WorldWideScience

Sample records for plasmatrons

  1. Onboard Plasmatron Hydrogen Production for Improved Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel R. Cohn; Leslie Bromberg; Kamal Hadidi

    2005-12-31

    A plasmatron fuel reformer has been developed for onboard hydrogen generation for vehicular applications. These applications include hydrogen addition to spark-ignition internal combustion engines, NOx trap and diesel particulate filter (DPF) regeneration, and emissions reduction from spark ignition internal combustion engines First, a thermal plasmatron fuel reformer was developed. This plasmatron used an electric arc with relatively high power to reform fuels such as gasoline, diesel and biofuels at an oxygen to carbon ratio close to 1. The draw back of this device was that it has a high electric consumption and limited electrode lifetime due to the high temperature electric arc. A second generation plasmatron fuel reformer was developed. It used a low-current high-voltage electric discharge with a completely new electrode continuation. This design uses two cylindrical electrodes with a rotating discharge that produced low temperature volumetric cold plasma., The lifetime of the electrodes was no longer an issue and the device was tested on several fuels such as gasoline, diesel, and biofuels at different flow rates and different oxygen to carbon ratios. Hydrogen concentration and yields were measured for both the thermal and non-thermal plasmatron reformers for homogeneous (non-catalytic) and catalytic reforming of several fuels. The technology was licensed to an industrial auto part supplier (ArvinMeritor) and is being implemented for some of the applications listed above. The Plasmatron reformer has been successfully tested on a bus for NOx trap regeneration. The successful development of the plasmatron reformer and its implementation in commercial applications including transportation will bring several benefits to the nation. These benefits include the reduction of NOx emissions, improving engine efficiency and reducing the nation's oil consumption. The objective of this program has been to develop attractive applications of plasmatron fuel reformer

  2. Laser plasmatron for diamond coating deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glova, A. F., E-mail: afglova@triniti.ru; Lysikov, A. Yu.; Malyuta, D. D.; Nelyubin, S. S.; Peretyatko, P. I.; Ryzhkov, Yu. F. [JSC State Research Center of the Russian Federation Troitsk Institute for Innovation and Fusion Research (Russian Federation)

    2016-12-15

    An experimental installation with a laser plasmatron based on a continuous wave CO{sub 2} laser with a radiation power of up to 3.5 kW has been created. The plasmatron design makes it possible to bring out the plasma jet into atmospheric air both along and across the laser beam direction. The spatial temperature distributions on the metal substrate surface heated by the plasma jet are measured. The threshold power for optical discharge maintenance as a function of the gas flow rate and the focal length of the focusing lens are obtained for an Ar and Ar/CH{sub 4}/H{sub 2} gas mixture under atmospheric pressure; the radiation spectrum of the discharge plasma is measured. A one-dimensional model of the discharge for estimation of its geometrical parameters in a convergent laser beam with consideration of radiation refraction on the discharge is given.

  3. Hydrogen Generation from Plasmatron Reforming Ethanol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YOU Fu-bing; HU You-ping; LI Ge-sheng; GAO Xiao-hong

    2006-01-01

    Hydrogen generation through plasmatron reforming of ethanol has been carried out in a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) reactor. The reforming of pure ethanol and mixtures of ethanol-water have been studied. The gas chromatography (GC) analysis has shown that in all conditions the reforming yield was H2, CO, CH4 and CO2 as the main products, and with little C2* . The hydrogen-rich gas can be used as fuel for gasoline engine and other applications.

  4. Microwave plasmatrons for giant integrated circuit processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrin, A.B.

    2000-02-01

    A method for calculating the interaction of a powerful microwave with a plane layer of magnetoactive low-pressure plasma under conditions of electron cyclotron resonance is presented. In this paper, the plasma layer is situated between a plane dielectric layer and a plane metal screen. The calculation model contains the microwave energy balance, particle balance, and electron energy balance. The equation that expressed microwave properties of nonuniform magnetoactive plasma is found. The numerical calculations of the microwave-plasma interaction for a one-dimensional model of the problem are considered. Applications of the results for microwave plasmatrons designed for processing giant integrated circuits are suggested.

  5. Synthesis of carbon nanostructures in an RF induction plasmatron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalogin, G. N.; Krasil'nikov, A. V.; Rudin, N. F.; Popov, M. Yu.; Kul'nitskii, B. A.; Kirichenko, A. N.

    2015-05-01

    The method and results of synthesizing carbon nanotubes and onion-like structures by the sublimation of a mixture of a carbon powder with a catalyst (Y2(CO3)3) in the plasma flow of an inert gas (argon) generated in an rf plasmatron are described. Carbon vapors are condensed into fullerene-containing soot onto various materials (Al, Cu, Ti, stainless steel) placed in the working chamber of an experimental setup. The composition of the synthesized soot is analyzed by modern highly informative methods (Raman spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction). Single-wall carbon nanotubes of a small diameter (1.2 nm) and onion-like structures 10-20 nm in size are formed in experiments. In a reference experiment on a mixture of argon and methane, a material, which consists of a mixture of amorphous carbon, nanosized graphite, and graphite with a crystallite size of several microns, is synthesized. The effect of the substrate material, the gas pressure, and the plasma flow velocity on the formation of carbon nanotubes is studied.

  6. Metals Recovery from Artificial Ore in Case of Printed Circuit Boards, Using Plasmatron Plasma Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Szałatkiewicz

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the investigation of metals production form artificial ore, which consists of printed circuit board (PCB waste, processed in plasmatron plasma reactor. A test setup was designed and built that enabled research of plasma processing of PCB waste of more than 700 kg/day scale. The designed plasma process is presented and discussed. The process in tests consumed 2 kWh/kg of processed waste. Investigation of the process products is presented with their elemental analyses of metals and slag. The average recovery of metals in presented experiments is 76%. Metals recovered include: Ag, Au, Pd, Cu, Sn, Pb, and others. The chosen process parameters are presented: energy consumption, throughput, process temperatures, and air consumption. Presented technology allows processing of variable and hard-to-process printed circuit board waste that can reach up to 100% of the input mass.

  7. Metals Recovery from Artificial Ore in Case of Printed Circuit Boards, Using Plasmatron Plasma Reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szałatkiewicz, Jakub

    2016-08-10

    This paper presents the investigation of metals production form artificial ore, which consists of printed circuit board (PCB) waste, processed in plasmatron plasma reactor. A test setup was designed and built that enabled research of plasma processing of PCB waste of more than 700 kg/day scale. The designed plasma process is presented and discussed. The process in tests consumed 2 kWh/kg of processed waste. Investigation of the process products is presented with their elemental analyses of metals and slag. The average recovery of metals in presented experiments is 76%. Metals recovered include: Ag, Au, Pd, Cu, Sn, Pb, and others. The chosen process parameters are presented: energy consumption, throughput, process temperatures, and air consumption. Presented technology allows processing of variable and hard-to-process printed circuit board waste that can reach up to 100% of the input mass.

  8. Emission Spectroscopic Boundary Layer Investigation during Ablative Material Testing in Plasmatron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helber, Bernd; Chazot, Olivier; Hubin, Annick; Magin, Thierry E

    2016-06-09

    Ablative Thermal Protection Systems (TPS) allowed the first humans to safely return to Earth from the moon and are still considered as the only solution for future high-speed reentry missions. But despite the advancements made since Apollo, heat flux prediction remains an imperfect science and engineers resort to safety factors to determine the TPS thickness. This goes at the expense of embarked payload, hampering, for example, sample return missions. Ground testing in plasma wind-tunnels is currently the only affordable possibility for both material qualification and validation of material response codes. The subsonic 1.2MW Inductively Coupled Plasmatron facility at the von Karman Institute for Fluid Dynamics is able to reproduce a wide range of reentry environments. This protocol describes a procedure for the study of the gas/surface interaction on ablative materials in high enthalpy flows and presents sample results of a non-pyrolyzing, ablating carbon fiber precursor. With this publication, the authors envisage the definition of a standard procedure, facilitating comparison with other laboratories and contributing to ongoing efforts to improve heat shield reliability and reduce design uncertainties. The described core techniques are non-intrusive methods to track the material recession with a high-speed camera along with the chemistry in the reactive boundary layer, probed by emission spectroscopy. Although optical emission spectroscopy is limited to line-of-sight measurements and is further constrained to electronically excited atoms and molecules, its simplicity and broad applicability still make it the technique of choice for analysis of the reactive boundary layer. Recession of the ablating sample further requires that the distance of the measurement location with respect to the surface is known at all times during the experiment. Calibration of the optical system of the applied three spectrometers allowed quantitative comparison. At the fiber scale

  9. Emission Spectroscopic Boundary Layer Investigation during Ablative Material Testing in Plasmatron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helber, Bernd; Chazot, Olivier; Hubin, Annick; Magin, Thierry E.

    2016-01-01

    Ablative Thermal Protection Systems (TPS) allowed the first humans to safely return to Earth from the moon and are still considered as the only solution for future high-speed reentry missions. But despite the advancements made since Apollo, heat flux prediction remains an imperfect science and engineers resort to safety factors to determine the TPS thickness. This goes at the expense of embarked payload, hampering, for example, sample return missions. Ground testing in plasma wind-tunnels is currently the only affordable possibility for both material qualification and validation of material response codes. The subsonic 1.2MW Inductively Coupled Plasmatron facility at the von Karman Institute for Fluid Dynamics is able to reproduce a wide range of reentry environments. This protocol describes a procedure for the study of the gas/surface interaction on ablative materials in high enthalpy flows and presents sample results of a non-pyrolyzing, ablating carbon fiber precursor. With this publication, the authors envisage the definition of a standard procedure, facilitating comparison with other laboratories and contributing to ongoing efforts to improve heat shield reliability and reduce design uncertainties. The described core techniques are non-intrusive methods to track the material recession with a high-speed camera along with the chemistry in the reactive boundary layer, probed by emission spectroscopy. Although optical emission spectroscopy is limited to line-of-sight measurements and is further constrained to electronically excited atoms and molecules, its simplicity and broad applicability still make it the technique of choice for analysis of the reactive boundary layer. Recession of the ablating sample further requires that the distance of the measurement location with respect to the surface is known at all times during the experiment. Calibration of the optical system of the applied three spectrometers allowed quantitative comparison. At the fiber scale

  10. Numerical Simulation of Plasma-Dynamical Processes in the Technological Inductively Coupled RF Plasmatron with Gas Cooling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. M. Grishin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The electrodeless inductively coupled RF plasmatron (ICP torches became widely used in various fields of engineering, science and technology. Presently, owing to development of new technologies to produce very pure substances, nanopowders, etc., there is a steadily increasing interest in the induction plasma. This generates a need for a broad range of theoretical and experimental studies to optimize the design and technological parameters of different ICP equipment.The paper presents a numerical model to calculate parameters of inductively coupled RF plasmatron with gas-cooling flow. A finite volume method is used for a numerical solution of a system of Maxwell's and heat transfer equations in the application package ANSYS CFX (14.5. The pseudo-steady approach to solving problems is used.A numerical simulation has been computed in the application package ANSYS CFX (14.5 for a specific design option of the technological ICP, which has a three-coils inductor and current amplitude in the range J к = 50-170 A (3 MHz. The pure argon flows in the ICP. The paper discusses how the value of discharge current impacts on the thermodynamic parameters (pressure, temperature and the power energy in discharge zone. It shows that the ICP can generate a plasma stream with a maximum temperature of about 10 kK and an output speed of 10-15 m/s. The work determines a length of the plasma stream with a weight average temperature of more than 4 kK. It has been found that in order to keep the quartz walls in normal thermal state, the discharge current amplitude should not exceed 150 A. The paper shows the features of the velocity field distribution in the channel of the plasma torch, namely, the formation of vortex in the position of the first coil. The results obtained are important for calculating the dynamics of heating and evaporation of quartz particles in the manufacturing processes for plasma processing of quartz concentrate into high-purity quartz and

  11. Spectroscopic studies of non-thermal plasma jet at atmospheric pressure formed in low-current nonsteady-state plasmatron for biomedical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demkin, V. P.; Melnichuk, S. V.; Demkin, O. V. [National Research Tomsk State University, Lenin 36, 634050 Tomsk, The Russian Federation (Russian Federation); Kingma, H.; Van de Berg, R. [National Research Tomsk State University, Lenin 36, 634050 Tomsk, The Russian Federation (Russian Federation); Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Maastricht University Medical Centre, Minderbroedersberg 4-6, 6211 LK Maastricht (Netherlands)

    2016-04-15

    The optical and electrophysical characteristics of the nonequilibrium low-temperature plasma formed by a low-current nonsteady-state plasmatron are experimentally investigated in the present work. It is demonstrated that experimental data on the optical diagnostics of the plasma jet can provide a basis for the construction of a self-consistent physical and mathematical plasma model and for the creation of plasma sources with controllable electrophysical parameters intended for the generation of the required concentration of active particles. Results of spectroscopic diagnostics of plasma of the low-current nonsteady-state plasmatron confirm that the given source is efficient for the generation of charged particles and short-wavelength radiation—important plasma components for biomedical problems of an increase in the efficiency of treatment of biological tissues by charged particles. Measurement of the spatial distribution of the plasma jet potential by the probe method has demonstrated that a negative space charge is formed in the plasma jet possibly due to the formation of electronegative oxygen ions.

  12. Determination of gas temperature in the plasmatron channel according to the known distribution of electronic temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerasimov Alexander V.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An analytical method to calculate the temperature distribution of heavy particles in the channel of the plasma torch on the known distribution of the electronic temperature has been proposed. The results can be useful for a number of model calculations in determining the most effective conditions of gas blowing through the plasma torch with the purpose of heating the heavy component. This approach allows us to understand full details about the heating of cold gas, inpouring the plasma, and to estimate correctly the distribution of the gas temperature inside the channel.

  13. Thermal action of an electric arc on the wall of a planar gap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gubkevich, V.A.; Demidovich, A.B.; Zolotovskii, A.I.; Kabashnikov, V.P.; Shimanovich, V.D.

    1986-10-01

    For purposes of optimizing the energy efficiency of the plasma arc spraying of metal coatings the authors investigate the distribution of heat flux from a dc arc located between two dielectric electrode walls and study the thermodynamics of ablation and evaporation of the silicate material used for the electrodes. The intensity of ablation and evaporation was controlled by changing the rate of electrode displacement relative to the arc generated by the plasmatron. Nitrogen was used as the plasmatron working gas. Results are presented for the ultimate porosity and microstructure of the deposited material as a consequence of various efficiency parameters. A computer simulation is constructed from the experimental data.

  14. Advanced thermionic energy conversion: joint highlights and status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-05-01

    A theoretical model was used to study the effects of structured electrodes on converter I-V characteristics and results are given. An auxiliary-ion-source triode operated as a plasmatron was used for studying the enhancement distribution and magnetic effects, and results are reported. Design features of the high current--zero power (ZEPO) converter tests are given. (WHK)

  15. Canola Oil Fuel Cell Demonstration: Volume 3 - Technical, Commercialization, and Application Issues Associated with Harvested Biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-08-17

    Fuels for Fuel Cells.” International Journal of Hydrogen Energy , vol 26, pp. 291-301. Arthur D. Little, Inc. 2001. Conceptual Design of POX / SOFC 5...Compact Plasmatron-Boosted Hydrogen Generation Technology for Vehicular Applications.” International Journal of Hydrogen Energy , No. 24. pp. 341

  16. Numerical Modeling of the Atmospheric-Pressure Helium Plasma Formed During Spark-to-Glow Discharge Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demkin, V. P.; Melnichuk, S. V.

    2017-06-01

    Results of numerical experiment on modeling of the atmospheric-pressure plasma formed during the spark-to-glow discharge transition in helium in low-current non-stationary plasmatron are presented. The numerical experiment is performed using the developed 2D physical and mathematical plasma model in the drift-diffusion approximation. Results of numerical calculation of the dynamics of discharge evolution are confirmed by the experimental data on the atmospheric-pressure plasma dynamics formed in the plasmatron during the spark-to-glow discharge transition. It is demonstrated that with preset initial conditions characteristic for spark breakdown, further discharge evolution leads to the formation of the near-cathode zone of the potential drop and the pulsed behavior of the electric current of the discharge. After the current pulse, the discharge transforms into the quasi-stationary mode with parameters characteristic for the glow discharge with monotonically increasing electric current and transverse dimensions of the plasma column.

  17. Electroarc vapourtron for bitumen extraction and transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganieva, G. R.; Timerkaev, B. A.

    2017-01-01

    In this article, we propose the unique submersible arc vapourtron designed to generate very large amount of highly overheated water vapour. The most prospective application of such vapourtron is producing and processing of heavy oil and natural bitumen. The vapourtron represents an electroarc plasmatron using water or water vapour as a working media. Firstly arriving from an external source water enters the cooling jackets of the cathode and the cylindrical anode, where it is preheated to high temperatures. In extreme cases. Water can be heated till the boiling point. Then, this water is supplied to the plasmatron where it is sprayed as the media for the plasma generation. A special twist of the water flow protects the anode walls from overheating.

  18. CO{sub 2} laser-induced plasma CVD synthesis of diamond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konov, V.I.; Prokhorov, A.M.; Uglov, S.A.; Bolshakov, A.P.; Leontiev, I.A. [Rossijskaya Akademiya Nauk, Moscow (Russian Federation). Inst. Obshchej Fiziki; Dausinger, F.; Huegel, H.; Angstenberger, B. [Institute of High Power Beam Technology (IFSW), Stuttgart University, Pfaffenwaldring 43, D-70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Sepold, G.; Metev, S. [Bremen Institute of Applied Beam Technology, D-28800 Bremen 33, Klagenfurter Str. 2 (Germany)

    1998-05-01

    A novel technique for CVD synthesis of materials that does not demand a vacuum chamber and provides high deposition rates has been developed. It is based on CO{sub 2} laser maintenance of a stationary optical discharge in a gas stream, exhausting over a substrate into the air (laser plasmatron). Nano- and polycrystalline-diamond films were deposited on tungsten substrates from atmospheric-pressure Xe(Ar):H{sub 2}:CH{sub 4} gas mixtures at flow rates of 2 l/min. A 2.5-kW CO{sub 2} laser focused beam produced plasma. The deposition area was about 1 cm{sup 2} and growth rates were up to 30-50 {mu}m/h. Peculiarities and advantages of laser plasmatrons are discussed. (orig.) With 4 figs., 4 refs.

  19. Laser-Supported Combustion Wave Ignition in Hydrogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-10-01

    distribution unlimited. 17. DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT (of the botrac entered In Blek SO, It different firn Report) I8. SeJPPLEMENTARY NOTES IS. KEY WORDS... model of LSC wave propagation based on the analogy of chemical combustion in a long tube. The first stationary plasmatron was observed by Generalov [3...the value predicted from air LSC wave data using Raizer’s model . The LSC waves produced in these experiments radiated strongly in the visible region

  20. JPRS Report, Science & Technology, USSR: Physics & Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    Lecture Demonstrations of Properties of Superconductors and Liquid Helium (Ye. M. Gershenzon, G. N. Goltsman, et al.; FIZIKA, No 7, Jul 86) 51...Keldysh, USSR Academy of Sciences] [Abstract] Arrays of open traps for finite-pressure MHD .plasma are considered, equilibrium of a shieldless...in an antilock plasmatron. Calculations are based on MHD equations with separation of longitudinal and transverse pressure components. Sufficient and

  1. Potential applications of an electron cyclotron resonance multicusp plasma source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsai, C.C.; Berry, L.A.; Gorbatkin, S.M.; Haselton, H.H.; Roberto, J.B.; Stirling, W.L. (Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (USA))

    1990-05-01

    An electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) multicusp plasmatron has been developed by feeding a multicusp bucket arc chamber with a compact ECR plasma source. This novel source produces large (about 25 cm diam), uniform (to within {plus minus}10%), dense ({gt}10{sup 11} cm{sup {minus}3}) plasmas of argon, helium, hydrogen, and oxygen. It has been operated to produce an oxygen plasma for etching 12.7 cm (5 in.) positive photoresist-coated silicon wafers with uniformity within {plus minus}8%. Results and potential applications of this new ECR plasma source for plasma processing of thin films are discussed.

  2. An Integrated Experimental and Computational Study of Heating due to Surface Catalysis under Hypersonic Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    flowfield inside the VKI Plasmatron facility. The probe, shown in Fig. 21, consists of a copper plate with a 12.5 mm nose radius and can host a 152x30 mm...the low-high-low insert, with the finite volume code Cosmic [29]. 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 1300 1350 1400 1450 1500 1550 1600 1650 x, mm T , K...computations of the flow-field around the flat plate probe with the low-high-low catalytic insert have been performed with the code Cosmic [29]. Cosmic is a

  3. [Evaluation of potentiality of combined SHF- and glow discharge in intensification of carbon dioxide and hydrogen processing within life support system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimarev, S I

    2011-01-01

    The article reports an experimental carbon dioxide hydration process in combined SHF- and glow discharge, and describes a design of SHF plasmatrones for CO2 processing at air pressure and in an integrated unit. Maximal transformation of 80% CO2 per a run was reached with the total input power of no more than 0.9 kW. Thermal zero lag of plasma forming, essentially instant and timely engagement and disengagement of thermal action on CO2-H2 mixture renders SHF-energy applicable to intensification of next generation life support technologies, processing of these gases within atmosphere regeneration system specifically.

  4. Titanium nitride plasma-chemical synthesis with titanium tetrachloride raw material in the DC plasma-arc reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirpichev, D. E.; Sinaiskiy, M. A.; Samokhin, A. V.; Alexeev, N. V.

    2017-04-01

    The possibility of plasmochemical synthesis of titanium nitride is demonstrated in the paper. Results of the thermodynamic analysis of TiCl4 - H2 - N2 system are presented; key parameters of TiN synthesis process are calculated. The influence of parameters of plasma-chemical titanium nitride synthesis process in the reactor with an arc plasmatron on characteristics on the produced powders is experimentally investigated. Structure, chemical composition and morphology dependencies on plasma jet enthalpy, stoichiometric excess of hydrogen and nitrogen in a plasma jet are determined.

  5. Potential applications of an electron cyclotron resonance multicusp plasma source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsai, C.C.; Berry, L.A.; Gorbatkin, S.M.; Haselton, H.H.; Roberto, J.B.; Schechter, D.E.; Stirling, W.L.

    1990-03-01

    An electric cyclotron resonance (ECR) multicusp plasmatron has been developed by feeding a multicusp bucket arc chamber with a compact ECR plasma source. This novel source produces large (about 25-cm- diam), uniform (to within {plus minus}10%), dense (>10{sup 11}--cm{sup {minus}3}) plasmas of argon, helium, hydrogen, and oxygen. It has been operated to produce an oxygen plasma for etching 12.7-cm (5-in.) positive photoresist-coated silicon wafers with uniformity within {plus minus}8%. Following a brief review of the large plasma source developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, the configuration and operation of the source are described and a discharge model is presented. Results from this new ECR plasma source and potential applications for plasma processing of thin films are discussed. 21 refs., 10 figs.

  6. Mathematical simulation of plasma-chemical coal conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Messerle, A.V. [Bauman State Technical University, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2004-02-01

    A mathematical model that describes the conversion of a coal-dust flow in a cylindrical plasma reactor is presented. The model describes a two-phase (coal particles + air) chemically reacting flow, which propagates in a channel with or without an internal heat source (an electric arc, a plasmatron torch, or exothermic chemical reactions). The model is based on the assumption that the process is quasi-stationary and one-dimensional; coal particles are taken as isothermal, and ash is assumed to be an inert component. The model represents the composition of coals by their organic and mineral constituents. The model was implemented as a pro-ram for personal computers; calculations performed with the use of this program are in satisfactory agreement with experimental data.

  7. Acetylene from the co-pyrolysis of biomass and waste tires or coal in the H{sub 2}/Ar plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bao, W.; Cao, Q.; Lv, Y.; Chang, L. [Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan (China)

    2008-07-01

    Acetylene from carbon-containing materials via plasma pyrolysis is not only simple but also environmentally friendly. In this article, the acetylene produced from co-pyrolyzing biomass with waste tire or coal under the conditions of H{sub 2}/Ar DC arc plasma jet was investigated. The experimental results showed that the co-pyrolysis of mixture with biomass and waste tire or coal can improve largely the acetylene relative volume fraction (RVF) in gaseous products and the corresponding yield of acetylene. The change trends for the acetylene yield of plasma pyrolysis from mixture with raw sample properties were the same as relevant RVF. But the yield change trend with feeding rate is different from its RVF. The effects of the feeding rate of raw materials and the electric current of plasmatron on acetylene formation are also discussed.

  8. Mathematical simulation of ignition of a coal-dust suspension in air by a low-temperature plasma jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rychkov, A. D.; Zhukov, M. F.

    1998-05-01

    The process of aerosuspension ignition of a suspension in air in a pulverized-coal burner with a preswitched muffle by a central axisymmetric air stream heated in an electric-arc plasmatron to a temperature of about ≈5000 K is numerically simulated. This process is the basis of a new fuel-oil-free method of ignition of the boilers of thermal power stations. The method is rather promising from the viewpoint of both economy and ecology. The goal of numerical simulation is to study the process of ignition of coal particles in the flow and to identify the conditions necessary for the transition to self-sustained burning of a coal-dust mixture. The results obtained revealed the significant role of radiative heat transfer in initializing the burning process of solid fuel particles.

  9. Advances in physical study of high enthalpy plasma jets of technological interest: emission spectra and plasma characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belevtsev, A. A.; Chinnov, V. F.; Isakaev, E. Kh.; Markin, A. V.; Tazikova, T. F.; Tereshkin, S. A.

    1998-10-01

    Offers a comprehensive study of the emission spectra and plasma characteristics of high enthalpy atmospheric pressure argon and nitrogen jets produced by a high- current industrially important arc plasmatron with a vortex stabilized channel-anode (I4g/s, jet diameter at a minimum-6mm). The spectra are taken at different distances from the cathode in the 200-950nm region with a spectral resolution=3D0.01nm allowing a fine structure of vibronic bands to be essentially resolved except that due to the dublet (spin) splitting and Λ-doubling. Also derived (through the Abel inversion) are radial distributions of plasma components. The spectra obtained have been used for determining plasma composition, the electron component parameters (by atomic/ionic Stark half-widths and intensities) and the assessment of rotational and vibrational temperatures by simulating molecular bands.

  10. Plasma-thermal electric furnace for gasification of carbon-containing waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anshakov A.S.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The plasma-thermal electric furnace for gasification of various carbonaceous wastes (domestic, biological, agricultural, and other organic waste has been created for the first time. Its constituent parts are: hydraulic drive for supplying the packed waste into the reaction zone; gas burner with the thermal power of 42 kW; electric-arc plasmatron with a power of 50 kW; chamber for ash residue melting. The test operation of the electric furnace showed that plasma gasification of carbon-containing materials produces synthesis gas suitable for the needs of heat and electric power industry. The results of thermodynamic calculations are in satisfactory agreement with the experimental data.

  11. Application of Glow Discharge Aes for Investigation of Metal Ions and Water in Biology and Medicine

    CERN Document Server

    Bregadze, Vasil G; Tsakadze, Ketevan J

    2007-01-01

    AES VHF inductively coupled plasmatron may be applied to wide range of studies. It enables rapid microanalysis of various solutions including biological objects and peripheral blood serum. In addition, it may be used for investigation of water desorption from solid bodies and for determination of energetic metal-macromolecule complexes. Study of hydration energy and hydration number by kinetic curves of water glow discharge atomic spectral analysis of hydrogen (GD EAS analysis of hydrogen) desorption from Na-DNA humidified fibers allowed to reveal that structural and conformational changes in activation energy of hydrated water molecules increases by 0.65kcal/Mole of water. The developed method of analysis of elements in solutions containing high concentrations of organic materials allows systematic study of practically healthy persons and reveals risk factors for several diseases. Microelemental content of blood serum fractions showed that amount of not bounded with ceruloplasmin copper was three times more ...

  12. Plasma promoted manufacturing of hydrogen and vehicular applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromberg, Leslie

    2003-10-01

    Plasmas can be used for promoting reformation of fuels. Plasma-based reformers developed at MIT use a low temperature, low power, low current electrical discharge to promote partial oxidation conversion of hydrocarbon fuels into hydrogen and CO. The very fuel rich mixture is hard to ignite, and the plasmatron provides a volume-ignition. To minimize erosion and to simplify the power supply, a low current high voltage discharge is used, with wide area electrodes. The plasmatron fuel reformer operates at or slightly above atmospheric pressure. The plasma-based reformer technology provides the advantages of rapid startup and transient response; efficient conversion of the fuel to hydrogen rich gas; compact size; relaxation or elimination of reformer catalyst requirements; and capability to process difficult to reform fuels. These advantages enable use of hydrogen-manufacturing reformation technology in cars using available fuels, such as gasoline and diesel. This plasma-based reformer technology can provide substantial throughputs even without the use of a catalyst. The electrical power consumption of the device is minimized by design and operational characteristics (less than 500 W peak and 200 W average). The product from these plasma reactors is a hydrogen rich mixture that can be used for combustion enhancement and emissions aftertreatment in vehicular applications. By converting a small fraction of the fuel to hydrogen rich gas, in-cylinder combustion can be improved. With minor modification of the engine, use of hydrogen rich gas results in increased fuel efficiency and decreased emissions of smog producing gases. The status of plasma based reformer technology and its application to vehicles will be described.

  13. Design, integration and preliminary results of the IXV Catalysis experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viladegut, Alan; Panerai, F.; Chazot, O.; Pichon, T.; Bertrand, P.; Verdy, C.; Coddet, C.

    2016-08-01

    The CATalytic Experiment (CATE) is an in-flight demonstration of catalysis effects at the surface of thermal protection materials. A high-catalytic coating was applied over the baseline ceramic material on the windward side of the intermediate experimental vehicle (IXV). The temperature jump due to different catalytic activities was detected during re-entry through measurements made with near-surface thermocouples on the windward side of the vehicle. The experiment aimed at contributing to the development and validation of gas/surface interaction models for re-entry applications. The present paper summarizes the design of CATE and its integration on the windward side of the IXV. Results of a qualification campaign at the Plasmatron facility of the von Karman Institute for Fluid Dynamics are presented. They provided an experimental evidence of the temperature jump at the low-to-high catalytic interface of the heat shield under aerothermal conditions relevant to the actual IXV flight. These tests also gave confidence so that the high-catalytic patch would not endanger the integrity of the vehicle and the safety of the mission. A preliminary assessment of flight data from the thermocouple measurements shows consistency with results of the qualification tests.

  14. New linear plasma devices in the trilateral euregio cluster for an integrated approach to plasma surface interactions in fusion reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unterberg, B., E-mail: b.unterberg@fz-juelich.de [Institut fuer Energieforschung - Plasmaphysik, Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH, Association EURATOM- Forschungszentrum Juelich, D-52425 Juelich (Germany); Jaspers, R. [Science and Technology of Nuclear Fusion, Eindhoven University of Technology, P.O. Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands); Koch, R. [Laboratoire de Physique des Plasmas/Laboratorium voor Plasmafysica, ERM/KMS, EURATOM-Association, B-1000 Brussels (Belgium); Massaut, V. [SCK-CEN, Belgian Nuclear Research Centre, EURATOM-Association, Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium); Rapp, J. [FOM-Institute for Plasma Physics Rijnhuizen, Association EURATOM-FOM, PO Box 1207, 3430 BE Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Reiter, D.; Kraus, S.; Kreter, A.; Philipps, V.; Reimer, H.; Samm, U.; Scheibl, L.; Schweer, B. [Institut fuer Energieforschung - Plasmaphysik, Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH, Association EURATOM- Forschungszentrum Juelich, D-52425 Juelich (Germany); Schuurmans, J.; Uytdenhouwen, I. [SCK-CEN, Belgian Nuclear Research Centre, EURATOM-Association, Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium); Al, R.; Berg, M.A. van den; Brons, S.; Eck, H.J.N. van; Goedheer, W.J. [FOM-Institute for Plasma Physics Rijnhuizen, Association EURATOM-FOM, PO Box 1207, 3430 BE Nieuwegein (Netherlands)

    2011-10-15

    New linear plasma devices are currently being constructed or planned in the Trilateral Euregio Cluster (TEC) to meet the challenges with respect to plasma surface interactions in DEMO and ITER: i) MAGNUM-PSI (FOM), a high particle and power flux device with super-conducting magnetic field coils which will reach ITER-like divertor conditions at high magnetic field, ii) the newly proposed linear plasma device JULE-PSI (FZJ), which will allow to expose toxic and neutron activated target samples to ITER-like fluences and ion energies including in vacuo analysis of neutron activated samples, and iii) the plasmatron VISION I, a compact plasma device which will be operated inside the tritium lab at SCK-CEN Mol, capable to investigate tritium plasmas and moderately activated wall materials. This contribution shows the capabilities of the new devices and their forerunner experiments (Pilot-PSI at FOM and PSI-2 Juelich at FZJ) in view of the main objectives of the new TEC program on plasma surface interactions.

  15. The Process of Plasma Chemical Photoresist Film Ashing from the Surface of Silicon Wafers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siarhei Bordusau

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available At present, the research for finding new technical methods of treating materials with plasma, including the development of energy and resource saving technologies for microelectronic manufacturing, is particularly actual.In order to improve the efficiency of microwave plasma chemical ashing of photoresist films from the surface of silicon wafers a two-stage process of treating was developed. The idea of the developed process is that wafers coated with photoresist are pre-heated by microwave energy. This occurs because the microwave energy initially is not spent on the excitation and maintenance of a microwave discharge but it is absorbed by silicon wafers which have a high tangent of dielectric losses. During the next step after the excitation of the microwave discharge the interaction of oxygen plasma with a pre-heated photoresist films proceeds more intensively. The delay of the start of plasma forming process in the vacuum chamber of a plasmatron with respect to the beginning of microwave energy generation by a magnetron leads to the increase of the total rate of photoresist ashing from the surface of silicon wafers approximately 1.7 times. The advantage of this method of microwave plasma chemical processing of semi-conductor wafers is the possibility of intensifying the process without changing the design of microwave discharge module and without increasing the input microwave power supplied into the discharge.

  16. Fusion Programme SCK-CEN - Annual Report 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massaut, V.

    2010-10-15

    In 2010 SCK-CEN centred his activities in fusion Research and Development around four main poles: 1) the studies of the first wall of future DEMO facility and plasma wall interactions, using the recently refurbished plasmatron VISIONI; 2) the study of the radiation resistance of optical and specific diagnostic components and the development and prototyping of a Fiber Optics Current Sensor (FOCS) for measuring Tokamak plasma current for long plasma pulses and without embarked electronics: 3) the further study, by irradiation and mechanical testing but also by modelling, of the future structural material for a fusion plant, the RAFM Eurofer and the development and characterization of ODS-Eurofer; 4) specific fusion socio-economic studies on fusion, based on the specific developments carried out for fusion and radioactive waste management. SCK-CEN is also strongly involved in the Broader Approach agreement as Designated Institution for the Belgian State, having a coordinating and managing role for all Belgian activities in this agreement. The present report is structured following the work programme 2010 of the Association. Some former activities form the old-EFDA have been grouped with new ones in coherent and collaborative packages. Most activities of SCK-CEN are, and have always been, carried out under EFDA task agreements.

  17. Peculiar features of metallurgical processes at plasma-arc spraying of coatings, made of steel wire with powder fillers B4C and B4C+ZrO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Георгій Михайлович Григоренко

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The interaction of metallurgical processes occurring in plasma-arc spraying between the steel shell and the carbide fillers of B4C and B4C cored wires with the addition of nanocrystalline ZrO2 powder has been analyzed. Iron-boron compounds alloyed with carbon are formed in ingots as a result of ferritiс coating of wire interacrion with fillers while the ferritic matrix contains boride and carboboride eutectics. Average microhardness of the carboboride compounds and the matrix is high – 17,78; 16,40 and 8,69; 9,95 GPa for the ingots with с B4C and B4C+ZrO2 respectively. The best quality coatings with low porosity (~1%, lamellar structure consisting of ferrite matrix reinforced with dispersed Fe borides, were obtained at a higher heat input (plasmatron current 240-250 A. The average amount of oxides in the coatings makes 15%. 0,5% addition of nanopowder ZrO2 accelerates dispersed iron-boron compounds forming, promotes their uniform distribution in the structure and improves coating microhardness up to 7,0 GPa. Application of the differential thermal analysis method to simulate the interaction processes between the steel shell and the filler during the heating of wire in the shielding gas makes it possible to promote formation of new phases (borides and carboborides of iron and to predict the phase composition of the coatings

  18. Plasma coal reprocessing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messerle, V. E.; Ustimenko, A. B.

    2013-12-01

    Results of many years of investigations of plasma-chemical technologies for pyrolysis, hydrogenation, thermochemical preparation for combustion, gasification, and complex reprocessing of solid fuels and hydrocarbon gas cracking are represented. Application of these technologies for obtaining the desired products (hydrogen, industrial carbon, synthesis gas, valuable components of the mineral mass of coal) corresponds to modern ecological and economical requirements to the power engineering, metallurgy, and chemical industry. Plasma fuel utilization technologies are characterized by the short-term residence of reagents within a reactor and the high degree of the conversion of source substances into the desired products without catalyst application. The thermochemical preparation of the fuel to combustion is realized in a plasma-fuel system presenting a reaction chamber with a plasmatron; and the remaining plasma fuel utilization technologies, in a combined plasma-chemical reactor with a nominal power of 100 kW, whose zone of the heat release from an electric arc is joined with the chemical reaction zone.

  19. Diffusion effects on the determination of surface catalysis in Inductively Coupled Plasma facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viladegut, Alan; Düzel, Ümran; Chazot, Olivier

    2017-03-01

    Atomic recombination is an important process to consider when computing the heat flux transferred to the wall of a re-entry vehicle. Two chemical processes are influencing the species diffusion in the boundary layer surrounding a re-usable Thermal Protection System: gas phase reactions and catalytic recombination at the surface. The coupling between them is not normally taken into account when determining the catalytic recombination coefficient (γ) in plasma facilities. This work aims to provide evidence of such coupling based on both a theoretical analysis and an experimental campaign in the VKI-Plasmatron facility. Recombination coefficient measurements at off-stagnation point configuration on a linear copper calorimeter are provided. An evolution from a high-catalytic to a low-catalytic condition due to the boundary layer growth along the probe is observed. This result is consistent with a parametric analysis carried out using the in-house non-equilibrium boundary layer solver, which shows how the experimentally determined catalysis could be influenced by the amount of gas-phase recombination inside the boundary layer.

  20. Comparison of excitation mechanisms in the analytical regions of a high-power two-jet plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaksas, Natalia P., E-mail: zak@niic.nsc.ru

    2015-07-01

    Excitation mechanisms in the analytical regions of a high-power two-jet plasma were investigated. A new plasmatron recently developed was applied in this work. The Boltzmann population of excited levels of Fe atoms and ions was observed in both analytical regions, before and after the jet confluence, as well as in the jet confluence, which proves excitation of atoms and ions by electron impact. The disturbance of local thermodynamic equilibrium in all regions of the plasma flow was deduced on the basis of considerable difference in Fe atomic and ionic excitation temperatures. Such a difference is most likely to be caused by contribution of metastable argon to atom ionization. The region before the jet confluence has the greatest difference in Fe atomic and ionic excitation temperatures and is more non-equilibrium than the region after the confluence due to comparatively low electron and high metastable argon concentrations. Low electron concentration in this region provides lower background emission than in the region after the jet confluence, which leads to better detection limits for the majority of elements. - Highlights: • Excitation mechanisms were investigated in the analytical regions of a high-power TJP. • Boltzmann population of excited levels of Fe atoms and ions takes place in all regions of the plasma flow. • The considerable difference in Fe atomic and ionic excitation temperatures occurs. • Penning ionization by metastable argon results in disturbance of LTE in the plasma. • The region before the jet confluence is more non-equilibrium than after that.

  1. FORMATION AND RESEARCH OF MULTI-LAYER COMPOSITE PLASMA OXIDE COATINGS BASED ON ELEMENTS OF SCREEN METEROID PTOTECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Okovity

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results of research for influence of plasma jet parameters (current, spraying distance, plasmasupporting nitrogen gas consumption, fractional composition of an initial powder and cooling degree by compressed air on characteristics of anti-meteorite coatings, subsequent processing modes by pulsed plasma. Properties of the obtained coatings and results of ballistic tests have been given in the paper. The proposed methodology has been based on complex metallographic, X-ray diffraction and electron microscopic investigations of anti-meteorite aluminum oxide coating. Optimization of air plasma spraying parameters for NiAl and Al2O3 materials has been carried out in the paper. The spraying parameters optimization has been executed on the basis of obtaining maximum materials utilization factor. Surface treatment of model screen elements with a double-layer composite coating (adhesive metal NiAl layer and hard ceramic oxide Al2O3 layer has been fulfilled while using compression plasma stream. Nitrogen has been used as working gas. Composite hard ceramic oxide Al2O3 coating is represented by porous structure consisting of 10–15 µm-size fused Al2O3 particles. Metallic inclusions formed due to erosion of plasmatron electrodes have been observed in the space between the particles. Surface of bilayer composite coatings has been processed by a compression plasma stream and due to nonsteady processes of melting and recrystallization high strength polycrystalline layer has been formed on their surface. In this context, those areas of the polycrystalline layer which had metal inclusions have appeared to be painted in various colors depending on chemical composition of the inclusions.

  2. Plasma processing methods for hydrogen production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizeraczyk, Jerzy; Jasiński, Mariusz

    2016-08-01

    In the future a transfer from the fossil fuel-based economy to hydrogen-based economy is expected. Therefore the development of systems for efficient H2 production becomes important. The several conventional methods of mass-scale (or central) H2 production (methane, natural gas and higher hydrocarbons reforming, coal gasification reforming) are well developed and their costs of H2 production are acceptable. However, due to the H2 transport and storage problems the small-scale (distributed) technologies for H2 production are demanded. However, these new technologies have to meet the requirement of producing H2 at a production cost of (1-2)/kg(H2) (or 60 g(H2)/kWh) by 2020 (the U.S. Department of Energy's target). Recently several plasma methods have been proposed for the small-scale H2 production. The most promising plasmas for this purpose seems to be those generated by gliding, plasmatron and nozzle arcs, and microwave discharges. In this paper plasma methods proposed for H2 production are briefly described and critically evaluated from the view point of H2 production efficiency. The paper is aiming at answering a question if any plasma method for the small-scale H2 production approaches such challenges as the production energy yield of 60 g(H2)/kWh, high production rate, high reliability and low investment cost. Contribution to the topical issue "6th Central European Symposium on Plasma Chemistry (CESPC-6)", edited by Nicolas Gherardi, Ester Marotta and Cristina Paradisi

  3. Plasma catalytic reforming of methane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bromberg, L.; Cohn, D.R.; Rabinovich, A. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States). Plasma Science and Fusion Center; Alexeev, N. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation). Baikov Inst. of Metallurgy

    1998-08-01

    Thermal plasma technology can be efficiently used in the production of hydrogen and hydrogen-rich gases from methane and a variety of fuels. This paper describes progress in plasma reforming experiments and calculations of high temperature conversion of methane using heterogeneous processes. The thermal plasma is a highly energetic state of matter that is characterized by extremely high temperatures (several thousand degrees Celsius) and high degree of dissociation and substantial degree of ionization. The high temperatures accelerate the reactions involved in the reforming process. Hydrogen-rich gas (50% H{sub 2}, 17% CO and 33% N{sub 2}, for partial oxidation/water shifting) can be efficiently made in compact plasma reformers. Experiments have been carried out in a small device (2--3 kW) and without the use of efficient heat regeneration. For partial oxidation/water shifting, it was determined that the specific energy consumption in the plasma reforming processes is 16 MJ/kg H{sub 2} with high conversion efficiencies. Larger plasmatrons, better reactor thermal insulation, efficient heat regeneration and improved plasma catalysis could also play a major role in specific energy consumption reduction and increasing the methane conversion. A system has been demonstrated for hydrogen production with low CO content ({approximately} 1.5%) with power densities of {approximately} 30 kW (H{sub 2} HHV)/liter of reactor, or {approximately} 10 m{sup 3}/hr H{sub 2} per liter of reactor. Power density should further increase with increased power and improved design.

  4. Analysis of non-equilibrium phenomena in inductively coupled plasma generators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, W.; Lani, A.; Panesi, M.

    2016-07-01

    This work addresses the modeling of non-equilibrium phenomena in inductively coupled plasma discharges. In the proposed computational model, the electromagnetic induction equation is solved together with the set of Navier-Stokes equations in order to compute the electromagnetic and flow fields, accounting for their mutual interaction. Semi-classical statistical thermodynamics is used to determine the plasma thermodynamic properties, while transport properties are obtained from kinetic principles, with the method of Chapman and Enskog. Particle ambipolar diffusive fluxes are found by solving the Stefan-Maxwell equations with a simple iterative method. Two physico-mathematical formulations are used to model the chemical reaction processes: (1) A Local Thermodynamics Equilibrium (LTE) formulation and (2) a thermo-chemical non-equilibrium (TCNEQ) formulation. In the TCNEQ model, thermal non-equilibrium between the translational energy mode of the gas and the vibrational energy mode of individual molecules is accounted for. The electronic states of the chemical species are assumed in equilibrium with the vibrational temperature, whereas the rotational energy mode is assumed to be equilibrated with translation. Three different physical models are used to account for the coupling of chemistry and energy transfer processes. Numerical simulations obtained with the LTE and TCNEQ formulations are used to characterize the extent of non-equilibrium of the flow inside the Plasmatron facility at the von Karman Institute. Each model was tested using different kinetic mechanisms to assess the sensitivity of the results to variations in the reaction parameters. A comparison of temperatures and composition profiles at the outlet of the torch demonstrates that the flow is in non-equilibrium for operating conditions characterized by pressures below 30 000 Pa, frequency 0.37 MHz, input power 80 kW, and mass flow 8 g/s.

  5. Modelling of the pulverised coal preparation for combustion in a plasma chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Z. Jankoski; F.C. Lockwood; V. Messerle; E. Karpenko; A. Ustimenko [Imperial College London, London (United Kingdom). Department of Mechanical Engineering

    2003-07-01

    The objective of this study is to simulate the behaviour of pulverized coal in the plasma chamber through numerical experiments carried out with the aid of developed thermodynamic, kinetic and multi dimensional computational fluid dynamics based mathematical models. The data needed for the validation of the numerical procedure were obtained from a cylindrical direct flow burner equipped with a plasmatron (plasma generator) with 100 kW of electric power and mounted on a full-scale boiler (Gusinoozersk TPP, Eastern Siberia). The experiments were carried out using 'Tugnuisk' bituminous coal. Two mathematical models were employed: the one ('1D Plasma-Coal') being one dimensional, but with an emphasis on complex chemistry, the other (3D FAFNIR) being fully three-dimensional with emphasis on the geometry and overall combustion processes. 1D Plasma-Coal numerical experiments gave the predicted temperatures and velocities of gas and solids along the chamber length; while the concentrations of the gas components (CO, CO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, C{sub 6}H{sub 6}, N{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O) were reported for the chamber exit. The degree of coal gasification showed that 54% of coal carbon was gasified within the plasma chamber. 3D numerical results for plasma jet spreading length were in good agreement with the measured data, while the temperature profiles within the plasma chamber were over predicted. The predictions of main species concentrations reveal that oxygen was completely consumed with the exit product stream consisting of combustible gases, un-burnt volatiles and char particles.

  6. Air plasma-material interactions at the oxidized surface of the PM1000 nickel-chromium superalloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panerai, Francesco, E-mail: panerai@vki.ac.be [Aeronautics and Aerospace Department, von Karman Institute for Fluid Dynamics, Chaussée de Waterloo 72, 1640 Rhode-Saint-Genèse (Belgium); Marschall, Jochen [Molecular Physics Program, SRI International, 333 Ravenswood Avenue, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); Thömel, Jan [Aeronautics and Aerospace Department, von Karman Institute for Fluid Dynamics, Chaussée de Waterloo 72, 1640 Rhode-Saint-Genèse (Belgium); Vandendael, Isabelle; Hubin, Annick [Department of Materials and Chemistry, Research Group of Electrochemical and Surface Engineering, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Pleinlaan 2, B-1050 Brussels (Belgium); Chazot, Olivier [Aeronautics and Aerospace Department, von Karman Institute for Fluid Dynamics, Chaussée de Waterloo 72, 1640 Rhode-Saint-Genèse (Belgium)

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • A detail investigation on behavior of a Ni–Cr superalloy under air plasma is proposed. • The response of PM1000 specimens at high temperature/low pressure is characterized. • High volatility of Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} scale in presence of oxygen is found experimentally. • Stability of NiO scale at the surface is observed. • Computed thermodynamic volatility diagrams confirm the experimental observations. - Abstract: Nickel-based superalloys are promising options for the thermal protection systems of hypersonic re-entry vehicles operating under moderate aerothermal heating conditions. We present an experimental study on the interactions between PM1000, an oxide dispersion strengthened nickel-chromium superalloy, and air plasma at surface temperatures between 1000 and 1600 K and pressures of 1500, 7500 and 10,000 Pa. Pre-oxidized PM1000 specimens are tested in high-enthalpy reactive air plasma flows generated by the Plasmatron wind tunnel at the von Karman Institute for Fluid Dynamics. Microscopic analysis of plasma-exposed specimens shows enhanced damage to the chromia scale at the lowest plasma pressure. Elemental surface analysis reveals the loss of Cr and the enhancement of Ni at the scale surface. A thermodynamic analysis supports the accelerated volatilization of Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} and the relative stability of NiO in the presence of atomic oxygen. Changes in the reflectance and emissivity of the oxidized surfaces due to plasma-exposure are presented. The catalytic efficiencies for dissociated air species recombination are determined as a function of surface temperature and pressure through a numerical rebuilding procedure and are compared with values presented in the literature for the same material.

  7. Application of potassium tetrafluorobromate to the rapid decomposition and determination of noble metals in chromites and related materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitkin, V. N.; Zayakina, S. B.; Tsimbalist, V. G.; Galizky, A. A.

    2003-02-01

    Described is an effective new procedure for the preparation of chromites and other geological materials for the determination of the noble metals (NM). The procedure is based on the use of a mixture of KBrF 4 and KHF 2 obtained in situ by adding liquid BrF 3 to a mixture of KHF 2 and sample powder. South African Geostandards SARM-7 platinum ore from the Merensky Reef and SARM-65, a platinum-bearing chromite ore, were used for method development. Following fluorinative decomposition of samples, a homogeneous product is obtained which is suitable for instrumental analysis using either atomic absorption or emission spectrometry techniques. Sulfatization of fusion product using H 2SO 4 produces a non-hygroscopic material, which can be easily powdered and sampled directly into the argon plasma. Solution-based analytical techniques can be applied directly after fluorinative decomposition and conversion of resulting fluorides into chlorides by HCl treatment. The proposed new method, combined with spectrometric emission analysis of powders using a double-jet plasmatron dc plasma atomic emission spectrometry (AES) instrument achieved the following limits of detection (LOD) for the noble metals: Ag, Au and Pd: 1-2×10 -2 g/ton; Pt: 5×10 -2 g/ton; Ru, Rh, Ir and Os: 1-3×10 -3 g/ton. Graphic furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) with preliminary extraction, LODs for NMs were: Pt and Ru: 1×10 -2; Pd and Rh: 1×10 -3; Au and Ag: 1-2×10 -4 g/ton. The relative standard deviation of NM determinations was dependent on concentration and sample type but commonly was in the range of 3-15% dc plasma AES and 5-30% for extraction GFAAS.

  8. DEVELOPMENT OF COMPLEX EQUIPMENT FOR PLASMA SPRAY CERAMIC COATINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Okovity

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Develop a set equipment for plasma forming ceramic coatings. The article presents characteristics and parameters of the developed complex equipment for formation of plasma ceramic coatings as well as results of its testing. Methods of research is based on studies of structural elements composite plasma coatings system ZrO2 – Y2O3  obtained  using  developed complex equipment. One of the most effective ways to protect the components from high temperature corrosion and oxidation is formation on the surface of plasma thermal barrier coatings. For thermal barrier coating has very strict requirements: сharacterized by a smooth change of physico-mechanical properties (porosity, microhardness, elastic modulus in the cross section of the metal substrate to the outer ceramic layer; to withstand multiple cycles of thermal cycling from room temperature to the operating temperature; to maintain gastightness under operating conditions and thus ensure a sufficiently high level of adhesive strength. For realization of new technological schemes applying thermal barrier coatings with high operational characteristics was developed, patented and manufactured a range of new equipment. The experiments show that authors developed PBG-1 plasmatron and powder feeder PPBG-04 have at least 2–3 times the service life during the deposition of ceramic materials compared to the standard equipment of the company "Plasma-Technik", by changing the structure of the cathode-anode plasma torch assembly and construction of the delivery unit of the feeder to facilitate the uniform supply of the powder into the plasma jet and the best of his penetration. The result is better plasma coatings with improved operational characteristics: adhesion strength is increased to 1.3–2 times, material utilization in 1.5–1.6 times microhardness 1.2–1.4 times the porosity is reduced by 2–2.5 times.

  9. Plasma Wall Interaction Phenomena on Tungsten Armour Materials for Fusion Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uytdenhouwen, I. [SCK.CEN - The Belgian Nuclear Research Centre, Institute for Nuclear Materials Science, Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium); Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH, EURATOM-association, D-52425 Juelich (Germany); Department of Applied Physics, Ghent University, Rozier 44, 9000 Ghent (Belgium); Massaut, V. [Department of Applied Physics, Ghent University, Rozier 44, 9000 Ghent (Belgium); Linke, J. [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH, EURATOM-association, D-52425 Juelich (Germany); Van Oost, G. [Department of Applied Physics, Ghent University, Rozier 44, 9000 Ghent (Belgium)

    2008-07-01

    One of the most attractive future complements to present energy sources is nuclear fusion. A large progress was made throughout the last decade from both the physical as the technological area leading to the construction of the ITER machine. One of the key issues that recently received a large interest at international level is focused on the Plasma Wall Interaction (PWI). One of the promising Plasma Facing Materials (PFM) are Tungsten (W) and Tungsten alloys. However, despite the worldwide use and industrial availability of W, the database of physical and mechanical properties is very limited. Especially after fusion relevant neutron irradiation and PWI phenomena, most of the properties are still unknown. The plasma fuel consists out of deuterium (D) and tritium (T). Tritium is radio-active and therefore an issue from the safety point of view. During steady-state plasma operation of future fusion power plants, the PFM need to extract a power density of {approx}10-20 MW/m{sup 2}. On top of this heat, transient events will deposit an additional non-negligible amount of energy (Disruptions, Vertical Displacement Events, Edge Localized Modes) during short durations. These severe heat loads cause cracking and even melting of the surface resulting in a reduced lifetime and the creation of dust. A contribution to the understanding of cracking phenomena under the severe thermal loads is described as well as the properties degradation under neutron irradiation. Several W grades were irradiated in the BR2 reactor (SCK.CEN) and the thermal loads were simulated with the electron-beam facility JUDITH (FZJ). Since knowledge should be gained about the Tritium retention in the PFM for safety and licensing reasons, a unique test facility at SCK.CEN is being set-up. The plasmatron VISION-I will simulate steady state plasmas for Tritium retention studies. The formation of surface cracks and dust, the initial porosity, neutron induced traps, re-deposited material - change the Tritium

  10. Plasma-Based Ion Beam Sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loeb, H. W.

    2005-07-01

    Ion beam sources cover a broad spectrum of scientific and technical applications delivering ion currents between less than 1 mA and about 100 A at acceleration voltages between 100 V and 100 kV. The ions are mostly generated by electron collisions in a gas discharge and then extracted from the discharge plasma, focused and post-accelerated by single- or multi-aperture electrode systems. Some important applications require the neutralization of the exhausted beam either by charge exchange or by admixture of electrons. In the first part of the paper, the theory of ionization by electron impact, the energy and carrier balances in the plasma, and the extraction and focusing mechanisms will be outlined. The principles of the preferred gas discharges and of the ion beam sources based on them are discussed; i.e. of the Penning, bombardment, arc, duoplasmatron, radio frequency, and microwave types. In the second part of the paper, the special requirements of the different applications are described together with the related source hardware. One distinguishes: 1. Single-aperture ion sources producing protons, heavy ions, isotope ions, etc. for particle accelerators, ion microprobes, mass spectrometers, isotope separators, etc.; quality determinative quantities are brightness, emittance, energy width, etc. 2. Broad-beam multi-aperture injector sources for fusion machines with positive or negative deuterium ions; very high beam densities, small portions of molecular ions, flat beam profiles with small divergence angles, etc. are required. 3. Broad-beam multi-aperture ion thrusters for space propulsion operated with singly charged xenon ions; high efficiencies, reliable operation, and long lifetimes are most important. Spin-offs are applied in industry for material processing. Referring to these applications, the following sources will be described in some detail: 1. Cold cathode and filament driven sources, capillary arc and plasmatron types, microwave and ECR-sources. 2