WorldWideScience

Sample records for plasmid-like molecules s1

  1. Large EPR g-shifts for S= {1}/{2} molecules doped into the nickelocene lattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulliger, J.; Baltzer, P.

    1986-10-01

    Large anisotropic g-shifts for bis-(benzene)-vanadium or cyclopentadienyl-cycloheptatrienyl-vanadium (both S= {1}/{2}) doped into nickelocene ( S=1) have been observed by X-band EPR at 3 K. It is shown by a molecular field analysis that nickelocene is a weakly ferromagnetically coupled Van Vleck paramagnet. Estimated ferro- and antiferromagnetic doublet-triplet molecular field sums are of the order of wavenumbers.

  2. S1←S0 vibronic spectra and structure of cyclopropanecarboxaldehyde molecule in the S1 lowest excited singlet electronic state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godunov, I. A.; Yakovlev, N. N.; Terentiev, R. V.; Maslov, D. V.; Bataev, V. A.; Abramenkov, A. V.

    2016-11-01

    The S1←S0 vibronic spectra of gas-phase absorption at room temperature and fluorescence excitation of jet-cooled cyclopropanecarboxaldehyde (CPCA, c-C3H5CHO)were obtained and analyzed. In addition, the quantum chemical calculation (CASPT2/cc-pVTZ)was carried out for CPCA in the ground (S0) and lowest excited singlet (S1) electronic states. As a result, it was proved that the S1←S0 electronic excitation of the CPCA conformers (syn and anti) causes (after geometrical relaxation) significant structural changes, namely, the carbonyl fragments become non-planar and the cyclopropyl groups rotate around the central C-C bond. As a consequence, the potential energy surface of CPCA in the S1 state has six minima, 1ab, 2ab, and 3ab, corresponding to three pairs of mirror symmetry conformers: a and b. It was shown that vibronic bands of experimental spectra can be assigned to the 2(S1)←syn(S0) electronic transition with the origin at 30,481 cm-1. A number of fundamental vibrational frequencies for the 2 conformer of CPCA were assigned. In addition, several inversional energy levels for the 2 conformer were found and the 2a↔2b potential function of inversion was determined. The experimental barrier to inversion and the equilibrium angle between the CH bond and the CCO plane were calculated as 570 cm-1 and 28°, respectively.

  3. Molecular characterization of Syrian date palm cultivars using plasmid-like DNA markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haider, N; Nabulsi, I

    2012-02-01

    Date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) is one of the most important domesticated fruit trees in the Near East and North African countries. This tree has been, for several decades, in serious threat of being completely destroyed by the "Bayoud" disease caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. albedinis. In this study, 18 Syrian date palm cultivars and four male trees were analyzed according to the identity of mitochondrial plasmid-like DNAs. A PCR strategy that employs plasmid-like DNAs-specific primer pair was used. These primers amplify a product of either 373-bp or 265-bp that corresponds to the S-(Bayoud-susceptible) or the R-plasmid (Bayoud-resistant), respectively. Generated data revealed that only six cultivars ('Medjool', 'Ashrasi', 'Gish Rabi', 'Khineze', and yellow- and red-'Kabkab') have the S-plasmid, suggesting their susceptibility to the fusariosis, while the remaining 12 cultivars and the four male trees contain the R-plasmid, suggesting their resistance to the fusariosis. The PCR process applied here has been proved efficient for the rapid screening for the presence of the S and R DNAs in Syrian date palm. PCR markers developed in this study could be useful for the screening of date palm lines growing in the field. The availability of such diagnostic tool for plasmid characterization in date palm would also be of great importance in establishing propagation and breeding programs of date palm in Syria.

  4. Formation of ultracold LiRb molecules by photoassociation near the Li(2s 2S1/2) + Rb(5p 2P1/2) asymptote

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Sourav; Elliott, Daniel S.; Chen, Yong P.

    2013-12-01

    We report the production of ultracold 7Li85Rb molecules by photoassociation (PA) below the Li (2s 2S1/2) + Rb(5p 2P1/2) asymptote. We perform PA spectroscopy in a dual-species 7Li-85Rb magneto-optical trap (MOT) and detect the PA resonances using trap loss spectroscopy. We observe several strong PA resonances corresponding to the last few bound states, assign the lines and derive the long-range C6 dispersion coefficients for the Li (2s 2S1/2) + Rb(5p 2P1/2) asymptote. We also report an excited-state molecule formation rate (P_{\\textit{LiRb}}) of {\\sim}10^{7}\\ \\text{s}^{-1} and a PA rate coefficient (K_{PA}) of {\\sim}4\\times10^{-11}\\ \\text{cm}^3/\\text{s} , which are both among the highest observed for heteronuclear bi-alkali molecules. These suggest that PA is a promising route for the creation of ultracold ground-state LiRb molecules.

  5. Formation of ultracold LiRb molecules by photoassociation near the Li (2s 2S1/2) + Rb (5p 2P1/2) asymptote

    CERN Document Server

    Dutta, Sourav; Chen, Yong P

    2013-01-01

    We report the production of ultracold 7Li85Rb molecules by photoassociation (PA) below the Li (2s 2S1/2) + Rb (5p 2P1/2) asymptote. We perform PA spectroscopy in a dual-species 7Li-85Rb magneto-optical trap (MOT) and detect the PA resonances using trap loss spectroscopy. We observe several strong PA resonances corresponding to the last few bound states, assign the lines and derive the long range C6 dispersion coefficients for the Li (2s 2S1/2) + Rb (5p 2P1/2) asymptote. We also report an excited-state molecule formation rate (P_LiRb) of ~10^7 s^-1 and a PA rate coefficient (K_PA) of ~4x10^-11 cm^3/s, which are both among the highest observed for heteronuclear bi-alkali molecules. These suggest that PA is a promising route for the creation of ultracold ground state LiRb molecules.

  6. Properties and nucleotide se- quence of linear plasmid-like DNA pC4 from mitochondria of Cucumis sativus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Four kinds of mitochondrial plasmid-like DNAs, designated pC1, pC2, pC3 and pC4, were detected in Cucumis sativus Jinyan No. 4. The electron microscopy ob- servation showed that pC4 was linear conformation. Complete sequence of pC4 was cloned into pUC19 with E. coli JM109 as host. Sequence analysis revealed that pC4 was 370 bp long, the shortest one among all the reported mitochondrial plasmid-like DNAs. pC4 was AT rich. It contained terminal direct repeat sequence (35 bp in length) as well as many short direct and inverted repeats. ORFs in pC4 were short. pC4 was found to be homologous to nuclear DNAs, but lack homology with main mitochondrial and chloroplast DNAs. pC4-homologous sequence also occurred in nuclear genome of Jinyan No. 7 which contained no mito- chondrial plasmid-like DNAs. The hybridization pattern of Jinyan No. 7 was slightly different from that of Jinyan No. 4. This suggested that pC4 occurred at the forepart of Cucumis sativus species divergence and integrated into the nuclear genome, and the pC4-homologous sequence in nucleus varied during species diverging.

  7. Effect of S-1 combined with cisplatin intraperitoneal circulatory hyperthermia perfusion treatment on malignant molecule expression in gastric cancer patients with ascites as well as side effect assessment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shuo Jian

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To study the effect of S-1 combined with cisplatin intraperitoneal circulatory hyperthermia perfusion on malignant molecule expression in gastric cancer patients with ascites as well as the related side effect.Methods: Gastric cancer patients with ascites who were treated in our hospital from February 2012 to July 2015 were selected as research subjects and randomly divided into perfusion chemotherapy group and routine chemotherapy group, and then overall chemotherapy conditions, ascites FGF molecule content, peripheral blood immune function indexes and the degree of side effect were compared between two groups. Results:Average treatment cycles of perfusion chemotherapy group were more than those of routine chemotherapy group, and ascites drainage volume within two cycles of chemotherapy was significantly less than that of routine chemotherapy group; after two cycles of chemotherapy, bFGF, FGF-2, FGF19 and FGFR4 content in ascites of perfusion chemotherapy group were significantly lower than those of routine chemotherapy group, CD3+CD4+, CD3+CD56+ and CD3-CD56+ cell content in peripheral blood were higher than those of routine chemotherapy group, and CD3+CD8+ cell content was lower than that of routine chemotherapy group; during chemotherapy, the number of cases with decreased numeration of leukocyte, abnormal liver function, abnormal kidney function and diarrhea of perfusion chemotherapy group were significantly lower than those of routine chemotherapy group.Conclusions: S-1 combined with cisplatin intraperitoneal circulatory hyperthermia perfusion chemotherapy can more effectively improve treatment compliance, suppress ascites, kill gastric cancer cells and improve immune function. It has fewer side effect and is the ideal way to treat gastric cancer with ascites.

  8. Discovery, synthesis and SAR analysis of novel selective small molecule S1P4-R agonists based on a (2Z,5Z)-5-((pyrrol-3-yl)methylene)-3-alkyl-2-(alkylimino)thiazolidin-4-one chemotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbano, Mariangela; Guerrero, Miguel; Velaparthi, Subash; Crisp, Melissa; Chase, Peter; Hodder, Peter; Schaeffer, Marie-Therese; Brown, Steven; Rosen, Hugh; Roberts, Edward

    2011-11-15

    High affinity and selective S1P(4) receptor (S1P(4)-R) small molecule agonists may be important proof-of-principle tools used to clarify the receptor biological function and effects to assess the therapeutic potential of the S1P(4)-R in diverse disease areas including treatment of viral infections and thrombocytopenia. A high-throughput screening campaign of the Molecular Libraries-Small Molecule Repository was carried out by our laboratories and identified (2Z,5Z)-5-((1-(2-fluorophenyl)-2,5-dimethyl-1H-pyrrol-3-yl)methylene)-3-methyl-2-(methylimino) thiazolidin-4-one as a promising S1P(4)-R agonist hit distinct from literature S1P(4)-R modulators. Rational chemical modifications of the hit allowed the identification of a promising lead molecule with low nanomolar S1P(4)-R agonist activity and exquisite selectivity over the other S1P(1-3,5)-Rs family members. The lead molecule herein disclosed constitutes a valuable pharmacological tool to explore the effects of the S1P(4)-R signaling cascade and elucidate the molecular basis of the receptor function.

  9. Formation of deeply bound ultracold LiRb molecules via photoassociation near the Li 2 S1 /2+Rb 5 P3 /2 asymptote

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, John; Altaf, Adeel; Dutta, Sourav; Chen, Yong P.; Elliott, D. S.

    2014-12-01

    We present spectra of ultracold 7Li85Rb molecules in their electronic ground state formed by spontaneous decay of weakly bound photoassociated molecules. Beginning with atoms in a dual-species magneto-optical trap, weakly bound molecules are formed in the 4(1) electronic state, which corresponds to the B1Π state at short range. These molecules spontaneously decay to the electronic ground state and we use resonantly enhanced multiphoton ionization to determine the vibrational population distribution in the electronic ground states after spontaneous emission. Many of the observed lines from the spectra are consistent with transitions from the X1Σ+ ground electronic state to either the B1Π or the D1Π electronic state that has been previously observed, with levels possibly as low as X1Σ+ (v''=2 ) being populated. We do not observe decay to weakly bound vibrational levels of the X1Σ+ or a3Σ+ electronic state in the spectra. We also deduce a lower bound of 3900 cm -1 for the dissociation energy of the LiRb + molecular ion.

  10. Formation of deeply bound ultracold LiRb molecules via photoassociation near the Li 2S$_{1/2}$ + Rb 5P$_{3/2}$ asymptote

    CERN Document Server

    Lorenz, John; Dutta, Sourav; Chen, Yong P; Elliott, D S

    2014-01-01

    We present spectra of ultracold $^7$Li$^{85}$Rb molecules in their electronic ground state formed by spontaneous decay of weakly bound photoassociated molecules. Beginning with atoms in a dual species magneto-optical trap (MOT), weakly bound molecules are formed in the 4(1) electronic state, which corresponds to the B$^1\\Pi$ state at short range. These molecules spontaneously decay to the electronic ground state and we use resonantly enhanced multiphoton ionization (REMPI) to determine the vibrational population distribution in the electronic ground states after spontaneous emission. Many of the observed lines from the spectra are consistent with transitions from the X$^1\\Sigma^+$ ground electronic state to either the B$^1\\Pi$ or D$^1\\Pi$ electronic states that have been previously observed, with levels possibly as low as X$^1\\Sigma^+$ $(v'' = 2)$ being populated. We do not observe decay to weakly bound vibrational levels of the X$^1\\Sigma^+$ or a$^3\\Sigma^+$ electronic states in the spectra. We also deduce a...

  11. Application of magnetically-perturbed time-dependent density functional theory to magnetic circular dichroism. IV. The influence of zero-field splitting on the spectra of S > 1/2 molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seth, Michael, E-mail: mseth@ucalgary.ca [Department of Chemistry, University of Calgary, University Drive 2500, Calgary, AB T2N-1N4 (Canada); Ziegler, Tom, E-mail: ziegler@ucalgary.ca [Department of Chemistry, University of Calgary, University Drive 2500, Calgary, AB T2N-1N4 (Canada)

    2012-02-20

    The theory of calculating magnetic circular dichroism in the presence of zero-field splitting is presented and illustrated with applications to small and medium-sized systems. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ZFS and MCD calculated with DFT are combined. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Influence of ZFS on the MCD spectra of group 15 hydrides analyzed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Absorption and MCD spectra of Fe-EDTA-peroxide complex calculated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ZFS does not appear to influence MCD spectra qualitatively. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Quantitative effects are present and difficult to model. - Abstract: An implementation into the ADF program of a method for calculating zero-field splitting (ZFS) of molecules with spin degenerate ground states and S > 1/2 is reported. ZFS can influence temperature-dependent magnetic circular dichroism (MCD) intensity. Previously published equations for the calculation of MCD with time-dependent density functional theory are modified to take zero-field splitting into account. The MCD spectra of the group 15 hydrides and the complex formed from iron (III), ethylenediaminetetraacetate and peroxide, [Fe(III)(EDTA)O{sub 2}]{sup 3-} are simulated. These spectra are analyzed with particular reference to the influence of ZFS on the MCD intensity.

  12. Hadron Molecules

    CERN Document Server

    Gutsche, Thomas; Faessler, Amand; Lee, Ian Woo; Lyubovitskij, Valery E

    2010-01-01

    We discuss a possible interpretation of the open charm mesons $D_{s0}^*(2317)$, $D_{s1}(2460)$ and the hidden charm mesons X(3872), Y(3940) and Y(4140) as hadron molecules. Using a phenomenological Lagrangian approach we review the strong and radiative decays of the $D_{s0}^* (2317)$ and $D_{s1}(2460)$ states. The X(3872) is assumed to consist dominantly of molecular hadronic components with an additional small admixture of a charmonium configuration. Determing the radiative ($\\gamma J/\\psi$ and $\\gamma \\psi(2s)$) and strong ($J/\\psi 2\\pi $ and $ J/\\psi 3\\pi$) decay modes we show that present experimental observation is consistent with the molecular structure assumption of the X(3872). Finally we give evidence for molecular interpretations of the Y(3940) and Y(4140) related to the observed strong decay modes $J/\\psi + \\omega$ or $J/\\psi + \\phi$, respectively.

  13. Main: S1FSORPL21 [PLACE

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available S1FSORPL21 S000215 19-August-2004 (last modified) kehi S1F binding site (S1 site) i...in downregulating RPL21 promoter activity (Lagrange et al., 1993); See S000211 (SITE1SORPS1), S000166 (S2FSOR

  14. Emerging role of S-1 in gastric cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eriseld Krasniqi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Gastric cancer remains one of the most important malignancies worldwide in terms of incidence and mortality. The treatment is based on the combination of local surgery and radiation therapy as well as systemic chemotherapy and targeted molecules. Fluoropyrimidines and particularly 5-fluorouracil (FU represent still the backbone for gastric cancer chemotherapy and new molecular versions of this molecule have been brought to clinical practice in order to improve benefits and reduce adverse effects. S-1 is an oral prodrug of 5-FU, which has demonstrated high effectiveness for gastric cancer treatment and a favorable safety profile. Currently, there are geographic differences in the treatment of gastric cancer and in the use of S-1, which is a mainstay of gastric cancer management in Eastern countries, but is not part of the standard care in the rest of the world. In this review, we gathered data from phase I, II, and III trials of S-1 in gastric cancer, in order to define its real benefit-risk ratio and assess whether geographic differences in S-1 use are justified by unchangeable factors.

  15. Regulation of human cerebro-microvascular endothelial baso-lateral adhesion and barrier function by S1P through dual involvement of S1P1 and S1P2 receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiltshire, Rachael; Nelson, Vicky; Kho, Dan Ting; Angel, Catherine E; O'Carroll, Simon J; Graham, E Scott

    2016-01-27

    Herein we show that S1P rapidly and acutely reduces the focal adhesion strength and barrier tightness of brain endothelial cells. xCELLigence biosensor technology was used to measure focal adhesion, which was reduced by S1P acutely and this response was mediated through both S1P1 and S1P2 receptors. S1P increased secretion of several pro-inflammatory mediators from brain endothelial cells. However, the magnitude of this response was small in comparison to that mediated by TNFα or IL-1β. Furthermore, S1P did not significantly increase cell-surface expression of any key cell adhesion molecules involved in leukocyte recruitment, included ICAM-1 and VCAM-1. Finally, we reveal that S1P acutely and dynamically regulates microvascular endothelial barrier tightness in a manner consistent with regulated rapid opening followed by closing and strengthening of the barrier. We hypothesise that the role of the S1P receptors in this process is not to cause barrier dysfunction, but is related to controlled opening of the endothelial junctions. This was revealed using real-time measurement of barrier integrity using ECIS ZΘ TEER technology and endothelial viability using xCELLigence technology. Finally, we show that these responses do not occur simply though the pharmacology of a single S1P receptor but involves coordinated action of S1P1 and S1P2 receptors.

  16. HDL-associated ApoM is anti-apoptotic by delivering sphingosine 1-phosphate to S1P1 & S1P3 receptors on vascular endothelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Mario; Okada, Hiromi; Dahlbäck, Björn

    2017-02-08

    High-density Lipoprotein (HDL) attenuates endothelial cell apoptosis induced by different cell-death stimuli such as oxidation or growth factor deprivation. HDL is the main plasma carrier of the bioactive lipid sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P), which it is a signaling molecule that promotes cell survival in response to several apoptotic stimuli. In HDL, S1P is bound to Apolipoprotein M (ApoM), a Lipocalin that is only present in around 5% of the HDL particles. The goal of this study is to characterize ApoM-bound S1P role in endothelial apoptosis protection and the signaling pathways involved. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) cultures were switched to serum/grow factor deprivation medium to induce apoptosis and the effect caused by the addition of ApoM and S1P analyzed. The addition of HDL(+ApoM) or recombinant ApoM-bound S1P promoted cell viability and blocked apoptosis, whereas HDL(-ApoM) had no protective effect. Remarkably, S1P exerted a more potent anti-apoptotic effect when carried by ApoM as compared to albumin, or when added as free molecule. Mechanistically, cooperation between S1P1 and S1P3 was required for the HDL/ApoM/S1P-mediated anti-apoptotic ability. Furthermore, AKT and ERK phosphorylation was also necessary to achieve the anti-apoptotic effect of the HDL/ApoM/S1P complex. Altogether, our results indicate that ApoM and S1P are key elements of the anti-apoptotic activity of HDL and promote optimal endothelial function.

  17. Hypothalamic S1P/S1PR1 axis controls energy homeostasis in Middle-Aged Rodents: the reversal effects of physical exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Vagner Ramon Rodrigues; Katashima, Carlos Kiyoshi; Bueno Silva, Carla G.; Lenhare, Luciene; Micheletti, Thayana Oliveira; Camargo, Rafael Ludemann; Ghezzi, Ana Carolina; Camargo, Juliana Alves; Assis, Alexandre Moura; Tobar, Natalia; Morari, Joseane; Razolli, Daniela S.; Moura, Leandro Pereira; Pauli, José Rodrigo; Cintra, Dennys Esper; Velloso, Lício Augusto; Saad, Mario J.A; Ropelle, Eduardo Rochete

    2017-01-01

    Recently, we demonstrated that the hypothalamic S1PR1/STAT3 axis plays a critical role in the control of food consumption and energy expenditure in rodents. Here, we found that reduction of hypothalamic S1PR1 expression occurs in an age-dependent manner, and was associated with defective thermogenic signaling and weight gain. To address the physiological relevance of these findings, we investigated the effects of chronic and acute exercise on the hypothalamic S1PR1/STAT3 axis. Chronic exercise increased S1PR1 expression and STAT3 phosphorylation in the hypothalamus, restoring the anorexigenic and thermogenic signals in middle-aged mice. Acutely, exercise increased sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) levels in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of young rats, whereas the administration of CSF from exercised young rats into the hypothalamus of middle-aged rats at rest was sufficient to reduce the food intake. Finally, the intracerebroventricular (ICV) administration of S1PR1 activators, including the bioactive lipid molecule S1P, and pharmacological S1PR1 activator, SEW2871, induced a potent STAT3 phosphorylation and anorexigenic response in middle-aged rats. Overall, these results suggest that hypothalamic S1PR1 is important for the maintenance of energy balance and provide new insights into the mechanism by which exercise controls the anorexigenic and thermogenic signals in the central nervous system during the aging process. PMID:28039439

  18. Molecule nanoweaver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerald, II; Rex E.; Klingler, Robert J.; Rathke, Jerome W.; Diaz, Rocio; Vukovic, Lela

    2009-03-10

    A method, apparatus, and system for constructing uniform macroscopic films with tailored geometric assemblies of molecules on the nanometer scale. The method, apparatus, and system include providing starting molecules of selected character, applying one or more force fields to the molecules to cause them to order and condense with NMR spectra and images being used to monitor progress in creating the desired geometrical assembly and functionality of molecules that comprise the films.

  19. Identification of benzoxazole analogs as novel, S1P(3) sparing S1P(1) agonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Guanghui; Meng, Qinghua; Liu, Qian; Xu, Xuesong; Xu, Qiongfeng; Ren, Feng; Guo, Taylor B; Lu, Hongtao; Xiang, Jia-Ning; Elliott, John D; Lin, Xichen

    2012-06-15

    A novel series of benzoxazole-derived S1P(1) agonists were designed based on scaffold hopping molecular design strategy combined with computational approaches. Extensive SAR studies led to the discovery of compound 17d as a selective S1P(1) agonist (over S1P(3)) with high CNS penetration and favorable DMPK properties. 17d also demonstrated in vivo pharmacological efficacy to reduce blood lymphocyte in mice after oral administration.

  20. Restless legs syndrome mimicking S1 radiculopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambelis, Th; Wolgamuth, B R; Papoutsi, S N; Economou, N T

    2016-01-01

    Α case of a chronic idiopathic form of a severe type of Restless Legs Syndrome (RLS), which developed during pregnancy and persisted after this, misdiagnosed for 34 years as radiculopathy S1, is reported. In spite of the thorough clinical and laboratory investigation, in addition to constant changes of the therapeutic approach, the diagnosis of S1 radiculopathy could not be confirmed, resulting in a chronic clinical course; the latter was characterized by relapses and remissions not attributed or linked in any way to the treatment (various types of). In fact, it was due to a routine workup in a sleep clinic, where the patient was referred because of a coincident chronic insomnia (Restless Legs Syndrome is a known and important cause of insomnia/chronic insomnia), which resulted in a proper diagnosis and treatment of this case. With the use of Restless Legs Syndrome appropriate treatment (Pramipexole 0.18 mg taken at bedtime, a dopaminergic agent and Level A recommended drug for Restless Legs Syndrome) an excellent response and immediate elimination of symptoms was achieved. Restless Legs Syndrome may present with a variety of symptoms (with the most prominent shortly being reported with the acronym URGE: Urge to move the legs usually associated with unpleasant leg sensations, Rest induces symptoms, Getting active brings relief, Evening and night deteriorate symptoms); given the fact that Restless Legs Syndrome presents with a great variety and heterogeneity of symptoms (mostly pain, dysesthesia and paresthesia), which may occur in several other diseases (the so called "RLS mimics"), proper diagnosis of Restless Legs Syndrome usually fails. Restless Legs Syndrome misinterpreted as S1 radiculopathy, to the best of our knowledge, has not been reported yet in the literature. Here, case history, clinical course and common RLS mimics are presented. Different forms of Restless Legs Syndrome manifestations, which are commonly -as in this case- misinterpreted due to their

  1. Atkins' molecules

    CERN Document Server

    Atkins, Peters

    2003-01-01

    Originally published in 2003, this is the second edition of a title that was called 'the most beautiful chemistry book ever written'. In it, we see the molecules responsible for the experiences of our everyday life - including fabrics, drugs, plastics, explosives, detergents, fragrances, tastes, and sex. With engaging prose Peter Atkins gives a non-technical account of an incredible range of aspects of the world around us, showing unexpected connections, and giving an insight into how this amazing world can be understood in terms of the atoms and molecules from which it is built. The second edition includes dozens of extra molecules, graphical presentation, and an even more accessible and enthralling account of the molecules themselves.

  2. Enumerating molecules.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Visco, Donald Patrick, Jr. (, . Tennessee Technological University, Cookeville, TN); Faulon, Jean-Loup Michel; Roe, Diana C.

    2004-04-01

    This report is a comprehensive review of the field of molecular enumeration from early isomer counting theories to evolutionary algorithms that design molecules in silico. The core of the review is a detail account on how molecules are counted, enumerated, and sampled. The practical applications of molecular enumeration are also reviewed for chemical information, structure elucidation, molecular design, and combinatorial library design purposes. This review is to appear as a chapter in Reviews in Computational Chemistry volume 21 edited by Kenny B. Lipkowitz.

  3. Effect of S-1 combined with cisplatin intraperitoneal circulatory hyperthermia perfusion treat-ment on mal ignant molecule expression in gastric cancer patients with ascites as well as side effect assessment%替吉奥联合顺铂腹腔恒温循环热灌注治疗对胃癌合并腹水患者恶性分子表达的影响及毒副反应评估

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    简朔

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To study the effect of S-1 combined with cisplatin intraperitoneal circulatory hyperthermia perfu-sion on malignant molecule expression in gastric cancer patients with ascites as well as the related side effect.Methods:Gastric cancer patients with ascites who were treated in our hospital from February 2012 to July 201 5 were selected as research subjects and randomly divided into perfusion chemotherapy group and routine chemotherapy group,and then overall chemotherapy con-ditions,ascites FGF molecule content,peripheral blood immune function indexes and the degree of side effect were compared between two groups.Results:Average treatment cycles of perfusion chemotherapy group were more than those of routine chemotherapy group,and ascites drainage volume within two cycles of chemotherapy was significantly less than that of routine chemotherapy group;after two cycles of chemotherapy,bFGF,FGF-2,FGF1 9 and FGFR4 content in ascites of perfusion chemotherapy group were significantly lower than those of routine chemotherapy group,CD3 + CD4 + ,CD3 + CD56 + and CD3 -CD56 + cell content in peripheral blood were higher than those of routine chemotherapy group,and CD3 + CD8 + cell content was lower than that of routine chemotherapy group;during chemotherapy,the number of cases with decreased numeration of leu-kocyte,abnormal liver function,abnormal kidney function and diarrhea of perfusion chemotherapy group were significantly lower than those of routine chemotherapy group.Conclusions:S-1 combined with cisplatin intraperitoneal circulatory hyperther-mia perfusion chemotherapy can more effectively improve treatment compliance,suppress ascites,kill gastric cancer cells and improve immune function.It has fewer side effect and is the ideal way to treat gastric cancer with ascites.%目的::研究替吉奥联合顺铂腹腔恒温循环热灌注治疗对胃癌合并腹水患者恶性分子表达的影响及相关的毒副反应。方法:选择2012年2月~2015年7月期

  4. Integrable KdV Hierarchies on $T^2=S^1\\times S^1$

    CERN Document Server

    Sedra, M B

    2007-01-01

    Following our previous works on extended higher spin symmetries on the torus we focus in the present contribution to make a setup of the integrable KdV hierarchies on $T^{2} = S^{1} \\times S^{1}$. Actually two particular systems are considered, namely the KdV and the Burgers non linear integrable model associated to currents of conformal weights (2, 2) and (1, 1) respectively. One key steps towards proving the integrability of these systems is to find their Lax pair operators. This is explicitly done and a mapping between the two systems is discussed.

  5. MANAJEMEN PEMBELAJARAN S1 KEPERAWATAN STIKES YOGYAKARTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teti Indriati Kastuti

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mendeskripsikan manajemen pembelajaran dilihat dari segi pe-rencanaan, pelaksanaan, dan evaluasi kurikulum di S1 Keperawatan STIKES Yogyakarta. Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian deskriptif dengan pendekatan kualitatif. Subjek penelitian adalah Pembantu Ketua I, III, dosen, kepala bagain akademik, perpustakaan, laboratorium, dan mahasiswa. Data peneli-tian dikumpulkan melalui wawancara, observasi, dan studi dokumentasi. Dianalisis secara kualitatif dengan menggunakan teknik analisis interaktif model Miles dan Huberman. Hasil penelitian bahwa perencanaan pembelajaran: 1 rumusan kompetensi pendukung dan lainnya tidak terjabarkan dalam elemen kompetensi; 2 proses pembelajaran memerlukan team teaching. Pelaksanaan pembelajaran: 1 pembinaan motivasi belajar mahasiswa masih ada dosen yang mengajar berdasarkan mood; 2 bahan ajar dimanfaatkan dengan baik untuk mencapai tujuan instruksional pembelajaran; 3 bimbing-an dan konseling pada saat pengisian KRS; 4 masih ada dosen yang mengganti jadwal. Evaluasi pembelajaran: 1 penamaan mata kuliah IKD 1 dan 2, yang menunjukkan prerequisite, kenyataannya tidak berhubungan; 2 evaluasi dosen  sebatas pelaksanaan administratif. Kata kunci: manajemen, kurikulum, pembelajaran, keperawatan

  6. The S1 ← S0 fluorescence excitation spectrum and structure of propanal in the S1 excited electronic state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godunov, I A; Yakovlev, N N; Terentiev, R V; Maslov, D V; Abramenkov, A V

    2016-06-01

    We have obtained and analyzed the S1 ← S0 fluorescence excitation spectra of jet-cooled propanal-h1 (CH3CH2CHO) and -d1 (CH3CH2CDO). Using the results of theoretical studies of the structure of propanal molecule in the S1 lowest excited singlet electronic state, we have assigned the bands of both spectra to the vibronic transitions of the cis conformer (in the S0 ground electronic state) to the 1 and 3 conformers (in the S1 state) differed by the angle of the C2H5 ethyl group rotation around the central C-C bond. The origins of the 1 ← cis and 3 ← cis electronic transitions have been observed at 29 997 and 30 075 cm(-1) for propanal-h1 and at 30 040 and 30 115 cm(-1) for propanal-d1, respectively. The high activity of torsional (C2H5 ethyl groups) and inversional (CCHO/CCDO carbonyl fragments) vibrations and the intensity distribution of the bands in torsional sequences (passing through maximum) are in agreement with the theoretical prediction that the S1 ← S0 electronic excitation of the cis conformer causes (after geometrical relaxation) the pyramidalization of carbonyl fragments and the rotation of ethyl groups around the central C-C bond. A number of energy levels have been found for torsional and inversional vibrations, and also fundamentals of ν10 (CCO bend) and ν13 (CCC bend) for the both 1 and 3 conformers of propanal-h1 and -d1 have been found. Then the "experimental" potential functions of inversion for the pair of the 1 and 3 conformers have been determined. The heights of potential barriers to inversion and the angle values corresponding to the minima of potential functions of inversion are 900 cm(-1) and 35° for propanal-h1 and 820 cm(-1) and 34° for propanal-d1, respectively.

  7. Main: S1FBOXSORPS1L21 [PLACE

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available S1FBOXSORPS1L21 S000223 10-May-1998 (last modified) kehi S1F box conserved both in ...e element; Might play a role in downregulating RPS1 and RPL21 promoter activity (Lagrange et al., 1993); See S000211 (SITE1SOR...PS1), S000215 (S1FSORPL21); S1F; S1F box; S1F-box; S1; plastid protein; RPS1; RPL21; leaf; negative; spinach (Spinacia oleracea) ATGGTA ...

  8. How Nothing Boosts Affinity: Hydrophobic Ligand Binding to the Virtually Vacated S1' Pocket of Thermolysin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krimmer, Stefan G; Cramer, Jonathan; Schiebel, Johannes; Heine, Andreas; Klebe, Gerhard

    2017-08-02

    We investigated the hydration state of the deep, well-accessible hydrophobic S1' specificity pocket of the metalloprotease thermolysin with purposefully designed ligands using high-resolution crystallography and isothermal titration calorimetry. The S1' pocket is known to recognize selectively a very stringent set of aliphatic side chains such as valine, leucine, and isoleucine of putative substrates. We engineered a weak-binding ligand covering the active site of the protease without addressing the S1' pocket, thus transforming it into an enclosed cavity. Its sustained accessibility could be proved by accommodating noble gas atoms into the pocket in the crystalline state. The topology and electron content of the enclosed pocket with a volume of 141 Å(3) were analyzed using an experimental MAD-phased electron density map that was calibrated to an absolute electron number scale, enabling access to the total electron content within the cavity. Our analysis indicates that the S1' pocket is virtually vacated, thus free of any water molecules. The thermodynamic signature of the reduction of the void within the pocket by growing aliphatic P1' substituents (H, Me, iPr, iBu) reveals a dramatic, enthalpy-dominated gain in free energy of binding resulting in a factor of 41 000 in Kd for the H-to-iBu transformation. Substituents placing polar decoy groups into the pocket to capture putatively present water molecules could not collect any evidence for a bound solvent molecule.

  9. Exogenous S1P Exposure Potentiates Ischemic Stroke Damage That Is Reduced Possibly by Inhibiting S1P Receptor Signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Eunjung; Han, Jeong Eun; Jeon, Sejin; Ryu, Jong Hoon; Choi, Ji Woong; Chun, Jerold

    2015-01-01

    Initial and recurrent stroke produces central nervous system (CNS) damage, involving neuroinflammation. Receptor-mediated S1P signaling can influence neuroinflammation and has been implicated in cerebral ischemia through effects on the immune system. However, S1P-mediated events also occur within the brain itself where its roles during stroke have been less well studied. Here we investigated the involvement of S1P signaling in initial and recurrent stroke by using a transient middle cerebral artery occlusion/reperfusion (M/R) model combined with analyses of S1P signaling. Gene expression for S1P receptors and involved enzymes was altered during M/R, supporting changes in S1P signaling. Direct S1P microinjection into the normal CNS induced neuroglial activation, implicating S1P-initiated neuroinflammatory responses that resembled CNS changes seen during initial M/R challenge. Moreover, S1P microinjection combined with M/R potentiated brain damage, approximating a model for recurrent stroke dependent on S1P and suggesting that reduction in S1P signaling could ameliorate stroke damage. Delivery of FTY720 that removes S1P signaling with chronic exposure reduced damage in both initial and S1P-potentiated M/R-challenged brain, while reducing stroke markers like TNF-α. These results implicate direct S1P CNS signaling in the etiology of initial and recurrent stroke that can be therapeutically accessed by S1P modulators acting within the brain.

  10. Formation of ultracold LiCs molecules

    CERN Document Server

    Kraft, S D; Lange, J; Vogel, L; Wester, R; Weidemüller, M; Kraft, Stephan D.; Staanum, Peter; Lange, Joerg; Vogel, Leif; Wester, Roland; Weidemueller, Matthias

    2006-01-01

    We present the first observation of ultracold LiCs molecules. The molecules are formed in a two-species magneto-optical trap and detected by two-photon ionization and time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The production rate coefficient is found to be in the range $10^{-18}\\unit{cm^3s^{-1}}$ to $10^{-16}\\unit{cm^3s^{-1}}$, at least an order of magnitude smaller than for other heteronuclear diatomic molecules directly formed in a magneto-optical trap.

  11. Blocking S1P interaction with S1P{sub 1} receptor by a novel competitive S1P{sub 1}-selective antagonist inhibits angiogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujii, Yasuyuki, E-mail: y.fujii@po.rd.taisho.co.jp [Department of Molecular Function and Pharmacology Laboratories, Taisho Pharmaceutical Co. Ltd., 1-403 Saitama, Saitama 331-9530 (Japan); Ueda, Yasuji; Ohtake, Hidenori; Ono, Naoya; Takayama, Tetsuo; Nakazawa, Kiyoshi [Department of Molecular Function and Pharmacology Laboratories, Taisho Pharmaceutical Co. Ltd., 1-403 Saitama, Saitama 331-9530 (Japan); Igarashi, Yasuyuki [Laboratory of Biomembrane and Biofunctional Chemistry, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-0812 (Japan); Goitsuka, Ryo [Division of Development and Aging, Research Institute for Biological Sciences, Tokyo University of Science, Noda, Chiba 278-0022 (Japan)

    2012-03-23

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The effect of a newly developed S1P{sub 1}-selective antagonist on angiogenic responses. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer S1P{sub 1} is a critical component of VEGF-related angiogenic responses. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer S1P{sub 1}-selective antagonist showed in vitro activity to inhibit angiogenesis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer S1P{sub 1}-selective antagonist showed in vivo activity to inhibit angiogenesis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The efficacy of S1P{sub 1}-selective antagonist for anti-cancer therapies. -- Abstract: Sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor type 1 (S1P{sub 1}) was shown to be essential for vascular maturation during embryonic development and it has been demonstrated that substantial crosstalk exists between S1P{sub 1} and other pro-angiogenic growth factors, such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and basic fibroblast growth factor. We developed a novel S1P{sub 1}-selective antagonist, TASP0277308, which is structurally unrelated to S1P as well as previously described S1P{sub 1} antagonists. TASP0277308 inhibited S1P- as well as VEGF-induced cellular responses, including migration and proliferation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Furthermore, TASP0277308 effectively blocked a VEGF-induced tube formation in vitro and significantly suppressed tumor cell-induced angiogenesis in vivo. These findings revealed that S1P{sub 1} is a critical component of VEGF-related angiogenic responses and also provide evidence for the efficacy of TASP0277308 for anti-cancer therapies.

  12. Decorin in human oral cancer: A promising predictive biomarker of S-1 neoadjuvant chemosensitivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasamatsu, Atsushi, E-mail: kasamatsua@faculty.chiba-u.jp [Department of Oral Science, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Chiba 260-8670 (Japan); Department of Dentistry and Oral–Maxillofacial Surgery, Chiba University Hospital, Chiba 260-8670 (Japan); Uzawa, Katsuhiro, E-mail: uzawak@faculty.chiba-u.jp [Department of Oral Science, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Chiba 260-8670 (Japan); Department of Dentistry and Oral–Maxillofacial Surgery, Chiba University Hospital, Chiba 260-8670 (Japan); Minakawa, Yasuyuki; Ishige, Shunsaku; Kasama, Hiroki [Department of Oral Science, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Chiba 260-8670 (Japan); Endo-Sakamoto, Yosuke; Ogawara, Katsunori [Department of Dentistry and Oral–Maxillofacial Surgery, Chiba University Hospital, Chiba 260-8670 (Japan); Shiiba, Masashi; Takiguchi, Yuichi [Medical Oncology, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Chiba 260-8670 (Japan); Tanzawa, Hideki [Department of Oral Science, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Chiba 260-8670 (Japan); Department of Dentistry and Oral–Maxillofacial Surgery, Chiba University Hospital, Chiba 260-8670 (Japan)

    2015-01-30

    Highlights: • DCN is significantly up-regulated in chemoresistant cancer cell lines. • DCN is a key regulator for chemoresistant mechanisms in vitro and in vivo. • DCN predicts the clinical responses to S-1 NAC for patients with oral cancer. - Abstract: We reported previously that decorin (DCN) is significantly up-regulated in chemoresistant cancer cell lines. DCN is a small leucine-rich proteoglycan that exists and functions in stromal and epithelial cells. Accumulating evidence suggests that DCN affects the biology of several types of cancer by directly/indirectly targeting the signaling molecules involved in cell growth, survival, metastasis, and angiogenesis, however, the molecular mechanisms of DCN in chemoresistance and its clinical relevance are still unknown. Here we assumed that DCN silencing cells increase chemosusceptibility to S-1, consisted of tegafur, prodrug of 5-fluorouracil. We first established DCN knockdown transfectants derived from oral cancer cells for following experiments including chemosusceptibility assay to S-1. In addition to the in vitro data, DCN knockdown zenografting tumors in nude mice demonstrate decreasing cell proliferation and increasing apoptosis with dephosphorylation of AKT after S-1 chemotherapy. We also investigated whether DCN expression predicts the clinical responses of neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) using S-1 (S-1 NAC) for oral cancer patients. Immunohistochemistry data in the preoperative biopsy samples was analyzed to determine the cut-off point for status of DCN expression by receiver operating curve analysis. Interestingly, low DCN expression was observed in five (83%) of six cases with complete responses to S-1 NAC, and in one (10%) case of 10 cases with stable/progressive disease, indicating that S-1 chemosensitivity is dramatically effective in oral cancer patients with low DCN expression compared with high DCN expression. Our findings suggest that DCN is a key regulator for chemoresistant mechanisms, and

  13. S1P in HDL promotes interaction between SR-BI and S1PR1 and activates S1PR1-mediated biological functions: calcium flux and S1PR1 internalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Mi-Hye; Appleton, Kathryn M; El-Shewy, Hesham M; Sorci-Thomas, Mary G; Thomas, Michael J; Lopes-Virella, Maria F; Luttrell, Louis M; Hammad, Samar M; Klein, Richard L

    2017-02-01

    HDL normally transports about 50-70% of plasma sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P), and the S1P in HDL reportedly mediates several HDL-associated biological effects and signaling pathways. The HDL receptor, SR-BI, as well as the cell surface receptors for S1P (S1PRs) may be involved partially and/or completely in these HDL-induced processes. Here we investigate the nature of the HDL-stimulated interaction between the HDL receptor, SR-BI, and S1PR1 using a protein-fragment complementation assay and confocal microscopy. In both primary rat aortic vascular smooth muscle cells and HEK293 cells, the S1P content in HDL particles increased intracellular calcium concentration, which was mediated by S1PR1. Mechanistic studies performed in HEK293 cells showed that incubation of cells with HDL led to an increase in the physical interaction between the SR-BI and S1PR1 receptors that mainly occurred on the plasma membrane. Model recombinant HDL (rHDL) particles formed in vitro with S1P incorporated into the particle initiated the internalization of S1PR1, whereas rHDL without supplemented S1P did not, suggesting that S1P transported in HDL can selectively activate S1PR1. In conclusion, these data suggest that S1P in HDL stimulates the transient interaction between SR-BI and S1PRs that can activate S1PRs and induce an elevation in intracellular calcium concentration.

  14. Cohomology of the Schro¨dinger Algebra S (1)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yue Zhu WU; Xiao Qing YUE; Lin Sheng ZHU

    2014-01-01

    We explicitly compute the first and second cohomology groups of the Schr¨odinger algebra S(1) with coeffi cients in the trivial module and the finite-dimensional irreducible modules. We also show that the first and second cohomology groups of S(1) with coeffi cients in the universal enveloping algebras U (S (1)) (under the adjoint action) are infinite dimensional.

  15. Targeting sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) levels and S1P receptor functions for therapeutic immune interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gräler, Markus H

    2010-01-01

    Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) is an important regulator of many different immune functions including lymphocyte circulation, antigen presentation, and T cell development. It stimulates five G protein-coupled receptors designated S1P(1-5), which are also expressed by immune cells. S1P receptors couple to different heterotrimeric G proteins including G alpha i, q, and 12/13, and elicit cellular signalling events by activating the small GTPases Rac and Rho and protein kinases Akt, ERK, and JNK, and by inducing cellular calcium flux and inhibiting cAMP accumulation, amongst others. S1P is the exit signal for lymphocytes leaving lymphoid organs and present in blood and lymph at high nanomolar concentrations due to the S1P-producing activity of sphingosine kinases (SK). The S1P-degrading enzyme S1P-lyase maintains low amounts of S1P in lymphoid organs. Disrupting this concentration difference by S1P receptor agonists and antagonists like FTY720, SEW2871, and VPC23019, by an anti-S1P antibody, or by inhibiting the S1P-lyase has therapeutic potential for autoimmune diseases like multiple sclerosis (MS) and rheumatoid arthritis and for many other disorders like cancer, fibrosis, inflammation, macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy, and glaucoma. This report aims to provide a brief overview of concepts, approaches, pharmaceutical compounds, and targets that are currently used to modulate S1P-driven immune functions.

  16. The geometrical change and intramolecular energy transfer upon S1←S0 excitation in cyclopentanone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanmei; Liu, Zhiming; Xu, Yanqi; Zhang, Bing

    2015-08-01

    The ultrafast dynamics in vibrationally hot S1 electronic excited state in cyclopentanone molecule was discovered with time resolved spectroscopy. Investigation of the geometry change upon the S1←S0 excitation and D0←S1 ionization has shown that the dihedral angle between the C=O bond and the plane given by the carbonyl and the α-carbons is 180° either in S0 or D0 state and is reduced to 145.8° by out-out-plane deformation of the oxygen in S1 state according to the theoretical calculation. The time domain experiments with femtosecond resolution have given rich insights into the energy transfer of the cyclopentanone molecule. The molecules are excited to the vibrationally hot S1 (n, π∗) state following absorption of one 267-nm photon. It is found that the population of the S1 (n, π∗) state undergoes ultrafast internal conversion to the highly vibrationally hot S0 state within 80 fs and nonradiative deactivation by intersystem crossing to triplet T1 (n, π*) state occurring in 3.14 ps. Several Rydberg states have worked as stepping stones during the ionization. The available energy was distributed in the symmetric methylene group wagging and the symmetric skeletal ring breathing modes in D0 state.

  17. Resonating Valence Bond states for low dimensional S=1 antiferromagnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zheng-Xin; Zhou, Yi; Ng, Tai-Kai

    2014-03-01

    We study S = 1 spin liquid states in low dimensions. We show that the resonating-valence-bond (RVB) picture of S = 1 / 2 spin liquid state can be generalized to S = 1 case. For S = 1 system, a many-body singlet (with even site number) can be decomposed into superposition of products of two-body singlets. In other words, the product states of two-body singlets, called the singlet pair states (SPSs), are over complete to span the Hilbert space of many-body singlets. Furthermore, we generalized fermionic representation and the corresponding mean field theory and Gutzwiller projected stats to S = 1 models. We applied our theory to study 1D anti-ferromagnetic bilinear-biquadratic model and show that both the ground states (including the phase transition point) and the excited states can be understood excellently well within the framework. Our method can be applied to 2D S = 1 antiferromagnets.

  18. Main: O2F2BE2S1 [PLACE

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available coxin, the maize b-32 genes and the AP-1 pseudopalindrome; O2; opaque-2; be2S1; seed; Brazil nut tree (Bertholletia excelsa) GCCACCTCAT ... ...O2F2BE2S1 S000163 17-May-1998 (last modified) kehi opaque-2 recognition site F2 in Bertholletia excelsa (Bra...zil nut tree) 2S storage protein gene (be2S1); O2 protein binds to F1, F2 and F3 se

  19. 26 CFR 1.414(s)-1 - Definition of compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... prior regulation provisions of § 1.414(s)-1T. (See § 1.414(s)-1T as contained in the CFR edition revised... to the extent necessary to satisfy the requirements of 29 CFR 2530.204-2(d) (regarding double... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definition of compensation. 1.414(s)-1 Section...

  20. Far-ultraviolet Observations of Comet C/2012 S1 (ISON) from FORTIS

    CERN Document Server

    McCandliss, Stephan R; Weaver, Harold; Fleming, Brian; Redwine, Keith; Li, Mary J; Kutyrev, Alexander; Moseley, S Harvey

    2016-01-01

    We have used the unique far-UV imaging capability offered by a sounding rocket borne instrument to acquire observations of C/2012 S1 (ISON) when its angular separation with respect to the sun was 26.3deg, on 2013 November 20.49. At the time of observation the comet's heliocentric distance and velocity relative to the sun were rh = 0.43 AU and rh_dot = -62.7 km s^-1. Images dominated by C I 1657 A and H I 1216 A were acquired over a 1e6 x 1e6 km^2 region. The water production rate implied by the Lyman alpha observations is constrained to be Q_H2O approximately 8e29 s^-1 while the neutral carbon production rate was Q_C approximately 4e28 s^-1. The radial profile of C I was consistent with it being a dissociation product of a parent molecule with a lifetime approximately 5e4 seconds, favoring a parent other than CO. We constrain the Q_CO production rate to 5(+1.5, -7.5)e28 s^-1 with 1sigma errors derived from photon statistics. The upper limit on the Q_CO/Q_H2O < 6%.

  1. Far-ultraviolet Observations of Comet C/2012 S1 (ISON) from FORTIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCandliss, Stephan R.; Feldman, Paul D.; Weaver, Harold; Fleming, Brian; Redwine, Keith; Li, Mary J.; Kutyrev, Alexander; Moseley, S. Harvey

    2016-09-01

    We have used the unique far-UV imaging capability offered by a sounding-rocket-borne instrument to acquire observations of C/2012 S1 (ISON) when its angular separation with respect to the Sun was 26.°3 on 2013 November 20.49. At the time of observation, the comet’s heliocentric distance and velocity relative to the Sun were r h = 0.43 au and {\\dot{r}}h = -62.7 km s-1. Images dominated by C i λ1657 and H i λ1216 were acquired over a 106 × 106 km2 region. The water production rate implied by the Lyα observations is constrained to be {Q}{{{H}}2{{O}}}≈ 8 × 1029 s-1 while the neutral carbon production rate was {Q}C ≈ 4 ×1028 s-1. The radial profile of C i was consistent with it being a dissociation product of a parent molecule with a lifetime τ ˜ 5 × 104 s, favoring a parent other than CO. We constrain the Q CO production rate to {5}-7.5+1.5 × 1028 s-1 with 1σ errors derived from photon statistics. The upper limit on the Q CO/{Q}{{{H}}2{{O}}} is ≲6%.

  2. Main: O2F3BE2S1 [PLACE

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available quences of be2S1 promoter; F3 is hybrid of A/G box; O2; opaque-2; be2S1; seed; Brazil nut tree (Bertholletia excelsa) TCCACGTACT ... ...O2F3BE2S1 S000164 17-May-1998 (last modified) kehi opaque-2 recognition site F3 in Bertholletia excelsa (Bra...zil nut tree) 2S storage protein gene (be2S1); O2 protein binds to F1, F2 and F3 se

  3. Main: O2F1BE2S1 [PLACE

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available quences of be2S1 promoter; F1 is hybrid C/G box; O2; opaque-2; be2S1; F1; seed; Brazil nut tree (Bertholletia excelsa); TCCACGTCGA ... ...O2F1BE2S1 S000162 17-May-1998 (last modified) kehi opaque-2 recognition site F1 in Bertholletia excelsa (Bra...zil nut tree) 2S storage protein gene (be2S1); O2 protein binds to F1, F2 and F3 se

  4. Inhibition of skeletal muscle S1-myosin ATPase by peroxynitrite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiago, Teresa; Simão, Sónia; Aureliano, Manuel; Martín-Romero, Francisco Javier; Gutiérrez-Merino, Carlos

    2006-03-21

    Exposure of myosin subfragment 1 (S1) to 3-morpholinosydnonimine (SIN-1) produced a time-dependent inhibition of the F-actin-stimulated S1 Mg(2+)-ATPase activity, reaching 50% inhibition with 46.7 +/- 8.3 microM SIN-1 for 8.7 microM S1, that is, at a SIN-1/S1 molar ratio of approximately 5.5. The inhibition was due to the peroxynitrite produced by SIN-1 decomposition because (1) decomposed SIN-1 was found to have no effect on S1 ATPase activity, (2) addition of SIN-1 in the presence of superoxide dismutase and catalase fully prevented inhibition by SIN-1, and (3) micromolar pulses of chemically synthesized peroxynitrite produced inhibition of F-actin-stimulated S1 Mg(2+)-ATPase activity. In parallel, SIN-1 produced the inhibition of the nonphysiological Ca(2+)-dependent and K(+)/EDTA-dependent S1 ATPase activity of S1 and, therefore, suggested that the inhibition of F-actin-stimulated S1 Mg(2+)-ATPase activity is produced by the oxidation of highly reactive cysteines of S1 (Cys(707) and Cys(697)), located close to the catalytic center. This point was further confirmed by the titration of S1 cysteines with 5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid) and by the parallel decrease of Cys(707) labeling by 5-(iodoacetamido)fluorescein, and it was reinforced by the fact that other common protein modifications produced by peroxynitrite, for example, protein carbonyl and nitrotyrosine formation, were barely detected at the concentrations of SIN-1 that produced more than 50% inhibition of the F-actin-stimulated S1 Mg(2+)-ATPase activity. Differential scanning calorimetry of S1 (untreated and treated with different SIN-1 concentrations) pointed out that SIN-1, at concentrations that generate micromolar peroxynitrite fluxes, impaired the ability of ADP.V(1) to induce the intermediate catalytic transition state and also produced the partial unfolding of S1 that leads to an enhanced susceptibility of S1 to trypsin digestion, which can be fully protected by 2 mM GSH.

  5. A Shift in ApoM/S1P Between HDL-Particles in Women With Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus Is Associated With Impaired Anti-Inflammatory Effects of the ApoM/S1P Complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frej, Cecilia; Mendez, Armando J; Ruiz, Mario; Castillo, Melanie; Hughes, Thomas A; Dahlbäck, Björn; Goldberg, Ronald B

    2017-06-01

    Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D) patients have an increased risk of cardiovascular disease despite high levels of high-density lipoproteins (HDL). Apolipoprotein M (apoM) and its ligand sphingosine 1-phospate (S1P) exert many of the anti-inflammatory effects of HDL. We investigated whether apoM and S1P are altered in T1D and whether apoM and S1P are important for HDL functionality in T1D. ApoM and S1P were quantified in plasma from 42 healthy controls and 89 T1D patients. HDL was isolated from plasma and separated into dense, medium-dense, and light HDL by ultracentrifugation. Primary human aortic endothelial cells were challenged with tumor necrosis factor-α in the presence or absence of isolated HDL. Proinflammatory adhesion molecules E-selectin and vascular cellular adhesion molecule-1 were quantified by flow cytometry. Activation of the S1P1- receptor was evaluated by analyzing downstream signaling targets and receptor internalization. There were no differences in plasma levels of apoM and S1P between controls and T1D patients, but the apoM/S1P complexes were shifted from dense to light HDL particles in T1D. ApoM/S1P in light HDL particles from women were less efficient in inhibiting expression of vascular cellular adhesion molecule-1 than apoM/S1P in denser particles. The light HDL particles were unable to activate Akt, whereas all HDL subfractions were equally efficient in activating Erk and receptor internalization. ApoM/S1P in light HDL particles were inefficient in inhibiting tumor necrosis factor-α-induced vascular cellular adhesion molecule-1 expression in contrast to apoM/S1P in denser HDL particles. T1D patients have a higher proportion of light particles and hence more dysfunctional HDL, which could contribute to the increased cardiovascular disease risk associated with T1D. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  6. Deconfinement on $\\mathbb R^2\\times S^1_L\\times S^1_{\\beta}$ for all gauge groups and duality to double Coulomb Gas

    CERN Document Server

    Teeple, Brett

    2015-01-01

    I study finite-temperature $\\mathcal N=1$ super Yang-Mills for any gauge group $G=A_N, B_N, C_N, D_N, E_{6,7,8},F_4,G_2$, compactified from four dimensions on a torus, $\\mathbb R^2\\times S^1_L\\times S^1_{\\beta}$. I examine in particular the low temperature regime $L\\ll\\beta=1/T$, where $L$ is the length of the spatial circle with periodic boundary conditions and with anti-periodic boundary conditions for the adjoint gauginos along the thermal cycle $S^1_{\\beta}$. For small such $L$ we are in a regime were semiclassical calculations can be performed and a transition occurs at $T_c$ much smaller than $1/NL$. The transition is mediated by the competition between non-perturbative objects including 'exotic' topological molecules: neutral and magnetic bions composed of BPS and KK monopole constituents, with $r=rank(G)$ different charges in the co-root lattice of the gauge group $G$, and the perturbative electrically charged W-bosons (along with their wino superpartners). I determine a duality to a double Coulomb ga...

  7. Localization on $AdS_2\\times S^1$

    CERN Document Server

    David, Justin R; Gupta, Rajesh Kumar; Narain, Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Conformal symmetry relates the metric on $AdS_2 \\times S^{1}$ to that of $S^3$. This implies that under a suitable choice of boundary conditions for fields on $AdS_2$ the partition function of conformal field theories on these spaces must agree which makes $AdS_2 \\times S^{1}$ a good testing ground to study localization on non-compact spaces. We study supersymmetry on $AdS_2\\times S^1$ and determine the localizing Lagrangian for ${\\cal N}=2$ supersymmetric Chern-Simons theory on $AdS_2\\times S^1$. We evaluate the partition function of ${\\cal N}=2$ supersymmetric Chern-Simons theory on $AdS_2 \\times S^1$ using localization, where the radius of $S^1$ is $q$ times that of $AdS_2$. With boundary conditions on $AdS_2\\times S^1$ which ensure that all the physical fields are normalizable and lie in the space of square integrable wave functions in $AdS_2$, the result for the partition function precisely agrees with that of the theory on the $q$-fold covering of $S^3$.

  8. Epson EMP-S1投影机的升级产品EMP-S1H

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    EMP-S1是Epson公司推出的1款颇具影响力的经济型投影机,2004年5月Epson推出了EMP-S1的升级产品EMP-S1H。EMP.S1H在原有EMP-S1投影机的基础上亮度提高到了1400流明,同时对比度也提高到500:1,对比度的提高使图像层次感更好,影像更富有质感。

  9. Radiative and Pionic transitions from the $D_{s1}(2460)$ to the $D_{s0}^\\ast(2317)$

    CERN Document Server

    Xiao, cheng-Jian; Ma, Yong-Liang

    2016-01-01

    We estimate the partial widths for the radiative and pionic transitions from the $D_{s1}(2460)$ to the $D_{s0}(2317)$ in a molecule scenario, in which the $D_{s1}(2460)$ and $D_{s0}^\\ast(2317)$ are considered as hadronic molecule states of $DK$ and $D^\\ast K$, respectively. The partial widths for the $D_{s1}(2460) \\to D_{s0}^\\ast(2317) \\pi^0$ and $D_{s1}(2460) \\to D_{s0}^\\ast(2317) \\gamma$ are evaluated to be about $0.19 \\sim 0.22$ keV and $3.0 \\sim 3.1$ keV, respectively. In addition, the ratio of the $D_{s1}(2460) \\to D_{s0}(2317) \\gamma$ and $D_{s1}(2460) \\to D_{s}^\\ast \\pi^0$ is estimated to be about $(6.6\\sim 10.6) \\times 10^{-2}$, which is safely under the measured upper limit.

  10. A systematic methodology for large scale compound screening: A case study on the discovery of novel S1PL inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deniz, Utku; Ozkirimli, Elif; Ulgen, Kutlu O

    2016-01-01

    Decrease in sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) concentration induces migration of pathogenic T cells to the blood stream, disrupts the CNS and it is implicated in multiple sclerosis (MS), a progressive inflammatory disorder of the central nervous system (CNS), and Alzheimer's disease (AD). A promising treatment alternative for MS and AD is inhibition of the activity of the microsomal enzyme sphingosine 1-phosphate lyase (S1PL), which degrades intracellular S1P. This report describes an integrated systematic approach comprising virtual screening, molecular docking, substructure search and molecular dynamics simulation to discover novel S1PL inhibitors. Virtual screening of the ZINC database via ligand-based and structure-based pharmacophore models yielded 10000 hits. After molecular docking, common substructures of the top ranking hits were identified. The ligand binding poses were optimized by induced fit docking. MD simulations were performed on the complex structures to determine the stability of the S1PL-ligand complex and to calculate the binding free energy. Selectivity of the selected molecules was examined by docking them to hERG and cytochrome P450 receptors. As a final outcome, 15 compounds from different chemotypes were proposed as potential S1PL inhibitors. These molecules may guide future medicinal chemistry efforts in the discovery of new compounds against the destructive action of pathogenic T cells.

  11. SKI-1/S1P inhibitor PF-429242 impairs the onset of HCV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchet, Matthieu; Sureau, Camille; Guévin, Carl; Seidah, Nabil G; Labonté, Patrick

    2015-03-01

    Worldwide, approximately 170 million individuals are afflicted with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. To prevent the development of inherent diseases such as cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma, tremendous efforts have been made, leading to the development of promising new treatments. However, their efficiency is still dependent on the viral genotype. Additionally, these treatments that target the virus directly can trigger the emergence of resistant variants. In a previous study, we have demonstrated that a long-term (72h) inhibition of SKI-1/S1P, a master lipogenic pathway regulator through activation of SREBP, resulted in impaired HCV genome replication and infectious virion secretion. In the present study, we sought to investigate the antiviral effect of the SKI-1/S1P small molecule inhibitor PF-429242 at the early steps of the HCV lifecycle. Our results indicate a very potent antiviral effect of the inhibitor early in the viral lifecycle and that the overall action of the compound relies on two different contributions. The first one is SREBP/SKI-1/S1P dependent and involves LDLR and NPC1L1 proteins, while the second one is SREBP independent. Overall, our study confirms that SKI-1/S1P is a relevant target to impair HCV infection and that PF-429242 could be a promising candidate in the field of HCV infection treatment.

  12. Assignment of Isodoublet of 23S1 Meson Nonet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG Xue-Chao; JIANG Feng-Chun

    2007-01-01

    Inserting the masses of some states, which have been established in the experiments or the theory of lattice QCD, we investigate the mass of the isodoublet of the 23S1 meson nonet. The agreement results, 1567 ± 22.6 MeV and 1576.8 MeV, are given by two different approaches. We suggest that the assignment of 23S1 meson nonet should be re-examined in future experiments.

  13. (1S-1,2-O-Benzylidene-α-d-glucurono-6,3-lactone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J. Watkin

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available X-ray crystallographic analysis has established that the major product from the protection of d-glucoronolactone with benzaldehyde is (1S-1,2-O-benzylidene-α-d-glucurono-6,3-lactone, C13H12O6, rather than the R epimer. The crystal structure exists as O—H...O hydrogen-bonded chains of molecules lying parallel to the a axis. The absolute configuration was determined by the use of d-glucuronolactone as the starting material.

  14. Highly selective and potent agonists of sphingosine-1-phosphate 1 (S1P1) receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vachal, Petr; Toth, Leslie M; Hale, Jeffrey J; Yan, Lin; Mills, Sander G; Chrebet, Gary L; Koehane, Carol A; Hajdu, Richard; Milligan, James A; Rosenbach, Mark J; Mandala, Suzanne

    2006-07-15

    Novel series of sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) receptor agonists were developed through a systematic SAR aimed to achieve high selectivity for a single member of the S1P family of receptors, S1P1. The optimized structure represents a highly S1P1-selective and efficacious agonist: S1P1/S1P2, S1P1/S1P3, S1P1/S1P4>10,000-fold, S1P1/S1P5>600-fold, while EC50 (S1P1) effect.

  15. Improvement of S-1 photocathode shelf life stability. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fitts, R.W.

    1977-03-01

    The purpose of this program was to stabilize sensitivity of S-1 photocathodes in C73435AG high speed image converters. Variations in bulb pre- and post-heating and in aging were investigated using partial tube assemblies consisting of the cathode bulb half of the standard tube. Successful processing of stable S-1 photocathodes in partial tubes led to adapting the schedules to complete tube assemblies. Five tubes processed on this contract yielded high but unstable photocathode sensitivity. Continued testing of tubes being made to fill customer orders shows that control of tube heating and cooling, together with careful control of evaporated cesium, can yield stable S-1 photocathodes. Additional experimentation is required to optimize a schedule yielding consistently stable photocathodes.

  16. A non-adiabatic dynamics study of octatetraene: the radiationless conversion from S2 to S1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Zexing; Liu, Chungen

    2013-12-28

    Simulation of the excited state dynamics of all-trans-1,3,5,7-octatetraene has been performed to investigate the ultrafast radiationless S2 → S1 internal conversion process. Multireference configuration interaction with single excitation method has been employed to optimize the equilibrium structure of the excited states, as well as the S2/S1 conical intersection, and to investigate the non-adiabatic molecular dynamics of the S2/S1 state transition. At the conical intersection, the molecule is found to be distorted from the original planar trans structure to a nearly perpendicular conformation around C3-C4 bond, with the torsion angle being about 107°. Such structural change can result in mutual approaching of states S2 and S1 in energy, and drastically increase the nonadiabatic coupling between the two states by destroying the inter-state symmetry prohibition in the electronic wavefunctions. Surface-hopping molecular dynamics simulations are performed to describe the non-adiabatic process. Upon the Franck-Condon excitation to the S2 state, the molecule quickly twists its C3-C4 bond and approaches the conical intersection region, where it can undergo efficient internal conversion to S1. The decay time constant (τ) of S2 state is estimated to be around 251 fs by fitting the occupation number of average fraction of trajectories using an exponential damping function. This value is reasonably consistent with previous experimental measurements of around 300-400 fs.

  17. In vivo analysis of the Notch receptor S1 cleavage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J Lake

    Full Text Available A ligand-independent cleavage (S1 in the extracellular domain of the mammalian Notch receptor results in what is considered to be the canonical heterodimeric form of Notch on the cell surface. The in vivo consequences and significance of this cleavage on Drosophila Notch signaling remain unclear and contradictory. We determined the cleavage site in Drosophila and examined its in vivo function by a transgenic analysis of receptors that cannot be cleaved. Our results demonstrate a correlation between loss of cleavage and loss of in vivo function of the Notch receptor, supporting the notion that S1 cleavage is an in vivo mechanism of Notch signal control.

  18. Anomalous Dispersion of the S1 Lamb Mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faiz Ahmad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The S1 mode of the Lamb spectrum of an isotropic plate exhibits negative group velocity in a narrow frequency domain. This anomalous behavior is explained analytically by examining the slope of each mode first in its initial state and then near its turning points.

  19. Spin diffusion in anisotropic Heisenberg chains: S{>=}1/2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huber, D.L., E-mail: huber@src.wisc.edu [Physics Department, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1150 University Avenue, Madison WI 53706 (United States)

    2012-11-01

    In this paper, we investigate spin diffusion in Heisenberg chains with uniaxial nearest-neighbor interactions. The approach followed is based on an analysis of the infinite-temperature longitudinal spin density and spin current correlation functions. For S=1/2, exact results are presented for the time-dependent correlation functions in the XY limit. Away from this limit, the second and fourth moments of the Fourier transform of the spin density correlation function provide information about spin dynamics for arbitrary values of the spin. The moments are used in an assessment of the accuracy of the Gaussian approximation for the spin diffusion constant for S=1/2. The general behavior of the Gaussian approximation when S>1/2 is discussed, and numerical results for the spin diffusion constant are presented for S=1/2, 1, 3/2, 2 and in the classical limit. A moment-based criterion for the boundary in reciprocal space between diffusive and non-diffusive dynamics that applies to arbitrary values of the spin is presented.

  20. Salmonella Typhi OmpS1 and OmpS2 porins are potent protective immunogens with adjuvant properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Eutimio, Mario A; Tenorio-Calvo, Alejandra; Pastelin-Palacios, Rodolfo; Perez-Shibayama, Christian; Gil-Cruz, Cristina; López-Santiago, Rubén; Baeza, Isabel; Fernández-Mora, Marcos; Bonifaz, Laura; Isibasi, Armando; Calva, Edmundo; López-Macías, Constantino

    2013-01-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi) is the causal agent of typhoid fever, a disease that primarily affects developing countries. Various antigens from this bacterium have been reported to be targets of the immune response. Recently, the S. Typhi genome has been shown to encode two porins – OmpS1 and OmpS2 – which are expressed at low levels under in vitro culture conditions. In this study, we demonstrate that immunizing mice with either OmpS1 or OmpS2 induced production of specific, long-term antibody titres and conferred protection against S. Typhi challenge; in particular, OmpS1 was more immunogenic and conferred greater protective effects than OmpS2. We also found that OmpS1 is a Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) agonist, whereas OmpS2 is a TLR2 and TLR4 agonist. Both porins induced the production of tumour necrosis factor and interleukin-6, and OmpS2 was also able to induce interleukin-10 production. Furthermore, OmpS1 induced the over-expression of MHC II molecules in dendritic cells and OmpS2 induced the over-expression of CD40 molecules in macrophages and dendritic cells. Co-immunization of OmpS1 or OmpS2 with ovalbumin (OVA) increased anti-OVA antibody titres, the duration and isotype diversity of the OVA-specific antibody response, and the proliferation of T lymphocytes. These porins also had adjuvant effects on the antibody response when co-immunized with either the Vi capsular antigen from S. Typhi or inactivated 2009 pandemic influenza A(H1N1) virus [A(H1N1)pdm09]. Taken together, the data indicate that OmpS1 and OmpS2, despite being expressed at low levels under in vitro culture conditions, are potent protective immunogens with intrinsic adjuvant properties. PMID:23432484

  1. Salmonella Typhi OmpS1 and OmpS2 porins are potent protective immunogens with adjuvant properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Eutimio, Mario A; Tenorio-Calvo, Alejandra; Pastelin-Palacios, Rodolfo; Perez-Shibayama, Christian; Gil-Cruz, Cristina; López-Santiago, Rubén; Baeza, Isabel; Fernández-Mora, Marcos; Bonifaz, Laura; Isibasi, Armando; Calva, Edmundo; López-Macías, Constantino

    2013-08-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi) is the causal agent of typhoid fever, a disease that primarily affects developing countries. Various antigens from this bacterium have been reported to be targets of the immune response. Recently, the S. Typhi genome has been shown to encode two porins--OmpS1 and OmpS2--which are expressed at low levels under in vitro culture conditions. In this study, we demonstrate that immunizing mice with either OmpS1 or OmpS2 induced production of specific, long-term antibody titres and conferred protection against S. Typhi challenge; in particular, OmpS1 was more immunogenic and conferred greater protective effects than OmpS2. We also found that OmpS1 is a Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) agonist, whereas OmpS2 is a TLR2 and TLR4 agonist. Both porins induced the production of tumour necrosis factor and interleukin-6, and OmpS2 was also able to induce interleukin-10 production. Furthermore, OmpS1 induced the over-expression of MHC II molecules in dendritic cells and OmpS2 induced the over-expression of CD40 molecules in macrophages and dendritic cells. Co-immunization of OmpS1 or OmpS2 with ovalbumin (OVA) increased anti-OVA antibody titres, the duration and isotype diversity of the OVA-specific antibody response, and the proliferation of T lymphocytes. These porins also had adjuvant effects on the antibody response when co-immunized with either the Vi capsular antigen from S. Typhi or inactivated 2009 pandemic influenza A(H1N1) virus [A(H1N1)pdm09]. Taken together, the data indicate that OmpS1 and OmpS2, despite being expressed at low levels under in vitro culture conditions, are potent protective immunogens with intrinsic adjuvant properties.

  2. Late-stage optimization of a tercyclic class of S1P3-sparing, S1P1 receptor agonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horan, Joshua C; Kuzmich, Daniel; Liu, Pingrong; DiSalvo, Darren; Lord, John; Mao, Can; Hopkins, Tamara D; Yu, Hui; Harcken, Christian; Betageri, Raj; Hill-Drzewi, Melissa; Patenaude, Lori; Patel, Monica; Fletcher, Kimberly; Terenzzio, Donna; Linehan, Brian; Xia, Heather; Patel, Mita; Studwell, Debbie; Miller, Craig; Hickey, Eugene; Levin, Jeremy I; Smith, Dustin; Kemper, Raymond A; Modis, Louise K; Bannen, Lynne C; Chan, Diva S; Mac, Morrison B; Ng, Stephanie; Wang, Yong; Xu, Wei; Lemieux, René M

    2016-01-15

    Poor solubility and cationic amphiphilic drug-likeness were liabilities identified for a lead series of S1P3-sparing, S1P1 agonists originally developed from a high-throughput screening campaign. This work describes the subsequent optimization of these leads by balancing potency, selectivity, solubility and overall molecular charge. Focused SAR studies revealed favorable structural modifications that, when combined, produced compounds with overall balanced profiles. The low brain exposure observed in rat suggests that these compounds would be best suited for the potential treatment of peripheral autoimmune disorders.

  3. Spatially frustrated S = 1 Heisenberg antiferromagnet with single ion anisotropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, A. S. T.

    2016-10-01

    Using the SU(3) Schwinger boson formalism, I study the S = 1 square lattice Heisenberg antiferromagnet, at zero temperature, with spatially anisotropic nearest-neighbor couplings frustrated by a next-nearest neighbor interaction and single ion anisotropy. The phase diagram at zero temperature is presented. My calculations show two magnetically ordered phases separated by a quantum-disordered region for all values of the anisotropy.

  4. The Global S_1 Tide in Earth's Nutation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindelegger, Michael; Einšpigel, David; Salstein, David; Böhm, Johannes

    2016-05-01

    Diurnal S_1 tidal oscillations in the coupled atmosphere-ocean system induce small perturbations of Earth's prograde annual nutation, but matching geophysical model estimates of this Sun-synchronous rotation signal with the observed effect in geodetic Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) data has thus far been elusive. The present study assesses the problem from a geophysical model perspective, using four modern-day atmospheric assimilation systems and a consistently forced barotropic ocean model that dissipates its energy excess in the global abyssal ocean through a parameterized tidal conversion scheme. The use of contemporary meteorological data does, however, not guarantee accurate nutation estimates per se; two of the probed datasets produce atmosphere-ocean-driven S_1 terms that deviate by more than 30 μ as (microarcseconds) from the VLBI-observed harmonic of -16.2+i113.4 μ as. Partial deficiencies of these models in the diurnal band are also borne out by a validation of the air pressure tide against barometric in situ estimates as well as comparisons of simulated sea surface elevations with a global network of S_1 tide gauge determinations. Credence is lent to the global S_1 tide derived from the Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) and the operational model of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF). When averaged over a temporal range of 2004 to 2013, their nutation contributions are estimated to be -8.0+i106.0 μ as (MERRA) and -9.4+i121.8 μ as (ECMWF operational), thus being virtually equivalent with the VLBI estimate. This remarkably close agreement will likely aid forthcoming nutation theories in their unambiguous a priori account of Earth's prograde annual celestial motion.

  5. Osmo-, thermo- and ethanol- tolerances of Saccharomyces cerevisiae S1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandrasegarampillai Balakumar

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Saccharomyces cerevisiae S1, which is a locally isolated and improved strain showed viability at 40, 45 and 50ºC and produced ethanol at 40, 43 and 45ºC. When the cells were given heat shock at 45ºC for 30min and grown at 40ºC, 100% viability was observed for 60h, and addition of 200gl-1 ethanol has led to complete cell death at 30h. Heat shock given at 45ºC (for 30min has improved the tolerance to temperature induced ethanol shock leading to 37% viability at 30h. when the cells were subjected to ethanol (200gl-1 for 30 min and osmotic shock (sorbitol 300gl-1, trehalose contents in the cells were increased. The heat shocked cells showed better viability in presence of added ethanol. Soy flour supplementation has improved the viability of S. cerevisiae S1 to 80% in presence of 100gl-1 added ethanol and to 60% in presence of 300gl-1 sorbitol. In presence of sorbitol (200gl-1 and ethanol (50gl-1 at 40ºC, 46% viability was retained by S. cerevisiae S1 at 48h and it was improved to 80% by soy flour supplementation.

  6. Search for ammonia in comet C/2012 S1 (ISON)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faggi, S.; Codella, C.; Tozzi, G. P.; Comoretto, G.; Crovisier, J.; Nesti, R.; Panella, D.; Boissier, J.; Brucato, J. R.; Bolli, P.; Massi, F.; Tofani, G.

    2015-12-01

    Comets are uniquely pristine bodies providing unique insights about the formation of our Solar System. In this work, we focus on a dynamically new comet as it enters the inner Solar System for the first time after residing for billion of years in the Oort Cloud. Such comets are particularly important because they are thought to be not differentiated by solar radiation and they are supposed to have a large quantity of organic matter close to the surface. Here we report the results of a search for NH3(1,1) emission at 23.7 GHz towards comet C/2012 S1 (ISON) using a new dual-feed K band receiver mounted on the Medicina 32-m antenna. We observed the comet close to its perihelion, from 25 to 29 November 2013, when its heliocentric distance changed from 0.25 AU to 0.03 AU. We derive an upper limit of Q(NH3) of about 2.5×1029 mol s-1 on 26 November, that is consistent with the last peak of water production rate of ∼2×1030 mol s-1 within the last few days before the perihelion.

  7. [A comparative study of S-1 plus cisplatin and S-1 plus weekly cisplatin for unresectable gastric cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemmochi, Takeshi; Egawa, Tomohisa; Sato, Aya; Umakoshi, Tomoko; Ito, Yasuhiro; Nagashima, Atsushi; Makino, Hiroyuki; Yamamuro, Wataru

    2012-11-01

    Clinical efficacy and safety were analyzed in patients with unresectable gastric cancer receiving S-1 plus CDDP(CS) therapy or S-1 plus weekly CDDP (w-CS) therapy as first-line treatment between April 2007 and December 2010. Fifteen patients received CS therapy and 17 received w-CS therapy. CS therapy was used according to the SPIRITS regimen, and w-CS therapy of S-1 80 mg/(m2·day) was administered for 2 weeks followed by a 1-week rest, with CDDP 20 mg/m2 being injected intravenously on days 1 and 8. In the CS therapy group and w-CS therapy group, the overall response rates were 33.3% and 70.1%, the median overall survival periods were 135 and 174 days (p=0.113), and the median follow- up times were 196 and 352 days (p=0.196), respectively. The w-CS therapy group showed less adverse events than did the CS therapy group. This study suggested that the w-CS regimen is a useful treatment modality showing clinical efficacy and safety for unresectable gastric cancer.

  8. QCD corrections to inclusive $\\Delta S=1,2$ transitions

    OpenAIRE

    Jamin, Matthias

    1994-01-01

    The talk summarises a calculation of the two-point functions for $\\Delta S=1$ current-current and QCD-penguin operators, as well as for the $\\Delta S=2$ operator, at the next-to-leading order. The size of the gluonic corrections to current-current operators is large, providing a qualitative understanding of the observed enhancement in $\\Delta I=1/2$ transitions. In the $\\Delta S=2$ sector the QCD corrections are quite moderate ($\\approx -20\\%$). This work has been done in collaboration with A...

  9. O/S-1/ interactions - The product channels. [collisional electron quenching and chemical reaction pathway frequencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slanger, T. G.; Black, G.

    1978-01-01

    The first measurements are reported of the reaction pathways for the interaction between oxygen atoms in the 4.19 eV S-1 state, and four molecules, N2O, CO2, H2O, and NO. Distinction is made between three possible paths - quenching to O(D-1), quenching to O(P-3), and chemical reaction. With N2O, the most reasonable interpretation of the data indicates that there no reaction, in sharp contrast with the interaction between O(D-1) and N2O, which proceeds entirely by reaction. Similarly, there is no reaction with CO2. With H2O, the reactive pathway is the dominant one, although electronic quenching is not negligible. With NO, O(D-1) is the preferred product.

  10. Mutational analysis of hepatitis B virus pre-S1 (9–24) fusogenic peptide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Qiushi; Somiya, Masaharu [The Institute of Scientific and Industrial Research, Osaka University, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan); Shimada, Naohiko; Sakamoto, Wakako [Department of Biomolecular Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 B-57, Nagatsuta, Midori, Yokohama 226-8501 (Japan); Yoshimoto, Nobuo; Iijima, Masumi; Tatematsu, Kenji; Nakai, Tadashi; Okajima, Toshihide [The Institute of Scientific and Industrial Research, Osaka University, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan); Maruyama, Atsushi [Department of Biomolecular Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 B-57, Nagatsuta, Midori, Yokohama 226-8501 (Japan); Kuroda, Shuńichi, E-mail: skuroda@sanken.osaka-u.ac.jp [The Institute of Scientific and Industrial Research, Osaka University, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan)

    2016-05-27

    A hollow nanoparticle known as a bio-nanocapsule (BNC) consisting of hepatitis B virus (HBV) envelope L protein and liposome (LP) can encapsulate drugs and genes and thereby deliver them in vitro and in vivo to human hepatic tissues, specifically by utilizing the HBV-derived infection machinery. Recently, we identified a low pH-dependent fusogenic domain at the N-terminal part of the pre-S1 region of the HBV L protein (amino acid residues 9 to 24; NPLGFFPDHQLDPAFG), which shows membrane destabilizing activity (i.e., membrane fusion, membrane disruption, and payload release) upon interaction with target LPs. In this study, instead of BNC and HBV, we generated LPs displaying a mutated form of the pre-S1 (9–24) peptide, and performed a membrane disruption assay using target LPs containing pyranine (fluorophore) and p-xylene-bis (N-pyridinium bromide) (DPX) as a quencher. The membrane disruption activity was found to correlate with the hydrophobicity of the whole structure, while the peptide retained a random-coil structure even under low pH condition. One large hydrophobic cluster (I) and one small hydrophobic cluster (II) residing in the peptide would be connected by the protonation of residues D16 and D20, and thereby exhibit strong membrane disruption activity in a low pH-dependent manner. Furthermore, the introduction of a positively charged residue enhanced the activity significantly, suggesting that a sole positively charged residue (H17) may be important for the interaction with target LPs by electrostatic interaction. Collectively, these results suggest that the pre-S1 (9–24) peptide may be involved in the endosomal escape of the BNC's payloads, as well as in the HBV uncoating process. -- Highlights: •Low pH-dependent fusogenic domain of hepatitis B virus pre-S1 region is analyzed. •The domain resides in pre-S1 (9–24) region, exhibiting random-coil structure. •Membrane disruption activity of the domain is mainly driven by its hydrophobicity

  11. Complete genome sequence of Rhodospirillum rubrum type strain (S1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munk, A Christine; Copeland, Alex; Lucas, Susan; Lapidus, Alla; Del Rio, Tijana Glavina; Barry, Kerrie; Detter, John C; Hammon, Nancy; Israni, Sanjay; Pitluck, Sam; Brettin, Thomas; Bruce, David; Han, Cliff; Tapia, Roxanne; Gilna, Paul; Schmutz, Jeremy; Larimer, Frank; Land, Miriam; Kyrpides, Nikos C; Mavromatis, Konstantinos; Richardson, Paul; Rohde, Manfred; Göker, Markus; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Zhang, Yaoping; Roberts, Gary P; Reslewic, Susan; Schwartz, David C

    2011-07-01

    Rhodospirillum rubrum (Esmarch 1887) Molisch 1907 is the type species of the genus Rhodospirillum, which is the type genus of the family Rhodospirillaceae in the class Alphaproteobacteria. The species is of special interest because it is an anoxygenic phototroph that produces extracellular elemental sulfur (instead of oxygen) while harvesting light. It contains one of the most simple photosynthetic systems currently known, lacking light harvesting complex 2. Strain S1(T) can grow on carbon monoxide as sole energy source. With currently over 1,750 PubMed entries, R. rubrum is one of the most intensively studied microbial species, in particular for physiological and genetic studies. Next to R. centenum strain SW, the genome sequence of strain S1(T) is only the second genome of a member of the genus Rhodospirillum to be published, but the first type strain genome from the genus. The 4,352,825 bp long chromosome and 53,732 bp plasmid with a total of 3,850 protein-coding and 83 RNA genes were sequenced as part of the DOE Joint Genome Institute Program DOEM 2002.

  12. Formation of Ultracold Molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cote, Robin [Univ. of Connecticut, Storrs, CT (United States)

    2016-01-28

    Advances in our ability to slow down and cool atoms and molecules to ultracold temperatures have paved the way to a revolution in basic research on molecules. Ultracold molecules are sensitive of very weak interactions, even when separated by large distances, which allow studies of the effect of those interactions on the behavior of molecules. In this program, we have explored ways to form ultracold molecules starting from pairs of atoms that have already reached the ultracold regime. We devised methods that enhance the efficiency of ultracold molecule production, for example by tuning external magnetic fields and using appropriate laser excitations. We also investigates the properties of those ultracold molecules, especially their de-excitation into stable molecules. We studied the possibility of creating new classes of ultra-long range molecules, named macrodimers, thousand times more extended than regular molecules. Again, such objects are possible because ultra low temperatures prevent their breakup by collision. Finally, we carried out calculations on how chemical reactions are affected and modified at ultracold temperatures. Normally, reactions become less effective as the temperature decreases, but at ultracold temperatures, they can become very effective. We studied this counter-intuitive behavior for benchmark chemical reactions involving molecular hydrogen.

  13. Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P)/S1P receptor 1 signaling regulates receptor activator of NF-{kappa}B ligand (RANKL) expression in rheumatoid arthritis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeshita, Harunori [Division of Rheumatology, Department of Internal Medicine, Hyogo College of Medicine, 1-1 Mukogawa-cho, Nishinomiya, Hyogo 663-8501 (Japan); Kitano, Masayasu, E-mail: mkitano6@hyo-med.ac.jp [Division of Rheumatology, Department of Internal Medicine, Hyogo College of Medicine, 1-1 Mukogawa-cho, Nishinomiya, Hyogo 663-8501 (Japan); Iwasaki, Tsuyoshi [Department of Pharmacy, Hyogo University of Health Sciences, 1-3-6 Minatojima Kobe, Hyogo 650-8530 (Japan); Kitano, Sachie; Tsunemi, Sachi; Sato, Chieri; Sekiguchi, Masahiro; Azuma, Naoto [Division of Rheumatology, Department of Internal Medicine, Hyogo College of Medicine, 1-1 Mukogawa-cho, Nishinomiya, Hyogo 663-8501 (Japan); Miyazawa, Keiji [Discovery Research III, Research and Development, Kissei Pharmaceutical Company, 4365-1 Hodakakashiwara, Azumino, Nagano 399-8304 (Japan); Hla, Timothy [Center for Vascular Biology, Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Weill Medical College of Cornell University, 1300 York Avenue, Box 69, NY 10065 (United States); Sano, Hajime [Division of Rheumatology, Department of Internal Medicine, Hyogo College of Medicine, 1-1 Mukogawa-cho, Nishinomiya, Hyogo 663-8501 (Japan)

    2012-03-09

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MH7A cells and CD4{sup +} T cells expressed S1P1 and RANKL. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer S1P increased RANKL expression in MH7A cells and CD4{sup +} T cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The effect of S1P in MH7A cells was inhibited by specific Gi/Go inhibitors. -- Abstract: Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P)/S1P receptor 1 (S1P1) signaling plays an important role in synovial cell proliferation and inflammatory gene expression by rheumatoid arthritis (RA) synoviocytes. The purpose of this study is to clarify the role of S1P/S1P1 signaling in the expression of receptor activator of NF-{kappa}B ligand (RANKL) in RA synoviocytes and CD4{sup +} T cells. We demonstrated MH7A cells, a human RA synovial cell line, and CD4{sup +} T cells expressed S1P1 and RANKL. Surprisingly, S1P increased RANKL expression in MH7A cells and CD4{sup +} T cells in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, S1P enhanced RANKL expression induced by stimulation with TNF-{alpha} in MH7A cells and CD4{sup +} T cells. These effects of S1P in MH7A cells were inhibited by pretreatment with PTX, a specific Gi/Go inhibitor. These findings suggest that S1P/S1P1 signaling may play an important role in RANKL expression by MH7A cells and CD4{sup +} T cells. S1P/S1P1 signaling of RA synoviocytes is closely connected with synovial hyperplasia, inflammation, and RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis in RA. Thus, regulation of S1P/S1P1 signaling may become a novel therapeutic target for RA.

  14. Transitive Lie groups on S^1\\times S^{2m}

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorbatsevich, Vladimir V.

    2007-10-01

    The structure of Lie groups acting transitively on the direct product of a circle and an even-dimensional sphere is described. For products of two spheres of dimension >1 a similar problem has already been solved by other authors. The minimal transitive Lie groups on S^1 and S^{2m} are also indicated. As an application of these results, the structure of the automorphism group of one class of geometric structures, generalized quadrangles (a special case of Tits buildings) is considered. A conjecture put forward by Kramer is proved: the automorphism group of a connected generalized quadrangle of type (1,2m) always contains a transitive subgroup that is the direct product of a compact simple Lie group and a one-dimensional Lie group. Bibliography: 16 titles.

  15. Dynamical instability in the S =1 Bose-Hubbard model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asaoka, Rui; Tsuchiura, Hiroki; Yamashita, Makoto; Toga, Yuta

    2016-01-01

    We study the dynamical instabilities of superfluid flows in the S =1 Bose-Hubbard model. The time evolution of each spin component in a condensate is calculated based on the dynamical Gutzwiller approximation for a wide range of interactions, from a weakly correlated regime to a strongly correlated regime near the Mott-insulator transition. Owing to the spin-dependent interactions, the superfluid flow of the spin-1 condensate decays at a different critical momentum from a spinless case when the interaction strength is the same. We furthermore calculate the dynamical phase diagram of this model and clarify that the obtained phase boundary has very different features depending on whether the average number of particles per site is even or odd. Finally, we analyze the density and spin modulations that appear in association with the dynamical instability. We find that spin modulations are highly sensitive to the presence of a uniform magnetic field.

  16. Inverse Supersymmetry Breaking in S1 × R3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasilis Oikonomou

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we study the influence of hard supersymmetry breaking terms in a N = 1, d = 4 supersymmetric model, in S1 × R3 spacetime topology. It is shown that when the radius of the compact dimension is large supersymmetry is unbroken, and dynamically breaks as the radius decreases. We point out that this resembles the inverse symmetry breaking of continuous symmetries at finite temperature (however, in the case of supersymmetry, the role of the temperature is played by the compact dimension’s radius. Furthermore, we also find a universality in the dependence of the critical length Lc as a function of a coupling g3, after comparing all cases.

  17. S-1 project. Volume I. Architecture. 1979 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-01-01

    The US Navy is one of the world's largest users of digital computing equipment having a procurement cost of at least $50,000, and is the single largest such computer customer in the Department of Defense. Its projected acquisition plan for embedded computer systems during the first half of the 80s contemplates the installation of over 10,000 such systems at an estimated cost of several billions of dollars. This expenditure, though large, is dwarfed by the 85 billion dollars which DOD is projected to spend during the next half-decade on computer software, the near-majority of which will be spent by the Navy; the life-cycle costs of the 700,000+ lines of software for a single large Navy weapons systems application (e.g., AEGIS) have been conservatively estimated at most of a billion dollars. The S-1 Project is dedicated to realizing potentially large improvements in the efficiency with which such very large sums may be spent, so that greater military effectiveness may be secured earlier, and with smaller expenditures. The fundamental objectives of the S-1 Project's work are first to enable the Navy to be able to quickly, reliably and inexpensively evaluate at any time what is available from the state-of-the-art in digital processing systems and what the relevance of such systems may be to Navy data processing applications: and second to provide reference prototype systems to support possible competitive procurement action leading to deployment of such systems.

  18. Discovery of potent 3,5-diphenyl-1,2,4-oxadiazole sphingosine-1-phosphate-1 (S1P1) receptor agonists with exceptional selectivity against S1P2 and S1P3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhen; Chen, Weirong; Hale, Jeffrey J; Lynch, Christopher L; Mills, Sander G; Hajdu, Richard; Keohane, Carol Ann; Rosenbach, Mark J; Milligan, James A; Shei, Gan-Ju; Chrebet, Gary; Parent, Stephen A; Bergstrom, James; Card, Deborah; Forrest, Michael; Quackenbush, Elizabeth J; Wickham, L Alexandra; Vargas, Hugo; Evans, Rose M; Rosen, Hugh; Mandala, Suzanne

    2005-10-06

    A class of 3,5-diphenyl-1,2,4-oxadiazole based compounds have been identified as potent sphingosine-1-phosphate-1 (S1P1) receptor agonists with minimal affinity for the S1P2 and S1P3 receptor subtypes. Analogue 26 (S1P1 IC50 = 0.6 nM) has an excellent pharmacokinetics profile in the rat and dog and is efficacious in a rat skin transplant model, indicating that S1P3 receptor agonism is not a component of immunosuppressive efficacy.

  19. Photoassociation of long-range $nD$ Rydberg molecules

    CERN Document Server

    Anderson, David A; Raithel, Georg

    2014-01-01

    We observe long-range homonuclear diatomic $nD$ Rydberg molecules photoassociated out of an ultracold gas of $^{87}$Rb atoms for 34$\\le n \\le$40. The measured ground-state binding energies of $^{87}$Rb$(nD-5S_{1/2})$ molecular states are larger than those of their $^{87}$Rb$(nS-5S_{1/2})$ counterparts, showing the dependence of the molecular bond on the angular momentum of the Rydberg atom. We exhibit the transition of $^{87}$Rb$(nD-5S_{1/2})$ molecules from a molecular-binding-dominant regime at low $n$ to a fine-structure-dominant regime at high $n$ [akin to Hund's cases (a) and (c), respectively]. In the analysis the fine structure of the $nD$ Rydberg atom and the hyperfine structure of the $5S_{1/2}$ atom are included.

  20. [Endothelial cell adhesion molecules].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, A N; Norkin, I A; Puchin'ian, D M; Shirokov, V Iu; Zhdanova, O Iu

    2014-01-01

    The review presents current data concerning the functional role of endothelial cell adhesion molecules belonging to different structural families: integrins, selectins, cadherins, and the immunoglobulin super-family. In this manuscript the regulatory mechanisms and factors of adhesion molecules expression and distribution on the surface of endothelial cells are discussed. The data presented reveal the importance of adhesion molecules in the regulation of structural and functional state of endothelial cells in normal conditions and in pathology. Particular attention is paid to the importance of these molecules in the processes of physiological and pathological angiogenesis, regulation of permeability of the endothelial barrier and cell transmigration.

  1. Trapping molecules on chips

    CERN Document Server

    Santambrogio, Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    In the last years, it was demonstrated that neutral molecules can be loaded on a microchip directly from a supersonic beam. The molecules are confined in microscopic traps that can be moved smoothly over the surface of the chip. Once the molecules are trapped, they can be decelerated to a standstill, for instance, or pumped into selected quantum states by laser light or microwaves. Molecules are detected on the chip by time-resolved spatial imaging, which allows for the study of the distribution in the phase space of the molecular ensemble.

  2. The S1(n,π*) states of cyclopentanone and cyclobutanone in a supersonic nozzle beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baba, Masaaki; Hanazaki, Ichiro

    1984-12-01

    Fluorescence excitation spectra of cyclopentanone and cyclobutanone have been observed for their (n,π*) transition in a pulsed supersonic nozzle beam using a high power tunable laser. A drastic reduction of hot bands has been attained, making it possible to discuss the vibronic assignments in more detail than the previous works. The C=O out-of-plane wagging mode was found to be active for both molecules. The ring twisting and flapping in cyclopentanone and the ring puckering in cyclobutanone were also active. The molecules are pyramidally distorted in the excited states with double minimum potentials in the out-of-plane displacement coordinates. The barrier to inversion (V) and the C=O out-of-plane angle at the potential minimum (θm) have been determined for the S1(n,π*) state; V=680±17 cm-1 and θm=34° for cyclopentanone, and V=1850±50 cm-1 and θm=42° for cyclobutanone. The puckering mode (ν20') of cyclobutanone was also found to have a double minimum potential with V=16.9 cm-1. The rotational envelope of each vibronic band has been analyzed on the basis of a computer simulation for an asymmetric top molecule. In contrast with formaldehyde, the A-type (parallel) component, as well as the B-type, was shown to be important in these cyclic ketones. The mechanism of the vibronic intensity borrowing is discussed on the basis of the band-type considerations.

  3. Spectroscopic study of 2-indanone: The T1 3(n,π*) and S1 1(n,π*) states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baba, Masaaki

    1985-10-01

    Phosphorescence excitation and emission spectra of 2-indanone single crystal have been observed at 1.5 K. The lowest triplet state T1 is of π*←n character which is localized in the carbonyl moiety. The very weak 0-0 band is located at 28 853 cm-1. The molecule is pyramidally distorted like formaldehyde and has an active out-of-plane C=O wagging mode. The barrier height to inversion (V) and the C=O bend angle at the potential minimum (θm) have been determined to be 883 cm-1 and 37°, respectively. This distortion is consistent with the previous ODMR results. Fluorescence excitation spectrum of 2-indanone has also been observed using a pulsed supersonic nozzle beam technique. The lowest excited singlet state is also of π*←n character localized in the carbonyl moiety. The 0-0 band is relatively intense and located at 30 664 cm-1. We obtained V=1006 cm-1 and θm =37° for the S1 state. The spectroscopic results and ab initio calculation show that the S1 and T1 states of 2-indanone are very similar to those of cyclopentanone. The difference between the spectral features of the T1 and S1 transitions is explained by the symmetry lowering of the molecule and by the vibronic coupling with a higher excited state.

  4. Selecting against S1P3 enhances the acute cardiovascular tolerability of 3-(N-benzyl)aminopropylphosphonic acid S1P receptor agonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, Jeffrey J; Doherty, George; Toth, Leslie; Mills, Sander G; Hajdu, Richard; Keohane, Carol Ann; Rosenbach, Mark; Milligan, James; Shei, Gan-Ju; Chrebet, Gary; Bergstrom, James; Card, Deborah; Forrest, Michael; Sun, Shu-Yu; West, Sarah; Xie, Huijuan; Nomura, Naomi; Rosen, Hugh; Mandala, Suzanne

    2004-07-01

    Structurally modified 3-(N-benzylamino)propylphosphonic acid S1P receptor agonists that maintain affinity for S1P1, and have decreased affinity for S1P3 are efficacious, but exhibit decreased acute cardiovascular toxicity in rodents than do nonselective agonists.

  5. Algebraic theory of molecules

    CERN Document Server

    Iachello, F

    1995-01-01

    1. The Wave Mechanics of Diatomic Molecules. 2. Summary of Elements of Algebraic Theory. 3. Mechanics of Molecules. 4. Three-Body Algebraic Theory. 5. Four-Body Algebraic Theory. 6. Classical Limit and Coordinate Representation. 8. Prologue to the Future. Appendices. Properties of Lie Algebras; Coupling of Algebras; Hamiltonian Parameters

  6. ISOLATED MOLECULES IN METALS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    1992-01-01

    In this paper, some results obtained on the formation of isolated molecules of composition SnOx in silver and SnFx in copper-are reviewed. Hyperfine interaction and ion beam interaction techniques were used for the identification of these molecules.

  7. ISOLATED MOLECULES IN METALS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    1992-01-01

    In this paper, some results obtained on the formation of isolated molecules of composition SnOx in silver and SnFx in copper-are reviewed. Hyperfine interaction and ion beam interaction techniques were used for the identification of these molecules.

  8. Involvement of Sphingosine 1-Phosphate (S1P) Receptor Type 1 and Type 4 in Migratory Response of Mouse T Cells toward S1P

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hirofumi Matsuyuki; Yasuhiro Maeda; Kazuhiro Yano; Kunio Sugahara; Kenji Chiba; Takayuki Kohno; Yasuyuki Igarashi

    2006-01-01

    Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P), a pleiotropic lysophospholipid, regulates signal transduction pathway via Gprotein-coupled receptors termed S1P1-5 in several types of the cells including lymphocytes. Higher levels of S1P4 mRNA as well as S1P1 mRNA are expressed in lymphoid tissues such as the spleen, thymus, lymph nodes, and Payer's patches. In contrast to S1P1 that plays an essential role in lymphocyte egress, little is known about the role of S1P4 in immune system. In this study, we found that S1P at 10 to 100 nM significantly induced the cell migration and the significant levels of S1P1 and S1P4 mRNA were expressed in mouse CD4 T cells, D10.G4.1 mouse Th2 cells,and EL-4.IL-2 mouse thymoma cells. In D10.G4.1 and EL-4.IL-2 cells, S1P-induced migration was almost completely inhibited by pretreatment with pertussis toxin, Clostoridium difficile toxin B, and (S)-enantiomer of FTY720-phosphate, a potent agonist at S1P1 and S1P4. The members of the Rho family small GTPase, Cdc42 and Rac were activated by S1P stimulation in these cells. The transfection with dominant negative or constitutively active forms of Cdc42 and Rac revealed that the activation of both Cdc42 and Rac is essential for S1P-induced migration of these cells. The immunoprecipitation assays using CHO cells co-expressing both S1P4 and S1P1 receptors indicated that S1P4 and S1P1 are associated on the cell surface. These results suggest that the association of S1P4 and S1P1 plays an important role in migratory response of mouse T cells toward S1P.

  9. Molecules in galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Omont, Alain

    2007-01-01

    The main achievements, current developments and prospects of molecular studies in external galaxies are reviewed. They are put in the context of the results of several decades of studies of molecules in local interstellar medium, their chemistry and their importance for star formation. CO observations have revealed the gross structure of molecular gas in galaxies. Together with other molecules, they are among the best tracers of star formation at galactic scales. Our knowledge about molecular abundances in various local galactic environments is progressing. They trace physical conditions and metallicity, and they are closely related to dust processes and large aromatic molecules. Major recent developments include mega-masers, and molecules in Active Galactic Nuclei; millimetre emission of molecules at very high redshift; and infrared H2 emission as tracer of warm molecular gas, shocks and photodissociation regions. The advent of sensitive giant interferometers from the centimetre to sub-millimetre range, espe...

  10. Confinement on $R^{3}\\times S^{1}$: continuum and lattice

    CERN Document Server

    Ogilvie, Michael C

    2014-01-01

    There has been substantial progress in understanding confinement in a class of four-dimensional SU(N) gauge theories using semiclassical methods. These models have one or more compact directions, and much of the analysis is based on the physics of finite-temperature gauge theories. The topology $R^{3}\\times S^{1}$ has been most often studied, using a small compactification circumference $L$ such that the running coupling $g^{2}\\left(L\\right)$ is small. The gauge action is modified by a double-trace Polyakov loop deformation term, or by the addition of periodic adjoint fermions. The additional terms act to preserve $Z(N)$ symmetry and thus confinement. An area law for Wilson loops is induced by a monopole condensate. In the continuum, the string tension can be computed analytically from topological effects. Lattice models display similar behavior, but the theoretical analysis of topological effects is based on Abelian lattice duality rather than on semiclassical arguments. In both cases the key step is reducin...

  11. Will Comet ISON (C/2012 S1) Survive Perihelion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Matthew M.; Walsh, Kevin J.

    2013-10-01

    On 2013 November 28 Comet ISON (C/2012 S1) will pass by the Sun with a perihelion distance of 2.7 solar radii. Understanding the possible outcomes for the comet's response to such a close passage by the Sun is important for planning observational campaigns and for inferring ISON's physical properties. We present new numerical simulations and interpret them in context with the historical track record of comet disruptions and of sungrazing comet behavior. Historical data suggest that sizes below ~200 m are susceptible to destruction by sublimation driven mass loss, while we find that for ISON's perihelion distance, densities lower than 0.1 g cm-3 are required to tidally disrupt a retrograde or non-spinning body. Such low densities are substantially below the range of the best-determined comet nucleus densities, though dynamically new comets such as ISON have few measurements of physical properties. Disruption may occur for prograde rotation at densities up to 0.7 g cm-3, with the chances of disruption increasing for lower density, faster prograde rotation, and increasing elongation of the nucleus. Given current constraints on ISON's nucleus properties and the typically determined values for these properties among all comets, we find tidal disruption to be unlikely unless other factors (e.g., spin-up via torquing) affect ISON substantially. Whether or not disruption occurs, the largest remnant must be big enough to survive subsequent mass loss due to sublimation in order for ISON to remain a viable comet well after perihelion.

  12. Will Comet ISON (C/2012 S1) Survive Perihelion?

    CERN Document Server

    Knight, Matthew M

    2013-01-01

    On 2013 November 28 Comet ISON (C/2012 S1) will pass by the Sun with a perihelion distance of 2.7 solar radii. Understanding the possible outcomes for the comet's response to such a close passage by the Sun is important for planning observational campaigns and for inferring ISON's physical properties. We present new numerical simulations and interpret them in context with the historical track record of comet disruptions and of sungrazing comet behavior. Historical data suggest that sizes below ~200 m are susceptible to destruction by sublimation driven mass loss, while we find that for ISON's perihelion distance, densities lower than 0.1 g cm^-3 are required to tidally disrupt a retrograde or non-spinning body. Such low densities are substantially below the range of the best-determined comet nucleus densities, though dynamically new comets such as ISON have few measurements of physical properties. Disruption may occur for prograde rotation at densities up to 0.7 g cm^-3, with the chances of disruption increas...

  13. Sphingosine 1 Phosphate (S1P) Receptors 1 and 2 Coordinately Induce Osteoblast Migration Through S1P Activation of Complementary Kinase Pathways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quint, Patrick; Ruan, Ming; Pederson, Larry

    2013-01-01

    to sites of bone resorption as an initial step in replacing lost bone. In this study we investigated the mechanisms by which S1P stimulates mesenchymal (skeletal) stem cell (MSC) chemotaxis. S1P treatment of MSC activated RhoA GTPase, but this small G protein did not contribute to migration. Rather, two S1...... metabolism, it is crucial to determine the mechanisms by which osteoclasts and osteoblast precursors interact and contribute to coupling. We showed osteoclasts produce the chemokine sphingosine 1 phosphate (S1P), which stimulates osteoblast migration. Thus, osteoclast-derived S1P may recruit osteoblasts...

  14. Dynamics of Activated Molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mullin, Amy S. [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States)

    2016-11-16

    Experimental studies have been performed to investigate the collisional energy transfer processes of gas-phase molecules that contain large amounts of internal energy. Such molecules are prototypes for molecules under high temperature conditions relevant in combustion and information about their energy transfer mechanisms is needed for a detailed understanding and modeling of the chemistry. We use high resolution transient IR absorption spectroscopy to measure the full, nascent product distributions for collisions of small bath molecules that relax highly vibrationally excited pyrazine molecules with E=38000 cm-1 of vibrational energy. To perform these studies, we developed new instrumentation based on modern IR light sources to expand our experimental capabilities to investigate new molecules as collision partners. This final report describes our research in four areas: the characterization of a new transient absorption spectrometer and the results of state-resolved collision studies of pyrazine(E) with HCl, methane and ammonia. Through this research we have gained fundamental new insights into the microscopic details of relatively large complex molecules at high energy as they undergo quenching collisions and redistribute their energy.

  15. The wide distribution of endornaviruses, large double-stranded RNA replicons with plasmid-like properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuhara, T; Koga, R; Aoki, N; Yuki, C; Yamamoto, N; Oyama, N; Udagawa, T; Horiuchi, H; Miyazaki, S; Higashi, Y; Takeshita, M; Ikeda, K; Arakawa, M; Matsumoto, N; Moriyama, H

    2006-05-01

    The International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) recently accepted Endornavirus as a new genus of plant dsRNA virus. We have determined the partial nucleotide sequences of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase regions from the large dsRNAs (about 14 kbp) isolated from barley (Hordeum vulgare), kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris), melon (Cucumis melo), bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria), Malabar spinach (Basella alba), seagrass (Zostera marina), and the fungus Helicobasidium mompa. Phylogenetic analyses of these seven dsRNAs indicate that these dsRNAs are new members of the genus Endornavirus that are widely distributed over the plant and fungal kingdoms.

  16. Heavy Exotic Molecules

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Yizhuang

    2016-01-01

    We briefly review the formation of pion-mediated heavy-light exotic molecules with both charm and bottom, under the general strictures of chiral and heavy quark symmetries. The charm isosinglet exotic molecules with $J^{PC}=1^{++}$ binds, which we identify as the reported neutral $X(3872)$. The bottom isotriplet exotic with $J^{PC}=1^{+-}$ binds, and is identified as a mixed state of the reported charged exotics $Z^+_b(10610)$ and $Z^+_b(10650)$. The bound bottom isosinglet molecule with $J^{PC}=1^{++}$ is a possible neutral $X_b(10532)$ to be observed.

  17. Heavy exotic molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yizhuang; Zahed, Ismail

    We briefly review the formation of pion-mediated heavy-light exotic molecules with both charm and bottom, under the general structures of chiral and heavy quark symmetries. The charm isosinglet exotic molecules with JPC = 1++ binds, which we identify as the reported neutral X(3872). The bottom isotriplet exotic with JPC = 1+1 binds, and is identified as a mixed state of the reported charged exotics Zb+(10610) and Zb-(10650). The bound bottom isosinglet molecule with JPC = 1++ is a possible neutral Xb(10532) to be observed.

  18. Electron correlation in molecules

    CERN Document Server

    Wilson, S

    2007-01-01

    Electron correlation effects are of vital significance to the calculation of potential energy curves and surfaces, the study of molecular excitation processes, and in the theory of electron-molecule scattering. This text describes methods for addressing one of theoretical chemistry's central problems, the study of electron correlation effects in molecules.Although the energy associated with electron correlation is a small fraction of the total energy of an atom or molecule, it is of the same order of magnitude as most energies of chemical interest. If the solution of quantum mechanical equatio

  19. A preparation of cow's late colostrum fraction containing αs1-casein promoted the proliferation of cultured rat intestinal IEC-6 epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cairangzhuoma; Yamamoto, Mayumi; Xijier; Inagaki, Mizuho; Uchida, Kenji; Yamashita, Kousaku; Saito, Shouichiro; Yabe, Tomio; Kanamaru, Yoshihiro

    2013-01-01

    Colostrum is a complex mixture of bioactives that promotes neonate growth. Recently, we have found by in vivo study that skimmed, sterilized, and concentrated bovine late colostrum (SCBLC), obtained from a Holstein herd on days 6-7 after parturition, had an ability to maintain intestinal integrity. In the present study we investigated effects of SCBLC on rat intestinal IEC-6 cell proliferation in vitro. A fraction containing αs1-casein was found to have a robust stimulation effect as compared to other protein fractions from SCBLC and even the αs1-casein fraction from milk from other Holstein herds. Furthermore, the SCBLC αs1-casein molecule demonstrated not only slightly slower mobility on both SDS- and native-PAGE than other bovine milk αs1-caseins, but also a peculiar conformation reminiscent of moltenglobule in the circular dichroism spectrum. These findings may be of relevant to the competence of SCBLC to preserve intestinal integrity.

  20. Acylguanidine inhibitors of beta-secretase: optimization of the pyrrole ring substituents extending into the S1' substrate binding pocket.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Lee D; Cole, Derek C; Stock, Joseph R; Sukhdeo, Mohani N; Ellingboe, John W; Cowling, Rebecca; Jin, Guixian; Manas, Eric S; Fan, Kristi Y; Malamas, Michael S; Harrison, Boyd L; Jacobsen, Steve; Chopra, Rajiv; Lohse, Peter A; Moore, William J; O'Donnell, Mary-Margaret; Hu, Yun; Robichaud, Albert J; Turner, M James; Wagner, Erik; Bard, Jonathan

    2008-01-15

    The proteolytic enzyme beta-secretase (BACE-1) produces amyloid beta (Abeta) peptide, the primary constituent of neurofibrillary plaques, implicated in Alzheimer's disease, by cleavage of the amyloid precursor protein. A small molecule inhibitor of BACE-1, (diaminomethylene)-2,5-diphenyl-1H-pyrrole-1-acetamide (1, BACE-1 IC(50)=3.7 microM), was recently described, representing a new small molecule lead. Initial SAR investigation demonstrated the potential of accessing the nearby S(3) and S(1)(') substrate binding pockets of the BACE-1 enzyme by building substituents off one of the phenyl substituents and guanidinyl functional group. We report here the optimization of guanidinyl functional group substituents on 1, leading to potent submicromolar BACE-1 inhibitors.

  1. Single molecules and nanotechnology

    CERN Document Server

    Vogel, Horst

    2007-01-01

    This book focuses on recent advances in the rapidly evolving field of single molecule research. These advances are of importance for the investigation of biopolymers and cellular biochemical reactions, and are essential to the development of quantitative biology. Written by leading experts in the field, the articles cover a broad range of topics, including: quantum photonics of organic dyes and inorganic nanoparticles their use in detecting properties of single molecules the monitoring of single molecule (enzymatic) reactions single protein (un)folding in nanometer-sized confined volumes the dynamics of molecular interactions in biological cells The book is written for advanced students and scientists who wish to survey the concepts, techniques and results of single molecule research and assess them for their own scientific activities.

  2. Electron-molecule collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Takayanagi, Kazuo

    1984-01-01

    Scattering phenomena play an important role in modern physics. Many significant discoveries have been made through collision experiments. Amongst diverse kinds of collision systems, this book sheds light on the collision of an electron with a molecule. The electron-molecule collision provides a basic scattering problem. It is scattering by a nonspherical, multicentered composite particle with its centers having degrees of freedom of motion. The molecule can even disintegrate, Le., dissociate or ionize into fragments, some or all of which may also be molecules. Although it is a difficult problem, the recent theoretical, experimental, and computational progress has been so significant as to warrant publication of a book that specializes in this field. The progress owes partly to technical develop­ ments in measurements and computations. No less important has been the great and continuing stimulus from such fields of application as astrophysics, the physics of the earth's upper atmosphere, laser physics, radiat...

  3. Quantum dot molecules

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Jiang

    2014-01-01

    This book reviews recent advances in the exciting and rapidly growing field of quantum dot molecules (QDMs). It offers state-of-the-art coverage of novel techniques and connects fundamental physical properties with device design.

  4. Ramsey Number of K2,s+1 vs. K1,n%关于K2,s+1 VS,K1,n的Ramsey数

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦大伟; 沈大鹏

    2007-01-01

    It is shown that the Ramsey number r(K2,s+1, K1,n) ≤ n + √sn+ (s + 3)/2 + o(1) for large n, and r(K2,s+1, K1,n)∈{(q-1)2/s+1,-(q-1)2/s+2},wheren: (q-1)2/s-q+2 and q is a prime power such that s|(q - 1).

  5. The SphKs/S1P/S1PR1 axis in immunity and cancer: more ore to be mined.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Lei; Liu, Wei-Ren; Tian, Meng-Xin; Fan, Jia; Shi, Ying-Hong

    2016-04-29

    Over the past two decades, huge amounts of research were launched to understand the functions of sphingosine. Many pathways were uncovered that convey the relative functions of biomacromolecules. In this review, we discuss the recent advances of the role of the SphKs/S1P/S1PR1 axis in immunity and cancer. Finally, we investigate the therapeutic potential of new drugs that target S1P signaling in cancer therapy.

  6. Kondo tunneling through real and artificial molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikoin, K; Avishai, Y

    2001-03-05

    When an asymmetric double dot is hybridized with itinerant electrons, its singlet ground state and lowly excited triplet state cross, leading to a competition between the Zhang-Rice mechanism of singlet-triplet splitting in a confined cluster and the Kondo effect (which accompanies the tunneling through quantum dot under a Coulomb blockade restriction). The rich physics of an underscreened S = 1 Kondo impurity in the presence of low-lying triplet-singlet excitations is exposed and estimates of the magnetic susceptibility and the electric conductance are presented, together with applications for molecule chemisorption on metallic substrates.

  7. S-1 induced secondary acute erythroid leukemia with a chromosome inv(12)(p13;q13)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kensuke Matsumoto; Akira Kitanaka; Makiko Uemura; Fusako Waki; Tetsuya Fukumoto; Hiroaki Ohnishi; Yoshitsugu Kubota; Toshihiko Ishida

    2011-01-01

    Adjuvant chemotherapy by S-1 following gastrectomy is considered standard treatment in Japan. Analysis of follow-up data have proved the efficacy of S-1 administration,and that hematological adverse events were relatively rare. PPyrimidine anti-metabolites, including S-1, have shown relatively lower risks for secondary hematological malignancies in comparison to alkylating agents and topoisomerase-Ⅱ inhibitors. We here report a case of therapy-related leukemia after S-1 administration. A patient who had received S-1as the sole adjuvant chemotherapy was diagnosed with acute erythroid leukemia. To the best of our knowledge, our patient represents the first report of S-1 induced acute leukemia.

  8. S-1 monotherapy versus S-1 combination therapy in gemcitabine-refractory advanced pancreatic cancer: A meta-analysis (PRISMA) of randomized control trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Sheng; Qie, Shuai; Yang, Liu; Yan, Qi; Ge, Linna; Wang, Zhongfeng

    2017-07-01

    Pancreatic cancer (PC) is one of the most lethal digestive system tumors. Most new cases are diagnosed based on metastasis or local aggression and are known as "advanced PC." Recently, studies investigating S-1 have indicated that it has a better clinical curative effect on PC. We conducted a meta-analysis to evaluate the efficacy and safety of S-1 monotherapy compared with S-1 combination regimens in patients with gemcitabine (GEM)-refractory PC. Trials published between 1978 and 2016 were identified by an electronic search of public databases (Medline, Embase, and the Cochrane Library). All prospective studies were independently identified by 2 authors for inclusion. The response rate (RR), progression-free and overall survival (PFS and OS, respectively), and the primary toxicities were extracted for the meta-analysis. Four randomized controlled trials consisting of 623 patients were included in the analysis, among which 315 patients underwent S-1 monotherapy and 308 patients underwent S-1 combination therapy. The pooled data showed a significantly higher response rate and longer PFS in the S-1 combination group than in the S-1 monotherapy group (RR, 1.75; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.19-2.57; P = .005 and hazard ration [HR], 0.75; 95% CI, 0.62-0.91; P = .005). There were no significant differences in OS or adverse events. Compared with the S-1 monotherapy group, the S-1 combination group had a higher response rate and longer PFS. Both groups had few adverse events, which were balanced between the groups. The subgroup analysis suggested that S-1 combination regimens with leucovorin or irinotecan (CPT-11) provided promising efficacy. These promising combination regimens should be considered for patients with advanced PC who choose S-1 as their second-line therapy.

  9. A prokaryotic S1P lyase degrades extracellular S1P in vitro and in vivo: implication for treating hyperproliferative disorders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Huwiler

    Full Text Available Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P regulates a broad spectrum of fundamental cellular processes like proliferation, death, migration and cytokine production. Therefore, elevated levels of S1P may be causal to various pathologic conditions including cancer, fibrosis, inflammation, autoimmune diseases and aberrant angiogenesis. Here we report that S1P lyase from the prokaryote Symbiobacterium thermophilum (StSPL degrades extracellular S1P in vitro and in blood. Moreover, we investigated its effect on cellular responses typical of fibrosis, cancer and aberrant angiogenesis using renal mesangial cells, endothelial cells, breast (MCF-7 and colon (HCT 116 carcinoma cells as disease models. In all cell types, wild-type StSPL, but not an inactive mutant, disrupted MAPK phosphorylation stimulated by exogenous S1P. Functionally, disruption of S1P receptor signaling by S1P depletion inhibited proliferation and expression of connective tissue growth factor in mesangial cells, proliferation, migration and VEGF expression in carcinoma cells, and proliferation and migration of endothelial cells. Upon intravenous injection of StSPL in mice, plasma S1P levels rapidly declined by 70% within 1 h and then recovered to normal 6 h after injection. Using the chicken chorioallantoic membrane model we further demonstrate that also under in vivo conditions StSPL, but not the inactive mutant, inhibited tumor cell-induced angiogenesis as an S1P-dependent process. Our data demonstrate that recombinant StSPL is active under extracellular conditions and holds promise as a new enzyme therapeutic for diseases associated with increased levels of S1P and S1P receptor signaling.

  10. Molecules as Automata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardelli, Luca

    Molecular biology investigates the structure and function of biochemical systems starting from their basic building blocks: macromolecules. A macromolecule is a large, complex molecule (a protein or a nucleic acid) that usually has inner mutable state and external activity. Informal explanations of biochemical events trace individual macromolecules through their state changes and their interaction histories: a macromolecule is endowed with an identity that is retained through its transformations, even through changes in molecular energy and mass. A macromolecule, therefore, is qualitatively different from the small molecules of inorganic chemistry. Such molecules are stateless: in the standard notation for chemical reactions they are seemingly created and destroyed, and their atomic structure is used mainly for the bookkeeping required by the conservation of mass.

  11. Molecules in supernova ejecta

    CERN Document Server

    Cherchneff, Isabelle

    2011-01-01

    The first molecules detected at infrared wavelengths in the ejecta of a Type II supernova, namely SN1987A, consisted of CO and SiO. Since then, confirmation of the formation of these two species in several other supernovae a few hundred days after explosion has been obtained. However, supernova environments appear to hamper the synthesis of large, complex species due to the lack of microscopically-mixed hydrogen deep in supernova cores. Because these environments also form carbon and silicate dust, it is of importance to understand the role played by molecules in the depletion of elements and how chemical species get incorporated into dust grains. In the present paper, we review our current knowledge of the molecular component of supernova ejecta, and present new trends and results on the synthesis of molecules in these harsh, explosive events.

  12. MOLECULES IN {eta} CARINAE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loinard, Laurent; Menten, Karl M.; Guesten, Rolf [Max-Planck Institut fuer Radioastronomie, Auf dem Huegel 69, 53121 Bonn (Germany); Zapata, Luis A.; Rodriguez, Luis F. [Centro de Radioastronomia y Astrofisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Apartado Postal 3-72, 58090 Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico)

    2012-04-10

    We report the detection toward {eta} Carinae of six new molecules, CO, CN, HCO{sup +}, HCN, HNC, and N{sub 2}H{sup +}, and of two of their less abundant isotopic counterparts, {sup 13}CO and H{sup 13}CN. The line profiles are moderately broad ({approx}100 km s{sup -1}), indicating that the emission originates in the dense, possibly clumpy, central arcsecond of the Homunculus Nebula. Contrary to previous claims, CO and HCO{sup +} do not appear to be underabundant in {eta} Carinae. On the other hand, molecules containing nitrogen or the {sup 13}C isotope of carbon are overabundant by about one order of magnitude. This demonstrates that, together with the dust responsible for the dimming of {eta} Carinae following the Great Eruption, the molecules detected here must have formed in situ out of CNO-processed stellar material.

  13. Molecules in \\eta\\ Carinae

    CERN Document Server

    Loinard, Laurent; Guesten, Rolf; Zapata, Luis A; Rodriguez, Luis F

    2012-01-01

    We report the detection toward \\eta\\ Carinae of six new molecules, CO, CN, HCO+, HCN, HNC, and N2H+, and of two of their less abundant isotopic counterparts, 13CO and H13CN. The line profiles are moderately broad (about 100 km /s) indicating that the emission originates in the dense, possibly clumpy, central arcsecond of the Homunculus Nebula. Contrary to previous claims, CO and HCO+ do not appear to be under-abundant in \\eta\\ Carinae. On the other hand, molecules containing nitrogen or the 13C isotope of carbon are overabundant by about one order of magnitude. This demonstrates that, together with the dust responsible for the dimming of eta Carinae following the Great Eruption, the molecules detected here must have formed in situ out of CNO-processed stellar material.

  14. Enzyme molecules as nanomotors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, Samudra; Dey, Krishna K; Muddana, Hari S; Tabouillot, Tristan; Ibele, Michael E; Butler, Peter J; Sen, Ayusman

    2013-01-30

    Using fluorescence correlation spectroscopy, we show that the diffusive movements of catalase enzyme molecules increase in the presence of the substrate, hydrogen peroxide, in a concentration-dependent manner. Employing a microfluidic device to generate a substrate concentration gradient, we show that both catalase and urease enzyme molecules spread toward areas of higher substrate concentration, a form of chemotaxis at the molecular scale. Using glucose oxidase and glucose to generate a hydrogen peroxide gradient, we induce the migration of catalase toward glucose oxidase, thereby showing that chemically interconnected enzymes can be drawn together.

  15. Multicolor Bound Soliton Molecule

    CERN Document Server

    Luo, Rui; Lin, Qiang

    2015-01-01

    We show a new class of bound soliton molecule that exists in a parametrically driven nonlinear optical cavity with appropriate dispersion characteristics. The composed solitons exhibit distinctive colors but coincide in time and share a common phase, bound together via strong inter-soliton four-wave mixing and Cherenkov radiation. The multicolor bound soliton molecule shows intriguing spectral locking characteristics and remarkable capability of spectrum management to tailor soliton frequencies, which may open up a great avenue towards versatile generation and manipulation of multi-octave spanning phase-locked Kerr frequency combs, with great potential for applications in frequency metrology, optical frequency synthesis, and spectroscopy.

  16. Gated container molecules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Fang; WANG Hao; HOUK K. N.

    2011-01-01

    Donald J.Cram,the great UCLA chemist,received the Nobel Prize for his discoveries about host-guest complexes [1].Both theoretical and experimental studies have been conducted about the nature and strength of interactions between the host and guest molecules.The concepts of constrictive binding (the activation energy of the binding process) and intrinsic binding (the free energy difference between the complex and the free host and guest molecules) were introduced to characterize different binding properties (Figure 1)[2].

  17. Chemical and Biological Properties of S-1-Propenyl-ʟ-Cysteine in Aged Garlic Extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yukihioro Kodera

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available S-1-Propenyl-ʟ-cysteine (S1PC is a stereoisomer of S-1-Propenyl-ʟ-cysteine (SAC, an important sulfur-containing amino acid that plays a role for the beneficial pharmacological effects of aged garlic extract (AGE. The existence of S1PC in garlic preparations has been known since the 1960’s. However, there was no report regarding the biological and/or pharmacological activity of S1PC until 2016. Recently, we performed a series of studies to examine the chemical, biological, pharmacological and pharmacokinetic properties of S1PC, and obtained some interesting results. S1PC existed only in trace amounts in raw garlic, but its concentration increased almost up to the level similar of SAC through aging process of AGE. S1PC showed immunomodulatory effects in vitro and in vivo, and reduced blood pressure in a hypertensive animal model. A pharmacokinetic study revealed that S1PC was readily absorbed after oral administration in rats and dogs with bioavailability of 88–100%. Additionally, S1PC had little inhibitory influence on human cytochrome P450 activities, even at a concentration of 1 mM. Based on these findings, S1PC was suggested to be another important, pharmacologically active and safe component of AGE similar to SAC. In this review, we highlight some results from recent studies on S1PC and discuss the potential medicinal value of S1PC.

  18. Chemical and Biological Properties of S-1-Propenyl-l-Cysteine in Aged Garlic Extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodera, Yukihioro; Ushijima, Mitsuyasu; Amano, Hirotaka; Suzuki, Jun-Ichiro; Matsutomo, Toshiaki

    2017-03-31

    S-1-Propenyl-l-cysteine (S1PC) is a stereoisomer of S-1-Propenyl-l-cysteine (SAC), an important sulfur-containing amino acid that plays a role for the beneficial pharmacological effects of aged garlic extract (AGE). The existence of S1PC in garlic preparations has been known since the 1960's. However, there was no report regarding the biological and/or pharmacological activity of S1PC until 2016. Recently, we performed a series of studies to examine the chemical, biological, pharmacological and pharmacokinetic properties of S1PC, and obtained some interesting results. S1PC existed only in trace amounts in raw garlic, but its concentration increased almost up to the level similar of SAC through aging process of AGE. S1PC showed immunomodulatory effects in vitro and in vivo, and reduced blood pressure in a hypertensive animal model. A pharmacokinetic study revealed that S1PC was readily absorbed after oral administration in rats and dogs with bioavailability of 88-100%. Additionally, S1PC had little inhibitory influence on human cytochrome P450 activities, even at a concentration of 1 mM. Based on these findings, S1PC was suggested to be another important, pharmacologically active and safe component of AGE similar to SAC. In this review, we highlight some results from recent studies on S1PC and discuss the potential medicinal value of S1PC.

  19. The phylogeny of C/S1 bZIP transcription factors reveals a shared algal ancestry and the pre-angiosperm translational regulation of S1 transcripts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peviani, Alessia; Lastdrager, Jeroen; Hanson, Johannes; Snel, Berend

    2016-01-01

    Basic leucine zippers (bZIPs) form a large plant transcription factor family. C and S1 bZIP groups can heterodimerize, fulfilling crucial roles in seed development and stress response. S1 sequences also harbor a unique regulatory mechanism, termed Sucrose-Induced Repression of Translation (SIRT). Th

  20. Mesenchymal Stromal Cell Secreted Sphingosine 1-Phosphate (S1P) Exerts a Stimulatory Effect on Skeletal Myoblast Proliferation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tani, Alessia; Anderloni, Giulia; Pierucci, Federica; Matteini, Francesca; Chellini, Flaminia; Zecchi Orlandini, Sandra; Meacci, Elisabetta

    2014-01-01

    Bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) have the potential to significantly contribute to skeletal muscle healing through the secretion of paracrine factors that support proliferation and enhance participation of the endogenous muscle stem cells in the process of repair/regeneration. However, MSC-derived trophic molecules have been poorly characterized. The aim of this study was to investigate paracrine signaling effects of MSCs on skeletal myoblasts. It was found, using a biochemical and morphological approach that sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P), a natural bioactive lipid exerting a broad range of muscle cell responses, is secreted by MSCs and represents an important factor by which these cells exert their stimulatory effects on C2C12 myoblast and satellite cell proliferation. Indeed, exposure to conditioned medium obtained from MSCs cultured in the presence of the selective sphingosine kinase inhibitor (iSK), blocked increased cell proliferation caused by the conditioned medium from untreated MSCs, and the addition of exogenous S1P in the conditioned medium from MSCs pre-treated with iSK further increased myoblast proliferation. Finally, we also demonstrated that the myoblast response to MSC-secreted vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) involves the release of S1P from C2C12 cells. Our data may have important implications in the optimization of cell-based strategies to promote skeletal muscle regeneration. PMID:25264785

  1. Mesenchymal stromal cell secreted sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P exerts a stimulatory effect on skeletal myoblast proliferation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Sassoli

    Full Text Available Bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs have the potential to significantly contribute to skeletal muscle healing through the secretion of paracrine factors that support proliferation and enhance participation of the endogenous muscle stem cells in the process of repair/regeneration. However, MSC-derived trophic molecules have been poorly characterized. The aim of this study was to investigate paracrine signaling effects of MSCs on skeletal myoblasts. It was found, using a biochemical and morphological approach that sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P, a natural bioactive lipid exerting a broad range of muscle cell responses, is secreted by MSCs and represents an important factor by which these cells exert their stimulatory effects on C2C12 myoblast and satellite cell proliferation. Indeed, exposure to conditioned medium obtained from MSCs cultured in the presence of the selective sphingosine kinase inhibitor (iSK, blocked increased cell proliferation caused by the conditioned medium from untreated MSCs, and the addition of exogenous S1P in the conditioned medium from MSCs pre-treated with iSK further increased myoblast proliferation. Finally, we also demonstrated that the myoblast response to MSC-secreted vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF involves the release of S1P from C2C12 cells. Our data may have important implications in the optimization of cell-based strategies to promote skeletal muscle regeneration.

  2. Comparative analysis of the vibrational structure of the absorption spectra of acrolein in the excited ( S 1) electronic state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koroleva, L. A.; Tyulin, V. I.; Matveev, V. K.; Pentin, Yu. A.

    2012-04-01

    The assignments of absorption bands of the vibrational structure of the UV spectrum are compared with the assignments of bands obtained by the CRDS method in a supersonic jet from the time of laser radiation damping for the trans isomer of acrolein in the excited ( S 1) electronic state. The ν00 trans = 25861 cm-1 values and fundamental frequencies, including torsional vibration frequency, obtained by the two methods were found to coincide in the excited electronic state ( S 1) for this isomer. The assignments of several absorption bands of the vibrational structure of the spectrum obtained by the CRDS method were changed. Changes in the assignment of (0-v') transition bands of the torsional vibration of the trans isomer in the Deslandres table from the ν00 trans trans origin allowed the table to be extended to high quantum numbers v'. The torsional vibration frequencies up to v' = 5 were found to be close to the frequencies found by analyzing the vibrational structure of the UV spectrum and calculated quantum-mechanically. The coincidence of the barrier to internal rotation (the cis-trans transition) in the one-dimensional model with that calculated quantum-mechanically using the two-dimensional model corresponds to a planar structure of the acrolein molecule in the excited ( S 1) electronic state.

  3. Protein switches identified from diverse insertion libraries created using S1 nuclease digestion of supercoiled-form plasmid DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tullman, Jennifer; Guntas, Gurkan; Dumont, Matthew; Ostermeier, Marc

    2011-11-01

    We demonstrate that S1 nuclease converts supercoiled plasmid DNA to unit-length, linear dsDNA through the creation of a single, double-stranded break in a plasmid molecule. These double-stranded breaks occur not only in the origin of replication near inverted repeats but also at a wide variety of locations throughout the plasmid. S1 nuclease exhibits this activity under conditions typically employed for the nuclease's single-stranded nuclease activity. Thus, S1 nuclease digestion of plasmid DNA, unlike analogous digestion with DNaseI, effectively halts after the first double-stranded break. This property makes easier the construction of large domain insertion libraries in which the goal is to insert linear DNA at a variety of locations throughout a plasmid. We used this property to create a library in which a circularly permuted TEM1 β-lactamase gene was inserted throughout a plasmid containing the gene encoding Escherichia coli ribose binding protein. Gene fusions that encode allosteric switch proteins in which ribose modulates β-lactamase catalytic activity were isolated from this library using a combination of a genetic selection and a screen.

  4. Effect of S1P5 on proliferation and migration of human esophageal cancer cells

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Wei-Min; Li, Li; Jing, Bao-Qian; Zhao, Yong-Sheng; Wang, Chao-Li; Feng, Li; Xie, Yong-En

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) receptor expression profile in human esophageal cancer cells and the effects of S1P5 on proliferation and migration of human esophageal cancer cells.

  5. Synthesis beyond the molecule

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reinhoudt, D.N.; Crego-Calama, M.

    2002-01-01

    Weak, noncovalent interactions between molecules control many biological functions. In chemistry, noncovalent interactions are now exploited for the synthesis in solution of large supramolecular aggregates. The aim of these syntheses is not only the creation of a particular structure, but also the i

  6. Disentangling DNA molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vologodskii, Alexander

    2016-09-01

    The widespread circular form of DNA molecules inside cells creates very serious topological problems during replication. Due to the helical structure of the double helix the parental strands of circular DNA form a link of very high order, and yet they have to be unlinked before the cell division. DNA topoisomerases, the enzymes that catalyze passing of one DNA segment through another, solve this problem in principle. However, it is very difficult to remove all entanglements between the replicated DNA molecules due to huge length of DNA comparing to the cell size. One strategy that nature uses to overcome this problem is to create the topoisomerases that can dramatically reduce the fraction of linked circular DNA molecules relative to the corresponding fraction at thermodynamic equilibrium. This striking property of the enzymes means that the enzymes that interact with DNA only locally can access their topology, a global property of circular DNA molecules. This review considers the experimental studies of the phenomenon and analyzes the theoretical models that have been suggested in attempts to explain it. We describe here how various models of enzyme action can be investigated computationally. There is no doubt at the moment that we understand basic principles governing enzyme action. Still, there are essential quantitative discrepancies between the experimental data and the theoretical predictions. We consider how these discrepancies can be overcome.

  7. Disentangling DNA molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vologodskii, Alexander

    2016-09-01

    The widespread circular form of DNA molecules inside cells creates very serious topological problems during replication. Due to the helical structure of the double helix the parental strands of circular DNA form a link of very high order, and yet they have to be unlinked before the cell division. DNA topoisomerases, the enzymes that catalyze passing of one DNA segment through another, solve this problem in principle. However, it is very difficult to remove all entanglements between the replicated DNA molecules due to huge length of DNA comparing to the cell size. One strategy that nature uses to overcome this problem is to create the topoisomerases that can dramatically reduce the fraction of linked circular DNA molecules relative to the corresponding fraction at thermodynamic equilibrium. This striking property of the enzymes means that the enzymes that interact with DNA only locally can access their topology, a global property of circular DNA molecules. This review considers the experimental studies of the phenomenon and analyzes the theoretical models that have been suggested in attempts to explain it. We describe here how various models of enzyme action can be investigated computationally. There is no doubt at the moment that we understand basic principles governing enzyme action. Still, there are essential quantitative discrepancies between the experimental data and the theoretical predictions. We consider how these discrepancies can be overcome.

  8. Diversity in Biological Molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newbury, H. John

    2010-01-01

    One of the striking characteristics of fundamental biological processes, such as genetic inheritance, development and primary metabolism, is the limited amount of variation in the molecules involved. Natural selective pressures act strongly on these core processes and individuals carrying mutations and producing slightly sub-optimal versions of…

  9. Diversity in Biological Molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newbury, H. John

    2010-01-01

    One of the striking characteristics of fundamental biological processes, such as genetic inheritance, development and primary metabolism, is the limited amount of variation in the molecules involved. Natural selective pressures act strongly on these core processes and individuals carrying mutations and producing slightly sub-optimal versions of…

  10. Atoms, Molecules, and Compounds

    CERN Document Server

    Manning, Phillip

    2007-01-01

    Explores the atoms that govern chemical processes. This book shows how the interactions between simple substances such as salt and water are crucial to life on Earth and how those interactions are predestined by the atoms that make up the molecules.

  11. Properties of entanglement molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang Yanxia [Department of Physics, Hubei Normal University, Huangshi 435002 (China); Zhan Mingsheng [State Key Laboratory of Magnetic Resonance and Atomic and Molecular Physics, Wuhan Institute of Physics and Mathematics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430071 (China)

    2004-09-14

    We propose a scheme to prepare a certain kind of N-atom entangled state that allows us to construct some possible types of entanglement molecules via cavity QED. The entanglement properties of entanglement molecules vertical bar {psi}{sub N}){sub {alpha}} are studied with respect to bipartite entanglement that is robust against the disposal of particles and are compared with entanglement molecules {rho}{sub I} introduced in Dur (2001 Phys. Rev. A 63 020303). We also give the maximal amount of entanglement achievable for two particular situations in two possible configurations. Meanwhile, we investigate the entanglement properties of entanglement molecules vertical bar {psi}{sub N}){sub {alpha}} in terms of local measurement using the maximum connectedness and persistency and compare them with other kinds of N-atom entangled states such as |GHZ), vertical bar W{sub N}) and vertical bar {phi}{sub N}). We show that the maximal value N - 1 of the persistency of the state vertical bar {psi}{sub N}){sub {alpha}} corresponds to the case that all atoms are pairwise entangled. If any pair of atoms {rho}{sub ij} is disentangled, the entanglement of the state vertical bar {psi}{sub N}){sub {alpha}} is very easy to destroy by a single local measurement.

  12. Properties of entanglement molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yan-Xia; Zhan, Ming-Sheng

    2004-09-01

    We propose a scheme to prepare a certain kind of N-atom entangled state that allows us to construct some possible types of entanglement molecules via cavity QED. The entanglement properties of entanglement molecules |psgrNrangagr are studied with respect to bipartite entanglement that is robust against the disposal of particles and are compared with entanglement molecules rgrI introduced in Dur (2001 Phys. Rev. A 63 020303). We also give the maximal amount of entanglement achievable for two particular situations in two possible configurations. Meanwhile, we investigate the entanglement properties of entanglement molecules |psgrNrangagr in terms of local measurement using the maximum connectedness and persistency and compare them with other kinds of N-atom entangled states such as |GHZrang, |WNrang and |phgrNrang. We show that the maximal value N - 1 of the persistency of the state |psgrNrangagr corresponds to the case that all atoms are pairwise entangled. If any pair of atoms rgrij is disentangled, the entanglement of the state |psgrNrangagr is very easy to destroy by a single local measurement.

  13. Moesin controls clathrin-mediated S1PR1 internalization in T cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akira Nomachi

    Full Text Available The lipid mediator sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P regulates a wide range of cellular activities, including vascular maturation, angiogenesis, and immune-cell trafficking. Among the five known receptors for S1P (S1PR1-S1PR5, S1PR1 is a critical regulator of lymphocyte trafficking: its signaling is required for lymphocyte egress from lymphoid organs, while its down-modulation by agonist-induced internalization is a prerequisite for lymphocyte entry into lymphoid organs from the bloodstream. Despite the importance of S1PR1 down-regulation in determining lymphocyte behavior, the molecular mechanism of its internalization in lymphocytes has not been defined. Here we show that agonist-induced S1PR1 internalization in T cells occurs via clathrin-mediated endocytosis and is regulated by moesin, an ezrin-radixin-moesin (ERM family member. In S1P-stimulated T cells, S1PR1 relocalized within clathrin-coated vesicles (CCVs and early endosomes, and S1PR1 internalization was blocked when clathrin was pharmacologically inhibited. Stimulating moesin-deficient T cells with S1P failed to induce S1PR1 internalization and CCV formation. Furthermore, treating moesin-deficient mice with FTY720, an S1P receptor agonist known to internalize S1PR1, caused delayed lymphopenia, and lymphocytes isolated from FTY720-treated moesin-deficient mice still responded to S1P ex vivo in chemotaxis assays. These results reveal a novel role for moesin in regulating clathrin-dependent S1PR1 internalization through CCV formation.

  14. HDL-S1P: cardiovascular functions, disease-associated alterations, and therapeutic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levkau, Bodo

    2015-01-01

    Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) is a bioactive sphingolipid contained in High-density lipoproteins (HDL) and has drawn considerable attention in the lipoprotein field as numerous studies have demonstrated its contribution to several functions inherent to HDL. Some of them are partly and some entirely due to the S1P contained in HDL (HDL-S1P). Despite the presence of over 1000 different lipids in HDL, S1P stands out as it possesses its own cell surface receptors through which it exercises key physiological functions. Most of the S1P in human plasma is associated with HDL, and the amount of HDL-S1P influences the quality and quantity of HDL-dependent functions. The main binding partner of S1P in HDL is apolipoprotein M but others may also exist particularly under conditions of acute S1P elevations. HDL not only exercise functions through their S1P content but have also an impact on genuine S1P signaling by influencing S1P bioactivity and receptor presentation. HDL-S1P content is altered in human diseases such as atherosclerosis, coronary artery disease, myocardial infarction, renal insufficiency and diabetes mellitus. Low HDL-S1P has also been linked to impaired HDL functions associated with these disorders. Although the pathophysiological and molecular reasons for such disease-associated shifts in HDL-S1P are little understood, there have been successful approaches to circumvent their adverse implications by pharmacologically increasing HDL-S1P as means to improve HDL function. This mini-review will cover the current understanding of the contribution of HDL-S1P to physiological HDL function, its alteration in disease and ways for its restoration to correct HDL dysfunction.

  15. HDL-S1P: cardiovascular functions, disease-associated alterations, and therapeutic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levkau, Bodo

    2015-01-01

    Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) is a bioactive sphingolipid contained in High-density lipoproteins (HDL) and has drawn considerable attention in the lipoprotein field as numerous studies have demonstrated its contribution to several functions inherent to HDL. Some of them are partly and some entirely due to the S1P contained in HDL (HDL-S1P). Despite the presence of over 1000 different lipids in HDL, S1P stands out as it possesses its own cell surface receptors through which it exercises key physiological functions. Most of the S1P in human plasma is associated with HDL, and the amount of HDL-S1P influences the quality and quantity of HDL-dependent functions. The main binding partner of S1P in HDL is apolipoprotein M but others may also exist particularly under conditions of acute S1P elevations. HDL not only exercise functions through their S1P content but have also an impact on genuine S1P signaling by influencing S1P bioactivity and receptor presentation. HDL-S1P content is altered in human diseases such as atherosclerosis, coronary artery disease, myocardial infarction, renal insufficiency and diabetes mellitus. Low HDL-S1P has also been linked to impaired HDL functions associated with these disorders. Although the pathophysiological and molecular reasons for such disease-associated shifts in HDL-S1P are little understood, there have been successful approaches to circumvent their adverse implications by pharmacologically increasing HDL-S1P as means to improve HDL function. This mini-review will cover the current understanding of the contribution of HDL-S1P to physiological HDL function, its alteration in disease and ways for its restoration to correct HDL dysfunction. PMID:26539121

  16. Bacterial invasion reconstructed molecule by molecule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werner, James H [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    We propose to visualize the initial stages of bacterial infection of a human host cell with unmatched spatial and temporal resolution. This work will develop a new capability for the laboratory (super-resolution optical imaging), will test unresolved scientific hypotheses regarding host-pathogen interaction dynamics, and leverages state of the art 3D molecular tracking instrumentation developed recently by our group. There is much to be gained by applying new single molecule tools to the important and familiar problem of pathogen entry into a host cell. For example, conventional fluorescence microscopy has identified key host receptors, such as CD44 and {alpha}5{beta}1 integrin, that aggregate near the site of Salmonella typhimurium infection of human cells. However, due to the small size of the bacteria ({approx} 2 {micro}m) and the diffraction of the emitted light, one just sees a fluorescent 'blob' of host receptors that aggregate at the site of attachment, making it difficult to determine the exact number of receptors present or whether there is any particular spatial arrangement of the receptors that facilitates bacterial adhesion/entry. Using newly developed single molecule based super-resolution imaging methods, we will visualize how host receptors are directed to the site of pathogen adhesion and whether host receptors adopt a specific spatial arrangement for successful infection. Furthermore, we will employ our 3D molecular tracking methods to follow the injection of virulence proteins, or effectors, into the host cell by the pathogen Type III secretion system (TTSS). We expect these studies to provide mechanistic insights into the early events of pathogen infection that have here-to-fore been technically beyond our reach. Our Research Goals are: Goal 1--Construct a super-resolution fluorescence microscope and use this new capability to image the spatial distribution of different host receptors (e.g. CD44, as {alpha}5{beta}1 integrin) at the

  17. The clinically-tested S1P receptor agonists, FTY720 and BAF312, demonstrate subtype-specific bradycardia (S1P₁ and hypertension (S1P₃ in rat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan M Fryer

    Full Text Available Sphingosine-1-phospate (S1P and S1P receptor agonists elicit mechanism-based effects on cardiovascular function in vivo. Indeed, FTY720 (non-selective S1P(X receptor agonist produces modest hypertension in patients (2-3 mmHg in 1-yr trial as well as acute bradycardia independent of changes in blood pressure. However, the precise receptor subtypes responsible is controversial, likely dependent upon the cardiovascular response in question (e.g. bradycardia, hypertension, and perhaps even species-dependent since functional differences in rodent, rabbit, and human have been suggested. Thus, we characterized the S1P receptor subtype specificity for each compound in vitro and, in vivo, the cardiovascular effects of FTY720 and the more selective S1P₁,₅ agonist, BAF312, were tested during acute i.v. infusion in anesthetized rats and after oral administration for 10 days in telemetry-instrumented conscious rats. Acute i.v. infusion of FTY720 (0.1, 0.3, 1.0 mg/kg/20 min or BAF312 (0.5, 1.5, 5.0 mg/kg/20 min elicited acute bradycardia in anesthetized rats demonstrating an S1P₁ mediated mechanism-of-action. However, while FTY720 (0.5, 1.5, 5.0 mg/kg/d elicited dose-dependent hypertension after multiple days of oral administration in rat at clinically relevant plasma concentrations (24-hr mean blood pressure = 8.4, 12.8, 16.2 mmHg above baseline vs. 3 mmHg in vehicle controls, BAF312 (0.3, 3.0, 30.0 mg/kg/d had no significant effect on blood pressure at any dose tested suggesting that hypertension produced by FTY720 is mediated S1P₃ receptors. In summary, in vitro selectivity results in combination with studies performed in anesthetized and conscious rats administered two clinically tested S1P agonists, FTY720 or BAF312, suggest that S1P₁ receptors mediate bradycardia while hypertension is mediated by S1P₃ receptor activation.

  18. Femtochemistry of Norrish type-I reactions: II. The anomalous predissociation dynamics of cyclobutanone on the S1 surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diau, E W; Kötting, C; Zewail, A H

    2001-05-18

    The anomalous nonradiative dynamics for three cyclobutanone isotopomers ([D0 ]-, 3,3-[D2 ]-, and 2,2,4,4-[D4 ]cyclobutanone) have been investigated using femtosecond (fs) time-resolved mass spectrometry. We have found that the internal motions of the molecules in the S1 state above the dissociation threshold involve two time scales. The fast motion has a time constant of out-of-plane bending modes into the in-plane ring-opening reaction coordinate defines the time scale for intramolecular vibrational energy redistribution (IVR), and the observed picosecond-scale (ps) decay gives the rate of IVR/bond cleavage across the barrier. The observed prominent isotope effect for both [D2 ] and [D4 ] isotopomers imply the significance of the ring-puckering and the CO out-of-plane wagging motions to the S1 α-cleavage dynamics. The ethylene and ketene (C2 products)-as well as CO and cyclopropane (C3 products)-product ratios can be understood by the involvement of an S0 /S1 conical intersection revealed in our calculations. This proposed dynamic picture for the photochemistry of cyclobutanone on the S1 surface can account not only for the abnormally sharp decrease in fluorescence quantum yield and lifetime but also for the dramatic change in the C3 :C2 product ratio as a function of increasing excitation energy, as reported by Lee and co-workers (J. C. Hemminger, E. K. C. Lee, J. Chem. Phys. 1972, 56, 5284-5295; K. Y. Tang, E. K. C. Lee, J. Phys. Chem. 1976, 80, 1833-1836). © 2001 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH, Weinheim, Fed. Rep. of Germany.

  19. Ahp cyclodepsipeptides: the impact of the Ahp residue on the "canonical inhibition" of S1 serine proteases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolze, Sara C; Meltzer, Michael; Ehrmann, Michael; Kaiser, Markus

    2013-07-22

    S1 serine proteases are by far the largest and most diverse family of proteases encoded in the human genome. Although recent decades have seen an enormous increase in our knowledge, the biological functions of most of these proteases remain to be elucidated. Chemical inhibitors have proven to be versatile tools for studying the functions of proteases, but this approach is hampered by the limited availability of inhibitor scaffold structures with the potential to allow rapid discovery of selective, noncovalent small-molecule protease inhibitors. The natural product class of Ahp cyclodepsipeptides is an unusual class of small-molecule canonical inhibitors; the incorporation of protease cleavage sequences into their molecular scaffolds enables the design of specific small-molecule inhibitors that simultaneously target the S and S' subsites of the protease through noncovalent mechanisms. Their synthesis is tedious, however, so in this study we have investigated the relevance of the Ahp moiety for achieving potent inhibition. We found that although the Ahp residue plays an important role in inhibition potency, appropriate replacement with β-hydroxy amino acids results in structurally less complex derivatives that inhibit serine proteases in the low micromolar range.

  20. Metastatic triple-negative breast cancer is dependent on SphKs/S1P signaling for growth and survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiti, Aparna; Takabe, Kazuaki; Hait, Nitai C

    2017-04-01

    About 40,000 American women die from metastatic breast cancer each year despite advancements in treatment. Approximately, 15% of breast cancers are triple-negative for estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, and HER2. Triple-negative cancer is characterized by more aggressive, harder to treat with conventional approaches and having a greater possibility of recurrence. Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) is a bioactive sphingolipid signaling mediator has emerged as a key regulatory molecule in breast cancer progression. Therefore, we investigated whether cytosolic sphingosine kinase type 1 (SphK1) and nuclear sphingosine kinase type 2 (SphK2), the enzymes that make S1P are critical for growth and PI3K/AKT, ERK-MAP kinase mediated survival signaling of lung metastatic variant LM2-4 breast cancer cells, generated from the parental triple-negative MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cell line. Similar with previous report, SphKs/S1P signaling is critical for the growth and survival of estrogen receptor positive MCF-7 human breast cancer cells, was used as our study control. MDA-MB-231 did not show a significant effect of SphKs/S1P signaling on AKT, ERK, and p38 pathways. In contrast, LM2-4 cells that gained lung metastatic phenotype from primary MDA-MB-231 cells show a significant effect of SphKs/S1P signaling requirement on cell growth, survival, and cell motility. PF-543, a selective potent inhibitor of SphK1, attenuated epidermal growth factor (EGF)-mediated cell growth and survival signaling through inhibition of AKT, ERK, and p38 MAP kinase pathways mainly in LM2-4 cells but not in parental MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells. Moreover, K-145, a selective inhibitor of SphK2, markedly attenuated EGF-mediated cell growth and survival of LM2-4 cells. We believe this study highlights the importance of SphKs/S1P signaling in metastatic triple-negative breast cancers and targeted therapies.

  1. Photoassociative creation of ultracold heteronuclear 6Li40K* molecules

    CERN Document Server

    Ridinger, Armin; Salez, Thomas; Fernandes, Diogo Rio; Bouloufa, Nadia; Dulieu, Olivier; Salomon, Christophe; Chevy, Frederic

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the formation of weakly bound, electronically excited, heteronuclear 6Li40K* molecules by single-photon photoassociation in a magneto-optical trap. We performed trap loss spectroscopy within a range of 325 GHz below the Li(2S_(1/2))+K(4P_(3/2)) and Li(2S_(1/2))+K(4P_(1/2)) asymptotic states and observed more than 60 resonances, which we identify as rovibrational levels of 7 of 8 attractive long-range molecular potentials. The long-range dispersion coefficients and rotational constants are derived. We find large molecule formation rates of up to ~3.5x10^7s^(-1), which are shown to be comparable to those for homonuclear 40K_2*. Using a theoretical model we infer decay rates to the deeply bound electronic ground-state vibrational level X^1\\Sigma^+(v'=3) of ~5x10^4s^(-1). Our results pave the way for the production of ultracold bosonic ground-state 6Li40K molecules which exhibit a large intrinsic permanent electric dipole moment.

  2. Molecules in Magnetic Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berdyugina, Svetlana

    2015-08-01

    Molecules probe cool matter in the Universe and various astrophysical objects. Their ability to sense magnetic fields provides new insights into magnetic properties of these objects. During the past fifteen years we have carried out a theoretical study of molecular magnetic effects such as the Zeeman, Paschen-Back and Hanle effects and their applications for inferring magnetic structures and spatial inhomogeneities on the Sun, cool stars, brown dwarfs, and exoplanets from molecular spectro-polarimetry (e.g., Berdyugina 2011). Here, we present an overview of this study and compare our theoretical predictions with recent laboratory measurements of magnetic properties of some molecules. We present also a new web-based tool to compute molecular magnetic effects and polarized spectra which is supported by the ERC Advanced Grant HotMol.

  3. Atoms, molecules & elements

    CERN Document Server

    Graybill, George

    2007-01-01

    Young scientists will be thrilled to explore the invisible world of atoms, molecules and elements. Our resource provides ready-to-use information and activities for remedial students using simplified language and vocabulary. Students will label each part of the atom, learn what compounds are, and explore the patterns in the periodic table of elements to find calcium (Ca), chlorine (Cl), and helium (He) through hands-on activities.

  4. Model molecules mimicking asphaltenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjöblom, Johan; Simon, Sébastien; Xu, Zhenghe

    2015-04-01

    Asphalthenes are typically defined as the fraction of petroleum insoluble in n-alkanes (typically heptane, but also hexane or pentane) but soluble in toluene. This fraction causes problems of emulsion formation and deposition/precipitation during crude oil production, processing and transport. From the definition it follows that asphaltenes are not a homogeneous fraction but is composed of molecules polydisperse in molecular weight, structure and functionalities. Their complexity makes the understanding of their properties difficult. Proper model molecules with well-defined structures which can resemble the properties of real asphaltenes can help to improve this understanding. Over the last ten years different research groups have proposed different asphaltene model molecules and studied them to determine how well they can mimic the properties of asphaltenes and determine the mechanisms behind the properties of asphaltenes. This article reviews the properties of the different classes of model compounds proposed and present their properties by comparison with fractionated asphaltenes. After presenting the interest of developing model asphaltenes, the composition and properties of asphaltenes are presented, followed by the presentation of approaches and accomplishments of different schools working on asphaltene model compounds. The presentation of bulk and interfacial properties of perylene-based model asphaltene compounds developed by Sjöblom et al. is the subject of the next part. Finally the emulsion-stabilization properties of fractionated asphaltenes and model asphaltene compounds is presented and discussed.

  5. Hydrogen molecules in semiconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, Joerg [Technische Universitaet Dresden, 01062 Dresden (Germany)], E-mail: joerg.weber@tu-dresden.de; Hiller, Martin; Lavrov, Edward V. [Technische Universitaet Dresden, 01062 Dresden (Germany)

    2007-12-15

    Molecular hydrogen, the simplest of all molecules, allows a direct insight into the fundamental properties of quantum mechanics. In the case of H{sub 2}, the Pauli principle leads to two different species, para-H{sub 2} and ortho-H{sub 2}. A conversion between these species is prohibited. Vibrational mode spectra reflect the fundamental properties and allow an unambiguous identification of the H{sub 2} molecules. Today, we have experimental evidence for the trapping of hydrogen molecules in the semiconductors Si, Ge and GaAs at the interstitial sites, within hydrogen-induced platelets, in voids and at impurities (interstitial oxygen in Si). Interstitial H{sub 2} is a nearly free rotor with a surprisingly simple behavior. We review on interstitial H{sub 2} in semiconductors and report on the unexpected preferential disappearance of the para-H{sub 2} or ortho-D{sub 2} species. The origin of the detected ortho-para conversion will be discussed.

  6. Photonic Molecule Lasers Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnon, Denis; Dumont, Joey; Déziel, Jean-Luc; Dubé, Louis J.

    2014-05-01

    Photonic molecules (PMs) formed by coupling two or more optical resonators are ideal candidates for the fabrication of integrated microlasers, photonic molecule lasers. Whereas most calculations on PM lasers have been based on cold-cavity (passive) modes, i.e. quasi-bound states, a recently formulated steady-state ab initio laser theory (SALT) offers the possibility to take into account the spectral properties of the underlying gain transition, its position and linewidth, as well as incorporating an arbitrary pump profile. We will combine two theoretical approaches to characterize the lasing properties of PM lasers: for two-dimensional systems, the generalized Lorenz-Mie theory will obtain the resonant modes of the coupled molecules in an active medium described by SALT. Not only is then the theoretical description more complete, the use of an active medium provides additional parameters to control, engineer and harness the lasing properties of PM lasers for ultra-low threshold and directional single-mode emission. We will extend our recent study and present new results for a number of promising geometries. The authors acknowledge financial support from NSERC (Canada) and the CERC in Photonic Innovations of Y. Messaddeq.

  7. Effect of alphas1-casein ( CSN1S1) genotype on milk CSN1S1 content in Malagueña and Murciano-Granadina goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caravaca, Francisco; Amills, Marcel; Jordana, Jordi; Angiolillo, Antonella; Agüera, Pastora; Aranda, Cristina; Menéndez-Buxadera, Alberto; Sánchez, Alfonso; Carrizosa, Juan; Urrutia, Baltasar; Sànchez, Armand; Serradilla, Juan Manuel

    2008-11-01

    There is substantial evidence showing that the polymorphism of the goat alphas1-casein (CSN1S1) gene has a major effect on milk protein, casein and fat content as well as on cheese yield. However, its influence on the synthesis rate of CSN1S1 has been less studied, with measurements only available in French breeds. In this article, we have measured milk CSN1S1 content in 89 Malagueña and 138 Murciano-Granadina goats with 305 and 460 phenotypic registers, respectively. In the Malagueña breed, average values of CSN1S1 content estimated for BB, BF, EE and FF genotypes were 6.94+/-0.38, 5.36+/-0.22, 4.58+/-0.13 and 3.98+/-0.27 g/l, respectively, being all significantly different (Pgene polymorphism on the synthesis rate of the corresponding protein.

  8. OUTGASSING BEHAVIOR OF C/2012 S1 (ISON) FROM 2011 SEPTEMBER TO 2013 JUNE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meech, Karen J.; Yang, Bin; Kleyna, Jan; Chiang, Hsin-Fang; Riesen, Timm; Keane, Jacqueline V.; Reipurth, Bo; Hsieh, Henry H. [NASA Astrobiology Institute, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Ansdell, Megan [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Hainaut, Olivier [European Southern Observatory, Santiago 19001 (Chile); Vincent, Jean-Baptiste; Boehnhardt, Hermann [Max-Planck-Institut fur Sonnensystemforschung, Max-Planck-Strasse 2, D-37191 Katlenburg-Lindau (Germany); Fitzsimmons, Alan [Queens University Belfast, Belfast BT7 1NN (United Kingdom); Rector, Travis [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Alaska Anchorage, 3211 Providence Drive, Anchorage, AK 99508 (United States); Michaud, Peter [Gemini Observatory, Northern Operations Center, 670 North A' ohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Milani, Giannantonio [Associazione Astronomica Euganea, via Tommaseo, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Bryssinck, Erik [BRIXIIS Observatory, Eyckensbeekstraat, B-9150 Kruibeke (Belgium); Ligustri, Rolando [Talmassons Observatory (C.A.S.T.), via Cadorna, I-33030 Talmassons (Italy); Trabatti, Roberto [Stazione Astronomica Descartes, via Lambrinia 4, I-2013 Chignolo Po' (Italy); Tozzi, Gian-Paolo, E-mail: meech@ifa.hawaii.edu [INAF-Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Largo E. Fermi 5, I-40125 Firenze (Italy); and others

    2013-10-20

    We report photometric observations for comet C/2012 S1 (ISON) obtained during the time period immediately after discovery (r = 6.28 AU) until it moved into solar conjunction in mid-2013 June using the UH2.2 m, and Gemini North 8 m telescopes on Mauna Kea, the Lowell 1.8 m in Flagstaff, the Calar Alto 1.2 m telescope in Spain, the VYSOS-5 telescopes on Mauna Loa Hawaii and data from the CARA network. Additional pre-discovery data from the Pan STARRS1 survey extends the light curve back to 2011 September 30 (r = 9.4 AU). The images showed a similar tail morphology due to small micron sized particles throughout 2013. Observations at submillimeter wavelengths using the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope on 15 nights between 2013 March 9 (r = 4.52 AU) and June 16 (r = 3.35 AU) were used to search for CO and HCN rotation lines. No gas was detected, with upper limits for CO ranging between 3.5-4.5 × 10{sup 27} molecules s{sup –1}. Combined with published water production rate estimates we have generated ice sublimation models consistent with the photometric light curve. The inbound light curve is likely controlled by sublimation of CO{sub 2}. At these distances water is not a strong contributor to the outgassing. We also infer that there was a long slow outburst of activity beginning in late 2011 peaking in mid-2013 January (r ∼ 5 AU) at which point the activity decreased again through 2013 June. We suggest that this outburst was driven by CO injecting large water ice grains into the coma. Observations as the comet came out of solar conjunction seem to confirm our models.

  9. Cost-effectiveness analysis of gemcitabine, S-1 and gemcitabine plus S-1 for treatment of advanced pancreatic cancer based on GEST study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jing; Zhao, Rongce; Wen, Feng; Zhang, Pengfei; Tang, Ruilei; Du, Zedong; He, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Jian; Li, Qiu

    2015-04-01

    Gemcitabine (GEM) alone, S-1 alone and gemcitabine plus S-1 (GS) have shown a marginal clinical benefit for the treatment of advanced pancreatic cancer. However, there is no clearly defined optimal cost-effectiveness treatment. The objective of this study was to assess the cost-effectiveness of GEM alone, S-1 alone and GS for the treatment of advanced pancreatic cancer based on GEST study for public payers. A decision model compared GEM alone, S-1 alone and GS. Primary base case data were identified using the GEST study and the literatures. Costs were estimated from West China Hospital, Sichuan University, China, and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) were calculated. Survival benefits were reported in quality-adjusted life-months (QALMs). Sensitive analyses were performed by varying potentially modifiable parameters of the model. The base case analysis showed that the GEM cost $21,912 and yielded survival of 6.93 QALMs, S-1 cost $19,371 and yielded survival of 7.90 QALMs and GS cost $22,943 and yielded survival of 7.46 QALMs in the entire treatment. The one-way sensitivity analyses showed that the ICER of S-1 was driven mostly by the S-1 group utility score of stable state compared with GEM, and the GEM group utility score of progressed state played a key role on the ICER of GS compared with GEM. S-1 represents an attractive cost-effective treatment for advanced pancreatic cancer, given the favorable cost per QALM and improvement in clinical efficacy, especially the limited available treatment options.

  10. Helicobacter pylori vacA s1a and s1b alleles from clinical isolates from different regions of Chile show a distinct geographic distribution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MI Díaz; A Kirberg; E Hebel; J Fierro; R Bravo; F Siegel; G Leon; G Klapp; A Venegas; A Valdivia; P Martínez; JL Palacios; P Harris; J Novales; E Garrido; D Valderrama; C Shilling

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To establish the most common vacA alleles in Helicobacter pylori(H pylori) strains isolated from Chilean patients and its relationship with gastritis and gastroduodenal ulcers.METHODS: Two hundred and forty five H pylori clinical isolates were obtained from 79 biopsies from Chilean infected patients suffering from gastrointestinal diseases. An average of 2-3 strains per patient was isolated and the vacA genotype was analyzed by PCR and 3% agarose electrophoresis. Some genotypes were checked by DNA sequencing.RESULTS: The most prevalent vacA genotype inChilean patients was s1b m1 (76%), followed by s1a m1 (21%). In contrast, the s2 m2 genotype was scarcely represented (3%).The s1b m1 genotype was found most frequently linked to gastropathies (P<0.05) rather than ulcers. Ulcers were found more commonly in male and older patients. Curiously, patients living in cities located North and far South of Santiago, the capital and largest Chilean city, carried almost exclusively strains with the s1b m1 genotype. In contrast, patients from Santiago and cities located South of Santiago carried strains with either one or both s1a m1 and s1b m1 genotypes.Regarding the s2 m2 genotype, comparison with GenBank sequences revealed that Chilean s2 sequence was identical to those of Australian, American, and Colombian strains but quite different from those of Alaska and India.CONCLUSION: Differences in geographic distribution of the s and m vaccA alleles in Chile and a relationship of s1b m1 genotype with gastritis were found. Sequence data in part support a hispanic origin for the vacA genotype.Asymmetric distribution of genotypes s1b m1 and s2 m2recedes H Pyloristrain distribution in Spain and Portugal.

  11. Post-marketing Safety Evaluation of S-1 in Patients with Inoperable or Recurrent Breast Cancer: Especially in Patients Treated with S-1 + Trastuzumab

    OpenAIRE

    Saito, Yuki; Oshitanai, Risa; Terao, Mayako; Terada, Mizuho; Tsuda, Banri; Okamura, Takuho; Suzuki, Yasuhiro; Tokuda, Yutaka

    2011-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to assess the safety of S-1 in Japanese in inoperable or recurrent breast cancer patients. Methods A prospective post-marketing surveillance was performed at 313 sites in Japan in patients with inoperable or recurrent breast cancer treated with S-1. We examined 1361 patients between January 2006 and December 2007 with regard to the incidence of adverse drug reactions graded by the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE), version 3.0. Resu...

  12. Post-marketing safety evaluation of S-1 in patients with inoperable or recurrent breast cancer: especially in patients treated with S-1 + trastuzumab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Yuki; Oshitanai, Risa; Terao, Mayako; Terada, Mizuho; Tsuda, Banri; Okamura, Takuho; Suzuki, Yasuhiro; Tokuda, Yutaka

    2011-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the safety of S-1 in Japanese in inoperable or recurrent breast cancer patients. A prospective post-marketing surveillance was performed at 313 sites in Japan in patients with inoperable or recurrent breast cancer treated with S-1. We examined 1361 patients between January 2006 and December 2007 with regard to the incidence of adverse drug reactions graded by the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE), version 3.0. At least one adverse drug reaction was encountered by 858 patients, with an overall incidence of 63.0% (858/1361). The incidence of Grade 3 or higher adverse drug reactions in a descending order was 14.7% (200/1361). In this study, the most common combination drug was trastuzumab. The overall incidence of adverse drug reactions was 63.5% (431/679 patients) in patients treated with S-1 alone, and 55.9% (66/118 patients) in patients treated with S-1 + trastuzumab. Monotherapy with S-1 or combination therapy with S-1 + trastuzumab was well tolerated for inoperable or recurrent breast cancer patients.

  13. Molecules in crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spackman, Mark A.

    2013-04-01

    Hirshfeld surface analysis has developed from the serendipitous discovery of a novel partitioning of the crystal electron density into discrete molecular fragments, to a suite of computational tools used widely for the identification, analysis and discussion of intermolecular interactions in molecular crystals. The relationship between the Hirshfeld surface and very early ideas on the internal structure of crystals is outlined, and applications of Hirshfeld surface analysis are presented for three molecules of historical importance in the development of modern x-ray crystallography: hexamethylbenzene, hexamethylenetetramine and diketopiperazine.

  14. (1S)-1-ethyl-2-methylpropyl 3,13-dimethylpentadecanoate: major sex pheromone component of Paulownia bagworm, Clania variegata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gries, Regine; Khaskin, Grigori; Tan, Zhong-Xing; Zhao, Bo-Guang; Skip King, G G; Miroshnychenko, Aleksander; Lin, Guo-Qiang; Rhainds, Marc; Gries, Gerhard

    2006-08-01

    The Paulownia bagworm, Clania variegata Snell. (Lepidoptera: Psychidae), is one of the most significant forest defoliators in China. In gas chromatographic (GC)-electroantennographic detection analyses of pheromone gland extracts of female C. variegata on three GC columns (DB-5, DB-23, DB-210), two compounds (A and B) elicited strong responses from male antennae. The more abundant component B was isolated by high-performance liquid chromatography and identified as 1-ethyl-2-methylpropyl 3,13-dimethylpentadecanoate by transesterification, GC-mass spectrometry (MS), and comparison of its spectral and GC retention characteristics with those of synthetic compounds. In field trapping experiments in China, racemic and (1S)-1-ethyl-2-methylpropyl 3,13-dimethylpentadecanoate [but not the (1R)-stereoisomer] attracted male C. variegata. The absolute configuration of B (a molecule with three chiral centers) and the structure of component A remain to be determined.

  15. Comparison of milk oligosaccharides between goats with and without the genetic ability to synthesize αs1-casein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyrand, M; Dallas, D C; Caillat, H; Bouvier, F; Martin, P; Barile, D

    2013-07-01

    Milk oligosaccharides (OS)-free complex carbohydrates-confer unique health benefits to the nursing neonate. Though human digestive enzymes cannot degrade these sugars, they provide nourishment to specific commensal microbes and act as decoys to prevent the adhesion of pathogenic micro-organisms to gastrointestinal cells. At present, the limited quantities of human milk oligosaccharides (HMO) impede research on these molecules and their potential applications in functional food formulations. Considerable progress has been made in the study of OS structures; however, the synthetic pathways leading to their synthesis in the mammary gland are poorly understood. Recent studies show that complex OS with fucose and N-acetyl neuraminic acid (key structural elements of HMO bioactivity) exist in goat milk. Polymorphisms in the CSN1S1 locus, which is responsible for synthesis of αs1-casein, affect lipid and casein micelle structure in goat milk. The present study sought to determine whether CSN1S1 polymorphisms also influence goat milk oligosaccharide (GMO) production and secretion. The GMO compositions of thirty-two goat milk samples, half of which were from genotype A/A (αs1-casein producers) and half from genotype O/O (αs1-casein non-producers), were determined with nanoflow liquid chromatography high-accuracy mass spectrometry. This study represents the most exhaustive characterization of GMO to date. A systematic and comprehensive GMO library was created, consolidating information available in the literature with the new findings. Nearly 30 GMO, 11 of which were novel, were confirmed via tandem mass spectrometric analyses. Six fucosylated OS were identified; 4 of these matched HMO compositions and three were identified for the first time in goat milk. Importantly, multivariate statistical analysis demonstrated that the OS profiles of the A/A and O/O genotype milks could be discriminated by the fucosylated OS. Quantitative analysis revealed that the goat milk samples

  16. Comparison of milk oligosaccharides between goats with and without the genetic ability to synthesize αs1-casein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyrand, M.; Dallas, D.C.; Caillat, H.; Bouvier, F.; Martin, P.; Barile, D.

    2014-01-01

    Milk oligosaccharides (OS)—free complex carbohydrates—confer unique health benefits to the nursing neonate. Though human digestive enzymes cannot degrade these sugars, they provide nourishment to specific commensal microbes and act as decoys to prevent the adhesion of pathogenic micro-organisms to gastrointestinal cells. At present, the limited quantities of human milk oligosaccharides (HMO) impede research on these molecules and their potential applications in functional food formulations. Considerable progress has been made in the study of OS structures; however, the synthetic pathways leading to their synthesis in the mammary gland are poorly understood. Recent studies show that complex OS with fucose and N-acetyl neuraminic acid (key structural elements of HMO bioactivity) exist in goat milk. Polymorphisms in the CSN1S1 locus, which is responsible for synthesis of αs1-casein, affect lipid and casein micelle structure in goat milk. The present study sought to determine whether CSN1S1 polymorphisms also influence goat milk oligosaccharide (GMO) production and secretion. The GMO compositions of thirty-two goat milk samples, half of which were from genotype A/A (αs1-casein producers) and half from genotype O/O (αs1-casein non-producers), were determined with nanoflow liquid chromatography high-accuracy mass spectrometry. This study represents the most exhaustive characterization of GMO to date. A systematic and comprehensive GMO library was created, consolidating information available in the literature with the new findings. Nearly 30 GMO, 11 of which were novel, were confirmed via tandem mass spectrometric analyses. Six fucosylated OS were identified; 4 of these matched HMO compositions and three were identified for the first time in goat milk. Importantly, multivariate statistical analysis demonstrated that the OS profiles of the A/A and O/O genotype milks could be discriminated by the fucosylated OS. Quantitative analysis revealed that the goat milk

  17. Chisholm-Caianiello-Fubini Identities for S=1 Barut-Muzinich-Williams Matrices

    CERN Document Server

    Cabral, M de G Caldera

    2013-01-01

    The formulae of the relativistic products are found S=1 Barut-Muzinich-Williams matrices. They are analogs of the well-known Chisholm-Caianiello-Fubini identities. The obtained results can be useful in the higher-order calculations of the high-energy processes with S=1 particles in the framework of the 2(2S+1) Weinberg formalism, which recently attracted attention again. PACS numbers: 02.90.+p, 11.90.+t, 12.20.Ds

  18. Discovery of a novel series of potent S1P1 agonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosignani, Stefano; Bombrun, Agnes; Covini, David; Maio, Maurizio; Marin, Delphine; Quattropani, Anna; Swinnen, Dominique; Simpson, Don; Sauer, Wolfgang; Françon, Bernard; Martin, Thierry; Cambet, Yves; Nichols, Anthony; Martinou, Isabelle; Burgat-Charvillon, Fabienne; Rivron, Delphine; Donini, Cristina; Schott, Olivier; Eligert, Valerie; Novo-Perez, Laurence; Vitte, Pierre-Alain; Arrighi, Jean-François

    2010-03-01

    The discovery of a novel series of S1P1 agonists is described. Starting from a micromolar HTS positive, iterative optimization gave rise to several single-digit nanomolar S1P1 agonists. The compounds were able to induce internalization of the S1P1 receptor, and a selected compound was shown to be able to induce lymphopenia in mice after oral dosing.

  19. Orally administered S-1 suppresses circulating endothelial cell counts in metastatic breast cancer patients.

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    [Background]S-1 is an oral cytotoxic preparation that contains tegafur. Gamma-butyrolactone (GBL) is a metabolite of tegafur that is known to suppress vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-mediated angiogenic activity. The aim of this study was to determine the change in circulating endothelial cell (CEC) counts, GBL levels, and angiogenesis-related factors during S-1 administration in metastatic breast cancer (MBC) patients. [Methods]Patients with HER2-negative MBC were eligible. S-1 was...

  20. Ultra-cold molecule production.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez-Serrano, Jamie; Chandler, David W.; Strecker, Kevin; Rahn, Larry A.

    2005-12-01

    The production of Ultra-cold molecules is a goal of many laboratories through out the world. Here we are pursuing a unique technique that utilizes the kinematics of atomic and molecular collisions to achieve the goal of producing substantial numbers of sub Kelvin molecules confined in a trap. Here a trap is defined as an apparatus that spatially localizes, in a known location in the laboratory, a sample of molecules whose temperature is below one degree absolute Kelvin. Further, the storage time for the molecules must be sufficient to measure and possibly further cool the molecules. We utilize a technique unique to Sandia to form cold molecules from near mass degenerate collisions between atoms and molecules. This report describes the progress we have made using this novel technique and the further progress towards trapping molecules we have cooled.

  1. Benzyl butyl phthalate promotes breast cancer stem cell expansion via SPHK1/S1P/S1PR3 signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Hsiao-Li; Chang, Yi-Chih; Chen, Hung-Sheng; Lee, Jau-Nan; Tsai, Eing-Mei

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the regulatory mechanisms unique to breast cancer stem cells (BCSCs) is required to control breast cancer metastasis. We found that phthalates promote BCSCs in human breast cancer cell cultures and xenograft tumors. A toxic phthalate, benzyl butyl phthalate (BBP), activated aryl hydrocarbon receptor in breast cancer cells to stimulate sphingosine kinase 1 (SPHK1)/sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P)/sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor 3 (S1PR3) signaling and enhance formation of metastasis-initiating BCSCs. BBP induced histone modifications in S1PR3 in side population (SP) cells, but not in non-SP cells. SPHK1 or S1PR3 knockdown in breast cancer cells effectively reduced tumor growth and lung metastasis in vivo. Our findings suggest S1PR3 is a determinant of phthalate-driven breast cancer metastasis and a possible therapeutic target for regulating BCSC populations. Furthermore, the association between breast carcinogenesis and environmental pollutants has important implications for public health. PMID:27129165

  2. Effect of S1P5 on proliferation and migration of human esophageal cancer cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    AIM:To investigate the sphingosine 1phosphate (S1P) receptor expression profile in human esophageal cancer cells and the effects of S1P5 on proliferation and migration of human esophageal cancer cells. METHODS: S1P receptor expression profile in human esophageal squamous cell carcinoma cell line Eca109 was detected by semiquantitative reverse trans cription polymerase chain reaction. Eca109 cells were stably transfected with S1P5EGFP or controlEGFP constructs. The relation between the responses of cell prol...

  3. Intersystem crossing rates of S1 state keto-amino cytosine at low excess energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobsiger, Simon; Etinski, Mihajlo; Blaser, Susan; Frey, Hans-Martin; Marian, Christel; Leutwyler, Samuel

    2015-12-01

    The amino-keto tautomer of supersonic jet-cooled cytosine undergoes intersystem crossing (ISC) from the v = 0 and low-lying vibronic levels of its S1(1ππ∗) state. We investigate these ISC rates experimentally and theoretically as a function of S1 state vibrational excess energy Eexc. The S1 vibronic levels are pumped with a ˜5 ns UV laser, the S1 and triplet state ion signals are separated by prompt or delayed ionization with a second UV laser pulse. After correcting the raw ISC yields for the relative S1 and T1 ionization cross sections, we obtain energy dependent ISC quantum yields QISC corr = 1 % -5%. These are combined with previously measured vibronic state-specific decay rates, giving ISC rates kISC = 0.4-1.5 ṡ 109 s-1, the corresponding S1⇝S0 internal conversion (IC) rates are 30-100 times larger. Theoretical ISC rates are computed using SCS-CC2 methods, which predict rapid ISC from the S1; v = 0 state with kISC = 3 ṡ 109 s-1 to the T1(3ππ∗) triplet state. The surprisingly high rate of this El Sayed-forbidden transition is caused by a substantial admixture of 1nOπ∗ character into the S1(1ππ∗) wave function at its non-planar minimum geometry. The combination of experiment and theory implies that (1) below Eexc = 550 cm-1 in the S1 state, S1⇝S0 internal conversion dominates the nonradiative decay with kIC ≥ 2 ṡ 1010 s-1, (2) the calculated S1⇝T1 (1ππ∗⇝3ππ∗) ISC rate is in good agreement with experiment, (3) being El-Sayed forbidden, the S1⇝T1 ISC is moderately fast (kISC = 3 ṡ 109 s-1), and not ultrafast, as claimed by other calculations, and (4) at Eexc ˜ 550 cm-1 the IC rate increases by ˜50 times, probably by accessing the lowest conical intersection (the C5-twist CI) and thereby effectively switching off the ISC decay channels.

  4. Effect of preoperative S-1 combined with regional transcatheter arterial chemoembolization on malignant degree of locally advanced gastric cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ru-Juan Xu

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To study the effect of preoperative S-1 combined with regional transcatheter arterial chemoembolization on malignant degree of locally advanced gastric cancer. Methods:A total of 134 patients who were diagnosed with advanced gastric cancer in our hospital from May 2012 to December 2014 were selected for study, received surgical resection after chemotherapy, and were divided into intravenous chemotherapy group and combined treatment group according to different chemotherapy regimens. After chemotherapy and before operation, serum tumor marker levels were detected;after operation, recurrence and metastasis-related molecule levels in tumor tissue were detected. Results:After chemotherapy and before operation, serum CEA, CA199, CA72-4, TSGF, ESM-1 and DKK-1 levels of combined treatment group were significantly lower than those of intravenous chemotherapy group;TET1, TET2, LATS1 and RUNX3 levels in tumor tissue of combined treatment group were higher than those of intravenous chemotherapy group while Sipa1, GOLPH3, AEP, MT2-MMP, OPN, Galectin-1, Galectin-3 and Galectin-9 levels were lower than those of intravenous chemotherapy group. Conclusions:Compared with systemic intravenous chemotherapy, preoperative S-1 combined with regional transcatheter arterial chemoembolization can more effectively kill gastric cancer cells and prevent tumor recurrence and metastasis at molecular level.

  5. Passing Current through Touching Molecules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schull, G.; Frederiksen, Thomas; Brandbyge, Mads

    2009-01-01

    The charge flow from a single C-60 molecule to another one has been probed. The conformation and electronic states of both molecules on the contacting electrodes have been characterized using a cryogenic scanning tunneling microscope. While the contact conductance of a single molecule between two...

  6. Molecules Best Paper Award 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPhee, Derek J

    2013-02-05

    Molecules has started to institute a "Best Paper" award to recognize the most outstanding papers in the area of natural products, medicinal chemistry and molecular diversity published in Molecules. We are pleased to announce the second "Molecules Best Paper Award" for 2013.

  7. Intramolecular Vibrational Energy Redistribution (ivr) in Selected S_{1} Levels above 1000 cm^{-1} in Para-Fluorotoluene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whalley, Laura E.; Gardner, Adrian M.; Tuttle, William Duncan; Davies, Julia A.; Reid, Katharine L.; Wright, Timothy G.

    2017-06-01

    With increasing vibrational wavenumber, the density of states of a molecule is expected to rise dramatically, especially so when low wavenumber torsions (internal rotations) are present, as in the case of para-fluorotoluene (pFT). This in turn is expected to lead to more opportunities for coupling between vibrational modes, which is the driving force for intramolecular vibrational energy redistribution (IVR). Previous studies at higher energies have focussed on the two close lying vibrational levels at 1200 cm^{-1} in the S_{1} electronic state of pFT which were assigned to two zero-order bright states (ZOBSs), whose characters predominantly involve C-CH_{3} and C-F stretching modes. A surprising result of these studies was that the photoelectron spectra showed evidence that IVR is more extensive following excitation of the C-F mode than it is following excitation of the C-CH_{3} mode, despite these levels being separated by only 35 cm^{-1}. This observation provides evidence that the IVR dynamics are mode-specific, which in turn may be a consequence of the IVR route being dependent on couplings to nearby states that are only available to the C-F mode. In this work, in order to further investigate this behaviour, we have employed resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionisation (REMPI) spectroscopy and zero-kinetic-energy (ZEKE) spectroscopy to probe S_{1} levels above 1000 cm^{-1} in pFT. Such ZEKE spectra have been recorded via a number of S_{1} intermediate levels allowing the character and coupling between vibrations to be unravelled; the consequence of this coupling will be discussed with a view to understanding any IVR dynamics seen. C. J. Hammond, V. L. Ayles, D. E. Bergeron, K. L. Reid and T. G. Wright, J. Chem. Phys., 125, 124308 (2006) J. A. Davies, A. M. Green, A. M. Gardner, C. D. Withers, T. G. Wright and K. L. Reid, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 16, 430 (2014)

  8. Lymphatic endothelial S1P promotes mitochondrial function and survival in naive T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, Alejandra; Fang, Victoria; Chen, Cynthia; Serasinghe, Madhavika; Verma, Akanksha; Muller, James; Chaluvadi, V Sai; Dustin, Michael L; Hla, Timothy; Elemento, Olivier; Chipuk, Jerry E; Schwab, Susan R

    2017-06-01

    Effective adaptive immune responses require a large repertoire of naive T cells that migrate throughout the body, rapidly identifying almost any foreign peptide. Because the production of T cells declines with age, naive T cells must be long-lived. However, it remains unclear how naive T cells survive for years while constantly travelling. The chemoattractant sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) guides T cell circulation among secondary lymphoid organs, including spleen, lymph nodes and Peyer's patches, where T cells search for antigens. The concentration of S1P is higher in circulatory fluids than in lymphoid organs, and the S1P1 receptor (S1P1R) directs the exit of T cells from the spleen into blood, and from lymph nodes and Peyer's patches into lymph. Here we show that S1P is essential not only for the circulation of naive T cells, but also for their survival. Using transgenic mouse models, we demonstrate that lymphatic endothelial cells support the survival of T cells by secreting S1P via the transporter SPNS2, that this S1P signals through S1P1R on T cells, and that the requirement for S1P1R is independent of the established role of the receptor in guiding exit from lymph nodes. S1P signalling maintains the mitochondrial content of naive T cells, providing cells with the energy to continue their constant migration. The S1P signalling pathway is being targeted therapeutically to inhibit autoreactive T cell trafficking, and these findings suggest that it may be possible simultaneously to target autoreactive or malignant cell survival.

  9. Blocking peptides against HBV: PreS1 protein selected from a phage display library

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Wei; Liu, Yang; Zu, Xiangyang; Jin, Rui [State Key Laboratory of Virology, Wuhan Institute of Virology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430071 (China); Xiao, Gengfu, E-mail: xiaogf@wh.iov.cn [State Key Laboratory of Virology, Wuhan Institute of Virology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430071 (China)

    2011-09-09

    Highlights: {yields} Successfully selected specific PreS1-interacting peptides by using phage displayed library. {yields} Alignment of the positive phage clones revealed a consensus PreS1 binding motif. {yields} A highly enriched peptide named P7 had a strong binding ability for PreS1. {yields} P7 could block PreS1 attachment. -- Abstract: The PreS1 protein is present on the outermost part of the hepatitis B virus (HBV) surface and has been shown to have a pivotal function in viral infectivity and assembly. The development of reagents with high affinity and specificity for PreS1 is of great significance for early diagnosis and treatment of HBV infection. A phage display library of dodecapeptide was screened for interactions with purified PreS1 protein. Alignment of the positive phage clones revealed a putative consensus PreS1 binding motif of HX{sub n}HX{sub m}HP/R. Moreover, a peptide named P7 (KHMHWHPPALNT) was highly enriched and occurred with a surprisingly high frequency of 72%. A thermodynamic study revealed that P7 has a higher binding affinity to PreS1 than the other peptides. Furthermore, P7 was able to abrogate the binding of HBV virions to the PreS1 antibody, suggesting that P7 covers key functional sites on the native PreS1 protein. This newly isolated peptide may, therefore, be a new therapeutic candidate for the treatment of HBV. The consensus motif could be modified to deliver imaging, diagnostic, and therapeutic agents to tissues affected by HBV.

  10. Lanthanide single molecule magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Jinkui; Zhang, Peng [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun (China). Changchun Inst. of Applied Chemistry

    2015-10-01

    This book begins by providing basic information on single-molecule magnets (SMMs), covering the magnetism of lanthanide, the characterization and relaxation dynamics of SMMs and advanced means of studying lanthanide SMMs. It then systematically introduces lanthanide SMMs ranging from mononuclear and dinuclear to polynuclear complexes, classifying them and highlighting those SMMs with high barrier and blocking temperatures - an approach that provides some very valuable indicators for the structural features needed to optimize the contribution of an Ising type spin to a molecular magnet. The final chapter presents some of the newest developments in the lanthanide SMM field, such as the design of multifunctional and stimuli-responsive magnetic materials as well as the anchoring and organization of the SMMs on surfaces. In addition, the crystal structure and magnetic data are clearly presented with a wealth of illustrations in each chapter, helping newcomers and experts alike to better grasp ongoing trends and explore new directions.

  11. Astrochemistry and Interstellar Molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minh, Y. C.

    2010-03-01

    Astrochemistry provides powerful tools to understand various cosmic phenomena, including those in our solar system to the large-scale structure of the universe. In addition, the chemical property of an astronomical body is a crucial factor which governs the evolution of the system. Recent progress in astrophysical theories, computational modelings, and observational techniques requires a detailed understanding of the interactions between the constituents of an astronomical system, which are atoms and molecules within the system. Especially the far-infrared/sub-millimeter wave range, which is called as the last frontier in astronomical observations, contains numerous molecular lines, which may provide a huge amount of new information. However, we need an astrochemical understanding to use this information fully. Although this review is very limited, I would like to stress the importance of astrochemical approach in this overview for the field, which is getting much more attention than ever before.

  12. Lanthanide single molecule magnets

    CERN Document Server

    Tang, Jinkui

    2015-01-01

    This book begins by providing basic information on single-molecule magnets (SMMs), covering the magnetism of lanthanide, the characterization and relaxation dynamics of SMMs, and advanced means of studying lanthanide SMMs. It then systematically introduces lanthanide SMMs ranging from mononuclear and dinuclear to polynuclear complexes, classifying them and highlighting those SMMs with high barrier and blocking temperatures – an approach that provides some very valuable indicators for the structural features needed to optimize the contribution of an Ising type spin to a molecular magnet. The final chapter presents some of the newest developments in the lanthanide SMM field, such as the design of multifunctional and stimuli-responsive magnetic materials as well as the anchoring and organization of the SMMs on surfaces. In addition, the crystal structure and magnetic data are clearly presented with a wealth of illustrations in each chapter, helping newcomers and experts alike to better grasp ongoing trends and...

  13. Forces in molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Trujillo, Jesús; Cortés-Guzmán, Fernando; Fang, De-Chai; Bader, Richard F W

    2007-01-01

    Chemistry is determined by the electrostatic forces acting within a collection of nuclei and electrons. The attraction of the nuclei for the electrons is the only attractive force in a molecule and is the force responsible for the bonding between atoms. This is the attractive force acting on the electrons in the Ehrenfest force and on the nuclei in the Feynman force, one that is countered by the repulsion between the electrons in the former and by the repulsion between the nuclei in the latter. The virial theorem relates these forces to the energy changes resulting from interactions between atoms. All bonding, as signified by the presence of a bond path, has a common origin in terms of the mechanics determined by the Ehrenfest, Feynman and virial theorems. This paper is concerned in particular with the mechanics of interaction encountered in what are classically described as 'nonbonded interactions'--are atoms that 'touch' bonded or repelling one another?

  14. Pan-STARRS 1 observations of the unusual active Centaur P/2011 S1(Gibbs)

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, H W; Lacerda, P; Ip, W H; Holman, M; Protopapas, P; Chen, W P; Burgett, W S; Chambers, K C; Flewelling, H; Huber, M E; Jedicke, R; Kaiser, N; Magnier, E A; Metcalfe, N; Price, P A

    2014-01-01

    P/2011 S1 (Gibbs) is an outer solar system comet or active Centaur with a similar orbit to that of the famous 29P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 1. P/2011 S1 (Gibbs) has been observed by the Pan-STARRS 1 (PS1) sky survey from 2010 to 2012. The resulting data allow us to perform multi-color studies of the nucleus and coma of the comet. Analysis of PS1 images reveals that P/2011 S1 (Gibbs) has a small nucleus $< 4$ km radius, with colors $g_{P1}-r_{P1} = 0.5 \\pm 0.02$, $r_{P1}-i_{P1} = 0.12 \\pm 0.02$ and $i_{P1}-z_{P1} = 0.46 \\pm 0.03$. The comet remained active from 2010 to 2012, with a model-dependent mass-loss rate of $\\sim100$ kg s$^{-1}$. The mass-loss rate per unit surface area of P/2011 S1 (Gibbs) is as high as that of 29P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 1, making it one of the most active Centaurs. The mass-loss rate also varies with time from $\\sim 40$ kg s$^{-1}$ to 150 kg s$^{-1}$. Due to its rather circular orbit, we propose that P/2011 S1 (Gibbs) has 29P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 1-like outbursts that control the outgass...

  15. Expression and purification of the Bordella Pertussis toxin S1 subunit mutant in Escherichia coli

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao L. Zhang; Quan M. Zou

    2007-01-01

    Bordella pertussis is the causative agent of whooping cough.Traditional vaccines against this disease are inherently reactogenic, thus research is currentlly focussed on the production of less reactive,acellular vaccines.Expression of candidate antigens for these vaccines in Escherichia coli would be preferable. Pertussis toxin S1 subunit plays a critical role in the bacterium-host interplay.The mutant(rS1) containing two key amino acids substitution(Arg9-Lys/Glu129-Gly)is nontoxin and immunogenic and while retaining the protective epitopes. In this study, the immunoprotective S1 fragment of pertussis toxin fusion was verified by restriction endonuclease analysis and Western immunoblotting. Escherichia coli carrying the recombinant plasmid(pQE-rS1)produced a 26 kDa protein that was recognized by antibodies specific to the S1. Expressed rS1 in E. coli was purified from the inclusion bodies. The N-terminal 6 histidines could easily be captured by Ni-NTA affinity chromatography. Then, the rS1 of interest was purified to 92% homogeneity. Antisera generated against the purified S1 mutant protein recognized the native toxin indicating that some, if not all, of the native epitope were conserved. Thus, this vaccine preparation is potentially applicable for the production of novel vaccines against B. pertussis infection.

  16. Evoked heart rate and blood pressure in an S1-S2 paradigm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koers, G; Gaillard, A.W K; Mulder, G.

    1997-01-01

    Phasic changes in heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP) in an S1-S2 paradigm were studied in three experiments. In each experiment, a memory search task was performed at S1. The outcome of this task indicated whether a fast or a delayed response had to be given after S2. Besides this response

  17. To stay or to leave: Stem cells and progenitor cells navigating the S1P gradient

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Andrew; Hsu; Jen-Fu; Lee; Daniel; E; Cramer; Menq-Jer; Lee

    2011-01-01

    Most hematopoietic stem progenitor cells (HSPCs) reside in bone marrow (BM), but a small amount of HSPCs have been found to circulate between BM and tissues through blood and lymph. Several lines of evidence suggest that sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) gradient triggers HSPC egression to blood circulation after mobilization from BM stem cell niches. Stem cells also visit certain tissues. After a temporary 36 h short stay in local tissues, HSPCs go to lymph in response to S1P gradient between lymph and tissue and eventually enter the blood circulation. S1P also has a role in the guidance of the primitive HSPCs homing to BM in vivo, as S1P analogue FTY720 treatment can improve HSPC BM homing and engraftment. In stress conditions, various stem cells or progenitor cells can be attracted to local injured tissues and participate in local tissue cell differentiation and tissue rebuilding through modulation the expression level of S1P1, S1P2 or S1P3 receptors. Hence, S1P is important for stem cells circulation in blood system to accomplish its role in body surveillance and injury recovery.

  18. S1xS2-INDEX THEORY ON PRODUCT SPACE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHONGCHENGKUI; ZHAOPEIHAO; SHIKE

    1999-01-01

    A new index is constructed by use of the canonical representation of S1 x S1 group over a product space. This index satisfies the general properties of the usual index but does not satifsy the dimension property. As an application, two abstract critical point theorems are given.

  19. Experimental Conditions: SE18_S1_M1_D1 [Metabolonote[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available liver and brain by Orbitrap MS and automated search engine Lipid Search SE18_S1 Mouse liver SE18_S1_M1 34.1...phy. SE18_MS1 Preparation of lipid extract and ESI negative detection by LC-MS analysis SE18_DS1 Identification of phospholipids with Lipid Search default ...

  20. Vacuum Structure of Twisted Scalar Field Theories on $M^{D-1} \\otimes S^{1}$

    CERN Document Server

    Hatanaka, H; Ohnishi, K; Sakamoto, M

    2001-01-01

    We study scalar field theories on M^{D-1} \\otimes S^1, which allow to impose twisted boundary conditions for the S^1 direction, in detail and report several interesting properties overlooked so far. One of characteristic features is the appearance of critical radii of the circle S^1. A phase transition can occur at the classical level or can be caused by quantum effects. Radiative corrections can restore broken symmetries or can break symmetries for small radius. A surprising feature is that the translational invariance for the S^1 direction can spontaneously be broken. A particular class of coordinate-dependent vacuum configurations is clarified and the O(N) \\phi^4 model on M^{D-1}\\otimes S^1 is extensively studied, as an illustrative example.

  1. S1P and LPA trigger Schwann cell actin changes and migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Siân C; Mellor, Harry; Gampel, Alex; Scolding, Neil J

    2004-06-01

    The processes by which a Schwann cell (SC) migrates towards, wraps around and, in some cases, myelinates an axon are incompletely understood. The complex morphological rearrangements involved in these events require fundamental changes in the actin cytoskeleton. Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) and lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) are two modulators of the actin cytoskeleton, and receptors for these signalling lipids are expressed on SCs at the time of differentiation. Previous work has revealed a role for LPA in SC survival, morphology and differentiation, but the effects of S1P have received less attention. Here we show that S1P and LPA both cause major rearrangements to the actin cytoskeleton in primary rat SCs and the SCL4.1/F7 rat SC line. S1P and LPA caused formation of lamellipodia and a circular geodesic actin network. We also show that S1P and LPA increased cell migration. The small GTPases RhoA and Rac1 were both activated by S1P/LPA treatment, but the actin rearrangements were dependent on Rac1 and not RhoA. These effects of S1P/LPA could be mimicked by SCL4.1/F7 cell-conditioned medium, which was found to contain S1P. Reduction in cellular synthesis of S1P by adding the sphingosine kinase inhibitor dimethyl sphingosine during medium conditioning reduced the ability of conditioned medium to cause actin rearrangements. These results support a role for S1P as an autocrine signal regulating the actin cytoskeleton during Schwann cell development.

  2. An anatomical update on the morphologic variations of S1 and S2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karachalios, Theofilos; Zibis, Aristides H; Zintzaras, Elias; Bargiotas, Konstantinos; Karantanas, Apostolos H; Malizos, Konstantinos N

    2010-10-11

    Although percutaneous fixation with iliosacral screws has been shown to be a safe and reproducible method for sacroiliac dislocation and sacral fractures, it is a technically demanding technique, and one of its contraindications is sacral anatomical variations and dysmorphism. The incidence and pattern of S1 and S2 anatomical variations were evaluated in 61 patients (35 women and 26 men) using magnetic resonance imaging of the sacrum in an attempt to explore the possible existence of groups of individuals in whom percutaneous sacroiliac fixation is difficult due to local anatomy. S1 and S2 dimensions in both the transverse and coronal planes were recorded and evaluated. In each individual, S1 and S2 dimensions both in the coronal and transverse planes were proportional, with S2 dimensions being 80% of those of S1 on average. Patients were separated into 4 groups based on the S1 and S2 body size and the asymmetry of dimensions in the transverse and coronal planes. In 48 patients (78.6%), dimensions in both planes were symmetrical despite the varying size of the S1 and S2 body. In 2 patients (3.3%) there was a combination of large transverse plane and small coronal plane dimensions, with large S1 and S2 body size. In 9 patients (14.8%), coronal plane dimensions were disproportionately smaller compared to those of the transverse plane, with a varying size of S1 and S2 body making effective sacroiliac screw insertion a difficult task. Thus, a preoperative imaging study, preferably computed tomography scan, of S1 and S2 body size and coronal plane dimensions and an intraoperative fluoroscopic control of S1 and S2 dimensions on the coronal plane are suggested for safe sacroiliac screw fixation.

  3. Geranyl diphosphate synthase molecules, and nucleic acid molecules encoding same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croteau, Rodney Bruce; Burke, Charles Cullen

    2008-06-24

    In one aspect, the present invention provides isolated nucleic acid molecules that each encode a geranyl diphosphate synthase protein, wherein each isolated nucleic acid molecule hybridizes to a nucleic acid molecule consisting of the sequence set forth in SEQ ID NO:1 under conditions of 5.times.SSC at 45.degree. C. for one hour. The present invention also provides isolated geranyl diphosphate synthase proteins, and methods for altering the level of expression of geranyl diphosphate synthase protein in a host cell.

  4. Molecule-based magnets

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    J V Yakhmi

    2009-06-01

    The conventional magnetic materials used in current technology, such as, Fe, Fe2O3, Cr2O3, SmCo5, Nd2Fe14B etc are all atom-based, and their preparation/processing require high temperature routes. Employing self-assembly methods, it is possible to engineer a bulk molecular material with long-range magnetic order, mainly because one can play with the weak intermolecular interactions. Since the first successful synthesis of molecular magnets in 1986, a large variety of them have been synthesized, which can be categorized on the basis of the chemical nature of the magnetic units involved: organic-, metal-based systems, heterobimetallic assemblies, or mixed organic–inorganic systems. The design of molecule-based magnets has also been extended to the design of poly-functional molecular magnets, such as those exhibiting second-order optical nonlinearity, liquid crystallinity, or chirality simultaneously with long-range magnetic order. Solubility, low density and biocompatibility are attractive features of molecular magnets. Being weakly coloured, unlike their opaque classical magnet ‘cousins’ listed above, possibilities of photomagnetic switching exist. Persistent efforts also continue to design the ever-elusive polymer magnets towards applications in industry. While providing a brief overview of the field of molecular magnetism, this article highlights some recent developments in it, with emphasis on a few studies from the author’s own lab.

  5. Phosphorylation of αS1-casein is regulated by different genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bijl, E; van Valenberg, H J F; Huppertz, T; van Hooijdonk, A C M; Bovenhuis, H

    2014-11-01

    Casein phosphorylation is a posttranslational modification catalyzed by kinase enzymes that attach phosphate groups to specific AA in the protein sequence. This modification is one of the key factors responsible for the stabilization of calcium phosphate nanoclusters in casein micelles and for the internal structure of the casein micelles. α(S1)-Casein (α(s1)-CN) is of special interest because it constitutes up to 40% of the total casein fraction in milk, and it has 2 common phosphorylation states, with 8 (α(S1)-CN-8P) and 9 (α(S1)-CN-9P) phosphorylated serine residues. Factors affecting this variation in the degree of phosphorylation are not currently known. The objective of this research was to determine the genetic background of α(S1)-CN-8P and α(S1)-CN-9P. The genetic and phenotypic correlation between α(S1)-CN-8P and α(S1)-CN-9P was low (0.18 and 0.19, respectively). This low genetic correlation suggests a different genetic background. These differences were further investigated by means of a genome-wide association study, which showed that both α(S1)-CN-8P and α(S1)-CN-9P were affected by a region on Bos taurus autosome (BTA) 6, but only α(S1)-CN-8P was affected by a region on BTA11 that contains the gene that encodes for β-lactoglobulin (β-LG), and only α(S1)-CN-9P was affected by a region on BTA14 that contains the diacylglycerol acyltransferase 1 (DGAT1) gene. Estimated effects of β-LG protein genotypes showed that only α(S1)-CN-8P was associated with the β-LG A/B polymorphism (g.1772G>A and g.3054C>T); the AA genotype of β-LG was associated with a lower concentration of α(S1)-CN-8P (-0.32% wt/wt) than the BB genotype (+0.41% wt/wt). Estimated effects of DGAT1 K232A genotypes showed that only α(S1)-CN-9P was associated with the DGAT1 gene polymorphism; DGAT1 AA genotype was associated with a higher α(S1)-CN-9P concentration (+0.53% wt/wt) than the DGAT1 KK genotype (-0.44% wt/wt). The results give insight in phosphorylation of α(S1

  6. Detection of anti-preS1 antibodies for recovery of hepatitis B patients by immunoassay

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun Wei; Yu-Qin Wang; Zhi-Meng Lu; Guang-Di Li; Yuan Wang; Zu-Chuan Zhang

    2002-01-01

    AIM: To establish a convenient immuncassay method based on recombinant antigen preS1(21-1l9aa) to detect anti-preS1antibodies and evaluate the clinical significance of antibodies in hepatitis B.METHODS: The expression plasmid pET-28a-preS1 wasconstructed, and a large quantity of preS1 (21-119aa)fragment of the large HBsAg protein was obtained. ThepreS1 fragment purified by Ni2+ -IDA affinity chromatographywas used as coated antigen to establish the indirect ELISAbased on streptavidin-biotin system for detection of the anti-preS1 antibodies in sera from HBV-infected patients. Forfollow-up study, serial sera were collected during theclinical course of 21 HBV-infected patients and anti-preS1antibodies, preS1 antigen, HBV-DNA and other serologicalHBV markers were analyzed.RESULTS: preS1 (21-119aa) fragment was highly expressedfrom the plasmid pET-28a-preS1 in a soluble form in E. Coli(30 rog@ L-1 ), and easily purified to high purity over 90 % byone step of Ni2+ -IDA-sepharose 6B affinity chromatography.The purity and antigenicity of the purified preS1 (21-119aa)protein was determined by 150 g@ L-1 SDS-PAGE, Westemblot and a direct ELISA. Recombinant preS1 (21-119aa)protein was successfully applied in the immunoessay whichcould sensitively detect the anti-preS1 antibodies in serumspecimens of acute or chronic hepatitis B patients. Resultsshowed that more than half of 19 acute hepatitis B patientsproduced anti-preS1 antibodies during recovery of thedisease, however, the response was only found in a few ofchronic patients. In the clinical follow-up study of 11patients with anti-preS1 positive serological profile, HBsAgand HBV-DNA clearance occurred in 6 of 10 acute hepatitis Bpatients in 5-6 months, and seroconversion of HBeAg anddisappearance of HBV-DNA occurred in 1 chronic patientstreated with lavumidine, a antiviral agent.CONCLUSION: The high-purity preS1 ( 21-119aa) coatedantigen was successfully prepared by gene expression andaffinity chromatography. Using this

  7. Combined S1-TC-RRS with consideration of cms and dihaploids in maize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vančetović Jelena

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Herein, we present the combined S1-HS-RRS method using inbred testers (S1-TC-RRS as a long-term maize breeding program, which increases the frequency of favorable alleles and maintains genetic variability in two genetically opposite populations. The method improves two different genetic sources simultaneously, where S1 families, developed by selfing phenotypically superior plants from both breeding populations are crossed with opposite inbred testers for specific combining ability selection, accompanied by selection of S1 families per se. A certain percentage of the evaluated S1 families is used for the next TC-RRS selection cycle. Maternal haploids from the selected S1 lines of each cycle of S1-TC-RRS can serve to produce elite 100% homozygous inbred lines (dihaploids in a short time, which decreases the time and expenses of the selection cycle and influence the efficiency of seed production, as well as, variety protection rights. This elite lines than can be converted to CMS versions (paternal haploids, for the seed production, which lowers the costs of it.

  8. S1PR1 expression correlates with inflammatory responses to Newcastle disease virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yaling; Xie, Peng; Sun, Minhua; Xiang, Bin; Kang, Yinfeng; Gao, Pei; Zhu, Wenxian; Ning, Zhangyong; Ren, Tao

    2016-01-01

    Newcastle disease virus (NDV) is the causative agent of Newcastle disease, which is characterized by inflammatory pathological changes in the organs of chickens. The inflammatory response to this disease has not been well characterized. Previous reports showed that the sphingosine-1-phosphate-1 receptor (S1PR1), a G protein-coupled receptor, is important to the activation of inflammatory responses. To understand better the viral pathogenesis and host inflammatory response, we analyzed S1PR1 expression during NDV infection. We observed a direct correlation between chicken embryo fibroblast (CEF) cellular inflammatory responses and S1PR1 expression. Virulent NDV-infected CEF cells also had elevated levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-18). When S1PR1 was inhibited by using the specific antagonist W146, pro-inflammatory cytokine production declined. Overexpression of S1PR1 resulted in increased virus-induced IL-1β production. S1PR1 expression levels did not impact significantly NDV replication. These findings highlight the important role of S1PR1 in inflammatory responses in NDV infection.

  9. Formation of ultracold RbCs molecules by photoassociation

    CERN Document Server

    Bouloufa-Maafa, N; Dulieu, O; Gabbanini, C

    2011-01-01

    The formation of ultracold metastable RbCs molecules is observed in a double species magneto-optical trap through photoassociation below the ^85Rb(5S_1/2)+^133Cs(6P_3/2) dissociation limit followed by spontaneous emission. The molecules are detected by resonance enhanced two-photon ionization. Using accurate quantum chemistry calculations of the potential energy curves and transition dipole moment, we interpret the observed photoassociation process as occurring at short internuclear distance, in contrast with most previous cold atom photoassociation studies. The vibrational levels excited by photoassociation belong to the 5th 0^+ or the 4th 0^- electronic states correlated to the Rb(5P_1/2,3/2)+Cs(6S_1/2) dissociation limit. The computed vibrational distribution of the produced molecules shows that they are stabilized in deeply bound vibrational states of the lowest triplet state. We also predict that a noticeable fraction of molecules is produced in the lowest level of the electronic ground state.

  10. Strongly interacting ultracold polar molecules

    CERN Document Server

    Gadway, Bryce

    2016-01-01

    This paper reviews recent advances in the study of strongly interacting systems of dipolar molecules. Heteronuclear molecules feature large and tunable electric dipole moments, which give rise to long-range and anisotropic dipole-dipole interactions. Ultracold samples of dipolar molecules with long-range interactions offer a unique platform for quantum simulations and the study of correlated many-body physics. We provide an introduction to the physics of dipolar quantum gases, both electric and magnetic, and summarize the multipronged efforts to bring dipolar molecules into the quantum regime. We discuss in detail the recent experimental progress in realizing and studying strongly interacting systems of polar molecules trapped in optical lattices, with particular emphasis on the study of interacting spin systems and non-equilibrium quantum magnetism. Finally, we conclude with a brief discussion of the future prospects for studies of strongly interacting dipolar molecules.

  11. Observation of orbiting resonances in He(3S1) + NH3 Penning ionization

    OpenAIRE

    Jankunas, Justin; Jachymski, Krzysztof; Hapka, Michal; Osterwalder, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Resonances are among the clearest quantum mechanical signatures of scattering processes. Previously, shape resonances and Feshbach resonances have been observed in inelastic and reactive collisions involving atoms or diatomic molecules. Structure in the integral cross section has been observed in a handful of elastic collisions involving polyatomic molecules. The present paper presents the observation of shape resonances in the reactive scattering of a polyatomic molecule, NH3. A merged-beam ...

  12. Complete Response of Liver Metastasis of Gastric Cancer Treated by S-1 Chemoradiotherapy: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomonori Miyazawa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a case of suspected liver metastasis of gastric cancer and a virtual complete response to S-1 chemoradiotherapy. A 69-year-old man underwent distal gastrectomy for gastric cancer in 2008. Multiple liver metastases occurred in 2009. He underwent 15 courses of S-1 therapy and radiation therapy (37.5 Gy. Abdominal computed tomography showed virtual complete disappearance of liver metastasis after chemoradiotherapy. Hence, this case was interpreted as a complete response. No sign of recurrence was noted 18 months after complete response was confirmed. S-1 chemoradiotherapy is likely to be effective in treating patients with liver metastases of gastric cancer.

  13. Complete response of liver metastasis of gastric cancer treated by s-1 chemoradiotherapy: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazawa, Tomonori; Ebe, Kazuyu; Koide, Norihiko; Fujita, Nobuhiro

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a case of suspected liver metastasis of gastric cancer and a virtual complete response to S-1 chemoradiotherapy. A 69-year-old man underwent distal gastrectomy for gastric cancer in 2008. Multiple liver metastases occurred in 2009. He underwent 15 courses of S-1 therapy and radiation therapy (37.5 Gy). Abdominal computed tomography showed virtual complete disappearance of liver metastasis after chemoradiotherapy. Hence, this case was interpreted as a complete response. No sign of recurrence was noted 18 months after complete response was confirmed. S-1 chemoradiotherapy is likely to be effective in treating patients with liver metastases of gastric cancer.

  14. Experience with S-1 in older Caucasian patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Stine Braendegaard; Zubcevic, Kanita; Qvortrup, Camilla;

    2016-01-01

    of adverse events than capecitabine and may therefore be a suitable drug for elderly. However, data on the use of S-1 in Caucasian mCRC patients are lacking/scarce. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In the present study we evaluated safety and the efficacy of S-1 alone or in combination with oxaliplatin (SOx....... In general, therapy was well tolerated; main non-hematological toxicities were fatigue and diarrhea. CONCLUSION: S-1 monotherapy, SOx and IRIS were well tolerated for older patients with mCRC and could become alternative regimens in older mCRC patients. These regimens are now further evaluated...

  15. Theoretical Investigations Regarding Single Molecules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Kim Georg Lind

    Neoclassical Valence Bond Theory, Quantum Transport, Quantum Interference, Kondo Effect, and Electron Pumping. Trap a single organic molecule between two electrodes and apply a bias voltage across this "molecular junction". When electrons pass through the molecule, the different electron paths can...... interfere destructively or constructively. Destructive interference effects in electron transport could potentially improve thermo-electrics, organic logic circuits and energy harvesting. We have investigated destructive interference in off-resonant transport through organic molecules, and have found a set...

  16. Stopping intense beams of internally cold molecules via centrifugal forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xing; Gantner, Thomas; Zeppenfeld, Martin; Chervenkov, Sotir; Rempe, Gerhard

    2016-05-01

    Cryogenic buffer-gas cooling produces intense beams of internally cold molecules. It offers a versatile source for studying collision dynamics and reaction pathways in the cold regime, and could open new avenues for controlled chemistry, precision spectroscopy, and exploration of fundamental physics. However, an efficient deceleration of these beams still presents a challenge. Here, we demonstrate that intense and continuous beams of electrically guided molecules produced by a cryogenic buffer-gas cell can be brought to a halt by the centrifugal force in a rotating frame. Various molecules (e.g. CH3F and CF3CCH) are decelerated to below 20m /s at a corresponding output intensity of ~ 6 ×109mm-2 .s-1 . In addition, our RF-resonant depletion detection shows that up to 90 % rotational-state purity can be achieved in the so-produced slow molecular beams.

  17. STM investigation of surfactant molecules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Adsorption and self-organization of sodium alkyl sulfonates (STS and SHS) have been studied on HOPG by using the in situ scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). Both SHS and STS molecules adsorb on the HOPG surface and form long-range well-ordered monolayers. The neighboring molecules in different rows form a "head to head" configuration. In the high-resolution images of STS and SHS molecules, one end of the molecules shows bright spots which are attributed to the SO3- groups.

  18. Biofuels: from microbes to molecules

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lu, Xuefeng

    2014-01-01

    .... The production of different biofuel molecules including hydrogen, methane, ethanol, butanol, higher chain alcohols, isoprenoids and fatty acid derivatives, from genetically engineered microbes...

  19. Randomized study comparing full dose monotherapy (S-1 followed by irinotecan) and reduced dose combination therapy (S-1/oxaliplatin followed by S-1/irinotecan) as initial therapy for older patients with metastatic colorectal cancer: NORDIC 9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winther, Stine Braendegaard; Österlund, Pia; Berglund, Åke; Glimelius, Bengt; Qvortrup, Camilla; Sorbye, Halfdan; Pfeiffer, Per

    2017-08-16

    Metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) is a disease of older age, but there is a relative lack of knowledge about effects of chemotherapy in older patients as they are under-represented in clinical trials. Little data can guide whether the strategy in older mCRC patients should be a sequential full-dose monotherapy chemotherapy approach or a dose-reduced combination chemotherapy approach. The oral 5FU prodrug S-1 seems to have less side effects than capecitabine and should be an optimal drug for older patients, but few data are available. Improved geriatric assessments are needed to select which older patients should receive therapy. The NORDIC 9 trial is a Nordic multicenter randomized phase II study comparing full dose monotherapy (S-1 30 mg/m(2) twice daily days 1-14 every 3 weeks, followed by second line irinotecan 250-350 mg/m(2) iv day 1 every 3 weeks or 180-250 mg/m(2) iv day 1 every 2 weeks) with reduced dose combination therapy (S-1 20 mg/m(2) days 1-14 + oxaliplatin 100 mg/m(2) iv day 1 every 3 weeks, followed by second line S-1 20 mg/m(2) days 1-14 + irinotecan 180 mg/m(2) day 1 every 3 week) for older patients (≥70 years) with mCRC who are not candidates for full-dose standard combination therapy. Additional bevacizumab (7.5 mg/kg) is optional in first-line. Blood samples and tumor tissue will be collected to investigate predictive markers. Geriatric screening tools (G-8, VES-13, Timed-Up-and-Go and Handgrip strength), Charlson Comorbidty Index and quality of life (EORTC QLQ-C30) will be evaluated as predictors of efficacy and toxicity. The target sample size is 150 patients. The primary endpoint is progression-free survival and secondary endpoints are time-to-failure of strategy, overall survival, response rate, toxicity, and correlations between biomarkers, pre-treatment characteristics and geriatric assessments. The study will add knowledge on how to treat older mCRC patients who are not candidates for standard combination therapy

  20. 牛αS1-酪蛋白基因研究新进展%The Study Progress of Alpha-s1-casein Gene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田青

    2011-01-01

    Casein is the main component of milk protein,accounts for about 70~80 percent of total protein.as1-casein is the main component of casein,accounting for about 39~46 percent of total milk protein.It is one of the quite active functional genes in the cattle's mammary gland tissue,so it is important and very necessary to study the cow alpha S1-casein gene.The paper summarized the gene structure,genetic diversity and casein active peptide of alpha-s1-casein gene,which would provide the theory basis to study alpha-s1-casein gene deeply and to improve the milk protein content by regulating as1-casein gene.%酪蛋白是牛奶蛋白质的主要组成部分,约占总蛋白的70%~80%,而as1-酪蛋白又是酪蛋白的主要组成部分,约占牛奶总蛋白的39%~46%,是牛乳腺组织中转录相当活跃的一个功能基因,因此研究牛αS1-酪蛋白基因就显得尤为重要而且很有必要。本文从牛as1-酪蛋白基因结构、遗传多态性和酪蛋白活性肽方面做了综述,旨在为以后牛as1-酪蛋白基因的深入研究和通过调控as1-酪蛋白基因而提高牛奶蛋白质的含量提供理论基础。

  1. Electronic transport in benzodifuran single-molecule transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, An; Li, Hui; Chen, Songjie; Liu, Shi-Xia; Decurtins, Silvio; Bai, Meilin; Hou, Shimin; Liao, Jianhui

    2015-04-01

    transistors (Fig. S1); the temperature dependence of I-V characteristics of a BDF single-molecule device (Fig. S2); assignment of peaks of IET spectra to specific vibration modes (Fig. S3); the broadening of the ν(C-H) peak (~390 mV, C-H stretch of the phenyl ring) in IET spectra due to the AC modulation (Fig. S4); the I-V curves of pristine gold vacuum junctions (without BDF molecules) measured at different gate voltages (Fig. S5); gate leakage in BDF single-molecule transistors (Fig. S6); the histogram of the transition voltages at two bias polarities for BDF single-molecule devices (Fig. S7). See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr00402k

  2. Determination of the hyperfine coupling constant of cesium 7S1/2 state

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Guang; Yang, Baodong; Wang, Junmin

    2016-01-01

    We report the hyperfine splitting (HFS) measurement of cesium (Cs) 7S1/2 state by optical-optical double-resonance spectroscopy in the 6S1/2-6P3/2-7S1/2 (852 nm + 1470 nm) ladder-type system. The HFS frequency calibration is performed by employing a phase-type waveguide electro-optic modulator together with a stable confocal Fabry-Perot cavity. From the measured HFS between F"= 3 and F"= 4 manifolds of Cs 7S1/2 state [HFS = 2183.273(37) MHz], we have determined the magnetic dipole hyperfine coupling constant [A = 545.818(09) MHz], which is in good agreement with the previous work but much more accurate.

  3. Neel order in the two-dimensional S=1/2 Heisenberg Model

    OpenAIRE

    Löw, Ute

    2007-01-01

    The existence of Neel order in the S=1/2 Heisenberg model on the square lattice at T=0 is shown using inequalities set up by Kennedy, Lieb and Shastry in combination with high precision Quantum Monte Carlo data.

  4. Experimental Conditions: SE24_S1_M1_D1 [Metabolonote[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available rometry with 13C‑Labeling for Chemical Assignment of Sulfur-Containing Metabolites ...SE24_S1_M1_D1 SE24 Combination of Liquid Chromatography-Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance-Mass Spect

  5. Genome Sequence of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans Serotype c Strain D11S-1

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Casey; Kittichotirat, Weerayuth; Si, Yan; Bumgarner, Roger

    2009-01-01

    Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans is a major etiological agent of periodontitis. Here we report the complete genome sequence of serotype c strain D11S-1, which was recovered from the subgingival plaque of a patient diagnosed with generalized aggressive periodontitis.

  6. Heart Disease Could Cost U.S. $1 Trillion Per Year by 2035: Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_163587.html Heart Disease Could Cost U.S. $1 Trillion Per Year By ... estimates that nearly half of Americans will have heart disease in less than 20 years To use the ...

  7. Preparation of (S-1-Halo-2-octanols Using Ionic Liquids and Biocatalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramon Canela

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Preparation of (S-1-chloro-2-octanol and (S-1-bromo-2-octanol was carried out by the enzymatic hydrolysis of halohydrin palmitates using biocatalysts. Halohydrin palmitates were prepared by various methods from palmitic acid and 1,2-octanediol. A tandem hydrolysis was carried out using lipases from Candida antarctica (Novozym® 435, Rhizomucor miehei (Lipozyme IM, and “resting cells” from a Rhizopus oryzae strain that was not mycotoxigenic. The influence of the enzyme and the reaction medium on the selective hydrolysis of isomeric mixtures of halohydrin esters is described. Novozym® 435 allowed preparation of (S-1-chloro-2-octanol and (S-1-bromo-2-octanol after 1–3 h of reaction at 40 °C in [BMIM][PF6].

  8. Functional analysis of NifS1 in procyclic \\kur{Trypanosoma brucei}

    OpenAIRE

    Poliak, Pavel

    2008-01-01

    Aim of this work was to identify the function of NifS-like protein in Trypanosoma brucei that seems to belong to selenocysteine lyases. I have shown by RNA interference that it is not essential for procyclic stages. Moreover, by taging the protein, NifS1 was localized to the cytoplasm. Measurement of selenocysteine lyase activities in wild type cells and cells with eliminated NifS1 protein are under way.

  9. Characterization of the L4-L5-S1 motion segment using the stepwise reduction method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaramillo, Héctor Enrique; Puttlitz, Christian M; McGilvray, Kirk; García, José J

    2016-05-03

    The two aims of this study were to generate data for a more accurate calibration of finite element models including the L5-S1 segment, and to find mechanical differences between the L4-L5 and L5-S1 segments. Then, the range of motion (ROM) and facet forces for the L4-S1 segment were measured using the stepwise reduction method. This consists of sequentially testing and reducing each segment in nine stages by cutting the ligaments, facet capsules, and removing the nucleus. Five L4-S1 human segments (median: 65 years, range: 53-84 years, SD=11.0 years) were loaded under a maximum pure moment of 8Nm. The ROM was measured using stereo-photogrammetry via tracking of three markers and the facet contact forces (CF) were measured using a Tekscan system. The ROM for the L4-L5 segment and all stages showed good agreement with published data. The major differences in ROM between the L4-L5 and L5-S1 segments were found for lateral bending and all stages, for which the L4-L5 ROM was about 1.5-3 times higher than that of the L5-S1 segment, consistent with L5-S1 facet CF about 1.3 to 4 times higher than those measured for the L4-L5 segment. For the other movements and few stages, the L4-L5 ROM was significantly lower that of the L5-S1 segment. ROM and CF provide important baseline data for more accurate calibration of FE models and to understand the role that their structures play in lower lumbar spine mechanics.

  10. Lumbosacral transitional vertebra and S1 radiculopathy: the value of coronal MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bezuidenhout, Abraham Fourie; Lotz, Jan Willem [Stellenbosch University, Division of Radiodiagnosis, Department of Medical Imaging and Clinical Oncology, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Tygerberg (South Africa)

    2014-06-15

    The association of a lumbosacral transitional vertebra with accelerated degeneration of the disc above has been described. Lumbosacral transitional vertebrae have also been reported as a cause of extraforaminal entrapment of the L5 nerve root between the transverse segment of the transitional vertebra and the sacral ala optimally demonstrated by coronal MRI. The association of the lumbosacral transitional vertebra pseudoarthroses and S1 nerve root entrapment due to degenerative stenosis of the nerve root canal has never been described. We present 12 patients with lumbosacral transitional vertebrae that were referred for symptoms and signs of S1 nerve root radiculopathy in which the sagittal and axial MRI sequences failed to identify a plausible cause for the patients' S1 nerve root symptoms. A coronal T1-weighted imaging (T1WI) MRI sequence was consequently added to the investigation. The coronal T1WI MRI sequence demonstrated hypertrophic degenerative stenosis of the S1 nerve root canal at the level of the lumbosacral transitional vertebra pseudoarthrosis, with entrapment of the respective S1 nerve root in all patients. We emphasize the value of coronal T1WI MRI of the lumbosacral junction and sacrum if the cause for S1 radicular symptoms was not identified on conventional sagittal and axial MRI sequences in patients with lumbosacral transitional vertebrae. (orig.)

  11. Clinical Study of S-1 Plus Oxaliplatin Versus S-1 Plus Cisplatin as First-Line Treatment for Elderly Patients with Advanced Gastric Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deng-feng BO

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To explore the efficacy and safety of S-1 plus oxaliplatin versus S-1 plus cisplatin as the first-line treatment for elderly patients with advanced gastric cancer. Methods: A total of 60 patients with advanced gastric cancer admitted in Xi’an Yanliang Railway Hospital from Jan., 2011 to Oct., 2013 were selected as study objects and randomly divided into 2 groups: S1 plus oxaliplatin group (SOX group, 30 cases and S1 plus cisplatin group (SP group, 30 cases. SOX group were given intravenous drip of 130 mg/m2 oxaliplatin for 2 h on d1. And S-1 was also given according to body surface area: body surface area <1.25 m2, 40 mg once; 1.25-1.5 m2, 60 mg once; >1.5, 28 d as 1 cycle. SP group was administered with intravenous drip of 25 mg/m2 cisplatin during d1-d3. Treatment was discontinued until the occurrence of disease progression or patients’ intolerance to chemotherapy. Results: SOX group was non-inferior to SP group in overall response rate (ORR (53.3% vs. 43.3%, disease control rate (DCR (83.3% vs. 80.0%, median progression-free survival (PFS (7.0 vs. 6.0 months and median overall survival (OS (11.0 vs. 10.5 months. However, the difference was statistical significant in the rate of increased KPS score (86.7% vs. 46.7%, χ2=10.800, P=0.001 and the rate of increased FACT-G score (73.3% vs. 36.7%, χ2=8.148, P=0.004. The main toxic and side effects of two groups was hematological toxicity. There was no degree III-IV toxic and side effects occurring in non hematological toxicity in two groups. The main toxic effect was peripheral neuritis in SOX group, and nausea and vomiting and renal dysfunction in SP group, and there were statistical differences in the above toxic and side effects between two groups (P<0.05. Conclusion: SOX regimen is as safe and effective as SP regimen for elderly patients with advanced gastric cancer, with better quality of life and less toxic and side effects.

  12. Micro-Kelvin cold molecules.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strecker, Kevin E.; Chandler, David W.

    2009-10-01

    We have developed a novel experimental technique for direct production of cold molecules using a combination of techniques from atomic optical and molecular physics and physical chemistry. The ability to produce samples of cold molecules has application in a broad spectrum of technical fields high-resolution spectroscopy, remote sensing, quantum computing, materials simulation, and understanding fundamental chemical dynamics. Researchers around the world are currently exploring many techniques for producing samples of cold molecules, but to-date these attempts have offered only limited success achieving milli-Kelvin temperatures with low densities. This Laboratory Directed Research and Development project is to develops a new experimental technique for producing micro-Kelvin temperature molecules via collisions with laser cooled samples of trapped atoms. The technique relies on near mass degenerate collisions between the molecule of interest and a laser cooled (micro-Kelvin) atom. A subset of collisions will transfer all (nearly all) of the kinetic energy from the 'hot' molecule, cooling the molecule at the expense of heating the atom. Further collisions with the remaining laser cooled atoms will thermally equilibrate the molecules to the micro-Kelvin temperature of the laser-cooled atoms.

  13. Theoretical Investigations Regarding Single Molecules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Kim Georg Lind

    Neoclassical Valence Bond Theory, Quantum Transport, Quantum Interference, Kondo Effect, and Electron Pumping. Trap a single organic molecule between two electrodes and apply a bias voltage across this "molecular junction". When electrons pass through the molecule, the different electron paths can...

  14. Triatomic molecules laser-cooled

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    Molecules containing three atoms have been laser-cooled to ultracold temperatures for the first time. John Doyle and colleagues at Harvard University in the US used a technique called Sisyphus cooling to chill an ensemble of about a million strontium-monohydroxide molecules to 750 μK.

  15. High resolution photoassociation spectra of an ultracold Cs2 long-range 0u+ (6S1/2 + 6P1/2) state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Peng; Li, Yu-Qing; Zhang, Yi-Chi; Wu, Ji-Zhou; Ma, Jie; Xiao, Lian-Tuan; Jia, Suo-Tang

    2013-09-01

    In this paper, ultracold cesium molecules are formed through photoassociation technology, which is carried out in a magneto-optical trap. High resolution photoassociaion spectra with the rotational progressions up to J = 7 are obtained. Three rovibrational levels of the long-range 0u+ state of Cs2 below the (6S1/2 + 6P1/2) dissociation limit are specifically investigated. By fitting their binding energy intervals to the non-rigid rotational model, the rotational constant of the long-range 0u+ state is determined. A proportional dependence of the value of the rotational constant on the vibrational quantum number is demonstrated.

  16. 青海牛乳中αs1-酪蛋白的电泳研究%Investigation on αs1-Casein in Milk of Cattle in Qinghai Province by Electrophoresis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张才骏; 张海峰; 邓生栋; 才仁三德布

    2000-01-01

    对青海省4个品种560头牛乳中的αs1-酪蛋白进行了电泳研究.结果发现:(1)青海牛乳中αs1-酪蛋白基因座受αs1-CNR,αs1-CNC,αs1-CND和αs1-CNE4个等位基因的控制,有αs1-CN BB,αs1-CN BC,αs1-CN BD,αs1-CN BE,αs1-CN CC和αs1-CN CD 6种基因型;(2)在青海东部黄牛中发现一种新等位基因αs1-CNE和一种罕见等位基因αs1-CND;(3)在αs1-CN基因座上,柴达木黄牛与青海东部黄牛之间有最近的亲缘关系,而杂种牛与黑白花牛的亲缘关系较近.

  17. VizieR Online Data Catalog: C/2012 F6 (Lemmon) and C/2012 S1 (ISON) maps (Cordiner+, 2014)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordiner, M. A.; Remijan, A. J.; Boissier, J.; Milam, S. N.; Mumma, M. J.; Charnley, S. B.; Paganini, L.; Villanueva, G.; Bockelee-Morvan, D.; Kuan, Y.-J.; Chuang, Y.-L.; Lis, D. C.; Biver, N.; Crovisier, J.; Minniti, D.; Coulson, I. M.

    2017-04-01

    WCS-calibrated fits image files of the molecular flux maps shown in Figure 1 for HCN, HNC and H2CO observed in comets C/2012 F6 (Lemmon) and C/2012 S1 (ISON) using ALMA. The files are labeled with the corresponding comet and molecule names. The files are standard two-dimensional fits images, which can be opened in fits image viewers such as SAOimage DS9, CASA viewer, or Starlink Gaia. GIMP and Adobe Photoshop can also be used, provided the appropriate plugins are present. The images contain flux values (in units of Jansky km/s per beam), as a function of celestial coordinate in the J2000 equatorial system. Due to the cometary motions, the absolute coordinate systems are accurate only at the start of the observations (dates and times are given in Table 1). These images are the result of integrating the (3D) ALMA data cubes over the full widths of the observed spectral lines (equivalent to collapsing the data cubes along their respective spectral/velocity axes). The beam dimensions (BMAJ and BMIN), corresponding to the angular resolution of the images, are given in the image headers in units of degrees. object.dat : -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Code Name Elem q e i H1 d AU deg mag -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- C/2012 F6 Lemmon 2456375.5 0.7312461 0.9985125 82.607966 7.96 C/2012 S1 Ison 2456624.5 0.0124515 0.9998921 64.401571 6.11 (2 data files).

  18. Enzyme molecules in solitary confinement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebherr, Raphaela B; Gorris, Hans H

    2014-09-12

    Large arrays of homogeneous microwells each defining a femtoliter volume are a versatile platform for monitoring the substrate turnover of many individual enzyme molecules in parallel. The high degree of parallelization enables the analysis of a statistically representative enzyme population. Enclosing individual enzyme molecules in microwells does not require any surface immobilization step and enables the kinetic investigation of enzymes free in solution. This review describes various microwell array formats and explores their applications for the detection and investigation of single enzyme molecules. The development of new fabrication techniques and sensitive detection methods drives the field of single molecule enzymology. Here, we introduce recent progress in single enzyme molecule analysis in microwell arrays and discuss the challenges and opportunities.

  19. Enzyme Molecules in Solitary Confinement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphaela B. Liebherr

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Large arrays of homogeneous microwells each defining a femtoliter volume are a versatile platform for monitoring the substrate turnover of many individual enzyme molecules in parallel. The high degree of parallelization enables the analysis of a statistically representative enzyme population. Enclosing individual enzyme molecules in microwells does not require any surface immobilization step and enables the kinetic investigation of enzymes free in solution. This review describes various microwell array formats and explores their applications for the detection and investigation of single enzyme molecules. The development of new fabrication techniques and sensitive detection methods drives the field of single molecule enzymology. Here, we introduce recent progress in single enzyme molecule analysis in microwell arrays and discuss the challenges and opportunities.

  20. Torsional, Vibrational and Vibration-Torsional Levels in the S_{1} and Ground Cationic D_{0}^{+} States of Para-Xylene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Adrian M.; Tuttle, William Duncan; Groner, Peter; Wright, Timothy G.

    2017-06-01

    Insight gained from examining the "pure" torsional, vibrational and vibration-torsional (vibtor) levels of the single rotor molecules: toluene (methylbenzene) and para-fluorotoluene (pFT), is applied to the double rotor para-xylene (p-dimethylbenzene) molecule . Resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization (REMPI) spectroscopy and zero-kinetic-energy (ZEKE) spectroscopy are employed in order to investigate the S_{1} and ground cationic states of para-xylene. Observed transitions are assigned in the full molecular symmetry group (G_{72}) for the first time. J. R. Gascooke, E. A. Virgo, and W. D. Lawrance, J. Chem. Phys., 143, 044313 (2015). A. M. Gardner, W. D. Tuttle, L. Whalley, A. Claydon, J. H. Carter and T. G. Wright, J. Chem. Phys., 145, 124307 (2016). A. M. Gardner, W. D. Tuttle, P. Groner and T. G. Wright, J. Chem. Phys., (2017, in press).

  1. Acylguanidine inhibitors of beta-secretase: optimization of the pyrrole ring substituents extending into the S1 and S3 substrate binding pockets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Derek C; Stock, Joseph R; Chopra, Rajiv; Cowling, Rebecca; Ellingboe, John W; Fan, Kristi Y; Harrison, Boyd L; Hu, Yun; Jacobsen, Steve; Jennings, Lee D; Jin, Guixian; Lohse, Peter A; Malamas, Michael S; Manas, Eric S; Moore, William J; O'Donnell, Mary-Margaret; Olland, Andrea M; Robichaud, Albert J; Svenson, Kristine; Wu, JunJun; Wagner, Eric; Bard, Jonathan

    2008-02-01

    Proteolytic cleavage of amyloid precursor protein by beta-secretase (BACE-1) and gamma-secretase leads to formation of beta-amyloid (A beta) a key component of amyloid plaques, which are considered the hallmark of Alzheimer's disease. Small molecule inhibitors of BACE-1 may reduce levels of A beta and thus have therapeutic potential for treating Alzheimer's disease. We recently reported the identification of a novel small molecule BACE-1 inhibitor N-[2-(2,5-diphenyl-pyrrol-1-yl)-acetyl]guanidine (3.a.1). We report here the initial hit-to-lead optimization of this hit and the SAR around the aryl groups occupying the S(1) and S(2') pockets leading to submicromolar BACE-1 inhibitors.

  2. Human subtilase SKI-1/S1P is a master regulator of the HCV Lifecycle and a potential host cell target for developing indirect-acting antiviral agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmstead, Andrea D; Knecht, Wolfgang; Lazarov, Ina; Dixit, Surjit B; Jean, François

    2012-01-01

    HCV infection is a major risk factor for liver cancer and liver transplantation worldwide. Overstimulation of host lipid metabolism in the liver by HCV-encoded proteins during viral infection creates a favorable environment for virus propagation and pathogenesis. In this study, we hypothesize that targeting cellular enzymes acting as master regulators of lipid homeostasis could represent a powerful approach to developing a novel class of broad-spectrum antivirals against infection associated with human Flaviviridae viruses such as hepatitis C virus (HCV), whose assembly and pathogenesis depend on interaction with lipid droplets (LDs). One such master regulator of cholesterol metabolic pathways is the host subtilisin/kexin-isozyme-1 (SKI-1)--or site-1 protease (S1P). SKI-1/S1P plays a critical role in the proteolytic activation of sterol regulatory element binding proteins (SREBPs), which control expression of the key enzymes of cholesterol and fatty-acid biosynthesis. Here we report the development of a SKI-1/S1P-specific protein-based inhibitor and its application to blocking the SREBP signaling cascade. We demonstrate that SKI-1/S1P inhibition effectively blocks HCV from establishing infection in hepatoma cells. The inhibitory mechanism is associated with a dramatic reduction in the abundance of neutral lipids, LDs, and the LD marker: adipose differentiation-related protein (ADRP)/perilipin 2. Reduction of LD formation inhibits virus assembly from infected cells. Importantly, we confirm that SKI-1/S1P is a key host factor for HCV infection by using a specific active, site-directed, small-molecule inhibitor of SKI-1/S1P: PF-429242. Our studies identify SKI-1/S1P as both a novel regulator of the HCV lifecycle and as a potential host-directed therapeutic target against HCV infection and liver steatosis. With identification of an increasing number of human viruses that use host LDs for infection, our results suggest that SKI-1/S1P inhibitors may allow development of

  3. Human subtilase SKI-1/S1P is a master regulator of the HCV Lifecycle and a potential host cell target for developing indirect-acting antiviral agents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea D Olmstead

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available HCV infection is a major risk factor for liver cancer and liver transplantation worldwide. Overstimulation of host lipid metabolism in the liver by HCV-encoded proteins during viral infection creates a favorable environment for virus propagation and pathogenesis. In this study, we hypothesize that targeting cellular enzymes acting as master regulators of lipid homeostasis could represent a powerful approach to developing a novel class of broad-spectrum antivirals against infection associated with human Flaviviridae viruses such as hepatitis C virus (HCV, whose assembly and pathogenesis depend on interaction with lipid droplets (LDs. One such master regulator of cholesterol metabolic pathways is the host subtilisin/kexin-isozyme-1 (SKI-1--or site-1 protease (S1P. SKI-1/S1P plays a critical role in the proteolytic activation of sterol regulatory element binding proteins (SREBPs, which control expression of the key enzymes of cholesterol and fatty-acid biosynthesis. Here we report the development of a SKI-1/S1P-specific protein-based inhibitor and its application to blocking the SREBP signaling cascade. We demonstrate that SKI-1/S1P inhibition effectively blocks HCV from establishing infection in hepatoma cells. The inhibitory mechanism is associated with a dramatic reduction in the abundance of neutral lipids, LDs, and the LD marker: adipose differentiation-related protein (ADRP/perilipin 2. Reduction of LD formation inhibits virus assembly from infected cells. Importantly, we confirm that SKI-1/S1P is a key host factor for HCV infection by using a specific active, site-directed, small-molecule inhibitor of SKI-1/S1P: PF-429242. Our studies identify SKI-1/S1P as both a novel regulator of the HCV lifecycle and as a potential host-directed therapeutic target against HCV infection and liver steatosis. With identification of an increasing number of human viruses that use host LDs for infection, our results suggest that SKI-1/S1P inhibitors may allow

  4. SIRT1 mediates Sphk1/S1P-induced proliferation and migration of endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zhan; Wang, Hua; Xiao, Feng-Jun; Shi, Xue-Feng; Zhang, Yi-Kun; Xu, Qin Qin; Zhang, Xiao-Yan; Ha, Xiao-Qin; Wang, Li-Sheng

    2016-05-01

    Angiogenesis is one of the most important components of embryonic organ formation and vessel growth after birth. Sphingosine kinase 1 (Sphk1) and S1P has been confirmed to participate in various cell signaling pathways and physiological processes including neovascularisation. However, the mechanisms that Sphk1/S1P regulates neovascularisation remain unclear. In this study, we elucidated that Sphk1/S1P upregulates sirtuin 1 (SIRT1), a NAD+ dependent deacetylases protease which exerts multiple cellular functions, to regulate the proliferation and migration of endothelial cells. By using CCK8 and Transwell assays, we demonstrated that Sphk1 and SIRT1 knockdown could significantly decrease proliferation and migration of HUVEC cells. Sphk1 inhibition results in SIRT1 downregulation which could be reversed by exogenous S1P in HUVEC cells. Treatment of HUVECs with S1P reverses the impaired proliferation and migration caused by SIRT1 knockdown. Furthermore, Sphk1 knockdown inhibits the phosphorylation of P38 MAPK, ERK and AKT. Treatment of HUVECs with PD98059, SB203580 and Wortmannin, which are the inhibitors of ERK, P38 MAPK and AKT respectively, resulted in decreased SIRT1 expression and reduced migration of HUVEC cells. Thus, we conclude that Sphk1/S1P induces SIRT1 upregulation through multiple pathways including P38 MAPK, ERK and AKT signals. This is the first report to disclose the existence and roles of Sphk1/S1P/SIRT1 axis in regulation of endothelial cell proliferation and migration, which may provide a theoretical basis for angiogenesis.

  5. Isolation of New Stenotrophomonas Bacteriophages and Genomic Characterization of Temperate Phage S1

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Pilar; Monjardín, Cristina; Martín, Rebeca; Madera, Carmen; Soberón, Nora; Garcia, Eva; Meana, Álvaro; Suárez, Juan E.

    2008-01-01

    Twenty-two phages that infect Stenotrophomonas species were isolated through sewage enrichment and prophage induction. Of them, S1, S3, and S4 were selected due to their wide host ranges compared to those of the other phages. S1 and S4 are temperate siphoviruses, while S3 is a virulent myovirus. The genomes of S3 and S4, about 33 and 200 kb, were resistant to restriction digestion. The lytic cycles lasted 30 min for S3 and about 75 min for S1 and S4. The burst size for S3 was 100 virions/cell, while S1 and S4 produced about 75 virus particles/cell. The frequency of bacteriophage-insensitive host mutants, calculated by dividing the number of surviving colonies by the bacterial titer of a parallel, uninfected culture, ranged between 10−5 and 10−6 for S3 and 10−3 and 10−4 for S1 and S4. The 40,287-bp genome of S1 contains 48 open reading frames (ORFs) and 12-bp 5′ protruding cohesive ends. By using a combination of bioinformatics and experimental evidence, functions were ascribed to 21 ORFs. The morphogenetic and lysis modules are well-conserved, but no lysis-lysogeny switch or DNA replication gene clusters were recognized. Two major clusters of genes with respect to transcriptional orientation were observed. Interspersed among them were lysogenic conversion genes encoding phosphoadenosine phosphosulfate reductase and GspM, a protein involved in the general secretion system II. The attP site of S1 may be located within a gene that presents over 75% homology to a Stenotrophomonas chromosomal determinant. PMID:18952876

  6. Cold cesium molecules produced directly in a magneto-optical trap

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Hong-Shan; Ji Zhong-Hua; Yuan Jin-Peng; Zhao Yan-Ting; Ma Jie; Wang Li-Rong; Xiao Lian-Tuan; Jia Suo-Tang

    2011-01-01

    We report on the observation of ultracold ground electric-state cesium molecules produced directly in a magnetooptical trap with a good signal-to-noise ratio.These molecules arise from the photoassociation of magneto-optical trap lasers and they are detected by resonantly enhanced multiphoton ionization technology.The production rate of ultracold cesium molecules is up to 4× 104 s-1.We measure the characteristic time of the ground electric-state cesium molecules generated in the experiment and investigate the Cs2+ molecular ion intensity as a function of the trapping laser intensity and the ionization pulse laser energy.We conclude that the production of cold cesium molecules may be enhanced by using appropriate experimental parameters,which is useful for future experiments involving the production and trapping of ultracold ground electric-state molecules.

  7. Randomized study comparing full dose monotherapy (S-1 followed by irinotecan) and reduced dose combination therapy (S-1/oxaliplatin followed by S-1/irinotecan) as initial therapy for older patients with metastatic colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Stine Braendegaard; Österlund, Pia; Berglund, Åke

    2017-01-01

    be a sequential full-dose monotherapy chemotherapy approach or a dose-reduced combination chemotherapy approach. The oral 5FU prodrug S-1 seems to have less side effects than capecitabine and should be an optimal drug for older patients, but few data are available. Improved geriatric assessments are needed......-dose standard combination therapy. Additional bevacizumab (7.5 mg/kg) is optional in first-line. Blood samples and tumor tissue will be collected to investigate predictive markers. Geriatric screening tools (G-8, VES-13, Timed-Up-and-Go and Handgrip strength), Charlson Comorbidty Index and quality of life......-treatment characteristics and geriatric assessments. Discussion: The study will add knowledge on how to treat older mCRC patients who are not candidates for standard combination therapy. Furthermore it may provide understanding of efficacy and tolerability of chemotherapy in older cancer patients and thus offer a better...

  8. Coherent quantum control of internal conversion: {S}_{2}\\;\\leftrightarrow \\;{S}_{1} in pyrazine via {S}_{0}\\;\\to \\;{S}_{2}/{S}_{1} weak field excitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinev, Timur; Shapiro, Moshe; Brumer, Paul

    2015-09-01

    Coherent control of internal conversion (IC) between the first (S1) and second (S2) singlet excited electronic states in pyrazine, where the S2 state is populated from the ground singlet electronic state S0 by weak field excitation, is examined. Control is implemented by shaping the laser which excites S2. Excitation and IC are considered simultaneously, using the recently introduced resonance-based control approach. Highly successful control is achieved by optimizing both the amplitude and phase profiles of the laser spectrum. The dependence of control on the properties of resonances in S2 is demonstrated.

  9. Single Molecule Electronics and Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makusu Tsutsui

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The manufacture of integrated circuits with single-molecule building blocks is a goal of molecular electronics. While research in the past has been limited to bulk experiments on self-assembled monolayers, advances in technology have now enabled us to fabricate single-molecule junctions. This has led to significant progress in understanding electron transport in molecular systems at the single-molecule level and the concomitant emergence of new device concepts. Here, we review recent developments in this field. We summarize the methods currently used to form metal-molecule-metal structures and some single-molecule techniques essential for characterizing molecular junctions such as inelastic electron tunnelling spectroscopy. We then highlight several important achievements, including demonstration of single-molecule diodes, transistors, and switches that make use of electrical, photo, and mechanical stimulation to control the electron transport. We also discuss intriguing issues to be addressed further in the future such as heat and thermoelectric transport in an individual molecule.

  10. Arthrodesis to L5 versus S1 in long instrumentation and fusion for degenerative lumbar scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Kyu-Jung; Suk, Se-Il; Park, Seung-Rim; Kim, Jin-Hyok; Choi, Sung-Wook; Yoon, Young-Hyun; Won, Man-Hee

    2009-04-01

    There is a debate regarding the distal fusion level for degenerative lumbar scoliosis. Whether a healthy L5-S1 motion segment should be included or not in the fusion remains controversial. The purpose of this study was to determine the optimal indication for the fusion to the sacrum, and to compare the results of distal fusion to L5 versus the sacrum in the long instrumented fusion for degenerative lumbar scoliosis. A total of 45 patients who had undergone long instrumentation and fusion for degenerative lumbar scoliosis were evaluated with a minimum 2 year follow-up. Twenty-four patients (mean age 63.6) underwent fusion to L5 and 21 patients (mean age 65.6) underwent fusion to the sacrum. Supplemental interbody fusion was performed in 12 patients in the L5 group and eleven patients in the sacrum group. The number of levels fused was 6.08 segments (range 4-8) in the L5 group and 6.09 (range 4-9) in the sacrum group. Intraoperative blood loss (2,754 ml versus 2,938 ml) and operative time (220 min versus 229 min) were similar in both groups. The Cobb angle changed from 24.7 degrees before surgery to 6.8 degrees after surgery in the L5 group, and from 22.8 degrees to 7.7 degrees in the sacrum group without statistical difference. Correction of lumbar lordosis was statistically better in the sacrum group (P = 0.03). Less correction of lumbar lordosis in the L5 group seemed to be associated with subsequent advanced L5-S1 disc degeneration. The change of coronal and sagittal imbalance was not different in both groups. Subsequent advanced L5-S1 disc degeneration occurred in 58% of the patients in the L5 group. Symptomatic adjacent segment disease at L5-S1 developed in five patients. Interestingly, the development of adjacent segment disease was not related to the preoperative grade of disc degeneration, which proved minimal degeneration in the five patients. In the L5 group, there were nine patients of complications at L5-S1 segment, including adjacent segment disease at

  11. Molecular characterization of a novel reovirus isolated from SARS patients with distinct S1 segment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI HUA SONG; JUN HE; HONG ZHU; YU XIN SU; RU TONG HUANG; HONG YUAN DUAN; PAN YONG MAO; QING DUAN

    2006-01-01

    We reported a novel mammalian reovirus, designed BYD1, isolated from throat swabs of patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), in 2003. In the present study, we firstly compared the genome electrophoretic migration patterns of reovirus BYD1 with 3 prototype reovirus strains by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) and determined the complete nucleotide sequence of the S1 gene segment of BYD1 by single primer amplification technique. The electropherogram of BYD1 was differentfrom those of the 3 prototype strains and any other reovirus isolates reported before. The entire S1 segment sequence of BYD1 is 1437 bp long with two meaningful open reading frames (ORFs). The longest ORF encodes σ1, the cell attachment protein, and the second longest ORF supposedly encodes σ1s, an important nonstructural virulence factor. The terminal sequences of S1 segment are 5'GCUA and 3'UCAUC,which are consistent with those of other mammalian reoviruses. The highest homology of deduced σ1 amino acid sequence is 64% identity with known mammalian reoviruses. Phylogenetic analysis of both S1 nucleotide sequence and σ1 amino acid sequence indicated the BYD1 isolate belonged to a new clade of serotype 2 group. The results of this study showed that the BYD1 S1 segment was markedly different from those of isolates reported before and BYD1 was a novel human reovirus isolate.

  12. Novel S1P1 receptor agonists - Part 5: From amino-to alkoxy-pyridines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolli, Martin H; Lescop, Cyrille; Birker, Magdalena; de Kanter, Ruben; Hess, Patrick; Kohl, Christopher; Nayler, Oliver; Rey, Markus; Sieber, Patrick; Velker, Jörg; Weller, Thomas; Steiner, Beat

    2016-06-10

    In a previous communication we reported on the discovery of aminopyridine 1 as a potent, selective and orally active S1P1 receptor agonist. More detailed studies revealed that this compound is phototoxic in vitro. As a result of efforts aiming at eliminating this undesired property, a series of alkoxy substituted pyridine derivatives was discovered. The photo irritancy factor (PIF) of these alkoxy pyridines was significantly lower than the one of aminopyridine 1 and most compounds were not phototoxic. Focused SAR studies showed, that 2-, 3-, and 4-pyridine derivatives delivered highly potent S1P1 receptor agonists. While the 2-pyridines were clearly more selective against S1PR3, the corresponding 3- or 4-pyridine analogues showed significantly longer oral half-lives and as a consequence longer pharmacological duration of action after oral administration. One of the best compounds, cyclopentoxy-pyridine 45b lacked phototoxicity, showed EC50 values of 0.7 and 140 nM on S1PR1 and S1PR3, respectively, and maximally reduced the blood lymphocyte count for at least 24 h after oral administration of 10 mg/kg to Wistar rats.

  13. Additive effects of oral fluoropyrimidine derivative S-1 and radiation on human hypopharyngeal cancer xenografts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Takahiro; Otsuki, Naoki; Masai, Yohko; Sasaki, Ryohei; Tsukuda, Mamoru; Nibu, Ken-Ichi

    2008-08-01

    The results presented here provide evidence of the enhancing effect of oral fluoropyrimidine derivative S-1 in concomitant chemoradiotherapy for head and neck cancer and further insights into its biological mechanism. To investigate the additive effect of S-1 and radiation for human hypopharyngeal cancer. Nude mice bearing hypopharyngeal cancer cells (H891) were used for an in vivo model. S-1 was administered at a volume of 0.01 mg/g body weight per mouse for 14 days, and tumors were irradiated with 2.0 Gy on days 1 and 8. Mice treated with either radiation or S-1 alone were used as controls. The growth of tumors in each group was measured and, after completion of the treatment, a focused DNA array was used to determine mRNA expression levels in the tumors of 132 genes related to 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), radiation or carcinogenesis. The additive antitumor effect of S-1 and radiation was statistically confirmed on day 14 (p=0.01). DNA array assay showed significant changes in expression of several genes, including DNA repair gene POLD, angiogenesis-related genes bFGF and TP, DNA topoisomerase TOP2A, and nucleoside transporter gene ENT1.

  14. 2,5-Bis{[(−-(S-1-(4-bromophenylethyl]iminomethyl}thiophene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angel Mendoza

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C22H20Br2N2S, was synthesized under solvent-free conditions. The molecule shows crystallographic C2 symmetry, with the S atom of the central thiophene ring lying on a twofold rotation axis. Furthermore, as a consequence of the (S,S stereochemistry, the molecule has a twisted conformation. The dihedral angle between the thiophene and benzene rings is 72.7 (2° and that between the two benzene rings is 55.9 (2°. In the crystal, molecules are arranged in a chevron-like pattern, without any significant intermolecular interactions.

  15. Combined gemcitabine and S-1 chemotherapy for treating unresectable hilar cholangiocarcinoma: a randomized open-label clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hao; Zhang, Zheng-Yun; Zhou, Zun-Qiang; Guan, Jiao; Tong, Da-Nian; Zhou, Guang-Wen

    2016-05-03

    Although the combination of cisplatin and gemcitabine (GEM) is considered the standard first-line chemotherapy against unresectable hilar cholangiocarcinoma (HC), its efficacy is discouraging. The present randomized open-label clinical trial aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of the GEM plus S-1 (GEM-S-1) combination against unresectable HC. Twenty-five patients per group were randomly assigned to receive GEM, S-1 or GEM-S-1. Neutropenia (56%) and leukopenia (40%) were the most common chemotherapy-related toxicities in the GEM-S-1 group. Median overall survival (OS) in the GEM-S-1, GEM and S-1 groups was 11, 10 and 6 months, respectively. GEM plus S-1 significantly improved OS compared to S-1 monotherapy (OR=0.68; 95%CI, 0.50-0.90; P=0.008). Median progression-free survival (PFS) times in the GEM-S-1, GEM and S-1 groups were 4.90, 3.70 and 1.60 months, respectively. GEM plus S-1 significantly improved PFS compared to S-1 monotherapy (OR=0.50; 95%CI, 0.27-0.91; P=0.024). Response rates were 36%, 24% and 8% in the GEM-S-1, GEM and S-1 groups, respectively. A statistically significant difference was found in response rates between the gemcitabine-S-1 and S-1 groups (36% vs 8%, P=0.017). Patients with CA19-9S-1 provides a better OS, PFS and response rate than S-1 monotherapy, but it did not significantly differ from GEM monotherapy. (ChiCTR-TRC-14004733).

  16. When water molecules meet air

    OpenAIRE

    Hsie, Cho-Shuen; Campen, R. Kramer; Verde, Ana Vila; Bolhuis, Peter; Nienhuys, Han-Kwang; Bonn, Mischa

    2012-01-01

    About 70% of our planet is covered in water. Most of that water exists as water in the bulk – the neighbors of water molecules are other water molecules – and only a small fraction of molecules are at the air-water interface. Despite the small relative abundance of interfacial water, it is of the utmost importance: it governs the chemistry involving the surface of oceans and seawater aerosols, or the small water droplets forming clouds. Reactions at the air-water interface are directly releva...

  17. Observation of the decay D s1 (2536) → D∗ OK +

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, H.; Ehrlichmann, H.; Hamacher, T.; Hofmann, R. P.; Kirchhoff, T.; Nau, A.; Nowak, S.; Schröder, H.; Schulz, H. D.; Walter, M.; Wurth, R.; Appuhn, R. D.; Hast, C.; Kolanoski, H.; Lange, A.; Linder, A.; Mankel, R.; Schieber, M.; Siegmund, T.; Spaan, B.; Thurn, H.; Töpfer, D.; Walther, A.; Wegener, D.; Paulini, M.; Reim, K.; Wegener, H.; Mundt, R.; Oest, T.; Reiner, R.; Schmidt-Parzefall, W.; Funk, W.; Stiewe, J.; Werner, S.; Ehret, K.; Hofmann, W.; Hüpper, A.; Khan, S.; Knöpfle, K. T.; Spengler, J.; Britton, D. I.; Charlesworth, C. E. K.; Edwards, K. W.; Hyatt, E. R. F.; Kapitza, H.; Krieger, P.; Macfarlane, D. B.; Patel, P. M.; Prentice, J. D.; Saull, P. R. B.; Tzamariudaki, K.; van de Water, R. G.; Yoon, T.-S.; Reβing, D.; Schmidtler, M.; Schneider, M.; Schubert, K. R.; Strahl, K.; Waldi, R.; Weseler, S.; Kernel, G.; Križan, P.; Križnič, E.; Podobnik, T.; Živko, T.; Cronström, H. I.; Jönsson, L.; Balagura, V.; Belyaev, I.; Danilov, M.; Droutskoy, A.; Golutvin, A.; Gorelov, I.; Kostina, G.; Lubinov, V.; Murat, P.; Pakhlov, P.; Ratnikov, F.; Semenov, S.; Shibaev, V.; Soloshenko, V.; Tichomirov, I.; Zaitsev, Yu.; Argus Collaboration

    1992-12-01

    Using the ARGUS detector at the e+e- storage ring using DORIS II at DESY, we have observed a new decay channel for the excited charm-strange meson D s1(2536) +→D∗ OK +. The production cross section for the Ds1 (2536) + decaying via this channel is measured to be σ ( D s1(2536) +)· BR(D sl(2536) +→D∗ 0K +)= 18±4±3 pb at ECM = 10.4 GeV. The mass of the Ds1 (2536) + is found to be 2535.2 ± 0.5±1.5 MeV/ c2 in agreement with the value obtained from an analysis of the D s1(2536) +→D∗ +K 0s decay channel. The natural width is determined to be less than 3.9 MeV/ c2 at 90%CL.

  18. The acrylamide (S)-1 differentially affects Kv7 (KCNQ) potassium channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, Bo Hjorth; Schmitt, Nicole; Calloe, Kirstine;

    2006-01-01

    .g., retigabine) for treatment of epilepsy and neuropathic pain. We investigated the effect of a Bristol-Myers Squibb compound (S)-N-[1-(3-morpholin-4-yl-phenyl)-ethyl]-3-phenyl-acrylamide [(S)-1] on cloned human Kv7.1-5 potassium channels expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes. Using two-electrode voltage......-clamp recordings we found that (S)-1 blocks Kv7.1 and Kv7.1/KCNE1 currents. In contrast, (S)-1 produced a hyperpolarizing shift of the activation curve for Kv7.2, Kv7.2/Kv7.3, Kv7.4 and Kv7.5. Further, the compound enhanced the maximal current amplitude at all potentials for Kv7.4 and Kv7.5 whereas the combined...

  19. A precision measurement of the D_s1(2536) meson mass and decay width

    CERN Document Server

    Aubert, B; Bóna, M; Boutigny, D; Couderc, F; Karyotakis, Yu; Lees, J P; Poireau, V; Tisserand, V; Zghiche, A; Graugès-Pous, E; Palano, A; Chen, J C; Qi, N D; Rong, G; Wang, P; Zhu, Y S; Eigen, G; Ofte, I; Stugu, B; Abrams, G S; Battaglia, M; Brown, D N; Button-Shafer, J; Cahn, R N; Charles, E; Gill, M S; Groysman, Y; Jacobsen, R G; Kadyk, J A; Kerth, L T; Kolomensky, Yu G; Kukartsev, G; Lynch, G; Mir, L M; Orimoto, T J; Pripstein, M; Roe, N A; Ronan, M T; Wenzel, W A; Del Amo-Sánchez, P; Barrett, M; Ford, K E; Hart, A J; Harrison, T J; Hawkes, C M; Morgan, S E; Watson, A T; Held, T; Koch, H; Lewandowski, B; Pelizaeus, M; Peters, K; Schröder, T; Steinke, M; Boyd, J T; Burke, J P; Cottingham, W N; Walker, D; Asgeirsson, D J; Çuhadar-Dönszelmann, T; Fulsom, B G; Hearty, C; Knecht, N S; Mattison, T S; McKenna, J A; Khan, A; Kyberd, P; Saleem, M; Sherwood, D J; Teodorescu, L; Blinov, V E; Bukin, A D; Druzhinin, V P; Golubev, V B; Onuchin, A P; Serednyakov, S I; Skovpen, Yu I; Solodov, E P; Todyshev, Y K; Best, D S; Bondioli, M; Bruinsma, M; Chao, M; Curry, S; Eschrich, I; Kirkby, D; Lankford, A J; Lund, P; Mandelkern, M A; Mommsen, R K; Röthel, W; Stoker, D P; Abachi, S; Buchanan, C; Foulkes, S D; Gary, J W; Long, O; Shen, B C; Wang, K; Zhang, L; Hadavand, H K; Hill, E J; Paar, H P; Rahatlou, S; Sharma, V; Berryhill, J W; Campagnari, C; Cunha, A; Dahmes, B; Hong, T M; Kovalskyi, D; Richman, J D; Beck, T W; Eisner, A M; Flacco, C J; Heusch, C A; Kroseberg, J; Lockman, W S; Nesom, G; Schalk, T; Schumm, B A; Seiden, A; Spradlin, P; Williams, D C; Wilson, M G; Albert, J; Chen, E; Dvoretskii, A; Fang, F; Hitlin, D G; Narsky, I; Piatenko, T; Porter, F C; Ryd, A; Samuel, A; Mancinelli, G; Meadows, B T; Mishra, K; Sokoloff, M D; Blanc, F; Bloom, P C; Chen, S; Ford, W T; Hirschauer, J F; Kreisel, A; Nagel, M; Nauenberg, U; Olivas, A; Ruddick, W O; Smith, J G; Ulmer, K A; Wagner, S R; Zhang, J; Chen, A; Eckhart, E A; Soffer, A; Toki, W H; Wilson, R J; Winklmeier, F; Zeng, Q; Altenburg, D D; Feltresi, E; Hauke, A; Jasper, H; Merkel, J; Petzold, A; Spaan, B; Brandt, T; Klose, V; Lacker, H M; Mader, W F; Nogowski, R; Schubert, J; Schubert, K R; Schwierz, R; Sundermann, J E; Volk, A; Bernard, D; Bonneaud, G R; Latour, E; Thiebaux, C; Verderi, M; Clark, P J; Gradl, W; Muheim, F; Playfer, S; Robertson, A I; Xie, Y; Andreotti, M; Bettoni, D; Bozzi, C; Calabrese, R; Cibinetto, G; Luppi, E; Negrini, M; Petrella, A; Piemontese, L; Prencipe, E; Anulli, F; Baldini-Ferroli, R; Calcaterra, A; De Sangro, R; Finocchiaro, G; Pacetti, S; Patteri, P; Peruzzi, I M; Piccolo, M; Rama, M; Zallo, A; Buzzo, A; Capra, R; Contri, R; Lo Vetere, M; Macri, M M; Monge, M R; Passaggio, S; Patrignani, C; Robutti, E; Santroni, A; Tosi, S; Brandenburg, G; Chaisanguanthum, K S; Morii, M; Wu, J; Dubitzky, R S; Marks, J; Schenk, S; Uwer, U; Bard, D J; Bhimji, W; Bowerman, D A; Dauncey, P D; Egede, U; Flack, R L; Nash, J A; Nikolich, M B; Panduro-Vazquez, W; Behera, P K; Chai, X; Charles, M J; Mallik, U; Meyer, N T; Ziegler, V; Cochran, J; Crawley, H B; Dong, L; Eyges, V; Meyer, W T; Prell, S; Rosenberg, E I; Rubin, A E; Gritsan, A V; Denig, A G; Fritsch, M; Schott, G; Arnaud, N; Davier, M; Grosdidier, G; Höcker, A; Le Diberder, F R; Lepeltier, V; Lutz, A M; Oyanguren, A; Pruvot, S; Rodier, S; Roudeau, P; Schune, M H; Stocchi, A; Wang, W F; Wormser, G; Cheng, C H; Lange, D J; Wright, D M; Chavez, C A; Forster, I J; Fry, J R; Gabathuler, E; Gamet, R; George, K A; Hutchcroft, D E; Payne, D J; Schofield, K C; Touramanis, C; Bevan, A J; Di Lodovico, F; Menges, W; Sacco, R; Cowan, G; Flächer, H U; Hopkins, D A; Jackson, P S; McMahon, T R; Ricciardi, S; Salvatore, F; Wren, A C; Davis, C L; Allison, J; Barlow, N R; Barlow, R J; Chia, Y M; Edgar, C L; Lafferty, G D; Naisbit, M T; Williams, J C; Yi, J I; Chen, C; Hulsbergen, W D; Jawahery, A; Lae, C K; Roberts, D A; Simi, G; Blaylock, G; Dallapiccola, C; Hertzbach, S S; Li, X; Moore, T B; Saremi, S; Stängle, H; Cowan, R; Sciolla, G; Sekula, S J; Spitznagel, M; Taylor, F; Yamamoto, R K; Kim, H; Mclachlin, S E; Patel, P M; Robertson, S H; Lazzaro, A; Lombardo, V; Palombo, F; Bauer, J M; Cremaldi, L; Eschenburg, V; Godang, R; Kroeger, R; Sanders, D A; Summers, D J; Zhao, H W; Brunet, S; Côté, D; Simard, M; Taras, P; Viaud, F B; Nicholson, H; Cavallo, N; De Nardo, Gallieno; Fabozzi, F; Gatto, C; Lista, L; Monorchio, D; Paolucci, P; Piccolo, D; Sciacca, C; Baak, M A; Raven, G; Snoek, H L; LoSecco, J M; Allmendinger, T; Benelli, G; Corwin, L A; Gan, K K; Honscheid, K; Hufnagel, D; Jackson, P D; Kagan, H; Kass, R; Rahimi, A M; Regensburger, J J; Ter-Antonian, R; Wong, Q K; Blount, N L; Brau, J E; Frey, R; Igonkina, O; Kolb, J A; Lu, M; Rahmat, R; Sinev, N B; Strom, D; Strube, J; Torrence, E; Gaz, A; Margoni, M; Morandin, M; Pompili, A; Posocco, M; Rotondo, M; Simonetto, F; Stroili, R; Voci, C; Benayoun, M; Briand, H; Chauveau, J; David, P; Del Buono, L; La Vaissière, C de; Hamon, O; Hartfiel, B L; John, M J J; Leruste, P; Malcles, J; Ocariz, J; Roos, L; Therin, G; Gladney, L; Panetta, J; Biasini, M; Covarelli, R; Angelini, C; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Bucci, F; Calderini, G; Carpinelli, M; Cenci, R; Forti, F; Giorgi, M A; Lusiani, A; Marchiori, G; Mazur, M A; Morganti, M; Neri, N; Paoloni, E; Rizzo, G; Walsh, J J; Haire, M; Judd, D; Wagoner, D E; Biesiada, J; Danielson, N; Elmer, P; Lau, Y P; Lü, C; Olsen, J; Smith, A J S; Telnov, A V; Bellini, F; Cavoto, G; D'Orazio, A; Del Re, D; Di Marco, E; Faccini, R; Ferrarotto, F; Ferroni, F; Gaspero, M; Li Gioi, L; Mazzoni, M A; Morganti, S; Piredda, G; Polci, F; Safai-Tehrani, F; Voena, C; Ebert, M; Schröder, H; Waldi, R; Adye, T; De Groot, N; Franek, B; Olaiya, E O; Wilson, F F; Aleksan, R; Emery, S; Gaidot, A; Ganzhur, S F; Hamel de Monchenault, G; Kozanecki, Witold; Legendre, M; Vasseur, G; Yéche, C; Zito, M; Chen, X R; Liu, H; Park, W; Purohit, M V; Wilson, J R; Allen, M T; Aston, D; Bartoldus, R; Bechtle, P; Berger, N; Claus, R; Coleman, J P; Convery, M R; Cristinziani, M; Dingfelder, J C; Dorfan, J; Dubois-Felsmann, G P; Dujmic, D; Dunwoodie, W M; Field, R C; Glanzman, T; Gowdy, S J; Graham, M T; Grenier, P; Halyo, V; Hast, C; Hrynóva, T; Innes, W R; Kelsey, M H; Kim, P; Leith, D W G S; Li, S; Luitz, S; Lüth, V; Lynch, H L; MacFarlane, D B; Marsiske, H; Messner, R; Müller, D R; O'Grady, C P; Ozcan, V E; Perazzo, A; Perl, M; Pulliam, T; Ratcliff, B N; Roodman, A; Salnikov, A A; Schindler, R H; Schwiening, J; Snyder, A; Stelzer, J; Su, D; Sullivan, M K; Suzuki, K; Swain, S K; Thompson, J M; Vavra, J; Van Bakel, N; Weaver, M; Weinstein, A J R; Wisniewski, W J; Wittgen, M; Wright, D H; Yarritu, A K; Yi, K; Young, C C; Burchat, P R; Edwards, A J; Majewski, S A; Petersen, B A; Roat, C; Wilden, L; Ahmed, S; Alam, M S; Bula, R; Ernst, J A; Jain, V; Pan, B; Saeed, M A; Wappler, F R; Zain, S B; Bugg, W; Krishnamurthy, M; Spanier, S M; Eckmann, R; Ritchie, J L; Satpathy, A; Schilling, C J; Schwitters, R F; Izen, J M; Lou, X C; Ye, S; Bianchi, F; Gallo, F; Gamba, D; Bomben, M; Bosisio, L; Cartaro, C; Cossutti, F; Della Ricca, G; Dittongo, S; Lanceri, L; Vitale, L; Azzolini, V; Lopez-March, N; Martínez-Vidal, F; Banerjee, Sw; Bhuyan, B; Brown, C M; Fortin, D; Hamano, K; Kowalewski, R V; Nugent, I M; Roney, J M; Sobie, R J; Back, J J; Harrison, P F; Latham, T E; Mohanty, G B; Pappagallo, M; Band, H R; Chen, X; Cheng, B; Dasu, S; Datta, M; Flood, K T; Hollar, J J; Kutter, P E; Mellado, B; Mihályi, A; Pan, Y; Pierini, M; Prepost, R; Wu, S L; Yu, Z; Neal, H; al, et

    2006-01-01

    The decay width and the mass of the D_s1(2536) have been measured via the decay channel D_s1 -> D*+K_S using 232 fb^-1 of data collected with the BABAR detector at the PEP-II asymmetric-energy e+e- storage ring. The result for the decay width is (1.03 +- 0.05 +- 0.12) MeV/c^2, with the first error denoting the statistical uncertainty and the second one the systematic uncertainty. For the mass, a value of (2534.85 +- 0.02 +- 0.40) MeV/c^2 has been obtained. The systematic error is dominated by the uncertainty on the D*+ mass. The mass difference between the D_s1 and D*+ has been measured to be (524.85 +- 0.02 +- 0.04) MeV/c^2.

  20. Characterization and genetic analysis of bovine alpha S1-casein I variant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lühken, G; Caroli, A; Ibeagha-Awemu, E M; Erhardt, G

    2009-08-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the molecular genetic origin underlying the I variant of alpha(s1)-casein and to develop a DNA-based test for this polymorphism as a tool for genetic analyses independent of milk sample testing. All coding exons and flanking regions of the alpha(s1)-casein gene were sequenced in DNA samples from cattle of known alpha(s1)-casein genotypes (BI, CI, II, CC), determined by isoelectric focusing of milk samples. A nucleotide substitution (A>T) in exon 11 (g.19836A>T) leads to the exchange of Glu with Asp at amino acid position 84 of the mature protein (p.Glu84Asp) and perfectly co-segregated with the presence of the alpha(s1)-casein I variant in the milk of the analysed animals. Genotyping of a total of 680 DNA samples from 31 Bos taurus and Bos indicus cattle breeds and from Bos grunniens, Bison bison and Bison bonasus by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis revealed the occurrence of Asp at position 84 at low frequencies in Bos taurus and Bos indicus breeds and established its origin from the alpha(s1)-casein C variant (p.Glu192Gly). Ten different intragenic haplotypes in the gene region from intron 8 to intron 12 were observed by sequencing, of which two occurred in Bison bison and one in Bison bonasus only. Using available casein gene complex information, an association of Asp at position 84 to beta-casein A(2) and kappa-casein B was shown in the Bos indicus breed Banyo Gudali. Taken together, we can postulate that the alpha(s1)-casein variant I is caused by a non-synonymous nucleotide substitution in exon 11 of the gene and that it originated within Bos indicus and spread to Bos taurus subsequently.

  1. Structural interactions between lipids, water and S1-S4 voltage-sensing domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krepkiy, Dmitriy; Gawrisch, Klaus; Swartz, Kenton J

    2012-11-01

    Membrane proteins serve crucial signaling and transport functions, yet relatively little is known about their structures in membrane environments or how lipids interact with these proteins. For voltage-activated ion channels, X-ray structures suggest that the mobile voltage-sensing S4 helix would be exposed to the membrane, and functional studies reveal that lipid modification can profoundly alter channel activity. Here, we use solid-state NMR to investigate structural interactions of lipids and water with S1-S4 voltage-sensing domains and to explore whether lipids influence the structure of the protein. Our results demonstrate that S1-S4 domains exhibit extensive interactions with lipids and that these domains are heavily hydrated when embedded in a membrane. We also find evidence for preferential interactions of anionic lipids with S1-S4 domains and that these interactions have lifetimes on the timescale of ≤ 10(-3)s. Arg residues within S1-S4 domains are well hydrated and are positioned in close proximity to lipids, exhibiting local interactions with both lipid headgroups and acyl chains. Comparative studies with a positively charged lipid lacking a phosphodiester group reveal that this lipid modification has only modest effects on the structure and hydration of S1-S4 domains. Taken together, our results demonstrate that Arg residues in S1-S4 voltage-sensing domains reside in close proximity to the hydrophobic interior of the membrane yet are well hydrated, a requirement for carrying charge and driving protein motions in response to changes in membrane voltage.

  2. Polynucleotide phosphorylase hinders mRNA degradation upon ribosomal protein S1 overexpression in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briani, Federica; Curti, Serena; Rossi, Francesca; Carzaniga, Thomas; Mauri, Pierluigi; Dehò, Gianni

    2008-11-01

    The exoribonuclease polynucleotide phosphorylase (PNPase, encoded by pnp) is a major player in bacterial RNA decay. In Escherichia coli, PNPase expression is post-transcriptionally regulated at the level of mRNA stability. The primary transcript is very efficiently processed by the endonuclease RNase III at a specific site and the processed pnp mRNA is rapidly degraded in a PNPase-dependent manner. While investigating the PNPase autoregulation mechanism we found, by UV-cross-linking experiments, that the ribosomal protein S1 in crude extracts binds to the pnp-mRNA leader region. We assayed the potential role of S1 protein in pnp gene regulation by modulating S1 expression from depletion to overexpression. We found that S1 depletion led to a sharp decrease of the amount of pnp and other tested mRNAs, as detected by Northern blotting, whereas S1 overexpression caused a strong stabilization of pnp and the other transcripts. Surprisingly, mRNA stabilization depended on PNPase, as it was not observed in a pnp deletion strain. PNPase-dependent stabilization, however, was not detected by chemical decay assay of bulk mRNA. Overall, our data suggest that PNPase exonucleolytic activity may be modulated by the translation potential of the target mRNAs and that, upon ribosomal protein S1 overexpression, PNPase protects from degradation a set of full-length mRNAs. It thus appears that a single mRNA species may be differentially targeted to either decay or PNPase-dependent stabilization, thus preventing its depletion in conditions of fast turnover.

  3. Regulation of Differentiation of Nitrogen-Fixing Bacteria by Microsymbiont Targeting of Plant Thioredoxin s1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Carolina Werner; Baldacci-Cresp, Fabien; Pierre, Olivier; Larousse, Marie; Benyamina, Sofiane; Lambert, Annie; Hopkins, Julie; Castella, Claude; Cazareth, Julie; Alloing, Geneviève; Boncompagni, Eric; Couturier, Jérémy; Mergaert, Peter; Gamas, Pascal; Rouhier, Nicolas; Montrichard, Françoise; Frendo, Pierre

    2017-01-23

    Legumes associate with rhizobia to form nitrogen (N2)-fixing nodules, which is important for plant fitness [1, 2]. Medicago truncatula controls the terminal differentiation of Sinorhizobium meliloti into N2-fixing bacteroids by producing defensin-like nodule-specific cysteine-rich peptides (NCRs) [3, 4]. The redox state of NCRs influences some biological activities in free-living bacteria, but the relevance of redox regulation of NCRs in planta is unknown [5, 6], although redox regulation plays a crucial role in symbiotic nitrogen fixation [7, 8]. Two thioredoxins (Trx), Trx s1 and s2, define a new type of Trx and are expressed principally in nodules [9]. Here, we show that there are four Trx s genes, two of which, Trx s1 and s3, are induced in the nodule infection zone where bacterial differentiation occurs. Trx s1 is targeted to the symbiosomes, the N2-fixing organelles. Trx s1 interacted with NCR247 and NCR335 and increased the cytotoxic effect of NCR335 in S. meliloti. We show that Trx s silencing impairs bacteroid growth and endoreduplication, two features of terminal bacteroid differentiation, and that the ectopic expression of Trx s1 in S. meliloti partially complements the silencing phenotype. Thus, our findings show that Trx s1 is targeted to the bacterial endosymbiont, where it controls NCR activity and bacteroid terminal differentiation. Similarly, Trxs are critical for the activation of defensins produced against infectious microbes in mammalian hosts. Therefore, our results suggest the Trx-mediated regulation of host peptides as a conserved mechanism among symbiotic and pathogenic interactions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Pharmacokinetic evaluation of novel oral fluorouracil antitumor drug S-1 in Chinese cancer patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi-xiang ZHUANG; Hong ZHU; Ji WANG; Min-gao ZHU; Hui WANG; Wang-yang PU; Hua-hui BIAN

    2013-01-01

    Aim:S-1 is an oral anticancer fluoropyrimidine formulation consisting of tegafur,5-chloro-2,4-dihydroxypyridine and potassium oxonate.The aim of this study was to evaluate the pharmacokinetics and bioequivalence of a newly developed generic formulation of S-1 in Chinese cancer patients in comparison with the branded reference formulation of S-1.Methods:A single-dose,randomized-sequence,open-label,two-way self-crossover study was conducted in 30 Chinese cancer patients.The subjects alternatively received the two formulations (40 mg/m2,po) with a 7-d interval.Plasma concentrations of FT,CDHP,Oxo,and 5-Fu were determined using LC-MS/MS.Pharmacokinetic parameters,including C Tmax,t1/2,AUC0-t,and AUC0-∞ were determined using non-compartmental models with DAS2.0 software.Bioequivalence of the two formulations were to be evaluated according to 90% Cls for the log-transformed ratios of AUC and Cmax of S-1.Adverse events were evaluated through monitoring the symptom,physical and laboratory examinations,ECGs and subject interviews.Results:The mean values of Cmax,AUC0-t,and AUC0-∞ of FT,5-Fu,CDHP,and Oxo for the two formulations had no significant differences.The 90% Cls for natural log-transformed ratios of C AUC0-t,and AUC0-∞ were within the predetermined bioequivalence acceptance limits.A total of 11 mild adverse events,including fatigue,nausea and vomiting,anorexia,diarrhea and myelosuppression,were observed,and no serious and special adverse events were found.Conclusion:The newly developed generic formulation and reference formulation of S-1 have similar pharmacokinetics with one dose (40 mg/m2) in Chinese cancer patients.Both the formulations of S-1 are well tolerated.

  5. Autoantibodies to αS1-casein are induced by breast-feeding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaudia Petermann

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The generation of antibodies is impaired in newborns due to an immature immune system and reduced exposure to pathogens due to maternally derived antibodies and placental functions. During nursing, the immune system of newborns is challenged with multiple milk-derived proteins. Amongst them, caseins are the main constituent. In particular, human αS1-casein (CSN1S1 was recently shown to possess immunomodulatory properties. We were thus interested to determine if auto-antibodies to CSN1S1 are induced by breast-feeding and may be sustained into adulthood. METHODS: 62 sera of healthy adult individuals who were (n = 37 or were not (n = 25 breast-fed against human CSN1S1 were investigated by a new SD (surface display-ELISA. For cross-checking, these sera were tested for anti Epstein-Barr virus (EBV antibodies by a commercial ELISA. RESULTS: IgG-antibodies were predominantly detected in individuals who had been nursed. At a cut-off value of 0.4, the SD-ELISA identified individuals with a history of having been breast-fed with a sensitivity of 80% and a specificity of 92%. Under these conditions, 35 out of 37 sera from healthy donors, who where breast-fed, reacted positively but only 5 sera of the 25 donors who were not breast-fed. The duration of breast-feeding was of no consequence to the antibody reaction as some healthy donors were only short term breast-fed (5 days minimum until 6 weeks maximum, but exhibited significant serum reaction against human CSN1S1 nonetheless. CONCLUSION: We postulate that human CSN1S1 is an autoantigen. The antigenicity is orally determined, caused by breast-feeding, and sustained into adulthood.

  6. Absorption characteristics of bacteriorhodopsin molecules

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    H K T Kumar; K Appaji Gowda

    2000-03-01

    The bacteriorhodopsin molecule absorbs light and undergoes a series of structural transformation following a well-defined photocycle. The complex photocycle is transformed to an equivalent level diagram by considering the lifetime of the intermediate states. Assuming that only and states are appreciably populated at any instant of time, the level diagram is further simplified to two-level system. Based on the rate equations for two-level system, an analytic expression for the absorption coefficient of bacteriorhodopsin molecule is derived. It is applied to study the behaviour of absorption coefficient of bacteriorhodopsin film in the visible wavelength region of 514 nm. The dependence of absorption coefficient of bacteriorhodopsin film on the thickness of the film, total number density of active molecules and initial number density of molecules in -state is presented in the graphical form.

  7. Cell adhesion molecules and sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Callaghan, Emma Kate; Ballester Roig, Maria Neus; Mongrain, Valérie

    2017-03-01

    Cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) play essential roles in the central nervous system, where some families are involved in synaptic development and function. These synaptic adhesion molecules (SAMs) are involved in the regulation of synaptic plasticity, and the formation of neuronal networks. Recent findings from studies examining the consequences of sleep loss suggest that these molecules are candidates to act in sleep regulation. This review highlights the experimental data that lead to the identification of SAMs as potential sleep regulators, and discusses results supporting that specific SAMs are involved in different aspects of sleep regulation. Further, some potential mechanisms by which SAMs may act to regulate sleep are outlined, and the proposition that these molecules may serve as molecular machinery in the two sleep regulatory processes, the circadian and homeostatic components, is presented. Together, the data argue that SAMs regulate the neuronal plasticity that underlies sleep and wakefulness. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd and Japan Neuroscience Society. All rights reserved.

  8. Special Issue: Single Molecule Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans H. Gorris

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Technological advances in the detection and manipulation of single molecules have enabled new insights into the function, structure and interactions of biomolecules. This Special Issue was launched to account for the rapid progress in the field of “Single Molecule Techniques”. Four original research articles and seven review articles provide an introduction, as well as an in-depth discussion, of technical developments that are indispensable for the characterization of individual biomolecules. Fluorescence microscopy takes center stage in this Special Issue because it is one of the most sensitive and flexible techniques, which has been adapted in many variations to the specific demands of single molecule analysis. Two additional articles are dedicated to single molecule detection based on atomic force microscopy.

  9. Quantum Transport Through Heterocyclic Molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiti, Santanu K.; Karmakar, S. N.

    We explore electron transport properties in molecular wires made of heterocyclic molecules (pyrrole, furan and thiophene) by using the Green's function technique. Parametric calculations are given based on the tight-binding model to describe the electron transport in these wires. It is observed that the transport properties are significantly influenced by (a) the heteroatoms in the heterocyclic molecules and (b) the molecule-to-electrodes coupling strength. Conductance (g) shows sharp resonance peaks associated with the molecular energy levels in the limit of weak molecular coupling, while they get broadened in the strong molecular coupling limit. These resonances get shifted with the change of the heteroatoms in these heterocyclic molecules. All the essential features of the electron transfer through these molecular wires become much more clearly visible from the study of our current-voltage (I-V) characteristics, and they provide several key information in the study of molecular transport.

  10. Substrate water exchange for the oxygen evolving complex in PSII in the S1, S2, and S3 states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegbahn, Per E M

    2013-06-26

    Detailed mechanisms for substrate water exchange in the oxygen evolving complex in photosystem II have been determined with DFT methods for large models. Existing interpretations of the experimental water exchange results have been quite different. By many groups, these results have been the main argument against the water oxidation mechanism suggested by DFT, in which the oxygen molecule is formed between a bridging oxo and an oxyl radical ligand in the center of the OEC. That mechanism is otherwise in line with most experiments. The problem has been that the mechanism requires a rather fast exchange of a bridging oxo ligand, which is not a common finding for smaller Mn-containing model systems. However, other groups have actually favored a substrate derived oxo ligand partly based on the same experiments. In the present study, three S-states have been studied, and the rates have been well reproduced by the calculations. The surprising experimental finding that water exchange in S1 is slower than the one in S2 is reproduced and explained. The key to this rate difference is the ease by which one of the manganese centers (Mn3) is reduced. This reduction has to occur to release the substrate water from Mn3. The similar rate of the slow exchange in S2 and S3 has been rationalized on the basis of earlier experiments combined with the present calculations. The results strongly support the previous DFT-suggested water oxidation mechanism.

  11. 11-cis retinal torsion: A QTAIM and stress tensor analysis of the S1 excited state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maza, Julio R.; Jenkins, Samantha; Kirk, Steven R.

    2016-05-01

    We investigate torsion about the C11-C12 bond mid-point for the S1 state of 11-cis retinal, using a QTAIM and stress tensor analysis. The QTAIM and stress tensor responses to a torsion ±α increase at a faster rate for the preferred direction of torsion though the CI seam. A QTAIM and stress tensor vector-based analysis provides an alternative way of characterising the asymmetry of the S1 potential energy surface. In the vicinity of the CI seam the ellipticity ε attained minimum values. The application of this analysis to molecular rotary motors is briefly discussed.

  12. Multispot array combined with S1 nuclease-mediated elimination of unpaired nucleotides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yoo, Seung Min; Kim, Dong Min; Lee, Sang Yup

    2015-01-01

    The accurate detection of mismatched base pairs is critical to many DNA hybridization-based applications in basic research and diagnostics. We herein demonstrate that mismatched DNAs on a multispot array can be accurately detected in a multiplexed way by employing the S1 nuclease-based mismatched......-target duplex. This technique of performing S1 nuclease-mediated cleavage on a multispot array offers high specificity and high-throughput detection of mismatched DNAs. It is expected that this assay system will prove useful for single-assay genotyping and/or the diagnosis of various diseases and pathogens....

  13. Ground State and Elementary Excitations of the S=1 Kagome Heisenberg Antiferromagnet

    OpenAIRE

    Hida, Kazuo

    2000-01-01

    Low energy spectrum of the S=1 kagom\\'e Heisenberg antiferromagnet (KHAF) is studied by means of exact diagonalization and the cluster expansion. The magnitude of the energy gap of the magnetic excitation is consistent with the recent experimental observation for \\mpynn. In contrast to the $S=1/2$ KHAF, the non-magnetic excitations have finite energy gap comparable to the magnetic excitation. As a physical picture of the ground state, the hexagon singlet solid state is proposed and verified b...

  14. $C^1$-actions of Baumslag-Solitar groups on $S^1$

    CERN Document Server

    Guelman, Nancy

    2010-01-01

    Let $BS(1, n)=$ be the solvable Baumslag-Solitar group, where $ n\\geq 2$. It is known that B(1, n) is isomorphic to the group generated by the two affine maps of the line : $f_0(x) = x + 1$ and $h_0(x) = nx $. The action on $S^1 = \\RR \\cup {\\infty}$ generated by these two affine maps $f_0$ and $h_0 $ is called the standard affine one. We prove that any representation of BS(1,n) into $Diff^1(S^1)$ is (up to a finite index subgroup) semiconjugated to the standard affine action.

  15. Guidance molecules in lung cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Nasarre, Patrick; Potiron, Vincent; Drabkin, Harry; Roche, Joëlle

    2010-01-01

    Guidance molecules were first described in the nervous system to control axon outgrowth direction. They are also widely expressed outside the nervous system where they control cell migration, tissue development and establishment of the vascular network. In addition, they are involved in cancer development, tumor angiogenesis and metastasis. This review is primarily focused on their functions in lung cancer and their involvement in lung development is also presented. Five guidance molecule fam...

  16. Plasmonic atoms and plasmonic molecules

    CERN Document Server

    Klimov, V V

    2007-01-01

    The proposed paradigm of plasmonic atoms and plasmonic molecules allows one to describe and predict the strongly localized plasmonic oscillations in the clusters of nanoparticles and some other nanostructures in uniform way. Strongly localized plasmonic molecules near the contacting surfaces might become the fundamental elements (by analogy with Lego bricks) for a construction of fully integrated opto-electronic nanodevices of any complexity and scale of integration.

  17. Plasmonic atoms and plasmonic molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimov, V. V.; Guzatov, D. V.

    2007-11-01

    The proposed paradigm of plasmonic atoms and plasmonic molecules allows one to describe and predict the strongly localized plasmonic oscillations in the clusters of nanoparticles and some other nanostructures in uniform way. Strongly localized plasmonic molecules near the contacting surfaces might become the fundamental elements (by analogy with Lego bricks) for the construction of fully integrated opto-electronic nanodevices of any complexity and scale of integration.

  18. Optofluidic single molecule flow proteometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Nan; Chou, Chao-Kai; Hung, Mien-Chie; Kameoka, Jun

    2009-02-01

    A microfluidic single molecule fluorescence-based detection scheme is developed to identify target protein direct from cell lysate by using polyclonal antibody. Relative concentration of target protein in solution is determined by twodimensional (2D) photon burst analysis. Compared to conventional ensemble measurement assays, this microfluidic single molecule approach combines the advantages of higher sensitivity, fast processing time, small sample consumption and high resolution quantitative analysis.

  19. Genetic evidence for involvement of neuronally expressed S1P₁ receptor in nociceptor sensitization and inflammatory pain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norbert Mair

    Full Text Available Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P is a key regulator of immune response. Immune cells, epithelia and blood cells generate high levels of S1P in inflamed tissue. However, it is not known if S1P acts on the endings of nociceptive neurons, thereby contributing to the generation of inflammatory pain. We found that the S1P₁ receptor for S1P is expressed in subpopulations of sensory neurons including nociceptors. Both S1P and agonists at the S1P₁ receptor induced hypersensitivity to noxious thermal stimulation in vitro and in vivo. S1P-induced hypersensitivity was strongly attenuated in mice lacking TRPV1 channels. S1P and inflammation-induced hypersensitivity was significantly reduced in mice with a conditional nociceptor-specific deletion of the S1P₁ receptor. Our data show that neuronally expressed S1P₁ receptors play a significant role in regulating nociceptor function and that S1P/S1P₁ signaling may be a key player in the onset of thermal hypersensitivity and hyperalgesia associated with inflammation.

  20. Laser slowing of CaF molecules to near the capture velocity of a molecular MOT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmerling, Boerge; Chae, Eunmi; Ravi, Aakash; Anderegg, Loic; Drayna, Garrett K.; Hutzler, Nicholas R.; Collopy, Alejandra L.; Ye, Jun; Ketterle, Wolfgang; Doyle, John M.

    2016-09-01

    Laser slowing of CaF molecules down to the capture velocity of a magneto-optical trap for molecules is achieved. Starting from a two-stage buffer gas beam source, we apply frequency-broadened ‘white-light’ slowing and observe approximately 6× {10}4 CaF molecules in a single pulse with velocities 10 ± 4 m s-1. CaF is a candidate for collisional studies in the mK regime. This work represents a significant step towards magneto-optical trapping of CaF.

  1. Odd Graceful Labeling of Graph Pr,(2s-1)%关于Pr,(2s-1)的奇优美标号

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李武装; 严谦泰

    2011-01-01

    Let G = <V, E< be a simple graph. If there exist a mapping / : V(G) → {0,1,2, ? ? ? , 2 ∣E∣-l} satisfied 1) (A)u, v ∈= V, if u ≠ v,then /(u) ≠(v), 2) max{f(v) ∣v ∈ V } = 2 ∣E∣ - 1; 3) (A)e1, e2 ∈ E, if e1 ≠ e2, then g(e1) ≠g(e2), where S(e) = |f(u) + f(v)\\, e = uv; 4) {g{e) |e ∈ E} = {1, 3, 5, ? ? ? , 2 |E| - 1}, then G is called odd graceful graph, / is called oddgraceful labeling of G. Mr. Gnanajoethiproposed a conjecture that every tree is odd graceful. In this paper, we proved that graph Pr,(2s-1) are odd graceful graphs.%对于简单图G=(V,E),如果存在一个映射f∶V(G)→{0,1,2,…,2|E|-1}满足1)对任意的u,v∈V,若u≠v,则(u)≠f(v);2)max{f(v)|v∈V}=2 |E| -1;3)对任意的e1,e2∈E,若e1≠e2,则g(e1)≠g(e2),此处g(e)=|f(u)+f(v)|,e=vv;4){g(e)|e∈E}={1,3,5,…,2|E| -1},则称G是奇优美图,f称为G的奇优美标号.Gnanajoethi提出了一个猜想:每棵树都是奇优美的.证明了图Pr,(2s-1)是奇优美图.

  2. Determination of the hyperfine coupling constant of the cesium 7S1/2 state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Guang; Wang, Jie; Yang, Baodong; Wang, Junmin

    2016-08-01

    We report the hyperfine splitting (HFS) measurement of the cesium (Cs) 7S1/2 state by optical-optical double-resonance spectroscopy with the Cs 6S1/2-6P3/2-7S1/2 (852 nm  +  1470 nm) ladder-type system. The HFS frequency calibration is performed by employing a phase-type waveguide electro-optic modulator together with a stable confocal Fabry-Perot cavity. From the measured HFS between the F″  =  3 and F″  =  4 manifolds of the Cs 7S1/2 state (HFS  =  2183.273  ±  0.062 MHz), we have determined the magnetic dipole hyperfine coupling constant (A  =  545.818  ±  0.016 MHz), which is in good agreement with the previous work but much more precise.

  3. Classification of (D4,S1)-equivariant bifurcation problems up to topological codimension 2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO; Shouping(高守平); LI; Yangcheng(李养成)

    2003-01-01

    The techniques from singularity theory are applied to the multiparameter bifurcation problem.The classification of (D4, S1)-equivariant bifurcation problems with topological codimension less than or equal to 2 is given. The corresponding recognition conditions are set up.

  4. Robustness of S1 statistic with Hodges-Lehmann for skewed distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahad, Nor Aishah; Yahaya, Sharipah Soaad Syed; Yin, Lee Ping

    2016-10-01

    Analysis of variance (ANOVA) is a common use parametric method to test the differences in means for more than two groups when the populations are normally distributed. ANOVA is highly inefficient under the influence of non- normal and heteroscedastic settings. When the assumptions are violated, researchers are looking for alternative such as Kruskal-Wallis under nonparametric or robust method. This study focused on flexible method, S1 statistic for comparing groups using median as the location estimator. S1 statistic was modified by substituting the median with Hodges-Lehmann and the default scale estimator with the variance of Hodges-Lehmann and MADn to produce two different test statistics for comparing groups. Bootstrap method was used for testing the hypotheses since the sampling distributions of these modified S1 statistics are unknown. The performance of the proposed statistic in terms of Type I error was measured and compared against the original S1 statistic, ANOVA and Kruskal-Wallis. The propose procedures show improvement compared to the original statistic especially under extremely skewed distribution.

  5. Final State Interactions and Delta S=-1, Delta C=\\pm 1 B--decays

    CERN Document Server

    Fayyazuddin, A

    2002-01-01

    The final state interactions (FSI) in Delta S=-1, Delta C=\\pm 1, decays of B-meson are discussed. The rescattering corrections are found to be of order of 15-20%. The strong interaction phase shifts are estimated and their effects on CP-asymmetry are discussed.

  6. Crystallization and preliminary crystallographic study of the yeast Malassezia sympodialis allergen Mala s 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vilhelmsson, Monica, E-mail: monica.vilhelmsson@medks.ki.se [Department of Medicine, Clinical Allergy Research Unit, Karolinska Institutet and Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden); Center for Infectious Medicine, Department of Medicine, Karolinska University Hospital, Huddinge, Stockholm (Sweden); Hallberg, B. Martin [Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Stockholm University, Stockholm (Sweden); Rasool, Omid; Zargari, Arezou; Scheynius, Annika [Department of Medicine, Clinical Allergy Research Unit, Karolinska Institutet and Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden); Achour, Adnane [Center for Infectious Medicine, Department of Medicine, Karolinska University Hospital, Huddinge, Stockholm (Sweden); Department of Medicine, Clinical Allergy Research Unit, Karolinska Institutet and Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2006-02-01

    Crystals of the M. sympodialis allergen Mala s 1 have been obtained using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. A diffraction data set has been collected from native crystals to 1.35 Å resolution. The opportunistic yeast Malassezia sympodialis can act as an allergen and elicit specific IgE- and T-cell reactivity in patients with atopic eczema. The first identified major allergen from M. sympodialis, Mala s 1, is present on the cell surface of the yeast. Recombinant Mala s 1 was expressed in Escherichia coli, purified and refolded in a soluble form. Crystals of Mala s 1 were obtained in 25% PEG 8K, 0.2 M (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}SO{sub 4}. Crystals belong to space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2, with unit-cell parameters a = 44.4, b = 163.7, c = 50.6 Å, and diffract to 1.35 Å resolution.

  7. Ultrafast excited state dynamics of S2 and S1 states of triphenylmethane dyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singhal, Pallavi; Ghosh, Hirendra N

    2014-08-21

    Excited state dynamics of S2 and S1 states for a series of TPM dyes, pyrogallol red (PGR), bromopyrogallol red (Br-PGR) and aurin tricarboxylic acid (ATC), have been monitored by using ultrafast transient absorption and fluorescence up-conversion techniques. Optical absorption studies indicate that all the TPM dyes exist as keto-enol tautomers depending upon the pH of the solution. Interestingly, all the TPM dyes give S2 emission (major emitting state) in addition to weak S1 emission. S2 emission lifetimes as fast as ∼150-300 fs and S1 emission lifetimes of 2-5 ns were observed depending upon the molecular structure of the dyes. Femtosecond transient absorption studies suggest the presence of an ultrafast non-radiative decay channel from the S2 state in addition to S2 luminescence. The vibrational relaxation time from hot S1 state is found to be 2-6 ps. The heavy atom effect has been observed in ultrafast relaxation dynamics of Br-PGR.

  8. Neutron-scattering cross section of the S=1/2 Heisenberg triangular antiferromagnet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lefmann, K.; Hedegård, P.

    1994-01-01

    In this paper we use a Schwinger-boson mean-field approach to calculate the neutron-scattering cross section from the S = 1/2 antiferromagnet with nearest-neighbor isotropic Heisenberg interaction on a two-dimensional triangular lattice. We investigate two solutions for T = 0: (i) a state with long...

  9. Study of S1 detector' time resolution at NA61/SHINE experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Balkova, Yuliia

    2017-01-01

    This document presents the final report on my project at CERN Summer Student Programme. The aim of the work was to determine time resolution of S1 (scintillation) detector at NA61/SHINE experiment's beamline and how it depends on readout voltage, beam size and beam position.

  10. High-Dispersion Spectroscopic Observations of Comet C/2012 S1 (ISON) with the Subaru Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinnaka, Yoshiharu; Kawakita, Hideyo; Nagashima, Masayoshi; Hitomi, Kobayashi; Decock, Alice; Jehin, Emmanuel; Boice, Daniel C.

    2014-11-01

    Comet C/2012 S1 (ISON) was one of the Oort cloud comets and dynamically new. This comet was broken at its perihelion passage on UT 2013 November 28.1 (at Rh ~ 17 solar radius). We observed the comet C/2012 S1 (ISON) on UT 2013 November 15 with the High Dispersion Spectrograph (HDS) mounted on the Subaru Telescope atop Mauna Kea, Hawaii. Its heliocentric and geocentric distances were 0.601 and 0.898 AU, respectively. We selected the slit size of 0”.5 x 9”.0 on the sky to achieve the spectral resolution of R = 72,000 from 550 to 830 nm. The total exposure time of comet C/2012 S1 (ISON) was 1200 seconds. We detected many emission lines caused from radicals (e.g., CN, C2, NH2), ions (H2O+), atoms ([OI] and Na I) and also many unidentified lines in the spectra. We report the (1) the ortho-to-para abundance ratios (OPRs) of water and ammonia estimated from the high-dispersion spectra of H2O+ and NH2, (2) the green-to-red line ratio of forbidden oxygen emissions, (3) the isotopic ratios of C2 (the carbon isotopic ratio from Swan band) and CN (the carbon and nitrogen isotopic ratios from red band), (4) the sodium-to-continuum ratio of comet C/2012 S1 (ISON).

  11. Goat's αS1-casein polymorphism affects gene expression profile of lactating mammary gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ollier, S; Chauvet, S; Martin, P; Chilliard, Y; Leroux, C

    2008-04-01

    Goat's αS1-casein (CSN1S1) polymorphism has a significant effect on milk protein and lipid composition, which affects the nutritional quality and technological properties of milk. Moreover, this polymorphism has a large impact on the morphology of mammary epithelial cells. To explore the metabolic pathways modulated in relation to this polymorphism, we compared the mammary gene expression profiles of two groups of lactating goats carrying either two reference or two defective alleles, using a bovine oligonucleotide microarray representing 8379 genes. We identified 41 differentially expressed genes between the two genotype groups. In particular, we showed a downregulation of two key lipogenic genes encoding fatty acid synthase and glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase in agreement with the low fat concentration associated with CSN1S1 deficiency. In addition, this study highlights changes in the expression level of several genes known to influence membrane fluidity, cell-cell interaction or chromatin organization. Our results open up new fields of investigation on structural modifications associated with CSN1S1 deficiency that could affect mammary gland function.

  12. Universality of the Ising and the S=1 model on Archimedean lattices: A Monte Carlo determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malakis, A.; Gulpinar, G.; Karaaslan, Y.; Papakonstantinou, T.; Aslan, G.

    2012-03-01

    The Ising models S=1/2 and S=1 are studied by efficient Monte Carlo schemes on the (3,4,6,4) and the (3,3,3,3,6) Archimedean lattices. The algorithms used, a hybrid Metropolis-Wolff algorithm and a parallel tempering protocol, are briefly described and compared with the simple Metropolis algorithm. Accurate Monte Carlo data are produced at the exact critical temperatures of the Ising model for these lattices. Their finite-size analysis provide, with high accuracy, all critical exponents which, as expected, are the same with the well-known 2D Ising model exact values. A detailed finite-size scaling analysis of our Monte Carlo data for the S=1 model on the same lattices provides very clear evidence that this model obeys, also very well, the 2D Ising model critical exponents. As a result, we find that recent Monte Carlo simulations and attempts to define effective dimensionality for the S=1 model on these lattices are misleading. Accurate estimates are obtained for the critical amplitudes of the logarithmic expansions of the specific heat for both models on the two Archimedean lattices.

  13. Compositional Dependence of Structural Properties of Prepared PbS1− Alloys and Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. F. A. Alias

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Results of a study of PbS1− alloys and films with various Pb content have been reported and discussed. Films of PbS1− of thickness 1.5 μm have been deposited on glass substrates by flash thermal evaporation method at room temperature, under vacuum at constant deposition rate. These films were annealed under vacuum around 10−6 Torr at different temperatures up to 523 K. The composition of the elements in PbS1− alloys was determined by standard surfaces techniques such as atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS and X-ray fluorescence (XRF, and the results were found of high accuracy and in very good agreement with the theoretical values. The structure for alloys and films is determined by using X-ray diffraction. This measurement reveals that the structure is polycrystalline with cubic structure and there are strong peaks at the direction (200 and (111. The effect of heat treatment on the crystalline orientation, relative intensity, and grain size of PbS1− films is presented.

  14. Simultaneous production of hydrogen and ethanol from waste glycerol by Enterobacter aerogenes KKU-S1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reungsang, Alissara; Sittijunda, Sureewan; Angelidaki, Irini

    2013-01-01

    Factors affecting simultaneous hydrogen and ethanol production from waste glycerol by a newly isolated bacterium Enterobacter aerogenes KKU-S1 were investigated employing response surface methodology (RSM) with central composite design (CCD). The Plackett-Burman design was first used to screen th...

  15. On the (S-1, S) Lost Sales Inventory Model with Priority Demand Classes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Dekker (Rommert); R.M. Hill; M.J. Kleijn (Marcel)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper an inventory model with several demand classes, prioritised according to importance, is analysed. We consider a lot-for-lot or (S-1,S) inventory model with lost sales. For each demand class there is a critical stock level at and below which demand from that class is not

  16. Bioremediation of wastewater from edible oil refinery factory using oleaginous microalga Desmodesmus sp. S1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mar, Cho Cho; Fan, Yong; Li, Fu-Li; Hu, Guang-Rong

    2016-12-01

    Edible oil industry produced massive wastewater, which requires extensive treatment to remove pungent smell, high phosphate, carbon oxygen demand (COD), and metal ions prior to discharge. Traditional anaerobic and aerobic digestion could mainly reduce COD of the wastewater from oil refinery factories (WEORF). In this study, a robust oleaginous microalga Desmodesmus sp. S1 was adapted to grow in WEORF. The biomass and lipid content of Desmodesmus sp. S1 cultivated in the WEORF supplemented with sodium nitrate were 5.62 g·L(-1) and 14.49%, whereas those in the WEORF without adding nitrate were 2.98 g·L(-1) and 21.95%. More than 82% of the COD and 53% of total phosphorous were removed by Desmodesmus sp. S1. In addition, metal ions, including ferric, aluminum, manganese and zinc were also diminished significantly in the WEORF after microalgal growth, and pungent smell vanished as well. In comparison with the cells grown in BG-11 medium, the cilia-like bulges and wrinkles on the cell surface of Desmodesmus sp. S1 grown in WEORF became out of order, and more polyunsaturated fatty acids were detected due to stress derived from the wastewater. The study suggests that growing microalgae in WEORF can be applied for the dual roles of nutrient removal and biofuel feedstock production.

  17. New Universality Class in the S=1/2 Fibonacci Heisenberg Chains

    OpenAIRE

    Hida, Kazuo

    2004-01-01

    Low energy properties of the S=1/2 antiferromagnetic Heisenberg chains with Fibonacci exchange modulation are studied using the real space renormalization group method for strong exchange modulation. It is found that the ground state of this model belongs to a new universality class with logarithmically divergent dynamical exponent which is neither like Fibonacci XY chains nor like XY chains with relevant aperiodicity.

  18. Radii in the $sd$ shell and the $s_{1/2}$ "halo" orbit: A game changer

    CERN Document Server

    Bonnard, J

    2016-01-01

    Proton radii of nuclei in the $sd$ shell depart appreciably from the asymptotic law, $\\rho_{\\pi}=\\rho_0A^{1/3}$. The departure exhibits systematic trends fairly well described by a single phenomenological term in the Duflo-Zuker formulation, which also happens to explain the sudden increase in slope in the isotope shifts of several chains at neutron number $N=28$. It was recently shown that this term is associated with the abnormally large size of the $s_{1/2}$ and $p$ orbits in the $sd$ and $pf$ shells respectively. Further to explore the problem, we propose to calculate microscopically radii in the former. Since the (square) radius is basically a one body operator, its evolution is dictated by single particle occupancies determined by shell model calculations. Assuming that the departure from the asymptotic form is entirely due to the $s_{1/2}$ orbit, the expectation value $\\langle s_{1/2}|r^2|s_{1/2}\\rangle$ is determined by demanding that its evolution be such as to describe well nuclear radii. It does, f...

  19. On the (S-1,S) model for renewal demand processes: Poisson's poison

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.A.J. Smith; R. Dekker (Rommert)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractIn the standard (S - 1,S) stock model, demand follows a Poisson process. It has appeared to many stock analysts that this model causes an abundance of stock in reality. In case demand is caused by failure or is derived from another process, demand typically does not follow a Poisson proc

  20. Effect of Self-Regulated Learning and Motivation to Achieve against Teacher Professional Capability for Student S1 PGSD of Science Field Compared with Regular Student S1 PGSD at UPBJJ Serang

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prayekti

    2015-01-01

    This study is to know effect of self-regulated learning and motivation to achieve against teacher professional capability for student S1 PGSD of science field compared with regular student S1 PGSD. The student uses grades of Classroom Action Research (CAR) and Stabilization of Professional Capability (SPC) on curriculum of S1 PGSD to see…

  1. Pan-STARRS 1 observations of the unusual active Centaur P/2011 S1(Gibbs)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, H. W.; Ip, W. H.; Chen, W. P. [Institute of Astronomy, National Central University, Taoyuan 32001, Taiwan (China); Chen, Y. T. [Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica, P.O. Box 23-141, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Lacerda, P. [Astrophysics Research Centre, School of Mathematics and Physics, Queens University Belfast, Belfast BT7 1NN (United Kingdom); Holman, M.; Protopapas, P. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Burgett, W. S.; Chambers, K. C.; Flewelling, H.; Huber, M. E.; Jedicke, R.; Kaiser, N.; Magnier, E. A.; Metcalfe, N. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Price, P. A., E-mail: edlin@gm.astro.ncu.edu.tw [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States)

    2014-05-01

    P/2011 S1 (Gibbs) is an outer solar system comet or active Centaur with a similar orbit to that of the famous 29P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 1. P/2011 S1 (Gibbs) has been observed by the Pan-STARRS 1 (PS1) sky survey from 2010 to 2012. The resulting data allow us to perform multi-color studies of the nucleus and coma of the comet. Analysis of PS1 images reveals that P/2011 S1 (Gibbs) has a small nucleus <4 km radius, with colors g {sub P1} – r {sub P1} = 0.5 ± 0.02, r {sub P1} – i {sub P1} = 0.12 ± 0.02, and i {sub P1} – z {sub P1} = 0.46 ± 0.03. The comet remained active from 2010 to 2012, with a model-dependent mass-loss rate of ∼100 kg s{sup –1}. The mass-loss rate per unit surface area of P/2011 S1 (Gibbs) is as high as that of 29P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 1, making it one of the most active Centaurs. The mass-loss rate also varies with time from ∼40 kg s{sup –1} to 150 kg s{sup –1}. Due to its rather circular orbit, we propose that P/2011 S1 (Gibbs) has 29P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 1-like outbursts that control the outgassing rate. The results indicate that it may have a similar surface composition to that of 29P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 1. Our numerical simulations show that the future orbital evolution of P/2011 S1 (Gibbs) is more similar to that of the main population of Centaurs than to that of 29P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 1. The results also demonstrate that P/2011 S1 (Gibbs) is dynamically unstable and can only remain near its current orbit for roughly a thousand years.

  2. Single-molecule fluorescence autocorrelation experiments on pentacene : The dependence of intersystem crossing on isotopic composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, A.C.J.; Köhler, J.; Oijen, A.M. van; Groenen, E.J.J.; Schmidt, J.

    1999-01-01

    Single pentacene molecules containing 13C or 1H in a pentacene-d14 doped p-terphenyl crystal have been studied by fluorescence autocorrelation. The triplet dynamics has been analyzed and a systematic dependence of the S1→T1 intersystem crossing rate on isotopic composition was found. This variation

  3. Signaling Molecules and Pulp Regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmalz, Gottfried; Widbiller, Matthias; Galler, Kerstin M

    2017-09-01

    Signaling molecules play an essential role in tissue engineering because they regulate regenerative processes. Evidence exists from animal studies that single molecules such as members of the transforming growth factor beta superfamily and factors that induce the growth of blood vessels (vascular endothelial growth factor), nerves (brain-derived neurotrophic factor), or fibroblasts (fibroblast growth factor) may induce reparative dentin formation. Mainly the formation of atubular dentin (osteodentin) has been described after the application of single molecules or combinations of recombinant growth factors on healthy exposed pulps or in pulp regeneration. Generally, such preparations have not received regulatory approval on the market so far. Only the use of granulocyte colony-stimulating factors together with cell transplantation is presently tested clinically. Besides approaches with only 1 or few combined molecules, the exploitation of tissue-derived growth factors depicts a third promising way in dental pulp tissue engineering. Preparations such as platelet-rich plasma or platelet-rich fibrin provide a multitude of endogenous signaling molecules, and special regulatory approval for the market does not seem necessary. Furthermore, dentin is a perfect reservoir of signaling molecules that can be mobilized by treatment with demineralizing agents such as EDTA. This conditions the dentin surface and allows for contact differentiation of pulp stem cells into odontoblastlike cells, protects dentin from resorption, and enhances cell growth as well as attachment to dentin. By ultrasonic activation, signaling molecules can be further released from EDTA pretreated dentin into saline, thus avoiding cytotoxic EDTA in the final preparation. The use of dentin-derived growth factors offers a number of advantages because they are locally available and presumably are most fit to induce signaling processes in dental pulp. However, better characterization and standardization of the

  4. Raman Optical Activity Spectra for Large Molecules through Molecules-in-Molecules Fragment-Based Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovan Jose, K V; Raghavachari, Krishnan

    2016-02-09

    We present an efficient method for the calculation of the Raman optical activity (ROA) spectra for large molecules through the molecules-in-molecules (MIM) fragment-based method. The relevant higher energy derivatives from smaller fragments are used to build the property tensors of the parent molecule to enable the extension of the MIM method for evaluating ROA spectra (MIM-ROA). Two factors were found to be particularly important in yielding accurate results. First, the link-atom tensor components are projected back onto the corresponding host and supporting atoms through the Jacobian projection method, yielding a mathematically rigorous method. Second, the long-range interactions between fragments are taken into account by using a less computationally expensive lower level of theory. The performance of the MIM-ROA model is calibrated on the enantiomeric pairs of 10 carbohydrate benchmark molecules, with strong intramolecular interactions. The vibrational frequencies and ROA intensities are accurately reproduced relative to the full, unfragmented, results for these systems. In addition, the MIM-ROA method is employed to predict the ROA spectra of d-maltose, α-D-cyclodextrin, and cryptophane-A, yielding spectra in excellent agreement with experiment. The accuracy and performance of the benchmark systems validate the MIM-ROA model for exploring ROA spectra of large molecules.

  5. The Molecule Cloud - compact visualization of large collections of molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertl, Peter; Rohde, Bernhard

    2012-07-06

    Analysis and visualization of large collections of molecules is one of the most frequent challenges cheminformatics experts in pharmaceutical industry are facing. Various sophisticated methods are available to perform this task, including clustering, dimensionality reduction or scaffold frequency analysis. In any case, however, viewing and analyzing large tables with molecular structures is necessary. We present a new visualization technique, providing basic information about the composition of molecular data sets at a single glance. A method is presented here allowing visual representation of the most common structural features of chemical databases in a form of a cloud diagram. The frequency of molecules containing particular substructure is indicated by the size of respective structural image. The method is useful to quickly perceive the most prominent structural features present in the data set. This approach was inspired by popular word cloud diagrams that are used to visualize textual information in a compact form. Therefore we call this approach "Molecule Cloud". The method also supports visualization of additional information, for example biological activity of molecules containing this scaffold or the protein target class typical for particular scaffolds, by color coding. Detailed description of the algorithm is provided, allowing easy implementation of the method by any cheminformatics toolkit. The layout algorithm is available as open source Java code. Visualization of large molecular data sets using the Molecule Cloud approach allows scientists to get information about the composition of molecular databases and their most frequent structural features easily. The method may be used in the areas where analysis of large molecular collections is needed, for example processing of high throughput screening results, virtual screening or compound purchasing. Several example visualizations of large data sets, including PubChem, ChEMBL and ZINC databases using

  6. The Molecule Cloud - compact visualization of large collections of molecules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ertl Peter

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Analysis and visualization of large collections of molecules is one of the most frequent challenges cheminformatics experts in pharmaceutical industry are facing. Various sophisticated methods are available to perform this task, including clustering, dimensionality reduction or scaffold frequency analysis. In any case, however, viewing and analyzing large tables with molecular structures is necessary. We present a new visualization technique, providing basic information about the composition of molecular data sets at a single glance. Summary A method is presented here allowing visual representation of the most common structural features of chemical databases in a form of a cloud diagram. The frequency of molecules containing particular substructure is indicated by the size of respective structural image. The method is useful to quickly perceive the most prominent structural features present in the data set. This approach was inspired by popular word cloud diagrams that are used to visualize textual information in a compact form. Therefore we call this approach “Molecule Cloud”. The method also supports visualization of additional information, for example biological activity of molecules containing this scaffold or the protein target class typical for particular scaffolds, by color coding. Detailed description of the algorithm is provided, allowing easy implementation of the method by any cheminformatics toolkit. The layout algorithm is available as open source Java code. Conclusions Visualization of large molecular data sets using the Molecule Cloud approach allows scientists to get information about the composition of molecular databases and their most frequent structural features easily. The method may be used in the areas where analysis of large molecular collections is needed, for example processing of high throughput screening results, virtual screening or compound purchasing. Several example visualizations of large

  7. Molecule-by-Molecule Writing Using a Focused Electron Beam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Dorp, Willem F.; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Feringa, Ben L.;

    2012-01-01

    on graphene can be followed molecule-by-molecule with FEBID. The results show that mechanisms that are inherent to the process inhibit a further increase in control over the process. Hence, our results present the resolution limit of (electron) optical lithography techniques. The writing of isolated...... atoms also be written with an electron beam? We verify this with focused electron-beam-induced deposition (FEBID), a direct-write technique that has the current record for the smallest feature written by (electron) optical lithography. We show that the deposition of an organometallic precursor...

  8. Role of Interactions in Electronic Structure of a Two-Electron Quantum Dot Molecule

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG Qing-Rui; XU Ying-Qiang; ZHANG Shi-Yong; NIU Zhi-Chuan

    2004-01-01

    @@ We have studied a two-electron quantum dot molecule in a magnetic field. The electron interaction is treated accurately by the direct diagonalization of the Hamiltonian matrix. We calculate two lowest energy levels of the two-electron quantum dot molecule in a magnetic field. Our results show that the electron interactions are significant, as they can change the total spin of the two-electron ground state of the system by adjusting the magnetic field between S = 0 and S = 1. The energy difference △E between the lowest S = 0 and S = 1 states is shown as a function of the axial magnetic field. We found that the energy difference between the lowest S = 0 and S = 1 states in the strong-B S = 0 state varies linearly. Our results provide a possible realization for a qubit to be fabricated by current growth techniques.

  9. Fundamental properties of molecules on surfaces. Molecular switching and interaction of magnetic molecules with superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatter, Nino

    2016-12-14

    ;'free spin'' ground state is observed. At the point of the phase transition, the relative intensities of the Shiba states in the triplets change. In the ''Kondo screened'' ground state, equal relative intensities of the Shiba states are a manifestation of a spin of 1/2 in the ground state, where the Shiba states correspond to excitations to an anisotropy-split excited state with a spin of S = 1. In the ''free spin'' ground state, the relative intensities follow a Boltzmann distribution, which indicates a thermal occupation of energy-split ground state levels of the S = 1 state. In the last experiment, we deposited ammonia to MnPc on Pb(111). Ammonia coordinates to the central Mn ion. At 1.2 K, only one pair of Shiba states is found at energies close to the superconducting gap edge and with higher intensity at positive energies. By increasing the temperature, up to three Shiba states appear. They exhibit a larger energy splitting compared to pure MnPc on Pb(111) and their relative intensity distribution suggests that all MnPc-NH{sub 3} are in the ''free spin'' ground state with a spin of S = 1. We conclude that ammonia leads to a reduction of the exchange coupling strength to the surface. A zero-bias resonance is observed in the normal conducting state, which is attributed to spin correlations in the weak coupling Kondo regime. Inelastic spin excitations are superimposed on this zero-bias resonance. Their characteristic shift in a magnetic field confirms the spin state of S = 1.

  10. Vibration and Vibration-Torsion Levels of the S_{1} and Ground Cationic D_{0}^{+} States of Para-Fluorotoluene and Para-Xylene Below 1000 \\wn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuttle, William Duncan; Gardner, Adrian M.; Whalley, Laura E.; Wright, Timothy G.

    2017-06-01

    We have employed resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionisation (REMPI) spectroscopy and zero-kinetic-energy (ZEKE) spectroscopy to investigate the first excited electronic singlet (S_{1}) state and the cationic ground state (D_{0}^{+}) of para-fluorotoluene (pFT) and para-xylene (pXyl). Spectra have been recorded via a large number of selected intermediate levels, to support assignment of the vibration and vibration-torsion levels in these molecules and to investigate possible couplings. The study of levels in this region builds upon previous work on the lower energy regions of pFT and pXyl and here we are interested in how vibration-torsion (vibtor) levels might combine and interact with vibrational ones, and so we consider the possible couplings which occur. Comparisons between the spectra of the two molecules show a close correspondence, and the influence of the second methyl rotor in para-xylene on the onset of intramolecular vibrational redistribution (IVR) in the S_{1} state is a point of interest. This has bearing on future work which will need to consider the role of both more flexible side chains of substituted benzene molecules, and multiple side chains. A. M. Gardner, W. D. Tuttle, L. Whalley, A. Claydon, J. H. Carter and T. G. Wright, J. Chem. Phys., 145, 124307 (2016). A. M. Gardner, W. D. Tuttle, P. Groner and T. G. Wright, J. Chem. Phys., (2017, in press). W. D. Tuttle, A. M. Gardner, K. O'Regan, W. Malewicz and T. G. Wright, J. Chem. Phys., (2017, in press).

  11. Discovery of 3-arylpropionic acids as potent agonists of sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor-1 (S1P1) with high selectivity against all other known S1P receptor subtypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Lin; Huo, Pei; Doherty, George; Toth, Lesile; Hale, Jeffrey J; Mills, Sander G; Hajdu, Richard; Keohane, Carol A; Rosenbach, Mark J; Milligan, James A; Shei, Gan-Ju; Chrebet, Gary; Bergstrom, James; Card, Deborah; Quackenbush, Elizabeth; Wickham, Alexandra; Mandala, Suzanne M

    2006-07-15

    A series of 3-arylpropionic acids were synthesized as S1P1 receptor agonists. Structure-activity relationship studies on the pendant phenyl ring revealed several structural features offering selectivity of S1P1 binding against S1P2-5. These highly selective S1P1 agonists induced peripheral blood lymphocyte lowering in mice and one of them was found to be efficacious in a rat skin transplantation model, supporting that S1P1 agonism is primarily responsible for the immunosuppressive efficacy observed in preclinical animal models.

  12. Bioactivity and structural properties of chimeric analogs of the starfish SALMFamide neuropeptides S1 and S2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Christopher E; Otara, Claire B; Younan, Nadine D; Viles, John H; Elphick, Maurice R

    2014-10-01

    The starfish SALMFamide neuropeptides S1 (GFNSALMFamide) and S2 (SGPYSFNSGLTFamide) are the prototypical members of a family of neuropeptides that act as muscle relaxants in echinoderms. Comparison of the bioactivity of S1 and S2 as muscle relaxants has revealed that S2 is ten times more potent than S1. Here we investigated a structural basis for this difference in potency by comparing the bioactivity and solution conformations (using NMR and CD spectroscopy) of S1 and S2 with three chimeric analogs of these peptides. A peptide comprising S1 with the addition of S2's N-terminal tetrapeptide (Long S1 or LS1; SGPYGFNSALMFamide) was not significantly different to S1 in its bioactivity and did not exhibit concentration-dependent structuring seen with S2. An analog of S1 with its penultimate residue substituted from S2 (S1(T); GFNSALTFamide) exhibited S1-like bioactivity and structure. However, an analog of S2 with its penultimate residue substituted from S1 (S2(M); SGPYSFNSGLMFamide) exhibited loss of S2-type bioactivity and structural properties. Collectively, our data indicate that the C-terminal regions of S1 and S2 are the key determinants of their differing bioactivity. However, the N-terminal region of S2 may influence its bioactivity by conferring structural stability in solution. Thus, analysis of chimeric SALMFamides has revealed how neuropeptide bioactivity is determined by a complex interplay of sequence and conformation.

  13. Small molecule fluoride toxicity agonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, James W; Plummer, Mark S; Blount, Kenneth F; Ames, Tyler D; Breaker, Ronald R

    2015-04-23

    Fluoride is a ubiquitous anion that inhibits a wide variety of metabolic processes. Here, we report the identification of a series of compounds that enhance fluoride toxicity in Escherichia coli and Streptococcus mutans. These molecules were isolated by using a high-throughput screen (HTS) for compounds that increase intracellular fluoride levels as determined via a fluoride riboswitch reporter fusion construct. A series of derivatives were synthesized to examine structure-activity relationships, leading to the identification of compounds with improved activity. Thus, we demonstrate that small molecule fluoride toxicity agonists can be identified by HTS from existing chemical libraries by exploiting a natural fluoride riboswitch. In addition, our findings suggest that some molecules might be further optimized to function as binary antibacterial agents when combined with fluoride. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Electric Deflection of Rotating Molecules

    CERN Document Server

    Gershnabel, E

    2010-01-01

    We provide a theory of the deflection of polar and non-polar rotating molecules by inhomogeneous static electric field. Rainbow-like features in the angular distribution of the scattered molecules are analyzed in detail. Furthermore, we demonstrate that one may efficiently control the deflection process with the help of short and strong femtosecond laser pulses. In particular the deflection process may by turned-off by a proper excitation, and the angular dispersion of the deflected molecules can be substantially reduced. We study the problem both classically and quantum mechanically, taking into account the effects of strong deflecting field on the molecular rotations. In both treatments we arrive at the same conclusions. The suggested control scheme paves the way for many applications involving molecular focusing, guiding, and trapping by inhomogeneous fields.

  15. Small Molecule Fluoride Toxicity Agonists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson1, James W.; Plummer, Mark S.; Blount, Kenneth F.; Ames, Tyler D.; Breaker, Ronald R.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Fluoride is a ubiquitous anion that inhibits a wide variety of metabolic processes. Here we report the identification of a series of compounds that enhance fluoride toxicity in Escherichia coli and Streptococcus mutans. These molecules were isolated by using a high-throughput screen (HTS) for compounds that increase intracellular fluoride levels as determined via a fluoride riboswitch-reporter fusion construct. A series of derivatives were synthesized to examine structure-activity relationships, leading to the identification of compounds with improved activity. Thus, we demonstrate that small molecule fluoride toxicity agonists can be identified by HTS from existing chemical libraries by exploiting a natural fluoride riboswitch. In addition, our findings suggest that some molecules might be further optimized to function as binary antibacterial agents when combined with fluoride. PMID:25910244

  16. Laser spectroscopy of cold molecules

    CERN Document Server

    Borri, Simone

    2016-01-01

    This paper reviews the recent results in high-resolution spectroscopy on cold molecules. Laser spectroscopy of cold molecules addresses issues of symmetry violation, like in the search for the electric dipole moment of the electron and the studies on energy differences in enantiomers of chiral species; tries to improve the precision to which fundamental physical constants are known and tests for their possible variation in time and space; tests quantum electrodynamics, and searches for a fifth force. Further, we briefly review the recent technological progresses in the fields of cold molecules and mid-infrared lasers, which are the tools that mainly set the limits for the resolution that is currently attainable in the measurements.

  17. 降解菌DNEH-S1的室内模拟试验%Indoor Simulation Examination of Degradation Bacteria DNEH - S1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张奇

    2016-01-01

    农业生产中广泛使用的农药、地膜、化肥等农用化学品,造成多种有机物对土壤的复合污染。当有害物质过多,超过土壤的自净能力,就会引起土壤的组成、结构和功能发生变化,微生物活动受到抑制,有害物质或其分解产物在土壤中逐渐积累,并间接危害人体健康。邻苯二甲酸酯(PAEs)是一类环境内分泌物质,作为农用塑料地膜中的增塑剂被大量使用,易从塑料地膜中释放而造成土壤污染。我国农田土壤普遍存在农药、PAEs等有机物复合污染,生物降解是削减土壤中有机污染物的重要途径。试验研究了降解菌DNEH-S1在土壤中对DEHP降解特性及土壤中养分的动态变化,探讨了典型有机物复合污染土壤生物降解技术的可行性。%Phthalic acid esters (PAEs) is a kind of environmental endocrine substances that is widely used as the plas-ticizer in the farming-use plastic iflm, easy to release from the plastic iflm and cause soil polution. Farmland soils commonly show pesticides, PAEs and other organic compound polution in China and biodegradation is an important approach to cut down organic polutants in soil. This experiment studies the degradation bacteria DNEH - S1 in the soil of DEHP degradation charac-teristics and the dynamic changes of the nutrients in the soil, discussing the bio-degradation technology feasibility of typical organic compound contaminated soil.

  18. Single-molecule magnet engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Kasper Steen; Bendix, Jesper; Clérac, Rodolphe

    2014-01-01

    to delicately tune, for instance, the properties of molecules that behave as "magnets", the so-called single-molecule magnets (SMMs). Although many interesting SMMs have been prepared by a more or less serendipitous approach, the assembly of predesigned, isolatable molecular entities into higher nuclearity...... complexes constitutes an elegant and fascinating strategy. This Feature article focuses on the use of building blocks or modules (both terms being used indiscriminately) to direct the structure, and therefore also the magnetic properties, of metal ion complexes exhibiting SMM behaviour. This journal...

  19. Nonadiabatic reaction of energetic molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Atanu; Guo, Yuanqing; Bernstein, Elliot R

    2010-12-21

    Energetic materials store a large amount of chemical energy that can be readily converted into mechanical energy via decomposition. A number of different ignition processes such as sparks, shocks, heat, or arcs can initiate the excited electronic state decomposition of energetic materials. Experiments have demonstrated the essential role of excited electronic state decomposition in the energy conversion process. A full understanding of the mechanisms for the decomposition of energetic materials from excited electronic states will require the investigation and analysis of the specific topography of the excited electronic potential energy surfaces (PESs) of these molecules. The crossing of multidimensional electronic PESs creates a funnel-like topography, known as conical intersections (CIs). CIs are well established as a controlling factor in the excited electronic state decomposition of polyatomic molecules. This Account summarizes our current understanding of the nonadiabatic unimolecular chemistry of energetic materials through CIs and presents the essential role of CIs in the determination of decomposition pathways of these energetic systems. Because of the involvement of more than one PES, a decomposition process involving CIs is an electronically nonadiabatic mechanism. Based on our experimental observations and theoretical calculations, we find that a nonadiabatic reaction through CIs dominates the initial decomposition process of energetic materials from excited electronic states. Although the nonadiabatic behavior of some polyatomic molecules has been well studied, the role of nonadiabatic reactions in the excited electronic state decomposition of energetic molecules has not been well investigated. We use both nanosecond energy-resolved and femtosecond time-resolved spectroscopic techniques to determine the decomposition mechanism and dynamics of energetic species experimentally. Subsequently, we employ multiconfigurational methodologies (such as, CASSCF

  20. Tunneling Ionization of Diatomic Molecules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensmark, Jens Søren Sieg

    2016-01-01

    When a molecule is subject to a strong laser field, there is a probability that an electron can escape, even though the electrons are bound by a large potential barrier. This is possible because electrons are quantum mechanical in nature, and they are therefore able to tunnel through potential...... of tunneling ionizaion of molecules is presented and the results of numerical calculations are shown. One perhaps surprising result is, that the frequently used Born-Oppenheimer approximation breaks down for weak fields when describing tunneling ionization. An analytic theory applicable in the weak-field limit...

  1. Technetium-aspirin molecule complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Shahawy, A.S.; Mahfouz, R.M.; Aly, A.A.M.; El-Zohry, M. (Assiut Univ. (Egypt))

    1993-01-01

    Technetium-aspirin and technetium-aspirin-like molecule complexes were prepared. The structure of N-acetylanthranilic acid (NAA) has been decided through CNDO calculations. The ionization potential and electron affinity of the NAA molecule as well as the charge densities were calculated. The electronic absorption spectra of Tc(V)-Asp and Tc(V)-ATS complexes have two characteristic absorption bands at 450 and 600 nm, but the Tc(V)-NAA spectrum has one characteristic band at 450 nm. As a comparative study, Mo-ATS complex was prepared and its electronic absorption spectrum is comparable with the Tc-ATS complex spectrum. (author).

  2. Recoiling DNA Molecule Simulation & Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Neto, J C; Mesquita, O N; Neto, Jose Coelho; Dickman, Ronald

    2002-01-01

    Many recent experiments with single DNA molecules are based on force versus extension measurements and involve tethering a microsphere to one of its extremities and the other to a microscope coverglass. In this work we show that similar results can also be obtained by studying the recoil dynamics of the tethered microspheres. Computer simulations of the corresponding Langevin equation indicate which assumptions are required for a reliable analysis of the experimental recoil curves. We have measured the persistence length A of single naked DNA molecules and DNA-Ethidium Bromide complexes using this approach.

  3. Formation of ultracold metastable RbCs molecules by short-range photoassociation

    CERN Document Server

    Gabbanini, C

    2011-01-01

    Ultracold metastable RbCs molecules are observed in a double species MOT through photoassociation near the Rb(5S$_{1/2}$)+Cs(6P$_{3/2}$) dissociation limit followed by radiative stabilization. The molecules are formed in their lowest triplet electronic state and are detected by resonant enhanced two-photon ionization through the previously unobserved $(3)^{3}\\Pi \\leftarrow a^{3}\\Sigma^{+}$ band. The large rotational structure of the observed photoassociation lines is assigned to the lowest vibrational levels of the $0^+,0^-$ excited states correlated to the Rb(5P$_{1/2}$)+Cs(6S$_{1/2}$) dissociation limit. This demonstrates the possibility to induce direct photoassociation in heteronuclear alkali-metal molecules at short internuclear distance, as pointed out in [J. Deiglmayr \\textit{et al.}, Phys. Rev. Lett. \\textbf{101}, 13304 (2008)].

  4. Exotic helium molecules; Molecules exotiques d'helium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Portier, M

    2007-12-15

    We study the photo-association of an ultracold cloud of magnetically trapped helium atoms: pairs of colliding atoms interact with one or two laser fields to produce a purely long range {sup 4}He{sub 2}(2{sup 3}S{sub 1}-2{sup 3}P{sub 0}) molecule, or a {sup 4}He{sub 2}(2{sup 3}S{sub 1}-2{sup 3}S{sub 1}) long range molecule. Light shifts in one photon photo-association spectra are measured and studied as a function of the laser polarization and intensity, and the vibrational state of the excited molecule. They result from the light-induced coupling between the excited molecule, and bound and scattering states of the interaction between two metastable atoms. Their analysis leads to the determination of the scattering length a = (7.2 {+-} 0.6) ruling collisions between spin polarized atoms. The two photon photo-association spectra show evidence of the production of polarized, long-range {sup 4}He{sub 2}(2{sup 3}S{sub 1}-2{sup 3}S{sub 1}) molecules. They are said to be exotic as they are made of two metastable atoms, each one carrying a enough energy to ionize the other. The corresponding lineshapes are calculated and decomposed in sums and products of Breit-Wigner and Fano profiles associated to one and two photon processes. The experimental spectra are fit, and an intrinsic lifetime {tau} = (1.4 {+-} 0.3) {mu}s is deduced. It is checked whether this lifetime could be limited by spin-dipole induced Penning autoionization. This interpretation requires that there is a quasi-bound state close to the dissociation threshold in the singlet interaction potential between metastable helium atoms for the theory to match the experiment. (author)

  5. On the determination of low-energy constants for $\\Delta S=1$ transitions

    CERN Document Server

    Giusti, Leonardo; Laine, Mikko; Peña, C; Wennekers, J; Wittig, H

    2005-01-01

    We present our preliminary results for three-point correlation functions involving the operators entering the $\\Delta{S}=1$ effective Hamiltonian with an active charm quark, obtained using overlap fermions in the quenched approximation. This is the first computation carried out for valence quark masses small enough so as to permit a matching to Quenched Chiral Perturbation Theory in the $\\epsilon$-regime. The commonly observed large statistical fluctuations are tamed by means of low-mode averaging techniques, combined with restrictions to individual topological sectors. We also discuss the matching of the resulting hadronic matrix elements to the effective low-energy constants for $\\Delta{S}=1$ transitions. This involves (a) finite-volume corrections which can be evaluated at NLO in Quenched Chiral Perturbation Theory, and (b) the short-distance renormalization of the relevant four-quark operators in discretizations based on the overlap operator. We discuss perturbative estimates for the renormalization facto...

  6. [Treatment of S-1 plus weekly CDDP for advanced gastric cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemmochi, Takeshi; Egawa, Tomohisa; Mihara, Yasunori; Irino, Tomoyuki; Ito, Yasuhiro; Nagashima, Atsushi; Makino, Hiroyuki; Yamamuro, Wataru

    2011-11-01

    We analyzed the clinical efficacy and safety of chemotherapy using S-1 plus weekly CDDP( w-CS therapy) for unresectable gastric cancer. Twenty one patients were treated with this treatment. S-1 80 mg/m²/day was administered for 2 weeks followed by a 1-week rest. CDDP 20 mg/m² was injected intravenously on day 1 and 8. The overall response rate was 52. 3%. The disease control rate was 85.7%. Grade 3 or 4 major toxicity comprised neutropenia (14.2%), thrombocytopenia (4.7%) and plasma creatinine elevation (4.7%). w-CS therapy is satisfied resulting with efficacy and safety. Thus, future clinical trials and accumulation of futher cases are warranted.

  7. Direct lateral interbody fusion (DLIF) at the lumbosacral junction L5-S1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirzadi, Ali; Birch, Kurtis; Drazin, Doniel; Liu, John C; Acosta, Frank

    2012-07-01

    The direct lateral interbody fusion (DLIF), a minimally invasive lateral approach for placement of an interbody fusion device, does not require nerve root retraction or any contact with the great vessels and can lead to short operative times with little blood loss. Due to anatomical restrictions, this procedure has not been used at the lumbosacral (L5-S1) junction. Lumbosacral transitional vertebrae (LSTV), a structural anomaly of the lumbosacral spine associated with low back pain, can result in a level being wrongly identified pre-operatively due to misnumbering of the vertebral levels. To our knowledge, use of the DLIF graft in this patient is the first report of an interbody fusion graft being placed at the disc space between the LSTV and S1 via the transpsoas route. We present a review of the literature regarding the LSTV variation as well as the lateral placement of interbody fusion grafts at the lumbosacral junction.

  8. Observation of an Exotic $S=+1$ Baryon in Exclusive Photoproduction from the Deuteron

    CERN Document Server

    Stepanyan, S; Carman, D S; Pasyuk, E A; Schumacher, R A; Smith, E S; Tedeschi, D J; Todor, L; Adams, G; Ambrozewicz, P; Anciant, E; Anghinolfi, M; Asavapibhop, B; Audit, G; Avakian, H; Bagdasaryan, H; Ball, J P; Barrow, S P; Battaglieri, M; Beard, K; Bektasoglu, M; Bellis, M; Berman, Barry L; Bianchi, N; Biselli, A S; Boiarinov, S; Bouchigny, S; Bradford, R; Branford, D; Briscoe, W J; Brooks, W K; Burkert, V D; Butuceanu, C; Calarco, J R; Carnahan, B; Chen, S; Ciciani, L; Cole, P L; Coleman, A; Cords, D; Corvisiero, P; Crabb, D; Crannell, H; Cummings, J P; De Sanctis, E; Degtyarenko, P V; Denizli, H; Dennis, L; De Vita, R; Dharmawardane, K V; Dhuga, K S; Djalali, C; Dodge, G E; Doughty, D C; Dragovitsch, P; Dugger, M; Dytman, S; Dzyubak, O P; Egiyan, H; Egiyan, K S; Elouadrhiri, L; Empl, A; Eugenio, P; Fatemi, R; Feuerbach, R J; Ficenec, J; Forest, T A; Funsten, H; Garçon, M; Gavalian, G; Gilfoyle, G P; Giovanetti, K L; Gordon, C I O; Gothe, R W; Griffioen, K; Guidal, M; Guillo, M R; Guo, L; Gyurjyan, V; Hadjidakis, C; Hakobyan, R S; Hardie, J; Heddle, D; Heimberg, P; Hersman, F W; Hicks, R S; Holtrop, M; Hu, J; Hyde-Wright, C E; Ito, M M; Jenkins, D; Joo, K; Jüngst, H G; Kellie, J D; Khandaker, M; Kim, K Y; Kim, K; Kim, W; Klein, A; Klein, F J; Klimenko, A V; Klusman, M; Kossov, M; Kramer, L H; Kuang, Y; Kubarovski, V; Kuhn, S E; Kühn, J; Lachniet, J; Lawrence, D; Li, J; Lima, A; Livingston, K; Lukashin, K; Manak, J J; McAleer, S; McNabb, J W C; Mecking, B A; Mehrabyan, S S; Melone, J J; Mestayer, M D; Meyer, C A; Mikhailov, K; Minehart, R C; Mirazita, M; Miskimen, R; Mokeev, V; Morand, L; Morrow, S; Muccifora, V; Müller, J; Murphy, L Y; Mutchler, G S; Napolitano, J; Nasseripour, R; Niccolai, S; Niculescu, G; Niculescu, I; Niczyporuk, B B; Niyazov, R A; Nozar, M; O'Brien, J; O'Rielly, G V; Opper, A K; Osipenko, M; Park, K; Peterson, G; Philips, S A; Pivnyuk, N; Pocanic, D; Pogorelko, O I; Polli, E; Pozdniakov, S; Preedom, B M; Price, J W; Prok, Y; Protopopescu, D; Qin, L M; Raue, B A; Riccardi, G; Ricco, G; Ripani, M; Ritchie, B G; Ronchetti, F; Rossi, P; Rowntree, D; Rubin, P; Sabatie, F; Salgado, C; Santoro, J; Sapunenko, V; Serov, V S; Sharabyan, Yu G; Shaw, J; Simionatto, S; Skabelin, A V; Smith, L C; Sober, D I; Strakovsky, I I; Stavinsky, A V; Stoler, P; Suleiman, R; Taiuti, M; Taylor, S; Thoma, U; Thompson, R; Tur, C; Ungaro, M; Vineyard, M F; Vlassov, A V; Wang, K; Weinstein, L B; Weller, H; Weygand, D P; Whisnant, C S; Wolin, E; Wood, M H; Yegneswaran, A; Yun, J

    2003-01-01

    An exclusive measurement of the reaction $gamma d to K^+ K^- p n$ is reported from the CLAS collaboration at Jefferson Lab. A narrow peak, which can be attributed to an exotic baryon with strangeness $S=+1$, is seen in the $K^+n$ invariant mass at $1542pm 5$ MeV/c$^2$ with a measured width of 21 MeV FWHM that is consistent with the instrumental resolution of the CLAS detector. The statistical significance of the peak is $5.3 pm 0.5 sigma$, for a Gaussian peak shape on top of a smooth background. This result is consistent with inclusive measurements of a narrow $S=+1$ baryon reported by other experimental groups.

  9. Ising Model Spin S = 1 ON Directed BARABÁSI-ALBERT Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, F. W. S.

    On directed Barabási-Albert networks with two and seven neighbours selected by each added site, the Ising model with spin S = 1/2 was seen not to show a spontaneous magnetisation. Instead, the decay time for flipping of the magnetisation followed an Arrhenius law for Metropolis and Glauber algorithms, but for Wolff cluster flipping the magnetisation decayed exponentially with time. On these networks the Ising model spin S = 1 is now studied through Monte Carlo simulations. However, in this model, the order-disorder phase transition is well defined in this system. We have obtained a first-order phase transition for values of connectivity m = 2 and m = 7 of the directed Barabási-Albert network.

  10. Continuous Cold-atom Inertial Sensor with $1\\ \\text{nrad.s}^{-1}$ Rotation Stability

    CERN Document Server

    Dutta, I; Fang, B; Venon, B; Alzar, C L Garrido; Geiger, R; Landragin, A

    2016-01-01

    We report the operation of a cold-atom inertial sensor which continuously captures the rotation signal. Using a joint interrogation scheme, where we simultaneously prepare a cold-atom source and operate an atom interferometer (AI) enables us to eliminate the dead times. We show that such continuous operation improves the short-term sensitivity of AIs, and demonstrate a rotation sensitivity of $100\\ \\text{nrad.s}^{-1}.\\text{Hz}^{-1/2}$ in a cold-atom gyroscope of $11 \\ \\text{cm}^2$ Sagnac area. We also demonstrate a rotation stability of $1 \\ \\text{nrad.s}^{-1}$ at $10^4$ s of integration time, which establishes the record for atomic gyroscopes. The continuous operation of cold-atom inertial sensors will enable to benefit from the full sensitivity potential of large area AIs, determined by the quantum noise limit.

  11. Physical Contact between the +20 km s-1 Cloud and the Galactic Circumnuclear Disk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takekawa, Shunya; Oka, Tomoharu; Tanaka, Kunihiko

    2017-01-01

    We report the discovery of physical contact between the Galactic circumnuclear disk (CND) and an adjacent giant molecular cloud. The central 10 pc of our Galaxy has been imaged in molecular lines at millimeter wavelength using the Nobeyama Radio Observatory 45 m radio telescope. In the position-velocity maps of several high-density probe lines, we have found an emission ``bridge'' connecting the +20 km s-1 cloud (M-0.13-0.08) and the negative longitude extension of the CND. The collision between the +20 km s-1 cloud and the CND may be responsible for the formation of the bridge. This event can promote mass accretion onto the CND and/or into the inner cavity.

  12. Observation of an Exotic S=+1 Baryon in Exclusive Photoproduction from the Deuteron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepanyan, S.; Hicks, K.; Carman, D. S.; Pasyuk, E.; Schumacher, R. A.; Smith, E. S.; Tedeschi, D. J.; Todor, L.; Adams, G.; Ambrozewicz, P.; Anciant, E.; Anghinolfi, M.; Asavapibhop, B.; Audit, G.; Avakian, H.; Bagdasaryan, H.; Ball, J. P.; Barrow, S. P.; Battaglieri, M.; Beard, K.; Bektasoglu, M.; Bellis, M.; Berman, B. L.; Bianchi, N.; Biselli, A. S.; Boiarinov, S.; Bouchigny, S.; Bradford, R.; Branford, D.; Briscoe, W. J.; Brooks, W. K.; Burkert, V. D.; Butuceanu, C.; Calarco, J. R.; Carnahan, B.; Chen, S.; Ciciani, L.; Cole, P. L.; Coleman, A.; Cords, D.; Corvisiero, P.; Crabb, D.; Crannell, H.; Cummings, J. P.; de Sanctis, E.; Degtyarenko, P. V.; Denizli, H.; Dennis, L.; de Vita, R.; Dharmawardane, K. V.; Dhuga, K. S.; Djalali, C.; Dodge, G. E.; Doughty, D.; Dragovitsch, P.; Dugger, M.; Dytman, S.; Dzyubak, O. P.; Egiyan, H.; Egiyan, K. S.; Elouadrhiri, L.; Empl, A.; Eugenio, P.; Fatemi, R.; Feuerbach, R. J.; Ficenec, J.; Forest, T. A.; Funsten, H.; Garçon, M.; Gavalian, G.; Gilfoyle, G. P.; Giovanetti, K. L.; Gordon, C. I.; Gothe, R.; Griffioen, K.; Guidal, M.; Guillo, M.; Guo, L.; Gyurjyan, V.; Hadjidakis, C.; Hakobyan, R. S.; Hardie, J.; Heddle, D.; Heimberg, P.; Hersman, F. W.; Hicks, R. S.; Holtrop, M.; Hu, J.; Hyde-Wright, C. E.; Ito, M. M.; Jenkins, D.; Joo, K.; Juengst, H. G.; Kellie, J. D.; Khandaker, M.; Kim, K. Y.; Kim, K.; Kim, W.; Klein, A.; Klein, F. J.; Klimenko, A. V.; Klusman, M.; Kossov, M.; Kramer, L. H.; Kuang, Y.; Kubarovsky, V.; Kuhn, S. E.; Kuhn, J.; Lachniet, J.; Lawrence, D.; Li, J.; Lima, A.; Livingston, K.; Lukashin, K.; Manak, J. J.; McAleer, S.; McNabb, J. W.; Mecking, B. A.; Mehrabyan, S.; Melone, J. J.; Mestayer, M. D.; Meyer, C. A.; Mikhailov, K.; Minehart, R.; Mirazita, M.; Miskimen, R.; Mokeev, V.; Morand, L.; Morrow, S.; Muccifora, V.; Mueller, J.; Murphy, L. Y.; Mutchler, G. S.; Napolitano, J.; Nasseripour, R.; Niccolai, S.; Niculescu, G.; Niculescu, I.; Niczyporuk, B. B.; Niyazov, R. A.; Nozar, M.; O'Brien, J.; O'Rielly, G. V.; Opper, A. K.; Osipenko, M.; Park, K.; Peterson, G.; Philips, S. A.; Pivnyuk, N.; Pocanic, D.; Pogorelko, O.; Polli, E.; Pozdniakov, S.; Preedom, B. M.; Price, J. W.; Prok, Y.; Protopopescu, D.; Qin, L. M.; Raue, B. A.; Riccardi, G.; Ricco, G.; Ripani, M.; Ritchie, B. G.; Ronchetti, F.; Rossi, P.; Rowntree, D.; Rubin, P.; Sabatié, F.; Salgado, C.; Santoro, J.; Sapunenko, V.; Serov, V. S.; Sharabian, Y. G.; Shaw, J.; Simionatto, S.; Skabelin, A. V.; Smith, L. C.; Sober, D. I.; Strakovsky, I. I.; Stavinsky, A.; Stoler, P.; Suleiman, R.; Taiuti, M.; Taylor, S.; Thoma, U.; Thompson, R.; Tur, C.; Ungaro, M.; Vineyard, M. F.; Vlassov, A. V.; Wang, K.; Weinstein, L. B.; Weller, H.; Weygand, D. P.; Whisnant, C. S.; Wolin, E.; Wood, M. H.; Yegneswaran, A.; Yun, J.

    2003-12-01

    In an exclusive measurement of the reaction γd→K+K-pn, a narrow peak that can be attributed to an exotic baryon with strangeness S=+1 is seen in the K+n invariant mass spectrum. The peak is at 1.542±0.005 GeV/c2 with a measured width of 0.021 GeV/c2 FWHM, which is largely determined by experimental mass resolution. The statistical significance of the peak is (5.2±0.6)σ. The mass and width of the observed peak are consistent with recent reports of a narrow S=+1 baryon by other experimental groups.

  13. [Side effects analyses in consideration of renal function for S-1-administered patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwai, Mina; Kimura, Michio; Yoshimura, Tomoaki; Yasuda, Tadashi

    2011-06-01

    Although many analyses of S-1 side effects are reported, there are no reports where the analyses of side effects were performed in consideration of renal function, which is an important index of medication dose. Therefore, we investigated side effects in consideration of renal function. The subjects were 163 patients administered S-1 at the Department of Surgery of Ogaki Municipal Hospital, between October 2008 and December 2009. The frequency and severity of side effects were high and serious in the groupwhose creatinine clearance was low. A significant difference was observed among 3 groups with regard to thrombocytopenia and dehydration. In conclusion, we think that pharmacists must take renal function into consideration when administering medication, to keepclose medicinal guidance, and to actively observe progress.

  14. S1 gene sequence analysis of a nephropathogenic strain of avian infectious bronchitis virus in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ladman Brian S

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infectious bronchitis is highly contagious and constitutes one of the most common and difficult poultry diseases to control. IBV is endemic in probably all countries that raise chickens. It exists as dozens of serotypes/genotypes. Only a few amino acid differences in the S1 protein of vaccine and challenge strains of IBV may result in poor protection. Tropism of IBV includes the respiratory tract tissues, proventriculus and caecal tonsils of the alimentary tract, the oviduct and the kidney. Results Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV strain closely related to Massachusetts (Mass serotype was isolated from broiler chickens suffering from severe renal and respiratory distresses. The isolate was serologically identified by Dot-ELISA and further characterized by RT-PCR then genotyped using S1 gene sequence analysis. Alignment of the S1 sequence of the isolate with 16 IBV strains revealed high homology to isolates related to Mass serotype. Inoculation with the strain reproduced the disease in experimental 1-day-old chickens and resulted in 20% mortality, severe renal and moderate respiratory distresses. Marked histopathological changes in both kidney and trachea were observed in experimentally infected chickens. A protection study using the H120 live attenuated vaccine showed low protection rate in spite of high S1 sequence homology (97%. Protection based criteria were: virus re-isolation attempts from trachea, tracheal and renal histopathology as well as IBV antigens detection by immunofluorescent antibody technique in kidney sections. Conclusion Periodical evaluation of cross-protective capabilities of IBV vaccine(s versus recently recovered field isolates should be performed to ensure optimum control of IBV.

  15. S1 gene sequence analysis of a nephropathogenic strain of avian infectious bronchitis virus in Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Ladman Brian S; El-Kady Magdy F; Abdel-Moneim Ahmed S; Gelb Jack

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background Infectious bronchitis is highly contagious and constitutes one of the most common and difficult poultry diseases to control. IBV is endemic in probably all countries that raise chickens. It exists as dozens of serotypes/genotypes. Only a few amino acid differences in the S1 protein of vaccine and challenge strains of IBV may result in poor protection. Tropism of IBV includes the respiratory tract tissues, proventriculus and caecal tonsils of the alimentary tract, the ovidu...

  16. BOLD fMRI signal characteristics of S1- and S2-SSFP at 7 Tesla

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goa, Pål E; Koopmans, Peter J; Poser, Benedikt A; Barth, Markus; Norris, David G

    2014-01-01

    OBJECT: To compare the BOLD fMRI signal characteristics at in the cortex and on the pial surface for a non-balanced steady-state free precession sequence (nb-SSFP) at 7 T. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A multi-echo nb-SSFP sequence was used for high resolution fMRI at 7 T. Two S1 (S(+)) echoes at different

  17. A hybrid vanadium fluoride with structurally isolated S = 1 kagome layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aidoudi, Farida H; Downie, Lewis J; Morris, Russell E; A de Vries, Mark; Lightfoot, Philip

    2014-05-01

    A new organically-templated vanadium(III) fluoride, (NH4)2(C2H8N)[V3F12], has been prepared using an ionothermal approach. This compound has a unique layered structure featuring distorted S = 1 kagome planes separated by the cationic species. The compound exhibits magnetic frustration, with a canted antiferromagnetic ground state. On further cooling in the ground state a pronounced change in magnetisation kinetics is observed.

  18. Measurement of anti pp elastic scattering parameters at radical S=1. 8 TeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shukla, S.; Amos, N.A.; Avila, C.; Baker, W.F.; Eartly, D.P.; Gomez, B.; Lennox, A.J.; Negret, J.P.; Pruss, S.M.; Rubinstein, R.; Sanabria, J.C. (Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL (United States)); Bertani, M.; Giacomelli, G.; Mondardini, M.R.; Spagnoli, M.; Veronesi, I.; Zucchelli, S. (Univ. Bologna (Italy) Ist. Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Bologna (Italy)); Block, M.M.; Guss, C.M.; Sadr, S. (Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States)); Dimitroyannis, D.A.; Goodman, J.A. (Univ. Maryland, College Park, MD (United States)); Ellsworth, R.W. (George Mason Univ., Fairfax, VA (United States)); Orear, J. (Cornell Univ., Ithaka, NY (United States)); E710 Collaboration

    1992-03-01

    A measurement of the total nuclear cross section, {sigma}{sub t}, the ratio of the real to the imaginary part of the forward nuclear elastic scattering amplitude, {rho}, and the nuclear slope parameter, B, for anti pp elastic scattering at {radical}S=1.8 TeV, is presented. We find {sigma}{sub t}=72.8{+-}3.1 mb, {rho}=0.140{+-}.069 and B=16.99{+-}47 (GeV/c){sup -2}. (orig.).

  19. Molecular analysis of the bovine coronavirus S1 gene by direct sequencing of diarrheic fecal specimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Takiuchi

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Bovine coronavirus (BCoV causes severe diarrhea in newborn calves, is associated with winter dysentery in adult cattle and respiratory infections in calves and feedlot cattle. The BCoV S protein plays a fundamental role in viral attachment and entry into the host cell, and is cleaved into two subunits termed S1 (amino terminal and S2 (carboxy terminal. The present study describes a strategy for the sequencing of the BCoV S1 gene directly from fecal diarrheic specimens that were previously identified as BCoV positive by RT-PCR assay for N gene detection. A consensus sequence of 2681 nucleotides was obtained through direct sequencing of seven overlapping PCR fragments of the S gene. The samples did not undergo cell culture passage prior to PCR amplification and sequencing. The structural analysis was based on the genomic differences between Brazilian strains and other known BCoV from different geographical regions. The phylogenetic analysis of the entire S1 gene showed that the BCoV Brazilian strains were more distant from the Mebus strain (97.8% identity for nucleotides and 96.8% identity for amino acids and more similar to the BCoV-ENT strain (98.7% for nucleotides and 98.7% for amino acids. Based on the phylogenetic analysis of the hypervariable region of the S1 subunit, these strains clustered with the American (BCoV-ENT, 182NS and Canadian (BCQ20, BCQ2070, BCQ9, BCQ571, BCQ1523 calf diarrhea and the Canadian winter dysentery (BCQ7373, BCQ2590 strains, but clustered on a separate branch of the Korean and respiratory BCoV strains. The BCoV strains of the present study were not clustered in the same branch of previously published Brazilian strains (AY606193, AY606194. These data agree with the genealogical construction and suggest that at least two different BCoV strains are circulating in Brazil.

  20. Eight-year survival after advanced gastric cancer treated with S-1 followed by surgery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Susumu; Hijioka; Keisho; Chin; Yasuyuki; Seto; Noriko; Yamamoto; Kiyohiko; Hatake

    2010-01-01

    We report a case of advanced gastric cancer, with cervical, axillary, and abdominal paraaortic lymph node metastases, that was successfully treated with chemotherapy and surgery. The disease was initially considered unresectable, and the patient was treated with orally administered S-1. Chemotherapy was effective, and all lymph node metastases disappeared after 6 courses. After 27 mo of chemotherapy, the patient underwent curative surgery, with subtotal gastrectomy and lymph node dissection. Histopathologic...

  1. Room for an S=+1 pentaquark in K+-nucleus phenomenology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gal, A.; Friedman, E.

    2006-01-01

    Evidence for excitation of exotic S=+1 pentaquark degrees of freedom is presented by studying optical-potential fits to K+-nucleus total, reaction and elastic-differential cross section data at plab~500-700 MeV/c. Estimates of the underlying two-nucleon absorption K+nN→Θ+N reaction cross section are made and are used for discussing the anticipated cross section of the strangeness exchange reaction K+N→πΘ+.

  2. Un anxiolytique naturel: l'hydrolysat trypsique de caseine alpha-s1 de lait bovin. Son intérêt en médecine humaine et vétérinaire

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Resume Produit d?origine naturelle, l?hydrolysat trypsique de caseine alpha-s1 de lait bovin (HTC) contient un decapeptide actif, l?alpha-casozepine, aux proprietes pharmacologiques interessantes. Les tests et les essais precliniques et cliniques, realises tant sur des animaux (rats, chiens, chats) que sur des humains, ont en effet mis en evidence pour cette molecule : une affinite certaine pour les recepteurs GABA-A avec profil benzodiazepine-like, une action anxiolytique et anti-...

  3. Short Time-Scale Sensory Coding in S1 during Discrimination of Whisker Vibrotactile Sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Leah M; Telian, Gregory; Laboy-Juárez, Keven J; Miyashita, Toshio; Lee, Daniel J; Smith, Katherine A; Feldman, Daniel E

    2016-08-01

    Rodent whisker input consists of dense microvibration sequences that are often temporally integrated for perceptual discrimination. Whether primary somatosensory cortex (S1) participates in temporal integration is unknown. We trained rats to discriminate whisker impulse sequences that varied in single-impulse kinematics (5-20-ms time scale) and mean speed (150-ms time scale). Rats appeared to use the integrated feature, mean speed, to guide discrimination in this task, consistent with similar prior studies. Despite this, 52% of S1 units, including 73% of units in L4 and L2/3, encoded sequences at fast time scales (≤20 ms, mostly 5-10 ms), accurately reflecting single impulse kinematics. 17% of units, mostly in L5, showed weaker impulse responses and a slow firing rate increase during sequences. However, these units did not effectively integrate whisker impulses, but instead combined weak impulse responses with a distinct, slow signal correlated to behavioral choice. A neural decoder could identify sequences from fast unit spike trains and behavioral choice from slow units. Thus, S1 encoded fast time scale whisker input without substantial temporal integration across whisker impulses.

  4. Traumatic L5 over S1 spondyloptosis without neurological involvement managed nonoperatively: a case report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vijay Goni; Nirmal Raj Gopinathan; Uttam Chand Saini; Shashidhar B Kantharajanna

    2013-01-01

    High-grade spondylolisthesis is very rare.We came across a case of high-grade spondylolisthesis at the L5-S1 level in a 32-year-old manual labourer who was hit by a heavy object on his flexed back.The patient presented to us with persistent deformity in the back.He complained of back pain on prolonged standing and after moderate work.Because of that he was unable to return to his work.On clinical examination there was a large step in the lower lumbar region.Detailed neurological evaluation of the lower limbs did not reveal any sensory or motor deficit,neither did bowel or bladder involvement.Radiographic examination showed L5 over S1 traumatic spondyloptosis.CT scan revealed that neural canal was in normal width.MRI confirmed spondyloptosis of L5 over S1 without any compromise of the spinal canal and with normal-looking cauda.Concerning the delayed presentation and no neurological deficit,the patient was managed conservatively after thorough counsel.At 6 months,the patient returned to his work and at the latest follow-up (15 months) he was free from back pain.Conservative means of treatment can lead to satisfactory outcome,especially when the patient has delayed presentation.

  5. Axial interbody arthrodesis of the L5-S1 segment: a systematic review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Gregory D; Kepler, Christopher K; Vaccaro, Alexander R

    2015-09-01

    The object of this study was to determine the fusion rate and safety profile of an axial interbody arthrodesis of the L5-S1 motion segment. A systematic search of MEDLINE was conducted for literature published between January 1, 2000, and August 17, 2014. All peer-reviewed articles related to the fusion rate of L5-S1 and the safety profile of an axial interbody arthrodesis were evaluated. Seventy-four articles were identified, but only 15 (13 case series and 2 retrospective cohort studies) met the study inclusion criteria. The overall pseudarthrosis rate at L5-S1 was 6.9%, and the rate of all other complications was 12.9%. A total of 14.4% of patients required additional surgery, and the infection rate was 5.4%. Deformity studies reported a significantly increased rate of complications (46.3%), and prospectively collected data demonstrated significantly higher complication (36.8%) and revision (22.6%) rates. Lastly, studies with a conflict of interest reported lower complication rates (12.4%). A systematic review of the literature indicates that an axial interbody fusion performed at the lumbosacral junction is associated with a high fusion rate (93.15%) and an acceptable complication rate (12.90%). However, these results are based mainly on retrospective case series by authors with a conflict of interest. The limited prospective data available indicate that the actual fusion rate may be lower and the complication rate may be higher than currently reported.

  6. Magnetic properties of a quasi-one-dimensional S=1/2 antiferromagnet: Copper benzoate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dender, D.C.; Davidovic, D.; Reich, D.H.

    1996-01-01

    We use magnetic susceptibility and inelastic neutron scattering measurements to show that copper benzoate, Cu(C6D5COO)(2) . 3D(2)O, is a quasi-one-dimensional S=1/2 antiferromagnet with an exchange constant J=1.57 meV Below T=0.8 K a ferromagnetic contribution to the susceptibility marks the onset...... of canted three-dimensional (3D) antiferromagnetic order. An external magnetic field suppresses this effect, and the susceptibility measured in high held shows only the response of a S=1/2 chain. The dynamic correlation function S((q) over tilde,omega) measured by neutron scattering shows only 1D spin...... correlations for (h) over bar omega greater than or equal to 0.4 meV at T=1.8 K. There is clear evidence of a continuum of magnetic excitations, consistent with the current theoretical picture of the excitation spectrum of the S=1/2 chain at T=0 K....

  7. On the Absence of EUV Emission from Comet C/2012 S1 (ISON)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryans, Paul; Pesnell, W. Dean

    2016-05-01

    When the sungrazing comet C/2012 S1 (ISON) made its perihelion passage within two solar radii of the Sun’s surface, it was expected to be a bright emitter at extreme ultraviolet (EUV) wavelengths. However, despite solar EUV telescopes repointing to track the orbit of the comet, no emission was detected. This “null result” is interesting in its own right, offering the possibility of placing limits on the size and composition of the nucleus. We explain the lack of detection by considering the properties of the comet and the solar atmosphere that determine the intensity of EUV emission from sungrazing comets. By comparing these properties with those of sungrazing comet C/2011 W3 (Lovejoy), which did emit in the EUV, we conclude that the primary factor resulting in non-detectable EUV emission from C/2012 S1 (ISON) was an insufficiently large nucleus. We conclude that the radius of C/2012 S1 (ISON) was at least a factor of four less than that of C/2011 W3 (Lovejoy). This is consistent with white-light observations in the days before perihelion that suggested the comet was dramatically reducing in size on approach.

  8. Analysing the New Saturnian Rings, R/2004 S1 and R/2004 S2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, S. M. Giuliatti; Sfair, R.; Mourão, D. C.; Bastos, T. A.

    2005-12-01

    The Cassini-Huygens arrival into the Saturnian system brought a large amount of data about the satellites and rings. Two diffuse rings were found in the region between the A ring and Prometheus. R/2004 S1 is coorbital to Atlas and R/2004 S2 is close to Prometheus. In this work we analysed the closest approach between Prometheus and both rings. As a result we found that the satellite removes particles from R/2004 S2 ring. Long-term numerical simulations showed that some particles can cross the F ring region . The well known region of the F ring, where small satellites are present and particles are being taking from the ring, gains a new insight with the presence of particles from R/2004 S2 ring. The computation of the Lyapunov Characteristic Exponent reveled that the R/2004 S2 ring lies in a chaotic region while R/2004 S1 ring and Atlas are in a stable region. Atlas is responsible for the formation of three regimes in the R/2004 S1 ring, as expected for a satellite embedded in a ring.

  9. Edg8/S1P5: an oligodendroglial receptor with dual function on process retraction and cell survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaillard, C; Harrison, S; Stankoff, B; Aigrot, M S; Calver, A R; Duddy, G; Walsh, F S; Pangalos, M N; Arimura, N; Kaibuchi, K; Zalc, B; Lubetzki, C

    2005-02-09

    Endothelial differentiation gene (Edg) proteins are G-protein-coupled receptors activated by lysophospholipid mediators: sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) or lysophosphatidic acid. We show that in the CNS, expression of Edg8/S1P5, a high-affinity S1P receptor, is restricted to oligodendrocytes and expressed throughout development from the immature stages to the mature myelin-forming cell. S1P activation of Edg8/S1P5 on O4-positive pre-oligodendrocytes induced process retraction via a Rho kinase/collapsin response-mediated protein signaling pathway, whereas no retraction was elicited by S1P on these cells derived from Edg8/S1P5-deficient mice. Edg8/S1P5-mediated process retraction was restricted to immature cells and was no longer observed at later developmental stages. In contrast, S1P activation promoted the survival of mature oligodendrocytes but not of pre-oligodendrocytes. The S1P-induced survival of mature oligodendrocytes was mediated through a pertussis toxin-sensitive, Akt-dependent pathway. Our data demonstrate that Edg8/S1P5 activation on oligodendroglial cells modulates two distinct functional pathways mediating either process retraction or cell survival and that these effects depend on the developmental stage of the cell.

  10. (S-1-[(S-4-Benzyl-2-thioxothiazolidin-3-yl]-3-hydroxybutan-1-one

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-hong Yang

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C14H17NO2S2, was synthesized by asymmetric aldol condensation of N-acylthiazolidinethione with acetaldehyde. In the molecule, the thiazolidine five-membered ring assumes an envelope conformation. Intermolecular C—H...O and intramolecular O—H...O and C—H...S hydrogen bonding helps to stabilize the structure.

  11. Small Molecule PET-Radiopharmaceuticals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elsinga, Philip H.; Dierckx, Rudi A. J. O.

    2014-01-01

    This review describes several aspects required for the development of small molecule PET-tracers. Design and selection criteria are important to consider before starting to develop novel PET-tracers. Principles and latest trends in C-11 and F-18-radiochemistry are summarized. In addition an update o

  12. Azobenzene-functionalized cascade molecules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Archut, A.; Vogtle, F.; De Cola, L.;

    1998-01-01

    Cascade molecules bearing up to 32 azobenzene groups in the periphery have been prepared from poly(propylene imine) dendrimers and N-hydroxysuccinimide esters. The dendritic azobenzene species show similar isomerization properties as the corresponding azobenzene monomers. The all-E azobenzene...

  13. WHAT ARE THE MOLECULES DOING?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Temechegn

    Johnstone's identification of teaching and learning difficulties derived from the three levels of description in .... and in aqueous solution the molecules (say HA) dissociate into a hydrogen ion, H+ (aq) and an anion, A-(aq). This is a chemical ...

  14. Small Molecules Target Carcinogenic Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gradinaru, Claudiu

    2009-03-01

    An ingenious cellular mechanism of effecting protein localization is prenylation: the covalent attachment of a hydrophobic prenyl group to a protein that facilitates protein association with cell membranes. Fluorescence microscopy was used to investigate whether the oncogenic Stat3 protein can undergo artificial prenylation via high-affinity prenylated small-molecule binding agents and thus be rendered inactive by localization at the plasma membrane instead of nucleus. The measurements were performed on a home-built instrument capable of recording simultaneously several optical parameters (lifetime, polarization, color, etc) and with single-molecule sensitivity. A pH-invariant fluorescein derivative with double moiety was designed to bridge a prenyl group and a small peptide that binds Stat3 with high affinity. Confocal fluorescence images show effective localization of the ligand to the membrane of liposomes. Stat3 predominantly localizes at the membrane only in the presence of the prenylated ligand. Single-molecule FRET (fluorescence resonance energy transfer) between donor-labeled prenylated agents and acceptor-labeled, surface tethered Stat3 protein is used to determine the dynamic heterogeneity of the protein-ligand interaction and follow individual binding-unbinding events in real time. The data indicates that molecules can effect protein localization, validating a therapeutic design that influences protein activity via induced localization.

  15. Differential S1P Receptor Profiles on M1- and M2-Polarized Macrophages Affect Macrophage Cytokine Production and Migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Jan; von Bernstorff, Wolfram; Heidecke, Claus-Dieter

    2017-01-01

    Introduction. Macrophages are key players in complex biological processes. In response to environmental signals, macrophages undergo polarization towards a proinflammatory (M1) or anti-inflammatory (M2) phenotype. Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) is a bioactive lysophospholipid that acts via 5 G-protein coupled receptors (S1P1–5) in order to influence a broad spectrum of biological processes. This study assesses S1P receptor expression on macrophages before and after M1 and M2 polarization and performs a comparative analysis of S1P signalling in the two activational states of macrophages. Methods. Bone marrow derived macrophages (BMDM) from C57 BL/6 mice were cultured under either M1- or M2-polarizing conditions. S1P-receptor expression was determined by quantitative RT-PCR. Influence of S1P on macrophage activation, migration, phagocytosis, and cytokine secretion was assessed in vitro. Results. All 5 S1P receptor subclasses were expressed in macrophages. Culture under both M1- and M2-polarizing conditions led to significant downregulation of S1P1. In contrast, M1-polarized macrophages significantly downregulated S1P4. The expression of the remaining three S1P receptors did not change. S1P increased expression of iNOS under M2-polarizing conditions. Furthermore, S1P induced chemotaxis in M1 macrophages and changed cytokine production in M2 macrophages. Phagocytosis was not affected by S1P-signalling. Discussion. The expression of different specific S1P receptor profiles may provide a possibility to selectively influence M1- or M2-polarized macrophages.

  16. Target Identification in Ory S1 Pollen Protein Allergen from Oryza sativa in the Course of Construction of Hypoallergenic Vaccines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruchi Sharma

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Recombinant-based approaches are mostly focused on genetic modification of allergens to produce molecules with reduced allergenic activity and conserved antigenicity, such as hypoallergens. Recombinant allergens represent promising tools for diagnosis and therapy of type I allergy. This approach was probably feasible with every allergen with known amino acid sequence. Approach: The primary aim of this study was to determine the consensus epitope from twenty homologous protein sequences of Ory S1 allergenic protein sequence from Oryza sativa (indica group pollen. Molecular modeling calculations had been used to investigate the allergenic protein models for the epitope. Results: Oryza sativa (japonica, Phleum pratense, Poa pratensis, Holcus lanatus, Lolium perenne, Triticum aestivum, Dactylis glomerata and Zea mays were found more closely related (alignment score 1145-812 among all the homologs and investigated further. The major binding pocket comprised an area of 604.5 Å2 and 970 Å3 volume and another key binding pocket had 425.6 Ų area and 658.8 ų volume. The residues found in the key site included ile2, lys13, cys14, ser15, lys16, pro17, ala25, leu26, ile27, tyr40, his41, phe42, asp43, leu44, ser45, gly46, leu47, ala48, met49, ala50, asp55, leu58, arg59, ala61, gly62, ile63, ile64, asp65, gln67, phe68; corresponding to the allergen binding site and the IgE binding epitope given in the title. Conclusion: These are the functional sites on the allergenic proteins that can be mutated to develop hypoallergenic vaccine. These sites can be rationalized on the basis of simple arguments that lead to vaccine development, by predicting the structure of the allergenic epitopes and comparative analysis.

  17. Pair Tunneling through Single Molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raikh, Mikhail

    2007-03-01

    Coupling to molecular vibrations induces a polaronic shift, and can lead to a negative charging energy, U. For negative U, the occupation of the ground state of the molecule is even. In this situation, virtual pair transitions between the molecule and the leads can dominate electron transport. At low temperature, T, these transitions give rise to the charge-Kondo effect [1]. We developed the electron transport theory through the negative-U molecule [2] at relatively high T, when the Kondo correlations are suppressed. Two physical ingredients distinguish our theory from the transport through a superconducting grain coupled to the normal leads [3]: (i) in parallel with sequential pair-tunneling processes, single-particle cotunneling processes take place; (ii) the electron pair on the molecule can be created (or annihilated) by two electrons tunneling in from (or out to) opposite leads. We found that, even within the rate-equation description, the behavior of differential conductance through the negative-U molecule as function of the gate voltage is quite peculiar: the height of the peak near the degeneracy point is independent of temperature, while its width is proportional to T. This is in contrast to the ordinary Coulomb-blockade conductance peak, whose integral strength is T-independent. At finite source-drain bias, V>>T, the width of the conductance peak is ˜V, whereas the conventional Coulomb-blockade peak at finite V splits into two sharp peaks at detunings V/2, and -V/2. Possible applications to the gate-controlled current rectification and switching will be discussed. [1] A. Taraphder and P. Coleman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 2814 (1991). [2] J. Koch, M. E. Raikh, and F. von Oppen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 056803 (2006). [3] F. W. J. Hekking, L. I. Glazman, K. A. Matveev, and R. I. Shekhter, Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 4138 (1993).

  18. Direct interaction of the N-terminal domain of ribosomal protein S1 with protein S2 in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrgazov, Konstantin; Manoharadas, Salim; Kaberdina, Anna C; Vesper, Oliver; Moll, Isabella

    2012-01-01

    Despite of the high resolution structure available for the E. coli ribosome, hitherto the structure and localization of the essential ribosomal protein S1 on the 30 S subunit still remains to be elucidated. It was previously reported that protein S1 binds to the ribosome via protein-protein interaction at the two N-terminal domains. Moreover, protein S2 was shown to be required for binding of protein S1 to the ribosome. Here, we present evidence that the N-terminal domain of S1 (amino acids 1-106; S1(106)) is necessary and sufficient for the interaction with protein S2 as well as for ribosome binding. We show that over production of protein S1(106) affects E. coli growth by displacing native protein S1 from its binding pocket on the ribosome. In addition, our data reveal that the coiled-coil domain of protein S2 (S2α(2)) is sufficient to allow protein S1 to bind to the ribosome. Taken together, these data uncover the crucial elements required for the S1/S2 interaction, which is pivotal for translation initiation on canonical mRNAs in gram-negative bacteria. The results are discussed in terms of a model wherein the S1/S2 interaction surface could represent a possible target to modulate the selectivity of the translational machinery and thereby alter the translational program under distinct conditions.

  19. Effect of combined treatment with micelle-incorporated cisplatin (NC-6004) and S-1 on human gastric cancer xenografts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudo, Masahisa; Yamamoto, Yoshiyuki; Koga, Yoshikatsu; Hamaguchi, Tetsuya; Akimoto, Tetsuo; Yasunaga, Masahiro; Matsumura, Yasuhiro

    2016-12-01

    Combination therapy with S-1 and cisplatin (CDDP) is the standard chemotherapy for advanced gastric cancer in Japan; however, its administration requires hospitalization for hydration to prevent nephrotoxicity from CDDP. By contrast, NC-6004 appears to reduce the renal toxicity of CDDP and may be used on an outpatient basis. Thus, the effects of combined treatment with S-1 and NC-6004 were compared with those of S-1 and CDDP in a human gastric cancer model. In vitro cytotoxic effects were investigated in 44As3Luc, MKN45 and MKN74 human gastric cancer cell lines. The effects of NC-6004 and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) were compared with the effects of CDDP and 5-FU using the combination index method. The in vivo antitumor effects of S-1/NC-6004 and S-1/CDDP were evaluated in mice bearing 44As3Luc xenografts. Both combinations exhibited synergistic activity in MKN45 and MKN74 cells and additive effects in 44As3Luc cells. Moreover, the in vivo antitumor effects did not differ between the S-1/NC-6004 and S-1/CDDP treatment groups. However, a significantly lower body weight loss was observed in S-1/NC-6004-treated mice compared with the S-1/CDDP-treated mice. Our data warrant a clinical evaluation of S-1/NC-6004 combination therapy.

  20. Bitopic Sphingosine 1-Phosphate Receptor 3 (S1P3) Antagonist Rescue from Complete Heart Block: Pharmacological and Genetic Evidence for Direct S1P3 Regulation of Mouse Cardiac Conduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanna, M. Germana; Vincent, Kevin P.; Repetto, Emanuela; Nguyen, Nhan; Brown, Steven J.; Abgaryan, Lusine; Riley, Sean W.; Leaf, Nora B.; Cahalan, Stuart M.; Kiosses, William B.; Kohno, Yasushi; Brown, Joan Heller; McCulloch, Andrew D.

    2016-01-01

    The molecular pharmacology of the G protein–coupled receptors for sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) provides important insight into established and new therapeutic targets. A new, potent bitopic S1P3 antagonist, SPM-354, with in vivo activity, has been used, together with S1P3-knockin and S1P3-knockout mice to define the spatial and functional properties of S1P3 in regulating cardiac conduction. We show that S1P3 is a key direct regulator of cardiac rhythm both in vivo and in isolated perfused hearts. 2-Amino-2-[2-(4-octylphenyl)ethyl]propane-1,3-diol in vivo and S1P in isolated hearts induced a spectrum of cardiac effects, ranging from sinus bradycardia to complete heart block, as measured by a surface electrocardiogram in anesthetized mice and in volume-conducted Langendorff preparations. The agonist effects on complete heart block are absent in S1P3-knockout mice and are reversed in wild-type mice with SPM-354, as characterized and described here. Homologous knockin of S1P3-mCherry is fully functional pharmacologically and is strongly expressed by immunohistochemistry confocal microscopy in Hyperpolarization Activated Cyclic Nucleotide Gated Potassium Channel 4 (HCN4)-positive atrioventricular node and His-Purkinje fibers, with relative less expression in the HCN4-positive sinoatrial node. In Langendorff studies, at constant pressure, SPM-354 restored sinus rhythm in S1P-induced complete heart block and fully reversed S1P-mediated bradycardia. S1P3 distribution and function in the mouse ventricular cardiac conduction system suggest a direct mechanism for heart block risk that should be further studied in humans. A richer understanding of receptor and ligand usage in the pacemaker cells of the cardiac system is likely to be useful in understanding ventricular conduction in health, disease, and pharmacology. PMID:26494861

  1. S1P, dihydro-S1P and C24:1-ceramide levels in the HDL-containing fraction of serum inversely correlate with occurrence of ischemic heart disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Argraves, Kelley M; Sethi, Amar A; Gazzolo, Patrick J;

    2011-01-01

    The lysosphingolipid sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) is carried in the blood in association with lipoproteins, predominantly high density lipoproteins (HDL). Emerging evidence suggests that many of the effects of HDL on cardiovascular function may be attributable to its S1P cargo.......The lysosphingolipid sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) is carried in the blood in association with lipoproteins, predominantly high density lipoproteins (HDL). Emerging evidence suggests that many of the effects of HDL on cardiovascular function may be attributable to its S1P cargo....

  2. Angular-momentum couplings in long-range Rb$_2$ Rydberg molecules

    CERN Document Server

    Anderson, David A; Raithel, Georg

    2014-01-01

    We study angular-momentum couplings in $^{87}$Rb$_2$ Rydberg molecules formed between Rydberg and 5S$_{1/2}$ ground-state atoms. We use a Fermi model that includes S-wave and P-wave singlet and triplet scattering of the Rydberg electron with the 5S$_{1/2}$ atom, along with the fine structure coupling of the Rydberg atom and hyperfine structure coupling of the 5S$_{1/2}$ atom. We discuss the effects of these couplings on the adiabatic molecular potentials. We obtain bound-state energies, lifetimes, and electric and magnetic dipole moments for the vibrational ground states of the $^{87}$Rb$(n$D$+5$S$_{1/2})$ molecules in all adiabatic potentials, with fine and hyperfine structure included. We also study the effect of the hyperfine structure on the deep $^3$S-wave- and $^3$P-wave-dominated adiabatic molecular potentials, which support high-$\\ell$ $^{87}$Rb$_2$ Rydberg molecules.

  3. Experimental design and environmental parameters affect Rhodospirillum rubrum S1H response to space flight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastroleo, Felice; Van Houdt, Rob; Leroy, Baptiste; Benotmane, M Abderrafi; Janssen, Ann; Mergeay, Max; Vanhavere, Filip; Hendrickx, Larissa; Wattiez, Ruddy; Leys, Natalie

    2009-12-01

    In view of long-haul space exploration missions, the European Space Agency initiated the Micro-Ecological Life Support System Alternative (MELiSSA) project targeting the total recycling of organic waste produced by the astronauts into oxygen, water and food using a loop of bacterial and higher plant bioreactors. In that purpose, the alpha-proteobacterium, Rhodospirillum rubrum S1H, was sent twice to the International Space Station and was analyzed post-flight using a newly developed R. rubrum whole genome oligonucleotide microarray and high throughput gel-free proteomics with Isotope-Coded Protein Label technology. Moreover, in an effort to identify a specific response of R. rubrum S1H to space flight, simulation of microgravity and space-ionizing radiation were performed on Earth under identical culture set-up and growth conditions as encountered during the actual space journeys. Transcriptomic and proteomic data were integrated and permitted to put forward the importance of medium composition and culture set-up on the response of the bacterium to space flight-related environmental conditions. In addition, we showed for the first time that a low dose of ionizing radiation (2 mGy) can induce a significant response at the transcriptomic level, although no change in cell viability and only a few significant differentially expressed proteins were observed. From the MELiSSA perspective, we could argue the effect of microgravity to be minimized, whereas R. rubrum S1H could be more sensitive to ionizing radiation during long-term space exploration mission.

  4. Odin observations of ammonia in the Sgr A +50 km s-1 cloud and circumnuclear disk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandqvist, Aa.; Hjalmarson, Å.; Frisk, U.; Lundin, S.; Nordh, L.; Olberg, M.; Olofsson, G.

    2017-03-01

    Context. The Odin satellite is now into its sixteenth year of operation, much surpassing its design life of two years. One of the sources which Odin has observed in great detail is the Sgr A complex in the centre of the Milky Way. Aims: To study the presence of NH3 in the Galactic centre and spiral arms. Methods: Recently, Odin has made complementary observations of the 572 GHz NH3 line towards the Sgr A +50 km s-1 cloud and circumnuclear disk (CND). Results: Significant NH3 emission has been observed in both the +50 km s-1 cloud and the CND. Clear NH3 absorption has also been detected in many of the spiral arm features along the line of sight from the Sun to the core of our Galaxy. Conclusions: The very large velocity width (80 km s-1) of the NH3 emission associated with the shock region in the southwestern part of the CND may suggest a formation/desorption scenario similar to that of gas-phase H2O in shocks/outflows. Odin is a Swedish-led satellite project funded jointly by the Swedish National Space Board (SNSB), the Canadian Space Agency (CSA), the National Technology Agency of Finland (Tekes), the Centre National d'Études Spatiales (CNES), France, and the European Space Agency (ESA). The former Space division of the Swedish Space Corporation, today OHB Sweden, is the prime contractor, also responsible for Odin operations.The reduced spectra are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/599/A135

  5. Unusual Water Production Activity of Comet C/2012 S1 (ISON): Outbursts and Continuous Fragmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combi, M. R.; Fougere, N.; Mäkinen, J. T. T.; Bertaux, J.-L.; Quémerais, E.; Ferron, S.

    2014-06-01

    The Solar Wind ANisotropies (SWAN) all-sky hydrogen Lyα camera on the SOlar and Heliospheric Observer (SOHO) satellite observed the hydrogen coma of comet C/2012 S1 (ISON) for most of the last month of its activity from 2013 October 24 to November 24, ending just 4 days before perihelion and its final disruption. The water production rate of the comet was determined from these observations. SOHO has been operating in a halo orbit around the Earth-Sun L1 Lagrange point since its launch in late 1995. Most water vapor produced by comets is ultimately photodissociated into two H atoms and one O atom producing a huge hydrogen coma that is routinely observed in the daily SWAN images in comets of sufficient brightness. Water production rates were calculated from 22 images over most of the last month of the pre-perihelion apparition. The water production rate increased very slowly on average from October 24.9 until November 12.9, staying between 1.8 and 3.4 × 1028 s-1, after which it increased dramatically, reaching 1.6 to 2 × 1030 s-1 from November 21.6 to 23.6. It was not detected after perihelion on December 3.7 when it should have been visible. We examine the active surface area necessary to explain the water production rate and its variation and are able to place constraints on the physical size of the original nucleus necessary to account for the large amount of activity from November 12.9 and until just before perihelion.

  6. Ballonet String Model of Molecules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gavril NIAC

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Strings of ballonets, modelling rows of orbitals, are assembled to molecule models by crossing them properly. The ballonets at the ends of the strings of 2, 3, 4 or 5 spheres represent bonding orbitals of hydrogen with other elements like C, N or O (the proton being inside the sphere, as well as nonbonding orbitals. The ballonets between them are modelling bonding orbitals among elements other than hydrogen - except the double bond in diborane, the atomic cores laying at the junction of two or more spheres.Advantages of elastic sphere models range from self-adjusting bond angles to resistance when closing cycles like cyclopropane or modeling double bonds.Examples comprise alkanes, including platonic hydrocarbons, ethene, acetylene, and some inorganic molecules.

  7. Localization of 3d $\\mathcal{N}=2$ Supersymmetric Theories on $S^1 \\times D^2$

    CERN Document Server

    Yoshida, Yutaka

    2014-01-01

    We study three dimensional N=2 supersymmetric Chern-Simons-Matter theories on the direct product of circle and two dimensional hemisphere (S^1 x D^2) with specified boundary conditions by the method of localization. We construct boundary interactions to cancel the supersymmetric variation of three dimensional superpotential term and Chern-Simons term and show inflows of bulk-boundary anomalies. It finds that the boundary conditions induce two dimensional N=(0,2) type supersymmetry on the boundary torus. We also study the relation between the 3d-2d coupled partition function of our model and three dimensional holomorphic blocks.

  8. Measurement of the hyperfine splitting of the 6S$_{1/2}$ level in rubidium

    CERN Document Server

    Galvan, A Perez; Orozco, L A

    2008-01-01

    We present a measurement of the hyperfine splitting of the 6S$_{1/2}$ excited level of rubidium using two photon absorption spectroscopy in a glass cell. The values we obtain for the magnetic dipole constant A are 239.18(03) MHz and 807.66(08) MHz for $^{85}$Rb and $^{87}$Rb, respectively. The combination of the magnetic moments of the two isotopes and our measurements show a hyperfine anomaly in this atomic excited state. The observed hyperfine anomaly difference has a value of $_{87}\\delta_{85}=-0.0036(2)$ due to the finite distribution of nuclear magnetization, the Bohr-Weisskopf effect.

  9. 换壳之作联想乐Phone S1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    乐Phone在国产智能手机中的口碑还不错,这款新登场的乐Phone S1,在之前乐Phone的基础上。对外观进行了一些修改,变得更潮。搭载Qualcomm QSD 8250处理器(最早的乐Phone是高通SnapDragon QSD8650),主频1GHz.配备512MB RAM,

  10. Effect of neomycin and protein S1 on the binding of streptomycin to the ribosome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grisé-Miron, L; Brakier-Gingras, L

    1982-04-01

    The binding of [3H]dihydrostreptomycin to the 70-S ribosome or to the 30-S subunit has been investigated in the presence of neomycin by the Millipore filtration or the equilibrium dialysis procedure. It was observed that dihydrostreptomycin binds equally well to the 30-S subunit and the 70-S ribosome, and that neomycin stimulates the binding of dihydrostreptomycin to the ribosome by increasing the association constant and not by creating new binding sites. Specific removal of protein S1 from the 30-S subunit neither affected the binding of dihydrostreptomycin to the ribosome nor the stimulation of dihydrostreptomycin binding by neomycin.

  11. The S1 buoy station, Po River delta: data handling and presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro COLUCCELLI

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The technical setting of the mete-oceanographic buoy at site S1 south of the Po River delta is presented. The station was deployed by Istituto di Scienze Marine (ISMAR of CNR of Bologna, in cooperation with the local Regional Government and Environmental Agencies (ARPA of E. Romagna, and ADRICOSM. The buoy mooring and data flow architecture is discussed, with some emphasis on the WWW data presentation. The possible integration with other remote stations, data and mete-oceanographic operational activities is also proposed.

  12. Diazido{(S-1-phenyl-N,N-bis[(2-pyridylmethyl]ethanamine}copper(II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sankara Rao Rowthu

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, [Cu(N32(C20H21N3], the CuII ion is coordinated by the three N atoms of the (S-1-phenyl-N,N-bis[(2-pyridylmethyl]ethanamine ligand and two N atoms from two azide anions, resulting in a distorted square-pyramidal environment. A weak intermolecular C—H...N hydrogen-bonding interaction between one pyridine group of the ligand and an azide N atom of an adjacent complex unit gives a one-dimensional chain structure parallel to the c axis.

  13. S1 guideline for diagnostic evaluation in androgenetic alopecia in men, women and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blume-Peytavi, U; Blumeyer, A; Tosti, A; Finner, A; Marmol, V; Trakatelli, M; Reygagne, P; Messenger, A

    2011-01-01

    Androgenetic alopecia (AGA) is the most common hair loss disorder, affecting both men and women. Due to the frequency and the often significant impairment of life perceived by the affected patients, competent advice, diagnosis and treatment is particularly important. As evidence-based guidelines on hair disorders are rare, a European consensus group was constituted to develop guidelines for the diagnostic evaluation and treatment of AGA. This S1 guideline for diagnostic evaluation of AGA in men, women and adolescents reviews the definition of AGA and presents expert opinion-based recommendations for sex-dependent steps in the diagnostic procedure.

  14. Ligand-induced expansion of the S1' site in the anthrax toxin lethal factor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maize, Kimberly M.; Kurbanov, Elbek K.; Johnson, Rodney L.; Amin, Elizabeth Ambrose; Finzel, Barry C. (UMM)

    2016-07-05

    The Bacillus anthracis lethal factor (LF) is one component of a tripartite exotoxin partly responsible for persistent anthrax cytotoxicity after initial bacterial infection. Inhibitors of the zinc metalloproteinase have been investigated as potential therapeutic agents, but LF is a challenging target because inhibitors lack sufficient selectivity or possess poor pharmaceutical properties. These structural studies reveal an alternate conformation of the enzyme, induced upon binding of specific inhibitors, that opens a previously unobserved deep pocket termed S1'* which might afford new opportunities to design selective inhibitors that target this subsite.

  15. Magic Wavelength for Caesium Transition Line 6S1/2 -6P3/2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Yu-Nan; ZHOU Xiao-Ji; CHEN Jing-Biao; CHEN Xu-Zong

    2006-01-01

    @@ We investigate the magic wavelengths of the trapping laser for 6S1/2 - 6P3/2 of the Cs atom in a region where the optical shift between two different states can be eliminated. For fine levels and linear polarized laser they are 930.4 nm and 937.2nm. The magic wavelengths range from 927. 7nm to 945.0nm for circle-polarized perturbing laser. Effects of nuclear spin, the hyper-fine Zeeman levels, and the polarization of the light, which generate different magic wavelengths, are further discussed.

  16. Valence bond phases in S = 1/2 Kane-Mele-Heisenberg model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zare, Mohammad H; Mosadeq, Hamid; Shahbazi, Farhad; Jafari, S A

    2014-11-12

    The phase diagram of the Kane-Mele-Heisenberg model in a classical limit [47] contains disordered regions in the coupling space, as the result of competition between different terms in the Hamiltonian, leading to frustration in finding a unique ground state. In this work we explore the nature of these phases in the quantum limit, for a S = 1/2. Employing exact diagonalization in Sz and nearest neighbour valence bond bases, and bond and plaquette valence bond mean field theories, we show that the disordered regions are divided into ordered quantum states in the form of plaquette valence bond crystals and staggered dimerized phases.

  17. Ferroquadrupolar phase of the S=1 bilinear–biquadratic Heisenberg model on the square lattice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pires, A.S.T., E-mail: antpires@fisica.ufmg.br

    2014-12-15

    Using the SU(3) Schwinger bosons formalism in a mean field approximation we have investigated the ferroquadrupolar phase of the S=1 Heisenberg model with bilinear and biquadratic exchange interactions on the square lattice. This nonmagnetic phase is characterized by a finite quadrupole moment. We have compared our results with the ones obtained from other theories. - Highlights: • The quadrupole moment of the ferroquadrupolar phase is calculated. • The static spin structure factor is obtained. • The quadrupole structure factor is calculated and shows to diverge at q=(0,0)

  18. Local probe of fractional edge states of S=1 Heisenberg spin chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, F; Batista, C D; Fernández-Rossier, J

    2013-10-18

    Spin chains are among the simplest physical systems in which electron-electron interactions induce novel states of matter. Here we propose to combine atomic scale engineering and spectroscopic capabilities of state of the art scanning tunnel microscopy to probe the fractionalized edge states of individual atomic scale S=1 spin chains. These edge states arise from the topological order of the ground state in the Haldane phase. We also show that the Haldane gap and the spin-spin correlation length can be measured with the same technique.

  19. 2(2S+1)-component model and its connection with other field theories

    CERN Document Server

    Dvoeglazov, V V

    1994-01-01

    This talk presents the review of forgotten but attractive formalism proposed by Joos and Weinberg in the sixties for description of high-spin particles. Problems raised in the recent works [Ahluwalia {\\it et al.}] are discussed. New results obtained by the author in his preceding papers ["Hadronic J.", 1993, v. 16, No. 5, pp. 423-428; No. 6, pp. 459-467; Preprints IFUNAM FT-93-19, 24, 35] are reported. In {\\it Appendix}, bibliography of publications related with mentioned $2(2S+1)$- component formalism is presented.

  20. A hidden BFKL / XXX s = -1/2 spin chain mapping

    CERN Document Server

    Romagnoni, Alberto

    2011-01-01

    A new mapping between the BFKL equation and Beisert's representation of the XXX Heisenberg ferromagnet with spin s = - 1/2 is given. The action of the Hamiltonian operator of a spin chain with SL(2) invariance on a symmetric double copy of a harmonic oscillator excited state is shown to be identical to the action of the BFKL Hamiltonian on the gluon Green function for the azimuthal-angle averaged forward scattering case. A natural mapping between the gluon Green function, discretized in virtuality space, and the double harmonic oscillator excited state emerges.

  1. Redox-Controled Preservation of Mediterranean Sapropel S1 deposits during Formation and Interruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Lange, Gert J.; Filippidi, Amalia; Goudeau, Marie-Louise; Hennekam, Rick

    2016-04-01

    Organic-rich units (sapropels) occur in Mediterraneran sediments in a repetitive, climate-controled way. Their deposition is thought to be precession-related and to be associated with humid climate conditions. The last humid period from 11 - 5 kyr 14C ago, occurred simultaneous with a sustained circum-Mediterranean wet period and vegetated Sahara. Within that period, the most recent sapropel (S1) formed synchronously between 9.8 and 5.7 14C ky BP at all water depths greater than a few hundred metres. As a consequence of increased fresh water (monsoon) input, surface waters had a reduced salinity and concomitantly the deep (> 1.8 km) eastern Mediterranean Sea was devoid of oxygen during 4,000 years of S1 formation. This has resulted in a differential basin-wide preservation of S1sediments determined by water depth, as a result of different ventilation/climate-related redox conditions above and below 1.8 km. The end of this period is marked by a basin-wide high sedimentary manganese-oxide peak that represents an abrupt re-ventilation of the deep-water at 5.7 kyr. The sustaining oxic conditions thereafter have resulted in a downward progressing oxidation-front that is not only characterized by the degradation of most organic matter over its active pathway, but also by the built-up of manganese oxide. The latter has resulted in a secondary diagenetic Mn-peak below the first, upper, ventilation Mn-peak. Apart from the major re-ventilation event at the end of sapropel S1 formation, also other, short-term ventilation events appear to have occurred during its formation, notably during the 8.2 ka event. This potentially basin-wide event is particularly noticeable at relatively shallow near-coastal sites of high sedimentation rates. It marks a brief episode of not only re-oxygenated deep water thus reduced preservation, but also decreased primary productivity thus nutrient supply. This 8.2 cal ka BP interruption event is thought to be related to enhanced deep water formation

  2. Electrondriven processes in polyatomic molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKoy, Vincent [California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States)

    2017-03-20

    This project developed and applied scalable computational methods to obtain information about low-energy electron collisions with larger polyatomic molecules. Such collisions are important in modeling radiation damage to living systems, in spark ignition and combustion, and in plasma processing of materials. The focus of the project was to develop efficient methods that could be used to obtain both fundamental scientific insights and data of practical value to applications.

  3. Small Molecules-Big Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Császár, Attila G; Furtenbacher, Tibor; Árendás, Péter

    2016-11-17

    Quantum mechanics builds large-scale graphs (networks): the vertices are the discrete energy levels the quantum system possesses, and the edges are the (quantum-mechanically allowed) transitions. Parts of the complete quantum mechanical networks can be probed experimentally via high-resolution, energy-resolved spectroscopic techniques. The complete rovibronic line list information for a given molecule can only be obtained through sophisticated quantum-chemical computations. Experiments as well as computations yield what we call spectroscopic networks (SN). First-principles SNs of even small, three to five atomic molecules can be huge, qualifying for the big data description. Besides helping to interpret high-resolution spectra, the network-theoretical view offers several ideas for improving the accuracy and robustness of the increasingly important information systems containing line-by-line spectroscopic data. For example, the smallest number of measurements necessary to perform to obtain the complete list of energy levels is given by the minimum-weight spanning tree of the SN and network clustering studies may call attention to "weakest links" of a spectroscopic database. A present-day application of spectroscopic networks is within the MARVEL (Measured Active Rotational-Vibrational Energy Levels) approach, whereby the transitions information on a measured SN is turned into experimental energy levels via a weighted linear least-squares refinement. MARVEL has been used successfully for 15 molecules and allowed to validate most of the transitions measured and come up with energy levels with well-defined and realistic uncertainties. Accurate knowledge of the energy levels with computed transition intensities allows the realistic prediction of spectra under many different circumstances, e.g., for widely different temperatures. Detailed knowledge of the energy level structure of a molecule coming from a MARVEL analysis is important for a considerable number of modeling

  4. Physics of Atoms and Molecules

    CERN Document Server

    Bransden, B H

    2003-01-01

    New edition of a well-established second and third year textbook for Physics degree students, covering the physical structure and behaviour of atoms and molecules. The aim of this new edition is to provide a unified account of the subject within an undergraduate framework, taking the opportunity to make improvements based on the teaching experience of users of the first edition, and cover important new developments in the subject.

  5. Optical highlighter molecules in neurobiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Sandeep Robert; Patterson, George H

    2012-02-01

    The development of advanced optical methods has played a key role in propelling progress in neurobiology. Genetically-encoded fluorescent molecules found in nature have enabled labeling of individual neurons to study their physiology and anatomy. Here we discuss the recent use of both native and synthetic optical highlighter proteins to address key problems in neurobiology, including questions relevant to synaptic function, neuroanatomy, and the organization of neural circuits.

  6. Quantification of αS1-casein in breast milk using a targeted mass spectrometry-based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altendorfer, Irina; König, Simone; Braukmann, Achim; Saenger, Thorsten; Bleck, Ellen; Vordenbäumen, Stefan; Kubiak, Anna; Schneider, Matthias; Jose, Joachim

    2015-01-25

    The caseins comprise a milk protein fraction of high nutritional value and, as more recently discovered, of immunologic relevance. In particular, αS1-casein (CSN1S1) is of interest being a potential autoantigen. So far, the concentration of caseins in human milk was primarily determined by indirect methods. The aim of this study was to directly measure the CSN1S1 content in breast milk using mass spectrometry (MS). The quantification was based on tryptic CSN1S1 peptides with the best response in liquid chromatography (LC)-MS/MS analysis. Targeted experiments allowed both specific and sensitive detection at the low fmol level. For this pilot study, twenty breast milk samples of the first week post-partum were analyzed and contained between 3 and 540μg/ml CSN1S1. Limitations of CSN1S1 quantification are discussed.

  7. Torsional, Vibrational and Vibration-Torsional Levels in the S_{1} and Ground Cationic D_{0}^{+} States of Para-Fluorotoluene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Adrian M.; Tuttle, William Duncan; Whalley, Laura E.; Claydon, Andrew; Carter, Joseph H.; Wright, Timothy G.

    2017-06-01

    The S_{1} electronic state and ground state of the cation of para-fluorotoluene (pFT) have been investigated using resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization (REMPI) spectroscopy and zero-kinetic-energy (ZEKE) spectroscopy. Here we focus on the low wavenumber region where a number of "pure" torsional, fundamental vibrational and vibration-torsional levels are expected; assignments of observed transitions are discussed, which are compared to results of published work on toluene (methylbenzene) from the Lawrance group. The similarity in the activity observed in the excitation spectrum of the two molecules is striking. A. M. Gardner, W. D. Tuttle, L. Whalley, A. Claydon, J. H. Carter and T. G. Wright, J. Chem. Phys., 145, 124307 (2016). J. R. Gascooke, E. A. Virgo, and W. D. Lawrance J. Chem. Phys., 143, 044313 (2015).

  8. New observation and combined analysis of the Cs 2 0g - , 0u + , and 1g states at the asymptotes 6S1/2 + 6P1/2 and 6S1/2 + 6P3/2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jie; Liu, Wenliang; Yang, Jinxin; Wu, Jizhou; Sun, Weiguo; Ivanov, Valery S.; Skublov, Alexei S.; Sovkov, Vladimir B.; Dai, Xingcan; Jia, Suotang

    2014-12-01

    We report on new observations of the photoassociation spectroscopy of ultracold cesium molecules using a highly sensitive detection technique and a combined analysis with all observed electronic states. The technique is achieved by directly modulating the frequency of the trapping lasers of a magneto-optical trap. New observations of the Cs2 0g - , 0u + , and 1g states at the asymptotes 6S1/2 + 6P1/2 and 6S1/2 + 6P3/2 are reported. The spectral range is extended to the red detuning of 112 cm-1 below the 6S1/2 + 6P3/2 dissociation limit. Dozens of vibrational levels of the ultracold Cs2 0g - , 0u + , and 1g states are observed for the first time. The available experimental binding energies of these states are analyzed simultaneously in a framework of the generalized LeRoy-Bernstein theory and the almost degenerate perturbation theory by Marinescu and Dalgarno [Phys. Rev. A: At., Mol., Opt. Phys. 52, 311 (1995)]. The unique atomic-related parameter c3 governing the dispersion forces of all the molecular states is estimated as (10.29 ± 0.05) a.u.

  9. Sphingosine-1-phosphate enhances satellite cell activation in dystrophic muscles through a S1PR2/STAT3 signaling pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth C Loh

    Full Text Available Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P activates a widely expressed family of G protein-coupled receptors, serves as a muscle trophic factor and activates muscle stem cells called satellite cells (SCs through unknown mechanisms. Here we show that muscle injury induces dynamic changes in S1P signaling and metabolism in vivo. These changes include early and profound induction of the gene encoding the S1P biosynthetic enzyme SphK1, followed by induction of the catabolic enzyme sphingosine phosphate lyase (SPL 3 days later. These changes correlate with a transient increase in circulating S1P levels after muscle injury. We show a specific requirement for SphK1 to support efficient muscle regeneration and SC proliferation and differentiation. Mdx mice, which serve as a model for muscular dystrophy (MD, were found to be S1P-deficient and exhibited muscle SPL upregulation, suggesting that S1P catabolism is enhanced in dystrophic muscle. Pharmacological SPL inhibition increased muscle S1P levels, improved mdx muscle regeneration and enhanced SC proliferation via S1P receptor 2 (S1PR2-dependent inhibition of Rac1, thereby activating Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 3 (STAT3, a central player in inflammatory signaling. STAT3 activation resulted in p21 and p27 downregulation in a S1PR2-dependent fashion in myoblasts. Our findings suggest that S1P promotes SC progression through the cell cycle by repression of cell cycle inhibitors via S1PR2/STAT3-dependent signaling and that SPL inhibition may provide a therapeutic strategy for MD.

  10. Molecular Characteristics of S1 Gene of Infectious Bronchitis Virus Isolated from Chicken Proventriculus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Li-qin; ZHOU Ji-yong; John Dikki; SHEN Xing-yan; CHEN Ji-gang; ZHANG De-yong

    2003-01-01

    Infectious bronchitis virus was isolated from swollen proventriculi of clinically ill chicken. Thesuspected virus samples (2/97, 3/97, 1/98) were adapted in SPF chicken embryos for virus isolation andidentification. All the virus isolates were able to agglutinate chicken erythrocytes after treatment with trypsin,and interfer with the reproduction of Newcastle disease virus in chicken embryos, and have low antigenic relat-edness values with reference positive IBV. The isolates 2/97, 3/97, 1/98 RNAs extracted from the allantoicfluid of inoculated embryonated eggs were converted to cDNA by reverse transcription with 3'-primer of S1gene of (IBV). Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed with two primers which span the S1 gene.Amplified product of 1.93 kb was subjected to EcoR Ⅰ and BamH Ⅰ digestion and the fragments obtainedwere the same as expected size. The PCR product was ligated to pBlueScript-SK (+) vector, and its nucleotidesequence was determined by the dideoxy-mediated chain termination method. Nucleotide sequence analysisshowed 73.6 - 99.7 % homology between the isolated IBV and the IBV strains in GenBank. The homology ofamino acid was 71.4 - 99.4 %.

  11. On the determination of low-energy constants for {delta}S=1 transitions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giusti, L.; Pena, C. [European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland); Hernandez, P. [Dpto. Fisica Teorica and IFIC, Edificio Institutos Investigacion, Valencia (Spain); Laine, M. [Bielefeld Univ. (Germany). Fakultaet fuer Physik; Wennekers, J.; Wittig, H. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2005-10-01

    We present our preliminary results for three-point correlation functions involving the operators entering the {delta}S=1 effective Hamiltonian with an active charm quark, obtained using overlap fermions in the quenched approximation. This is the first computation carried out for valence quark masses small enough so as to permit a matching to Quenched Chiral Perturbation Theory in the {epsilon}-regime. The commonly observed large statistical fluctuations are tamed by means of low-mode averaging techniques, combined with restrictions to individual topological sectors. We also discuss the matching of the resulting hadronic matrix elements to the effective low-energy constants for {delta}S=1 transitions. This involves (a) finite-volume corrections which can be evaluated at NLO in Quenched Chiral Perturbation Theory, and (b) the short-distance renormalization of the relevant four-quark operators in discretizations based on the overlap operator. We discuss perturbative estimates for the renormalization factors and possible strategies for their non-perturbative evaluation. Our results can be used to isolate the long-distance contributions to the {delta}I=1/2 rule, coming from physics effects around the intrinsic QCD scale. (orig.)

  12. Protein crystallography beamline BL2S1 at the Aichi synchrotron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Nobuhisa; Nagae, Takayuki; Yamada, Yusuke; Tomita, Ayana; Matsugaki, Naohiro; Tabuchi, Masao

    2017-01-01

    The protein crystallography beamline BL2S1, constructed at one of the 5 T superconducting bending-magnet ports of the Aichi synchrotron, is available to users associated with academic and industrial organizations. The beamline is mainly intended for use in X-ray diffraction measurements of single-crystals of macromolecules such as proteins and nucleic acids. Diffraction measurements for crystals of other materials are also possible, such as inorganic and organic compounds. BL2S1 covers the energy range 7–17 keV (1.8–0.7 Å) with an asymmetric-cut curved single-crystal monochromator [Ge(111) or Ge(220)], and a platinum-coated Si mirror is used for vertical focusing and as a higher-order cutoff filter. The beamline is equipped with a single-axis goniometer, a CCD detector, and an open-flow cryogenic sample cooler. High-pressure protein crystallography with a diamond anvil cell can also be performed using this beamline. PMID:28009576

  13. Protein crystallography beamline BL2S1 at the Aichi synchrotron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, Nobuhisa; Nagae, Takayuki; Yamada, Yusuke; Tomita, Ayana; Matsugaki, Naohiro; Tabuchi, Masao (Nagoya); (Photon)

    2017-01-01

    The protein crystallography beamline BL2S1, constructed at one of the 5 T superconducting bending-magnet ports of the Aichi synchrotron, is available to users associated with academic and industrial organizations. The beamline is mainly intended for use in X-ray diffraction measurements of single-crystals of macromolecules such as proteins and nucleic acids. Diffraction measurements for crystals of other materials are also possible, such as inorganic and organic compounds. BL2S1 covers the energy range 7–17 keV (1.8–0.7 Å) with an asymmetric-cut curved single-crystal monochromator [Ge(111) or Ge(220)], and a platinum-coated Si mirror is used for vertical focusing and as a higher-order cutoff filter. The beamline is equipped with a single-axis goniometer, a CCD detector, and an open-flow cryogenic sample cooler. Lastly, high-pressure protein crystallography with a diamond anvil cell can also be performed using this beamline.

  14. S1 gene-based phylogeny of infectious bronchitis virus: An attempt to harmonize virus classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valastro, Viviana; Holmes, Edward C; Britton, Paul; Fusaro, Alice; Jackwood, Mark W; Cattoli, Giovanni; Monne, Isabella

    2016-04-01

    Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) is the causative agent of a highly contagious disease that results in severe economic losses to the global poultry industry. The virus exists in a wide variety of genetically distinct viral types, and both phylogenetic analysis and measures of pairwise similarity among nucleotide or amino acid sequences have been used to classify IBV strains. However, there is currently no consensus on the method by which IBV sequences should be compared, and heterogeneous genetic group designations that are inconsistent with phylogenetic history have been adopted, leading to the confusing coexistence of multiple genotyping schemes. Herein, we propose a simple and repeatable phylogeny-based classification system combined with an unambiguous and rationale lineage nomenclature for the assignment of IBV strains. By using complete nucleotide sequences of the S1 gene we determined the phylogenetic structure of IBV, which in turn allowed us to define 6 genotypes that together comprise 32 distinct viral lineages and a number of inter-lineage recombinants. Because of extensive rate variation among IBVs, we suggest that the inference of phylogenetic relationships alone represents a more appropriate criterion for sequence classification than pairwise sequence comparisons. The adoption of an internationally accepted viral nomenclature is crucial for future studies of IBV epidemiology and evolution, and the classification scheme presented here can be updated and revised novel S1 sequences should become available. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Optical Parameters of Spray-Deposited CdS1- y Te y Thin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikhmayies, Shadia J.

    2017-02-01

    CdS x Te1- x and CdS1- y Te y solid solutions are usually formed in the interfacial region in CdS/CdTe solar cells during the deposition of the CdTe layer and/or the processing steps of the device. In this work, indium-doped CdS1- y Te y thin films were prepared by first producing CdS:In thin films by the spray pyrolysis technique on glass substrates, then annealing the films in nitrogen atmosphere in the presence of elemental tellurium. The films were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, and transmittance measurements. The transmittance was used to deduce the reflectance from which the optical parameters were computed. The extinction coefficient, refractive index, the real and imaginary parts of the dielectric constant, optical conductivity, and energy loss were computed, and their dependence on the composition was investigated. In addition, the dispersion of the refractive index was analyzed by the single oscillator model, and dispersion parameters were investigated.

  16. Spin S = 1 centers: a universal type of paramagnetic defects in nanodiamonds of dynamic synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shames, A. I.; Osipov, V. Yu; von Bardeleben, H. J.; Vul', A. Ya

    2012-06-01

    Intrinsic paramagnetic defects in ˜5 nm sized nanodiamonds, produced by various dynamic synthesis (DySND) techniques (detonation, shock-wave, pulsed laser ablation of solid carbon containing targets), have been studied by multi-frequency electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR). X-band (9-10 GHz) EPR spectra of DySND, in addition to the main intensive singlet Lorentzian-like EPR signal, reveal a low intensity doublet pattern within the half-field (HF) region (g ˜ 4). On transferring spectra to the Q-band (34 GHz) the shape of the HF pattern changes and splitting between doublet components is reduced from 10.4 to 2.6 mT. The HF patterns observed are attributed to the ‘forbidden’ ΔMS = 2 transitions between the Zeeman levels of some spin-triplet (S = 1) centers. The model of two triplet centers with g ˜ 2.003 and zero-field splitting parameters D1 = 0.095 cm-1 (TR1) and D2 = 0.030 cm-1 (TR2) satisfactorily describes experimental results at both microwave frequencies. The spin-triplet-type defects are observed in a wide variety of DySND samples irrespective of industrial supplier, cooling and carbon soot refinement methods, initial purity, disintegration, or subsequent targeted chemical modification. This indicates that the intrinsic defects with S = 1 in DySND systems are of universal origin.

  17. Photolabeling of Glu-129 of the S-1 subunit of pertussis toxin with NAD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbieri, J.T.; Mende-Mueller, L.M.; Rappuoli, R.; Collier, R.J. (Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee (USA))

    1989-11-01

    UV irradiation was shown to induce efficient transfer of radiolabel from nicotinamide-labeled NAD to a recombinant protein (C180 peptide) containing the catalytic region of the S-1 subunit of pertussis toxin. Incorporation of label from (3H-nicotinamide)NAD was efficient (0.5 to 0.6 mol/mol of protein) relative to incorporation from (32P-adenylate)NAD (0.2 mol/mol of protein). Label from (3H-nicotinamide)NAD was specifically associated with Glu-129. Replacement of Glu-129 with glycine or aspartic acid made the protein refractory to photolabeling with (3H-nicotinamide)NAD, whereas replacement of a nearby glutamic acid, Glu-139, with serine did not. Photolabeling of the C180 peptide with NAD is similar to that observed with diphtheria toxin and exotoxin A of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, in which the nicotinamide portion of NAD is transferred to Glu-148 and Glu-553, respectively, in the two toxins. These results implicate Glu-129 of the S-1 subunit as an active-site residue and a potentially important site for genetic modification of pertussis toxin for development of an acellular vaccine against Bordetella pertussis.

  18. NMR evidence for peculiar spin gaps in a doped S=1/2 Heisenberg spin chain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Utz, Yannic; Rudisch, Christian; Hammerath, Franziska; Grafe, Hans-Joachim; Mohan, Ashwin; Ribeiro, Patrick; Hess, Christian; Wolter, Anja; Kataev, Vladislav; Nishimoto, Satoshi; Drechsler, Stefan-Ludwig; Buechner, Bernd [IFW Dresden (Germany); Singh, Surjeet [Indian Institute of Science Education and Research, Pune (India); Saint-Martin, Romuald; Revcolevschi, Alexandre [Laboratoire de Physico-Chimie de l' Etat Solide, Universite Paris-Sud, Orsay (France)

    2012-07-01

    We present {sup 63}Cu Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) measurements on undoped, Ca-doped and Ni-doped SrCuO{sub 2} single crystals. SrCuO{sub 2} is a good realization of a one-dimensional S=1/2 Heisenberg spin chain. This is manifested by the theoretically-expected temperature-independent NMR spin-lattice relaxation rate T{sub 1}{sup -1}. In Sr{sub 0.9}Ca{sub 0.1}CuO{sub 2} an exponential decrease of T{sub 1}{sup -1} below 90 K evidences the opening of a gap in the spin excitation spectrum, which amounts to {Delta}=50 K. DMRG calculations are presented to discuss the origin of this spin gap. New results on SrCu{sub 0.99}Ni{sub 0.01}O{sub 2} also indicate the presence of a spin gap, which is twice as large as in Sr{sub 0.9}Ca{sub 0.1}CuO{sub 2}, despite the minor doping level of Ni compared to Ca. We discuss different possible impacts of Ca (S=0) and Ni (S=1) doping on structural and magnetic properties of the parent compound.

  19. Spin nematic and orthogonal nematic states in S=1 non-Heisenberg magnet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fridman, Yu.A., E-mail: frid@tnu.crimea.edu [V.I. Vernadsky Taurida national university, Academician Vernadsky ave., 4, 95007 Simferopol (Ukraine); Kosmachev, O.A. [V.I. Vernadsky Taurida national university, Academician Vernadsky ave., 4, 95007 Simferopol (Ukraine); Klevets, Ph.N. [V.I. Vernadsky Taurida national university, Academician Vernadsky ave., 4, 95007 Simferopol (Ukraine); Institut fuer Physik, Universitaet Augsburg, Universitaetsstrasse 1, 86159 Augsburg (Germany)

    2013-01-15

    Phases of S=1 non-Heisenberg magnet at various relationships between the exchange integrals are studied in the mean-field limit at zero temperature. It is shown that four phases can be realized in the system under consideration: the ferromagnetic, antiferromagnetic, nematic, and the orthogonal nematic states. The phase diagram is constructed. It is shown that the phase transitions between the ferromagnetic phase and the orthogonal nematic phase and between the antiferromagnetic phase and the orthogonal nematic phase are the degenerated first-order transitions. For the first time the spectra of elementary excitations in all phases are obtained within the mean-field limit. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We investigated phases of S=1 non-Heisenberg magnet. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Found four phases: ferromagnetic, antiferromagnetic, nematic, and orthogonal nematic. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The phase diagram is determined. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The spectra of elementary excitations are obtained in all phases for the first time.

  20. Optical Parameters of Spray-Deposited CdS1-y Te y Thin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikhmayies, Shadia J.

    2016-11-01

    CdS x Te1-x and CdS1-y Te y solid solutions are usually formed in the interfacial region in CdS/CdTe solar cells during the deposition of the CdTe layer and/or the processing steps of the device. In this work, indium-doped CdS1-y Te y thin films were prepared by first producing CdS:In thin films by the spray pyrolysis technique on glass substrates, then annealing the films in nitrogen atmosphere in the presence of elemental tellurium. The films were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, and transmittance measurements. The transmittance was used to deduce the reflectance from which the optical parameters were computed. The extinction coefficient, refractive index, the real and imaginary parts of the dielectric constant, optical conductivity, and energy loss were computed, and their dependence on the composition was investigated. In addition, the dispersion of the refractive index was analyzed by the single oscillator model, and dispersion parameters were investigated.

  1. Phase Structure of lattice $SU(2) x U_{S}(1)$ three-dimensional Gauge Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Farakos, K; McNeill, D

    1999-01-01

    We discuss a phase diagram for a relativistic SU(2) x U_{S}(1) lattice gauge theory, with emphasis on the formation of a parity-invariant chiral condensate, in the case when the $U_{S}(1)$ field is infinitely coupled, and the SU(2) field is moved away from infinite coupling by means of a strong-coupling expansion. We provide analytical arguments on the existence of (and partially derive) a critical line in coupling space, separating the phase of broken SU(2) symmetry from that where the symmetry is unbroken. We review uncoventional (Kosterlitz-Thouless type) superconducting properties of the model, upon coupling it to external electromagnetic potentials. We discuss the rôle of instantons of the unbroken subgroup U(1) of SU(2), in eventually destroying superconductivity under certain circumstances. The model may have applications to the theory of high-temperature superconductivity. In particular, we argue that in the regime of the couplings leading to the broken SU(2) phase, the model may provide an explanati...

  2. The chiral S = -1 meson-baryon interaction with new constraints on the NLO contributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, A.; Feijoo, A.; Magas, V. K.

    2016-10-01

    We present a study of the S = - 1 meson-baryon interaction, employing a chiral SU(3) Lagrangian up to next-to-leading order (NLO) and implementing unitarization in coupled channels. The parameters of the model have been fitted to a large set of experimental scattering data in different two-body channels, to threshold branching ratios, and to the precise SIDDHARTA value of the energy shift and width of kaonic hidrogen. In contrast to other groups, we have taken into consideration the K- p →K+Ξ- ,K0Ξ0 reaction data, since we found in a previous work to be especially sensitive to the NLO parameters of the chiral Lagrangian. In the present work we also include the Born terms, which usually have very little effect, and find them to be non-negligible in the K- p → KΞ channels, correspondingly causing significant modifications to the NLO parameters. We furthermore show that the importance of the Born terms becomes more visible in the isospin projected amplitudes of the K- p → KΞ reactions. The measurement of processes that filter single isospin components, like the KL0 p →K+Ξ0 reaction that could be measured at the proposed secondary KL0 beam at Jlab, would put valuable constraints on the chiral models describing the meson-baryon interaction in the S = - 1 sector.

  3. Complete genome sequence of Rhodospirillum rubrum type strain (S1T)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munk, Christine [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Copeland, A [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Lucas, Susan [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Lapidus, Alla L. [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Glavina Del Rio, Tijana [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Barry, Kerrie [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Detter, J. Chris [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Hammon, Nancy [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Israni, Sanjay [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Pitluck, Sam [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Brettin, Thomas S [ORNL; Bruce, David [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Han, Cliff [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Tapia, Roxanne [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Gilna, Paul [University of California, La Jolla; Schmutz, Jeremy [Stanford University; Larimer, Frank W [ORNL; Land, Miriam L [ORNL; Kyrpides, Nikos C [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Mavromatis, K [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Richardson, P M [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Rohde, Manfred [HZI - Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research, Braunschweig, Germany; Goker, Markus [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Klenk, Hans-Peter [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Zhang, Yaoping [University of Wisconsin, Madison; Roberts, Gary P. [University of Wisconsin, Madison; Reslewic, Susan [University of Wisconsin, Madison; Schwartz, David C. [University of Wisconsin, Madison

    2011-01-01

    Rhodospirillum rubrum (Esmarch 1887) Molisch 1907 is the type species of the genus Rho- dospirillum, which is the type genus of the family Rhodospirillaceae in the class Alphaproteo- bacteria. The species is of special interest because it is an anoxygenic phototroph that pro- duces extracellular elemental sulfur (instead of oxygen) while harvesting light. It contains one of the most simple photosynthetic systems currently known, lacking light harvesting complex 2. Strain S1T can grow on carbon monoxide as sole energy source. With currently over 1,750 PubMed entries, R. rubrum is one of the most intensively studied microbial species, in partic- ular for physiological and genetic studies. Next to R. centenum strain SW, the genome se- quence of strain S1T is only the second genome of a member of the genus Rhodospirillum to be published, but the first type strain genome from the genus. The 4,352,825 bp long chro- mosome and 53,732 bp plasmid with a total of 3,850 protein-coding and 83 RNA genes were sequenced as part of the DOE Joint Genome Institute Program DOEM 2002.

  4. Quantum vs Classical Magnetization Plateaus of S=1/2 Frustrated Heisenberg Chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hida, Kazuo; Affleck, Ian

    2005-06-01

    The competition between quantum and classical magnetization plateaus of S=1/2 frustrated Heisenberg chains with modified exchange couplings is investigated. The conventional S=1/2 frustrated Heisenberg chain is known to exhibit a 3-fold degenerate \\uparrow\\downarrow\\uparrow-type classical plateau at 1/3 of the saturation magnetization accompanied by the spontaneous Z3 translational symmetry breakdown. The stability of this plateau phase against period 3 exchange modulation which favors the \\bullet\\hskip -1pt-\\hskip -1pt\\bullet \\uparrow-type quantum plateau state (\\bullet\\hskip -1pt-\\hskip -1pt\\bullet = singlet dimer) is studied by bosonization, renormalization group and numerical diagonalization methods. The ground state phase diagram and the spin configuration in each phase are numerically determined. The translationally invariant Valence Bond Solid-type model with 4-spin and third neighbor interactions, which has the exact \\bullet\\hskip -1pt-\\hskip -1pt\\bullet \\uparrow-type quantum plateau state, is also presented. The phase transition to the classical \\uparrow\\downarrow\\uparrow-type ground state is also observed by varying the strength of 4-spin and third neighbor interactions. The relation between these two types of models with quantum plateau states is discussed.

  5. Isomerization, Perturbations, Calculations and the S_{1} State of C_{2}H_{2}

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baraban, J. H.; Changala, P. B.; Berk, J. R. P.; Field, R. W.; Stanton, J. F.; Merer, A. J.

    2013-06-01

    Preliminary analysis of the energy region of the cis-trans isomerization transition state on the S_{1} surface of C_{2}H_{2} has revealed novel patterns and surprising perturbations, including unusually large (and high-order) anharmonicities, as well as K-staggerings of several vibrational levels. These effects complicate the analysis considerably, and require new models and calculations to account for and predict features of the observed spectra. The ˜{A}-˜{X} spectrum of acetylene has been studied both experimentally and theoretically for almost a century, and this cycle of unexpected phenomena eliciting innovative responses is found throughout its history. Especially in the last ten years, progress in understanding the S_{1} state rovibrational level structure and cis-trans isomerization has been accelerated by combining the information available from both ab initio computation and spectroscopic observations. The resulting dialogue has then frequently suggested fruitful avenues for further experiments and calculations. Current challenges and recent results in understanding the cis-trans isomerization transition state region will be discussed in this context.

  6. Anharmonic Franck-Condon simulation of the absorption and fluorescence spectra for the low-lying S1 and S2 excited states of pyridine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huan; Zhu, Chaoyuan; Yu, Jian-Guo; Lin, Sheng Hsien

    2009-12-31

    Anharmonic effects of the absorption and fluorescence spectra of pyridine molecule are studied and analyzed for the two-low lying singlet excited states S(1)((1)B(1)) and S(2)((1)B(2)). The complete active space self-consistent field (CASSCF) method is utilized to compute equilibrium geometries and all 27 vibrational normal-mode frequencies for the ground state and the two excited states. The present calculations show that the frequency differences between the ground and two excited states are small for the ten totally symmetric vibrational modes so that the displaced oscillator approximation can be used for spectrum simulations. The Franck-Condon factors within harmonic approximation basically grasp the main features of molecular spectra, but simulated 0-0 transition energy position and spectrum band shapes are not satisfactorily good for S(1)((1)B(1)) absorption and fluorescence spectra in comparison with experiment observation. As the first-order anharmonic correction added to Franck-Condon factors, both spectrum positions and band shapes can be simultaneously improved for both absorption and fluorescence spectra. It is concluded that the present anharmonic correction produces a significant dynamic shifts for spectrum positions and improves spectrum band shapes as well. The detailed structures of absorption spectrum of S(2)((1)B(2)) state observed from experiment can be also reproduced with anharmonic Franck-Condon simulation, and these were not shown in the harmonic Franck-Condon simulation with either distorted or Duschinsky effects in the literature.

  7. Molecular Symmetry Analysis of Low-Energy Torsional and Vibrational States in the S_{0} and S_{1} States of p-XYLENE to Interpret the Rempi Spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groner, Peter; Gardner, Adrian M.; Tuttle, William Duncan; Wright, Timothy G.

    2017-06-01

    The electronic transition S_{1} ← S_{0} of p-xylene (pXyl) has been observed by REMPI spectroscopy. Its analysis required a detailed investigation of the molecular symmetry of pXyl whose methyl groups are almost free internal rotors. The molecular symmetry group of pXyl has 72 operators. This group, called [33]D_{2h}, is isomorphic to G_{36}(EM), the double group for ethane and dimethyl acetylene even though it is NOT a double group for pXyl. Loosely speaking, the group symbol, [33]D_{2h}, indicates that is for a molecule with two threefold rotors on a molecular frame with D_{2h} point group symmetry. The transformation properties of the (i) free internal rotor basis functions for the torsional coordinates, (ii) the asymmetric rotor (Wang) basis functions for the Eulerian angles, (iii) nuclear spin functions, (iv) potential function, and (v) transitions dipole moment functions were determined. The forms of the torsional potential in the S_{0} and S_{1} states and the dependence of the first order torsional splittings on the potential coefficients have been obtained. AM Gardner, WD Tuttle, P. Groner, TG Wright, J. Chem. Phys., submitted Dec 2016 P Groner, JR Durig, J. Chem. Phys., 66 (1977) 1856 PR Bunker, P Jensen, Molecular Symmetry and Spectroscopy (1998, NRC Research Press, Ottawa, 2nd ed.)

  8. The S1(n, π*) states of acetaldehyde and acetone in supersonic nozzle beam: Methyl internal rotation and C=O out-of-plane wagging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baba, Masaaki; Hanazaki, Ichiro; Nagashima, Umpei

    1985-05-01

    Fluorescence excitation spectra of CH3CHO, CH3CDO, (CH3)2CO, and (CD3)2CO have been observed in an Ar supersonic nozzle beam. Vibrational analyses have been performed for vibronic bands in the region at wavelengths longer than 313 nm. The 0-0 bands of the S1(n, π*) states were located at 29 771, 29 813, 30 435, and 30 431 cm-1, respectively. The spectra could be analyzed taking the C=O out-of-plane wagging and the CH3 internal rotation as active modes. By fitting a double minimum potential function to the observed vibrational levels, it has been shown that these molecules are pyramidally distorted in the S1(n, π*) state with barrier heights to inversion of 541, 578, 468, and 480 cm-1, respectively. Similar analyses using the Mathieu function gave threefold potential functions for the methyl internal rotation with barrier heights to rotation of 691, 645, 740, and 720 cm-1 for CH3CHO, CH3CDO, (CH3)2CO, and (CD3)2CO, respectively. High resolution measurements of rotational envelopes have shown that the out-of-plane polarization dominates in the acetone spectrum. This result, together with a detailed investigation of the vibronic intensity borrowing mechanism, has led us to conclude that the second order interaction dominates in which the methyl torsion and the C=O out-of-plane wagging are active. The origin of the methyl rotational barrier in the S1 state is discussed on the basis of our recent ab initio calculations. The hyperconjugative interaction is suggested to be important in determining the barrier.

  9. S1P, dihydro-S1P and C24:1-ceramide levels in the HDL-containing fraction of serum inversely correlate with occurrence of ischemic heart disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Argraves, Kelley M; Sethi, Amar A; Gazzolo, Patrick J;

    2011-01-01

    The lysosphingolipid sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) is carried in the blood in association with lipoproteins, predominantly high density lipoproteins (HDL). Emerging evidence suggests that many of the effects of HDL on cardiovascular function may be attributable to its S1P cargo....

  10. Lifetimes of ultra-long-range strontium Rydberg molecules

    CERN Document Server

    Camargo, F; Ding, R; Sadeghpour, H R; Yoshida, S; Burgdörfer, J; Dunning, F B; Killian, T C

    2015-01-01

    The lifetimes of the lower-lying vibrational states of ultralong-range strontium Rydberg molecules comprising one ground-state 5s2 1S0 atom and one Rydberg atom in the 5s38s 3S1 state are reported. The molecules are created in an ultracold gas held in an optical dipole trap and their numbers determined using ?eld ionization, the product electrons being detected by a microchannel plate. The measurements show that, in marked contrast to earlier measurements involving rubidium Rydberg molecules, the lifetimes of the low-lying molecular vibrational states are very similar to those of the parent Rydberg atoms. This results because the strong p-wave resonance in low-energy electronrubidium scattering, which plays an important role in determining the molecular lifetimes, is not present for strontium. The absence of this resonance o?ers advantages for experiments involving strontium Rydberg atoms as impurities in quantum gases and for testing theories of molecular formation and decay.

  11. Water molecules orientation in surface layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klingo, V. V.

    2000-08-01

    The water molecules orientation has been investigated theoretically in the water surface layer. The surface molecule orientation is determined by the direction of a molecule dipole moment in relation to outward normal to the water surface. Entropy expressions of the superficial molecules in statistical meaning and from thermodynamical approach to a liquid surface tension have been found. The molecules share directed opposite to the outward normal that is hydrogen protons inside is equal 51.6%. 48.4% water molecules are directed along to surface outward normal that is by oxygen inside. A potential jump at the water surface layer amounts about 0.2 volts.

  12. [VALUE OF SMART PHONE Scoliometer SOFTWARE IN OBTAINING OPTIMAL LUMBAR LORDOSIS DURING L4-S1 FUSION SURGERY].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Weibo; Liang, De; Ye, Linqiang; Jiang, Xiaobing; Yao, Zhensong; Tang, Jingjing; Tang, Yongchao

    2015-10-01

    To investigate the value of smart phone Scoliometer software in obtaining optimal lumbar lordosis (LL) during L4-S1 fusion surgery. Between November 2014 and February 2015, 20 patients scheduled for L4-S1 fusion surgery were prospectively enrolled the study. There were 8 males and 12 females, aged 41-65 years (mean, 52.3 years). The disease duration ranged from 6 months to 6 years (mean, 3.4 years). Before operation, the pelvic incidence (PI) and Cobb angle of L4-S1 (CobbL4-S1) were measured on lateral X-ray film of lumbosacral spine by PACS system; and the ideal CobbL4-S1 was then calculated according to previously published methods [(PI+9 degrees) x 70%]. Subsequently, intraoperative CobbL4-S1 was monitored by the Scoliometer software and was defined as optimal while it was less than 5 degrees difference compared with ideal CobbL4-S1. Finally, the CobbL4-S1 was measured by the PACS system after operation and the consistency was compared between Scoliometer software and PACS system to evaluate the accuracy of this software. In addition, value of this method in obtaining optimal LL was validated by comparing the difference between ideal CobbL4-S1 and preoperative one with that between ideal CobbL4-S1 and postoperative one. The CobbL4-S1 was (36.17 ± 1.53)degrees for ideal one, (22.57 ± 5.50)degrees for preoperative one, (32.25 ± 1.46)degrees for intraoperative one measured by Scoliometer software, and (34.43 ± 1.72)degrees for postoperative one, respectively. The observed intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was excellent [ICC = 0.96, 95% confidence interval (0.93, 0.97)] and the mean absolute difference (MAD) was low (MAD = 1.23) between Scoliometer software and PACS system. The deviation between ideal CobbL4-S1 and postoperative CobbL4-S1 was (2.31 ± 0.23)degrees, which was significantly lower than the deviation between ideal CobbL4-S1 and preoperative CobbL4-S1 (13.60 ± 1.85)degrees (t = 6.065, P = 0.001). Scoliometer software can help surgeon obtain

  13. Small Molecule Organic Optoelectronic Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakken, Nathan

    Organic optoelectronics include a class of devices synthesized from carbon containing 'small molecule' thin films without long range order crystalline or polymer structure. Novel properties such as low modulus and flexibility as well as excellent device performance such as photon emission approaching 100% internal quantum efficiency have accelerated research in this area substantially. While optoelectronic organic light emitting devices have already realized commercial application, challenges to obtain extended lifetime for the high energy visible spectrum and the ability to reproduce natural white light with a simple architecture have limited the value of this technology for some display and lighting applications. In this research, novel materials discovered from a systematic analysis of empirical device data are shown to produce high quality white light through combination of monomer and excimer emission from a single molecule: platinum(II) bis(methyl-imidazolyl)toluene chloride (Pt-17). Illumination quality achieved Commission Internationale de L'Eclairage (CIE) chromaticity coordinates (x = 0.31, y = 0.38) and color rendering index (CRI) > 75. Further optimization of a device containing Pt-17 resulted in a maximum forward viewing power efficiency of 37.8 lm/W on a plain glass substrate. In addition, accelerated aging tests suggest high energy blue emission from a halogen-free cyclometalated platinum complex could demonstrate degradation rates comparable to known stable emitters. Finally, a buckling based metrology is applied to characterize the mechanical properties of small molecule organic thin films towards understanding the deposition kinetics responsible for an elastic modulus that is both temperature and thickness dependent. These results could contribute to the viability of organic electronic technology in potentially flexible display and lighting applications. The results also provide insight to organic film growth kinetics responsible for optical

  14. Small molecules for big tasks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiarui Wu

    2011-01-01

    @@ One of the most important achievements in the post-genome era is discovery of microRNAs (miRNAs), which widely exist from simple-genome organisms such as viruses and bacteria to complexgenome organisms such as plants and animals.miRNAs are single-stranded non-coding RNAs of 18-25 nucleotides in length, which are generated from larger precursors that are transcribed from noncoding genes.As a new type of regulatory molecules, miRNAs present unique features in regulating gene and its products, including rapidly turning off protein production, reversibly, and compartmentalized regulating gene expression.

  15. Dissociation Energies of Diatomic Molecules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN Qun-Chao; SUN Wei-Guo

    2008-01-01

    Molecular dissociation energies of 10 electronic states of alkali molecules of KH, 7LID, 7LiH, 6LiH, NaK, NaLi and NaRb are studied using the highest three accurate vibrational energies of each electronic state, and an improved parameter-free analytical formula which is obtained starting from the LeRoy-Bernstein vibrational energy expression near the dissociation limit. The results show that as long as the highest three vibrational energies are accurate, the current analytical formula will give accurate theoretical dissociation energies Detheory, which are in excellent agreement with the experimental dissociation energies Dexpte.

  16. The neural cell adhesion molecule

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berezin, V; Bock, E; Poulsen, F M

    2000-01-01

    During the past year, the understanding of the structure and function of neural cell adhesion has advanced considerably. The three-dimensional structures of several of the individual modules of the neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) have been determined, as well as the structure of the complex...... between two identical fragments of the NCAM. Also during the past year, a link between homophilic cell adhesion and several signal transduction pathways has been proposed, connecting the event of cell surface adhesion to cellular responses such as neurite outgrowth. Finally, the stimulation of neurite...

  17. XUV ionization of aligned molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelkensberg, F.; Siu, W.; Gademann, G. [FOM Institute AMOLF, Science Park 104, NL-1098 XG Amsterdam (Netherlands); Rouzee, A.; Vrakking, M. J. J. [FOM Institute AMOLF, Science Park 104, NL-1098 XG Amsterdam (Netherlands); Max-Born-Institut, Max-Born Strasse 2A, D-12489 Berlin (Germany); Johnsson, P. [FOM Institute AMOLF, Science Park 104, NL-1098 XG Amsterdam (Netherlands); Department of Physics, Lund University, Post Office Box 118, SE-221 00 Lund (Sweden); Lucchini, M. [Department of Physics, Politecnico di Milano, Istituto di Fotonica e Nanotecnologie CNR-IFN, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy); Lucchese, R. R. [Department of Chemistry, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77843-3255 (United States)

    2011-11-15

    New extreme-ultraviolet (XUV) light sources such as high-order-harmonic generation (HHG) and free-electron lasers (FELs), combined with laser-induced alignment techniques, enable novel methods for making molecular movies based on measuring molecular frame photoelectron angular distributions. Experiments are presented where CO{sub 2} molecules were impulsively aligned using a near-infrared laser and ionized using femtosecond XUV pulses obtained by HHG. Measured electron angular distributions reveal contributions from four orbitals and the onset of the influence of the molecular structure.

  18. The molecule-metal interface

    CERN Document Server

    Koch, Norbert; Wee, Andrew Thye Shen

    2013-01-01

    Reviewing recent progress in the fundamental understanding of the molecule-metal interface, this useful addition to the literature focuses on experimental studies and introduces the latest analytical techniques as applied to this interface.The first part covers basic theory and initial principle studies, while the second part introduces readers to photoemission, STM, and synchrotron techniques to examine the atomic structure of the interfaces. The third part presents photoelectron spectroscopy, high-resolution UV photoelectron spectroscopy and electron spin resonance to study the electroni

  19. Minimally Invasive Approach For Extraforaminal Synovial Cyst L5-S1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres Campa-Santamarina, Jose; Towne, Sara; Alimi, Marjan; Navarro-Ramirez, Rodrigo; Härtl, Roger

    2015-10-22

    Symptoms from synovial cysts are produced by neural compression in the spinal canal or the foramen. Few cases of extraforaminal synovial cyst have been published in the literature. This is a case report of a 65-year-old female who presented with a three-month history of sciatic pain and no relief with conservative treatment. MRI showed a left-sided extraforaminal synovial cyst at L5-S1 with compression of the L5 nerve root at the lateral portion of the foramen. Minimally invasive surgery for resection was performed using an extraforaminal tubular microscopic endoscopy-assisted approach. The patient improved clinically and remained symptom-free for the entire follow-up of 30 months.

  20. Early changes in shoot transcriptome of rice in response to Rhodotorula mucilaginosa JGTA-S1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chinmay Saha

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Yeasts of Rhodotorula genus have been reported to show endophytic colonization in different plants. Some of the Rhodotorula species are found to exhibit plant growth promoting activities and also have been reported to protect plants against invading pathogens. A yeast strain closely related to Rhodotorula mucilaginosa was isolated from the endosphere of Typha angustifolia collected from a Uranium mine. A microarray analysis was performed to investigate the early changes in rice shoot transcripts in response to this yeast (R. mucilaginosa JGTA-S1. Transcriptional changes were monitored in 6 h and 24 h treated rice plant shoots as compared to 0 h control. The microarray data has been submitted to the NCBI GEO repository under the accession number of GSE64321.

  1. Tarlov cyst as a rare cause of S1 radiculopathy: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadler, S F; Bartoli, L M; Stitik, T P; Chen, B

    2001-05-01

    A 37-year-old female physician presented with a chief complaint of left posterior thigh pain, which began insidiously approximately 4 months before her initial examination. Initially, she had been evaluated by her physician, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was ordered. The MRI scan was reported to be within normal limits, with the exception of minimal disc bulging at L4-5. She had received physical therapy with little benefit and was referred for physiatric assessment. Review of the patient's original MRI scan showed the presence of perineurial (Tarlov) cysts within the sacral canal at the level of S2, with compression of the adjacent nerve root. Subsequent electrodiagnostic testing showed axonal degeneration consistent with an S1 radiculopathy. Tarlov cysts can be a rare cause of lumbosacral radiculopathy and should be considered in the differential diagnosis of radicular leg pain.

  2. Vibrational Spectrum of o-Dimethoxybenzene in the S1 and D0 States

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG,Jian-Han; TZENG,Wen-Bih; HUANG,Ke-Long

    2008-01-01

    The optimized molecular geometries of o-dimethoxybenzene (ODMB) in the S0 state were predicted by ab initio and density functional theory calculations. Its vibrational spectra in the S1 and D0 states were studied by one color resonant two photon ionization (1C-R2PI) and mass analyzed threshold ionization (MATI) experiments. The results indicated that trans rotamer was most stable. Only one rotamer of ODMB was detected by the 1C-R2PI spectra, and its band origin was (35750±2) cm-1, its ionization energy was (61617±5) cm-1. Most of the observed vibrations in the D0 state resulted from the in-plane ring and substituent sensitive modes.

  3. Color coherence in p pbar collisions at squareroot s = 1.8 TeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abachi, S.

    1996-09-01

    We report on two preliminary studies of color coherence effects on {ital p}{ital {anti p}} collisions based on data collected by the D{null} detector during the 1992-1993 and 1994-1995 runs at the Fermilab Tevatron collider at a center of mass energy {radical}s = 1. 8 TeV. Demonstration of initial-to-final state color interference effects is done in a higher energy region by measuring spatial correlations between the softer third jet and the second leading- {ital E}{sub {ital T}} jet in multi-jet events and in a lower energy regime by examining particle distribution patterns in W+Jet events. The data are compared to Monte Carlo simulations with different color coherence implementations and the predictions of an NLO parton level calculation.

  4. Spin-weighted spheroidal equation in the case of s = 1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Yue; Tian Gui-Hua; Dong Kun

    2011-01-01

    We present a series of studies to solve the spin-weighted spheroidal wave equation by using the method of supersymmetric quantum mechanics. We first obtain the first four terms of super-potential of the spin-weighted spheroidal wave equation in the case of s = 1. These results may help summarize the general form for the n-th term of the super-potential, which is proved to be correct by means of induction. Then we compute the eigen-values and the eigenfunctions for the ground state. Finally, the shape-invariance property is proved and the eigen-values and eigen-functions for excited states are obtained. All the results may be of significance for studying the electromagnetic radiation processes near rotating black holes and computing the radiation reaction in curved space-time.

  5. The gravity dual of supersymmetric gauge theories on a squashed $S^1 \\times S^3$

    CERN Document Server

    Cassani, Davide

    2014-01-01

    We present a new one-parameter family of supersymmetric solutions deforming AdS_5. This is constructed as an asymptotically locally anti de Sitter (AlAdS) solution of five-dimensional minimal gauged supergravity, with topology R x R^4 and a non-trivial graviphoton field, and can be uplifted to ten or eleven dimensional supergravities. An analytic continuation of this solution yields the gravity dual to a class of four-dimensional N=1 supersymmetric gauge theories on a curved manifold with topology S^1 x S^3, comprising an SU(2) x U(1)-symmetric squashed three-sphere, with a non-trivial background gauge field coupling to the R-symmetry current. We compute the holographically renormalised on-shell action and interpret it in terms of the Casimir energy of the dual field theory. We also determine the holographic conserved charges of the solution and discuss relations between them.

  6. Clinical and morphological study of calf enlargement following S-1 radiculopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osvaldo J. M. Nascimento

    1992-09-01

    Full Text Available Calf enlargement following sciatica is a rare condition. It is reported the case of a 28-year-old woman who complained of repeated episodes of lower back pain radiating into the left buttock and foot. One year after the beginning of her symptoms, she noticed enlargement of her left calf. X-ray studies disclosed L5-S1 disk degeneration. EMG showed muscle denervation with normal motor conduction velocity. Open biopsies of the gastrocnemius muscles were performed. The left gastrocnemius muscle showed hypertrophic type 2 fibers in comparison with the right gastrocnemius. Electron microscopy showed mildly increased number of mitochondria in these fibers. A satisfactory explanation for denervation hypertrophy has yet to be provided.

  7. S=--1 Meson-Baryon Scattering in Coupled Channel Unitarized Chiral Perturbation Theory

    CERN Document Server

    García-Recio, C; Ruiz-Arriola, E; Vacas, M J V

    2003-01-01

    The $s-$wave meson-baryon scattering amplitude is analyzed for the strangeness $S=-1$ and isospin I=0 sector in a Bethe-Salpeter coupled channel formalism incorporating Chiral Symmetry. Four two-body channels have been considered: $\\bar K N$, $\\pi \\Sigma $, $\\eta \\Lambda $, $ K \\Xi$. The needed two particle irreducible matrix amplitude is taken from lowest order Chiral Perturbation Theory in a relativistic formalism. Off-shell behaviour is parameterized in terms of low energy constants, which outnumber those assumed in previous works and provide a better fit to the data. The position of the complex poles in the second Riemann sheet of the scattering amplitude determine masses and widths of the $\\Lambda (1405)$ and $\\Lambda(1670)$ resonances which compare well with accepted numbers.

  8. Strangeness $S=-1$ hyperon-nucleon scattering at leading order in the covariant Weinberg's approach

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Kai-Wen; Geng, Li-Sheng

    2016-01-01

    Inspired by the success of covariant baryon chiral perturbation theory in the one baryon sector and in the heavy-light systems, we explore the relevance of relativistic effects in the construction of the strangeness $S=-1$ hyperon-nucleon interaction using chiral perturbation theory. Due to the non-perturbative nature of the hyperon-nucleon interaction, we follow the covariant Weinberg's approach recently proposed by Epelbaum and Gegelia to sum the leading order chiral potential using the Kadyshevsky equation (Epelbaum, 2012) in this exploratory work. By fitting the five low-energy constants to available experimental data, we find that the cutoff dependence is mitigated compared with the results obtained in the Weinberg's approach for both partial wave phase shifts and the description of experimental data. Nevertheless, at leading order, the description of experimental data remains quantitatively similar. We discuss in detail the cutoff dependence of the partial wave phase shifts and cross sections in the Wei...

  9. IMAGING COMET ISON C/2012 S1 IN THE INNER CORONA AT PERIHELION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Druckmüller, Miloslav [Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Brno University of Technology, 616 69 Brno (Czech Republic); Habbal, Shadia Rifai [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, Honolulu 96822, Hawaii (United States); Aniol, Peter [ASTELCO Systems GmbH, D-82152 Martinsried (Germany); Ding, Adalbert [Institute of Optics and Atomic Physics, Technische Universitaet Berlin, and Institute of Technical Physics, Berlin (Germany); Morgan, Huw [Institute of Mathematics, Physics and Computer Science, Aberystwyth University, Ceredigion, Cymru SY23 3BZ (United Kingdom)

    2014-04-01

    Much anticipation and speculation were building around comet ISON, or C/2012 S1, discovered on 2012 September 21 by the International Scientific Optical Network telescope in Russia, and bound for the Sun on 2013 November 28, with a closest heliocentric approach distance of 2.7 R {sub ☉}. Here we present the first white light image of the comet's trail through the inner corona. The image was taken with a wide field Lyot-type coronagraph from the Mees Observatory on Haleakala at 19:12 UT, past its perihelion passage at 18:45 UT. The perfect match between the comet's trail captured in the inner corona and the trail that had persisted across the field of view of 2-6 R {sub ☉} of the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory Large Angle and Spectrometric Coronagraph Experiment/C2 coronagraph at 19:12 UT demonstrates that the comet survived its perihelion passage.

  10. Microbial hydrogen production with Bacillus coagulans IIT-BT S1 isolated from anaerobic sewage sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotay, Shireen Meher; Das, Debabrata

    2007-04-01

    Bacillus coagulans strain IIT-BT S1 isolated from anaerobically digested activated sewage sludge was investigated for its ability to produce H(2) from glucose-based medium under the influence of different environmental parameters. At mid-exponential phase of cell growth, H(2) production initiated and reached maximum production rate in the stationary phase. The maximal H(2) yield (2.28 mol H(2)/molglucose) was recorded at an initial glucose concentration of 2% (w/v), pH 6.5, temperature 37 degrees C, inoculum volume of 10% (v/v) and inoculum age of 14 h. Cell growth rate and rate of hydrogen production decreased when glucose concentration was elevated above 2% w/v, indicating substrate inhibition. The ability of the organism to utilize various carbon sources for H(2) fermentation was also determined.

  11. Ferrimagnetic states in S = 1/2 frustrated Heisenberg chains with period 3 exchange modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hida, K.

    2007-04-01

    The ground state properties of the S = 1/2 frustrated Heisenberg chain with period 3 exchange modulation are investigated using the numerical diagonalization and density matrix renormalization group (DMRG) method. It is known that this model has a magnetization plateau at one third of the saturation magnetization Ms. On the other hand, the ground state is ferrimagnetic even in the absence of frustration if one of the nearest neighbour bond is ferromagnetic and the others are antiferromagnetic. In the present work, we show that this ferrimagnetic state continues to the region in which all bonds are antiferromagnetic if the frustration is strong. This state further continues to the above-mentioned 1/3 plateau state. In between, we also find the noncollinear ferrimagnetic phase in which the spontaneous magnetization is finite but less than Ms/3. The intuitive interpretation for the phase diagram is given and the physical properties of these phases are discussed.

  12. Ferrimagnetic states in S = 1/2 frustrated Heisenberg chains with period 3 exchange modulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hida, K [Divison of Material Science, Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Saitama University, Saitama, Saitama, 338-8570 (Japan)

    2007-04-11

    The ground state properties of the S = 1/2 frustrated Heisenberg chain with period 3 exchange modulation are investigated using the numerical diagonalization and density matrix renormalization group (DMRG) method. It is known that this model has a magnetization plateau at one third of the saturation magnetization M{sub s}. On the other hand, the ground state is ferrimagnetic even in the absence of frustration if one of the nearest neighbour bond is ferromagnetic and the others are antiferromagnetic. In the present work, we show that this ferrimagnetic state continues to the region in which all bonds are antiferromagnetic if the frustration is strong. This state further continues to the above-mentioned 1/3 plateau state. In between, we also find the noncollinear ferrimagnetic phase in which the spontaneous magnetization is finite but less than M{sub s}/3. The intuitive interpretation for the phase diagram is given and the physical properties of these phases are discussed.

  13. The Occurrence of Type S1A Serine Proteases in Sponge and Jellyfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, Ana; Doolittle, Russell F.

    2003-01-01

    Although serine proteases are found in all kinds of cellular organisms and many viruses, the classic "chymotrypsin family" (Group S1A by th e 1998 Barrett nomenclature) has an unusual phylogenetic distribution , being especially common in animals, entirely absent from plants and protists, and rare among fungi. The distribution in Bacteria is larg ely restricted to the genus Streptomyces, although a few isolated occ urrences in other bacteria have been reported. The family may be enti rely absent from Archaea. Although more than a thousand sequences have been reported for enzymes of this type from animals, none of them ha ve been from early diverging phyla like Porifera or Cnidaria, We now report the existence of Group SlA serine proteases in a sponge (phylu m Porifera) and a jellyfish (phylum Cnidaria), making it safe to conc lude that all animal groups possess these enzymes.

  14. S=-1 meson-baryon scattering in coupled-channel unitarized Chiral Perturbation Theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Recio, C.; Nieves, J.; Ruiz Arriola, E. [Departamento de Fisica Moderna, Universidad de Granada, E-18071, Granada (Spain); Vicente Vacas, M. [Departamento de Fisica Teorica and IFIC, Centro Mixto Universidad de Valencia-CSIC, Ap. Correos 22085, E-46071, Valencia (Spain)

    2003-11-01

    The s-wave meson-baryon scattering amplitude is analyzed for the strangeness S=-1 and isospin I=0 sector in a Bethe-Salpeter coupled-channel formalism incorporating Chiral Symmetry. Four two-body channels have been considered: anti K N, {pi}{sigma}, {eta}{lambda}, K {xi}. The needed two-particle irreducible matrix amplitude is taken from lowest-order Chiral Perturbation Theory in a relativistic formalism. Off-shell behaviour is parameterized in terms of low-energy constants, which outnumber those assumed in previous works and provide a better fit to the data. The position of the complex poles in the second Riemann sheet of the scattering amplitude determines masses and widths of the {lambda}(1405) and {lambda}(1670) resonances which compare well with accepted numbers. (orig.)

  15. 2,5-Disubstituted pyrrolidine carboxylates as potent, orally active sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) receptor agonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colandrea, Vincent J; Legiec, Irene E; Huo, Pei; Yan, Lin; Hale, Jeffrey J; Mills, Sander G; Bergstrom, James; Card, Deborah; Chebret, Gary; Hajdu, Richard; Keohane, Carol Ann; Milligan, James A; Rosenbach, Mark J; Shei, Gan-Ju; Mandala, Suzanne M

    2006-06-01

    A series of 2,5-cis-disubstituted pyrrolidines were synthesized and evaluated as S1P receptor agonists. Compounds 15-21 were identified with good selectivity over S1P3 which lowered circulating lymphocytes after oral administration in mice.

  16. The sphingolipid receptor S1PR2 is a receptor for Nogo-a repressing synaptic plasticity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anissa Kempf

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nogo-A is a membrane protein of the central nervous system (CNS restricting neurite growth and synaptic plasticity via two extracellular domains: Nogo-66 and Nogo-A-Δ20. Receptors transducing Nogo-A-Δ20 signaling remained elusive so far. Here we identify the G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor 2 (S1PR2 as a Nogo-A-Δ20-specific receptor. Nogo-A-Δ20 binds S1PR2 on sites distinct from the pocket of the sphingolipid sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P and signals via the G protein G13, the Rho GEF LARG, and RhoA. Deleting or blocking S1PR2 counteracts Nogo-A-Δ20- and myelin-mediated inhibition of neurite outgrowth and cell spreading. Blockade of S1PR2 strongly enhances long-term potentiation (LTP in the hippocampus of wild-type but not Nogo-A(-/- mice, indicating a repressor function of the Nogo-A/S1PR2 axis in synaptic plasticity. A similar increase in LTP was also observed in the motor cortex after S1PR2 blockade. We propose a novel signaling model in which a GPCR functions as a receptor for two structurally unrelated ligands, a membrane protein and a sphingolipid. Elucidating Nogo-A/S1PR2 signaling platforms will provide new insights into regulation of synaptic plasticity.

  17. Therapeutic use of a selective S1P1 receptor modulator ponesimod in autoimmune diabetes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvaine You

    Full Text Available In the present study, we investigated the therapeutic potential of a selective S1P1 receptor modulator, ponesimod, to protect and reverse autoimmune diabetes in non-obese diabetic (NOD mice. Ponesimod was administered orally to NOD mice starting at 6, 10, 13 and 16 weeks of age up to 35 weeks of age or to NOD mice showing recent onset diabetes. Peripheral blood and spleen B and T cell counts were significantly reduced after ponesimod administration. In pancreatic lymph nodes, B lymphocytes were increased and expressed a transitional 1-like phenotype. Chronic oral ponesimod treatment efficiently prevented autoimmune diabetes in 6, 10 and 16 week-old pre-diabetic NOD mice. Treatment withdrawal led to synchronized disease relapse. Ponesimod did not inhibit the differentiation of autoreactive T cells as assessed by adoptive transfer of lymphocytes from treated disease-free NOD mice. In addition, it did not affect the migration, proliferation and activation of transgenic BDC2.5 cells into the target tissue. However, ponesimod inhibited spreading of the T cell responses to islet-specific glucose-6-phosphatase catalytic subunit-related protein (IGRP. Treatment of diabetic NOD mice with ponesimod induced disease remission. However, here again, upon treatment cessation, the disease rapidly recurred. This recurrence was effectively prevented by combination treatment with a CD3 antibody leading to the restoration of self-tolerance. In conclusion, treatment with a selective S1P1 modulator in combination with CD3 antibody represents a promising therapeutic approach for the treatment of autoimmune diabetes.

  18. S1 Pocket of a Bacterially Derived Subtilisin-like Protease Underpins Effective Tissue Destruction*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Wilson; Wijeyewickrema, Lakshmi C.; Kennan, Ruth M.; Reeve, Shane B.; Steer, David L.; Reboul, Cyril; Smith, A. Ian; Pike, Robert N.; Rood, Julian I.; Whisstock, James C.; Porter, Corrine J.

    2011-01-01

    The ovine footrot pathogen, Dichelobacter nodosus, secretes three subtilisin-like proteases that play an important role in the pathogenesis of footrot through their ability to mediate tissue destruction. Virulent and benign strains of D. nodosus secrete the basic proteases BprV and BprB, respectively, with the catalytic domain of these enzymes having 96% sequence identity. At present, it is not known how sequence variation between these two putative virulence factors influences their respective biological activity. We have determined the high resolution crystal structures of BprV and BprB. These data reveal that that the S1 pocket of BprV is more hydrophobic but smaller than that of BprB. We show that BprV is more effective than BprB in degrading extracellular matrix components of the host tissue. Mutation of two residues around the S1 pocket of BprB to the equivalent residues in BprV dramatically enhanced its proteolytic activity against elastin substrates. Application of a novel approach for profiling substrate specificity, the Rapid Endopeptidase Profiling Library (REPLi) method, revealed that both enzymes prefer cleaving after hydrophobic residues (and in particular P1 leucine) but that BprV has more restricted primary substrate specificity than BprB. Furthermore, for P1 Leu-containing substrates we found that BprV is a significantly more efficient enzyme than BprB. Collectively, these data illuminate how subtle changes in D. nodosus proteases may significantly influence tissue destruction as part of the ovine footrot pathogenesis process. PMID:21990366

  19. spo(2|2-Equivariant Quantizations on the Supercircle S^{1|2}

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najla Mellouli

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available We consider the space of differential operators $mathcal{D}_{lambdamu}$ acting between$lambda$- and $mu$-densities defined on $S^{1|2}$ endowed with its standard contact structure.This contact structure allows one to define a filtration on $mathcal{D}_{lambdamu}$ which is finerthan the classical one, obtained by writting a differential operator in terms of the partial derivativeswith respect to the different coordinates.The space $mathcal{D}_{lambdamu}$ and the associated graded space of symbols $mathcal{S}_{delta}$($delta=mu-lambda$ can be considered as $mathfrak{spo}(2|2$-modules, where $mathfrak{spo}(2|2$ isthe Lie superalgebra of contact projective vector fields on $S^{1|2}$.We show in this paper that there is a unique isomorphism of $mathfrak{spo}(2|2$-modules between$mathcal{S}_{delta}$ and $mathcal{D}_{lambdamu}$ that preserves the principal symbol (i.e.an $mathfrak{spo}(2|2$-equivariant quantization for some values of $delta$ called non-critical values.Moreover, we give an explicit formula for this isomorphism, extending in this way the resultsof [Mellouli N., SIGMA 5 (2009, 111, 11 pages] which were established for second-order differential operators.The method used here to build the $mathfrak{spo}(2|2$-equivariant quantization is the same as the oneused in [Mathonet P., Radoux F., Lett. Math. Phys. 98 (2011, 311-331] to prove the existence of a $mathfrak{pgl}(p+1|q$-equivariant quantization on$mathbb{R}^{p|q}$.

  20. Phylogenetic analysis of S1 gene of infectious bronchitis virus isolates from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Fang; Zhao, Yujun; Yue, Wenbin; Yao, J; Lihua, Lv; Ji, Wenhui; Li, Xuying; Liu, Fengbo; Wu, Qian

    2011-09-01

    Between 2006 and 2009, seven strains of infectious bronchitis (IB) virus (IBV) were isolated from vaccinated chicken flocks on different chicken farms in China. The pathogenic characters of seven IBV strains were assessed. Each of the seven strains was infective to the test chickens and could induce an immune response. The results from chicken embryo cross-neutralization assays showed that these strains were antigenically distinct from classic IBV strains of H120, M41, Conn, and Gray. Compared to H120 vaccine strain, point mutation, short insertion, and deletion occurred at many positions in the S1 protein of the seven strains. Five of the seven strains had the motif (HRRRR), which was identical to that of the epidemic IBV strains in China. Two new motifs (HRLRR and RRIRR) emerged in the isolated strains. The homology of the nucleotide and amino acid sequences of the S1 gene among the seven isolates was 81.7%-99.7% and 79.0%-99.4%, respectively. These seven strains were also genetically different from the vaccine strains and non-China IBV strains but closely related to large numbers of Chinese strains. The seven isolates and 36 reference IBV strains were clustered into six distinct groups (I-VI). The seven strains were categorized into groups I, II, and III, forming a big phylogenetic branch, which is closely related to Chinese IBVs, whereas the vaccine strains belonging to group VI are genetically distant from groups I, II, and III. The results from this study indicate that different IBV strains cocirculate in the chicken population in China.

  1. Peningkatan Kemampuan Berpikir Statistis Mahasiswa S1 Melalui Pembelajaran MEAs yang Dimodifikasi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Avip Priatna Martadiputra

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper contains the results of research on improving the ability to think statisis S1 students through the learning model-eliciting Activities (MEAs are modified from the MEAs that have been developed by Garfield, Delmas and Zieffler (2010 by entering the didactical Design Research (DDR when creating instructional materials , In this research, quasi experimental method with a pretest-posttest design. Research carried out on all students S1 Department of Mathematics Education of a State in Bandung who are following the lecture Basic Statistics on odd semester of 2011/2012 academic year. In the control class (class A student Pend Prodi. Mat force 2010/2011 39 were given conventional learning while the experimental class 1 (student of class B Prodi Pend. Mat force 2010/2011 41 people and the experimental class 2 (student Prodi Pend. Mat force repeating 2008/2009 Basic Statistics 12 persons were given a modified learning MEAs. Furthermore, in each class, the students were divided into three groups: high, medium and low based on a score initial capability test results statistically (TKAS. Data on statistical thinking skills students thinking skills obtained through statistical tests (TKBS, while the disposition of the statistical data is obtained by using scale student disposition. The results showed that there are differences in the increase in the ability to think statistically significant student between the control class, the experimental class 1 and class experiment 2. Increased statistical thinking skills students use learning MEAs modified significantly higher compared to students using conventional teaching. There are differences increase student statistically significant disposition between the control class, the experimental class 1 and class experiment 2. Improved statistical disposition of students who use the learning MEAs modified significantly higher compared to students using conventional teaching.

  2. Long-Range Trilobite-like Cs Molecules in a Crossed 1064 nm Dipole Trap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tallant, Jonathan; Booth, Donald; Marcassa, Luis; Marangoni, Bruno; Shaffer, James

    2011-05-01

    In the past, our group has observed long-range Rydberg atom- Rydberg atom molecules created within a MOT. The density required to observe such molecules can be relatively low, 1010 cm-3 because the bound states exist at internuclear separations between ~ 3 μ m and ~ 9 μ m. The increase in density to ~1013 cm-3 in a crossed dipole trap allows for new types of molecule formation which are inefficient in lower density traps, like the MOT. In particular, new bonding mechanisms may arise from the low-energy scattering of a Rydberg atom electron (with negative scattering length) from a ground state atom, so called trilobite and trilobite-like molecules. We present data on the spectroscopic identification of Cs n2S1 / 2 + 62S1 / 2 trilobite-like molecules. Progress on resolving the vibrational structure of both singlet and triplet species will be presented. We acknowledge funding from ARO (W911-NF-08-1-0257), NSF (PHY- 0855324) and NSF (OISE-0756321).

  3. Single-molecule dynamics of lysozyme processing distinguishes linear and cross-linked peptidoglycan substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yongki; Moody, Issa S; Sims, Patrick C; Hunt, Steven R; Corso, Brad L; Seitz, David E; Blaszczak, Larry C; Blaszcazk, Larry C; Collins, Philip G; Weiss, Gregory A

    2012-02-01

    The dynamic processivity of individual T4 lysozyme molecules was monitored in the presence of either linear or cross-linked peptidoglycan substrates. Single-molecule monitoring was accomplished using a novel electronic technique in which lysozyme molecules were tethered to single-walled carbon nanotube field-effect transistors through pyrene linker molecules. The substrate-driven hinge-bending motions of lysozyme induced dynamic electronic signals in the underlying transistor, allowing long-term monitoring of the same molecule without the limitations of optical quenching or bleaching. For both substrates, lysozyme exhibited processive low turnover rates of 20-50 s(-1) and rapid (200-400 s(-1)) nonproductive motions. The latter nonproductive binding events occupied 43% of the enzyme's time in the presence of the cross-linked peptidoglycan but only 7% with the linear substrate. Furthermore, lysozyme catalyzed the hydrolysis of glycosidic bonds to the end of the linear substrate but appeared to sidestep the peptide cross-links to zigzag through the wild-type substrate.

  4. Discovery of CH and OH in the -513 km s-1 Ejecta of Eta Carinae

    CERN Document Server

    Verner, E; Nielsen, K E; Gull, T R; Kober, G V; Corcoran, M

    2005-01-01

    The very massive star, Eta Carinae, is enshrouded in an unusual complex of stellar ejecta, which is highly depleted in C and O, and enriched in He and N. This circumstellar gas gives rise to distinct absorption components corresponding to at least 20 different velocities along the line-of-sight. The velocity component at -513 kms-1 exhibits very low ionization with predominantly neutral species of iron-peak elements. Our statistical equilibrium/photoionization modeling indicates that the low temperature (T = 760 K) and high density (n_H=10^7 cm^-3) of the -513 kms-1 component is conducive to molecule formation including those with the elements C and O. Examination of echelle spectra obtained with the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) aboard the confirms the model's predictions. The molecules, H_2, CH, and most likely OH, have been identified in the -513 kms-1 absorption spectrum. This paper presents the analysis of the HST/STIS spectra with the deduced column densities for CH, OH and C I, and upper ...

  5. Proteins Are the Body's Worker Molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... PDF Chapter 1: Proteins are the Body's Worker Molecules You've probably heard that proteins are important ... are much more than that. Proteins are worker molecules that are necessary for virtually every activity in ...

  6. Molecules in Studio v. 1.0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-04-22

    A Powersim Studio implementation of the system dynamics’ ‘Molecules of Structure’. The original implementation was in Ventana’s Vensim language by James Hines. The molecules are fundamental constructs of the system dynamics simulation methodology.

  7. Characterization of S1 nuclease sensitive site at transcription initiation region of Attacus ricini rDNA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何明亮; 赵慕钧; 靳嘉瑞; 李载平

    1997-01-01

    A single-stranded S1 nuclease hypersensitive site which contains a d(AT)18 sequence structure locat-ed in the 5 -non transcription spacer of silkworm A . ricini ribosomal RNA gene has been reported[1] Using starved-refed silkworms, another S1 nuclease sensitive site was found existing in the rDNA chromatin, while under merely starving, this S1 sensitive site disappeared[2] . Recently this inducible S1 sensitive site has been further determined. It consists of a d(GT)10-d(AT)10 special DNA sequence at the transcription initiation region, and shows a behavior of ease in DNA-unwinding, indicating that S1 nuclease sensitive sites may have an important function in the regulation of rDNA transcription and replication.

  8. 爱普生投影机家族再添生力军EMP-S1H

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王颖

    2004-01-01

    @@ 继市场反馈效果非常好的EMP-S1之后,爱普生公司全新推出其的加强版机型--EMP-S1H.此款新机型不但保留了原有EMP-S1的诸多强项,而且专门针对商务使用时较常出现的问题渗入更完善的技术解决与设计理念,从而打造出功能更强大的实用商务投影机EMP-S1H.不相信么?看看以下问题EMP-S1H是如何解决的吧!

  9. Similarity of atoms in molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cioslowski, J.; Nanayakkara, A. (Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States))

    1993-12-01

    Similarity of atoms in molecules is quantitatively assessed with a measure that employs electron densities within respective atomic basins. This atomic similarity measure does not rely on arbitrary assumptions concerning basis functions or 'atomic orbitals', is relatively inexpensive to compute, and has straightforward interpretation. Inspection of similarities between pairs of carbon, hydrogen, and fluorine atoms in the CH[sub 4], CH[sub 3]F, CH[sub 2]F[sub 2], CHF[sub 3], CF[sub 4], C[sub 2]H[sub 2], C[sub 2]H[sub 4], and C[sub 2]H[sub 6] molecules, calculated at the MP2/6-311G[sup **] level of theory, reveals that the atomic similarity is greatly reduced by a change in the number or the character of ligands (i.e. the atoms with nuclei linked through bond paths to the nucleus of the atom in question). On the other hand, atoms with formally identical (i.e. having the same nuclei and numbers of ligands) ligands resemble each other to a large degree, with the similarity indices greater than 0.95 for hydrogens and 0.99 for non-hydrogens. 19 refs., 6 tabs.

  10. Characterization of Interstellar Organic Molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gençaǧa, Deniz; Carbon, Duane F.; Knuth, Kevin H.

    2008-11-01

    Understanding the origins of life has been one of the greatest dreams throughout history. It is now known that star-forming regions contain complex organic molecules, known as Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs), each of which has particular infrared spectral characteristics. By understanding which PAH species are found in specific star-forming regions, we can better understand the biochemistry that takes place in interstellar clouds. Identifying and classifying PAHs is not an easy task: we can only observe a single superposition of PAH spectra at any given astrophysical site, with the PAH species perhaps numbering in the hundreds or even thousands. This is a challenging source separation problem since we have only one observation composed of numerous mixed sources. However, it is made easier with the help of a library of hundreds of PAH spectra. In order to separate PAH molecules from their mixture, we need to identify the specific species and their unique concentrations that would provide the given mixture. We develop a Bayesian approach for this problem where sources are separated from their mixture by Metropolis Hastings algorithm. Separated PAH concentrations are provided with their error bars, illustrating the uncertainties involved in the estimation process. The approach is demonstrated on synthetic spectral mixtures using spectral resolutions from the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO). Performance of the method is tested for different noise levels.

  11. Is JPC = 3-+ molecule possible?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wei; Liu, Yan-Rui; Yao, Tao

    2015-02-01

    The confirmation of charged charmonium-like states indicates that heavy quark molecules should exist. Here we discuss the possibility of a molecule state with JPC = 3-+. In a one-boson-exchange model investigation for the S wave C = + D*D¯2* states, one finds that the strongest attraction is in the case J = 3 and I = 0 for both π and σ exchanges. Numerical analysis indicates that this hadronic bound state might exist if a phenomenological cutoff parameter around 2.3 GeV (1.5 GeV) is reasonable with a dipole (monopole) type form factor in the one-pion-exchange model. The cutoff for binding solutions may be reduced to a smaller value once the σ exchange contribution is included. If a state around the D*D¯2* threshold (≈4472 MeV) in the channel J/ψω (P wave) is observed, the heavy quark spin symmetry implies that it is not a cc¯ meson and the JPC are likely to be 3-+. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (11275115), Shandong Province Natural Science Foundation (ZR2010AM023), SRF for ROCS, SEM, and Independent Innovation Foundation of Shandong University

  12. Investigation of ultracold atoms and molecules in a dark magneto-optical trap

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Li-Rong; Ji Zhong-Hua; Yuan Jin-Peng; Yang Yan; Zhao Yan-Ting; Ma Jie; Xiao Lian-Tuan; Jia Suo-Tang

    2012-01-01

    In this paper,ultracold atoms and molecules in a dark magneto-optical trap (MOT) are studied via depumping the cesium cold atoms into the dark hyperfine ground state.The collision rate is reduced to 0.45 s-1 and the density of the atoms is increased to 5.6 × 1011 cm-3 when the fractional population of the atoms in the bright hyperfine ground state is as low as 0.15.The vibrational spectra of the ultracold cesium molecules are also studied in a standard MOT and in a dark MOT separately.The experimental results are analyzed by using the perturbative quantum approach.

  13. Time scales for molecule formation by ion-molecule reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, W. D.; Glassgold, A. E.

    1976-01-01

    Analytical solutions are obtained for nonlinear differential equations governing the time-dependence of molecular abundances in interstellar clouds. Three gas-phase reaction schemes are considered separately for the regions where each dominates. The particular case of CO, and closely related members of the Oh and CH families of molecules, is studied for given values of temperature, density, and the radiation field. Nonlinear effects and couplings with particular ions are found to be important. The time scales for CO formation range from 100,000 to a few million years, depending on the chemistry and regime. The time required for essentially complete conversion of C(+) to CO in the region where the H3(+) chemistry dominates is several million years. Because this time is longer than or comparable to dynamical time scales for dense interstellar clouds, steady-state abundances may not be observed in such clouds.

  14. Comet C2012 S1 (ISON)s Carbon-rich and Micron-size-dominated Coma Dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wooden, D.; De Buizer, J.; Kelley, M.; Sitko, M.; Woodward, C.; Harker, D.; Reach, W.; Russell, R.; Kim, D.; Yanamadra-Fisher, P.; Lisse, C.; de Pater, I.; Gehrz, R.; Kolokolova, L.

    2014-01-01

    Comet C/2012 S1 (ISON) was unique in that it was a dynamically new comet derived from the Nearly Isotropic Oort cloud reservoir of comets with a sun-grazing orbit. We present thermal models for comet ISON (rh approx.1.15 AU, 2013-Oct-25 11:30 UT) that reveal comet ISON's dust was carbon-rich and dominated by a narrow size distribution dominated by approx. micron-sized grains. We constrained the models by our SOFIA FORCAST photometry at 11.1, 19.7 and 31.5 microns and by a silicate feature strength of approx.1.1 and an 8-13microns continuum greybody color temperature of approx. 275-280 K (using Tbb ? r-0.5 h and Tbb approx. 260-265 K from Subaru COMICS, 2013-Oct-19 UT)[1,2]. N-band spectra of comet ISON with the BASS instrument on the NASA IRTF (2013-Nov-11-12 UT) show a silicate feature strength of approx. 1.1 and an 11.2microns forsterite peak.[3] Our thermal models yield constraints the dust composition as well as grain size distribution parameters: slope, peak grain size, porosity. Specifically, ISON's dust has a low silicate-to- amorphous carbon ratio (approx. 1:9), and the coma size distribution has a steep slope (N4.5) such that the coma is dominated by micron-sized, moderately porous, carbon-rich dust grains. The N-band continuum color temperature implies submicronto micron-size grains and the steep fall off of the SOFIA far-IR photometry requires the size distribution to have fewer relative numbers of larger and cooler grains compared to smaller and hotter grains. A proxy for the dust production rate is f? approx.1500 cm, akin to Af?. ISON has a moderate-to-low dust-to-gas ratio. Comet ISON's dust grain size distribution does not appear similar to the few well-studied long-period Nearly Isotropic Comets (NICs), namely C/1995 O1 (Hale-Bopp) and C/2001 Q4 (NEAT) that had smaller and/or more highly porous grains and larger sizes, or C/2007 N4 (Lulin) and C/2006 P1 (McNaught) that had large and/or compact grains. Radial transport to comet-forming disk distances

  15. Comet C/2012 S1 (ISON)'s carbon-rich and micron-size-dominated coma dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wooden, D.; De Buizer, J.; Kelley, M.; Sitko, M.; Woodward, C.; Harker, D.; Reach, W.; Russell, R.; Kim, D.; Yanamadra-Fisher, P.; Lisse, C.; de Pater, I.; Gehrz, R.; Kolokolova, L.

    2014-07-01

    Comet C/2012 S1 (ISON) was unique in that it was a dynamically new comet derived from the Nearly Isotropic Oort cloud reservoir of comets with a sun-grazing orbit. We present thermal models for comet ISON (r_h ˜ 1.15 au, 2013-Oct-25 11:30 UT) that reveal comet ISON's dust was carbon-rich and dominated by a steep (and therefor narrow) grain size distribution (GSD) dominated by ˜ micron-sized grains. We constrained the models by our SOFIA FORCAST photometry at 11.1, 19.7 and 31.5 μ m and by a silicate feature strength of ˜1.1 and an 8-13 μ m continuum greybody color temperature of ˜275-280 K (using T_{bb}∝ {r}_h^{-0.5} and T_{bb}˜260-265 K from Subaru+COMICS, 2013-Oct-19 UT) [1,2]. Spectra of comet ISON with IRTF+BASS (2013-Nov-11-12 UT) also show a silicate feature strength of ˜1.1 as well as an 11.2 μ m forsterite peak [3]. Our thermal models [6], which employ 0.1-1000 μ m grains, yield constraints for the dust composition as well as GSD parameters of slope, peak grain size, porosity: ISON's dust has a low silicate-to-amorphous carbon ratio (˜1:9), the GSD has a steep slope (N≃4.5), a peak grain radius of ˜0.7 μ m, and moderately porous grains. Specifically, the 8-13 μ m continuum color temperature implies submicron- to micron-size grains and the steep fall off of the SOFIA far-IR photometry requires the GSD to have fewer relative numbers of larger and cooler grains compared to smaller and hotter grains. A IR proxy for the dust production rate is ɛ f ρ ˜ 1500 cm [4], which is akin to but larger than Afρ in scattered light (2013-Oct-20 UT, Afρ=796 cm(±5 %) in V-band from Swift) [5]. Also, ISON had a moderate-to-low dust-to-gas ratio [6]. Comet ISON's dust composition and GSD properties are distinct from the few well-studied long-period Nearly Isotropic Comets (NICs) that all had 'typical' GSD slopes (3.4≤N≤3.7) and silicate-to-amorphous carbon ratios ≫1 as well as the following properties: C/1995 O1 (Hale-Bopp)[7,8,9,10] and C/2001 Q4

  16. How Is a Protein Molecule Nearsighted?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO De; JI Qing; L(U) Gang

    2005-01-01

    @@ The effect range of a local change of a protein molecule is calculated using a cluster method developed in this work based on the Gaussian software. This range is found to be about 8 A, which gives a concrete estimation on the "nearsightedness" by Kohn for protein molecules. The cluster method can be applied to calculation of the electronic density of a large molecule such as a motor protein and can provide a basis for the dynamical analysis of a single protein molecule.

  17. Hydrophobic Porous Material Adsorbs Small Organic Molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Pramod K.; Hickey, Gregory S.

    1994-01-01

    Composite molecular-sieve material has pore structure designed specifically for preferential adsorption of organic molecules for sizes ranging from 3 to 6 angstrom. Design based on principle that contaminant molecules become strongly bound to surface of adsorbent when size of contaminant molecules is nearly same as that of pores in adsorbent. Material used to remove small organic contaminant molecules from vacuum systems or from enclosed gaseous environments like closed-loop life-support systems.

  18. Faddeev Random Phase Approximation applied to molecules

    CERN Document Server

    Degroote, Matthias

    2012-01-01

    This Ph.D. thesis derives the equations of the Faddeev Random Phase Approximation (FRPA) and applies the method to a set of small atoms and molecules. The occurence of RPA instabilities in the dissociation limit is addressed in molecules and by the study of the Hubbard molecule as a test system with reduced dimensionality.

  19. Visualization of large elongated DNA molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jinyong; Kim, Yongkyun; Lee, Seonghyun; Jo, Kyubong

    2015-09-01

    Long and linear DNA molecules are the mainstream single-molecule analytes for a variety of biochemical analysis within microfluidic devices, including functionalized surfaces and nanostructures. However, for biochemical analysis, large DNA molecules have to be unraveled, elongated, and visualized to obtain biochemical and genomic information. To date, elongated DNA molecules have been exploited in the development of a number of genome analysis systems as well as for the study of polymer physics due to the advantage of direct visualization of single DNA molecule. Moreover, each single DNA molecule provides individual information, which makes it useful for stochastic event analysis. Therefore, numerous studies of enzymatic random motions have been performed on a large elongated DNA molecule. In this review, we introduce mechanisms to elongate DNA molecules using microfluidics and nanostructures in the beginning. Secondly, we discuss how elongated DNA molecules have been utilized to obtain biochemical and genomic information by direct visualization of DNA molecules. Finally, we reviewed the approaches used to study the interaction of proteins and large DNA molecules. Although DNA-protein interactions have been investigated for many decades, it is noticeable that there have been significant achievements for the last five years. Therefore, we focus mainly on recent developments for monitoring enzymatic activity on large elongated DNA molecules.

  20. Proteolytic cleavage of pertussis toxin S1 subunit is not essential for its activity in mammalian cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plaut Roger D

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pertussis toxin (PT is an exotoxin virulence factor produced by Bordetella pertussis, the causative agent of whooping cough. PT consists of an active subunit (S1 that ADP-ribosylates the alpha subunit of several mammalian G proteins, and a B oligomer (S2–S5 that binds glycoconjugate receptors on cells. PT appears to enter cells by endocytosis, and retrograde transport through the Golgi apparatus may be important for its cytotoxicity. A previous study demonstrated that proteolytic processing of S1 occurs after PT enters mammalian cells. We sought to determine whether this proteolytic processing of S1 is necessary for PT cytotoxicity. Results Protease inhibitor studies suggested that S1 processing may involve a metalloprotease, and processing does not involve furin, a mammalian cell protease that cleaves several other bacterial toxins. However, inhibitor studies showed a general lack of correlation of S1 processing with PT cellular activity. A combination of replacement, insertion and deletion mutations in the C-terminal region of S1, as well as mass spectrometry data, suggested that the cleavage site is located around residue 203–204, but that cleavage is not strongly sequence-dependent. Processing of S1 was abolished by each of 3 overlapping 8 residue deletions just downstream of the putative cleavage site, but not by smaller deletions in the same region. Processing of the various mutant forms of PT did not correlate with cellular activity of the toxin, nor with the ability of the bacteria producing them to infect the mouse respiratory tract. In addition, S1 processing was not detected in transfected cells expressing S1, even though S1 was fully active in these cells. Conclusions S1 processing is not essential for the cellular activity of PT. This distinguishes it from the processing of various other bacterial toxins, which has been shown to be important for their cytotoxicity. S1 processing may be mediated primarily by a

  1. 1,4-Bis{(+-(S-[1-(1-naphthylethyl]iminomethyl}benzene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando Espinosa Leija

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C32H28N2, is a chiral bis-imine in which both imine groups display the common E configuration. The naphthyl groups present different orientations with respect to the central core, as reflected in the dihedral angles of 21.4 (2 and 78.83 (14° between the benzene and naphthyl mean planes, thus the highest possible C2 local molecular symmetry is not attained. This C1 molecular conformation allows multiple C—H...π intermolecular contacts involving all aromatic rings, while no π–π interactions are available for the stabilization of the crystal structure. The resulting packing structure is based on molecules stacked along [100].

  2. The ^1S+^1S asymptote of Sr_2 studied by Fourier-transform spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Stein, A; Tiemann, E

    2010-01-01

    An experimental study of the long range behavior of the ground state X^1\\Sigma^+_g of Sr_2 is performed by high resolution spectroscopy of asymptotic vibrational levels and the use of available photoassociation data. Ground state levels as high as v"=60 (outer turning point at 23 \\AA and 0.1 cm^-1 below the asymptote) could be observed by Fourier-transform spectroscopy of fluorescence progressions induced by single frequency laser excitation of the v'=4, J'=9 rovibrational level of the state 2^1\\Sigma^+_u. A precise value of the scattering length for the isotopologue ^88Sr_2 is derived and transferred to all other isotopic combinations by mass scaling with the given potential. The derived potential together with already published information about the state 2^1\\Sigma^+_u directs to promising optical paths for producing cold molecules in the electronic ground state from an ultracold ensemble of Sr atoms.

  3. TRAPPIST monitoring of comets C/2012 S1 (ISON) and C/2013 R1 (Lovejoy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opitom, C.; Jehin, E.; Manfroid, J.; Hutsemékers, D.; Gillon, M.

    2014-07-01

    We present the results of a dense photometric monitoring of comets C/2012 S1 (Ison) and C/2013 R1 (Lovejoy) using narrow-band cometary filters and the 60-cm TRAPPIST robotic telescope [1]. We were able to isolate the emission of the OH, NH, CN, C_2, and C_3 radicals for both comets as well as the dust continuum in four bands. By applying a Haser model [2] and fitting the observed profiles, we derive gas production rates. From the continuum bands, we computed the dust Afρ parameters [3]. We were able to follow the evolution of the gas and dust activity of these comets for weeks, looking for changes with the heliocentric distance, study the coma morphology, and analyze their composition and dust coma properties. Comet C/2012 S1 (ISON) was observed about three times a week from October 12 (r=1.43 au) to November 23, 2013. It was then at a heliocentric distance of 0.33 au, only five days before perihelion, when it disintegrated. This dense monitoring allowed us to detect fast changes of the cometary activity. We observed a slowly rising activity in October and early November, and two major outbursts around November 13 and November 19 [4], the gas and dust production rates being multiplied by at least a factor of five during each outburst and then slowly decreasing in the following days. These outbursts were correlated with changes in gas-production-rate ratios. The coma morphology study revealed strong jets in both gas and dust filters. Since the comet was very active in November, we were even able to detect OH jets in our images. Comet C/2013 R1 (Lovejoy) was observed before perihelion from September 9 (r=1.94 au) to November 16 (r=1.12 au), 2013 when the comet was too far North. We recovered the comet post-perihelion on February 13 (r=1.24 au), 2014 and planned to observe it until May (r=2.5 au) with narrow-band filters. We compare the evolution of gas and dust activity as well as the evolution of gas production rates ratios on both sides of perihelion. The

  4. S1P-Yap1 signaling regulates endoderm formation required for cardiac precursor cell migration in zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukui, Hajime; Terai, Kenta; Nakajima, Hiroyuki; Chiba, Ayano; Fukuhara, Shigetomo; Mochizuki, Naoki

    2014-10-13

    To form the primary heart tube in zebrafish, bilateral cardiac precursor cells (CPCs) migrate toward the midline beneath the endoderm. Mutants lacking endoderm and fish with defective sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) signaling exhibit cardia bifida. Endoderm defects lead to the lack of foothold for the CPCs, whereas the cause of cardia bifida in S1P signaling mutants remains unclear. Here we show that S1P signaling regulates CPC migration through Yes-associated protein 1 (Yap1)-dependent endoderm survival. Cardia bifida seen in spns2 (S1P transporter) morphants and s1pr2 (S1P receptor-2) morphants could be rescued by endodermal expression of nuclear localized form of yap1. yap1 morphants had decreased expression of the Yap1/Tead target connective tissue growth factor a (Ctgfa) and consequently increased endodermal cell apoptosis. Consistently, ctgfa morphants showed defects of the endodermal sheet and cardia bifida. Collectively, we show that S1pr2/Yap1-regulated ctgfa expression is essential for the proper endoderm formation required for CPC migration.

  5. Dynamic Cross Talk between S1P and CXCL12 Regulates Hematopoietic Stem Cells Migration, Development and Bone Remodeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Golan

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs are mostly retained in a quiescent non-motile mode in their bone marrow (BM niches, shifting to a migratory cycling and differentiating state to replenish the blood with mature leukocytes on demand. The balance between the major chemo-attractants CXCL12, predominantly in the BM, and S1P, mainly in the blood, dynamically regulates HSC recruitment to the circulation versus their retention in the BM. During alarm situations, stress-signals induce a decrease in CXCL12 levels in the BM, while S1P levels are rapidly and transiently increased in the circulation, thus favoring mobilization of stem cells as part of host defense and repair mechanisms. Myeloid cytokines, including G-CSF, up-regulate S1P signaling in the BM via the PI3K pathway. Induced CXCL12 secretion from stromal cells via reactive oxygen species (ROS generation and increased S1P1 expression and ROS signaling in HSCs, all facilitate mobilization. Bone turnover is also modulated by both CXCL12 and S1P, regulating the dynamic BM stromal microenvironment, osteoclasts and stem cell niches which all functionally express CXCL12 and S1P receptors. Overall, CXCL12 and S1P levels in the BM and circulation are synchronized to mutually control HSC motility, leukocyte production and osteoclast/osteoblast bone turnover during homeostasis and stress situations.

  6. Three-cluster nuclear molecules

    CERN Document Server

    Poenaru, D N; Greiner, W

    2000-01-01

    A three-center phenomenological model able to explain, at least from a qualitative point of view, the difference in the observed yield of a particle-accompanied fission and that of binary fission was developed. It is derived from the liquid drop model under the assumption that the aligned configuration, with the emitted particle between the light and heavy fragment is obtained by increasing continuously the separation distance, while the radii of the light fragment and of the light particle are kept constant. During the first stage of the deformation one has a two-center evolution until the neck radius becomes equal to the radius of the emitted particle. Then the three center starts developing by decreasing with the same amount the two tip distances. In such a way a second minimum, typical for a cluster molecule, appears in the deformation energy. Examples are presented for $^{240}$Pu parent nucleus emitting $\\alpha$-particles and $^{14}$C in a ternary process.

  7. Molecule Formation on Interstellar Grains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidali, G.

    2011-05-01

    The first experiments that were expressively designed to be applicable to hydrogen formation reactions in the ISM measured the efficiency of formation of molecular hydrogen on a polycrystalline olivine (Pirronello et al. (1997a)). It soon turned out that more was needed, and research began on the mechanism of reaction, on the in uence of the surface morphology, and on the excitation of the just- ormed molecule. In this review, I summarize what we learned from these and other experiments, and where more work is needed: in the elementary steps of reaction, in the bridging of the laboratory-ISM gap (large ux/large surface - small ux/small grain) using simulations, and in using realistic samples of dust grains. Understanding what experiments can and cannot deliver will help in designing and targeting observations, and vice-versa.

  8. Photoluminescence of a Plasmonic Molecule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Da; Byers, Chad P; Wang, Lin-Yung; Hoggard, Anneli; Hoener, Ben; Dominguez-Medina, Sergio; Chen, Sishan; Chang, Wei-Shun; Landes, Christy F; Link, Stephan

    2015-07-28

    Photoluminescent Au nanoparticles are appealing for biosensing and bioimaging applications because of their non-photobleaching and non-photoblinking emission. The mechanism of one-photon photoluminescence from plasmonic nanostructures is still heavily debated though. Here, we report on the one-photon photoluminescence of strongly coupled 50 nm Au nanosphere dimers, the simplest plasmonic molecule. We observe emission from coupled plasmonic modes as revealed by single-particle photoluminescence spectra in comparison to correlated dark-field scattering spectroscopy. The photoluminescence quantum yield of the dimers is found to be surprisingly similar to the constituent monomers, suggesting that the increased local electric field of the dimer plays a minor role, in contradiction to several proposed mechanisms. Aided by electromagnetic simulations of scattering and absorption spectra, we conclude that our data are instead consistent with a multistep mechanism that involves the emission due to radiative decay of surface plasmons generated from excited electron-hole pairs following interband absorption.

  9. Special Issue: "Molecules against Alzheimer".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, Michael; Muñoz-Torrero, Diego

    2016-12-16

    This Special Issue, entitled "Molecules against Alzheimer", gathers a number of original articles, short communications, and review articles on recent research efforts toward the development of novel drug candidates, diagnostic agents and therapeutic approaches for Alzheimer's disease (AD), the most prevalent neurodegenerative disorder and a leading cause of death worldwide. This Special Issue contains many interesting examples describing the design, synthesis, and pharmacological profiling of novel compounds that hit one or several key biological targets, such as cholinesterases, β-amyloid formation or aggregation, monoamine oxidase B, oxidative stress, biometal dyshomeostasis, mitochondrial dysfunction, serotonin and/or melatonin systems, the Wnt/β-catenin pathway, sigma receptors, nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase, or nuclear erythroid 2-related factor. The development of novel AD diagnostic agents based on tau protein imaging and the use of lithium or intranasal insulin for the prevention or the symptomatic treatment of AD is also covered in some articles of the Special Issue.

  10. Anti-cancer Lead Molecule

    KAUST Repository

    Sagar, Sunil

    2014-04-17

    Derivatives of plumbagin can be selectively cytotoxic to breast cancer cells. Derivative `A` (Acetyl Plumbagin) has emerged as a lead molecule for testing against estrogen positive breast cancer and has shown low hepatotoxicity as well as overall lower toxicity in nude mice model. The toxicity of derivative `A` was determined to be even lower than vehicle control (ALT and AST markers). The possible mechanism of action identified based on the microarray experiments and pathway mapping shows that derivative `A` could be acting by altering the cholesterol-related mechanisms. The low toxicity profile of derivative `A` highlights its possible role\\'as future anti-cancer drug and/or as an adjuvant drug to reduce the toxicity of highly toxic chemotherapeutic\\'drugs

  11. Optoelectronics of Molecules and Polymers

    CERN Document Server

    Moliton, André

    2006-01-01

    Optoelectronic devices are being developed at an extraordinary rate. Organic light emitting diodes, photovoltaic devices and electro-optical modulators are pivotal to the future of displays, photosensors and solar cells, and communication technologies. This book details the theories underlying the relevant mechanisms in organic materials and covers, at a basic level, how the organic components are made. The first part of this book introduces the fundamental theories used to detail ordered solids and localised energy levels. The methods used to determine energy levels in perfectly ordered molecular and macromolecular systems are discussed, making sure that the effects of quasi-particles are not missed. The function of excitons and their transfer between two molecules are studied, and the problems associated with interfaces and charge injection into resistive media are presented. The second part details technological aspects such as the fabrication of devices based on organic materials by dry etching. The princ...

  12. Label-free detection of small-molecule binding to a GPCR in the membrane environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heym, Roland G; Hornberger, Wilfried B; Lakics, Viktor; Terstappen, Georg C

    2015-08-01

    Evaluation of drug-target interaction kinetics is becoming increasingly important during the drug-discovery process to investigate selectivity of a drug and predict in vivo target occupancy. To date, it remains challenging to obtain kinetic information for interactions between G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) and small-molecule ligands in a label-free manner. Often GPCRs need to be solubilized or even stabilized by mutations which can be difficult and is time consuming. In addition, it is often unclear if the native conformation of the receptors is sustained. In this study, surface plasmon resonance (SPR) and surface acoustic wave (SAW) technologies have been used to detect ligand binding to the GPCR chemokine (C-X-C motif) receptor 4 (CXCR4) expressed in lipoparticles. We first evaluated different strategies to immobilize CXCR4-expressing lipoparticles. The highest small-molecule binding signal in SPR and SAW was achieved with a matrix-free carboxymethylated sensor chip coated with wheat germ agglutinin for lipoparticle capturing. Next, the binding kinetics of the anti-CXCR4 antibody 12G5 raised against a conformational epitope (k(on)=1.83×10(6)M(-1)s(-1), k(off)=2.79×10(-4) s(-1)) and the small molecule AMD3100 (k(on)=5.46×10(5)M(-1)s(-1), k(off)=1.01×10(-2)s(-1)) were assessed by SAW. Our kinetic and affinity data are consistent with previously published radioligand-binding experiments using cells and label-free experiments with solubilized CXCR4. This is the first study demonstrating label-free kinetic characterization of small-molecule binding to a GPCR in the membrane environment. The presented method holds the potential to greatly facilitate label-free assay development for GPRCs that can be expressed at high levels in lipoparticles.

  13. Sphingosine-1-Phosphate Induces Dose-Dependent Chemotaxis or Fugetaxis of T-ALL Blasts through S1P1 Activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina V Messias

    Full Text Available Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P is a bioactive sphingolipid involved in several physiological processes including cell migration and differentiation. S1P signaling is mediated through five G protein-coupled receptors (S1P1-S1P5. S1P1 is crucial to the exit of T-lymphocytes from the thymus and peripheral lymphoid organs through a gradient of S1P. We have previously observed that T-ALL and T-LBL blasts express S1P1. Herein we analyzed the role of S1P receptors in the migratory pattern of human T-cell neoplastic blasts. S1P-triggered cell migration was directly related to S1P1 expression. T-ALL blasts expressing low levels of S1P1 mRNA (HPB-ALL did not migrate toward S1P, whereas those expressing higher levels of S1P1 (MOLT-4, JURKAT and CEM did migrate. The S1P ligand induced T-ALL cells chemotaxis in concentrations up to 500 nM and induced fugetaxis in higher concentrations (1000-10000 nM through interactions with S1P1. When S1P1 was specifically blocked by the W146 compound, S1P-induced migration at lower concentrations was reduced, whereas higher concentrations induced cell migration. Furthermore, we observed that S1P/S1P1 interactions induced ERK and AKT phosphorylation, and modulation of Rac1 activity. Responding T-ALL blasts also expressed S1P3 mRNA but blockage of this receptor did not modify migratory responses. Our results indicate that S1P is involved in the migration of T-ALL/LBL blasts, which is dependent on S1P1 expression. Moreover, S1P concentrations in the given microenvironment might induce dose-dependent chemotaxis or fugetaxis of T-ALL blasts.

  14. High-harmonic spectroscopy of aligned molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Hyeok; Yun, Sang Jae; Lee, Gae Hwang; Nam, Chang Hee

    2017-01-01

    High harmonics emitted from aligned molecules driven by intense femtosecond laser pulses provide the opportunity to explore the structural information of molecules. The field-free molecular alignment technique is an expedient tool for investigating the structural characteristics of linear molecules. The underlying physics of field-free alignment, showing the characteristic revival structure specific to molecular species, is clearly explained from the quantum-phase analysis of molecular rotational states. The anisotropic nature of molecules is shown from the harmonic polarization measurement performed with spatial interferometry. The multi-orbital characteristics of molecules are investigated using high-harmonic spectroscopy, applied to molecules of N2 and CO2. In the latter case the two-dimensional high-harmonic spectroscopy, implemented using a two-color laser field, is applied to distinguish harmonics from different orbitals. Molecular high-harmonic spectroscopy will open a new route to investigate ultrafast dynamics of molecules.

  15. Observation of pendular butterfly Rydberg molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niederprüm, Thomas; Thomas, Oliver; Eichert, Tanita; Lippe, Carsten; Pérez-Ríos, Jesús; Greene, Chris H; Ott, Herwig

    2016-10-05

    Engineering molecules with a tunable bond length and defined quantum states lies at the heart of quantum chemistry. The unconventional binding mechanism of Rydberg molecules makes them a promising candidate to implement such tunable molecules. A very peculiar type of Rydberg molecules are the so-called butterfly molecules, which are bound by a shape resonance in the electron-perturber scattering. Here we report the observation of these exotic molecules and employ their exceptional properties to engineer their bond length, vibrational state, angular momentum and orientation in a small electric field. Combining the variable bond length with their giant dipole moment of several hundred Debye, we observe counter-intuitive molecules which locate the average electron position beyond the internuclear distance.

  16. Severe adverse effects of 5-fluorouracil in S-1 were lessened by haemodialysis due to elimination of the drug.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Kazunori; Nagasawa, Yasuyuki; Yamamoto, Ryohei; Omori, Hiroki; Kimura, Tomonori; Tomida, Kodo; Furumatsu, Yoshiyuki; Imai, Enyu; Isaka, Yoshitaka; Rakugi, Hiromi

    2009-04-01

    S-1 and cisplatin are used as one of the first-line chemotherapies for gastric cancer in Japan. The plasma concentration of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) is increased in patients with renal dysfunction because gimeracil in S-1 inhibits the degradation of 5-FU and about 50% of gimeracil is excreted in the urine. We describe a 35-year-old man with acute kidney injury while taking S-1 and cisplatin for advanced gastric cancer and who presented severe adverse effects of 5-FU. This case report describes the evolution of the plasma concentrations of 5-FU with haemodialysis along with a decrease in the adverse drug effects.

  17. Electronically induced contrast enhancement in whisker S1 cortical response fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Kraus, Lee M; Francis, Joseph T

    2014-01-01

    The ability of an organism to specifically attend to relevant sensory information during learning and subsequent performance of a task is highly dependent on the release of the neurotransmitter Acetylcholine (ACh). Electrophysiological studies have shown that pairing endogenous ACh with specific visual or auditory stimuli induces long lasting enhancements of subsequent cortical responses to the previously paired stimulus. In this study we present data suggesting that similar effects can be elicited in the rat whisker sensory system. Specifically, we show that pairing whisker deflection with electrical stimulation of the magnocellular basal nucleus (BN: a natural source of cortical ACh) causes an increase in the center-surround contrast of the treated whisker's cortical response field (CRF). Meanwhile, deflections of whiskers distant from the treated whisker show overall increased response magnitudes, but non-significant changes in contrast between principle vs. surround barrel responses. Control trials, in which BN stimulation was not paired with whisker deflection, showed similar lack of contrast enhancement. These results indicate that BN stimulation, paired with incoming whisker information, selectively increases the paired whisker's CRF center-surround contrast, while unpaired BN stimulation causes a more general increases in S1 responsiveness, without contrast modulation. Enhanced control over whisker sensory pathway attentional mechanisms has the potential to facilitate a more effective transfer of desired information to the animal's neural processing circuitry, thereby allowing experimental evaluation of more complex behavior and cognition than was previously possible.

  18. Constraints on the S=-1 meson-baryon interaction at NLO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feijoo, A.; Magas, V. K.; Ramos, A.

    2017-03-01

    This work contains a study of the meson-baryon interaction in the S = -1 sector by means of a chiral SU(3) Lagrangian up to next-to-leading order (NLO) and implementing unitarization in coupled channels. In order to get more reliable values of the parameters which are present in the model, we performed several fits which take a large set of experimental scattering data in different two-body channels, threshold branching ratios, and the precise SIDDHARTA values of the energy shift and width of kaonic hidrogen into consideration. In previous studies, we had shown that the K- p → KΞ reactions are especially sensitive to the next to Weinberg-Tomozawa (WT) corrections in the hierarchy. In addition, we pointed out the need to employ processes which are described by pure isospin amplitudes as a tool to discern which models are more realistic among those which give small values for the χ2 in the fits. Following the former suggestion, we present results which include data from K- p → ηΛ, ηΣ reactions which have pure isospin I = 0 and I = 1 component respectively. Finally, to check the goodness of the new obtained parametrization of the model, we present a prediction for another process that filters the I = 1 isospin component: the pure I = 1 K_L^ - p \\to {K^ + }{Ξ^0} reaction which could be measured at the proposed secondary K0L beam at Jlab.

  19. Final report on the regional supplementary comparison APMP.AUV.A-S1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plangsangmas, Virat; Leeudomwong, Surat; Scott, Andrew; Zhong, Bo; Huang, Yuchung

    2014-01-01

    A regional supplementary comparison APMP.AUV.A-S1 has been carried out for the measurement of sound pressure level, frequency and total distortion of a multi-frequency sound calibrator. The role of the Pilot laboratory was undertaken by the National Institute of Metrology (Thailand) (NIMT). The multi-frequency sound calibrator was circulated through thirteen National Metrology Institutes (NMIs). Two NMIs were added to the original time schedule after starting the circulation. The measurements took place between September 2008 and July 2010. This report includes the measurement results from all the participants. Supplementary Comparison Reference Values (SCRVs) have been determined from the results. Deviations from the SCRVs are mostly within declared expanded uncertainties. It has been found that a term for the inherent instability in this type of device needs to be included in any uncertainty budget, and a recommended minimum value of this has been given. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCAUV, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  20. Monte carlo simulation study of the square lattice S=1/2 quantum heisenberg antiferromagnet

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, J K

    1999-01-01

    For the two dimensional S= 1/2 isotopic quantum Heisenberg antiferromagnet on a square lattice, we report our results of an extensive quantum Monte Carlo simulation for various physical observables such as the correlation length xi, the staggered magnetic susceptibility chi sub S sub T , the structure factor peak value S(Q), the internal energy epsilon, and the uniform susceptibility chi sub u. We find that chi sub S sub T approx chi sup 2 T and S(Q) approx xi sup 2 T sup 2 , in agreement with the predictions of the conventional theory but in disagreement with recent experiments. Our estimate of the spin stiffness constant rho sub s and spin wave velocity c, from the low temperature behavior of the chi sub u is shown to be consistent with the theoretical prediction of the low temperature behavior of the epsilon, and of the xi provided an additional correction up to T sup 2. However, our data are definitely inconsistent with the scenario of the crossover for the xi.

  1. Extending the Family of V(4+) S=(1/2) Kagome Antiferromagnets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Lucy; Aidoudi, Farida H; Black, Cameron; Arachchige, Kasun S A; Slawin, Alexandra M Z; Morris, Russell E; Lightfoot, Philip

    2015-12-14

    The ionothermal synthesis, structure, and magnetic susceptibility of a novel inorganic-organic hybrid material, imidazolium vanadium(III,IV) oxyfluoride [C3 H5 N2 ][V9 O6 F24 (H2 O)2 ] (ImVOF) are presented. The structure consists of inorganic vanadium oxyfluoride slabs with kagome layers of V(4+) S=${{ 1/2 }}$ ions separated by a mixed valence layer. These inorganic slabs are intercalated with imidazolium cations. Quinuclidinium (Q) and pyrazinium (Pyz) cations can also be incorporated into the hybrid structure type to give QVOF and PyzVOF analogues, respectively. The highly frustrated topology of the inorganic slabs, along with the quantum nature of the magnetism associated with V(4+) , means that these materials are excellent candidates to host exotic magnetic ground states, such as the highly sought quantum spin liquid. Magnetic susceptibility measurements of all samples suggest an absence of conventional long-range magnetic order down to 2 K despite considerable antiferromagnetic exchange.

  2. Results from the Worldwide Coma Morphology Campaign for Comet ISON (C/2012 S1)

    CERN Document Server

    Samarasinha, Nalin H

    2015-01-01

    We present the results of a global coma morphology campaign for comet C/2012 S1 (ISON), which was organized to involve both professional and amateur observers. In response to the campaign, many hundreds of images, from nearly two dozen groups were collected. Images were taken primarily in the continuum, which help to characterize the behavior of dust in the coma of comet ISON. The campaign received images from January 12 through November 22, 2013 (an interval over which the heliocentric distance decreased from 5.1 AU to 0.35 AU), allowing monitoring of the long-term evolution of coma morphology during the pre-perihelion leg of comet ISON. Data were contributed by observers spread around the world, resulting in particularly good temporal coverage during November when comet ISON was brightest but its visibility was limited from any one location due to the small solar elongation. We analyze the northwestern sunward continuum coma feature observed in comet ISON during the first half of 2013, finding that it was l...

  3. Effect of prosthesis endplate lordosis angles on L5-S1 kinematics after disc arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsitsopoulos, Parmenion P; Wojewnik, Bartosz; Voronov, Leonard I; Havey, Robert M; Renner, Susan M; Zelenakova, Julia; McIntosh, Braden; Carandang, Gerard; Abjornson, Celeste; Patwardhan, Avinash G

    2012-06-01

    We hypothesized that L5-S1 kinematics will not be affected by the lordosis distribution between the prosthesis endplates. Twelve cadaveric lumbosacral spines (51.3 ± 9.8 years) were implanted with 6° or 11° prostheses (ProDisc-L) with four combinations of superior/inferior lordosis (6°/0°, 3°/3°, 11°/0°, 3°/8°). Specimens were tested intact and after prostheses implantation with different lordosis distributions. Center of rotation (COR) and range of motion (ROM) were quantified. Six-degree lordosis prostheses (n = 7) showed no difference in flexion-extension ROM, regardless of design (6°/0° or 3°/3°) (p > 0.05). In lateral bending (LB), both designs reduced ROM (p lordosis prostheses (n = 5) showed no difference in flexion-extension ROM for either design (p > 0.05). LB ROM decreased with distributed lordosis prostheses (3°/8°) (p lordosis distribution among the two prosthesis endplates. The ProDisc-L prosthesis design where all lordosis is concentrated in the superior endplate yielded COR locations that were anterior and caudal to intact controls. The prosthesis with lordosis distributed between the two endplates yielded a COR that tended to be closer to intact. Further clinical and biomechanical studies are needed to assess the long-term impact of lordosis angle distribution on the fate of the facet joints.

  4. Form factors of descendant operators: Reduction to perturbed $M(2,2s+1)$ models

    CERN Document Server

    Lashkevich, Michael

    2014-01-01

    In the framework of the algebraic approach to form factors in two-dimensional integrable models of quantum field theory we consider the reduction of the sine-Gordon model to the $\\Phi_{13}$\\=/perturbation of minimal conformal models of the $M(2,2s+1)$ series. We find in an algebraic form the condition of compatibility of local operators with the reduction. We propose a construction that make it possible to obtain reduction compatible local operators in terms of screening currents. As an application we obtain exact multiparticle form factors for the compatible with the reduction conserved currents $T_{\\pm2k}$, $\\Theta_{\\pm(2k-2)}$, which correspond to the spin $\\pm(2k-1)$ integrals of motion, for any positive integer~$k$. Furthermore, we obtain all form factors of the operators $T_{2k}T_{-2l}$, which generalize the famous $T\\bar T$ operator. The construction is analytic in the $s$ parameter and, therefore, makes sense in the sine-Gordon theory.

  5. Observation of an Exotic Baryon with S=+1 in Photoproduction from the Proton

    CERN Document Server

    Kubarovski, V; Weygand, D P; Stoler, P; Battaglieri, M; De Vita, R; Adams, G; Ji Li; Nozar, M; Salgado, C; Ambrozewicz, P; Anciant, E; Anghinolfi, M; Asavapibhop, B; Audit, G; Auger, T; Avakian, H; Bagdasaryan, H; Ball, J P; Barrow, S; Beard, K; Bektasoglu, M; Bellis, M; Benmouna, N; Berman, B L; Bianchi, N; Biselli, A S; Boiarinov, S; Bouchigny, S; Bradford, R; Branford, D; Briscoe, W J; Brooks, W K; Burkert, V D; Butuceanu, C; Calarco, J R; Carman, D S; Carnahan, B; Cetina, C; Chen, S; Ciciani, L; Cole, P L; Connelly, J; Cords, D; Corvisiero, P; Crabb, D; Crannell, H; Cummings, J P; De Sanctis, E; Degtyarenko, P V; Denizli, H; Dennis, L; Dharmawardane, K V; Djalali, C; Dodge, G E; Doughty, D; Dragovitsch, P; Dugger, M; Dytman, S; Dzyubak, O P; Egiyan, H; Egiyan, K S; Elouadrhiri, L; Empl, A; Eugenio, P; Farhi, L; Fatemi, R; Feuerbach, R J; Ficenec, J; Forest, T A; Frolov, V; Funsten, H; Gaff, S J; Garçon, M; Gavalian, G; Gilfoyle, G P; Giovanetti, K L; Girard, P; Gothe, R W; Gordon, C I O; Griffioen, K; Guidal, M; Guillo, M R; Gyurjyan, V; Hadjidakis, C; Hakobyan, R S; Hancock, D; Hardie, J; Heddle, D; Heimberg, P; Hersman, F W; Hicks, K; Holtrop, M; Hu, J; Hyde-Wright, C E; Ilieva, Y; Ito, M M; Jenkins, D; Joo, K; Jüngst, H G; Kelley, J H; Khandaker, M; Kim, K Y; Kim, K; Kim, W; Klein, F J; Klimenko, A V; Klusman, M; Kossov, M; Kramer, L H; Kuhn, S E; Kühn, J; Lachniet, J; Laget, J M; Langheinrich, J; Lawrence, D; Longhi, A; Lukashin, K; Major, R W; Manak, J J; Marchand, C; McAleer, S; McNabb, J W C; Mecking, B A; Mehrabyan, S S; Melone, J J; Mestayer, M D; Meyer, C A; Mikhailov, K; Minehart, R C; Mirazita, M; Miskimen, R; Mokeev, V; Morand, L; Morrow, S A; Mozer, M U; Muccifora, V; Müller, J; Mutchler, G S; Napolitano, J; Nasseripour, R; Nelson, S O; Niccolai, S; Niculescu, G; Niculescu, I; Niczyporuk, B B; Niyazov, R A; O'Brien, J T; O'Rielly, G V; Opper, A K; Osipenko, M; Park, K; Pasyuk, E A; Peterson, G; Philips, S A; Pivnyuk, N; Pocanic, D; Pogorelko, O I; Polli, E; Pozdniakov, S; Preedom, B M; Price, J W; Prok, Y; Protopopescu, D; Qin, L M; Raue, B A; Riccardi, G; Ripani, M; Ritchie, B G; Ronchetti, F; Rossi, P; Rowntree, D; Rubin, P D; Sabatie, F; Sabourov, K; Santoro, J P; Sapunenko, V; Sargsyan, M; Schumacher, R A; Serov, V S; Shafi, A; Sharabyan, Yu G; Shaw, J; Simionatto, S; Skabelin, A V; Smith, E S; Smith, T; Smith, L C; Sober, D I; Spraker, M; Stavinsky, A V; Stepanyan, S; Strakovsky, I I; Strauch, S; Taiuti, M; Taylor, S; Tedeschi, D J; Thoma, U; Thompson, R; Todor, L; Tur, C; Ungaro, M; Vineyard, M F; Vlassov, A V; Wang, K; Weinstein, L B; Weisberg, A; Whisnant, C S; Wolin, E; Wood, M H; Yegneswaran, A; Yun, J

    2004-01-01

    The reaction $\\gamma p \\to \\pi^+K^-K^+n$ was studied at Jefferson Lab using a tagged photon beam with an energy range of 3-5.47 GeV. A narrow baryon state with strangeness S=+1 and mass $M=1555\\pm 10$ MeV/c$^2$ was observed in the $nK^+$ invariant mass spectrum. The peak's width is consistent with the CLAS resolution (FWHM=26 MeV/c$^2$), and its statistical significance is 7.8 $\\pm$ 1.0 ~$\\sigma$. A baryon with positive strangeness has exotic structure and cannot be described in the framework of the naive constituent quark model. The state is consistent with the mass predicted by a chiral soliton model \\cite{Diakonov} for 5-quark baryon states. In addition, the $pK^+$ invariant mass distribution was analyzed in the reaction $\\gamma p\\to K^-K^+p$ with high statistics in search of doubly-charged exotic baryon states. No resonance structures were found in this spectrum.

  6. Activity of a peptidase secreted by Phanerochaete chrysosporium depends on lysine to subsite S'1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Ronivaldo Rodrigues; de Oliveira, Lilian Caroline Gonçalves; Juliano, Maria Aparecida; Juliano, Luiz; Rosa, Jose C; Cabral, Hamilton

    2017-01-01

    Peptidases are enzymes that catalyze the rupture of peptide bonds. Catalytic specificity studies of these enzymes have illuminated their modes of action and preferred hydrolysis targets. We describe the biochemical characteristics and catalytic specificity of a lysine-dependent peptidase secreted by the basidiomycete fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium. We attained 5.7-fold purification of a ∼23-kDa neutral peptidase using size-exclusion (Sephadex G-50 resin) and ion-exchange (Source 15S resin) chromatography. Using the Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer substrate Abz-KLRSSKQ-EDDnp, we detected maximal activity at pH 7.0 and 45-55°C. The peptidase retained ∼80% of its enzymatic activity for a wide range of conditions (pH 4-9; temperatures up to 50°C for 1h). The peptidase activity was lowered by the ionic surfactants, sodium dodecyl sulfate and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide; the reducing agent, dithiothreitol; the chaotrope, guanidine; copper (II) ion; and the cysteine peptidase-specific inhibitors, iodoacetic acid and N-ethylmaleimide. The peptidase preferred the basic amino acids K and R and high selectivity on S'1 subsite, exhibiting a condition of lysine-dependence to catalysis on anchoring of this subsite. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. {J}/{ψ} production in p overlinep collisions at s = 1.8 TeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abachi, S.; Abbott, B.; Abolins, M.; Acharya, B. S.; Adam, I.; Adams, D. L.; Adams, M.; Ahn, S.; Aihara, H.; Alitti, J.; Álvarez, G.; Alves, G. A.; Amidi, E.; Amos, N.; Anderson, E. W.; Aronson, S. H.; Astur, R.; Avery, R. E.; Baden, A.; Balamurali, V.; Balderston, J.; Baldin, B.; Bantly, J.; Bartlett, J. F.; Bazizi, K.; Bendich, J.; Beri, S. B.; Bertram, I.; Bezzubov, V. A.; Bhat, P. C.; Bhatnagar, V.; Bhattacharjee, M.; Bischoff, A.; Biswas, N.; Blazey, G.; Blessing, S.; Bloom, P.; Boehnlein, A.; Bojko, N. I.; Borcherding, F.; Borders, J.; Boswell, C.; Brandt, A.; Brock, R.; Bross, A.; Buchholz, D.; Burtovoi, V. S.; Butler, J. M.; Carvalho, W.; Casey, D.; Castilla-Valdez, H.; Chakraborty, D.; Chang, S.-M.; Chekulaev, S. V.; Chen, L.-P.; Chen, W.; Chopra, S.; Choudhary, B. C.; Christenson, J. H.; Chung, M.; Claes, D.; Clark, A. R.; Cobau, W. G.; Cochran, J.; Cooper, W. E.; Cretsinger, C.; Cullen-Vidal, D.; Cummings, M. A. C.; Cutts, D.; Dahl, O. I.; De, K.; Demarteau, M.; Demina, R.; Denisenko, K.; Denisenko, N.; Denisov, D.; Denisov, S. P.; Diehl, H. T.; Diesburg, M.; Di Loreto, G.; Dixon, R.; Draper, P.; Drinkard, J.; Ducros, Y.; Dugad, S. R.; Durston-Johnson, S.; Edmunds, D.; Ellison, J.; Elvira, V. D.; Engelmann, R.; Eno, S.; Eppley, G.; Ermolov, P.; Eroshin, O. V.; Evdokimov, V. N.; Fahey, S.; Fahland, T.; Fatyga, M.; Fatyga, M. K.; Featherly, J.; Feher, S.; Fein, D.; Ferbel, T.; Finocchiaro, G.; Fisk, H. E.; Fisyak, Y.; Flattum, E.; Forden, G. E.; Fortner, M.; Frame, K. C.; Franzini, P.; Fuess, S.; Gallas, E.; Galyaev, A. N.; Geld, T. L.; Genik, R. J.; Genser, K.; Gerber, C. E.; Gibbard, B.; Glebov, V.; Glenn, S.; Glicenstein, J. F.; Gobbi, B.; Goforth, M.; Goldschmidt, A.; Gómez, B.; Goncharov, P. I.; González Solís, J. L.; Gordon, H.; Goss, L. T.; Graf, N.; Grannis, P. D.; Green, D. R.; Green, J.; Greenlee, H.; Griffin, G.; Grossman, N.; Grudberg, P.; Grünendahl, S.; Gu, W. X.; Guglielmo, G.; Guida, J. A.; Guida, J. M.; Guryn, W.; Gurzhiev, S. N.; Gutierrez, P.; Gutnikov, Y. E.; Hadley, N. J.; Haggerty, H.; Hagopian, S.; Hagopian, V.; Hahn, K. S.; Hall, R. E.; Hansen, S.; Hatcher, R.; Hauptman, J. M.; Hedin, D.; Heinson, A. P.; Heintz, U.; Hernández-Montoya, R.; Heuring, T.; Hirosky, R.; Hobbs, J. D.; Hoeneisen, B.; Hoftun, J. S.; Hsieh, F.; Hu, Tao; Hu, Ting; Hu, Tong; Huehn, T.; Igarashi, S.; Ito, A. S.; James, E.; Jaques, J.; Jerger, S. A.; Jiang, J. Z.-Y.; Joffe-Minor, T.; Johari, H.; Johns, K.; Johnson, M.; Johnstad, H.; Jonckheere, A.; Jones, M.; Jöstlein, H.; Jun, S. Y.; Jung, C. K.; Kahn, S.; Kalbfleisch, G.; Kang, J. S.; Kehoe, R.; Kelly, M. L.; Kerth, L.; Kim, C. L.; Kim, S. K.; Klatchko, A.; Klima, B.; Klochkov, B. I.; Klopfenstein, C.; Klyukhin, V. I.; Kochetkov, V. I.; Kohli, J. M.; Koltick, D.; Kostritskiy, A. V.; Kotcher, J.; Kourlas, J.; Kozelov, A. V.; Kozlovski, E. A.; Krishnaswamy, M. R.; Krzywdzinski, S.; Kunori, S.; Lami, S.; Landsberg, G.; Lebrat, J.-F.; Leflat, A.; Li, H.; Li, J.; Li, Y. K.; Li-Demarteau, Q. Z.; Lima, J. G. R.; Lincoln, D.; Linn, S. L.; Linnemann, J.; Lipton, R.; Liu, Y. C.; Lobkowicz, F.; Loken, S. C.; Lökös, S.; Lueking, L.; Lyon, A. L.; Maciel, A. K. A.; Madaras, R. J.; Madden, R.; Mani, S.; Mao, H. S.; Margulies, S.; Markeloff, R.; Markosky, L.; Marshall, T.; Martin, M. I.; Marx, M.; May, B.; Mayorov, A. A.; McCarthy, R.; McKibben, T.; McKinley, J.; McMahon, T.; Melanson, H. L.; de Mello Neto, J. R. T.; Merritt, K. W.; Miettinen, H.; Mincer, A.; de Miranda, J. M.; Mishra, C. S.; Mohammadi-Baarmand, M.; Mokhov, N.; Mondal, N. K.; Montgomery, H. E.; Mooney, P.; da Motta, H.; Mudan, M.; Murphy, C.; Murphy, C. T.; Nang, F.; Narain, M.; Narasimham, V. S.; Narayanan, A.; Neal, H. A.; Negret, J. P.; Neis, E.; Nemethy, P.; Nešić, D.; Nicola, M.; Norman, D.; Oesch, L.; Oguri, V.; Oltman, E.; Oshima, N.; Owen, D.; Padley, P.; Pang, M.; Para, A.; Park, C. H.; Park, Y. M.; Partridge, R.; Parua, N.; Paterno, M.; Perkins, J.; Peryshkin, A.; Peters, M.; Piekarz, H.; Pischalnikov, Y.; Podstavkov, V. M.; Pope, B. G.; Prosper, H. B.; Protopopescu, S.; Pušeljić, D.; Qian, J.; Quintas, P. Z.; Raja, R.; Rajagopalan, S.; Ramirez, O.; Rao, M. V. S.; Rapidis, P. A.; Rasmussen, L.; Read, A. L.; Reucroft, S.; Rijssenbeek, M.; Rockwell, T.; Roe, N. A.; Rubinov, P.; Ruchti, R.; Rutherfoord, J.; Santoro, A.; Sawyer, L.; Schamberger, R. D.; Schellman, H.; Sculli, J.; Shabalina, E.; Shaffer, C.; Shankar, H. C.; Shao, Y. Y.; Shivpuri, R. K.; Shupe, M.; Singh, J. B.; Sirotenko, V.; Smart, W.; Smith, A.; Smith, R. P.; Snihur, R.; Snow, G. R.; Snyder, S.; Solomon, J.; Sood, P. M.; Sosebee, M.; Souza, M.; Spadafora, A. L.; Stephens, R. W.; Stevenson, M. L.; Stewart, D.; Stoianova, D. A.; Stoker, D.; Streets, K.; Strovink, M.; Sznajder, A.; Taketani, A.; Tamburello, P.; Tarazi, J.; Tartaglia, M.; Taylor, T. L.; Thompson, J.; Trippe, T. G.; Tuts, P. M.; Varelas, N.; Varnes, E. W.; Virador, P. R. G.; Vititoe, D.; Volkov, A. A.; Vorobiev, A. P.; Wahl, H. D.; Wang, G.; Warchol, J.; Watts, G.; Wayne, M.; Weerts, H.; Wen, F.; White, A.; White, J. T.; Wightman, J. A.; Wilcox, J.; Willis, S.; Wimpenny, S. J.; Wirjawan, J. V. D.; Womersley, J.; Won, E.; Wood, D. R.; Xu, H.; Yamada, R.; Yamin, P.; Yanagisawa, C.; Yang, J.; Yasuda, T.; Yoshikawa, C.; Youssef, S.; Yu, J.; Yu, Y.; Zhang, D. H.; Zhu, Q.; Zhu, Z. H.; Zieminska, D.; Zieminski, A.; Zverev, E. G.; Zylberstejn, A.; DØ Collaboration

    1996-02-01

    We have studied {J}/{ψ} production in p overlinep collisions at s = 1.8 TeV with the DØ detector at Fermilab using μ+μ- data. We have measured the inclusive {J}/{ψ} production cross section as a function of {J}/{ψ} transverse momentum, pT. For the kinematic range pT > 8 GeV/ c and |η| < 0.6 we obtain σ(p overlinep → {J}/{ψ} + X) · Br( {J}/{ψ} → μ +μ -) = 2.08 ± 0.17( stat) ± 0.46(syst) nb. Using the muon impact parameter we have estimated the fraction of {J}/{ψ} mesons coming from B meson decays to be fb = 0.35 ± 0.09(stat)±0.10(syst) and inferred the inclusive b production cross section. From the information on the event topology the fraction of nonisolated {J}/{ψ} events has been measured to be fnonisol = 0.64 ± 0.08(stat)±0.06(syst). We have also obtained the fraction of {J}/{ψ} events resulting from radiative decays of χc states, fχ = 0.32 ± 0.07(stat)±0.07(syst). We discuss the implications of our measurements for charmonium production processes.

  8. Observations of Comet ISON (C/2012 S1) from Lowell Observatory

    CERN Document Server

    Knight, Matthew M

    2014-01-01

    We observed dynamically new sungrazing comet ISON (C/2012 S1) extensively at Lowell Observatory throughout 2013 in order to characterize its behavior prior to perihelion. ISON had "typical" abundances for an Oort Cloud comet. Its dust production, as measured by Afrho, remained nearly constant during the apparition but its CN gas production increased by ~50x. The minimum active area necessary to support observed water production rates exceeded the likely surface area of the nucleus and suggests a population of icy grains in the coma. Together with the flattening of the dust radial profile over time, this is consistent with ejection of a large quantity of slow moving dust and icy grains in the coma at large heliocentric distance. The dust morphology was dominated by the tail, but a faint sunward dust fan was detected in March, April, May, and September. We imaged multiple gas species in September, October, and November. Excess CN signal was observed in the sunward hemisphere in September and early October. In N...

  9. The weak measurement process and the weak value of spin for metastable helium 23S1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monachello, Vincenzo; Barker, Peter; Flack, Robert; Hiley, Basil

    2016-05-01

    An experiment is being designed and constructed in order to measure the weak value of spin for an atomic system. The principle of the ``weak measurement'' process was first proposed by Aharonov, Albert and Vaidman, and describes a scenario in which a system is weakly coupled to a pointer between well-defined pre- and post-selected states. This experiment will utilise a pulsed supersonic beam of spin-1 metastable Helium (He*) atoms in the 23S1 state. The spin of the pre-selected He* atoms will be weakly coupled to its centre-of-mass. During its flight, the atomic beam will be prepared in a desired quantum state and travel through two inhomogeneous magnets (weak and strong) which both comprise the ``weak measurement'' process. The deviation of the post-selected ms = + 1 state as measured using a micro-channel plate, phosphor screen and CCD camera setup will allow for the determination of the weak value of spin. This poster will report on the methods used and the experimental realisation.

  10. The chiral S=-1 meson-baryon interaction with new constrains on the NLO contributions

    CERN Document Server

    Ramos, A; Magas, V K

    2016-01-01

    We present a study of the $S=-1$ meson-baryon interaction, employing a chiral SU(3) Lagrangian up to next-to-leading order (NLO) and implementing unitarization in coupled channels. The parameters of the model have been fitted to a large set of experimental scattering data in different two-body channels, to threshold branching ratios, and to the precise SIDDHARTA value of the energy shift and width of kaonic hidrogen. In contrast to other groups, we have taken into consideration the $K^- p\\to K^+\\Xi^-, K^0\\Xi^0$ reaction data, since we found in a previous work to be especially sensitive to the NLO parameters of the chiral Lagrangian. In the present work we also include the Born terms, which usually have very little effect, and find them to be non-negligible in the $K^- p\\to K\\Xi$ channels, correspondingly causing significant modifications to the NLO parameters. We furthermore show that the importance of the Born terms becomes more visible in the isospin projected amplitudes of the $K^-p \\to K\\Xi$ reactions. Th...

  11. Spin dynamics of S = 1/2 kagome lattice antiferromagnets observed by high-field ESR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohta, Hitoshi [Molecular Photoscience Research Center, Kobe University, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan); Graduate School of Science, Kobe University, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan); Zhang, Wei-min [Graduate School of Science, Kobe University, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan); Okubo, Susumu; Fujisawa, Masashi [Molecular Photoscience Research Center, Kobe University, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan); Sakurai, Takahiro [Center for Supports to Research and Education Activities, Kobe University, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan); Okamoto, Yoshihiko; Yoshida, Hiroyuki; Hiroi, Zenji [Institute for Solid State Physics (ISSP), University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8581 (Japan)

    2010-03-15

    Due to the existence of strong spin frustration in a system, the spin dynamics of S = 1/2 kagome lattice antiferromagnet at low temperature has attracted much interest. High-field ESR has been measured on its model substances, Cu{sub 3}V{sub 2}O{sub 7}(OH){sub 2} . 2H{sub 2}O (volborthite) and BaCu{sub 3}V{sub 2}O{sub 3}(OH){sub 2} (vesignieite), down to 1.8 K using pulsed magnetic fields up to 16 T. The measurements are performed for 160 and 315 GHz using polycrys-talline samples. Although both samples showed the g-shift and the change of linewidth at low temperature, volborthite showed a small gap excitation of the order of 40 GHz (1.9 K) while vesignieite showed a paramagnetic behavior down to 1.9 K. Observed difference will be discussed in connection with the crystal structure, and the possible spin liquid state in vesignieite will be discussed. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  12. COADJOINT ORBITS FOR THE CENTRAL EXTENSION OF Diff+(S1) AND THEIR REPRESENTATIVES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dai Jialing(戴佳玲); Doug Pickrell

    2004-01-01

    According to Kirillov's idea, the irreducible unitary representations of a Lie group G roughly correspond to the coadjoint orbits O. In the forward direction one applies the methods of geometric quantization to produce a representation, and in the reverse direction one computes a transform of the character of a representation, to obtain a coadjoint orbit. The method of orbits in the representations of Lie groups suggests the detailed study of coadjoint orbits of a Lie group G in the space g* dual to the Lie algebra g of G.In this paper, two primary goals are achieved: one is to completely classify the smooth coadjoint orbits of Virasoro group for nonzero central charge c; the other is to find representatives for coadjoint orbits. These questions have been considered previously by Segal,Kirillov, and Witten, but their results are not quite complete. To accomplish this, the authors start by describing the coadjoint action of D-the Lie group of all orientation preserving diffeomorphisms on the circle S1, and its central extension (~D), then the authors will give a complete classification of smooth coadjoint orbits. In fact, they can be parameterized by a subspace of conjugacy classes of PSU(1, 1). Finally, the authors will show how to find representatives of coadjoint orbits by analyzing the vector fields stabilizing the orbits, and describe the amazing connection between the characteristic (trace) of conjugacy classes of PSU(1, 1) and that of vector fields stabilizing orbits.

  13. High Field Magnetization Studies of Low Dimensional Heisenberg S = 1/2 Antiferromagnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landee, C. P.; Turnbull, M. M.

    1998-03-01

    The magnetization curves of a number of low dimensional S=1/2 Heisenberg antiferromagnets have been determined in fields up to 30 tesla at low temperatures at the National High Magnetic Fields Laboratory. Materials studied include a family of 1D materials, based upon Cu(pyrazine)(NO_3)_2, 2D magnets consisting of pyrazine-bridged copper layers, and several spin ladders with singlet ground states. All of the magnetization data show upward curvature and are well described by T = 0 calculations based upon finite cluster models(Bonner and Fisher, Phys. Rev. A135, 640 (1964); Yang and Mutter, NANL cond-mat/9610092.). Chemical substitution on the pyrazine rings permits the variation of exchange constants by more than 25 percent for the family of well isolated chains. The spin ladder systems consist of ferromagnetic dimers weakly connected by antiferromagnetic intradimer interactions. Field induced transitions are seen at fields of less than one tesla for each of the three compounds.

  14. Observation of an Exotic Baryon with S=+1 in Photoproduction from the Proton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubarovsky, V.; Guo, L.; Weygand, D. P.; Stoler, P.; Battaglieri, M.; Devita, R.; Adams, G.; Li, Ji; Nozar, M.; Salgado, C.; Ambrozewicz, P.; Anciant, E.; Anghinolfi, M.; Asavapibhop, B.; Audit, G.; Auger, T.; Avakian, H.; Bagdasaryan, H.; Ball, J. P.; Barrow, S.; Beard, K.; Bektasoglu, M.; Bellis, M.; Benmouna, N.; Berman, B. L.; Bianchi, N.; Biselli, A. S.; Boiarinov, S.; Bouchigny, S.; Bradford, R.; Branford, D.; Briscoe, W. J.; Brooks, W. K.; Burkert, V. D.; Butuceanu, C.; Calarco, J. R.; Carman, D. S.; Carnahan, B.; Cetina, C.; Chen, S.; Ciciani, L.; Cole, P. L.; Connelly, J.; Cords, D.; Corvisiero, P.; Crabb, D.; Crannell, H.; Cummings, J. P.; de Sanctis, E.; Degtyarenko, P. V.; Denizli, H.; Dennis, L.; Dharmawardane, K. V.; Djalali, C.; Dodge, G. E.; Doughty, D.; Dragovitsch, P.; Dugger, M.; Dytman, S.; Dzyubak, O. P.; Egiyan, H.; Egiyan, K. S.; Elouadrhiri, L.; Empl, A.; Eugenio, P.; Farhi, L.; Fatemi, R.; Feuerbach, R. J.; Ficenec, J.; Forest, T. A.; Frolov, V.; Funsten, H.; Gaff, S. J.; Garçon, M.; Gavalian, G.; Gilfoyle, G. P.; Giovanetti, K. L.; Girard, P.; Gothe, R.; Gordon, C. I.; Griffioen, K.; Guidal, M.; Guillo, M.; Gyurjyan, V.; Hadjidakis, C.; Hakobyan, R. S.; Hancock, D.; Hardie, J.; Heddle, D.; Heimberg, P.; Hersman, F. W.; Hicks, K.; Holtrop, M.; Hu, J.; Ilieva, Y.; Ito, M. M.; Jenkins, D.; Joo, K.; Juengst, H. G.; Kelley, J. H.; Khandaker, M.; Kim, K. Y.; Kim, K.; Kim, W.; Klein, F. J.; Klimenko, A. V.; Klusman, M.; Kossov, M.; Kramer, L. H.; Kuhn, S. E.; Kuhn, J.; Lachniet, J.; Laget, J. M.; Langheinrich, J.; Lawrence, D.; Longhi, A.; Lukashin, K.; Major, R. W.; Manak, J. J.; Marchand, C.; McAleer, S.; McNabb, J. W.; Mecking, B. A.; Mehrabyan, S.; Melone, J. J.; Mestayer, M. D.; Meyer, C. A.; Mikhailov, K.; Minehart, R.; Mirazita, M.; Miskimen, R.; Mokeev, V.; Morand, L.; Morrow, S. A.; Mozer, M. U.; Muccifora, V.; Mueller, J.; Mutchler, G. S.; Napolitano, J.; Nasseripour, R.; Nelson, S. O.; Niccolai, S.; Niculescu, G.; Niculescu, I.; Niczyporuk, B. B.; Niyazov, R. A.; O'Brien, J. T.; O'Rielly, G. V.; Opper, A. K.; Osipenko, M.; Park, K.; Pasyuk, E.; Peterson, G.; Philips, S. A.; Pivnyuk, N.; Pocanic, D.; Pogorelko, O.; Polli, E.; Pozdniakov, S.; Preedom, B. M.; Price, J. W.; Prok, Y.; Protopopescu, D.; Qin, L. M.; Raue, B. A.; Riccardi, G.; Ripani, M.; Ritchie, B. G.; Ronchetti, F.; Rossi, P.; Rowntree, D.; Rubin, P. D.; Sabatié, F.; Sabourov, K.; Santoro, J. P.; Sapunenko, V.; Sargsyan, M.; Schumacher, R. A.; Serov, V. S.; Shafi, A.; Sharabian, Y. G.; Shaw, J.; Simionatto, S.; Skabelin, A. V.; Smith, E. S.; Smith, T.; Smith, L. C.; Sober, D. I.; Spraker, M.; Stavinsky, A.; Stepanyan, S.; Strakovsky, I. I.; Strauch, S.; Taiuti, M.; Taylor, S.; Tedeschi, D. J.; Thoma, U.; Thompson, R.; Todor, L.; Tur, C.; Ungaro, M.; Vineyard, M. F.; Vlassov, A. V.; Wang, K.; Weinstein, L. B.; Weisberg, A.; Whisnant, C. S.; Wolin, E.; Wood, M. H.; Yegneswaran, A.; Yun, J.

    2004-01-01

    The reaction γp→π+K-K+n was studied at Jefferson Laboratory using a tagged photon beam with an energy range of 3 5.47GeV. A narrow baryon state with strangeness S=+1 and mass M=1555±10 MeV/c2 was observed in the nK+ invariant mass spectrum. The peak’s width is consistent with the CLAS resolution (FWHM=26 MeV/c2), and its statistical significance is (7.8±1.0)σ. A baryon with positive strangeness has exotic structure and cannot be described in the framework of the naive constituent quark model. The mass of the observed state is consistent with the mass predicted by the chiral soliton model for the Θ+ baryon. In addition, the pK+ invariant mass distribution was analyzed in the reaction γp→K-K+p with high statistics in search of doubly charged exotic baryon states. No resonance structures were found in this spectrum.

  15. Legionella pneumophila S1P-lyase targets host sphingolipid metabolism and restrains autophagy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolando, Monica; Escoll, Pedro; Nora, Tamara; Botti, Joëlle; Boitez, Valérie; Bedia, Carmen; Daniels, Craig; Abraham, Gilu; Stogios, Peter J; Skarina, Tatiana; Christophe, Charlotte; Dervins-Ravault, Delphine; Cazalet, Christel; Hilbi, Hubert; Rupasinghe, Thusitha W T; Tull, Dedreia; McConville, Malcolm J; Ong, Sze Ying; Hartland, Elizabeth L; Codogno, Patrice; Levade, Thierry; Naderer, Thomas; Savchenko, Alexei; Buchrieser, Carmen

    2016-02-16

    Autophagy is an essential component of innate immunity, enabling the detection and elimination of intracellular pathogens. Legionella pneumophila, an intracellular pathogen that can cause a severe pneumonia in humans, is able to modulate autophagy through the action of effector proteins that are translocated into the host cell by the pathogen's Dot/Icm type IV secretion system. Many of these effectors share structural and sequence similarity with eukaryotic proteins. Indeed, phylogenetic analyses have indicated their acquisition by horizontal gene transfer from a eukaryotic host. Here we report that L. pneumophila translocates the effector protein sphingosine-1 phosphate lyase (LpSpl) to target the host sphingosine biosynthesis and to curtail autophagy. Our structural characterization of LpSpl and its comparison with human SPL reveals high structural conservation, thus supporting prior phylogenetic analysis. We show that LpSpl possesses S1P lyase activity that was abrogated by mutation of the catalytic site residues. L. pneumophila triggers the reduction of several sphingolipids critical for macrophage function in an LpSpl-dependent and -independent manner. LpSpl activity alone was sufficient to prevent an increase in sphingosine levels in infected host cells and to inhibit autophagy during macrophage infection. LpSpl was required for efficient infection of A/J mice, highlighting an important virulence role for this effector. Thus, we have uncovered a previously unidentified mechanism used by intracellular pathogens to inhibit autophagy, namely the disruption of host sphingolipid biosynthesis.

  16. Form factors of descendant operators: reduction to perturbed M(2,2s+1) models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lashkevich, Michael [Landau Institute for Theoretical Physics,1a prospekt Akademika Semenova, 142432 Chernogolovka (Russian Federation); Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology,9 Institutsky per., 141707 Dolgoprudny (Russian Federation); Kharkevich Institute for Information Transmission Problems,19 Bolshoy Karetny per., 127994 Moscow (Russian Federation); Pugai, Yaroslav [Landau Institute for Theoretical Physics,1a prospekt Akademika Semenova, 142432 Chernogolovka (Russian Federation); Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology,9 Institutsky per., 141707 Dolgoprudny (Russian Federation)

    2015-04-23

    In the framework of the algebraic approach to form factors in two-dimensional integrable models of quantum field theory we consider the reduction of the sine-Gordon model to the Φ{sub 13}-perturbation of minimal conformal models of the M(2,2s+1) series. We find in an algebraic form the condition of compatibility of local operators with the reduction. We propose a construction that make it possible to obtain reduction compatible local operators in terms of screening currents. As an application we obtain exact multiparticle form factors for the compatible with the reduction conserved currents T{sub ±2k}, Θ{sub ±(2k−2)}, which correspond to the spin ±(2k−1) integrals of motion, for any positive integer k. Furthermore, we obtain all form factors of the operators T{sub 2k}T{sub −2l}, which generalize the famous TT̄ operator. The construction is analytic in the s parameter and, therefore, makes sense in the sine-Gordon theory.

  17. Outgassing Behavior of C/2012 S1 (ISON) From September 2011 to June 2013

    CERN Document Server

    Meech, Karen J; Kleyna, Jan; Ansdell, Megan; Chiang, Hsin-Fang; Hainaut, Olivier; Vincent, Jean-Baptiste; Boehnhardt, Hermann; Fitzsimmons, Alan; Rector, Travis; Riesen, Timm; Keane, Jacqueline V; Reipurth, Bo; Hsieh, Henry H; Michaud, Peter; Milani, Giannantonio; Bryssinck, Erik; Ligustri, Rolando; Trabatti, Roberto; Tozzi, Gian-Paolo; Mottola, Stefano; Kuehrt, Ekkehard; Bhatt, Bhuwan; Sahu, Devendra; Lisse, Carey; Denneau, Larry; Jedicke, Robert; Magnier, Eugene; Wainscoat, Richard

    2013-01-01

    We report photometric observations for comet C/2012 S1 (ISON) obtained during the time period immediately after discovery (r=6.28 AU) until it moved into solar conjunction in mid-2013 June using the UH2.2m, and Gemini North 8-m telescopes on Mauna Kea, the Lowell 1.8m in Flagstaff, the Calar Alto 1.2m telescope in Spain, the VYSOS-5 telescopes on Mauna Loa Hawaii and data from the CARA network. Additional pre-discovery data from the Pan STARRS1 survey extends the light curve back to 2011 September 30 (r=9.4 AU). The images showed a similar tail morphology due to small micron sized particles throughout 2013. Observations at sub-mm wavelengths using the JCMT on 15 nights between 2013 March 9 (r=4.52 AU) and June 16 (r=3.35 AU) were used to search for CO and HCN rotation lines. No gas was detected, with upper limits for CO ranging between (3.5-4.5)E27 molec/s. Combined with published water production rate estimates we have generated ice sublimation models consistent with the photometric light curve. The inbound ...

  18. Deeply Embedded Protostellar Population in the 20 km s-1 Cloud of the Central Molecular Zone

    CERN Document Server

    Lu, Xing; Kauffmann, Jens; Pillai, Thushara; Longmore, Steven N; Kruijssen, J M Diederik; Battersby, Cara; Gu, Qiusheng

    2015-01-01

    We report the discovery of a population of deeply embedded protostellar candidates in the 20 km s$^{-1}$ cloud, one of the massive molecular clouds in the Central Molecular Zone (CMZ) of the Milky Way, using interferometric submillimeter continuum and H$_2$O maser observations. The submillimeter continuum emission shows five 1-pc scale clumps, each of which further fragments into several 0.1-pc scale cores. We identify 17 dense cores, among which 12 are gravitationally bound. Among the 18 H$_2$O masers detected, 13 coincide with the cores and probably trace outflows emanating from the protostars. There are also 5 gravitationally bound dense cores without H$_2$O maser detection. In total the 13 masers and 5 cores may represent 18 protostars with spectral types later than B1 or potential growing more massive stars at earlier evolutionary stage, given the non-detection in the centimeter radio continuum. In combination with previous studies of CH$_3$OH masers, we conclude that the star formation in this cloud is ...

  19. Detection of water molecules in inert gas based plasma by the ratios of atomic spectral lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernatskiy, A. V.; Ochkin, V. N.

    2017-01-01

    A new approach is considered to detect the water leaks in inert plasma-forming gas present in the reactor chamber. It is made up of the intensity ratio of D α and H α spectral lines in combination with O, Ar and Xe lines intensity. The concentrations of H2O, O, H and D particles have been measured with high sensitivity. At the D2 admixture pressure {{p}{{\\text{D}\\text{2}}}}   =  0.025 mbar, we used the acquisition time of 10 s to measure the rate of water molecules injected from the outside, Γ0  =  1.4 · 10-9 mbar · m3 · s-1, and the incoming water molecules to plasma, Γ  =  5 ·10-11 mbar · m3 · s-1. The scaling proves that at small D2 admixtures (10-4 mbar), the leaks with the rates Γ0  ≈  6 · 10-12 mbar · m3 · s-1 and Γ  ≈  2 · 10-13 mbar · m3 · s-1 can be detected and measured. The difference between Γ0 and Γ values is due to the high degree of H2O dissociation, which can be up to 97-98%.

  20. Newly identified mutations at the CSN1S1 gene in Ethiopian goats affect casein content and coagulation properties of their milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mestawet, T A; Girma, A; Adnøy, T; Devold, T G; Vegarud, G E

    2013-08-01

    sequence corresponded to allele A and presumably derived from it. Therefore, this allele is denoted by A3. All goats from the reference genotype (AA) were homozygous for the allele at nucleotide position 1374 and 1866, whereas all mutations in the 5' UTR existed in a heterozygous form in both heterozygous (CA) and the new mutation (CC) genotype. The newly identified mutation (CC) detected in some of the goat breeds is, therefore, important in selection for genetic improvement and high-quality milk for the emerging goat cheese-producing industries. The finding will also benefit farmers raising these goat breeds due to the increased selling price of goats. Further studies should investigate the effect of this amino acid exchange on the secondary and tertiary structure of the αs1-CN molecule and on the susceptibility of peptide hydrolysis by digestive enzymes.

  1. Ricci Flow of Warped Product Metrics with Positive Isotropic Curvature on $S^{p+1}× S^1$

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    H A Gururaja

    2012-11-01

    We study the asymptotic behaviour of the ODE associated to the evolution of curvature operator in the Ricci flow of a doubly warped product metric on $S^{p+1}× S^1$ with positive isotropic curvature.

  2. Transsacral transdiscal L5-S1 screws for the management of high-grade spondylolisthesis in an adolescent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palejwala, Ali; Fridley, Jared; Jea, Andrew

    2016-06-01

    The surgical management of high-grade spondylolisthesis in adolescents remains a controversial issue. Because the basic procedure, posterolateral fusion, is associated with a significant rate of pseudarthrosis and listhesis progression, there is a pressing need for alternative surgical techniques. In the present report, the authors describe the case of an adolescent patient with significant low-back pain who was found to have Grade IV spondylolisthesis at L5-S1 that was treated with transsacral transdiscal screw fixation. Bilateral pedicle screws were placed starting from the top of the S-1 pedicle, across the L5-S1 intervertebral disc space, and into the L-5 body. At 14 months after surgery, the patient had considerable improvement in his pain and radiographic fusion across L5-S1. The authors conclude that transsacral transdiscal pedicle screws may serve as an efficacious and safe option for the correction of high-grade spondylolisthesis in adolescent patients.

  3. Effects of S1 Cleavage on the Structure, Surface Export, and Signaling Activity of Human Notch1 and Notch2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Wendy R.; Vardar-Ulu, Didem; L'Heureux, Sarah; Ashworth, Todd; Malecki, Michael J.; Sanchez-Irizarry, Cheryll; McArthur, Debbie G.; Histen, Gavin; Mitchell, Jennifer L.; Aster, Jon C.; Blacklow, Stephen C.

    2009-01-01

    Background Notch receptors are normally cleaved during maturation by a furin-like protease at an extracellular site termed S1, creating a heterodimer of non-covalently associated subunits. The S1 site lies within a key negative regulatory region (NRR) of the receptor, which contains three highly conserved Lin12/Notch repeats and a heterodimerization domain (HD) that interact to prevent premature signaling in the absence of ligands. Because the role of S1 cleavage in Notch signaling remains unresolved, we investigated the effect of S1 cleavage on the structure, surface trafficking and ligand-mediated activation of human Notch1 and Notch2, as well as on ligand-independent activation of Notch1 by mutations found in human leukemia. Principal Findings The X-ray structure of the Notch1 NRR after furin cleavage shows little change when compared with that of an engineered Notch1 NRR lacking the S1-cleavage loop. Likewise, NMR studies of the Notch2 HD domain show that the loop containing the S1 site can be removed or cleaved without causing a substantial change in its structure. However, Notch1 and Notch2 receptors engineered to resist S1 cleavage exhibit unexpected differences in surface delivery and signaling competence: S1-resistant Notch1 receptors exhibit decreased, but detectable, surface expression and ligand-mediated receptor activation, whereas S1-resistant Notch2 receptors are fully competent for cell surface delivery and for activation by ligands. Variable dependence on S1 cleavage also extends to T-ALL-associated NRR mutations, as common class 1 mutations display variable decrements in ligand-independent activation when introduced into furin-resistant receptors, whereas a class 2 mutation exhibits increased signaling activity. Conclusions/Significance S1 cleavage has distinct effects on the surface expression of Notch1 and Notch2, but is not generally required for physiologic or pathophysiologic activation of Notch proteins. These findings are consistent with

  4. Effects of S1 cleavage on the structure, surface export, and signaling activity of human Notch1 and Notch2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy R Gordon

    Full Text Available Notch receptors are normally cleaved during maturation by a furin-like protease at an extracellular site termed S1, creating a heterodimer of non-covalently associated subunits. The S1 site lies within a key negative regulatory region (NRR of the receptor, which contains three highly conserved Lin12/Notch repeats and a heterodimerization domain (HD that interact to prevent premature signaling in the absence of ligands. Because the role of S1 cleavage in Notch signaling remains unresolved, we investigated the effect of S1 cleavage on the structure, surface trafficking and ligand-mediated activation of human Notch1 and Notch2, as well as on ligand-independent activation of Notch1 by mutations found in human leukemia.The X-ray structure of the Notch1 NRR after furin cleavage shows little change when compared with that of an engineered Notch1 NRR lacking the S1-cleavage loop. Likewise, NMR studies of the Notch2 HD domain show that the loop containing the S1 site can be removed or cleaved without causing a substantial change in its structure. However, Notch1 and Notch2 receptors engineered to resist S1 cleavage exhibit unexpected differences in surface delivery and signaling competence: S1-resistant Notch1 receptors exhibit decreased, but detectable, surface expression and ligand-mediated receptor activation, whereas S1-resistant Notch2 receptors are fully competent for cell surface delivery and for activation by ligands. Variable dependence on S1 cleavage also extends to T-ALL-associated NRR mutations, as common class 1 mutations display variable decrements in ligand-independent activation when introduced into furin-resistant receptors, whereas a class 2 mutation exhibits increased signaling activity.S1 cleavage has distinct effects on the surface expression of Notch1 and Notch2, but is not generally required for physiologic or pathophysiologic activation of Notch proteins. These findings are consistent with models for receptor activation in which

  5. Effects of S1 Cleavage on the Structure, Surface Export, and Signaling Activity of Human Notch1 and Notch2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordon, Wendy R.; Vardar-Ulu, Didem; L' Heureux, Sarah; Ashworth, Todd; Malecki, Michael J.; Sanchez-Irizarry, Cheryll; McArthur, Debbie G.; Histen, Gavin; Mitchell, Jennifer L.; Aster, Jon C.; Blacklow, Stephen C.; (BWH); (Wellesley)

    2009-09-25

    Notch receptors are normally cleaved during maturation by a furin-like protease at an extracellular site termed S1, creating a heterodimer of non-covalently associated subunits. The S1 site lies within a key negative regulatory region (NRR) of the receptor, which contains three highly conserved Lin12/Notch repeats and a heterodimerization domain (HD) that interact to prevent premature signaling in the absence of ligands. Because the role of S1 cleavage in Notch signaling remains unresolved, we investigated the effect of S1 cleavage on the structure, surface trafficking and ligand-mediated activation of human Notch1 and Notch2, as well as on ligand-independent activation of Notch1 by mutations found in human leukemia. The X-ray structure of the Notch1 NRR after furin cleavage shows little change when compared with that of an engineered Notch1 NRR lacking the S1-cleavage loop. Likewise, NMR studies of the Notch2 HD domain show that the loop containing the S1 site can be removed or cleaved without causing a substantial change in its structure. However, Notch1 and Notch2 receptors engineered to resist S1 cleavage exhibit unexpected differences in surface delivery and signaling competence: S1-resistant Notch1 receptors exhibit decreased, but detectable, surface expression and ligand-mediated receptor activation, whereas S1-resistant Notch2 receptors are fully competent for cell surface delivery and for activation by ligands. Variable dependence on S1 cleavage also extends to T-ALL-associated NRR mutations, as common class 1 mutations display variable decrements in ligand-independent activation when introduced into furin-resistant receptors, whereas a class 2 mutation exhibits increased signaling activity. S1 cleavage has distinct effects on the surface expression of Notch1 and Notch2, but is not generally required for physiologic or pathophysiologic activation of Notch proteins. These findings are consistent with models for receptor activation in which ligand-binding or

  6. The elusive S2 state, the S1/S2 splitting, and the excimer states of the benzene dimer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balmer, Franziska A; Trachsel, Maria A; van der Avoird, Ad; Leutwyler, Samuel

    2015-06-21

    We observe the weak S0 → S2 transitions of the T-shaped benzene dimers (Bz)2 and (Bz-d6)2 about 250 cm(-1) and 220 cm(-1) above their respective S0 → S1 electronic origins using two-color resonant two-photon ionization spectroscopy. Spin-component scaled (SCS) second-order approximate coupled-cluster (CC2) calculations predict that for the tipped T-shaped geometry, the S0 → S2 electronic oscillator strength fel(S2) is ∼10 times smaller than fel(S1) and the S2 state lies ∼240 cm(-1) above S1, in excellent agreement with experiment. The S0 → S1 (ππ(∗)) transition is mainly localized on the "stem" benzene, with a minor stem → cap charge-transfer contribution; the S0 → S2 transition is mainly localized on the "cap" benzene. The orbitals, electronic oscillator strengths fel(S1) and fel(S2), and transition frequencies depend strongly on the tipping angle ω between the two Bz moieties. The SCS-CC2 calculated S1 and S2 excitation energies at different T-shaped, stacked-parallel and parallel-displaced stationary points of the (Bz)2 ground-state surface allow to construct approximate S1 and S2 potential energy surfaces and reveal their relation to the "excimer" states at the stacked-parallel geometry. The fel(S1) and fel(S2) transition dipole moments at the C2v-symmetric T-shape, parallel-displaced and stacked-parallel geometries are either zero or ∼10 times smaller than at the tipped T-shaped geometry. This unusual property of the S0 → S1 and S0 → S2 transition-dipole moment surfaces of (Bz)2 restricts its observation by electronic spectroscopy to the tipped and tilted T-shaped geometries; the other ground-state geometries are impossible or extremely difficult to observe. The S0 → S1/S2 spectra of (Bz)2 are compared to those of imidazole ⋅ (Bz)2, which has a rigid triangular structure with a tilted (Bz)2 subunit. The S0 → S1/ S2 transitions of imidazole-(benzene)2 lie at similar energies as those of (Bz)2, confirming our assignment of the

  7. Photoassociation of ultracold LiRb* molecules: Observation of high efficiency and unitarity-limited rate saturation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Sourav; Lorenz, John; Altaf, Adeel; Elliott, D. S.; Chen, Yong P.

    2014-02-01

    We report the production of ultracold heteronuclear Li7Rb85 molecules in excited electronic states by photoassociation (PA) of ultracold Li7 and Rb85 atoms. PA is performed in a dual-species Li7-Rb85 magneto-optical trap (MOT) and the PA resonances are detected using trap loss spectroscopy. We identify several strong PA resonances below the Li (2s 2S1/2) + Rb (5p 2P3/2) asymptote and experimentally determine the long range C6 dispersion coefficients. We find a molecule formation rate (PLiRb) of 3.5 × 107 s-1 and a PA rate coefficient (KPA) of 1.3 × 10-10 cm3/s, the highest among heteronuclear bi-alkali-metal molecules. At large PA laser intensity we observe the saturation of the PA rate coefficient (KPA) close to the theoretical value at the unitarity limit.

  8. Photoassociation of ultracold LiRb* molecules: observation of high efficiency and unitarity-limited rate saturation

    CERN Document Server

    Dutta, Sourav; Altaf, Adeel; Elliott, D S; Chen, Yong P

    2013-01-01

    We report the production of ultracold heteronuclear 7Li85Rb molecules in excited electronic states by photoassociation (PA) of ultracold 7Li and 85Rb atoms. PA is performed in a dual-species 7Li-85Rb magneto-optical trap (MOT) and the PA resonances are detected using trap loss spectroscopy. We identify several strong PA resonances below the Li (2s 2S1/2) + Rb (5p 2P3/2) asymptote and experimentally determine the long range C6 dispersion coefficients. We find a molecule formation rate (P_LiRb) of 3.5x10^7 s^-1 and a PA rate coefficient (K_PA) of 1.3x10^-10 cm^3/s, the highest among heteronuclear bi-alkali molecules. At large PA laser intensity, we observe the saturation of the PA rate coefficient (K_PA) close to the theoretical value at the unitarity limit.

  9. Inhibition of preS1-hepatocyte interaction by an array of recombinant human antibodies from naturally recovered individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sankhyan, Anurag; Sharma, Chandresh; Dutta, Durgashree;

    2016-01-01

    binding signature, interacting with different amino acids within the preS1-peptide region. Ability to prevent binding of the preS1 protein (N-terminus 60a.a.) to HepG2 cells stably expressing hNTCP (HepG2-hNTCP-C4 cells), the HBV receptor on human hepatocytes was taken as a surrogate marker...

  10. Symmetry control of radiative decay in linear polyenes: low barriers for isomerization in the S1 state of hexadecaheptaene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Ronald L; Galinato, Mary Grace I; Chu, Emily F; Fujii, Ritsuko; Hashimoto, Hideki; Frank, Harry A

    2007-02-14

    The room temperature absorption and emission spectra of the 4-cis and all-trans isomers of 2,4,6,8,10,12,14-hexadecaheptaene are almost identical, exhibiting the characteristic dual emissions S1-->S0 (21Ag- --> 11Ag-) and S2-->S0 (11Bu+ --> 11Ag-) noted in previous studies of intermediate length polyenes and carotenoids. The ratio of the S1-->S0 and S2-->S0 emission yields for the cis isomer increases by a factor of approximately 15 upon cooling to 77 K in n-pentadecane. In contrast, for the trans isomer this ratio shows a 2-fold decrease with decreasing temperature. These results suggest a low barrier for conversion between the 4-cis and all-trans isomers in the S1 state. At 77 K, the cis isomer cannot convert to the more stable all-trans isomer in the 21Ag- state, resulting in the striking increase in its S1-->S0 fluorescence. These experiments imply that the S1 states of longer polyenes have local energy minima, corresponding to a range of conformations and isomers, separated by relatively low (2-4 kcal) barriers. Steady state and time-resolved optical measurements on the S1 states in solution thus may sample a distribution of conformers and geometric isomers, even for samples represented by a single, dominant ground state structure. Complex S1 potential energy surfaces may help explain the complicated S2-->S1 relaxation kinetics of many carotenoids. The finding that fluorescence from linear polyenes is so strongly dependent on molecular symmetry requires a reevaluation of the literature on the radiative properties of all-trans polyenes and carotenoids.

  11. Albumin modulates S1P delivery from red blood cells in perfused microvessels: mechanism of the protein effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamson, R H; Clark, J F; Radeva, M; Kheirolomoom, A; Ferrara, K W; Curry, F E

    2014-04-01

    Removal of plasma proteins from perfusates increases vascular permeability. The common interpretation of the action of albumin is that it forms part of the permeability barrier by electrostatic binding to the endothelial glycocalyx. We tested the alternate hypothesis that removal of perfusate albumin in rat venular microvessels decreased the availability of sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), which is normally carried in plasma bound to albumin and lipoproteins and is required to maintain stable baseline endothelial barriers (Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 303: H825-H834, 2012). Red blood cells (RBCs) are a primary source of S1P in the normal circulation. We compared apparent albumin permeability coefficients [solute permeability (Ps)] measured using perfusates containing albumin (10 mg/ml, control) and conditioned by 20-min exposure to rat RBCs with Ps when test perfusates were in RBC-conditioned protein-free Ringer solution. The control perfusate S1P concentration (439 ± 46 nM) was near the normal plasma value at 37 °C and established a stable baseline Ps (0.9 ± 0.4 × 10(-6) cm/s). Ringer solution perfusate contained 52 ± 8 nM S1P and increased Ps more than 10-fold (16.1 ± 3.9 × 10(-6) cm/s). Consistent with albumin-dependent transport of S1P from RBCs, S1P concentrations in RBC-conditioned solutions decreased as albumin concentration, hematocrit, and temperature decreased. Protein-free Ringer solution perfusates that used liposomes instead of RBCs as flow markers failed to maintain normal permeability, reproducing the "albumin effect" in these mammalian microvessels. We conclude that the albumin effect depends on the action of albumin to facilitate the release and transport of S1P from RBCs that normally provide a significant amount of S1P to the endothelium.

  12. The S 1, 1A 2(n,π*) state of acetone in a supersonic nozzle beam. Methyl internal rotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baba, Masaaki; Hanazaki, Ichiro

    1983-12-01

    Fluorescence excitation spectra of the S 1, 1A 2(n, π*) state of acetone and acetone- d6 have been measured. Active vibrational modes are the CH 3 torsion and the CO out-of-plane wagging. The barriers to internal rotation, V3, for acetone and acetone- d6 in the S 1 state have been estimated to be 740 ± 90 and 720 ± 60 cm -1, respectively.

  13. Spin polarization effect for Cr2 molecule

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Shi-Ying

    2008-01-01

    Density functional theory (DFT) (B3P86) of Ganssian 03 has been used to optimize the structure of the Cr2 molecule, a transition metal element molecule. The result shows that the ground state for the Cr2 molecule is a 13-multiple state, indicating that there exists a spin polarization effect in the Cr2 molecule. Meanwhile, we have not found any spin pollution because the wave function of the ground state does not mingle with wave functions of higher-energy states. So the ground state for Cr2 molecule being a 13-multiple state is indicative of spin polarization effect of the Cr2 molecule among transition metal elements, that is, there are 12 parallel spin electrons in the Cr2 molecule. The number of non-conjugated electrons is greatest. These electrons occupy different spatial orbitals so that the energy of the Cr2 molecule is minimized. It can be concluded that the effect of parallel spin in the Cr2 molecule is larger than the effect of the conjugated molecule, which is obviously related to the effect of electron d delocalization. In addition,the Murrell-Sorbie potential functions with the parameters for the ground state and other states of the Cr2 molecule are derived. The dissociation energy De for the ground state of the Cr2 molecule is 0.1034eV, equilibrium bond length Re is 0.3396nm, and vibration frequency ωe is 73.81cm-1. Its force constants f2, f3 and f4 are 0.0835, -0.2831 and 0.3535 aJ·nm-4 respectively. The other spectroscopic data for the ground state of the Cr2 molecule ωeχe, Be and αe are 1.2105, 0.0562 and 7.2938 × 10-4cm-1 respectively.

  14. Spin polarization effect of Ni2 molecule

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Shi-Ying; Zhu Zheng-He

    2008-01-01

    The density functional theory (DFT) method (b3p86) of Gaussian 03 is used to optimize the structure of the Ni2 molecule. The result shows that the ground state for the Ni2 molecule is a 5-multiple state, symbolizing a spin polarization effect existing in the Ni2 molecule, a transition metal molecule, but no spin pollution is found because the wavefunction of the ground state does not mingle with wavefunctions of higher-energy states. So the ground state for Ni2 molecule, which is a 5-multiple state, is indicative of spin polarization effect of the Ni2 molecule, that is, there exist 4 parallel spin electrons in Ni2 molecule. The number of non-conjugated electrons is greatest. These electrons occupy different spatial orbitals so that the energy of the Ni2 molecule is minimized. It can be concluded that the effect of parallel spin in the Ni2 molecule is larger than that of the conjugated molecule, which is obviously related to the effect of electron d delocalization. In addition, the Murrell-Sorbie potential functions with the parameters of the ground state and other states of the Ni2 molecule are derived. The dissociation energy De for the ground state of the Ni2 molecule is 1.835 eV, equilibrium bond length Re is 0.2243 nm, vibration frequency ωe is 262.35 cm-1. Its force constants f2, f3 and f4 are 1.1901 aJ.nm-2, 5.8723 aJ.nm-3, and 21.2505 aJ.nm-4 respectively. The other spectroscopic data for the ground state of the Ni2 molecule ωexe, Be and αe are 1.6315cm-1, 0.1141 cm-1, and 8.0145×10-4 cm-1 respectively.

  15. UNUSUAL WATER PRODUCTION ACTIVITY OF COMET C/2012 S1 (ISON): OUTBURSTS AND CONTINUOUS FRAGMENTATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Combi, M. R.; Fougere, N. [Department of Atmospheric, Oceanic, and Space Sciences, University of Michigan, 2455 Hayward Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2143 (United States); Mäkinen, J. T. T. [Finnish Meteorological Institute, Box 503, SF-00101 Helsinki (Finland); Bertaux, J.-L.; Quémerais, E. [LATMOS/IPSL, Université de Versailles Saint-Quentin, 11, Boulevard d' Alembert, F-78280 Guyancourt (France); Ferron, S., E-mail: mcombi@umich.edu [ACRI-st, Sophia-Antipolis (France)

    2014-06-10

    The Solar Wind ANisotropies (SWAN) all-sky hydrogen Lyα camera on the SOlar and Heliospheric Observer (SOHO) satellite observed the hydrogen coma of comet C/2012 S1 (ISON) for most of the last month of its activity from 2013 October 24 to November 24, ending just 4 days before perihelion and its final disruption. The water production rate of the comet was determined from these observations. SOHO has been operating in a halo orbit around the Earth-Sun L1 Lagrange point since its launch in late 1995. Most water vapor produced by comets is ultimately photodissociated into two H atoms and one O atom producing a huge hydrogen coma that is routinely observed in the daily SWAN images in comets of sufficient brightness. Water production rates were calculated from 22 images over most of the last month of the pre-perihelion apparition. The water production rate increased very slowly on average from October 24.9 until November 12.9, staying between 1.8 and 3.4 × 10{sup 28} s{sup –1}, after which it increased dramatically, reaching 1.6 to 2 × 10{sup 30} s{sup –1} from November 21.6 to 23.6. It was not detected after perihelion on December 3.7 when it should have been visible. We examine the active surface area necessary to explain the water production rate and its variation and are able to place constraints on the physical size of the original nucleus necessary to account for the large amount of activity from November 12.9 and until just before perihelion.

  16. Count-as-one, Forming-into-one, Unary Trait, S1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Chiesa

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available While a significant amount of research has recently been carried out that investigates the similarities and differences between Alain Badiou and Jacques Lacan#39;s theories of the subject, less attention has been paid to the direct relationship between the latter and Badiou#39;s set-theoretical ontology. This article applies some of the most important conceptual propositions advanced in the first two Parts of Being and Event to the key psychoanalytic issue of the identification of the conscious and unconscious subject as expounded by Lacan in his ninth Seminar, L#39;identification. More specifically, this article aims to show how Badiou#39;s notions of the quot;count-as-onequot; and the quot;forming-into-onequot; can profitably be put to work in order better to understand Lacan#39;s notions of the quot;unary traitquot; and the S1, the quot;master-signifierquot;. What is at stake in both cases is the relationship between structure and metastructure, presentation and representation. Furthermore, this article provides an outline for a set-theoretical formalisation of the relation between consciousness and the unconscious as developed by Lacan in L#39;identification. Lacan#39;s breaking of the solidarity between unity and totality allows him to work with parts: from the inexistence of totality as a one follows the possibility of thinking the part as quot;partial systemquot;. Lacan identifies this system with the unconscious. Applying a number of set-theoretical axioms, this article argues that the existence of the unconscious as partial system ultimately relies on the in-existence of the void, or, more specifically, the existence of the void as part that in-exists as element.

  17. 毛竹PePsbS1基因的分子特征及其原核表达%Molecular characteristics and prokaryotic expression of PePsbS1 gene from Phyllostachys edulis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈东亮; 彭镇华; 高志民

    2013-01-01

    PsbS protein has a key role in non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) in plants. A PsbS homologous gene was cloned from the full length cDNA library of Phyllostachys edulis by alignment method, and designed as PePsbS1 (GenBank No. FP091683). The full length cDNA of PePsbS1 is 1 069 bp, containing many kinds of light responsive elements and cis-acting regulatory elements involved in light responsiveness. The open reading frame of PePsbS1 is 807 bp encoding a polypeptide with 268 amino acids. The protein structure analysis indicated that PePsbS1 consisted of transit peptide (53 aa) and mature protein (215 aa) including one chlorophyll a/b binding protein domain and four transmembrane domains. Blastp analysis showed that PePsbS1 had high identities with PsbS1 of Zea mays to 80.3%. Hydropathy analysis of the deduced amino acid sequence revealed that PePsbS1 was hydrophobic overall as observed from the hydropathy plot with 42.5% of the total amino acid residues having hy-drophobicity. The prokaryotic expression vector containing fragment of PePsbS1 gene encoding mature protein was constructed and expressed in Escherichia coli induced by IPTG. A purified protein with molecular weight about 28 kD was found through SDS-PAGE electrophoresis, which agreed with that of the predicted mature protein encoded by PePsbS1. This work is helpful for further study on the structure and function of PsbS in bamboo.%PsbS蛋白在植物非光化学淬灭(NPQ)中发挥着重要作用.采用同源比对方法从毛竹(Phyllostachys edulis)全长(e)DNA文库中得到1个PsbS同源基因序列(FP091683),命名为PePsbS1.该基因全长1069 bp,具有多种光应答元件和参与光应答的顺式作用元件.PePsbS1的开放阅读框为807 bp,编码一个268 aa的蛋白.蛋白结构分析表明,该蛋白由转导肽(53 aa)和成熟蛋白(215 aa)组成,成熟蛋白包含1个叶绿素a/b结合蛋白功能域、4个跨膜区;疏水性分析表明该蛋白组成氨基酸

  18. LHC constraints and prospects for $S_1$ scalar leptoquark explaining the $\\bar B \\to D^{(*)} \\tau \\bar\

    CERN Document Server

    Dumont, Béranger; Watanabe, Ryoutaro

    2016-01-01

    Recently, deviations in flavor observables of B -> D(*) tau nu have been shown between the predictions in the Standard Model and the experimental results reported by BaBar, Belle, and LHCb collaborations. One of the solutions to this anomaly is obtained in a class of leptoquark model with a scalar leptoquark boson S_1, which is a SU(3)_c triplet and SU(2)_L singlet particle with -1/3 hypercharge interacting with a quark-lepton pair. With well-adjusted couplings, this model can explain the anomaly and be compatible with all flavor constraints. In such a case, the S_1 boson can be pair-produced at CERN's Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and subsequently decay as S_1 -> t tau, b nu, c tau. This paper explores the current 8 and 13 TeV constraints, as well as the detailed prospects at 14 TeV, of this flavor-motivated S_1 model. From the current available 8 and 13 TeV LHC searches, we obtain constraints on the S_1 boson mass for M_{S_1} D(*) tau nu anomaly can be probed with mass less than around 600/800 GeV at the 14 ...

  19. Comment on the Nature of the D_{s1}^*(2710) and D_{sJ}^*(2860) Mesons

    CERN Document Server

    Godfrey, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Two charm-strange mesons, the D_{s1}^*(2710) and the D_{sJ}^*(2860), have recently been observed by several experiments. There has been speculation in the literature that the D_{s1}^*(2710) is the 2^3S_1(c\\bar{s}) state and the D_{sJ}^*(2860) is the 1^3D_1(c\\bar{s}) state. In this paper we explore this and other explanations in the context of the relativized quark model and the pseudoscalar emission decay model. We conclude that the D_{s1}^*(2710) is most likely the 1^3D_1 (c\\bar{s}) state and the D_{sJ}^*(2860) is most likely the 1^3D_3 (c\\bar{s}) state with the 1D_2 resonances also contributing to the observed signals and explaining the observed ratios of branching ratios to D^*K and DK final states. We point out that measuring the D_{sJ}^*(2860) spin can support or eliminate this explanation and that there are six excited D_s states in this mass region; the 2^3S_1, 2^1S_0, 1^3D_1, 1^3D_3 and two 1D_2 states. Observing some of the missing states would help confirm the nature of the D_{s1}^*(2710) and the D_...

  20. Theoretical study on S1(1B3u) state electronic structure and absorption spectrum of pyrazine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Making use of a set of quantum chemistry methods, the harmonic potential surfaces of the ground state (S0(1Ag)) and the first (S1(1B3u)) excited state of pyrazine are investigated, and the electronic structures of the two states are characterized. In the present study, the conventional quantum mechanical method, taking account of the Born-Oppenheimer adiabatic approximation, is adopted to simulate the absorp-tion spectrum of S1(1B3u) state of pyrazine. The assignment of main vibronic transitions is made for S1(1B3u) state. It is found that the spectral profile is mainly described by the Franck-Condon progression of totally symmetric mode ν6a. For the five totally symmetric modes, the present calculations show that the frequency differences between the ground and the S1(1B3u) state are small. Therefore the displaced harmonic oscillator approximation along with Franck-Condon transition is used to simulate S1(1B3u) absorption spectra. The distortion effect due to the so-called quadratic coupling is demonstrated to be unimportant for the absorption spectrum, except the coupling mode ν10a. The calculated S1(1B3u) ab-sorption spectrum is in reasonable agreement with the experimental spectra.