a diverse and sustainable library of plasmodium modulators is required. Hairy roots produced by genetic transformation with Agrobacterium rhizogenes are a metabolically stable source of plant natural products. Adventitious roots were induced on in vitro V. officinalis plants following infection with A. rhizogenes. A single hairy root clone was selected for massive propagation and the biomass was characterized in P. polycephalum chemotaxis, maze-solving, and electrical activity assays. The Agrobacterium-derived roots of V. officinalis elicited a positive chemotactic response and augmented maze-solving behavior. In a simple plasmodium circuit, introduction of hairy root biomass stimulated the oscillation patterns of slime mold’s surface electrical potential. We propose that manipulation of P. polycephalum with the V. officinalis root culture platform can be applied to the development of slime mold microfluidic devices as well as future models for engineering the plant rhizosphere.

  14. Potential sites for the perception of gravity in the acellular slime mold Physarum polycephalum (United States)

    Block, I.; Briegleb, W.

    Recently a gravisensitivity of the acellular slime mold Physarum polycephalum, which possesses no specialized gravireceptor, could be established by conducting experiments under simulated and under real near weightlessness. In these experiments macroplasmodia showed a modulation of their contraction rhythm followed by regulation phenomena. Until now the perception mechanism for the gravistimulus is unknown, but several findings indicate the involvement of mitochondria: A) During the impediment of respiration the Og-reaction is inhibited and the regulation is reduced. B) The response to a light stimulus and the following regulation phenomena strongly resemble the behavior during exposure to Og, the only difference is that the two reactions are directed into opposite directions. In the blue-light reaction a flavin of the mitochondrial matrix seems to be involved in the light perception. C) The contraction rhythm as well as its modulations are coupled to rhythmic changes in the levels of ATP and calcium ions, involving the mitochondria as sites of energy production and of Ca++-storage. - So the mitochondria could be the site of the regulation and they possibly are the receptor sites for the light and gravity stimuli. - Also the observation of a morphologic polarity of the slime mold's plasmodial strands has to be considered: Cross-sections reveal that the ectoplasmic wall surrounding the streaming endoplasm is much thinner on the physically lower side than on the upper side of the strand - this applies to strands lying on or hanging on a horizontal surface. So, in addition to the mitochondria, also the morphologic polarity may be involved in the perception mechanism of the observed gravisensitivity and of the recently established geotaxis. - The potential role of the nuclei and of the contractile elements in the perception of gravity is also discussed.

  15. Mechanochemical symmetric breaking in cell motility of slime mold (United States)

    Guy, Robert; Zhang, Shun; Del Alamo, Juan Carlos


    The cytoplasm of the true slime mold Physarum polycephalum exhibits regular rhythmic periodic shuttle streaming though the cell in the direction of motion. The fluid motion is driven by the periodic contraction of an actin-myosin gel that is regulated by a calcium oscillation. When the organism is small (< 100 microns) there is no shuttle streaming, but beyond this size, regular back-and-forth streaming appears and the cell begins to migrate. In this talk we analyze a mechanochemical model of the cell which includes the intracellular fluid, the active contractile cytoskeleton, the adhesion to the substrate, and the dynamics of a chemical oscillator. We use this analysis along with experimental data to identify the instability related to the onset of streaming in order to bring insight into how contraction, flow, and adhesion are coordinated during locomotion.

  16. Effects of oxidants on physiological function of a slime mold. Part II

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    Kano, F.


    By using the double chamber method, the pressure required to arrest the protoplasmic streaming of slime mold, Physarum polycephalum, was measured to determine the motive force influenced by the exposure of the slime mold to ozone at 0.3-0.5 ppm. The change of respiration of the slime homogenate by the exposure of the slime mold to ozone was measured by the oxygen electrode method. The motive force of the slime decreased by exposure to ozone and increased at the cessation of ozone exposure. The internal respiration of the homogenate of the slime and the consumption of oxygen after the addition of the substrate, succinic acid, increased with exposure to ozone. The coefficient of metabolism of internal respiration was 9.5 and 13.6 microlitre/mg/hr, respectively, for the control and ozone-exposed slime homogenate. After addition of the substrate, the addition of ADP made the respiration a little higher; however, the curve showing the relative concentration versus time was not seen, suggesting the absence of control ability of respiration. The reversible decrease of motive force of protoplasmic streaming by ozone exposure would be due to the disturbance of the glyolytic system.

  17. The role of noise in self-organized decision making by the true slime mold Physarum polycephalum

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bernd Meyer; Cedrick Ansorge; Toshiyuki Nakagaki


    .... In the present paper we analyse the role of noise in the decision-making of the true slime mold Physarum polycephalum, an important model species for the investigation of computational abilities in simple organisms...

  18. Plasmodial vein networks of the slime mold Physarum polycephalum form regular graphs (United States)

    Baumgarten, Werner; Ueda, Tetsuo; Hauser, Marcus J. B.


    The morphology of a typical developing biological transportation network, the vein network of the plasmodium of the myxomycete Physarum polycephalum is analyzed during its free extension. The network forms a classical, regular graph, and has exclusively nodes of degree 3. This contrasts to most real-world transportation networks which show small-world or scale-free properties. The complexity of the vein network arises from the weighting of the lengths, widths, and areas of the vein segments. The lengths and areas follow exponential distributions, while the widths are distributed log-normally. These functional dependencies are robust during the entire evolution of the network, even though the exponents change with time due to the coarsening of the vein network.

  19. Guiding Student Inquiry into Eukaryotic Organismal Biology Using the Plasmodial Slime Mold "Physarum Polycephalum" (United States)

    Weeks, Andrea; Bachman, Beverly; Josway, Sarah; Laemmerzahl, Arndt F.; North, Brittany


    In order to challenge our undergraduate students' enduring misconception that plants, animals, and fungi must be "advanced" and that other eukaryotes traditionally called protists must be "primitive," we have developed a 24-hour take-home guided inquiry and investigation of live Physarum cultures. The experiment replicates…

  20. Gravity related behavior of the acellular slime mold Physarum polycephalum (7-IML-1) (United States)

    Block, I.


    The objective of the experiment is to investigate the effect of near weightlessness on a single cell. The test object is the acellular slime mold Physarum polycephalum. This cell is composed of a network of protoplastic strands which perform rhythmic contractions in the minute range. These contractions of the strands' ectoplastic walls generate the force to drive the vigorous shuttle streaming of fluid protoplasm inside the strands (hydrostatic pressure flow). A net transport of protoplasm in one direction determines the direction of the cell's locomotion itself. In this way, gravity modifies the contraction rhythm of the strands, the streaming velocity of protoplasm in the strands, and the direction of locomotion of the whole slime mold (geotaxis). The other parts of this experiment will address the major question of how this cell, which does not possess any specialized gravireceptors, gets the information about the direction of the gravity vector. Details of the experimental setup are given.

  1. Ground Testing of the EMCS Seed Cassette for Biocompatibility with the Cellular Slime Mold, Dictyostelium Discoideum (United States)

    Hanely, Julia C.; Reinsch, Sigrid; Myers, Zachary A.; Freeman, John; Steele, Marianne K.; Sun, Gwo-Shing; Heathcote, David G.


    The European Modular Cultivation System, EMCS, was developed by ESA for plant experiments. To expand the use of flight verified hardware for various model organisms, we performed ground experiments to determine whether ARC EMCS Seed Cassettes could be adapted for use with cellular slime mold for future space flight experiments. Dictyostelium is a cellular slime mold that can exist both as a single-celled independent organism and as a part of a multicellular colony which functions as a unit (pseudoplasmodium). Under certain stress conditions, individual amoebae will aggregate to form multicellular structures. Developmental pathways are very similar to those found in Eukaryotic organisms, making this a uniquely interesting organism for use in genetic studies. Dictyostelium has been used as a genetic model organism for prior space flight experiments. Due to the formation of spores that are resistant to unfavorable conditions such as desiccation, Dictyostelium is also a good candidate for use in the EMCS Seed Cassettes. The growth substratum in the cassettes is a gridded polyether sulfone (PES) membrane. A blotter beneath the PES membranes contains dried growth medium. The goals of this study were to (1) verify that Dictyostelium are capable of normal growth and development on PES membranes, (2) develop a method for dehydration of Dictyostelium spores with successful recovery and development after rehydration, and (3) successful mock rehydration experiments in cassettes. Our results show normal developmental progression in two strains of Dictyostelium discoideum on PES membranes with a bacterial food source. We have successfully performed a mock rehydration of spores with developmental progression from aggregation to slug formation, and production of morphologically normal spores within 9 days of rehydration. Our results indicate that experiments on the ISS using the slime mold, Dictyostelium discoideum could potentially be performed in the flight verified hardware of

  2. Theoretical approach to the effects of extremely low freqency electromagnetic fiels on Physarum polycephalum. [Slime molds

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    Wayland, J.R.


    Absolute reaction rate theory is applied to explain the increased time between successive synchronous mitotic division of the slime mold Physarum polycephalum when exposed to extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields. By ignoring the transition period from the normal (control) mitotic cycle to the lengthened mitotic cycle of exposed P. polycephalum, the change in the activation energy is established. This activation energy is in the range of enzyme-catalyzed reactions. The influence of changing frequency on the above transition period is considered to complete the model.

  3. Phylogeny of the "forgotten" cellular slime mold, Fonticula alba, reveals a key evolutionary branch within Opisthokonta. (United States)

    Brown, Matthew W; Spiegel, Frederick W; Silberman, Jeffrey D


    The shared ancestry between Fungi and animals has been unequivocally demonstrated by abundant molecular and morphological data for well over a decade. Along with the animals and Fungi, multiple protists have been placed in the supergroup Opisthokonta making it exceptionally diverse. In an effort to place the cellular slime mold Fonticula alba, an amoeboid protist with aggregative, multicellular fruiting, we sequenced five nuclear encoded genes; small subunit ribosomal RNA, actin, beta-tubulin, elongation factor 1-alpha, and the cytosolic isoform of heat shock protein 70 for phylogenetic analyses. Molecular trees demonstrate that Fonticula is an opisthokont that branches sister to filose amoebae in the genus Nuclearia. Fonticula plus Nuclearia are sister to Fungi. We propose a new name for this well-supported clade, Nucletmycea, incorporating Nuclearia, Fonticula, and Fungi. Fonticula represents the first example of a cellular slime mold morphology within Opisthokonta. Thus, there are four types of multicellularity in the supergroup-animal, fungal, colonial, and now aggregative. Our data indicate that multicellularity in Fonticula evolved independent of that found in the fungal and animal radiations. With the rapidly expanding sequence and genomic data becoming available from many opisthokont lineages, Fonticula may be fundamental to understanding opisthokont evolution as well as any possible commonalities involved with the evolution of multicellularity.

  4. Identification of substrates for transglutaminase in Physarum polycephalum, an acellular slime mold, upon cellular mechanical damage. (United States)

    Wada, Fumitaka; Hasegawa, Hiroki; Nakamura, Akio; Sugimura, Yoshiaki; Kawai, Yoshiki; Sasaki, Narie; Shibata, Hideki; Maki, Masatoshi; Hitomi, Kiyotaka


    Transglutaminases are Ca(2+)-dependent enzymes that post-translationally modify proteins by crosslinking or polyamination at specific polypeptide-bound glutamine residues. Physarum polycephalum, an acellular slime mold, is the evolutionarily lowest organism expressing a transglutimase whose primary structure is similar to that of mammalian transglutimases. We observed transglutimase reaction products at injured sites in Physarum macroplasmodia upon mechanical damage. With use of a biotin-labeled primary amine, three major proteins constituting possible transglutimase substrates were affinity-purified from the damaged slime mold. The purified proteins were Physarum actin, a 40 kDa Ca(2+)-binding protein with four EF-hand motifs (CBP40), and a novel 33 kDa protein highly homologous to the eukaryotic adenine nucleotide translocator, which is expressed in mitochondria. Immunochemical analysis of extracts from the damaged macroplasmodia indicated that CBP40 is partly dimerized, whereas the other proteins migrated as monomers on SDS/PAGE. Of the three proteins, CBP40 accumulated most significantly around injured areas, as observed by immunofluoresence. These results suggested that transglutimase reactions function in the response to mechanical injury.

  5. Experimental Verification of Fully Decentralized Control Inspired by Plasmodium of True Slime Mold (United States)

    Umedachi, Takuya; Takeda, Koichi; Nakagaki, Toshiyuki; Kobayashi, Ryo; Ishiguro, Akio

    This paper presents a fully decentralized control inspired by plasmodium of true slime mold and its validity using a soft-bodied amoeboid robot. The notable features of this paper are twofold: (1) the robot has truly soft and deformable body stemming from real-time tunable springs and a balloon, the former is utilized as an outer skin of the body and the latter serves as protoplasm; and (2) a fully decentralized control using coupled oscillators with completely local sensory feedback mechanism is realized by exploiting the long-distance physical interaction between the body parts induced by the law of conservation of protoplasmic mass. Experimental results show that this robot exhibits truly supple locomotion without relying on any hierarchical structure. The results obtained are expected to shed new light on design scheme for autonomous decentralized control system.

  6. Maternal inheritance of mitochondria: multipolarity, multiallelism and hierarchical transmission of mitochondrial DNA in the true slime mold Physarum polycephalum. (United States)

    Moriyama, Yohsuke; Kawano, Shigeyuki


    Direct evidence of digestion of paternal mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) has been found in the true slime mold Physarum polycephalum. This is the first report on the selective digestion of mtDNA inside the zygote, and is striking evidence for the mechanism of maternal inheritance of mitochondria. Moreover, two mitochondrial nuclease activities were detected in this organism as-candidates for the nucleases responsible for selective digestion of mtDNA. In the true slime mold, there is an additional-feature of the uniparental inheritance of mitochondria.Although mitochondria are believed to be inherited from the maternal lineage in nearly all eukaryotes, the mating types of the true slime mold P. polycephalum is not restricted to two: there are three mating loci--matA, matB,and matC--and these loci have 16, 15, and 3 alleles,-respectively. Interestingly, the transmission patterns of mtDNA are determined by the matA locus, in a hierarchical-fashion (matA hierarchy) as follows: matA7[matA2[matA11[matA12[matA15/matA16[matA1[matA6.The strain possessing the higher status of matA would be the mtDNA donor in crosses. Furthermore, we have found that some crosses showed biparental inheritance of mitochondria.This review describes the phenomenon of hierarchical transmission of mtDNA in true slime molds, and discusses the presumed molecular mechanism of maternal and biparental inheritance.

  7. Weight loss by Ppc-1, a novel small molecule mitochondrial uncoupler derived from slime mold.

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    Toshiyuki Suzuki

    Full Text Available Mitochondria play a key role in diverse processes including ATP synthesis and apoptosis. Mitochondrial function can be studied using inhibitors of respiration, and new agents are valuable for discovering novel mechanisms involved in mitochondrial regulation. Here, we screened small molecules derived from slime molds and other microorganisms for their effects on mitochondrial oxygen consumption. We identified Ppc-1 as a novel molecule which stimulates oxygen consumption without adverse effects on ATP production. The kinetic behavior of Ppc-1 suggests its function as a mitochondrial uncoupler. Serial administration of Ppc-1 into mice suppressed weight gain with no abnormal effects on liver or kidney tissues, and no evidence of tumor formation. Serum fatty acid levels were significantly elevated in mice treated with Ppc-1, while body fat content remained low. After a single administration, Ppc-1 distributes into various tissues of individual animals at low levels. Ppc-1 stimulates adipocytes in culture to release fatty acids, which might explain the elevated serum fatty acids in Ppc-1-treated mice. The results suggest that Ppc-1 is a unique mitochondrial regulator which will be a valuable tool for mitochondrial research as well as the development of new drugs to treat obesity.

  8. Diversity of plasmodial slime molds (myxomycetes in coastal, mountain, and community forests of Puerto Galera, Oriental Mindoro, the Philippines

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    Nikki Heherson A. Dagamac


    Full Text Available No profiling of diversity of myxomycetes has ever been conducted in one of the biodiversity hotspot areas in the Philippine archipelago, and this necessitates a swift survey of myxomycetes in Puerto Galera, Oriental Mindoro. An assessment of diversity of myxomycetes collected from seven collecting points of three different forest types in the study area showed a total of 926 records of myxomycetes. Of which, 42 morphospecies belonging to 16 genera are reported in this study. Species richness of myxomycetes was higher in collecting points that were found in inland lowland mountain forests, but the most taxonomically diverse species was found in coastal forests. Myxomycete species, namely, Arcyria cinerea, Diderma hemisphaericum, Physarum echinosporum, Lamproderma scintillans, and Stemonitis fusca, were found in all the collecting points. Manmade disturbances and forest structure may affect the occurrence of myxomycetes.

  9. Elf (extremely low frequency) communications system ecological monitoring program. The effects of exposing the slime mold Physarum polycephalum to electromagnetic fields

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    Goodman, E.M.; Marron, M.T.; Greenebaum, B.


    Laboratory exposure of the slime mold Physarum polycephalum to weak electromagnetic fields results in a lengthened mitotic cycle and depressed oxygen consumption. This research program has been designed to ascertain if the same physiological effects are obtained when Physarum polycephalum is exposed to electromagnetic fields in the vicinity of the Wisconsin Test Facility at Clam Lake, Wisconsin.

  10. Bromodeoxyuridine incorporation as a probe for studying the nature of radiation response of the slime mold, Physarum polycephalum. [Gamma radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breckbill, V.A.


    The effect of the incorporation of 5-bromodeoxyuridine into DNA on the induction of mitotic delay by radiation was studied in the synchronously dividing slime mold, Physarum polycephalum, in its vegetative stage, in an attempt to relate this radiation response to DNA damage. 5-Bromodeoxyuridine was incorporated into the DNA of Physarum polycephalum during (1) the first DNA synthesis period (S-I) following Mitosis I (first mitosis after fusion of microplasmodia) and the extent of unifilar substitution of deoxythymidine by 5-bromodeoxyuridine prior to Mitosis II was determined to be approximately 45%; or (2) the DNA synthetic periods following Mitosis I and Mitosis II (S-I and S-II) and the extent of bifilar substitution of deoxythymidine by 5-bromodeoxyuridine prior to Mitosis III was determined to be approximately 75%. There were significant increases in radiation induced mitotic delay observed in the molds (unifilar substitution) that had incorporated 5-bromodeoxyuridine from medium containing 100 compared to nonsubstituted molds. There were significant increases in the radiation induced mitotic delay at Mitosis IV (with bifilar substitution) in plasmodia that had been grown in medium containing 25 of 5-bromodeoxyuridine. When DNA from irradiated molds (harvested during S-II or G/sub 2/-II after 40,000 R) was subjected to alkaline sucrose density gradient centrifugation, it was found that the DNA from plasmodia treated with 5-bromodeoxyuridine initially contained more strand breaks than the similarly irradiated control molds. This difference was statistically significant in G/sub 2/ and suggests a correlation between the greater initial strand break damage observed in G/sub 2/ and the enhancement of radiation induced mitotic delay in the premitotic interval of G/sub 2/. No such correlation can be made for events in S with the results of the present study.

  11. Environment-dependent morphology in plasmodium of true slime mold Physarum polycephalum and a network growth model. (United States)

    Takamatsu, Atsuko; Takaba, Eri; Takizawa, Ginjiro


    Branching network growth patterns, depending on environmental conditions, in plasmodium of true slime mold Physarum polycephalum were investigated. Surprisingly, the patterns resemble those in bacterial colonies even though the biological mechanisms differ greatly. Bacterial colonies are collectives of microorganisms in which individual organisms have motility and interact through nutritious and chemical fields. In contrast, the plasmodium is a giant amoeba-like multinucleated unicellular organism that forms a network of tubular structures through which protoplasm streams. The cell motility of the plasmodium is generated by oscillation phenomena observed in the partial bodies, which interact through the tubular structures. First, we analyze characteristics of the morphology quantitatively, then we abstract local rules governing the growing process to construct a simple network growth model. This model is independent of specific systems, in which only two rules are applied. Finally, we discuss the mechanism of commonly observed biological pattern formations through comparison with the system of bacterial colonies.

  12. Eumycetozoa = Amoebozoa?: SSUrDNA phylogeny of protosteloid slime molds and its significance for the amoebozoan supergroup.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lora L Shadwick

    Full Text Available Amoebae that make fruiting bodies consisting of a stalk and spores and classified as closely related to the myxogastrids have classically been placed in the taxon Eumycetozoa. Traditionally, there are three groups comprising Eumycetozoa: myxogastrids, dictyostelids, and the so-called protostelids. Dictyostelids and myxogastrids both make multicellular fruiting bodies that may contain hundreds of spores. Protostelids are those amoebae that make simple fruiting bodies consisting of a stalk and one or a few spores. Protostelid-like organisms have been suggested as the progenitors of the myxogastrids and dictyostelids, and they have been used to formulate hypotheses on the evolution of fruiting within the group. Molecular phylogenies have been published for both myxogastrids and dictyostelids, but little molecular phylogenetic work has been done on the protostelids. Here we provide phylogenetic trees based on the small subunit ribosomal RNA gene (SSU that include 21 protostelids along with publicly available sequences from a wide variety of amoebae and other eukaryotes. SSU trees recover seven well supported clades that contain protostelids but do not appear to be specifically related to one another and are often interspersed among established groups of amoebae that have never been reported to fruit. In fact, we show that at least two taxa unambiguously belong to amoebozoan lineages where fruiting has never been reported. These analyses indicate that we can reject a monophyletic Eumycetozoa, s.l. For this reason, we will hereafter refer to those slime molds with simple fruiting as protosteloid amoebae and/or protosteloid slime molds, not as protostelids. These results add to our understanding of amoebozoan biodiversity, and demonstrate that the paradigms for understanding both nonfruiting and sporulating amoebae must be integrated. Finally, we suggest strategies for future research on protosteloid amoebae and nonfruiting amoebae, and discuss the

  13. Growth patterns of the slime mold Physarum on a nonuniform substrate (United States)

    Halvorsrud, Ragnhild; Wagner, Geri


    The Myxomycete Physarum polycephalum has been grown on nonuniform substrates, where the nutrients were confined in separated drops of agar medium. Spatial and temporal aspects of the resulting growth structures were studied by time-lapse video techniques and analyzed using image processing software. The growth process on a linear substrate of drops can be described in terms of a searching phase alternating with a feeding phase. On a linear array of drops, the Physarum advanced uniformly after an initial lag phase. On a two-dimensional drop substrate two different growth regimes could be distinguished: branched growth was observed on substrates with small drop diameters and compact growth, similar to growth on uniform substrates, was observed on substrates with larger drop diameters. The drop size is a crucial parameter that mediates characteristic plasmodial morphologies. A crossover from branched to compact growth was observed in some of the experiments. A spatial correlation function was used that could quantitatively distinguish between the different growth regimes.

  14. Food quality and the risk of light exposure affect patch-choice decisions in the slime mold Physarum polycephalum. (United States)

    Latty, Tanya; Beekman, Madeleine


    How individuals deal with multiple conflicting demands is an important aspect of foraging ecology, yet work on foraging behavior has typically neglected neurologically simple organisms. Here we examine the impact of an abiotic risk (light) and energetic status on the foraging decisions of a protist, the slime mold Physarum polycephalum. We examined patch choice in a "non-risky" environment by presenting starved and non-starved P. polycephalum amoebas with a choice between two shaded food patches (one high quality, one low quality). We next examined patch choice in the presence of a conflict between foraging risk (light exposure) and food quality by presenting amoebas with a choice between a shaded, low-quality patch, and a light-exposed, high-quality patch. When both patches were shaded, 100% of amoebas selected the higher quality food patch, irrespective of food-quality differences or the individual's energetic status. When light exposure and food quality conflicted, amoebas selected the patch with the higher food quality when the quality difference between the patches was high. When the quality difference between patches was small, amoebas selected the shaded, lower quality patch.

  15. Analyses of expression and localization of two mammalian-type transglutaminases in Physarum polycephalum, an acellular slime mold. (United States)

    Wada, Fumitaka; Ogawa, Atsuko; Hanai, Yuko; Nakamura, Akio; Maki, Masatoshi; Hitomi, Kiyotaka


    Transglutaminase (TGase) is an enzyme that modifies proteins by crosslinking or polyamination. Physarum polycephalum, an acellular slime mold, is the evolutionally lowest organism that has a mammalian-type transglutaminase. We have cloned a cDNA for Physarum polycephalum TGase (PpTGB), homologous to a previously identified TGase (PpTGA), whose sequence is similar to that of mammalian TGases. PpTGB encodes a primary sequence identical to that of PpTGA except for 11 amino acid residues at the N-terminus. Reverse transcription-PCR and Western blotting analyses showed that both PpTGA and PpTGB are expressed in microplasmodia and macroplasmodia during their life cycle, except for in sporangia. For biochemical characterization, we carried out the ectopical expressions of PpTGA and PpTGB in Dictyostelium discoideum. Subcellular fractionation of these Dictyostelium cells showed that the expressed PpTGA, but not PpTGB, localizes to the membrane fraction. Furthermore, in Physarum, subcellular fractionation and immunostaining indicated specific localization at the plasma membrane in macroplasmodia, while the localization was entirely cytoplasmic in microplasmodia.

  16. The role of noise in self-organized decision making by the true slime mold Physarum polycephalum. (United States)

    Meyer, Bernd; Ansorge, Cedrick; Nakagaki, Toshiyuki


    Self-organized mechanisms are frequently encountered in nature and known to achieve flexible, adaptive control and decision-making. Noise plays a crucial role in such systems: It can enable a self-organized system to reliably adapt to short-term changes in the environment while maintaining a generally stable behavior. This is fundamental in biological systems because they must strike a delicate balance between stable and flexible behavior. In the present paper we analyse the role of noise in the decision-making of the true slime mold Physarum polycephalum, an important model species for the investigation of computational abilities in simple organisms. We propose a simple biological experiment to investigate the reaction of P. polycephalum to time-variant risk factors and present a stochastic extension of an established mathematical model for P. polycephalum to analyze this experiment. It predicts that-due to the mechanism of stochastic resonance-noise can enable P. polycephalum to correctly assess time-variant risk factors, while the corresponding noise-free system fails to do so. Beyond the study of P. polycephalum we demonstrate that the influence of noise on self-organized decision-making is not tied to a specific organism. Rather it is a general property of the underlying process dynamics, which appears to be universal across a wide range of systems. Our study thus provides further evidence that stochastic resonance is a fundamental component of the decision-making in self-organized macroscopic and microscopic groups and organisms.

  17. Zinc accumulation by the slime mold Fuligo septica (L.) Wiggers in the former Soviet Union and North Korea. (United States)

    Zhulidov, Daniel A; Robarts, Richard D; Zhulidov, Alexander V; Zhulidova, Olga V; Markelov, Danila A; Rusanov, Viktor A; Headley, John V


    Samples of the slime mold Fuligo septica (L.) Wiggers were collected from an ecologically diverse selection of sites across the former USSR and in North Korea to determine their Zn concentrations. Plasmodia were collected from trees, rocks, soils, the walls of buildings and a variety of other materials and structures from 1990 to 1996. The biomass collected ranged from 305 to 968 mg, whereas Zn concentrations in plasmodia of F. septica ranged from 8400 to 23,000 mg kg(-1) dry wt. (mean and standard error = 14,200 +/- 860 mg kg(-1) dry wt.). No clear trend as to which areas produced F. septica with the highest Zn concentrations was discernable. Nor was it possible to identify any particular substrate on which F. septica grew that produced noticeably high Zn concentrations. For example, forest litter on which F. septica was found had Zn concentrations of only 25 to 130 mg kg(-1) dry wt. Our data confirm the only other study showing hyperaccumulation of Zn in F. septica, which was carried out in Finland. This ability seems to be unique to this species, but how or why it does this, or why such high Zn concentrations are not toxic to F. septica, are questions requiring future research.

  18. The TOM Complex of Amoebozoans: the Cases of the Amoeba Acanthamoeba castellanii and the Slime Mold Dictyostelium discoideum. (United States)

    Wojtkowska, Małgorzata; Buczek, Dorota; Stobienia, Olgierd; Karachitos, Andonis; Antoniewicz, Monika; Slocinska, Małgorzata; Makałowski, Wojciech; Kmita, Hanna


    Protein import into mitochondria requires a wide variety of proteins, forming complexes in both mitochondrial membranes. The TOM complex (translocase of the outer membrane) is responsible for decoding of targeting signals, translocation of imported proteins across or into the outer membrane, and their subsequent sorting. Thus the TOM complex is regarded as the main gate into mitochondria for imported proteins. Available data indicate that mitochondria of representative organisms from across the major phylogenetic lineages of eukaryotes differ in subunit organization of the TOM complex. The subunit organization of the TOM complex in the Amoebozoa is still elusive, so we decided to investigate its organization in the soil amoeba Acanthamoeba castellanii and the slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum. They represent two major subclades of the Amoebozoa: the Lobosa and Conosa, respectively. Our results confirm the presence of Tom70, Tom40 and Tom7 in the A. castellanii and D. discoideum TOM complex, while the presence of Tom22 and Tom20 is less supported. Interestingly, the Tom proteins display the highest similarity to Opisthokonta cognate proteins, with the exception of Tom40. Thus representatives of two major subclades of the Amoebozoa appear to be similar in organization of the TOM complex, despite differences in their lifestyle. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier GmbH.. All rights reserved.

  19. Purification and characterization of a novel intracellular acid proteinase from the plasmodia of a true slime mold, Physarum polycephalum. (United States)

    Murakami-Murofushi, K; Takahashi, T; Minowa, Y; Iino, S; Takeuchi, T; Kitagaki-Ogawa, H; Murofushi, H; Takahashi, K


    An acid proteinase was purified to apparent homogeneity from the plasmodia of a slime mold, Physarum polycephalum, by a combination of detergent extraction, acid precipitation, and column chromatographies on DEAE-Sephadex, hydroxylapatite, CM-Sephadex, and Sephadex G-100. The enzyme was shown to be composed of two polypeptide chains (a 31-kDa heavy chain and a 23-kDa light chain) cross-linked by disulfide bond(s). The NH2-terminal amino acid sequence of the heavy chain was determined to be Ala-Gly-Val- Asp-Gly-Tyr-Ile-Val-Pro-Tyr-Val-Ile-Phe-Asp-Leu-Tyr-Gly-Ile-Pro-Tyr and that of the light chain to be Ala-Glu-Pro-Pro-Ile. The heavy chain contained carbohydrate moiety composed of mannose, glucosamine, fucose, and glucose. The enzyme was optimally active at pH 1.7 toward hemoglobin as a substrate. Among the proteinase inhibitors tested only diazoacetyl-D,L-norleucine methyl ester, a typical aspartic proteinase inhibitor, inhibited the acid proteinase in the presence of cupric ions. It was insensitive to the other typical aspartic proteinase inhibitors, pepstatin A and 1,2-epoxy-3-(p-nitrophenoxy)propane. The enzyme hydrolyzed Lys-Pro-Ile-Glu-Phe(4-NO2)-Arg-Leu at the Phe-Phe(4-NO2) bond, but could not hydrolyze another synthetic pepsin-substrate, N-acetyl-L-phenylalanyl-3,5-diiodo-L-tyrosine. The enzyme showed a unique substrate specificity toward oxidized insulin B chain. The major cleavage sites were the bonds Gly8-Ser9, Leu11-Val12, Cya19-Gly20, and Phe24-Phe25, and the Gly8-Ser9 bond was most susceptible. These results indicate that the enzyme is a novel type of intracellular acid proteinase with a unique substrate specificity.

  20. Slime mould foraging behaviour as optically coupled logical operations (United States)

    Mayne, R.; Adamatzky, A.


    Physarum polycephalum is a macroscopic plasmodial slime mould whose apparently 'intelligent' behaviour patterns may be interpreted as computation. We employ plasmodial phototactic responses to construct laboratory prototypes of NOT and NAND logical gates with electrical inputs/outputs and optical coupling in which the slime mould plays dual roles of computing device and electrical conductor. Slime mould logical gates are fault tolerant and resettable. The results presented here demonstrate the malleability and resilience of biological systems and highlight how the innate behaviour patterns of living substrates may be used to implement useful computation.

  1. A fluid-filled soft robot that exhibits spontaneous switching among versatile spatiotemporal oscillatory patterns inspired by the true slime mold. (United States)

    Umedachi, Takuya; Idei, Ryo; Ito, Kentaro; Ishiguro, Akio


    Behavioral diversity is an essential feature of living systems, enabling them to exhibit adaptive behavior in hostile and dynamically changing environments. However, traditional engineering approaches strive to avoid, or suppress, the behavioral diversity in artificial systems to achieve high performance in specific environments for given tasks. The goals of this research include understanding how living systems exhibit behavioral diversity and using these findings to build lifelike robots that exhibit truly adaptive behaviors. To this end, we have focused on one of the most primitive forms of intelligence concerning behavioral diversity, namely, a plasmodium of true slime mold. The plasmodium is a large amoeba-like unicellular organism that does not possess any nervous system or specialized organs. However, it exhibits versatile spatiotemporal oscillatory patterns and switches spontaneously between these. Inspired by the plasmodium, we built a mathematical model that exhibits versatile oscillatory patterns and spontaneously transitions between these patterns. This model demonstrates that, in contrast to coupled nonlinear oscillators with a well-designed complex diffusion network, physically interacting mechanosensory oscillators are capable of generating versatile oscillatory patterns without changing any parameters. Thus, the results are expected to shed new light on the design scheme for lifelike robots that exhibit amazingly versatile and adaptive behaviors.

  2. Progress in plasmodial differentiation improves regularity of oscillating contractions in Physarum polycephalum. (United States)

    Helf, Matthias; Achenbach, Friedhelm


    Based on the knowledge about subcellular morphogenetic processes in the acellular slime mold Physarum polycephalum, we hypothesized that during differentiation of undifferentiated endoplasm to the highly differentiated complex structure of the contractile apparatus of this organism, the regularity of oscillating contractions must improve. We measured the endogenous contraction automaticity starting from the de novo generation within minutes after sampling small portions of undifferentiated endoplasm. The standard deviation of the normalized period duration of these samples was compared to the respective values of radial contractions of differentiated protoplasmic plasmodial strands. The mean normalized standard deviation in endoplasmic drops was 28.3+/-12.2%. Respective values in protoplasmic strands were 10.0+/-3.7%. The difference between the experimental groups was highly significant (pPhysarum require the complex structure of the sophisticated contractile apparatus, represented by the circular plasmalemma invagination system of protoplasmic strands, while the regularity is lower in stages, where the differentiation is still in progress. We believe that this is due to deficits in coordination capabilities, which need a directional and spatially oriented protoplasmic streaming as a precondition.

  3. Slime mould flora of the Ślęża massif

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanda Stojanowska


    Full Text Available In four succeding years 1971-1974 field investigation on the Myxomycetes of Ślęża massif has been carried out. Up to the present only 4 species of slime molds from this region were known. My last investigations give 63 new species and 4 new varieties to slime molds flora of Ślęża massif, and 5 new species to Silesia slime mold flora.

  4. Mold

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts


    This podcast answers a listener's question about the risks associated with mold after a natural disaster or severe weather.  Created: 5/2/2011 by National Center for Environmental Health (NCEH).   Date Released: 5/2/2011.

  5. Plasmodial incompatibility in the myxomycetes: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haskins EF


    Full Text Available Two myxomycete phaneroplasmodia of the same species undergo somatic fusion only if they are phenotypically identical for a complex genetic incompatibility system. This system consists of a three tiered polygenic complex with dominant and recessive alleles. Thus, plasmodia must be phenotypically identical for approximately 16 loci in order to fuse (CC and Cc are phenotypically identical, but different from cc. The first level of the system (having a minimum of seven Fus loci controls membrane fusion, and it apparently prevents fusion unless the two plasmodia have identical membrane or slime sheath components. The second level (having a minimum of six Cz loci produces a rapid lysis of a small mixed region, of the two plasmodia, if membrane fusion has occurred. This lysis is directional in that it targets the recessive phenotype, and it is apparently triggered by some pre-formed substances when they come into contact with a different plasmodium. The third level (having a minimum of three Let loci comes into play if membrane fusion occurs and there is no rapid lysis of the mixed plasmodium. It produces a slow lethal reaction, which targets and degrades the nuclei of the recessive phenotype. This reaction occurs over a period of five to twenty hours and requires the synthesis of new RNA and proteins. Since, this complex system produces a minimum of 65,536 different incompatibility phenotypes, it is highly unlikely that any two phaneroplasmodia will undergo a successful fusion unless they are very closely related. Species with aphaneroplasmoida apparently have a similar system, but species with small protoplasmodia do not appear to undergo any type of plasmodial fusion.


    Daniel, John W.; Kelley, Jacqueline; Rusch, Harold P.


    Daniel, John W. (University of Wisconsin, Madison), Jacqueline Kelley, and Harold P. Rusch. Hematin-requiring plasmodial myxomycete. J. Bacteriol. 84:1104–1110. 1962.—The myxomycete Physarum polycephalum, previously shown to require chick embryo extract for growth on a partially defined, soluble medium, grows as well if hematin or certain hemoproteins are substituted for the embryo extract. Hematin is also required as a growth factor if the organism is grown on a synthetic medium. Of the variety of porphyrins tested only iron protoporphyrin IX is utilized for growth by P. polycephalum. Protoporphyrin IX is inactive. Protein-bound iron porphyrin is active at one-tenth the concentration of free hematin. Although hematin completely replaces embryo extract, the extract activity has properties not characteristic of hematin or the hemoproteins tested: ladility to light and rapid plasmodial uptake. PMID:14024912

  7. On creativity of slime mould (United States)

    Adamatzky, Andrew; Armstrong, Rachel; Jones, Jeff; Gunji, Yukio-Pegio


    Slime mould Physarum polycephalum is large single cell with intriguingly smart behaviour. The slime mould shows outstanding abilities to adapt its protoplasmic network to varying environmental conditions. The slime mould can solve tasks of computational geometry, image processing, logics and arithmetics when data are represented by configurations of attractants and repellents. We attempt to map behavioural patterns of slime onto the cognitive control vs. schizotypy spectrum phase space and thus interpret slime mould's activity in terms of creativity.

  8. Anti-plasmodial activity of Ailanthus excelsa. (United States)

    Dell'Agli, Mario; Galli, Germana V; Parapini, Silvia; Basilico, Nicoletta; Taramelli, Donatella; Said, Ataa; Rashed, Khaled; Bosisio, Enrica


    The anti-plasmodial activity of Ailanthus excelsa stem bark was investigated. The methanolic extract inhibited in vitro growth of chloroquine-sensitive (D10) and resistant strains (W2) of Plasmodium falciparum (IC50 4.6 and 2.8 microg/ml, respectively). The effect was retained in the chloroform fraction (3.1 and 2.1 microg/ml, respectively). The anti-plasmodial activity could be ascribed to the impairment of haemoglobin degradation through the inhibition of plasmepsin II activity (IC50 of 13.43+/-1.74 microg/ml) and of the haem detoxification to haemozoin.

  9. Myxomycete (slime mold) spores: unrecognized aeroallergens? (United States)

    Lierl, Michelle B


    Myxomycete spores are present in the outdoor air but have not been studied for allergenicity. To determine whether patients with seasonal allergic rhinitis (SAR) symptoms are sensitized to myxomycete spores. Myxomycete specimens were collected in the field. Nine species of myxomycetes were collected and identified: Arcyria cinerea, Ceratiomyxa fruticulosa, Fuligo septica, Hemitrichia clavata, Lycogala epidendrum, Metatrichia vesparium, Stemonitis nigrescens, Tubifera ferruginosa, and Trichea favoginea. Allergen extracts were made for each species. Protein content of each extract was measured by bicinchoninic acid assay. Protein electrophoresis was performed. Subjects with a history of SAR symptoms were enrolled, and allergy skin prick testing was performed with each extract. Protein content of the extracts ranged from 1.05 to 5.8 mg/mL. Protein bands were seen at 10 to 250 kD. Allergy prick testing was performed in 69 subjects; 42% of subjects had positive prick test results for at least 1 myxomycete extract, with 9% to 22% reacting to each extract. Five of the 12 subjects who tested negative for all allergens on the standard aeroallergen panel had positive prick test results for myxomycetes. Forty-two percent of subjects with SAR were sensitized to myxomycete spores. A significant subset of subjects who had SAR symptoms and otherwise negative skin test results showed sensitization to myxomycetes. These spores are present in the outdoor air during the summer and autumn and might be significant aeroallergens. Copyright © 2013 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Slime production by Staphylococcus saprophyticus.


    Hjelm, E.; Lundell-Etherden, I


    Only 9 of 30 Staphylococcus saprophyticus strains produced slime in trypticase soy broth, while all did so in urine. It was found that urea was essential for the production of slime. The pH, the iron concentration, or the presence of sex hormones did not affect slime production.

  11. 76 FR 2130 - Prospective Grant of Exclusive License: Inhibitors of the Plasmodial Surface Anion Channel as... (United States)


    ... Plasmodial Surface Anion Channel as Antimalarials AGENCY: National Institutes of Health, Public Health... January 28, 2010, both applications entitled ``Inhibitors of the Plasmodial Surface Anion Channel As...: The subject technologies are antimalarial small molecule inhibitors of the plasmodial surface...

  12. Sounds Synthesis with Slime Mould of Physarum Polycephalum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Eduardo R. Miranda; Andrew Adamatzky; Jeff Jones


    This paper introduces a novel application of bionic engineering: a bionic musical instrument using Physarum polycephalum. Physarum polycephalum is a huge single cell with thousands of nuclei, which behaves like a giant amoeba. During its foraging behavior this plasmodium produces electrical activity corresponding to different physiological states. We developed a method to render sounds from such electrical activity and thus represent spatio-temporal behavior of slime mould in a form apprehended auditorily. The electrical activity is captured by various electrodes placed on a Petri dish containing the cultured slime mold. Sounds are synthesized by a bank of parallel sinusoidal oscillators connected to the electrodes. Each electrode is responsible for one partial of the spectrum of the resulting sound. The behavior of the slime mould can be controlled to produce different timbres.

  13. Analysis of the volatiles in the headspace above the plasmodium and sporangia of the slime mould (Physarum polycephalum) by SPME-GCMS

    CERN Document Server

    Kateb, Huda al


    Solid phase micro-extraction (SPME) coupled with Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) was used to extract and analyse the volatiles in the headspace above the plasmodial and sporulating stages of the slime mould Physarum Polycephalum. In total 115 compounds were identified from across a broad range of chemical classes. Although more (87) volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were identified when using a higher incubation temperature of 75oC, a large number of compounds (79) were still identified at the lower extraction temperature of 30oC and where the plasmodial stage was living. Far fewer compounds were extracted after sporulation at the two extraction temperatures. There were some marked differences between the VOCs identified in the plasmodial stage and after sporulation. In particular the nitrogen containing compounds acetonitrile, pyrrole, 2, 5-dimethyl-pyrazine and trimethyl pyrazine seemed to be associated with the sporulating stage. There were many compounds associated predominantly with the plas...

  14. Electricity solidifies slime mine waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    Electrokinetic densification, a simple, inexpensive and rapid technique, has been used successfully to convert slimes from meta mining into solid fill material. The US Bureau of Mines is now investigating the possible application of the technique to coal slimes. Tests show promise and a demonstration plant is planned.

  15. Cellular Motility--Experiments on Contractile and Motile Mechanisms in the Slime Mould, Physarum Polycephalum (United States)

    Holmes, R. P.; Stewart, P. R.


    Actin and myosin have now been demonstrated to be important constituents of many eukaryotic cells. Their role is primarily that of a contractile system underlying all aspects of cellular motility. Described here is a simple experimental system to demonstrate quantitatively aspects of motility and its regulation in a slime mold. (Author/MA)

  16. Flow Rate Driven by Peristaltic Movement in Plasmodial Tube of Physarum Polycephalum (United States)

    Yamada, Hiroyasu; Nakagaki, Toshiyuki


    We report a theoretical analysis of protoplasmic streaming driven by peristaltic movement in an elastic tube of an amoeba-like organism. The Plasmodium of Physarum polycephalum, a true slime mold, is a large amoeboid organism that adopts a sheet-like form with a tubular network. The network extends throughout the Plasmodium and enables the transport and circulation of chemical signals and nutrients. This tubular flow is driven by periodically propagating waves of active contraction of the tube cortex, a process known as peristaltic movement. We derive the relationship between the phase velocity of the contraction wave and the flow rate, and we discuss the physiological implications of this relationship.

  17. Stanley Corrsin Award Talk: Fluid Mechanics of Fungi and Slime (United States)

    Brenner, Michael


    There are interesting fluid mechanics problems everywhere, even in the most lowly and hidden corners of forest floors. Here I discuss some questions we have been working on in recent years involving fungi and slime. A critical issue for the ecology of fungi and slime is nutrient availability: nutrient sources are highly heterogeneous, and strategies are necessary to find food when it runs out. In the fungal phylum Ascomycota, spore dispersal is the primary mechanism for finding new food sources. The defining feature of this phylum is the ascus, a fluid filled sac from which spores are ejected, through a build up in osmotic pressure. We outline the (largely fluid mechanical) design constraints on this ejection strategy, and demonstrate how it provides strong constraints for the diverse morphologies of spores and asci found in nature. The core of the argument revisits a classical problem in elastohydrodynamic lubrication from a different perspective. A completely different strategy for finding new nutrient is found by slime molds and fungi that stretch out - as a single organism- over enormous areas (up to hectares) over forest floors. As a model problem we study the slime mold Physarum polycephalum, which forages with a large network of connected tubes on the forest floors. Localized regions in the network find nutrient sources and then pump the nutrients throughout the entire organism. We discuss fluid mechanical mechanisms for coordinating this transport, which generalize peristalsis to pumping in a heterogeneous network. We give a preliminary discussion to how physarum can detect a nutrient source and pump the nutrient throughout the organism.

  18. Treatment of a diamond mine's slimes tailings

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Jul 21, 2006 ... Keywords: water treatment, slimes dam, colloidal effluent, phosphogypsum. Introduction ... tional life of the slimes dam is limited to only 4 to 7 years at the ..... since it originated from a fertiliser manufacturing process. It is.

  19. Anti-Plasmodial Assessment of Four Different Iranian Propolis Extracts. (United States)

    Afrouzan, Houshang; Zakeri, Sedigheh; Abouie Mehrizi, Akram; Molasalehi, Sara; Tahghighi, Azar; Shokrgozar, Mohamad Ali; Es-Haghi, Ali; Dinparast Djadid, Navid


    Eradication of malaria will depend on discovery of new intervention tools such as anti-malarial drugs. Due to the increasing interest in the application of propolis against significant clinical pathogenic agents, the aim of the present investigation was to evaluate the anti-plasmodial effect of Iranian propolis extracts against chloroquine (CQ)-sensitive Plasmodium falciparum 3D7 and Plasmodium berghei (ANKA strain). Crude samples of honeybee (Apis mellifera) propolis were collected from four provinces in northern (Kalaleh, Golestan), northeastern (Chenaran, Razavi Khorasan), central (Taleghan, Alborz) and western (Morad Beyg, Hamedan) areas of Iran with different types of flora. The dried propolis samples were extracted with three different solvents, including ethanol 70% (EtOH), ethyl acetate (EA) and dichloromethane (DCM). All extracts were shown to have in vitro anti-plasmodial activity with IC50 ranging from 16.263 to 80.012 µg/mL using parasite lactate dehydrogenase (pLDH) assay. The DCM extract of Morad Beyg propolis indicated the highest anti-plasmodial activity (IC50: 16.263 ± 2.910 μg/mL; P = 0.027, Kruskal-Wallis H-test). The samples were also evaluated in mice for their in vivo anti-plasmodial effect. The curative effect against established infection (Rane test) showed that both extracts at all doses (50, 100, and 200 mg/kgBW) produced anti-plasmodial activity against the parasite. Furthermore, using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), the quantity of flavonoids in DCM and EtOH 70% extracts were found to be 7.42% and 3.10%, respectively. The potent anti-plasmodial activity of both EtOH 70% and DCM extracts of the propolis of Morad Beyg, Hamedan suggests further analyses of individual components to assess its utilization as anti-malarial drugs.

  20. Mold Allergy (United States)

    ... Ask the Allergist Health Professionals Partners Media Donate Allergies Mold Allergy What Is a Mold Allergy? If you have an allergy that occurs over ... basement. What Are the Symptoms of a Mold Allergy? The symptoms of mold allergy are very similar ...

  1. Hydrogel Beads: The New Slime Lab? (United States)

    Brockway, Debra; Libera, Matthew; Welner, Heidi


    Creating slime fascinates students. Unfortunately, though intrigue is at its peak, the educational aspect of this activity is often minimal. This article describes a chemistry lab that closely relates to the slime lab and allows high school students to explore the concepts of chemical bonding, properties, and replacement reactions. It involves the…

  2. Achene slime content in some taxa of Matricaria L. (Asteraceae)


    Inceer, Huseyin


    The achenes of Matricaria aurea and two varieties of M. chamomilla (var. chamomilla and var. recutita) have slime cells on the surface and they are characterized by slime envelope formation during hydration. The slime in these taxa is composed of pectins and cellulose. The slime could play important role in the distribution and colonisation of new habitats in Matricaria taxa.

  3. Allergies, asthma, and molds (United States)

    Reactive airway - mold; Bronchial asthma - mold; Triggers - mold; Allergic rhinitis - pollen ... Things that make allergies or asthma worse are called triggers. Mold is a common trigger. When your asthma or allergies become worse due to mold, you are ...

  4. Geometry Induced Delays of Slime Mould Propagation (United States)

    Adamatzky, Andrew


    Slime mould Physarum polycephalum propagates on nutrient substrates similarly to auto-waves in nonlinear media. In experimental laboratory studies we uncover that the width of geometrically constrained substrate affects the speed of Physarum propagation. We show that Physarum slows down when the width of the substrate increases. The slime mould propagates quicker from the vertex of a triangle to its base than from the base to the vertex. Physarum grows quicker in narrow channels than in wider channels. One can also slow down Physarum propagation by making a finite size expansion of the otherwise narrow channel. In computational experiments with a binary state cellular automaton model we demonstrate that a limitation on the slime mould's body mass production rate could be an underlying mechanism for the width-dependent slowdown of Physarum propagation.

  5. Feedback between intracellular flow, signaling and active stresses in Physarum plasmodial fragments (United States)

    Zhang, Shun; Guy, Robert; Del Alamo, Juan Carlos


    Physarum polycephalum is a multinucleated slime mold whose endoplasm flows periodically driven by the contraction of its ectoplasm, a dense shell of F-actin cross-linked by myosin molecular motors and attached to the cell membrane. Ectoplasm contractions are regulated by calcium ions whose propagation is in turn governed by the flow. We study experimentally how this feedback leads to auto-oscillation by simultaneously measuring endoplasmic flow speed and rheological properties, the traction stresses between the ectoplasm and its substratum and the distribution of endoplasmic free calcium ions. We find that physarum fragments smaller than 100 microns remain round and stay in place. However, larger fragments break symmetry leading to sustained forward locomotion, in process that is reminiscent of an interfacial instability that seems to settle around two different limit cycles (traveling waves and standing waves). By using different adhesive coatings in the substratum we investigate the role of substratum friction in the emergence of coherent endoplasmic flow patterns and overall physarum fragment locomotion.

  6. A Genetic System Controlling Mitochondrial Fusion in the Slime Mould, Physarum Polycephalum (United States)

    Kawano, S.; Takano, H.; Imai, J.; Mori, K.; Kuroiwa, T.


    We have identified two distinct mitochondrial phenotypes, namely, Mif(+) (mitochondrial fusion) and Mif(-) (mitochondrial fusion-deficient), and have studied the genetic system that controls mitochondrial fusion in the slime mould, Physarum polycephalum. A mitochondrial plasmid of approximately 16 kbp was identified in all Mif(+) plasmodial strains. This plasmid is apparently responsible for promoting mitochondrial fusion, and it is inserted into the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in successive sexual crossing with Mif(-) strains. This recombinant mtDNA and the unchanged free plasmid spread through the mitochondrial population via the promotion of mitochondrial fusion. The Mif(+) strains with the plasmid were further classified as being two types: high frequency and low frequency mitochondrial fusion. Restriction analysis of the mtDNA suggested that the high frequency mitochondrial fusion type was more often heteroplasmic; within each plasmodium, mtDNAs of both parental types were usually present, in addition to the presence of the plasmid. Genetic analysis with the progeny obtained from crossing myxamoebae derived from three different isolates suggested that these progeny carried different alleles at a nuclear locus that controlled the frequency of mitochondrial fusion. These alleles (mitochondrial mating-type alleles, mitA1, 2 and 3) appear to function like the mating type of the myxamoebae; mitochondrial fusion occurs at high frequency with the combination of unlike alleles, but at low frequency with the combination of like alleles. PMID:8436271

  7. Two-gene phylogeny of bright-spored Myxomycetes (slime moulds, superorder Lucisporidia). (United States)

    Fiore-Donno, Anna Maria; Clissmann, Fionn; Meyer, Marianne; Schnittler, Martin; Cavalier-Smith, Thomas


    Myxomycetes, or plasmodial slime-moulds, are one of the largest groups in phylum Amoebozoa. Nonetheless, only ∼10% are in the database for the small subunit (SSU) ribosomal RNA gene, the most widely used gene for phylogenetics and barcoding. Most sequences belong to dark-spored Myxomycetes (order Fuscisporida); the 318 species of superorder Lucisporidia (bright-spored) are represented by only eleven genuine sequences. To compensate for this, we provide 66 new sequences, 37 SSU rRNA and 29 elongation factor 1-alpha (EF-1α), for 82% of the genera of Lucisporidia. Phylogenetic analyses of single- and two-gene alignments produce congruent topologies and reveal both morphological characters that have been overemphasised and those that have been overlooked in past classifications. Both classical orders, Liceida and Trichiida, and several families and genera are para/polyphyletic; some previously unrecognised clades emerge. We discuss possible evolutionary pathways. Our study fills a gap in the phylogeny of Amoebozoa and provides an extensive SSU rRNA sequence reference database for environmental sampling and barcoding. We report a new group I intron insertion site for Myxomycetes in one Licea.

  8. Two-gene phylogeny of bright-spored Myxomycetes (slime moulds, superorder Lucisporidia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Maria Fiore-Donno

    Full Text Available Myxomycetes, or plasmodial slime-moulds, are one of the largest groups in phylum Amoebozoa. Nonetheless, only ∼10% are in the database for the small subunit (SSU ribosomal RNA gene, the most widely used gene for phylogenetics and barcoding. Most sequences belong to dark-spored Myxomycetes (order Fuscisporida; the 318 species of superorder Lucisporidia (bright-spored are represented by only eleven genuine sequences. To compensate for this, we provide 66 new sequences, 37 SSU rRNA and 29 elongation factor 1-alpha (EF-1α, for 82% of the genera of Lucisporidia. Phylogenetic analyses of single- and two-gene alignments produce congruent topologies and reveal both morphological characters that have been overemphasised and those that have been overlooked in past classifications. Both classical orders, Liceida and Trichiida, and several families and genera are para/polyphyletic; some previously unrecognised clades emerge. We discuss possible evolutionary pathways. Our study fills a gap in the phylogeny of Amoebozoa and provides an extensive SSU rRNA sequence reference database for environmental sampling and barcoding. We report a new group I intron insertion site for Myxomycetes in one Licea.

  9. Exploring slime mould diversity in high-altitude forests and grasslands by environmental RNA analysis. (United States)

    Kamono, Akiko; Meyer, Marianne; Cavalier-Smith, Thomas; Fukui, Manabu; Fiore-Donno, Anna Maria


    In spite of the ecological importance of protists, very little data is available on their distribution in soil. This investigation is the first of its kind on what could be the major components of the soil protistan community, the Myxomycetes, or plasmodial slime-moulds, a monophyletic class in the phylum Amoebozoa. Myxomycetes have a complex life cycle culminating in the formation of mainly macroscopic fruiting bodies, highly variable in shape and colour, which can be found in every terrestrial biome. Despite their prevalence, they are paradoxically absent from environmental DNA sampling studies. We obtained myxomycete SSU rRNA gene sequences from soil-extracted RNAs using specific primers. Soil samples were collected in three mountain ranges (France, Scotland and Japan). Our study revealed an unexpectedly high diversity of dark-spored Myxomycetes, with the recovery of 74 phylotypes. Of these, 74% had < 98% identity with known sequences, showing a hidden diversity; there was little overlap between localities, implying biogeographical patterns. Few phylotypes were dominant and many were unique, consistent with the 'rare biosphere' phenomenon. Our study provides the first detailed insight into the community composition of this ecologically important group of protists, establishing means for future studies of their distribution, abundance and ecology.

  10. Study on selenium extraction from anode slime

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GU; Heng


    Taking a copper anode slime as the raw material, a novel process for selenium extraction was studied. The primary selenium recovery can reach above 88.5 % and the quality index of selenium product can be up to 99.5 %. The economic benefit resulted is remarkable and environment has been protected.

  11. In vitro Anti Plasmodial Activity of Enicostemma littorale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanket Soni


    Full Text Available Problem statement: Malaria is a prevalent disease in India. The problem of drug resistance is worsening. Hence, new effective and affordable antimalarial drugs are very much needed. The long-established use of quinine and the more recent introduction of artemisinin as highly effective anti malarials demonstrate that plant species are an important resource for the discovery of new anti malarial agents. Approach: Majority of the plants belonging to Gentianaceae family were proven as good antimalarials containing swertiamarin as a common marker. Enicostemma littorale (Gentianaceae is also known from traditional knowledge for treatment of visham jwara and is rich in swertiamarin amongst all of the plants belonging to same family. In view of this, initial screening had been undertaken. Our laboratory had also been working on the same for its antidiabetic activity. Results: This was first report to demonstrate anti plasmodial activity of Enicostemma littorale (Gentianaceae against Plasmodium falciparum. Methanolic extract of plant and swertiamarin isolated from it showed promising results in vitro in schizont maturation inhibition assay having IC50 of 529.045 and 12 µg mL-1 respectively. We also reported a simple and rapid method for isolation of swertiamarin which was applicable at commercial scale. Conclusion: The present study represented the potential antimalarial action of plant and its active phytoconstituent, may give new lead to researchers in field of antimalarial drug discovery.

  12. Molds in the Environment (United States)

    ... on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Molds in the Environment What are molds? What are some of the ... molds found? Molds are found in virtually every environment and can be detected, both indoors and outdoors, ...

  13. Mold Testing or Sampling (United States)

    In most cases, if visible mold growth is present, sampling is unnecessary. Since no EPA or other federal limits have been set for mold or mold spores, sampling cannot be used to check a building's compliance with federal mold standards.

  14. Synchronization in a Plasmodial Strand of Physarum Polycephalum as a One-Dimensionally Coupled Oscillator System (United States)

    Hu, Zi-Song; Takahashi, Kengo; Tsuchiya, Yoshimi


    Transient behaviors in self-sustained oscillation of a plasmodial strand of Physarum polycephalum have been investigated for various external loads under isotonic conditions. Synchronization between divisions of the strand has been observed in its formation process, which shows that the plasmodial strand can be considered as a one-dimensionally coupled oscillator system. The synchronization has been found to proceed faster with increasing external load applied to the strand. It has furthermore been found that the rate of increase of the amplitude of oscillation increases with the load, whereas the temporal behavior of its period is independent of the load. These results show that the oscillators themselves in the plasmodial strand do not depend on the external load, but the coupling between these oscillators is strongly affected with the external load. The experimental results have also been simulated on the basis of one-dimensionally coupled van der Pol equations.

  15. Magnetic seeding sedimentation (MSS) of coal slimes (United States)

    Wu, Xiqing; Yue, Tao; Dai, Liang


    Magnetic seeding sedimentation (MSS), i.e. adding magnetic seeds and pre-magnetization for sedimentation, is a technique especially for sedimentation of fine slimes, improving the sedimentation performance by introducing the magnetic interactions between particles in a suspension and enlarging the apparent size of the fine particles. The fine coal slimes with a size of 66.68%-38μm were investigated by the MSS. Sedimentation tests were conducted, and some measurements, such as laser size analysis, magnetic susceptibility by vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), were also applied in order to probe the mechanism of the MSS. Based on the tests, measurements and calculations it was demonstrated that the sedimentation of coal slimes increased with the additions of the magnetic seeds, and in the presence of the polyacrylamide, and also there appeared a relatively large apparent size of slimes after additions of magnetic seeds and/or polyacrylamide. So, the reason for the influence of MSS lies in fact that the presence of the polyacrylamide intensified the adsorption of magnetic seeds on the coal particles and the coverage of the magnetic seeds on the coal surface from 0.2% wt. to1.3% wt., resulting in increased magnetic susceptibility of coal particles from 9.13×10-9m3/kg to 22.17×10-9m3/kg and thus a low magnetic field strength of pre-magnetization needed for the magnetic agglomeration to happen among the coal particles (the threshold of magnetic field strength for agglomeration) from 602mT to 24mT prior to proper sedimentation.

  16. Replacement of the human topoisomerase linker domain with the plasmodial counterpart renders the enzyme camptothecin resistant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnò, Barbara; D'Annessa, Ilda; Tesauro, Cinzia;


    , but it is characterized by a much faster religation rate. The hybrid enzyme is also camptothecin resistant. A 3D structure of the hybrid enzyme has been built and its structural-dynamical properties have been analyzed by molecular dynamics simulation. The analysis indicates that the swapped plasmodial linker samples......A human/plasmodial hybrid enzyme, generated by swapping the human topoisomerase IB linker domain with the corresponding domain of the Plasmodium falciparum enzyme, has been produced and characterized. The hybrid enzyme displays a relaxation activity comparable to the human enzyme...... in the modulation of the topoisomerase IB activity....

  17. Slime moulds occurring in the Bukowiec reserve (W Carpathians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Miśkiewicz


    Full Text Available Two-year studies on the diversity and occurrence of slime moulds in the Bukowiec forest reserve (Pogórze Wiśnickie Region were undertaken. 31 taxa of slime moulds found are listed. Two species, Hemitricha calyculata and Fuligo levderma, are recorded in Poland for the first time.

  18. Advances in Physarum machines sensing and computing with Slime mould

    CERN Document Server


    This book is devoted to Slime mould Physarum polycephalum, which is a large single cell capable for distributed sensing, concurrent information processing, parallel computation and decentralized actuation. The ease of culturing and experimenting with Physarum makes this slime mould an ideal substrate for real-world implementations of unconventional sensing and computing devices The book is a treatise of theoretical and experimental laboratory studies on sensing and computing properties of slime mould, and on the development of mathematical and logical theories of Physarum behavior. It is shown how to make logical gates and circuits, electronic devices (memristors, diodes, transistors, wires, chemical and tactile sensors) with the slime mould. The book demonstrates how to modify properties of Physarum computing circuits with functional nano-particles and polymers, to interface the slime mould with field-programmable arrays, and to use Physarum as a controller of microbial fuel cells. A unique multi-agent model...

  19. Slime thickness evaluation of bored piles by electrical resistivity probe (United States)

    Chun, Ok-Hyun; Yoon, Hyung-Koo; Park, Min-Chul; Lee, Jong-Sub


    The bottoms of bored piles are generally stacked with soil particles, both while boreholes are being drilled, and afterward. The stacked soils are called slime, and when loads are applied on the pile, increase the pile settlement. Thus to guarantee the end bearing capacity of bored piles, the slime thickness should be precisely detected. The objective of this study is to suggest a new method for evaluating the slime thickness, using temperature compensated electrical resistivity. Laboratory studies are performed in advance, to estimate and compare the resolution of the electrical resistivity probe (ERP) and time domain reflectometry (TDR). The electrical properties of the ERP and TDR are measured using coaxial type electrodes and parallel type two-wire electrodes, respectively. Penetration tests, conducted in the fully saturated sand-clay mixtures, demonstrate that the ERP produces a better resolution of layer detection than TDR. Thus, field application tests using the ERP with a diameter of 35.7 mm are conducted for the investigation of slime thickness in large diameter bored piles. Field tests show that the slime layers are clearly identified by the ERP: the electrical resistivity dramatically increases at the interface between the slurry and slime layer. The electrical resistivity in the slurry layer inversely correlates with the amount of circulated water. This study suggests that the new electrical resistivity method may be a useful method for the investigation of the slime thickness in bored piles.

  20. Hybrid slime mould-based system for unconventional computing (United States)

    Berzina, T.; Dimonte, A.; Cifarelli, A.; Erokhin, V.


    Physarum polycephalum is considered to be promising for the realization of unconventional computational systems. In this work, we present results of three slime mould-based systems. We have demonstrated the possibility of transporting biocompatible microparticles using attractors, repellents and a DEFLECTOR. The latter is an external tool that enables to conduct Physarum motion. We also present interactions between slime mould and conducting polymers, resulting in a variation of their colour and conductivity. Finally, incorporation of the Physarum into the organic memristive device resulted in a variation of its electrical characteristics due to the slime mould internal activity.

  1. Anti-plasmodial and anti-leishmanial activity of conformationally restricted pentamidine congeners. (United States)

    Huang, Tien L; Vanden Eynde, Jean Jacques; Mayence, Annie; Donkor, Isaac O; Khan, Shabana I; Tekwani, Babu L


    A library of 52 pentamidine congeners in which the flexible pentyldioxy linker in pentamidine was replaced with various restricted linkers was tested for in-vitro activity against two Plasmodium falciparum strains and Leishmania donovani. The tested compounds were generally more effective against P. falciparum than L. donovani. The most active compounds against the chloroquine-sensitive (D6, Sierra Leone) and -resistant (W2, Indochina) strains of P. falciparum were bisbenzamidines linked with a 1,4-piperazinediyl or 1, 4-homopiperazinediyl moiety, with IC50 values (50% inhibitory concentration, inhibiting parasite growth by 50% in relation to drug-free control) as low as 7 nM based on the parasite lactate dehydrogenase assay. Seven piperazine-linked bisbenzamidines substituted at the amidinium nitrogens with a linear alkyl group of 3-6 carbons (22, 25, 27, 31) or cycloalkyl group of 4, 6 or 7 carbons (26, 32, 34) were more potent (IC50pentamidine as anti-plasmodial agents. The most active anti-leishmanial agents were 4,4'-[1,4-phenylenebis(methyleneoxy)]bisbenzenecarboximidamide (2, IC50 approximately 0.290 microM) and 1,4-bis[4-(1H-benzimidazol-2-yl)phenyl] piperazine (44, IC50 approximately 0.410 microM), which were 10- and 7-fold more potent than pentamidine (IC50 approximately 2.90 microM). Several of the more active anti-plasmodial agents (e.g. 2, 31, 33, 36-38) were also potent anti-leishmanial agents, indicating broad antiprotozoal properties. However, a number of analogues that showed potent anti-plasmodial activity (1, 18, 21, 22, 25-28, 32, 43, 45) were not significantly active against the Leishmania parasite. This indicates differential modes of anti-plasmodial and anti-leishmanial actions for this class of compounds. These compounds provide important structure-activity relationship data for the design of improved chemotherapeutic agents against parasitic infections.

  2. How the velvet worm squirts slime

    CERN Document Server

    Concha, Andrés; Morera-Brenes, Bernal; Costa, Cristiano Sampaio; Mahadevan, L; Monge-Nájera, Julián


    The rapid squirt of a proteinaceous slime jet endows the ancient velvet worms (Onychophora) with a unique mechanism for defense from predators and for capturing prey by entangling them in a disordered web that immobilizes their target. However, to date neither qualitative nor quantitative descriptions have been provided for this unique adaptation. Here we investigate the fast oscillatory motion of the oral papillae and the exiting liquid jet that oscillates with frequencies $f\\sim 30-60$ Hz. Using anatomical images, high speed videography, theoretical analysis and a physical simulacrum we show that this fast oscillatory motion is the result of an elastohydrodynamic instability driven by the interplay between the elasticity of oral papillae and the fast unsteady flow during squirting. Our results demonstrate how passive strategies can be cleverly harnessed by organisms, while suggesting future oscillating micro-fluidic devices as well as novel ways for micro and nano fiber production using bioinspired strategi...

  3. Anodic slimes formation in copper electrowinning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ipinza, J.


    Full Text Available The slime formation in acidic electrolytes of copper with several metallic impurities has been studied. On Pb-Ca-Sn anode surface firstly the formation of PbSO4 takes place, then, it is transformed in PbO2, which covers the anode surface. It was experimentally established the formation of a manganese dioxide double layer at the anode. This layer was always composed of a thick external layer of non-adhering and easily removable scales, and of a thin internal layer, which adheres relatively well to the surface of the electrode. It was found that the manganese dioxide present in the slime is of different nature: a non-adhering layer produced by electrolysis (ε-MnO2 on the PbO2 surface and a pure chemical precipitate in the solution (β- MnO2. Lead sulfate was found on the β-MnO2layer when iron was in the electrolyte. When arsenic or antimony was present in the electrolyte, the slime was lead sulfate and amorphous compounds of those ions. Slime of Chilean electrowinning (EW plants is also discussed.

    Se estudió la formación de borras anódicas debido a la presencia de varias impurezas metálicas en electrólitos de cobre. Sobre la superficie de un ánodo de Pb-Ca-Sn se forma primero PbSO4 y luego se transforma en PbO2, el cual cubre la superficie del ánodo. Se estableció experimentalmente la formación de una doble capa de dióxido de manganeso en el ánodo. Esta estuvo siempre compuesta por una capa externa gruesa, no adherente y de fácil remoción, y otra interna delgada y adherida a la superficie del electrodo. Se encontró que los óxidos de manganeso en las borras eran de distinta naturaleza: una capa no adherente producida por electrólisis sobre la superficie de PbO2 (ε-MnO2 y una producida sólo por precipitación química en la solución (β-MnO2. A1 existir hierro en el electrólito se encontró sulfato de

  4. Are motorways rational from slime mould's point of view?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adamatzky, A.; Akl, S.; Alonso-Sanz, R.; van Dessel, W.; Ibrahim, Z.; Ilachinski, A.; Jones, J.; Kayem, A.V.D.M.; Martínez, G.J.; de Oliveira, P.; Prokopenko, M.; Schubert, T.; Sloot, P.; Strano, E.; Yang, X.-S.


    We analyse the results of our experimental laboratory approximation of motorway networks with slime mould Physarum polycephalum. Motorway networks of 14 geographical areas are considered: Australia, Africa, Belgium, Brazil, Canada, China, Germany, Iberia, Italy, Malaysia, Mexico, the Netherlands, UK

  5. Are motorways rational from slime mould's point of view?

    CERN Document Server

    Adamatzky, Andrew; Alonso-Sanz, Ramon; van Dessel, Wesley; Ibrahim, Zuwairie; Ilachinski, Andrew; Jones, Jeff; Kayem, Anne V D M; Martinez, Genaro J; de Oliveira, Pedro; Prokopenko, Mikhail; Schubert, Theresa; Sloot, Peter; Strano, Emanuele; Yang, Xin-She


    We analyse the results of our experimental laboratory approximation of motorways networks with slime mould Physarum polycephalum. Motorway networks of fourteen geographical areas are considered: Australia, Africa, Belgium, Brazil, Canada, China, Germany, Iberia, Italy, Malaysia, Mexico, The Netherlands, UK, USA. For each geographical entity we represented major urban areas by oat flakes and inoculated the slime mould in a capital. After slime mould spanned all urban areas with a network of its protoplasmic tubes we extracted a generalised Physarum graph from the network and compared the graphs with an abstract motorway graph using most common measures. The measures employed are the number of independent cycles, cohesion, shortest paths lengths, diameter, the Harary index and the Randic index. We obtained a series of intriguing results, and found that the slime mould approximates best of all the motorway graphs of Belgium, Canada and China, and that for all entities studied the best match between Physarum and ...

  6. Production and characterization of the slime polysaccharide of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. (United States)

    Evans, L R; Linker, A


    The slime polysaccharides produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from a variety of human infections were investigated. Slime production in culture seemed optimal when adequate amounts of carbohydrate were present and under conditions of either high osmotic pressure or inadequate protein supply. The polysaccharides produced by the organisms were similar to each other, to the slime of Azotobacter vinelandii, and to seaweed alginic acids. They were composed of beta-1,4-linked d-mannuronic acid residues and variable amounts of its 5-epimer l-guluronic acid. All bacterial polymers contained o-acetyl groups which are absent in the alginates. The polysaccharides differed considerably in the ratio of mannuronic to guluronic acid content and in the number of o-acetyl groups. The particular composition of the slime was not found to be characteristic for the disease process from which the mucoid variants of P. aeruginosa were obtained.

  7. Vie Physarale: Evaluation of Roman roads with slime mould

    CERN Document Server

    Strano, Emanuele; Jones, Jeff


    Roman Empire is renowned for sharp logical design and outstanding building quality of its road system. Many roads built by Romans are still use in continental Europe and UK. The Roman roads were built for military transportations with efficiency in mind, as straight as possible. Thus the roads make an ideal test-bed for developing experimental laboratory techniques for evaluating man-made transport systems using living creatures. We imitate development of road networks in Iron Age Italy using slime mould Physarum polycephalum. We represent ten Roman cities with oat flakes, inoculate the slime mould in Roma, wait till slime mould spans all flakes-cities with its network of protoplasmic tubes, and analyse structures of the protoplasmic networks. We found that most Roman roads, apart of those linking Placentia to Bononia and Genua to Florenzia are represented in development of Physarum polycephalum. Transport networks developed by Romans and by slime mould show strong affinity of planar proximity graphs, and par...

  8. Slime Mould Analogue Models of Space Exploration and Planet Colonisation (United States)

    Adamatzky, A.; Armstrong, R.; De Lacy Costello, B.; Deng, Y.; Jones, J.; Mayne, R.; Schubert, T.; Sirakoulis, G. Ch.; Zhang, X.

    Slime mould Physarum polycephalum is a single cell that is visible by the unaided eye. When spanning sources of nutrients the slime mould builds a network of protoplasmic tubes which is sometimes considered to be optimal in terms of the minimization of metabolite transportation time and distance away from repellents. Previously we have shown that the slime mould is efficient in imitating the formation of man-made road networks in major countries, where major urban areas are sources of nutrients. We used a similar approach to grow slime mould on a three-dimensional template of the Moon to speculate on potential colonisation scenarios. The slime mould imitated the propagation of colonisation in an exploratory mode, i.e. without any definite targets. Additional transportation hubs/targets were added after the initial network was formed, to imitate the development of colonies in parallel with slime mould growth. We provide analyses of proximity graphs representing colonisation networks and support the findings with Physarum-inspired algorithms to inform supply chain design. We speculate on how living Physarum, or its incorporation into a polymer hybrid material, can be used as a wearable smart wetware based on laboratory experiments interacting with chemical components.

  9. Chemical treatment of slime in industrial cooling water systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, Noriyuki


    Chemical suppression test was made for slime produced in pipes of the industrial water cooling systems. The 3 month chemical slime treatment test in 1984 proved to be effective, and the test has been carried out since July, 1985. The objective was to suppress the generation of slime by decreasing the number of general bacteria by slime treatment agent (fungicide of chloride group). The number of bacteria in the supplied water was compared for the time and day of the week when samples were collected. It was found that there was no regular rule in the variation of the number of bacteria, with measured result of 30-10/sup 6/ variation range. From the variation in the number of bacteria and the sticking conditions of slime on the test board, it became clear that suppression was possible by drastically decreasing the bacteria number in cooling water in the early stage of chemical supply, followed by resupply of treatment agent in a week when the bacteria would be restored to its original amount by supplied water. However, the method is to suppress the slime generation, and is unable to stop the generation completely. (9 figs, 3 tabs)

  10. Floods and Mold Growth (United States)

    Mold growth may be a problem after flooding. Excess moisture in the home is cause for concern about indoor air quality primarily because it provides breeding conditions for pests, molds and other microorganisms.

  11. Darcy permeability of hagfish slime: an ultra-soft hydrogel (United States)

    Chaudhary, Gaurav; Fudge, Douglas; Ewoldt, Randy


    When under attack from predators, hagfish produces a large amount of slime. The slime is an exceptional hydrogel, which sets-up in fraction of a second and is known to choke the predators. A small quantity of exudate, released from specialized slime glands, mixes with a large volume of sea water (99.996% w/v) and forms a mucus-like cohesive mass. The exudate has two main constituents: mucins and long intermediate filament based threads. This remarkably dilute material forms into a solid and is hypothesized to have a low hydrodynamic permeability. In this work, we present the first experimental measurements of Darcy permeability of hagfish slime. Our results explain how this ultra-soft hydrogel possesses the so-called 'gill-clogging' ability. We also investigate the roles played by individual components of slime, namely, thread cells and mucins, via a concentration-dependent permeability study. Our results provide vital insights into the roles of individual components and it is evident from our observations that mucins play a vital role in significantly reducing the permeability of the fibrous network formed by threads.

  12. Bleach Neutralizes Mold Allergens (United States)

    Science Teacher, 2005


    Researchers at National Jewish Medical and Research Center have demonstrated that dilute bleach not only kills common household mold, but may also neutralize the mold allergens that cause most mold-related health complaints. The study, published in the Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, is the first to test the effect on allergic…

  13. Modern immunological approaches to assess malaria transmission and immunity and to diagnose plasmodial infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. T. Daniel-Ribeiro


    Full Text Available The present paper reviews our recent data concerning the use of immunological methods employing monoclonal antibodies and synthetic peptides to study malaria transmission and immunity and to diagnose plasmodial infection. As concerns malaria transmission, we studied the main vectors of human malaria and the plasmodial species transmitted in endemic areas of Rondônia state, Brazil. The natural infection on anopheline was evaluated by immunoradiometric assay (IRMA using monoclonal antibodies to an immunodominant sporozoite surface antigen (CS protein demonstrated to be species specific. Our results showed that among six species of Anopheles found infected, An. darlingi was the main vector transmitting Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax malaria in the immediate vicinity of houses. In order to assess the level of anti-CS antibodies we studied, by IRMA using the synthetic peptide corresponding to the repetitive epitope of the sporozoite CS protein, sera of individuals living in the same areas where the entomological survey has been performed. In this assay the prevalence of anti-CS antibodies was very low and did not reflect the malaria transmission rate in the studied areas. In relation to malaria diagnosis, a monoclonal antibody specific to an epitope of a 50 kDa exoantigen, the major component of supernatant collected at the time of schizont rupture, was used as a probe for the detection of P. falciparum antigens. This assay seemed to be more sensitive than parasitological examination for malaria diagnosis since it was able to detect plasmodial antigens in both symptomatic and asymtomatic individuals with negative thick blood smear at different intervals after a last parasitologically confirmed confirmed attack of malaria.

  14. [Spectral analysis of self-oscillating motility in isolated plasmodial strand of Physarum polycephalum]. (United States)

    Proskurin, S G; Avsievich, T I


    In this study the experimental dependencies of the velocity of shuttle endoplasmic motion in the isolated plasmodial strand of Physarum polycephalum obtained by laser Doppler microscopy are presented. The spectral analysis of the time dependencies of the endoplasm allows obtaining two distinct harmonic components. Influence of KCN and SHAM--inhibitors of cellular respiration--leads to a complete cessation of endoplasmic motion in the strand. After removal of the inhibitors the respiratory system becomes normal, gradually restoring the activity of both harmonic oscillation sources. Based on the spectral analysis the simulated time-dependent velocity of the endoplasmic motion is rather good consistent with experimental data.

  15. Collective behaviour and swarm intelligence in slime moulds. (United States)

    Reid, Chris R; Latty, Tanya


    The study of collective behaviour aims to understand how individual-level behaviours can lead to complex group-level patterns. Collective behaviour has primarily been studied in animal groups such as colonies of insects, flocks of birds and schools of fish. Although less studied, collective behaviour also occurs in microorganisms. Here, we argue that slime moulds are powerful model systems for solving several outstanding questions in collective behaviour. In particular, slime mould may hold the key to linking individual-level mechanisms to colony-level behaviours. Using well-established principles of collective animal behaviour as a framework, we discuss the extent to which slime mould collectives are comparable to animal groups, and we highlight some potentially fruitful areas for future research.

  16. Geographic information system (GIS)-based image analysis for assessing growth of Physarum polycephalum on a solid medium. (United States)

    Tran, Hanh T M; Stephenson, Steven L; Tullis, Jason A


    The conventional method used to assess growth of the plasmodium of the slime mold Physarum polycephalum in solid culture is to measure the extent of plasmodial expansion from the point of inoculation by using a ruler. However, plasmodial growth is usually rather irregular, so the values obtained are not especially accurate. Similar challenges exist in quantification of the growth of a fungal mycelium. In this paper, we describe a method that uses geographic information system software to obtain highly accurate estimates of plasmodial growth over time. This approach calculates plasmodial area from images obtained at particular intervals following inoculation. In addition, the correlation between plasmodial area and its dry cell weight value was determined. The correlation could be used for biomass estimation without the need of having to terminate the cultures in question. The method described herein is simple but effective and could also be used for growth measurements of other microorganisms such as fungi on solid media.

  17. Mobility of the conserved glycine 155 is required for formation of the active plasmodial Pdx1 dodecamer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knoeckel, Julia; Jordanova, Rositsa; Mueller, Ingrid B.; Wrenger, Carsten; Groves, Matthew R.


    Background: Vitamin B6 synthesis requires a functional Pdx1 assembly that is dodecameric in vivo. We have previously shown that mutation of a catalytic lysine in the plasmodial Pdx1 protein results in a protein that is both inactive and hexameric in vitro. Methods: Static and dynamic light scatterin

  18. Mobility of the conserved glycine 155 is required for formation of the active plasmodial Pdx1 dodecamer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knoeckel, Julia; Jordanova, Rositsa; Mueller, Ingrid B.; Wrenger, Carsten; Groves, Matthew R.


    Background: Vitamin B6 synthesis requires a functional Pdx1 assembly that is dodecameric in vivo. We have previously shown that mutation of a catalytic lysine in the plasmodial Pdx1 protein results in a protein that is both inactive and hexameric in vitro. Methods: Static and dynamic light scatterin

  19. Analysis of Rheb in the cellular slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum: Cellular localization, spatial expression and overexpression

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Pynskhem Bok Swer; Pooja Bhadoriya; Shweta Saran


    Dictyostelium discoideum encodes a single Rheb protein showing sequence similarity to human homologues of Rheb. The DdRheb protein shares 52% identity and 100% similarity with the human Rheb1 protein. Fluorescence of Rheb yellow fluorescent protein fusion was detected in the D. discoideum cytoplasm. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and whole-mount in situ hybridization analyses showed that rheb is expressed at all stages of development and in prestalk cells in the multicellular structures developed. When the expression of rheb as a fusion with lacZ was driven under its own promoter, the -galactosidase activity was seen in the prestalk cells. D. discoideum overexpressing Rheb shows an increase in the size of the cell. Treatment of the overexpressing Rheb cells with rapamycin confirms its involvement in the TOR signalling pathway.

  20. An atypical topoisomerase II sequence from the slime mold Physarum polycephalum. (United States)

    Hugodot, Yannick; Dutertre, Murielle; Duguet, Michel


    We have determined the complete nucleotide sequence of the cDNA encoding DNA topoisomerase II from Physarum polycephalum. Using degenerate primers, based on the conserved amino acid sequences of other eukaryotic enzymes, a 250-bp fragment was polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplified. This fragment was used as a probe to screen a Physarum cDNA library. A partial cDNA clone was isolated that was truncated at the 3' end. Rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE)-PCR was employed to isolate the remaining portion of the gene. The complete sequence of 4613 bp contains an open reading frame of 4494 bp that codes for 1498 amino acid residues with a theoretical molecular weight of 167 kDa. The predicted amino acid sequence shares similarity with those of other eukaryotes and shows the highest degree of identity with the enzyme of Dictyostelium discoideum. However, the enzyme of P. polycephalum contains an atypical amino-terminal domain very rich in serine and proline, whose function is unknown. Remarkably, both a mitochondrial targeting sequence and a nuclear localization signal were predicted respectively in the amino and carboxy-terminus of the protein, as in the case of human topoisomerase III alpha. At the Physarum genomic level, the topoisomerase II gene encompasses a region of about 16 kbp suggesting a large proportion of intronic sequences, an unusual situation for a gene of a lower eukaryote, often free of introns. Finally, expression of topoisomerase II mRNA does not appear significantly dependent on the plasmodium cycle stage, possibly due to the lack of G1 phase or (and) to a mitochondrial localization of the enzyme.

  1. Effects of oxidants on the physiological function of the slime mold

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kano, F.


    The effects of oxidants on myxomycetes were studied. Physarum polycephalum was chosen as a test species, and the movement under the influence of oxidants (mainly ozone) were studied. The test material was placed in a glass exposure chamber, and ozone was supplied. Ordinarily, the cycle of the movement of myxomycetes consists of a long stride of the tip part and a short retrieval by the back. Advance is made by the difference of the two steps. Under the influence of ozone, the cycle reversed and the tip retreated. The cell portion thickened. The membrane of myxomycetes seemed to be extremely sensitive to ozone.

  2. Early zygote-specific nuclease in mitochondria of the true slime mold Physarum polycephalum. (United States)

    Moriyama, Yohsuke; Yamazaki, Tomokazu; Nomura, Hideo; Sasaki, Narie; Kawano, Shigeyuki


    The active, selective digestion of mtDNA from one parent is a possible molecular mechanism for the uniparental inheritance of mtDNA. In Physarum polycephalum, mtDNA is packed by DNA-binding protein Glom, which packs mtDNA into rod-shaped mt-nucleoids. After the mating, mtDNA from one parent is selectively digested, and the Glom began to disperse. Dispersed Glom was retained for at least 6 h after mtDNA digestion, but disappeared completely by about 12 h after mixing two strains. We identified two novel nucleases using DNA zymography with native-PAGE and SDS-PAGE. One is a Ca2+-dependent, high-molecular-weight nuclease complex (about 670 kDa), and the other is a Mn2+-dependent, high-molecular-weight nuclease complex (440-670 kDa); the activity of the latter was detected as a Mn2+-dependent, 13-kDa DNase band on SDS-PAGE. All mitochondria isolated from myxamoebae had mt-nucleoids, whereas half of the mitochondria isolated from the zygotes at 12 h after mixing had lost the mt-nucleoids. The activity of the Mn2+-dependent nuclease in the isolated mitochondria was detected at least 8 h after mixing of two strains. The timing and localization of the Mn2+-dependent DNase activity matched the selective digestion of mtDNA.

  3. EDTA treatment alters protein glycosylation in the cellular slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    West, C.M.; Brownstein, S.A. (Univ. of Florida College of Medicine, Gainesville (USA))


    The authors have found that treatment of cells with EDTA resulted in the accumulation of lower molecular weight forms of two cell-type-specific glycoproteins. These new glycoproteins lacked a developmentally regulated glycoantigen defined by monoclonal antibody 54.2. Since EDTA dissociated the cells, the possible involvement of cell separation was tested by immobilizing cells in soft agarose. Glycoantigen expression on these proteins was found to be dependent on cAMP and high oxygen tension but not on cell contact, and was reversibly sensitive to EDTA regardless of the state of cell association. The EDTA effect was mimicked by other soluble, but not particulate, membrane impermeable chelators, could be completed by Zn{sup 2+} better than Mg{sup 2+}, and appeared to involve an intracellular mechanism. Studies with ({sup 14}C)EDTA showed that EDTA equilibrated with a cellular compartment in a temperature-dependent, Zn{sup 2+}-insensitive fashion with half-time kinetics of loading and unloading of 30-40 min. The data suggest that this step in glycosylation, which was found to be delayed 1 or more hours subsequent to protein synthesis, involves an intracellular, transition metal-ion-dependent process which can be modulated by chelators entering the cell through the endocytic pathway.

  4. Evolution of dark-spored Myxomycetes (slime-molds): molecules versus morphology. (United States)

    Fiore-Donno, Anna Maria; Meyer, Marianne; Baldauf, Sandra L; Pawlowski, Jan


    The Myxomycetes are a major component of soil amoebae, displaying a complex life cycle that terminates in the formation of often macroscopic fruiting bodies. The classification of Myxomycetes is controversial and strongly depends on the weight given by different authors to morphological and developmental characters. We used a molecular approach to establish the phylogenetic relationships in the dark-spored orders Stemonitales and Physarales. Twenty-five small subunit ribosomal RNA gene sequences were obtained, with focus on two Stemonitales genera, Lamproderma and Comatricha. Unexpectedly, our results show that Stemonitales are paraphyletic with Physarales arising from within a Lamproderma clade. The genus Lamproderma itself is polyphyletic and can be divided into two distinct clades. Additionally, we found that Comatricha nigricapillitia comprises two cryptic species, both related to Enerthenema. Our study allows the reappraisal of morphological and developmental characters in the light of molecular data and sets foundations for a new classification of Myxomycetes.

  5. Recovery of Silver and Gold from Copper Anode Slimes (United States)

    Chen, Ailiang; Peng, Zhiwei; Hwang, Jiann-Yang; Ma, Yutian; Liu, Xuheng; Chen, Xingyu


    Copper anode slimes, produced from copper electrolytic refining, are important industrial by-products containing several valuable metals, particularly silver and gold. This article provides a comprehensive overview of the development of the extraction processes for recovering silver and gold from conventional copper anode slimes. Existing processes, namely pyrometallurgical processes, hydrometallurgical processes, and hybrid processes involving the combination of pyrometallurgical and hydrometallurgical technologies, are discussed based in part on a review of the form and characteristics of silver and gold in copper anode slimes. The recovery of silver and gold in pyrometallurgical processes is influenced in part by the slag and matte/metal chemistry and related characteristics, whereas the extraction of these metals in hydrometallurgical processes depends on the leaching reagents used to break the structure of the silver- and gold-bearing phases, such as selenides. By taking advantage of both pyrometallurgical and hydrometallurgical techniques, high extraction yields of silver and gold can be obtained using such combined approaches that appear promising for efficient extraction of silver and gold from copper anode slimes.

  6. Anti-ulcer potentials of phylum mollusca (tropical snail) slime

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nwodo NJ; Okonta J M; Ezugwu CO; Attama AA


    Objective:The effectiveness of the slimy substance in snail to regenerate and repair damaged areas on its body/shell lead to this investigation.Methods:The anti-ulcer'property of snail slime extracted from phylum mollusca (tropical snail)from the giant African snail Archachatina marginata (Fam.Arionidae)was investi-gated using histamine,stress and indomethacin-induced ulcers.The solubility profile of extract was investiga-ted in different solvents and at different temperatures.Chemical analysis was carried out to determine the types of constituents present in the slim,while acute toxicity test was carried out to evaluate its profile of toxicity. The effect of the snail slim on gastrointestinal motility was investigated in mice,while the guinea pig ileum was used to study the effect of the extract on contraction produced by acetylcholine and histamine.The snail slime contained copious quantity of protein,with varying amounts of simple sugars,carbohydrates and fats.The slime was not soluble in most common solvents and increases in temperature,did not appear to increase its sol-ubility.Results:The result further indicated that although the snail slime exhibited significant (P <0.05)an-ti-ulcer induced by stress and histamine,it was most potent against ulcer induced by indomethacin.The snail slime potently inhibited gastrointestinal movement in mice in a dose-dependent manner;however,it was not a-ble to inhibit contraction induced by acetylcholine and histamine in guinea pig ileum.Conclusion:The snail mucin possesses potent antiulcer properties without any toxic effect.The mechanism responsible for the anti-ul-cer property may not be postulated with certainty but cytoprotective and anti-spasmodic activities are most likely to be involved.

  7. The effects of four different drugs administered through catheters on slime production in coagulase negative Staphylococci

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Sedef Göçmen


    Full Text Available Objectives: Higher rate of slime production has been found in pathogen bacteria strains. Accordingly, the factors thatcontribute to higher slime production rate increase the infection risk, while the factors that reduce the slime productionrate will reduce the infection risk. The effect of some drugs that are administered through catheters in intensive careunits on slime production with coagulase negative Staphylococci was investigated.Materials and methods: In this study, the effect of four different preparations containing Glyceryl trinitrate (Perlinganit®, Dexmedetomidine (Precedex®, Esmolol (Brevibloc®, and Propofol (Propofol® on slime production of 24Staphylococcus epidermidis strains isolated from blood cultures of patients, and reference strain were investigated. Slimeproduction was determined using ‘the quantitative microdilution plaque test’ described by Christensen.Results: Under controlled medium, eight strains formed slimes, and in the media containing esmolol, glyceryl trinitrate,dexmedetomidine, and propofol slimes were positive for five, 21, 15, and 18 strains, respectively. The rate of slime productionin glyceryl trinitrate, dexmedetomidine, and propofol containing media were higher than that of the controls.Conclusions: In the light of the results of this study, it is concluded that the drugs and/or additives increase the rate ofslime production. The effects of the preparations administered through catheters on slime production should be investigated,and these effects should be kept in mind during their use. J Microbiol Infect Dis 2012; 2(4: 150-154Key words: Slime Production, Coagulase Negative Staphyloccoci, Parenteral drugs

  8. Hagfish slime and mucin flow properties and their implications for defense (United States)

    Böni, Lukas; Fischer, Peter; Böcker, Lukas; Kuster, Simon; Rühs, Patrick A.


    When hagfish (Myxinidae) are attacked by predators, they form a dilute, elastic, and cohesive defensive slime made of mucins and protein threads. In this study we propose a link between flow behavior and defense mechanism of hagfish slime. Oscillatory rheological measurements reveal that hagfish slime forms viscoelastic networks at low concentrations. Mucins alone did not contribute viscoelasticity, however in shear flow, viscosity was observed. The unidirectional flow, experienced by hagfish slime during suction feeding by predators, was mimicked with extensional rheology. Elongational stresses were found to increase mucin viscosity. The resulting higher resistance to flow could support clogging of the attacker’s gills. Shear flow in contrast decreases the slime viscosity by mucin aggregation and leads to a collapse of the slime network. Hagfish may benefit from this collapse when trapped in their own slime and facing suffocation by tying a sliding knot with their body to shear off the slime. This removal could be facilitated by the apparent shear thinning behavior of the slime. Therefore hagfish slime, thickening in elongation and thinning in shear, presents a sophisticated natural high water content gel with flow properties that may be beneficial for both, defense and escape.

  9. Phenolic Molding Compounds (United States)

    Koizumi, Koji; Charles, Ted; de Keyser, Hendrik

    Phenolic Molding Compounds continue to exhibit well balanced properties such as heat resistance, chemical resistance, dimensional stability, and creep resistance. They are widely applied in electrical, appliance, small engine, commutator, and automotive applications. As the focus of the automotive industry is weight reduction for greater fuel efficiency, phenolic molding compounds become appealing alternatives to metals. Current market volumes and trends, formulation components and its impact on properties, and a review of common manufacturing methods are presented. Molding processes as well as unique advanced techniques such as high temperature molding, live sprue, and injection/compression technique provide additional benefits in improving the performance characterisitics of phenolic molding compounds. Of special interest are descriptions of some of the latest innovations in automotive components, such as the phenolic intake manifold and valve block for dual clutch transmissions. The chapter also characterizes the most recent developments in new materials, including long glass phenolic molding compounds and carbon fiber reinforced phenolic molding compounds exhibiting a 10-20-fold increase in Charpy impact strength when compared to short fiber filled materials. The role of fatigue testing and fatigue fracture behavior presents some insight into long-term reliability and durability of glass-filled phenolic molding compounds. A section on new technology outlines the important factors to consider in modeling phenolic parts by finite element analysis and flow simulation.

  10. Mold design with simulation for chalcogenide glass precision molding (United States)

    Zhang, Yunlong; Wang, Zhibin; Li, Junqi; Zhang, Feng; Su, Ying; Wang, Zhongqiang


    Compare with the manufacturing of the traditional infrared material, such as signal crystal germanium, zinc sulfide, zinc selenide etc, chalcogenide infrared glass is suitable for precision molding for the low soften temperature to have large mass industry production. So the researches of precision glass molding are necessary, especially for the fast development of infrared product. The mold design is one of the key technologies of precision glass molding. In this paper, the mold processing of a sample chalcogenide glass from the technical drawing, mold design, molding to the lens are introduced. From the result of the precision molding, the technology of finite element simulation is a useful way to guiding the mold design. The molded lens by using mold process fit the design requirement.

  11. Anti-plasmodial action of de novo-designed, cationic, lysine-branched, amphipathic, helical peptides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaushik Naveen K


    Full Text Available Abstract Background A lack of vaccine and rampant drug resistance demands new anti-malarials. Methods In vitro blood stage anti-plasmodial properties of several de novo-designed, chemically synthesized, cationic, amphipathic, helical, antibiotic peptides were examined against Plasmodium falciparum using SYBR Green assay. Mechanistic details of anti-plasmodial action were examined by optical/fluorescence microscopy and FACS analysis. Results Unlike the monomeric decapeptides {(Ac-GXRKXHKXWA-NH2 (X = F,ΔF (Fm, ΔFm IC50 >100 μM}, the lysine-branched,dimeric versions showed far greater potency {IC50 (μM Fd 1.5 , ΔFd 1.39}. The more helical and proteolytically stable ΔFd was studied for mechanistic details. ΔFq, a K-K2 dendrimer of ΔFm and (ΔFm2 a linear dimer of ΔFm showed IC50 (μM of 0.25 and 2.4 respectively. The healthy/infected red cell selectivity indices were >35 (ΔFd, >20 (ΔFm2 and 10 (ΔFq. FITC-ΔFd showed rapid and selective accumulation in parasitized red cells. Overlaying DAPI and FITC florescence suggested that ΔFd binds DNA. Trophozoites and schizonts incubated with ΔFd (2.5 μM egressed anomalously and Band-3 immunostaining revealed them not to be associated with RBC membrane. Prematurely egressed merozoites from peptide-treated cultures were found to be invasion incompetent. Conclusion Good selectivity (>35, good resistance index (1.1 and low cytotoxicity indicate the promise of ΔFd against malaria.

  12. Silicon micro-mold (United States)

    Morales, Alfredo M.


    The present invention describes a method for rapidly fabricating a robust 3-dimensional silicon-mold for use in preparing complex metal micro-components. The process begins by depositing a conductive metal layer onto one surface of a silicon wafer. A thin photoresist and a standard lithographic mask are then used to transfer a trace image pattern onto the opposite surface of the wafer by exposing and developing the resist. The exposed portion of the silicon substrate is anisotropically etched through the wafer thickness down to conductive metal layer to provide an etched pattern consisting of a series of rectilinear channels and recesses in the silicon which serve as the silicon micro-mold. Microcomponents are prepared with this mold by first filling the mold channels and recesses with a metal deposit, typically by electroplating, and then removing the silicon micro-mold by chemical etching.

  13. Glass molding process with mold lubrication (United States)

    Davey, Richard G.


    Improvements are provided in glass forming processes of the type wherein hot metal blank molds are employed by using the complementary action of a solid film lubricant layer, of graphite dispersed in a cured thermoset organopolysiloxane, along with an overspray of a lubricating oil.

  14. Processing of copper anodic-slimes for extraction of valuable metals. (United States)

    Amer, A M


    This work focuses on processing of anodic slimes obtained from an Egyptian copper electrorefining plant. The anodic slimes are characterized by high concentrations of copper, lead, tin and silver. The proposed hydrometallurgical process consists of two leaching stages for the extraction of copper (H(2)SO(4)-O(2)) and silver (thiourea-Fe3+), and pyrometallurgical treatment of the remaining slimes for production of Pb-Sn soldering alloy. Factors affecting both the leaching and smelting stages were studied.

  15. The presence of pollutant hydrocarbons in estuarine epipelic diatom populations. II. Diatom slimes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, S.; Eglinton, G.


    Diatom slime in sediment from the Severn intertidal estuary was analyzed for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH's) and aliphatic hydrocarbons, using computerized capillary gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The distributions of these substances in diatoms were compared with those in the underlying sediment and in a sediment-free diatom population. Aliphatic hydrocarbon distribution in slime was about the same as that of separated diatoms and sediment, while PAH distribution in slime was about that of the sediment alone. These results suggest a loss of PAH's from the coalesced sediment in the slime, probably either by a photo-oxidative or catabolic process. 34 references, 2 tables.

  16. Trans-Canada Slimeways: Slime mould imitates the Canadian transport network

    CERN Document Server

    Adamatzky, Andrew


    Slime mould Physarum polycephalum builds up sophisticated networks to transport nutrients between distant part of its extended body. The slime mould's protoplasmic network is optimised for maximum coverage of nutrients yet minimum energy spent on transportation of the intra-cellular material. In laboratory experiments with P. polycephalum we represent Canadian major urban areas with rolled oats and inoculated slime mould in the Toronto area. The plasmodium spans the urban areas with its network of protoplasmic tubes. We uncover similarities and differences between the protoplasmic network and the Canadian national highway network, analyse the networks in terms of proximity graphs and evaluate slime mould's network response to contamination.

  17. Mold Image Library (United States)

    The image library contains mold-related images in seven categories. There are also animated images that you can choose to view and download. These photos may be used for presentations and educational purposes without contacting EPA.

  18. Transferability of glass lens molding (United States)

    Katsuki, Masahide


    Sphere lenses have been used for long time. But it is well known that sphere lenses theoretically have spherical aberration, coma and so on. And, aspheric lenses attract attention recently. Plastic lenses are molded easily with injection machines, and are relatively low cost. They are suitable for mass production. On the other hand, glass lenses have several excellent features such as high refractive index, heat resistance and so on. Many aspheric glass lenses came to be used for the latest digital camera and mobile phone camera module. It is very difficult to produce aspheric glass lenses by conventional process of curve generating and polishing. For the solution of this problem, Glass Molding Machine was developed and is spreading through the market. High precision mold is necessary to mold glass lenses with Glass Molding Machine. The mold core is ground or turned by high precision NC aspheric generator. To obtain higher transferability of the mold core, the function of the molding machine and the conditions of molding are very important. But because of high molding temperature, there are factors of thermal expansion and contraction of the mold and glass material. And it is hard to avoid the factors. In this session, I introduce following items. [1] Technology of glass molding and the machine is introduced. [2] The transferability of glass molding is analyzed with some data of glass lenses molded. [3] Compensation of molding shape error is discussed with examples.

  19. Dynamic of taking out molding parts at injection molding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Ragan


    Full Text Available Most plastic parts used in automobile production are manufactured by injection molding. Their quality depends also on taking out molding and on the manipulators for it. Task of this contribution is to theoretically describe a transport of molding at taking out after injection molding in relation on its regulation. The following quantities are derived at it: the transition characteristic of the taking out system, the blocking diagram of taking out molding regulation, the amplitude and phase characteristic and the transition characteristic of action quantity at taking out molding regulation.

  20. Bio-development of motorway networks in the Netherlands: a slime mould approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adamatzky, A.; Lees, M.; Sloot, P.


    Plasmodium of a cellular slime mould Physarum polycephalum is a very large eukaryotic microbe visible to the unaided eye. During its foraging behavior the plasmodium spans sources of nutrients with a network of protoplasmic tubes. In this paper we attempt to address the following question: Is slime

  1. Demonstration of the Coagulation and Diffusion of Homemade Slime Prepared under Acidic Conditions without Borate (United States)

    Isokawa, Naho; Fueda, Kazuki; Miyagawa, Korin; Kanno, Kenichi


    Poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) precipitates in many kinds of aqueous salt solutions. While sodium sulfate, a coagulant for PVA fiber, precipitates PVA to yield a white rigid gel, coagulation of PVA with aluminum sulfate, a coagulant for water treatment, yields a slime-like viscoelastic fluid. One type of homemade slime is prepared under basic…

  2. High Guanidinium Permeability Reveals Dehydration-Dependent Ion Selectivity in the Plasmodial Surface Anion Channel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah A. B. Bokhari


    Full Text Available Malaria parasites grow within vertebrate erythrocytes and increase host cell permeability to access nutrients from plasma. This increase is mediated by the plasmodial surface anion channel (PSAC, an unusual ion channel linked to the conserved clag gene family. Although PSAC recognizes and transports a broad range of uncharged and charged solutes, it must efficiently exclude the small Na+ ion to maintain infected cell osmotic stability. Here, we examine possible mechanisms for this remarkable solute selectivity. We identify guanidinium as an organic cation with high permeability into human erythrocytes infected with Plasmodium falciparum, but negligible uptake by uninfected cells. Transport characteristics and pharmacology indicate that this uptake is specifically mediated by PSAC. The rank order of organic and inorganic cation permeabilities suggests cation dehydration as the rate-limiting step in transport through the channel. The high guanidinium permeability of infected cells also allows rapid and stringent synchronization of parasite cultures, as required for molecular and cellular studies of this pathogen. These studies provide important insights into how nutrients and ions are transported via PSAC, an established target for antimalarial drug development.

  3. Anti-plasmodial activity of Dicoma tomentosa (Asteraceae and identification of urospermal A-15-O-acetate as the main active compound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jansen Olivia


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Natural products could play an important role in the challenge to discover new anti-malarial drugs. In a previous study, Dicoma tomentosa (Asteraceae was selected for its promising anti-plasmodial activity after a preliminary screening of several plants traditionally used in Burkina Faso to treat malaria. The aim of the present study was to further investigate the anti-plasmodial properties of this plant and to isolate the active anti-plasmodial compounds. Methods Eight crude extracts obtained from D. tomentosa whole plant were tested in vitro against two Plasmodium falciparum strains (3D7 and W2 using the p-LDH assay (colorimetric method. The Peters’ four-days suppressive test model (Plasmodium berghei-infected mice was used to evaluate the in vivo anti-plasmodial activity. An in vitro bioguided fractionation was undertaken on a dichloromethane extract, using preparative HPLC and TLC techniques. The identity of the pure compound was assessed using UV, MS and NMR spectroscopic analysis. In vitro cytotoxicity against WI38 human fibroblasts (WST-1 assay and haemolytic activity were also evaluated for extracts and pure compounds in order to check selectivity. Results The best in vitro anti-plasmodial results were obtained with the dichloromethane, diethylether, ethylacetate and methanol extracts, which exhibited a high activity (IC50 ≤ 5 μg/ml. Hot water and hydroethanolic extracts also showed a good activity (IC50 ≤ 15 μg/ml, which confirmed the traditional use and the promising anti-malarial potential of the plant. The activity was also confirmed in vivo for all tested extracts. However, most of the active extracts also exhibited cytotoxic activity, but no extract was found to display any haemolytic activity. The bioguided fractionation process allowed to isolate and identify a sesquiterpene lactone (urospermal A-15-O-acetate as the major anti-plasmodial compound of the plant (IC50 Conclusions The present study

  4. Meer bekend over Black Mold

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duyvesteijn, R.G.E.; Kohrman, E.


    In de vollegrondsrozenteelt zorgde Black Mold in 2007 voor een groot aantal mislukte oculaties. In 2008 waren er aanzienlijk minder problemen. Uit onderzoek is meer bekend over de oorzaak en bestrijding van Black Mold.

  5. Meer bekend over Black Mold

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duyvesteijn, R.G.E.; Kohrman, E.


    In de vollegrondsrozenteelt zorgde Black Mold in 2007 voor een groot aantal mislukte oculaties. In 2008 waren er aanzienlijk minder problemen. Uit onderzoek is meer bekend over de oorzaak en bestrijding van Black Mold.

  6. End moldings for cable dielectrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roose, L.D.


    End moldings for high-voltage cables are described wherein the dielectric insulator of the cable is heated and molded to conform to a desired shape. As a consequence, high quality substantially bubble- free cable connectors suitable for mating to premanufactured fittings are made. Disclosed are a method for making the cable connectors either in the field or in a factory, molds suitable for use with the method, and the molded cable connectors, themselves.

  7. Phase separation micro molding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogelaar, Laura


    The research described in this thesis concerns the development of a new microfabrication method, Phase Separation Micro Molding (PSμM). While microfabrication is still best known from semiconductor industry, where it is used to integrate electrical components on a chip, the scope has immensely expan

  8. The assembly of the plasmodial PLP synthase complex follows a defined course.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid B Müller

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Plants, fungi, bacteria and the apicomplexan parasite Plasmodium falciparum are able to synthesize vitamin B6 de novo, whereas mammals depend upon the uptake of this essential nutrient from their diet. The active form of vitamin B6 is pyridoxal 5-phosphate (PLP. For its synthesis two enzymes, Pdx1 and Pdx2, act together, forming a multimeric complex consisting of 12 Pdx1 and 12 Pdx2 protomers. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we report amino acid residues responsible for stabilization of the structural and enzymatic integrity of the plasmodial PLP synthase, identified by using distinct mutational analysis and biochemical approaches. Residues R85, H88 and E91 (RHE are located at the Pdx1:Pdx1 interface and play an important role in Pdx1 complex assembly. Mutation of these residues to alanine impedes both Pdx1 activity and Pdx2 binding. Furthermore, changing D26, K83 and K151 (DKK, amino acids from the active site of Pdx1, to alanine obstructs not only enzyme activity but also formation of the complex. In contrast to the monomeric appearance of the RHE mutant, alteration of the DKK residues results in a hexameric assembly, and does not affect Pdx2 binding or its activity. While the modelled position of K151 is distal to the Pdx1:Pdx1 interface, it affects the assembly of hexameric Pdx1 into a functional dodecamer, which is crucial for PLP synthesis. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Taken together, our data suggest that the assembly of a functional Pdx1:Pdx2 complex follows a defined pathway and that inhibition of this assembly results in an inactive holoenzyme.

  9. High Cost/High Risk Components to Chalcogenide Molded Lens Model: Molding Preforms and Mold Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernacki, Bruce E.


    This brief report contains a critique of two key components of FiveFocal's cost model for glass compression molding of chalcogenide lenses for infrared applications. Molding preforms and mold technology have the greatest influence on the ultimate cost of the product and help determine the volumes needed to select glass molding over conventional single-point diamond turning or grinding and polishing. This brief report highlights key areas of both technologies with recommendations for further study.

  10. Molded optics design and manufacture

    CERN Document Server

    Schaub, Michael


    While several available texts discuss molded plastic optics, none provide information on all classes of molded optics. Filling this gap, Molded Optics: Design and Manufacture presents detailed descriptions of molded plastic, glass, and infrared optics. Since an understanding of the manufacturing process is necessary to develop cost-effective, producible designs, the book extensively covers various manufacturing methods, design guidelines, trade-offs, best practices, and testing of critical parameters. It also discusses topics that often arise when designing systems with molded optics, such as

  11. Switch-like reprogramming of gene expression after fusion of multinucleate plasmodial cells of two Physarum polycephalum sporulation mutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walter, Pauline; Hoffmann, Xenia-Katharina; Ebeling, Britta; Haas, Markus; Marwan, Wolfgang, E-mail:


    Highlights: •We investigate reprogramming of gene expression in multinucleate single cells. •Cells of two differentiation control mutants are fused. •Fused cells proceed to alternative gene expression patterns. •The population of nuclei damps stochastic fluctuations in gene expression. •Dynamic processes of cellular reprogramming can be observed by repeated sampling of a cell. -- Abstract: Nonlinear dynamic processes involving the differential regulation of transcription factors are considered to impact the reprogramming of stem cells, germ cells, and somatic cells. Here, we fused two multinucleate plasmodial cells of Physarum polycephalum mutants defective in different sporulation control genes while being in different physiological states. The resulting heterokaryons established one of two significantly different expression patterns of marker genes while the plasmodial halves that were fused to each other synchronized spontaneously. Spontaneous synchronization suggests that switch-like control mechanisms spread over and finally control the entire plasmodium as a result of cytoplasmic mixing. Regulatory molecules due to the large volume of the vigorously streaming cytoplasm will define concentrations in acting on the population of nuclei and in the global setting of switches. Mixing of a large cytoplasmic volume is expected to damp stochasticity when individual nuclei deliver certain RNAs at low copy number into the cytoplasm. We conclude that spontaneous synchronization, the damping of molecular noise in gene expression by the large cytoplasmic volume, and the option to take multiple macroscopic samples from the same plasmodium provide unique options for studying the dynamics of cellular reprogramming at the single cell level.

  12. Switch-like reprogramming of gene expression after fusion of multinucleate plasmodial cells of two Physarum polycephalum sporulation mutants. (United States)

    Walter, Pauline; Hoffmann, Xenia-Katharina; Ebeling, Britta; Haas, Markus; Marwan, Wolfgang


    Nonlinear dynamic processes involving the differential regulation of transcription factors are considered to impact the reprogramming of stem cells, germ cells, and somatic cells. Here, we fused two multinucleate plasmodial cells of Physarum polycephalum mutants defective in different sporulation control genes while being in different physiological states. The resulting heterokaryons established one of two significantly different expression patterns of marker genes while the plasmodial halves that were fused to each other synchronized spontaneously. Spontaneous synchronization suggests that switch-like control mechanisms spread over and finally control the entire plasmodium as a result of cytoplasmic mixing. Regulatory molecules due to the large volume of the vigorously streaming cytoplasm will define concentrations in acting on the population of nuclei and in the global setting of switches. Mixing of a large cytoplasmic volume is expected to damp stochasticity when individual nuclei deliver certain RNAs at low copy number into the cytoplasm. We conclude that spontaneous synchronization, the damping of molecular noise in gene expression by the large cytoplasmic volume, and the option to take multiple macroscopic samples from the same plasmodium provide unique options for studying the dynamics of cellular reprogramming at the single cell level. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Co-infection restrains Litomosoides sigmodontis filarial load and plasmodial P. yoelii but not P. chabaudi parasitaemia in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karadjian Gregory


    Full Text Available Infection with multiple parasite species is clearly the norm rather than the exception, in animals as well as in humans. Filarial nematodes and Plasmodium spp. are important parasites in human public health and they are often co-endemic. Interactions between these parasites are complex. The mechanisms underlying the modulation of both the course of malaria and the outcome of filarial infection are poorly understood. Despite increasing activity in recent years, studies comparing co- and mono-infections are very much in their infancy and results are contradictory at first sight. In this study we performed controlled and simultaneous co-infections of BALB/c mice with Litomosoides sigmodontis filaria and with Plasmodium spp. (Plasmodium yoelii 17 XNL or Plasmodium chabaudi 864VD. An analysis of pathological lesions in the kidneys and lungs and a parasitological study were conducted at different times of infection. Whatever the plasmodial species, the filarial recovery rate was strongly decreased. The peak of parasitaemia in the plasmodial infection was decreased in the course of P. yoelii infection but not in that of P. chabaudi. Regarding pathological lesions, L. sigmodontis can reverse lesions in the kidneys due to the presence of both Plasmodium species but does not modify the course of pulmonary lesions. The filarial infection induces granulomas in the lungs.

  14. Recovery Of Valuable Metals In Tin-Based Anodic Slimes By Carbothermic Reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Chulwoong


    Full Text Available This study investigated the recovery of anodic slimes by carbothermic reaction in the temperature range of 973~1,273K and amount of carbon as a function of time. Tin anodic slime samples were collected from the bottom of the electrolytic cells during the electro-refining of tin. The anodic slimes are consisted of high concentrated tin, silver, copper and lead oxides. The kinetics of reduction were determined by means of the weight-loss measurement technique. In order to understand in detail of carbothermic reaction, thermodynamic calculation was carried out and compared with experiments. From thermodynamic calculation and experiment, it was confirmed that Sn-based anodic slime could be reduced by controlling temperature and amount of carbon. However, any tendency between the reduction temperature and carbon content for the reduction reaction was not observed.

  15. Silver Selenide Thermodynamics for Copper Anode Slime Refining (United States)

    Feng, Dawei; Taskinen, Pekka

    Copper anode slimes are a by-product of the electrolytic refining of anode copper, which contains significant amounts of silver, selenium, copper, and gold. Slimes are usually smelted to recover silver and gold. The thermodynamics of the smelting of such selenium-rich materials have received only little attention. In this work, the numerical values on the standard thermodynamic functions of Ag2Se (Naumannite) were determined by the electromotive force (EMF) method in a solid-state galvanic cell with superionic conductor RbAg4I5 as the solid electrolyte. Ag2Se was synthesized from pure elements in evacuated quartz glass ampoules and examined to be homogenous by SEM and EDS. According to the experimental data on the EMF versus temperature, the analytical equations were obtained for the polymorphic forms of Ag2Se. The temperature of phase transformation from α-Ag2Se to β-Ag2Se is determined experimentally to be 407.7 K by interpolation of the EMF vs. T data, and the enthalpy of phase transformation is 6.06 kJ•mol-1. The Gibbs energy of formation for Ag2Se is given by Δ {\\overline G _{α - A{g_2}Se}},J = - ( {40869.14 ± 0.58129} ) - ( {27.94759 ± 1.53034} ) \\cdot T,( {350 < T/K < 408} ), Δ {\\overline G _{β - A{g_2}Se}},J = - ( {35062.17 ± 0.09895} ) - ( {42.17847 ± 0.21827} ) \\cdot T,( {408 < T/K < 500} ).

  16. Cellular automaton model of crowd evacuation inspired by slime mould (United States)

    Kalogeiton, V. S.; Papadopoulos, D. P.; Georgilas, I. P.; Sirakoulis, G. Ch.; Adamatzky, A. I.


    In all the living organisms, the self-preservation behaviour is almost universal. Even the most simple of living organisms, like slime mould, is typically under intense selective pressure to evolve a response to ensure their evolution and safety in the best possible way. On the other hand, evacuation of a place can be easily characterized as one of the most stressful situations for the individuals taking part on it. Taking inspiration from the slime mould behaviour, we are introducing a computational bio-inspired model crowd evacuation model. Cellular Automata (CA) were selected as a fully parallel advanced computation tool able to mimic the Physarum's behaviour. In particular, the proposed CA model takes into account while mimicking the Physarum foraging process, the food diffusion, the organism's growth, the creation of tubes for each organism, the selection of optimum tube for each human in correspondence to the crowd evacuation under study and finally, the movement of all humans at each time step towards near exit. To test the model's efficiency and robustness, several simulation scenarios were proposed both in virtual and real-life indoor environments (namely, the first floor of office building B of the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering of Democritus University of Thrace). The proposed model is further evaluated in a purely quantitative way by comparing the simulation results with the corresponding ones from the bibliography taken by real data. The examined fundamental diagrams of velocity-density and flow-density are found in full agreement with many of the already published corresponding results proving the adequacy, the fitness and the resulting dynamics of the model. Finally, several real Physarum experiments were conducted in an archetype of the aforementioned real-life environment proving at last that the proposed model succeeded in reproducing sufficiently the Physarum's recorded behaviour derived from observation of the aforementioned

  17. Time Delay Effect in a Living Coupled Oscillator System with the Plasmodium of Physarum polycephalum (United States)

    Takamatsu, Atsuko; Fujii, Teruo; Endo, Isao


    A living coupled oscillator system was constructed by a cell patterning method with a plasmodial slime mold, in which parameters such as coupling strength and distance between the oscillators can be systematically controlled. Rich oscillation phenomena between the two-coupled oscillators, namely, desynchronizing and antiphase/in-phase synchronization were observed according to these parameters. Both experimental and theoretical approaches showed that these phenomena are closely related to the time delay effect in interactions between the oscillators.

  18. Nanofabrication with molds & stamps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byron D. Gates


    Full Text Available A number of methods can be used to fabricate patterns with features having dimensions <100 nm. These techniques, however, can require specialized equipment and are often restricted to a cleanroom environment. Nanofabrication can be made accessible to multiple users by using elastomeric molds or stamps to transfer high-resolution patterns into other materials. These techniques are inexpensive and can transfer patterns into functional materials and onto a number of surfaces. This review describes recent advances in fabricating nanostructures using these techniques.

  19. Mold and Crucible Coatings (United States)


    34;" -"""-"’" " " ""’’ "" "" ’"" ’ j * AD I. AT)-E 9 7 W CONTRACTOR REPORT ARCCD-CR-86007 MOLD AND CRUCIBLE COATINGS Sylvia J. Canino Arthur L. Geary Nuclear...IFnlRpr April 1984_-_December 198, .. AUTNORfo) S. CONTRACT on CRAM? # "I MWef(e)I Sylvia J. Canino and Arthur L. Geary DAAK1O-84-C-0056 PERFORMING

  20. Enhanced Injection Molding Simulation of Advanced Injection Molds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Béla Zink


    Full Text Available The most time-consuming phase of the injection molding cycle is cooling. Cooling efficiency can be enhanced with the application of conformal cooling systems or high thermal conductivity copper molds. The conformal cooling channels are placed along the geometry of the injection-molded product, and thus they can extract more heat and heat removal is more uniform than in the case of conventional cooling systems. In the case of copper mold inserts, cooling channels are made by drilling and heat removal is facilitated by the high thermal conductivity coefficient of copper, which is several times that of steel. Designing optimal cooling systems is a complex process; a proper design requires injection molding simulations, but the accuracy of calculations depends on how precise the input parameters and boundary conditions are. In this study, three cooling circuit designs and three mold materials (Ampcoloy 940, 1.2311 (P20 steel, and MS1 steel were used and compared using numerical methods. The effect of different mold designs and materials on cooling efficiency were examined using calculated and measured results. The simulation model was adjusted to the measurement results by considering the joint gap between the mold inserts.

  1. Injection Compression Molding of Replica Molds for Nanoimprint Lithography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keisuke Nagato


    Full Text Available As a breakthrough in the cost and durability of molds for nanoimprint lithography (NIL, replica molds are fabricated by injection compression molding (ICM. ICM is commonly used for optical disks such as DVDs or Blu-ray disks and is also a practical fabrication method for nanostructures. In this paper, I successfully demonstrated the fabrication of cycloolefin polymer replica molds with structures smaller than 60 nm by ICM. Furthermore, ultraviolet (UV-NIL using these replica molds was demonstrated. UV-cured resist was replicated over an area of 60 mm diameter. The degree of replication by UV-NIL in the first usage of each replica mold had good repeatability. Because ICM is a high-throughput, low-cost process, the replica mold can be disposed of after a certain time for UV-NIL. This method leads to a high-integrity UV-NIL process of patterned media because multiple large-area replica molds can be fabricated simultaneously.

  2. Mold Materials For Permanent Molding of Aluminum Alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John F Wallace; David Schwam; Wen Hong


    A test that involves immersion of the potential mod materials for permanent molds has been developed that provides a thermal cycle that is similar to the experienced during casting of aluminum in permanent molds. This test has been employed to determine the relative thermal fatigue resistance of several different types of mold materials. Four commercial mold coatings have been evaluated for their insulating ability, wear resistance and roughness. The results indicate that composition and structure of the mold materials have considerable effect on their thermal fatigue cracking behavior. Irons with a gray iron structure are the most prone to thermal fatigue cracking followed by compacted graphite irons with the least thermal fatigue cracking of the cast irons experienced by ductile iron. The composition of these various irons affects their behavior.

  3. Thermophilic molds: Biology and applications. (United States)

    Singh, Bijender; Poças-Fonseca, Marcio J; Johri, B N; Satyanarayana, Tulasi


    Thermophilic molds thrive in a variety of natural habitats including soils, composts, wood chip piles, nesting materials of birds and other animals, municipal refuse and others, and ubiquitous in their distribution. These molds grow in simple media containing carbon and nitrogen sources and mineral salts. Polyamines are synthesized in these molds and the composition of lipids varies considerably, predominantly containing palmitic, oleic and linoleic acids with low levels of lauric, palmiotoleic and stearic acids. Thermophilic molds are capable of efficiently degrading organic materials by secreting thermostable enzymes, which are useful in the bioremediation of industrial wastes and effluents that are rich in oil, heavy metals, anti-nutritional factors such as phytic acid and polysaccharides. Thermophilic molds synthesize several antimicrobial substances and biotechnologically useful miscellaneous enzymes. The analysis of genomes of thermophilic molds reveals high G:C contents, shorter introns and intergenic regions with lesser repetitive sequences, and further confirms their ability to degrade agro-residues efficiently. Genetic engineering has aided in ameliorating the characteristics of the enzymes of thermophilic molds. This review is aimed at focusing on the biology of thermophilic molds with emphasis on recent developments in the analysis of genomes, genetic engineering and potential applications.

  4. Vacuum Carbothermal Reduction for Treating Tin Anode Slime (United States)

    Li, Wei; Guo, Weizhong; Qiu, Keqiang


    In this work, a process of vacuum carbothermal reduction was proposed for treating tin anode slime containing antimony and lead. During vacuum carbothermal reduction, the antimony and lead were selectively removed simultaneously by reducing and decomposing the less volatile mixed oxide of lead and antimony into the more volatile Sb2O3 and PbO. Then the tin was enriched in the distilland and primarily present as SnO2. Crude tin was obtained via vacuum reduction of the residual SnO2. The results showed that 92.85% by weight of antimony and 99.58% by weight of lead could be removed at 850°C for 60 min with 4 wt.% of reductant and air flow rate at 400 mL/min corresponding to the residual gas pressure of 40 Pa-150 Pa. Under these conditions, an evaporation ratio of 52.7% was achieved. Crude tin with a tin content of 94.22 wt.% was obtained at temperature of 900°C, reduction time of 60 min, reductant dosage of 12.5 wt.%, and a residual gas pressure of 40 Pa-400 Pa. Correspondingly, the direct recovery of tin was 94.35%.

  5. Deep phylogeny and evolution of slime moulds (mycetozoa). (United States)

    Fiore-Donno, Anna Maria; Nikolaev, Sergey I; Nelson, Michaela; Pawlowski, Jan; Cavalier-Smith, Thomas; Baldauf, Sandra L


    Mycetozoa, characterized by spore-bearing fruiting bodies, are the most diverse Amoebozoa. They traditionally comprise three taxa: Myxogastria, Dictyostelia and Protostelia. Myxogastria and Dictyostelia typically have multispored fruiting bodies, but controversy exists whether they are related or arose independently from different unicellular ancestors. Protostelid slime moulds, with single-spored fruiting bodies, are possible evolutionary intermediates between them and typical amoebae, but have received almost no molecular study. Protostelid morphology is so varied that they might not be monophyletic. We therefore provide 38 new 18S rRNA and/or EF-1alpha gene sequences from Mycetozoa and related species, including four protostelids and the enigmatic Ceratiomyxa fruticulosa. Phylogenetic analyses support the monophyly of Dictyostelia, Myxogastria, and Ceratiomyxa (here collectively called "macromycetozoa") and show that protostelids are Amoebozoa, mostly related to non-fruiting amoebae of the class Variosea, but may not be monophyletic; some phylogenetic relationships remain poorly resolved. Ceratiomyxa fruticulosa, originally regarded as a myxogastrid, but in recent decades included in Protostelia, is a deeply diverging sister to Myxogastria. The protostelids studied here plus varipodid amoebae and the flagellates Phalansterium and Multicilia together probably form the outgroup to macromycetozoa plus Archamoebae. Thus protostelids and Variosea are especially significant for understanding the evolutionary transition from solitary amoebae to macromycetozoa.

  6. Hagfish slime threads as a biomimetic model for high performance protein fibres. (United States)

    Fudge, Douglas S; Hillis, Sonja; Levy, Nimrod; Gosline, John M


    Textile manufacturing is one of the largest industries in the world, and synthetic fibres represent two-thirds of the global textile market. Synthetic fibres are manufactured from petroleum-based feedstocks, which are becoming increasingly expensive as demand for finite petroleum reserves continues to rise. For the last three decades, spider silks have been held up as a model that could inspire the production of protein fibres exhibiting high performance and ecological sustainability, but unfortunately, artificial spider silks have yet to fulfil this promise. Previous work on the biomechanics of protein fibres from the slime of hagfishes suggests that these fibres might be a superior biomimetic model to spider silks. Based on the fact that the proteins within these 'slime threads' adopt conformations that are similar to those in spider silks when they are stretched, we hypothesized that draw processing of slime threads should yield fibres that are comparable to spider dragline silk in their mechanical performance. Here we show that draw-processed slime threads are indeed exceptionally strong and tough. We also show that post-drawing steps such as annealing, dehydration and covalent cross-linking can dramatically improve the long-term dimensional stability of the threads. The data presented here suggest that hagfish slime threads are a model that should be pursued in the quest to produce fibres that are ecologically sustainable and economically viable.

  7. Characterization of Raw and Decopperized Anode Slimes from a Chilean Refinery (United States)

    Melo Aguilera, Evelyn; Hernández Vera, María Cecilia; Viñals, Joan; Graber Seguel, Teófilo


    This work characterizes raw and decopperized slimes, with the objective of identifying the phases in these two sub-products. The main phases in copper anodes are metallic copper, including CuO, which are present in free form or associated with the presence of copper selenide or tellurides (Cu2(Se,Te)) and several Cu-Pb-Sb-As-Bi oxides. During electrorefining, the impurities in the anode release and are not deposited in the cathode, part of them dissolving and concentrated in the electrolyte, and others form a raw anode slime that contains Au, Ag, Cu, As, Se, Te and PGM, depending on the composition of the anode. There are several recovery processes, most of which involve acid leaching in the first step to dissolve copper, whose product is decopperized anode slime. SEM analysis revealed that the mineralogical species present in the raw anode slime under study were mainly eucarite (CuAgSe), naumannite (Ag2Se), antimony arsenate (SbAsO4), and lead sulfate (PbSO4). In the case of decopperized slime, the particles were mainly composed of SbAsO4 (crystalline appearance), non-stoichiometric silver selenide (Ag(2- x)Se), and chlorargyrite (AgCl).

  8. Ag recovery from copper anode slime by acid leaching at atmospheric pressure to synthesize silver nanoparticles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Atefeh Khaleghi; Sattar Ghader; Dariush Afzali


    In this paper, recovery of silver from anode slime of Sarcheshmeh copper complex in Iran and subsequent synthesis of silver nanoparticles from leaching solution is investigated. Sarcheshmeh anode slime is mainly consisted of Cu, Ag, Pb and Se. Amount of Ag in the considered anode slime was 5.4%(by weight). The goal was to recover as much as possible Ag from anode slime at atmospheric pressure to synthesize Ag nanoparticles. Therefore, acid leaching was used for this purpose. The anode slime was leached with sulfuric and nitric acid from room to 90 ?C at different acid concentrations and the run which yielded the most recovery of Ag was selected for Ag nanoparticles synthesis. At this condition, Cu, Pb and Se are lea-ched as well as Ag. To separate Ag from leach solution HCl was added and silver was precipitated as AgCl which were then dissolved by ammonia solution. The Ag nanoparticles are synthesized from this solution by chemical reduction method by aid of sodium borohydride in the presence of PVP and PEG as stabiliz-ers. The synthesized Ag nanoparticles showed a peak of 394 nm in UV-vis spectrum and TEM images showed a rather uniform Ag nanoparticles of 12 nm.

  9. Hagfish slime threads as a biomimetic model for high performance protein fibres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fudge, Douglas S; Hillis, Sonja [Department of Integrative Biology, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, N1G 2W1 (Canada); Levy, Nimrod; Gosline, John M, E-mail: dfudge@uoguelph.c [Department of Zoology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, V6T 1Z4 (Canada)


    Textile manufacturing is one of the largest industries in the world, and synthetic fibres represent two-thirds of the global textile market. Synthetic fibres are manufactured from petroleum-based feedstocks, which are becoming increasingly expensive as demand for finite petroleum reserves continues to rise. For the last three decades, spider silks have been held up as a model that could inspire the production of protein fibres exhibiting high performance and ecological sustainability, but unfortunately, artificial spider silks have yet to fulfil this promise. Previous work on the biomechanics of protein fibres from the slime of hagfishes suggests that these fibres might be a superior biomimetic model to spider silks. Based on the fact that the proteins within these 'slime threads' adopt conformations that are similar to those in spider silks when they are stretched, we hypothesized that draw processing of slime threads should yield fibres that are comparable to spider dragline silk in their mechanical performance. Here we show that draw-processed slime threads are indeed exceptionally strong and tough. We also show that post-drawing steps such as annealing, dehydration and covalent cross-linking can dramatically improve the long-term dimensional stability of the threads. The data presented here suggest that hagfish slime threads are a model that should be pursued in the quest to produce fibres that are ecologically sustainable and economically viable.

  10. Characterization and Separation Studies of a Fine Sedimentary Phosphate Ore Slime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Liu


    Full Text Available Detailed characterization and recovery of apatite from a sedimentary phosphate ore slime of a gravity plant of Yichang, China, were investigated. The phosphate ore slime consisted mainly of apatite, quartz, dolomite, and clay. To start with, the ore slime was characterized in sufficient detail to reveal that it is extremely fine in distribution with a d50 of 65 μm. Other different characterizations, such as apatite grain size distribution, apatite liberation, particle density distribution, and theoretical grade recovery, were also analyzed by mineral liberation analyser (MLA. Based on the results, a new gravity-flotation process, which was comprised of spiral gravity and reverse flotation, was proposed to process the slime. In the new process, the apatite was firstly recovered by two-stage spiral gravity, avoiding direct flotation. The gravity concentrate was the feed for the reverse flotation. A phosphate concentrate of 30.51% P2O5 with a P2O5 recovery of 89.00% can be produced from the slime analyzing 24.25% P2O5. Compared to the conventional direct-reverse flotation process, it was found that the reagent cost of the new gravity-flotation process was lower a quarter than that of the direct-reverse flotation flowsheet.

  11. The mitochondrial plasmid of the true slime mold Physarum polycephalum bypasses uniparental inheritance by promoting mitochondrial fusion. (United States)

    Sakurai, Rakusa; Nomura, Hideo; Moriyam, Yohsuke; Kawano, Shigeyuki


    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is inherited maternally in most eukaryotes. Linear mitochondrial plasmids in higher plants and fungi are also transmitted from the maternal parent to the progeny. However, mF, which is a mitochondrial linear plasmid of Physarum polycephalum, evades uniparental mitochondrial inheritance. We examined 36 myxamoebal strains of Physarum and isolated three novel mF+ strains (JE8, TU111, NG111) that harbored free mF plasmids. These strains were mated with the mF- strain KM88. Of the three mF- x mF+ crosses, only KM88 x JE8 displayed complete uniparental inheritance. However, in KM88 x TU111 and KM88 x NG111, the mtDNA of KM88 and mF of TU111 and NG111 were inherited by the plasmodia and showed recombination. For example, although the mtDNA of TU111 was eliminated, the mF of TU111 persisted and became inserted into the mtDNA of KM88, such that recombinant mtDNA represented 80% of the total mtDNA. The parental mitochondria fused to yield giant mitochondria with two or more mitochondrial nucleoids. The mF appears to exchange mitochondria from the recipient (paternal) to the donor (maternal) by promoting mitochondrial fusion.

  12. Emergence and transitions of dynamic patterns of thickness oscillation of the plasmodium of the true slime mold Physarum polycephalum (United States)

    Takagi, Seiji; Ueda, Tetsuo


    The emergence and transitions of various spatiotemporal patterns of thickness oscillation were studied in the freshly isolated protoplasm of the Physarum plasmodium. New patterns, such as standing waves, and chaotic and rotating spirals, developed successively before the well-documented synchronous pattern appeared. There was also a spontaneous opposite transition from synchrony to chaotic and rotating spirals. Rotating spiral waves were observed in the large migrating plasmodium, where the vein structures were being destroyed. Thus, the Physarum plasmodium exhibits versatile patterns, which are generally expected in coupled oscillator systems. This paper discusses the physiological roles of spatiotemporal patterns, comparing them with other biological systems.

  13. Use of the dye Hoeschst 33258 to increase the photosensitivity of bromodeoxyuridine-containing cellular slime molds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graetzer, R.; Deering, R.A. (Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park (USA))


    The photosensitivity of amoebae of Dictyostelium discoideum to near-ultraviolet light (near-UV; 365 nm peak) was investigated following growth in 5-bromodeoxyuridine (brdUrd) and treatment with the dye Hoeschst 33258. Cell killing was studied as a function of dye-treatment time and concentration, and BrdUrd incorporation time and concentration. For example, cells grown for 13 h in 50 BrdUrd/ml and then treated for 1 h in 10 dye/ml were reduced to 10% survival by a near-UV exposure of 0.8 min. Combinations of any two of the three factors (BrdUrd, dye, near-UV) were ineffective for killing. The sensitivity of the cells to near-UV decreased rapidly as the holding time between the end of the dye treatment and the start of the UV exposure was increased.

  14. Slime mould imitation of Belgian transport networks: redundancy, bio-essential motorways, and dissolution

    CERN Document Server

    Adamatzky, Andrew; Van Dessel, Wesley


    Belgium is amongst few artificial countries, established on purpose, when Dutch and French speaking parts were joined in a single unit. This makes Belgium a particularly interesting testbed for studying bio-inspired techniques for simulation and analysis of vehicular transport networks. We imitate growth and formation of a transport network between major urban areas in Belgium using the acellular slime mould Physarum polycephalum. We represent the urban areas with the sources of nutrients. The slime mould spans the sources of nutrients with a network of protoplasmic tubes. The protoplasmic tubes represent the motorways. In an experimental laboratory analysis we compare the motorway network approximated by P. polycephalum and the man-made motorway network of Belgium. We evaluate the efficiency of the slime mould network and the motorway network using proximity graphs.

  15. In vitro anti-plasmodial activity of three herbal remedies for malaria in Ghana: Adenia cissampeloides (Planch.) Harms., Termina liaivorensis A. Chev, and Elaeis guineensis Jacq. (United States)

    Annan, Kofi; Sarpong, K; Asare, C; Dickson, R; Amponsah, Ki; Gyan, B; Ofori, M; Gbedema, Sy


    Herbal remedies of Adenia cissampeloides, Terminalia ivorensis, and Elaeis guineensis among others have been used in Ghana for the treatment of various ailments including malaria. However, most of these remedies have not been scientifically investigated. This study, therefore, seeks to investigate the anti-plasmodial activity of these plants. The ethanolic extracts of A. cissampeloides stem, T. ivorensis stem bark, and E. guineensis leaves were tested for in vitro anti-plasmodial activity against chloroquine-resistant strains of Plasmodium falciparum. Thin blood films were used to assess the level of parasitemia and growth inhibition of the extracts. The IC (50) of A. cissampeloides, T. ivorensis, and E. guineensis were 8.521, 6.949, and 1.195 μg/ml, respectively, compared to artesunate with IC(50) of 0.031 μg/ml. The result of this study appears to confirm the folkloric anti-malarial use these plants.

  16. Injection Molding of High Aspect Ratio Nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matschuk, Maria; Larsen, Niels Bent

    We present a process for injection molding of 40 nm wide and >100 nm high pillars (pitch: 200 nm). We explored the effects of mold coatings and injection molding conditions on the replication quality of nanostructures in cyclic olefin copolymer. We found that optimization of molding parameters...

  17. Rapid control of mold temperature during injection molding process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liparoti, Sara; Titomanlio, Giuseppe [Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Salerno Via Giovanni Paolo II, 132, 84084 Fisciano (Italy); Hunag, Tsang Min; Cakmak, Mukerrem [Department of Polymer Engineering, The University of Akron, Akron, OH 44325 (United States); Sorrentino, Andrea [Institute for Polymers, Composite and Biomaterials (IPCB) - CNR, P. Enrico Fermi 1, 80055 Portici (Italy)


    The control of mold surface temperature is an important factor that determines surface morphology and its dimension in thickness direction. It can also affect the frozen molecular orientation and the mold surface replicability in injection molded products. In this work, thin thermally active films were used to quickly control the mold surface temperature. In particular, an active high electrical conductivity carbon black loaded polyimide composites sandwiched between two insulating thin polymeric layers was used to condition the mold surface. By controlling the heating time, it was possible to control precisely the temporal variation of the mold temperature surface during the entire cycle. The surface heating rate was about 40°C/s and upon contact with the polymer the surface temperature decreased back to 40°C within about 5 s; the overall cycle time increased only slightly. The effect on cross section sample morphology of samples of iPP were analyzed and discussed on the basis of the recorded temperature evolution.

  18. Bacterial gliding fluid dynamics on a layer of non-Newtonian slime: Perturbation and numerical study. (United States)

    Ali, N; Asghar, Z; Anwar Bég, O; Sajid, M


    Gliding bacteria are an assorted group of rod-shaped prokaryotes that adhere to and glide on certain layers of ooze slime attached to a substratum. Due to the absence of organelles of motility, such as flagella, the gliding motion is caused by the waves moving down the outer surface of these rod-shaped cells. In the present study we employ an undulating surface model to investigate the motility of bacteria on a layer of non-Newtonian slime. The rheological behavior of the slime is characterized by an appropriate constitutive equation, namely the Carreau model. Employing the balances of mass and momentum conservation, the hydrodynamic undulating surface model is transformed into a fourth-order nonlinear differential equation in terms of a stream function under the long wavelength assumption. A perturbation approach is adopted to obtain closed form expressions for stream function, pressure rise per wavelength, forces generated by the organism and power required for propulsion. A numerical technique based on an implicit finite difference scheme is also employed to investigate various features of the model for large values of the rheological parameters of the slime. Verification of the numerical solutions is achieved with a variational finite element method (FEM). The computations demonstrate that the speed of the glider decreases as the rheology of the slime changes from shear-thinning (pseudo-plastic) to shear-thickening (dilatant). Moreover, the viscoelastic nature of the slime tends to increase the swimming speed for the shear-thinning case. The fluid flow in the pumping (generated where the organism is not free to move but instead generates a net fluid flow beneath it) is also investigated in detail. The study is relevant to marine anti-bacterial fouling and medical hygiene biophysics.

  19. Inhibiting activities of the secondary metabolites of Phlomis brunneogaleata against parasitic protozoa and plasmodial enoyl-ACP reductase, a crucial enzyme in fatty acid biosynthesis


    Kirmizibekmez, H.; Calis, I.; Perozzo, R.; Brun, R.; Donmez, A. A.; van der Linden, A.; Rudi, P.; Tasdemir, Deniz


    Anti-plasmodial activity-guided fractionation of Phlomis brunneogaleata (Lamiaceae) led to the isolation of two new metabolites, the iridoid glycoside, brunneogaleatoside and a new pyrrolidinium derivative (2S,4R)-2-carboxy-4-(E)-p-coumaroyloxy-1,1-dimethylpyrrolidinium inner salt [(2S,4R)-1,1-dimethyl-4-(E)-p-coumaroyloxyproline inner salt]. Moreover, a known iridoid glycoside, ipolamiide, six known phenylethanoid glycosides, verbascoside, isoverbascoside, forsythoside B, echinacoside, gluco...

  20. Myxosporean plasmodial infection associated with ulcerative lesions in young-of-the-year Atlantic menhaden in a tributary of the Chesapeake Bay, and possible links to Kudoa clupeidae (United States)

    Reimschuessel, R.; Gieseker, C.M.; Driscoll, C.; Baya, A.; Kane, A.S.; Blazer, V.S.; Evans, J.J.; Kent, M.L.; Moran, J.D.W.; Poynton, S.L.


    Ulcers in Atlantic menhaden Brevoortia tyrannus (Latrobe) (Clupeidae), observed along the USA east coast, have been attributed to diverse etiologies including bacterial, fungal and, recently, harmful algal blooms. To understand the early pathogenesis of these lesions, we examined juvenile Atlantic menhaden collected during their seasonal presence in Chesapeake Bay tributaries from April to October 1999 and from March to August 2000. We conducted histopathological examinations of young-of-the-year fish from the Pocomoke River tributary, which has a history of fish mortalities and high lesion prevalence. Kudoa clupeidae (Myxozoa: Myxosporea) spores were present in the muscles of fish collected in both years. Of the fish assessed by histology in April, 5 to 14% were infected, while in May 90 to 96% were infected. Infection rates remained high during the summer. Mature spores were primarily located within myomeres and caused little or no observable pathological changes. Ultrastructure showed spores with capsulogenic cells bearing filamentous projections, and a basal crescentic nucleus with mottled nucleoplasm containing cleaved, condensed chromatin. Also, a highly invasive plasmodial stage of a myxozoan was found in the lesions of juvenile Atlantic menhaden. The plasmodia were observed in fish collected between May and July, with the maximum occurrence in late June 1999 and late May 2000. Plasmodia penetrated and surrounded muscle bundles, causing grossly observable raised lesions in 73% of all fish infected with this invasive stage. Plasmodia were also detected in the visceral organs, branchial arches, and interocular muscles of some fish. Some of the invasive extrasporogonic plasmodial lesions were associated with ulcers and chronic inflammatory infiltrates. The plasmodial stage appeared to slough out of the tissue with subsequent evidence of wound healing. Ultrastructure showed plasmodia with an elaborate irregular surface, divided into distinct ectoplasm and

  1. [Extracellular slime production and adhesion of Morganella morganii strains to polystyrene]. (United States)

    Michalska, Anna; Zalas-Wiecek, Patrycja; Sielska, Barbara; Gospodarek, Eugenia


    The aim of this study was the evaluation of the ability of extracellular slime production and adhesive properties of M. morganii strains. This study included 50 of M. morganii strains isolated from clinical samples. All of these strains were isolated in the Clinical Microbiology Department of dr. A. Jurasz University Hospital in 2008-2009. Five (10.0%) out of 50. M. morganii strains demonstrated extracellular slime production. Adherence to polystyrene revealed 36 (72.0%) of M. morganii strains in it 6 strains (12.0%) adhered strongly, medium - 12 (24.0%) and weakly - 18 (36.0%).

  2. White mold of Jerusalem artichoke (United States)

    Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus) is a Native American food plant closely related to the common sunflower (Helianthus annuus). Tubers of Jerusalem artichoke are increasingly available in retail grocery outlets. White mold (Sclerotinia stem rot), caused by the fungus, Sclerotinia sclerotioru...

  3. Prevention of Mold Contamination : Ozone Treatment


    Nakarmi, Kanchan


    Mold is a common pest that can cause diseases and decay property. Moreover, certain mold can produce toxic chemicals which leads directly or indirectly to additional health impacts and economic losses. Therefore, prevention of mold growth is a major concern, and disinfection of mold has become a center of attention. The purpose of this thesis was to study about the effect of ozone in the disinfection of mold and the method of producing ozone. The usage of ozone for disinfection in in...

  4. Onychomycosis due to opportunistic molds*


    Martínez-Herrera, Erick Obed; Arroyo-Camarena,Stefanie; Tejada-García, Diana Luz; Porras-López, Carlos Francisco; Arenas, Roberto


    Abstract BACKGROUND: Onychomycosis are caused by dermatophytes and Candida, but rarely by non- dermatophyte molds. These opportunistic agents are filamentous fungi found as soil and plant pathogens. OBJECTIVES: To determine the frequency of opportunistic molds in onychomycosis. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of 4,220 cases with onychomycosis, diagnosed in a 39-month period at the Institute of Dermatology and Skin surgery "Prof. Dr. Fernando A. Cordero C." in Guatemala City, and confirmed w...

  5. Hydrogen silsesquioxane mold coatings for improved replication of nanopatterns by injection molding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hobæk, Thor Christian; Matschuk, Maria; Kafka, Jan;


    We demonstrate the replication of nanosized pillars in polymer (cyclic olefin copolymer) by injection molding using nanostructured thermally cured hydrogen silsesquioxane (HSQ) ceramic coatings on stainless steel mold inserts with mold nanostructures produced by a simple embossing process...

  6. Intensification of pretreatment and pressure leaching of copper anode slime by microwave radiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨洪英; 马致远; 黄松涛; 吕阳; 熊柳


    The application of microwave irradiation for pretreatment of copper anode slime with high nickel content prior to pressure sulfuric acid leaching has been proposed. The microwave-assisted pretreatment is a rapid and efficient process. Through the technology of microwave assisted pretreatment-pressure leaching of copper anode slime, copper, tellurium, selenium and nickel are almost completely recovered. Under optimal conditions, the leaching efficiencies of copper, tellurium, selenium and nickel are 97.12%, 95.97%, 95.37% and 93.90%, respectively. The effect of microwave radiation on the temperature of copper anode slime and leaching solution is investigated. It is suggested that the enhancement on the recoveries of copper, tellurium and selenium can be attributed to the temperature gradient which is caused by shallow microwave penetration depth and super heating occurring at the solid–liquid interface. The kinetic study shows that the pressure leaching of copper anode slime, with and without microwave assisted pretreatment, are both controlled by chemical reactions on the surfaces of particles. It is found that the activation energy calculated for microwave-assisted pretreatment-pressure leaching (49.47 kJ/mol) is lower than that for pressure leaching which is without microwave assisted pretreatment (60.57 kJ/mol).

  7. Structural elucidation of the EPS of slime producing Brevundimonas vesicularis sp isolated from a paper machine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoef, R.P.; Waard, de P.; Schols, H.A.; Ratto, M.; Siika-aho, M.; Voragen, A.G.J.


    The slime forming bacteria Brevundimonas vesicularis sp. was isolated from a paper mill and its EPS was produced on laboratory scale. After production, the exopolysaccharide (EPS) was purified and analysed for its purity and homogeneity, HPSEC revealed one distinct population with a molecular mass o

  8. Colanic acid is an exopolysaccharide common to many enterobacteria isolated from paper-machine slimes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ratto, M.; Verhoef, R.P.; Suihko, M.L.; Blanco, A.; Schols, H.A.; Voragen, A.G.J.; Wilting, R.; Siika-aho, M.; Buchert, J.


    In this study, polysaccharide-producing bacteria were isolated from slimes collected from two Finnish and one Spanish paper mill and the exopolysaccharides (EPSs) produced by 18 isolates were characterised. Most of the isolates, selected on the bases of slimy colony morphology, were members of the f

  9. Functional nanostructures on injection molded plastic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, Alicia Charlotte; Søgaard, Emil; Andersen, Nis Korsgaard

    Nanotechnology can be used to make inexpensive plastic parts with functional surfaces. The plastic parts can be molded using a standard injection molding process. The nanostructures are directly transferred from the surface of the molding tool to the surface of the molded plastic part during...... the molding process. The main advantage with this method is that surface treatments and chemical additives are avoided, which minimizes health risks and simplifies recycling. Another advantage is that the unique technology enables nanostructuring of free form molded parts. The functional surfaces can have...

  10. Evolving Transport Networks With Cellular Automata Models Inspired by Slime Mould. (United States)

    Tsompanas, Michail-Antisthenis I; Sirakoulis, Georgios Ch; Adamatzky, Andrew I


    Man-made transport networks and their design are closely related to the shortest path problem and considered amongst the most debated problems of computational intelligence. Apart from using conventional or bio-inspired computer algorithms, many researchers tried to solve this kind of problem using biological computing substrates, gas-discharge solvers, prototypes of a mobile droplet, and hot ice computers. In this aspect, another example of biological computer is the plasmodium of acellular slime mould Physarum polycephalum (P. polycephalum), which is a large single cell visible by an unaided eye and has been proven as a reliable living substrate for implementing biological computing devices for computational geometry, graph-theoretical problems, and optimization and imitation of transport networks. Although P. polycephalum is easy to experiment with, computing devices built with the living slime mould are extremely slow; it takes slime mould days to execute a computation. Consequently, mapping key computing mechanisms of the slime mould onto silicon would allow us to produce efficient bio-inspired computing devices to tackle with hard to solve computational intelligence problems like the aforementioned. Toward this direction, a cellular automaton (CA)-based, Physarum-inspired, network designing model is proposed. This novel CA-based model is inspired by the propagating strategy, the formation of tubular networks, and the computing abilities of the plasmodium of P. polycephalum. The results delivered by the CA model demonstrate a good match with several previously published results of experimental laboratory studies on imitation of man-made transport networks with P. polycephalum. Consequently, the proposed CA model can be used as a virtual, easy-to-access, and biomimicking laboratory emulator that will economize large time periods needed for biological experiments while producing networks almost identical to the tubular networks of the real-slime mould.

  11. The Gelation of Polyvinyl Alcohol with Borax: A Novel Class Participation Experiment Involving the Preparation and Properties of a "Slime." (United States)

    Casassa, E. Z.; And Others


    Background information, procedures used, and typical results obtained are provided for an experiment in which students prepare and study the characteristics of a "slime." A list of general, inorganic, and polymer chemistry concepts fostered in the experiment is included. (JN)

  12. Silane based coating of aluminium mold

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    having at least one closed cavity is provided, at least one surface of the at least one cavity being an aluminium surface coated with a silane based coating layer. The silane based anti-stiction coating improves the anti-stiction properties of the mold which may allow for molding and demolding...... of structures which would otherwise be difficult to mold. The resistance of the coated aluminium mold is significantly improved by applying a silane-based coating layer....

  13. Atividade enzimática, produção de slime e sensibilidade a antifúngicos de Candida sp Enzymatic activity, slime production and antifungal agent sensitivity of Candida sp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaqueline Otero Silva


    Full Text Available A habilidade de Candida spp secretar enzimas extracelulares e slime tem sido associada como fatores de patogenicidade. Do total de 37 cepas de Candida sp, 100% foram produtoras de proteinase, 83,8% fosfolipase, 64,9% slime e 100% sensíveis ao fluconazol e itraconazol. Foram encontradas 17 tipagens (enzima/slime. Esta metodologia apresentou um bom índice discriminatório (D=0,93 podendo ser utilizado na caracterização fenotípica das leveduras.Abilith of Candida spp to secrete extracellular enzymes and slime has been associated as pathogenicity factors. Out of a total of 37 strains of Candida sp, 100% were proteinase producers, 83.8% were phospholipase producers, 64.9% were slime producers and 100% were sensitive to fluconazole and itraconazole. Seventeen typings (enzymes/slime were found. This methodology presented a good discrimination rate (D = 0.93 and could be used for phenotypic characterization of yeasts.

  14. Evaluation of Different Phenotypic Techniques for the Detection of Slime Produced by Bacteria Isolated from Clinical Specimens (United States)

    HRV, Rajkumar; Devaki, Ramakrishna


    Introduction  Microorganisms use various strategies for their survival in both the environment and in humans. Slime production by bacteria is one such mechanism by which microbes colonize on the indwelling prosthetic devices and form biofilms. Infections caused by such microorganisms are difficult to treat as the biofilm acts as a shield and protects microbes against antimicrobial agents. There are several methods for the detection of slime produced by bacteria, and they include both phenotypic and molecular methods. The present study evaluated the Congo red agar/broth method, Christensen’s method, dye elution technique, and the latex agglutination method for the demonstration of slime production by different bacterial clinical isolates. Materials & Methods We collected 151 bacterial clinical isolates (both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria) from various specimens and tested them for the production of slime both by qualitative and quantitative tests. Congo red agar/broth method, Christensen's method, dye elution technique, and latex agglutination methods were used for detecting the slime or slime-like substance. Results  We found that 103 (68.2%) strains were positive for slime production by Congo red agar/broth method. It was found that 18 (94.7%) strains of Klebsiella pneumoniae, 21 (84.0%) strains of S aureus and 25 (65.7%) strains of coagulase-negative Staphylococci were positive for slime or slime-like substances by Congo red agar/broth method. A total of 41.0% of the strains positive by Christensen's method and 15.2% of the strains by dye elution technique were found to be more adherent organisms and that have the potential to form biofilms. Only the gram-positive organisms showed nonspecific agglutination with latex suspension. Conclusion  Among the various phenotypic methods compared in this study the Congo red agar/broth method is a simple, economical, sensitive, and specific method that can be used by clinical microbiology laboratories

  15. Surface microstructure replication in injection molding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Theilade, Uffe Arlø; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard


    In recent years, polymer components with surface microstructures have been in rising demand for applications such as lab-on-a-chip and optical components. Injection molding has proven to be a feasible and efficient way to manufacture such components. In injection molding, the mold surface topogra...

  16. Injection Molding of Plastics from Agricultural Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharya, M.; Ruan, R.


    The objective of this research was to conduct a systematic study to relate injection molding parameters to properties of blends of starch and synthetic polymer. From this study, we wished to develop a thorough understanding of the injection molding process and gain significant insight into designing molds and aiding in developing products cheaply and efficiently.

  17. Planning an Injection Mold Design Training Program. (United States)

    Allyn, Edward P.

    With the increased use of plastics worldwide the shortage of trained personnel in moldmaking and design for plastic injection molds is becoming critical. Local schools and community colleges should provide courses in mold design and mold making, since most workers presently learn while working under experienced designers on the job. Following this…

  18. Is Mold the New Asbestos? (United States)

    Colgan, Craig


    Mold and indoor air quality (IAQ) are matters of major concern to architects and their educational clients. The Environmental Protection Agency's Indoor Air Quality Tools for Schools program offers help to districts seeking to tackle IAQ issues. Strengthening community relations is one way to be ready in case of a bad environmental or IAQ report.…

  19. Stochastic resin transfer molding process

    CERN Document Server

    Park, M


    We consider one-dimensional and two-dimensional models of stochastic resin transfer molding process, which are formulated as random moving boundary problems. We study their properties, analytically in the one-dimensional case and numerically in the two-dimensional case. We show how variability of time to fill depends on correlation lengths and smoothness of a random permeability field.

  20. Is Mold the New Asbestos? (United States)

    Colgan, Craig


    Mold and indoor air quality (IAQ) are matters of major concern to architects and their educational clients. The Environmental Protection Agency's Indoor Air Quality Tools for Schools program offers help to districts seeking to tackle IAQ issues. Strengthening community relations is one way to be ready in case of a bad environmental or IAQ report.…

  1. Molded Concrete Center Mine Wall (United States)

    Lewis, E. V.


    Proposed semiautomatic system forms concrete-foam wall along middle of coal-mine passage. Wall helps support roof and divides passage into two conduits needed for ventilation of coal face. Mobile mold and concrete-foam generator form sections of wall in place.

  2. Hydrogen silsesquioxane mold coatings for improved replication of nanopatterns by injection molding


    Hobæk, Thor Christian; Matschuk, Maria; Kafka, Jan; Pranov, Henrik J.; Larsen, Niels Bent


    We demonstrate the replication of nanosized pillars in polymer (cyclic olefin copolymer) by injection molding using nanostructured thermally cured hydrogen silsesquioxane (HSQ) ceramic coatings on stainless steel mold inserts with mold nanostructures produced by a simple embossing process. At isothermal mold conditions, the average pillar height increases by up to 100% and a more uniform height distribution is observed compared to a traditional metal mold insert. Thermal heat transfer simulat...

  3. In vitro anti-plasmodial activity of Dicoma anomala subsp. gerrardii (Asteraceae): identification of its main active constituent, structure-activity relationship studies and gene expression profiling

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Becker, JVW


    Full Text Available . Steenkamp V, Mathivha E, Gouws MC, Van Rensburg CE: Studies on antibacterial, antioxidant and fibroblast growth stimulation of wound healing remedies from South Africa. J Ethnopharmacol 2004, 95:353-357. 13. Steenkamp V, Gouws MC: Cytotoxicity of six... pharmacolo- gical properties: anti-bacterial, anti-helmintic, anti-viral, anti-plasmodial, anti-spasmodic, wound healing, analgesic and anti-inflammatory [8-11]. A previous study reported the anti-bacterial and anti-inflammatory properties of the root...

  4. Precision injection molding of freeform optics (United States)

    Fang, Fengzhou; Zhang, Nan; Zhang, Xiaodong


    Precision injection molding is the most efficient mass production technology for manufacturing plastic optics. Applications of plastic optics in field of imaging, illumination, and concentration demonstrate a variety of complex surface forms, developing from conventional plano and spherical surfaces to aspheric and freeform surfaces. It requires high optical quality with high form accuracy and lower residual stresses, which challenges both optical tool inserts machining and precision injection molding process. The present paper reviews recent progress in mold tool machining and precision injection molding, with more emphasis on precision injection molding. The challenges and future development trend are also discussed.

  5. Implementation of Molding Constraints in Topology Optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marx, S.; Kristensen, Anders Schmidt


    In many cases the topology optimization method yield inadmissible solutions in respect to a particular manufacturing process, e.g. injection molding. In the present work it is chosen to focus on the most common injection molding parameters/factors determining the quality of the mold geometry, i.......e. uniform thickness, filling of the die and ejection of the molded item, i.e. extrusion. The mentioned injection mold parameters/factors are introduced in the topology optimization by defining a centerline of the initial domain and then penalize elements in respect to the distance to the defined centerline...

  6. Meat spoilage: a critical review of a neglected alteration due to ropy slime producing bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria F. Iulietto


    Full Text Available The shelf-life of a product is the period of time during which the food retains its qualitative characteristics. Bacteria associated with meat spoilage produce unattractive odours and flavours, discolouration, gas and slime. There are several neglected alterations that deserve more attention from food business operators and competent authorities. Ropy slime is a typical alteration of the surface of vacuum and modified atmosphere packed cooked meat products, that causes major economic losses due to the increasingly sophisticated consumer requirements. This is a review article that aims at raising awareness of an old problem of new concern, in the light of new advances and trends for understanding the aetiology of the phenomenon, the origins of contamination and the prevention measures.

  7. Silane based coating of aluminium mold

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    comprising a chemically bonded monolayer of silane compounds on the at least one surface wherein the silane is a halogenated silane. The at least one surface coated with the anti-stiction coating may be configured to withstand an injection molding process at a pressure above 100 MPa. Furthermore, a mold......A method of preparing an aluminum mold for injection molding is provided, the method comprises the steps of providing an aluminum mold having a least one surface, subjecting the at least one surface to a gas or liquid phase silane to thereby form an anti-stiction coating, the anti-stiction coating...... having at least one closed cavity is provided, at least one surface of the at least one cavity being an aluminium surface coated with a silane based coating layer. The silane based anti-stiction coating improves the anti-stiction properties of the mold which may allow for molding and demolding...

  8. Simulating strange attraction of acellular slime mould Physarum polycephaum to herbal tablets


    Adamatzky, Andrew


    Plasmodium of acellular slime mould Physarum polycephalum exhibits traits of wave-like behaviour. The plasmodium's behaviour can be finely tuned in laboratory experiments by using herbal tablets. A single tablet acts as a fixed attractor: plasmodium propagates towards the tablet, envelops the tablet with its body and stays around the tablet for several days. Being presented with several tablets the plasmodium executes limit cycle like motions. The plasmodium performs sophisticated routines of...

  9. DNA breakage caused by dimethyl mercury and its repair in a slime mould, Physarum polycephalum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yatscoff, R.W.; Cummins, J.E.


    Methylmercury is known to produce a radiomimetic breakage of slime mould DNA. This DNA damage is characterized and the fact that the breakage is independent of DNA replication is established. Conclusive evidence is presented for the existence of a dimethyl mercury repair system and it is shown that strains of Physarum differing in geographical origin have widely different sensitivity to dimethyl mercury damage. 8 references, 2 figures.

  10. Killing effect of peppermint vapor against pink-slime forming microorganisms. (United States)

    Ihara, Nozomi; Sakamoto, Jin; Yoshida, Munehiro; Tsuchido, Tetsuaki


    The killing effect of peppermint vapor (PMV) against pink-slime forming microorganisms, Methylobacterium mesophilicum as a bacterium and Rhodotorula mucilaginosa as a yeast, was investigated by the agar vapor assay. In this method, microbial cells were spread over the agar surface exposed to PMV in a petri dish, and then transferred into a recovery liquid. When 60μl of the peppermint liquid was added to a paper disc, a marked killing effect of PMV was observed after 48h against M. mesophilicum and after 168h against R. mucilaginosa. M. mesophilicum and R. mucilaginosa were found to be more resistant to PMV than Escherichia coli and Candida albicans, used as reference microorganisms, respectively. With the addition of 0.03% sodium pyruvate as a hydrogen peroxide scavenger in agar, the killing effect of PMV against E. coli and C. albicans was decreased, whereas it was little changed against M. mesophilicum and R. mucilaginosa. In fact, the properties of the killing effect of hydrogen peroxide solution at 0.2-1.0mM was in accord with those of PMV. M. mesophilicum and R. mucilaginosa were more resistant to the oxidant than E. coli and C. albicans, respectively. Results obtained suggested that reactive oxygen species (ROS) may be involved in the killing action of PMV and therefore pink-slime formers are more resistant to PMV than non-pink-slime formers because of the presence of carotenoids as an antioxidant in cells. We also suggest that the use of PMV appeared to be a potential tool for the control of pink-slime forming microorganisms occurring in wet areas of houses such as the bathroom and washing room.

  11. Numerical Analysis of Mold Deformation Including Plastic Melt Flow During Injection Molding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Joon Tae; Lee, Bong-Kee [Chonnam National University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)


    In the present study, a numerical analysis of an injection molding process was conducted for predicting the mold deformation considering non-Newtonian flow, heat transfer, and structural behavior. The accurate prediction of mold deformation during the filling stage is important to successfully design and manufacture a precision injection mold. While the local mold deformation can be caused by various factors, a pressure induced by the polymer melt is considered to be one of the most significant ones. In this regard, the numerical simulation considering both the melt filling and the mold deformation was carried out. A mold core for a 2D axisymmetric center-gated disk was used for the demonstration of the present study. The flow behavior inside the mold cavity and temperature distribution were analyzed along with the core displacement. Also, a Taguchi method was employed to investigate the influence of the relevant parameters including flow velocity, mold core temperature, and melt temperature.

  12. Brainless but Multi-Headed: Decision Making by the Acellular Slime Mould Physarum polycephalum. (United States)

    Beekman, Madeleine; Latty, Tanya


    Because of its peculiar biology and the ease with which it can be cultured, the acellular slime mould Physarum polycephalum has long been a model organism in a range of disciplines. Due to its macroscopic, syncytial nature, it is no surprise that it has been a favourite amongst cell biologists. Its inclusion in the experimental tool kit of behavioural ecologists is much more recent. These recent studies have certainly paid off. They have shown that, for an organism that lacks a brain or central nervous system, P. polycephalum shows rather complex behaviour. For example, it is capable of finding the shortest path through a maze, it can construct networks as efficient as those designed by humans, it can solve computationally difficult puzzles, it makes multi-objective foraging decisions, it balances its nutrient intake and it even behaves irrationally. Are the slime mould's achievements simply "cute", worthy of mentioning in passing but nothing to take too seriously? Or do they hint at the fundamental processes underlying all decision making? We will address this question after reviewing the decision-making abilities of the slime mould. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. A novel application of Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy: classification of slime from staphylococci. (United States)

    Karadenizli, Aynur; Kolayli, Fetiye; Ergen, Kivanç


    It has been proposed that the virulence of nosocomial Staphylococcus infections associated with indwelling medical devices is related to the ability of the bacterium to colonise these materials by forming a biofilm composed of multilayered cell clusters embedded in a slime matrix. However, the pathogenic role of exopolysaccharide biofilms is not fully understood. A new method was sought for differentiating the structure of slime from two closely related bacterial strains, Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis. Using PCR it was confirmed that these strains were positive for the icaA and icaD genes and the complete ica operon (2.7 kb). Monosaccharide analysis by thin-layer chromatography revealed an identical profile for both strains, with xylose and glucose present among the four visible bands. Using Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy and hierarchical cluster analysis, three of four S. aureus samples (75%), and four of five S. epidermidis samples were grouped according to species. A novel FTIR approach in classifying slime produced by S. aureus and S. epidermidis is reported.

  14. Assessing the chemotaxis behavior of Physarum polycephalum to a range of simple volatile organic chemicals. (United States)

    de Lacy Costello, Ben P J; Adamatzky, Andrew I


    The chemotaxis behavior of the plasmodial stage of the true slime mold Physarum Polycephalum was assessed when given a binary choice between two volatile organic chemicals (VOCs) placed in its environment. All possible binary combinations were tested between 19 separate VOCs selected due to their prevalence and biological activity in common plant and insect species. The slime mold exhibited positive chemotaxis toward a number of VOCs with the following order of preference:   Farnesene > β-myrcene > tridecane > limonene > p-cymene > 3-octanone > β-pinene > m-cresol > benzylacetate > cis-3-hexenylacetate. For the remaining compounds, no positive chemotaxis was observed in any of the experiments, and for most compounds there was an inhibitory effect on the growth of the slime mold. By assessing this lack of growth or failure to propagate, it was possible to produce a list of compounds ranked in terms of their inhibitory effect: nonanal > benzaldehyde > methylbenzoate > linalool > methyl-p-benzoquinone > eugenol > benzyl alcohol > geraniol > 2-phenylethanol. This analysis shows a distinct preference of the slime mold for non-oxygenated terpene and terpene-like compounds (farnesene, β-myrcene, limonene, p-cymene and β-pinene). In contrast, terpene-based alcohols such as geraniol and linalool were found to have a strong inhibitory effect on the slime mold. Both the aldehydes utilized in this study had the strongest inhibitory effect on the slime mold of all the 19 VOCs tested. Interestingly, 3-octanone, which has a strong association with a "fungal odor," was the only compound with an oxygenated functionality where Physarum Polycephalum exhibits distinct positive chemotaxis.

  15. Compression molding of aerogel microspheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pekala, Richard W. (Pleasant Hill, CA); Hrubesh, Lawrence W. (Pleasanton, CA)


    An aerogel composite material produced by compression molding of aerogel microspheres (powders) mixed together with a small percentage of polymer binder to form monolithic shapes in a cost-effective manner. The aerogel composites are formed by mixing aerogel microspheres with a polymer binder, placing the mixture in a mold and heating under pressure, which results in a composite with a density of 50-800 kg/m.sup.3 (0.05-0.80 g/cc). The thermal conductivity of the thus formed aerogel composite is below that of air, but higher than the thermal conductivity of monolithic aerogels. The resulting aerogel composites are attractive for applications such as thermal insulation since fabrication thereof does not require large and expensive processing equipment. In addition to thermal insulation, the aerogel composites may be utilized for filtration, ICF target, double layer capacitors, and capacitive deionization.

  16. Compression molding of aerogel microspheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pekala, R.W.; Hrubesh, L.W.


    An aerogel composite material produced by compression molding of aerogel microspheres (powders) mixed together with a small percentage of polymer binder to form monolithic shapes in a cost-effective manner is disclosed. The aerogel composites are formed by mixing aerogel microspheres with a polymer binder, placing the mixture in a mold and heating under pressure, which results in a composite with a density of 50--800 kg/m{sup 3} (0.05--0.80 g/cc). The thermal conductivity of the thus formed aerogel composite is below that of air, but higher than the thermal conductivity of monolithic aerogels. The resulting aerogel composites are attractive for applications such as thermal insulation since fabrication thereof does not require large and expensive processing equipment. In addition to thermal insulation, the aerogel composites may be utilized for filtration, ICF target, double layer capacitors, and capacitive deionization. 4 figs.

  17. In vitro anti-plasmodial activity of three herbal remedies for malaria in Ghana: Adenia cissampeloides (Planch. Harms., Termina liaivorensis A. Chev, and Elaeis guineensis Jacq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kofi Annan


    Full Text Available Background: Herbal remedies of Adenia cissampeloides, Terminalia ivorensis, and Elaeis guineensis among others have been used in Ghana for the treatment of various ailments including malaria. However, most of these remedies have not been scientifically investigated. Objective: This study, therefore, seeks to investigate the anti-plasmodial activity of these plants. Materials and Methods: The ethanolic extracts of A. cissampeloides stem, T. ivorensis stem bark, and E. guineensis leaves were tested for in vitro anti-plasmodial activity against chloroquine-resistant strains of Plasmodium falciparum. Thin blood films were used to assess the level of parasitemia and growth inhibition of the extracts. Results: The IC 50 of A. cissampeloides, T. ivorensis, and E. guineensis were 8.521, 6.949, and 1.195 μg/ml, respectively, compared to artesunate with IC 50 of 0.031 μg/ml. Conclusion: The result of this study appears to confirm the folkloric anti-malarial use these plants.

  18. Onychomycosis due to opportunistic molds* (United States)

    Martínez-Herrera, Erick Obed; Arroyo-Camarena, Stefanie; Tejada-García, Diana Luz; Porras-López, Carlos Francisco; Arenas, Roberto


    BACKGROUND: Onychomycosis are caused by dermatophytes and Candida, but rarely by non- dermatophyte molds. These opportunistic agents are filamentous fungi found as soil and plant pathogens. OBJECTIVES: To determine the frequency of opportunistic molds in onychomycosis. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of 4,220 cases with onychomycosis, diagnosed in a 39-month period at the Institute of Dermatology and Skin surgery "Prof. Dr. Fernando A. Cordero C." in Guatemala City, and confirmed with a positive KOH test and culture. RESULTS: 32 cases (0.76%) of onychomycosis caused by opportunistic molds were confirmed. The most affected age group ranged from 41 to 65 years (15 patients, 46.9%) and females were more commonly affected (21 cases, 65.6%) than males. Lateral and distal subungual onychomycosis (OSD-L) was detected in 20 cases (62.5%). The microscopic examination with KOH showed filaments in 19 cases (59.4%), dermatophytoma in 9 cases (28.1%), spores in 2 cases (6.25%), and filaments and spores in 2 cases (6.25%). Etiologic agents: Aspergillus sp., 11 cases (34.4%); Scopulariopsis brevicaulis, 8 cases (25.0%); Cladosporium sp., 3 cases (9.4%); Acremonium sp., 2 cases (6.25%); Paecilomyces sp., 2 cases (6.25%); Tritirachium oryzae, 2 cases (6.25%); Fusarium sp., Phialophora sp., Rhizopus sp. and Alternaria alternate, 1 case (3.1%) each. CONCLUSIONS: We found onychomycosis by opportunistic molds in 0.76% of the cases and DLSO was present in 62.5%. The most frequent isolated etiological agents were: Aspergillus sp. and Scopulariopsis brevicaulis. PMID:26131862

  19. Detection of methicillin resistance and slime factor production of Staphylococcus aureus in bovine mastitis Detecção de resistência a meticilina e produção do fator slime por Staphylococcus aureus em mastite bovina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alper Ciftci


    Full Text Available This study aimed to detect methicillin resistant and slime producing Staphylococcus aureus in cases of bovine mastitis. A triplex PCR was optimized targetting 16S rRNA, nuc and mecA genes for detection of Staphylococcus species, S. aureus and methicillin resistance, respectively. Furthermore, for detection of slime producing strains, a PCR assay targetting icaA and icaD genes was performed. In this study, 59 strains were detected as S. aureus by both conventional tests and PCR, and 13 of them were found to be methicillin resistant and 4 (30.7% were positive for mecA gene. Although 22 of 59 (37.2% S. aureus isolates were slime-producing in Congo Red Agar, in PCR analysis only 15 were positive for both icaA and icaD genes. Sixteen and 38 out of 59 strains were positive for icaA and icaD gene, respectively. Only 2 of 59 strains were positive for both methicillin resistance and slime producing, phenotypically, suggesting lack of correlation between methicillin resistance and slime production in these isolates. In conclusion, the optimized triplex PCR in this study was useful for rapid and reliable detection of methicillin resistant S. aureus. Furthermore, only PCR targetting icaA and icaD may not sufficient to detect slime production and further studies targetting other ica genes should be conducted for accurate evaluation of slime production characters of S. aureus strains.Este estudo objetivou a detecção de Staphylococcus aureus resistente a meticilina e produtor do fator slime em casos de mastite bovina. Um PCR triplex foi otimizado, com alvo no genes 16SrRNA, nuc e mecA para detecção de Staphylococcus spp, S. aureus e resistencia a meticilina, respectivamente. Para detecção das cepas produtoras do fator slime, empregou-se um PCR com alvo nos genes icaA e icaD. No estudo, 59 cepas foram identificadas como S. aureus por testes convencionais e PCR, sendo 13 resistentes a meticilina e quatro positivas para o gene mecA. Embora 22 das 59 cepas

  20. Anti-plasmodial and insecticidal activities of the essential oils of aromatic plants growing in the Mediterranean area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dell’Agli Mario


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sardinia is a Mediterranean area endemic for malaria up to the last century. During a screening study to evaluate the anti-plasmodial activity of some aromatic plants traditionally used in Sardinia, Myrtus communis (myrtle, Myrtaceae, Satureja thymbra (savory, Lamiaceae, and Thymus herba-barona (caraway thyme, Lamiaceae were collected in three vegetative periods: before, during and after flowering. Methods The essential oils were obtained by steam distillation, fractionated by silica gel column chromatography and analysed by GC-FID-MS. Total oil and three main fractions were tested on D10 and W2 strains of Plasmodium falciparum in vitro. Larvicidal and adulticidal activities were tested on Anopheles gambiae susceptible strains. Results The essential oil of savory, rich in thymol, was the most effective against P. falciparum with an inhibitory activity independent from the time of collection (IC50 17–26 μg/ml on D10 and 9–11 μg/ml on W2. Upon fractionation, fraction 1 was enriched in mono-sesquiterpenoid hydrocarbons; fraction 2 in thymol (73-83%; and fraction 3 contained thymol, carvacrol and terpinen-4-ol, with a different composition depending on the time of collection. Thymol-enriched fractions were the most active on both strains (IC50 20–22 μg/ml on D10 and 8–10 μg/ml on W2 and thymol was confirmed as mainly responsible for this activity (IC50 19.7± 3.0 and 10.6 ± 2.0 μg/ml on D10 and W2, respectively. The essential oil of S. thymbra L. showed also larvicidal and adulticidal activities. The larvicidal activity, expressed as LC50, was 0.15 ± 0.002; 0.21 ± 0.13; and 0.15 ± 0.09 μg/ml (mean ± sd depending on the time of collection: before, during and after flowering, respectively. Conclusions This study provides evidence for the use of essential oils for treating malaria and fighting the vector at both the larval and adult stages. These findings open the possibility for further

  1. The effects of dictyostelids on the formation and maturation of myxomycete plasmodia. (United States)

    Clark, Jim D; Snell, Sarah; Landolt, John C; Stephenson, Steven L


    Dictyostelids (cellular slime molds) and myxomycetes (plasmodial slime molds) are two groups of mycetozoans usually present and often abundant in the soil and litter microhabitats of terrestrial ecosystems. Because they utilize the same food resource and occur together in a spatially limited and clearly defined microhabitat, the potential for ecological interactions would seem to exist. However, relatively few previous studies have considered this aspect of mycetozoan ecology. In the present study twenty-eight isolates (8 species) of dictyostelids were co-cultured in all possible pair-wise combinations with fourteen isolates (7 species) of myxomycetes to determine if there were any effects on the production of fruiting bodies. Dictyostelids showed little or no delay in culmination and only random and inconsistent reductions in sorocarp abundance when co-cultured with myxomycetes. In contrast, myxomycetes displayed a number of specific effects. The heterothallic isolates exhibited delays in plasmodial formation and/or maturation, with some pairings showing little to no effect, while others displayed nearly complete inhibition of plasmodial formation or maturation. Apomictic isolates, in general, were much less affected, with only a few combinations displaying significant delays in both formation and maturation of plasmodia.

  2. Gating of Permanent Molds for ALuminum Casting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Schwam; John F. Wallace; Tom Engle; Qingming Chang


    This report summarizes a two-year project, DE-FC07-01ID13983 that concerns the gating of aluminum castings in permanent molds. The main goal of the project is to improve the quality of aluminum castings produced in permanent molds. The approach taken was determine how the vertical type gating systems used for permanent mold castings can be designed to fill the mold cavity with a minimum of damage to the quality of the resulting casting. It is evident that somewhat different systems are preferred for different shapes and sizes of aluminum castings. The main problems caused by improper gating are entrained aluminum oxide films and entrapped gas. The project highlights the characteristic features of gating systems used in permanent mold aluminum foundries and recommends gating procedures designed to avoid common defects. The study also provides direct evidence on the filling pattern and heat flow behavior in permanent mold castings.

  3. Effect of Functional Nano Channel Structures Different Widths on Injection Molding and Compression Molding Replication Capabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calaon, M.; Tosello, G.; Garnaes, J.

    The present study investigates the capabilities of the two employed processes, injection molding (IM) and injection compression molding (ICM) on replicating different channel cross sections. Statistical design of experiment was adopted to optimize replication quality of produced polymer parts wit...

  4. Porous media heat transfer for injection molding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beer, Neil Reginald


    The cooling of injection molded plastic is targeted. Coolant flows into a porous medium disposed within an injection molding component via a porous medium inlet. The porous medium is thermally coupled to a mold cavity configured to receive injected liquid plastic. The porous medium beneficially allows for an increased rate of heat transfer from the injected liquid plastic to the coolant and provides additional structural support over a hollow cooling well. When the temperature of the injected liquid plastic falls below a solidifying temperature threshold, the molded component is ejected and collected.

  5. Analysis of optical properties in injection-molded and compression-molded optical lenses. (United States)

    Wang, Chung Yen; Wang, Pei Jen


    Numerical mold-flow simulations and experimental measurements for injection-molded lenses have been investigated in form accuracy on a two-cavity mold with various process conditions. First, form profiles of the molded lenses have been measured together with the corresponding simulated mold-temperature distribution and displacement distribution of the lens in the z direction. A flow-through type layout of cooling channels has been devised for balance of mold-temperature distribution in mold cavities with various parametric distances for assessments in uniformity of temperature distribution. Finally, a compression-molding process is proposed for the post-process of birefringence relaxation as well as adequate form accuracy of lenses. In conclusion, optimization of process parameters to achieve good form accuracy in a multicavity mold with symmetric geometry but nonuniform cooling conditions is difficult. A good design of cooling channels plus optimized process conditions could provide uniform mold-temperature distribution so that molded lenses of good quality would be possible. Then, the profile deviation of lenses could be further compensated by profile geometry corrections. In conclusion, the post-compression-molding process could make birefringence-free plastic lenses with good form accuracy.

  6. In vitro and in vivo silencing of plasmodial dhs and eIf-5a genes in a putative, non-canonical RNAi-related pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schwentke Andreas


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Deoxyhypusine synthase (DHS catalyzes the first step in hypusine biosynthesis of eukaryotic initiation factor 5A (eIF-5A in Plasmodium falciparum. Target evaluation of parasitic DHS has recently been performed with CNI-1493, a novel selective pro-inflammatory cytokine inhibitor used in clinical phase II for the treatment of Crohn's disease. CNI-1493 prevented infected mice from experimental cerebral malaria by decreasing the levels in hypusinated eIF-5A and serum TNF, implicating a link between cytokine signaling and the hypusine pathway. Therefore we addressed the question whether either DHS itself or eIF-5A is required for the outcome of severe malaria. In a first set of experiments we performed an in vitro knockdown of the plasmodial eIF-5A and DHS proteins by RNA interference (RNAi in 293 T cells. Secondly, transfection of siRNA constructs into murine Plasmodium schizonts was performed which, in turn, were used for infection. Results 293 T cells treated with plasmodial DHS- and eIF-5A specific siRNAs or control siRNAs were analyzed by RT-PCR to determine endogenous dhs -and eIF-5A mRNA levels. The expressed DHS-shRNA and EIF-5A-shRNA clearly downregulated the corresponding transcript in these cells. Interestingly, mice infected with transgenic schizonts expressing either the eIF-5A or dhs shRNA showed an elevated parasitemia within the first two days post infection which then decreased intermittently. These results were obtained without drug selection. Blood samples, which were taken from the infected mice at day 5 post infection with either the expressed EIF-5A-shRNA or the DHS-shRNA were analyzed by RT-PCR and Western blot techniques, demonstrating the absence of either the hypusinated form of eIF-5A or DHS. Conclusions Infection of NMRI mice with schizonts from the lethal P. berghei ANKA wildtype strain transgenic for plasmodial eIF-5A-specific shRNA or DHS-specific shRNA resulted in low parasitemia 2–9

  7. Minimization of sink mark defects in injection molding process ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Minimization of sink mark defects in injection molding process – Taguchi approach. ... plays a very important role in controlling the quality of the injection molded products. ... of injection molding variables on sink marks using Taguchi approach.

  8. Mold (United States)

    ... all, may produce toxins or poisonous substances called mycotoxins that may cause effects in humans. Although there are many types of mycotoxins, aflatoxins are probably the best known and most ...

  9. Mechanical Properties of Injection Molded and Compression Molded Samples from Nature-Butadiene Rubber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skrobak Adam


    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to show what extent there is an impact on the mechanical properties (tensile strength and tear strength of a standardized testing sample made of rubber compound based on nature rubber and butadiene rubber produced by injection molding in comparison with a sample produced by classic preparation (cutting out a compression molded plate according to the standard ISO 23529. For realization of this study it was necessary to design and produce an injection mold for all types testing samples. Subsequently, mechanical properties such as the tensile stress-strain and tear strenght of compression molded samples and injection molded samples were studied, compared and discussed.

  10. Nonlinear Modeling of a High Precision Servo Injection Molding Machine Including Novel Molding Approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何雪松; 王旭永; 冯正进; 章志新; 杨钦廉


    A nonlinear mathematical model of the injection molding process for electrohydraulic servo injection molding machine (IMM) is developed.It was found necessary to consider the characteristics of asymmetric cylinder for electrohydraulic servo IMM.The model is based on the dynamics of the machine including servo valve,asymmetric cylinder and screw,and the non-Newtonian flow behavior of polymer melt in injection molding is also considered.The performance of the model was evaluated based on novel approach of molding - injection and compress molding,and the results of simulation and experimental data demonstrate the effectiveness of the model.

  11. HPLC quantification of uncarine D and the anti-plasmodial activity of alkaloids from leaves of Mitragyna inermis (Willd.) O. Kuntze. (United States)

    Fiot, Julien; Baghdikian, Béatrice; Boyer, Laurent; Mahiou, Valérie; Azas, Nadine; Gasquet, Monique; Timon-David, Pierre; Balansard, Guy; Ollivier, Evelyne


    An efficient system for the analysis of the total alkaloids extracted from leaves of Mitragyna inermis (Willd.) O. Kuntze (Rubiaceae) by HPLC using a reversed-phase column is described. The chromatographic conditions allowed the separation of indole and oxindole alkaloids in leaf extracts, and the quantification of uncarine D in samples collected in Burkina Faso and Mali. The HPLC method described was validated for its specificity, linearity and precision using an internal standard (naphthalene). The concentrations of uncarine D in various extracts were compared with their in vitro anti-plasmodial activity. The anti-proliferative activity on chloroquine-resistant strain (W2) of Plasmodium falciparum was not correlated with the concentration of uncarine D in leaves.

  12. A flow cytometry-based workflow for detection and quantification of anti-plasmodial antibodies in vaccinated and naturally exposed individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ajua, Anthony; Engleitner, Thomas; Esen, Meral;


    information about natural exposure and vaccine immunogenicity. A novel, cytometry-based workflow for the quantitative detection of anti-plasmodial antibodies in human serum is presented. METHODS: Fixed red blood cells (RBCs), infected with late stages of P. falciparum were utilized to detect malaria......-specific antibodies by flow cytometry with subsequent automated data analysis. Available methods for data-driven analysis of cytometry data were assessed and a new overlap subtraction algorithm (OSA) based on open source software was developed. The complete workflow was evaluated using sera from two GMZ2 malaria...... vaccine trials in semiimmune adults and pre-school children residing in a malaria endemic area. RESULTS: Fixation, permeabilization, and staining of infected RBCs were adapted for best operation in flow cytometry. As asexual vaccine candidates are designed to induce antibody patterns similar to semi...

  13. Mold Remediation in Schools and Commercial Buildings. (United States)

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Radiation and Indoor Air.

    This document describes how to investigate and evaluate moisture and mold problems in educational facilities, and presents the key steps for implementing a remediation plan. A checklist is provided for conducting mold remediation efforts along with a resource list of helpful organizations and governmental agencies. Appendices contain a glossary,…

  14. Nanostructuring steel for injection molding tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al-Azawi, A.; Smistrup, Kristian; Kristensen, Anders


    and ion beam etching are combined to nanostructure the planar surface of a steel wafer. Injection molded plastic parts with enhanced surface properties, like anti-reflective, superhydrophobic and structural colors can be achieved by micro-and nanostructuring the surface of the steel molds. We investigate...

  15. The Thermal Distortion of a Funnel Mold (United States)

    Hibbeler, Lance C.; Thomas, Brian G.; Schimmel, Ronald C.; Abbel, Gert


    This article investigates the thermal distortion of a funnel mold for continuous casting of thin slabs and explores the implications on taper and solidification of the steel shell. The three-dimensional mold temperatures are calculated using shell-mold heat flux and cooling water profiles that were calibrated with plant measurements. The thermal stresses and distorted shape of the mold are calculated with a detailed finite-element model of a symmetric fourth of the entire mold and waterbox assembly, and they are validated with plant thermocouple data and measurements of the wear of the narrow-face copper mold plates. The narrow-face mold distorts into the typical parabolic arc, and the wide face distorts into a "W" shape owing to the large variation in bolt stiffnesses. The thermal expansion of the wide face works against the applied narrow-face taper and funnel effects, so the effect of thermal distortion must be considered to accurately predict the ideal mold taper.

  16. The use of IR thermography to show the mold and part temperature evolution in injection molding (United States)

    Bula, Karol; Różański, Leszek; Marciniak-Podsadna, Lidia; Wróbel, Dawid


    This study concerns the application of infrared camera for injection molding analysis by measuring temperatures of both injection molded parts and injection mold cavities in a function of injection cycles. The mold with two cavities, differing in thickness (1 and 3 mm), and a cold direct runner was used. Isotactic polypropylene homopolymer was utilized to produce parts. Mold temperature was set at 22°C and controlled by a water chiller. Five measuring points were determined: SP1, SP2 (placed in the 3 mm cavity), SP3, SP4 (located in the 1 mm cavity) and SP5 around an injection molding gate. Our investigations showed that the highest temperature is localized around SP2 point and the lowest at SP4. Also, it was proved that even after 62 injection molding cycles, temperatures of cavities were not stable, revealing their further increase with each cycle.

  17. The use of IR thermography to show the mold and part temperature evolution in injection molding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bula Karol


    Full Text Available This study concerns the application of infrared camera for injection molding analysis by measuring temperatures of both injection molded parts and injection mold cavities in a function of injection cycles. The mold with two cavities, differing in thickness (1 and 3 mm, and a cold direct runner was used. Isotactic polypropylene homopolymer was utilized to produce parts. Mold temperature was set at 22°C and controlled by a water chiller. Five measuring points were determined: SP1, SP2 (placed in the 3 mm cavity, SP3, SP4 (located in the 1 mm cavity and SP5 around an injection molding gate. Our investigations showed that the highest temperature is localized around SP2 point and the lowest at SP4. Also, it was proved that even after 62 injection molding cycles, temperatures of cavities were not stable, revealing their further increase with each cycle.

  18. Inhibiting activities of the secondary metabolites of Phlomis brunneogaleata against parasitic protozoa and plasmodial enoyl-ACP Reductase, a crucial enzyme in fatty acid biosynthesis. (United States)

    Kirmizibekmez, Hasan; Calis, Ihsan; Perozzo, Remo; Brun, Reto; Dönmez, Ali A; Linden, Anthony; Rüedi, Peter; Tasdemir, Deniz


    Anti-plasmodial activity-guided fractionation of Phlomis brunneogaleata (Lamiaceae) led to the isolation of two new metabolites, the iridoid glycoside, brunneogaleatoside and a new pyrrolidinium derivative (2 S,4 R)-2-carboxy-4-( E)- p-coumaroyloxy-1,1-dimethylpyrrolidinium inner salt [(2 S,4 R)-1,1-dimethyl-4-( E)- p-coumaroyloxyproline inner salt]. Moreover, a known iridoid glycoside, ipolamiide, six known phenylethanoid glycosides, verbascoside, isoverbascoside, forsythoside B, echinacoside, glucopyranosyl-(1-->G (i)-6)-martynoside and integrifolioside B, two flavone glycosides, luteolin 7- O-beta- D-glucopyranoside ( 10) and chrysoeriol 7- O-beta- D-glucopyranoside ( 11), a lignan glycoside liriodendrin, an acetophenone glycoside 4-hydroxyacetophenone 4- O-(6'- O-beta- D-apiofuranosyl)-beta- D-glucopyranoside and three caffeic acid esters, chlorogenic acid, 3-O-caffeoylquinic acid methyl ester and 5- O-caffeoylshikimic acid were isolated. The structures of the pure compounds were elucidated by means of spectroscopic methods (UV, IR, MS, 1D and 2D NMR, [alpha] (D)) and X-ray crystallography. Compounds 10 and 11 were determined to be the major anti-malarial principles of the crude extract (IC (50) values of 2.4 and 5.9 micrograms/mL, respectively). They also exhibited significant leishmanicidal activity (IC (50) = 1.1 and 4.1 micrograms/mL, respectively). The inhibitory potential of the pure metabolites against plasmodial enoyl-ACP reductase (FabI), which is the key regulator of type II fatty acid synthases (FAS-II) in P. falciparum, was also assessed. Compound 10 showed promising FabI inhibiting effect (IC (50) = 10 micrograms/mL) and appears to be the first anti-malarial natural product targeting FabI of P. falciparum.

  19. Immune Response among Patients Exposed to Molds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordan N. Fink


    Full Text Available Macrocyclic trichothecenes, mycotoxins produced by Stachybotrys chartarum, have been implicated in adverse reactions in individuals exposed to mold-contaminated environments. Cellular and humoral immune responses and the presence of trichothecenes were evaluated in patients with mold-related health complaints. Patients underwent history, physical examination, skin prick/puncture tests with mold extracts, immunological evaluations and their sera were analyzed for trichothecenes. T-cell proliferation, macrocyclic trichothecenes, and mold specific IgG and IgA levels were not significantly different than controls; however 70% of the patients had positive skin tests to molds. Thus, IgE mediated or other non-immune mechanisms could be the cause of their symptoms.

  20. IC chip stress during plastic package molding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmer, D.W.; Benson, D.A.; Peterson, D.W.; Sweet, J.N.


    Approximately 95% of the world`s integrated chips are packaged using a hot, high pressure transfer molding process. The stress created by the flow of silica powder loaded epoxy can displace the fine bonding wires and can even distort the metalization patterns under the protective chip passivation layer. In this study the authors developed a technique to measure the mechanical stress over the surface of an integrated circuit during the molding process. A CMOS test chip with 25 diffused resistor stress sensors was applied to a commercial lead frame. Both compression and shear stresses were measured at all 25 locations on the surface of the chip every 50 milliseconds during molding. These measurements have a fine time and stress resolution which should allow comparison with computer simulation of the molding process, thus allowing optimization of both the manufacturing process and mold geometry.

  1. Comparing suppository mold variability which can lead to dosage errors for suppositories prepared with the same or different molds. (United States)

    Alexander, Kenneth S; Baki, Gabriella; Hart, Christine; Hejduk, Courtney; Chillas, Stephanie


    Suppository molds must be properly calibrated to ensure accurate dosing. There are often slight differences between molds and even in the cavities within a mold. A method is presented for the calibration of standard aluminum 6-, 12-, 50-, or 100-well suppository molds. Ten different molds were tested using water for volume calibration, and cocoa butter for standardization involving establishing the density factor. This method is shown to be straightforward and appropriate for calibrating suppository molds.

  2. Mold Simulator Study of the Initial Solidification of Molten Steel in Continuous Casting Mold: Part II. Effects of Mold Oscillation and Mold Level Fluctuation (United States)

    Zhang, Haihui; Wang, Wanlin


    The surface quality of the continuous casting strands is closely related to the initial solidification of liquid steel in the vicinity of the mold meniscus, and thus the clear understanding of the behavior of molten steel initial solidification would be of great importance for the control of the quality of final slab. With the development of the mold simulator techniques, the complex interrelationship between the solidified shell surface profile, heat flux, shell thickness, mold level fluctuation, and the infiltrated slag film was well illustrated in our previous study. As the second part, this article investigated the effect of the mold oscillation frequency, stroke, and mold level fluctuation on the initial solidification of the molten steel through the conduction of five different experiments. Results suggested that in the case of the stable mold level, the oscillation marks (OMs) exhibit equally spaced horizon depressions on the shell surface, where the heat flux at the meniscus area raises rapidly during negative strip time (NST) period and the presence of each OMs on the shell surface is corresponding to a peak value of the heat flux variation rate. Otherwise, the shell surface is poorly defined by the existence of wave-type defects, such as ripples or deep depressions, and the heat flux variation is irregular during NST period. The rising of the mold level leads to the longer-pitch and deeper OMs formation; conversely, the falling of mold level introduces shorter-pitch and shallower OMs. With the increase of the mold oscillation frequency, the average value of the low-frequency heat flux at the meniscus increases; however, it decreases when the mold oscillation stroke increases. Additionally, the variation amplitude of the high-frequency temperature and the high-frequency heat flux decreases with the increase of the oscillation frequency and the reduction of the oscillation stroke.

  3. Medical diagnostics for indoor mold exposure. (United States)

    Hurraß, Julia; Heinzow, Birger; Aurbach, Ute; Bergmann, Karl-Christian; Bufe, Albrecht; Buzina, Walter; Cornely, Oliver A; Engelhart, Steffen; Fischer, Guido; Gabrio, Thomas; Heinz, Werner; Herr, Caroline E W; Kleine-Tebbe, Jörg; Klimek, Ludger; Köberle, Martin; Lichtnecker, Herbert; Lob-Corzilius, Thomas; Merget, Rolf; Mülleneisen, Norbert; Nowak, Dennis; Rabe, Uta; Raulf, Monika; Seidl, Hans Peter; Steiß, Jens-Oliver; Szewszyk, Regine; Thomas, Peter; Valtanen, Kerttu; Wiesmüller, Gerhard A


    In April 2016, the German Society of Hygiene, Environmental Medicine and Preventative Medicine (Gesellschaft für Hygiene, Umweltmedizin und Präventivmedizin (GHUP)) together with other scientific medical societies, German and Austrian medical societies, physician unions and experts has provided an AWMF (Association of the Scientific Medical Societies) guideline 'Medical diagnostics for indoor mold exposure'. This guideline shall help physicians to advise and treat patients exposed indoors to mold. Indoor mold growth is a potential health risk, even without a quantitative and/or causal association between the occurrence of individual mold species and health effects. Apart from the allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) and the mycoses caused by mold, there is only sufficient evidence for the following associations between moisture/mold damages and different health effects: Allergic respiratory diseases, asthma (manifestation, progression, exacerbation), allergic rhinitis, exogenous allergic alveolitis and respiratory tract infections/bronchitis. In comparison to other environmental allergens, the sensitizing potential of molds is estimated to be low. Recent studies show a prevalence of sensitization of 3-10% in the total population of Europe. The evidence for associations to mucous membrane irritation and atopic eczema (manifestation, progression, exacerbation) is classified as limited or suspected. Inadequate or insufficient evidence for an association is given for COPD, acute idiopathic pulmonary hemorrhage in children, rheumatism/arthritis, sarcoidosis, and cancer. The risk of infections from indoor molds is low for healthy individuals. Only molds that are capable to form toxins can cause intoxications. The environmental and growth conditions and especially the substrate determine whether toxin formation occurs, but indoor air concentrations are always very low. In the case of indoor moisture/mold damages, everyone can be affected by odor effects and

  4. A morphological adaptation approach to path planning inspired by slime mould (United States)

    Jones, Jeff


    Path planning is a classic problem in computer science and robotics which has recently been implemented in unconventional computing substrates such as chemical reaction-diffusion computers. These novel computing schemes utilise the parallel spatial propagation of information and often use a two-stage method involving diffusive propagation to discover all paths and a second stage to highlight or visualise the path between two particular points in the arena. The true slime mould Physarum polycephalum is known to construct efficient transport networks between nutrients in its environment. These networks are continuously remodelled as the organism adapts its body plan to changing spatial stimuli. It can be guided towards attractant stimuli (nutrients, warm regions) and it avoids locations containing hazardous stimuli (light irradiation, repellents, or regions occupied by predatory threats). Using a particle model of slime mould we demonstrate scoping experiments which explore how path planning may be performed by morphological adaptation. We initially demonstrate simple path planning by a shrinking blob of virtual plasmodium between two attractant sources within a polygonal arena. We examine the case where multiple paths are required and the subsequent selection of a single path from multiple options. Collision-free paths are implemented via repulsion from the borders of the arena. Finally, obstacle avoidance is implemented by repulsion from obstacles as they are uncovered by the shrinking blob. These examples show proof-of-concept results of path planning by morphological adaptation which complement existing research on path planning in novel computing substrates.

  5. Suction characteristics of a thick material pump at high concentrations of coal slime

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Xing-min; ZHAO Qiao-zhi; GAO Shao-gang; WU Miao


    A test system was designed to study the parameters affecting the volumetric efficiency of a thick-material pump for coal slime. The parameters studied included solid concentration, the slenderness ratio of the suction cylinder and the running speed of the hydraulic cylinder. In the experiment the concentrations of coal slime were 75.7%, 76.3%, 74.4%, 73.5%, 72.1% and 70.63%; the running speeds were 0.23, 0.18, 0.13, 0.10 and 0.08 m/s; and the slenderness ratios of the suction cylinder were 1.63, 2.26, 2.88, 3.50, 4.13, 4.78 and 5.38. The results show that the suction volumetric efficiency decreases gradually with an increase in material concentration. The critical concentration value is 72%; below 72% the suction volumetric efficiency is above 90%, otherwise it decreases rapidly. When the solid concentration reaches 76.3%, the suction volumetric efficiency is only 40%. When the running speed of the piston is less than or equal to 0.23 m/s, the suction volumetric efficiency increases with an increase in running speed.

  6. Speed-accuracy trade-offs during foraging decisions in the acellular slime mould Physarum polycephalum. (United States)

    Latty, Tanya; Beekman, Madeleine


    Speed-accuracy trade-offs (SATs) are thought to be a fundamental feature of biological information processing, yet most evidence of SATs comes from animals. Here, we examine SATs in the foraging decisions of an acellular, amoeboid organism: the slime mould Physarum polycephalum. Slime moulds were given a simple discrimination task: selecting the highest-quality food item from a set of three options. We investigated the effect of two stressors, light exposure and hunger, on the speed and accuracy of decision-making. We also examined the effect of task difficulty. When given a difficult discrimination task, stressed individuals tend to make faster decisions than non-stressed individuals. This effect was reversed in plasmodia given easy discrimination tasks, where stressed individuals made slower decisions than non-stressed individuals. We found evidence of SATs, such that individuals who made fast decisions were more likely to make costly errors by selecting the worst possible food option. Our results suggest that SATs occur in a wider range of taxa than previously considered.

  7. Physarum wires: Self-growing self-repairing smart wires made from slime mould

    CERN Document Server

    Adamatzky, Andrew


    We report experimental laboratory studies on developing conductive pathways, or wires, using protoplasmic tubes of plasmodium of acellular slime mould Physarum polycephalum. Given two pins to be connected by a wire, we place a piece of slime mould on one pin and an attractant on another pin. Physarum propagates towards the attract and thus connects the pins with a protoplasmic tube. A protoplasmic tube is conductive, can survive substantial over-voltage and can be used to transfer electrical current to lightning and actuating devices. In experiments we show how to route Physarum wires with chemoattractants and electrical fields. We demonstrate that Physarum wire can be grown on almost bare breadboards and on top of electronic circuits. The Physarum wires can be insulated with a silicon oil without loss of functionality. We show that a Physarum wire self-heals: end of a cut wire merge together and restore the conductive pathway in several hours after being cut. Results presented will be used in future designs ...

  8. Speed–accuracy trade-offs during foraging decisions in the acellular slime mould Physarum polycephalum (United States)

    Latty, Tanya; Beekman, Madeleine


    Speed–accuracy trade-offs (SATs) are thought to be a fundamental feature of biological information processing, yet most evidence of SATs comes from animals. Here, we examine SATs in the foraging decisions of an acellular, amoeboid organism: the slime mould Physarum polycephalum. Slime moulds were given a simple discrimination task: selecting the highest-quality food item from a set of three options. We investigated the effect of two stressors, light exposure and hunger, on the speed and accuracy of decision-making. We also examined the effect of task difficulty. When given a difficult discrimination task, stressed individuals tend to make faster decisions than non-stressed individuals. This effect was reversed in plasmodia given easy discrimination tasks, where stressed individuals made slower decisions than non-stressed individuals. We found evidence of SATs, such that individuals who made fast decisions were more likely to make costly errors by selecting the worst possible food option. Our results suggest that SATs occur in a wider range of taxa than previously considered. PMID:20826487

  9. Thermoplastic blow molding of metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Schroers


    Full Text Available While plastics have revolutionized industrial design due to their versatile processability, their relatively low strength has hampered their use in structural components. On the other hand, while metals are the basis for strong structural components, the geometries into which they can be processed are rather limited. The “ideal” material would offer a desirable combination of superior structural properties and the ability to be precision (net shaped into complex geometries. Here we show that bulk metallic glasses (BMGs, which have superior mechanical properties, can be blow molded like plastics. The key to the enhanced processability of BMG formers is their amenability to thermoplastic forming. This allows complex BMG structures, some of which cannot be produced using any other metal process, to be net shaped precisely.

  10. Challenges in mold manufacturing for high precision molded diffractive optical elements (United States)

    Pongs, Guido; Bresseler, Bernd; Schweizer, Klaus; Bergs, Thomas


    Isothermal precision glass molding of imaging optics is the key technology for mass production of precise optical elements. Especially for numerous consumer applications (e.g. digital cameras, smart phones, …), high precision glass molding is applied for the manufacturing of aspherical lenses. The usage of diffractive optical elements (DOEs) can help to further reduce the number of lenses in the optical systems which will lead to a reduced weight of hand-held optical devices. But today the application of molded glass DOEs is limited due to the technological challenges in structuring the mold surfaces. Depending on the application submicrometer structures are required on the mold surface. Furthermore these structures have to be replicated very precisely to the glass lens surface. Especially the micro structuring of hard and brittle mold materials such as Tungsten Carbide is very difficult and not established. Thus a multitude of innovative approaches using diffractive optical elements cannot be realized. Aixtooling has investigated in different mold materials and different suitable machining technologies for the micro- and sub-micrometer structuring of mold surfaces. The focus of the work lays on ultra-precision grinding to generate the diffractive pattern on the mold surfaces. This paper presents the latest achievements in diffractive structuring of Tungsten Carbide mold surfaces by ultra-precision grinding.

  11. Study on Effects of Mold Temperature on the Injection Molded Article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han J.-H.


    Full Text Available This is a study of the effects of temperature of injection mold on the injection molded article. By supplying water of the proper temperature in the cooling line of mold in the cooling process, the mold was the appropriate temperature, and the deformation of the injection molded article was examined according to the mold temperature. In this study, we conducted simulation analysis and experiments, and the results were analyzed. The minimum deformation of the injection molded article model obtained by supplying 50°C water in the cooling line is 0.003 mm, and the maximum deformation was 0.813 mm. Injection molded article models obtained by supplying 20°C water were found to be a minimum of 0.002 mm, with deformation of up to 0.761 mm. When comparing both conditions, the error rate of injection molded article obtained by supplying 20°C water in the mold cooling line was lower by about 0.18%.

  12. Characterization of fiberglass-filled diallyl phthalate plastic molding resins and molded parts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitaker, R.B.; Glaub, J.E.; Bonekowski, N.R.; Gillham, P.D.


    Characterization of diallyl phthalate (DAP) molding resins was undertaken by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and by combined size exclusion chromatography (SEC)/low angle laser light scattering (LALLS) in order to better predict moldability and storage life limits. Completeness of cure of molded parts, before and after any post-curing, was also determined by thermal analysis. Molecular weights and molecular weight distributions of the DAP molding resins by SEC/LALLS indicated that the better molding resins have lower M/sub w//M/sub n/ ratios. Association effects were observed, which could not be overcome by solvent modification alone. Determination of DAP molding resin heats of reaction by DSC indicated a linear relation between R/ and weight percent filler for the good molding resins. DSC analyses of molded DAP parts showed that 95% cure was achieved in some as-molded parts, with a post-cure temperature of 165/sup 0/C being required to complete the cure to 100%. Thickness of the parts was a factor, with the thicker parts being 100% cured as molded. The glass transition temperature (T/sub g/) of the molded parts increased as cure was completed, to approx. 160 to 165/sup 0/C maximum. These results are consistent with a model of thermoset resin curing behavior which states that 100% cure can be achieved only if a post-curing operation is conducted above the T/sub g infinity/ (T/sub g/ at complete cure) of the polymer.

  13. Cooling simulation of plastic injection molding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Analyses the cooling of mold and plastic part during injectionmolding and the continued cooling of plastic part after being ejected from mold using the heat transfer theory and Boundary Element Method (BEM) to predict the temperature distribution in both mold and plastic part,and presents the experiments carried out with plates of ABS (Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene) to verify the validity of the cooling analysis software used to simulate the temperature distribution in ABS plate parts, and concludes that the analysis software agree qualitatively well with actual experimental findings.

  14. Evaluation of stability for monolayer injection molding tools coating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cech, Jiri; Taboryski, Rafael J.


    We tested and characterized molecular coating of Aluminium and Nickel prototype molds and mold inserts for polymer replication via injection molding (IM). X-Ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) data, sessile drop contact angles with multiple fluids, surface energy and roughness data have been...... and especially suitable for rapid prototyping and mold geometry testing....

  15. Mechanical Properties of Injection Molded and Compression Molded Samples from Nature-Butadiene Rubber


    Skrobak Adam; Janoštík Václav; Stanek Michal; Manas David; Ovsik Martin; Senkerik Vojtech; Reznicek Martin


    The aim of this paper is to show what extent there is an impact on the mechanical properties (tensile strength and tear strength) of a standardized testing sample made of rubber compound based on nature rubber and butadiene rubber produced by injection molding in comparison with a sample produced by classic preparation (cutting out a compression molded plate) according to the standard ISO 23529. For realization of this study it was necessary to design and produce an injection mold for all typ...

  16. Solving depressions formed during production of plastic molding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Dobránsky


    Full Text Available This article deals with improvement of design properties of molded plastic parts. It can be achieved by modifying construction of metal injection mold and optimization of parameters in injection process. The subject of our examination was depressions formed on molded plastic parts which are inacceptable in the process of approval. The problem which has arisen was solved in two phases. The first phase consisted in alteration of injection mold design – enlargement of injection molding gate. In the second phase, we have changed the location of injection molding gate. After performing constructional modifications, new molded plastic parts were manufactured and assessed.

  17. Assessment of mold concentrations in Singapore shopping centers using mold-specific quantitative PCR (MSQPCR) analysis. (United States)

    Yap, Jennifer; Toh, Zhen Ann; Goh, Vivien; Ng, Lee Chen; Vesper, Stephen


    Molds can pose a human health threat and may amplify in buildings in humid climates. The objective of this study was to evaluate the mold growth in Singapore shopping centers based on the collection of 40 dust samples from 15 shopping centers, including one with a history of water damage. The dust was analyzed by a DNA-based technology called mold-specific quantitative PCR (MSQPCR). In a water-damaged shopping center, most of the 26 water-damage indicator species were detected at some concentration and many were much more abundant than the average in the shopping centers. MSQPCR is a useful method for quantifying indoor molds in tropical climates.

  18. A new insight into foaming mechanisms in injection molding via a novel visualization mold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Shaayegan


    Full Text Available The complex mechanisms of bubble nucleation and dynamics in foam injection molding have not been uncovered despite many previous efforts due to the non-steady stop-and-flow nature of injection molding and the non-uniform temperature and pressure distributions in the mold. To this end, a new visualization mold was designed and manufactured for the direct observation of bubble nucleation and growth/collapse in foam injection molding. A reflective prism was incorporated into the stationary part of the injection mold with which the nucleation and growth behaviors of bubbles were successfully observed. The mechanisms of bubble nucleation in low- and high-pressure foam injection molding, with and without the application of gas-counter pressure, was investigated. We identified how the inherently non-uniform cell structure is developed in low-pressure foam injection molding with gate-nucleated bubbles, and when and how cell nucleation occurs in high-pressure foam injection molding with a more uniform pressure drop.

  19. The effect of mold surface topography on plastic parat in-process shrinkage in injection molding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arlø, Uffe Rolf; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Kjær, Erik Michael


    An experimental study of the effect of mold surface roughness on in-process in-flow linear part shrinkage in injection molding has been carried out. The investigation is based on an experimental two-cavity tool, where the cavities have different surface topographies, but are otherwise identical....... The study has been carried out for typical commercial polystyrene and polypropylene grades. The relationship between mold surface topography and linear shrinkage has been investigated with an experimental two-cavity mold producing simple rectangular parts with the nominal dimensions 1 x 25 x 50 mm (see...

  20. Molds on Food: Are They Dangerous? (United States)

    ... food was stored. Check nearby items the moldy food might have touched. Mold spreads quickly in fruits and vegetables. See the attached chart "Moldy Food: When to Use, When to Discard." FOOD HANDLING ...

  1. Injection molded optical backplane for broadcast architecture (United States)

    Rosenberg, Paul; Mathai, Sagi; Sorin, Wayne V.; McLaren, Moray; Straznicky, Joseph; Panotopoulos, Georgios; Warren, David; Morris, Terry; Tan, Michael R. T.


    A low cost, blind mate, injection molded optical backplane is presented. The optical backplane is comprised of 12 channel optical broadcast buses, operating at 10Gbps/channel with six blindmate optical output ports spaced 1U apart.

  2. Three-Dimensional Pneumatic Molding of Veneers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Gaff


    Full Text Available The goal of this paper is to introduce a new testing method suitable for the evaluation of the three-dimensional (3-D moldability of veneers and to use this method to test the impact of specific factors on the 3-D pneumatic molding process. The tested factors included veneer moisture content, wood species, shape of test piece, and fixing method on the maximum wood deflection. Veneers were molded using compressed air on equipment designed by our group for the sole purpose of this experiment. The results indicated that the monitored factors had an effect on deflection during the 3-D molding process. The results of this investigation extend the state-of-the-art knowledge regarding this technology and indicate the possibility of utilizing this innovative testing method for 3-D molded veneers.

  3. Rozen : steeds meer bekend over Black Mold

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, A.P.; Kohrman, E.


    Onderzoek naar Black Mold heeft al veel informatie opgeleverd over de verspreiding, bestrijding en ontwikkeling van de oculatieschimmel. In dit artikel de nieuwste resultaten van PPO en Cultus Agro Advies

  4. Facts about Stachybotrys chartarum and Other Molds (United States)

    ... Organization issued additional guidance, the WHO Guidelines for Indoor Air Quality: Dampness and Mould [PDF - 2.52 MB] . Other ... reliable sampling for mold can be expensive, and standards for judging what is and what is not ...

  5. Custom molded thermal MRg-FUS phantom (United States)

    Eames, Matthew D. C.; Snell, John W.; Hananel, Arik; Kassell, Neal F.


    This article describes a method for creating custom-molded thermal phantoms for use with MR-guided focused ultrasound systems. The method is defined here for intracranial applications, though it may be modified for other anatomical targets.

  6. Additive Manufacturing of Wind Turbine Molds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Post, Brian [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Richardson, Bradley [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Lloyd, Peter [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Love, Lonnie [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Nolet, Stephen [TPI Composites, Scottsdale, AZ (United States); Hannan, James [TPI Composites, Scottsdale, AZ (United States)


    The objective of this project was to explore the utility of Big Area Additive Manufacturing (BAAM) for low cost manufacturing of wind turbine molds. Engineers at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and TPI Composites (TPI) collaborated to design and manufacture a printed mold that can be used for resin infusion of wind turbine components. Specific focus was on required material properties (operating temperatures and pressures, coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE), thermal conductivity), surface finish (accuracy and coatings) and system integration (integrated vacuum ports, and heating element). The project began with a simple proof of principle components, targeting surface coatings and material properties for printing a small section (approximately 4’ x 4’ x 2’) of a mold. Next, the second phase scaled up and integrated with the objective of capturing all of the necessary components (integrated heating to accelerate cure time, and vacuum, sealing) for resin infusion on a mold of significant size (8’ x 20’ x 6’).

  7. National Allergy Bureau Pollen and Mold Report (United States)

    ... the Expert Search Search AAAAI National Allergy Bureau Pollen and Mold Report Date: April 11, 2017 Location: ... 11, 2017 Click Here to View Most Recent Pollen and Spore Levels (04/10/2017) If you ...

  8. 21 CFR 133.184 - Roquefort cheese, sheep's milk blue-mold, and blue-mold cheese from sheep's milk. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Roquefort cheese, sheep's milk blue-mold, and blue-mold cheese from sheep's milk. 133.184 Section 133.184 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION..., sheep's milk blue-mold, and blue-mold cheese from sheep's milk. (a) Description. (1) Roquefort...

  9. Die Casting Mold Design for Aluminum Alloy Shell of Instrument

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Yuanyuan


    Full Text Available This paper is about die casting mold design for aluminum alloy shell of instrument. Three-dimensional model of the casting and mold are designed by using Pro/Engineer and AutoCad which can analyze forming quality. Digital design and theoretical calculation can greatly shorten product development cycle and mold design cycle, improve the accuracy of product design and mold design, and reduce the cost of mold design.

  10. Integrated mold/surface-micromachining process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barron, C.C.; Fleming, J.G.; Montague, S.; Sniegowski, J.J.; Hetherington, D.L.


    We detail a new monolithically integrated silicon mold/surface-micromachining process which makes possible the fabrication of stiff, high-aspect-ratio micromachined structures integrated with finely detailed, compliant structures. An important example, which we use here as our process demonstration vehicle, is that of an accelerometer with a large proof mass and compliant suspension. The proof mass is formed by etching a mold into the silicon substrate, lining the mold with oxide, filling it with mechanical polysilicon, and then planarizing back to the level of the substrate. The resulting molded structure is recessed into the substrate, forming a planar surface ideal for subsequent processing. We then add surface-micromachined springs and sense contacts. The principal advantage of this new monolithically integrated mold/surface-micromachining process is that it decouples the design of the different sections of the device: In the case of a sensitive accelerometer, it allows us to optimize independently the proof mass, which needs to be as large, stiff, and heavy as possible, and the suspension, which needs to be as delicate and compliant as possible. The fact that the high-aspect-ratio section of the device is embedded in the substrate enables the monolithic integration of high-aspect-ratio parts with surface-micromachined mechanical parts, and, in the future, also electronics. We anticipate that such an integrated mold/surface micromachining/electronics process will offer versatile high-aspect-ratio micromachined structures that can be batch-fabricated and monolithically integrated into complex microelectromechanical systems.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Garbacz


    Full Text Available In a study of cellular injection, molding process uses polyvinylchloride PVC. Polymers modified with introducing blowing agents into them in the Laboratory of the Department of Technologies and Materiase of Technical University of Kosice. For technological reasons, blowing agents have a form of granules. In the experiment, the content of the blowing agent (0–2,0 % by mass fed into the processed polymer was adopted as a variable factor. In the studies presented in the article, the chemical blowing agents occurring in the granulated form with a diameter of 1.2 to 1.4 mm were used. The view of the technological line for cellular injection molding and injection mold cavity with injection moldings are shown in Figure 1. The results of the determination of selected properties of injection molded parts for various polymeric materials, obtained with different content of blowing agents, are shown in Figures 4-7. Microscopic examination of cross-sectional structure of the moldings were obtained using the author's position image analysis of porous structure. Based on analysis of photographs taken (Figures 7, 8, 9 it was found that the coating containing 1.0% of blowing agents is a clearly visible solid outer layer and uniform distribution of pores and their sizes are similar.

  12. Microbial Variants from Iron Ore Slimes: Mineral Specificity and pH Tolerance. (United States)

    Abhilash; Ghosh, A; Pandey, B D; Sarkar, S


    This paper describes the isolation of the native bacterial strains from the iron ore mines slime pond and its extremophilic characteristics. The two microbial isolates designated as CNIOS-1 and CNIOS-2 were grown in selective silicate broth at pH 7.0 and the organisms were tested for their selective adhesion on silicate and alumina minerals. The silicate bacteria with their exopolymers are very potent to grow over aluminosilicates. It was established that CNIOS-1 grew preferentially in the presence of silicate mineral compared to CNIOS-2 which grew in the presence of alumina. The organisms were tested for growth at various pH and trials were carried to define their efficacy for eventual applications to remove gangue minerals of silica and alumina from the raw material.

  13. In vitro anti-plasmodial activity of Dicoma anomala subsp. gerrardii (Asteraceae: identification of its main active constituent, structure-activity relationship studies and gene expression profiling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Heerden Fanie R


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anti-malarial drug resistance threatens to undermine efforts to eliminate this deadly disease. The resulting omnipresent requirement for drugs with novel modes of action prompted a national consortium initiative to discover new anti-plasmodial agents from South African medicinal plants. One of the plants selected for investigation was Dicoma anomala subsp. gerrardii, based on its ethnomedicinal profile. Methods Standard phytochemical analysis techniques, including solvent-solvent extraction, thin-layer- and column chromatography, were used to isolate the main active constituent of Dicoma anomala subsp. gerrardii. The crystallized pure compound was identified using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, mass spectrometry and X-ray crystallography. The compound was tested in vitro on Plasmodium falciparum cultures using the parasite lactate dehydrogenase (pLDH assay and was found to have anti-malarial activity. To determine the functional groups responsible for the activity, a small collection of synthetic analogues was generated - the aim being to vary features proposed as likely to be related to the anti-malarial activity and to quantify the effect of the modifications in vitro using the pLDH assay. The effects of the pure compound on the P. falciparum transcriptome were subsequently investigated by treating ring-stage parasites (alongside untreated controls, followed by oligonucleotide microarray- and data analysis. Results The main active constituent was identified as dehydrobrachylaenolide, a eudesmanolide-type sesquiterpene lactone. The compound demonstrated an in vitro IC50 of 1.865 μM against a chloroquine-sensitive strain (D10 of P. falciparum. Synthetic analogues of the compound confirmed an absolute requirement that the α-methylene lactone be present in the eudesmanolide before significant anti-malarial activity was observed. This feature is absent in the artemisinins and suggests a different mode of action

  14. A Comparative Study of Electrolyte Flow and Slime Particle Transport in a Newly Designed Copper Electrolytic Cell and a Laboratory-Scale Conventional Electrolytic Cell (United States)

    Zeng, Weizhi; Wang, Shijie; Free, Michael L.


    An innovative copper electrolytic cell was designed with its inlet at the cell top and its outlet near the cell bottom, in opposite to conventional electrolytic cells. It was modeled in COMSOL Multiphysics to simulate copper electrorefining process. Unlike conventional electrorefining cells, downward electrolyte flows are more dominant in the fluid flow field in this cell, which leads to faster settlement of slime particles and less contamination to the cathode. Copper concentration profiles, electrolyte flow velocity field, slime particle movements, and slime particle distributions were obtained as simulation results, which were compared with those in a laboratory-scale conventional electrolytic cell. Advantages of the newly designed electrolytic cell were found: copper ions are distributed more uniformly in the cell with a thinner diffusion layer near the cathode; stronger convection exists in the inter-electrode domain with dominant downward flows; and slime particles have larger possibilities to settle down and are less likely to reach the cathode.

  15. Fast Mold Temperature Evolution on Micro Features Replication Quality during Injection Molding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liparoti, S.; Calaon, Matteo; Speranza, V.;


    lithography and subsequent nickel electroplating. The mold temperature was controlled by a thin heating device (composed by polyimide as insulating layer and polyimide carbon black loaded aselectrical conductive layer) able to increase the temperature on mold surface in a few seconds (40°C/s) by Joule effect...

  16. Development of sheet molding compound solar collectors with molded-in silvered glass reflective surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Champion, R. L.; Allred, R. E.


    The reflecting concentrator of a parabolic trough solar collector system comprises approximately 40% of initial system cost. The parabolic concentrator structure is also the most influential component in determining overall system efficiency. Parabolic test moldings have been fabricated from a general purpose sheet molding compound with flat chemically strengthened glass, flat annealed glass, and thermally formed glass. The test panel configuration was a 1.22 m x 0.61 m, 45/sup 0/ rim angle (0.762 m focal length) parabola. Attempts to mold with annealed sheet glass (1 mm thick) and thermally formed glass (1.25 mm thick) were unsuccessful; only the chemically strengthened glass (1.25 mm thick) was strong enough to survive molding pressures. Because of the mismatch in thermal expansion between glass and sheet molding compound, the as-molded panels contained a sizeable residual stress. The results are given of dimensional changes taking place in the panels under accelerated thermal cycling and outdoor aging conditions; these results are compared to an analytical model of the laminate. In addition, the sheet molding compound has been examined for thermomechanical properties and flow behavior in the rib sections. Results indicated that lowering the thermal expansion coefficient of the sheet molding compound through material modifications would produce a more stable structure.

  17. The P1 and P1' residue specificities of physarolisin I, a serine-carboxyl peptidase from the true slime mold Physarum polycephalum. (United States)

    Nishii, Wataru; Kubota, Keiko; Takahashi, Kenji


    The P1 and P1' residue specificities of physarolisin I were investigated using combinatorial peptide substrates. The results indicated that certain hydrophobic residues and acidic residues are preferred at the P1 position and some hydrophobic residues at the P1' position. This P1 specificity, different from other serine-carboxyl peptidases, appears to be explained partially by the nature of the S1 subsite residues.

  18. Study On The External Gas-Assisted Mold Temperature Control For Thin Wall Injection Molding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ThanhTrung Do


    Full Text Available Dynamic mold surface temperature control (DMTC has many advantages in micro-injection molding as well as thin-wall molding product. In this paper, DMTC will be applied for the thin-wall molding part with the observation of the weldline appearance and the weldline strength. The heating step of DMTC will be achieved by the hot air flow directly to the weldline area. The results show that the heating rate could be reached to 4.5C/s, which could raising the mold surface from 30C to over 120C within 15 s. The melt filling was operated with high temperature at the weldline area; therefore, the weldline appearance was eliminated. In addition, the weldline strength was also improved. The results show that the thinner part had the higher strength of the weldline

  19. Effects of mold geometry on fiber orientation of powder injection molded metal matrix composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmad, Faiz, E-mail:; Aslam, Muhammad, E-mail:; Altaf, Khurram, E-mail:; Shirazi, Irfan, E-mail: [Mechanical Engineering Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS Malaysia (Malaysia)


    Fiber orientations in metal matrix composites have significant effect on improving tensile properties. Control of fiber orientations in metal injection molded metal composites is a difficult task. In this study, two mold cavities of dimensions 6x6x90 mm and 10x20x180 mm were used for comparison of fiber orientation in injection molded metal composites test parts. In both mold cavities, convergent and divergent flows were developed by modifying the sprue dimensions. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) was used to examine the fiber orientations within the test samples. The results showed highly aligned fiber in injection molded test bars developed from the convergent melt flow. Random orientation of fibers was noted in the composites test bars produced from divergent melt flow.

  20. Injection molding simulation with variothermal mold temperature control of highly filled polyphenylene sulfide (United States)

    Birkholz, A.; Tschiersky, M.; Wortberg, J.


    For the installation of a fuel cell stack to convert chemical energy into electricity it is common to apply bipolar plates to separate and distribute reaction gases and cooling agents. For reducing manufacturing costs of bipolar plates a fully automated injection molding process is examined. The high performance thermoplastic matrix material, polyphenylene sulfide (PPS), defies against the chemical setting and the operation temperature up to 200 °C. To adjust also high electrical and thermal conductivity, PPS is highly filled with various carbon fillers up to an amount of 65 percentage by volume. In the first step two different structural plates (one-sided) with three different gate heights and molds are designed according to the characteristics of a bipolar plate. To cope with the approach that this plate should be producible on standard injection molding machines with variothermal mold temperature control, injection molding simulation is used. Additionally, the simulation should allow to formulate a quality prediction model, which is transferrable to bipolar plates. Obviously, the basis for a precise simulation output is an accurate description of the material properties and behavior of the highly filled compound. This, the design of the structural plate and mold and the optimization via simulation is presented, as well. The influence of the injection molding process parameters, e.g. injection time, cycle times, packing pressure, mold temperature, and melt temperature on the form filling have been simulated to determine optimal process conditions. With the aid of the simulation and the variothermal mold temperature control it was possible to reduce the required melt temperature below the decomposition temperature of PPS. Thereby, hazardous decomposition products as hydrogen sulfide are obviated. Thus, the health of the processor, the longevity of the injection molding machine as well as the material and product properties can be protected.

  1. Use of a selective inhibitor to define the chemotherapeutic potential of the plasmodial hexose transporter in different stages of the parasite's life cycle. (United States)

    Slavic, Ksenija; Delves, Michael J; Prudêncio, Miguel; Talman, Arthur M; Straschil, Ursula; Derbyshire, Elvira T; Xu, Zhengyao; Sinden, Robert E; Mota, Maria M; Morin, Christophe; Tewari, Rita; Krishna, Sanjeev; Staines, Henry M


    During blood infection, malarial parasites use D-glucose as their main energy source. The Plasmodium falciparum hexose transporter (PfHT), which mediates the uptake of D-glucose into parasites, is essential for survival of asexual blood-stage parasites. Recently, genetic studies in the rodent malaria model, Plasmodium berghei, found that the orthologous hexose transporter (PbHT) is expressed throughout the parasite's development within the mosquito vector, in addition to being essential during intraerythrocytic development. Here, using a D-glucose-derived specific inhibitor of plasmodial hexose transporters, compound 3361, we have investigated the importance of D-glucose uptake during liver and transmission stages of P. berghei. Initially, we confirmed the expression of PbHT during liver stage development, using a green fluorescent protein (GFP) tagging strategy. Compound 3361 inhibited liver-stage parasite development, with a 50% inhibitory concentration (IC₅₀) of 11 μM. This process was insensitive to the external D-glucose concentration. In addition, compound 3361 inhibited ookinete development and microgametogenesis, with IC₅₀s in the region of 250 μM (the latter in a D-glucose-sensitive manner). Consistent with our findings for the effect of compound 3361 on vector parasite stages, 1 mM compound 3361 demonstrated transmission blocking activity. These data indicate that novel chemotherapeutic interventions that target PfHT may be active against liver and, to a lesser extent, transmission stages, in addition to blood stages.

  2. Environmental impact estimation of mold making process (United States)

    Kong, Daeyoung

    Increasing concern of environmental sustainability regarding depletion of natural resources and resulting negative environmental impact has triggered various movements to address these issues. Various regulations about product life cycle have been made and applied to industries. As a result, how to evaluate the environmental impact and how to improve current technologies has become an important issue to product developers. Molds and dies are very generally used manufacturing tools and indispensible parts to the production of many products. However, evaluating environmental impact in mold and die manufacturing is not well understood and not much accepted yet. The objective of this thesis is to provide an effective and straightforward way of environmental analysis for mold and die manufacturing practice. For this, current limitations of existing tools were identified. While conventional life cycle assessment tools provide a lot of life cycle inventories, reliable data is not sufficient for the mold and die manufacturer. Even with comprehensive data input, current LCA tools only provide another comprehensive result which is not directly applicable to problem solving. These issues are critical especially to the mold and die manufacturer with limited resource and time. This thesis addresses the issues based on understanding the needs of mold and die manufacturers. Computer aided manufacturing (CAM) is the most frequently used software tool and includes most manufacturing information including the process definition and sometimes geometric modeling. Another important usage of CAM software tools is problem identification by process simulation. Under the virtual environment, possible problems are detected and solved. Environmental impact can be handled in the same manner. To manufacture molds and dies with minimizing the associated environmental impact, possible environmental impact sources must be minimized before the execution in the virtual environment. Molds and dies

  3. Injection molding of high aspect ratio sub-100 nm nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matschuk, Maria; Larsen, Niels B


    with FDTS. Reduced adhesion forces are consistent with lowered friction that reduces the risk of fracturing the nanoscopic pillars during demolding. Optimized mold surface chemistry and associated injection molding conditions permitted the fabrication of square arrays of 40 nm wide and 107 nm high (aspect......We have explored the use of mold coatings and optimized processing conditions to injection mold high aspect ratio nanostructures (height-to-width >1) in cyclic olefin copolymer (COC). Optimizing the molding parameters on uncoated nickel molds resulted in slight improvements in replication quality...

  4. Gating of Permanent Molds for Aluminum Casting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Schwam; John F. Wallace; Tom Engle; Qingming Chang


    This report summarizes a two-year project, DE-FC07-011D13983 that concerns the gating of aluminum castings in permanent molds. The main goal of the project is to improve the quality of aluminum castings produced in permanent molds. The approach taken was to determine how the vertical type gating systems used for permanent mold castings can be designed to fill the mold cavity with a minimum of damage to the quality of the resulting casting. It is evident that somewhat different systems are preferred for different shapes and sizes of aluminum castings. The main problems caused by improper gating are entrained aluminum oxide films and entrapped gas. The project highlights the characteristic features of gating systems used in permanent mold aluminum foundries and recommends gating procedures designed to avoid common defects. The study also provides direct evidence on the filling pattern and heat flow behavior in permanent mold castings. Equipment and procedure for real time X-Ray radiography of molten aluminum flow into permanent molds have been developed. Other studies have been conducted using water flow and behavior of liquid aluminum in sand mold using real time photography. This investigation utilizes graphite molds transparent to X-Rays making it possible to observe the flow pattern through a number of vertically oriented grating systems. These have included systems that are choked at the base of a rounded vertical sprue and vertical gating systems with a variety of different ingates into the bottom of a mold cavity. These systems have also been changed to include gating systems with vertical and horizontal gate configurations. Several conclusions can be derived from this study. A sprue-well, as designed in these experiments, does not eliminate the vena contracta. Because of the swirling at the sprue-base, the circulating metal begins to push the entering metal stream toward the open runner mitigating the intended effect of the sprue-well. Improved designs of

  5. Future Specialist’s Professional Position Molding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina A. Levitskaya


    Full Text Available The search of conditions for future specialist’s professional position molding is crucial nowadays. This article discloses the features of “position” notion essence in the context of professional self-determination, analyses the problems of future specialist’s professional development in terms of topical social and professional objectives solution, considers debatable issues of professional development as an integral continuous process of future specialist’s personality formation. The stages of personality professional molding are elaborated. The author determines the relation of professional position with different types of positions (social, personal, role-based. It is mentioned that professional position is determined by professional attitudes and characterizes person’s system of stable value relations towards future professional activities. The relation between the professional position molding and the professional orientation, determining person’s peculiarly experienced selective attitude towards reality, influencing his/her activity is emphasized

  6. Modelling and monitoring in injection molding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyregod, Peter


    -conforning unit is only expected very rarely during sampling, a moving sum chart and a CUSUM chart are equivalent. Finally, the correlation structure of 21 process variables has been studied prior to monitoring the process. Is is illustrated how the process can be analysed with multivariate techniques......This thesis is concerned with the application of statistical methods in quality improvement of injection molded parts. The methods described are illustrated with data from the manufacturing of parts for a medical device. The emphasis has been on the variation between cavities in multi-cavity molds...... taken within the same machine set-point did not cause great variation compared to the two preceding sources of variation. A simple graphical approach is suggested for finding patterns in the cavity differences. Applying this method to data from a 16 cavity mold, a clear connection was found between...

  7. High rate fabrication of compression molded components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsen, Marc R.; Negley, Mark A.; Dykstra, William C.; Smith, Glen L.; Miller, Robert J.


    A method for fabricating a thermoplastic composite component comprises inductively heating a thermoplastic pre-form with a first induction coil by inducing current to flow in susceptor wires disposed throughout the pre-form, inductively heating smart susceptors in a molding tool to a leveling temperature with a second induction coil by applying a high-strength magnetic field having a magnetic flux that passes through surfaces of the smart susceptors, shaping the magnetic flux that passes through surfaces of the smart susceptors to flow substantially parallel to a molding surface of the smart susceptors, placing the heated pre-form between the heated smart susceptors; and applying molding pressure to the pre-form to form the composite component.

  8. Injection molded self-cleaning surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, Emil

    This PhD thesis concerns the development of superhydrophobic surfaces fabricated by injection molding. Today, injection molding is the prevalent production method for consumer plastic products. However, concerns regarding the environmental impact of a plastic production are increasing, especially...... that are superhydrophobic based on topography rather than chemical compounds. Therefore, a novel method for fabricating superhydrophobic polymer surfaces with excellent water-repellant properties is developed. The method is based on microstructure fabrication and superposed nanostructures on silicon wafers. The nano......° for structured surfaces with a drop roll-off angle of less than 2°. Thereby, it is shown that an extremely water repellant surface can be injection molded directly with clear perspectives for more environmental and healthier plastic consumer products....

  9. Single gate optimization for plastic injection mold

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Ji-quan; LI De-qun; GUO Zhi-ying; LV Hai-yuan


    This paper deals with a methodology for single gate location optimization for plastic injection mold. The objective of the gate optimization is to minimize the warpage of injection molded parts, because warpage is a crucial quality issue for most injection molded parts while it is influenced greatly by the gate location. Feature warpage is defined as the ratio of maximum displacement on the feature surface to the projected length of the feature surface to describe part warpage. The optimization is combined with the numerical simulation technology to find the optimal gate location, in which the simulated annealing algorithm is used to search for the optimum. Finally, an example is discussed in the paper and it can be concluded that the proposed method is effective.

  10. Neonatal Ear Molding: Timing and Technique. (United States)

    Anstadt, Erin Elizabeth; Johns, Dana Nicole; Kwok, Alvin Chi-Ming; Siddiqi, Faizi; Gociman, Barbu


    The incidence of auricular deformities is believed to be ∼11.5 per 10,000 births, excluding children with microtia. Although not life-threatening, auricular deformities can cause undue distress for patients and their families. Although surgical procedures have traditionally been used to reconstruct congenital auricular deformities, ear molding has been gaining acceptance as an efficacious, noninvasive alternative for the treatment of newborns with ear deformations. We present the successful correction of bilateral Stahl's ear deformity in a newborn through a straightforward, nonsurgical method implemented on the first day of life. The aim of this report is to make pediatric practitioners aware of an effective and simple molding technique appropriate for correction of congenital auricular anomalies. In addition, it stresses the importance of very early initiation of ear cartilage molding for achieving the desired outcome.

  11. Ultrasonically-assisted Polymer Molding: An Evaluation (United States)

    Moles, Matthew; Roy, Anish; Silberschmidt, Vadim

    Energy reduction in extrusion and injection molding processes can be achieved by the introduction of ultrasonic energy. Polymer flow can be enhanced on application of ultrasonic vibration, which can reduce the thermal and pressure input requirements to produce the same molding; higher productivity may also be achieved. In this paper, a design of an ultrasound-assisted injection mold machine is explored. An extrusion-die design was augmented with a commercial 1.5 kW ultrasonic transducer and sonotrode designed to resonate close to 20 kHz with up to 100 μm vibration amplitude. The design was evaluated with modal and thermal analysis using finite-element analysis software. The use of numerical techniques, including computational fluid dynamics, fluid-structure interaction and coupled Lagrangian-Eulerian method, to predict the effect of ultrasound on polymer flow was considered. A sonotrode design utilizing ceramic to enhance thermal isolation was also explored.

  12. The Elastic Mold Deformation During the Filling and Packing Stage of the Injection Molding Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Kleindel


    Full Text Available The accurate numerical prediction of the mold filling process of long and thin walled parts is dependent on numerous factors. This paper investigates the effect of various influencing variables on the filling pattern by means of simulation and experimental validation. It was found that mold temperature, process settings and venting conditions have little effect on the predicted filling pattern. However, in the actual case study, the filling behavior observed during the experiments was significantly different compared to the numerical prediction. A structural finite element analysis of the moving mold half showed an unacceptable large deformation of the mold plates under injection pressure. A very good correlation between simulation and experiment was attained after improving the stiffness of the mold. Therefore it can be concluded, that the elasticity of the mold may have a significant influence on the filling pattern when long and thin walled products are considered. Furthermore, it was shown, that even an apparently stiff mold can exhibit a distinct deformation during filling and packing stage.

  13. Numerical recipes for mold filling simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kothe, D.; Juric, D.; Lam, K.; Lally, B.


    Has the ability to simulate the filling of a mold progressed to a point where an appropriate numerical recipe achieves the desired results? If results are defined to be topological robustness, computational efficiency, quantitative accuracy, and predictability, all within a computational domain that faithfully represents complex three-dimensional foundry molds, then the answer unfortunately remains no. Significant interfacial flow algorithm developments have occurred over the last decade, however, that could bring this answer closer to maybe. These developments have been both evolutionary and revolutionary, will continue to transpire for the near future. Might they become useful numerical recipes for mold filling simulations? Quite possibly. Recent progress in algorithms for interface kinematics and dynamics, linear solution methods, computer science issues such as parallelization and object-oriented programming, high resolution Navier-Stokes (NS) solution methods, and unstructured mesh techniques, must all be pursued as possible paths toward higher fidelity mold filling simulations. A detailed exposition of these algorithmic developments is beyond the scope of this paper, hence the authors choose to focus here exclusively on algorithms for interface kinematics. These interface tracking algorithms are designed to model the movement of interfaces relative to a reference frame such as a fixed mesh. Current interface tracking algorithm choices are numerous, so is any one best suited for mold filling simulation? Although a clear winner is not (yet) apparent, pros and cons are given in the following brief, critical review. Highlighted are those outstanding interface tracking algorithm issues the authors feel can hamper the reliable modeling of today`s foundry mold filling processes.

  14. Mold Simulator Study of Heat Transfer Phenomenon During the Initial Solidification in Continuous Casting Mold (United States)

    Zhang, Haihui; Wang, Wanlin


    In this paper, mold simulator trials were firstly carried out to study the phenomena of the initial shell solidification of molten steel and the heat transfer across the initial shell to the infiltrated mold/shell slag film and mold. Second, a one-dimensional inverse heat transfer problem for solidification (1DITPS) was built to determine the temperature distribution and the heat transfer behavior through the solidifying shell from the measured shell thickness. Third, the mold wall temperature field was recovered by a 2DIHCP mathematical model from the measured in-mold wall temperatures. Finally, coupled with the measured slag film thickness and the calculations of 1DITPS and 2DIHCP, the thermal resistance and the thickness of liquid slag film in the vicinity of the meniscus were evaluated. The experiment results show that: the total mold/shell thermal resistance, the mold/slag interfacial thermal resistance, the liquid film thermal resistance, and the solid film thermal resistance is 8.0 to 14.9 × 10-4, 2.7 to 4.8 × 10-4, 1.5 to 4.6 × 10-4, and 3.9 to 6.8 × 10-4 m2 K/W, respectively. The percentage of mold/slag interfacial thermal resistance, liquid film thermal resistance, and solid film thermal resistance over the total mold/shell thermal resistance is 27.5 to 34.4, 17.2 to 34.0, and 38.5 to 48.8 pct, respectively. The ratio of radiation heat flux is around 14.1 to 51.9 pct in the liquid slag film.

  15. Powder injection molding of pure titanium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Shibo; DUAN Bohua; HE Xinbo; QU Xuanhui


    An improved wax-based binder was developed for powder injection molding of pure titanium. A critical powder loading of 69 vol.% and a pseudo-plastic flow behavior were obtained by the feedstock based on the binder. The injection molding, debinding, and sintering process were studied. An ideal control of carbon and oxygen contents was achieved by thermal debinding in vacuum atmosphere (10-3 Pa). The mechanical properties of as-sintered specimens were less than those of titanium made by the conventional press-sintering process. Good shape retention and ±0.04 mm dimension deviation were achieved.

  16. Natural latex (Hevea brasiliensis) mold for neovaginoplasty



    OBJETIVO: avaliar a utilização do molde de látex natural (Hevea brasiliensis) como modificação à neovaginoplastia de McIndoe e Bannister em pacientes portadoras da síndrome de Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser (MRKH). MÉTODOS: análise retrospectiva de nove pacientes com o diagnóstico de síndrome de MRKH, submetidas à neovaginoplastia pela técnica de McIndoe e Bannister com molde de látex natural. Foram avaliadas epitelização, amplitude e profundidade das neovaginas, ocorrência de coitos bem como...

  17. Reduction of Injection Pressure for Thin Walled Molding using the Laser Metal Sintered Mold


    米山, 猛; 内藤, 圭亮; 阿部, 諭; 宮丸, 充


    Using milling combined laser metal sintering, porous surface has been fabricated on the thin walled cavity closed by the surrounded thick cavity in the injection mold. Resin flows into the cavity of 2mm thick at first around the thin part and then flows into the thin cavity of 0.2mm thick with 11mm square by packing pressure. The packing pressure for filling the thin part was compared among laser metal sintered mold with or without porous surface, steel mold with or without porous block. The ...

  18. Relationship Between Casting Distortion, Mold Filling, and Interfacial Heat Transfer in Sand Molds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. K. Parker; K. A. Woodbury; T. S. Piwonka; Y. Owusu


    This project sought to determine the relationship between casting dimensions and interfacial heat transfer in aluminum alloy sand castings. The program had four parts; measurement of interfacial heat transfer coefficients in resin bonded and green sand molds, the measurement of gap formation in these molds, the analysis of castings made in varying gatings, orientations and thicknesses, and the measurement of residual stresses in castings in the as-cast and gate removed condition. New values for interfacial heat transfer coefficients were measured, a novel method for gap formation was developed, and the variation of casting dimensions with casting method, gating, and casting orientation in the mold was documented.

  19. EPA Scientists Develop Research Methods for Studying Mold Fact Sheet (United States)

    In 2002, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency researchers developed a DNA-based Mold Specific Quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction method (MSQPCR) for identifying and quantifying over 100 common molds and fungi.

  20. Brief Guide to Mold, Moisture, and Your Home (United States)

    ... plastic or rubber and have removable cartridges that trap most of the mold spores from entering. In ... thank Paul Ellringer, PE, CIH, for providing the photo of Mold growing on the back side of ...

  1. Affordable, Precision Reflector Mold Technology (PDRT08-029) Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Advances in replication mold technology that reduce material costs, grinding time, and polishing time would enable fabrication of large, precision molds and possibly...

  2. Tool steel quality and surface finishing of plastic molds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Agnelli Mesquita


    Full Text Available Plastic industry is today in a constant growth, demanding several products from other segments, which includes the plastic molds, mainly used in the injection molding process. Considering all the requirements of plastic molds, the surface finishing is of special interest, as the injected plastic part is able to reproduce any details (and also defects from the mold surface. Therefore, several aspects on mold finishing are important, mainly related to manufacturing conditions - machining, grinding, polishing and texturing, and also related to the tool steel quality, in relation to microstructure homogeneity and non-metallic inclusions (cleanliness. The present paper is then focused on this interrelationship between steel quality and manufacturing process, which are both related to the final quality of plastic mold surfaces. Examples are discussed in terms of surface finishing of plastic molds and the properties or the microstructure of mold steels.

  3. Exploring the problem of mold growth and the efficacy of various mold inhibitor methods during moisture sorption isotherm measurements. (United States)

    Yu, X; Martin, S E; Schmidt, S J


    Mold growth is a common problem during the equilibration of food materials at high relative humidity values using the standard saturated salt slurry method. Exposing samples to toluene vapor and mixing samples with mold inhibitor chemicals are suggested methods for preventing mold growth while obtaining isotherms. However, no published research was found that examined the effect of mold growth on isotherm performance or the efficacy of various mold inhibitor methods, including their possible effect on the physicochemical properties of food materials. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to (1) explore the effect of mold growth on isotherm performance in a range of food materials, (2) investigate the effectiveness of 4 mold inhibitor methods, irradiation, 2 chemical inhibitors (potassium sorbate and sodium acetate), and toluene vapor, on mold growth on dent corn starch inoculated with A. niger, and (3) examine the effect of mold inhibitor methods on the physicochemical properties of dent corn starch, including isotherm performance, pasting properties, gelatinization temperature, and enthalpy. Mold growth was found to affect starch isotherm performance by contributing to weight changes during sample equilibration. Among the 4 mold inhibitor methods tested, irradiation and toluene vapor were found to be the most effective for inhibiting growth of A. niger on dent cornstarch. However, both methods exhibited a significant impact on the starches' physiochemical properties, suggesting the need to probe the efficacy of other mold inhibitor methods and explore the use of new rapid isotherm instruments, which hamper mold growth by significantly decreasing measurement time.

  4. 240 Mold Sensitization in Chronic Rhinosinusitis Patients



    Background It is estimated that about 10% of the population have IgE antibodies to common inhalant molds. Exposure to fungal allergens could be linked to the presence and persistence of asthma, rhinitis and atopic dermatitis. Mold sensitization is a risk factor for development and deterioration of upper airway allergy, especially chronic rhinosinusitis. We addressed the incidence of mold allergy measured as specific IgE to molds and skin prick tests in chronic sinusitis patients. We assessed ...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Sheet metal molding design with classical methods is formed in very long times calculates and drafts. At the molding design, selection and drafting of most of the components requires very long time because of similar repetative processes. In this study, a molding design program has been developed by using AutoLISP which has been adapted AutoCAD packet program. With this study, design of sheet metal molding, dimensioning, assemly drafting has been realized.

  6. 21 CFR 874.3430 - Middle ear mold. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Middle ear mold. 874.3430 Section 874.3430 Food... DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 874.3430 Middle ear mold. (a) Identification. A middle ear mold is a preformed device that is intended to be implanted to reconstruct the middle...

  7. Process and part filling control in micro injection molding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tosello, Guido; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Schoth, Andreas


    The influence of process parameters on μ-injection molding (μIM) and on μ-injection molded parts has been investigated using Design of Experiments. A mold with a sensor applied at injection location was used to monitor actual injection pressure and to determine the cavity filling time. Flow markers...

  8. Comparison of two setups for induction heating in injection molding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Menotti, Stefano; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Bissacco, Giuliano


    To eliminate defects and improve the quality of molded parts, increasing the mold temperature is one of the applicable solutions. A high mold temperature can increase the path flow of the polymer inside the cavity allowing reduction of the number of injection points, reduction of part thickness, ...

  9. Fabrication of silicon molds for polymer optics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Daniel; Jensen, Søren; Menon, Aric Kumaran


    A silicon mold used for structuring polymer microcavities for optical applications is fabricated, using a combination of DRIE (deep reactive ion etching) and anisotropic chemical wet etching with KOH + IPA. For polymer optical microcavities, low surface roughness and vertical sidewalls are often...

  10. Onychomycosis by molds. Report of 78 cases. (United States)

    Bonifaz, Alexandro; Cruz-Aguilar, Pamela; Ponce, Rosa María


    A retrospective study of onychomycohosis by molds was carried out during a 14-year period (1992-2005). All cases were clinically and mycologically proven (repetitive KOH and culture) and then each of the molds was identified. A total of 5,221 cases of onychomycosis were evaluated, 78 of which were molds (1.49%). Mean patient age was 44.1 years. 75/78 cases occurred in toenails. Associated factors were detected in 39/78 (50.0%) cases, with the major ones being: peripheral vascular disease, contact with soil, and trauma. The most frequent clinical presentation was distal and lateral subungual onychomycosis (DLSO), in 54/78 cases (69%). The most frequent causative agents were: Scopulariopsis brevicaulis in 34/78 cases and Aspergillus niger in 13/78 cases. Onychomycoses by molds are infrequent; in this study they accounted for 1.49% of cases. The clinical features are virtually similar to those caused by dermatophytes, which makes the clinicomycological tests necessary.

  11. Flexible Interior-Impression-Molding Tray (United States)

    Anders, Jeffrey E.


    Device used inside combustion chamber of complicated shape for nondestructive evaluation of qualities of welds, including such features as offset, warping, misalignment of parts, and dropthrough. Includes flexible polypropylene tray trimmed to fit desired interior surface contour. Two neodymium boron magnets and inflatable bladder attached to tray. Tray and putty inserted in cavity to make mold of interior surface.

  12. Molding cork sheets to complex shapes (United States)

    Sharpe, M. H.; Simpson, W. G.; Walker, H. M.


    Partially cured cork sheet is easily formed to complex shapes and then final-cured. Temperature and pressure levels required for process depend upon resin system used and final density and strength desired. Sheet can be bonded to surface during final cure, or can be first-formed in mold and bonded to surface in separate step.

  13. Epidemics of mold poisoning past and present. (United States)

    Meggs, William J


    Molds are ubiquitous throughout the biosphere of planet earth and cause infectious, allergic, and toxic diseases. Toxic diseases arise from exposure to mycotoxins produced by molds. Throughout history, there have been a number of toxic epidemics associated with exposure to mycotoxins. Acute epidemics of ergotism are caused by consumption of grain infested by fungi of the genus Claviceps, which produce the bioactive amine ergotamine that mimics the neurotransmitters norepinephrine, serotonin, and dopamine. Acute aflatoxin outbreaks have occurred from ingestion of corn stored in damp conditions that potentiate growth of the molds of the species Aspergillus. Contemporary construction methods that use cellulose substrates such as fiber board and indoor moisture have caused an outbreak of contaminated buildings with Stachybotrys chartarum, with the extent of health effects still a subject of debate and ongoing research. This article reviews several of the more prominent epidemics and discusses the nature of the toxins. Two diseases that were leading causes of childhood mortality in England in the 1970s and vanished with changing dietary habits, putrid malignant fever, and slow nervous fever were most likely toxic mold epidemics.

  14. Residual thermal stresses in injection molded products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zoetelief, W.F.; Douven, L.F.A.; Ingen Housz, A.J.


    Nonisothermal flow of a polymer melt in a cold mold cavity introduces stresses that are partly frozen-in during solidification. Flow-induced stresses cause anisotropy of mechanical, thermal, and optical properties, while the residual thermal stresses induce warpage and stress-cracking. In this study

  15. Injection molding of micro patterned PMMA plate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yeong-Eun YOO; Tae-Hoon KIM; Tae-Jin JE; Doo-Sun CHOI; Chang-Wan KIM; Sun-Kyung KIM


    A plastic plate with surface micro features was injection molded to investigate the effect of pressure rise of melt on the replication of the micro structures. Prism pattern, which is used in many optical applications, was selected as a model pattern. The prism pattern is 50 μm in pitch and 108° in the vertical angle. The overall size of the plate was 335 mm×213 mm and the thickness of the plate varied linearly from 2.6 mm to 0.7 mm. The prism pattern was firstly machined on the nickel plated core block using micro diamond tool and this machined pattern core was installed in a mold for injection molding of prism patterned plate. Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) was used as a molding material. The pressure and temperature of the melt in the cavity were measured at different positions in the cavity and the replication of the pattern was also measured at the same positions. The results show that the pressure or temperature profile through the process depends on the shape and the size of the plate. The replication is affected by the temperature and pressure profiles at the early stage of filling, which is right after the melt reaches the position to be measured.

  16. Mold Die Making. 439-322/324. (United States)

    Yunke, P.; And Others

    Each unit in this curriculum guide on mold die making contains an introduction, objectives, materials required, lessons, space for notes, figures, and diagrams. There are 10 units in this guide: (1) introduction to Electrical Discharge Machining (EDM); (2) EDM principles; (3) the single pulse; (4) EDM safety; (5) electrode material; (6) electrode…


    More than 100 assay were developed to identify and quantify indoor molds using quantitiative PCR (QPCR) assays. This technology incorporates fluorigenic 5' nuclease (TaqMan�) chemistry directed at the nuclear ribosomal RNA operon internal transcribed spacer regions (ITS1 or ITS2...

  18. Progress in Titanium Metal Powder Injection Molding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randall M. German


    Full Text Available Metal powder injection molding is a shaping technology that has achieved solid scientific underpinnings. It is from this science base that recent progress has occurred in titanium powder injection molding. Much of the progress awaited development of the required particles with specific characteristics of particle size, particle shape, and purity. The production of titanium components by injection molding is stabilized by a good understanding of how each process variable impacts density and impurity level. As summarized here, recent research has isolated the four critical success factors in titanium metal powder injection molding (Ti-MIM that must be simultaneously satisfied—density, purity, alloying, and microstructure. The critical role of density and impurities, and the inability to remove impurities with sintering, compels attention to starting Ti-MIM with high quality alloy powders. This article addresses the four critical success factors to rationalize Ti-MIM processing conditions to the requirements for demanding applications in aerospace and medical fields. Based on extensive research, a baseline process is identified and reported here with attention to linking mechanical properties to the four critical success factors.

  19. Residual stresses in injection molded products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, K.M.B.


    During the molding process residual stresses are formed due to thermal contraction during cooling as well as the local pressure history during solidification. In this paper a simple analytical model is reviewed which relates residual stresses, product shrinkage as well as warpage to the temperature

  20. Cultural Molding: A Modular Approach. Cultural Anthropology. (United States)

    Kassebaum, Peter

    Designed for use as supplementary instructional material in a cultural anthropology course, this learning module introduces the student to cultural molding, the idea that most human behavior can be traced to enculturation and exposure rather than to a socio-biological explanation of human behavior. Following a brief description of socialization,…


    More than 100 assay were developed to identify and quantify indoor molds using quantitiative PCR (QPCR) assays. This technology incorporates fluorigenic 5' nuclease (TaqMan�) chemistry directed at the nuclear ribosomal RNA operon internal transcribed spacer regions (ITS1 or ITS2...

  2. Design of Revolute Joints for In-Mold Assembly Using Insert Molding. (United States)

    Ananthanarayanan, Arvind; Ehrlich, Leicester; Desai, Jaydev P; Gupta, Satyandra K


    Creating highly articulated miniature structures requires assembling a large number of small parts. This is a very challenging task and increases cost of mechanical assemblies. Insert molding presents the possibility of creating a highly articulated structure in a single molding step. This can be accomplished by placing multiple metallic bearings in the mold and injecting plastic on top of them. In theory, this idea can generate a multi degree of freedom structures in just one processing step without requiring any post molding assembly operations. However, the polymer material has a tendency to shrink on top of the metal bearings and hence jam the joints. Hence, until now insert molding has not been used to create articulated structures. This paper presents a theoretical model for estimating the extent of joint jamming that occurs due to the shrinkage of the polymer on top of the metal bearings. The level of joint jamming is seen as the effective torque needed to overcome the friction in the revolute joints formed by insert molding. We then use this model to select the optimum design parameters which can be used to fabricate functional, highly articulating assemblies while meeting manufacturing constraints. Our analysis shows that the strength of weld-lines formed during the in-mold assembly process play a significant role in determining the minimum joint dimensions necessary for fabricating functional revolute joints. We have used the models and methods described in this paper to successfully fabricate the structure for a minimally invasive medical robot prototype with potential applications in neurosurgery. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of building an articulated structure with multiple degrees of freedom using insert molding.

  3. Characteristics and influence factors of mold filling process in permanent mold with a slot gating system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chang Qingming; Chen Xia; Chen Changjun; Bao Siqian; David Schwam


    The main problems caused by improper gating are entrained aluminum oxide films and entrapped gas. In this study, the slot gating system is employed to improve mold filling behavior and therefore, to improve the quality of aluminum castings produced in permanent molds. An equipment as well as operation procedures for real-time X-ray radiography of molten aluminum flowing into permanent molds have been developed. Graphite molds transparent to X-rays are utilized which make it possible to observe the flow pattern through a number of vertically oriented gating systems. The investigation discovers that there are many influencing factors on the mold filling process. This paper focuses its research on some of the factors, such as the dimensions of the vertical riser and slot thickness, as well as roughness of the coating layer. The results indicate that molten metal can smoothly fill into casting cavity with a proper slot gating system. A bigger vertical riser, proper slot thickness and rougher coating can provide not only a better mold filling pattern, but also hot melt into the top of the cavity. A proper temperature gradient is obtainable, higher at the bottom and lower at the top of the casting cavity, which is in favor of feeding during casting solidification.

  4. Computer simulation for centrifugal mold filling of precision titanium castings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Computer simulation codes were developed based on a proposed mathematical model for centrifugal mold filling processes and previous computer software for 3D mold filling and solidification of castings (CASM-3D for Windows). Sample simulations were implemented for mold filling processes of precision titanium castings under gravity and different centrifugal casting techniques. The computation results show that the alloy melt has a much stronger mold filling ability for thin section castings under a centrifugal force field than that only under the gravity. A "return back" mold filling manner is showed to be a reasonable technique for centrifugal casting processes, especially for thin section precision castings.

  5. Testing single point incremental forming molds for thermoforming operations (United States)

    Afonso, Daniel; de Sousa, Ricardo Alves; Torcato, Ricardo


    Low pressure polymer processing processes as thermoforming or rotational molding use much simpler molds then high pressure processes like injection. However, despite the low forces involved with the process, molds manufacturing for this operations is still a very material, energy and time consuming operation. The goal of the research is to develop and validate a method for manufacturing plastically formed sheets metal molds by single point incremental forming (SPIF) operation for thermoforming operation. Stewart platform based SPIF machines allow the forming of thick metal sheets, granting the required structural stiffness for the mold surface, and keeping the short lead time manufacture and low thermal inertia.

  6. The Facility and Process Technics of Polyethylene Rotational Molding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    @@ 1. Introduction Rotational molding is the process by which hollow plastic parts are formed. It mainly processes the product which Injection molding and Blow molding can not process medium-sized, large-sized and super large-sized plastic parts. The technics may turn out a tub, dustbin, stock tank, sailboat. The research institute of Lanzhou introduces a suit of RS-16 Rotational Molding Machine from Germany Reinhadt Co. on 1990. It mainly put up experiment and smallscale production. RS-16 rotational molding machine is a single arm and di-axial equipment. It is consisting of a gas heated sintering oven, cooling chamber, mouldcarrying carriage and a controlling unit.

  7. Mold infestation of wet spray-applied cellulose insulation. (United States)

    Godish, Thad J; Godish, Diana R


    Mold investigations were conducted in four buildings that had been insulated with wet spray-applied cellulose insulation (WSACI). Bulk WSACI samples were collected and analyzed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (QPCR) methods. Airborne mold was evaluated using both Burkard total mold spore and Andersen culturable/viable sampling methods. Although reportedly treated with biocidal borates, QPCR analyses indicated that elevated concentrations of mold cells (reported as spore equivalents per gram) may be present in WSACI. QPCR analyses showed the following: (1) very high concentrations of Penicillium chrysogenum in samples from two of four buildings; (2) very high concentrations of Stachybotrys chartarum in samples from one building and a more moderate presence in a second; (3) moderately high concentrations of Aspergillus versicolor in samples from one building and more moderate concentrations in a second; (4) the presence of the opportunistic pathogen, Aspergillus fumigatus, in samples from three of the four buildings, and (5) the presence of 22 of 23 target mold species. Elevated airborne total mold spore concentrations were observed in all four of the buildings investigated. Culturable/viable airborne mold concentrations were moderately elevated in three of the four buildings. Mold genera/types present were relatively consistent among airborne mold samples collected by both methods and bulk sample analyses. Results of this study suggest that WSACI has the potential to cause elevated airborne mold levels in buildings where it has been applied and pose significant mold exposure and public health risks.

  8. Wavelet Packet Decomposition to Characterize Injection Molding Tool Damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomaž Kek


    Full Text Available This paper presents measurements of acoustic emission (AE signals during the injection molding of polypropylene with new and damaged mold. The damaged injection mold has cracks induced by laser surface heat treatment. Standard test specimens were injection molded, commonly used for examining the shrinkage behavior of various thermoplastic materials. The measured AE burst signals during injection molding cycle are presented. For injection molding tool integrity prediction, different AE burst signals’ descriptors are defined. To lower computational complexity and increase performance, the feature selection method was implemented to define a feature subset in an appropriate multidimensional space to characterize the integrity of the injection molding tool and the injection molding process steps. The feature subset was used for neural network pattern recognition of AE signals during the full time of the injection molding cycle. The results confirm that acoustic emission measurement during injection molding of polymer materials is a promising technique for characterizing the integrity of molds with respect to damage, even with resonant sensors.

  9. Experimental Studies of the Effects of Anode Composition and Process Parameters on Anode Slime Adhesion and Cathode Copper Purity by Performing Copper Electrorefining in a Pilot-Scale Cell (United States)

    Zeng, Weizhi; Wang, Shijie; Free, Michael L.


    Copper electrorefining tests were conducted in a pilot-scale cell under commercial tankhouse environment to study the effects of anode compositions, current density, cathode blank width, and flow rate on anode slime behavior and cathode copper purity. Three different types of anodes (high, mid, and low impurity levels) were used in the tests and were analyzed under SEM/EDS. The harvested copper cathodes were weighed and analyzed for impurities concentrations using DC Arc. The adhered slimes and released slimes were collected, weighed, and analyzed for compositions using ICP. It was shown that the lead-to-arsenic ratio in the anodes affects the sintering and coalescence of slime particles. High current density condition can improve anode slime adhesion and cathode purity by intensifying slime particles' coalescence and dissolving part of the particles. Wide cathode blanks can raise the anodic current densities significantly and result in massive release of large slime particle aggregates, which are not likely to contaminate the cathode copper. Low flow rate can cause anode passivation and increase local temperatures in front of the anode, which leads to very intense sintering and coalescence of slime particles. The results and analyses of the tests present potential solutions for industrial copper electrorefining process.

  10. Direct molding of pavement tiles made of ground tire rubber (United States)

    Quadrini, Fabrizio; Gagliardi, Donatella; Tedde, Giovanni Matteo; Santo, Loredana; Musacchi, Ettore


    Large rubber products can be molded by using only ground tire rubber (GTR) without any additive or binder due to a new technology called "direct molding". Rubber granules and powders from tire recycling are compression molded at elevated temperatures and pressures. The feasibility of this process was clearly shown in laboratory but the step to the industrial scale was missing. Thanks to an European Project (SMART "Sustainable Molding of Articles from Recycled Tires") this step has been made and some results are reported in this study. The press used for compression molding is described. Some tests were made to measure the energy consumption so as to evaluate costs for production in comparison with conventional technologies for GTR molding (by using binders). Results show that 1 m2 tiles can be easily molded with several thicknesses in a reasonable low time. Energy consumption is higher than conventional technologies but it is lower than the cost for binders.

  11. Stability of FDTS monolayer coating on aluminum injection molding tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cech, Jiri; Taboryski, Rafael J.


    The injection molding industry often employs prototype molds and mold inserts from melt spun (rapid solidification processing [1,2]) aluminum, especially for applications in optics [3,4], photonics [5] and microfludics. Prototypes are also used for verification of mold filling. The use of aluminum...... tools has reduced lead time (days instead of weeks) and manufacturing cost (30% of conventional mold). Moreover, for aluminum, a surface roughness (RMS) below 5 nm can be obtained with diamond machining [3,4,6]. Conventional mold coatings add cost and complexity, and coatings with thicknesses of a few...... trichloro-silane based coating deposited on aluminum or its alloys by molecular vapor deposition. We have tested the stability of this coating in challenging conditions of injection molding, an environment with high shear stress from the molten polymer, pressures up to 200 MPa, temperatures up to 250 ◦C...

  12. Mold exposure and health effects following hurricanes Katrina and Rita. (United States)

    Barbeau, Deborah N; Grimsley, L Faye; White, LuAnn E; El-Dahr, Jane M; Lichtveld, Maureen


    The extensive flooding in the aftermath of Hurricanes Katrina and Rita created conditions ideal for indoor mold growth, raising concerns about the possible adverse health effects associated with indoor mold exposure. Studies evaluating the levels of indoor and outdoor molds in the months following the hurricanes found high levels of mold growth. Homes with greater flood damage, especially those with >3 feet of indoor flooding, demonstrated higher levels of mold growth compared with homes with little or no flooding. Water intrusion due to roof damage was also associated with mold growth. However, no increase in the occurrence of adverse health outcomes has been observed in published reports to date. This article considers reasons why studies of mold exposure after the hurricane do not show a greater health impact.

  13. Ultra-precision molding of chalcogenide glass aspherical lens (United States)

    Zhang, Feng; Wang, Zhibin; Zhang, Yunlong; Su, Ying; Guo, Rui; Xu, Zengqi; Liu, Xuanmin


    With the development of infrared optical systems in military and civil areas, chalcogenide glass aspherical lens possess some advantages, such as large infrared transmission, good thermal stability performance and image quality. Aspherical lens using chalcogenide glass can satisfy the requirements of modern infrared optical systems. Therefore, precision manufacturing of chalcogenide glass aspheric has received more and more attention. The molding technology of chalcogenide glass aspheric has become a research hotspot, because it can achieve mass and low cost manufacturing. The article of molding technology is focusing on a kind of chalcogenide glass aspherical lens. We report on design and fabrication of the mold that through simulation analysis of molding. Finally, through molding test, the fabrication of mold's surface and parameters of molding has been optimized, ensuring the indicators of chalcogenide glass aspherical lens meet the requirements.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. G. Anofriev


    Full Text Available Purpose. One of the efficient ways to obtain castings of complex shape is lost foam casting (LFC in the evacuated molds (containers. Upgrading the quality of this casting method requires improvement of molding techniques. The molding process involves layer-by-layer vibratory compaction of sand in the containers. Most of the lines of LFC sections are equipped with vibrating tables with inertia oscillators driven by induction motors, operating at nominal speed. A promising way of improving the molding technique is the rational setting of the following parameters of vibrating table: vibration displacement, velocity and acceleration. These parameters are determined by the elastic-mass characteristics of the system «vibrating table – mold» and perturbing forces created by inertia oscillators. The aim of the study is to determine the rational range of setting the parameters of oscillators at which the qualitative layer-by-layer compaction of the molding sand in the mold takes place. Methodology. The efficiency criterion for setting characteristics of the vibrating table there were taken the values of averaged accelerations of 6.5 – 7.5 m/s2 corresponding to maximum compaction degree of dry molding sand and the range of acceleration values 9 – 9.5 m/s2 for giving the sand «pseudo-yielding». For the study it was developed a mathematical model of oscillations of the movable part of vibrating table with two types of casting containers for steady and transient operation modes. Findings. In the process of research of the mold oscillations it was calculated the natural frequencies of oscillations at different elastic-mass characteristics of the system using a mathematical model. It was constructed the frequency response of displacements and accelerations of the moving part of the table with container filled with molding sand layer-by-layer. Originality. The author proposes a method of determining the range of frequency setting of inertial


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. M. Bohaslauchyk


    Full Text Available Definition of reliability for dams of slime storage embankment is given on the basis of reliability theory and characteristics of reliability and their analysis are presented in the paper. The paper specifies qualitative indices for earth dams which are subdivided in two groups: applicability factors and structural reliability factors. A short analysis of all possible causes for accident initiation at earth dams has been made and the analysis has permitted to pinpoint eleven main objects for diagnosis for slime storage dams. In order to assess risk degree of accident initiation at JSC “Belaruskali” slime storages all possible causes of emergency cases and their probability of occurrence have been analyzed in the paper. The paper acknowledges the fact that dam malfunction is possible, as a rule, due to violation of operational rules and regulations. Main parameters of slime storage state which are to be controlled regularly in the process of its operation have been noted in the paper. Observation results over slime storages, calculations of dam slope stability for normal operation (a principal calculation case and operating irregularities in water seals (a special calculation case. As a stability margin factor is close to 1.0 for a special calculation case, an extreme position of depression curve has been determined for all design sections. It has been recommended to carry out a constant control over its position, and in the case when it reaches its peak value it is necessary to undertake appropriate measures in order to reduce its value. Final expert estimations on probability of accident initiation at the investigated slime storage dams of the 4th Mining Administration, JSC “Belaruskali” have been prepared on the basis of the analysis comprising all the required factors. A conclusion has been made about low risk degree of their destruction.

  16. An education belief worth reflection: Molding intellectuals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lu Jie


    Molding intellectuals is one of the expectations people have,which comes from a deep-rooted belief in education.The humanity hypothesis of this belief is to take knowledge and the pursuit of knowledge as the only prescription for human beings.This hypothesis overturns the relation of knowledge and life.Intellectuals make scientific paradigm as the limit of knowledge.Experience and consciousness outside the paradigm are ejected from the scope of knowledge.Accordingly,knowledge of intellectuals is broken away from a human being's life.Under the domination of this conception of knowledge,the world of intellectuals has become a world deficient of meaning.The belief that education molds intellectuals should be deconstructed gradually,with criticism in both practice and theory.

  17. Diagnosis parameters of mold filling pattern for optimization of a casting system



    For optimal design of a gating system, the setting of diagnosis parameters is very important. In this study, the permanent mold casting process was selected because most of the other casting processes have more complicated factors that influence the mold filling pattern compared to the permanent mold casting process, such as the surface roughness of mold, gas generation from the mold wash and binder of sand mold, and the gas permeability through a sand mold, etc. Two diagnosis parameters (fl...

  18. Manufacturing Science of Improved Molded Optics (United States)


    a physical point shear thinning is an unlikely explanation. In a study of friction mechanisms in polymer extrusion , Joshi et al.27 present a...41 Appendix C2 – glass extrusion paper draft 61 Appendix C3 - ring compression test paper draft (Navier law) 97 D. Protective coatings...complex thermo-mechanical behavior of an optical glass during simulation of the lens molding, extrusion and other glass forming processes. This

  19. Emission characteristics of granulated fuel produced from sewage sludge and coal slime. (United States)

    Wzorek, Małgorzata; Kozioł, Michał; Scierski, Waldemar


    The neutralization of wastewater treatment residues is an issue for many countries. The European Union (EU) legal regulations have limited the use of the residues in agriculture and implemented a ban for their disposal. Therefore, urgent action should be taken to find solutions for the safe disposal of sewage sludge. The problem refers in particular to the new EU member countries, including Poland, where one can now observe an intensive development of sewage system networks and new sewage treatment plants. At the same time, these countries have few installations for thermal sewage sludge utilization (e.g., there is only one installation of that type in Poland). Simultaneously, there are many coal-fired mechanical stoker-fired boilers in some of these countries. This paper presents suggestions for the production of granulated fuel from sewage sludge and coal slime. Additionally, among others, lime was added to the fuel to decrease the sulfur compounds emission. Results are presented of research on fuel with two average grain diameters (approximately 15 and 35 mm). The fuel with such diameters is adapted to the requirements of the combustion process taking place in a stoker-fired boiler. The research was aimed at identifying the behavior of the burning fuel, with special attention paid to its emission properties (e.g., to the emissions of oxides of nitrogen [NO(x)], sulfur dioxide [SO2], and carbon monoxide [CO], among others). The concentration and emission values were compared with similar results obtained while burning hard coal. The combustion process was carried out in a laboratory stand where realization of the large-scale tests is possible. The laboratory stand used made simulation possible for a wide range of burning processes in mechanical stoker-fired boilers.

  20. Fractal phenomena in powder injection molding process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑洲顺; 曲选辉; 李云平; 雷长明; 段柏华


    The complicated characteristics of the powder were studied by fractal theory. It is illustrated that powder shape, binder structure, feedstock and mold-filling flow in powder injection molding process possess obvious fractal characteristics. Based on the result of SEM, the fractal dimensions of the projected boundary of carbonylic iron and carbonylic nickel particles were determined to be 1.074±0.006 and 1.230±0.005 respectively by box counting measurement. The results show that the fractal dimension of the projected boundary of carbonylic iron particles is close to smooth curve of one-dimension, while the fractal dimension of the projected boundary of carbonylic nickel particle is close to that of trisection Koch curve, indicating that the shape characteristics of carbonylic nickel particles can be described and analyzed by the characteristics of trisection Koch curve. It is also proposed that the fractal theory can be applied in the research of powder injection molding in four aspects.

  1. Gastroresistant capsular device prepared by injection molding. (United States)

    Zema, Lucia; Loreti, Giulia; Melocchi, Alice; Maroni, Alessandra; Palugan, Luca; Gazzaniga, Andrea


    In the present work, the possibility of manufacturing by injection molding (IM) a gastro-resistant capsular device based on hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose acetate succinate (HPMCAS) was investigated. By performing as an enteric soluble container, such a device may provide a basis for the development of advantageous alternatives to coated dosage forms. Preliminarily, the processability of the selected thermoplastic polymer was evaluated, and the need for a plasticizer (polyethylene glycol 1500) in order to counterbalance the glassy nature of the molded items was assessed. However, some critical issues related to the physical/mechanical stability (shrinkage and warpage) and opening time of the device after the pH change were highlighted. Accordingly, an in-depth formulation study was carried out taking into account differing release modifiers potentially useful for enhancing the dissolution/disintegration rate of the capsular device at intestinal pH values. Capsule prototypes with thickness of 600 and 900 μm containing Kollicoat(®) IR and/or Explotab(®) CLV could be manufactured, and a promising performance was achieved with appropriate gastric resistance in pH 1.2 medium and break-up in pH 6.8 within 1h. These results would support the design of a dedicated mold for the development of a scalable manufacturing process.

  2. Detecção da produção de slime por estafilococos coagulase-negativa isolados de cateter venoso central


    E. L. PIZZOLITTO; A. C. PIZZOLITTO; A. C.A. Bernardi


    A produção de slime é um importante fator de virulência dos estafilococos coagulase-negativa, permitindo-lhes aderir sobre as superfícies lisas de biomateriais, e por isso, é associada aos processos de infecção de implantes. No presente estudo a produção de slime em 27 cepas de estafilococos coagulase-negativa foi investigada por cultura em ágar vermelho Congo (77,7%...

  3. Water modeling of mold powder entrapment in slab continuous casting mold

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The optimal parameters were determined by the water modeling of slab casting. It was found that there are mainly three types of mold powder entrapment in slab continuous casting, i.e., the entrapment caused by the shearing flow near the narrow face of mold, the entrapment caused by vortexes around the submerged entry nozzle (SEN), and the entrapment caused by the Ar bubbling.Both the velocity of the surface flow and the level fluctuation of the liquids are enlarged with increasing the casting speed, reducing the submersion depth of SEN, decreasing the downward angles of the nozzle outlets, and increasing the Ar flowrate, all of which increase the tendency of mold powder entrapment. Among the four above-mentioned factors, casting speed has the largest effect.

  4. Influence of mold surface temperature on polymer part warpage in rapid heat cycle molding (United States)

    Berger, G. R.; Pacher, G. A.; Pichler, A.; Friesenbichler, W.; Gruber, D. P.


    Dynamic mold surface temperature control was examined for its influence on the warpage. A test mold, featuring two different rapid heat cycle molding (RHCM) technologies was used to manufacture complex plate-shaped parts having different ribs, varying thin-wall regions, and both, circular and rectangular cut-outs. The mold's nozzle side is equipped with the areal heating and cooling technology BFMOLD®, where the heating/cooling channels are replaced by a ball-filled slot near the cavity surface flooded through with hot and cold water sequentially. Two local electrical ceramic heating elements are installed into the mold's ejection side. Based on a 23 full-factorial design of experiments (DoE) plan, varying nozzle temperature (Tnozzle), rapid heat cycle molding temperature (TRHCM) and holding pressure (pn), specimens of POM were manufactured systematically. Five specimens were examined per DoE run. The resulting warpage was measured at 6 surface line scans per part using the non-contact confocal topography system FRT MicroProf®. Two warpage parameters were calculated, the curvature of a 2nd order approximation a, and the vertical deflection at the profile center d. Both, the influence strength and the acting direction of the process parameters and their interactions on a and d were calculated by statistical analysis. Linear mathematical process models were determined for a and d to predict the warpage as a function of the process parameter settings. Finally, an optimum process setting was predicted, based on the process models and Microsoft Excel GRG solver. Clear and significant influences of TRHCM, pn, Tnozzle, and the interaction of TRHCM and pn were determined. While TRHCM was dominant close to the gate, pn became more effective as the flow length increased.

  5. Effect of mold treatment by solvent on PDMS molding into nanoholes (United States)

    Con, Celal; Cui, Bo


    Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) is the most popular and versatile material for soft lithography due to its flexibility and easy fabrication by molding process. However, for nanoscale patterns, it is challenging to fill uncured PDMS into the holes or trenches on the master mold that is coated with a silane anti-adhesion layer needed for clean demolding. PDMS filling was previously found to be facilitated by diluting it with toluene or hexane, which was attributed to the great reduction of viscosity for diluted PDMS. Here, we suggest that the reason behind the improved filling for diluted PDMS is that the diluent solvent increases in situ the surface energy of the silane-treated mold and thus the wetting of PDMS to the mold surface. We treated the master mold surface (that was already coated with a silane anti-adhesion monolayer) with toluene or hexane, and found that the filling by undiluted PMDS into the nanoscale holes on the master mold was improved despite the high viscosity of the undiluted PDMS. A simple estimation based on capillary filing into a channel also gives a filling time on the millisecond scale, which implies that the viscosity of PMDS should not be the limiting factor. We achieved a hole filling down to sub-200-nm diameter that is smaller than those of the previous studies using regular Sylgard PDMS (not hard PDMS, Dow Corning Corporation, Midland, MI, USA). However, we are not able to explain using a simple argument based on wetting property why smaller, e.g., sub-100-nm holes, cannot be filled, for which we suggested a few possible factors for its explanation.

  6. Three-Dimensional Modeling of Glass Lens Molding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sarhadi, Ali; Hattel, Jesper Henri; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard


    The required accuracy for the final dimensions of the molded lenses in wafer-based precision glass molding as well as the need for elimination of costly experimental trial and error calls for numerical simulations. This study deals with 3D thermo-mechanical modeling of the wafer-based precision...... glass lens molding process. First, a comprehensive 3D thermo-mechanical model of glass is implemented into a FORTRAN user subroutine (UMAT) in the FE program ABAQUS, and the developed FE model is validated with both a well-known sandwich seal test and experimental results of precision molding of several...... glass rings. Afterward, 3D thermo-mechanical modeling of the wafer-based glass lens manufacturing is performed to suggest a proper molding program (i.e., the proper set of process parameters including preset force-time and temperature-time histories) for molding a wafer to a desired dimension...

  7. Replication of optical microlens arrays using photoresist coated molds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chakrabarti, Maumita; Dam-Hansen, Carsten; Stubager, Jørgen


    A cost reduced method of producing injection molding tools is reported and demonstrated for the fabrication of optical microlens arrays. A standard computer-numerical-control (CNC) milling machine was used to make a rough mold in steel. Surface treatment of the steel mold by spray coating...... the light engine. Polymer injection molded microlens arrays were produced from both the rough and coated molds and have been characterized for lenslet parameters, surface quality, light scattering, and acceptance angle. The surface roughness (Ra) is improved approximately by a factor of two after...... the coating process and the light scattering is reduced so that the molded microlens array can be used for the color mixing application. The measured accepted angle of the microlens array is 40° which is in agreement with simulations....

  8. Validation of three-dimensional micro injection molding simulation accuracy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tosello, Guido; Costa, F.S.; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard


    length, injection pressure profile, molding mass and flow pattern. The importance of calibrated micro molding process monitoring for an accurate implementation strategy of the simulation and its validation has been demonstrated. In fact, inconsistencies and uncertainties in the experimental data must...... be minimized to avoid introducing uncertainties in the simulation calculations. Simulations of bulky sub-100 milligrams micro molded parts have been validated and a methodology for accurate micro molding simulations was established.......Data analysis and simulations on micro-molding experiments have been conducted. Micro molding simulations have been executed taking into account actual processing conditions implementation in the software. Various aspects of the simulation set-up have been considered in order to improve...

  9. Shape retention of injection molded stainless steel compacts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yi-min; K.A.Khalil; HUANG Bai-yun


    The effects of the binder composition, the powder loading, the thermal properties of feedstocks, and the injection molding parameters on the compact shape retention for metal injection molding 17-4PH stainless steel were investigated. The high-density polyethylene is more effective than ethylene vinyl acetate as a second component of the wax-based binder to retain compact shape due to its higher pyrolytic temperature and less heat of fusion. The compact distortion decreases with increasing the powder loading, molding pressure and molding temperature. There exists an optimal process combination including the powder loading of 68%, molding pressure of 120 MPa and molding temperature of 150 ℃. Under this process condition, the percentage of distorted compacts is the lowest.

  10. Mold deformation in soft UV-nanoimprint lithography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    UV-nanoimprint lithography (UV-NIL) using a soft mold is a promising technique with low cost and high throughput for producing the submicron scale large-area patterns. However, the deformations of the soft mold during imprinting process which can cause serious consequences have to be understood for the practical application of the process. This paper investigated the deformation of the soft mold by theoretical analyses, numerical simulations, and experimental studies. We simulated the mold deformation using a simplified model and finite element method. The simulation and the related experimental results agree well with each other. Through the investigation, the mechanism and affected factors of the mold deformation are revealed, and some useful conclusions have been achieved. These results will be valuable in optimizing the imprinting process conditions and mold design for improving the quality of transferred patterns.

  11. Snow molds: A group of fungi that prevail under snow. (United States)

    Matsumoto, Naoyuki


    Snow molds are a group of fungi that attack dormant plants under snow. In this paper, their survival strategies are illustrated with regard to adaptation to the unique environment under snow. Snow molds consist of diverse taxonomic groups and are divided into obligate and facultative fungi. Obligate snow molds exclusively prevail during winter with or without snow, whereas facultative snow molds can thrive even in the growing season of plants. Snow molds grow at low temperatures in habitats where antagonists are practically absent, and host plants deteriorate due to inhibited photosynthesis under snow. These features characterize snow molds as opportunistic parasites. The environment under snow represents a habitat where resources available are limited. There are two contrasting strategies for resource utilization, i.e., individualisms and collectivism. Freeze tolerance is also critical for them to survive freezing temperatures, and several mechanisms are illustrated. Finally, strategies to cope with annual fluctuations in snow cover are discussed in terms of predictability of the habitat.

  12. Effect of superheat, mold, and casting materials on the metal/mold interfacial heat transfer during solidification in graphite-lined permanent molds (United States)

    Prabhu, K. Narayan; Suresha, K. M.


    Heat transfer during the solidification of an Al-Cu-Si alloy (LM4) and commercial pure tin in single steel, graphite, and graphite-lined metallic (composite) molds was investigated. Experiments were carried out at three different superheats. In the case of composite molds, the effect of the thickness of the graphite lining and the outer wall on heat transfer was studied. Temperatures at known locations inside the mold and casting were used to solve the Fourier heat conduction equation inversely to yield the casting/mold interfacial heat flux transients. Increased melt superheats and higher thermal conductivity of the mold material led to an increase in the peak heat flux at the metal/mold interface. Factorial experiments indicated that the mold material had a significant effect on the peak heat flux at the 5% level of significance. The ratio of graphite lining to outer steel wall and superheat had a significant effect on the peak heat flux in significance range varying between 5 and 25%. A heat flux model was proposed to estimate the maximum heat flux transients at different superheat levels of 25 to 75 °C for any metal/mold combinations having a thermal diffusivity ratio (α R) varying between 0.25 and 6.96. The heat flow models could be used to estimate interfacial heat flux transients from the thermophysical properties of the mold and cast materials and the melt superheat. Metallographic analysis indicated finer microstructures for castings poured at increased melt superheats and cast in high-thermal diffusivity molds.

  13. Bio-Imitation of Mexican Migration Routes to the USA with Slime Mould on 3D Terrains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Andrew Adamatzky; Genaro J Martinez


    Plasmodium ofPhysarum polycephalum (P.polycephalum) is a large single cell visible by an unaided eye.It shows sophisticated behavioural traits in foraging for nutrients and developing an optimal transport network of protoplasmic tubes spanning sources of nutrients.When placed in an environment with distributed sources of nutrients the cell ‘computes’ an optimal graph spanning the nutrients by growing a network of protoplasmic tubes.P.polycephalum imitates development of man-made transport networks of a country when configuration of nutrients represents major urban areas.We employed this feature of the slime mould to imitate mexican migration to USA.The Mexican migration to USA is the World's largest migration system.We bio-physically imitated the migration using slime mould P.polycephalum.In laboratory experiments with 3D Nylon terrains of USA we imitated development of migratory routes from Mexico-USA border to ten urban areas with high concentration of Mexican migrants.From results of laboratory experiments we extracted topologies of migratory routes,and high-lighted a role of elevations in shaping the human movement networks.

  14. Effect of mold rotation on the bifilar electroslag remelting process (United States)

    Shi, Xiao-fang; Chang, Li-zhong; Wang, Jian-jun


    A novel electroslag furnace with a rotating mold was fabricated, and the effects of mold rotational speed on the electroslag remelting process were investigated. The results showed that the chemical element distribution in ingots became uniform and that their compact density increased when the mold rotational speed was increased from 0 to 28 r/min. These results were attributed to a reasonable mold speed, which resulted in a uniform temperature in the slag pool and scattered the metal droplets randomly in the metal pool. However, an excessive rotational speed caused deterioration of the solidification structure. When the mold rotational speeds was increased from 0 to 28 r/min, the size of Al2O3 inclusions in the electroslag ingot decreased from 4.4 to 1.9 μm. But the excessive mold rotational speed would decrease the ability of the electroslag remelting to remove the inclusions. The remelting speed gradually increased, which resulted in reduced power consumption with increasing mold rotational speed. This effect was attributed to accelerated heat exchange between the consumable electrode and the molten slag, which resulted from mold rotation. Nevertheless, when the rotational speed reached 28 r/min, the remelting speed did not change because of limitations of metal heat conduction. Mold rotation also improved the surface quality of the ingots by promoting a uniform temperature distribution in the slag pool.

  15. Virtual Mold Technique in Thermal Stress Analysis during Casting Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Si-Young Kwak; Jae-Wook Baek; Jeong-Ho Nam; Jeong-Kil Choi


    It is important to analyse the casting product and the mold at the same time considering thermal contraction of the casting and thermal expansion of the mold. The analysis considering contact of the casting and the mold induces the precise prediction of stress distribution and the defect such as hot tearing. But it is difficult to generate FEM mesh for the interface of the casting and the mold. Moreover the mesh for the mold domain spends lots of computational time and memory for the analysis due to a number of meshes. Consequently we proposed the virtual mold technique which only uses mesh of the casting part for thermal stress analysis in casting process. The spring bar element in virtual mold technique is used to consider the contact of the casting and the mold. In general, a volume of the mold is much bigger than that of casting part, so the proposed technique decreases the number of mesh and saves the computational memory and time greatly. In this study, the proposed technique was verified by the comparison with the traditional contact technique on a specimen. And the proposed technique gave satisfactory results.

  16. Deformation analysis considering thermal expansion of injection mold

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jun Hyung; Yi, Dae Eun; Jang, Jeong Hui; Lee, Min Seok [Samsung Electronics Co., LTD., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    In the design of injection molds, the temperature distribution and deformation of the mold is one of the most important parameters that affect the flow characteristics, flash generation, and surface appearance, etc. Plastic injection analyses have been carried out to predict the temperature distribution of the mold and the pressure distribution on the cavity surface. As the input loads, we transfer the temperature and pressure results to the structural analysis. We compare the structural analysis results with the thermal expansion effect using the actual flash and step size of a smartphone cover part. To reduce the flash problem, we proposed a new mold design, and verified the results by performing simulations.

  17. A hybrid optimization approach in non-isothermal glass molding (United States)

    Vu, Anh-Tuan; Kreilkamp, Holger; Krishnamoorthi, Bharathwaj Janaki; Dambon, Olaf; Klocke, Fritz


    Intensively growing demands on complex yet low-cost precision glass optics from the today's photonic market motivate the development of an efficient and economically viable manufacturing technology for complex shaped optics. Against the state-of-the-art replication-based methods, Non-isothermal Glass Molding turns out to be a promising innovative technology for cost-efficient manufacturing because of increased mold lifetime, less energy consumption and high throughput from a fast process chain. However, the selection of parameters for the molding process usually requires a huge effort to satisfy precious requirements of the molded optics and to avoid negative effects on the expensive tool molds. Therefore, to reduce experimental work at the beginning, a coupling CFD/FEM numerical modeling was developed to study the molding process. This research focuses on the development of a hybrid optimization approach in Non-isothermal glass molding. To this end, an optimal configuration with two optimization stages for multiple quality characteristics of the glass optics is addressed. The hybrid Back-Propagation Neural Network (BPNN)-Genetic Algorithm (GA) is first carried out to realize the optimal process parameters and the stability of the process. The second stage continues with the optimization of glass preform using those optimal parameters to guarantee the accuracy of the molded optics. Experiments are performed to evaluate the effectiveness and feasibility of the model for the process development in Non-isothermal glass molding.

  18. Mold Filling Analysis in Vacuum Infusion Molding Process Based on a High-Permeable Medium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yingdan ZHU; Hua TAN; Jihui WANG


    The objective of this paper is to understand the flow mechanism through visualization experiments and discuss theinfluence of process parameters on mold filling process. A 2D leakage flow model is developed to simulate the moldingprocess, and the simulation results show good agreement with experiments.

  19. Injection-molded capsular device for oral pulsatile release: development of a novel mold. (United States)

    Zema, Lucia; Loreti, Giulia; Macchi, Elena; Foppoli, Anastasia; Maroni, Alessandra; Gazzaniga, Andrea


    The development of a purposely devised mold and a newly set up injection molding (IM) manufacturing process was undertaken to prepare swellable/erodible hydroxypropyl cellulose-based capsular containers. When orally administered, such devices would be intended to achieve pulsatile and/or colonic time-dependent delivery of drugs. An in-depth evaluation of thermal, rheological, and mechanical characteristics of melt formulations/molded items made of the selected polymer (Klucel® LF) with increasing amounts of plasticizer (polyethylene glycol 1500, 5%-15% by weight) was preliminarily carried out. On the basis of the results obtained, a new mold was designed that allowed, through an automatic manufacturing cycle of 5 s duration, matching cap and body items to be prepared. These were subsequently filled and coupled to give a closed device of constant 600 μm thickness. As compared with previous IM systems having the same composition, such capsules showed improved closure mechanism, technological properties, especially in terms of reproducibility of the shell thickness, and release performance. Moreover, the ability of the capsular container to impart a constant lag phase before the liberation of the contents was demonstrated irrespective of the conveyed formulation.

  20. Investigations on injection molded, glass-fiber reinforced polyamide 6 integral foams using breathing mold technology (United States)

    Roch, A.; Kehret, L.; Huber, T.; Henning, F.; Elsner, P.


    Investigations on PA6-GF50 integral foams have been carried out using different material systems: longfiber- and shortfiber-reinforced PA6 as well as unreinforced PA6 as a reference material. Both chemical and physical blowing agents were applied. Breathing mold technology (decompression of the mold) was selected for the foaming process. The integral foam design, which can be conceived as a sandwich structure, helps to save material in the neutral axis area and maintains a distance between load-bearing, unfoamed skin layers. For all test series an initial mold gap of 2.5 mm was chosen and the same amount of material was injected. In order to realize different density reductions, the mold opening stroke was varied. The experiments showed that, at a constant mass per unit area, integral polyamide 6 foams have a significantly higher bending stiffness than compact components, due to their higher area moment of inertia after foaming. At a constant surface weight the bending stiffness in these experiments could be increased by up to 600 %. Both shortfiber- and longfiber-reinforced polyamide 6 showed an increase in energy absorption during foaming.

  1. Taxonomy Icon Data: koji mold [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available koji mold Aspergillus oryzae Aspergillus_oryzae_L.png Aspergillus_oryzae_NL.png Aspergillus_oryzae_S.png Asp...ergillus_oryzae_NS.png ...

  2. The flexible resin transfer molding (FRTM) process (United States)

    Foley, Michael F.


    An innovative composite manufacturing process, FRTM, which is based on detailed cost analysis intended to be 'cost effective by design', is described. FRTM is based on a combination of the technical characteristics and respective favorable economics of diaphragm forming, and resin transfer molding. The process control system determines the optimal time for compaction and forming using an empirical resin polymerization model, a fluid flow model, and dielectric sensing of in-situ resin properties. The modified FRTM process is capable of producing high-quality parts with low thickness variation, low void content, and high fiber volume.

  3. Characteristics and infl uence factors of mold fi lling process in permanent mold with a slot gating system



    The main problems caused by improper gating are entrained aluminum oxide fi lms and entrapped gas. In this study, the slot gating system is employed to improve mold fi lling behavior and therefore, to improve the quality of aluminum castings produced in permanent molds. An equipment as well as operation procedures for real-time X-ray radiography of molten aluminum fl owing into permanent molds have been developed. Graphite molds transparent to X-rays are utilized which make it possible to obs...

  4. Integrally cored ceramic investment casting mold fabricated by ceramic stereolithography (United States)

    Bae, Chang-Jun

    Superalloy airfoils are produced by investment casting (IC), which uses ceramic cores and wax patterns with ceramic shell molds. Hollow cored superalloy airfoils in a gas turbine engine are an example of complex IC parts. The complex internal hollow cavities of the airfoil are designed to conduct cooling air through one or more passageways. These complex internal passageways have been fabricated by a lost wax process requiring several processing steps; core preparation, injection molding for wax pattern, and dipping process for ceramic shell molds. Several steps generate problems such as high cost and decreased accuracy of the ceramic mold. For example, costly tooling and production delay are required to produce mold dies for complex cores and wax patterns used in injection molding, resulting in a big obstacle for prototypes and smaller production runs. Rather than using separate cores, patterns, and shell molds, it would be advantageous to directly produce a mold that has the casting cavity and the ceramic core by one process. Ceramic stereolithography (CerSLA) can be used to directly fabricate the integrally cored ceramic casting mold (ICCM). CerSLA builds ceramic green objects from CAD files from many thin liquid layers of powder in monomer, which are solidified by polymerization with a UV laser, thereby "writing" the design for each slice. This dissertation addresses the integrally cored casting ceramic mold (ICCM), the ceramic core with a ceramic mold shell in a single patternless construction, fabricated by ceramic stereolithography (CerSLA). CerSLA is considered as an alternative method to replace lost wax processes, for small production runs or designs too complex for conventional cores and patterns. The main topic is the development of methods to successfully fabricate an ICCM by CerSLA from refractory silica, as well as related issues. The related issues are the segregation of coarse fused silica powders in a layer, the degree of segregation parameter to

  5. Rotational molding of bio-polymers (United States)

    Greco, Antonio; Maffezzoli, Alfonso; Forleo, Stefania


    This paper is aimed to study the suitability of bio-polymers, including poly-lactic acid (PLLA) and Mater-Bi, for the production of hollow components by rotational molding. In order to reduce the brittleness of PLLA, the material was mixed with two different plasticizers, bis-ethyl-hexyl-phthalate (DEHP) and poly-ethylene-glycol (PEG). The materials were characterized in terms of sinterability. To this purpose, thermomechanical (TMA) analysis was performed at different heating rates, in order to identify the endset temperatures of densification and the onset temperatures of degradation. Results obtained indicated that the materials are characterized by a very fast sintering process, occurring just above the melting temperature, and an adequately high onset of degradation. The difference between the onset of degradation and the endset of sintering, defined as the processing window of the polymer, is sufficiently wide, indicating that the polymers can be efficiently processed by rotational molding. Therefore, a laboratory scale apparatus was used for the production of PLLA and Mater-Bi prototypes. The materials were processed using very similar conditions to those used for LLDPE. The production of void-free samples of uniform wall thickness was considered as an indication of the potentiality of the process for the production of biodegradable containers.

  6. Composite fabrication via resin transfer molding technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jamison, G.M.; Domeier, L.A.


    The IMPReS (Integrated Modeling and Processing of Resin-based Structures) Program was funded in FY95 to consolidate, evaluate and enhance Sandia`s capabilities in the design and fabrication of composite structures. A key driver of this and related programs was the need for more agile product development processes and for model based design and fabrication tools across all of Sandia`s material technologies. A team of polymer, composite and modeling personnel was assembled to benchmark Sandia`s existing expertise in this area relative to industrial and academic programs and to initiate the tasks required to meet Sandia`s future needs. RTM (Resin Transfer Molding) was selected as the focus composite fabrication technology due to its versatility and growing use in industry. Modeling efforts focused on the prediction of composite mechanical properties and failure/damage mechanisms and also on the uncured resin flow processes typical of RTM. Appropriate molds and test composites were fabricated and model validation studies begun. This report summarizes and archives the modeling and fabrication studies carried out under IMPReS and evaluates the status of composite technology within Sandia. It should provide a complete and convenient baseline for future composite technology efforts within Sandia.

  7. Lighting molded optics: Design and manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kočárková H.


    Full Text Available Proper design and manufacturing of glass molded lenses need to be performed in several steps. The whole process from customer requirements to f nal functional product is shown on two examples - a lens for street light and a lens for spot light with narrow lighting angle. After discussing customer requirements, optical design is made. Thanks to various commercial softwares with optimization, manufacturer of the lens can work as well as a designer which enables simplif cation and acceleration of lens manufacturing, since limitations of the manufacturing process are considered during creation of the design. When the prototype is made, its functionality needs to be evaluated. This work shows measurement of light distribution for street light lens in a dark room using goniometer and measurement of light intensity for spot lens f xed on an optical bench. These measurements can reveal the root cause in case of lens malfunction, which enables to optimize manufacturing process or modify lens design accordingly. Designing, manufacturing and evaluation of molded optics under one roof enables creation of easily manufacturable design and fast solution of problems.

  8. Production of Liquid Metal Spheres by Molding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed G. Mohammed


    Full Text Available This paper demonstrates a molding technique for producing spheres composed of eutectic gallium-indium (EGaIn with diameters ranging from hundreds of microns to a couple millimeters. The technique starts by spreading EGaIn across an elastomeric sheet featuring cylindrical reservoirs defined by replica molding. The metal flows into these features during spreading. The spontaneous formation of a thin oxide layer on the liquid metal keeps the metal flush inside these reservoirs. Subsequent exposure to acid removes the oxide and causes the metal to bead up into a sphere with a size dictated by the volume of the reservoirs. This technique allows for the production and patterning of droplets with a wide range of volumes, from tens of nanoliters up to a few microliters. EGaIn spheres can be embedded or encased subsequently in polymer matrices using this technique. These spheres may be useful as solder bumps, electrodes, thermal contacts or components in microfluidic devices (valves, switches, pumps. The ease of parallel-processing and the ability to control the location of the droplets during their formation distinguishes this technique.

  9. Sinterability of Zirconia Top Coat of Investment Mold for Ti Alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    In this paper, zirconia is used as top mold material for Ti investment casting. Top mold samples are made by proper mold building technology. The effect of different sintering temperature on chemical composition, microstructure and residual bending strength of the top mold sample is studied. The volume and homogeneity of the air holes in the top mold are determined by sintering temperature, and finally determined the residual bending strength of the mold sample was determined.

  10. Development of the computer-aided process planning (CAPP) system for polymer injection molds manufacturing


    J. Tepić; V. Todić; Lukić, D.; Milošević, M.; Borojević, S.


    Beginning of production and selling of polymer products largely depends on mold manufacturing. The costs of mold manufacturing have significant share in the final price of a product. The best way to improve and rationalize polymer injection molds production process is by doing mold design automation and manufacturing process planning automation. This paper reviews development of a dedicated process planning system for manufacturing of the mold for injection molding, which integrates computer-...

  11. Taxonomic re-evaluation of black koji molds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hong, S.B.; Yamada, O.; Samson, R.A.


    Black koji molds including its albino mutant, the white koji mold, have been widely used for making the distilled spirit shochu in Northeast Asia because they produce citric acid which prevents undesirable contamination from bacteria. Since Inui reported Aspergillus luchuensis from black koji in Oki

  12. Taxonomic re-evaluation of black koji molds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hong, S.B.; Yamada, O.; Samson, R.A.


    Black koji molds including its albino mutant, the white koji mold, have been widely used for making the distilled spirit shochu in Northeast Asia because they produce citric acid which prevents undesirable contamination from bacteria. Since Inui reported Aspergillus luchuensis from black koji in

  13. Multi-height structures in injection molded polymer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Nis Korsgaard; Taboryski, Rafael J.


    We present the fabrication process for injection molded multi-height surface structures for studies of wetting behavior. We adapt the design of super hydrophobic structures to the fabrication constrictions imposed by industrial injection molding. This is important since many super hydrophobic sur...

  14. A fabrication method of microneedle molds with controlled microstructures. (United States)

    Wang, Qi Lei; Zhu, Dan Dan; Chen, Yang; Guo, Xin Dong


    Microneedle (MN) offers an attractive, painless and minimally invasive approach for transdermal drug delivery. Polymer microneedles are normally fabricated by using the micromolding method employing a MN mold, which is suitable for mass production due to high production efficiency and repeat-using of the mold. Most of the MN molds are prepared by pouring sylgard polymer over a MN master to make an inverse one after curing, which is limited in optimizing or controlling the MN structures and failing to keep the sharpness of MNs. In this work we describe a fabrication method of MN mold with controlled microstructures, which is meaningful for the fabrication of polymer MNs with different geometries. Laser micro-machining method was employed to drill on the surface of PDMS sheets to obtain MN molds. In the fabrication process, the microstructures of MN molds are precisely controlled by changing laser parameters and imported patterns. The MNs prepared from these molds are sharp enough to penetrate the skin. This scalable MN mold fabrication method is helpful for future applications of MNs.

  15. Evaluation of Additive Manufacturing for High Volume Composite Part Molds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duty, Chad E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Kunc, Vlastimil [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Lokitz, Bradley S. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Springfield, Robert M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)


    ORNL worked with TruDesign, LLC to develop viable coating solutions to enable the use of large scale 3D printing for both low-temperature and high-temperature composite molds. This project resulted in two commercial products and successfully demonstrated the use of printed molds for autoclave processing for the first time.

  16. Effect of processing conditions on shrinkage in injection molding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, K.M.B.; Dijk, van D.J.; Husselman, M.H.


    A systematic study on the effect of processing conditions on mold shrinkage was undertaken for seven common thermoplastic polymers. It turned out that the holding pressure was always the key parameter. The effect of the melt temperature is slightly less important. Injection velocity and mold tempera

  17. 21 CFR 177.2410 - Phenolic resins in molded articles. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Phenolic resins in molded articles. 177.2410... as Components of Articles Intended for Repeated Use § 177.2410 Phenolic resins in molded articles. Phenolic resins identified in this section may be safely used as the food-contact surface of...

  18. Vacuum Infusion Molding Process (Part 2 VIMP Based on Grooves)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Ying-dan; DENG Jing-lan; WANG Ji-hui; TAN Hua


    The optimal parameters for flow grooves and supply grooves were determined by a series of experiments , and the influences of various molding conditions on the mold filling process were analyzed. Furthermore ,the whole VIMP procedure based on grooves was introduced in detail taking the manufacture of a sandwich panel as an example.

  19. Bestrijden en voorkomen van de oculatieschimmel Black Mold in roos

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Werd, de H.A.E.; Breeuwsma, S.J.; Meijer, H.; Wijk, van D.; Pijpers, H.


    Black Mold veroorzaakt afsterving van jonge oculaties in de teelt van rozenstruiken. Middels een enquête onder telers, een korte literatuurstudie en infectieproeven is een inventariserend onderzoek gedaan naar de factoren die het optreden van Black Mold beïnvloeden. Op basis van de infectieproeven i


    Although molds have demonstrated the ability to induce allergic asthma-like responses in mouse models, their role in human disease is unclear. This study was undertaken to provide insight into the prevalence of human IgE-reactivity and identify the target mold protein(s). The st...


    Molds have been associated with various health effects including asthma, but their role in induction of asthma is unclear. However, the presence of mold-specific IgE indicates their capacity to induce allergic responses and possibly exacerbate asthma symptoms. This study was und...

  2. Optimization of Mold Yield in MultiCavity Sand Castings (United States)

    Shinde, Vasudev D.; Joshi, Durgesh; Ravi, B.; Narasimhan, K.


    The productivity of ductile iron foundries engaging in mass production of castings for the automobile and other engineering sectors depends on the number of cavities per mold. A denser packing of cavities, however, results in slower heat transfer from adjacent cavities, leading to delayed solidification, possible shrinkage defects, and lower mechanical properties. In this article, we propose a methodology to optimize mold yield by selecting the correct combination of the mold box size and the number of cavities based on solidification time and mold temperature. Simulation studies were carried out by modeling solid and hollow cube castings with different values of cavity-wall gap and finding the minimum value of the gap beyond which there is no change in casting solidification time. Then double-cavity molds were modeled with different values of cavity-cavity gap, and simulated to find the minimum value of gap. The simulation results were verified by melting and pouring ductile iron in green sand molds instrumented with thermocouples, and recording the temperature in mold at predetermined locations. The proposed approach can be employed to generate a technological database of minimum gaps for various combinations of part geometry, metal and process, which will be very useful to optimize the mold cavity layouts.

  3. Mold Flora of Traditional Cheeses Produced in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musa Yalman


    Full Text Available In our country, there are many cheese types that are produced traditionally. Cheeses which produced from cows, sheep and goat milk that matured with spontaneous growth of molds present in livestock skins, pots and similar environments are among them. They are produced traditionally in Mediterrian, Central and Eastern Anatolia regions. Molds that grow spontaneously in cheeses could create public health risk because of their secondary metabolites. Penicillium spp. are the most isolated mold from these cheeses and Penicillium roqueforti is determined as the dominant species. Furthermore, Aspergillus, Alternaria, Mucor, Geotrichum, Cladosporium species have been isolated. It is very important to control the ripening conditions and starter strain selection since some strains were reported as mycotoxin producers. In this review, it has been tried to give general information about traditional production of mold-ripened cheese in Turkey and the mold flora found in traditional cheeses. In addition, public health risk of these cheeses is reported.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Post, Brian K [ORNL; Love, Lonnie J [ORNL; Duty, Chad [University of Tennessee (UTK) and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Vaidya, Uday [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Pipes, R. Byron [Purdue University; Kunc, Vlastimil [ORNL


    Oak Ridge National Laboratory s Big Area Additive Manufacturing (BAAM) technology permits the rapid production of thermoplastic composite molds using a carbon fiber filled Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene (ABS) thermoplastic. Demonstration tools (i.e. 0.965 m X 0.559 m X 0.152 m) for composite part fabrication have been printed, coated, and finished with a traditional tooling gel. We present validation results demonstrating the stability of thermoplastic printed molds for room temperature Vacuum Assisted Resin Transfer Molding (VARTM) processes. Arkema s Elium thermoplastic resin was investigated with a variety of reinforcement materials. Experimental results include dimensional characterization of the tool surface using laser scanning technique following demolding of 10 parts. Thermoplastic composite molds offer rapid production compared to traditionally built thermoset molds in that near-net deposition allows direct digital production of the net geometry at production rate of 45 kg/hr.

  5. Injection-molded nanocomposites and materials based on wheat gluten. (United States)

    Cho, S-W; Gällstedt, M; Johansson, E; Hedenqvist, M S


    This is, to our knowledge, the first study of the injection molding of materials where wheat gluten (WG) is the main component. In addition to a plasticizer (glycerol), 5 wt.% natural montmorillonite clay was added. X-ray indicated intercalated clay and transmission electron microscopy indicated locally good clay platelet dispersion. Prior to feeding into the injection molder, the material was first compression molded into plates and pelletized. The filling of the circular mold via the central gate was characterized by a divergent flow yielding, in general, a stronger and stiffer material in the circumferential direction. It was observed that 20-30 wt.% glycerol yielded the best combination of processability and mechanical properties. The clay yielded improved processability, plate homogeneity and tensile stiffness. IR spectroscopy and protein solubility indicated that the injection molding process yielded a highly aggregated structure. The overall conclusion was that injection molding is a very promising method for producing WG objects.

  6. Standard Molded Composite Rocket Pyrogen Igniter - A progress report (United States)

    Lucy, M. H.


    The pyrogen igniter has the function to furnish a controlled, high temperature, high pressure gas to ignite solid propellant surfaces in a rocket motor. Present pyrogens consist of numerous inert components. The Standard Molded Pyrogen Igniter (SMPI) consists of three basic parts, a cap with several integrally molded features, an ignition pellet retainer plate, and a tube with additional integrally molded features. A description is presented of an investigation which indicates that the SMPI concept is a viable approach to the design and manufacture of pyrogen igniters for solid propellant rocket motors. For some applications, combining the structural and thermal properties of molded composites can result in the manufacture of lighter assemblies at considerable cost reduction. It is demonstrated that high strength, thin walled tubes with high length to diameter ratios can be fabricated from reinforced plastic molding compound using the displacement compression process.

  7. Injection molding of bushes made of tribological PEEK composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)


    Full Text Available Polyetheretherketone (PEEK composites have been extensively studied because of the excellent tribological behavior among plastics. However, laboratory specimens and tests are generally discussed, whereas application studies on industrial components are infrequent. In this paper, an injection molded bush made of tribological PEEK was analyzed to correlate wear behavior and molded material structure. Bushes were tested under unlubricated sliding conditions by means of a short wear test. Surface analysis, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC and optical microscopy were used to evaluate the distribution of the different composite fillers (polytetrafluoroethylene, PTFE, graphite particles and carbon microfibers and their effect on the final bush behavior. A significant lack of homogeneity was observed in the molded bush and black bands appeared on the shaft surface after testing due to the sliding. The bush geometry and the injection molding process should be optimized to allow the best tribological behavior of the molded material under working conditions.

  8. The Facility and Process Technics of Polyethylene Rotational Molding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI; BaiShun


    1. Introduction Rotational molding is the process by which hollow plastic parts are formed. It mainly processes the product which Injection molding and Blow molding can not process medium-sized, large-sized and super large-sized plastic parts. The technics may turn out a tub, dustbin, stock tank, sailboat.  The research institute of Lanzhou introduces a suit of RS-16 Rotational Molding Machine from Germany Reinhadt Co. on 1990. It mainly put up experiment and smallscale production. RS-16 rotational molding machine is a single arm and di-axial equipment. It is consisting of a gas heated sintering oven, cooling chamber, mouldcarrying carriage and a controlling unit.  ……

  9. Mathematical modeling of the in-mold coating process for injection-molded thermoplastic parts (United States)

    Chen, Xu

    In-Mold Coating (IMC) has been successfully used for many years for exterior body panels made from compression molded Sheet Molding Compound (SMC). The coating material is a single component reactive fluid, designed to improve the surface quality of SMC moldings in terms of functional and cosmetic properties. When injected onto a cured SMC part, IMC cures and bonds to provide a pain-like surface. Because of its distinct advantages, IMC is being considered for application to injection molded thermoplastic parts. For a successful in mold coating operation, there are two key issues related to the flow of the coating. First, the injection nozzle should be located such that the thermoplastic substrate is totally covered and the potential for air trapping is minimized. The selected location should be cosmetically acceptable since it most likely will leave a mark on the coated surface. The nozzle location also needs to be accessible for easy of maintenance. Secondly, the hydraulic force generated by the coating injection pressure should not exceed the available clamping tonnage. If the clamping force is exceeded, coating leakage will occur. In this study, mathematical models for IMC flow on the compressible thermoplastic substrate have been developed. Finite Difference Method (FDM) is first used to solve the 1 dimensional (1D) IMC flow problem. In order to investigate the application of Control Volume based Finite Element Method (CV/FEM) to more complicated two dimensional IMC flow, that method is first evaluated by solving the 1D IMC flow problem. An analytical solution, which can be obtained when a linear relationship between the coating thickness and coating injection pressure is assumed, is used to verify the numerical results. The mathematical models for the 2 dimensional (2D) IMC flow are based on the generalized Hele-Shaw approximation. It has been found experimentally that the power law viscosity model adequately predicts the rheological behavior of the coating

  10. Public health and economic impact of dampness and mold

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mudarri, David; Fisk, William J.


    The public health risk and economic impact of dampness and mold exposures was assessed using current asthma as a health endpoint. Individual risk of current asthma from exposure to dampness and mold in homes from Fisk et al. (2007), and asthma risks calculated from additional studies that reported the prevalence of dampness and mold in homes were used to estimate the proportion of U.S. current asthma cases that are attributable to dampness and mold exposure at 21% (95% confidence internal 12-29%). An examination of the literature covering dampness and mold in schools, offices, and institutional buildings, which is summarized in the appendix, suggests that risks from exposure in these buildings are similar to risks from exposures in homes. Of the 21.8 million people reported to have asthma in the U.S., approximately 4.6 (2.7-6.3) million cases are estimated to be attributable to dampness and mold exposure in the home. Estimates of the national cost of asthma from two prior studies were updated to 2004 and used to estimate the economic impact of dampness and mold exposures. By applying the attributable fraction to the updated national annual cost of asthma, the national annual cost of asthma that is attributable to dampness and mold exposure in the home is estimated to be $3.5 billion ($2.1-4.8 billion). Analysis indicates that exposure to dampness and mold in buildings poses significant public health and economic risks in the U.S. These findings are compatible with public policies and programs that help control moisture and mold in buildings.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjeev Kumar


    Full Text Available Nowadays injection molding is probably the most important method of Processing of consumer and industrial goods, and is performed everywhere in the world. The developing of injection molding becomes a competition from day to day. This Process now integrated with computer control make the production better in quality and Better quantity. The trends of producing a plastics product in injection molding industries are recently changing from traditional method to using the FEA analysis. For injection molding industries, time and cost is very important aspects to consider because these two aspectswill directly related to the profits at a company. The next issue toconsider, to get the best parameter for the injection molding process, plastics has been waste. Through the experiment, operator will use large amount of plastics material to get the possibly parameters to setup the machine.To produce the parts with better quality and quantity these molding defects are the major obstacles in achieving the targets with quality & quantity. Various defects like Short shot, colour streaks and low productivity rates are associated with the material mixing and feeding as molded plastics are often a blend of two or more materials. Colors (master batch and other additives are often mixed (blended with the raw plastic material prior to the molding process in molding plants. So it is very necessary to work out auto blending and auto feeding of plasticgranules to the machine hopper. This paper will cover the studyof automatic blending unit & central conveying system for plasticgranule feeding to machine & will help in optimizing the injection molding process.

  12. 煤泥的浮选试验研究%Flotation experimental study of the coal slime

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    缪长勇; 郭喜民


    That article illustrates the advantages, and takes the coal slime from some company as an example, a research is conducted that makes coMParison between flotation column and flotation machine. Eventually the results show that the flotation column is more predominant in reducing the ash in clean coal and improving the efficiency of sizing coMParing to the flotation machines.%该文阐述了浮选柱的优点,并以某选煤厂煤泥为例,分别进行了浮选柱与浮选机的对比试验研究。结果表明:浮选柱在降低精煤灰分、提高分选效率方面,浮选柱比浮选机具有显著的优越性。

  13. Reuse of Anode Slime Generated by the Zinc Industry to Obtain a Liquor for Manufacturing Electrolytic Manganese (United States)

    Ayala, J.; Fernández, B.


    A hydrometallurgical process is proposed in this article to recover manganese from a zinc electrowinning residue. The article describes the digestion-leaching experiments, precipitation, and electrowinning assays to recover Mn from this residue. Anode slime is treated with sulfuric acidic in a furnace within a temperature range of 400-450°C, leached with water, and then filtered. The results show that the dissolution of manganese increases with increasing temperature in the digestion step. The recovery yield of manganese was higher than 90%. As manganese electrolysis requires an electrolyte free of Zn, Ni, Co, and Cu pollutants, the sulfuric acid liquor needs a purification step. Na2S is used to remove pollutants. The results obtained in this study have shown that the proposed process for the recovery of manganese from this type of residue is technically viable.

  14. [Seasonal change of Vibrio vulnificus in the slime of tidal flats, seawater, and fishes collected along Ariake Sea, Japan]. (United States)

    Kinoshita, Chie; Horita, Rie; Hashimoto, Kouji; Kondo, Masaharu; Matsueda, Tomoko; Sagawa, Kimitaka


    To investigate the seasonal change of Vibrio vulnificus in Ariake Sea, Japan, we attempted to isolate V. vulnificus from the slime of tidal flats, seawater, and fishes obtained from three harbors along Ariake Sea. The sample were collected twice a month from January to December, 2001. Also, we determined the biological characteristics of the individual isolates. V. vulnificus were isolated throughout the year, but the isolation ratios were higher during the warmer season from June to October. The isolates in the warmer season were able to grow in culture media containing 0.5% NaCl, whereas those isolated in the remaining seasons could not. Moreover, the isolates in the warmer season showed a greater hemolytic activity than those isolated in the remaining seasons. These results suggest that V. vulnificus isolated in warmer seasons are more vigorous in nature than those isolated in the remaining seasons.

  15. Study on the Efficient Coal Slime Flotation%煤泥高效浮选技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙青; 谢华


    This article introduces the approaches of reducing production costs and improving the economic efficiency during the coal slime flotation process; focuses on the methods of increasing the output of clean coal and reducing the ash of clean coal and consumption of reagent. It has some reference value on transformation and production of coal preparation plant to improve quality and reduce consumption.%介绍了煤泥浮选过程中,降低生产成本、提高经济效益的途径;重点探讨了提高精煤产量、降低精煤灰分及减少药剂消耗的方法。对选煤厂改造及生产中提质降耗有一定的参考意义。

  16. Specific mold filling characteristics of highly filled phenolic injection molding compounds


    Scheffler, Thomas; Englich, Sascha; Gehde, Michael


    Thermosets show excellent mechanical properties and chemical resistance (for most automotive fluids) even at high temperatures up to 300 °C. Furthermore they can be highly efficient processed by injection molding. So they should be particularly suited for e.g. under the bonnet applications. However, the reality shows that thermosets are, except fiber reinforced composites, heavily underrepresented in technical applications. E.g. thermosetting components only account 0,2 % to a vehicle’s weigh...

  17. Double blind placebo controlled exposure to molds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, H W; Jensen, K A; Nielsen, K F


    with a positive histamine release test to Penicillium chrysogenum were exposed double- blinded to either placebo, approximately 600,000 spores/m3 air of P. chrysogenum or approximately 350,000 spores/m3 of Trichoderma harzianum for 6 min on three separate days. A statistically significant rise in symptoms from...... mucous membranes appeared from the 9-graded symptom scale after exposure to T. harzianum or placebo. Dichotomizing the data, whether the participants experienced at least a two-step rise on the symptom scale or not, gave borderline increase in mucous membrane symptoms after exposure to P. chrysogenum...... to placebo in eight sensitive school employees. However, a statistical type II error cannot be excluded because of the small sample size. PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS: In this double blind, placebo controlled study of mold exposure changes in symptoms, objective measurements and blood samples were small and mostly...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Garcia


    Full Text Available This work follows the general framework of polymer injection moulding simulation whose objectives are the mastering of the injection moulding process. The models of numerical simulation make it possible to predict the propagation of the molten polymer during the filling phase from the positioning of one point of injection or more. The objective of this paper is to propose a particular way to optimize the geometry of mold cavity in accordance with physical laws. A direct correlation is pointed out between geometric parameters issued from skeleton transformation and Hausdorff's distance and results provided by implementation of a classical model based on the Hele-Shaw equations which are currently used in the main computer codes of polymer injection.

  19. Review of small aspheric glass lens molding technologies (United States)

    Yin, Shaohui; Jia, Hongpeng; Zhang, Guanhua; Chen, Fengjun; Zhu, Kejun


    Aspheric lens can eliminate spherical aberrations, coma, astigmatism, field distortions, and other adverse factors. This type of lens can also reduce the loss of light energy and obtain high-quality images and optical characteristics. The demand for aspheric lens has increased in recent years because of its advantageous use in the electronics industry, particularly for compact, portable devices and high-performance products. As an advanced manufacturing technology, the glass lens molding process has been recognized as a low-cost and high-efficiency manufacturing technology for machining small-diameter aspheric lens for industrial production. However, the residual stress and profile deviation of the glass lens are greatly affected by various key technologies for glass lens molding, including glass and mold-die material forming, mold-die machining, and lens molding. These key technical factors, which affect the quality of the glass lens molding process, are systematically discussed and reviewed to solve the existing technical bottlenecks and problems, as well as to predict the potential applicability of glass lens molding in the future.

  20. Indoor mold, toxigenic fungi, and Stachybotrys chartarum: infectious disease perspective. (United States)

    Kuhn, D M; Ghannoum, M A


    Damp buildings often have a moldy smell or obvious mold growth; some molds are human pathogens. This has caused concern regarding health effects of moldy indoor environments and has resulted in many studies of moisture- and mold-damaged buildings. Recently, there have been reports of severe illness as a result of indoor mold exposure, particularly due to Stachybotrys chartarum. While many authors describe a direct relationship between fungal contamination and illness, close examination of the literature reveals a confusing picture. Here, we review the evidence regarding indoor mold exposure and mycotoxicosis, with an emphasis on S. chartarum. We also examine possible end-organ effects, including pulmonary, immunologic, neurologic, and oncologic disorders. We discuss the Cleveland infant idiopathic pulmonary hemorrhage reports in detail, since they provided important impetus for concerns about Stachybotrys. Some valid concerns exist regarding the relationship between indoor mold exposure and human disease. Review of the literature reveals certain fungus-disease associations in humans, including ergotism (Claviceps species), alimentary toxic aleukia (Fusarium), and liver disease (Aspergillys). While many papers suggest a similar relationship between Stachybotrys and human disease, the studies nearly uniformly suffer from significant methodological flaws, making their findings inconclusive. As a result, we have not found well-substantiated supportive evidence of serious illness due to Stachybotrys exposure in the contemporary environment. To address issues of indoor mold-related illness, there is an urgent need for studies using objective markers of illness, relevant animal models, proper epidemiologic techniques, and examination of confounding factors.

  1. [Biological monitoring in the molding of plastics and rubbers]. (United States)

    Fustinoni, S; Campo, L; Cirla, A M; Cirla, P E; Cutugno, V; Lionetti, C; Martinotti, I; Mossini, E; Foà, V


    This survey was carried out in the molding of plastics and rubbers, in the "Professional Cancer Prevention Project" sponsored by the Lombardy region with the objective of developing and implementing protocols for evaluating exposure to carcinogens through the biological monitoring. The realities of molding the thermoplastic polymer ABS, rubber, and thermosetting plastics containing formaldehyde were examined. The carcinogenic substances identified in these processes were: 1,3-butadiene, acrylonitrile and styrene in molding ABS, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in molding rubber, and formaldehyde in molding the thermosetting plastics. Only for some of these substances biological indicators are available. The limited exposure to airborne chemicals in molding ABS and the intrinsic characteristics of biological indicators available for 1-3 butadiene have determined the non applicability of biological monitoring to this situation. The absence of a biological indicator of exposure to formaldehyde has made this situation not investigable. Exposure in the rubber molding was studied in 19 subjects applying the determination not metabolized PAH in urine. The levels of these indicators were similar to those measured in other groups of subjects without occupational exposure to PAH, confirming a low airborne contamination in this workplace.

  2. Thermomechanical Behavior in Continuous Bloom Casting with Different Mold Tapers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Xin; CHEN Yong; SHEN Houfa


    A two-dimensional finite element model was used to analyze the thermal and mechanical behavior dunng solidification of the strand in a continuous bloom casting mold.The coupled heat transfer and defermation were analyzed to simulate the formation of the air gap between the mold and the strand.The model was used to investigate the influence of mold taper on the temperature and stress distributions in the strand.The results show that the air gap mainly forms around the strand corner,causing a hoRer and thinner solidifying shell in this region.The mold taper partially compensates for the strand shell shnnkage and reduces the infiuence of the air gap on the heat transfer.The mold taper compresses the shell and changes the stress state around the stmnd comer region.As the strand moves down into the mold,the mold constraint causes compressive stress beneath the comer surface.which reduces the hot tear that forms on the strand.

  3. A New Type Machine of Mixing-molding for Polyblends

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Chuan-sheng; LI Li; BIAN Hui-guang


    This paper introduces a new type machine for polyblends with excellent mixing capabilities of internal mixer and continuous molding character of extruder. The machine includes two functions -- mixing and extrusion molding that have been composed together by rational design, so a tandem production mode -- "batch + continuous" are opened up. The mathematical model of continuous mixing molding was established and verified availably by experimental research. The main physical mechanical property of vuicanizate, which had met national waterproof material standard, verified the machine practicability. The essential difference from other similar type machines is that this machine is not only suitable in producing granular and powder rubbers but also lumpish tablets.

  4. Development of Integrated Simulation System for Plastic Injection Molding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENGXue-wen; LIDe-qun; ZHOUHua-min


    Numerical simulation of injection molding have had success in predicting the behavior of polymer melt in extremely complicated geometries. Most of the current numerical solutions are based on finite-element/finite-difference/boundary-element/volume-control methods and the surface model. This paper discusses the development of an integrated CAE system for injection molding in detail, and presents the mathematics for numerical simulation of filling, packing,cooling, stress and warpage in injection molding. The developed system named as HsCAE3D is introduced at the end.

  5. The analysis of injection molding defects caused by gate vestiges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Tabi


    Full Text Available Issues of product safety are the most serious problems of an injection molded product due to their risk to human health. Such a safety problem can be the needle-shaped vestige at the gate zone of injection molded products, called a gate vestige. Only observations of the formation of gate vestiges can be found in the literature, but the processing parameters influencing their dimensions, especially their height have not been studied yet. Our goal was to study the effect of various injection molding processing parameters and gate constructions on gate vestige formation.

  6. Recent Developments and Trends in Powder Injection Molding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hermina Wang


    Injection molding is a productive and widely used technology for shaping plastics. The use of this shaping technique to metal and ceramics powders is termed powder injection molding (PIM). This process combines a certain quantity of a polymer with a metallic or ceramic powder to form a feedstock that can be molded. After shaping, the polymeric binder is extracted and the powder is sintered. When proper powder size or/and its distribution are used, sintered densities of 95% or more, often to near-theoretical densities, are reached and the mechanical properties are, therefore, generally superior to those of traditional PM parts.

  7. Fabrication of micro gear wheels by micropowder injection molding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Haiqing Yin; Xuanhui Qu; Chengchang Jia


    The micropowder injection molding technology was investigated to fabricate the microsized gear wheels on a conventional injection molding machine. The feedstock comprised of carbonyl ferrum powder and a wax-based thermoplastic binder. Microinjection molding was fulfilled at about 423 K under 100 MPa. The heating system was applied to the die to improve the fluidity of the feedstock and subsequently the cooling system was used to enhance the strength of the green compacts after injection by decreasing the temperature of the die. The gear wheels were realized successfully with their addendum circle diameter ranging from 800 to 200 m and with the center hole as small as 60 μtm.

  8. Desarrollo de moldes de prensado con recubrimientos antidesgaste


    Poyatos, A.; Tur, F.; Pérez, José Antonio; Rodríguez, Miguel A.


    [ES] El objetivo del presente trabajo ha sido el desarrollo de una nueva concepción de moldes de prensado para la industria del pavimento y revestimiento cerámicos. El empleo de recubrimientos con materiales compuestos metal-cerámica ha permitido, además de multiplicar la vida útil de los moldes por un factor entre 2 y 3 (1.000.000 – 1.500.000 ciclos de prensado), emplear aceros más económicos en la producción del molde, su reutilización, eliminar etapas de alto consumo energético, c...

  9. Two component micro injection molding for MID fabrication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Islam, Mohammad Aminul; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Tang, Peter Torben


    Molded Interconnect Devices (MIDs) are plastic substrates with electrical infrastructure. The fabrication of MIDs is usually based on injection molding and different process chains may be identified from this starting point. The use of MIDs has been driven primarily by the automotive sector......, but recently the medical sector seems more and more interested. In particular the possibility of miniaturization of 3D components with electrical infrastructure is attractive. The paper describes possible manufacturing routes and challenges of miniaturized MIDs based on two component micro injection molding...

  10. Rapid and low-cost prototyping of medical devices using 3D printed molds for liquid injection molding. (United States)

    Chung, Philip; Heller, J Alex; Etemadi, Mozziyar; Ottoson, Paige E; Liu, Jonathan A; Rand, Larry; Roy, Shuvo


    Biologically inert elastomers such as silicone are favorable materials for medical device fabrication, but forming and curing these elastomers using traditional liquid injection molding processes can be an expensive process due to tooling and equipment costs. As a result, it has traditionally been impractical to use liquid injection molding for low-cost, rapid prototyping applications. We have devised a method for rapid and low-cost production of liquid elastomer injection molded devices that utilizes fused deposition modeling 3D printers for mold design and a modified desiccator as an injection system. Low costs and rapid turnaround time in this technique lower the barrier to iteratively designing and prototyping complex elastomer devices. Furthermore, CAD models developed in this process can be later adapted for metal mold tooling design, enabling an easy transition to a traditional injection molding process. We have used this technique to manufacture intravaginal probes involving complex geometries, as well as overmolding over metal parts, using tools commonly available within an academic research laboratory. However, this technique can be easily adapted to create liquid injection molded devices for many other applications.

  11. The use of birefringence for predicting the stiffness of injection molded polycarbonate discs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neves, N.M.; Pouzada, A.S.; Voerman, J.H.D.; Powell, P.C.


    Polycarbonate discs were injection molded with different sets of molding conditions. The parameters studied were the flow rate, melt- and mold-temperature. The discs were subjected to three point support flexural tests. Those tests are specially intended for injection molded discs because of their i

  12. 40 CFR 63.5728 - What standards must I meet for closed molding resin operations? (United States)


    ... molding resin operations? 63.5728 Section 63.5728 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Standards for Closed Molding Resin Operations § 63.5728 What standards must I meet for closed molding resin operations? (a) If a resin application operation meets the definition of closed molding specified in §...

  13. Mold Simulator Study on the Initial Solidification of Molten Steel Near the Corner of Continuous Casting Mold (United States)

    Lyu, Peisheng; Wang, Wanlin; Zhang, Haihui


    Corner cracks are one of the most widespread surface defects of continuous casting slabs, and they are especially severe for peritectic steels and low-alloy steels. Therefore, a clear understanding of molten steel initial solidification around mold corner would be of great importance for the inhibition of corner cracks. This paper has been conducted with the aim to elucidate this understanding, by using a novel mold simulator equipped with a right-angle copper mold. The responding temperatures and heat fluxes across the mold hot-face and corner were firstly calculated through a 2D-inverse heat conduction program mathematical model, and the results suggested that the cooling ability and the fluctuation of heat fluxes around the mold corner are stronger than those for mold hot-face. With the help of power spectral density analysis and fast Fourier transformation, the four characteristic signals of heat fluxes were discussed in this paper. Next, the relation between the thickness of solidified shell and solidification time was fitted with the solidification square root law; as a result, the average solidification factor bar{K} for the hot-face shell is 2.32 mm/s1/2, and it is 2.77 mm/s1/2 for the shell near-corner. For the same oscillation marks (OMs), it appeared that the OMs positions on the shell corner are lower than those on the shell hot-face along the casting direction, because the stronger shrinkage of shell at the corner allows the overflowing steel to penetrate deeper into the larger gap between the shell corner and mold, which is demonstrated through the heat transfer analysis and metallographic examination. Finally, the interrelation between shell profile, mold oscillation, variation rate of heat flux, high-frequency heat flux and high-frequency temperature was discussed for above two cases, and the results suggested that meniscus conditions (heat transfer and melt flow) around the mold corner are more unsteady.

  14. Mold Simulator Study on the Initial Solidification of Molten Steel Near the Corner of Continuous Casting Mold (United States)

    Lyu, Peisheng; Wang, Wanlin; Zhang, Haihui


    Corner cracks are one of the most widespread surface defects of continuous casting slabs, and they are especially severe for peritectic steels and low-alloy steels. Therefore, a clear understanding of molten steel initial solidification around mold corner would be of great importance for the inhibition of corner cracks. This paper has been conducted with the aim to elucidate this understanding, by using a novel mold simulator equipped with a right-angle copper mold. The responding temperatures and heat fluxes across the mold hot-face and corner were firstly calculated through a 2D-inverse heat conduction program mathematical model, and the results suggested that the cooling ability and the fluctuation of heat fluxes around the mold corner are stronger than those for mold hot-face. With the help of power spectral density analysis and fast Fourier transformation, the four characteristic signals of heat fluxes were discussed in this paper. Next, the relation between the thickness of solidified shell and solidification time was fitted with the solidification square root law; as a result, the average solidification factor bar{K} for the hot-face shell is 2.32 mm/s1/2, and it is 2.77 mm/s1/2 for the shell near-corner. For the same oscillation marks (OMs), it appeared that the OMs positions on the shell corner are lower than those on the shell hot-face along the casting direction, because the stronger shrinkage of shell at the corner allows the overflowing steel to penetrate deeper into the larger gap between the shell corner and mold, which is demonstrated through the heat transfer analysis and metallographic examination. Finally, the interrelation between shell profile, mold oscillation, variation rate of heat flux, high-frequency heat flux and high-frequency temperature was discussed for above two cases, and the results suggested that meniscus conditions (heat transfer and melt flow) around the mold corner are more unsteady.

  15. 浮选柱浮选金矿矿泥半工业试验研究%Semi Industrial Test by Analysis of Flotation Column Flotation Gold Slime

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    管乐; 高云; 孙日舜


    本文介绍了某金矿应用浮选柱浮选矿泥所进行的半工业试验过程及结果分析。通过试验及数据分析,表明了浮选柱适合该金矿浮选矿泥,并能够取得比较好的技术指标。%This paper introduces the application of flotation column flotation gold slime and the analysis of semi industrial test process and result in a gold mine. Through the test and data analysis, it shows that the flotation column for the gold flotation slime, and can better achieve technical index.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Jachowicz


    Full Text Available This paper presents the rotational molding process. The general principles of this polymer processing technology have been described. The main applications have been introduced and leading advantages and typical disadvantages of rotational molding process have been discussed. Based on the conducted experimental tests, the influence of changing one selected technological parameter, which characterized rotational molding process, on selected geometrical features of the polymer cast has been determined. Rotational mold’s speed around axes was changed and a thickness of cast walls has been measured. Laboratory test stand, processing properties of polymer, also test program and experimental test methodology have been described.

  17. 煤泥高效离心脱水机脱水效果的试验研究%Experimental study on dehydration effects of efficient slime centrifuge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨建国; 刘传印; 程晓峰; 王兴兴


    Aiming at the dehydration process of fine coal with the slime centrifuge, influences of feedings size, feedings concentration, centrifugal factor and residence duration on the dehydration effect are studied. The re sults show that variation of the feedings characters have great influences on the dehydration performance of the slime centrifuge, so when they change, the centrifuge's working parameters need to adjust so as to ensure the dehydration performance. The centrifugal factor and the residence duration of the efficient slime centrifuge can be adjusted precisely as the feedings characters change, thus it has good adaptability for feedings with different characters, and is has more advantages than the traditional slime centrifuge.%针对煤泥离心脱水机对细粒煤的脱水过程,研究了入料粒度、入料浓度、离心因数与停留时间对脱水效果的影响.结果表明,入料性质的变化对煤泥离心脱水机脱水效果的影响较为显著,入料性质变化时应及时调整离心机参数才能确保脱水效果.煤泥高效离心机的离心因数、物料停留时间可根据物料性质的改变进行精确调节,对不同性质的入料均有较好的适应性,相比较传统煤泥离心机有较大的优势.

  18. Cavity air flow behavior during filling in microinjection molding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Griffiths, C.A.; Dimov, S.S.; Scholz, S.


    Process monitoring of microinjection molding (μ-IM) is of crucial importance in understanding the effects of different parameter settings on the process, especially on its performance and consistency with regard to parts' quality. Quality factors related to mold cavity air evacuation can provide...... valuable information about the process dynamics and also about the filling of a cavity by a polymer melt. In this paper, a novel experimental setup is proposed to monitor maximum air flow and air flow work as an integral of the air flow over time by employing a microelectromechanical system gas sensor...... mounted inside the mold. The influence of four μIM parameters, melt temperature, mold temperature, injection speed, and resistance to air evacuation, on two air flow-related output parameters is investigated by carrying out a design of experiment study. The results provide empirical evidences about...

  19. Smart plastic functionalization by nanoimprint and injection molding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zalkovskij, Maksim; Thamdrup, Lasse Højlund; Smistrup, Kristian;


    In this paper, we present a route for making smart functionalized plastic parts by injection molding with sub-micrometer surface structures. The method is based on combining planar processes well known and established within silicon micro and sub-micro fabrication with proven high resolution...... the pattern. With this approach, we demonstrate the transfer of down to 140 nm wide holes on large areas with good structure fidelity on an injection molding steel insert. The durability of the sub-micrometer structures on the inserts have been investigated by running two production series of 102,000 and 73......,000 injection molded parts, respectively, on two different inserts and inspecting the inserts before and after the production series and the molded parts during the production series....

  20. Cork is used to make tooling patterns and molds (United States)

    Hoffman, F. J.


    Sheet and waste cork are cemented together to provide a tooling pattern or mold. The cork form withstands moderately high temperatures under vacuum or pressure with minimum expansion, shrinkage, or distortion.

  1. Mold Heating and Cooling Pump Package Operator Interface Controls Upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Josh A. Salmond


    The modernization of the Mold Heating and Cooling Pump Package Operator Interface (MHC PP OI) consisted of upgrading the antiquated single board computer with a proprietary operating system to off-the-shelf hardware and off-the-shelf software with customizable software options. The pump package is the machine interface between a central heating and cooling system that pumps heat transfer fluid through an injection or compression mold base on a local plastic molding machine. The operator interface provides the intelligent means of controlling this pumping process. Strict temperature control of a mold allows the production of high quality parts with tight tolerances and low residual stresses. The products fabricated are used on multiple programs.

  2. Moldability Evaluation for Molded Parts Based on Fuzzy Reasoning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Moldability evaluation for molded parts, which is the basis of concurrent design, is a key design stage in injection molding design. By moldability evaluation the design problems can be found timely and an optimum plastic part design achieved. In this paper, a systematic methodology for moldability evaluation based on fuzzy logic is proposed. Firstly, fuzzy set modeling for six key design attributes of molded parts is carried out respectively. Secondly, on the basis of this, the relationship between fuzzy sets for design attributes and fuzzy sets for moldability is established by fuzzy rules that are based on domain experts' experience and knowledge. At last the integral moldability for molded parts is obtained through fuzzy reasoning. The neural network based fuzzy reasoning approach presented in this paper can improve fuzzy reasoning efficiency greatly, especially for system having a large number of rules and complicated membership functions. An example for moldability evaluation is given to show the feasibility of this proposed methodology.

  3. Residual stresses in injection molded shape memory polymer parts (United States)

    Katmer, Sukran; Esen, Huseyin; Karatas, Cetin


    Shape memory polymers (SMPs) are materials which have shape memory effect (SME). SME is a property which has the ability to change shape when induced by a stimulator such as temperature, moisture, pH, electric current, magnetic field, light, etc. A process, known as programming, is applied to SMP parts in order to alter them from their permanent shape to their temporary shape. In this study we investigated effects of injection molding and programming processes on residual stresses in molded thermoplastic polyurethane shape memory polymer, experimentally. The residual stresses were measured by layer removal method. The study shows that injection molding and programming process conditions have significantly influence on residual stresses in molded shape memory polyurethane parts.

  4. A corneal mold to restore normal corneal dimensions. (United States)

    Swinger, C A; Kornmehl, E W; York, S; Forman, J S


    A corneal mold is described that provides an MK corneal button of normal thickness and curvature from an edematous, post-mortem button. The uniform, processed tissue can then be used for experimental refractive surgery.

  5. Modular injection mold manufacturing in a selective laser sintering machine (United States)

    Ikonen, Ilkka T.; Biles, William E.


    Reduced time to market places exacting requirements for the speed and quality of the design, manufacture and testing of new plastic parts. Traditionally, the greatest time for getting a new plastic product prototyped and tested is that for the mold fabrication phase. New metal materials for selective laser sintering (SLS) rapid prototyping technology allow direct mold fabrication for prototype plastic parts. Typically these molds are also useable for small scale production runs up to 50,000 parts. Using this technology prototype parts can be manufactured using the same materials and processes as used for the final product allowing testing of the whole manufacturing process for the prototype. This gives a company new opportunities to get a new or modified product to market faster and cheaper than by using traditional mold making processes. In this paper we describe this new technology and discuss how small and mid-size manufacturing companies can benefit from it.

  6. Method and mold for casting thin metal objects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pehrson, Brandon P; Moore, Alan F


    Provided herein are various embodiments of systems for casting thin metal plates and sheets. Typical embodiments include layers of mold cavities that are oriented vertically for casting the metal plates. In some embodiments, the mold cavities include a beveled edge such that the plates that are cast have a beveled edge. In some embodiments, the mold cavities are filled with a molten metal through an open horizontal edge of the cavity. In some embodiments, the mold cavities are filled through one or more vertical feed orifices. Further disclosed are methods for forming a thin cast metal plate or sheet where the thickness of the cast part is in a range from 0.005 inches to 0.2 inches, and the surface area of the cast part is in a range from 16 square inches to 144 square inches.

  7. Material flow data for numerical simulation of powder injection molding (United States)

    Duretek, I.; Holzer, C.


    The powder injection molding (PIM) process is a cost efficient and important net-shape manufacturing process that is not completely understood. For the application of simulation programs for the powder injection molding process, apart from suitable physical models, exact material data and in particular knowledge of the flow behavior are essential in order to get precise numerical results. The flow processes of highly filled polymers are complex. Occurring effects are very hard to separate, like shear flow with yield stress, wall slip, elastic effects, etc. Furthermore, the occurrence of phase separation due to the multi-phase composition of compounds is quite probable. In this work, the flow behavior of a 316L stainless steel feedstock for powder injection molding was investigated. Additionally, the influence of pre-shearing on the flow behavior of PIM-feedstocks under practical conditions was examined and evaluated by a special PIM injection molding machine rheometer. In order to have a better understanding of key factors of PIM during the injection step, 3D non-isothermal numerical simulations were conducted with a commercial injection molding simulation software using experimental feedstock properties. The simulation results were compared with the experimental results. The mold filling studies amply illustrate the effect of mold temperature on the filling behavior during the mold filling stage. Moreover, the rheological measurements showed that at low shear rates no zero shear viscosity was observed, but instead the viscosity further increased strongly. This flow behavior could be described with the Cross-WLF approach with Herschel-Bulkley extension very well.

  8. Bioprospection of yeasts as biocontrol agents against phytopathogenic molds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Maria Rosa-Magri


    Full Text Available Yeasts isolated from sugar cane and maize rhizosphere, leaves and stalks were screened against the phytopathogenic molds Colletotrichum sublineolum and Colletotrichum graminicola, both causal agents of the anthracnose disease in sorghum and maize, respectively. Strains identified as Torulaspora globosa and Candida intermedia were able to inhibit the mold growth, with the first species also exhibiting killer activity. No previous report on the application and potentiality of these yeasts as biocontrol agents were found neither the killer phenotype in Torulaspora globosa.

  9. Bioprospection of yeasts as biocontrol agents against phytopathogenic molds


    Márcia Maria Rosa-Magri; Sâmia Maria Tauk-Tornisielo; Sandra Regina Ceccato-Antonini


    Yeasts isolated from sugar cane and maize rhizosphere, leaves and stalks were screened against the phytopathogenic molds Colletotrichum sublineolum and Colletotrichum graminicola, both causal agents of the anthracnose disease in sorghum and maize, respectively. Strains identified as Torulaspora globosa and Candida intermedia were able to inhibit the mold growth, with the first species also exhibiting killer activity. No previous report on the application and potentiality of these yeasts as bi...

  10. CAE for Injection Molding — Past, Present and the Future (United States)

    Wang, Kuo K.


    It is well known that injection molding is the most effective process for mass-producing discrete plastic parts of complex shape to the highest precision at the lowest cost. However, due to the complex property of polymeric materials undergoing a transient non-isothermal process, it is equally well recognized that the quality of final products is often difficult to be assured. This is particularly true when a new mold or material is encountered. As a result, injection molding has often been viewed as an art than a science. During the past few decades, numerical simulation of injection molding process based on analytic models has become feasible for practical use as computers became faster and cheaper continually. A research effort was initiated at the Cornell Injection Molding Program (CIMP) in 1974 under a grant from the National Science Foundation. Over a quarter of the century, CIMP has established some scientific bases ranging from materials characterization, flow analysis, to prediction of part quality. Use of such CAE tools has become common place today in industry. Present effort has been primarily aimed at refinements of many aspects of the process. Computational efficiency and user-interface have been main thrusts by commercial software developers. Extension to 3-dimensional flow analysis for certain parts has drawn some attention. Research activities are continuing on molding of fiber-filled materials and reactive polymers. Expanded molding processes such as gas-assisted, co-injection, micro-molding and many others are continually being investigated. In the future, improvements in simulation accuracy and efficiency will continue. This will include in-depth studies on materials characterization. Intelligent on-line process control may draw more attention in order to achieve higher degree of automation. As Internet technology continues to evolve, Web-based CAE tools for design, production, remote process monitoring and control can come to path. The CAE

  11. Evaluation of Additive Manufacturing for Composite Part Molds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duty, Chad E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Springfield, Robert M. [Tru Design, LLC, Knoxville, TN (United States)


    The ORNL Manufacturing Demonstration Facility (MDF) collaborated with Tru-Design to test the quality and durability of molds used for making fiber reinforced composites using additive manufacturing. The partners developed surface treatment techniques including epoxy coatings and machining to improve the quality of the surface finish. Test samples made using the printed and surface finished molds demonstrated life spans suitable for one-of-a-kind and low-volume applications, meeting the project objective.

  12. The Simulation and Optimization of Aspheric Plastic Lens Injection Molding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEN Jialing; WEN Pengfei


    For the purpose of reducing the volumetric shrinkage and volumetric shrinkage variation, the process in injection molding of aspheric plastic lens was simulated, and several process parameters which include holding pressure, melt temperature, mold temperature, fill time, holding pressure time and cooling time were optimized by using an orthogonal experimental design method. Finally, the optimum process parameters and the influence degree of process parameters on the average volumetric shrinkage and the volumetric shrinkage variation are obtained.

  13. Localized rapid heating process for precision chalcogenide glass molding (United States)

    Li, Hui; He, Peng; Yu, Jianfeng; Lee, L. James; Yi, Allen Y.


    Precision glass molding is an important process for high volume optical fabrication. However, conventional glass molding is a bulk heating process that usually requires a long thermal cycle, where molding assembly and other mechanical parts are heated and cooled together. This often causes low efficiency and other heating and cooling related problems, such as large thermal expansion in both the molds and molded optics. To cope with this issue, we developed a localized rapid heating process to effectively heat only very small part of the glass. This localized rapid heating study utilized a fused silica wafer coated with a thin graphene layer to heat only the surface of the glass. The graphene coating functions as an electrical resistant heater when a power source was applied across the thin film coating, generating heat on and near the coating. The feasibility of this process was validated by both experiments and numerical simulation. To demonstrate the advantages of the localized rapid heating, both localized rapid heating process and bulk heating process were performed and carefully compared. The uniformity and quality of the molded sample by localized rapid heating process was also demonstrated. In summary, localized rapid heating process by using graphene coated fused silica wafer was characterized and can be readily implemented in replication of micro scale chalcogenide glasses. A fused silica wafer coated with a thin graphene layer was utilized for localized rapid heating only the surface of the glass. The graphene coating functions as an electrical resistant heater when a power source was applied across the thin film coating, generating high temperature on and near the coating. This process is fast and efficient since only interested areas are heated without affecting the entire glass substrate or the mold assembly. The uniformity and quality of the molded sample by localized rapid heating process was demonstrated by comparing both localized rapid heating

  14. Classification of buildings mold threat using electronic nose (United States)

    Łagód, Grzegorz; Suchorab, Zbigniew; Guz, Łukasz; Sobczuk, Henryk


    Mold is considered to be one of the most important features of Sick Building Syndrome and is an important problem in current building industry. In many cases it is caused by the rising moisture of building envelopes surface and exaggerated humidity of indoor air. Concerning historical buildings it is mostly caused by outdated raising techniques among that is absence of horizontal isolation against moisture and hygroscopic materials applied for construction. Recent buildings also suffer problem of mold risk which is caused in many cases by hermetization leading to improper performance of gravitational ventilation systems that make suitable conditions for mold development. Basing on our research there is proposed a method of buildings mold threat classification using electronic nose, based on a gas sensors array which consists of MOS sensors (metal oxide semiconductor). Used device is frequently applied for air quality assessment in environmental engineering branches. Presented results show the interpretation of e-nose readouts of indoor air sampled in rooms threatened with mold development in comparison with clean reference rooms and synthetic air. Obtained multivariate data were processed, visualized and classified using a PCA (Principal Component Analysis) and ANN (Artificial Neural Network) methods. Described investigation confirmed that electronic nose - gas sensors array supported with data processing enables to classify air samples taken from different rooms affected with mold.

  15. Frequency of Mold Allergens in Allergic Rhinitis Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonyadi, MR. (PhD


    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Allergic rhinitis can be stimulated by several allergens. Molds are among these allergens and it is important to assess their frequency in different geographic area. Hence, we aimed at determining the frequency of mold allergens in allergic rhinitis patients referred to specialized clinics of Tabriz Imam Reza hospital, 2011. Material and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on the serums of 90 rhinitis patients diagnosed by specialized physician. Using Immunoblotting method, the level of specific IgE against four molds including Penicillium, Aspergillus, Alternaria and Cladosporium were investigated. Results: Of 90 Patients, 40 were men (44.4% and 50 were women (55.6%. The participants were between 6 to 53 years and the most were 28-31years. The allergy was related to Penicillium (3.3%, Aspergillus (5.6%, Alternaria (13.3% and Cladosporium (4.4%. There was a significant statistical relation between age and allergic rhinitis to Alternaria (P=0.011. Conclusion: Molds can grow and proliferate in very humid environments. Because of low humidity climate in Tabriz (in the northwest of Iran, allergy to molds is relatively low in this region. Key words: Rhinitis Allergic; Mold; Allergy

  16. Prediction of Mold Spoilage for Soy/Polyethylene Composite Fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chinmay Naphade


    Full Text Available Mold spoilage was determined over 109 days on soy/PE fibers held under controlled temperatures (T ranging from 10°C to 40°C and water activities (aw from 0.11 to 0.98. Water activities were created in sealed containers using saturated salt solutions and placed in temperature-controlled incubators. Soy/PE fibers that were held at 0.823 aw or higher exhibited mold growth at all temperatures. As postulated, increased water activity (greater than 0.89 and temperature (higher than 25°C accelerated mold growth on soy/PE fibers. A slower mold growth was observed on soy/PE fibers that were held at 0.87 aw and 10°C. A Weibull model was employed to fit the observed logarithmic values of T, aw, and an interaction term log⁡T×log⁡aw and was chosen as the final model as it gave the best fit to the raw mold growth data. These growth models predict the expected mold-free storage period of soy/PE fibers when exposed to various environmental temperatures and humidities.

  17. Precision glass molding of high-resolution diffractive optical elements (United States)

    Prater, Karin; Dukwen, Julia; Scharf, Toralf; Herzig, Hans P.; Plöger, Sven; Hermerschmidt, Andreas


    The demand of high resolution diffractive optical elements (DOE) is growing. Smaller critical dimensions allow higher deflection angles and can fulfill more demanding requirements, which can only be met by using electron-beam lithography. Replication techniques are more economical, since the high cost of the master can be distributed among a larger number of replicas. The lack of a suitable mold material for precision glass molding has so far prevented an industrial use. Glassy Carbon (GC) offers a high mechanical strength and high thermal strength. No anti-adhesion coatings are required in molding processes. This is clearly an advantage for high resolution, high aspect ratio microstructures, where a coating with a thickness between 10 nm and 200 nm would cause a noticeable rounding of the features. Electron-beam lithography was used to fabricate GC molds with highest precision and feature sizes from 250 nm to 2 μm. The master stamps were used for precision glass molding of a low Tg glass L-BAL42 from OHARA. The profile of the replicated glass is compared to the mold with the help of SEM images. This allows discussion of the max. aspect-ratio and min. feature size. To characterize optical performances, beamsplitting elements are fabricated and their characteristics were investigated, which are in excellent agreement to theory.

  18. Development of mold for biodegradable materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Japitana, F.H.; Jabrica, A.M. [Metals Industry Research and Develeopment Center, Manila (Philippines). Dept. of Science and Technology; Komatsu, M. [Komatsu Consulting Engineer Office, Iwaki City, Fukushima (Japan); Takeuchi, Y. [Osaka Univ., Osaka (Japan). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering


    The improper disposal of non-biodegradable plastics adversely affect global environmental factors, principles of sustainability, industrial ecology and ecoefficiency. Therefore, a new generation of bio-based polymeric products has been developed. These polylactides (PLA), cellulose esters, starch plastics and polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are made from renewable natural resources and are biodegradable. They meet environmental conditions and can compete with their petrochemical counterparts. Among them, PLA is particularly attractive as a sustainable alternative to synthetic polymers and a potential candidate for the fabrication of biocomposites. Certain blends have proved successful in medical implants, sutures and drug delivery systems because of their capacity to dissolve away with time. However, widespread use of PLA is limited because of cost. Biodegradable plastic products are currently 6 to 10 times more expensive than traditional plastics. Environmentalists argue that the cheaper price of traditional plastics does not reflect their true cost when their impact is considered. This paper presented a solution to reduce the production cost of biodegradable plastics. In particular, it described a newly developed plastic injection mold for biodegradable materials which can produce a scrapless product. The system reduces processing time because it is not necessary to remove any gating or runners after the injection process. Takeout robots ensure that the quality of the product is maintained. 12 figs.

  19. Determination of heat transfer coefficients at the polymer-mold-interface for injection molding simulation by means of calorimetry (United States)

    Stricker, M.; Steinbichler, G.


    Appropriate modeling of heat transfer from the polymer material to the injection mold is essential to achieve accurate simulation results. The heat transfer is commonly modeled using convective heat transfer and applying heat transfer coefficients (HTC) to the polymer-mold-interface. The set HTC has an influence on the results for filling pressure, cooling performance and shrinkage, among others. The current paper, presents a new strategy to measure HTC in injection molding experiments using Newtons law of cooling. The heat flux is calculated out of demolding heat (measured by means of calorimetry), injection heat (measured by means of an IR-sensor), cooling time and part mass. Cavity surface area, average mold surface temperature and average part surface temperature lead to the HTC.

  20. Evolution of Surface Texture and Cracks During Injection Molding of Fiber-Reinforced, Additively-Manufactured, Injection Molding Inserts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hofstätter, Thomas; Mischkot, Michael; Pedersen, David Bue


    This paper investigates the lifetime and surfacedeterioration of additively-manufactured, injection-moulding inserts. The inserts were produced using digital light processing and were reinforcedwith oriented short carbon fibers. Theinserts were used during injection molding oflow-density polyethy......This paper investigates the lifetime and surfacedeterioration of additively-manufactured, injection-moulding inserts. The inserts were produced using digital light processing and were reinforcedwith oriented short carbon fibers. Theinserts were used during injection molding oflow......-density polyethylene until their failure. The molded products were used to analyse the development of the surface roughness and wear. By enhancing the lifetime of injection-molding inserts,this work contributes to the establishment of additively manufactured inserts in pilot production....

  1. Evolution of Surface Texture and Cracks During Injection Molding of Fiber-Reinforced, Additively-Manufactured, Injection Molding Inserts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hofstätter, Thomas; Mischkot, Michael; Pedersen, David Bue


    This paper investigates the lifetime and surfacedeterioration of additively-manufactured, injection-moulding inserts. The inserts were produced using digital light processing and were reinforcedwith oriented short carbon fibers. Theinserts were used during injection molding oflow-density polyethy...

  2. Investigation of Heat Transfer at the Mold/Metal Interface in Permanent Mold Casting of Light Alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert D. Pehlke; John T. Berry


    Accurate modeling of the metal casting process prior to creating a mold design demands reliable knowledge of the interfacial heat transfer coefficient at the mold metal interface as a function of both time and location. The phenomena concerned with the gap forming between the mold and the solidifying metal are complex but need to be understood before any modeling is attempted. The presence of mold coatings further complicates the situation. A commercial casting was chosen and studied in a gravity permanent mold casting process. The metal/mold interfacial heat transfer coefficient (IHTC) was the focus of the research. A simple, direct method has been used to evaluate the IHTC. Both the simulation and experiments have shown that a reasonably good estimate of the heat transfer coefficient could be made in the case studied. It has been found that there is a good agreement between experiments and simulations in the temperature profiles during the solidification process, given that the primary mechanism of heat transfer across the gap in permanent mold casting of light alloys is by conduction across the gap. The procedure utilized to determine the interfacial heat transfer coefficient can be applied to other casting processes. A recently completed project involving The University of Michigan and Mississippi State University, together with several industrial partners, which was supported by the USDOE through the Cast Metals Coalition, examined a number of cases of thermal contact. In an investigation which gave special consideration to the techniques of measurement, several mold coatings were employed and results presented as a function of time. Realistic conditions of coating thickness and type together with an appropriate combination of mold preheat and metal pouring temperature were strictly maintained throughout the investigation. Temperature sensors, in particular thermocouples, play an important part in validating the predictions of solidification models. Cooling

  3. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U15420-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available dd-... 194 e-104 3 ( K03066 ) Slime mold (D.discoideum) mRNA complementary to two... 287 2e-96 3 ( K03070 ) ...e mold (D.discoideum) heat-shock promoter in DI... 64 1e-05 1 ( K03064 ) Slime mold (D.discoideum) mRNA complementary...2 5 ( K03067 ) Slime mold (D.discoideum) DIRS-1 left inverted term... 96 7e-79 6 ( K03073 ) Slime mold (D.discoideum) mRNA complement...ary to the... 184 6e-73 2 ( K03071 ) Slime mold (D.discoideum) DIRS-1 left inverted

  4. Detecção da produção de slime por estafilococos coagulase-negativa isolados de cateter venoso central

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. L. Pizzolitto


    Full Text Available

    A produção de slime é um importante fator de virulência dos estafilococos coagulase-negativa, permitindo-lhes aderir sobre as superfícies lisas de biomateriais, e por isso, é associada aos processos de infecção de implantes. No presente estudo a produção de slime em 27 cepas de estafilococos coagulase-negativa foi investigada por cultura em ágar vermelho Congo (77,7% de positividade, método espectrofotométrico ou da microplaca (81,4% de positividade e microscopia eletrônica de varredura (88,9% de positividade. Foi também avaliada a resistência de estafilococos coagulasenegativa a vários antimicrobianos usando a técnica do disco difusão. A porcentagem de resistência à penicilina G, oxacilina, eritromicina, clindamicina e gentamicina em estafilococos produtores de slime foi respectivamente de 88,9%; 70,4%; 81,5%; 66,7% e 59,2%; todos os estafilococos coagulase-negativa foram vancomicina sensíveis. As cepas isoladas de cateter venoso central foram identificadas por método convencional e sistema API Staph. Os 27 estafilococos coagulase-negativa foram identificados como: S. saprophyticus (3,7%, S. xylosus (7,4%, S. haemolyticus (14,8%, S. epidermidis (37,0%, S. warneri (14,8%, S. lugdunensis (7,4%, S. hominis (7,4%, S. schleiferi (3,7% e S. chromogenes (3,7%. Pode-se concluir que entre a maioria das espécies Staphylococcus coagulase-negativa houve associação entre a produção de slime, origem nosocomial das cepas e reduzida sensibilidade aos antimicrobianos, sugerindo potencial patogênico no ambiente hospitalar. Palavras-chave: estafilococos coagulase-negativa; slime; fatores de virulência; polissacarídeo extracelular; biofilme; sensibilidade aos antimicrobianos.

  5. Characteristics and infl uence factors of mold fi lling process in permanent mold with a slot gating system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Changjun


    Full Text Available The main problems caused by improper gating are entrained aluminum oxide fi lms and entrapped gas. In this study, the slot gating system is employed to improve mold fi lling behavior and therefore, to improve the quality of aluminum castings produced in permanent molds. An equipment as well as operation procedures for real-time X-ray radiography of molten aluminum fl owing into permanent molds have been developed. Graphite molds transparent to X-rays are utilized which make it possible to observe the fl ow pattern through a number of vertically oriented gating systems. The investigation discovers that there are many infl uencing factors on the mold fi lling process. This paper focuses its research on some of the factors, such as the dimensions of the vertical riser and slot thickness, as well as roughness of the coating layer. The results indicate that molten metal can smoothly fi ll into casting cavity with a proper slot gating system. A bigger vertical riser, proper slot thickness and rougher coating can provide not only a better mold fi lling pattern, but also hot melt into the top of the cavity. A proper temperature gradient is obtainable, higher at the bottom and lower at the top of the casting cavity, which is in favor of feeding during casting solidifi cation.

  6. Foaming morphology control of microcellular injection molded parts with gas counter pressure and dynamic mold temperature control (United States)

    Shiu, Tai-Yi; Huang, Chao-Tsai; Chang, Rong-Yu; Hwang, Shyh-Shin


    Microcellular injection molding process is a promising solution for products with special requirements such as weight reduction, extra thin wall, high dimensional stability, clamping force reduction, etc. Despite microcellular foaming application used in reciprocating screw injection molding machine was built more than a decade, some limitations, such as poor surface quality or poor foaming control, confine the usage of this technology. Earlier CAE simulation tool for microcellular injection molding was not successful due to insufficient physical and computational considerations, limited by complicated bubble growth mechanism; so that, an economic and efficient tool for examining foaming quality of injection foaming product was lack. In this study, a recent developed three-dimensional simulation tool is used to predict injection foaming process. Predictions are carried out with commodity polypropylene and polystyrene with nitrogen and carbon dioxide supercritical fluids (SCFs). Comparisons of simulations between microcellular injection molding with and without counter pressure are discussed to provide insights into the correlation of surface quality and cell size distribution near the surface of product. Furthermore, comparisons between simulation predictions and experimental results of molding process, which is featured with dynamic mold temperature and gas counter pressure, are given for understanding quality improvement by controlling foaming morphology, and benefit of industrial application.

  7. Effect of cross sectional geometry on PDMS micro peristaltic pump performance: comparison of SU-8 replica molding vs. micro injection molding. (United States)

    Graf, Neil J; Bowser, Michael T


    Two different fabrication methods were employed to fabricate micropumps with different cross-sectional channel geometries. The first was to fabricate rectangular cross-sectional microchannel geometries using the well known fabrication method of replica molding (REM). The second, and far less utilized fabrication technique, was to create microchannel molds using an in-house fabricated handheld micro injection molding apparatus. The injection mold apparatus was designed for use with elastomeric room temperature vulcanization (RTV) polymers, as opposed to most other injection molding machines, which are designed for use with thermoplastic polymers. The injection mold's bottom plate was used as a microchannel molding template. The molding template was created by threading a small-diameter wire (150 μm or less) through the injection mold's bottom plate, with subsequent adhesion and smoothing of a thin piece of aluminum foil over the wire-raised injection mold template. When molded against, the template produced a rounded/Gaussian-shaped PDMS microchannel. The design of the injection mold will be presented, along with a direct comparison for micropump performance metrics such as flow rate, valving characteristics, and maximum backpressures attainable for each of the respective micropump channel geometries.

  8. Analysis of Injection Molding Process Based on MoldFlow/MPI for Large Plastic Pallet%基于MoldFlow/MPI的大型塑料托盘注射成型分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    运用MoldFlow/MPI模块对大型塑料托盘注射成型过程进行模流分析,预测了可能出现的注射短射等缺陷,根据分析结果,提出了工艺优化方案,从而缩短模具设计制造周期。%Used MoldFlow/MPI to analyze the mold flow for the large plastic pallet molding process, and predict the possible injection molding defects such as injection molding short shot. According to the analysis, it gives process optimization to reduce the mold design and manufacture cycle.

  9. The thermal distortion of continuous-casting billet molds (United States)

    Samarasekera, I. V.; Anderson, D. L.; Brimacombe, J. K.


    Preliminary mathematical analyses involving plate bending theory and two-dimensional elastic calculations have revealed that the dominant component contributing to the distortion of continuous-casting billet molds is thermal expansion in the transverse directions. A three-dimensional, elasto-plastic, finite-element analysis of the mold wall has then shown that localized yielding initiates in a region close to the meniscus. The plastic flow is a result of the high thermal stresses induced by the geometric restraint to bending coupled with the locally high temperatures. The resultant distortion profile of the mold down the centerline of a face exhibits a maximum outward bulge of 0.1 to 0.3 mm, which is bounded above by a region of negative taper (1˜2 pct/m) and below by a region of positive taper (˜0.4 pct/m). Measurements of mold wall movement in an operating billet caster using linear displacement transducers compare favorably with model predictions, except in the meniscus region. Case studies of several industrial billet molds have shown that lowering the meniscus level with respect to the location of constraints, or modifying the method of support of the mold tube within its housing so as to reduce the restraint to thermal expansion in the meniscus region, may minimize the extent of permanent distortion. Also, wall thickness can have a significant effect on thermal distortion. Increasing wall thickness results in an increase in both peak wall temperatures and thermal gradients. The former increases the local distortion while the latter causes higher thermal stress levels and possibly permanent distortion. Of the casting variables that can be manipulated to major advantage, cooling water flow rate is the most important. Increasing the water velocity reduces mold wall temperatures, as well as both the total and permanent distortion of the wall.

  10. Orientation of Carbon Fibers in Copper matrix Produced by Powder Injection Molding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irfan Shirazi M.


    Full Text Available Fiber orientation is a big challenge in short fiber reinforced composites. Powder injection molding (PIM process has some intrinsic fiber alignment associated with it. During PIM process fibers in skin region of moldings are aligned as these regions experience higher shear flow caused by the mold walls. Fibers in the core region remain randomly aligned as these regions are far from mold walls and experience lesser shear flow. In this study short carbon fiber (CF reinforced copper matrix composite was developed by PIM process. Two copper composite feedstock formulations were prepared having 5 vol% and 10 vol% CFs and a wax based binder system. Fiber orientation was controlled during injection molding by using a modified mold that has a diverging sprue. The sprue creates converging flow when feedstock enters into the mold cavity. Fiber orientation was analysed after molding using FESEM. The orientation of fibers can be controlled by controlling flow of feedstock into the mold.

  11. Diagnosis parameters of mold filling pattern for optimization of a casting system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Ho Hong


    Full Text Available For optimal design of a gating system, the setting of diagnosis parameters is very important. In this study, the permanent mold casting process was selected because most of the other casting processes have more complicated factors that influence the mold filling pattern compared to the permanent mold casting process, such as the surface roughness of mold, gas generation from the mold wash and binder of sand mold, and the gas permeability through a sand mold, etc. Two diagnosis parameters (flow rate difference and arrival time difference of molten metal flow pattern in the numerical simulation are suggested for design of an optimum casting system with a permanent mold. The results show that the arrival time difference can be used as one important diagnosis parameter of the complexity of the runner system and its usefulness has been verified via making aluminum parts using permanent mold casting (Fig. 9.

  12. Improvement of machining quality of copper-plated roll mold by controlling temperature variation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tae-Jin JE; Eun-Chae JEON; Sang-Cheon PARK; Doo-Sun CHOI; Kyung-Hyun WHANG; Myung-Chang KANG


    Micro prism film used in LCD industry can be manufactured by roll to roll method with copper-plated roll mold. As copper-plated roll mold is getting larger, pitch error is getting severer. The pitch error drops the quality of micro prism film. The main cause of the pitch error was investigated during machining large roll mold whose machined length was 1 200 mm. The temperature of machining system was elevated during machining roll mold, and this elevation induced thermal expansion of the system. The temperature variation around the roll mold also made thermal expansion of the roll mold. The amount of thermal expansion had strong relationship to the amount of pitch error. Therefore, the roll mold was machined after warming-up of machining system and precise temperature controller around copper-plated roll mold was installed, which minimized the temperature variation. Finally,precise micro prism patterns without pitch error were machined on the large roll mold.

  13. Residual stress distribution in injection molded parts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Postawa


    Full Text Available Purpose: The paper presents the results of the investigations of influence of the amorphous polystyrene (PSprocessing on the diversity of the internal stresses observed in the injection moulded piece.Design/methodology/approach: For the tests, the standardized mould piece designed for the investigations ofthe processing shrinkage of thermoplastics materials has been used. The samples have been prepared using theDesign of Experiment (DoE theory.The state of internal stresses has been analysed by means of photoelastic method (used stress viewer equipmenton the basis of the layout and size of the isochromatics (fields with the same colour, which determine the mouldpiece’s areas where the same value for the difference of main tensions. In the article the results of investigationsof influence of 5 chosen processing parameters such as injection temperature Tw, mould temperature Tf,clamping pressure pd, cooling time tch and the injection speed vw on the changes in isochromatics layout as adeterminant for diversity of internal stresses in injection moulded pieces have been presented.Findings: The performed investigations of the influence of injection conditions on the state of internal stressesreached for injection mould pieces were to determine the parameters of injection at which the achieved state ofthe stresses in the mould piece (described by the difference of main tensions will show the lowest values.Practical implications: Effects of examinations of influence of processing conditions on residual stress ininjection molded parts (presented in the article could find practical application in polymer industry, both smalland large enterprises.Originality/value: New approach to fast estimation of value of residual stresses were present in the paper.

  14. Fabrication of cost effective iron ore slime ceramic membrane for the recovery of organic solvent used in coke production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    V.Singh; N.K.Meena; A.K.Golder; C.Das


    Improvement of coking properties of sub-bituminous coal (A) and bituminous coal (B) was done using blended organic solvents,namely,n-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone (NMP) and ethylenediamine (EDA).Various solvent blends were employed for the coal extraction under the total reflux condition.A low-cost ceramic membrane was fabricated using industrial waste iron ore slime of M/s TATA steel R&D,Jamshedpur (India) to separate out the dissolved coking fraction from the solvent-coal mixture.Membrane separations were carried out in a batch cell,and around 75 % recovered NMP was reused.The fractionated coal properties were determined using proximate and ultimate analyses.In the case of bituminous coal,the ash and sulfur contents were decreased by 99.3 % and 79.2 %,respectively,whereas,the carbon content was increased by 23.9 % in the separated coal fraction.Three different cleaning agents,namely deionized water,sodium dodecyl sulphate and NMP were used to regain the original membrane permeability for the reusing.

  15. Application of Derrick Corporation's stack sizer technology for slimes reduction in 6 inch clean coal hydrocyclone circuits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brodzik, P.


    The article discusses the successful introduction of Derrick Corporation's Stack Sizer technology for removing minus 200 mesh slimes from 6-inch coal hydrocyclone underflow prior to froth flotation or dewatering by screen bowl centrifuges. In 2006, the James River Coal Company selected the Stack Sizer fitted with Derrick 150 micron and 100 micron urethane screen panels for removal of the minus 100 mesh high ash clay fraction from the clean coal spiral product circuits. After this application proved successful, Derrick Corporation introduced new 75 micron urethane screen panels for use on the Stack Sizer. Evaluation of feed slurry to flotation cells and screen bowl centrifuges showed significant amounts of minus 75 micron that could potentially be removed by efficient screening technology. Removal of the minus 75 micron fraction was sought to reduce ash and moisture content of the final clean coal product. Full-scale lab tests confirmed that the Stack Sizer fitted with Derrick 75 micron urethane screen panels consistently reduced the minus 75 micron percentage in coal slurry from 6-inch clean coal hydrocyclone underflow that is approximately 15 to 20% solid by-weight and 30 to 60% minus 75 micron to a clean coal fraction that is approximately 13 to 16% minus 75 micron. As a result total ash is reduced from approximately 36 to 38% in the hydrocyclone underflow to 14 to 16% in the oversize product fraction form the Stack Sizers. 1 fig., 2 tabs., 5 photos.

  16. UG Mold Wizard in injection mold design application%UG MoldWizard在注射模具设计中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆龙福; 黄常翼


    Currently plastics increasingly broad application areas, plastic products has become the automotive, aerospace, electrical and electronics, packaging, building materials, agriculture and other fields indispensable parts and plastic parts are produced almost all through the plastic mold molding to obtain The. As technology advances and high-tech product development and continuous innovation, the technical plastics increasingly high demand, relying on manual mold design and manufacturing engineers is difficult to meet the needs of the development of production. UG mold soft-ware emergence and development, has become a contemporary mold design and manufacture of an important and indis-pensable auxiliary tools.%目前塑料制品的应用领域日益广阔,塑料产品已成为汽车、航空航天、电子电气、包装、建材、农业等领域中不可缺少的部分,而塑料制件的生产几乎都是通过塑料模具的成型来获得的。随着技术进步以及高科技产品的不断开发与创新,对塑料制品的各项技术要求越来越高,仅靠模具工程师手工设计与制造很难满足生产发展的需要。 UG模具软件的出现与发展,已成为当代模具设计与制造中不可缺少的重要辅助工具之一。

  17. Discussion on compact mechanism of air-stream and synchro-formed clamp plate impact molding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenling WANG


    Full Text Available Applying the air impact molding method to mold the complicated pattern with wider opening surface and deeper concave, there always exist vaulted phenomenon and lower compactibility of sand mold over the entrance and the concave regions. Using the air-stream and synchro-formed clamp plate impact molding, however, this problem will be preferably solved. In this paper, the compact mechanism of the new molding method and the effect of some configuration factors, such as the area flowed by compressed air and the highness of the protruding block displacement around the diffluent clamp plate, on the compactibility of sand mold were discussed.

  18. Development of the computer-aided process planning (CAPP system for polymer injection molds manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Tepić


    Full Text Available Beginning of production and selling of polymer products largely depends on mold manufacturing. The costs of mold manufacturing have significant share in the final price of a product. The best way to improve and rationalize polymer injection molds production process is by doing mold design automation and manufacturing process planning automation. This paper reviews development of a dedicated process planning system for manufacturing of the mold for injection molding, which integrates computer-aided design (CAD, computer-aided process planning (CAPP and computer-aided manufacturing (CAM technologies.

  19. Microwaves energy in curing process of water glass molding sands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Granat K.


    Full Text Available This work presents the results of investigation of microwave heating on hardening process of water glass molding sands. Essential influence of this heating process on basic properties such as: compression, bending and tensile strength as well as permeability and abrasion resistance has been found. It has been proved, that all investigated sorts of sodium water glass with a module between 2.0 and 3.3 can be used as a binder of molding sands in microwave curing process. It has been found during analysis of research results of sands with 2.5 % water glass addition that they are practically the same as in case of identical molding sands dried for 120 minutes at the temperature of 110°C, used for comparative purposes. Application of microwave curing of molding sands with water glass, however, guarantees reduction of hardening time (from 120 to 4 minutes as well as significant reduction of energy consumption. Attempts of two stage hardening of the investigated water glass molding sands have also been carried out, that is after an initial hardening during a classical CO2 process (identical sands have also been tested for comparison after CO2 blowing process and additional microwave heating. It has been found that application of this kind of treatment for curing sands with 2.5 % sodium water glass content and module from 2.0 up to 3.3 results in the improvement of properties in comparison to classical CO2 process.

  20. Surface Graphite Degeneration in Ductile Iron Castings for Resin Molds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Iulian Riposan; Mihai Chisamera; Stelian Stan; Torbjorn Skaland


    The objective of this paper is to review the factors influencing the formation of degenerated graph-ite layers on the surfaces of ductile iron castings for chemical rosins-acid molding and coro-making systems and how to reduce this defect. In the rosin mold technique the sulphur in the P-toluol sulphonic acid (PTSA),usually used as the hardener, has been identified as one factor causing graphite degeneration at the metal-mold interface. Less than 0.15% S in the mold (or even less than 0.07% S) can reduce the surface layer depth. Oxygen may also have an effect, especially for sulphur containing systems with turbulent flows in the mold, water-bearing no-bake binder systems, Mg-Silica reactions, or dross formation conditions. Despite the lower level of nitrogen in the iron melt after magnesium treatment (less than 90 ppm), nitrogen bearing res-ins have a profound effect on the frequency and severity of surface pinholes, but a limited influence on sur-face graphite degeneration.

  1. Relevant Aspects in Modeling of Micro-injection Molding (United States)

    Nguyen-Chung, Tham; Jüttner, Gábor; Pham, Tung; Mennig, Günter


    Growing demands in the manufacturing of micro and precision components in plastics require new concepts for molding machines and micro molds on the one hand. On the other hand, a deeper understanding of the filling and solidification process in a micro mold is indispensable. In this work, the filling process of a micro spiral was analyzed by modeling the compressible flow using pressure dependent viscosity and adjusted heat transfer coefficients. At the same time, experimental filling studies were carried out on an accurately controlled micro-injection molding machine. Based on the relationship between the injection pressure and the filling degree, essential factors for the quality of the simulation can be identified. It can be shown that the flow behavior of the melt in a micro cavity of high aspect ratio is extremely dependent on the melt compressibility in the injection cylinder which needs to be considered in the simulation in order to predict an accurate flow rate. Moreover, the heat transfer coefficients between the melt and the mold wall vary significantly when changing cavity thickness and processing conditions. It is believed that a pressure dependent model for the heat transfer coefficient would be able to improve the quality of the process simulation.

  2. Measuring mechanical stresses on inserts during injection molding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Heinle


    Full Text Available Assembly molding presents an interesting approach to innovative product solutions. Here, individual components can be simultaneously positioned, affixed, and provided with a casing. However, while overmolding elements in the mold cavity with hot polymer melt, high mechanical loads occur on, in some cases, very sensitive components such as electronic devices. For the design of such systems, it is important to know these stresses, the influences on their quantities, and mathematical options for their prediction. In this article, a new measurement method for determining the forces acting on a small element in the cavity during the injection molding process in three dimensions is presented. Therefore, a new installation method for a force sensor was developed. The results in this article concentrate on force changes during one molding cycle. Our research shows that there are different mechanical load spectra in the different phases of the molding process. For example, the force component in flow direction on an element in the cavity is positive in the direction of the flow during filling. However, after the filling step, the force becomes negative due to the contraction of the injected material and results in a continuously increasing permanent force.

  3. Computer Texture Mapping for Laser Texturing of Injection Mold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongquan Zhou


    Full Text Available Laser texturing is a relatively new multiprocess technique that has been used for machining 3D curved surfaces; it is more flexible and efficient to create decorative texture on 3D curved surfaces of injection molds so as to improve the surface quality and achieve cosmetic surface of molded plastic parts. In this paper, a novel method of laser texturing 3D curved surface based on 3-axis galvanometer scanning unit has been presented to prevent the texturing of injection mold surface from much distortion which is often caused by traditional texturing processes. The novel method has been based on the computer texture mapping technology which has been developed and presented. The developed texture mapping algorithm includes surface triangulation, notations, distortion measurement, control, and numerical method. An interface of computer texture mapping has been built to implement the algorithm of texture mapping approach to controlled distortion rate of 3D texture math model from 2D original texture applied to curvature surface. Through a case study of laser texturing of a high curvature surface of injection mold of a mice top case, it shows that the novel method of laser texturing meets the quality standard of laser texturing of injection mold.

  4. An investigation into the injection molding of PMR-15 polyimide (United States)

    Colaluca, M. A.


    The chemorheological behavior of the PRM-15 molding compounds were characterized, the range of suitable processing parameters for injection molding in a reciprocating screw injection molding machine was determined, and the effects of the injection molding processing parameters on the mechanical properties of molded PMR-15 parts were studied. The apparatus and procedures for measuring viscosity and for determining the physical response of the material during heating are described. Results show that capillary rheometry can be effectively used with thermosets if the equipment is designed to overcome some of the inherent problems of these materials. A uniform temperature was provided in the barrel by using a circulating hot oil system. Standard capillary rheometry methods can provide the dependence of thermoset apparent viscosity on shear rate, temperature, and time. Process conditions resulting in complete imidization should be carefully defined. Specification of controlled oven temperature is inadequate and can result in incomplete imidization. For completely imidized PMR-15 heat at 15 C/min melt flow without gas evolution occurs in the temperature range of 325 C to 400 C.

  5. An in-mold packaging process for plastic fluidic devices. (United States)

    Yoo, Y E; Lee, K H; Je, T J; Choi, D S; Kim, S K


    Micro or nanofluidic devices have many channel shapes to deliver chemical solutions, body fluids or any fluids. The channels in these devices should be covered to prevent the fluids from overflowing or leaking. A typical method to fabricate an enclosed channel is to bond or weld a cover plate to a channel plate. This solid-to-solid bonding process, however, takes a considerable amount of time for mass production. In this study, a new process for molding a cover layer that can enclose open micro or nanochannels without solid-to-solid bonding is proposed and its feasibility is estimated. First, based on the design of a model microchannel, a brass microchannel master core was machined and a plastic microchannel platform was injection-molded. Using this molded platform, a series of experiments was performed for four process or mold design parameters. Some feasible conditions were successfully found to enclosed channels without filling the microchannels for the injection molding of a cover layer over the plastic microchannel platform. In addition, the bond strength and seal performance were estimated in a comparison with those done by conventional bonding or welding processes.

  6. Mold and mycotoxin problems encountered during malting and brewing. (United States)

    Wolf-Hall, Charlene E


    Fusarium infections in grains can have severe effects on malt and beer. While some degree of Fusarium mycotoxins, such as deoxynivalenol, present in infected barley may be lost during steeping, the Fusarium mold is still capable of growth and mycotoxin production during steeping, germination and kilning. Therefore, detoxification of grain before malting may not be practical unless further growth of the mold is also prevented. Methods to reduce the amount of mold growth during malting are needed. Physical, chemical and biological methods are reviewed. Irradiation looks very promising as a means to prevent Fusarium growth during malting, but the effect on the surviving mold to produce mycotoxins and the effect on malt quality needs further study. Chemical treatments such as ozonation, which would not leave residual chemical in the beer also appear to be promising. Although biological control methods may be desirable, due to the use of "natural" inhibition, the effects of these inhibitors on malt and beer quality requires further investigation. It may also be possible to incorporate detoxifying genes into fermentation yeasts, which would result in detoxification of the wort when mold growth is no longer a problem. Development of these types of technological interventions should help improve the safety of products, such as beer, made from Fusarium infected grain.

  7. Stochastic cycle selection in active flow networks

    CERN Document Server

    Woodhouse, Francis G; Fawcett, Joanna B; Dunkel, Jörn


    Active biological flow networks pervade nature and span a wide range of scales, from arterial blood vessels and bronchial mucus transport in humans to bacterial flow through porous media or plasmodial shuttle streaming in slime molds. Despite their ubiquity, little is known about the self-organization principles that govern flow statistics in such non-equilibrium networks. Here we connect concepts from lattice field theory, graph theory, and transition rate theory to understand how topology controls dynamics in a generic model for actively driven flow on a network. Our combined theoretical and numerical analysis identifies symmetry-based rules that make it possible to classify and predict the selection statistics of complex flow cycles from the network topology. The conceptual framework developed here is applicable to a broad class of non-biological far-from-equilibrium networks, including actively controlled information flows, and establishes a new correspondence between active flow networks and generalized ...

  8. Calcium and Malate Are Sporulation-Promoting Factors of Physarum polycephalum (United States)

    Renzel, Stefan; Esselborn, Sigrid; Sauer, Helmut W.; Hildebrandt, Armin


    Fruiting body formation (sporulation) is a distinctive, irreversible differentiation process in the life cycle of the slime mold Physarum polycephalum. The most important requirement for sporulation of Physarum is a period of starvation, and normally sporulation proceeds in the light. It is shown here that by omitting the liquid sporulation medium and elevating the temperature from 21 to 25°C, sporulation can occur routinely in the dark. It is further shown that this autocrine signaling in the dark requires calcium ions and malate. A putative sporulation control factor was detected in conditioned media derived from plasmodia starved in the dark, which was then identified as polymalate. As an additional role for this previously detected polyanion, specific for the plasmodial state of Physarum, it is suggested that the secreted compound serves as a source for both malate and calcium ions and thus promotes sporulation without light signaling. PMID:11092848

  9. Involvement of the second messenger cAMP in gravity-signal transduction in physarum (United States)

    Block, I.; Rabien, H.; Ivanova, K.

    The aim of the investigation was to clarify, whether cellular signal processing following graviperception involves second messenger pathways. The test object was a most gravisensitive free-living ameboid cell, the myxomycete (acellular slime mold) Physarum polycephalum. It was demonstrated that the motor response is related to acceleration-dependent changes in the levels of the cellular second messenger cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP). Rotating Physarum plasmodia in the gravity field of the Earth about a horizontal axis increased their cAMP concentration. Depriving the cells for a few days of the acceleration stimulus (near weightlessness in a space experiment on STS-69) slightly lowered plasmodial cAMP levels. Thus, the results provide first indications that the acceleration-stimulus signal transduction chain of Physarum uses an ubiquitous second messenger pathway.

  10. Nuclear group I introns in self-splicing and beyond (United States)


    Group I introns are a distinct class of RNA self-splicing introns with an ancient origin. All known group I introns present in eukaryote nuclei interrupt functional ribosomal RNA genes located in ribosomal DNA loci. The discovery of the Tetrahymena intron more than 30 years ago has been essential to our understanding of group I intron catalysis, higher-order RNA structure, and RNA folding, but other intron models have provided information about the biological role. Nuclear group I introns appear widespread among eukaryotic microorganisms, and the plasmodial slime molds (myxomycetes) contain an abundance of self-splicing introns. Here, we summarize the main conclusions from previous work on the Tetrahymena intron on RNA self-splicing catalysis as well as more recent work on myxomycete intron biology. Group I introns in myxomycetes that represent different evolutionary stages, biological roles, and functional settings are discussed. PMID:23738941

  11. The Species Problem in Myxomycetes Revisited. (United States)

    Walker, Laura M; Stephenson, Steven L


    Species identification in the myxomycetes (plasmodial slime molds or myxogastrids) poses particular challenges to researchers as a result of their morphological plasticity and frequent alteration between sexual and asexual life strategies. Traditionally, myxomycete morphology has been used as the primary method of species delimitation. However, with the increasing availability of genetic information, traditional myxomycete taxonomy is being increasingly challenged, and new hypotheses continue to emerge. Due to conflicts that sometimes occur between traditional and more modern species concepts that are based largely on molecular data, there is a pressing need to revisit the discussion surrounding the species concept used for myxomycetes. Biological diversity is being increasingly studied with molecular methods and data accumulates at ever-faster rates, making resolution of this matter urgent. In this review, currently used and potentially useful species concepts (biological, morphological, phylogenetic and ecological) are reviewed, and an integrated approach to resolve the myxomycete species problem is discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  12. Development of a Myxomycete Photoguide as a Teaching Tool for Microbial Taxonomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sittie Aisha B. Macabago


    Full Text Available Recently, web-based identification guides have been developed to aid modern taxonomists in identifying organisms. Unfortunately, these guides can only be used wherever Internet access is available. Thus, these cannot often be brought directly to the field for quick and easy identification of any collected specimens. Since we believe that field experience is necessary for any students of biology or microbiology, we developed a photoguide on the myxomycetes we collected from Lubang Island, Occidental Mindoro, Philippines. This photoguide is intended to aid both classroom and laboratory learning of a specific group of eukaryotic microoganisms, the plasmodial slime molds or myxomycetes. It provides a quick visual aid in the identification of myxomycetes found in Lubang Island, but may also be present in any other terrestrial forest areas of the country and of the world.

  13. Stochastic cycle selection in active flow networks (United States)

    Woodhouse, Francis; Forrow, Aden; Fawcett, Joanna; Dunkel, Jorn


    Active biological flow networks pervade nature and span a wide range of scales, from arterial blood vessels and bronchial mucus transport in humans to bacterial flow through porous media or plasmodial shuttle streaming in slime molds. Despite their ubiquity, little is known about the self-organization principles that govern flow statistics in such non-equilibrium networks. By connecting concepts from lattice field theory, graph theory and transition rate theory, we show how topology controls dynamics in a generic model for actively driven flow on a network. Through theoretical and numerical analysis we identify symmetry-based rules to classify and predict the selection statistics of complex flow cycles from the network topology. Our conceptual framework is applicable to a broad class of biological and non-biological far-from-equilibrium networks, including actively controlled information flows, and establishes a new correspondence between active flow networks and generalized ice-type models.

  14. Long fiber polymer composite property calculation in injection molding simulation (United States)

    Jin, Xiaoshi; Wang, Jin; Han, Sejin


    Long fiber filled polymer composite materials have attracted a great attention and usage in recent years. However, the injection and compression molded long fiber composite materials possess complex microstructures that include spatial variations in fiber orientation and length. This paper presents the recent implemented anisotropic rotary diffusion - reduced strain closure (ARD-RSC) model for predicting fiber orientation distribution[1] and a newly developed fiber breakage model[2] for predicting fiber length distribution in injection and compression molding simulation, and Eshelby-Mori-Tanaka model[3,4] with fiber-matrix de-bonding model[5] have been implemented to calculate the long fiber composite property distribution with predicted fiber orientation and fiber length distributions. A validation study on fiber orientation, fiber breakage and mechanical property distributions are given with injection molding process simulation.

  15. Modeling of Mold Filling and Solidification in Lost Foam Casting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fengjun LI; Houfa SHEN; Baicheng LIU


    Based on the characteristics of the lost foam casting (LFC) and the artificial neural network technique, a mathematicalmodel for the simulation of the melt-pattern interface movement during the mold filling of LFC has been proposed andexperimentally verified. The simulation results are consistent with the experiments in both the shapes of melt frontand filling sequences. According to the calculated interface locations, the fluid flow and the temperature distributionsduring the mold filling and solidification processes were calculated, and the shrinkage defect of a lost foam ductileiron casting was predicted by considering the mold wall movement in LFC. The simulation method was applied tooptimize the casting design of lost foam ductile iron castings. It is shown that the model can be used for the defectsprediction and for casting design optimization in the practical LFC production.

  16. Application of Vacuum Drying to Silica Sol Ceramic Mold

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming ZENG; Xinqiang YUAN; Baoluo SHEN; Yunqiu ZHENG


    Silica sol ceramic mold was made at room temperature with JN-30 silica sol, silica powder and NH4Cl. It is found that the harden time of silica sol ceramic mold is only 0.5 to 1.5 h under the amount of NH4CI solution of 7% to 8% with 15% concentration, and less surface cracks occur by using vacuum drying. The proper vacuum drying process parameters: vacuum drying temperature is 80 to 100℃, drying time is 5 h and vacuum is 0.06 to 0.07 MPa. The harden mechanics, vacuum drying mechanics and the reason of less surface cracks of silica sol ceramic mold by vacuum drying were also analyzed in this paper.

  17. Influence of melt mixer on injection molding of thermoset elastomers (United States)

    Rochman, Arif; Zahra, Keith


    One of the drawbacks in injection molding is that the plasticizing screw is short such that polymers having high concentrations of additives, such as thermoset elastomers, might not mix homogeneously within the short period of time during the plasticizing stage. In this study, various melt mixers inside the nozzle chamber, together forming a mixing nozzle, were developed. Three different materials were investigated, namely nitrile butadiene rubber (NBR), ethylene propylene-diene monomer (EPDM) and fluorocarbon (FKM). The use of these melt mixers resulted in better homogeneity and properties of the molded parts despite a curing time reduction of 10 s. This was due to the increase in mixing and shearing introduced a higher rate of crosslinking formation in the molded parts.

  18. Injection Molding and its application to drug delivery. (United States)

    Zema, Lucia; Loreti, Giulia; Melocchi, Alice; Maroni, Alessandra; Gazzaniga, Andrea


    Injection Molding (IM) consists in the injection, under high pressure conditions, of heat-induced softened materials into a mold cavity where they are shaped. The advantages the technique may offer in the development of drug products concern both production costs (no need for water or other solvents, continuous manufacturing, scalability, patentability) and technological/biopharmaceutical characteristics of the molded items (versatility of the design and composition, possibility of obtaining solid molecular dispersions/solutions of the active ingredient). In this article, process steps and formulation aspects relevant to IM are discussed, with emphasis on the issues and advantages connected with the transfer of this technique from the plastics industry to the production of conventional and controlled-release dosage forms. Moreover, its pharmaceutical applications thus far proposed in the primary literature, intended as either alternative manufacturing strategies for existing products or innovative systems with improved design and performance characteristics, are critically reviewed.

  19. Injection molding tools with micro/nano-meter pattern

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    The present invention relates to methods for embedded a micrometer and/or nanometer pattern into an injection molding tool. In a first main aspect, a micro/nanometer structured imprinting device is applied in, or on, an active surface so as to transfer the micro/nanometer patterned structure...... to the tool while the imprinting device is, at least partly, within a cavity of the injection molding tool. In a second main aspect, a base plate with a micro/nanometer structured pattern positioned on an upper part is positioned on the active surface within the tool, the lower part of the base plate facing...... the tool, the active surface receiving the base plate being non-planar on a macroscopic scale. Both aspects enable a simple and effective way of transferring the pattern, and the pattern may be transferred on the active working site of tool immediately prior to molding without the need for extensive...

  20. Treatment principles for the management of mold infections. (United States)

    Kontoyiannis, Dimitrios P; Lewis, Russell E


    Survival rates among immunocompromised patients with invasive mold infections have markedly improved over the last decade with earlier diagnosis and new antifungal treatment options. Yet, increasing antifungal resistance, breakthrough infections with intrinsically resistant fungi, and potentially life-threatening adverse effects and drug interactions are becoming more problematic, especially with prolonged therapy. Evidence-based recommendations for treating invasive aspergillosis and mucormycosis provide excellent guidance on the initial workup and treatment of these molds, but they cannot address all of the key management issues. Herein, we discuss 10 general treatment principles in the management of invasive mold disease in immunocompromised patients and discuss how these principles can be integrated to develop an effective, individualized treatment plan. Copyright © 2015 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

  1. Permanent Mold Casting of JIS-AC4C Aluminum Alloy Using a Low-Temperature Mold (United States)

    Yamagata, Hiroshi; Nikawa, Makoto


    Permanent mold casting using mold temperatures below 200° C was conducted to obtain a high-strength, thin-walled casting. Al-7.36 mass% Si -0.18 Cu- 0.27Mg-0.34Fe alloy JIS-AC4C was cast using a bottom pouring cast plan. The product had a rectangular tube shape (70 mm W x 68 mm D x 180 mm H) with wall thicknesses of 1, 3 and 5 mm. The effect of heat insulation at the melt path was compared when using a sand runner insert and when using a steel runner insert as well as a powder mold release agent. Fine microstructures were observed in the casting. The smaller the thickness, the higher the hardness with smaller secondary dendrite arm spacing (SDAS). However, the hardness and the SDAS were unaffected by the mold temperature. It was proposed that the avoidance of the formation of primary α dendrite at the melt path generates a higher strength casting with adequate mold filling.

  2. Use of the smart tongue to monitor mold growth and discriminate between four mold species grown in liquid media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao Guangying, E-mail: [Food Safety Key Lab of Zhejiang Province, Department of Food Quality and Safety, Zhejiang Gongshang University, Hangzhou 310035 (China); Lin Xiaona; Dou Wenchao; Tian Shiyi; Deng Shaoping; Shi Jinqin [Food Safety Key Lab of Zhejiang Province, Department of Food Quality and Safety, Zhejiang Gongshang University, Hangzhou 310035 (China)


    A novel voltammetric electronic tongue, smart tongue, was employed to monitor the growth of mold and to differentiate between four types of mold grown in liquid medium. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to extract the relevant information obtained by the smart tongue. Reference growth curves were based on measurements of dry weight and pH. The growth detected by the smart tongue was basically consistent with that observed by the measurement of dry weight and pH. The optimal combinations of electrodes and frequencies for monitoring growth were as follows: for Aspergillus, both the Pt and Au electrodes at 1 Hz, 10 Hz and 100 Hz; for Penicillium, the Pt and W electrodes at 100 Hz; for Mucor, the Pt, Pd and W electrodes at the three frequency segments; for Rhizopus, the Pd, Ti and Ag electrodes at the three frequency segments. The Ag electrode at 10 Hz or 100 Hz frequency could differentiate well between the four types of mold for culturing 6 h in the liquid media. Therefore, the smart tongue has a promising future as a modern rapid analytical technology for the real time detection of the growth of mold and for the classification model of mold.

  3. 240 Mold Sensitization in Chronic Rhinosinusitis Patients (United States)

    Gawlik, Radoslaw; Czecior, Eugeniusz


    Background It is estimated that about 10% of the population have IgE antibodies to common inhalant molds. Exposure to fungal allergens could be linked to the presence and persistence of asthma, rhinitis and atopic dermatitis. Mold sensitization is a risk factor for development and deterioration of upper airway allergy, especially chronic rhinosinusitis. We addressed the incidence of mold allergy measured as specific IgE to molds and skin prick tests in chronic sinusitis patients. We assessed prevalence of allergic reactions to mould among surgery treated chronic sinusitis patients. Methods A group of 28 chronic sinusitis patients after surgery were included into the study. Routine medical examination, skin prick tests with common inhaled allergens and extended mold panel (Alternaria alternate, Cladosporium herbarium, Aspergilus fumigatus, Candida albicans, Mucor mucedo, Botrytis cinerea, Rhisopus nigricans, Penicilliumi notatum, Fusarum moniliforme Pullularia pullulans (Allergopharma, Germany), tIgE, asIgE measurement were performed (Phadia, Sweden). All investigated patients were consulted by laryngologist and mycological examination was performed. Results We found that sensitization to at least one allergen was present in 43.8(14/32) of sinusitis patients. The most prevalent was sensitization to house dust mite Dermatophagoides pt., found in 21.8 % (7/32) patients. Positive results of skin prick tests with Candida albicans we observed in 18.8% (6/32), with Alternaria alternate in 15,6% (5/32), Cladosporium herbarium in 6,3% (2/32), Aspergilus fumigatus in 3,13 % (1/32). None of investigated patients presented sensitization to other mold allergens. Microbiological methods demonstrated fungal infection only in 2 patients. Conclusions Almost half of chronic sinusitis patients presented sensitization to at least one allergen. Fungal allergy is relatively rare in chronic sinusitis patients.

  4. TBS干扰床分选机对赵官能源粗煤泥分选效果技术研究%Study on the effect of separation technology of TBS interference bed separator of coarse slime Zhao Guan energy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    This paper introduces the factors of the structure and working principle, the inlfuence of TBS interference bed separator, and separation experiments of Zhaoguan energy coarse slime, analyzes the inlfuence of particle size of coarse slime interference bed separator separation effect, combined with energy Zhaoguan coal preparation process, give full play to the advantages of separation equipment, improve the accuracy of coarse slime separation.%该文介绍了TBS干扰床分选机的结构及工作原理、影响因素,并对赵官能源粗煤泥进行分选实验,分析了粗煤泥粒级对干扰床分选机分选效果的影响,结合赵官能源选煤工艺,充分发挥分选设备的优势,提高粗煤泥分选精度。


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jin; Nguyen, Ba Nghiep; Mathur, Raj N.; Sharma, Bhisham; Sangid, Michael D.; Costa, Franco; Jin, Xiaoshi; Tucker III, Charles L.; Fifield, Leonard S.


    A set of edge-gated and center-gated plaques were injection molded with long carbon fiber-reinforced thermoplastic composites, and the fiber orientation was measured at different locations of the plaques. Autodesk Simulation Moldflow Insight (ASMI) software was used to simulate the injection molding of these plaques and to predict the fiber orientation, using the anisotropic rotary diffusion and the reduced strain closure models. The phenomenological parameters of the orientation models were carefully identified by fitting to the measured orientation data. The fiber orientation predictions show very good agreement with the experimental data.

  6. Smart plastic functionalization by nanoimprint and injection molding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zalkovskij, Maksim; Thamdrup, Lasse Højlund; Smistrup, Kristian


    In this paper, we present a route for making smart functionalized plastic parts by injection molding with sub-micrometer surface structures. The method is based on combining planar processes well known and established within silicon micro and sub-micro fabrication with proven high resolution...... the pattern. With this approach, we demonstrate the transfer of down to 140 nm wide holes on large areas with good structure fidelity on an injection molding steel insert. The durability of the sub-micrometer structures on the inserts have been investigated by running two production series of 102,000 and 73...

  7. Fabrication of Functional Plastic Parts Using Nanostructured Steel Mold Inserts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Blondiaux


    Full Text Available We report on the fabrication of sub-micro and nanostructured steel mold inserts for the replication of nanostructured immunoassay biochips. Planar and microstructured stainless steel inserts were textured at the sub-micron and nanoscale by combining nanosphere lithography and electrochemical etching. This allowed the fabrication of structures with lateral dimensions of hundreds of nanometers and aspect ratios of up to 1:2. Nanostructured plastic parts were produced by means of hot embossing and injection molding. Surface nanostructuring was used to control wettability and increase the sensitivity of an immunoassay.

  8. Study on Antigravity Mold Filling by Conservative Scalar Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李日; 王友序; 杨根仓; 毛协民


    By SIMPLE method and Van-Leer scheme, a program on numerical simulation for 3D mold filling has been developed. The fluid flow field of gas and liquid is calculated in couples by a single phase N-S equation using SIMPLE method, and free surface control equation is handied by Van-Leer scheme. Then it is verified by an anti-gravity mold filling of thin wall plate. In order to demonstrate its ability to simulate 3D casting, an anti-gravity mould filling of a cube is computed by the program.

  9. Biological Control of Olive Green Mold in Agaricus bisporus Cultivation. (United States)

    Tautorus, T E; Townsley, P M


    Successful methods to control the damaging weed mold Chaetomium olivaceum (olive green mold) in mushroom beds are not presently known. An attempt was made to control C. olivaceum by biological means. A thermophilic Bacillus sp. which showed dramatic activity against C. olivaceum on Trypticase soy agar (BBL Microbiology Systems)-0.4% yeast extract agar plates was isolated from commercial mushroom compost (phase I). When inoculated into conventional and hydroponic mushroom beds, the bacillus not only provided a significant degree of protection from C. olivaceum, but also increased yields of Agaricus bisporus.

  10. 浮选柱单独处理金矿矿泥的试验研究%Experimental study on processing of gold ore slime only using flotation columns

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王攀志; 卞英娟; 姜浩刚


    The metal recovery is affected because there is more slime in the gold ore of Jiaojia Gold Mine. In order to study the influence of independent processing slime on recovery, the slime was treated separately. The pilot test for slime processed by flotation column is carried out. The influences of processing capacity, dosage of collector and frother are surveyed, and the flotation effects are contrasted. The results show that processing slime only using flotation column has obvious advantages than processing slime only using flotator, the recov ery rate improves by 10.02%. The study offers technical parameters for the second-stage extension.%焦家金矿处理的矿石含泥量多,影响金属回收.为探明单独处理矿泥对回收率的影响,对选矿工艺中的矿泥进行了浮选柱半工业试验,考察了处理量、捕收剂用量和起泡剂用量等因素的影响,并且与浮选机的浮选效果进行了比较.结果表明,单独采用浮选柱处理矿泥比单独用浮选机处理矿泥具有明显的优势,回收率提高了10.02%,经济效益显著,为二期扩建提供了技术参数.

  11. Leuconostoc gelidum and Leuconostoc gasicomitatum strains dominated the lactic acid bacterium population associated with strong slime formation in an acetic-acid herring preserve. (United States)

    Lyhs, Ulrike; Koort, Joanna M K; Lundström, Hanna-Saara; Björkroth, K Johanna


    Spoilage characterised by strong slime and gas formation affected some manufacture lots of an acetic-acid Baltic herring (Culpea haerengus membras) preserve after few weeks of storage at 0-6 degrees C. The product consisted of herring filets in acetic acid marinade containing sugar, salt, allspice and carrot slices. Microbiological analyses of the spoiled product showed high lactic acid bacterium (LAB) levels ranging from 4.5x10(8) to 2.4x10(9) CFU/g. Yeasts were not detected in any of the herring samples. Since LAB contaminants are seldom associated with fresh fish, LAB populations associated with marinade ingredients (carrots, allspice) were also analyzed. The highest LAB levels exceeding 10(7) CFU/g were detected in equilibrium modified atmosphere packaged baby carrots whereas the levels detected in the allspice samples did not exceed 4.3x10(5). A total of 176 randomly selected LAB isolates originating from herring, carrot and allspice samples were further identified to species level using a 16 and 23S rRNA gene RFLP (ribotyping) database. Leuconostoc gelidum and Leuconostoc gasicomitatum strains dominated both in the spoiled herring and carrot samples. These species are heterofermentative-producing CO(2) from glucose and they also produce dextran from sucrose. Inoculation of some commercial-herring products with spoilage-associated L. gelidum and L. gasicomitatum strains verified that these strains have the capability of producing slime and gas in herring preserves although slime formation was not as strong as in the original samples. Since L. gelidum and L. gasicomitatum strains were commonly detected in carrots, carrot slices used for the fish marinade were considered to be the probable source of these specific spoilage organisms.

  12. Study on Improving the Oxidation Efficiency of Lead Anode Slime%提高铅阳极泥氧化效率的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    影响铅阳极泥氧化的因素较多,本试验主要研究了温度及湿度对阳极泥氧化的影响。通过控制不同的温度和阳极泥含水量,对阳极泥氧化过程进行了监测。当温度在21~35℃范围时,阳极泥氧化速度较快,最佳的氧化温度为21~25℃。在采取保湿措施的同时,减少氧化过程中水分的蒸发,有利于阳极泥的氧化,最佳的湿度条件为阳极泥含水15%~25%。%T here are many influence factors in the oxidation of anode alime . T his test mainly studies the influence of temperature and humidity on the oxidation of anode slime . By controlling the different temperature and anode alime water content , the anode alime oxidation process is monitored . When the temperature is in the range of 21℃ to 35℃ , Anode slime oxidation speed is faster , the best oxidation temperature is 21℃ to 25℃ . As the same time of taking moisturizing measures , water evaporation is reduced in the oxidation process . This is good for the oxidation of anode slime;the best humidity condition is anode alime water content 15% to 25% .

  13. Evaluation of the mold-filling ability of alloy melt in squeeze casting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The mold-filling ability of alloy melt in squeeze casting process was evaluated by means of the maximum length of Archimedes spiral line. A theoretical evaluating model to predict the maximum filling length was built based on the flowing theory of the incompressible viscous fluid. It was proved by experiments and calculations that the mold-filling pressure and velocity are prominent influencing factors on the mold-filling ability of alloy melt. The mold-filling ability increases with the increase of the mold-filling pressure and the decrease of the proper mold-filling velocity. Moreover, the pouring temperature relatively has less effect on the mold-filling ability under the experimental conditions. The maximum deviation of theoretical calculating values with experimental results is less than 15%. The model can quantitatively estimate the effect of every factor on the mold-filling ability.

  14. Polymer microlens array integrated with imaging sensors by UV-molding technique (United States)

    Lai, Jianjun; Zhao, Yue; Ke, Caijun; Yi, Xinjian; Zhang, TianXu


    Fabrication of Polymer microlens array based on UV-molding techniques is presented. UV-molding enables for the integration of polymer microlens array on top of arbitrary substrates like glass, silicon other polymeric films. In this technique, photoresist or glass mold is first fabricated by conventional photolithnic method and subsequently served as transparent replication tool. UV curable polymer resin is then coated on patterned or unpatterned substrates and a contact mask aligner is used to align substrates and replication mold tool and then make the mold immersed into the resin. Replication of polymer on substrates is achieved by UV photopolymerisation of the resin. Resin thickness and gap distance between mold and substrate are carefully controlled in order to obtain acceptable thickness of cured polymer base. The UV molding technique was used to molding of a polymer film carring microlens array on the surface of an experimental CCD imaging sensor chip in this paper to enhance its fill factor and sensitivity.

  15. Finite element stress analysis of a compression mold. Final report. [Using SASL and WILSON codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watterson, C.E.


    Thermally induced stresses occurring in a compression mold during production molding were evaluated using finite element analysis. A complementary experimental stress analysis, including strain gages and thermocouple arrays, verified the finite element model under typical loading conditions.

  16. Application of statistical methods for analyzing the relationship between casting distortion, mold filling, and interfacial heat transfer in sand molds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Y. A. Owusu


    This report presents a statistical method of evaluating geometric tolerances of casting products using point cloud data generated by coordinate measuring machine (CMM) process. The focus of this report is to present a statistical-based approach to evaluate the differences in dimensional and form variations or tolerances of casting products as affected by casting gating system, molding material, casting thickness, and casting orientation at the mold-metal interface. Form parameters such as flatness, parallelism, and other geometric profiles such as angularity, casting length, and height of casting products were obtained and analyzed from CMM point cloud data. In order to relate the dimensional and form errors to the factors under consideration such as flatness and parallelism, a factorial analysis of variance and statistical test means methods were performed to identify the factors that contributed to the casting distortion at the mold-metal interface.

  17. Quantifying mold biomass on gypsum board: Comparison of ergosterol and beta-N-acetylhexosaminidase as mold biomass parameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reeslev, M.; Miller, M.; Nielsen, Kristian Fog


    Two mold species, Stachybotrys chartarum and Aspergillus versicolor, were inoculated onto agar overlaid with cellophane, allowing determination of a direct measurement of biomass density by weighing. Biomass density, ergosterol content, and beta-N-acetylhexosaminidase ( activity were...... monitored from inoculation to stationary phase. Regression analysis showed a good linear correlation to biomass density for both ergosterol content and beta-N-acetylhexosaminidase activity. The same two mold species were inoculated onto wallpapered gypsum board, from which a direct biomass measurement...... density from ergosterol content and beta-N-acetylhexosaminidase activity were determined. The CFs were used to estimate the biomass density of the molds grown on gypsum board. The biomass densities estimated from ergosterol content and beta-N-acetylhexosaminidase activity data gave similar results...

  18. Study for Application of Slime- flocculate Dispersants%煤泥絮团分散剂的应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戚冬伟; 宋玲玲; 冯莉; 蒋欧


    The author conducted dispersion experiments for Jiahe and Kailuan coal respectively, using sodium hexametaphosphate, sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) as dispersants. The dispersion effect was verified by viscosity of CWS, and the result of coal flotation after decentralization verified by the flotation experiment. The result~ showed that: both the dispersants had increased viscosities of the dispersions, reaching the purpose of dispersing sludge flocculate. After beins dispersed by sodium hexametaphosphate, both Jiahe and Kailuan clean coal ashes, recoveries were improved within a certain range, but had no regularity; because of the repulsion be- tween CMC and the collector, the clean coal was difficult to float out, though it had better dispersion. So it could not be used as slime - flocculate dispersants of flotation.%分别采用六偏磷酸钠、羧甲基纤维素钠(CMC)作为分散剂,对夹河煤、开滦煤进行分散试验,以自制水煤浆体系黏度大小为表征方法,验证其分散效果;并经由浮选实验结果验证分散处理之后的煤泥浮选效果。结果表明,两种分散剂均使各分散体系的黏度值有所增加,达到了分散煤泥絮团的目的。经六偏磷酸钠分散后,夹河煤和开滦煤的精煤灰分及回收率,在一定范围内均有所提高,但是规律性不强;CMC分散性很好,但因其与捕收剂之间具有排斥作用,难以浮选出精煤,不可用于煤泥浮选浆体分散。

  19. Problem analysis and improvement measures of high coal slime water concentration%煤泥水浓度偏高原因分析及处理技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    煤泥水浓度是影响脱介效果和精煤产品质量的重要因素,在指导分选生产中起着重要作用。以山西焦煤西山煤电屯兰选煤厂煤泥水浓度偏高情况为例,分析了高频筛回收效果差、絮凝剂添加不科学、浓缩机溢流大、重介系统筛板、筛篮跑粗等因素是影响煤泥水浓度偏大的主要原因。针对上述问题提出控制浓缩机溢流电流在280~310 A,絮凝剂配制成0.1%溶液;降低设备底煤厚度等技术方案。改造后,选煤厂煤泥水质量浓度低于13 g / L,提高产品产率,实现节能降耗,提高选煤厂的效率。%Coal slime water concentration was the main factor affecting the medium drainaging and clean coal quality,it also played impor-tant role in guiding flotation.In order to decrease the coal slime water concentration in Tunlan coal preparation plant,this paper analyzed the production flow.The results showed that,poor recycling effects of high frequency vibrating screen,unreasonable flocculant addition, large water from concentrated machine,leakage of coarse slime through the sieve plate and sieve basket of dense medium system were the main influencing factors.To resolve the above problems,the author prepared 0.1% flocculant by adjusting the electriccurrent of overflow ranging from 280 A to 310 A,decreased the equipment bottom coal thickness and other technical schemes.After transformation,the concen-tration of coal slime water was below 13 g/ L,the products yield were improved.The transformation saved the energy and decreased the pol-lutant emissions.

  20. The effect of mold materials on the overlay accuracy of a roll-to-roll imprinting system using UV LED illumination within a transparent mold (United States)

    Choi, Sungwoo; Kook, YunHo; Kim, ChulHo; Yoo, SoonSung; Park, Kwon-Shik; Kim, Seok-min; Kang, Shinill


    Although several studies on the roll-to-roll (R2R) imprinting process have reported achieving flexible electronics, improving the alignment accuracy in the overlay process of R2R imprinting is recognized as the biggest problem for the commercialization of this technology. For an overlay technique with high alignment accuracy, it is essential to develop a roll mold with high positional accuracy. In this study, a method for fabricating a roll mold with high positional accuracy is proposed by wrapping a thin glass substrate flexible mold around the transparent roll base, because it can provide higher mechanical strength and thermal stability than a conventional polymer substrate. To confirm the usability of the proposed process, the prepared roll mold was used to fabricate a test pattern of thin-film transistor backplane for a rollable display. The positional and overlay accuracy of the roll mold with the proposed thin glass substrate flexible mold were compared with the roll mold with a conventional polymer substrate flexible mold. Large-area transparent flexible molds with a size of 470  ×  370 mm were fabricated by an ultraviolet (UV) imprinting process on thin glass and polyethylene terephthalate substrates, and these flexible molds were wrapped around a roll base of 125 mm radius through a precision alignment process. After an anti-adhesion treatment and the wrapping process, the roll mold with the polymer substrate showed a ~180 μm positional error, whereas the thin glass substrate showed a ~30 μm positional error. After the overlay process using the R2R imprinting system with the alignment system, an average overlay error of ~3 μm was obtained when the thin glass flexible wrapped roll mold was used, whereas a ~22 μm overlay error was obtained when the polymer substrate flexible wrapped roll mold was used.

  1. Comparison Of Simulation Results When Using Two Different Methods For Mold Creation In Moldflow Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaushikbhai C. Parmar


    Full Text Available Simulation gives different results when using different methods for the same simulation. Autodesk Moldflow Simulation software provide two different facilities for creating mold for the simulation of injection molding process. Mold can be created inside the Moldflow or it can be imported as CAD file. The aim of this paper is to study the difference in the simulation results like mold temperature part temperature deflection in different direction time for the simulation and coolant temperature for this two different methods.

  2. Injection molding of iPP samples in controlled conditions and resulting morphology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sessa, Nino, E-mail:; De Santis, Felice, E-mail:; Pantani, Roberto, E-mail: [Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Salerno, 84084 Fisciano (Italy)


    Injection molded parts are driven down in size and weight especially for electronic applications. In this work, an investigation was carried out on the process of injection molding of thin iPP samples and on the morphology of these parts. Melt flow in the mold cavity was analyzed and described with a mathematical model. Influence of mold temperature and injection pressure was analyzed. Samples orientation was studied using optical microscopy.

  3. Theoretical Analysis of the Solidification of Aluminum Alloy Billet in Air-Slip DC Mold

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于赟; 马乃恒; 许振明; 李建国


    Based on the heat transfer analysis of Air-Slip DC mold, a numerical model was presented to study the quantitative relationships between critical solidification layer and casting rate, pouring temperature and mold cooling ability etc. The analytical results show that the Air-Slip mold heat transfer condition plays important roles on choices of a casting rate and the pouring temperature, and that the product of billet diameter and casting rate is a certain constant under a certain condition of the mold.

  4. Microbial communities associated with tree bark foliose lichens: a perspective on their microecology. (United States)

    Anderson, O Roger


    Tree-bark, foliose lichens occur widely on a global scale. In some locales, such as forests, they contribute a substantial amount of biomass. However, there are few research reports on microbial communities including eukaryotic microbes associated with foliose lichens. Lichens collected from tree bark at 11 locations (Florida, New York State, Germany, Australia, and the Arctic) were examined to determine the density and C-biomass of bacteria and some eukaryotic microbes, i.e. heterotrophic nanoflagellates (HNF) and amoeboid protists. A rich microbial diversity was found, including large plasmodial slime molds, in some cases exceeding 100 μm in size. The densities of HNF and amoeboid protists were each positively correlated with densities of bacteria, r = 0.84 and 0.80, respectively (p lichen dry weight) varied markedly across the geographic sampling sites: bacteria (0.7-13.1 × 10(8) ), HNF (0.2-6.8 × 10(6) ) and amoeboid protists (0.4-4.6 × 10(3) ). The ranges in C-biomass (μg/g lichen dry weight) across the 11 sites were: bacteria (8.8-158.5), HNF (0.03-0.85), and amoeboid protists (0.08-540), the latter broad range was due particularly to absence or presence of large slime mold plasmodia.

  5. Mechanism of signal propagation in Physarum polycephalum. (United States)

    Alim, Karen; Andrew, Natalie; Pringle, Anne; Brenner, Michael P


    Complex behaviors are typically associated with animals, but the capacity to integrate information and function as a coordinated individual is also a ubiquitous but poorly understood feature of organisms such as slime molds and fungi. Plasmodial slime molds grow as networks and use flexible, undifferentiated body plans to forage for food. How an individual communicates across its network remains a puzzle, but Physarum polycephalum has emerged as a novel model used to explore emergent dynamics. Within P. polycephalum, cytoplasm is shuttled in a peristaltic wave driven by cross-sectional contractions of tubes. We first track P. polycephalum's response to a localized nutrient stimulus and observe a front of increased contraction. The front propagates with a velocity comparable to the flow-driven dispersion of particles. We build a mathematical model based on these data and in the aggregate experiments and model identify the mechanism of signal propagation across a body: The nutrient stimulus triggers the release of a signaling molecule. The molecule is advected by fluid flows but simultaneously hijacks flow generation by causing local increases in contraction amplitude as it travels. The molecule is initiating a feedback loop to enable its own movement. This mechanism explains previously puzzling phenomena, including the adaptation of the peristaltic wave to organism size and P. polycephalum's ability to find the shortest route between food sources. A simple feedback seems to give rise to P. polycephalum's complex behaviors, and the same mechanism is likely to function in the thousands of additional species with similar behaviors.

  6. Mold Species in Dust from the International Space Station Identified and Quantified by Mold Specific Quantitative PCR (United States)

    Vesper, Stephen J.; Wong, Wing; Kuo, C. Mike; Pierson, Duane L.


    Dust was collected over a period of several weeks in 2007 from various HEPA filters in the U.S. Laboratory Module of the International Space Station (ISS). The dust was returned on the Space Shuttle Atlantis, mixed, sieved, and the DNA was extracted. Using a DNA-based method called mold specific quantitative PCR (MSQPCR), 39 molds were measured in the dust. Opportunistic pathogens Aspergillus flavus and A. niger and toxin producers Penicillium chrysogenum and P. brevicompactum were found at relatively high concentrations (compared to U.S. homes). No cells of the opportunistic pathogens A. fumigatus, A. terreus, Fusarium solani or Candida albicans were detected.

  7. MoldFlow软件在梳子注射模结构改进及其成型缺陷分析中的应用%The Application of MoldFlow Software in the Structure Improvement and Analysis of forming Defects of Comb Injection Molding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    MoldFlow software is applied to improve the mold structure and solve molding defects according to the problems of comb injection molding during trying mold. These will be provided some valuable references. Aunusual power is provided for the wide application of MoldFlow software in the design of injection mold.%根据梳子注射模在试模过程中存在的一些问题,采用MoldFlow软件进行分析,为改进模具结构、解决其成型缺陷提供有价值的参考。

  8. A rapid colorimetric assay for mold spore germination using XTT tetrazolium salt (United States)

    Carol A. Clausen; Vina W. Yang


    Current laboratory test methods to measure efficacy of new mold inhibitors are time consuming, some require specialized test equipment and ratings are subjective. Rapid, simple quantitative assays to measure the efficacy of mold inhibitors are needed. A quantitative, colorimetric microassay was developed using XTT tetrazolium salt to metabolically assess mold spore...

  9. Experimental Investigation of Comparative Process Capabilities of Metal and Ceramic Injection Molding for Precision Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Islam, Aminul; Giannekas, Nikolaos; Marhöfer, David Maximilian;


    The purpose of this paper is to make a comparative study on the process capabilities of the two branches of the powder injection molding (PIM) process—metal injection molding (MIM) and ceramic injection molding (CIM), for high-end precision applications. The state-of-the-art literature does not m...

  10. Validation of precision powder injection molding process simulations using a spiral test geometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marhöfer, Maximilian; Müller, Tobias; Tosello, Guido


    Like in many other areas of engineering, process simulations find application in precision injection molding to assist and optimize the quality and design of precise products and the molding process. Injection molding comprises mainly the manufacturing of plastic components. However, the variant ...

  11. 40 CFR Appendix - Alternative Organic HAP Emissions Limits for Open Molding, Centrifugal Casting, and SMC... (United States)


    ... Limits for Open Molding, Centrifugal Casting, and SMC Manufacturing Operations Where the Standards Are..., Table 5 Alternative Organic HAP Emissions Limits for Open Molding, Centrifugal Casting, and SMC... casting—CR/HS 3,4 A vent system that moves heated air through the mold 27 lb/ton. 8. Centrifugal...

  12. The history of molded fiber packaging: a 20th century pulp story

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wever, R.; Twede, D.


    Molded fiber packaging, which is also referred to as molded pulp packaging, has been around for a little over a hundred years now. From the first patent, dating from 1903, until approximately 25 years ago molded fiber packaging was a niche product used mainly for packing eggs. However, in the last t

  13. Differential allergy induction by molds found in water-damaged homes** (United States)

    Molds are ubiquitous in the environment and exposures to molds contribute to various human diseases including allergic lung diseases. The Institute of Medicine reports (NAS, 2004) and World Health Organization guidelines (WHO, 2009) concluded that the role of molds in asthma indu...

  14. Three-dimensional numerical modeling of an induction heated injection molding tool with flow visualization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guerrier, Patrick; Tosello, Guido; Nielsen, Kaspar Kirstein


    Using elevated mold temperature is known to have a positive influence of final injection molded parts. Induction heating is a method that allow obtaining a rapid thermal cycle, so the overall molding cycle time is not increased. In the present research work, an integrated multi-turn induction hea...

  15. Injection molding of nanopatterned surfaces in the sub-micrometer range with induction heating aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Menotti, Stefano; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Bissacco, Giuliano


    Replication of sub-micrometer structures by injection molding leads to special requirements for the mold in order to ensure proper replica and acceptable cycle time. This paper investigates the applicability of induction heating embedded into the mold for the improvement of nanopattern replicatio...

  16. The Role of Molding Compound Microstructure for Packaging Reliability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fischer, H.R.; Nabi, H.S.; Weiss, L.; Gielen, A.W.J.


    Molding compounds are key materials to deliver well packaged reliable IC’s for demanding applications, such as automotive electronics. With shrinking sizes of IC’s and the increased requirements with respect to loading conditions, application environment and lifetime, the reliability of the

  17. Stability of FDTS monolayer coating on aluminum injection molding tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cech, Jiri [Department of Micro- and Nanotechnology, Technical University of Denmark, DTU Nanotech, Building 345E, DK-2800 Kongens Lyngby (Denmark); Taboryski, Rafael, E-mail: [Department of Micro- and Nanotechnology, Technical University of Denmark, DTU Nanotech, Building 345E, DK-2800 Kongens Lyngby (Denmark)


    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We present novel and highly useful results on FDTS monolayer coating of aluminum. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The coating is particularly applicable for coating of prototyping injection molding tools, which often are made of Al. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We have demonstrated that the coating prevails in injection molding conditions and that the coating will prevent wear of the tools. - Abstract: We have characterized perfluorodecyltrichlorosilane (FDTS) molecular coating of aluminum molds for polymer replication via injection molding (IM). X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) data, sessile drop contact angles with multiple fluids, surface energies and roughness data have been collected. Samples have been characterized immediately after coating, after more than 500 IM cycles to test durability, and after 7 months to test temporal stability. The coating was deposited in an affordable process, involving near room temperature gas phase reactions. XPS shows detectable fluorine presence on both freshly coated samples as well as on post-IM samples with estimated 30 at.% on freshly coated and 28 at.% on post-IM samples with more than 500 IM cycles with polystyrene (PS) and ABS polymer.

  18. Thermal modeling of wafer-based precision glass molding process (United States)

    Hu, Yang; Shen, Lianguan; Zhou, Jian; Li, Mujun


    Wafer based precision glass optics manufacturing has been an innovative approach for combining high accuracy with mass production. However, due to the small ratio of thickness and diameter of the glass wafer, deformation and residual stress would be induced for the nonuniform temperature distribution in the glass wafer after molding. Therefore, thermal modelling of the heating system in the wafer based precision glass molding (PGM) process is of great importance in optimizing the heating system and the technique of the process. The current paper deals with a transient thermal modelling of a self-developed heating system for wafer based PGM process. First, in order to investigate the effect of radiation from the surface and interior of the glass wafer, the thermal modeling is simulated with a discrete ordinates radiation model in the CFD software FLUENT. Temperature distribution of the glass wafer obtained from the simulations is then used to evaluate the performance of heating system and investigate some importance parameters in the model, such as interior and surface radiation in glass wafer, thermal contact conductance between glass wafer and molds, thickness to diameter ratio of glass wafer. Finally, structure modification in the molding chamber is raised to decrease the temperature gradient in the glass wafer and the effect is significant.

  19. A Recurrent Neural Network for Warpage Prediction in Injection Molding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Alvarado-Iniesta


    Full Text Available Injection molding is classified as one of the most flexible and economical manufacturing processes with high volumeof plastic molded parts. Causes of variations in the process are related to the vast number of factors acting during aregular production run, which directly impacts the quality of final products. A common quality trouble in finishedproducts is the presence of warpage. Thus, this study aimed to design a system based on recurrent neural networksto predict warpage defects in products manufactured through injection molding. Five process parameters areemployed for being considered to be critical and have a great impact on the warpage of plastic components. Thisstudy used the finite element analysis software Moldflow to simulate the injection molding process to collect data inorder to train and test the recurrent neural network. Recurrent neural networks were used to understand the dynamicsof the process and due to their memorization ability, warpage values might be predicted accurately. Results show thedesigned network works well in prediction tasks, overcoming those predictions generated by feedforward neuralnetworks.

  20. Fiber-Based, Injection-Molded Optofluidic Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matteucci, Marco; Triches, Marco; Nava, Giovanni


    We present a method to fabricate polymer optofluidic systems by means of injection molding that allow the insertion of standard optical fibers. The chip fabrication and assembly methods produce large numbers of robust optofluidic systems that can be easily assembled and disposed of, yet allow...