WorldWideScience

Sample records for plasmaspheric flux tube

  1. Charm production in flux tubes

    CERN Document Server

    Aguiar, C E; Nazareth, R A M S; Pech, G

    1996-01-01

    We argue that the non-perturbative Schwinger mechanism may play an important role in the hadronic production of charm. We present a flux tube model which assumes that the colliding hadrons become color charged because of gluon exchange, and that a single non-elementary flux tube is built up as they recede. The strong chromoelectric field inside this tube creates quark pairs (including charmed ones) and the ensuing color screening breaks the tube into excited hadronic clusters. On their turn these clusters, or `fireballs', decay statistically into the final hadrons. The model is able to account for the soft production of charmed, strange and lighter hadrons within a unified framework.

  2. Charm production in flux tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiar, C. E.; Kodama, T.; Nazareth, R. A. M. S.; Pech, G.

    1996-01-01

    We argue that the nonperturbative Schwinger mechanism may play an important role in the hadronic production of charm. We present a flux tube model which assumes that the colliding hadrons become color charged because of gluon exchange, and that a single nonelementary flux tube is built up as they recede. The strong chromoelectric field inside this tube creates quark pairs (including charmed ones) and the ensuing color screening breaks the tube into excited hadronic clusters. In their turn these clusters, or ``fireballs,'' decay statistically into the final hadrons. The model is able to account for the soft production of charmed, strange, and lighter hadrons within a unified framework.

  3. Physics of magnetic flux tubes

    CERN Document Server

    Ryutova, Margarita

    2015-01-01

    This book is the first account of the physics of magnetic flux tubes from their fundamental properties to collective phenomena in an ensembles of flux tubes. The physics of magnetic flux tubes is absolutely vital for understanding fundamental physical processes in the solar atmosphere shaped and governed by magnetic fields. High-resolution and high cadence observations from recent space and  ground-based instruments taken simultaneously at different heights and temperatures not only show the ubiquity of filamentary structure formation but also allow to study how various events are interconnected by system of magnetic flux tubes. The book covers both theory and observations. Theoretical models presented in analytical and phenomenological forms are tailored for practical applications. These are welded with state-of-the-art observations from early decisive ones to the most recent data that open a new phase-space for exploring the Sun and sun-like stars. Concept of magnetic flux tubes is central to various magn...

  4. Flux tubes at Finite Temperature

    CERN Document Server

    Bicudo, Pedro; Cardoso, Marco

    2016-01-01

    We show the flux tubes produced by static quark-antiquark, quark-quark and quark-gluon charges at finite temperature. The sources are placed in the lattice with fundamental and adjoint Polyakov loops. We compute the square densities of the chromomagnetic and chromoelectric fields above and below the phase transition. Our results are gauge invariant and produced in pure gauge SU(3). The codes are written in CUDA and the computations are performed with GPUs.

  5. Investigating the Dynamics of Canonical Flux Tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    von der Linden, Jens; Sears, Jason; Intrator, Thomas; You, Setthivoine

    2016-10-01

    Canonical flux tubes are flux tubes of the circulation of a species' canonical momentum. They provide a convenient generalization of magnetic flux tubes to regimes beyond magnetohydrodynamics (MHD). We hypothesize that hierarchies of instabilities which couple disparate scales could transfer magnetic pitch into helical flows and vice versa while conserving the total canonical helicity. This work first explores the possibility of a sausage instability existing on top of a kink as mechanism for coupling scales, then presents the evolution of canonical helicity in a gyrating kinked flux rope. Analytical and numerical stability spaces derived for magnetic flux tubes with core and skin currents indicate that, as a flux tube lengthens and collimates, it may become kink unstable with a sausage instability developing on top of the kink. A new analysis of 3D magnetic field and ion flow data on gyrating kinked magnetic flux ropes from the Reconnection Scaling Experiment tracks the evolution of canonical flux tubes and their helicity. These results and methodology are being developed as part of the Mochi experiment specifically designed to observe the dynamics of canonical flux tubes. This work is supported by DOE Grant DE-SC0010340 and the DOE Office of Science Graduate Student Research Program and prepared in part by LLNL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344. LLNL-ABS-697161.

  6. Wave heating in magnetic flux tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalkofen, Wolfgang

    1990-01-01

    The bright chromosphere in the quiet sun is confined to magnetic elements (flux tubes), which are located in the interior of the supergranulation cells and within the network that surrounds the cells. The paper discusses the heating of the gas in the magnetic elements of the cell interior. These intranetwork flux tubes are closely associated with bright points, which are heated by large-amplitude compressive waves with periods near the acoustic cutoff that travel outward from the photosphere and dissipate their energy in the chromosphere. The energy flux of these long-period waves appears to be sufficient for the heating of the low and middle chromosphere in the bright points.

  7. Flux-Tube Formation and Holographic Tunneling

    CERN Document Server

    Gorsky, A S

    2008-01-01

    We consider correlator of two concentric Wilson loops, a small and large ones related to the problem of flux-tube formation. There are three mechanisms which can contribute to the connected correlator and yield different dependences on the radius of the small loop. The first one is quite standard and concerns exchange by supergravity modes. We also consider a novel mechanism when the flux-tube formation is described by a barrier transition in the string language, dual to the field-theoretic formulation of Yang-Mills theories. The most interesting possibility within this approach is resonant tunneling which would enhance the correlator of the Wilson loops for particular geometries. The third possibility involves exchange by a dyonic string supplied with the string junction. We introduce also t'Hooft and composite dyonic loops as probes of the flux tube. Implications for lattice measurements are briefly discussed.

  8. Constructing Hybrid Baryons with Flux Tubes

    CERN Document Server

    Capstick, Simon; Capstick, Simon; Page, Philip R.

    1999-01-01

    Hybrid baryon states are described in quark potential models as having explicit excitation of the gluon degrees of freedom. Such states are described in a model motivated by the strong coupling limit of Hamiltonian lattice gauge theory, where three flux tubes meeting at a junction play the role of the glue. The adiabatic approximation for the quark motion is used, and the flux tubes and junction are modeled by beads which are attracted to each other and the quarks by a linear potential, and vibrate in various string modes. Quantum numbers and estimates of the energies of the lightest hybrid baryons are provided.

  9. Pentaquark in the flux tube model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwasaki, M.; Takagi, F.

    2008-03-01

    We propose a model for pentaquarks in an excited state in the flux tube picture. The pentaquark is assumed to be composed of two diquarks and an antiquark connected by a color flux tube with a junction. If the pentaquark is rotating rapidly, it is polarized into two clusters: one is a diquark and the other is an antiquark plus another diquark. Excited energy of this quasilinear system is calculated with the use of the WKB approximation. It is predicted that there exist quasistable excited pentaquarks: 1690MeV(3/2+), 2000MeV(5/2-), 2250MeV(7/2+) etc., which decay mainly through three-body modes.

  10. Models of Flux Tubes from Constrained Relaxation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Α. Mangalam; V. Krishan

    2000-09-01

    We study the relaxation of a compressible plasma to an equilibrium with flow. The constraints of conservation of mass, energy, angular momentum, cross-helicity and relative magnetic helicity are imposed. Equilibria corresponding to the energy extrema while conserving these invariants for parallel flows yield three classes of solutions and one of them with an increasing radial density profile, relevant to solar flux tubes is presented.

  11. The Topology of Canonical Flux Tubes in Flared Jet Geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sander Lavine, Eric; You, Setthivoine

    2017-01-01

    Magnetized plasma jets are generally modeled as magnetic flux tubes filled with flowing plasma governed by magnetohydrodynamics (MHD). We outline here a more fundamental approach based on flux tubes of canonical vorticity, where canonical vorticity is defined as the circulation of the species’ canonical momentum. This approach extends the concept of magnetic flux tube evolution to include the effects of finite particle momentum and enables visualization of the topology of plasma jets in regimes beyond MHD. A flared, current-carrying magnetic flux tube in an ion-electron plasma with finite ion momentum is thus equivalent to either a pair of electron and ion flow flux tubes, a pair of electron and ion canonical momentum flux tubes, or a pair of electron and ion canonical vorticity flux tubes. We examine the morphology of all these flux tubes for increasing electrical currents, different radial current profiles, different electron Mach numbers, and a fixed, flared, axisymmetric magnetic geometry. Calculations of gauge-invariant relative canonical helicities track the evolution of magnetic, cross, and kinetic helicities in the system, and show that ion flow fields can unwind to compensate for an increasing magnetic twist. The results demonstrate that including a species’ finite momentum can result in a very long collimated canonical vorticity flux tube even if the magnetic flux tube is flared. With finite momentum, particle density gradients must be normal to canonical vorticities, not to magnetic fields, so observations of collimated astrophysical jets could be images of canonical vorticity flux tubes instead of magnetic flux tubes.

  12. MAGNETIC FLUX TUBE INTERCHANGE AT THE HELIOPAUSE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Florinski, V., E-mail: vaf0001@uah.edu [Department of Space Science and Center for Space Plasma and Aeronomic Research, University of Alabama in Huntsville, Huntsville, AL 35899 (United States)

    2015-11-01

    The magnetic field measured by Voyager 1 prior to its heliocliff encounter on 2012.65 showed an unexpectedly complex transition from the primarily azimuthal inner-heliosheath field to the draped interstellar field tilted by some 20° to the nominal azimuthal direction. Most prominent were two regions of enhanced magnetic field strength depleted in energetic charged particles of heliospheric origin. These regions were interpreted as magnetic flux tubes connected to the outer heliosheath that provided a path for the particles to escape. Despite large increases in strength, the field’s direction did not change appreciably at the boundaries of these flux tubes. Rather, the field’s direction changed gradually over several months prior to the heliocliff crossing. It is shown theoretically that the heliopause, as a pressure equilibrium layer, can become unstable to interchange of magnetic fields between the inner and the outer heliosheaths. The curvature of magnetic field lines and the anti-sunward gradient in plasma kinetic pressure provide conditions favorable for an interchange. Magnetic shear between the heliosheath and the interstellar fields reduces the growth rates, but does not fully stabilize the heliopause against perturbations propagating in the latitudinal direction. The instability could create a transition layer permeated by magnetic flux tubes, oriented parallel to each other and alternately connected to the heliosheath or the interstellar regions.

  13. Whistler Wave Energy Flow in the Plasmasphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kletzing, Craig; Santolik, Ondrej; Kurth, William; Hospodarsky, George; Christopher, Ivar; Bounds, Scott

    2016-07-01

    The measured wave properties of plasmaspheric hiss are important to constrain models of the generation of hiss as well as its propagation and amplification. For example, the generation mechanism for plasmaspheric hiss has been suggested to come from one of three possible mechanisms: 1) local generation and amplification, 2) whistlers from lightning, and 3) chorus emissions which have refracted into the plasmasphere. The latter two mechanisms are external sources which produce an incoherent hiss signature as the original waves mix in a stochastic manner, propagating in both directions along the background magnetic field. In contrast, local generation of plasmaspheric hiss within the plasmasphere should produce a signature of waves propagating away from the source region. For all three mechanisms scattering of energetic particles into the loss cone transfers some energy from the particles to the waves. By examining the statistical characteristics of the Poynting flux of plasmaspheric hiss, we can determine the properties of wave energy flow in the plasmasphere. We report on the statistics of observations from the Electric and Magnetic Field Instrument Suite and Integrated Science (EMFISIS) Waves instrument on the Van Allen Probes for periods when the spacecraft is inside the plasmasphere. We find that the Poynting flux associated with plasmaspheric hiss has distinct and unexpected radial structure which shows that there can be significant energy flow towards the magnetic equator. We show the properties of this electromagnetic energy flow as a function of position and frequency.

  14. Fermion confinement by a relativistic flux tube

    CERN Document Server

    Olsson, M G; Williams, K; Olsson, M G; Veseli, S; Williams, K

    1996-01-01

    We formulate the description of the dynamic confinement of a single fermion by a flux tube. The range of validity extends from the relativistic corrections of a slowly moving quark to the ultra-relativistic motion in a heavy-light meson. The reduced Salpeter equation, also known as the no-pair equation, provides the framework for our discussion. The Regge structure is that of a Nambu string with one end fixed. Numerical solutions are found giving very good fits to heavy-light meson masses. The Isgur-Wise function with a zero recoil slope of \\xi'(1)\\simeq -1.23 is obtained.

  15. Hall instability of solar flux tubes

    CERN Document Server

    Pandey, B P

    2011-01-01

    The magnetic network which consists of vertical flux tubes located in intergranular lanes is dominated by Hall drift in the photosphere-lower chromosphere region ($\\lesssim 1\\,{Mm}$). In the internetwork regions, Hall drift dominates above $0.25\\,{Mm}$ in the photosphere and below $2.5\\,{Mm}$ in the chromosphere. Although Hall drift does not cause any dissipation in the ambient plasma, it can destabilise flux tubes and magnetic elements in the presence of an azimuthal shear flow, which destabilises whistler waves. The physical mechanism of this instability is quite simple: the shear flow twists the radial magnetic field and generates azimuthal field; torsional oscillations of the azimuthal field in turn generates the radial field completing a feedback loop. The maximum growth rate of the Hall instability is proportional to the absolute value of the shear gradient and is dependent on the ambient diffusivity. The diffusivity also determines the cut--off wavenumber which is narrower for the stronger fields. We a...

  16. (Hybrid) Baryons in the Flux-Tube Model

    CERN Document Server

    Page, P R

    1999-01-01

    We construct baryons and hybrid baryons in the non-relativistic flux-tube model of Isgur and Paton. The motion of the flux-tube with the three quark positions fixed, except for centre of mass corrections, is discussed. It is shown that the problem can to an excellent approximation be reduced to the independent motion of a junction and strings.

  17. Shocks and Thermal Conduction Fronts in Retracting Reconnected Flux Tubes

    CERN Document Server

    Guidoni, Silvina

    2010-01-01

    We present a model for plasma heating produced by time-dependent, spatially localized reconnection within a flare current sheet separating skewed magnetic fields. The reconnection creates flux tubes of new connectivity which subsequently retract at Alfv\\'enic speeds from the reconnection site. Heating occurs in gas-dynamic shocks which develop inside these tubes. Here we present generalized thin flux tube equations for the dynamics of reconnected flux tubes, including pressure-driven parallel dynamics as well as temperature dependent, anisotropic viscosity and thermal conductivity. The evolution of tubes embedded in a uniform, skewed magnetic field, following reconnection in a patch, is studied through numerical solutions of these equations, for solar coronal conditions. Even though viscosity and thermal conductivity are negligible in the quiet solar corona, the strong gas-dynamic shocks generated by compressing plasma inside reconnected flux tubes generate large velocity and temperature gradients along the t...

  18. Supersymmetric quantum mechanics of the flux tube

    CERN Document Server

    Belitsky, A V

    2016-01-01

    The Operator Product Expansion approach to scattering amplitudes in maximally supersymmetric gauge theory operates in terms of pentagon transitions for excitations propagating on a color flux tube. These obey a set of axioms which allow to determine them to all orders in 't Hooft coupling and confront against explicit calculations. One of the simplifying features of the formalism is the factorizability of multiparticle transitions in terms of single-particle ones. In this paper we extend an earlier consideration of a sector populated by one kind of excitations to the case of a system with fermionic as well as bosonic degrees of freedom to address the origin of the factorization. While the purely bosonic case was analyzed within an integrable noncompact open-spin chain model, the current case is solved in the framework of a supersymmetric sl(2|1) magnet. We find the eigenfunctions for the multiparticle system making use of the R-matrix approach. Constructing resulting pentagon transitions, we prove their facto...

  19. Supersymmetric quantum mechanics of the flux tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belitsky, A. V.

    2016-12-01

    The Operator Product Expansion approach to scattering amplitudes in maximally supersymmetric gauge theory operates in terms of pentagon transitions for excitations propagating on a color flux tube. These obey a set of axioms which allow one to determine them to all orders in 't Hooft coupling and confront against explicit calculations. One of the simplifying features of the formalism is the factorizability of multiparticle transitions in terms of single-particle ones. In this paper we extend an earlier consideration of a sector populated by one kind of excitations to the case of a system with fermionic as well as bosonic degrees of freedom to address the origin of the factorization. While the purely bosonic case was analyzed within an integrable noncompact open-spin chain model, the current case is solved in the framework of a supersymmetric sl (2 | 1) magnet. We find the eigenfunctions for the multiparticle system making use of the R-matrix approach. Constructing resulting pentagon transitions, we prove their factorized form. The discussion corresponds to leading order of perturbation theory.

  20. Magnetic flux tubes as sources of wave generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musielak, Z. E.; Rosner, R.; Ulmschneider, P.

    1987-01-01

    The structure of solar, and very likely stellar, surface magnetic fields is highly inhomogeneous: at the photospheric level, the fields are locally strong, and show concentration into a flux tube structure. In this case, the wave energy generated in stellar convection zones may be largely carried away by flux tube waves, which can then become important sources for the heating of the outer atmospheric layers. Such flux tube wave generation may help to explain the UV and X-ray fluxes observed by the IUE and Einstein observatories. The generation of longitudinal tube waves in magnetic flux tubes embedded in an otherwise magnetic field-free, turbulent, and stratified medium was considered. It is shown that compressible tube waves are generated by dipole emission and that the generation efficiency is a strong function of the magnetic field strength. Energy flux calculations are presented for different magnetic flux tubes, and show how the results depend on the magnetic field strength and the characteristics of the convective turbulence.

  1. Moving magnetic tubes: fragmentation, vortex streets and the limit of the approximation of thin flux tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, M. C. M.; Moreno-Insertis, F.; Schüssler, M.

    2006-05-01

    Aims.We study the buoyant rise of magnetic flux tubes in a stratified layer over a range of Reynolds numbers (25 ⪉ Re ⪉ 2600) by means of numerical simulations. Special emphasis is placed on studying the fragmentation of the rising tube, its trailing wake and the formation of a vortex street in the high-Reynolds number regime. Furthermore, we evaluate the relevance of the thin flux tube approximation with regard to describing the evolution of magnetic flux tubes in the simulations. Methods: .We used the FLASH code, which has an adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) algorithm, thus allowing the simulations to be carried out at high Reynolds numbers. Results: .The evolution of the magnetic flux tube and its wake depends on the Reynolds number. At Re up to a few hundred, the wake consists of two counter-rotating vortex rolls. At higher Re, the vortex rolls break up and the shedding of flux into the wake occurs in a more intermittent fashion. The amount of flux retained by the central portion of the tube increases with the field line twist (in agreement with previous literature) and with Re. The time evolution of the twist is compatible with a homologous expansion of the tube. The motion of the central portion of the tube in the simulations is very well described by the thin flux tube model whenever the effects of flux loss or vortex forces can be neglected. If the flux tube has an initial net vorticity, it undergoes asymmetric vortex shedding. In this case, the lift force accelerates the tube in such a way that an oscillatory horizontal motion is super-imposed on the vertical rise of the tube, which leaves behind a vortex street. This last result is in accordance with previous simulations reported in the literature, which were carried out at lower Reynolds number.

  2. Anatomy of SU(3) flux tubes at finite temperature

    CERN Document Server

    Cea, Paolo; Cuteri, Francesca; Papa, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    An attempt to adapt the study of color flux tubes to the case of finite temperature has been made. The field is measured both through the correlator of two Polyakov loops, one of which connected to a plaquette, and through a connected correlator of Wilson loop and plaquette in the spatial sublattice. Still the profile of the flux tube resembles the transverse field distribution around an isolated vortex in an ordinary superconductor. The temperature dependence of all the parameters characterizing the flux tube is investigated.

  3. Wavefunction Properties of a Single and a System of Magnetic Flux Tube(s) Oscillations

    CERN Document Server

    Esmaeili, Shahriar; Dadashi, Neda; Safari, Hossein

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the properties of wavefunctions of the MHD oscillations for a single and a system of straight flux tubes are investigated. Magnetic flux tubes with a straight magnetic field and longitudinally density stratification under coronal conditions were considered. With repect to the density inhomogeneity in the radial direction of the flux tube, a smoothed step function at the lateral surface is employed. A single three-dimensional wave equation for longitudinal component of the perturbed magnetic field is solved using the finite element method (FEM). Wavefunctions of the MHD oscillations are categorized into kink, sausage, and torsional modes. Concerning the amplitude location of the waves which are arisen from the flux tube, those waves identified as body, surface, and leaky waves and appeared in both a single and a system of flux tubes cases. Exact recognition of the wavefunctions can be used in coronal seismology and also helps to future the high resolution instruments that would be designed for s...

  4. J/$\\psi$-dissociation by a color electric flux tube

    CERN Document Server

    Loh, S; Mosel, U

    1997-01-01

    We adress the question of how a $c-\\bar{c}$-state (a $J/\\psi $) can be dissociated by the strong color electric fields when moving through a color electric flux tube. The color electric flux tube and the dissociation of the heavy quarkonia state are both described within the Friedberg-Lee color dielectric model. We speculate on the importance of such an effect with respect to the observed $J/\\psi $-suppression in ultrarelativistic heavy ion collisions.

  5. Evidence for Significant Local Generation of Plasmaspheric Hiss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kletzing, C.; Kurth, W. S.; Bounds, S. R.; Hospodarsky, G. B.; Santolik, O.; Wygant, J. R.; Bonnell, J. W.; Omura, Y.; Summers, D.

    2014-12-01

    The source of plasmaspheric hiss has been an outstanding problem in inner magnetospheric radiation belt physics since the discovery of this whistler-mode emission. The generation mechanism for plasmaspheric hiss has been suggested to come from one of three possible mechanisms: 1) local generation and amplification, 2) whistlers from lightning, and 3) chorus emissions which have refracted into the plasmasphere. The latter two mechanisms are external sources which produce an incoherent hiss signature as the original waves mix in a stochastic manner, propagating in both directions along the background magnetic field. In contrast, local generation of plasmaspheric hiss within the plasmasphere should produce a signature of waves propagating away from the source region. We report observations from the Electric and Magnetic Field Instrument Suite and Integrated Science (EMFISIS) Waves insturment on the Van Allen Probes that clearly indicate that the Poynting flux associated with plasmaspheric hiss is frequently propagating away from the equator in the outer region of the plasmasphere. Initial statistics suggest that for more than 40% of the orbits of the Van Allen Probes, the plasmaspheric hiss is generated by a local source within the plasmasphere. We present examples of the signature of locally generated plasmaspheric hiss and show additional statistics of locally generated hiss occurrence.

  6. Sausage Mode Propagation in a Thick Magnetic Flux Tube

    CERN Document Server

    Pardi, Anabele-Linda; Marcu, Alexandru; Orza, Beniamin

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to model the propagation of slow magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) sausage waves in a thick expanding magnetic flux tube in the context of the quiescent (VAL C) solar atmosphere. The propagation of these waves is found to be described by the Klein-Gordon equation. Using the governing MHD equations and the VAL C atmosphere model we study the variation of the cut-off frequency along and across the magnetic tube guiding the waves. Due to the radial variation of the cut-off frequency the flux tubes act as low frequency filters for waves.

  7. Structure of flux tube in SU(2) lattice gauge theory

    CERN Document Server

    Shiba, H

    1994-01-01

    The structure of the flux tube is studied in SU(2) QCD from the standpoint of the abelian projection theory. It is shown that the flux distributions of the orthogonal electric field and the magnetic field are produced by the effect that the abelian monopoles in the maximally abelian (MA) gauge are expelled from the string region.

  8. Emergence of Anchored Flux Tubes Through the Convection Zone

    CERN Document Server

    Fisher, George H; McClymont, Alexander N

    2010-01-01

    We model the evolution of buoyant magnetic flux tubes in the Sun's convection zone. A flux tube is assumed to lie initially near the top of the stably stratified radiative core below the convection zone, but a segment of it is perturbed into the convection zone by gradual heating and convective overshoot motions. The ends ("footpoints") of the segment remain anchored at the base of the convection zone, and if the segment is sufficiently long, it may be buoyantly unstable, rising through the convection zone in a short time. The length of the flux tube determines the ratio of buoyancy to magnetic tension: short loops of flux are arrested before reaching the top of the convection zone, while longer loops emerge to erupt through the photosphere. Using Spruit's convection zone model, we compute the minimum footpoint separation $L_c$ required for erupting flux tubes. We explore the dependence of $L_c$ on the initial thermal state of the perturbed flux tube segment and on its initial magnetic field strength. Followi...

  9. Shocks and Thermal Conduction Fronts in Retracting Reconnected Flux Tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidoni, S. E.; Longcope, D. W.

    2010-08-01

    We present a model for plasma heating produced by time-dependent, spatially localized reconnection within a flare current sheet separating skewed magnetic fields. The reconnection creates flux tubes of new connectivity which subsequently retract at Alfvénic speeds from the reconnection site. Heating occurs in gas-dynamic shocks (GDSs) which develop inside these tubes. Here we present generalized thin flux tube equations for the dynamics of reconnected flux tubes, including pressure-driven parallel dynamics as well as temperature-dependent, anisotropic viscosity and thermal conductivity. The evolution of tubes embedded in a uniform, skewed magnetic field, following reconnection in a patch, is studied through numerical solutions of these equations, for solar coronal conditions. Even though viscosity and thermal conductivity are negligible in the quiet solar corona, the strong GDSs generated by compressing plasma inside reconnected flux tubes generate large velocity and temperature gradients along the tube, rendering the diffusive processes dominant. They determine the thickness of the shock that evolves up to a steady state value, although this condition may not be reached in the short times involved in a flare. For realistic solar coronal parameters, this steady state shock thickness might be as long as the entire flux tube. For strong shocks at low Prandtl numbers, typical of the solar corona, the GDS consists of an isothermal sub-shock where all the compression and cooling occur, preceded by a thermal front where the temperature increases and most of the heating occurs. We estimate the length of each of these sub-regions and the speed of their propagation.

  10. MHD waves on solar magnetic flux tubes - Tutorial review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollweg, Joseph V.

    1990-01-01

    Some of the highly simplified models that have been developed for solar magnetic flux tubes, which are intense photospheric-level fields confined by external gas pressure but able to vary rapidly with height, are presently discussed with emphasis on the torsional Alfven mode's propagation, reflection, and non-WKB properties. The 'sausage' and 'kink' modes described by the thin flux-tube approximation are noted. Attention is also given to the surface waves and resonance absorption of X-ray-emitting loops, as well as to the results of recent work on the resonant instabilities that occur in the presence of bulk flows.

  11. The Color Flux Tube as an Effective String

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepe, Michele

    2011-05-01

    We investigate the low-energy regime of the confining string connecting color sources in Yang-Mills theory. First, we present results of the Monte Carlo measurement of the width of the flux tube between two static quarks in the fundamental representation both at zero and at finite temperature. Then we consider the confining flux tube connecting color sources in larger representations of the gauge group. For stable strings—the k-strings—we study the Luscher term; for unstable strings we investigate their decay as the distance between the static sources is increased.

  12. Flux limiters. [for shock tube flow computation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweby, P. K.

    1985-01-01

    It is well known that first order accurate difference schemes for the numerical solution of conservation laws produce results which suffer from excessive numerical diffusion, classical second order schemes, although giving better resolution, suffer from spurious oscillations. Recently much effect has been put into achieving high resolution without these oscillations, using a variety of techniques. Here one class of such methods, that of flux limiting, is outlined together with the TVD constraint used to ensure oscillation free solutions. Brief numerical comparisons of different limiting functions are also presented.

  13. On the generation of flux tube waves in stellar convection zones. I - Longitudinal tube waves driven by external turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musielak, Z. E.; Rosner, R.; Ulmschneider, P.

    1989-01-01

    The source functions and the energy fluxes for wave generation in magnetic flux tubes embedded in an otherwise magnetic field-free, turbulent, and compressible fluid are derived. The calculations presented here assume that the tube interior is not itself turbulent, e.g., that motions within the flux tube are due simply to external excitation. Specific results for the generation of longitudinal tube waves are presented.

  14. Thermalization and hydrodynamization in the color-flux-tube model

    CERN Document Server

    Ryblewski, Radoslaw

    2016-01-01

    The study of transverse-momentum spectra of quarks and gluons produced by the color electric flux tube decaying through the Schwinger tunneling mechanism is reviewed. The hints for a fast hydrodynamization in the ultra-relativistic heavy-ion collisions are found.

  15. First Reconnected Flux Tubes in the Near-Earth Tail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, L.; Lapenta, G.; Newman, D. L.; Spanswick, E. L.; Baker, J. B.; Clausen, L.; Larson, D. E.; Frey, H. U.; Singer, H. J.; Angelopoulos, V.; Ergun, R. E.; Bonnell, J. W.; McFadden, J. P.; Glassmeier, K.; Baumjohann, W.

    2010-12-01

    Following the onset of reconnection, the first reconnecting flux tubes move away from the reconnection site creating an over-dense region in front of their leading edge, with a low density region lagging behind. The initial front observed at the magnetic equator has a fairly well distinguishable magnetic signature, which in space observation constitute a sub category of a broader group classified as magnetic pile-up events (or, alternatively, as dipolarization events). The first reconnecting flux tubes at the magnetic equator do not form a classic shock, but are associated with lower hybrid drift instabilities and whistler waves. As has been shown in work by others, the first reconnecting flux tubes are associated with strong dissipation, especially ion dissipation. In the high density region, the electrons and ions are decelerated and redirected perpendicular to the ejected exhaust. Near the first reconnecting flux tubes the ions gain energy and the electrons consist of two populations, one bi-streaming and the other more energetic (warmer) in the perpendicular direction. One particular magnetospheric disturbance event will be presented form the THEMIS mission where good observations from ground assets exits. Aurora intensification, enhanced 30 keV electrons and ionospheric currents are associated with this event. The radar clearly demonstrate the changes in the convection pattern helping to understand the satellite observations from the THEMIS and the GOES satellites. This reconfiguration event occurs in discrete steps by separate reconnection events.

  16. Potts Flux Tube Model at Nonzero Chemical Potential

    CERN Document Server

    Condella, J; Condella, Jac; Tar, Carleton De

    2000-01-01

    We model the deconfinement phase transition in quantum chromodynamics at nonzero baryon number density and large quark mass by extending the flux tube model (three-state, three-dimensional Potts model) to nonzero chemical potential. In a direct numerical simulation we confirm mean-field-theory predictions that the deconfinement transition does not occur in a baryon-rich environment.

  17. Lagrange mesh, relativistic flux tube, and rotating string

    OpenAIRE

    Buisseret, F.; Semay, C.

    2004-01-01

    The Lagrange mesh method is a very accurate and simple procedure to compute eigenvalues and eigenfunctions of nonrelativistic and semirelativistic Hamiltonians. We show here that it can be used successfully to solve the equations of both the relativistic flux tube model and the rotating string model, in the symmetric case. Verifications of the convergence of the method are given.

  18. Lagrange mesh, relativistic flux tube, and rotating string.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buisseret, Fabien; Semay, Claude

    2005-02-01

    The Lagrange mesh method is a very accurate and simple procedure to compute eigenvalues and eigenfunctions of nonrelativistic and semirelativistic Hamiltonians. We show here that it can be used successfully to solve the equations of both the relativistic flux tube model and the rotating string model, in the symmetric case. Verifications of the convergence of the method are given.

  19. Flux-tubes in three-dimensional lattice gauge theories

    CERN Document Server

    Trottier, H D; Trottier, Howard D.

    1993-01-01

    Flux-tubes in different representations of SU(2) and U(1) lattice gauge theories in three dimensions are measured. Wilson loops generate heavy ``quark-antiquark'' pairs in fundamental ($j=1/2$), adjoint ($j=1$), and quartet ($j=3/2$) representations of SU(2). The first direct lattice measurements of the flux-tube cross-section ${\\cal A}_j$ as a function of representation are made. It is found that ${\\cal A}_j \\approx {\\rm constant}$, to about 10\\%. Results are consistent with a connection between the string tension $\\sigma_j$ and ${\\cal A}_j$ suggested by a simplified flux-tube model, $\\sigma_j = g^2 j(j+1) / (2 {\\cal A}_j)$ [$g$ is the gauge coupling], given that $\\sigma_j$ scales like the Casimir $j(j+1)$, as observed in previous lattice studies in both three and four dimensions. The results can discriminate among phenomenological models of the physics underlying confinement. Flux-tubes for singly- and doubly-charged Wilson loops in compact QED$_3$ are also measured. It is found that the string tension scal...

  20. Modeling the Subsurface Evolution of Active Region Flux Tubes

    CERN Document Server

    Fan, Y

    2009-01-01

    I present results from a set of 3D spherical-shell MHD simulations of the buoyant rise of active region flux tubes in the solar interior which put new constraints on the initial twist of the subsurface tubes in order for them to emerge with tilt angles consistent with the observed Joy's law for the mean tilt of solar active regions. Due to the asymmetric stretching of the $\\Omega$-shaped tube by the Coriolis force, a field strength asymmetry develops with the leading side having a greater field strength and thus being more cohesive compared to the following side. Furthermore, the magnetic flux in the leading leg shows more coherent values of local twist $\\alpha \\equiv {\\bf J} \\cdot {\\bf B} / B^2$, whereas the values in the following leg show large fluctuations and are of mixed signs.

  1. High-quality Critical Heat Flux in Horizontally Coiled Tubes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1995-01-01

    An investigation on the high-quality dryout in two electrically heated coiled tubes with horizontally helix axes is reported.The temperature profiles both along the tube and around the circumference are measured.and it is found that the temperature profiles around the circumference are not identical for the corss-sections at different parts of the coil.The “local condition hypothesis” seems applicable under present conditions,and the critical heat flux qcr decreases with increasing critical quality xcr.The CHF increases as mass velocity and ratio of tube diameter to coil diameter(d/D) increases,and it seems not to be affected hby the system pressure.The CHF is larger with coils than that with straight tubes,and the difference increases with increasing mass velocity and d/D.

  2. Dynamics of Quarks in a 2D Flux Tube

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koshelkin, Andrey V. [Moscow Institute for Physics and Engineering, Russia; Wong, Cheuk-Yin [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    On the basis of a compactification of the (3+1) into (1+1) dimensional space-time [1], the quark states inside the 2D flux tube are studied for the case of a linear transverse confining potential. The derived states are classified by both the projections of the orbital momentum and the spin along the tube direction. The spectrum of the fermion states is evaluated. It is found that the energy eigenvalues of the quarks appear to be approximately related to the square root of the eigenvalues of the two-dimensional harmonic oscillator.

  3. Torsional Alfven waves in stratified and expanding magnetic flux tubes

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    The effects of both density stratification and magnetic field expansion on torsional Alfven waves in magnetic flux tubes are studied. The frequencies, the period ratio P1/P2 of the fundamental and its first-overtone, and eigenfunctions of torsional Alfven modes are obtained. Our numerical results show that the density stratification and magnetic field expansion have opposite effects on the oscillating properties of torsional Alfven waves.

  4. The Plasmasphere Boundary Layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. L. Carpenter

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available As an inner magnetospheric phenomenon the plasmapause region is of interest for a number of reasons, one being the occurrence there of geophysically important interactions between the plasmas of the hot plasma sheet and of the cool plasmasphere. There is a need for a conceptual framework within which to examine and discuss these interactions and their consequences, and we therefore suggest that the plasmapause region be called the Plasmasphere Boundary Layer, or PBL. Such a term has been slow to emerge because of the complexity and variability of the plasma populations that can exist near the plasmapause and because of the variety of criteria used to identify the plasmapause in experimental data. Furthermore, and quite importantly in our view, a substantial obstacle to the consideration of the plasmapause region as a boundary layer has been the longstanding tendency of textbooks on space physics to limit introductory material on the plasmapause phenomenon to zeroth order descriptions in terms of ideal MHD theory, thus implying that the plasmasphere is relatively well understood. A textbook may introduce the concept of shielding of the inner magnetosphere from perturbing convection electric fields, but attention is not usually paid to the variety of physical processes reported to occur in the PBL, such as heating, instabilities, and fast longitudinal flows, processes which must play roles in plasmasphere dynamics in concert with the flow regimes associated with the major dynamo sources of electric fields. We believe that through the use of the PBL concept in future textbook discussions of the plasmasphere and in scientific communications, much progress can be made on longstanding questions about the physics involved in the formation of the plasmapause and in the cycles of erosion and recovery of the plasmasphere.

    Key words. Magnetospheric physics (plasmasphere; plasma convection; MHD waves and instabilities

  5. Event-by-Event Study of Space-Time Dynamics in Flux-Tube Fragmentation

    CERN Document Server

    Wong, Cheuk-Yin

    2015-01-01

    In the semi-classical description of the flux-tube fragmentation process, the rapidity-space-time ordering and the local conservation laws of charge, flavor, and momentum provide a set of powerful tools that may allow the reconstruction of the space-time dynamics of quarks and mesons in the flux-tube fragmentation in event-by-event exclusive measurements of produced hadrons. Besides testing the contents of the flux tube fragmentation mechanism, additional interesting problems that may be opened up for examination by these measurements include the stochastic and quantum fluctuations in flux-tube fragmentation, the effects of multiple collisions in $pA$ and light $AA$ collisions, the interaction between flux tubes and between produced particles from different flux tubes, the effect of the merging of the flux tubes, and the occurrence of the fragmentation of ropes in $AA$ collisions, if they ever occur.

  6. Knot energy in unstretching ergodic magnetic flux tubes

    CERN Document Server

    de Andrade, Garcia

    2009-01-01

    Recently Titov et al [ApJ \\textbf{693},(2009) and ApJ (2007)] have made use of a covariant model to investigate magnetic reconnection of astrophysical plasmas. Earlier R Ricca [Phys Rev A (1991)] has used another covariant formalism, to investigated vortex filaments and solitons. This formalism, called Ricci rotation coefficients (RRC), is applied here, to the Chui and Moffatt [PRSA (1995)] knotted magnetic flux tube (MFT) Riemann metric in the case of vanishing stretch. It is shown that, the vanishing of some components of the (RRC) leads to unstretching knotted tubes. Computing of magnetic knot energy in terms of the RCC, shows that, uniform, unstretching and constant cross-section tubes leads to a marginal dynamo action over magnetic surfaces. Recent investigation on the role of stretching in plasma dynamo action showed that in diffusive media [Phys Plasma \\textbf{14} (2008)], unstretching unknotted tubes would not support fast dynamo action. This result was generalized here to much more general knotted MF...

  7. Solar Magnetic Flux Tube Simulations with Time-Dependent Ionization

    CERN Document Server

    Fawzy, Diaa E; Rammacher, Wolfgang

    2012-01-01

    In the present work we expand the study of time-dependent ionization previously identified to be of pivotal importance for acoustic waves in solar magnetic flux tube simulations. We focus on longitudinal tube waves (LTW) known to be an important heating agent of solar magnetic regions. Our models also consider new results of wave energy generation as well as an updated determination of the mixing length of convection now identified as 1.8 scale heights in the upper solar convective layers. We present 1-D wave simulations for the solar chromosphere by studying tubes of different spreading as function of height aimed at representing tubes in environments of different magnetic filling factors. Multi-level radiative transfer has been applied to correctly represent the total chromospheric emission function. The effects of time-dependent ionization are significant in all models studied. They are most pronounced behind strong shocks and in low density regions, i.e., the middle and high chromosphere. Concerning our m...

  8. Pair production at the edge of the QED flux tube

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berényi, Dániel, E-mail: berenyi.daniel@wigner.mta.hu [Loránd Eötvös University, H-1117, Budapest (Hungary); Wigner RCP, Institute for Particle and Nuclear Physics, P.O. Box 49, Budapest 1525 (Hungary); Varró, Sándor [Wigner RCP, Institute for Solid State Physics and Optics, P.O. Box 49, Budapest 1525 (Hungary); Skokov, Vladimir V. [Department of Physics, Western Michigan University, 1903 W. Michigan Avenue, Kalamazoo, MI 49008, United Sates (United States); Lévai, Péter [Wigner RCP, Institute for Particle and Nuclear Physics, P.O. Box 49, Budapest 1525 (Hungary)

    2015-10-07

    We investigate the process of Abelian pair production in the presence of strong inhomogeneous and time-dependent external electric fields. The spatial dependence of the external field is motivated by a non-Abelian color flux tube in heavy-ion collisions. We show that the inhomogeneity significantly increases the particle yield compared to that in the commonly used models with a constant and homogeneous field. Moreover our results indicate that in contrast to the latter, most of the particles are produced at the interface of the field profile in accordance with Heisenberg's prediction.

  9. Pair production at the edge of the QED flux tube

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dániel Berényi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the process of Abelian pair production in the presence of strong inhomogeneous and time-dependent external electric fields. The spatial dependence of the external field is motivated by a non-Abelian color flux tube in heavy-ion collisions. We show that the inhomogeneity significantly increases the particle yield compared to that in the commonly used models with a constant and homogeneous field. Moreover our results indicate that in contrast to the latter, most of the particles are produced at the interface of the field profile in accordance with Heisenberg's prediction.

  10. On Signatures of Twisted Magnetic Flux Tube Emergence

    CERN Document Server

    Dominguez, Santiago Vargas; Green, Lucie; van Driel-Gesztelyi, Lidia; Hood, Alan

    2011-01-01

    Recent studies of NOAA active region 10953, by Okamoto {\\it et al.} ({\\it Astrophys. J. Lett.} {\\bf 673}, 215, 2008; {\\it Astrophys. J.} {\\bf 697}, 913, 2009), have interpreted photospheric observations of changing widths of the polarities and reversal of the horizontal magnetic field component as signatures of the emergence of a twisted flux tube within the active region and along its internal polarity inversion line (PIL). A filament is observed along the PIL and the active region is assumed to have an arcade structure. To investigate this scenario, MacTaggart and Hood ({\\it Astrophys. J. Lett.} {\\bf 716}, 219, 2010) constructed a dynamic flux emergence model of a twisted cylinder emerging into an overlying arcade. The photospheric signatures observed by Okamoto {\\it et al.} (2008, 2009) are present in the model although their underlying physical mechanisms differ. The model also produces two additional signatures that can be verified by the observations. The first is an increase in the unsigned magnetic fl...

  11. Turbulent Plasmaspheric Boundary Layer: Observables and Consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishin, Evgeny

    2014-10-01

    In situ satellite observations reveal strong lower hybrid/fast magnetosonic turbulence and broadband hiss-like VLF waves in the substorm subauroral geospace at and earthward of the electron plasmasheet boundary. These coincide with subauroral ion drifts/polarization streams (SAID/SAPS) in the plasmasphere and topside ionosphere. SAID/SAPS appear in ~10 min after the substorm onset consistent with the fast propagation of substorm injection fronts. The SAID channel follows the dispersionless cutoff of the energetic electron flux at the plasmapause. This indicates that the cold plasma maintains charge neutrality within the channel, thereby short-circuiting the injected plasma jet (injection fronts over the plasmasphere. Plasma turbulence leads to the circuit resistivity and magnetic diffusion as well as significant electron heating and acceleration. As a result, a turbulent boundary layer forms between the inner edge of the electron plasmasheet and plasmasphere. The SAID/SAPS-related VLF emissions appear to constitute a distinctive subset of substorm/storm-related VLF activity in the region co-located with freshly injected energetic ions inside the plasmasphere. Significant pitch-angle diffusion coefficients suggest that substorm SAID/SAPS-related VLF waves could be responsible for the alteration of the outer radiation belt boundary during (sub)storms. Supported by the Air Force Office of Scientific Research.

  12. Analytical Solution of Coupled Laminar Heat-Mass Transfer in a Tube with Uniform Heat Flux

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1992-01-01

    Analytical solution is obtained of coupled laminar heat-mass transfer in a tube with uniform heat flux.This corresponds to the case when a layer of sublimable material is coated on the inner surface of a tube with its outer surface heated by uniform heat flux and this coated material will sublime as gas flows throught the tube.

  13. Remote sensing the plasmasphere, plasmapause, plumes and other features using ground-based magnetometers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menk Frederick

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The plasmapause is a highly dynamic boundary between different magnetospheric particle populations and convection regimes. Some of the most important space weather processes involve wave-particle interactions in this region, but wave properties may also be used to remote sense the plasmasphere and plasmapause, contributing to plasmasphere models. This paper discusses the use of existing ground magnetometer arrays for such remote sensing. Using case studies we illustrate measurement of plasmapause location, shape and movement during storms; refilling of flux tubes within and outside the plasmasphere; storm-time increase in heavy ion concentration near the plasmapause; and detection and mapping of density irregularities near the plasmapause, including drainage plumes, biteouts and bulges. We also use a 2D MHD model of wave propagation through the magnetosphere, incorporating a realistic ionosphere boundary and Alfvén speed profile, to simulate ground array observations of power and cross-phase spectra, hence confirming the signatures of plumes and other density structures.

  14. A multiple flux-tube solar wind model

    CERN Document Server

    Pinto, Rui F

    2016-01-01

    We present a new model, MULTI-VP, that computes the three-dimensional structure of the solar wind which includes the chromosphere, the transition region, and the corona and low heliosphere. MULTI- VP calculates a large ensemble of wind profiles flowing along open magnetic field-lines which sample the whole three-dimensional atmosphere or, alternatively, on a given region of interest. The radial domain starts from the photosphere and extends, typically, to about 30 $R_{sun}$ . The elementary uni-dimensional wind solutions are based on a mature numerical scheme which was adapted in order to accept any flux-tube geometry. We discuss here the first results obtained with this model. We use Potential Field Source-Surface (PFSS) extrapolations of magnetograms from the Wilcox Solar Observatory (WSO) to determine the structure of the background magnetic field. Our results support the hypothesis that the geometry of the magnetic flux-tubes in the lower corona controls the distribution of slow and fast wind flows. The i...

  15. Modeling Evaporative Upflows Through a Flux Tube of Nonconstant Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unverferth, John E.; Longcope, Dana

    2016-05-01

    Chromospheric evaporation is a long studied part of solar flares. Spectroscopic observations of flares typically show subsonic upflows. This contrasts with simulations which consistently predict supersonic evaporation flows. One possible explanation is that the actual flows occur though flux tubes which expand from confined photospheric sources to volume-filling coronal field. Very few flare simulations to date have accounted for this geometry, and run instead with flare loops of uniform cross section. It is well known that transonic flows are dramatically affected by their geoemetry, and can exhibit shocks under certain circumstances.To investigate this we created a simple model of the canopy of magnetic field. This exhibited the expected expansion but also showed some cases of over-expansion followed by constriction. The flow through those flux tubes will encounter a kind of chamber. We then used a one-dimensional isothermal hydrodynamics to model the flow of plasma through such a chamber. According to this simulation, there exists a set of inflow parameters that will generate a standing shock inside the chamber. This solution results in a sonic outflow from a supersonic inflow.

  16. Comparison of the measured and modeled electron densities and temperatures in the ionosphere and plasmasphere during the period 25-29 June 1990

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlov, A. V.; Abe, T.; Oyama, K.-I.

    2001-04-01

    We present a comparison of the electron density and temperature behavior measured in the ionosphere by the Millstone Hill incoherent-scatter radar during the period 25-29 June 1990, and in the plasmasphere within the Millstone Hill magnetic field flux tube by the instruments on board of the EXOS-D satellite in the Northern Hemisphere between 02:07:56 UT and 02:11:08 UT on 28 June 1990 with numerical model calculations from a time-dependent mathematical model of the Earth's ionosphere and plasmasphere. We have evaluated the value of the nighttime additional heating rate that should be added to the normal photoelectron heating in the electron energy equation in the plasmasphere region above 5000 km along the magnetic field line to explain the high electron temperature measured by the instruments on board of the EXOS-D satellite. The additional heating brings the measured and modeled electron temperatures into agreement with the plasmasphere and into very large disagreement with the ionosphere if the classical electron heat flux along magnetic field line is used in the model. The approach of Pavlov et al. (Annales Geophysicae 18 (2000) 1257-1272) based on an effective electron thermal conductivity coefficient along the magnetic field line, is used to explain the measured electron temperature in the ionosphere and plasmasphere. This approach leads to a heat flux which is less than that given by the classical Spitzer-Harm theory. The evaluated additional heating of electrons in the plasmasphere and the decrease of the thermal conductivity in the topside ionosphere and the greater part of the plasmasphere allow the model to accurately reproduce the electron temperatures observed by the instruments on board of the EXOS-D satellite in the plasmasphere and the Millstone Hill incoherent-scatter radar in the ionosphere. The resulting effect of vibrationally excited N2 and O2 on NmF2 is the decrease of the calculated daytime NmF2 up to a factor of 2. The modeled electron

  17. Numerical simulations of multiple scattering of the $f-$mode by flux tubes

    CERN Document Server

    Felipe, T; Birch, A C

    2013-01-01

    We use numerial simulations to study the absorption and phase shift of surface-gravity waves caused by groups of magnetic flux tubes. The dependence of the scattering coefficients with the distance between the tubes and their positions is analyzed for several cases with two or three flux tubes embedded in a quiet Sun atmosphere. The results are compared with those obtained neglecting completely or partially multiple scattering effects. We show that multiple scattering has a significant impact on the absorption measurements and tends to reduce the phase shift. We also consider more general cases of ensembles of randomly distributed flux tubes, and we have evaluated the effects on the scattering measurements of changing the number of tubes included in the bundle and the average distance between flux tubes. We find that for the longest wavelength incoming waves multiple scattering enhances the absorption, and its efficiency increases with the number of flux tubes and the reduction of the distance between them.

  18. Flux tubes and their interaction in U(1) lattice gauge theory

    CERN Document Server

    Zach, M P; Skála, P; Zach, Martin; Faber, Manfried; Skala, Peter

    1997-01-01

    We investigate singly and doubly charged flux tubes in U(1) lattice gauge theory. By simulating the dually transformed path integral we are able to consider large flux tube lengths, low temperatures, and multiply charged systems without loss of numerical precision. We simulate flux tubes between static sources as well as periodically closed flux tubes, calculating flux tube profiles, the total field energy and the free energy. Our main results are that the string tension in both three and four dimensions scales proportionally to the charge -- which is in contrast to previous lattice results -- and that in four-dimensional U(1) there is an attractive interaction between flux tubes for beta approaching the phase transition.

  19. Magnetohydrostatic equilibrium. II. Three-dimensional multiple open magnetic flux tubes in the stratified solar atmosphere

    CERN Document Server

    Gent, Frederick A; Erd'elyi, Rebertus

    2014-01-01

    A system of multiple open magnetic flux tubes spanning the solar photosphere and lower corona is modelled analytically, within a realistic stratified atmosphere subject to solar gravity. This extends results for a single magnetic flux tube in magnetohydrostatic equilibrium, described in Gent et al. (MNRAS, 435, 689, 2013). Self-similar magnetic flux tubes are combined to form magnetic structures, which are consistent with high-resolution observations. The observational evidence supports the existence of strands of open flux tubes and loops persisting in a relatively steady state. Self-similar magnetic flux tubes, for which an analytic solution to the plasma density and pressure distribution is possible, are combined. We calculate the appropriate balancing forces, applying to the equations of momentum and energy conservation to preserve equilibrium. Multiplex flux tube configurations are observed to remain relatively stable for up to a day or more, and it is our aim to apply our model as the background conditi...

  20. A Quasi-One-Dimensional Model for a Solar Flux Tube

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨志良; 张洪起; 张枚; 冯学尚

    2002-01-01

    We develop the quasi-one-dimensional flux tube model with magnetohydrodynamical equations. In order to know whether the magnetic field can maintain their similar structurefrom photosphere to chromosphere, we suppose that the flux tube is thin in radius relative to the length, and that the quantities in the cross section are averaged.The radii of the flux tube and the magnetic field are numerically simulated. One of the important results shows that the flux tube does not expand as quickly as the existing model when it is out of the photosphere with high velocity. This is consistent with observations of the magnetic field in the photosphere and chromosphere.

  1. Turbulent ${\\alpha}$-effect in twisted magnetic flux tubes dynamos in Riemannian space

    CERN Document Server

    de Andrade, Garcia

    2007-01-01

    Analytical solution of first order torsion ${\\alpha}$-effect in twisted magnetic flux tubes representing a flux tube dynamo in Riemannian space is presented. Toroidal and poloidal component of the magnetic field decays as $r^{-1}$, while grow exponentially in time. The rate of speed of the helical dynamo depends upon the value of Frenet curvature of the tube. The $\\alpha$ factor possesses a fundamental contribution from constant torsion tube approximation. It is also assumed that the curvature of the magnetic axis of the tube is constant. Though ${\\alpha}$-effect dynamo equations are rather more complex in Riemann flux tube coordinates, a simple solution assuming force-free magnetic fields is shown to be possible. Dynamo solutions are possible if the dynamo action is able to change the signs of torsion and curvature of the dynamo flux tube simultaneously.

  2. Quantum QED Flux Tubes in 2+1 and 3+1 Dimensions

    CERN Document Server

    Graham, N; Quandt, M; Schröder, O; Weigel, H

    2004-01-01

    We compute energies and energy densities of static electromagnetic flux tubes in three and four spacetime dimensions. Our non-perturbative calculation uses scattering data from the potential induced by the flux tube. The calculation is exact to one-loop order and imposes standard perturbative renormalization conditions. We embed the flux tube in a configuration with zero total flux so that we can fully apply standard results from scattering theory. We find that upon choosing the same on-shell renormalization conditions, the functional dependence of the energy and energy density on the parameters of the flux tube is very similar for three and four spacetime dimensions. We compare our exact results to those obtained from the derivative and perturbation expansion approximations, and find good agreement for appropriate parameters of the flux tube, in contrast to previous claims in the literature.

  3. Evidence of Twisted flux-tube Emergence in Active Regions

    CERN Document Server

    Poisson, Mariano; Démoulin, Pascal; Fuentes, Marcelo López

    2015-01-01

    Elongated magnetic polarities are observed during the emergence phase of bipolar active regions (ARs). These extended features, called magnetic tongues, are interpreted as a consequence of the azimuthal component of the magnetic flux in the toroidal flux-tubes that form ARs. We develop a new systematic and user-independent method to identify AR tongues. Our method is based on determining and analyzing the evolution of the AR main polarity inversion line (PIL). The effect of the tongues is quantified by measuring the acute angle [ tau] between the orientation of the PIL and the direction orthogonal to the AR main bipolar axis. We apply a simple model to simulate the emergence of a bipolar AR. This model lets us interpret the effect of magnetic tongues on parameters that characterize ARs ( e.g. the PIL inclination and the tilt angles, and their evolution). In this idealized kinematic emergence model, tau is a monotonically increasing function of the twist and has the same sign as the magnetic helicity. We syste...

  4. Effects of Radiative Diffusion on Thin Flux Tubes in Turbulent Solar-like Convection

    CERN Document Server

    Weber, Maria A

    2015-01-01

    We study the combined effects of convection and radiative diffusion on the evolution of thin magnetic flux tubes in the solar interior. Radiative diffusion is the primary supplier of heat to convective motions in the lower convection zone, and it results in a heat input per unit volume of magnetic flux tubes that has been ignored by many previous thin flux tube studies. We use a thin flux tube model subject to convection taken from a rotating spherical shell of turbulent, solar-like convection as described by Weber, Fan, and Miesch (2011, Astrophys. J., 741, 11; 2013, Solar Phys., 287, 239), now taking into account the influence of radiative heating on flux tubes of large-scale active regions. Our simulations show that flux tubes of less than or equal to 60 kG subject to solar-like convective flows do not anchor in the overshoot region, but rather drift upward due to the increased buoyancy of the flux tube earlier in its evolution as a result of the inclusion of radiative diffusion. Flux tubes of magnetic fie...

  5. Magnetohydrostatic Equilibrium. II. Three-dimensional Multiple Open Magnetic Flux Tubes in the Stratified Solar Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gent, F. A.; Fedun, V.; Erdélyi, R.

    2014-07-01

    A system of multiple open magnetic flux tubes spanning the solar photosphere and lower corona is modeled analytically, within a realistic stratified atmosphere subject to solar gravity. This extends results for a single magnetic flux tube in magnetohydrostatic equilibrium, described in Gent et al. Self-similar magnetic flux tubes are combined to form magnetic structures, which are consistent with high-resolution observations. The observational evidence supports the existence of strands of open flux tubes and loops persisting in a relatively steady state. Self-similar magnetic flux tubes, for which an analytic solution to the plasma density and pressure distribution is possible, are combined. We calculate the appropriate balancing forces, applying to the equations of momentum and energy conservation to preserve equilibrium. Multiplex flux tube configurations are observed to remain relatively stable for up to a day or more, and it is our aim to apply our model as the background condition for numerical studies of energy transport mechanisms from the solar surface to the corona. We apply magnetic field strength, plasma density, pressure, and temperature distributions consistent with observational and theoretical estimates for the lower solar atmosphere. Although each flux tube is identical in construction apart from the location of the radial axis, combinations can be applied to generate a non-axisymmetric magnetic field with multiple non-uniform flux tubes. This is a considerable step forward in modeling the realistic magnetized three-dimensional equilibria of the solar atmosphere.

  6. Numerical simulations of multiple scattering of the $f-$mode by flux tubes

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    We use numerial simulations to study the absorption and phase shift of surface-gravity waves caused by groups of magnetic flux tubes. The dependence of the scattering coefficients with the distance between the tubes and their positions is analyzed for several cases with two or three flux tubes embedded in a quiet Sun atmosphere. The results are compared with those obtained neglecting completely or partially multiple scattering effects. We show that multiple scattering has a significant impact...

  7. Differential rotation of stretched and twisted thick magnetic flux tube dynamos in Riemannian spaces

    OpenAIRE

    de Andrade, Garcia

    2007-01-01

    The topological mapping between a torus of big radius and a sphere is applied to the Riemannian geometry of a stretched and twisted very thick magnetic flux tube, to obtain spherical dynamos solving the magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) self-induction equation for the magnetic flux tubes undergoing differential (non-uniform) rotation along the tube magnetic axis. Constraints on the shear is also computed. It is shown that when the hypothesis of the convective cyclonic dynamo is used the rotation is ...

  8. Banded electron structures in the plasmasphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burke, W.J.; Rubin, A.G.; Hardy, D.A.; Holeman, E.G.

    1995-05-01

    The low-energy plasma analyzer on CRRES has detected significant fluxes of 10-eV to 30-keV electrons trapped on plasmaspheric field lines. On energy versus time spectrograms these electrons appear as banded structures that can span the 2 < L < 6 range of magnetic shells. The authors present an example of banded electron structures, encountered in the nightside plasmasphere during the magnetically quiet January 30, 1991. Empirical analysis suggests that two clouds of low energy electrons were injected from the plasma sheet to L < 4 on January 26 and 27 while the convective electric field was elevated. The energies of electrons in the first cloud were greater than those in the second. DMSP F8 measurements show that after the second injection, the polar cap potential rapidly decreased from >50 to <20 kY. Subsequent encounters with the lower energy cloud on alternating CRRES orbits over the next 2 days showed a progressive, earthward movement of the electrons, inner boundary. Whistler and electron cyclotron harmonic emissions accompanied the most intense manifestations of cloud electrons. The simplest explanation of these measurements is that after initial injection, the AIfven boundary moved Outward, leaving the cloud electrons on closed drift paths. Subsequent fluctuations of the convective electric field penetrated the plasmasphere, transporting cloud elements inward. The magnetic shell distribution of electron temperatures in one of the banded structures suggests that radiative energy losses may be comparable in magnitude to gains due to adiabatic compression.

  9. Sausage Instabilities on top of Kinking Lengthening Current-Carrying Magnetic Flux Tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    von der Linden, Jens; You, Setthivoine

    2015-11-01

    Observations indicate that the dynamics of magnetic flux tubes in our cosmos and terrestrial experiments involve fast topological change beyond MHD reconnection. Recent experiments suggest that hierarchies of instabilities coupling disparate plasma scales could be responsible for this fast topological change by accessing two-fluid and kinetic scales. This study will explore the possibility of sausage instabilities developing on top of a kink instability in lengthening current-carrying magnetic flux tubes. Current driven flux tubes evolve over a wide range of aspect ratios k and current to magnetic flux ratios λ . An analytical stability criterion and numerical investigations, based on applying Newcomb's variational approach to idealized magnetic flux tubes with core and skin currents, indicate a dependence of the stability boundaries on current profiles and overlapping kink and sausage unstable regions in the k - λ trajectory of the flux tubes. A triple electrode planar plasma gun (Mochi.LabJet) is designed to generate flux tubes with discrete core and skin currents. Measurements from a fast-framing camera and a high resolution magnetic probe are being assembled into stability maps of the k - λ space of flux tubes. This work was sponsored in part by the US DOE Grant DE-SC0010340.

  10. Linear multispecies gyrokinetic flux tube benchmarks in shaped tokamak plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merlo, G.; Sauter, O.; Brunner, S.; Burckel, A.; Villard, L. [Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), Swiss Plasma Center (SPC), CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Camenen, Y. [Aix-Marseille Université CNRS, PIIM UMR 7345, 13397 Marseille (France); Casson, F. J. [CCFE, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Dorland, W. [Department of Physics, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States); Fable, E.; Görler, T. [Max-Planck Institut für Plasmaphysik, Boltzmannstr. 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Jenko, F.; Told, D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Peeters, A. G. [Physics Department, University of Bayreuth, 95440 Bayreuth (Germany)

    2016-03-15

    Verification is the fundamental step that any turbulence simulation code has to be submitted in order to assess the proper implementation of the underlying equations. We have carried out a cross comparison of three flux tube gyrokinetic codes, GENE [F. Jenko et al., Phys. Plasmas 7, 1904 (2000)], GKW [A. G. Peeters et al., Comput. Phys. Commun. 180, 2650 (2009)], and GS2 [W. Dorland et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 5579 (2000)], focusing our attention on the effect of realistic geometries described by a series of MHD equilibria with increasing shaping complexity. To simplify the effort, the benchmark has been limited to the electrostatic collisionless linear behaviour of the system. A fully gyrokinetic model has been used to describe the dynamics of both ions and electrons. Several tests have been carried out looking at linear stability at ion and electron scales, where for the assumed profiles Ion Temperature Gradient (ITG)/Trapped Electron Modes and Electron Temperature Gradient modes are unstable. The capability of the codes to handle a non-zero ballooning angle has been successfully benchmarked in the ITG regime. Finally, the standard Rosenbluth-Hinton test has been successfully carried out looking at the effect of shaping on Zonal Flows (ZFs) and Geodesic Acoustic Modes (GAMs). Inter-code comparison as well as validation of simulation results against analytical estimates has been accomplished. All the performed tests confirm that plasma elongation strongly stabilizes plasma instabilities as well as leads to a strong increase in ZF residual and GAM damping.

  11. Refilling process in the plasmasphere: a 3-D statistical characterization based on Cluster density observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Lointier

    2013-02-01

    indicates that magnetic flux tubes are not fully replenished after 6 days of quiet conditions. In addition, the outer plasmasphere in the night and dawn sectors (22:00 to 10:00 MLT range maintains an overall clear deficit of ionospheric population, when compared to the situation in the noon and dusk sectors (10:00 to 22:00 MLT range.

  12. CONDITIONS FOR TRANSVERSE WAVES PROPAGATION ALONG THIN MAGNETIC FLUX TUBES ON THE SUN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopin, Igor [Ussuriisk Astrophysical Observatory, Russian Academy of Sciences, Ussuriisk (Russian Federation); Nagorny, Ivan, E-mail: lopin78@mail.ru [Institute of Automation and Control Processes FEB RAS, Vladivostok (Russian Federation)

    2013-09-10

    The propagation of kink waves in the thin gravity stratified flux tubes with a generalized magnetic field distribution model is considered in cylindrical geometry. The new kink wave equations for both wave variables are obtained. It is shown that the inclusion of the radial component of an unperturbed tube magnetic field sufficiently transforms the conditions for the propagation of transverse waves. It is demonstrated that, for the models of isothermal and polytropic atmosphere in the tube and its environment, the propagation of kink waves along thin magnetic flux tubes is cutoff-free.

  13. Surface and body waves in magnetic flux tubes. [in solar convection zone, photosphere, and corona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelatif, T. E.

    1988-01-01

    The dispersion relation of surface and body waves in a magnetic flux tube is studied in detail. The properties of the fast and slow bodywaves are described in terms of the filtering characteristics of the flux tube. In addition to the axisymmetric and nonaxisymmetric distinction between the modes, an additional distinction is made between the fundamental mode and the rest of the modes. New results concerning the thin and large flux tube approximation are derived. The behavior of surface and body waves in the solar convection zone, photosphere, and corona is discussed.

  14. Unsolved problems in plasmasphere refilling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, D. L.; Comfort, R. H.

    2016-02-01

    The plasmasphere is a cold (~1 eV) plasma at middle to low magnetic latitudes surrounding the Earth. Its shape is dominated by Earth's magnetic field and its cross-field motion is dominated by electric fields. It is a highly coupled part of the inner magnetosphere. Storm time conditions erode the outer plasmasphere, transporting that plasma into the dayside magnetosheath region, leaving behind a region of greatly reduced plasma density that will refill from ionospheric outflow. The processes involved in refilling remain incompletely understood. In this commentary, outstanding questions about plasmaspheric refilling are summarized in the context of recent publications.

  15. Effects of MHD slow shocks propagating along magnetic flux tubes in a dipole magnetic field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Erkaev

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Variations of the plasma pressure in a magnetic flux tube can produce MHD waves evolving into shocks. In the case of a low plasma beta, plasma pressure pulses in the magnetic flux tube generate MHD slow shocks propagating along the tube. For converging magnetic field lines, such as in a dipole magnetic field, the cross section of the magnetic flux tube decreases enormously with increasing magnetic field strength. In such a case, the propagation of MHD waves along magnetic flux tubes is rather different from that in the case of uniform magnetic fields. In this paper, the propagation of MHD slow shocks is studied numerically using the ideal MHD equations in an approximation suitable for a thin magnetic flux tube with a low plasma beta. The results obtained in the numerical study show that the jumps in the plasma parameters at the MHD slow shock increase greatly while the shock is propagating in the narrowing magnetic flux tube. The results are applied to the case of the interaction between Jupiter and its satellite Io, the latter being considered as a source of plasma pressure pulses.

  16. Pool boiling of distilled water over tube bundle with variable heat flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, Abhilas; Mohanty, Rajiva Lochan; Das, Mihir Kumar

    2017-02-01

    The experimental investigation of saturated pool boiling heat transfer of distilled water over plain tube bundle, under uniform and varying heat flux condition along the height are presented in this article. Experiments are carried out under various heat flux configurations applied to rows of tube bundles and pitch distance to diameter ratios of 1.25, 1.6 and 1.95. The wall superheats and pool boiling heat transfer coefficients over individual rows are determined. The pool boiling heat transfer coefficients for variable heat flux and uniform heat flux conditions are compared. The results indicate that the bundle effect is found to exist for uniform as well as variable heat flux under all operating conditions in the present investigation. The variable heat flux resulted in range of wall superheat being highest for decreasing heat flux from bottom to top and lowest for increasing heat flux from bottom to top.

  17. Closed flux tubes in D = 2 + 1 SU( N ) gauge theories: dynamics and effective string description

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athenodorou, Andreas; Teper, Michael

    2016-10-01

    We extend our earlier calculations of the spectrum of closed flux tubes in SU( N ) gauge theories in 2 + 1 dimensions, with a focus on questions raised by recent theoretical progress on the effective string action of long flux tubes and the world-sheet action for flux tubes of moderate lengths. Our new calculations in SU(4) and SU(8) provide evidence that the leading O(1 /l γ ) non-universal correction to the flux tube ground state energy does indeed have a power γ ≥ 7. We perform a study in SU(2), where we can traverse the length at which the Nambu-Goto ground state becomes tachyonic, to obtain an all- N view of the spectrum. Our comparison of the k = 2 flux tube excitation energies in SU(4) and SU(6) suggests that the massive world sheet excitation associated with the k = 2 binding has a scale that knows about the group and hence the theory in the bulk, and we comment on the potential implications of world sheet massive modes for the bulk spectrum. We provide a quantitative analysis of the surprising (near-)orthogonality of flux tubes carrying flux in different SU( N ) representations, which implies that their screening by gluons is highly suppressed even at small N.

  18. 3D Numerical Simulations of f-Mode Propagation Through Magnetic Flux Tubes

    CERN Document Server

    Daiffallah, K; Bendib, A; Cameron, R; Gizon, L

    2010-01-01

    Three-dimensional numerical simulations have been used to study the scattering of a surface-gravity wave packet by vertical magnetic flux tubes, with radii from 200 km to 3 Mm, embedded in stratified polytropic atmosphere. The scattered wave was found to consist primarily of m=0 (axisymmetric) and m=1 modes. It was found that the ratio of the amplitude of these two modes is strongly dependant on the radius of the flux tube: The kink mode is the dominant mode excited in tubes with a small radius while the sausage mode is dominant for large tubes. Simulations of this type provide a simple, efficient and robust way to start understanding the seismic signature of flux tubes, which have recently began to be observed.

  19. Axisymmetric absorption of p modes by an ensemble of thin, magnetic-flux tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain, R; Gascoyne, A [Department of Applied Mathematics, University of Sheffield (United Kingdom); Hindman, B W, E-mail: R.Jain@sheffield.ac.uk [JILA, University of Colorado at Boulder (United States)

    2011-01-01

    The buffeting action of the solar acoustic waves (p modes) on magnetic fibrils excites magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) tube waves. We model these fibrils as axisymmetric, untwisted, vertically oriented, thin, magnetic-flux tubes. The MHD tube waves propagate along the length of the tube and carry energy away from the p-mode cavity creating a source of p-mode absorption. We calculate the absorption arising from the excitation of sausage MHD waves within a model plage composed of many flux tubes with differing plasma properties. We find that for a collection of tubes with normally distributed plasma parameters {beta}, the macroscopic absorption coefficient of the collection effectively depends on only the mean value of {beta}.

  20. Exploring the Flux Tube Paradigm in Solar-like Convection Zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Maria A.; Nelson, Nicholas; Browning, Matthew

    2017-08-01

    In the solar context, important insight into the flux emergence process has been obtained by assuming the magnetism giving rise to sunspots consists partly of idealized flux tubes. Global-scale dynamo models are only now beginning to capture some aspects of flux emergence. In certain regimes, these simulations self-consistently generate magnetic flux structures that rise buoyantly through the computational domain. How similar are these dynamo-generated, rising flux structures to traditional flux tube models? The work we present here is a step toward addressing this question. We utilize the thin flux tube (TFT) approximation to simply model the evolution of flux tubes in a global, three-dimensional geometry. The TFTs are embedded in convective flows taken from a global dynamo simulation of a rapidly rotating Sun within which buoyant flux structures arise naturally from wreaths of magnetism. The initial conditions of the TFTs are informed by rising flux structures identified in the dynamo simulation. We compare the trajectories of the dynamo-generated flux loops with those computed through the TFT approach. We also assess the nature of the relevant forces acting on both sets of flux structures, such as buoyancy, the Coriolis force, and external forces imparted by the surrounding convection. To achieve the fast flux structures, we must suppress the large retrograde flow established inside the TFTs which occurs due to a strong conservation of angular momentum as they move outward. This tendency is common in flux tube models in solar-like convection zones, but is not present to the same degree in the dynamo-generated flux loops. We discuss the mechanisms that may be responsible for suppressing the axial flow inside the flux tube, and consider the implications this has regarding the role of the Coriolis force in explaining sunspot latitudes and the observed Joy’s Law trend of active regions. Our work aims to provide constraints, and possible calibrations, on the

  1. Explosive Instability and Erupting Flux Tubes in a Magnetised Plasma Atmosphere

    CERN Document Server

    Cowley, S C; Henneberg, S A; Wilson, H R

    2014-01-01

    The eruption of multiple flux tubes in a magnetised plasma atmosphere is proposed as a mechanism for explosive release of energy in plasmas. Linearly stable isolated flux tubes are shown to be metastable in a box model magnetised atmosphere in which ends of the field lines are embedded in conducting walls. The energy released by destabilising such field lines can be a significant fraction of the gravitational energy stored in the system. This energy can be released in a fast dynamical time.

  2. Least-Squares Fitting Methods for Estimating the Winding Rate in Twisted Magnetic-Flux Tubes

    CERN Document Server

    Crouch, Ashley D

    2012-01-01

    We investigate least-squares fitting methods for estimating the winding rate of field lines about the axis of twisted magnetic-flux tubes. These methods estimate the winding rate by finding the values for a set of parameters that correspond to the minimum of the discrepancy between magnetic-field measurements and predictions from a twisted flux-tube model. For the flux-tube model used in the fitting, we assume that the magnetic field is static, axisymmetric, and does not vary in the vertical direction. Using error-free, synthetic vector magnetic-field data constructed with models for twisted magnetic-flux tubes, we test the efficacy of fitting methods at recovering the true winding rate. Furthermore, we demonstrate how assumptions built into the flux-tube models used for the fitting influence the accuracy of the winding-rate estimates. We identify the radial variation of the winding rate within the flux tube as one assumption that can have a significant impact on the winding-rate estimates. We show that the e...

  3. Dynamical Processes in Flux Tubes and their Role in Chromospheric Heating

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S. S. Hasan

    2000-09-01

    We model the dynamical interaction between magnetic flux tubes and granules in the solar photosphere which leads to the excitation of transverse (kink) and longitudinal (sausage) tube waves. The investigation is motivated by the interpretation of network oscillations in terms of flux tube waves. The calculations show that for magnetic field strengths typical of the network, the energy flux in transverse waves is higher than in longitudinal waves by an order of magnitude. But for weaker fields, such as those that might be found in internetwork regions, the energy fluxes in the two modes are comparable. Using observations of footpoint motions, the energy flux in transverse waves is calculated and the implications for chromospheric heating are pointed out.

  4. Sausage instabilities on top of kinking lengthening current-carrying magnetic flux tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    von der Linden, Jens; You, Setthivoine

    2017-05-01

    We theoretically explore the possibility of sausage instabilities developing on top of a kink instability in lengthening current-carrying magnetic flux tubes. Observations indicate that the dynamics of magnetic flux tubes in our cosmos and terrestrial experiments can involve topological changes faster than time scales predicted by resistive magnetohydrodynamics. Recent laboratory experiments suggest that hierarchies of instabilities, such as kink and Rayleigh-Taylor, could be responsible for initiating fast topological changes by locally accessing two-fluid and kinetic regimes. Sausage instabilities can also provide this coupling mechanism between disparate scales. Flux tube experiments can be classified by the flux tube's evolution in a configuration space described by a normalized inverse aspect-ratio k ¯ and current-to-magnetic flux ratio λ ¯ . A lengthening current-carrying magnetic flux tube traverses this k ¯ - λ ¯ space and crosses stability boundaries. We derive a single general criterion for the onset of the sausage and kink instabilities in idealized magnetic flux tubes with core and skin currents. The criterion indicates a dependence of the stability boundaries on current profiles and shows overlapping kink and sausage unstable regions in the k ¯ - λ ¯ space with two free parameters. Numerical investigation of the stability criterion reduces the number of free parameters to a single one that describes the current profile and confirms the overlapping sausage and kink unstable regions in k ¯ - λ ¯ space. A lengthening, ideal current-carrying magnetic flux tube can therefore become sausage unstable after it becomes kink unstable.

  5. Basic properties of magnetic flux tubes and restrictions on theories of solar activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, E. N.

    1976-01-01

    It is shown that the mean longitudinal field in a magnetic flux tube is reduced, rather than enhanced, by twisting the tube to form a rope. It is shown that there is no magnetohydrostatic equilibrium when one twisted rope is wound around another. Instead there is rapid line cutting (neutral point annihilation). It is shown that the twisting increases, and the field strength decreases, along a flux tube extending upward through a stratified atmosphere. These facts are at variance with Piddington's (1975) recent suggestion that solar activity is to be understood as the result of flux tubes which are enormously concentrated by twisting, which consist of several twisted ropes wound around each other, and which came untwisted where they emerge through the photosphere.

  6. Signatures of Flux Tube Fragmentation and Strangeness Correlations in pp Collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Wong, Cheuk-Yin

    2016-01-01

    In the fragmentation of a color flux tube in high-energy $pp$ collisions or $e^+$-$e^-$ annihilations, the production of $q$-$\\bar q$ pairs along a color flux tube precedes the fragmentation of the tube. The local conservation laws in the production of these $q$-$\\bar q$ pairs will lead to the correlations of adjacently produced hadrons. As a consequence, the fragmentation of a flux tube will yield a many-hadron correlation in the form of a chain of hadrons ordered in rapidity, with adjacent hadrons correlated in charges, flavor contents, and azimuthal angles. It will also lead to a two-hadron angular correlation between two hadrons with opposite charges or strangeness that is suppressed at $\\Delta \\phi\\sim 0$ but enhanced at $\\Delta \\phi\\sim \\pi$, within a rapidity window $\\Delta y $$\\sim$$1/(dN/dy)$.

  7. Helical ${\\alpha}$-dynamos as twisted magnetic flux tubes in Riemannian space

    CERN Document Server

    de Andrade, Garcia

    2007-01-01

    Analytical solution of ${\\alpha}$-dynamo equation representing strongly torsioned helical dynamo is obtained in the thin twisted Riemannian flux tubes approximation. The $\\alpha$ factor possesses a fundamental contribution from torsion which is however weaken in the thin tubes approximation. It is shown that assuming that the poloidal component of the magnetic field is in principle time-independent, the toroidal magnetic field component grows very fast in time, actually it possesses a linear time dependence, while the poloidal component grows under the influence of torsion or twist of the flux tube. The toroidal component decays spatially with as $r^{-2}$ while vorticity may decay as $r^{-5}$ (poloidal component) where r represents the radial distance from the magnetic axis of flux tube. Toroidal component of vorticity decays as $r^{-1}$. In turbulent dynamos unbounded magnetic fields may decay at least as $r^{-3}$.

  8. Comparison of the measured and modelled electron densities and temperatures in the ionosphere and plasmasphere during 20-30 January, 1993

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Pavlov

    Full Text Available We present a comparison of the electron density and temperature behaviour in the ionosphere and plasmasphere measured by the Millstone Hill incoherent-scatter radar and the instruments on board of the EXOS-D satellite with numerical model calculations from a time-dependent mathematical model of the Earth's ionosphere and plasmasphere during the geomagnetically quiet and storm period on 20–30 January, 1993. We have evaluated the value of the additional heating rate that should be added to the normal photoelectron heating in the electron energy equation in the daytime plasmasphere region above 5000 km along the magnetic field line to explain the high electron temperature measured by the instruments on board of the EXOS-D satellite within the Millstone Hill magnetic field flux tube in the Northern Hemisphere. The additional heating brings the measured and modelled electron temperatures into agreement in the plasmasphere and into very large disagreement in the ionosphere if the classical electron heat flux along magnetic field line is used in the model. A new approach, based on a new effective electron thermal conductivity coefficient along the magnetic field line, is presented to model the electron temperature in the ionosphere and plasmasphere. This new approach leads to a heat flux which is less than that given by the classical Spitzer-Harm theory. The evaluated additional heating of electrons in the plasmasphere and the decrease of the thermal conductivity in the topside ionosphere and the greater part of the plasmasphere found for the first time here allow the model to accurately reproduce the electron temperatures observed by the instruments on board the EXOS-D satellite in the plasmasphere and the Millstone Hill incoherent-scatter radar in the ionosphere. The effects of the daytime additional plasmaspheric heating of electrons on the electron temperature and density are small at the F-region altitudes if the modified electron heat flux

  9. Ultra low frequency waves observed by Double Star TC-1 in the plasmasphere boundary layer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The characteristic and properties of ULF waves in the plasmasphere boundary layer during two very quiet periods are present. The ULF waves were detected by Double Star TC-1 when the spacecraft passed through the plasmasphere in an outbound and inbound trajectories, respectively. A clear association between the ULF waves and periodic variations of energetic ions fluxes was observed. The ob-servations showed that the wave frequency was higher inside the plasmasphere than outside. The mechanism generating these ULF waves and possible diagnos-ing of the "classical plasmapause" location with the ULF wave were discussed.

  10. Saturn's ionosphere and plasmasphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Luke Edward

    2008-01-01

    A number of puzzling phenomena were revealed when the Voyager spacecraft flew past Saturn in 1981 to measure the ionized portions (ionosphere) of its upper atmosphere (thermosphere). Most of these issues have remained unexplained in the intervening 25 years due to a lack of conclusive observational data. With the arrival of Cassini at Saturn in July 2004, however, a new era of observations began, providing the promise of fresh evidence and demanding the development of a contemporary theoretical framework in order to re-examine old mysteries and understand new discoveries. This dissertation presents studies of Saturn's ionosphere and inner plasmasphere based on new time-dependent photochemical and diffusive transport models that solve the ion equations of continuity in one dimension. Calculations are conducted within the overall framework of a self-consistent, three-dimensional general circulation model (GCM) of Saturn's thermosphere, and the results of these studies are combined with GCM results to provide the building blocks of a new comprehensive model, the Saturn-Thermosphere- Ionosphere-Model (STIM). The one-dimensional model calculations are used to constrain and investigate a number of unresolved issues and to make testable predictions based on those investigations. Five primary topics are addressed: (1) the additional loss processes required to bring predicted electron densities into agreement with observations, (2) the discrepancy between theory and observations regarding the diurnal variation of peak electron density, (3) the effects of shadowing by Saturn's rings on its ionosphere, (4) the yet unknown electron and ion temperatures at Saturn, and (5) the ionospheric contribution to Saturn's plasmasphere. The models show that a steady influx of water into Saturn's atmosphere--from its rings or icy satellites--is required to explain observed electron densities. Additionally, the time-variability of the water source may be the cause of frequently observed

  11. Properties of Flux Tubes and the Relation with Solar Irradiance Variability

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Μ. Fligge; S. K. Solanki

    2000-09-01

    At the solar surface the magnetic field is bundled into discrete elements of concentrated flux, often referred to as magnetic flux tubes, which cover only a small fraction of the solar surface. Flux tubes span a whole spectrum of sizes, ranging from sunspots to features well below the best currently obtainable spatial resolution. Whereas sunspots have been well studied, our knowledge of the true brightness of small-scale magnetic features is hampered by the insufficient spatial resolution of the observations. A better understanding of the thermal and magnetic properties of these small-scale features, however, is crucial for an understanding of (climate-relevant) long-term solar irradiance variations.

  12. A new method for estimating heat flux in superheater and reheater tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Purbolaksono, J. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Tenaga Nasional, km 7 Jalan Kajang-Puchong, Kajang 43009, Selangor (Malaysia)], E-mail: judha@uniten.edu.my; Khinani, A.; Rashid, A.Z.; Ali, A.A. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Tenaga Nasional, km 7 Jalan Kajang-Puchong, Kajang 43009, Selangor (Malaysia); Ahmad, J. [Kapar Energy Ventures Sdn Bhd, Jalan Tok Muda, Kapar 42200, Selangor (Malaysia); Nordin, N.F. [TNB Research Sdn Bhd, No. 1 Lorong Air Hitam, Kajang 43000, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2009-10-15

    In this paper a procedure on how to estimate the heat flux in superheater and reheater tubes utilizing the empirical formula and the finite element modeling is proposed. An iterative procedure consisting of empirical formulae and numerical simulation is used to determine heat flux as both temperature and scale thickness increase over period of time. Estimation results of the heat flux over period of time for two different design temperatures of the steam and different heat transfer parameters are presented.

  13. Forced three-dimensional magnetic reconnection due to linkage of magnetic flux tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otto, A.

    1995-01-01

    During periods of southward interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) orientation the magnetic field geometry at the dayside magnetopause is susceptible to magnetic reconnection. It has been suggested that reconnection may occur in a localized manner at several patches on the magnetopause. A major problem with this picture is the interaction of magnetic flux ropes which are generated by different reconnection processes. An individual flux rope is bent elbowlike where it intersects the magnetopause and the magnetic field changes from magnetospheric to interplanetary magnetic field orientation. Multiple patches of reconnection can lead to the formation of interlinked magnetic flux tubes. Although the corresponding flux is connected to the IMF the northward and southward connected branches are hooked into each other and cannot develop independently. We have studied this problem in the framework of three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic simulations. The results indicate that a singular current sheet forms at the interface of two interlinked flux tubes if no resistivity is present in the simulation. This current sheet is strongly tilted compared to the original current sheet. In the presence of resistivity the interaction of the two flux tubes forces a fast reconnection process which generates helically twisted closed magnetospheric flux. This linkage induced reconnection generates a boundary layer with layers of open and closed magnetospheric flux and may account for the brightening of auroral arcs poleward of the boundary between open and closed magnetic flux.

  14. TURBULENT FILM CONDENSATION OF PURE VAPORS FLOWING NORMAL TO A HORIZONTAL CONDENSER TUBE - CONSTANT HEAT FLUX AT THE TUBE WALL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.V. Sharma

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A mathematical model was developed for the study of external turbulent film condensation of pure vapours flowing downward and normal to the axis of the condenser tube with constant heat flux conditions maintained at the tube wall. The magnitude of interfacial shear was estimated for a given external flow condition of the vapour with the help of Colburn’s analogy. The average condensation heat transfer coefficients for different system conditions were evaluated. The present theory was compared with the available experimental and theoretical data in the literature and was found to be satisfactory.

  15. Impact of the dipole tilt angle on the ionospheric plasma in the outer plasmasphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchaudon, Aurelie; Blelly, Pierre-Louis

    2015-04-01

    We have developed a new interhemispheric 16-moment based ionosphere model. This model describes the field-aligned transport of the multi-species ionospheric plasma (6 ions) from one hemisphere to the other, taking into account source processes at low altitudes (photoionization, chemistry) and coupling with suprathermal electrons. We simulate the convection and corotation transport of closed flux tubes in the outer plasmasphere for tilted/eccentric dipolar magnetic field configuration. We ran the model in solstice and equinox conditions and for two plasmapause boundary conditions: one corresponding to standard conditions with a stagnation point at 4.5 Earth radii (RE) and 15h Magnetic Local Time (MLT) and one corresponding to very quiet conditions with a stagnation point at 6 RE and 15h MLT. For each season/stagnation simulation, the model is run for 30 days before the equinox/solstice date in order to eliminate the transients. The goal is to study the combined effect of the tilt of the magnetic field and the rotation axis on the field-aligned dynamics and overall equilibrium of the subauroral ionosphere. In the classical representation of the plasmasphere, the ionosphere only depends on angular MLT sector. We will show that due to the tilt effect, this view is erroneous and no real dynamic equilibrium is reached, in particular close to the stagnation point where we can observe large day-to-day variations in the ionospheric parameters. Finally, we will present the temperatures anisotropy development along the flux tube for different positions of the stagnation point.

  16. Dynamics of local isolated magnetic flux tubes in a fast-rotating stellar atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chou, W.; Tajima, C.T. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Dept. of Physics; Matsumoto, R. [Chiba Univ. (Japan)]|[ASRC, JAERI, Naka (Japan); Shibata, K. [National Astronomical Observatory, Mitaka (Japan)

    1998-01-01

    Dynamics of magnetic flux tubes in the fast rotating stellar atmosphere is studied. We focus on the effects and signatures of the instability of the flux tube emergence influenced by the Coriolis force. We present the result from a linear stability analysis and discuss its possible signatures in the course of the evolution of G-type and M-type stars. We present a three dimensional magnetohydrodynamical simulation of local isolated magnetic flux tubes under a magnetic buoyancy instability in co-rotating Cartesian coordinates. We find that the combination of the buoyancy instability and the Coriolis effect gives rise to a mechanism, to twist the emerging magnetic flux tube into a helical structure. The tilt angle, east-west asymmetry and magnetic helicity of the Twisted flux tubes in the simulations are studied in detail. The linear and nonlinear analyses provide hints as to what kind of pattern of large spots in young M-type main-sequence stars might be observed. We find that young and old G-type stars may have different distributions of spots while M-type stars may always have low latitudes spots. The size of stellar spots may decrease when a star becomes older, due to the decreasing of magnetic field. A qualitative comparison with solar observations is also presented.

  17. Heat transfer and critical heat flux in a asymmetrically heated tube helicoidal flow; Transfert thermique et flux critique dans un ecoulement helicoidal en tube chauffe asymetriquement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boscary, J.

    1995-10-01

    The design of plasma facing components is crucial for plasma performance in next fusion reactors. These elements will be submitted to very high heat flux. They will be actively water-cooled by swirl tubes in the subcooled boiling regime. High heat flux experiments were conducted in order to analyse the heat transfer and to evaluate the critical heat flux. Water-cooled mock-ups were one-side heated by an electron beam gun for different thermal-hydraulic conditions. The critical heat flux was detected by an original method based on the isotherm modification on the heated surface. The wall heat transfer law including forced convection and subcooled boiling regimes was established. Numerical calculations of the material heat transfer conduction allowed the non-homogeneous distribution of the wall temperature and of the wall heat flux to be evaluated. The critical heat flux value was defined as the wall maximum heat flux. A critical heat flux model based on the liquid sublayer dryout under a vapor blanket was established. A good agreement with test results was found. (author). 198 refs., 126 figs., 21 tabs.

  18. Heat transfer and critical heat flux in a spiral flow in an asymmetrical heated tube; Transfert thermique et flux critique dans un ecoulement helicoidal en tube chauffe asymetriquement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boscary, J. [CEA Centre d`Etudes de Cadarache, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France). Direction des Sciences de la Matiere]|[Association Euratom-CEA, Centre d`Etudes Nucleaires de Cadarache, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France). Dept. de Recherches sur la Fusion Controlee

    1997-03-01

    The design of plasma facing components is crucial for plasma performance in next fusion reactors. These elements will be submitted to very high heat flux. They will be actively water-cooled by swirl tubes in the subcooled boiling regime. High heat flux experiments were conducted in order to analyse the heat transfer and to evaluate the critical heat flux. Water-cooled mock-ups were one-side heated by an electron beam gun for different thermal-hydraulic conditions. The critical heat flux was detected by an original method based on the isotherm modification on the heated surface. The wall heat transfer law including forced convection and subcooled boiling regimes was established. Numerical calculations of the material heat transfer conduction allowed the non-homogeneous distribution of the wall temperature and of the wall heat flux to be evaluated. The critical heat flux value was defined as the wall maximum heat flux. A critical heat flux model based on the liquid sublayer dryout under a vapor blanket was established. A good agreement with test results was found. (author) 197 refs.

  19. The stretching of magnetic flux tubes in the convective overshoot region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, George H.; Mcclymont, Alexander N.; Chou, Dean-Yi

    1991-01-01

    The present study examines the fate of a magnetic flux tube initially lying at the bottom of the solar convective overshoot region. Stretching of the flux tube, e.g., by differential rotation, reduces its density, causing it to rise quasi-statically (a process referred to as vertical flux drift) until it reaches the top of the overshoot region and enters the buoyantly unstable convection region, from which a portion of it may ultimately protrude to form an active region on the surface. It is suggested that vertical flux drift and flux destabilization are inevitable consequences of field amplification, and it is surmised that these phenomena should be considered in self-consistent models of solar and stellar dynamos operating in the overshoot region.

  20. Dynamical fragmentation of flux tubes in the Friedberg-Lee model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loh, S.; Greiner, C.; Mosel, U.; Thoma, M. H.

    1997-02-01

    We present two novel dynamical features of flux tubes in the Friedberg-Lee model. First the fusion of two (anti-)parallel flux tubes, where we extract a string-string interaction potential which has a qualitative similarity to the nucleon-nucleon potential in the Friedberg-Lee model obtained by Koepf et al. Furthermore we show the dynamical breakup of flux tubes via q overlineq- particle production and the disintegration into mesons. We find, as a shortcoming of the present realization of the model, that the full dynamical transport approach presented in a previous publication fails to provide the disintegration mechanism in the semiclassical limit. Therefore, in addition, we present here a molecular dynamical approach for the motion of the quarks and show, as a first application, the space-time development of the wuarks and their mean-fields for Lund-type string fragmentation processes.

  1. Numerical simulations of magnetic Kelvin-Helmholtz instability at a twisted solar flux tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murawski, K.; Chmielewski, P.; Zaqarashvili, T. V.; Khomenko, E.

    2016-07-01

    The paper aims to study the response of a solar small-scale and weak magnetic flux tube to photospheric twisting motions. We numerically solve three-dimensional ideal magnetohydrodynamic equations to describe the evolution of the perturbation within the initially static flux tube, excited by twists in the azimuthal component of the velocity. These twists produce rotation of the magnetic field lines. Perturbation of magnetic field lines propagates upwardly, driving vertical and azimuthal flow as well as plasma compressions and rarefactions in the form of eddies. We conclude that these eddies result from the sheared azimuthal flow which seeds Kelvin-Helmholtz instability (KHI) between the flux tube and the ambient medium. Numerically obtained properties of the KHI confirm the analytical predictions for the occurrence of the instability.

  2. Nonlinear fast sausage waves in homogeneous magnetic flux tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikhalyaev, Badma B.; Ruderman, Michael S.

    2015-12-01

    > We consider fast sausage waves in straight homogeneous magnetic tubes. The plasma motion is described by the ideal magnetohydrodynamic equations in the cold plasma approximation. We derive the nonlinear Schrödinger equation describing the nonlinear evolution of an envelope of a carrier wave. The coefficients of this equation are expressed in terms Bessel and modified Bessel functions. They are calculated numerically for various values of parameters. In particular, we show that the criterion for the onset of the modulational or Benjamin-Fair instability is satisfied. The implication of the obtained results for solar physics is discussed.

  3. Critical heat flux prediction for water boiling in vertical tubes of a steam generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Payan-Rodriguez, L.A.; Gallegos-Munoz [Departmet of Mechanical Engineering, University of Guanajuato, Av. Tampico No. 912 Salamanca (Mexico); Porras-Loaiza, G.L. [Institute for Electrical Researches, Av. Reforma No. 113, Temixco (Mexico); Picon-Nunez [Institute for Scientific Research, University of Guanajuato, Lascurain de Retana No. 5, Guanajuato (Mexico)

    2005-02-01

    This paper presents a methodology for the prediction of the critical heat flux (CHF) for the boiling of water in vertical tubes operating under typical conditions found in steam generators. At the furnace, the water flows through long vertical tubes under an axially non-uniform heat flux and with relatively low mass fluxes. This fact causes that the recent theories and correlations, which have been developed for conditions typically found in nuclear reactors, cannot be directly applied for the prediction of the CHF in the furnace tubes. In this context, the mechanistic theories focused into the CHF prediction have proved their usefulness to predict CHF avoiding the use of correlations and experimental constants. Hence, in order to assist the CHF problem in steam generators, the sublayer dryout theory, initially formulated for CHF in vertical tubes uniformly heated, is extended by combining it with the shape factor method (F-factor), to account for the effects of the axially non-uniform heat flux distribution. The critical wall temperature (CWT) of the tubes is calculated from CHF data. The reliability of the modified theory for the CHF prediction is tested by comparing CWT results against measured data from a steam generator of a power plant. Good consistency and approximation is found between predicted and measured data. (authors)

  4. He+ dominance in the plasmasphere during geomagnetically disturbed periods: 1. Observational results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. R. Wilford

    Full Text Available Observations made by the DMSP F10 satellite during the recovery phase from geomagnetic disturbances in June 1991 show regions of He+ dominance around 830 km altitude at 09:00 MLT. These regions are co-located with a trough in ionisation observed around 55° in the winter hemisphere. Plasma temperature and concentration observations made during the severe geomagnetic storm of 24 March 1991 are used as a case study to determine the effects of geomagnetic disturbances along the orbit of the F10 satellite. Previous explanations for He+ dominance in this trough region relate to the part of the respective flux tubes that is in darkness. Such conditions are not relevant for this study, since the whole of the respective flux tubes are sunlit. A new mechanism is proposed to explain the He+ dominance in the trough region. This mechanism is based on plasma transport and chemical reaction effects in the F-region and topside ionosphere, and on the time scales for such chemical reactions. Flux tubes previously depleted by geomagnetic storm effects refill during the recovery phase from the ionosphere as a result of pressure differences along the flux tubes. Following a geomagnetic disturbance, the He+ ion recovers quickly via the rapid photoionisation of neutral helium, in the F-region and the topside. The recovery of the O+ and H+ ions is less rapid. This is proposed as a result of the respective charge exchange reactions with neutral atomic hydrogen and oxygen. Preliminary model calculations support the proposed mechanism.Key words. Magnetospheric physics (storms and sub-storms, plasmasphere

  5. Dynamics of multiple flux tubes in sawtoothing KSTAR plasmas heated by electron cyclotron waves: I. Experimental analysis of the tube structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choe, G. H.; Yun, G. S.; Nam, Y.; Lee, W.; Park, H. K.; Bierwage, A.; Domier, C. W.; Luhmann, N. C., Jr.; Jeong, J. H.; Bae, Y. S.; the KSTAR Team

    2015-01-01

    Multiple (two or more) flux tubes are commonly observed inside and/or near the q = 1 flux surface in KSTAR tokamak plasmas with localized electron cyclotron resonance heating and current drive (ECH/CD). Detailed 2D and quasi-3D images of the flux tubes obtained by an advanced imaging diagnostic system showed that the flux tubes are m/n = 1/1 field-aligned structures co-rotating around the magnetic axis. The flux tubes typically merge together and become like the internal kink mode of the usual sawtooth, which then collapses like a usual sawtooth crash. A systematic scan of ECH/CD beam position showed a strong correlation with the number of flux tubes. In the presence of multiple flux tubes close to the q = 1 surface, the radially outward heat transport was enhanced, which explains naturally temporal changes of electron temperature. We emphasize that the multiple flux tubes are a universal feature distinct from the internal kink instability and play a critical role in the control of sawteeth using ECH/CD.

  6. Analytical study on coordinative optimization of convection in tubes with variable heat flux

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN Zhongxian; ZHANG Jianguo; JIANG Mingjian

    2004-01-01

    The laminar heat transfer in the thermal entrance region in round tubes, which has a variable surface heat flux boundary condition, is analytically studied. The results show that the heat transfer coefficient is closely related to the wall temperature gradient along the tube axis. The greater the gradient, the higher the heat transfer rate. Furthermore, the coordination of the velocity and the temperature gradient fields is also analysed under different surface heat fluxes. The validity of the field coordination principle is verified by checking the correlation of heat transfer coefficient and the coordination degree. The results also demonstrate that optimizing the thermal boundary condition is a way to enhance heat transfer.

  7. The flux tube paradigm and its role in MHD turbulence in the solar atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthaeus, W. H.; Greco, A.; Servidio, S.; Wan, M.; Osman, K.; Ruffolo, D. J.

    2011-12-01

    Descriptions of magnetic field and plasma structures in terms of flux tubes, plasmoids and other bundles of magnetic field lines are familiar in the vocabulary of observational and theoretical space physics. "Spaghetti models" and flux ropes are well known examples. Flux tubes and families of field lines can also be defined in a medium that admits magnetic fluctuations, including strong MHD turbulence, but their behavior can become complicated. In 3D fluctuations the smooth flux tube description itself becomes in some sense unstable, as nearby field lines diverge and flux surfaces shred. This lends complexity to the structure of flux tubes, and can give rise to temporarily trapped field lines and charged test particle trajectories, with immediate implications for transport, e.g., of solar energetic particles. The properties of the turbulent magnetic field can also be strongly influenced by the dynamics of turbulence. Large scale self organizing behavior, or inverse cascade, can enhance very long wavelength structure, favoring Bohm scaling of diffusion coefficients. Meanwhile smaller scale flux tube structures are integral features of the inertial range of turbulence, giving rise to a cellularization of the plasma due to rapid dynamical relaxation processes. These drive the turbulent system locally towards low-acceleration states, including Alfvenic, Beltrami and force-free states. Cell boundaries are natural positions for formation of near discontinuous boundaries, where dynamical activity can be enhanced. A primary example is appearance of numerous discontinuities and active reconnection sites in turbulence, which appear to support a wide distribution of reconnection rates associated with coherent current structures. These discontinuities are also potential sites of enhanced heating, as expected in Kolmogorov's Refined Similarity Hypothesis. All of these features are related to self organization, cascade and intermittency of the turbulence. Examples of these

  8. Dynamics of magnetic flux tubes in close binary stars II. Nonlinear evolution and surface distributions

    CERN Document Server

    Holzwarth, V R

    2003-01-01

    Observations of magnetically active close binaries with orbital periods of a few days reveal the existence of starspots at preferred longitudes (with respect to the direction of the companion star). We numerically investigate the non-linear dynamics and evolution of magnetic flux tubes in the convection zoneof a fast-rotating component of a close binary system and explore whether the tidal effects are able to generate non-uniformities in the surface distribution of erupting flux tubes. Assuming a synchronised system with a rotation period of two days and consisting of two solar-type components, both the tidal force and the deviation of the stellar structure from spherical shape are considered in lowest-order perturbation theory. The magnetic field is initially stored in the form of toroidal magnetic flux rings within the stably stratified overshoot region beneath the convection zone. Once the field has grown sufficiently strong, instabilities initiate the formation of rising flux loops, which rise through the...

  9. The Emergence of Kinked Flux Tubes as the Source of Delta-Spots on the Photosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knizhnik, Kalman; Linton, Mark; Norton, Aimee Ann

    2017-08-01

    It has been observationally well established that the magnetic configurations most favorable to producing energetic flaring events reside in so called delta-spots. These delta-spots are a subclass of sunspots, and are classified as sunspots which have umbrae (dark regions in the interior of sunspots) with opposite magnetic polarities that share a common penumbra. They are characterized by strong rotation and an extremely compact magnetic configuration, and are observed to follow an inverse-Hale law. It has been shown that over 90% of X-class flares that occurred during solar cycles 22 and 23 originated in delta-spots (Guo, Lin & Deng, 2014). Understanding the origin of delta-spots, therefore, is a crucial step towards the ultimate goal of space weather forecasting. In this work, we argue that delta-spots arise during the emergence of kinked flux tubes into the corona, and that their unique properties are due to the emergence of knots present in the kink mode of twisted flux tubes. We present numerical simulations that study the emergence of both kink-stable and unstable flux tubes into the solar corona, and demonstrate quantitatively that their photospheric signatures are dramatically different, with the latter flux tubes demonstrating strong coherent rotation and a very tight flux distribution on the photosphere. We show that the coronal magnetic field resulting from the emergence of a kinked flux tube contains significantly more free energy than the unkinked case, potentially leading to more energetic flares. We discuss the implications of our simulations for observations.

  10. Magnetic Twist and Writhe of Active Regions: On the Origin of Deformed Flux Tubes

    CERN Document Server

    Fuentes, M López; Mandrini, C H; Pevtsov, A A; van Driel-Gesztelyi, L

    2014-01-01

    We study the long term evolution of a set of 22 bipolar active regions (ARs) in which the main photospheric polarities are seen to rotate one around the other during several solar rotations. We first show that differential rotation is not at the origin of this large change in the tilt angle. A possible origin of this distortion is the nonlinear development of a kink-instability at the base of the convective zone; this would imply the formation of a non-planar flux tube which, while emerging across the photosphere, would show a rotation of its photospheric polarities as observed. A characteristic of the flux tubes deformed by this mechanism is that their magnetic twist and writhe should have the same sign. From the observed evolution of the tilt of the bipoles, we derive the sign of the writhe of the flux tube forming each AR; while we compute the sign of the twist from transverse field measurements. Comparing the handedness of the magnetic twist and writhe, we find that the presence of kink-unstable flux tube...

  11. Dynamos driven by poloidal flows in untwisted, curved and flat Riemannian diffusive flux tubes

    CERN Document Server

    de Andrade, L C Garcia

    2010-01-01

    Recently Vishik anti-fast dynamo theorem, has been tested against non-stretching flux tubes [Phys Plasmas 15 (2008)]. In this paper, another anti-dynamo theorem, called Cowling's theorem, which states that axisymmetric magnetic fields cannot support dynamo action, is carefully tested against thick tubular and curved Riemannian untwisted flows, as well as thin flux tubes in diffusive and diffusionless media. In the non-diffusive media the Cowling's theorem is not violated in thin Riemann-flat untwisted flux tubes, where the Frenet curvature is negative. Nevertheless the diffusion action in the thin flux tube leads to a a dynamo action driven by poloidal flows as shown by Love and Gubbins (Geophysical Res.) in the context of geodynamos. Actually it is shown that a slow dynamo action is obtained. In this case the Frenet and Riemann curvature still vanishes. In the case of magnetic filaments in diffusive media dynamo action is obtained when the Frenet scalar curvature is negative. Since the Riemann curvature tens...

  12. Two-dimensional equilibrium in coronal magnetostatic flux tubes: an accurate equilibrium solver

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belien, A. J. C.; Poedts, S.; Goedbloed, J. P.

    1997-01-01

    To study linearized magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) waves, continuous spectra, and instabilities in coronal magnetic flux tubes that are anchored in dense chromospheric and photospheric regions, a two-dimensional numerical code, called PARIS, has been developed. PARIS solves the pertinent nonlinear Grad-S

  13. Flux-tube geometry and wind speed during an activity cycle

    CERN Document Server

    Pinto, R F; Rouillard, A P

    2016-01-01

    The solar wind speed at 1 AU shows variations in latitude and in time which reflect the evolution of the global background magnetic field during the activity cycle. It is commonly accepted that the terminal wind speed in a magnetic flux-tube is anti-correlated with its expansion ratio, which motivated the definition of widely-used semi-empirical scaling laws relating one to the other. In practice, such scaling laws require ad-hoc corrections. A predictive law based solely on physical principles is still missing. We test whether the flux-tube expansion is the controlling factor of the wind speed at all phases of the cycle and at all latitudes using a very large sample of wind-carrying open magnetic flux-tubes. We furthermore search for additional physical parameters based on the geometry of the coronal magnetic field which have an influence on the terminal wind flow speed. We use MHD simulations of the corona and wind coupled to a dynamo model to provide a large statistical ensemble of open flux-tubes which we...

  14. A New Constraint on Effective Field Theories of the QCD Flux Tube

    CERN Document Server

    Baker, M

    2015-01-01

    Effective magnetic $SU(N)$ gauge theory with classical $Z_N$ flux tubes of intrinsic width $\\frac{1}{M}$ is an effective field theory of the long distance quark-antiquark interaction in $SU(N)$ Yang-Mills theory. Long wavelength fluctuations of the $Z_N$ vortices of this theory lead to an effective string theory. In this paper we clarify the connection between effective field theory and effective string theory and we propose a new constraint on these vortices. We first examine the impact of string fluctuations on the classical dual superconductor description of confinement. At inter-quark distances $R\\sim \\frac{1}{M}$ the classical action for a straight flux tube determines the heavy quark potentials. At distances $R \\gg \\frac{1}{M}$ fluctuations of the flux tube axis $\\tilde{x}$ give rise to an effective string theory with an action $S_{eff} (\\tilde{x})$, the classical action for a curved flux tube, evaluated %on the fluctuating vortex sheet $\\tilde{x}$ in the limit $\\frac{1}{M} \\rightarrow 0~$. This action ...

  15. The Lifetime of the Electric Flux Tubes near the QCD Phase Transition

    CERN Document Server

    Faroughy, Cyrus

    2010-01-01

    Electric flux tubes are a well known attribute of the QCD vacuum in which they manifest confinement of electric color charges. Recently, experimental results have appeared suggesting that not only those objects persist at temperatures $T\\approx T_c$ near the QCD phase transitions, but their decay is suppressed and the resulting clusters in AuAu collisions are larger than in pp (i.e. in vacuum). This correlates well with recent theoretical scenarios that view the QCD matter in the $T\\approx T_{c}$ region as a dual-magnetic plasma dominated by color-magnetic monopoles. In this view the flux tubes are stabilized by dual-magnetic currents and are described by dual-magnetohydrodynamics (DMHD). In this paper we calculate classically the dissipative effects in the flux tube. Such effects are associated with rescattering and finite conductivity of the matter. We derive the DMHD solution in the presence of dissipation and then estimate the lifetime of the electric flux tubes. The conclusion of this study is that a cla...

  16. Flux-tube geometry and solar wind speed during an activity cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, R. F.; Brun, A. S.; Rouillard, A. P.

    2016-07-01

    Context. The solar wind speed at 1 AU shows cyclic variations in latitude and in time which reflect the evolution of the global background magnetic field during the activity cycle. It is commonly accepted that the terminal (asymptotic) wind speed in a given magnetic flux-tube is generally anti-correlated with its total expansion ratio, which motivated the definition of widely used semi-empirical scaling laws relating one to the other. In practice, such scaling laws require ad hoc corrections (especially for the slow wind in the vicinities of streamer/coronal hole boundaries) and empirical fits to in situ spacecraft data. A predictive law based solely on physical principles is still missing. Aims: We test whether the flux-tube expansion is the controlling factor of the wind speed at all phases of the cycle and at all latitudes (close to and far from streamer boundaries) using a very large sample of wind-carrying open magnetic flux-tubes. We furthermore search for additional physical parameters based on the geometry of the coronal magnetic field which have an influence on the terminal wind flow speed. Methods: We use numerical magneto-hydrodynamical simulations of the corona and wind coupled to a dynamo model to determine the properties of the coronal magnetic field and of the wind velocity (as a function of time and latitude) during a whole 11-yr activity cycle. These simulations provide a large statistical ensemble of open flux-tubes which we analyse conjointly in order to identify relations of dependence between the wind speed and geometrical parameters of the flux-tubes which are valid globally (for all latitudes and moments of the cycle). Results: Our study confirms that the terminal (asymptotic) speed of the solar wind depends very strongly on the geometry of the open magnetic flux-tubes through which it flows. The total flux-tube expansion is more clearly anti-correlated with the wind speed for fast rather than for slow wind flows, and effectively controls the

  17. 3D Laboratory Measurements of Forces, Flows, and Collimation in Arched Flux Tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haw, Magnus; Bellan, Paul

    2016-10-01

    Fully 3D, vector MHD force measurements from an arched, current carrying flux tube (flux rope) are presented. The experiment consists of two arched plasma-filled flux ropes each powered by a capacitor bank. The two loops are partially overlapped, as in a Venn diagram, and collide and reconnect during their evolution. B-field data is taken on the lower plasma arch using a 54 channel B-dot probe. 3D volumetric data is acquired by placing the probe at 2700 locations and taking 5 plasma shots at each location. The resulting data set gives high resolution (2cm, 10ns) volumetric B-field data with high reproducibility (deviation of 3% between shots). Taking the curl of the measured 3D B-field gives current densities (J) in good agreement with measured capacitor bank current. The JxB forces calculated from the data have a strong axial component at the base of the current channel and are shown to scale linearly with axial gradients in current density. Assuming force balance in the flux tube minor radius direction, we infer near-Alfvenic axial flows from the footpoint regions which are consistent with the measured axial forces. Flux tube collimation is observed in conjunction with these axial flows. These dynamic processes are relevant to the stability and dynamics of coronal loops. Supported provided by NSF, AFOSR.

  18. Quasi-steady multiple flux tubes induced by localized current perturbation in toroidal plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Gunsu

    2015-11-01

    Quasi-steady helical modes with dual, triple, or more flux tubes are easily produced by localized current drive in the core of sawtoothing plasma on the KSTAR tokamak. Individual flux tubes have m / n = 1 / 1 helicity, co-rotate around the magnetic axis, and later merge into a single m = 1 mode. The merged mode eventually crashes with rapid collapse of the core pressure and the next cycle repeats the same pattern, exhibiting sawtooth-like oscillations in the core pressure. The generation mechanism of multiple flux tubes (MFTs) has been studied in two different approaches to understand the observed trend that the number of flux tubes increases as the current drive location moves away from the magnetic axis up to about the magnetic surface of the safety factor q = 1 at the mode collapse: (1) nonlinear reduced MHD simulation with a localized current source modeling the time-varying interaction between the current source and flux tubes and (2) linear MHD simulation with a prescribed q profile with a radially localized current blip. Both studies show that MFTs can be produced only in plasmas with nearly flat q profile close to unity, suggesting the collapse of the m = 1 mode (i.e., sawtooth crash) is complete. Recent observation of long-lived MFTs induced by localized current drive in non-sawtoothing plasma suggests that q profile evolution toward lower- m instability is required for the merging and crash of MFTs. Work supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea, US D.O.E., and Japan Society for the Promotion of Science.

  19. Critical heat flux for downward-facing pool boiling on CANDU calandria tube surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behdadi, Azin, E-mail: behdada@mcmaster.ca; Talebi, Farshad; Luxat, John

    2017-04-15

    Highlights: • Pressure tube-calandria tube contact may challenge fuel channel integrity in CANDU. • Critical heat flux variation is predicted on the outer surface of CANDU calandria tube. • A two-phase boundary layer flow driven by buoyancy is modeled on the surface. • Different slip ratios and flow regimes are considered inside the boundary layer. • Subcooling effects are added to the model using wall heat flux partitioning. - Abstract: One accident scenario in CANDU reactors that can challenge the integrity of the primary pressure boundary is a loss of coolant accident, referred to as critical break LOCA, in which the pressure tube (PT) can undergo thermal creep strain deformation and contact its calandria tube (CT). In such case, rapid redistribution of stored heat from PT to CT, leads to a large spike in heat flux to the moderator which can cause bubble accumulation and dryout on the CT surface. A challenge to fuel channel integrity is posed if critical heat flux occurs on the surface of the CT and results in sustained film boiling. If the post-dryout temperature becomes sufficiently high then continued creep strain of the PT and CT may lead to fuel channel failure. In this study, a mechanistic model is developed to predict the critical heat flux variations along the downward facing outer surface of CT. The hydrodynamic model considers a liquid macrolayer beneath an elongated vapor slug on the surface. Local dryout is postulated to occur whenever the fresh liquid supply to the macrolayer is not sufficient to compensate for the liquid depletion. A boundary layer analysis is performed, treating the two phase motion as an external buoyancy driven flow. The model shows good agreement with the available experimental data and has been modified to take into account the effect of subcooling.

  20. Correlation of critical heat flux data for uniform tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jafri, T.; Dougherty, T.J.; Yang, B.W. [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States)

    1995-09-01

    A data base of more than 10,000 critical heat flux (CHF) data points has been compiled and analyzed. Two regimes of CHF are observed which will be referred to as the high CHF regime and the low CHF regime. In the high CHF regime, for pressures less than 110 bar, CHF (q{sub c}) is a determined by local conditions and is adequately represented by q{sub c} = (1.2/D{sup 1/2}) exp[-{gamma}(GX{sub t}){sup 1/2}] where the parameter {gamma} is an increasing function of pressure only, X{sub t} the true mass fraction of steam, and all units are metric but the heat flux is in MWm{sup -2}. A simple kinetic model has been developed to estimate X{sub t} as a function of G, X, X{sub i}, and X{sub O}, where X{sub i} is the inlet quality and X{sub O} represents the quality at the Onset of Significant Vaporization (OSV) which is estimated from the Saha-Zuber (S-Z) correlation. The model is based on a rate equation for vaporization suggested by, and consistent with, the S-Z correlation and contains no adjustable parameters. When X{sub i}X{sub O}, X{sub t} depends on X{sub i}, a nonlocal variable, and, in this case, CHF, although determined by local conditions, obeys a nonlocal correlation. This model appears to be satisfactory for pressures less than 110 bar, where the S-Z correlation is known to be reliable. Above 110 bar the method of calculating X{sub O}, and consequently X{sub t}, appears to fail, so this approach can not be applied to high pressure CHF data. Above 35 bar, the bulk of the available data lies in the high CHF regime while, at pressures less than 35 bar, almost all of the available data lie in the low CHF regime and appear to be nonlocal.

  1. Numerical simulations of three-dimensional magnetic swirls in a solar flux-tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chmielewski, Piotr; Murawski, Krzysztof; Solov'ev, Alexandr A.

    2014-07-01

    We aim to numerically study evolution of Alfvén waves that accompany short-lasting swirl events in a solar magnetic flux-tube that can be a simple model of a magnetic pore or a sunspot. With the use of the FLASH code we numerically solve three-dimensional ideal magnetohydrodynamic equations to simulate twists which are implemented at the top of the photosphere in magnetic field lines of the flux-tube. Our numerical results exhibit swirl events and Alfvén waves with associated clockwise and counterclockwise rotation of magnetic lines, with the largest values of vorticity at the bottom of the chromosphere, and a certain amount of energy flux.

  2. Numerical Simulations of Torsional Alfvén Waves in Axisymmetric Solar Magnetic Flux Tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wójcik, D.; Murawski, K.; Musielak, Z. E.; Konkol, P.; Mignone, A.

    2017-02-01

    We numerically investigate Alfvén waves propagating along an axisymmetric and non-isothermal solar flux tube embedded in the solar atmosphere. The tube magnetic field is current-free and diverges with height, and the waves are excited by a periodic driver along the tube magnetic field lines. The main results are that the two wave variables, the velocity and magnetic field perturbations in the azimuthal direction, behave differently as a result of gradients of the physical parameters along the tube. To explain these differences in the wave behavior, the time evolution of the wave variables and the resulting cutoff period for each wave variable are calculated and used to determine regions in the solar chromosphere where strong wave reflection may occur.

  3. On Anisotropy in Expansion of Magnetic Flux Tubes in the Solar Corona

    CERN Document Server

    Malanushenko, A

    2013-01-01

    Most 1d hydrodynamic models of plasma confined to magnetic flux tubes assume circular cross-section of these tubes. We use potential field models to show that flux tubes in circumstances relevant to the solar corona do not in general maintain the same cross-sectional shape through their length and therefore the assumption of a circular cross-section is rarely true. We support our hypothesis with mathematical reasoning and numeric experiments. We demonstrate that lifting this assumption in realistic non-circular loops make apparent expansion of magnetic flux tubes consistent with that of observed coronal loops. We propose that in a bundle of ribbon-like loops those that are viewed along the wide direction would stand out against those that are viewed across the wide direction, due to the difference in their column depths. That would impose a bias towards selecting loops that appear not to be expanding seen projected in the plane of sky. An implication of this selection bias is that the preferentially selected ...

  4. Torsional Alfven Waves in Solar Magnetic Flux Tubes of Axial Symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Murawski, K; Musielak, Z E; Srivastava, A K; Kraskiewicz, J

    2015-01-01

    Aims: Propagation and energy transfer of torsional Alfv\\'en waves in solar magnetic flux tubes of axial symmetry is studied. Methods: An analytical model of a solar magnetic flux tube of axial symmetry is developed by specifying a magnetic flux and deriving general analytical formulae for the equilibrium mass density and a gas pressure. The main advantage of this model is that it can be easily adopted to any axisymmetric magnetic structure. The model is used to simulate numerically the propagation of nonlinear Alfv\\'en waves in such 2D flux tubes of axial symmetry embedded in the solar atmosphere. The waves are excited by a localized pulse in the azimuthal component of velocity and launched at the top of the solar photosphere, and they propagate through the solar chromosphere, transition region, and into the solar corona. Results: The results of our numerical simulations reveal a complex scenario of twisted magnetic field lines and flows associated with torsional Alfv\\'en waves as well as energy transfer to t...

  5. Simulation of f-Mode Propagation Through a Cluster of Small Identical Magnetic Flux Tubes

    CERN Document Server

    Daiffallah, Khalil

    2013-01-01

    Motivated by the question of how to distinguish seismically between monolithic and cluster models of sunspots, we have simulated the propagation of an $f$-mode wave packet through two identical small magnetic flux tubes (R=200 km), embedded in a stratified atmosphere. We want to study the effect of separation $d$ and incidence angle $\\chi$ on the scattered wave. We have demonstrated that the horizontal compact pair of tubes ($d/R=2$, $\\chi=0$) oscillate as a single tube when the incident wave is propagating, which gives a scattered wave amplitude of about twice that from a single tube. The scattered amplitude decreases with increasing $d$ when $d$ is about $\\lambda/2\\pi$ where $\\lambda$ is the wavelength of the incident wave packet. In this case the individual tubes start to oscillate separately in the manner of near-field scattering. When $d$ is about twice of $\\lambda/2\\pi$, scattering from individual tubes reaches the far-field regime, giving rise to coherent scattering with an amplitude similar to the cas...

  6. Geodesic dynamo chaotic flows and non-Anosov maps in twisted magnetic flux tubes

    CERN Document Server

    de Andrade, Garcia

    2008-01-01

    Recently Tang and Boozer [{\\textbf{Phys. Plasmas (2000)}}], have investigated the anisotropies in magnetic field dynamo evolution, from local Lyapunov exponents, giving rise to a metric tensor, in the Alfven twist in magnetic flux tubes (MFTs). Thiffeault and Boozer [\\textbf{Chaos}(2001)] have investigated the how the vanishing of Riemann curvature constrained the Lyapunov exponential stretching of chaotic flows. In this paper, Tang-Boozer-Thiffeault differential geometric framework is used to investigate effects of twisted magnetic flux tube filled with helical chaotic flows on the Riemann curvature tensor. When Frenet torsion is positive, the Riemann curvature is unstable, while the negative torsion induces an stability when time $t\\to{\\infty}$. This enhances the dynamo action inside the MFTs. The Riemann metric, depends on the radial random flows along the poloidal and toroidal directions. The Anosov flows has been applied by Arnold, Zeldovich, Ruzmaikin and Sokoloff [\\textbf{JETP (1982)}] to build a unifo...

  7. Surprisingly low frequency attenuation effects in long tubes when measuring turbulent fluxes at tall towers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibrom, Andreas; Brændholt, Andreas; Pilegaard, Kim

    2016-01-01

    by reducing both the water vapour dilution correction and the cross sensitivity effects on the N2O and CO flux measurements. Here we present the set-up of the concentration step change experiment and its results and compare them with recently developed theories for the behaviour of gases in turbulent tube......The eddy covariance technique relies on the fast and accurate measurement of gas concentration fluctuations. While for some gasses robust and compact sensors are available, measurement of, e.g., non CO2 greenhouse gas fluxes is often performed with sensitive equipment that cannot be run on a tower...... that the concentration signal was hardly biased during the ca 10 s travel through the tube. Due to the larger turbulence time scales at large measurement heights the low-pass correction was for the majority of the measurements effect...

  8. Width of the flux tube in compact U(1) gauge theory in three dimensions

    CERN Document Server

    Caselle, Michele; Vadacchino, Davide

    2016-01-01

    We study the squared width and the profile of flux tubes in compact U(1) lattice gauge theory in three spacetime dimensions. The results obtained from numerical calculations in the dual formulation of this confining theory are compared with predictions from an effective bosonic-string model and from the dual-superconductor model: it is found that the former fails at describing the quantitative features of the flux tube, while the latter is in good agreement with Monte Carlo data. The analytical interpretation of these results (in the light of the semi-classical analysis by Polyakov) is pointed out, and a comparison with non-Abelian gauge theories in four spacetime dimensions is discussed.

  9. Signature of Collision of Magnetic Flux Tubes in the Quiet Solar Photosphere

    CERN Document Server

    Andic, Aleksandra

    2010-01-01

    Collision of the magnetic flux tubes in the Quiet Sun was proposed as one of the possible sources for the heating of the solar atmosphere (Furusawa and Sakai, 2000). The solar photosphere was observed using the New Solar Telescope ad Big Bear Solar Observatory. In TiO spectral line at 705.68 nm we approached resolution of 0.1". The horizontal plasma wave was observed spreading from the larger bright point. Shorty after this wave an increase in the oscillatory power appeared at the same location as the observed bright point. This behavior matches some of the results from the simulation of the collision of the two flux tubes with a weak current.

  10. Propagation and dispersion of sausage wave trains in magnetic flux tubes

    CERN Document Server

    Oliver, R; Terradas, J

    2015-01-01

    A localized perturbation of a magnetic flux tube produces a pair of wave trains that propagate in opposite directions along the tube. These wave packets disperse as they propagate, where the extent of dispersion depends on the physical properties of the magnetic structure, on the length of the initial excitation, and on its nature (e.g., transverse or axisymmetric). In Oliver et al. (2014) we considered a transverse initial perturbation, whereas the temporal evolution of an axisymmetric one is examined here. In both papers we use a method based on Fourier integrals to solve the initial value problem. Previous studies on wave propagation in magnetic wave guides have emphasized that the wave train dispersion is influenced by the particular dependence of the group velocity on the longitudinal wavenumber. Here we also find that long initial perturbations result in low amplitude wave packets and that large values of the magnetic tube to environment density ratio yield longer wave trains. To test the detectability ...

  11. Physics-based models of the plasmasphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jordanova, Vania K [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Pierrard, Vivane [BELGIUM; Goldstein, Jerry [SWRI; Andr' e, Nicolas [ESTEC/ESA; Kotova, Galina A [SRI, RUSSIA; Lemaire, Joseph F [BELGIUM; Liemohn, Mike W [U OF MICHIGAN; Matsui, H [UNIV OF NEW HAMPSHIRE

    2008-01-01

    We describe recent progress in physics-based models of the plasmasphere using the Auid and the kinetic approaches. Global modeling of the dynamics and inAuence of the plasmasphere is presented. Results from global plasmasphere simulations are used to understand and quantify (i) the electric potential pattern and evolution during geomagnetic storms, and (ii) the inAuence of the plasmasphere on the excitation of electromagnetic ion cyclotron (ElvIIC) waves a.nd precipitation of energetic ions in the inner magnetosphere. The interactions of the plasmasphere with the ionosphere a.nd the other regions of the magnetosphere are pointed out. We show the results of simulations for the formation of the plasmapause and discuss the inAuence of plasmaspheric wind and of ultra low frequency (ULF) waves for transport of plasmaspheric material. Theoretical formulations used to model the electric field and plasma distribution in the plasmasphere are given. Model predictions are compared to recent CLUSTER and MAGE observations, but also to results of earlier models and satellite observations.

  12. On the Area Expansion of Magnetic Flux-Tubes in Solar Active Regions

    OpenAIRE

    Dudik, Jaroslav; Dzifcakova, Elena; Cirtain, Jonathan W.

    2014-01-01

    We calculated the 3D distribution of the area expansion factors in a potential magnetic field extrapolated from the high-resolution \\textit{Hinode}/SOT magnetogram of a quiescent active region NOAA 11482. Retaining only closed loops within the computational box, we show that the distribution of area expansion factors show significant structure. Loop-like structures characterized by locally lower values of the expansion factor are embedded in a smooth background. These loop-like flux-tubes hav...

  13. Study of heavy-light hadrons within a flux tube model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Deng-Xia; CHEN Bing; ZHANG Ai-Lin

    2011-01-01

    A classic mass loaded flux tube model and the diquark picture are employed to explore both mesons and baryons. The spectrum of A baryons and D mesons is systematically obtained. The spin-orbit interaction in Ds was simplified as and (L→·S→) coupling.The spin-orbit interaction in Ac was simplified as a (J1→·Jc→) coupling. The predicted masses are consistent with the latest experiments.

  14. Propagation of Long-Wavelength Nonlinear Slow Sausage Waves in Stratified Magnetic Flux Tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbulescu, M.; Erdélyi, R.

    2016-05-01

    The propagation of nonlinear, long-wavelength, slow sausage waves in an expanding magnetic flux tube, embedded in a non-magnetic stratified environment, is discussed. The governing equation for surface waves, which is akin to the Leibovich-Roberts equation, is derived using the method of multiple scales. The solitary wave solution of the equation is obtained numerically. The results obtained are illustrative of a solitary wave whose properties are highly dependent on the degree of stratification.

  15. Domain Walls and Flux Tubes in N=2 SQCD D-Brane Prototypes

    CERN Document Server

    Shifman, M

    2003-01-01

    This paper could have been entitled "D branes and strings from flesh and blood." We study field theoretic prototypes of D branes/strings. To this end we consider (2+1)-dimensional domain walls in (3+1)-dimensional N=2 SQCD with SU(2) gauge group and two quark flavors in the fundamental representation. This theory is perturbed by a small mass term of the adjoint matter which, in the leading order in the mass parameter, does not break N=2 supersymmetry, and reduces to a (generalized) Fayet-Iliopoulos term in the effective low-energy N=2 SQED. We find 1/2 BPS-saturated domain wall solution interpolating between two quark vacua at weak coupling, and show that this domain wall localizes a U(1) gauge field. To make contact with the brane/string picture we consider the Abrikosov-Nielsen-Olesen magnetic flux tube in one of two quark vacua and demonstrate that it can end on the domain wall. We find an explicit 1/4 BPS-saturated solution for the wall/flux tube junction. We verify that the end point of the flux tube on ...

  16. Characteristics of critical heat flux under rolling condition for flow boiling in vertical tube

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Jin-Seok, E-mail: hjscd@snu.ac.kr [Seoul National University, 599 Gwanak-Ro, Gwanak-Gu, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Yeon-Gun, E-mail: yeongun2@snu.ac.kr [Seoul National University, 599 Gwanak-Ro, Gwanak-Gu, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Goon-Cherl, E-mail: parkgc@snu.ac.kr [Seoul National University, 599 Gwanak-Ro, Gwanak-Gu, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-11-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Experiment was conducted on CHF under rolling condition in vertical tube. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CHF loop was mounted on rolling device to achieve rolling conditions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Trends of CHF ratio as mass flux and pressure were studied. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Trends of CHF ratio under rolling motion was suggested using hypothetical CHF mechanism. - Abstract: This paper presents the characteristics of the critical heat flux (CHF) for the boiling of R-134a in vertical tube under rolling motion in a marine reactor. It is important to predict CHF of marine reactor under rolling motion in order to consider the safety margin of the reactor. MArine Reactor Moving Simulator (MARMS) test was conducted to measure the CHF of R-134a flowing upward in a uniformly heated vertical tube under rolling motion. A CHF loop mounted on rolling equipment, which can periodically roll from side to side through rotating by motor and mechanical power transmission gear. The CHF tests were performed in a 9.5 mm I.D. test section with heated length of 1 m. Mass flux ranges from 285 kg/m{sup 2} s to 1300 kg/m{sup 2} s, inlet subcoolings from 3 to 38 Degree-Sign C and outlet pressures from 1.3 to 2.4 bar, respectively. Amplitudes of rolling range from 15 Degree-Sign to 40 Degree-Sign and period from 6 to 12 s. Fluid-to-fluid (FTF) scaling was applied to convert the test matrix of MARMS from water to R-134a equivalent conditions. CHF ratios (ratio of the CHF under rolling condition to the stationary CHF) as mass flux and pressure in rolling motion are quite different from those of other existing transient CHF experiments. For the mass fluxes below 500 kg/m{sup 2} s (region of relative low mass flux) at 13, 16 bar, CHF ratios seem smaller than unit but in region (region of relative high mass flux) where mass fluxes are above 500 kg/m{sup 2} s, it was found that the ratios increased. Moreover, rolling CHFs tend to enhance

  17. PROPAGATION AND DISPERSION OF SAUSAGE WAVE TRAINS IN MAGNETIC FLUX TUBES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliver, R.; Terradas, J. [Departament de Física, Universitat de les Illes Balears, E-07122 Palma de Mallorca (Spain); Ruderman, M. S., E-mail: ramon.oliver@uib.es [School of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Sheffield, Hicks Building, Hounsfield Road, Sheffield S3 7RH (United Kingdom)

    2015-06-10

    A localized perturbation of a magnetic flux tube produces wave trains that disperse as they propagate along the tube, where the extent of dispersion depends on the physical properties of the magnetic structure, on the length of the initial excitation, and on its nature (e.g., transverse or axisymmetric). In Oliver et al. we considered a transverse initial perturbation, whereas the temporal evolution of an axisymmetric one is examined here. In both papers we use a method based on Fourier integrals to solve the initial value problem. We find that the propagating wave train undergoes stronger attenuation for longer axisymmetric (or shorter transverse) perturbations, while the internal to external density ratio has a smaller effect on the attenuation. Moreover, for parameter values typical of coronal loops axisymmetric (transverse) wave trains travel at a speed 0.75–1 (1.2) times the Alfvén speed of the magnetic tube. In both cases, the wave train passage at a fixed position of the magnetic tube gives rise to oscillations with periods of the order of seconds, with axisymmetric disturbances causing more oscillations than transverse ones. To test the detectability of propagating transverse or axisymmetric wave packets in magnetic tubes of the solar atmosphere (e.g., coronal loops, spicules, or prominence threads) a forward modeling of the perturbations must be carried out.

  18. Propagation and Dispersion of Sausage Wave Trains in Magnetic Flux Tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, R.; Ruderman, M. S.; Terradas, J.

    2015-06-01

    A localized perturbation of a magnetic flux tube produces wave trains that disperse as they propagate along the tube, where the extent of dispersion depends on the physical properties of the magnetic structure, on the length of the initial excitation, and on its nature (e.g., transverse or axisymmetric). In Oliver et al. we considered a transverse initial perturbation, whereas the temporal evolution of an axisymmetric one is examined here. In both papers we use a method based on Fourier integrals to solve the initial value problem. We find that the propagating wave train undergoes stronger attenuation for longer axisymmetric (or shorter transverse) perturbations, while the internal to external density ratio has a smaller effect on the attenuation. Moreover, for parameter values typical of coronal loops axisymmetric (transverse) wave trains travel at a speed 0.75-1 (1.2) times the Alfvén speed of the magnetic tube. In both cases, the wave train passage at a fixed position of the magnetic tube gives rise to oscillations with periods of the order of seconds, with axisymmetric disturbances causing more oscillations than transverse ones. To test the detectability of propagating transverse or axisymmetric wave packets in magnetic tubes of the solar atmosphere (e.g., coronal loops, spicules, or prominence threads) a forward modeling of the perturbations must be carried out.

  19. Spectropolarimetric evidence for a siphon flow along an emerging magnetic flux tube

    CERN Document Server

    Requerey, Iker S; Iniesta, J C Del Toro; Suárez, D Orozco; Rodríguez, J Blanco; Solanki, S K; Barthol, P; Gandorfer, A; Gizon, L; Hirzberger, J; Riethmüller, T L; van Noort, M; Schmidt, W; Pillet, V Martínez; Knölker, M

    2016-01-01

    We study the dynamics and topology of an emerging magnetic flux concentration using high spatial resolution spectropolarimetric data acquired with the Imaging Magnetograph eXperiment on board the Sunrise balloon-borne solar observatory. We obtain the full vector magnetic field and the line-of-sight (LOS) velocity through inversions of the Fe I line at 525.02 nm with the SPINOR code. The derived vector magnetic field is used to trace magnetic field lines. Two magnetic flux concentrations with different polarity and LOS velocities are found to be connected by a group of arch-shaped magnetic field lines. The positive polarity footpoint is weaker (1100 G) and displays an upflow, while the negative polarity footpoint is stronger (2200 G) and shows a downflow. This configuration is naturally interpreted as a siphon flow along an arched magnetic flux tube.

  20. Dynamics of magnetic flux tubes in close binary stars I. Equilibrium and stability properties

    CERN Document Server

    Holzwarth, V R

    2003-01-01

    Surface reconstructions of active close binary stars based on photometric and spectroscopic observations reveal non-uniform starspot distributions, which indicate the existence of preferred spot longitudes (with respect to the companion star). We consider the equilibrium and linear stability of toroidal magnetic flux tubes in close binaries to examine whether tidal effects are capable to initiate the formation of rising flux loops at preferred longitudes near the bottom of the stellar convection zone. The tidal force and the deviation of the stellar structure from spherical symmetry are treated in lowest-order perturbation theory assuming synchronised close binaries with orbital periods of a few days. The frequency, growth time, and spatial structure of linear eigenmodes are determined by a stability analysis. We find that, despite their small magnitude, tidal effects can lead to a considerable longitudinal asymmetry in the formation probability of flux loops, since the breaking of the axial symmetry due to t...

  1. Forced Convection Boiling and Critical Heat Flux of Ethanol in Electrically Heated Tube Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Michael L.; Linne, Diane L.; Rousar, Donald C.

    1998-01-01

    Electrically heated tube tests were conducted to characterize the critical heat flux (transition from nucleate to film boiling) of subcritical ethanol flowing at conditions relevant to the design of a regeneratively cooled rocket engine thrust chamber. The coolant was SDA-3C alcohol (95% ethyl alcohol, 5% isopropyl alcohol by weight), and tests were conducted over the following ranges of conditions: pressure from 144 to 703 psia, flow velocities from 9.7 to 77 ft/s, coolant subcooling from 33 to 362 F, and critical heat fluxes up to 8.7 BTU/in(exp 2)/sec. For the data taken near 200 psia, critical heat flux was correlated as a function of the product of velocity and fluid subcooling to within +/- 20%. For data taken at higher pressures, an additional pressure term is needed to correlate the critical heat flux. It was also shown that at the higher test pressures and/or flow rates, exceeding the critical heat flux did not result in wall burnout. This result may significantly increase the engine heat flux design envelope for higher pressure conditions.

  2. GENERATION OF MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC WAVES IN LOW SOLAR ATMOSPHERIC FLUX TUBES BY PHOTOSPHERIC MOTIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mumford, S. J.; Fedun, V.; Erdélyi, R., E-mail: s.mumford@sheffield.ac.uk [Solar Physics and Space Plasma Research Centre (SP2RC), School of Mathematics and Statistics, The University of Sheffield, Hicks Building, Hounsfield Road, Sheffield S3 7RH UK (United Kingdom)

    2015-01-20

    Recent ground- and space-based observations reveal the presence of small-scale motions between convection cells in the solar photosphere. In these regions, small-scale magnetic flux tubes are generated via the interaction of granulation motion and the background magnetic field. This paper studies the effects of these motions on magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) wave excitation from broadband photospheric drivers. Numerical experiments of linear MHD wave propagation in a magnetic flux tube embedded in a realistic gravitationally stratified solar atmosphere between the photosphere and the low choromosphere (above β = 1) are performed. Horizontal and vertical velocity field drivers mimic granular buffeting and solar global oscillations. A uniform torsional driver as well as Archimedean and logarithmic spiral drivers mimic observed torsional motions in the solar photosphere. The results are analyzed using a novel method for extracting the parallel, perpendicular, and azimuthal components of the perturbations, which caters to both the linear and non-linear cases. Employing this method yields the identification of the wave modes excited in the numerical simulations and enables a comparison of excited modes via velocity perturbations and wave energy flux. The wave energy flux distribution is calculated to enable the quantification of the relative strengths of excited modes. The torsional drivers primarily excite Alfvén modes (≈60% of the total flux) with small contributions from the slow kink mode, and, for the logarithmic spiral driver, small amounts of slow sausage mode. The horizontal and vertical drivers primarily excite slow kink or fast sausage modes, respectively, with small variations dependent upon flux surface radius.

  3. Spectrum of the open QCD flux tube in d=2+1 and its effective string description

    CERN Document Server

    Brandt, Bastian B

    2013-01-01

    Simulations in lattice gauge theory suggest that the formation of a flux tube between quark and antiquark leads to quark confinement. It is conjectured that the infrared behaviour of the flux tube is governed by an effective string theory and simulations show good agreement between lattice data and its predictions. To next-to leading order ($R^{-3}$) in the inverse $q\\bar{q}$ separation $R$ the effective string theory is equivalent to Nambu-Goto string theory. For the open flux tube in three dimensions corrections appear at order $R^{-4}$. We compare these predictions to high-accuracy measurements of the groundstate energy of the flux tube in 3d SU(2) and SU(3) gauge theory and extract the coefficient of the leading order boundary term in the effective action.

  4. Duality of gauge field singularities and the structure of the flux tube in Abelian-projected SU(2) gauge theory and the dual Abelian Higgs model

    CERN Document Server

    Koma, Y; Ilgenfritz, E M; Suzuki, T; Polikarpov, M I

    2003-01-01

    The structure of the flux-tube profile in Abelian-projected (AP) SU(2) gauge theory in the maximally Abelian gauge is studied. The connection between the AP flux tube and the classical flux-tube solution of the U(1) dual Abelian Higgs (DAH) model is clarified in terms of the path-integral duality transformation. This connection suggests that the electric photon and the magnetic monopole parts of the Abelian Wilson loop can act as separate sources creating the Coulombic and the solenoidal electric field inside a flux tube. The conjecture is confirmed by a lattice simulation which shows that the AP flux tube is composed of these two contributions.

  5. Duality of gauge field singularities and the structure of the flux tube in Abelian-projected SU(2) gauge theory and the dual Abelian Higgs model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koma, Y.; Koma, M.; Ilgenfritz, E.-M.; Suzuki, T.; Polikarpov, M. I.

    2003-11-01

    The structure of the flux-tube profile in Abelian-projected (AP) SU(2) gauge theory in the maximally Abelian gauge is studied. The connection between the AP flux tube and the classical flux-tube solution of the U(1) dual Abelian Higgs model is clarified in terms of the path-integral duality transformation. This connection suggests that the electric photon and the magnetic monopole parts of the Abelian Wilson loop can act as separate sources creating the Coulombic and the solenoidal electric field inside a flux tube. The conjecture is confirmed by a lattice simulation which shows that the AP flux tube is composed of these two contributions.

  6. Real-time imaging of density ducts between the plasmasphere and ionosphere

    CERN Document Server

    Loi, Shyeh Tjing; Cairns, Iver H; Menk, Frederick W; Waters, Colin L; Erickson, Philip J; Trott, Cathryn M; Hurley-Walker, Natasha; Morgan, John; Lenc, Emil; Offringa, Andre R; Bell, Martin E; Ekers, Ronald D; Gaensler, B M; Lonsdale, Colin J; Feng, Lu; Hancock, Paul J; Kaplan, David L; Bernardi, G; Bowman, J D; Briggs, F; Cappallo, R J; Deshpande, A A; Greenhill, L J; Hazelton, B J; Johnston-Hollitt, M; McWhirter, S R; Mitchell, D A; Morales, M F; Morgan, E; Oberoi, D; Ord, S M; Prabu, T; Shankar, N Udaya; Srivani, K S; Subrahmanyan, R; Tingay, S J; Wayth, R B; Webster, R L; Williams, A; Williams, C L

    2015-01-01

    Ionization of the Earth's atmosphere by sunlight forms a complex, multi-layered plasma environment within the Earth's magnetosphere, the innermost layers being the ionosphere and plasmasphere. The plasmasphere is believed to be embedded with cylindrical density structures (ducts) aligned along the Earth's magnetic field, but direct evidence for these remains scarce. Here we report the first direct wide-angle observation of an extensive array of field-aligned ducts bridging the upper ionosphere and inner plasmasphere, using a novel ground-based imaging technique. We establish their heights and motions by feature-tracking and parallax analysis. The structures are strikingly organized, appearing as regularly-spaced, alternating tubes of overdensities and underdensities strongly aligned with the Earth's magnetic field. These findings represent the first direct visual evidence for the existence of such structures.

  7. The Snake - a Reconnecting Coil in a Twisted Magnetic Flux Tube

    CERN Document Server

    Bicknell, G V; Bicknell, Geoffrey V.; Li, Jianke

    2001-01-01

    We propose that the curious Galactic Center filament known as ``The Snake'' is a twisted giant magnetic flux tube, anchored in rotating molecular clouds. The MHD kink instability generates coils in the tube and subsequent magnetic reconnection injects relativistic electrons. Electrons diffuse away from a coil at an energy-dependent rate producing a flat spectral index at large distances from it. Our fit to the data of \\citet{gray95a} shows that the magnetic field $\\sim 0.4 \\> \\rm mG$ is large compared to the ambient $\\sim 7 \\mu \\> \\rm G$ field, indicating that the flux tube is force-free. If the {\\em relative} level of turbulence in the Snake and the general interstellar medium are similar, then electrons have been diffusing in the Snake for about $3 \\times 10^5 \\> \\rm yr$, comparable to the timescale at which magnetic energy is annihilated in the major kink. Estimates of the magnetic field in the G359.19-0.05 molecular complex are similar to our estimate of the magnetic field in the Snake suggesting a strong...

  8. Flux rope, hyperbolic flux tube, and late extreme ultraviolet phases in a non-eruptive circular-ribbon flare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masson, Sophie; Pariat, Étienne; Valori, Gherardo; Deng, Na; Liu, Chang; Wang, Haimin; Reid, Hamish

    2017-08-01

    Context. The dynamics of ultraviolet (UV) emissions during solar flares provides constraints on the physical mechanisms involved in the trigger and the evolution of flares. In particular it provides some information on the location of the reconnection sites and the associated magnetic fluxes. In this respect, confined flares are far less understood than eruptive flares generating coronal mass ejections. Aims: We present a detailed study of a confined circular flare dynamics associated with three UV late phases in order to understand more precisely which topological elements are present and how they constrain the dynamics of the flare. Methods: We perform a non-linear force-free field extrapolation of the confined flare observed with the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) and Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) instruments on board Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO). From the 3D magnetic field we compute the squashing factor and we analyse its distribution. Conjointly, we analyse the AIA extreme ultraviolet (EUV) light curves and images in order to identify the post-flare loops, and their temporal and thermal evolution. By combining the two analyses we are able to propose a detailed scenario that explains the dynamics of the flare. Results: Our topological analysis shows that in addition to a null-point topology with the fan separatrix, the spine lines and its surrounding quasi-separatix layer (QSL) halo (typical for a circular flare), a flux rope and its hyperbolic flux tube (HFT) are enclosed below the null. By comparing the magnetic field topology and the EUV post-flare loops we obtain an almost perfect match between the footpoints of the separatrices and the EUV 1600 Å ribbons and between the HFT field line footpoints and bright spots observed inside the circular ribbons. We show, for the first time in a confined flare, that magnetic reconnection occurred initially at the HFT below the flux rope. Reconnection at the null point between the flux rope and the

  9. Three-dimensional non-LTE radiative transfer effects in Fe I lines I. Flux sheet and flux tube geometries

    CERN Document Server

    Holzreuter, R

    2012-01-01

    In network and active region plages, the magnetic field is concentrated into structures often described as flux tubes (FTs) and sheets (FSs). 3-D radiative transfer (RT) is important for energy transport in these concentrations. It is also expected to be important for diagnostic purposes but has rarely been applied for that purpose. Using true 3-D, non-LTE (NLTE) RT in FT/FS models, we compute Fe line profiles commonly used to diagnose the Sun's magnetic field by comparing the results with those obtained from LTE/1-D (1.5-D) NLTE calculations. Employing a multilevel iron atom, we study the influence of basic parameters such as Wilson depression, wall thickness, radius/width, thermal stratification or magnetic field strength on all Stokes $I$ parameters in the thin-tube approximation. The use of different levels of approximations of RT may lead to considerable differences in profile shapes, intensity contrasts, equivalent widths, and the determination of magnetic field strengths. In particular, LTE, which ofte...

  10. Particle propagation, wave growth and energy dissipation in a flaring flux tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, S. M.; Melrose, D. B.; Dulk, G. A.

    1986-01-01

    Wave amplification by downgoing particles in a common flare model is investigated. The flare is assumed to occur at the top of a coronal magnetic flux loop, and results in the heating of plasma in the flaring region. The hot electrons propagate down the legs of the flux tube towards increasing magnetic field. It is simple to demonstrate that the velocity distributions which result in this model are unstable to both beam instabilities and cyclotron maser action. An explanation is presented for the propagation effects on the distribution, and the properties of the resulting amplified waves are explored, concentrating on cyclotron maser action, which has properties (emission in the z mode below the local gyrofrequency) quite different from maser action by other distributions considered in the context of solar flares. The z mode waves will be damped in the coronal plasma surrounding the flaring flux tube and lead to heating there. This process may be important in the overall energy budget of the flare. The downgoing maser is compared with the loss cone maser, which is more likely to produce observable bursts.

  11. Resonant cyclotron acceleration of particles by a time periodic singular flux tube

    CERN Document Server

    Asch, Joachim; Stovicek, Pavel

    2010-01-01

    We study the dynamics of a classical nonrelativistic charged particle moving on a punctured plane under the influence of a homogeneous magnetic field and driven by a periodically time-dependent singular flux tube through the hole. We observe an effect of resonance of the flux and cyclotron frequencies. The particle is accelerated to arbitrarily high energies even by a flux of small field strength which is not necessarily encircled by the cyclotron orbit; the cyclotron orbits blow up and the particle oscillates between the hole and infinity. We support this observation by an analytic study of an approximation for small amplitudes of the flux which is obtained with the aid of averaging methods. This way we derive asymptotic formulas that are afterwards shown to represent a good description of the accelerated motion even for fluxes which are not necessarily small. More precisely, we argue that the leading asymptotic terms may be regarded as approximate solutions of the original system in the asymptotic domain as...

  12. Properties of Longitudinal Flux Tube Waves. III; Wave Propagation in Solar and Stellar Wind FLows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuntz, M.; Suess, S. T.

    2004-01-01

    We discuss the analytic properties of longitudinal tube waves taking into account ambient wind flows. This is an extension of the studies of Papers I and II, which assumed a mean flow speed of zero and also dealt with a simplified horizontal pressure balance. Applications include the study of longitudinal flux tube waves in stars with significant mass loss and the heating and dynamics of plumes in the solar wind. Slow magnetosonic waves, also called longitudinal waves, have been observed in solar plumes and are likely an important source of heating. We show that the inclusion of ambient wind flows considerably alters the limiting shock strength as well as the energy damping length of the waves.

  13. Onset of the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability in partially ionized magnetic flux tubes

    CERN Document Server

    Martínez-Gómez, David; Terradas, Jaume

    2015-01-01

    Context. Recent observations of solar prominences show the presence of turbulent flows that may be caused by Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilites (KHI). However, the observed flow velocities are below the classical threshold for the onset of KHI in fully ionized plasmas. Aims. We investigate the effect of partial ionization on the onset of KHI in dense and cool cylindrical magnetic flux tubes surrounded by a hotter and lighter environment. Methods. The linearized governing equations of a partially ionized two-fluid plasma are used to describe the behavior of small-amplitude perturbations superimposed on a magnetic tube with longitudinal mass flow. A normal mode analysis is performed to obtain the dispersion relation for linear incompressible waves. We focus on the appearance of unstable solutions and study the dependence of their growth rates on various physical parameters. An analytical approximation of the KHI linear growth rate for slow flows and strong ion-neutral coupling is obtained. An application to solar pr...

  14. Alfven waves in the solar atmosphere. III - Nonlinear waves on open flux tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollweg, J. V.; Jackson, S.; Galloway, D.

    1982-01-01

    Consideration is given the nonlinear propagation of Alfven waves on solar magnetic flux tubes, where the tubes are taken to be vertical, axisymmetric and initially untwisted and the Alfven waves are time-dependent axisymmetric twists. The propagation of the waves into the chromosphere and corona is investigated through the numerical solution of a set of nonlinear, time-dependent equations coupling the Alfven waves into motions that are parallel to the initial magnetic field. It is concluded that Alfven waves can steepen into fast shocks in the chromosphere, pass through the transition region to produce high-velocity pulses, and then enter the corona, which they heat. The transition region pulses have amplitudes of about 60 km/sec, and durations of a few tens of seconds. In addition, the Alfven waves exhibit a tendency to drive upward flows, with many of the properties of spicules.

  15. An Analytical Approach to Scattering Between Two Thin Magnetic Flux Tubes in a Stratified Atmosphere

    CERN Document Server

    Hanson, Chris S

    2014-01-01

    We expand on recent studies to analytically model the behavior of two thin flux tubes interacting through the near- and acoustic far-field. The multiple scattering that occurs between the pair alters the absorption and phase of the outgoing wave, when compared to non-interacting tubes. We have included both the sausage and kink scatter produced by the pair. It is shown that the sausage mode's contribution to the scattered wave field is significant, and plays an equally important role in the multiple scattering regime. A disparity between recent numerical results and analytical studies, in particular the lack of symmetry between the two kink modes, is addressed. This symmetry break is found to be caused by an incorrect solution for the near-field modes.

  16. An analytical approach to scattering between two thin magnetic flux tubes in a stratified atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanson, Chris S.; Cally, Paul S., E-mail: christopher.hanson@monash.edu [Monash Centre for Astrophysics and School of Mathematical Sciences, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria 3800 (Australia)

    2014-02-01

    We expand on recent studies to analytically model the behavior of two thin flux tubes interacting through the near- and acoustic far-field. The multiple scattering that occurs between the pair alters the absorption and phase of the outgoing wave when compared to non-interacting tubes. We have included both the sausage and kink scatter produced by the pair. It is shown that the sausage mode's contribution to the scattered wave field is significant, and plays an equally important role in the multiple scattering regime. A disparity between recent numerical results and analytical studies, in particular the lack of symmetry between the two kink modes, is addressed. This symmetry break is found to be caused by an incorrect solution for the near-field modes.

  17. Properties of Longitudinal Flux Tube Waves. III; Wave Propagation in Solar and Stellar Wind Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuntz, M.; Suess, S. T.

    2004-01-01

    We discuss the analytic properties of longitudinal tube waves taking into account ambient wind flows. This is an extension of the studies of Papers I and II, which assumed a mean flow speed of zero and also dealt with a simplified horizontal pressure balance. Applications include the study of longitudinal flux tube waves in stars with significant mass loss and heating and dynamics of plumes in the solar wind. Slow magnetosonic waves, also called longitudinal waves, have been observed in solar plumes and are likely an important source of heating. We show that the inclusion of ambient wind flows considerably alters the limiting shock strength as well as the energy damping length of waves.

  18. ON THE SUPPORT OF SOLAR PROMINENCE MATERIAL BY THE DIPS OF A CORONAL FLUX TUBE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hillier, Andrew [Kwasan and Hida Observatories, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Van Ballegooijen, Adriaan [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2013-04-01

    The dense prominence material is believed to be supported against gravity through the magnetic tension of dipped coronal magnetic field. For quiescent prominences, which exhibit many gravity-driven flows, hydrodynamic forces are likely to play an important role in the determination of both the large- and small-scale magnetic field distributions. In this study, we present the first steps toward creating a three-dimensional magneto-hydrostatic prominence model where the prominence is formed in the dips of a coronal flux tube. Here 2.5D equilibria are created by adding mass to an initially force-free magnetic field, then performing a secondary magnetohydrodynamic relaxation. Two inverse polarity magnetic field configurations are studied in detail, a simple o-point configuration with a ratio of the horizontal field (B{sub x} ) to the axial field (B{sub y} ) of 1:2 and a more complex model that also has an x-point with a ratio of 1:11. The models show that support against gravity is either by total pressure or tension, with only tension support resembling observed quiescent prominences. The o-point of the coronal flux tube was pulled down by the prominence material, leading to compression of the magnetic field at the base of the prominence. Therefore, tension support comes from the small curvature of the compressed magnetic field at the bottom and the larger curvature of the stretched magnetic field at the top of the prominence. It was found that this method does not guarantee convergence to a prominence-like equilibrium in the case where an x-point exists below the prominence flux tube. The results imply that a plasma {beta} of {approx}0.1 is necessary to support prominences through magnetic tension.

  19. A two-dimensional model of the plasmasphere - Refilling time constants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Craig E.; Guiter, Steven M.; Thomas, Steven G.

    1993-01-01

    A 2D model of the plasmasphere has been developed to study the temporal evolution of plasma density in the equatorial plane of the magnetosphere. This model includes the supply and loss of hydrogen ions due to ionosphere-magnetosphere coupling as well as the effects of E x B convection. A parametric model describing the required coupling fluxes has been developed which utilizes empirical models of the neutral atmosphere, the ionosphere and the saturated plasmasphere. The plasmaspheric model has been used to examine the time it takes for the plasmasphere to refill after it has been depleted by a magnetic storm. The time it takes for the plasmasphere to reach 90 percent of its equilibrium level ranges from 3 days at L = 3 during solar minimum to as high as 100 days at L = 5 during solar maximum. Refilling is also dependent on the month of the year, with refilling requiring a longer period of time at solar maximum during June than during December for L greater than 3.2.

  20. An investigation of flow characteristics and critical heat flux in vertical upward round tube

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Prediction of critical heat flux (CHF) in annular flow is important for the safety of once- through steam generator and the reactor core under accident conditions. The dryout in annular flow occurs at the point where the film is depleted due to entrainment, deposition, and evaporation. The film thickness, film mass flow rate along axial distribution, and CHF are calculated in vertical upward round tube on the basis of a separated flow model of annular flow. The theoretical CHF values are higher than those derived from experimental data, with error being within 30%.

  1. A Magnetic Flux Tube Oscillation Model for QPOs in SGR Giant Flares

    CERN Document Server

    Ma, Bo; Chen, P F

    2008-01-01

    Giant flares from soft gamma-ray repeaters (SGRs) are one of the most violent phenomena in neutron stars. Quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) with frequencies ranging from 18 to 1840 Hz have been discovered in the tails of giant flares from two SGRs, and were ascribed to be seismic vibrations or torsional oscillations of magnetars. Here we propose an alternative explanation for the QPOs in terms of standing sausage mode oscillations of flux tubes in the magnetar coronae. We show that most of the QPOs observed in SGR giant flares could be well accounted for except for those with very high frequencies (625 and 1840 Hz).

  2. NC plane waves, Casimir effect and flux tube potential with L\\"uscher terms

    CERN Document Server

    Kováčik, Samuel

    2016-01-01

    We analyze plane waves in a model of quantum mechanics in a three dimensional noncommutative (NC) space $R^3_{\\lambda}$. Signature features of NC models are impossibility of probing distances smaller than a certain length scale {\\lambda} and a presence of natural energetic cut-off at energy scale of order $1/{\\lambda}^2$ (in convenient units). We analyze consequences of such restrictions on a 1 dimensional Casimir effect. The result shows resemblance to flux tube potential for quark-antiquark pairs and to effective bosonic string theories with L\\"uscher terms. Such behavior might effect the radius of possible compact (fuzzy) dimensions.

  3. On the Area Expansion of Magnetic Flux-Tubes in Solar Active Regions

    CERN Document Server

    Dudik, Jaroslav; Cirtain, Jonathan W

    2014-01-01

    We calculated the 3D distribution of the area expansion factors in a potential magnetic field extrapolated from the high-resolution \\textit{Hinode}/SOT magnetogram of a quiescent active region NOAA 11482. Retaining only closed loops within the computational box, we show that the distribution of area expansion factors show significant structure. Loop-like structures characterized by locally lower values of the expansion factor are embedded in a smooth background. These loop-like flux-tubes have squashed cross-sections and expand with height. The distribution of the expansion factors show overall increase with height, allowing an active region core characterized by low values of the expansion factor to be distinguished. The area expansion factors obtained from extrapolation of the SOT magnetogram are compared to those obtained from an approximation of the observed magnetogram by a series of 134 submerged charges. This approximation retains the general flux distribution in the observed magnetogram, but removes t...

  4. 3D Simulations of Magnetohydrodynamic Waves in Lower Solar Atmospheric Flux Tubes Driven by Photospheric Motion

    CERN Document Server

    Mumford, S J; Erdélyi, R

    2013-01-01

    Aims. Recent ground- and space-based observations reveal the presence of small-scale motions between convection cells in the solar photosphere. In these regions small-scale magnetic flux tubes are generated due to the interaction of granulation motion and background magnetic field. This paper aims to study the effects of these motions, in regions of enhanced magnetic field, on magnetohydrodynamic wave excitation, propagation and energy flux from the solar photosphere up towards the solar corona. Methods. Numerical experiments of magnetohydrodynamic wave propagation in a realistic gravitationally stratified solar atmosphere from five different modelled photospheric drivers are performed. Horizontal and vertical drivers to mimic granular buffeting and solar global oscillations, a uniform torsional driver, an Archimedean spiral and a logarithmic spiral to mimic observed torsional motions in the solar photosphere are investigated. The numerical results are analysed using a novel method for extracting the parallel...

  5. Twisting Flux Tubes as a cause of Micro-Flaring Activity

    CERN Document Server

    Jess, D B; Mathioudakis, M; Keenan, F P; Andic, A; Bloomfield, D S

    2007-01-01

    High-cadence optical observations of an H-alpha blue-wing bright point near solar AR NOAA 10794 are presented. The data were obtained with the Dunn Solar Telescope at the National Solar Observatory/Sacramento Peak using a newly developed camera system, the Rapid Dual Imager. Wavelet analysis is undertaken to search for intensity-related oscillatory signatures, and periodicities ranging from 15 to 370 s are found with significance levels exceeding 95%. During two separate microflaring events, oscillation sites surrounding the bright point are observed to twist. We relate the twisting of the oscillation sites to the twisting of physical flux tubes, thus giving rise to reconnection phenomena. We derive an average twist velocity of 8.1 km/s and detect a peak in the emitted flux between twist angles of 180 and 230 degrees.

  6. MULTI-PARAMETRIC STUDY OF RISING 3D BUOYANT FLUX TUBES IN AN ADIABATIC STRATIFICATION USING AMR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martínez-Sykora, Juan; Cheung, Mark C. M. [Lockheed Martin Solar and Astrophysics Laboratory, Palo Alto, CA 94304 (United States); Moreno-Insertis, Fernando [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, E-38200 La Laguna (Tenerife) (Spain)

    2015-11-20

    We study the buoyant rise of magnetic flux tubes embedded in an adiabatic stratification using two-and three-dimensional, magnetohydrodynamic simulations. We analyze the dependence of the tube evolution on the field line twist and on the curvature of the tube axis in different diffusion regimes. To be able to achieve a comparatively high spatial resolution we use the FLASH code, which has a built-in Adaptive Mesh Refinement (AMR) capability. Our 3D experiments reach Reynolds numbers that permit a reasonable comparison of the results with those of previous 2D simulations. When the experiments are run without AMR, hence with a comparatively large diffusivity, the amount of longitudinal magnetic flux retained inside the tube increases with the curvature of the tube axis. However, when a low-diffusion regime is reached by using the AMR algorithms, the magnetic twist is able to prevent the splitting of the magnetic loop into vortex tubes and the loop curvature does not play any significant role. We detect the generation of vorticity in the main body of the tube of opposite sign on the opposite sides of the apex. This is a consequence of the inhomogeneity of the azimuthal component of the field on the flux surfaces. The lift force associated with this global vorticity makes the flanks of the tube move away from their initial vertical plane in an antisymmetric fashion. The trajectories have an oscillatory motion superimposed, due to the shedding of vortex rolls to the wake, which creates a Von Karman street.

  7. Density structures inside the plasmasphere: Cluster observations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Darrouzet, F.; Decreau, P.M.E.; De Keyser, J.;

    2004-01-01

    The electron density profiles derived from the EFW and WHISPER instruments on board the four Cluster spacecraft reveal density structures inside the plasmasphere and at its outer boundary, the plasmapause. We have conducted a statistical study to characterize these density structures. We focus...... on the plasmasphere crossing on I I April 2002, during which Cluster observed several density irregularities inside the plasmasphere, as well as a plasmaspheric plume. We derive the density gradient vectors from simultaneous density measurements by the four spacecraft. We also determine the normal velocity...... of the boundaries of the plume and of the irregularities from the time delays between those boundaries in the four individual density profiles, assuming they are planar. These new observations yield novel insights about the occurrence of density irregularities, their geometry and their dynamics. These in...

  8. Magnetic-flux-driven topological quantum phase transition and manipulation of perfect edge states in graphene tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, S.; Zhang, G.; Li, C.; Song, Z.

    2016-08-01

    We study the tight-binding model for a graphene tube with perimeter N threaded by a magnetic field. We show exactly that this model has different nontrivial topological phases as the flux changes. The winding number, as an indicator of topological quantum phase transition (QPT) fixes at N/3 if N/3 equals to its integer part [N/3], otherwise it jumps between [N/3] and [N/3] + 1 periodically as the flux varies a flux quantum. For an open tube with zigzag boundary condition, exact edge states are obtained. There exist two perfect midgap edge states, in which the particle is completely located at the boundary, even for a tube with finite length. The threading flux can be employed to control the quantum states: transferring the perfect edge state from one end to the other, or generating maximal entanglement between them.

  9. Remote field eddy current technique for gap measurement of horizontal flux detector guide tube in pressurized heavy water reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Dong Hoon; Jung, Hyun Kyu; Yang, Dong Ju; Cheong, Yong Moo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-11-15

    The fuel channels including the pressure tube(PT) and the calandria tube(CT) are important components of the pressurized heavy water reactor(PHWR). A sagging of fuel channel increases by heat and radiation exposure with the increasing operation time. The contact of fuel channel to the Horizontal flux Detector(HFD) guide tube is needed for the power plant safety. In order to solve this safety issue, the electromagnetic technique was applied to measure the status of the guide tube. The Horizontal flux Detector(HFD) guide tube and the Calandria tube(CT) in the Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor(PHWR) are cross-aligned horizontally. The remote field eddy current(RFEC) technology is applied for gap measurement between the HFD guide tube and the CT HFD guide tube can be detected by inserting the RFEC probe into pressure tube(PT) at the crossing point directly. The RFEC signals using the volume integral method(VIM) were simulated for obtaining the optimal inspection parameters. This paper shows that the simulated eddy current signals and the experimental results in variance with the CT/HFD gap.

  10. Time-Dependent Turbulent Heating of Open Flux Tubes in the Chromosphere, Corona, and Solar Wind

    CERN Document Server

    Woolsey, Lauren N

    2015-01-01

    We investigate several key questions of plasma heating in open-field regions of the corona that connect to the solar wind. We present results for a model of Alfven-wave-driven turbulence for three typical open magnetic field structures: a polar coronal hole, an open flux tube neighboring an equatorial streamer, and an open flux tube near a strong-field active region. We compare time-steady, one-dimensional turbulent heating models (Cranmer et al., 2007) against fully time-dependent three-dimensional reduced-magnetohydrodynamics modeling of BRAID (van Ballegooijen et al., 2011). We find that the time-steady results agree well with time-averaged results from BRAID. The time-dependence allows us to investigate the variability of the magnetic fluctuations and of the heating in the corona. The high-frequency tail of the power spectrum of fluctuations forms a power law whose exponent varies with height, and we discuss the possible physical explanation for this behavior. The variability in the heating rate is bursty...

  11. Particle acceleration in three-dimensional reconnection of flux-tube disconnection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbari, Z.; Hosseinpour, M.; Mohammadi, M. A.

    2016-11-01

    "Flux-tube disconnection" is a type of steady-state three-dimensional magnetic reconnection with O-point at the origin of the resistive diffusion region. Magnetic reconnection is accepted as a potential mechanism for particle acceleration in astrophysical and space plasmas, especially in solar flares. By using the static magnetic and electric fields for flux-tube disconnection, features of test particle acceleration with input parameters for the solar corona are investigated. We show that a proton injected close to origin of the diffusion region can be accelerated to a very high kinetic energy along the magnetic field lines. The efficient acceleration takes place at the radial point where the electric drift velocity has its maximum magnitude. However, a proton injected at radial distances far away from the origin is not accelerated efficiently and even may be trapped in the field lines. The final kinetic energy of the particle depends significantly on the amplitude of the electric field rather than the amplitude of magnetic field.

  12. Propagation and dispersion of transverse wave trains in magnetic flux tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliver, R.; Terradas, J. [Departament de Física, Universitat de les Illes Balears, E-07122 Palma de Mallorca (Spain); Ruderman, M. S., E-mail: ramon.oliver@uib.es [School of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Sheffield, Hicks Building, Hounsfield Road, Sheffield S3 7RH (United Kingdom)

    2014-07-01

    The dispersion of small-amplitude, impulsively excited wave trains propagating along a magnetic flux tube is investigated. The initial disturbance is a localized transverse displacement of the tube that excites a fast kink wave packet. The spatial and temporal evolution of the perturbed variables (density, plasma displacement, velocity, ...) is given by an analytical expression containing an integral that is computed numerically. We find that the dispersion of fast kink wave trains is more important for shorter initial disturbances (i.e., more concentrated in the longitudinal direction) and for larger density ratios (i.e., for larger contrasts of the tube density with respect to the environment density). This type of excitation generates a wave train whose signature at a fixed position along a coronal loop is a short event (duration ≅ 20 s) in which the velocity and density oscillate very rapidly with typical periods of the order of a few seconds. The oscillatory period is not constant but gradually declines during the course of this event. Peak values of the velocity are of the order of 10 km s{sup –1} and are accompanied by maximum density variations of the order of 10%-15% the unperturbed loop density.

  13. Closed flux tubes in D=2+1 SU(N) gauge theories: dynamics and effective string description

    CERN Document Server

    Athenodorou, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    We extend our earlier calculations of the spectrum of closed flux tubes in SU(N) gauge theories in 2+1 dimensions, with a focus on questions raised by recent theoretical progress on the effective string action of long flux tubes and the world-sheet action for flux tubes of moderate lengths. Our new calculations in SU(4) and SU(8) provide evidence that the leading O(1/l^gamma) non-universal correction to the flux tube ground state energy does indeed have a power gamma greater than or equal to 7. We perform a study in SU(2), where we can traverse the length at which the Nambu-Goto ground state becomes tachyonic, to obtain an all-N view of the spectrum. Our comparison of the k=2 flux tube excitation energies in SU(4) and SU(6) suggests that the massive world sheet excitation associated with the k=2 binding has a scale that knows about the group and hence the theory in the bulk, and we comment on the potential implications of world sheet massive modes for the bulk spectrum. We provide a quantitative analysis of t...

  14. Photomultiplier tube calibration based on Na lidar observation and its effect on heat flux bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Alan Z; Guo, Yafang

    2016-11-20

    Na lidar can measure vertical wind and temperature at high temporal and vertical resolutions, enough to resolve gravity wave perturbations. Heat flux due to dissipating gravity waves is an important quantity that can be derived from such perturbations. When lidar signals are high, a photomultiplier tube (PMT) used to count incoming photons may suffer from the saturation effect, and its output count is not linearly related to incoming photon counts. Corrections to this effect can be measured in a laboratory setting but may have large errors at high count rates. We show that the errors in the PMT correction can cause significant bias in the heat flux calculation due to the inherent correlation between wind and temperature errors. Using the measurements made by Na lidar at the Andes Lidar Observatory with Hamamatsu PMTs, we developed a calibration procedure to remove such PMT correction errors from laboratory measurements. By applying the revised PMT correction curve we demonstrated that the heat flux bias can be removed through this procedure.

  15. The scattering of $f$- and $p$-modes from ensembles of thin magnetic flux tubes - An analytical approach

    CERN Document Server

    Hanson, Chris S

    2014-01-01

    Motivated by the observational results of Braun (1995), we extend the model of Hanson & Cally (2014) to address the effect of multiple scattering of f and p-modes by an ensemble of thin vertical magnetic flux tubes in the surface layers of the Sun. As in observational Hankel analysis we measure the scatter and phase shift from an incident cylindrical wave in a coordinate system roughly centred in the core of the ensemble. It is demonstrated that, although thin flux tubes are unable to interact with high order fluting modes individually, they can indirectly absorb energy from these waves through the scatters of kink and sausage components. It is also shown how the distribution of absorption and phase shift across the azimuthal order m depends strongly on the tube position, as well as on the individual tube characteristics. This is the first analytical study into an ensembles multiple scattering regime, that is embedded within a strati?ed atmosphere.

  16. The scattering of f- and p-modes from ensembles of thin magnetic flux tubes: an analytical approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanson, Chris S.; Cally, Paul S., E-mail: christopher.hanson@monash.edu [Monash Centre for Astrophysics and School of Mathematical Sciences, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria 3800 (Australia)

    2014-08-20

    Motivated by the observational results of Braun, we extend the model of Hanson and Cally to address the effect of multiple scattering of f and p modes by an ensemble of thin vertical magnetic flux tubes in the surface layers of the Sun. As in the observational Hankel analysis, we measure the scatter and phase shift from an incident cylindrical wave in a coordinate system roughly centered in the core of the ensemble. It is demonstrated that although thin flux tubes are unable to interact with high-order fluting modes individually, they can indirectly absorb energy from these waves through the scatters of kink and sausage components. It is also shown how the distribution of absorption and phase shift across the azimuthal order m depends strongly on the tube position as well as on the individual tube characteristics. This is the first analytical study into an ensembles multiple-scattering regime that is embedded within a stratified atmosphere.

  17. Turbulent Heat Transfer Behavior of Nanofluid in a Circular Tube Heated under Constant Heat Flux

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuichi Torii

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study is to disclose the forced convective heat transport phenomenon of nanofluids inside a horizontal circular tube subject to a constant and uniform heat flux at the wall. Consideration is given to the effect of the inclusion of nanoparticles on heat transfer enhancement, thermal conductivity, viscosity, and pressure loss in the turbulent flow region. It is found that (i heat transfer enhancement is caused by suspending nanoparticles and becomes more pronounced with the increase of the particle volume fraction, (ii its augmentation is affected by three different nanofluids employed here, and (iii the presence of particles produces adverse effects on viscosity and pressure loss that also increases with the particle volume fraction.

  18. Resonant oscillations in ${\\alpha}^{2}$-dynamos on a closed, twisted Riemannian 2D flux tubes

    CERN Document Server

    de Andrade, Garcia

    2009-01-01

    Chicone et al [CMP (1995)] have shown that, kinematic fast dynamos in diffusive media, could exist only on a closed, 2D Riemannian manifold of constant negative curvature. This report, shows that their result cannot be extended to oscillatory ${\\alpha}^{2}$-dynamos, when there are resonance modes, between toroidal and poloidal frequencies of twisted magnetic flux tubes. Thus, dynamo action can be supported in regions, where Riemannian curvature is positive. For turbulent dynamos, this seems physically reasonable, since recently, [Shukurov et al PRE (2008)] have obtained a Moebius flow strip in sodium liquid, torus Perm dynamo where curvature is also connected to the magnetic fields via diffusion. This could be done, by adjusting the corresponding frequencies till they achieved resonance. Actually 2D torus, is a manifold of zero mean curvature, where regions of positive and negative curvatures exist. It is shown that, Riemannian solitonic surface, endowed with a steady ${\\alpha}^{2}$-dynamo from magnetic filam...

  19. Multiple Scattering of Seismic Waves from Ensembles of Upwardly Lossy Thin Flux Tubes

    CERN Document Server

    Hanson, Chris S

    2015-01-01

    Our previous semi-analytic treatment of f- and p-mode multiple scattering from ensembles of thin flux tubes (Hanson and Cally, Astrophys. J. 781, 125; 791, 129, 2014) is extended by allowing both sausage and kink waves to freely escape at the top of the model using a radiative boundary condition there. As expected, this additional avenue of escape, supplementing downward loss into the deep solar interior, results in substantially greater absorption of incident f- and p-modes. However, less intuitively, it also yields mildly to substantially smaller phase shifts in waves emerging from the ensemble. This may have implications for the interpretation of seismic data for solar plage regions, and in particular their small measured phase shifts.

  20. Stopping Frequency of Type III Solar Radio Bursts in Expanding Magnetic Flux Tubes

    CERN Document Server

    Reid, Hamish A S

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the properties of type III radio bursts in the solar corona and interplanetary space is one of the best ways to remotely deduce the characteristics of solar accelerated electron beams and the solar wind plasma. One feature of all type III bursts is the lowest frequency they reach (or stopping frequency). This feature reflects the distance from the Sun that an electron beam can drive the observable plasma emission mechanism. The stopping frequency has never been systematically studied before from a theoretical perspective. Using numerical kinetic simulations, we explore the different parameters that dictate how far an electron beam can travel before it stops inducing a significant level of Langmuir waves, responsible for plasma radio emission. We use the quasilinear approach to model self-consistently the resonant interaction between electrons and Langmuir waves in inhomogeneous plasma, and take into consideration the expansion of the guiding magnetic flux tube and the turbulent density of the in...

  1. NUMERICAL STUDY ON THE EMERGENCE OF KINKED FLUX TUBE FOR UNDERSTANDING OF POSSIBLE ORIGIN OF δ-SPOT REGIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takasao, Shinsuke; Shibata, Kazunari [Kwasan and Hida Observatories, Kyoto University, Yamashina, Kyoto 607-8471 (Japan); Fan, Yuhong [HAO, National Center for Atmospheric Research, P.O. Box 3000, Boulder, CO 80307 (United States); Cheung, Mark C. M., E-mail: takasao@kwasan.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Lockheed Martin Solar and Astrophysics Laboratory, 3251 Hanover Street, Bldg. 252, Palo Alto, CA 94304 (United States)

    2015-11-10

    We carried out an magnetohydrodynamic simulation where a subsurface twisted kink-unstable flux tube emerges from the solar interior to the corona. Unlike the previous expectations based on the bodily emergence of a knotted tube, we found that the kinked tube can spontaneously form a complex quadrupole structure at the photosphere. Due to the development of the kink instability before the emergence, the magnetic twist at the kinked apex of the tube is greatly reduced, although the other parts of the tube are still strongly twisted. This leads to the formation of a complex quadrupole structure: a pair of the coherent, strongly twisted spots and a narrow complex bipolar pair between it. The quadrupole is formed by the submergence of a portion of emerged magnetic fields. This result is relevant for understanding the origin of the complex multipolar δ-spot regions that have a strong magnetic shear and emerge with polarity orientations not following Hale-Nicholson and Joy Laws.

  2. Numerical Study on Emergence of Kinked Flux Tube for Understanding of Possible Origin of Delta-spot Regions

    CERN Document Server

    Takasao, Shinsuke; Cheung, Mark C M; Shibata, Kazunari

    2015-01-01

    We carried out a magnetohydrodynamics simulation where a subsurface twisted kink-unstable flux tube emerges from the solar interior to the corona. Unlike the previous expectations based on the bodily emergence of a knotted tube, we found that the kinked tube can spontaneously form a complex quadrupole structure at the photosphere. Due to the development of the kink instability before the emergence, the magnetic twist at the kinked apex of the tube is greatly reduced, although the other parts of the tube is still strongly twisted. This leads to the formation of a complex quadrupole structure: a pair of the coherent, strongly twisted spots and a narrow complex bipolar pair between it. The quadrupole is formed by the submergence of a portion of emerged magnetic fields. This result is relevant for understanding of the origin of the complex multipolar $\\delta$-spot regions that have a strong magnetic shear and emerge with polarity orientations not following Hale-Nicholson and Joy Laws.

  3. Systematics of flux tubes in the dual Ginzburg-Landau theory and Casimir scaling hypothesis: folklore and lattice facts

    CERN Document Server

    Koma, Y

    2003-01-01

    The ratios between the string tensions sigma sub D of color-electric flux tubes in higher and fundamental SU(3) representations, d sub D ident to sigma sub D /sigma sub 3 , are systematically studied in a Weyl symmetric formulation of the DGL theory. The ratio is found to depend on the Ginzburg-Landau (GL) parameter, kappa ident to m subchi/m sub B , the mass ratio between the monopoles (m subchi) and the masses of the dual gauge bosons (m sub B). While the ratios d sub D follow a simple flux counting rule in the Bogomol'nyi limit, kappa=1.0, systematic deviations appear with increasing kappa due to interactions between the fundamental flux inside a higher representation flux tube. We find that in a type-II dual superconducting vacuum near kappa= 3.0 this leads to a consistent description of the ratios d sub D as observed in lattice QCD simulations. (orig.)

  4. The model of self-sustained propagation of a magnetic reconnection along the flux tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumin, Yurii

    This work represents a further development of our earlier ideas about heating the solar corona in the transition region from the "induction" to "drift" freezing of the magnetic field in plasma [1, 2]. The new detailed study of this process in the magnetic tube filled with a weakly-ionized plasma of the lower solar atmosphere shows that ignition of the magnetic reconnection develops most efficiently at the spot of approximate equality between the gyro-and collisional frequencies of charged particles. Next, due to the heat release and its propagation along the magnetic flux tube, the spot of most efficient reconnection moves upwards, thereby producing a self-sustained propagation of the reconnection along the field lines. The temperature increases sharply with height just due to decrease in plasma density, stratified by the gravitational field. This phenomenon may be efficiently applied to model the solar microflares, which are believed now to be an important ingredient of the solar atmosphere heating. References: 1. Yu.V. Dumin. Can Heating of the Solar Corona Be Related to a Transition from the In-duction to Drift Mechanism of the Magnetic Field Freezing in Plasma? Advances in Space Research, v.30, p.565 (2002). 2. Yu.V. Dumin. On the Physical Nature of the Magnetic-Field Freezing-in Effect in Collision-less Cosmic Plasmas. Solar System Research, v.32, p.323 (1998).

  5. On the look-up tables for the critical heat flux in tubes (history and problems)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirillov, P.L.; Smogalev, I.P. [Institute of Physics and Power Engineering, Kaluga (Russian Federation)

    1995-09-01

    The complication of critical heat flux (CHF) problem for boiling in channels is caused by the large number of variable factors and the variety of two-phase flows. The existence of several hundreds of correlations for the prediction of CHF demonstrates the unsatisfactory state of this problem. The phenomenological CHF models can provide only the qualitative predictions of CHF primarily in annular-dispersed flow. The CHF look-up tables covered the results of numerous experiments received more recognition in the last 15 years. These tables are based on the statistical averaging of CHF values for each range of pressure, mass flux and quality. The CHF values for regions, where no experimental data is available, are obtained by extrapolation. The correction of these tables to account for the diameter effect is a complicated problem. There are ranges of conditions where the simple correlations cannot produce the reliable results. Therefore, diameter effect on CHF needs additional study. The modification of look-up table data for CHF in tubes to predict CHF in rod bundles must include a method which to take into account the nonuniformity of quality in a rod bundle cross section.

  6. On the area expansion of magnetic flux tubes in solar active regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dudík, Jaroslav [DAMTP, CMS, University of Cambridge, Wilberforce Road, Cambridge CB3 0WA (United Kingdom); Dzifčáková, Elena [Astronomical Institute of the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Fričova 298, 251 65 Ondřejov (Czech Republic); Cirtain, Jonathan W., E-mail: J.Dudik@damtp.cam.ac.uk, E-mail: elena@asu.cas.cz [NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, VP 62, Huntsville, AL 35812 (United States)

    2014-11-20

    We calculated the three-dimensional (3D) distribution of the area expansion factors in a potential magnetic field, extrapolated from the high-resolution Hinode/SOT magnetogram of the quiescent active region NOAA 11482. Retaining only closed loops within the computational box, we show that the distribution of area expansion factors show significant structure. Loop-like structures characterized by locally lower values of the expansion factor are embedded in a smooth background. These loop-like flux tubes have squashed cross-sections and expand with height. The distribution of the expansion factors show an overall increase with height, allowing an active region core characterized by low values of the expansion factor to be distinguished. The area expansion factors obtained from extrapolation of the Solar Optical Telescope magnetogram are compared to those obtained from an approximation of the observed magnetogram by a series of 134 submerged charges. This approximation retains the general flux distribution in the observed magnetogram, but removes the small-scale structure in both the approximated magnetogram and the 3D distribution of the area expansion factors. We argue that the structuring of the expansion factor can be a significant ingredient in producing the observed structuring of the solar corona. However, due to the potential approximation used, these results may not be applicable to loops exhibiting twist or to active regions producing significant flares.

  7. Refilling the plasmasphere through the exospheric sieve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krall, J.; Huba, J.; Emmert, J. T.

    2016-12-01

    The ability to compute plasmasphere densities is critical to many space weather concerns. The sensitivity of refilling to the solar cycle is compelling because, paradoxically, refilling rates are generally lowest when the ionosphere is strongest. In the past, this has been attributed to a dearth of exosphere H at solar maximum. While H is needed to supply H + O+ -> H+ + O charge exchange, recent work demonstrates a significant sensitivity to O [1]. Results will be based on preliminary model-data comparisons using in situ Van Allen Probe EMFISIS data and the SAMI3 ionosphere/plasmasphere code. We will assess the impact of atmospheric composition (i.e., O and H) and solar activity (e.g., F10.7) on plasmasphere refilling rates and density following magnetic storms. SAMI3 (Sami3 is Also a Model of the Ionosphere) is a first-principles ionosphere/plasmasphere model. SAMI3 includes 7 ion species (H+, He+, O+, N+, O2+, N2+, NO+), each treated as a separate fluid, with temperature equations being solved for H+, He+, O+ and e- [2]. SAMI3 uses the empirical MSIS thermosphere/exosphere model to specify O and H densities. SAMI3 includes scaling factors that can be used to tune MSIS densities to bring them in line with measurements of satellite drag. Key inputs for this data-driven modeling are the thermosphere oxygen (O) and hydrogen (H) densities, and the F10.7 proxy for solar ultraviolet irradiance. [1 ]Krall, J., J. T. Emmert, F. Sassi, S. E. McDonald, and J. D. Huba (2016), Day-to-day variability in the thermosphere and its impact on plasmasphere refilling, J. Geophys. Res. Space Physics, 121, doi:10.1002/2015JA022328. [2] Huba, J. and J. Krall (2013), Modeling the plasmasphere with SAMI3, Geophys. Res. Lett., 40, 6-10, doi:10.1029/2012GL054300 Research supported by NRL base funds.

  8. Wave-Particle Interactions in the Turbulent Plasmaspheric Boundary Layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishin, Evgeny

    2012-10-01

    We present in situ satellite observations of plasmaspheric lower hybrid/fast magnetosonic turbulence and broadband hiss-like VLF emissions related with substorm subauroral ion drifts/polarization streams (SAID/SAPS) in the magnetosphere and topside ionosphere. SAID/SAPS appear in ˜10 min after the substorm onset consistent with the fast propagation of substorm injection fronts. The SAID channel follows the dispersionless cutoff of the energetic electron flux at the plasmapause. This indicates that the cold plasma maintains charge neutrality within the channel, thereby short-circuiting the injected plasmoid (injection front) over the plasmasphere. As with the well-documented plasmoid-magnetic barrier problem, plasma turbulence ensures the circuit resistivity and magnetic diffusion as well as significant electron heating and acceleration. The SAID/SAPS-related VLF emissions were used to simulate interactions with the outer zone electrons. These emissions appear to constitute a distinctive subset of substorm/storm-related VLF activity in the region co-located with freshly injected energetic ions equatorward of the plasma sheet boundary. Significant pitch-angle diffusion coefficients suggest that substorm SAID/SAPS-related VLF waves could be responsible for the alteration of the outer radiation belt boundary during (sub)storms.

  9. Origin of Macrospicule and Jet in Polar Corona by A Small-scale Kinked Flux-Tube

    CERN Document Server

    Kayshap, P; Murawski, K; Tripathi, D

    2013-01-01

    We report an observation of a small scale flux-tube that undergoes kinking and triggers the macrospicule and a jet on November 11, 2010 in the north polar corona. The small-scale flux-tube emerged well before the triggering of macrospicule and as the time progresses the two opposite halves of this omega shaped flux-tube bent transversely and approached towards each other. After $\\sim$ 2 minutes, the two approaching halves of the kinked flux-tube touch each-other and internal reconnection as well as energy release takes place at the adjoining location and a macrospicule was launched which goes upto a height of 12 Mm. Plasma starts moving horizontally as well as vertically upward along with the onset of macrospicule and thereafter converts into a large-scale jet which goes up to $\\sim$ 40 Mm in the solar atmosphere with a projected speed of $\\sim$ 95 km s$^{-1}$. We perform 2-D numerical simulation by considering the VAL-C initial atmospheric conditions to understand the physical scenario of the observed macros...

  10. Multi-Parametric Study of Rising 3D Buoyant Flux Tubes in an Adiabatic Stratification Using AMR

    CERN Document Server

    Martinez-Sykora, Juan; Cheung, Mark C M

    2015-01-01

    We study the buoyant rise of magnetic flux tubes embedded in an adiabatic stratification using two-and three-dimensional, MHD simulations. We analyze the dependence of the tube evolution on the field line twist and on the curvature of the tube axis in different diffusion regimes. To be able to achieve a comparatively high spatial resolution we use the FLASH code, which has a built-in Adaptive Mesh Refinement (AMR) capability. Our 3D experiments reach Reynolds numbers that permit a reasonable comparison of the results with those of previous 2D simulations. When the experiments are run without AMR, hence with a comparatively large diffusivity, the amount of longitudinal magnetic flux retained inside the tube increases with the curvature of the tube axis. However, when a low-diffusion regime is reached by using the AMR algorithms, the magnetic twist is able to prevent the splitting of the magnetic loop into vortex tubes and the loop curvature does not play any significant role. We detect the generation of vortic...

  11. Primordial flares, flux tubes, MHD waves in the early universe and genesis of cosmic gamma ray bursts

    CERN Document Server

    Hiremath, K M

    2009-01-01

    It is conjectured that energy sources of the gamma ray bursts are similar to energy sources which trigger solar and stellar transient activity phenomena like flares, plasma accelerated flows in the flux tubes and, dissipation of energy and acceleration of particles by the MHD waves. Phenomenologically we examine in detail the following energy sources which may trigger gamma ray bursts : (i) cosmic primordial flares which could be solar flare like phenomena in the region of inter galactic or inter galactic cluster regions, (ii) primordial magnetic flux tubes that might have been formed from the convective collapse of the primordial magnetic flux (iii) nonlinear interaction and dissipation of MHD waves that are produced from the perturbations of large-scale inter galactic or inter cluster magnetic field of primordial origin. We examine in detail each of the afore mentioned phenomena keeping in mind that whether such processes are responsible for energy sources of the gamma ray bursts. By considering the similar...

  12. Dynamics of nonlinear resonant slow MHD waves in twisted flux tubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Erdélyi

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonlinear resonant magnetohydrodynamic (MHD waves are studied in weakly dissipative isotropic plasmas in cylindrical geometry. This geometry is suitable and is needed when one intends to study resonant MHD waves in magnetic flux tubes (e.g. for sunspots, coronal loops, solar plumes, solar wind, the magnetosphere, etc. The resonant behaviour of slow MHD waves is confined in a narrow dissipative layer. Using the method of simplified matched asymptotic expansions inside and outside of the narrow dissipative layer, we generalise the so-called connection formulae obtained in linear MHD for the Eulerian perturbation of the total pressure and for the normal component of the velocity. These connection formulae for resonant MHD waves across the dissipative layer play a similar role as the well-known Rankine-Hugoniot relations connecting solutions at both sides of MHD shock waves. The key results are the nonlinear connection formulae found in dissipative cylindrical MHD which are an important extension of their counterparts obtained in linear ideal MHD (Sakurai et al., 1991, linear dissipative MHD (Goossens et al., 1995; Erdélyi, 1997 and in nonlinear dissipative MHD derived in slab geometry (Ruderman et al., 1997. These generalised connection formulae enable us to connect solutions obtained at both sides of the dissipative layer without solving the MHD equations in the dissipative layer possibly saving a considerable amount of CPU-time when solving the full nonlinear resonant MHD problem.

  13. Dissipative MHD solutions for resonant Alfven waves in 1-dimensional magnetic flux tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goossens, Marcel; Ruderman, Michail S.; Hollweg, Joseph V.

    1995-01-01

    The present paper extends the analysis by Sakurai, Goossens, and Hollweg (1991) on resonant Alfven waves in nonuniform magnetic flux tubes. It proves that the fundamental conservation law for resonant Alfven waves found in ideal MHD by Sakurai, Goossens, and Hollweg remains valid in dissipative MHD. This guarantees that the jump conditions of Sakurai, Goossens, and Hollweg, that connect the ideal MHD solutions for xi(sub r), and P' across the dissipative layer, are correct. In addition, the present paper replaces the complicated dissipative MHD solutions obtained by Sakurai, Goossens, and Hollweg for xi(sub r), and P' in terms of double integrals of Hankel functions of complex argument of order 1/3 with compact analytical solutions that allow a straight- forward mathematical and physical interpretation. Finally, it presents an analytical dissipative MHD solution for the component of the Lagrangian displacement in the magnetic surfaces perpen- dicular to the magnetic field lines xi(sub perpendicular) which enables us to determine the dominant dynamics of resonant Alfven waves in dissipative MHD.

  14. The Width of the Color Flux Tube at 2-Loop Order

    CERN Document Server

    Gliozzi, F; Wiese, U -J

    2010-01-01

    The color flux tube connecting a static quark-anti-quark pair in Yang-Mills theory supports massless transverse fluctuations, which are the Goldstone bosons of spontaneously broken translation invariance. Just as in chiral perturbation theory, the dynamics of these Goldstone bosons is described by a systematic low-energy effective field theory. The effective theory also applies to the phase of lattice Yang-Mills theory in which the string world sheet is rough. The effective action then contains additional higher-order terms that break the continuum rotation invariance down to the discrete rotation group of the lattice. Although these terms disappear in the continuum limit, for strings on the lattice they need to be taken into account. We use the effective theory to calculate the width of the fluctuating string at the 2-loop level, using both cylindrical and toroidal boundary conditions. At zero temperature, the string width diverges logarithmically with the quark-anti-quark distance r. On the other hand, at l...

  15. MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC KINK WAVES IN NONUNIFORM SOLAR FLUX TUBES: PHASE MIXING AND ENERGY CASCADE TO SMALL SCALES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soler, Roberto; Terradas, Jaume, E-mail: roberto.soler@uib.es [Departament de Física, Universitat de les Illes Balears, E-07122, Palma de Mallorca (Spain)

    2015-04-10

    Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) kink waves are ubiquitously observed in the solar atmosphere. The propagation and damping of these waves may play relevant roles in the transport and dissipation of energy in the solar atmospheric medium. However, in the atmospheric plasma dissipation of transverse MHD wave energy by viscosity or resistivity needs very small spatial scales to be efficient. Here, we theoretically investigate the generation of small scales in nonuniform solar magnetic flux tubes due to phase mixing of MHD kink waves. We go beyond the usual approach based on the existence of a global quasi-mode that is damped in time due to resonant absorption. Instead, we use a modal expansion to express the MHD kink wave as a superposition of Alfvén continuum modes that are phase mixed as time evolves. The comparison of the two techniques evidences that the modal analysis is more physically transparent and describes both the damping of global kink motions and the building up of small scales due to phase mixing. In addition, we discuss that the processes of resonant absorption and phase mixing are closely linked. They represent two aspects of the same underlying physical mechanism: the energy cascade from large scales to small scales due to naturally occurring plasma and/or magnetic field inhomogeneities. This process may provide the necessary scenario for efficient dissipation of transverse MHD wave energy in the solar atmospheric plasma.

  16. Magnetohydrodynamic kink waves in nonuniform solar flux tubes: phase mixing and energy cascade to small scales

    CERN Document Server

    Soler, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) kink waves are ubiquitously observed in the solar atmosphere. The propagation and damping of these waves may play relevant roles for the transport and dissipation of energy in the solar atmospheric medium. However, in the atmospheric plasma dissipation of transverse MHD wave energy by viscosity or resistivity needs very small spatial scales to be efficient. Here, we theoretically investigate the generation of small scales in nonuniform solar magnetic flux tubes due to phase mixing of MHD kink waves. We go beyond the usual approach based on the existence of a global quasi-mode that is damped in time due to resonant absorption. Instead, we use a modal expansion to express the MHD kink wave as a superposition of Alfv\\'en continuum modes that are phase mixed as time evolves. The comparison of the two techniques evidences that the modal analysis is more physically transparent and describes both the damping of global kink motions and the building up of small scales due to phase mixing. In ...

  17. Effect of partial ionization on wave propagation in solar magnetic flux tubes

    CERN Document Server

    Soler, R; Ballester, J L; Goossens, M

    2013-01-01

    Observations show that waves are ubiquitous in the solar atmosphere and may play an important role for plasma heating. The study of waves in the solar corona is usually based on linear ideal magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) for a fully ionized plasma. However, the plasma in the photosphere and the chromosphere is only partially ionized. Here we investigate theoretically the impact of partial ionization on MHD wave propagation in cylindrical flux tubes in the two-fluid model. We derive the general dispersion relation that takes into account the effects of neutral-ion collisions and the neutral gas pressure. We take the neutral-ion collision frequency as an arbitrary parameter. Particular results for transverse kink modes and slow magnetoacoustic modes are shown. We find that the wave frequencies only depend on the properties of the ionized fluid when the neutral-ion collision frequency is much lower that the wave frequency. For high collision frequencies realistic of the solar atmosphere ions and neutrals behave as ...

  18. Structural properties of the solar flare-producing coronal current system developed in an emerging magnetic flux tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magara, Tetsuya

    2017-02-01

    The activity of a magnetic structure formed in the solar corona depends on a coronal current system developed in the structure, which determines how an electric current flows in the corona. To investigate structural properties of the coronal current system responsible for producing a solar flare, we perform magnetohydrodynamic simulation of an emerging magnetic flux tube which forms a coronal magnetic structure. Investigation using fractal dimensional analysis and electric current streamlines reveals that the flare-producing coronal current system relies on a specific coronal current structure of two-dimensional spatiality, which has a sub-region where a nearly anti-parallel magnetic field configuration is spontaneously generated. We discuss the role of this locally generated anti-parallel magnetic field configuration in causing the reconnection of a three-dimensional magnetic field, which is a possible mechanism for producing a flare. We also discuss how the twist of a magnetic flux tube affects structural properties of a coronal current system, showing how much volume current flux is carried into the corona by an emerging flux tube. This gives a way to evaluate the activity of a coronal magnetic structure.

  19. Flux tubes and the type-I/type-II transition in a superconductor coupled to a superfluid

    CERN Document Server

    Alford, Mark G

    2007-01-01

    We analyze magnetic flux tubes at zero temperature in a superconductor that is coupled to a superfluid via both density and gradient (``entrainment'') interactions. The example we have in mind is high-density nuclear matter, which is a proton superconductor and a neutron superfluid, but our treatment is general and simple, modeling the interactions as a Ginzburg-Landau effective theory with four-fermion couplings, including only s-wave pairing. We numerically solve the field equations for flux tubes with an arbitrary number of flux quanta, and compare their energies. This allows us to map the type-I/type-II transition in the superconductor, which occurs at the conventional kappa = 1/sqrt(2) if the condensates are uncoupled. We find that a density coupling between the condensates raises the critical kappa and blurs the transition into a series of steps as the number of quanta in the favored flux tube varies between 1 and infinity. We find that a gradient coupling between the condensates lowers the critical kap...

  20. Characterization of 3D filament dynamics in a MAST SOL flux tube geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walkden, N. R.; Dudson, B. D.; Fishpool, G.

    2013-10-01

    Non-linear simulations of filament propagation in a realistic MAST SOL flux tube geometry using the BOUT++ fluid modelling framework show an isolation of the dynamics of the filament in the divertor region from the midplane region due to three features of the magnetic geometry; the variation of magnetic curvature along the field line, the expansion of the flux tube and strong magnetic shear. Of the three effects, the latter two lead to a midplane ballooning feature of the filament, whilst the former leads to a ballooning around the X-points. In simulations containing all three effects the filament is observed to balloon at the midplane, suggesting that the role of curvature variation is sub-dominant to the flux expansion and magnetic shear. The magnitudes of these effects are all strongest near the X-point which leads to the formation of parallel density gradients. The filaments simulated, which represent filaments in MAST, are identified as resistive ballooning, meaning that their motion is inertially limited, not sheath limited. Parallel density gradients can drive the filament towards a Boltzmann response when the collisionalityof the plasma is low. The results here show that the formation of parallel density gradients is a natural and inevitable consequence of a realistic magnetic geometry and therefore the transition to the Boltzmann response is a consequence of the use of realistic magnetic geometry and does not require initializing specifically varying background profiles as in slab simulations. The filaments studied here are stable to the linear resistive drift-wave instability but are subject to the non-linear effects associated with the Boltzmann response, particularly Boltzmann spinning. The Boltzmann response causes the filament to spin on an axis. In later stages of its evolution a non-linear turbulent state develops where the vorticity evolves into a turbulent eddy field on the same length scale as the parallel current. The transition from interchange

  1. Lava tube shatter rings and their correlation with lava flux increases at Kīlauea Volcano, Hawai‘i

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, T.R.

    2011-01-01

    Shatter rings are circular to elliptical volcanic features, typically tens of meters in diameter, which form over active lava tubes. They are typified by an upraised rim of blocky rubble and a central depression. Prior to this study, shatter rings had not been observed forming, and, thus, were interpreted in many ways. This paper describes the process of formation for shatter rings observed at Kīlauea Volcano during November 2005–July 2006. During this period, tilt data, time-lapse images, and field observations showed that episodic tilt changes at the nearby Pu‘u ‘Ō‘ō cone, the shallow magmatic source reservoir, were directly related to fluctuations in the level of lava in the active lava tube, with periods of deflation at Pu‘u ‘Ō‘ō correlating with increases in the level of the lava stream surface. Increases in lava level are interpreted as increases in lava flux, and were coincident with lava breakouts from shatter rings constructed over the lava tube. The repetitive behavior of the lava flux changes, inferred from the nearly continuous tilt oscillations, suggests that shatter rings form from the repeated rise and fall of a portion of a lava tube roof. The locations of shatter rings along the active lava tube suggest that they form where there is an abrupt decrease in flow velocity through the tube, e.g., large increase in tube width, abrupt decrease in tube slope, and (or) sudden change in tube direction. To conserve volume, this necessitates an abrupt increase in lava stream depth and causes over-pressurization of the tube. More than a hundred shatter rings have been identified on volcanoes on Hawai‘i and Maui, and dozens have been reported from basaltic lava fields in Iceland, Australia, Italy, Samoa, and the mainland United States. A quick study of other basaltic lava fields worldwide, using freely available satellite imagery, suggests that they might be even more common than previously thought. If so, this confirms that episodic

  2. Lava tube shatter rings and their correlation with lava flux increases at Kīlauea Volcano, Hawai`i

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, Tim R.

    2011-04-01

    Shatter rings are circular to elliptical volcanic features, typically tens of meters in diameter, which form over active lava tubes. They are typified by an upraised rim of blocky rubble and a central depression. Prior to this study, shatter rings had not been observed forming, and, thus, were interpreted in many ways. This paper describes the process of formation for shatter rings observed at Kīlauea Volcano during November 2005-July 2006. During this period, tilt data, time-lapse images, and field observations showed that episodic tilt changes at the nearby Pu`u `Ō`ō cone, the shallow magmatic source reservoir, were directly related to fluctuations in the level of lava in the active lava tube, with periods of deflation at Pu`u `Ō`ō correlating with increases in the level of the lava stream surface. Increases in lava level are interpreted as increases in lava flux, and were coincident with lava breakouts from shatter rings constructed over the lava tube. The repetitive behavior of the lava flux changes, inferred from the nearly continuous tilt oscillations, suggests that shatter rings form from the repeated rise and fall of a portion of a lava tube roof. The locations of shatter rings along the active lava tube suggest that they form where there is an abrupt decrease in flow velocity through the tube, e.g., large increase in tube width, abrupt decrease in tube slope, and (or) sudden change in tube direction. To conserve volume, this necessitates an abrupt increase in lava stream depth and causes over-pressurization of the tube. More than a hundred shatter rings have been identified on volcanoes on Hawai`i and Maui, and dozens have been reported from basaltic lava fields in Iceland, Australia, Italy, Samoa, and the mainland United States. A quick study of other basaltic lava fields worldwide, using freely available satellite imagery, suggests that they might be even more common than previously thought. If so, this confirms that episodic fluctuation in lava

  3. Comparison of the measured and modeled electron densities and temperatures in the ionosphere and plasmasphere during 14-16 May 1991

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlov, A. V.; Pavlova, N. M.

    2004-01-01

    The electron density and temperature in the ionosphere and plasmasphere measured by the Millstone Hill incoherent-scatter radar and the instruments on board of the EXOS-D satellite are compared with calculations from a time-dependent mathematical model of the Earth's ionosphere and plasmasphere during 14-16 May 1991. Use of [O]/[N2] correction factors with the NRLMSISE-00 model of the neutral atmosphere was found to bring the modeled and measured F-region main peak electron densities into agreement. It was found that the nighttime additional heating rate should be added to the normal photoelectron heating in the electron energy equation, in the nighttime plasmasphere region, in order for the model to reproduce the observed high plasmaspheric electron temperature within the Millstone Hill magnetic field flux tube in the Northern Hemisphere. The additional heating brings the measured and modeled electron temperatures into agreement in the plasmasphere and into a very large disagreement in the ionosphere, if the classical electron heat flux along magnetic field lines is used. An approach of Pavlov et al. (2000, 2001) based on a new effective electron thermal conductivity coefficient along the magnetic field line and the evaluated additional heating of electrons in the plasmasphere is used to explain the observed electron temperature in the ionosphere and plasmasphere. This approach leads to a heat flux which is less than that given by the classical theory. The effects of the additional plasmaspheric heating of electrons on the electron temperature and density are small at the F-region altitudes if the modified electron heat flux is used. We found that the resulting effect of vibrationally excited N2 and O2 on NmF2 is the decrease of the calculated NmF2 by up to a factor of about 2.7 by day and up to a factor of about 2.5 by night. The modeled electron temperature is very sensitive to the electron density, and this decrease in electron density results in an increase of

  4. Resonant behavior of MHD waves on magnetic flux tubes. IV - Total resonant absorption and MHD radiating eigenmodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goossens, Marcel; Hollweg, Joseph V.

    1993-01-01

    Resonant absorption of MHD waves on a nonuniform flux tube is investigated as a driven problem for a 1D cylindrical equilibrium. The variation of the fractional absorption is studied as a function of the frequency and its relation to the eigenvalue problem of the MHD radiating eigenmodes of the nonuniform flux tube is established. The optimal frequencies producing maximal fractional absorption are determined and the condition for total absorption is obtained. This condition defines an impedance matching and is fulfilled for an equilibrium that is fine tuned with respect to the incoming wave. The variation of the spatial wave solutions with respect to the frequency is explained as due to the variation of the real and imaginary parts of the dispersion relation of the MHD radiating eigenmodes with respect to the real driving frequency.

  5. Flux tube widening in compact U (1) lattice gauge theory computed at T < Tc with the multilevel method and GPUs

    CERN Document Server

    Amado, A; Bicudo, P

    2013-01-01

    We utilize Polyakov loop correlations to study d=3+1 compact U (1) flux tubes and the static electron-positron potential in lattice gauge theory. With the plaquette field operator, in U(1) lattice gauge theory, we probe directly the components of the electric and magnetic fields. In order to improve the signal-to-noise ratio in the confinement phase, we apply the L\\"uscher-Weiss multilevel algorithm. Our code is written in CUDA, and we run it in NVIDIA FERMI generation GPUs, in order to achieve the necessary efficiency for our computations. We measure in detail the quantum widening of the flux tube, as a function of the intercharge distance and at different finite temperatures T < Tc . Our results are compatible with the Effective String Theory.

  6. Two-Phase Flow Instability in Water-side Tube of SG under Axially Uniform Heat Flux Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Eui Kwang; Kim, Dehee; Jung, Yoon; Lee, Tae-Ho [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    The SG of PGSFR is of once through integrated type, and is a vertical counter flow shell and tube heat exchanger with sodium on shell side and water-steam in tubes. The phenomenon of two-phase flow instability has been observed in many industrial domains like boiling systems, steam generators. In this paper the numerical methods were studied, and a computer code was developed for two-phase flow instability in steam generator, and representative results of the model calculations are presented. A computer code is developed for investigating two-phase flow stability under constant heat flux conditions. Solution algorithm for the sodium flow field and tube conduction will be developed for the application to sodium-heated SG.

  7. Measurements of TRACE 171A Twisting Coronal Loop Fans about a Twisted Magnetic Flux Tube Originating From Below the Photosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nightingale, R. W.; Ma, G.; Ji, E.

    2009-12-01

    In our previous studies of rotating sunspots about their umbral centers over the past decade, we have been measuring the rotation at the photosphere of the cross sections of large, twisted magnetic flux tubes passing through from below. Many such rotating sunspots have been found and reported in the literature and at earlier meetings [e.g., Brown et al., Sol. Phys. 216, 79, 2003; Yan et al., ApJ 682, L65, 2008; Nightingale et al., Fall AGU Mtg. 2007]. Here we are attempting to measure the rotation of 1 million degree K EUV loops seen in TRACE 171A images emerging from what may be a large 6000 deg K magnetic flux tube (invisible at EUV), which may be the extension of the associated rotating sunspot up in the corona, for active region 9114 on August 8 - 10, 2000. These nonpotential EUV loops appear to be attached at their other end to nonrotating opposite polarity magnetic flux regions and also appear to be flipping around like a twisted jump rope that is attached to a wall at one end. In movies of these twisted coronal loop fans the rotation appears obvious, but is difficult to measure, because of the constant motion and change of intensity of the fans, which tend to obscure each other and the apparent tube center. We will show movies over the 3 days of the twisted loop fans, and details and first results of our measurements, which appear to be similar to those previously found for the associated rotating sunspot down at the photosphere. We will discuss how the twisted magnetic flux tube energizes the corona, carrying energy up from beneath the photosphere. This work was supported by NASA under the TRACE contract NAS5-38099.

  8. Non-linear numerical simulations of magneto-acoustic wave propagation in small-scale flux tubes

    CERN Document Server

    Khomenko, E; Felipe, T

    2007-01-01

    We present results of non-linear 2D numerical simulations of magneto-acoustic wave propagation in the photosphere and chromosphere of small-scale flux tubes with internal structure. Waves with realistic periods of 3--5 min are studied, after applying horizontal and vertical oscillatory perturbations to the equilibrium situation. Spurious reflections of shock waves from the upper boundary are minimized thanks to a special boundary condition. This has allowed us to increase the duration of the simulations and to make it long enough to perform a statistical analysis of oscillations. The simulations show that deep horizontal motions of the flux tube generate a slow (magnetic) mode and a surface mode. These modes are efficiently transformed into a slow (acoustic) mode in the Va < Cs atmosphere. The slow (acoustic) mode propagates vertically along the field lines, forms shocks and remains always within the flux tube. It might deposit effectively the energy of the driver into the chromosphere. When the driver osc...

  9. Flux tubes and the type-I/type-II transition in a superconductor coupled to a superfluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alford, Mark G.; Good, Gerald

    2008-07-01

    We analyze magnetic-flux tubes at zero temperature in a superconductor that is coupled to a superfluid via both density and gradient (“entrainment”) interactions. The example we have in mind is high-density nuclear matter, which is a proton superconductor and a neutron superfluid, but our treatment is general and simple, modeling the interactions as a Ginzburg-Landau effective theory with four-fermion couplings, including only s -wave pairing. We numerically solve the field equations for flux tubes with an arbitrary number of flux quanta and compare their energies. This allows us to map the type-I/type-II transition in the superconductor, which occurs at the conventional κ≡λ/ξ=1/2 if the condensates are uncoupled. We find that a density coupling between the condensates raises the critical κ and, for a sufficiently high neutron density, resolves the type-I/type-II transition line into an infinite number of bands corresponding to “ type-II(n) ” phases, in which n , the number of quanta in the favored flux tube, steps from 1 to infinity. For lower neutron density, the coupling creates spinodal regions around the type-I/type-II boundary, in which metastable flux configurations are possible. We find that a gradient coupling between the condensates lowers the critical κ and creates spinodal regions. These exotic phenomena may not occur in nuclear matter, which is thought to be deep in the type-II region but might be observed in condensed-matter systems.

  10. Global Circulation and Impact of Plasmaspheric Plumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Thomas E.; Fok, Mei-Ching; Chen, Sheng-Hsiem; Delcourt, Dominique C.; Fedder, Joel A.; Slinker, Steven P.

    2008-01-01

    We report results from the global circulation model of Lyon, Fedder, and Mobarry with an embedded model of the inner magnetosphere including the plasmasphere. The combination is used to initiate large numbers of representative protons on the geosynchronous orbit L shell, to assign particle weightings, to track their: subsequent trajectories in the 3D fields. This permits us to study the global circulation of plasmaspheric plumes and to compare these with Polar observations from the dayside magnetopause region . A range of events is studied from an isolated period of SBz in the solar wind,to a large storm sequence. We consider effects on circulating plasma reaching the dayside reconnection X-line, the population of the plasma sheet with ionospheric protons and the generation of ring current pressure from this source, compared with solar wind, polar wind, and auroral wind sources. We find that the transient plasmaspheric plume source is large in terms of total fluence, but of modest proportions in terms of contribution to the ring current. Implications of this and other results for improved space weather modeling and prediction will be discussed.

  11. Systematics of flux tubes in the dual Ginzburg-Landau theory and Casimir scaling hypothesis: folklore and lattice facts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koma, Y. [Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kanazawa University, Kanazawa, Ishikawa 920-1192 (Japan); Koma, M. [Research Center for Nuclear Physics (RCNP), Osaka University, Mihogaoka 10-1, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan)

    2003-01-01

    The ratios between the string tensions {sigma}{sub D} of color-electric flux tubes in higher and fundamental SU(3) representations, d{sub D} {identical_to}{sigma}{sub D}/{sigma}{sub 3}, are systematically studied in a Weyl symmetric formulation of the DGL theory. The ratio is found to depend on the Ginzburg-Landau (GL) parameter, {kappa}{identical_to}m{sub {chi}}/m{sub B}, the mass ratio between the monopoles (m{sub {chi}}) and the masses of the dual gauge bosons (m{sub B}). While the ratios d{sub D} follow a simple flux counting rule in the Bogomol'nyi limit, {kappa}=1.0, systematic deviations appear with increasing {kappa} due to interactions between the fundamental flux inside a higher representation flux tube. We find that in a type-II dual superconducting vacuum near {kappa}= 3.0 this leads to a consistent description of the ratios d{sub D} as observed in lattice QCD simulations. (orig.)

  12. Magnetic Fields in Massive Stars. II. The Buoyant Rise of Magnetic Flux Tubes Through the Radiative Interior

    CERN Document Server

    MacGregor, K B

    2003-01-01

    We present results from an investigation of the dynamical behavior of buoyant magnetic flux rings in the radiative interior of a uniformly rotating early-type star. Our physical model describes a thin, axisymmetric, toroidal flux tube that is released from the outer boundary of the convective core, and is acted upon by buoyant, centrifugal, Coriolis, magnetic tension, and aerodynamic drag forces. We find that rings emitted in the equatorial plane can attain a stationary equilibrium state that is stable with respect to small displacements in radius, but is unstable when perturbed in the meridional direction. Rings emitted at other latitudes travel toward the surface along trajectories that largely parallel the rotation axis of the star. Over much of the ascent, the instantaneous rise speed is determined by the rate of heating by the absorption of radiation that diffuses into the tube from the external medium. Since the time scale for this heating varies like the square of the tube cross-sectional radius, for t...

  13. Application of Non-invasive Microsensing System to Simultaneously Measure Both H+ and O2 Fluxes Around the Pollen Tube

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Various ionic and molecular activities in the extracellular environment are vital to plant cell physiological processes. A noninvasive microsensing system (NMS) based on either the scanning ion-selective electrode technique (SIET) or the scanning polarographic electrode technique (SPET) is able to obtain information regarding the transportation of various ions/molecules in intact samples under normal physiological conditions. The two-probe simultaneous test system (2STS) is an integrated system composed of SIET,SPET, and a Xu-Kunkel sampling protocol. In the present study, 2STS was able to simultaneously measure fluxes of H+ and O2 of the lily (Lilium Iongiflorum Thunb. cv. Ace) pollen tube while avoiding interference between the two probes. The results indicate that the proton fluxes were effluxes, whereas the oxygen fluxes were influxes, and they were closely correlated to each other surrounding the constitutive alkaline band region. Specifically, when the proton effluxes increased, the oxygen influxes also increased. Therefore,the hypothesis of condensed active mitochondria existing in the alkalized area of the pollen tube proposed by Hepler's group is supported.

  14. Channeling 5-min photospheric oscillations into the solar outer atmosphere through small-scale vertical magnetic flux tubes

    CERN Document Server

    Khomenko, E; Collados, M; Bueno, J Trujillo

    2008-01-01

    We report two-dimensional MHD simulations which demonstrate that photospheric 5-min oscillations can leak into the chromosphere inside small-scale vertical magnetic flux tubes. The results of our numerical experiments are compatible with those inferred from simultaneous spectropolarimetric observations of the photosphere and chromosphere obtained with the Tenerife Infrared Polarimeter (TIP) at 10830 A. We conclude that the efficiency of energy exchange by radiation in the solar photosphere can lead to a significant reduction of the cut-off frequency and may allow for the propagation of the 5 minutes waves vertically into the chromosphere.

  15. Study of compact U(1) flux tubes in 3+1 dimensions in lattice gauge theory using GPU's

    CERN Document Server

    Amado, André; Cardoso, Marco; Bicudo, Pedro

    2012-01-01

    We utilize Polyakov loop correlations to study (3+1)D compact U(1) flux tubes and the static electron-positron potential in lattice gauge theory. By using field operators it is possible in U(1) lattice gauge theory to probe directly the electric and magnetic fields. In order to improve the signal-to-noise ratio in the confinement phase, we apply the L\\"uscher-Weiss multilevel algorithm. Our code is written in CUDA, and we run it in NVIDIA FERMI generation GPU's, in order to achieve the necessary performance for our computations.

  16. Three dimensional non-linear evolution of a magnetic flux tube in a spherical shell: Influence of turbulent convection and associated mean flows

    CERN Document Server

    Jouve, Laurene

    2009-01-01

    We present the first 3D MHD study in spherical geometry of the non-linear dynamical evolution of magnetic flux tubes in a turbulent rotating convection zone. We study numerically the rise of magnetic toroidal flux ropes from the base of a modelled convection zone up to the top of our computational domain where bipolar patches are formed. We compare the dynamical behaviour of flux tubes in a fully convective shell possessing self-consistently generated mean flows such as meridional circulation and differential rotation, with reference calculations done in a quiet isentropic zone. We find that two parameters influence the tubes during their rise through the convection zone: the initial field strength and amount of twist, thus confirming previous findings in Cartesian geometry. Further, when the tube is sufficiently strong with respect to the equipartition field, it rises almost radially independently of the initial latitude (either low or high). By contrast, weaker field cases indicate that downflows and upflow...

  17. Solar wind entry via flux tube into magnetosphere observed by Cluster measurements at dayside magnetopause during southward IMF

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN GuangQing; LIU ZhenXing; SHEN Chao; M.Dunlop; A.Balogh; H.Rème; Y.V.Bogdanova; A.Fazakerley

    2009-01-01

    By analyzing hot ion and electron parameters together with magnetic field measurements from Cluster,an event of magnetopause crossing of the spacecraft has been investigated. At the latitude of about 40°and magnetic local time (MLT) of 13:20 during the southward interplanetary magnetic field (IMF), a transition layer was observed, with the magnetospheric field configuration and cold dense plasma features of the magnetosheath. The particle energy-time spectrograms inside the layer were similar to but still a little different from those in the magnetosheath, obviously indicating the solar wind entry into the magnetosphere. The direction and magnitude of the accelerated ion flow implied that reconnection might possibly cause such a solar wind entry phenomenon. The bipolar signature of the normal magnetic component BN in magnetopause coordinates further supported happening of reconnection there.The solar wind plasma flowed toward the magnetopause and entered the magnetosphere along the reconnected flux tube. The magnetospheric branch of the reconnected flux tube was still inside the magnetosphere after reconnection and supplied the path for the solar wind entry into the dayside magnetosphere. The case analysis gives observational evidence and more details of how the reconnection process at the dayside low latitude magnetopause caused the solar wind entry into the magnetosphere.

  18. Solar wind entry via flux tube into magnetosphere observed by Cluster measurements at dayside magnetopause during southward IMF

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M.; Dunlop; A.; Balogh; H.; Rème; Y.; V.; Bogdanova; A.; Fazakerley

    2009-01-01

    By analyzing hot ion and electron parameters together with magnetic field measurements from Cluster, an event of magnetopause crossing of the spacecraft has been investigated. At the latitude of about 40° and magnetic local time (MLT) of 13:20 during the southward interplanetary magnetic field (IMF), a transition layer was observed, with the magnetospheric field configuration and cold dense plasma features of the magnetosheath. The particle energy-time spectrograms inside the layer were similar to but still a little different from those in the magnetosheath, obviously indicating the solar wind entry into the magnetosphere. The direction and magnitude of the accelerated ion flow implied that reconnection might possibly cause such a solar wind entry phenomenon. The bipolar signature of the normal magnetic component BN in magnetopause coordinates further supported happening of reconnection there. The solar wind plasma flowed toward the magnetopause and entered the magnetosphere along the reconnected flux tube. The magnetospheric branch of the reconnected flux tube was still inside the magnetosphere after reconnection and supplied the path for the solar wind entry into the dayside magnetosphere. The case analysis gives observational evidence and more details of how the reconnection process at the dayside low latitude magnetopause caused the solar wind entry into the magnetosphere.

  19. Closed flux tubes and their string description in D=3+1 SU(N) gauge theories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Athenodorou, Andreas [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany); Bringoltz, Barak [Washington Univ., Seattle, WA (United States). Dept. of Physics; Teper, Michael [Oxford Univ. (United Kingdom). Centre for Theoretical Physics

    2010-08-15

    We calculate the energy spectrum of a confining flux tube that is closed around a spatial torus, as a function of its length l. We do so for various SU(N) gauge theories in 3+1 dimensions, and for various values of spin, parity and longitudinal momentum. We are able to present usefully accurate results for about 20 of the lightest such states, for a range of l that begins close to the (finite volume) deconfining phase transition at l{radical}{sigma} {proportional_to} 1.6, and extends up to l{radical}{sigma}{proportional_to}6 (where {sigma} is the string tension). We find that most of these low-lying states are well described by the spectrum of the Nambu-Goto free string theory in flat space-time. Remarkably, this is so not only at the larger values of l, where the gap between the ground state energy and the low-lying excitations becomes small compared to the mass gap, but also down to much shorter lengths where these excitation energies become large compared to {radical}{sigma}, the flux-tube no longer 'looks' anything like a thin string, and an expansion of the effective string action in powers of 1/l no longer converges. All this is for flux in the fundamental representation. We also calculate the k=2 (anti)symmetric ground states and these show larger corrections at small l. So far all this closely resembles our earlier findings in 2+1 dimensions. However, and in contrast to the situation in D=2+1, we also find that there are some states, with J{sup P}=0{sup -} quantum numbers, that show large deviations from the Nambu-Goto spectrum. We investigate the possibility that (some of) these states may encode the massive modes associated with the internal structure of the flux tube, and we discuss how the precocious free string behaviour of most states constrains the effective string action, on which much interesting theoretical progress has recently been made. (orig.)

  20. A New Global Core Plasma Model of the Plasmasphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, D. L.; Comfort, R. H.; Craven, P. D.

    2014-01-01

    The Global Core Plasma Model (GCPM) is the first empirical model for thermal inner magnetospheric plasma designed to integrate previous models and observations into a continuous in value and gradient representation of typical total densities. New information about the plasmasphere, in particular, makes possible significant improvement. The IMAGE Mission Radio Plasma Imager (RPI) has obtained the first observations of total plasma densities along magnetic field lines in the plasmasphere and polar cap. Dynamics Explorer 1 Retarding Ion Mass Spectrometer (RIMS) has provided densities in temperatures in the plasmasphere for 5 ion species. These and other works enable a new more detailed empirical model of thermal in the inner magnetosphere that will be presented.

  1. Measurement and modeling of the refilling plasmasphere during 2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krall, J.; Huba, J. D.; Jordanova, V. K.; Denton, R. E.; Carranza, T.; Moldwin, M. B.

    2016-03-01

    The Naval Research Laboratory SAMI3 (Sami3 is Also a Model of the Ionosphere) and the RAM-CPL (Ring current Atmosphere interaction Model-Cold PLasma) codes are used to model observed plasmasphere dynamics during 25 November 2001 to 1 December 2001 and 1-5 February 2001. Model results compare well to plasmasphere observations of electron and mass densities. Comparison of model results to refilling data and to each other shows good agreement, generally within a factor of 2. We find that SAMI3 plasmaspheric refilling rates and ion densities are sensitive to the composition and temperature of the thermosphere and exosphere, and to photoelectron heating. Results also support our previous finding that the wind-driven dynamo significantly impacts both refilling rates and plasmasphere dynamics during quiet periods.

  2. Evidence for siphon flows with shocks in solar magnetic flux tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degenhardt, D.; Solanki, S. K.; Montesinos, B.; Thomas, J. H.

    1993-01-01

    We synthesize profiles of the infrared line Fe I 15648.5 A (g = 3) for a recently developed theoretical model of siphon flows along photospheric magnetic loops. The synthesized line profiles are compared with the observations from which Rueedi et al. (1992) deduced the presence of such flows across the neutral line of an active region plage. This comparison supports the interpretation of Rueedi et al. (1992). It also suggests that the average footpoint separation of the observed loops carrying the siphon flow is 8-15 sec and that the siphon flow experiences a standing tube shock in the downstream leg near the top of the arch.

  3. The Influence of the Solar Cycle on Plasmasphere Refilling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krall, J.; Huba, J.

    2015-12-01

    During refilling, ionospheric plasma streams into the inner magnetosphere from both the northern and southern hemispheres. Plasmasphere refilling rates depend on both the ionospheric sources and on the thermalization of streaming ions. We use the NRL SAMI3 ionosphere/plasmasphere code[1] coupled to the NRLMSIS empirical atmosphere model and the HWM14 empirical wind model, to simulate H+, He+ and O+ populations in the plasmasphere. The SAMI3 ionosphere code includes 7 ion species (H+, He+, O+, N+, O2+, N2+, NO+), each treated as a separate fluid, with temperature equations being solved for H+, He+, O+ and e. Measurements show that refilling rates decrease with increasing solar activity, an effect reproduced by SAMI3 and its two-dimensional cousin, SAMI2. We find that the refilling rate and the resulting the plasmasphere electron content are sensitive to the thermospheric composition and temperature, as well as photoelectron heating and photoproduction rates. Depending on conditions, simulations suggest that the plasmaspheric contribution to the total electron content can either increase or decrease with solar activity, as represented by the daily and 81-day-average F10.7 indices. [1] Huba, J. and J. Krall, 2013, ``Modeling the plasmasphere with SAMI3'', Geophys. Res. Lett. 40, 6--10, doi:10.1029/2012GL054300 Research supported by NRL base funds and the NASA HSR program.

  4. Squared width and profile of the confining flux tube in the U(1) LGT in 3D

    CERN Document Server

    Caselle, Michele; Vadacchino, Davide

    2016-01-01

    The dual formulation of the compact U(1) lattice gauge theory in three spacetime dimensions allows to finely study the squared width and the profile of the confining flux tube on a wide range of physical interquark distances. The results obtained in Monte Carlo simulations are compared with the predictions of the effective bosonic-string model and with the dual superconductor model. While the former fails at describing the data from a quantitative point of view, the latter is in good agreement with it. An interpretation of these results is proposed in light of the particular features of the U(1) lattice gauge theory in 3D and a comparison with non-Abelian gauge theories in four spacetime dimensions is discussed.

  5. Drift flux model as approximation of two fluid model for two phase dispersed and slug flow in tube

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nigmatulin, R.I.

    1995-09-01

    The analysis of one-dimensional schematizing for non-steady two-phase dispersed and slug flow in tube is presented. Quasi-static approximation, when inertia forces because of the accelerations of the phases may be neglected, is considered. Gas-liquid bubbly and slug vertical upward flows are analyzed. Non-trivial theoretical equations for slip velocity for these flows are derived. Juxtaposition of the derived equations for slip velocity with the famous Zuber-Findlay correlation as cross correlation coefficients is criticized. The generalization of non-steady drift flux Wallis theory taking into account influence of wall friction on the bubbly or slug flows for kinematical waves is considered.

  6. Self Organized Criticality in a two dimensional Cellular Automaton model of a magnetic flux tube with background flow

    CERN Document Server

    Danila, Bogdan; Mocanu, Gabriela

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the transition to Self Organized Criticality in a two-dimensional model of a flux tube with a background flow. The magnetic induction equation, represented by a partial differential equation with a stochastic source term, is discretized and implemented on a two dimensional cellular automaton. The energy released by the automaton during one relaxation event is the magnetic energy. As a result of the simulations we obtain the time evolution of the energy release, of the system control parameter, of the event lifetime distribution and of the event size distribution, respectively, and we establish that a Self Organized Critical state is indeed reached by the system. Moreover, energetic initial impulses in the magnetohydrodynamic flow can lead to one dimensional signatures in the magnetic two dimensional system, once the Self Organized Critical regime is established. The applications of the model for the study of Gamma Ray Bursts is briefly considered, and it is shown that some astrophysical paramet...

  7. Simulation of Viscous and Reactive Hypersonic Flows Behaviour in a Shock Tube Facility: TVD Schemes and Flux Limiters Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Boulahia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Work performed in this study concerns mainly the analysis and the wisely use of TVD type schemes (total variation diminishing for numerical simulation of reactive flows, these schemes are first presented in scalar equation. Their extension to Euler equations for a reactive gas mixture is conducted through the approximate extended solver of Riemann problem. A comparative study of specific variants of TVD schemes has been made in the case of one-dimensional unsteady flow for an inert and reactive gas mixture, which represents the classical instance of a shock tube. The purpose of this investigation is to highlight the general behaviour (order of accuracy and performance of TVD schemes with various flux limiters for the simulation of reactive flows and in particular, to make possible the capture of the shock wave together with waves expansion for choosing the appropriate scheme to apply eventually in simulation of hypersonic viscous flow in chemical non equilibrium.

  8. Critical heat flux in bottom heated two-phase thermosyphon. Improvement in critical heat flux due to concentric tube; Katan shuchu kanetsugata niso netsu syphon no genkai netsu ryusoku. Nijukan ni yoru genkai netsu ryusoku no kaizen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monde, M.; Mitsutake, Y. [Saga University, Saga (Japan). Faculty of Science and Engineering

    2000-02-25

    An experiment has been carried out to elucidate the critical heat flux (CHF) of an open two-phase thermosyphon with a bottom heated chamber in which heat is absorbed by evaporation of liquid. Another objective is to enhance the CHF using a concentric-tube by which counter-current flow of vapor and liquid in the throat of the chamber can be controlled well. The CHF data are measured for the saturated liquid of R 113 at a different pressure and different configuration of concentric tubes. The CHF data without the inner tube are in good agreement with the existing correlation and analytical result. The CHF increases by as much as several times of the CHF without the inner tube with an increase in the inner tube diameter up to a certain diameter of the inner tube and then decreases continuously as the inner tube diameter approaches the outer tube diameter. The optimum diameter of inner tube exists at which the CHF is maximum. (author)

  9. Closed flux tubes and their string description in D=2+1 SU(N) gauge theories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Athenodorou, Andreas [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany); Bringoltz, Barak [The Israeli Institute for Advanced Research (IIAR), Rehovot (Israel); Teper, Michael [Oxford Univ. (United Kingdom). Rudolf Peierls Centre for Theoretical Physics

    2011-08-15

    We carry out lattice calculations of the spectrum of confining flux tubes that wind around a spatial torus of variable length l, in 2+1 dimensions. We compare the energies of the lowest {proportional_to}30 states to the free string Nambu-Goto model and to recent results on the universal properties of effective string actions. Our most useful calculations are in SU(6) at a small lattice spacing, which we check is very close to the N{yields} {infinity} continuum limit. We find that the energies, E{sub n}(l), are remarkably close to the predictions of the free string Nambu-Goto model, even well below the critical length at which the expansion of the Nambu-Goto energy in powers of 1/l{sup 2} diverges and the series needs to be resummed. Our analysis of the ground state supports the universality of the O(1/l) and the O(1/l{sup 3}) corrections to {sigma}l, and we find that the deviations from Nambu-Goto at small l prefer a leading correction that is O(1/l{sup 7}), consistent with theoretical expectations. We find that the low-lying states that contain a single phonon excitation are also consistent with the leading O(1/l{sup 7}) correction dominating down to the smallest values of l. By contrast our analysis of the other light excited states clearly shows that for these states the corrections at smaller l resum to a much smaller effective power. Finally, and in contrast to our recent calculations in D=3+1, we find no evidence for the presence of any non-stringy states that could indicate the excitation of massive flux tube modes. (orig.)

  10. Large-scale fluctuations of PSBL magnetic flux tubes induced by the field-aligned motion of highly accelerated ions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. E. Grigorenko

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available We present a comprehensive analysis of magnetic field and plasma data measured in the course of 170 crossings of the lobeward edge of Plasma Sheet Boundary Layer (PSBL in the Earth's magnetotail by Cluster spacecraft. We found that large-scale fluctuations of the magnetic flux tubes have been registered during intervals of propagation of high velocity field-aligned ions. The observed kink-like oscillations propagate earthward along the main magnetic field with phase velocities of the order of local Alfvén velocity and have typical wavelengths ~5–20 RE, and frequencies of the order of 0.004–0.02 Hz. The oscillations of PSBL magnetic flux tubes are manifested also in a sudden increase of drift velocity of cold lobe ions streaming tailward. Since in the majority of PSBL crossings in our data set, the densities of currents corresponding to electron-ion relative drift have been low, the investigation of Kelvin-Helmholtz (K-H instability in a bounded flow sandwiched between the plasma sheet and the lobe has been performed to analyze its relevance to generation of the observed ultra-low frequency oscillations with wavelengths much larger than the flow width. The calculations have shown that, when plasma conditions are favorable for the excitation of K-H instability at least at one of the flow boundaries, kink-like ultra-low frequency waves, resembling the experimentally observed ones, could become unstable and efficiently develop in the system.

  11. An Experimental Study on Nanofluids Convective Heat Transfer Through a Straight Tube under Constant Heat Flux

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ahmad Azari; Mansour Kalbasi; Masoud Derakhshandeh; Masoud Rahimi

    2013-01-01

    In this work, the laminar convective heat transfer performance and the pressure drop of water-based nanofluids containing Al2O3, TiO2 and SiO2 nanoparticles flowing through a straight circular tube were experimen-tally investigated. The experimental results showed that addition of small amounts of nano-sized Al2O3 and TiO2 particles to de-ionized water increased heat transfer coefficients considerably, while the SiO2 nanofluids showed the opposite behavior attracting the authors’ interests. An average of 16%and 8.2%increase in heat transfer coefficient were observed with the average of 28%and 15%penalty in pressure drop for Al2O3 and TiO2 nanofluids.

  12. The kink instability in infinite cylindrical flux tubes - Eigenvalues for power-law twist profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, I. J. D.; Robb, T. D.; Sneyd, A. D.; McClymont, A. N.

    1990-04-01

    Simple, accurate methods of calculating ideal MHD instability eigenvalues for infinitely long cylindrical tubes with twist function T(r) are developed. The results show that the most rapidly growing and energetic instabilities occur in the Gold-Hoyle v = 0 field, with the instability progressively weakening with increasing v. However, the maximum force eigenvalue is always small, so that even in the Gold-Hoyle case only a small proportion of the available magnetic energy can be released in the linear phase. The results also confirm that the linear pinch is remarkably weak yet relatively resistant to line-tying. It is shown that the weakness of the force eigenvalue implies that the influence of uniform gas pressure on stability is negligible. Implications for the energy-release mechanism in solar flares are discussed.

  13. Slow twists of solar magnetic flux tubes and the polar magnetic field of the sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollweg, Joseph V.; Lee, Martin A.

    1989-01-01

    The solar wind model of Weber and Davis (1967) is generalized to compute the heliospheric magnetic field resulting from solar rotation or a steady axisymmetric twist including a geometrical expansion which is more rapid than spherical. The calculated increase in the ratio of the toroidal to poloidal field components with heliocentric radial distance r clarifies an expression derived recently by Jokipii and Kota (1989). Magnetic-field components transverse to r do not in general grow to dominate the radial component at large r. The analysis also yields expressions for the Poynting flux associated with the steady twists.

  14. A case study of storm commencement and recovery plasmaspheric electric fields near L=2.5 at equinox

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. F. Balmforth (*

    Full Text Available Data from the VLF Doppler experiment at Faraday, Antarctica (65° S, 64° W are used to study the penetration of the high-latitude convection electric field to lower latitudes during severely disturbed conditions. Alterations of the electric field at L-values within the range 2.0 - 2.7 are studied for two cases at equinox (10 - 12 September 1986 and 1 - 3 May 1986. The recovery of the electric field is found to be approximately an exponential function of time. Values for the equatorial meridional E×B drift velocity, inferred from the data, are used as inputs to a model of the plasmasphere and ionosphere. The model and experimental results are used to investigate the post-storm alteration of ionospheric coupling processes. The magnitude of the effect of ionosphere-plasmasphere coupling fluxes on NmF2 values and the O+-H+ transition height is dependent on the local time of storm commencement, and on the orientation of the electric field. The coupling fluxes appear to have a maximum influence on ionospheric content during the main phase of geomagnetic activity that produces outward motion of plasmaspheric whistler ducts.

  15. Universal Aspects of Deconfinement: Interfaces, Flux Tubes and Self-Duality in 2+1 Dimensions

    CERN Document Server

    von Smekal, Lorenz; Strodthoff, Nils

    2010-01-01

    We study center vortex free energies and 't Hooft's electric fluxes on the lattice in 2+1 dimensions, where SU(2) for example, is in the universality class of the 2d Ising model. This places a wealth of exact results at our fingertips. In particular, spacelike center vortices in SU(2) near criticality correspond to spin interfaces in the 2d Ising model, whose universal scaling functions are known exactly. We exploit this to locate the deconfinement transition with unprecedented precision and subsequently for a finite size scaling analysis, where the self-duality of the $2d$ spin model is reflected in a duality between the spacelike vortices and confining electric fluxes. The corresponding relation between the string tension and its dual in the high temperature phase is arguably the simplest example of a universal amplitude ratio. Around the transition, both can be efficiently extracted from the exact results with a global one-parameter fit which allows straightforward continuum extrapolation.

  16. Analytical study on coordinative optimization of convection in tubes with variable heat flux

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    [1]Guo, Z. Y., Li, D. Y., Wang, B. X., A novel concept for convective heat transfer enhancement, Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 1998, 41: 2221-2225.[2]Tao, W. Q., Guo, Z. Y., Wang, B. X., Field synergy principle for enhancing convective heat transfer--extension and numerical verification, Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 2002, 45: 3849-3856.[3]Guo, Z. Y., Mechanism and control of convective heat transfer--Coordination of velocity and heat flow fields, Chinese Science Bulletin, 2001, 46(7): 596-599.[4]Sellars, J. R., Tribus, M., Klein, J. S., Heat transfer to laminar flow in a round tubes or flat conduit--The Graetz problem extended, Tras. ASME, 1956, 78: 441-448.[5]Kays, W. M., Crawford, M. E., Convective Heat Transfer, 3rd ed., Chapter 9, New York: McGraw-Hill Inc., 1993.[6]Shah, R. K., London, A. L., Laminar Flow Forced Convection in Ducts, Advances in Heat Transfer, New York: Academic Press, 1978.

  17. ISEE 1 observations of thermal plasma in the vicinity of the plasmasphere during periods of quieting magnetic activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horwitz, J.L.; Baugher, C.R.; Chappell, C.R.; Shelley, E.G.; Young, D.T.; Anderson, R.R.

    1981-11-01

    Thermal (< or approx. =100 electron volts) ion observations made with the plasma composition experiment on ISEE 1 are combined with plasma density profiles obtained from plasma frequency measurements made with the plasma wave experiment to conduct an investigation of thermal plasma behavior in the vicinity of the plasmasphere during periods of quieting magnetic activity. Normally, the principal thermal ion population in the plasmasphere consists of cold (kT< or approx. =1 eV), isotropic distributions with ion species in the order of dominance H/sup +/:He/sup +/:O/sup +/, while outside the plasmapause, the observed E< or approx. =100 eV ion distributions usually are field-aligned in structure, have characteristic energies E< or approx. =10 eV and H/sup +/:O/sup +/He/sup +/ order of dominance in fluxes. During periods in which the magnetic activity quiets, the above two regions are separated by a new region in which, at times, low-energy (approx.1-2 eV) H/sup +/ and He/sup +/ are found flowing along the magnetic field lines. On other occasions following quieting magnetic activity, pancake distributions (peak fluxes at 90/sup 0/ pitch angle) are observed in this region. Other complex distributions have been seen, and these complexities and the limitations of the data coverage preclude a satisfactory simple interpretation. It seems plausible to identify this region as the site of plasmasphere refilling. However, the data presumably also contain evidence of the quiet time rotation of the plasmasphere bulge region into the morning sector.

  18. Effects of Oxidation and fractal surface roughness on the wettability and critical heat flux of glass-peened zirconium alloy tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fong, R.W.L.; Nitheanandan, T.; Bullock, C.D.; Slater, L.F.; McRae, G.A

    2003-05-01

    Glass-bead peening the outside surfaces of zirconium alloy tubes has been shown to increase the Critical Heat Flux (CHF) in pool boiling of water. The CHF is found to correlate with the fractal roughness of the metal tube surfaces. In this study on the effect of oxidation on glass-peened surfaces, test measurements for CHF, surface wettability and roughness have been evaluated using various glass-peened and oxidized zirconium alloy tubes. The results show that oxidation changes the solid-liquid contact angle (i.e., decreases wettability of the metal-oxide surface), but does not change the fractal surface roughness, appreciably. Thus, oxidation of the glass-peened surfaces of zirconium alloy tubes is not expected to degrade the CHF enhancement obtained by glass-bead peening. (author)

  19. Erupting filaments with large enclosing flux tubes as sources of high-mass 3-part CMEs, and erupting filaments in the absence of enclosing flux tubes as sources of low-mass unstructured CMEs

    CERN Document Server

    Hutton, Joe

    2016-01-01

    The 3-part appearance of many CMEs arising from erupting filaments emerges from a large magnetic flux tube structure, consistent with the form of the erupting filament system. Other CMEs arising from erupting filaments lack a clear 3-part structure and reasons for this have not been researched in detail. This paper aims to further establish the link between CME structure and the structure of the erupting filament system and to investigate whether CMEs which lack a 3-part structure have different eruption characteristics. A survey is made of 221 near-limb filament eruptions observed from 2013/05/03-2014/06/30 by EUV imagers and coronagraphs. 92 filament eruptions are associated with 3-part structured CMEs, 41 eruptions are associated with unstructured CMEs. The remaining 88 are categorized as failed eruptions. For 34% of the 3-part CMEs, processing applied to EUV images reveals the erupting front edge is a pre-existing loop structure surrounding the filament, which subsequently erupts with the filament to form...

  20. SU(3) Yang-Mills Hamiltonian in the flux-tube gauge: Strong coupling expansion and glueball dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Pavel, Hans-Peter

    2016-01-01

    It is shown that the formulation of the SU(3) Yang-Mills quantum Hamiltonian in the "flux-tube gauge" A_{a1}=0 for all a=1,2,4,5,6,7 and A_{a2}=0 for all a=5,7 allows for a systematic and practical strong coupling expansion of the Hamiltonian in \\lambda\\equiv g^{-2/3}, equivalent to an expansion in the number of spatial derivatives. Introducing an infinite spatial lattice with box length a, the "free part" is the sum of Hamiltonians of Yang-Mills quantum mechanics of constant fields for each box, and the "interaction terms" contain higher and higher number of spatial derivatives connecting different boxes. The Faddeev-Popov operator, its determinant and inverse, are rather simple, but show a highly non-trivial periodic structure of six Gribov-horizons separating six Weyl-chambers. The energy eigensystem of the gauge reduced Hamiltonian of SU(3) Yang-Mills mechanics of spatially constant fields can be calculated in principle with arbitrary high precision using the orthonormal basis of all solutions of the corr...

  1. Post-glitch exponential relaxation of radio pulsars and magnetars in terms of vortex creep across flux tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gügercinoğlu, Erbil

    2017-08-01

    Timing observations of rapidly rotating neutron stars revealed a great number of glitches, observed from both canonical radio pulsars and magnetars. Among them, 76 glitches have shown exponential relaxation(s) with characteristic decay times ranging from several days to a few months, followed by a more gradual recovery. Glitches displaying exponential relaxation with single or multiple decay time constants are analysed in terms of a model based on the interaction of the vortex lines with the toroidal arrangement of flux tubes in the outer core of the neutron star. Model results agree with the observed time-scales in general. Thus, the glitch phenomenon can be used to deduce valuable information about neutron star structure, in particular on the interior magnetic field configuration which is unaccessible from surface observations. One immediate conclusion is that the magnetar glitch data are best explained with a much cooler core and therefore require that direct Urca-type fast-cooling mechanisms should be effective for magnetars.

  2. Analysis of the IMAGE RPI electron density data and CHAMP plasmasphere electron density reconstructions with focus on plasmasphere modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerzen, T.; Feltens, J.; Jakowski, N.; Galkin, I.; Reinisch, B.; Zandbergen, R.

    2016-09-01

    The electron density of the topside ionosphere and the plasmasphere contributes essentially to the overall Total Electron Content (TEC) budget affecting Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) signals. The plasmasphere can cause half or even more of the GNSS range error budget due to ionospheric propagation errors. This paper presents a comparative study of different plasmasphere and topside ionosphere data aiming at establishing an appropriate database for plasmasphere modelling. We analyze electron density profiles along the geomagnetic field lines derived from the Imager for Magnetopause-to-Aurora Global Exploration (IMAGE) satellite/Radio Plasma Imager (RPI) records of remote plasma sounding with radio waves. We compare these RPI profiles with 2D reconstructions of the topside ionosphere and plasmasphere electron density derived from GNSS based TEC measurements onboard the Challenging Minisatellite Payload (CHAMP) satellite. Most of the coincidences between IMAGE profiles and CHAMP reconstructions are detected in the region with L-shell between 2 and 5. In general the CHAMP reconstructed electron densities are below the IMAGE profile densities, with median of the CHAMP minus IMAGE residuals around -588 cm-3. Additionally, a comparison is made with electron densities derived from passive radio wave RPI measurements onboard the IMAGE satellite. Over the available 2001-2005 period of IMAGE measurements, the considered combined data from the active and passive RPI operations cover the region within a latitude range of ±60°N, all longitudes, and an L-shell ranging from 1.2 to 15. In the coincidence regions (mainly 2 ⩽ L ⩽ 4), we check the agreement between available active and passive RPI data. The comparison shows that the measurements are well correlated, with a median residual of ∼52 cm-3. The RMS and STD values of the relative residuals are around 22% and 21% respectively. In summary, the results encourage the application of IMAGE RPI data for

  3. Interaction of ring current and radiation belt protons with ducted plasmaspheric hiss. 2. Time evolution of the distribution function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozyra, J. U.; Rasmussen, C. E.; Miller, R. H.; Villalon, E.

    1995-11-01

    The evolution of the bounce-averaged ring current/radiation belt proton distribution is simulated during resonant interactions with ducted plasmaspheric hiss. The plasmaspheric hiss is assumed to be generated by ring current electrons and to be damped by the energetic protons. Thus energy is transferred between energetic electrons and protons using the plasmaspheric hiss as a mediary. The problem is not solved self-consistently. During the simulation period, interactions with ring current electrons (not represented in the model) are assumed to maintain the wave amplitudes in the presence of damping by the energetic protons, allowing the wave spectrum to be held fixed. Diffusion coefficients in pitch angle, cross pitch angle/energy, and energy were previously calculated by Kozyra et al. (1994) and are adopted for the present study. The simulation treats the energy range, E>=80 keV, within which the wave diffusion operates on a shorter timescale than other proton loss processes (i.e., Coulomb drag and charge exchange). These other loss processes are not included in the simulation. An interesting result of the simulation is that energy diffusion maximizes at moderate pitch angles near the edge of the atmospheric loss cone. Over the simulation period, diffusion in energy creates an order of magnitude enhancement in the bounce-averaged proton distribution function at moderate pitch angles. The loss cone is nearly empty because scattering of particles at small pitch angles is weak. The bounce-averaged flux distribution, mapped to ionospheric heights, results in elevated locally mirroring proton fluxes. OGO 5 observed order of magnitude enhancements in locally mirroring energetic protons at altitudes between 350 and 1300 km and invariant latitudes between 50° and 60° (Lundblad and Soraas, 1978). The proton distributions were highly anisotropic in pitch angle with nearly empty loss cones. The similarity between the observed distributions and those resulting from this

  4. Whistlers Observed Outside the Plasmasphere: Correlation to Plasmaspheric/Plasmapause Features and Implications for the Scattering of Radiation-Belt Electrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adrian, Mark L.; Gallagher, D. L.

    2007-01-01

    Magnetospherically reflected, lightning-generated whistler waves are an important potential contributor to pitch-angle scattering loss processes of the electron radiation belts. While lightning-generated whistlers are a common feature at, and just inside, the plasmapause, they are infrequently observed outside the plasmasphere. As such, their potential contribution to outer radiation belt loss processes is more tenuous. Recently, Platino et al. [2005] has reported on whistlers observed outside the plasmasphere by Cluster. Here, we present correlative global observations of the plasmasphere, for the reported periods of Cluster-observed whistlers outside the plasmasphere, using IMAGE-EUV data. The intent of this study is to seek the underlying mechanisms that result in whistlers outside the plasmasphere and consequently the anticipated morphology and significance these waves may have on radiation belt dynamics.

  5. Response of plasmaspheric configuration to substorms revealed by Chang’e 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Han; Shen, Chao; Wang, Huaning; Zhang, Xiaoxin; Chen, Bo; Yan, Jun; Zou, Yongliao; Jorgensen, Anders M.; He, Fei; Yan, Yan; Zhu, Xiaoshuai; Huang, Ya; Xu, Ronglan

    2016-08-01

    The Moon-based Extreme Ultraviolet Camera (EUVC) of the Chang’e 3 mission provides a global and instantaneous meridian view (side view) of the Earth’s plasmasphere. The plasmasphere is one inner component of the whole magnetosphere, and the configuration of the plasmasphere is sensitive to magnetospheric activity (storms and substorms). However, the response of the plasmaspheric configuration to substorms is only partially understood, and the EUVC observations provide a good opportunity to investigate this issue. By reconstructing the global plasmaspheric configuration based on the EUVC images observed during 20–22 April 2014, we show that in the observing period, the plasmasphere had three bulges which were located at different geomagnetic longitudes. The inferred midnight transit times of the three bulges, using the rotation rate of the Earth, coincide with the expansion phase of three substorms, which implies a causal relationship between the substorms and the formation of the three bulges on the plasmasphere. Instead of leading to plasmaspheric erosion as geomagnetic storms do, substorms initiated on the nightside of the Earth cause local inflation of the plasmasphere in the midnight region.

  6. Plasmaspheric trough evolution under different conditions of subauroral ion drift

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Fei; ZHANG XiaoXin; CHEN Bo; FOK MeiChing

    2012-01-01

    The statistical characteristics of the subauroral ion drift (SAID) in the ionosphere and the plasmaspheric trough evolution under different conditions of SAID were investigated in this paper,based on 566 SAID events observed by Akebono,Astrid-2,DE-2,and Freja satellites.The relationships between the latitudinal location of SAID and the Kp,AL,and Dst indices for these events were also discussed.It was found that the SAID events happened mainly at invariant latitude (ILAT) of 60.4° and magnetic local time (MLT) of 21.6 MLT and that 92.4% of the events happened when the Kp index was below 5.0,indicating a medium geomagnetic activity.The latitudinal half-width of SAID varied from 0.5° to 3.0° with a typical half-width of 1.0°.The SAID would happen at low latitudes if the geomagnetic activity was high.The effects of SAID on equatorial outer plasmasphere trough evolutions were studied with the dynamic global core plasma model (DGCPM) driven by the statistical results of SAID signatures.It was noted that locations,shapes and density of troughs vary with ILAT,MLT,latitudinal width,cross polar cap potential and lifetime of SAID events.The evolution of a trough is determined by the extent of SAID electric field penetrating into plasmasphere and not all SAID events can result in trough formations.

  7. Improved analysis of plasmasphere motion using the VLA radio interferometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. W. Hoogeveen

    Full Text Available Observations using the very large (VLA radio interferometer during the past five years have enabled the discovery of a new type of plasmasphere disturbance, the magnetic eastward-directed wave. Previous work indicated these disturbances were likely frozen to the geomagnetic field as determined from their azimuth distributions. This work provides a method to explain more accurately the azimuth distribution, thereby allowing the calculation of the disturbances' location in the plasmasphere independently of the measured velocity. The measurable velocity due to corotation is calculated and subtracted from the measured trace velocity. This difference, or deviation from corotation, is attributed to electrodynamic convection; the measurement of plasmaspheric convection may lead to the eventual monitoring of mid-latitude electric fields. Disturbances are seen convecting predominantly westward, with the fastest having angular velocities greater than the anticorotating VLA line of sight. The direction of convection and conditions of observations indicate that the disturbances are likely the same phenomenon seen by the Los Alamos satellite beacon array.

  8. Convective heat transfer enhancement of laminar flow of latent functionally thermal fluid in a circular tube with constant heat flux: internal heat source model and its application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张寅平; 胡先旭; 郝磬; 王馨

    2003-01-01

    This paper analyzes the convective heat transfer enhancement mechanism of latent heat functionally thermal fluid. By using the proposed internal heat source model, the influence of each factor affecting the heat transfer enhancement of laminar flow in a circular tube with constant heat flux is analyzed. The main influencing factors and the mechanisms of heat transfer enhancement are clarified, and the influences of the main factors on the heat transfer enhancement are quantitatively analyzed. A modified Nusselt number for internal flow is introduced to describe more effectively the degree of heat transfer enhancement for latent functionally thermal fluid.

  9. On the Origin of Whistler Mode Radiation in the Plasmasphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, James L.; Boardsen, Scott; Garcia, Leonard; Taylor, W. W. L.; Fung, Shing F.; Reinisch, B. W.

    2004-01-01

    The origin of whistler mode radiation in the plasmasphere is examined from three years of plasma wave observations from the Dynamics Explorer and three years from the Imager for Magnetopause-to-Aurora Global Exploration (IMAGE) spacecraft. These data are used to construct plasma wave intensity maps of whistler mode radiation in the plasmasphere. The highest average intensities of the radiation in the wave maps show source locations and/or sites of wave amplification. Each type of emission is classified based on its magnetic latitude and longitude rather than any spectral feature. Equatorial electromagnetic (EM) emissions (approx. 30-330 Hz), plasmaspheric hiss (approx. 330 Hz - 3.3 kHz), chorus (approx. 2 kHz - 6 kHz), and VLF transmitters (approx. 10-50 kHz) are the main types of waves that are clearly delineated in the plasma wave maps. Observations of the equatorial EM emissions show that the most intense region is on or near the magnetic equator in the afternoon sector and that during times of negative B(sub z) (interplanetary magnetic field),the maximum intensity moves from L values of 3 to less than 2. These observations are consistent with the origin of this emission being particle-wave interactions in or near the magnetic equator. Plasmaspheric hiss shows high intensity at high latitudes and low altitudes (L shells from 2 to 4) and in the magnetic equator over L values from 2 to 3 in the early afternoon sector. The longitudinal distribution of the hiss intensity (excluding the enhancement at the equator) is similar to the distribution of lightning: stronger over continents than over the ocean, stronger in the summer than winter, and stronger on the dayside than nightside. These observations strongly support lightning as the dominant source for plasmaspheric hiss, which through particle-wave interactions, maintains the slot region in the radiation belts. The enhancement of hiss at the magnetic equator is consistent with particle-wave interactions. The chorus

  10. Neutral and non-neutral collisionless plasma equilibria for twisted flux tubes: The Gold-Hoyle model in a background field

    CERN Document Server

    Allanson, O; Neukirch, T

    2016-01-01

    We calculate exact one-dimensional collisionless plasma equilibria for a continuum of flux tube models, for which the total magnetic field is made up of the `force-free' Gold-Hoyle magnetic flux tube embedded in a uniform and anti-parallel background magnetic field. For a sufficiently weak background magnetic field, the axial component of the total magnetic field reverses at some finite radius. The presence of the background magnetic field means that the total system is not exactly force-free, but by reducing its magnitude the departure from force-free can be made as small as desired. The distribution function for each species is a function of the three constants of motion; namely the Hamiltonian and the canonical momenta in the axial and azimuthal directions. Poisson's Equation and Amp\\`{e}re's Law are solved exactly, and the solution allows either electrically neutral or non-neutral configurations, depending on the values of the bulk ion and electron flows. These equilibria have possible applications in var...

  11. Gradient-driven flux-tube simulations of ion temperature gradient turbulence close to the non-linear threshold

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peeters, A. G.; Rath, F.; Buchholz, R.; Grosshauser, S. R.; Strintzi, D.; Weikl, A. [Physics Department, University of Bayreuth, Universitätsstrasse 30, Bayreuth (Germany); Camenen, Y. [Aix Marseille Univ, CNRS, PIIM, UMR 7345, Marseille (France); Candy, J. [General Atomics, PO Box 85608, San Diego, California 92186-5608 (United States); Casson, F. J. [CCFE, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon (United Kingdom); Hornsby, W. A. [Max Planck Institut für Plasmaphysik, Boltzmannstrasse 2 85748 Garching (Germany)

    2016-08-15

    It is shown that Ion Temperature Gradient turbulence close to the threshold exhibits a long time behaviour, with smaller heat fluxes at later times. This reduction is connected with the slow growth of long wave length zonal flows, and consequently, the numerical dissipation on these flows must be sufficiently small. Close to the nonlinear threshold for turbulence generation, a relatively small dissipation can maintain a turbulent state with a sizeable heat flux, through the damping of the zonal flow. Lowering the dissipation causes the turbulence, for temperature gradients close to the threshold, to be subdued. The heat flux then does not go smoothly to zero when the threshold is approached from above. Rather, a finite minimum heat flux is obtained below which no fully developed turbulent state exists. The threshold value of the temperature gradient length at which this finite heat flux is obtained is up to 30% larger compared with the threshold value obtained by extrapolating the heat flux to zero, and the cyclone base case is found to be nonlinearly stable. Transport is subdued when a fully developed staircase structure in the E × B shearing rate forms. Just above the threshold, an incomplete staircase develops, and transport is mediated by avalanche structures which propagate through the marginally stable regions.

  12. Detection of a plasmaspheric wind in the Earth's magnetosphere by the Cluster spacecraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Dandouras

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Plumes, forming at the plasmapause and released outwards, constitute a well-established mode for plasmaspheric material release to the Earth's magnetosphere. They are associated to active periods and the related electric field change. In 1992, Lemaire and Shunk proposed the existence of an additional mode for plasmaspheric material release to the Earth's magnetosphere: a plasmaspheric wind, steadily transporting cold plasmaspheric plasma outwards across the geomagnetic field lines, even during prolonged periods of quiet geomagnetic conditions. This has been proposed on a theoretical basis. Direct detection of this wind has, however, eluded observation in the past. Analysis of ion measurements, acquired in the outer plasmasphere by the CIS experiment onboard the four Cluster spacecraft, provide now an experimental confirmation of the plasmaspheric wind. This wind has been systematically detected in the outer plasmasphere during quiet and moderately active conditions, and calculations show that it could provide a substantial contribution to the magnetospheric plasma populations outside the Earth's plasmasphere. Similar winds should also exist on other planets, or astrophysical objects, quickly rotating and having an atmosphere and a magnetic field.

  13. AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY FOR HEAT TRANSFER ENHANCEMENT BY LAMINAR FORCED CONVECTION FROM HORIZONTAL AND INCLINED TUBE HEATED WITH CONSTANT HEAT FLUX, USING TWO TYPES OF POROUS MEDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thamir K. Jassem

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available An experimental forced laminar study was presented in this research for an air flowing through a circular channel for different angles ( ,30o,45o,60o, the channel was heated at constant heat flux , the channel also was packed with steel and glass spheres respectively . The tests were done for three values of Peclets number (2111.71,3945.42,4575.47 with changing the heat flux for each case and five times for each number.The results showed that the dimensionless temperature distribution  will decrease with increasing the dimensionless channel length for all cases with changing Peclet number, heat flux and inclination angles, and its lowest value will be for glass spheres at highest flux, while at lower flux for , and the decreasing in dimensionless temperature was closed for both types of packed at other inclination angles.The study declared that the local Nusselt number decreases with increasing the dimensionless length of the channel for both packeds and for different applied heat flux, also through this study it was declared that the average Nusselt increases as Peclet number increases for both packed. Its value for the glass spheres is greater than the steel spheres with percentage (98.3% at small Peclet, and percentage (97.2% at large Peclet number for the horizontal tube, and (98.3% at small Peclet number and (97.8% at large Peclet number at  .Through this study its was found that average Nusselt number increases along the channel as the heat flux increases, because the bulk temperature will increase as the flow proceeds toward the end of the channel , so the heat transfer coefficient will increase.  It was declared from this study that in the case of the steel packed the heat transfer will occur mainly by conduction, while in the case of glass packed the heat transfer will occur mainly by laminar forced convection, where the lowest Nusselt number (Nu=3.8 was found when the pipe is horizontal and lowest heat flux and lowest Peclet number.  

  14. The Funnel Geometry of Open Flux Tubes in the Low Solar Corona Constrained by O VI and Ne VIII Outflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byhring, Hanne S.; Esser, Ruth; Lie-Svendsen, Oystein

    2008-01-01

    Model calculations show that observed outflow velocities of order 7-10 km/s of C IV and O VI ions, and 15-20 km/s of Ne VIII ions, are not only consistent with models of the solar wind from coronas holes, but also place unique constraints on the degree of flow tube expansion as well as the location of the expansion in the transition region/lower corona.

  15. Linear MHD Wave Propagation in Time-Dependent Flux Tube. III. Leaky Waves in Zero-Beta Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, A.; Erdélyi, R.

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we evaluate the time-dependent wave properties and the damping rate of propagating fast magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) waves when energy leakage into a magnetised atmosphere is considered. By considering a cold plasma, initial investigations into the evolution of MHD wave damping through this energy leakage will take place. The time-dependent governing equations have been derived previously in Williamson and Erdélyi (2014a, Solar Phys. 289, 899 - 909) and are now solved when the assumption of evanescent wave propagation in the outside of the waveguide is relaxed. The dispersion relation for leaky waves applicable to a straight magnetic field is determined in both an arbitrary tube and a thin-tube approximation. By analytically solving the dispersion relation in the thin-tube approximation, the explicit expressions for the temporal evolution of the dynamic frequency and wavenumber are determined. The damping rate is, then, obtained from the dispersion relation and is shown to decrease as the density ratio increases. By comparing the decrease in damping rate to the increase in damping for a stationary system, as shown, we aim to point out that energy leakage may not be as efficient a damping mechanism as previously thought.

  16. The Role of the Velocity Gradient in Laminar Convective Heat Transfer through a Tube with a Uniform Wall Heat Flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liang-Bi; Zhang, Qiang; Li, Xiao-Xia

    2009-01-01

    This paper aims to contribute to a better understanding of convective heat transfer. For this purpose, the reason why thermal diffusivity should be placed before the Laplacian operator of the heat flux, and the role of the velocity gradient in convective heat transfer are analysed. The background to these analyses is that, when the energy…

  17. The Role of the Velocity Gradient in Laminar Convective Heat Transfer through a Tube with a Uniform Wall Heat Flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liang-Bi; Zhang, Qiang; Li, Xiao-Xia

    2009-01-01

    This paper aims to contribute to a better understanding of convective heat transfer. For this purpose, the reason why thermal diffusivity should be placed before the Laplacian operator of the heat flux, and the role of the velocity gradient in convective heat transfer are analysed. The background to these analyses is that, when the energy…

  18. 强子多重数分布的 Glasma 流管模型%Glasma Flux Tube Model with Hadron Multiplicity Distribution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王宏民; 孙献静

    2015-01-01

    By taking account of energy-broadening of the proton’s density distribution,charged hadron multiplicity distribution in |η|≤0.5 and |η|≤1 are computed with the Glasma flux tube model at vari-ous collision energies.It is shown that the theoretical results with the Glasma flux tube model are in good agreement with the experimental data from ALICE,but the theoretical results without considering the den-sity distribution of the proton deviate with the data at highest multiplicities.Finally,the predictive results for forthcoming large hadron collider experiments at s =14 TeV are also given.%在考虑质子密度分布随碰撞质心能量增加而变宽的情况下,利用 Glasma 流管模型分别计算了在不同碰撞质心能量下赝标快度为|η|≤0.5和|η|≤1时的带电强子多重数分布。计算结果表明:利用 Glasma 流管模型计算的理论结果与 ALICE 合作组的实验数据吻合较好;但是若不考虑质子密度分布,当强子产生数 m 较大时,该理论结果与实验数据偏差较大。最后,从理论上对大强子对撞机在碰撞质心能量为14 TeV 时的带电强子多重数分布情况进行了预测。

  19. Driving Plasmaspheric Electron Density Simulations During Geomagnetic Storms

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Pascuale, S.; Kletzing, C.; Jordanova, V.; Goldstein, J.; Wygant, J. R.; Thaller, S. A.

    2015-12-01

    We test global convection electric field models driving plasmaspheric electron density simulations (RAM-CPL) during geomagnetic storms with in situ measurements provided by the Van Allen Probes (RBSP). RAM-CPL is the cold plasma component of the ring-current atmosphere interactions suite (RAM-SCB) and describes the evolution of plasma density in the magnetic equatorial plane near Earth. Geomagnetic events observed by the RBSP satellites in different magnetic local time (MLT) sectors enable a comparison of local asymmetries in the input electric field and output densities of these simulations. Using a fluid MHD approach, RAM-CPL reproduces core plasmaspheric densities (L<4) to less than 1 order of magnitude difference. Approximately 80% of plasmapause crossings, defined by a low-density threshold, are reproduced to within a mean radial difference of 0.6 L. RAM-CPL, in conjunction with a best-fit driver, can be used in other studies as an asset to predict density conditions in locations distant from RBSP orbits of interest.

  20. Plasmaspheric H+, He+, O+, He++, and O++ Densities and Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, D. L.; Craven, P. D.; Comfort H.

    2013-01-01

    Thermal plasmaspheric densities and temperatures for five ion species have recently become available, even though these quantities were derived some time ago from the Retarding Ion Mass Spectrometer onboard the Dynamics Explorer 1 satellite over the years 1981-1984. The quantitative properties will be presented. Densities are found to have one behavior with lessor statistical variation below about L=2 and another with much greater variability above that Lshell. Temperatures also have a behavior difference between low and higher L-values. The density ratio He++/H+ is the best behaved with values of about 0.2% that slightly increase with increasing L. Unlike the He+/H+ density ratio that on average decreases with increasing Lvalue, the O+/H+ and O++/H+ density ratios have decreasing values below about L=2 and increasing average ratios at higher L-values. Hydrogen ion temperatures range from about 0.2 eV to several 10s of eV for a few measurements, although the bulk of the observations are of temperatures below 3 eV, again increasing with L-value. The temperature ratios of He+/H+ are tightly ordered around 1.0 except for the middle plasmasphere between L=3.5 and 4.5 where He+ temperatures can be significantly higher. The temperatures of He++, O+, and O++ are consistently higher than H+.

  1. Plasmaspheric H+, He+, He++, O+, and O++ Densities and Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, G. L.; Craven, P. D.; Comfort, R. H.

    2013-01-01

    Thermal plasmaspheric densities and temperatures for five ion species have recently become available, even though these quantities were derived some time ago from the Retarding Ion Mass Spectrometer onboard the Dynamics Explorer 1 satellite over the years 1981-1984. The quantitative properties will be presented. Densities are found to have one behavior with lessor statistical variation below about L=2 and another with much greater variability above that Lshell. Temperatures also have a behavior difference between low and higher L-values. The density ratio He++/H+ is the best behaved with values of about 0.2% that slightly increase with increasing L. Unlike the He+/H+ density ratio that on average decreases with increasing Lvalue, the O+/H+ and O++/H+ density ratios have decreasing values below about L=2 and increasing average ratios at higher L-values. Hydrogen ion temperatures range from about 0.2 eV to several 10s of eV for a few measurements, although the bulk of the observations are of temperatures below 3 eV, again increasing with L-value. The temperature ratios of He+/H+ are tightly ordered around 1.0 except for the middle plasmasphere between L=3.5 and 4.5 where He+ temperatures can be significantly higher. The temperatures of He++, O+, and O++ are consistently higher than H+.

  2. High-Energy X-Ray Detection of G359.89-0.08 (SGR A-E): Magnetic Flux Tube Emission Powered by Cosmic Rays?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shuo; Hailey, Charles J.; Baganoff, Frederick K.; Bauer, Franz E.; Boggs, Steven E.; Craig, William W.; Christensen, Finn E.; Gotthelf, Eric V.; Harrison, Fiona A.; Mori, Kaya; Nynka, Melania; Stern, Daniel; Tomsick, John A; Zhang, Will

    2014-01-01

    We report the first detection of high-energy X-ray (E (is) greater than 10 keV) emission from the Galactic center non-thermal filament G359.89-0.08 (Sgr A-E) using data acquired with the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR). The bright filament was detected up to approximately 50 keV during a NuSTAR Galactic center monitoring campaign. The featureless power-law spectrum with a photon index gamma approximately equals 2.3 confirms a non-thermal emission mechanism. The observed flux in the 3-79 keV band is F(sub X) = (2.0 +/- 0.1) × 10(exp -12)erg cm(-2) s(-1) , corresponding to an unabsorbed X-ray luminosity L(sub X) = (2.6+/-0.8)×10(exp 34) erg s(-1) assuming a distance of 8.0 kpc. Based on theoretical predictions and observations, we conclude that Sgr A-E is unlikely to be a pulsar wind nebula (PWN) or supernova remnant-molecular cloud (SNR-MC) interaction, as previously hypothesized. Instead, the emission could be due to a magnetic flux tube which traps TeV electrons. We propose two possible TeV electron sources: old PWNe (up to (is) approximately 100 kyr) with low surface brightness and radii up to (is) approximately 30 pc or MCs illuminated by cosmic rays (CRs) from CR accelerators such as SNRs or Sgr A*.

  3. ISEE 1 observations of thermal plasma in the vicinity of the plasmasphere during periods of quieting magnetic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horwitz, J. L.; Baugher, C. R.; Chappell, C. R.; Shelley, E. G.; Young, D. T.; Anderson, R. R.

    1981-11-01

    An investigation of thermal plasma behavior in the vicinity of the plasmasphere during periods of quieting magnetic activity was conducted by combining thermal ion observations made with the plasma composition experiment on ISEE 1 with plasma density profiles obtained from plasma frequency measurements made with the same satellite's plasma wave experiment. During periods in which the magnetic activity quiets, the two regions characterized by H(+):He(+):O(+) (isotropic) and H(+):O(+):He(+) (field-aligned) ion species distributions (in order of dominance) are separated by a new region in which low-energy H(+) and He(+) are found flowing along the magnetic field lines. At other times, following quieting magnetic activity, distributions having peak fluxes at 90 deg pitch angle are observed in this region.

  4. Resonant Scattering of Relativistic Outer Zone Electrons by Plasmaspheric Plume Electromagnetic Ion Cyclotron Waves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SU Zhen-Peng; ZHENG Hui-Nan

    2009-01-01

    The bounce-averaged Fokker-Planck equation is solved to study the relativistic electron phase space density(PSD)evolution in the outer radiation belt due to resonant interactions with plasmaspheric plume electromagnetic ion cyclotron(EMIC)waves.It is found that the PSDs of relativistic electrons can be depleted by 1-3 orders of magnitude in 5h,supporting the previous finding that resonant interactions with EMIC waves may account for the frequently observed relativistic electron flux dropouts in the outer radiation belt during the main phase of a storm.The significant precipitation Joss of ~Me V electrons is primarily induced by the EMIC waves in H~+ and He~+ bands.The rapid remove of highly relativistic electrons(>5 MeV)is mainly driven by the EMIC waves in O~+ band at lower pitch-angles,as well as the EMIC waves in H~+ and He~+ bands at larger pitch-angles.Moreover,a stronger depletion of relativistic electrons is found to occur over a wider pitch angle range when EMIC waves are centering relatively higher in the band.

  5. Simulation of EMIC growth and propagation within the plasmaspheric plume density irregularities

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Soria-Santacruz Pich, M.; Spasojevic, M.

    2012-12-01

    In situ data from the Magnetospheric Plasma Analyzer (MPA) instruments onboard the LANL spacecraft are used to study the growth and propagation of electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves in the presence of cold plasma irregularities in the plasmaspheric plume. The data corresponds to the 9 June 2001 event, a period of moderate geomagnetic activity with highly irregular density structure within the plume as measured by the MPA instrument at geosynchoronus orbit. Theory and observations suggest that EMIC waves are responsible for energetic proton precipitation, which is stronger during geomagnetically disturbed intervals. These waves propagate below the proton gyrofrequency, and they appear in three frequency bands due to the presence of heavy ions, which strongly modify wave propagation characteristics. These waves are generated by ion cyclotron instability of ring current ions, whose temperature anisotropy provides the free energy required for wave growth. Growth maximizes for field-aligned propagation near the equatorial plane where the magnetic field gradient is small. Although the wave's group velocity typically stays aligned with the geomagnetic field direction, wave-normal vectors tend to become oblique due to the curvature and gradient of the field. On the other hand, radial density gradients have the capability of guiding the waves and competing against the magnetic field effect thus favoring wave growth conditions. In addition, enhanced cold plasma density reduces the proton resonant energy where higher fluxes are available for resonance, and hence explaining why wave growth is favored at higher L-shell regions where the ratio of plasma to cyclotron frequency is larger. The Stanford VLF 3D Raytracer is used together with path-integrated linear growth calculations to study the amplification and propagation characteristics of EMIC waves within the plasmaspheric plume formed during the 9 June 2001 event. Cold multi-ion plasma is assumed for raytracing

  6. Investigating Plasmasphere Location during Relativistic Electron Precipitation Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodger, L. A.; Millan, R. M.; Goldstein, J.; McCarthy, M. P.; Smith, D. M.; Sample, J. G.

    2006-12-01

    The plasmasphere plays a crucial role in the generation of different wave modes and their resonance conditions with radiation belt relativistic electrons. Meredith's (et. al., 2003) statistical study of resonant conditions for >2MeV electrons with EMIC waves found that the majority of these events occur in the vicinity of the plasmpause. The MAXIS and MINIS balloon observations found a distinct class of relativistic electron precipitation occurring at dusk, suggesting EMIC waves as a possible precipitation mechanism. We investigate the location of these relativistic electron precipitation events with respect to the plasmapause using data from IMAGE EUV, POLAR EFI, and a plasmapause test particle simulation driven by an electric field model with terms representing solar-wind-driven convection and ring-current-ionospheric coupling.

  7. Analysis of plasmaspheric plumes: CLUSTER and IMAGE observations and numerical simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darouzet, Fabien; DeKeyser, Johan; Decreau, Pierrette; Gallagher, Dennis; Pierrard, Viviane; Lemaire, Joseph; Dandouras, Iannis; Matsui, Hiroshi; Dunlop, Malcolm; Andre, Mats

    2005-01-01

    Plasmaspheric plumes have been routinely observed by CLUSTER and IMAGE. The CLUSTER mission provides high time resolution four-point measurements of the plasmasphere near perigee. Total electron density profiles can be derived from the plasma frequency and/or from the spacecraft potential (note that the electron spectrometer is usually not operating inside the plasmasphere); ion velocity is also measured onboard these satellites (but ion density is not reliable because of instrumental limitations). The EUV imager onboard the IMAGE spacecraft provides global images of the plasmasphere with a spatial resolution of 0.1 RE every 10 minutes; such images acquired near apogee from high above the pole show the geometry of plasmaspheric plumes, their evolution and motion. We present coordinated observations for 3 plume events and compare CLUSTER in-situ data (panel A) with global images of the plasmasphere obtained from IMAGE (panel B), and with numerical simulations for the formation of plumes based on a model that includes the interchange instability mechanism (panel C). In particular, we study the geometry and the orientation of plasmaspheric plumes by using a four-point analysis method, the spatial gradient. We also compare several aspects of their motion as determined by different methods: (i) inner and outer plume boundary velocity calculated from time delays of this boundary observed by the wave experiment WHISPER on the four spacecraft, (ii) ion velocity derived from the ion spectrometer CIS onboard CLUSTER, (iii) drift velocity measured by the electron drift instrument ED1 onboard CLUSTER and (iv) global velocity determined from successive EUV images. These different techniques consistently indicate that plasmaspheric plumes rotate around the Earth, with their foot fully co-rotating, but with their tip rotating slower and moving farther out.

  8. Calculation of the extreme ultraviolet radiation of the earth’s plasmasphere

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FOK; Mei-Ching

    2010-01-01

    The dynamic global core plasma model(DGCPM) is used in this paper to calculate the He+ density distribution of the Earth’s plasmasphere and to investigate the configurations and 30.4 nm radiation properties of the plasmasphere.Validation comparisons between the simulation results and IMAGE mission observations show:That the equatorial structure of the plasmapause is mainly located near 5.5 RE and the typical scale of plasmasphere shrinking or expansion within 10 min is approximately 0.1 RE;that the plasmaspheric shoulders are formed and rotate noon-ward from the dawn sector under the conditions of strong southward turning of the interplanetary magnetic field(IMF);that the plasmaspheric plumes will rotate dawn-ward from the night sector and become narrow for the southward turning of the IMF.The simulated images from the lunar orbit show that the plasmasphere locating within the geocentric distance of 5.5 RE corresponds to field of view(FOV) of 10.7°×10.7° for the moon-based EUV imager,and that the 30.4 nm radiation intensity of the plasmasphere is 0.1-11.4 R.The plasmaspheric shoulders and plumes locating toward the moon-side are for the first time simulated with typical scale level of 0.1 RE from the side view of the moon.These simulated results provide an important theoretical basis for the lunar-based EUV camera design.

  9. Analysis of plasmaspheric plumes: CLUSTER and IMAGE observations and numerical simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darouzet, Fabien; DeKeyser, Johan; Decreau, Pierrette; Gallagher, Dennis; Pierrard, Viviane; Lemaire, Joseph; Dandouras, Iannis; Matsui, Hiroshi; Dunlop, Malcolm; Andre, Mats

    2005-01-01

    Plasmaspheric plumes have been routinely observed by CLUSTER and IMAGE. The CLUSTER mission provides high time resolution four-point measurements of the plasmasphere near perigee. Total electron density profiles can be derived from the plasma frequency and/or from the spacecraft potential (note that the electron spectrometer is usually not operating inside the plasmasphere); ion velocity is also measured onboard these satellites (but ion density is not reliable because of instrumental limitations). The EUV imager onboard the IMAGE spacecraft provides global images of the plasmasphere with a spatial resolution of 0.1 RE every 10 minutes; such images acquired near apogee from high above the pole show the geometry of plasmaspheric plumes, their evolution and motion. We present coordinated observations for 3 plume events and compare CLUSTER in-situ data (panel A) with global images of the plasmasphere obtained from IMAGE (panel B), and with numerical simulations for the formation of plumes based on a model that includes the interchange instability mechanism (panel C). In particular, we study the geometry and the orientation of plasmaspheric plumes by using a four-point analysis method, the spatial gradient. We also compare several aspects of their motion as determined by different methods: (i) inner and outer plume boundary velocity calculated from time delays of this boundary observed by the wave experiment WHISPER on the four spacecraft, (ii) ion velocity derived from the ion spectrometer CIS onboard CLUSTER, (iii) drift velocity measured by the electron drift instrument ED1 onboard CLUSTER and (iv) global velocity determined from successive EUV images. These different techniques consistently indicate that plasmaspheric plumes rotate around the Earth, with their foot fully co-rotating, but with their tip rotating slower and moving farther out.

  10. High-energy X-ray detection of G359.89–0.08 (SGR A–E): Magnetic flux tube emission powered by cosmic rays?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Shuo; Hailey, Charles J.; Gotthelf, Eric V.; Mori, Kaya; Nynka, Melania [Columbia Astrophysics Laboratory, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Baganoff, Frederick K. [Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Bauer, Franz E. [Instituto de Astrofísica, Facultad de Física, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile 306, Santiago 22 (Chile); Boggs, Steven E.; Craig, William W.; Tomsick, John A. [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Christensen, Finn E. [DTU Space-National Space Institute, Technical University of Denmark, Elektrovej 327, DK-2800 Lyngby (Denmark); Harrison, Fiona A. [Cahill Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Stern, Daniel [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Zhang, William W., E-mail: shuo@astro.columbia.edu [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2014-03-20

    We report the first detection of high-energy X-ray (E > 10 keV) emission from the Galactic center non-thermal filament G359.89–0.08 (Sgr A–E) using data acquired with the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR). The bright filament was detected up to ∼50 keV during a NuSTAR Galactic center monitoring campaign. The featureless power-law spectrum with a photon index Γ ≈ 2.3 confirms a non-thermal emission mechanism. The observed flux in the 3-79 keV band is F{sub X} = (2.0 ± 0.1) × 10{sup –12} erg cm{sup –2} s{sup –1}, corresponding to an unabsorbed X-ray luminosity L{sub X} = (2.6 ± 0.8) × 10{sup 34} erg s{sup –1} assuming a distance of 8.0 kpc. Based on theoretical predictions and observations, we conclude that Sgr A–E is unlikely to be a pulsar wind nebula (PWN) or supernova remnant-molecular cloud (SNR-MC) interaction, as previously hypothesized. Instead, the emission could be due to a magnetic flux tube which traps TeV electrons. We propose two possible TeV electron sources: old PWNe (up to ∼100 kyr) with low surface brightness and radii up to ∼30 pc or MCs illuminated by cosmic rays (CRs) from CR accelerators such as SNRs or Sgr A*.

  11. Experimental study of heat exchange coefficients, critical heat flux and charge losses, using water-steam mixtures in turbulent flow in a vertical tube; Etude experimentale des coefficients d'echanges thermiques, des flux de chaleur critiques et des pertes de charge avec des melanges eau-vapeur en ecoulement turbulent dans un tube vertical

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perroud, P.; De La Harpe, A.; Rebiere, J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1960-12-15

    Two stainless steel tubes were used (with diameters of 5 and 10 mm, lengths 400 and 600 mm respectively), heated electrically (50 Hz). The mixture flows from top to bottom. The work was carried out mainly on mixtures of high concentration (x > 0.1), at pressures between 50 and 60 kg/cm{sup 2}, flowing as a liquid film on the walls of the tube with droplets suspended in the central current of steam. By analysis of the heat transfer laws the exchange mechanisms were established, and the conditions under which the critical heat flux may be exceeded without danger of actual burnout were determined. In this way high output concentrations (x{sub s} > 0.9) may be obtained. An attempt has been made to find out to what extent existing correlation formulae can be used to account for the phenomena observed. It is shown that those dealing with exchange coefficients can only be applied in a first approximation in cases where exchange by convection is preponderant, and only below the critical flux. The formulae proposed by WAPD and CISE do not give a satisfactory estimation of the critical heat flux, and the essential reasons for this inadequacy are explained. Lastly, the Martinelli and Nelson method may be used to an approximation of 30 per cent for the calculation of charge losses. (author) [French] On a utilise deux tubes en acier inox (avec des diametres de 5 et 10 mm, et des longueurs respectives 400 et 600 mm) chauffes electriquement (50 Hz). Le melange s'ecoule de haut en bas. Les etudes ont porte plus specialement sur des melanges de titres eleves (x > 0,1) a des pressions comprises entre 60 et 90 kg/cm{sup 2} dont l'ecoulement se fait avec film liquide annulaire et gouttelettes en suspension dans le coeur de vapeur. Par l'analyse des lois de transfert de chaleur, on a precise les mecanismes d'echanges et l'on a d'autre part determine dans quelles conditions le flux de chaleur critique peut etre depasse sans danger de &apos

  12. Evolution of chorus emissions into plasmaspheric hiss observed by Van Allen Probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qinghua; Xiao, Fuliang; Yang, Chang; Liu, Si; He, Yihua; Wygant, J. R.; Baker, D. N.; Spence, H. E.; Reeves, G. D.; Funsten, H. O.

    2016-05-01

    The two classes of whistler mode waves (chorus and hiss) play different roles in the dynamics of radiation belt energetic electrons. Chorus can efficiently accelerate energetic electrons, and hiss is responsible for the loss of energetic electrons. Previous studies have proposed that chorus is the source of plasmaspheric hiss, but this still requires an observational confirmation because the previously observed chorus and hiss emissions were not in the same frequency range in the same time. Here we report simultaneous observations form Van Allen Probes that chorus and hiss emissions occurred in the same range ˜300-1500 Hz with the peak wave power density about 10-5 nT2/Hz during a weak storm on 3 July 2014. Chorus emissions propagate in a broad region outside the plasmapause. Meanwhile, hiss emissions are confined inside the plasmasphere, with a higher intensity and a broader area at a lower frequency. A sum of bi-Maxwellian distribution is used to model the observed anisotropic electron distributions and to evaluate the instability of waves. A three-dimensional ray tracing simulation shows that a portion of chorus emission outside the plasmasphere can propagate into the plasmasphere and evolve into plasmaspheric hiss. Moreover, hiss waves below 1 kHz are more intense and propagate over a broader area than those above 1 kHz, consistent with the observation. The current results can explain distributions of the observed hiss emission and provide a further support for the mechanism of evolution of chorus into hiss emissions.

  13. Formation of plasmasphere in the non-ideal corotation field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumin, Yurii

    It is well-known that the standard model of plasmasphere formation by the combined action of convection and the ideal corotation fields is too simplified and does not describe some important features. One of attempts to improve it was undertaken a few years ago in our paper [1], where we considered generation of the corotation field in the strongly-anisotropic magnetospheric plasma and took into account distortion of this field in high latitudes due to escape of the polarization charges along the open magnetic field lines. In the present report, we further develop the idea of refinement of the corotation field, particularly, by the consideration of the magnetic dipole inclined with respect to the rotation axis. It will be shown that all the above-mentioned improvements result in the more adequate description of the position of plasmapause both in the quiet and disturbed conditions. References: 1. Yu.V. Dumin. The Corotation Field in Collisionless Magnetospheric Plasma and Its Influence on Average Electric Field in the Lower Atmosphere. Advances in Space Research, v.30, p.2209 (2002).

  14. Global MHD modeling of resonant ULF waves: Simulations with and without a plasmasphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claudepierre, S. G.; Toffoletto, F. R.; Wiltberger, M.

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the plasmaspheric influence on the resonant mode coupling of magnetospheric ultralow frequency (ULF) waves using the Lyon-Fedder-Mobarry (LFM) global magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) model. We present results from two different versions of the model, both driven by the same solar wind conditions: one version that contains a plasmasphere (the LFM coupled to the Rice Convection Model, where the Gallagher plasmasphere model is also included) and another that does not (the stand-alone LFM). We find that the inclusion of a cold, dense plasmasphere has a significant impact on the nature of the simulated ULF waves. For example, the inclusion of a plasmasphere leads to a deeper (more earthward) penetration of the compressional (azimuthal) electric field fluctuations, due to a shift in the location of the wave turning points. Consequently, the locations where the compressional electric field oscillations resonantly couple their energy into local toroidal mode field line resonances also shift earthward. We also find, in both simulations, that higher-frequency compressional (azimuthal) electric field oscillations penetrate deeper than lower frequency oscillations. In addition, the compressional wave mode structure in the simulations is consistent with a radial standing wave oscillation pattern, characteristic of a resonant waveguide. The incorporation of a plasmasphere into the LFM global MHD model represents an advance in the state of the art in regard to ULF wave modeling with such simulations. We offer a brief discussion of the implications for radiation belt modeling techniques that use the electric and magnetic field outputs from global MHD simulations to drive particle dynamics.

  15. Global MHD modeling of resonant ULF waves: Simulations with and without a plasmasphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claudepierre, S G; Toffoletto, F R; Wiltberger, M

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the plasmaspheric influence on the resonant mode coupling of magnetospheric ultralow frequency (ULF) waves using the Lyon-Fedder-Mobarry (LFM) global magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) model. We present results from two different versions of the model, both driven by the same solar wind conditions: one version that contains a plasmasphere (the LFM coupled to the Rice Convection Model, where the Gallagher plasmasphere model is also included) and another that does not (the stand-alone LFM). We find that the inclusion of a cold, dense plasmasphere has a significant impact on the nature of the simulated ULF waves. For example, the inclusion of a plasmasphere leads to a deeper (more earthward) penetration of the compressional (azimuthal) electric field fluctuations, due to a shift in the location of the wave turning points. Consequently, the locations where the compressional electric field oscillations resonantly couple their energy into local toroidal mode field line resonances also shift earthward. We also find, in both simulations, that higher-frequency compressional (azimuthal) electric field oscillations penetrate deeper than lower frequency oscillations. In addition, the compressional wave mode structure in the simulations is consistent with a radial standing wave oscillation pattern, characteristic of a resonant waveguide. The incorporation of a plasmasphere into the LFM global MHD model represents an advance in the state of the art in regard to ULF wave modeling with such simulations. We offer a brief discussion of the implications for radiation belt modeling techniques that use the electric and magnetic field outputs from global MHD simulations to drive particle dynamics.

  16. Interaction of ring current and radiation belt protons with ducted plasmaspheric hiss. 1: Diffusion coefficients and timescales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozyra, J. U.; Rasmussen, C. E.; Miller, R. H.; Lyons, L. R.

    1994-01-01

    Protons that are convected into the inner magnetosphere in response to enhanced magnetic activity can resonate with ducted plasmaspheric hiss in the outer plasmasphere via an anomalous Doppler-shifted cyclotron resonance. Plasmaspheric hiss is a right-hand-polarized electromagnetic emission that is observed to fill the plasmasphere on a routine basis. When plasmaspheric hiss is confined within field-aligned ducts or guided along density gradients, wave normal angles remain largely below 45 deg. This allows resonant interactions with ions at typical ring current and radiation belt energies to take place. Such field-aligned ducts have been observed both within the plasmasphere and in regions outside of the plasmasphere. Wave intensities are estimated using statistical information from studies of detached plasma regions. Diffusion coefficients are presented for a range of L shells and proton energies for a fixed wave distribution. Harmonic resonances in the range N = +/-100 are considered in order to include interactions between hiss at 100 Hz to 2 kHz frequencies, and protons in the energy range between approximately 10 keV and 1000 keV. Diffusion timescales are estimated to be of the order of tens of days and comparable to or shorter than lifetimes for Coulomb decay and charge exchange losses over most of the energy and spatial ranges of interest.

  17. Ear Tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ENTCareers Marketplace Find an ENT Doctor Near You Ear Tubes Ear Tubes Patient Health Information News media ... and throat specialist) may be considered. What are ear tubes? Ear tubes are tiny cylinders placed through ...

  18. Plasmasphere thermal structure as measured by ISEE-1 and DE-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comfort, R. H.

    Characteristics of plasmaspheric ion thermal structure are presented from a statistical survey of low-energy of ion measurements made by the retarding ion mass spectrometer (RIMS) on the DE-1 satellite. Morning and evening results are compared to illustrate diurnal trends. Typical day side temperature range from about 4000 K in the inner plasmasphere to over 10,000 K in the outer plasmasphere, while corresponding evening side temperatures range from near 2000 K to over 10,000 K. Magnetic activity is found to affect the morning and evening sides somewhat differently. Temperatures are found to remain constant or increase with altitude along magnetic field lines, depending on local time and L shell. Thermal equilibrium between H(+) and He(+) prevails to a high degree throughout the plasmasphere. Ion temperatures from the Plasma Composition Experiment (PCE) on ISEE-1 are generally consistent with those from DE-1/RIMS, but are lower and tend to indicate more large scale structure on the day side.

  19. Observations of a Pc5 global (cavity/waveguide) mode outside the plasmasphere by THEMIS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartinger, Michael; Angelopoulos, Vassilis; Moldwin, Mark B.

    2012-01-01

    Standing fast mode waves known as global modes, or cavity/waveguide modes, have been extensively studied as a potential driver of monochromatic shear Alfven waves in the Earth's magnetosphere via the field line resonance (FLR) mechanism. However, their existence outside of the plasmasphere remain...

  20. Simultaneous disappearances of plasmaspheric hiss, exohiss, and chorus waves triggered by a sudden decrease in solar wind dynamic pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Nigang; Su, Zhenpeng; Gao, Zhonglei; Zheng, Huinan; Wang, Yuming; Wang, Shui; Spence, H. E.; Reeves, G. D.; Baker, D. N.; Blake, J. B.; Funsten, H. O.; Wygant, J. R.

    2017-01-01

    Magnetospheric whistler mode waves are of great importance in the radiation belt electron dynamics. Here on the basis of the analysis of a rare event with the simultaneous disappearances of whistler mode plasmaspheric hiss, exohiss, and chorus triggered by a sudden decrease in the solar wind dynamic pressure, we provide evidences for the following physical scenarios: (1) nonlinear generation of chorus controlled by the geomagnetic field inhomogeneity, (2) origination of plasmaspheric hiss from chorus, and (3) leakage of plasmaspheric hiss into exohiss. Following the reduction of the solar wind dynamic pressure, the dayside geomagnetic field configuration with the enhanced inhomogeneity became unfavorable for the generation of chorus, and the quenching of chorus directly caused the disappearances of plasmaspheric hiss and then exohiss.

  1. Quantifying the Difference Between the Flux-Tube Expansion Factor at the Source Surface and at the Alfv\\'en Surface Using A Global MHD Model for the Solar Wind

    CERN Document Server

    Cohen, Ofer

    2015-01-01

    The potential field approximation has been providing a fast, and computationally inexpensive estimation for the solar corona's global magnetic field geometry for several decades. In contrast, more physics-based global magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) models have been used for a similar purpose, while being much more computationally expensive. Here, we investigate the difference in the field geometry between a global MHD model and the potential field source surface model (PFSSM) by tracing individual magnetic field lines in the MHD model from the Alfven surface (AS), through the source surface (SS), all the way to the field line footpoint, and then back to the source surface in the PFSSM. We also compare the flux-tube expansion at two points at the SS and the AS along the same radial line. We study the effect of solar cycle variations, the order of the potential field harmonic expansion, and different magnetogram sources. We find that the flux-tube expansion factor is consistently smaller at the AS than at the SS for...

  2. Determinations of ionosphere and plasmasphere electron content for an African chain of GPS stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzella, Andrew J., Jr.; Bosco Habarulema, John; Yizengaw, Endawoke

    2017-05-01

    The confluence of recent instrumentation deployments in Africa with developments for the determination of plasmasphere electron content using Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers has provided new opportunities for investigations in that region. This investigation, using a selected chain of GPS stations, extends the method (SCORPION) previously applied to a chain of GPS stations in North America in order to separate the ionosphere and plasmasphere contributions to the total electron content (TEC) during a day (24 July) in 2011. The results span latitudes from the southern tip of Africa, across the Equator, to the southern Arabian Peninsula, providing a continuous latitudinal profile for both the ionosphere and plasmasphere during this day.The peak diurnal vertical ionosphere electron content (IEC) increases from about 14 TEC units (1 TEC unit = 1016 electrons m-2) at the southernmost station to about 32 TEC units near the geographic equator, then decreases to about 28 TEC units at the Arabian Peninsula. The peak diurnal slant plasmasphere electron content (PEC) varies between about 4 and 7 TEC units among the stations, with a local latitudinal profile that is significantly influenced by the viewing geometry at the station location, relative to the magnetic field configuration. In contrast, the peak vertical PEC varies between about 1 and 6 TEC units among the stations, with a more uniform latitudinal variation.Comparisons to other GPS data analyses are also presented for TEC, indicating the influence of the PEC on the determination of latitudinal TEC variations and also on the absolute TEC levels, by inducing an overestimate of the receiver bias. The derived TEC latitudinal profiles, in comparison to global map profiles, tend to differ from the map results only about as much as the map results differ among themselves. A combination of ionosonde IEC and alternative GPS TEC measurements, which in principle permits a PEC determination through their difference, was

  3. The plasmasphere during a space weather event: first results from the PLASMON project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reda Jan

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The results of the first 18 months of the PLASMON project are presented. We have extended our three, existing ground-based measuring networks, AWDANet (VLF/whistlers, EMMA/SANSA (ULF/FLRs, and AARDDVARK (VLF/perturbations on transmitters’ signal, by three, eight, and four new stations, respectively. The extended networks will allow us to achieve the four major scientific goals, the automatic retrieval of equatorial electron densities and density profiles of the plasmasphere by whistler inversion, the retrieval of equatorial plasma mass densities by EMMA and SANSA from FLRs, developing a new, data assimilative model of plasmasphere and validating the model predictions through comparison of modeled REP losses with measured data by AARDDVARK network. The first results on each of the four objectives are presented through a case study on a space weather event, a dual storm sudden commencement which occurred on August 3 and 4, 2010.

  4. Plasmaspheric electron densities: the importance in modelling radiation belts and in SSA operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtenberger, János; Jorgensen, Anders; Koronczay, Dávid; Ferencz, Csaba; Hamar, Dániel; Steinbach, Péter; Clilverd, Mark; Rodger, Craig; Juhász, Lilla; Sannikov, Dmitry; Cherneva, Nina

    2016-04-01

    The Automatic Whistler Detector and Analyzer Network (AWDANet, Lichtenberger et al., J. Geophys. Res., 113, 2008, A12201, doi:10.1029/2008JA013467) is able to detect and analyze whistlers in quasi-realtime and can provide equatorial electron density data. The plasmaspheric electron densities are key parameters for plasmasphere models in Space Weather related investigations, particularly in modeling charged particle accelerations and losses in Radiation Belts. The global AWDANet detects millions of whistlers in a year. The network operates since early 2002 with automatic whistler detector capability and it has been recently completed with automatic analyzer capability in PLASMON (http://plasmon.elte.hu, Lichtenberger et al., Space Weather Space Clim. 3 2013, A23 DOI: 10.1051/swsc/2013045.) Eu FP7-Space project. It is based on a recently developed whistler inversion model (Lichtenberger, J. J. Geophys. Res., 114, 2009, A07222, doi:10.1029/2008JA013799), that opened the way for an automated process of whistler analysis, not only for single whistler events but for complex analysis of multiple-path propagation whistler groups. The network operates in quasi real-time mode since mid-2014, fifteen stations provide equatorial electron densities that are used as inputs for a data assimilative plasmasphere model but they can also be used directly in space weather research and models. We have started to process the archive data collected by AWDANet stations since 2002 and in this paper we present the results of quasi-real-time and off-line runs processing whistlers from quiet and disturb periods. The equatorial electron densities obtained by whistler inversion are fed into the assimilative model of the plasmasphere providing a global view of the region for processed the periods

  5. Quantitative Simulation of a Magnetospheric Substorm. 3. Plasmaspheric Electric Fields and Evolution of the Plasmapause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-25

    plasmaspheric electric fields during magnetically disturbed periods are based on incoherent scatter radar results fromn St. Santin [ Testud et al., 1975...Millstone Hill radar results showing westward F-region ion drifts of almost 200 m/sec in the afternoon sector on 14 May, 1969. Testud et al. [1975...electrojet (AE) index. Testud et al. [1975] and Blanc et al. £1977] have both presented St. Santin backscatter measurements that show westward and

  6. Non-steady-state transport of superthermal electrons in the plasmasphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khazanov, George V.; Liemohn, Michael W.; Gombosi, Tamas I.; Nagy, Andrew F.

    1993-01-01

    Numerical solutions to the time-dependent kinetic equation, which describes the transport of superthermal electrons in the splasmasphere between the two conjugate ionospheres, are presented. The model calculates the distribution function as a function of time, field-aligned distance, energy, and pitch-angle. The processes of refilling, depleting, and establishing steady-state conditions of superthermal electrons in the plasmasphere are discussed.

  7. Global-scale coherence modulation of radiation-belt electron loss from plasmaspheric hiss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breneman, A W; Halford, A; Millan, R; McCarthy, M; Fennell, J; Sample, J; Woodger, L; Hospodarsky, G; Wygant, J R; Cattell, C A; Goldstein, J; Malaspina, D; Kletzing, C A

    2015-07-09

    Over 40 years ago it was suggested that electron loss in the region of the radiation belts that overlaps with the region of high plasma density called the plasmasphere, within four to five Earth radii, arises largely from interaction with an electromagnetic plasma wave called plasmaspheric hiss. This interaction strongly influences the evolution of the radiation belts during a geomagnetic storm, and over the course of many hours to days helps to return the radiation-belt structure to its 'quiet' pre-storm configuration. Observations have shown that the long-term electron-loss rate is consistent with this theory but the temporal and spatial dynamics of the loss process remain to be directly verified. Here we report simultaneous measurements of structured radiation-belt electron losses and the hiss phenomenon that causes the losses. Losses were observed in the form of bremsstrahlung X-rays generated by hiss-scattered electrons colliding with the Earth's atmosphere after removal from the radiation belts. Our results show that changes of up to an order of magnitude in the dynamics of electron loss arising from hiss occur on timescales as short as one to twenty minutes, in association with modulations in plasma density and magnetic field. Furthermore, these loss dynamics are coherent with hiss dynamics on spatial scales comparable to the size of the plasmasphere. This nearly global-scale coherence was not predicted and may affect the short-term evolution of the radiation belts during active times.

  8. Data assimilation of plasmasphere and upper ionosphere using COSMIC/GPS slant TEC measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, M. J.; Guo, P.; Xu, T. L.; Fu, N. F.; Xu, X. S.; Jin, H. L.; Hu, X. G.

    2015-11-01

    Increasing total electron content (TEC) measurements from the low Earth orbiting satellites to Global Positioning System satellites flourish the exploration of the ionosphere and plasmasphere for decades. This paper indicates a method that 3-D Var is applied to assimilate precise orbit determination antenna TEC measurements of Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere, and Climate (COSMIC) satellites into the background global core plasma model (GCPM). The slant TEC data archived in the COSMIC Data Analysis and Archive Center from 500 km to 20,200 km are used to reconstruct a new electron density model. This model has a temporal resolution of 2 h and spatial resolutions of 2.5° in geomagnetic latitude, 5° in longitude, 50 km in the upper ionosphere, and several hundred kilometers in the plasmasphere. Preliminary results show that the data assimilation modifies the initial GCPM forecast to be better coincident with actual COSMIC measurements in internal quality check. Furthermore, independent validation with upper ionosphere-retrieved electron density and TEC of global ionosphere maps implies a reasonable improvement in the estimation of plasmaspheric electron density after the assimilation.

  9. Simulation of field-aligned H+ and He+ dynamics during late-stage plasmasphere refilling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Fedder

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The refilling of the plasmasphere for 3≤L≤4 following a model storm is simulated over long times (days using the NRL ionosphere code SAMI2 (Sami2 is Another Model of the Ionosphere. Refilling is dependent on the supply of topside H+ and He+ ions with the result that H+ refilling rates decrease and He+ refilling rates generally increase with increasing F10.7 index. Both early- and late-stage refilling are affected by net ion flows from the warmer to the colder geomagnetic hemisphere. When these flows are strong, the ability of the "winter helium bulge" to increase He+ refilling rates is suppressed. When neutral winds are not included, refilling rates fall, typically by a factor of two. In most cases, late-stage He+ refilling is proportional to H+ refilling, with typical He+/H+ density ratios of 2% for solar minimum and 10% for solar maximum. For high values of F10.7, He+ refilling exhibits a strong diurnal variation so that the He+/H+ density ratio varies by as much as a factor of two during late-stage refilling. Finally if the plasmasphere is left undisturbed, the H+ density can refill for as long as five weeks at L=3 and ten weeks at L=4, with saturation densities nearly an order of magnitude greater than typical observed densities. This confirms that the plasmasphere at these L values rarely obtains saturation.

  10. Experimental study of laminar forced convective heat transfer of deionized water based copper (I) oxide nanofluids in a tube with constant wall heat flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umer, Asim; Naveed, Shahid; Ramzan, Naveed

    2016-10-01

    Nanofluids, having 1-100 nm size particles in any base fluid are promising fluid for heat transfer intensification due to their enhanced thermal conductivity as compared with the base fluid. The forced convection of nanofluids is the major practical application in heat transfer equipments. In this study, heat transfer enhancements at constant wall heat flux under laminar flow conditions were investigated. Nanofluids of different volume fractions (1, 2 and 4 %) of copper (I) oxide nanoparticles in deionized water were prepared using two step technique under mechanical mixing and ultrasonication. The results were investigated by increasing the Reynolds number of the nanofluids at constant heat flux. The trends of Nusselt number variation with dimensionless length (X/D) and Reynolds numbers were studied. It was observed that heat transfer coefficient increases with increases particles volume concentration and Reynolds number. The maximum enhancement in heat transfer coefficient of 61 % was observed with 4 % particle volume concentration at Reynolds number (Re ~ 605).

  11. A correlation to predict the heat flux on the air-side of a vapor chamber with overturn-U flattened tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srimuang, Wasan; Limkaisang, Viroj

    2016-08-01

    The heat transfer characteristics of a conventional vapor chamber (CVC) and a loop vapor chamber (LVC) are compared. The vapor chambers consisted of a stainless steel box with different covers. The results indicated that the heat flux and convective heat transfer coefficient of the air-side of LVC is higher than CVC. An empirical correlation was developed to predict the convective heat transfer coefficient of the air-side of the LVC.

  12. Kalman filter-based algorithms for monitoring the ionosphere and plasmasphere with GPS in near-real time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anghel, Adela; Carrano, Charles; Komjathy, Attila; Astilean, Adina; Letia, Tiberiu

    2009-01-01

    Data collected from a GPS receiver located at low latitudes in the American sector are used to investigate the performance of the WinTEC algorithm [Anghel et al., 2008a, Kalman filter-based algorithm for near realtime monitoring of the ionosphere using dual frequency GPS data. GPS Solutions, accepted for publication; for different ionospheric modeling techniques: the single-shell linear, quadratic, and cubic approaches, and the multi-shell linear approach. Our results indicate that the quadratic and cubic approaches perform much better than the single-shell and multi-shell linear approaches in terms of post-fit residuals. The performance of the algorithm for the cubic approach is then further tested by comparing the vertical TEC predicted by WinTEC and USTEC [Spencer et al., 2004. Ionospheric data assimilation methods for geodetic applications. In: Proceedings of IEEE PLANS, Monterey, CA, 26-29 April, pp. 510-517] at five North American stations. In addition, since the GPS-derived total electron content (TEC) contains contributions from both ionospheric and plasmaspheric sections of the GPS ray paths, in an effort to improve the accuracy of the TEC retrievals, a new data assimilation module that uses background information from an empirical plasmaspheric model [Gallagher et al., 1988. An empirical model of the Earth's plasmasphere. Advances in Space Research 8, (8)15-(8)24] has been incorporated into the WinTEC algorithm. The new Kalman filter-based algorithm estimates both the ionospheric and plasmaspheric electron contents, the combined satellite and receiver biases, and the estimation error covariance matrix, in a single-site or network solution. To evaluate the effect of the plasmaspheric component on the estimated biases and total TEC and to assess the performance of the newly developed algorithm, we compare the WinTEC results, with and without the plasmaspheric term included, at three GPS receivers located at different latitudes in the American sector, during

  13. Determination of global plasmaspheric electron density profile by tomographic approach using omega signals and ray tracing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, I.; Kasahara, Y.; Oya, H.

    2001-07-01

    It has been necessary requirements to determine the global electron density distribution in the plasmasphere with time resolutions, of less than a day. We have provided solutions to this requirement using the wave normal directions, delay time of Omega signals and the in situ electron density observed on-board the Japanese satellite Akebono (Sawada et al., Journal of Geophysical Research 98(11) (1993) 267, Kimura et al., Advance Space Research 15(2) (1995) 103, Advance Space Research 18(6) (1996) 279, Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics 59 (1997) 1569). The present paper is intended to review our earlier studies.

  14. 3D Reconfigurable NoC Multiprocessor Portable Sounder for Plasmaspheric Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekoulis, George

    2016-07-01

    The paper describes the development of a prototype imaging sounder for studying the irregularities of the ionospheric plasma. Cutting edge three-dimensional reconfigurable logic has been implemented allowing highly-intensive scientific calculations to be performed in hardware. The new parallel processing algorithms implemented offer a significant amount of performance improvement in the range of 80% compared to existing digital sounder implementations. The current system configuration is taking into consideration the modern scientific needs for portability during scientific campaigns. The prototype acts as a digital signal processing experimentation platform for future larger-scale digital sounder instrumentations for measuring complex planetary plasmaspheric environments.

  15. Effects of plasmaspheric ion heating due to ionospheric and magnetospheric sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comfort, Richard H.

    1996-01-01

    In an initial study, the He(+) observations from the Retarding Ion Mass Spectrometer on Dynamics Explorer 1 (RIMS/DE 1) was examined for more than 120 transits of the plasmasphere in the fall of 1981. The He(+) to H(+) ratio was determined as it varied spatially over portions of the DE 1 orbit, and its variation with solar and magnetic activities and with local time, focusing specifically on the inner plasmasphere. These variations were compared along the L = 2 field line with calculations made by the Field Line Interhemispheric Plasma (FLIP) code. In a recently submitted paper, the He(+) to H(+) density ratio was examined for all the available data from 1981 to 1984 from the RIMS on DE 1. There are two basic characteristics of the ratio: one is that the ratio decreases with radial distance in the plasmasphere, and the other is the strong dependence of the density ratio on solar activity. In addition to the He(+)/H(+) ratio research, a phenomenon has been studied in the topside ionosphere which relates to the thermal coupling of the ionosphere to the plasmasphere. There is little or no correlation with magnetic and solar activity here. Another study has been directed toward the relation of plasma properties to the density gradients forming the plasmapause. The study has followed a two-pronged approach. First, the observations have been analyzed to determine what happens to the plasma properties across these boundary layers (density gradients). Second, comparisons were made with FLIP model calculations to determine how well the model is able to treat these conditions. Among the significant lessons learned in these studies are two that bear directly on the direction of future investigations in this area. First, composition cannot be viewed independently of thermal structure. Second, solar and magnetic activity effects are real; but the causal relationship between activity and effects is frequently quite complicated because several different processes appear to be

  16. Tracheostomy tubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Dean R; Altobelli, Neila P

    2014-06-01

    Tracheostomy tubes are used to administer positive-pressure ventilation, to provide a patent airway, and to provide access to the lower respiratory tract for airway clearance. They are available in a variety of sizes and styles from several manufacturers. The dimensions of tracheostomy tubes are given by their inner diameter, outer diameter, length, and curvature. Differences in dimensions between tubes with the same inner diameter from different manufacturers are not commonly appreciated but may have important clinical implications. Tracheostomy tubes can be cuffed or uncuffed and may be fenestrated. Some tracheostomy tubes are designed with an inner cannula. It is important for clinicians caring for patients with a tracheostomy tube to appreciate the nuances of various tracheostomy tube designs and to select a tube that appropriately fits the patient. The optimal frequency of changing a chronic tracheostomy tube is controversial. Specialized teams may be useful in managing patients with a tracheostomy. Speech can be facilitated with a speaking valve in patients with a tracheostomy tube who are breathing spontaneously. In mechanically ventilated patients with a tracheostomy, a talking tracheostomy tube, a deflated cuff technique with a speaking valve, or a deflated cuff technique without a speaking valve can be used to facilitate speech. Copyright © 2014 by Daedalus Enterprises.

  17. Electron loss rates from the outer radiation belt caused by the filling of the outer plasmasphere: the calm before the storm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borovsky, Joseph E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Denton, Michael H [LANCASTER UNIV

    2009-01-01

    Measurements from 7 spacecraft in geosynchronous orbit are analyzed to determine the decay rate of the number density of the outer electron radiation belt prior to the onset of high-speed-stream-driven geomagnetic storms. Superposed-data analysis is used wan(?) a collection of 124 storms. When there is a calm before the storm, the electron number density decays exponentially before the storm with a 3.4-day e-folding time: beginning about 4 days before storm onset, the density decreases from {approx}4x10{sup -4} cm{sup -3} to {approx}1X 10{sup -4} cm{sup -3}. When there is not a calm before the storm, the number-density decay is very smalL The decay in the number density of radiation-belt electrons is believed to be caused by pitch-angle scattering of electrons into the atmospheric loss cone as the outer plasmasphere fills during the calms. While the radiation-belt electron density decreases, the temperature of the electron radiation belt holds approximately constant, indicating that the electron precipitation occurs equally at all energies. Along with the number density decay, the pressure of the outer electron radiation belt decays and the specific entropy increases. From the measured decay rates, the electron flux to the atmosphere is calculated and that flux is 3 orders of magnitude less than thermal fluxes in the magnetosphere, indicating that the radiation-belt pitch-angle scattering is 3 orders weaker than strong diffusion. Energy fluxes into the atmosphere are calculated and found to be insufficient to produce visible airglow.

  18. Glycol/water evacuated-tube solar collector

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    Report describes performance of 8 tube and 10 tube commercially produced solar collectors. Tests include thermal efficiency, time constant for temperature drop after solar flux is cut, change in efficiency with Sun angle, and temperature rise if circulation is stopped.

  19. Flux Emergence at the Photosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, M. C. M.; Schüssler, M.; Moreno-Insertis, F.

    2006-12-01

    To model the emergence of magnetic fields at the photosphere, we carried out 3D magneto-hydrodynamics (MHD) simulations using the MURaM code. Our simulations take into account the effects of compressibility, energy exchange via radiative transfer and partial ionization in the equation of state. All these physical ingredients are essential for a proper treatment of the problem. In the simulations, an initially buoyant magnetic flux tube is embedded in the upper layers of the convection zone. We find that the interaction between the flux tube and the external flow field has an important influence on the emergent morphology of the magnetic field. Depending on the initial properties of the flux tube (e.g. field strength, twist, entropy etc.), the emergence process can also modify the local granulation pattern. The inclusion of radiative transfer allows us to directly compare the simulation results with real observations of emerging flux.

  20. Infrared imaging of LED lighting tubes and fluorescent tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siikanen, Sami; Kivi, Sini; Kauppinen, Timo; Juuti, Mikko

    2011-05-01

    The low energy efficiency of conventional light sources is mainly caused by generation of waste heat. We used infrared (IR) imaging in order to monitor the heating of both LED tube luminaires and ordinary T8 fluorescent tubes. The IR images showed clearly how the surface temperatures of the fluorescent tube ends quickly rose up to about +50...+70°C, whereas the highest surface temperatures seen on the LED tubes were only about +30...+40°C. The IR images demonstrated how the heat produced by the individual LED chips can be efficiently guided to the supporting structure in order to keep the LED emitters cool and hence maintain efficient operation. The consumed electrical power and produced illuminance were also recorded during 24 hour measurements. In order to assess the total luminous efficacy of the luminaires, separate luminous flux measurements were made in a large integrating sphere. The currently available LED tubes showed efficacies of up to 88 lm/W, whereas a standard "cool white" T8 fluorescent tube produced ca. 75 lm/W. Both lamp types gave ca. 110 - 130 lx right below the ceiling-mounted luminaire, but the LED tubes consume only 40 - 55% of the electric power compared to fluorescent tubes.

  1. Turbulent Erosion of Magnetic Flux Tubes

    CERN Document Server

    Petrovay, K

    1997-01-01

    Results from a numerical and analytical investigation of the solution of a nonlinear axially symmetric diffusion equation for the magnetic field are presented for the case when the nonlinear dependence of the diffusivity $\

  2. Self-Consistent Model of Magnetospheric Electric Field, Ring Current, Plasmasphere, and Electromagnetic Ion Cyclotron Waves: Initial Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamayunov, K. V.; Khazanov, G. V.; Liemohn, M. W.; Fok, M.-C.; Ridley, A. J.

    2009-01-01

    Further development of our self-consistent model of interacting ring current (RC) ions and electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves is presented. This model incorporates large scale magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling and treats self-consistently not only EMIC waves and RC ions, but also the magnetospheric electric field, RC, and plasmasphere. Initial simulations indicate that the region beyond geostationary orbit should be included in the simulation of the magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling. Additionally, a self-consistent description, based on first principles, of the ionospheric conductance is required. These initial simulations further show that in order to model the EMIC wave distribution and wave spectral properties accurately, the plasmasphere should also be simulated self-consistently, since its fine structure requires as much care as that of the RC. Finally, an effect of the finite time needed to reestablish a new potential pattern throughout the ionosphere and to communicate between the ionosphere and the equatorial magnetosphere cannot be ignored.

  3. Gastrostomy Tube (G-Tube)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the recovery room, sometimes called the "post-op" (post-operative) room or PACU (post-anesthesia care unit), and ... site; discharge that's yellow, green, or foul-smelling; fever) excessive bleeding or drainage from the tube site ...

  4. New method in computer simulations of electron and ion densities and temperatures in the plasmasphere and low-latitude ionosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Pavlov

    Full Text Available A new theoretical model of the Earth’s low- and mid-latitude ionosphere and plasmasphere has been developed. The new model uses a new method in ionospheric and plasmaspheric simulations which is a combination of the Eulerian and Lagrangian approaches in model simulations. The electron and ion continuity and energy equations are solved in a Lagrangian frame of reference which moves with an individual parcel of plasma with the local plasma drift velocity perpendicular to the magnetic and electric fields. As a result, only the time-dependent, one-dimension electron and ion continuity and energy equations are solved in this Lagrangian frame of reference. The new method makes use of an Eulerian computational grid which is fixed in space co-ordinates and chooses the set of the plasma parcels at every time step, so that all the plasma parcels arrive at points which are located between grid lines of the regularly spaced Eulerian computational grid at the next time step. The solution values of electron and ion densities Ne and Ni and temperatures Te and Ti at the Eulerian computational grid are obtained by interpolation. Equations which determine the trajectory of the ionospheric plasma perpendicular to magnetic field lines and take into account that magnetic field lines are "frozen" in the ionospheric plasma are derived and included in the new model. We have presented a comparison between the modeled NmF2 and hmF2 and NmF2 and hmF2 which were observed at the anomaly crest and close to the geomagnetic equator simultaneously by the Huancayo, Chiclayo, Talara, Bogota, Panama, and Puerto Rico ionospheric sounders during the 7 October 1957 geomagnetically quiet time period at solar maximum. The model calculations show that there is a need to revise the model local time dependence of the equatorial upward E × B drift velocity given by Scherliess and Fejer (1999 at solar maximum during quiet

  5. Full-wave model of D-region upward VLF coupling to whistlers in the plasmasphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, A. R.; Shao, X.; Lay, E. H.

    2012-12-01

    Atmospheric-lightning-to-plasmasphere VLF coupling via whistlers is key to understanding the problem of radiation-belt losses and the slot region. In the lowermost ionosphere, the "D-region" (roughly 60 - 100 km altitude), the coupling occurs between the VLF incident from the "vacuum" below, to the electron whistler capable of transiting upward through the E- and F-regions above. We have modified our successful and data-validated D-region VLF downward-reflection model to predict upward-coupled whistler waveforms recorded on topside satellites. The model has been run in production mode for predicting downward-reflected waveforms recorded at ground stations, but the model's internal calculation also fully describes the "penetrating" solution that merges into the oblique electron whistler. We have begun to test the model against VLF, three-dimensional electric-field recordings from the Vector Electric Field Instrument (VEFI) [Pfaff et al., 2010] on the C/NOFS satellite. VEFI's broadband recording and large on-board memory serendipitously provide an excellent platform for studying lightning whistlers in the plasmasphere. We have already demonstrated [Jacobson et al., 2011] that VEFI is superbly suited for testing transionospheric propagation, in conjunction with the World Wide Lightning Location Network (WWLLN; see www.wwlln.net) to provide groundtruth location/time of the lightning strokes. This poster will describe latest results. Jacobson, A. R., R. H. Holzworth, R. F. Pfaff, and M. P. McCarthy (2011), Study of oblique whistlers in the low-latitude ionosphere, jointly with the C/NOFS satellite and the World-Wide Lightning Location Network, Annales Geophysicae, 29, 851-863. Pfaff, R., D. Rowland, H. Freudenreich, K. Bromund, K. Le, M. Acuna, J. Klenzing, C. Liebrecht, S. Martin, W. J. Burke, N. C. Maynard, D. E. Hunton, P. A. Roddy, J. O. Ballenthin, and G. R. Wilson (2010), Observations of DC electric fields in the low-latitude ionosphere and their variations with

  6. Performance of multi tubes in tube helically coiled as a compact heat exchanger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nada, S. A.; El Shaer, W. G.; Huzayyin, A. S.

    2014-12-01

    Multi tubes in tube helically coiled heat exchanger is proposed as a compact heat exchanger. Effects of heat exchanger geometric parameters and fluid flow parameters; namely number of inner tubes, annulus hydraulic diameter, Reynolds numbers and input heat flux, on performance of the heat exchanger are experimentally investigated. Different coils with different numbers of inner tubes, namely 1, 3, 4 and 5 tubes, were tested. Results showed that coils with 3 inner tubes have higher values of heat transfer coefficient and compactness parameter (bar{h} Ah ). Pressure drop increases with increasing both of Reynolds number and number of inner tubes. Correlations of average Nusselt number were deduced from experimental data in terms of Reynolds number, Prandtl number, Number of inner coils tubes and coil hydraulic diameter. Correlations prediction was compared with experimental data and the comparison was fair enough.

  7. Spatial and temporal characteristics of poloidal waves in the terrestrial plasmasphere: a CLUSTER case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Schäfer

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Oscillating magnetic field lines are frequently observed by spacecraft in the terrestrial and other planetary magnetospheres. The CLUSTER mission is a very suitable tool to further study these Alfvén waves as the four CLUSTER spacecraft provide for an opportunity to separate spatial and temporal structures in the terrestrial magnetosphere. Using a large scaled configuration formed by the four spacecraft we are able to detect a poloidal Ultra-Low-Frequency (ULF pulsation of the magnetic and electric field in order to analyze its temporal and spatial structures. For this purpose the measurements are transformed into a specific field line related coordinate system to investigate their specific amplitude pattern depending on the path of the CLUSTER spacecraft across oscillating field lines. These measurements are then compared with modeled spacecraft observations across a localized poloidal wave resonator in the dayside plasmasphere. A detailed investigation of theoretically expected poloidal eigenfrequencies allows us to specify the observed 16 mHz pulsation as a third harmonic oscillation. Based on this we perform a case study providing a clear identification of wave properties such as an spatial scale structure of about 0.67 RE, the azimuthal wave number m≈30, temporal evolution, and energy transport in the detected ULF pulsations.

  8. Magnetic flux emergence in fast rotating stars

    OpenAIRE

    Holzwarth, V.

    2007-01-01

    Fast rotating cool stars are characterised by high magnetic activity levels and frequently show dark spots up to polar latitudes. Their distinctive surface distributions of magnetic flux are investigated in the context of the solar-stellar connection by applying the solar flux eruption and surface flux transport models to stars with different rotation rates, mass, and evolutionary stage. The rise of magnetic flux tubes through the convection zone is primarily buoyancy-driven, though their evo...

  9. Chest tube insertion

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... tube insertion; Insertion of tube into chest; Tube thoracostomy; Pericardial drain ... Kirsch TD, Sax J. Tube thoracostomy. In: Roberts JR, ed. Roberts and ... . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2014:chap 10.

  10. Jejunostomy feeding tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000181.htm Jejunostomy feeding tube To use the sharing features on this ... vomiting Your child's stomach is bloated Alternate Names Feeding - jejunostomy tube; G-J tube; J-tube; Jejunum ...

  11. Source Terms for HFIR Beam Tube Shielding Analyses, and a Complete Shielding Analysis of the HB-3 Tube

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bucholz, J.A.

    2000-07-01

    The High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory is in the midst of a massive upgrade program to enhance experimental facilities. The reactor presently has four horizontal experimental beam tubes, all of which will be replaced or redesigned. The HB-2 beam tube will be enlarged to support more guide tubes, while the HB-4 beam tube will soon include a cold neutron source.

  12. photomultiplier tube

    CERN Multimedia

    photomultiplier tubes. A device to convert light into an electric signal (the name is often abbreviated to PM). Photomultipliers are used in all detectors based on scintillating material (i.e. based on large numbers of fibres which produce scintillation light at the passage of a charged particle). A photomultiplier consists of 3 main parts: firstly, a photocathode where photons are converted into electrons by the photoelectric effect; secondly, a multiplier chain consisting of a serie of dynodes which multiply the number of electron; finally, an anode, which collects the resulting current.

  13. photomultiplier tubes

    CERN Multimedia

    photomultiplier tubes. A device to convert light into an electric signal (the name is often abbreviated to PM). Photomultipliers are used in all detectors based on scintillating material (i.e. based on large numbers of fibres which produce scintillation light at the passage of a charged particle). A photomultiplier consists of 3 main parts: firstly, a photocathode where photons are converted into electrons by the photoelectric effect; secondly, a multiplier chain consisting of a serie of dynodes which multiply the number of electron; finally, an anode, which collects the resulting current.

  14. Akebono (EXOS-D) sounder data archive for studies of the ionosphere and plasmasphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumamoto, A.; Katoh, Y.; Obara, T.

    2016-12-01

    For the purpose of topside sounding of the ionosphere and active experiments of the plasma waves in geospace, a sounder system was installed on the Akebono (EXOS-D) satellite, which was operated in a period from 1989 to 2015. Through the long operation period, the sounder system was also operated successfully, and brought us 117,468 ionograms in a frequency range from 0.02-0.89 MHz and 31,936 ionograms in a frequency range from 0.3-11.4 MHz taken within 2.6 Re. In order to provide the data to world-wide researchers' use, we are preparing data archive of Akebono Sounder data in Common Data Format (CDF) and Planetary Data System (PDS) format. Calibrated ionograms will be provided as Level-2 data. In addition, we are going to perform echo trace of the ionograms, and derive the vertical profile of the electron number density below the satellite. The horizontal and vertical distribution of the number density of the topside ionosphere along the satellite path will be provided as Level-3 data. However, because we need some efforts in manual echo tracing with numerous ionograms, it will take some time to finish the release of Level-3 data. So, we are going to prepare another simplified Leve-3 data, which provides the horizontal and apparent (assuming light-speed propagation) vertical distribution of the reflection point of the echo at some fixed frequency. The dataset will be enough useful in finding irregular plasma structures around auroral ionosphere and storm-time plasmasphere.

  15. AUTOSCALA software improvements: topside-plasmasphere profiles and TEC model assisted by AIS ionosonde measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesaroni, C.; Ippolito, A.; Scotto, C.; Ciraolo, L.

    2012-12-01

    The group of Upper Atmosphere Physics at INGV (Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia) developed Autoscala, a computer program for automatic scaling of the critical frequency foF2 and other ionospheric parameters derived from ionograms. Autoscala includes a routine that automatically estimates the electron density profile below F layer peak height hmF2, by adjusting the parameters of a model according to the recorded ionogram [Scotto (2009)]. Recently we have introduced a new algorithm for modeling upper ionosphere and plasmasphere electron density profiles following the approach suggested by Kutiev et al. (2009). In particular, these model uses the parameters of F layer peak (foF2, hmF2, scale height at hmF2) to obtain scale heights that are useful to construct H- and O+ density profiles, and consequently N(h) profile (given as the sum of the former two). Integrating electron density profiles we are then able to obtain a real time TEC estimation above the considered ionospheric station. A first validation of the model is carried out for data measured at Rome ionospheric station (Italy, 41°54' N 12°28' E) using independent TEC measurements from GPS receivers. References: Scotto, C. (2009). Electron density profile calculation technique for Autoscala ionogram analysis. Advances in Space Research, 44(6), 756-766. doi:10.1016/j.asr.2009.04.037 Kutiev, I., Marinov, P., Belehaki, a., Reinisch, B., & Jakowski, N. (2009). Reconstruction of topside density profile by using the topside sounder model profiler and digisonde data. Advances in Space Research, 43(11), 1683-1687. doi:10.1016/j.asr.2008.08.017

  16. Transverse eV ion heating by random electric field fluctuations in the plasmasphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artemyev, A. V.; Mourenas, D.; Agapitov, O. V.; Blum, L.

    2017-02-01

    Charged particle acceleration in the Earth inner magnetosphere is believed to be mainly due to the local resonant wave-particle interaction or particle transport processes. However, the Van Allen Probes have recently provided interesting evidence of a relatively slow transverse heating of eV ions at distances about 2-3 Earth radii during quiet times. Waves that are able to resonantly interact with such very cold ions are generally rare in this region of space, called the plasmasphere. Thus, non-resonant wave-particle interactions are expected to play an important role in the observed ion heating. We demonstrate that stochastic heating by random transverse electric field fluctuations of whistler (and possibly electromagnetic ion cyclotron) waves could explain this weak and slow transverse heating of H+ and O+ ions in the inner magnetosphere. The essential element of the proposed model of ion heating is the presence of trains of random whistler (hiss) wave packets, with significant amplitude modulations produced by strong wave damping, rapid wave growth, or a superposition of wave packets of different frequencies, phases, and amplitudes. Such characteristics correspond to measured characteristics of hiss waves in this region. Using test particle simulations with typical wave and plasma parameters, we demonstrate that the corresponding stochastic transverse ion heating reaches 0.07-0.2 eV/h for protons and 0.007-0.015 eV/h for O+ ions. This global temperature increase of the Maxwellian ion population from an initial Ti˜0.3 eV could potentially explain the observations.

  17. Transverse eV Ion Heating by Random Electric Field Fluctuations in the Plasmasphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artemyev, A. V.; Mourenas, D.; Agapitov, O. V.; Blum, L.

    2017-01-01

    Charged particle acceleration in the Earth inner magnetosphere is believed to be mainly due to the local resonant wave-particle interaction or particle transport processes. However, the Van Allen Probes have recently provided interesting evidence of a relatively slow transverse heating of eV ions at distances about 2-3 Earth radii during quiet times. Waves that are able to resonantly interact with such very cold ions are generally rare in this region of space, called the plasmasphere. Thus, non-resonant wave-particle interactions are expected to play an important role in the observed ion heating. We demonstrate that stochastic heating by random transverse electric field fluctuations of whistler (and possibly electromagnetic ion cyclotron) waves could explain this weak and slow transverse heating of H+ and O+ ions in the inner magnetosphere. The essential element of the proposed model of ion heating is the presence of trains of random whistler (hiss) wave packets, with significant amplitude modulations produced by strong wave damping, rapid wave growth, or a superposition of wave packets of different frequencies, phases, and amplitudes. Such characteristics correspond to measured characteristics of hiss waves in this region. Using test particle simulations with typical wave and plasma parameters, we demonstrate that the corresponding stochastic transverse ion heating reaches 0.07-0.2 eV/h for protons and 0.007-0.015 eV/h for O+ ions. This global temperature increase of the Maxwellian ion population from an initial Ti approx. 0.3 eV could potentially explain the observations.

  18. A tube-in-tube thermophotovoltaic generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashcroft, J.; Campbell, B.; Depoy, D.

    1996-12-31

    A thermophotovoltaic device includes at least one thermal radiator tube, a cooling tube concentrically disposed within each thermal radiator tube and an array of thermophotovoltaic cells disposed on the exterior surface of the cooling tube. A shell having a first end and a second end surrounds the thermal radiator tube. Inner and outer tubesheets, each having an aperture corresponding to each cooling tube, are located at each end of the shell. The thermal radiator tube extends within the shell between the inner tubesheets. The cooling tube extends within the shell through the corresponding apertures of the two inner tubesheets to the corresponding apertures of the two outer tubesheets. A plurality of the thermal radiator tubes can be arranged in a staggered or an in-line configuration within the shell.

  19. Magnetic Flux Emergence in the Solar Photosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, M. C. M.; Schüssler, M.; Moreno-Insertis, F.

    2008-04-01

    The most prominent magnetic structures on the surface of the Sun are bipolar active regions. These magnetic complexes are comprised of a hierarchy of magnetic structures of different sizes, the largest of which are sunspots. Observations indicate that the appearance of active regions on the solar surface result from the emergence of bundles of magnetic flux from the underlying convection zone. We study the emergence process by means of 3D radiation MHD simulations. In the simulations, an initially buoyant magnetic flux tube is introduced into the near-surface layers of the convection zone. Subject to the buoyancy force, the flux tube rises towards the photosphere. Our simulations highlight the importance of magneto-convection on the evolution of the magnetic flux tube. The external convective flow field has an important influence on the emergence morphology of the emerging magnetic field. Depending on the initial properties of the magnetic flux tube (e.g. field strength, twist, entropy etc.), flux emergence may lead to a disturbance of the local granulation pattern. The observational signatures associated with emerging magnetic flux in our simulations are in qualitative and quantitative agreement with observational studies of emerging flux regions on the Sun.

  20. SAMI3 prediction of the impact of the 21 August 2017 total solar eclipse on the ionosphere/plasmasphere system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huba, J. D.; Drob, D.

    2017-06-01

    We present quantitative predictions of the impact of the upcoming total solar eclipse on the ionosphere and plasmasphere using the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) model Sami3 is Also a Model of the Ionosphere (SAMI3). The eclipse will occur over the continental United States on 21 August 2017. Our simulation results indicate that in the vicinity of the eclipse (1) the total electron content (TEC) decreases by up to ˜ 5 TEC units (TECU; 1 TECU = ×1016 m-2) which is a ˜ 35% decrease in TEC, (2) the electron density decreases by a factor of ˜ 50% in the F region, (3) the electron temperature decreases by up to ˜800 K in the plasmasphere, and (4) the O+ velocity changes from ˜40 m s-1 upward to ˜20 m s-1 downward in the F region. Interestingly, the continental size modification of the ionospheric conductance modifies the global electric field, which should lead to measurable changes in the TEC in the southern conjugate hemisphere (≲1 TECU).

  1. Experimental study on in-tube condensation heat transfer characteristics of helically coiled spiral tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, J.U. [Sunchon First College, Sunchon (Korea); Kweon, Y.C. [Sun Moon University, Chonan (Korea); Han, K.I. [Pukyong National University, Pusan (Korea)

    2001-12-01

    An experimental study on condensation heat transfer characteristics of helically coiled spiral tubes was performed. The refrigerant is R-113. A refrigerant loop was established to measure the condensation heat transfer coefficients. Experiments were carried out uniform heat flux of 15 kW/m{sup 2}, refrigerant quality of 0.1 {approx} 0.9, curvature ratio of 0.016, 0.025 and 0.045. The curvature of a coil was defined as the ratio of the inside diameter of the tube to the diameter of the bending circle. To compare the condensation heat transfer coefficients of coiled spiral tubes, the previous results on coiled plain tubes and straight plain tubes were used. The results shows that the condensation heat transfer coefficients of coiled spiral tubes largely increase, as increasing Re and quality, compared to those of coiled plain tubes and straight plain tubes. As increasing degree of subcooling, however, the condensation heat transfer coefficients on coiled spiral tubes decrease. It is found that the heat transfer enhancement is more better than coiled plain tubes and straight plain tubes, as increasing curvature ratio. (author). 13 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Feeding tube - infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007235.htm Feeding tube - infants To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A feeding tube is a small, soft, plastic tube placed ...

  3. Tube-shape verifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, A. N.; Christ, C. R.

    1980-01-01

    Inexpensive apparatus checks accuracy of bent tubes. Assortment of slotted angles and clamps is bolted down to flat aluminum plate outlining shape of standard tube bent to desired configuration. Newly bent tubes are then checked against this outline. Because parts are bolted down, tubes can be checked very rapidly without disturbing outline. One verifier per tube-bending machine can really speed up production in tube-bending shop.

  4. Indoor tests of the concentric-tube solar collector

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    Report describes performance tests on 12-tube, liquid-filled collector. Thermal efficiency, change in efficiency with sun position, and time constant for temperature drop after solar flux is cut are described.

  5. Solar Magnetic Flux Ropes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Boris Filippov; Olesya Martsenyuk; Abhishek K. Srivastava; Wahab Uddin

    2015-03-01

    In the early 1990s, it was found that the strongest disturbances of the space–weather were associated with huge ejections of plasma from the solar corona, which took the form of magnetic clouds when moved from the Sun. It is the collisions of the magnetic clouds with the Earth's magnetosphere that lead to strong, sometimes catastrophic changes in space–weather. The onset of a coronal mass ejection (CME) is sudden and no reliable forerunners of CMEs have been found till date. The CME prediction methodologies are less developed compared to the methods developed for the prediction of solar flares. The most probable initial magnetic configuration of a CME is a flux rope consisting of twisted field lines which fill the whole volume of a dark coronal cavity. The flux ropes can be in stable equilibrium in the coronal magnetic field for weeks and even months, but suddenly they lose their stability and erupt with high speed. Their transition to the unstable phase depends on the parameters of the flux rope (i.e., total electric current, twist, mass loading, etc.), as well as on the properties of the ambient coronal magnetic field. One of the major governing factors is the vertical gradient of the coronal magnetic field, which is estimated as decay index (). Cold dense prominence material can be collected in the lower parts of the helical flux tubes. Filaments are, therefore, good tracers of the flux ropes in the corona, which become visible long before the beginning of the eruption. The perspectives of the filament eruptions and following CMEs can be estimated by a comparison of observed filament heights with calculated decay index distributions. The present paper reviews the formation of magnetic flux ropes, their stable and unstable phases, eruption conditions, and also discusses their physical implications in the solar corona.

  6. Evacuated-tube solar collector--performance evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    Report gives thermal performance test procedures and results for commercially produced, water-filled, 8-tube collectors. Tests include efficiency, time constant for temperature drop after solar flux is cut, change in efficiency as function of sun angle, and test to see if tubes break when filled with hot water.

  7. Enhancements of magnetospheric convection electric field associated with sudden commencements in the inner magnetosphere and plasmasphere regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinbori, A.; Ono, T.; Iizima, M.; Kumamoto, A.; Nishimura, Y.

    2006-01-01

    Electric field variations in the inner magnetosphere and plasmasphere regions associated with sudden commencements (SCs) are investigated by using the observation data of the Akebono satellite which has been carried out more than 15 years since 1989. 117 of 153 SC events in the low-latitude (MLAT bi-polar waveform due to the passage of fast-mode hydromagnetic (HM) waves. The increase of the convection electric field takes place in the entire magnetic local time sector in the inner magnetosphere. The amplitude does not depend on L-value and magnetic local time but is proportional to the SC amplitude measured at Kakioka. The majority of the electric field enhancements persist for about 4 14 min. The origin of the convection electric field in the inner magnetosphere is a plasma motion caused by the compression of the magnetosphere due to the solar wind shock and discontinuity.

  8. Intra-plasmaspheric wave power density deduced from long-term DEMETER measurements of terrestrial VLF transmitter wave amplitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauben, D.; Cohen, M.; Inan, U.

    2012-12-01

    We deduce the 3d intra-plasmaspheric distribution of VLF wave power between conjugate regions of strong VLF wave amplitudes as measured by DEMETER for high-power terrestrial VLF transmitters during its ~6-yr lifetime. We employ a mixed WKB/full-wave technique to solve for the primary and secondary electromagnetic and electrostatic waves which are transmitted and reflected from strong cold-plasma density gradients and posited irregularities, in order to match the respective end-point measured amplitude distributions. Energy arriving in the conjugate region and also escaping to other regions of the magnetosphere is note. The resulting 3d distribution allows improved estimates for the long-term average particle scattering induced by terrestrial VLF transmitters.

  9. Physics of Magnetic Flux Ropes

    CERN Document Server

    Priest, E R; Lee, L C

    1990-01-01

    The American Geophysical Union Chapman Conference on the Physics of Magnetic Flux Ropes was held at the Hamilton Princess Hotel, Hamilton, Bermuda on March 27–31, 1989. Topics discussed ranged from solar flux ropes, such as photospheric flux tubes, coronal loops and prominences, to flux ropes in the solar wind, in planetary ionospheres, at the Earth's magnetopause, in the geomagnetic tail and deep in the Earth's magnetosphere. Papers presented at that conference form the nucleus of this book, but the book is more than just a proceedings of the conference. We have solicited articles from all interested in this topic. Thus, there is some material in the book not discussed at the conference. Even in the case of papers presented at the conference, there is generally a much more detailed and rigorous presentation than was possible in the time allowed by the oral and poster presentations.

  10. Condensation of refrigerants on vertical fluted tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Combs, S.K.; Mailen, G.S.; Murphy, R.W.

    1978-08-01

    Experiments were run to determine heat transfer performance of single vertical fluted tubes with selected fluids condensing on the outside. Working fluids included six fluorocarbons (Refrigerants 11, 21, 22, 113, 114, and 115) and a hydrocarbon (Refrigerant 600a or isobutane). The nine test tubes were of 2.54-cm (1-in.) nominal outside diameter and 1.2 m (4 ft) in length with from 0 (smooth) to 60 axial flutes. Condensing heat transfer coefficients ranged from 620 to 7900 W/m/sup 2/ . K (110 to 1400 Btu/hr . ft/sup 2/ . /sup 0/F) over the heat flux range of 2000 to 43,000 W/m/sup 2/ (920 to 13,600 Btu/hr . ft/sup 2/). All parameters are based on total condensing surface area. The data show that, for a given heat flux, a fluted tube can increase condensing coefficients up to 6.0 times smooth tube values. Further heat transfer enhancement was achieved by the use of drainage skirts on fluted tubes; these skirts effectively divided the 1.2-m (4-ft) tubes into two, four, and eight equal condensing lengths.

  11. Methane Flux

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Methane (CH4) flux is the net rate of methane exchange between an ecosystem and the atmosphere. Data of this variable were generated by the USGS LandCarbon project...

  12. Experiments with micro-fin tube in single phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Copetti, J.B.; Macagnan, M.H.; De Souza, D.; Oliveski, R.D.C. [Universidade do Vale do Rio dos Sinos, Sao Leopoldo (Brazil). Department of Mechanical Engineering

    2004-12-01

    This work shows heat transfer and friction characteristics for water single-phase flow in micro-fin tubes. The analysis of thermal and hydraulic behavior from a laminar to a turbulent flow was carried out in an experimental setup with a 9.52 mm diameter micro-fin tube. The tube was wrapped up with an electrical resistance tape to supply a constant heat flux to its surface. Different operational conditions were considered in the heating tests. The inlet and outlet temperatures, differential wall temperatures along the tube, pressure drop and flow rate were measured. The relationships of heat flux and flow rate with heat transfer coefficient and pressure drop were analyzed. Under the same conditions, comparative experiments with an internally smooth tube were conducted. The micro-fin tube provides higher heat transfer performance than the smooth tube (in turbulent flow h{sub micro-fin}/h{sub smooth}=2.9). In spite of the increase in pressure drop ({delta}p{sub micro-fin}/{delta}p{sub smooth}=1.7) the heat transfer results were significantly higher (about 80%). This shows the advantages of this enhanced configuration in thermal performance related to conventional tubes. The smooth tube results were validated by the comparison with the Dittus-Boelter and Gnielinski correlations. For the micro-fin tube an empirical correlation to the heat transfer coefficient adjusted from the set of measured data is proposed. The values obtained are in conformity with experimental results. (author)

  13. Burnout in the horizontal tubes of a furnace waterwall panel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    B.Y. Kamenetskii [All-Russia Research Institute of Nuclear Power Engineering (OAO VNIIAM), Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2009-07-01

    An experimental study of heat transfer that occurs in tubes nonuniformly heated over the perimeter at low velocities of subcooled water flowing in them is presented. Experiments with unsteady supply of heat made it possible to determine heat fluxes under burnout conditions. Unusually low values of critical heat fluxes were obtained under such conditions.

  14. Burnout in the horizontal tubes of a furnace waterwall panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamenetskii, B. Ya.

    2009-08-01

    An experimental study of heat transfer that occurs in tubes nonuniformly heated over the perimeter at low velocities of subcooled water flowing in them is presented. Experiments with unsteady supply of heat made it possible to determine heat fluxes under burnout conditions. Unusually low values of critical heat fluxes were obtained under such conditions.

  15. Behaviour of Magnetic Tubes in Neutron Star's Interior

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, R.S.; Sinha, B.K.; Lohani, N. K.

    2002-01-01

    It is found from Maxwell's equations that the magnetic field lines are good analogues of relativistic strings. It is shown that the super-conducting current in the neutron star's interior causes local rotation of magnetic flux tubes carrying quantized flux.

  16. Dissipation of Alfven wave pulses propagating along dipole magnetic tubes with reflections at the ionosphere

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erkaev, NV; Shaidurov, VA; Semenov, VS; Biernat, HK; Heidorn, D; Lakhina, GS

    2006-01-01

    A ratio of the maximal and minimal cross sections of the magnetic tube (contraction ratio) is a crucial parameter which affects very strongly on reflections of MHD wave pulses propagating along a narrowing magnetic flux tube. In cases of large contraction ratios of magnetospheric magnetic tubes, the

  17. Dual active surface heat flux gage probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebert, Curt H.; Kolodziej, Paul

    1995-02-01

    A unique plug-type heat flux gage probe was tested in the NASA Ames Research Center 2x9 turbulent flow duct facility. The probe was fabricated by welding a miniature dual active surface heat flux gage body to the end of a hollow metal cylindrical bolt containing a metal inner tube. Cooling air flows through the inner tube, impinges onto the back of the gage body and then flows out through the annulus formed between the inner tube and the hollow bolt wall. Heat flux was generated in the duct facility with a Huels arc heater. The duct had a rectangular cross section and one wall was fabricated from 2.54 centimeter thick thermal insulation rigid surface material mounted onto an aluminum plate. To measure heat flux, the probe was inserted through the plate and insulating materials with the from of the gage located flush with the hot gas-side insulation surface. Absorbed heat fluxes measured with the probe were compared with absorbed heat fluxes measured with six water-cooled reference calorimeters. These calorimeters were located in a water-cooled metal duct wall which was located across from the probe position. Correspondence of transient and steady heat fluxes measured with the reference calorimeters and heat flux gage probe was generally within a satisfactory plus or minus 10 percent. This good correspondence was achieved even though the much cooler probe caused a large surface temperature disruption of 1000K between the metal gage and the insulation. However, this temperature disruption did not seriously effect the accuracy of the heat flux measurement. A current application for dual active surface heat flux gages is for transient and steady absorbed heat flux, surface temperature and heat transfer coefficient measurements on the surface of an oxidizer turbine inlet deflector operating in a space shuttle test bed engine.

  18. Applicable methods for NDT of tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pitkaenen, J.; Lipponen, A.; Kauppinen, P. [VTT Industrial Systems Espoo (Finland)

    2004-05-01

    For inside inspection of tubes, eddy current testing (ET) and internal rotating ultrasonic inspection (IRIS) are mainly used at the moment. Special eddy current method, remote field technique (RFEC) is being used to some extent, but normally only for ferritic tubes. This paper presents a review of techniques that can be used for internal inspections of tubes in boilers, heat exchangers and steam generators. Material affects the choice of the method, considering given defect type and detectability with the selected technique. In general ET methods are used for inspection of non- ferromagnetic tubes and IRIS and RFEC methods for inspection of ferromagnetic tubes. New techniques have been introduced, to determine the tube condition accurately. One of the developed techniques is for instance inspection of the internal surface by combination of dye penetrant and optical laser inspection. New applications of ultrasonic techniques include defect detection and characterisation by tip diffraction echoes, defect analysis by echo dynamics and the TOFD-technique for defect sizing. Ultrasonic guided waves have a great potential to increase inspection speed for defect detection, although sizing is still under development. For inspection of ferromagnetic tubes, a method based on magnetic flux leakage has been used. In addition to the basic techniques visualisation of the measured data is one of the. key factors for improved exploitation of the inspection results. (orig.)

  19. Feeding tube insertion - gastrostomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002937.htm Feeding tube insertion - gastrostomy To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A gastrostomy feeding tube insertion is the placement of a feeding ...

  20. Neural Tube Defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neural tube defects are birth defects of the brain, spine, or spinal cord. They happen in the ... that she is pregnant. The two most common neural tube defects are spina bifida and anencephaly. In ...

  1. Heat transfer enhancement through inner grooved copper tubes with different tube parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Rahman, Y. M. Ling, G. W. Soon, G. A. Kuan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the evaluation of heat transfer coefficients for the flow of R22 through internally grooved copper tubes. A series of tests were conducted using two types of tubes namely Tube A and Tube B, which have different tube parameters. The straight and horizontal test section of the test apparatus with a length of 3.67 m was heated or cooled by water circulated in a surrounding annulus. Condensation tests were conducted at mass flux rates of 180 to 537 kg/m2s and the vapor qualities ranged from a nominal value of 83% at the test section inlet to 6% at the outlet. Evaporation tests were conducted at mass flux rates of 110 to 404 kg/m2s and the nominal vapor qualities at the inlet and outlet were 0 and 85%, respectively. For both the condensation and evaporation tests, the heat transfer coefficients are found to increase as the mass flux rate increases.

  2. Experimental study of heat transfer for parallel flow in tube bundles with constant heat flux and for medium Prandtl numbers; Etude experimentale du transfert de chaleur dans des faisceaux tubulaires en ecoulement parallele pour une densite de flux thermique constante dans le domaine des nombres de Prandtl moyens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rieger, M. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, 91 - Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1968-06-01

    The heat transfer parameters were determined experimentally in electrically heated tube bundles for turbulent flow parallel to the axis. The tubes were arranged in a pattern of equilateral triangles. The ratios of the distance between the axes of the tubes to their external diameter were 1.60 and 1.25 in the two test sections studied. The experiments were carried out with distilled water and with a mixture of 60 per cent ethylene glycol and 40 per cent water. The values obtained for the Prandtl numbers in this way fell within the range from 2.3 to 18. The Reynolds numbers were varied between 10{sup 4} and 2.10{sup 5}. The relation between the mean heat transfer coefficients and the friction factor in the tube bundles was found from the experiments as: Nu = [Re Pr {zeta}/8]/[1+{radical}({zeta}/8) 8.8 (Pr-1.3) Pr{sup -0.22}]. The experimentally determined mean Nusselt numbers were also given by the following function: Nu = (0.0122 + 0.00245 p/d) Re{sup 0.86} Pr{sup 0.4}, with a maximum deviation of {+-}4 per cent. For certain local Nusselt numbers, deviations of up to 20 per cent with respect to the relations given were observed. (author) [French] Dans des faisceaux tubulaires a chauffage electrique parcourus par un ecoulement turbulent parallele a l'axe, on a determine experimentalement les parametres du transfert de chaleur. Les centres des sections droites des tubes etaient des sommets de triangles equilateraux. Les rapports de la distance a l'axe des tubes et leur diametre exterieur dans les deux veines de mesure etudiees etaient de 1.60 et 1.25. Des essais furent effectues avec de l'eau distillee ainsi qu'avec un melange de 60 pour cent de glycol ethylenique et 40 pour cent d'eau. Les valeurs des nombres de Prandtl obtenues ainsi etaient situees entre 2.3 a 18. On a fait varier les nombres de Reynolds entre 10{sup 4} et 2.10{sup 5}. La relation entre les nombres caracteristiques de transfert de chaleur moyens et la perte de charge dans

  3. Enhanced shell-and-tube heat eschangers for the power and process industries. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergles, A.E.; Jensen, M.K.; Somerscales, E.F.; Curcio, L.A. Jr.; Trewin, R.R.

    1994-08-01

    Single-tube pool boiling tests were performed with saturated pure refrigerants and binary mixtures of refrigerants. Generally, with pure refrigerants, the High Flux surface performed better at the higher heat fluxes compared to the Turbo-B tube, and both enhanced surfaces performed significantly better than smooth surface. In tests of R-11/R-113 mixtures, the enhanced surfaces had much less degradation in heat transfer coefficient due to mixture effects compared to smooth tubes; the largest degradation occurred at a mixture of 25% R-11/75% R-113. Under boiling in saturated aqueous solution of calcium sulfate, with a single tube, effects of fouling were more pronounced at the higher heat fluxes for all surfaces. Two staggered tube bundles were tested with tube pitch-diameter ratios of 1.17 and 1.50. For the pure refrigerant, tests on the smooth-tube bundle indicated that the effects on the heat transfer coefficient of varying mass flux, quality, and tube-bundle geometry were small, except at low heat fluxes. Neither enhanced surface showed any effect with changing mass flux or quality. The binary mixture bundle-boiling tests had results that were very similar to those obtained with the pure refrigerants. When boiling a refrigerant-oil mixture, all three surfaces (smooth, High Flux, and Turbo-B) experienced a degradation in its heat transfer coefficient; no surface studied was found to be immune or vulnerable to the presence of oil than another surface.

  4. Topside-plasmasphere electron density profiles model by using AIS ionosonde measurements and calibrates GPS TEC data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesaroni, Claudio; Scotto, Carlo; Ippolito, Alessandro; Ciraolo, Luigi

    2013-04-01

    The Upper Atmosphere Physics group at INGV (Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia) developed Autoscala, a computer program for automatic scaling of the critical frequency foF2 and other ionospheric parameters derived from ionograms. Autoscala includes a routine that automatically estimates the electron density profile below F layer peak height hmF2, by adjusting the parameters of a model according to the recorded ionogram [Scotto (2009)]. By integrating this profile we can estimate bottom-side total electron content (bTEC). By means of a calibration technique [Ciraolo et al. (2007)], we are able to obtain calibrated vertical TEC (vTEC) values from GPS measurements over a receiver station. This method permits to estimate biases of the received signal due to transmitter-receiver hardware configuration. These biases must be eliminated from the GPS data in order to calibrate the experimental slant total electron content (sTEC) along the satellite-receiver line-of-sight (LoS). The difference between vTEC and bottom-side TEC (bTEC) permits to evaluate electron content of the topside ionospheric region (tTEC). Starting from tTEC, bottom-side parameters (foF2, hmF2, scale height at hmF2) obtained by ionosonde and O+ - H+ transition level, we can solve a system of equations based on different ionospheric profiler (Chapman, sech-squared and exponential) the solution of which provides ion scale height [Stankov et al. (2003)]. This last factor is sufficient to establish the vertical distribution of electrons in topside and plasmasphere regions. Obtained vertical profiles could be used to develop a new model for real time estimation of TEC and topside electron density distribution. References: Scotto, C. (2009). Electron density profile calculation technique for Autoscala ionogram analysis. Advances in Space Research, 44(6), 756-766. doi:10.1016/j.asr.2009.04.037 Ciraolo, L., et al. "Calibration errors on experimental slant total electron content (TEC) determined with

  5. Strong localized variations of the low-altitude energetic electron fluxes in the evening sector near the plasmapause

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. E. Titova

    Full Text Available Specific type of energetic electron precipitation accompanied by a sharp increase in trapped energetic electron flux are found in the data obtained from low-altitude NOAA satellites. These strongly localized variations of the trapped and precipitated energetic electron flux have been observed in the evening sector near the plasmapause during recovery phase of magnetic storms. Statistical characteristics of these structures as well as the results of comparison with proton precipitation are described. We demonstrate the spatial coincidence of localized electron precipitation with cold plasma gradient and whistler wave intensification measured on board the DE-1 and Aureol-3 satellites. A simultaneous localized sharp increase in both trapped and precipitating electron flux could be a result of significant pitch-angle isotropization of drifting electrons due to their interaction via cyclotron instability with the region of sharp increase in background plasma density.

    Key words. Ionosphere (particle precipitation; wave-particle interaction Magnetospheric Physics (plasmasphere

  6. Intercostal drainage tube or intracardiac drainage tube?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Anitha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Although insertion of chest drain tubes is a common medical practice, there are risks associated with this procedure, especially when inexperienced physicians perform it. Wrong insertion of the tube has been known to cause morbidity and occasional mortality. We report a case where the left ventricle was accidentally punctured leading to near-exsanguination. This report is to highlight the need for experienced physicians to supervise the procedure and train the younger physician in the safe performance of the procedure.

  7. The CuSPED Mission: CubeSat for GNSS Sounding of the Ionosphere-Plasmasphere Electron Density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Jason N.; Keesee, Amy M.; Christian, John A.; Gu, Yu; Scime, Earl; Komjathy, Attila; Lightsey, E. Glenn; Pollock, Craig J.

    2016-01-01

    The CubeSat for GNSS Sounding of Ionosphere-Plasmasphere Electron Density (CuSPED) is a 3U CubeSat mission concept that has been developed in response to the NASA Heliophysics program's decadal science goal of the determining of the dynamics and coupling of the Earth's magnetosphere, ionosphere, and atmosphere and their response to solar and terrestrial inputs. The mission was formulated through a collaboration between West Virginia University, Georgia Tech, NASA GSFC and NASA JPL, and features a 3U CubeSat that hosts both a miniaturized space capable Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) receiver for topside atmospheric sounding, along with a Thermal Electron Capped Hemispherical Spectrometer (TECHS) for the purpose of in situ electron precipitation measurements. These two complimentary measurement techniques will provide data for the purpose of constraining ionosphere-magnetosphere coupling models and will also enable studies of the local plasma environment and spacecraft charging; a phenomenon which is known to lead to significant errors in the measurement of low-energy, charged species from instruments aboard spacecraft traversing the ionosphere. This paper will provide an overview of the concept including its science motivation and implementation.

  8. Pulse Tube Refrigerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsubara, Yoichi

    The pulse tube refrigerator is one of the regenerative cycle refrigerators such as Stirling cycle or Gifford-McMahon cycle which gives the cooling temperature below 150 K down to liquid helium temperature. In 1963, W. E. Gifford invented a simple refrigeration cycle which is composed of compressor, regenerator and simple tube named as pulse tube which gives a similar function of the expander in Stirling or Gifford-McMahon cycle. The thermodynamically performance of this pulse tube refrigerator is inferior to that of other regenerative cycles. In 1984, however, Mikulin and coworkers made a significant advance in pulse tube configuration called as orifice pulse tube. After this, several modifications of the pulse tube hot end configuration have been developed. With those modifications, the thermodynamic performance of the pulse tube refrigerator became the same order to that of Stirling and Gifford-McMahon refrigerator. This article reviews the brief history of the pulse tube refrigerator development in the view point of its thermodynamically efficiency. Simplified theories of the energy flow in the pulse tube have also been described.

  9. Flow visualization using momentum and energy transport tubes and applications to turbulent flow in wind farms

    CERN Document Server

    Meyers, Johan

    2012-01-01

    As a generalization of the mass-flux based classical stream-tube, the concept of momentum and energy transport tubes is discussed as a flow visualization tool. These transport tubes have the property, respectively, that no fluxes of momentum or energy exist over their respective tube mantles. As an example application using data from large-eddy simulation, such tubes are visualized for the mean-flow structure of turbulent flow in large wind farms, in fully developed wind-turbine-array boundary layers. The three-dimensional organization of energy transport tubes changes considerably when turbine spacings are varied, enabling the visualization of the path taken by the kinetic energy flux that is ultimately available at any given turbine within the array.

  10. Heat Transfer Studies in Tube Banks with Integral Wake Splitters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzairin Md Seri

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the findings from heat transfer studies with the presence of extended surfaces from tube banks which are termed as integral wake splitter plates. Employing this type of fins, investigations on heat transfer characteristics on a single circular tube as well as tube banks were carried out in cross flow of air in a rectangular duct. Experiments were carried out in the Reynolds number range 5 x 103 to 105 on a single cylinder of various splitter length-to-tube diameter ratios, L/D = 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0. Further, tube banks consisting of 12 rows and 3 tubes per row in equilateral triangle arrangements with transverse pitch to diameter ratio, a = 2, were also investigated, the banks being made up of plain tubes or tubes with splitters. Heat transfer characteristics were studied for tubes with L/D = 0, 0.5 and 1.0 under constant heat flux conditions. Tube banks with L/D = 1.0 yielded the highest heat transfer rates. Findings from this work may be adopted to be utilized in various industrial applications such as economizer of a steam boiler, air-conditioning coils or waste heat recovery systems.

  11. Modification of a very large thermal-vacuum test chamber for ionosphere and plasmasphere simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, O. L.

    1978-01-01

    No large-volume chamber existed which could simulate the ion and electron environment of near-earth space. A very large thermal-vacuum chamber was modified to provide for the manipulation of the test volume magnetic field and for the generation and monitoring of plasma. Plasma densities of 1 million particles per cu cm were generated in the chamber where a variable magnetic flux density of up to 0.00015 T (1.5 gauss) was produced. Plasma temperature, density, composition, and visual effects were monitored, and plasma containment and control were investigated. Initial operation of the modified chamber demonstrated a capability satisfactory for a wide variety of experiments and hardware tests which require an interaction with the plasma environment. Potential for improving the quality of the simulation exists.

  12. Critical flux determination by flux-stepping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beier, Søren; Jonsson, Gunnar Eigil

    2010-01-01

    In membrane filtration related scientific literature, often step-by-step determined critical fluxes are reported. Using a dynamic microfiltration device, it is shown that critical fluxes determined from two different flux-stepping methods are dependent upon operational parameters such as step......, such values are more or less useless in itself as critical flux predictors, and constant flux verification experiments have to be conducted to check if the determined critical fluxes call predict sustainable flux regimes. However, it is shown that using the step-by-step predicted critical fluxes as start...

  13. Solar Surface Emerging Flux Regions: A Comparative Study of Radiative MHD Modeling and Hinode SOT Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, M.; Schüssler, M.; Tarbell, T. D.; Title, A. M.

    2009-12-01

    We present results from three-dimensional radiative MHD simulations of the rise of buoyant magnetic flux tubes through the convection zone and into the photosphere. Due to the strong stratification of the convection zone, the rise results in a lateral expansion of the tube into a magnetic sheet, which acts as a reservoir for small-scale flux emergence events at the scale of granulation. The interaction of the convective downflows and the rising magnetic flux tube undulates it to form serpentine field lines that emerge into the photosphere. Observational characteristics of the simulated emerging flux regions are discussed in the context of new observations from Hinode SOT.

  14. Heated Tube Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Heated Tube Facility at NASA GRC investigates cooling issues by simulating conditions characteristic of rocket engine thrust chambers and high speed airbreathing...

  15. Fuel nozzle tube retention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cihlar, David William; Melton, Patrick Benedict

    2017-02-28

    A system for retaining a fuel nozzle premix tube includes a retention plate and a premix tube which extends downstream from an outlet of a premix passage defined along an aft side of a fuel plenum body. The premix tube includes an inlet end and a spring support feature which is disposed proximate to the inlet end. The premix tube extends through the retention plate. The spring retention feature is disposed between an aft side of the fuel plenum and the retention plate. The system further includes a spring which extends between the spring retention feature and the retention plate.

  16. Magnetarc Welding - peculiarities of joining thin wall tubes

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    The paper presents the MAGNETARC welding of thin tubes achieved with an original longitudinal magnetization system, designed to assure the magnetic flux concentration on tube wall. Process main stages are presented, from the arc initiation until the molten metal appears, upsetting is achieved and the weld forms. Infrared thermography was used for temperature measurements and process visualization. Macro and microstructural analysis accompanies the hardness tests made on correspondingly weld...

  17. Steam generator tube failures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacDonald, P.E.; Shah, V.N.; Ward, L.W.; Ellison, P.G.

    1996-04-01

    A review and summary of the available information on steam generator tubing failures and the impact of these failures on plant safety is presented. The following topics are covered: pressurized water reactor (PWR), Canadian deuterium uranium (CANDU) reactor, and Russian water moderated, water cooled energy reactor (VVER) steam generator degradation, PWR steam generator tube ruptures, the thermal-hydraulic response of a PWR plant with a faulted steam generator, the risk significance of steam generator tube rupture accidents, tubing inspection requirements and fitness-for-service criteria in various countries, and defect detection reliability and sizing accuracy. A significant number of steam generator tubes are defective and are removed from service or repaired each year. This wide spread damage has been caused by many diverse degradation mechanisms, some of which are difficult to detect and predict. In addition, spontaneous tube ruptures have occurred at the rate of about one every 2 years over the last 20 years, and incipient tube ruptures (tube failures usually identified with leak detection monitors just before rupture) have been occurring at the rate of about one per year. These ruptures have caused complex plant transients which have not always been easy for the reactor operators to control. Our analysis shows that if more than 15 tubes rupture during a main steam line break, the system response could lead to core melting. Although spontaneous and induced steam generator tube ruptures are small contributors to the total core damage frequency calculated in probabilistic risk assessments, they are risk significant because the radionuclides are likely to bypass the reactor containment building. The frequency of steam generator tube ruptures can be significantly reduced through appropriate and timely inspections and repairs or removal from service.

  18. Size-Flux Relation in Solar Active Regions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    We present a study of the relationship between integral area and corre-sponding total magnetic flux for solar active regions. It is shown that some of theserelationships are satisfied to simple power laws. Fractal examination showed thatsome of these power laws can not be justified inside the simple models of stationarymagnetic flux tube aggregation. All magnetic fluxes and corresponding areas werecalculated using the data measured with the Solar Magnetic Field Telescope of theHuairou Solar Observing Station in Beijing.

  19. Hologram recording tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajchman, J. H.

    1973-01-01

    Optical memories allow extremely large numbers of bits to be stored and recalled in a matter of microseconds. Two recording tubes, similar to conventional image-converting tubes, but having a soft-glass surface on which hologram is recorded, do not degrade under repeated hologram read/write cycles.

  20. Molybdenum Tube Characterization report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beaux II, Miles Frank [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Usov, Igor Olegovich [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-02-07

    Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) techniques have been utilized to produce free-standing molybdenum tubes with the end goal of nuclear fuel clad applications. In order to produce tubes with properties desirable for this application, deposition rates were lowered requiring long deposition durations on the order of 50 hours. Standard CVD methods as well as fluidized-bed CVD (FBCVD) methods were applied towards these objectives. Characterization of the tubes produced in this manner revealed material suitable for fuel clad applications, but lacking necessary uniformity across the length of the tubes. The production of freestanding Mo tubes that possess the desired properties across their entire length represents an engineering challenge that can be overcome in a next iteration of the deposition system.

  1. Categorising YouTube

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Thomas Mosebo

    2011-01-01

    This article provides a genre analytical approach to creating a typology of the User Generated Content (UGC) of YouTube. The article investigates the construction of navigation processes on the YouTube website. It suggests a pragmatic genre approach that is expanded through a focus on YouTube’s...... technological affordances. Through an analysis of the different pragmatic contexts of YouTube, it is argued that a taxonomic understanding of YouTube must be analysed in regards to the vacillation of a user-driven bottom-up folksonomy and a hierarchical browsing system that emphasises a culture of competition...... and which favours the already popular content of YouTube. With this taxonomic approach, the UGC videos are registered and analysed in terms of empirically based observations. The article identifies various UGC categories and their principal characteristics. Furthermore, general tendencies of the UGC within...

  2. Wavy tube heat pumping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haldeman, C. W.

    1985-12-03

    A PVC conduit about 4'' in diameter and a little more than 40 feet long is adapted for being seated in a hole in the earth and surrounds a coaxial copper tube along its length that carries Freon between a heat pump and a distributor at the bottom. A number of wavy conducting tubes located between the central conducting tube and the wall of the conduit interconnect the distributor with a Freon distributor at the top arranged for connection to the heat pump. The wavy conducting tubing is made by passing straight soft copper tubing between a pair of like opposed meshing gears each having four convex points in space quadrature separated by four convex recesses with the radius of curvature of each point slightly less than that of each concave recess.

  3. Convective Boiling of Near-Azeotropic Refrigerant R410A in the Horizontal Micro-fin Tube

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DUAN Xue-tao; MA Hu-gen; WU Zhi-min; WANG Fang

    2007-01-01

    Using near-azeotropic refrigerant R410A as the working fluid, the experimental studies on the horizontal micro-fin tubes were conducted. Several factors affecting heat transfer coefficients were analyzed, and the characteristics of flow boiling of the refrigerant in the horizontal micro-fin tubes were discussed. The local heat transfer coefficients increase with mass flux, heat flux and quality. And the heat transfer enhancement factor of those testing tubes is about 1.6 to 2.2.

  4. Herschel-Bulkley fluid flow through narrow tubes

    CERN Document Server

    Nallapu, Santhosh

    2014-01-01

    A two-fluid model of Herschel-Bulkley fluid flow through tubes of small diameters is studied. It is assumed that the core region consists of Herschel-Bulkley fluid and Newtonian fluid in the peripheral region. The analytical solutions for velocity, flow flux, effective viscosity, core hematocrit and mean hematocrit have been derived and the effects of various relevant parameters on these flow variables have been studied. It has been observed that the effective viscosity and mean hematocrit increase with yield stress, power-law index, hematocrit and tube radius. Further, the core hematocrit decreases with hematocrit and tube radius.

  5. What Are Neural Tube Defects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... NICHD Research Information Clinical Trials Resources and Publications Neural Tube Defects (NTDs): Condition Information Skip sharing on social media links Share this: Page Content What are neural tube defects? Neural (pronounced NOOR-uhl ) tube defects are ...

  6. Solar surface emerging flux regions: a comparative study of radiative MHD modeling and Hinode SOT observations

    CERN Document Server

    Cheung, M C M; Tarbell, T D; Title, A M

    2008-01-01

    We present results from numerical modeling of emerging flux regions on the solar surface. The modeling was carried out by means of 3D radiative MHD simulations of the rise of buoyant magnetic flux tubes through the convection zone and into the photosphere. Due to the strong stratification of the convection zone, the rise results in a lateral expansion of the tube into a magnetic sheet, which acts as a reservoir for small-scale flux emergence events at the scale of granulation. The interaction of the convective downflows and the rising magnetic flux undulates it to form serpentine field lines emerging into the photosphere. Observational characteristics including the pattern of emerging flux regions, the cancellation of surface flux and associated high speed downflows, the convective collapse of photospheric flux tubes, the appearance of anomalous darkenings, the formation of bright points and the possible existence of transient kilogauss horizontal fields are discussed in the context of new observations from t...

  7. Isolated Fallopian Tube Torsion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kardakis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Isolated torsion of the Fallopian tube is a rare gynecological cause of acute lower abdominal pain, and diagnosis is difficult. There are no pathognomonic symptoms; clinical, imaging, or laboratory findings. A preoperative ultrasound showing tubular adnexal masses of heterogeneous echogenicity with cystic component is often present. Diagnosis can rarely be made before operation, and laparoscopy is necessary to establish the diagnosis. Unfortunately, surgery often is performed too late for tube conservation. Isolated Fallopian tube torsion should be suspected in case of acute pelvic pain, and prompt intervention is necessary.

  8. Nonlinear mhd simulations of wave dissipation in flux tubes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poedts, S.; Toth, G.; Belien, A. J. C.; Goedbloed, J. P.

    1997-01-01

    The phase mixing and resonant dissipation of Alfven waves is studied in both the 'closed' magnetic loops and the 'open' coronal holes observed in the hot solar corona. The resulting energy transfer from large to small length scales contributes to the heating of these magnetic str

  9. Chromospheric Heating and the Excitation of Magnetic Tube Waves Through p-Mode Buffeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindman, Bradley W.

    1997-05-01

    The dissipation of magnetic tube waves may be the primary source of energy in the thermal balance of the solar chromosphere and corona. In this paper, I compute an upper limit on the energy flux of tube waves that can be driven into the chromosphere if the waves are excited by buffeting of magnetic flux tubes by p--modes. In addition, I estimate the p--mode line widths which result from this transfer of energy from the modes to the flux tube waves. To obtain the upper limit, I assume that the solar magnetic field has a fibril structure consisting of a large set of well--separated, identical tubes. Each tube is axisymmetric, vertical and slender. I approximate the solar atmosphere with a truncated isentropic polytrope, chosen such that it's upper surface matches the tau_ {5000}=1 layer of the photospheric model of Maltby (1986). The response of the fibrils is described using the thin flux tube approximation, ignoring multiple scattering between the tubes, and assuming that the p--modes force the tubes incoherently. The effects of the region above the surface of the polytrope, where a flaring flux tube is poorly represented by the thin flux equations, are simulated through a boundary condition applied at the polytrope's surface. By varying this boundary condition the influence of any upper atmosphere can be reproduced. To compute an upper limit, I chose the boundary condition which optimizes the upward flux of waves. I find that the largest flux of tube waves that can be sent into chromosphere is 29 ergs cm(-2) s(-1) for a fibril field with a 1% filling factor. This flux is miniscule when compared to the energy flux necessary to heat the chromosphere or corona. Therefore, tube waves generated by the buffeting of magnetic fibrils by acoustic waves are inconsequential in the energy balance of the upper atmosphere. Furthermore, using the same boundary conditions, I find that the line width of a p--mode due to the absorption of that mode by the fibrils can be a

  10. Tube-Forming Assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Ryan M; Meah, Christopher J; Heath, Victoria L; Styles, Iain B; Bicknell, Roy

    2016-01-01

    Angiogenesis involves the generation of new blood vessels from the existing vasculature and is dependent on many growth factors and signaling events. In vivo angiogenesis is dynamic and complex, meaning assays are commonly utilized to explore specific targets for research into this area. Tube-forming assays offer an excellent overview of the molecular processes in angiogenesis. The Matrigel tube forming assay is a simple-to-implement but powerful tool for identifying biomolecules involved in angiogenesis. A detailed experimental protocol on the implementation of the assay is described in conjunction with an in-depth review of methods that can be applied to the analysis of the tube formation. In addition, an ImageJ plug-in is presented which allows automatic quantification of tube images reducing analysis times while removing user bias and subjectivity.

  11. Chest tube insertion - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... presentations/100008.htm Chest tube insertion - series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing features ... pleural space is the space between the inner and outer lining of the lung. It is normally very thin, and lined only ...

  12. Snorkeling and Jones tubes

    OpenAIRE

    Lam, Lewis Y. W.; Weatherhead, Robert G.

    2015-01-01

    We report a case of tympanic membrane rupture during snorkeling in a 17-year-old young man who had previously undergone bilateral Jones tubes placed for epiphora. To our knowledge, this phenomenon has not been previously reported.

  13. Snorkeling and Jones tubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Lewis Y W; Weatherhead, Robert G

    2015-01-01

    We report a case of tympanic membrane rupture during snorkeling in a 17-year-old young man who had previously undergone bilateral Jones tubes placed for epiphora. To our knowledge, this phenomenon has not been previously reported.

  14. Nasogastric feeding tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000182.htm Nasogastric feeding tube To use the sharing features on this ... the nose. It can be used for all feedings or for giving a person extra calories. It ...

  15. Ear tube insertion - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100045.htm Ear tube insertion - series—Normal anatomy To use the ... 4 Overview The eardrum (tympanic membrane) separates the ear canal from the middle ear. Review Date 8/ ...

  16. Kinking of medical tubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingles, David

    2004-05-01

    The phenomenon of kinking in medical tubing remains a problem for some applications, particularly critical ones such as transporting gasses or fluids. Design features are described to prevent its occurrence.

  17. Using a nasogastric tube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candy, C

    1986-09-01

    This discussion of the use of a nasogastric tube covers the equipment needed, the method, rehydration and feeding, prolonged nasogastric feeding, and stopping nasogastric feeding. A nasogastric tube is useful when children are unable to drink safely and in sufficient amounts for any of the following reasons: severe dehydration; if intravenous (IV) therapy is unavailable; low birth weight infants; or the child is drowsy or vomiting. Severely malnourished children may be fed initially in this way if they are too weak or anorexic to eat or drink normally. The following equipment is needed: nasogastric tube; lubricating fluid; a syringe; blue litmus paper, if available; adhesive tape; stethoscope if available; and fluid to be given. Explain to the child's parents and the child, if old enough to understand, what will be done; lie infants flat; measure the approximate length from the child's nostril to the ear lobe and then to the top of the abdomen with the tube and mark the position; clean the nostrils to remove the mucus, and lubricate the tip of the tube and gently insert into the nostril; give the child a drink of water if he or she is conscious; continue to pass the tube down until the position marked reaches the nostril; use the syringe to suck up some fluid and test with blue litmus paper to check that the tube is in the stomach; and inject 5-10 ml of fluid (saline or oral rehydration solution, not milk formula) by syringe if satisfied the tube is in the correct position. Where possible, give a continuous drip of fluid. If this is not possible, give frequent small amounts using the syringe as a funnel. If feeding continues for more than 24 hours, clean the nostrils daily with warm water and change the tube to the other nostril every few days. Also keep the mouth very clean with a dilute solution of 8% sodium bicarbonate, if available, or citrus fruit juice. To remove the tube, remove the adhesive tape, take the tube out gently and smoothly, and offer the child a

  18. Magnesium tube hydroforming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liewald, M.; Pop, R. [Institute for Metal Forming Technology (IFU), Stuttgart (Germany)

    2008-04-15

    Magnesium alloys reveal a good strength-to-weight ratio in the family of lightweight metals and gains potential to provide up to 30% mass savings compared to aluminium and up to 75 % compared to steel. The use of sheet magnesium alloys for auto body applications is however limited due to the relatively low formability at room temperature. Within the scope of this paper, extruded magnesium tubes, which are suitable for hydroforming applications, have been investigated. Results obtained at room temperature using magnesium AZ31 tubes show that circumferential strains are limited to a maximal value of 4%. In order to examine the influence of the forming temperature on tube formability, investigations have been carried out with a new die set for hot internal high pressure (IHP) forming at temperatures up to 400 C. Earlier investigations with magnesium AZ31 tubes have shown that fractures occur along the welding line at tubes extruded over a spider die, whereby a non-uniform expansion at bursting with an elongation value of 24% can be observed. A maximum circumferential strain of approx. 60% could be attained when seamless, mechanically pre-expanded and annealed tubes of the same alloy have been used. The effect of annealing time on materials forming properties shows a fine grained structure for sufficient annealing times as well as deterioration with a large increase at same time. Hence, seamless ZM21 tubes have been used in the current investigations. With these tubes, an increased tensile fracture strain of 116% at 350 C is observed as against 19% at 20 C, obtained by tensile testing of milled specimens from the extruded tubes. This behaviour is also seen under the condition of tool contact during the IHP forming process. To determine the maximum circumferential strain at different forming temperatures and strain rates, the tubes are initially bulged in a die with square cross-section under plane stress conditions. Thereafter, the tubes are calibrated by using an

  19. Power vacuum tubes handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Whitaker, Jerry

    2012-01-01

    Providing examples of applications, Power Vacuum Tubes Handbook, Third Edition examines the underlying technology of each type of power vacuum tube device in common use today. The author presents basic principles, reports on new development efforts, and discusses implementation and maintenance considerations. Supporting mathematical equations and extensive technical illustrations and schematic diagrams help readers understand the material. Translate Principles into Specific Applications This one-stop reference is a hands-on guide for engineering personnel involved in the design, specification,

  20. Flux-P: Automating Metabolic Flux Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Ebert, Birgitta E.; Anna-Lena Lamprecht; Bernhard Steffen; Blank, Lars M.

    2012-01-01

    Quantitative knowledge of intracellular fluxes in metabolic networks is invaluable for inferring metabolic system behavior and the design principles of biological systems. However, intracellular reaction rates can not often be calculated directly but have to be estimated; for instance, via 13C-based metabolic flux analysis, a model-based interpretation of stable carbon isotope patterns in intermediates of metabolism. Existing software such as FiatFlux, OpenFLUX or 13CFLUX supports experts in ...

  1. Aeronautical tubes and pipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauclair, N.

    1984-12-01

    The main and subcomponent French suppliers of aircraft tubes and pipes are discussed, and the state of the industry is analyzed. Quality control is essential for tubes with regard to their i.d. and metallurgical compositions. French regulations do not allow welded seam tubes in hydraulic circuits unless no other form is available, and then rustproofed steel must be installed. The actual low level of orders for any run of tubes dictates that the product is only one of several among the manufacturers' line. Automation, both in NDT and quality control, assures that the tubes meet specifications. A total of 10 French companies participate in the industry, serving both civil and military needs, with some companies specializing only in titanium, steel, or aluminum materials. Concerns wishing to enter the market must upgrade their equipment to meet the higher aeronautical specifications and be prepared to furnish tubes and pipes that serve both functional and structural purposes simultaneously. Additionally, pipe-bending machines must also perform to tight specifications. Pipes can range from 0.2 mm exterior diameter to 40 mm, with wall thicknesses from 0.02 mm to 3 mm. A chart containing a list of manufacturers and their respective specifications and characteristics is presented, and a downtrend in production with reduction of personnel is noted.

  2. A gas laser tube

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tetsuo, F.; Tokhikhide, N.

    1984-04-19

    A gas laser tube is described in which contamination of the laser gas mixture by the coolant is avoided, resulting in a longer service life of the mirrors. The holder contains two tubes, one inside the other. The laser gas mixture flows through the internal tube. An electrode is fastened to the holder. The coolant is pumped through the slot between the two tubes, for which a hole is cut into the holder. The external tube has a ring which serves to seal the cavity containing the coolant from the atmosphere. The internal tube has two rings, one to seal the laser gas mixture and the other to seal the coolant. A slot is located between these two rings, which leads to the atmosphere (the atmosphere layer). With this configuration, the degradation of the sealing properties of the internal ring caused by interaction with the atmospheric layer is not reflected in the purity of the laser gas mixture. Moreover, pollution of the mirrors caused by the penetration of the coolant into the cavity is eliminated.

  3. Dynamic tube/support interaction in heat exchanger tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, S.S.

    1991-01-01

    The supports for heat exchanger tubes are usually plates with drilled holes; other types of supports also have been used. To facilitate manufacture and to allow for thermal expansion of the tubes, small clearances are used between tubes and tube supports. The dynamics of tube/support interaction in heat exchangers is fairly complicated. Understanding tube dynamics and its effects is important for heat exchangers. This paper summarizes the current state of the art on this subject and to identify future research needs. Specifically, the following topics are discussed: dynamics of loosely supported tubes, tube/support gap dynamics, tube response in flow, tube damage and wear, design considerations, and future research needs. 55 refs., 1 fig.

  4. Erosion of heat exchanger tubes in fluidized beds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, E.K.; Flemmer, R.L.C.

    1991-01-01

    This final report describes the activities of the 3-year project entitled Erosion of Heat Exchanger Tubes In Fluidized Beds.'' which was completed at the end of 1990. Project accomplishments include the collection of a substantial body of wear data In a 24in. [times] 24in. fluidized bed, comparative wear results In a 6in. [times] 6in. fluidized bed, the development of a dragometer and the collection of a comprehensive set of drag force data in the 24in. [times] 24in. bed, Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) analysis of bubble probe data to establish dominant bubble frequencies in the 24in. [times] 24in. bed, the use of a heat flux gauge for measurement of heat transfer coefficients in the 24in. [times] 24in. bed and the modeling of the tube wear in the 24in. [times] 24in. bed. Analysis of the wear data from the 24in. square bed indicates that tube wear increases with increase in superficial velocity, and with increase in tube height. The latter effect is a result of the tubes higher up in the bed seeing greater movement of dense phase than tubes lower down In the bed. In addition, tube wear was found to decrease with increase in particle size, for constant superficial velocity. Three models of tube wear were formulated and provided acceptable prediction of wear when compared with the experimental data.

  5. EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF ENHANCED HEAT TRANSFER BY FLOW-INDUCED VIBRATION OF ELASTIC TUBE BUNDLES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    A new concept of heat transfer enhancement by flow-induced vibration was put forward, and a novel heat transfer element called elastic tube bundles was designed. The experimental investigation was performed on its characteristics of flow-induced virbration in out-tube or in-tube flow. Under the conditions of fixed heat flux and steam-water heat transfer, the regularity of heat transfer enhancement by flow-induced vibration was examined.

  6. Influence of surface roughness and tube diameter on pool boiling at single plain and finned tubes. Zum Einfluss der Oberflaechenrauhigkeit und des Rohrdurchmessers beim Blasensieden an einzelnen Glatt- und Rippenrohren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorenflo, D.; Schoemann, H.; Sokol, P.; Caplanis, S. (Paderborn Univ. (Gesamthochschule) (Germany, F.R.). Lab. fuer Waerme- und Kaeltetechnik)

    1990-09-18

    Heat transfer with pool boiling of hexane was measured for single-plain and finned steel tubes with great diameter and very rough, sandblasted surface. The results show that the heat transfer coefficients calculated for the outer surfaces of both tubes are higher in the case of the finned tube at high heat fluxes, and gradually diminish down to the values of the plain tube until natural convection without bubble formation has been reached. Additional measurements using a plain tube with much smaller diameter but identical surface treatment indicate that great differences of the tube diameter influence the increase of the heat transfer coefficient with heat flux significantly, the relative pressure dependence and the absolute values of the heat transfer coefficient at intermediate heat fluxes, however, are concerned on a smaller scale. (orig.).

  7. NEI You Tube Videos: Amblyopia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... search for current job openings visit HHS USAJobs Home > NEI YouTube Videos > NEI YouTube Videos: Amblyopia NEI YouTube Videos YouTube Videos Home Age-Related Macular Degeneration Amblyopia Animations Blindness Cataract ...

  8. Enhanced heat transfer with metal wool filled tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuzay, T.M.; Collins, J.T.; Khounsary, A.M. (Argonne National Lab., IL (USA)); Morales, G. (Argonne National Lab., IL (USA) Texas Univ., El Paso, TX (USA))

    1990-08-01

    The Advanced Photon Source (APS) to be constructed at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) utilizes magnetic devices which generate x-ray beams with very intense heat flux levels. The flux levels encountered can be one or two orders of magnitude higher than those commonly found in nuclear reactors or fusion devices. The beam line elements and optics on such beams pose significant challenge to the researchers and designers to keep them cooled at acceptable levels of surface temperature and/or temperature gradients. Therefore, methods and techniques achieving heat removal enhancement are constantly sought. One such technique suggested and considered is the use of conductive metal wool filled tubes where the filter is brazed to the tube walls. A comparative investigation of the conventionally achievable heat transfer coefficient h'' with water and the wall conductance of a heavy wall copper tube reveals that major resistance is on the coolant side. Therefore, there exists a significant opportunity to improve heat transfer in the tubes by enhancement of the coolant side. To this end a variety of copper wool filled tubes as well as a commercially available enhanced copper tube were subjected to laboratory tests with water and conventional heating to assess the resulting heat transfer improvement. Design improvements using enhanced cooling are discussed in terms of structural weight, controls, grazing angles, the operational reliability. 9 refs., 11 figs., 5 tabs.

  9. Effect of tube size on electromagnetic tube bulging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The commercial finite code ANSYS was employed for the simulation of the electromagnetic tube bulging process. The finite element model and boundary conditions were thoroughly discussed. ANSYS/EMAG was used to model the time varying electromagnetic field in order to obtain the radial and axial magnetic pressure acting on the tube. The magnetic pressure was then used as boundary conditions to model the high velocity deformation of various length tube with ANSYS/LSDYNA. The time space distribution of magnetic pressure on various length tubes was presented. Effect of tube size on the distribution of radial magnetic pressure and axial magnetic pressure and high velocity deformation were discussed. According to the radial magnetic pressure ratio of tube end to tube center and corresponding dimensionless length ratio of tube to coil, the free electromagnetic tube bulging was studied in classification. The calculated results show good agreements with practice.

  10. Categorising YouTube

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Mosebo Simonsen

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This article provides a genre analytical approach to creating a typology of the User Generated Content (UGC of YouTube. The article investigates the construction of navigationprocesses on the YouTube website. It suggests a pragmatic genre approach that is expanded through a focus on YouTube’s technological affordances. Through an analysis of the different pragmatic contexts of YouTube, it is argued that a taxonomic understanding of YouTube must be analysed in regards to the vacillation of a user-driven bottom-up folksonomy and a hierarchical browsing system that emphasises a culture of competition and which favours the already popular content of YouTube. With this taxonomic approach, the UGC videos are registered and analysed in terms of empirically based observations. The article identifies various UGC categories and their principal characteristics. Furthermore, general tendencies of the UGC within the interacting relationship of new and old genres are discussed. It is argued that the utility of a conventional categorical system is primarily of analytical and theoretical interest rather than as a practical instrument.

  11. Tracheostomy tubes and related appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Dean R

    2005-04-01

    Tracheostomy tubes are used to administer positive-pressure ventilation, to provide a patent airway, to provide protection from aspiration, and to provide access to the lower respiratory tract for airway clearance. They are available in a variety of sizes and styles, from several manufacturers. The dimensions of tracheostomy tubes are given by their inner diameter, outer diameter, length, and curvature. Differences in length between tubes of the same inner diameter, but from different manufacturers, are not commonly appreciated but may have important clinical implications. Tracheostomy tubes can be angled or curved, a feature that can be used to improve the fit of the tube in the trachea. Extra proximal length tubes facilitate placement in patients with large necks, and extra distal length tubes facilitate placement in patients with tracheal anomalies. Several tube designs have a spiral wire reinforced flexible design and have an adjustable flange design to allow bedside adjustments to meet extra-length tracheostomy tube needs. Tracheostomy tubes can be cuffed or uncuffed. Cuffs on tracheostomy tubes include high-volume low-pressure cuffs, tight-to-shaft cuffs, and foam cuffs. The fenestrated tracheostomy tube has an opening in the posterior portion of the tube, above the cuff, which allows the patient to breathe through the upper airway when the inner cannula is removed. Tracheostomy tubes with an inner cannula are called dual-cannula tracheostomy tubes. Several tracheostomy tubes are designed specifically for use with the percutaneous tracheostomy procedure. Others are designed with a port above the cuff that allows for subglottic aspiration of secretions. The tracheostomy button is used for stoma maintenance. It is important for clinicians caring for patients with a tracheostomy tube to understand the nuances of various tracheostomy tube designs and to select a tube that appropriately fits the patient.

  12. Laminar heat transfer characteristics of internally finned tube with sinusoidal wavy fin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, M.; Tian, L.; Wang, Q. W.

    2011-06-01

    Comparative numerical study of laminar heat transfer characteristics of annular tubes with sinusoidal wavy fins has been conducted both experimentally and numerically with Re = 299-1,475. The uniform heat flux is imposed on the tube outside wall surface. Two tube materials (copper and stainless steel) are considered. It is found that the fluid temperature profile is not linear but convex along the flow direction due to the axial heat conduction in tube wall, and the effects of axial heat conduction on the heat transfer decreases with an increase in Reynolds number or decrease in tube wall thermal conductivity. The axial distributions of local Nusselt number could reach periodically fully developed after 3-5 cycles. The convectional data reduction method based on the traditional method should be improved for tube with high thermal conductivity or low Reynolds numbers, Otherwise, the heat transfer performance of internally finned tube may be underestimated.

  13. GEOS 1 observations of low-energy ions in the earth's plasmasphere - A study on composition, and temperature and density structure under quiet geomagnetic conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrugia, C. J.; Geiss, J.; Balsiger, H.; Young, D. T.

    Data are presented on the composition and the temperature (T) and density (N) distributions of the earth's plasmasphere ionic population, obtained from GEOS 1 thermal-ion data. In deriving the N and T of the ions, a novel technique was employed, which is based on the modulation of the count rates by the spacecraft's spin. It was found that, for the major ion species H(+) and He(+), the relative density abundance He(+)/H(+) value of several percent was fairly common; the H(+) and He(+) ions are generally in thermal equilibrium, with temperatures varying between 4000 and 15,000 K, with a tendency to increase with L value. A comparison of the thermal structure obtained with those obtained by the Plasma Composition Experiment on ISEE and the Retarding Ion Mass Spectrometer on DE 1 showed no systematic difference between the 'energy' techniques used in these studies and the present 'angular' technique.

  14. Large-Amplitude Transmitter-Associated and Lightning-Associated Whistler Waves in the Earth's Inner Plasmasphere at L less than 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breneman, A.; Cattell, C.; Wygant, J.; Kersten, K.; Wilson, L. B., III; Schreiner, S.; Kellogg, P. J.; Goetz, K.

    2011-01-01

    We report observations of very large amplitude whistler mode waves in the Earth fs nightside inner radiation belt enabled by the STEREO Time Domain Sampler. Amplitudes range from 30.110 mV/m (zero ]peak), 2 to 3 orders of magnitude larger than previously observed in this region. Measurements from the peak electric field detector (TDSMax) indicate that these large ]amplitude waves are prevalent throughout the plasmasphere. A detailed examination of high time resolution electric field waveforms is undertaken on a subset of these whistlers at L 100 keV) electrons on a time scale of <1 s and thus may be an important previously unaccounted for source of energization or pitch ]angle scattering in the inner radiation belt.

  15. Forced Convective Condensation of Nonazeotropic Refrigerant Mixtures in Horizontal Annulus with Petal Shaped Fin Tubes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WangShiping; ZhouXinqiu; 等

    1995-01-01

    In this paper,condensation performance in horizontal annulus was compared with a smooth tube,one Saw-Tooth Finned tube(STF tube),four Petal Shaped Fin tubes(PF tubes),using R113,R11 and their mixtures(vapor molar fractions of R11 at the test section inlet were 0.384,0.588and 0.809) as working fluid.The mass flux at the test section ranged from 15-220/m2s。Camera and video camera were used to shoot the flow pattern and condensation phenomena.The condensation transfer coefficient(hc) of mixtures were considerably lower than those of pure fluid,and did not change linearly with composition.The maximum degradation of measured hc from the ideal value were 23% for the smooth tube,65%for STF tube,67% for PF tubes,which occurred in the composition range of 0.4-0.6 vapor molar fraction of R11.For the condensation of mixture,R11 molar fraction from 38%to 81%,the PF tubes had the highest value of hc.which were 10-25% higher than those of STF tubes,and 480-580% higher than that of smooth tube,because the petal shaped fins of PF tubes could promote strong turbulence in the two phase flow,and reduce the mass transfer resistance.

  16. Electrically heated tube investigation of cooling channel geometry effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Michael L.

    1995-01-01

    The results of an experimental investigation on the combined effects of cooling channel aspect ratio and curvature for rocket engines are presented. Symmetrically heated tubes with average heat fluxes up to 1.7 MW/m(exp 2) were used. The coolant was gaseous nitrogen at an inlet temperature of 280 K (500 R) and inlet pressures up to 1.0 x 10(exp 7) N/m(exp 2) (1500 psia). Two different tube geometries were tested: a straight, circular cross-section tube, and an aspect-ratio 10 cross-section tube with a 45 deg bend. The circular tube results are compared to classical models from the literature as validation of the system. The curvature effect data from the curved aspect-ratio 10 tube compare favorably to the empirical equations available in the literature for low aspect ratio tubes. This latter results suggest that thermal stratification of the coolant due to diminished curvature effect mixing may not be an issue for high aspect-ratio cooling channels.

  17. Heat-shrink plastic tubing seals joints in glass tubing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Duca, B.; Downey, A.

    1968-01-01

    Small units of standard glass apparatus held together by short lengths of transparent heat-shrinkable polyolefin tubing. The tubing is shrunk over glass O-ring type connectors having O-rings but no lubricant.

  18. On the dynamics created by a time--dependent Aharonov-Bohm flux

    CERN Document Server

    Asch, J

    2007-01-01

    We study the dynamics of classical and quantum particles moving in a punctured plane under the influence of a homogeneous magnetic field and driven by a time-dependent singular flux tube through the hole.

  19. Downhole pulse tube refrigerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swift, G.; Gardner, D. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Condensed Matter and Thermal Physics Group

    1997-12-01

    This report summarizes a preliminary design study to explore the plausibility of using pulse tube refrigeration to cool instruments in a hot down-hole environment. The original motivation was to maintain Dave Reagor`s high-temperature superconducting electronics at 75 K, but the study has evolved to include three target design criteria: cooling at 30 C in a 300 C environment, cooling at 75 K in a 50 C environment, cooling at both 75 K and 30 C in a 250 C environment. These specific temperatures were chosen arbitrarily, as representative of what is possible. The primary goals are low cost, reliability, and small package diameter. Pulse-tube refrigeration is a rapidly growing sub-field of cryogenic refrigeration. The pulse tube refrigerator has recently become the simplest, cheapest, most rugged and reliable low-power cryocooler. The authors expect this technology will be applicable downhole because of the ratio of hot to cold temperatures (in absolute units, such as Kelvin) of interest in deep drilling is comparable to the ratios routinely achieved with cryogenic pulse-tube refrigerators.

  20. The thermal tube

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Semena, M.G.

    1980-08-30

    A thermal tube is proposed which contains a layer of dielectric, capillary porous material located on the internal surface of the body. To increase the heat transmitting capability, the layer of capillary porous material is made in the form of a felting, formed by hollow fibers from a non-alkaline, borosilicate glass.

  1. Prawns in Bamboo Tube

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    Ingredients: 400 grams Jiwei prawns, 25 grams pork shreds, 5 grams sliced garlic. Condiments: 5 grams cooking oil, minced ginger root and scallions, cooking wine, salt, pepper and MSG (optional) Method: 1. Place the Shelled prawns into a bowl and mix with all the condiments. 2. Stuff the prawns into a fresh bamboo tube,

  2. Cladding tube manufacturing technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hahn, R. [Kraftwerk Union AG, Mulheim (Germany); Jeong, Y.H.; Baek, B.J.; Kim, K.H.; Kim, S.J.; Choi, B.K.; Kim, J.M. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-04-01

    This report gives an overview of the manufacturing routine of PWR cladding tubes. The routine essentially consists of a series of deformation and annealing processes which are necessary to transform the ingot geometry to tube dimensions. By changing shape, microstructure and structure-related properties are altered simultaneously. First, a short overview of the basics of that part of deformation geometry is given which is related to tube reducing operations. Then those processes of the manufacturing routine which change the microstructure are depicted, and the influence of certain process parameters on microstructure and material properties are shown. The influence of the resulting microstructure on material properties is not discussed in detail, since it is described in my previous report 'Alloy Development for High Burnup Cladding.' Because of their paramount importance still up to now, and because manufacturing data and their influence on properties for other alloys are not so well established or published, the descriptions are mostly related to Zry4 tube manufacturing, and are only in short for other alloys. (author). 9 refs., 46 figs.

  3. Misdirected Minitracheostomy Tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ajmer; Nanda, Chinmaya; Mehta, Yatin

    2017-01-01

    We report a patient who after an uneventful coronary artery bypass graft surgery and left ventricular aneurysmorrhaphy developed intracerebral hemorrhage and subsequently required minitracheostomy. Chest X-ray showed misdirected minitracheostomy tube facing upward toward the laryngeal opening which was repositioned using bronchoscope. PMID:28074805

  4. Misdirected minitracheostomy tube

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajmer Singh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a patient who after an uneventful coronary artery bypass graft surgery and left ventricular aneurysmorrhaphy developed intracerebral hemorrhage and subsequently required minitracheostomy. Chest X-ray showed misdirected minitracheostomy tube facing upward toward the laryngeal opening which was repositioned using bronchoscope.

  5. Thermal performance and stress analyses of the cavity receiver tube in the parabolic trough solar collector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, F.; Li, Y.; Wang, L.; Zhu, T. Y.

    2016-08-01

    A light ray tracing model and a heat transfer model were built to analyse the heat flux distribution and heat transfer in a 1m cavity receiver tube with Parabolic Trough Collectors as the concentrator. The numerical methods were used to simulate the thermal stress and deformation of the receiver tube. The temperature fields of the receiver tube and the thermal stress distribution in the steel tube at the cross section and along the fluid flowing direction were presented. It is obtained from this study that non-uniform heat flux distribution is absorbed at the receiver tube outer surface due to the structure of the cavity receiver tube. Temperature fields in the steel receiver tube at the inlet and the outlet match well with the incident solar radiation. An eccentric circle temperature gradient is observed at cross section of the outlet fluid. The equivalent stress is a complex result of solar heating flux, energy transfer inside the PTC and the fluid and steel characteristics. Highest deformation is 3.1mm at 0.82m. On increasing the fluid mass flow rate, higher fluid mass flow rate results in higher equivalent stress along the absorber tube.

  6. A comparison of the CHF between tubes and annuli under PWR thermal-hydraulic conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herer, C. [RRAMATOME EP/TC, Paris (France); Souyri, A. [EdF DER/RNE/TTA, Chatou (France); Garnier, J. [CEA DRN/DTP/STR/LETC, Grenoble (France)

    1995-09-01

    Critical Heat Flux (CHF) tests were carried out in three tubes with inside diameters of 8, 13, and 19.2 mm and in two annuli with an inner tube of 9.5 mm and an outer tube of 13 or 19.2 mm. All axial heat flux distributions in the test sections were uniform. The coolant fluid was Refrigerant 12 (Freon-12) under PWR thermal-hydraulic conditions (equivalent water conditions - Pressure: 7 to 20 MPa, Mass Velocity: 1000 to 6000 kg/m2/s, Local Quality: -75% to +45%). The effect of tube diameter is correlated for qualities under 15%. The change from the tube to the annulus configuration is correctly taken into account by the equivalent hydraulic diameter. Useful information is also provided concerning the effect of a cold wall in an annulus.

  7. Numerical simulations of sunspot rotation driven by magnetic flux emergence

    OpenAIRE

    Sturrock, Zoe

    2017-01-01

    Magnetic flux continually emerges from the Sun, rising through the solar interior, emerging at the photosphere in the form of sunspots and expanding into the atmosphere. Observations of sunspot rotations have been reported for over a century and are often accompanied by solar eruptions and flaring activity. In this thesis, we present 3D numerical simulations of the emergence of twisted flux tubes from the uppermost layers of the solar interior, examining the rotational movements of sunspots i...

  8. Restore condition of Incore thimble tubes in guide tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solanas, A.; Izquierdo, J.

    2014-07-01

    Aging of Nuclear Power Plant and succession of outages lead to wear and twist of the thimbles tubes but also to the fooling of Incore guide tubes. These can create friction and a high strength must be used for thimble tubes withdrawal. (Author)

  9. Eustachian tube function in children after insertion of ventilation tubes.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heerbeek, N. van; Ingels, K.J.A.O.; Snik, A.F.M.; Zielhuis, G.A.

    2001-01-01

    This study was performed to assess the effect of the insertion of ventilation tubes and the subsequent aeration of the middle ear on eustachian tube (ET) function in children. Manometric ET function tests were performed repeatedly for 3 months after the placement of ventilation tubes in 83 children

  10. Flux-P: Automating Metabolic Flux Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgitta E. Ebert

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative knowledge of intracellular fluxes in metabolic networks is invaluable for inferring metabolic system behavior and the design principles of biological systems. However, intracellular reaction rates can not often be calculated directly but have to be estimated; for instance, via 13C-based metabolic flux analysis, a model-based interpretation of stable carbon isotope patterns in intermediates of metabolism. Existing software such as FiatFlux, OpenFLUX or 13CFLUX supports experts in this complex analysis, but requires several steps that have to be carried out manually, hence restricting the use of this software for data interpretation to a rather small number of experiments. In this paper, we present Flux-P as an approach to automate and standardize 13C-based metabolic flux analysis, using the Bio-jETI workflow framework. Exemplarily based on the FiatFlux software, it demonstrates how services can be created that carry out the different analysis steps autonomously and how these can subsequently be assembled into software workflows that perform automated, high-throughput intracellular flux analysis of high quality and reproducibility. Besides significant acceleration and standardization of the data analysis, the agile workflow-based realization supports flexible changes of the analysis workflows on the user level, making it easy to perform custom analyses.

  11. Performance of pressure tubes in CANDU reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodgers, D.; Griffiths, M.; Bickel, G.; Buyers, A.; Coleman, C.; Nordin, H.; St Lawrence, S. [Canadian Nuclear Laboratories, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada)

    2016-06-15

    The pressure tubes in CANDU reactors typically operate for times up to about 30 years prior to refurbishment. The in-reactor performance of Zr-2.5Nb pressure tubes has been evaluated by sampling and periodic inspection. This paper describes the behavior and discusses the factors controlling the behaviour of these components. The Zr–2.5Nb pressure tubes are nominally extruded at 815{sup o}C, cold worked nominally 27%, and stress relieved at 400 {sup o}C for 24 hours, resulting in a structure consisting of elongated grains of hexagonal close-packed alpha-Zr, partially surrounded by a thin network of filaments of body-centred-cubic beta-Zr. These beta-Zr filaments are meta-stable and contain about 20% Nb after extrusion. The stress-relief treatment results in partial decomposition of the beta-Zr filaments with the formation of hexagonal close-packed alpha-phase particles that are low in Nb, surrounded by a Nb-enriched beta-Zr matrix. The material properties of pressure tubes are determined by variations in alpha-phase texture, alpha-phase grain structure, network dislocation density, beta-phase decomposition, and impurity concentration that are a function of manufacturing variables. The pressure tubes operate at temperatures between 250 {sup o}C and 310 {sup o}C with coolant pressures up to about 11 MPa in fast neutron fluxes up to 4 x 10{sup 17} n·m{sup -2}·s{sup -1} (E > 1 MeV) and the properties are modified by these conditions. The properties of the pressure tubes in an operating reactor are therefore a function of both manufacturing and operating condition variables. The ultimate tensile strength, fracture toughness, and delayed hydride-cracking properties (velocity (V) and threshold stress intensity factor (K{sub IH})) change with irradiation, but all reach a nearly limiting value at a fluence of less than 10{sup 25} n·m{sup -2} (E > 1 MeV). At this point the ultimate tensile strength is raised about 200 MPa, toughness is reduced by about 50%, V increases

  12. Cosmic string formation by flux trapping

    CERN Document Server

    Blanco-Pillado, Jose J; Vilenkin, Alexander

    2007-01-01

    We study the formation of cosmic strings by confining a stochastic magnetic field into flux tubes in a numerical simulation. We use overdamped evolution in a potential that is minimized when the flux through each face in the simulation lattice is a multiple of the fundamental flux quantum. When the typical number of flux quanta through a correlation-length-sized region is initially about 1, we find a string network similar to that generated by the Kibble-Zurek mechanism. With larger initial flux, the loop distribution and the Brownian shape of the infinite strings remain unchanged, but the fraction of length in infinite strings is increased. A 2D slice of the network exhibits bundles of strings pointing in the same direction, as in earlier 2D simulations. We find, however, that strings belonging to the same bundle do not stay together in 3D for much longer than the correlation length. As the initial flux per correlation length is decreased, there is a point at which infinite strings disappear, as in the Haged...

  13. Condensation of refrigerants flowing inside smooth and corrugated tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinton, D.L. [Tennessee State Univ., Nashville, TN (United States); Conklin, J.C.; Vineyard, E.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1995-07-01

    Because heat exchanger thermal performance has a direct fluence on the overall cycle performance of vapor-compression refrigeration machinery,enhanced heat transfer surfaces are of interest to improve the efficiency of heat pumps and air conditioners. We investigated R-22 and a nonazeotropic refrigerant mixture (NARM) of 75% R-143a and 25% R-124 (by mass) to study their thermal performance in a condenser made of conventional smooth tubes and another condenser made of corrugated, or spirally indented, tubes. We investigated the condensing heat transfer and pressure drop characteristics in an experimental test loop model of a domestic beat pump system employing a variable speed compressor. The refrigerant circulates inside the central tube and the water circulates in the annulus. At refrigerant mass fluxes of approximately 275--300 kg/m{sup 2}s, the measured irreversible pressure drop of the corrugated surface was 23% higher than that of the smooth surface for the R-22. At refrigerant mass fluxes of 350-370 kg/m{sup 2}s, the irreversible pressure drop of the corrugated surface was 36% higher than that of the smooth surface for the NARM. The average heat transfer coefficient for the corrugated surface for R-22 was roughly 40% higher than that for the smooth tube surface at refrigerant mass fluxes of 275--295 kg/m{sup 2}s. The average heat transfer coefficient for the corrugated surface for the NARM was typically 70% higher than that for the smooth tube surface at refrigerant mass fluxes of 340--385 kg/m{sup 2}s.

  14. Enteral Tube Feeding and Pneumonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, David Sheridan; Kimmel, David

    2006-01-01

    To determine the effects of enteral tube feeding on the incidence of pneumonia, we performed a retrospective review of all clients at our institution who had gastrostomy or jejunostomy tubes placed over a 10-year period. Ninety-three subjects had a history of pneumonia before feeding tube insertion. Eighty had gastrostomy and 13, jejunostomy…

  15. The Suppression and Promotion of Magnetic Flux Emergence in Fully Convective Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Maria A.; Browning, Matthew K.; Boardman, Suzannah; Clarke, Joshua; Pugsley, Samuel; Townsend, Edward

    2017-10-01

    Evidence of surface magnetism is now observed on an increasing number of cool stars. The detailed manner by which dynamo-generated magnetic fields giving rise to starspots traverse the convection zone still remains unclear. Some insight into this flux emergence mechanism has been gained by assuming bundles of magnetic field can be represented by idealized thin flux tubes (TFTs). Weber & Browning (2016) have recently investigated how individual flux tubes might evolve in a 0.3M⊙ M dwarf by effectively embedding TFTs in time-dependent flows representative of a fully convective star. We expand upon this work by initiating flux tubes at various depths in the upper ~50-75% of the star in order to sample the differing convective flow pattern and differential rotation across this region. Specifically, we comment on the role of differential rotation and time-varying flows in both the suppression and promotion of the magnetic flux emergence process.

  16. Clustering of Emerging Flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruzmaikin, A.

    1997-01-01

    Observations show that newly emerging flux tends to appear on the Solar surface at sites where there is flux already. This results in clustering of solar activity. Standard dynamo theories do not predict this effect.

  17. Neural tube defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.E. Marshall

    1981-09-01

    Full Text Available Neural tube defects refer to any defect in the morphogenesis of the neural tube, the most common types being spina bifida and anencephaly. Spina bifida has been recognised in skeletons found in north-eastern Morocco and estimated to have an age of almost 12 000 years. It was also known to the ancient Greek and Arabian physicians who thought that the bony defect was due to the tumour. The term spina bifida was first used by Professor Nicolai Tulp of Amsterdam in 1652. Many other terms have been used to describe this defect, but spina bifida remains the most useful general term, as it describes the separation of the vertebral elements in the midline.

  18. Vortex tube optimization theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewins, Jeffery [Cambridge Univ., Magdalene Coll., Cambridge (United Kingdom); Bejan, Adrian [Duke Univ., Dept. of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, Durham, NC (United States)

    1999-11-01

    The Ranque-Hilsch vortex tube splits a single high pressure stream of gas into cold and warm streams. Simple models for the vortex tube combined with regenerative precooling are given from which an optimisation can be undertaken. Two such optimisations are needed: the first shows that at any given cut or fraction of the cold stream, the best refrigerative load, allowing for the temperature lift, is nearly half the maximum loading that would result in no lift. The second optimisation shows that the optimum cut is an equal division of the vortex streams between hot and cold. Bounds are obtainable within this theory for the performance of the system for a given gas and pressure ratio. (Author)

  19. Development of an Integrity Assessment Procedure for CANDU Pressure Tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Han Sub [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-10-15

    The pressure tubes used in a CANDU reactor are made from Zr-2.5Nb. During service the pressure tubes operate at temperatures between about 150 and 310 .deg. C, and with variable coolant pressures up to 11MPa corresponding to hoop stress of up to 130MPa. The maximum flux of fast neutrons (E>1MeV) from the fuel is about 4X10{sup 17}nm{sup -2}{sub s}{sup -1}. The pressure tubes are exposed to very severe degradation environment. The aging degradation of the pressure tubes are summarized as below. - Geometric deformation; axial elongation, diametric creep, and wall thinning. - Deuterium uptake; some fraction of the deuterium generated by the corrosion of pressure tubes is absorbed into the pressure tubes. Total equivalent hydrogen content in the pressure tube is the sum of the initial hydrogen content before operation and the deuterium uptake during operation. High concentration of hydrogen inside the pressure tubes makes the metal susceptible to Delayed Hydride Cracking. The DHC is a degradation mechanism of prime importance for CANDU pressure tubes. Mechanical properties, in particular fracture toughness, are deteriorated by high concentration of dissolved hydrogen. - Flaws; volumetric flaws are generated during operation. Wear scars by debris fretting, and bearing pad fretting are common. These volumetric flaws can be a site of crack initiation by fatigue or DHC. Cracks can propagate by DHC or fatigue crack propagation if conditions are met. - Material properties degradation; mechanical properties are affected by neutron irradiation. Yield strength and tensile strength are increased, and fracture toughness is deteriorated. The susceptibility to DHC is also affected. The integrity assessment of the pressure tube is a procedure to determine if the risk of pressure tube failure is controlled to maintain acceptably low. CSA N285.4 and 285.8 are two important guidelines regarding the integrity of pressure tubes. N285.4 is to guide in-service inspection, and N285

  20. A wandering tube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubin, Ina; Gelber, Moshe; Schattner, Ami

    2016-12-05

    The predominant causes of acute mechanical small bowel obstruction in geriatric patients are adhesions and hernias, which is not much different than in other adult age groups. Unusual etiologies may be encountered, such as volvulus or gallstone ileus, but a displaced feeding gastrostomy tube is a distinctly rare cause of intestinal obstruction which needs to be considered by emergency physicians as it may be increasingly encountered.

  1. Primary fallopian tube carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladenović-Segedi Ljiljana

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Primary fallopian tube carcinoma is extremely rare, making 0.3-1.6% of all female genital tract malignancies. Although the etymology of this tumor is unknown, it is suggested to be associated with chronic tubal inflammation, infertility, tuberculous salpingitis and tubal endometriosis. High parity is considered to be protective. Cytogenetic studies show the disease to be associated with over expression of p53, HER2/neu and c-myb. There is also some evidence that BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations have a role in umorogeneis. Clinical features. The most prevailing symptoms with fallopian tube carcinoma are abdominal pain, abnormal vaginal discharge/bleeding and the most common finding is an adnexal mass. In many patients, fallopian tube carcinoma is asymptomatic. Diagnosis. Due to its rarity, preoperative diagnosis of primary fallopian tube carcinoma is rarely made. It is usually misdiagnosed as ovarian carcinoma, tuboovarian abscess or ectopic pregnancy. Sonographic features of the tumor are non-specific and include the presence of a fluid-filled adnexal structure with a significant solid component, a sausage-shaped mass, a cystic mass with papillary projections within, a cystic mass with cog wheel appearance and an ovoid-shaped structure containing an incomplete separation and a highly vascular solid nodule. More than 80% of patients have elevated pretreatment serum CA-125 levels, which is useful in follow-up after the definite treatment. Treatment. The treatment approach is similar to that of ovarian carcinoma, and includes total abdominal hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy. Staging is followed with chemotherapy.

  2. The nighttime winter anomaly (NWA) effect in the american sector as a consequence of interhemispheric ionospheric coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Förster, M.; Jakowski, N.

    1988-06-01

    The nighttime winter anomaly (NWA) effect was observed during solar minimum conditions at the American sector by means of ionospheric electron content and vertical sounding measurements in Havana (Cuba). An effective interhemispheric transport of plasma is suggested to explain enhanced northern nighttime ionization during winter solstice. To elucidate this effect, an adequate physicalnumerical model of the coupled system ionosphere-plasmasphere is presented and applied to a corotating tube of plasma at L=1.5 in the American sector. The NWA can be explained by theoretically derived higher tube content during the December solstice and accordingly by more intense nighttime fluxes from the plasmasphere, compared to the June solstice.

  3. Traveling-Wave Tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kory, Carol L.

    1998-01-01

    The traveling-wave tube (TWT) is a vacuum device invented in the early 1940's used for amplification at microwave frequencies. Amplification is attained by surrendering kinetic energy from an electron beam to a radio frequency (RF) electromagnetic wave. The demand for vacuum devices has been decreased largely by the advent of solid-state devices. However, although solid state devices have replaced vacuum devices in many areas, there are still many applications such as radar, electronic countermeasures and satellite communications, that require operating characteristics such as high power (Watts to Megawatts), high frequency (below 1 GHz to over 100 GHz) and large bandwidth that only vacuum devices can provide. Vacuum devices are also deemed irreplaceable in the music industry where musicians treasure their tube-based amplifiers claiming that the solid-state and digital counterparts could never provide the same "warmth" (3). The term traveling-wave tube includes both fast-wave and slow-wave devices. This article will concentrate on slow-wave devices as the vast majority of TWTs in operation fall into this category.

  4. Reliability of steam generator tubing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kadokami, E. [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd., Hyogo-ku (Japan)

    1997-02-01

    The author presents results on studies made of the reliability of steam generator (SG) tubing. The basis for this work is that in Japan the issue of defects in SG tubing is addressed by the approach that any detected defect should be repaired, either by plugging the tube or sleeving it. However, this leaves open the issue that there is a detection limit in practice, and what is the effect of nondetectable cracks on the performance of tubing. These studies were commissioned to look at the safety issues involved in degraded SG tubing. The program has looked at a number of different issues. First was an assessment of the penetration and opening behavior of tube flaws due to internal pressure in the tubing. They have studied: penetration behavior of the tube flaws; primary water leakage from through-wall flaws; opening behavior of through-wall flaws. In addition they have looked at the question of the reliability of tubing with flaws during normal plant operation. Also there have been studies done on the consequences of tube rupture accidents on the integrity of neighboring tubes.

  5. Hybrid endotracheal tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakezles, Christopher Thomas

    Intubation involves the placement of a tube into the tracheal lumen and is prescribed in any setting in which the airway must be stabilized or the patient anesthetized. The purpose of the endotracheal tube in these procedures is to maintain a viable airway, facilitate mechanical ventilation, allow the administration of anesthetics, and prevent the reflux of vomitus into the lungs. In order to satisfy these requirements a nearly airtight seal must be maintained between the tube and the tracheal lining. Most conventional endotracheal tubes provide this seal by employing a cuff that is inflated once the tube is in place. However, the design of this cuff and properties of the material are a source of irritation and injury to the tracheal tissues. In fact, the complication rate for endotracheal intubation is reported to be between 10 and 60%, with manifestations ranging from severe sore throat to erosion through the tracheal wall. These complications are caused by a combination of the materials employed and the forces exerted by the cuff on the tracheal tissues. In particular, the abrasive action of the cuff shears cells from the lining, epithelium adhering to the cuff is removed during extubation, and normal forces exerted on the basement tissues disrupt the blood supply and cause pressure necrosis. The complications associated with tracheal intubation may be reduced or eliminated by employing airway devices constructed from hydrogel materials. Hydrogels are a class of crosslinked polymers which swell in the presence of moisture, and may contain more than 95% water by weight. For the current study, several prototype airway devices were constructed from hydrogel materials including poly(vinyl alcohol), poly(hydroxyethyl methacrylate), and poly(vinyl pyrrolidone). The raw hydrogel materials from this group were subjected to tensile, swelling, and biocompatibility testing, while the finished devices were subjected to extensive mechanical simulation and animal trials

  6. Cosmic muon flux measurements at the Kimballton Underground Research Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalousis, L. N.; Guarnaccia, E.; Link, J. M.; Mariani, C.; Pelkey, R.

    2014-08-01

    In this article, the results from a series of muon flux measurements conducted at the Kimballton Underground Research Facility (KURF), Virginia, United States, are presented. The detector employed for these investigations, is made of plastic scintillator bars readout by wavelength shifting fibers and multianode photomultiplier tubes. Data was taken at several locations inside KURF, spanning rock overburden values from ~ 200 to 1450 m.w.e. From the extracted muon rates an empirical formula was devised, that estimates the muon flux inside the mine as a function of the overburden. The results are in good agreement with muon flux calculations based on analytical models and MUSIC.

  7. Cosmic Muon Flux Measurements at the Kimballton Underground Research Facility

    CERN Document Server

    Kalousis, L N; Link, J M; Mariani, C; Pelkey, R

    2014-01-01

    In this article, the results from a series of muon flux measurements conducted at the Kimballton Underground Research Facility (KURF), Virginia, United States, are presented. The detector employed for these investigations, is made of plastic scintillator bars readout by wavelength shifting fibers and multianode photomultiplier tubes. Data was taken at several locations inside KURF, spanning rock overburden values from ~ 200 to 1450 m.w.e. From the extracted muon rates an empirical formula was devised, that estimates the muon flux inside the mine as a function of the overburden. The results are in good agreement with muon flux calculations based on analytical models and MUSIC.

  8. FLUXES FOR MECHANIZED ELECTRIC WELDING,

    Science.gov (United States)

    WELDING FLUXES, WELDING ), (* WELDING , WELDING FLUXES), ARC WELDING , WELDS, STABILITY, POROSITY, WELDING RODS, STEEL, CERAMIC MATERIALS, FLUXES(FUSION), TITANIUM ALLOYS, ALUMINUM ALLOYS, COPPER ALLOYS, ELECTRODEPOSITION

  9. Patterns of Flux Emergence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Title, A.; Cheung, M.

    2008-05-01

    The high spatial resolution and high cadence of the Solar Optical Telescope on the JAXA Hinode spacecraft have allowed capturing many examples of magnetic flux emergence from the scale of granulation to active regions. The observed patterns of emergence are quite similar. Flux emerges as a array of small bipoles on scales from 1 to 5 arc seconds throughout the region that the flux eventually condenses. Because the fields emerging from the underlying flux rope my appear many in small segments and the total flux (absolute sum) is not a conserved quantity the amount of total flux on the surface may vary significantly during the emergence process. Numerical simulations of flux emergence exhibit patterns similar to observations. Movies of both observations and numerical simulations will be presented.

  10. Influence of boiler load on water tubes burnout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Said, S.A.M.; Habib, M.A.; Badr, H.M.; Mansour, R. [King Fahd Univ. of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2009-07-01

    The influence of boiler loads on water tube burnout was investigated. The in-service boiler had 2 burners at different levels located in the front of the burner's wall. Homogenous-flow and separated-flow models were designed to simulate the water circulation and combustion processes inside the boiler tubes. Heat flux calculations were derived by solving the conservation of mass, momentum, and energy equations and species concentration as well as by solving turbulence, reaction rate, and radiation model equations. Results of the study showed that heat flux during full loads ranged from close to 0 to 270 kW/m2. The right side screen wall of the burner exhibited higher heat flux values in the middle region of the wall where large areas were subjected to heat flux close to a maximum of 270 kW/m2. Results also included reductions in heat flux values at partial loads. Maximum values were reduced from 270 kW/m2 ato 230 kW/m2 at 75 per cent capacity and 200 kW/m2 at 60 per cent capacity. The rate of steam generation increased from 0.1 kg/s to 0.153 kg/s when the distance from the burner wall increased from 2 meters to 12 meters. 10 refs., 10 figs.

  11. Lava Tube Collapse Pits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] We will be looking at collapse pits for the next two weeks. Collapse pits on Mars are formed in several ways. In volcanic areas, channelized lava flows can form roofs which insulate the flowing lava. These features are termed lava tubes on Earth and are common features in basaltic flows. After the lava has drained, parts of the roof of the tube will collapse under its own weight. These collapse pits will only be as deep as the bottom of the original lava tube. Another type of collapse feature associated with volcanic areas arises when very large eruptions completely evacuate the magma chamber beneath the volcano. The weight of the volcano will cause the entire edifice to subside into the void space below it. Structural features including fractures and graben will form during the subsidence. Many times collapse pits will form within the graben. In addition to volcanic collapse pits, Mars has many collapse pits formed when volatiles (such as subsurface ice) are released from the surface layers. As the volatiles leave, the weight of the surrounding rock causes collapse pits to form. These collapse pits are found in the southern hemisphere of Mars. They are likely lava tube collapse pits related to flows from Hadriaca Patera. Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -36.8, Longitude 89.6 East (270.4 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution. Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D

  12. Heat flux distribution on circulating fluidized bed boiler water wall

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The future of circulating fluidized bed (CFB)combustion technology is in raising the steam parameters to supercritical levels.Understanding the heat flux distribution on the water wall is one of the most important issues in the design and operation of supercritical pressure CFB boilers.In the present paper,the finite element analysis (FEA) method is adopted to predict the heat transfer coefficient as well as the heat flux of the membrane wall and the results are validated by direct measurement of the temperature around the tube.Studies on the horizontal heat flux distribution were conducted in three CFB boilers with different furnace size,tube dimension and water temperature.The results are useful in supercritical pressure CFB boiler design.

  13. Computation of boiling water on circular finned tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan, C.C.; Liaw, S.P. [National Taiwan Ocean Univ., Keelung (Taiwan, Province of China). Dept. of Mechanical and Marine Engineering

    1999-04-01

    This study investigates the maximum heat transfer rate and the critical temperature of circular finned tubes in a boiling liquid. The analysis is conducted numerically by solving a two-dimensional heat conduction equation in a steady state. The dependence between heat flux and the temperature at the inner wall of the tube is quantified. Varying the width, height, and pitch of fins, an optimal finned tube with efficient heat transfer rate can be obtained. In the theoretical approach the successive over relaxation (S.O.R.) accompanied with Multi-grid scheme is used. The local heat transfer rates are assumed to follow power-law-type temperature dependence. The initial guess at very high temperatures or so-called a cooling process is also executed in a same way. The results reveal that increasing either the width or the height of a fin increases the total heat transfer rate.

  14. Studying the Formation and Evolution of Eruptive Magnetic Flux Ropes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linton, Mark

    2017-08-01

    Solar magnetic eruptions are dramatic sources of solar activity, and dangerous sources of space weather hazards. Many of these eruptions take the form of magnetic flux ropes, i.e., magnetic fieldlines wrapping around a core magnetic flux tube. Investigating the processes which form these flux ropes both prior to and during eruption, and investigating their evolution after eruption, can give us a critical window into understanding the sources of and processes involved in these eruptions. This presentation will discuss modeling and observational investigations into these various phases of flux rope formation, eruption, and evolution, and will discuss how these different explorations can be used to develop a more complete picture of erupting flux rope dynamics.

  15. Tube coalescence in the Jingfudong lava tube and implications for lava flow hazard of Tengchong volcanism

    OpenAIRE

    Zhengquan Chen; Yongshun Liu; Haiquan Wei; Jiandong Xu; Wenfeng Guo

    2016-01-01

    Tube-fed structure occurs as a general phenomenon in Tengchong basic lavas, such as lava tubes, lava plugs and tube-related collapse depressions. We deduced the development of Laoguipo lava flows, which is the longest lava tube (Jingfudong lava tube) evolved in Tengchong volcanic area. Following the detailed documentation of the tube morphology of the Jingfudong lava tube, we propose that the Jingfudong lava tube was formed through vertical coalescence of at least three tubes. The coalescence...

  16. CONDENSATION HEAT TRANSFER OF R-134A IN HORIZONTAL STRAIGHT AND HELICALLY COILED TUBE-IN-TUBE HEAT EXCHANGERS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    This article presents an experimental investigation on condensation heat transfer of R-134a in horizontal straight and helically coiled tube-in-tube heat exchangers. The experiments were carried out at three saturation temperatures(35℃, 40℃ and 45℃) with the refrigerant mass flux varying from 100 kg/m2 s to 400 kg/m2 s and the vapor quality ranging from 0.1 to 0.8. The effects of vapor quality and mass flux of R-134a on the condensation heat transfer coefficient were investigated. The results indicate that the condensation heat transfer coefficients of the helical section are 4%-13.8% higher than that of the straight section. The experimental results were compared with the data available in literature for helical and straight pipes.

  17. Steam generator tube integrity program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dierks, D.R.; Shack, W.J. [Argonne National Laboratory, IL (United States); Muscara, J.

    1996-03-01

    A new research program on steam generator tubing degradation is being sponsored by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) at Argonne National Laboratory. This program is intended to support a performance-based steam generator tube integrity rule. Critical areas addressed by the program include evaluation of the processes used for the in-service inspection of steam generator tubes and recommendations for improving the reliability and accuracy of inspections; validation and improvement of correlations for evaluating integrity and leakage of degraded steam generator tubes, and validation and improvement of correlations and models for predicting degradation in steam generator tubes as aging occurs. The studies will focus on mill-annealed Alloy 600 tubing, however, tests will also be performed on replacement materials such as thermally-treated Alloy 600 or 690. An overview of the technical work planned for the program is given.

  18. Diffusion in a Curved Tube

    OpenAIRE

    Ogawa, Naohisa

    2011-01-01

    The diffusion of particles in confining walls forming a tube is discussed. Such a transport phenomenon is observed in biological cells and porous media. We consider the case in which the tube is winding with curvature and torsion, and the thickness of the tube is sufficiently small compared with its curvature radius. We discuss how geomerical quantities appear in a quasi-one-dimensional diffusion equation.

  19. The special relativistic shock tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Kevin W.

    1986-01-01

    The shock-tube problem has served as a popular test for numerical hydrodynamics codes. The development of relativistic hydrodynamics codes has created a need for a similar test problem in relativistic hydrodynamics. The analytical solution to the special relativistic shock-tube problem is presented here. The relativistic shock-jump conditions and rarefaction solution which make up the shock tube are derived. The Newtonian limit of the calculations is given throughout.

  20. Tubing for augmented heat transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yampolsky, J.S.; Pavlics, P.

    1983-08-01

    The objectives of the program reported were: to determine the heat transfer and friction characteristics on the outside of spiral fluted tubing in single phase flow of water, and to assess the relative cost of a heat exchanger constructed with spiral fluted tubing with one using conventional smooth tubing. An application is examined where an isolation water/water heat exchanger was used to transfer the heat from a gaseous diffusion plant to an external system for energy recovery. (LEW)

  1. Alternate tube plugging criteria for steam generator tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cueto-Felgueroso, C.; Aparicio, C.B. [Tecnatom, S.A., Madrid (Spain)

    1997-02-01

    The tubing of the Steam Generators constitutes more than half of the reactor coolant pressure boundary. Specific requirements governing the maintenance of steam generator tubes integrity are set in Plant Technical Specifications and in Section XI of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. The operating experience of Steam Generator tubes of PWR plants has shown the existence of some types of degradatory processes. Every one of these has an specific cause and affects one or more zones of the tubes. In the case of Spanish Power Plants, and depending on the particular Plant considered, they should be mentioned the Primary Water Stress Corrosion Cracking (PWSCC) at the roll transition zone (RTZ), the Outside Diameter Stress Corrosion Cracking (ODSCC) at the Tube Support Plate (TSP) intersections and the fretting with the Anti-Vibration Bars (AVBs) or with the Support Plates in the preheater zone. The In-Service Inspections by Eddy Currents constitutes the standard method for assuring the SG tubes integrity and they permit the monitoring of the defects during the service life of the plant. When the degradation reaches a determined limit, called the plugging limit, the SG tube must be either repaired or retired from service by plugging. Customarily, the plugging limit is related to the depth of the defect. Such depth is typically 40% of the wall thickness of the tube and is applicable to any type of defect in the tube. In its origin, that limit was established for tubes thinned by wastage, which was the predominant degradation in the seventies. The application of this criterion for axial crack-like defects, as, for instance, those due to PWSCC in the roll transition zone, has lead to an excessive and unnecessary number of tubes being plugged. This has lead to the development of defect specific plugging criteria. Examples of the application of such criteria are discussed in the article.

  2. Nitric oxide fluxes from an agricultural soil using a flux-gradient method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, N. M.; Wagner-Riddle, C.; Thurtell, G. W.; Beauchamp, E. G.

    1999-05-01

    Soil emission of nitric oxide may be a significant source of NOx in rural areas. Agricultural practices may enhance these emissions by addition of nitrogen fertilizers. A system that enables continuous measurement of NO fluxes from agricultural surfaces using the flux-gradient method was developed. Hourly differences in NO concentrations in air sampled at two intake heights (0.6 and 1 m) were determined using a chemiluminescence analyzer. Eddy diffusivities were determined using wind profiles (cup anemometers), and stability corrections calculated using a 5 cm path sonic anemometer. Fast switching of sampling between air intake heights (every 30 s) and determination of concentration values at a frequency of 2 Hz minimized the errors due to fluctuations in background concentration. Low travel times for air samples in the tubing (˜8 s) were estimated to result in small errors in flux values (10 ng N m-2 s-1). Monthly NO fluxes estimated were similar to those observed in previous studies. The designed system could be easily modified to measure NOx and NO fluxes by using an additional chemiluminescence analyzer. The system also could be adapted to measure fluxes sequentially from various plots, enabling testing of agricultural practices on NO emissions.

  3. Learning from YouTube [Video Book

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juhasz, Alexandra

    2011-01-01

    YouTube is a mess. YouTube is for amateurs. YouTube dissolves the real. YouTube is host to inconceivable combos. YouTube is best for corporate-made community. YouTube is badly baked. These are a few of the things Media Studies professor Alexandra Juhasz (and her class) learned about YouTube when she set out to investigate what actually happens…

  4. Method for producing a tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Kenneth A.; Rohde, Steven B.; Pfeifer, Kent B.; Turner, Timothy S.

    2007-01-02

    A method is described for producing tubular substrates having parallel spaced concentric rings of electrical conductors that can be used as the drift tube of an Ion Mobility Spectrometer (IMS). The invention comprises providing electrodes on the inside of a tube that are electrically connected to the outside of the tube through conductors that extend between adjacent plies of substrate that are combined to form the tube. Tubular substrates are formed from flexible polymeric printed wiring board materials, ceramic materials and material compositions of glass and ceramic, commonly known as Low Temperature Co-Fired Ceramic (LTCC). The adjacent plies are sealed together around the electrode.

  5. YouTube and 'psychiatry'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Robert; Miller, John; Collins, Noel

    2015-12-01

    YouTube is a video-sharing website that is increasingly used to share and disseminate health-related information, particularly among younger people. There are reports that social media sites, such as YouTube, are being used to communicate an anti-psychiatry message but this has never been confirmed in any published analysis of YouTube clip content. This descriptive study revealed that the representation of 'psychiatry' during summer 2012 was predominantly negative. A subsequent smaller re-analysis suggests that the negative portrayal of 'psychiatry' on YouTube is a stable phenomenon. The significance of this and how it could be addressed are discussed.

  6. Prompt atmospheric neutrino flux

    CERN Document Server

    Jeong, Yu Seon; Enberg, Rikard; Kim, C S; Reno, Mary Hall; Sarcevic, Ina; Stasto, Anna

    2016-01-01

    We evaluate the prompt atmospheric neutrino flux including nuclear correction and $B$ hadron contribution in the different frameworks: NLO perturbative QCD and dipole models. The nuclear effect is larger in the prompt neutrino flux than in the total charm production cross section, and it reduces the fluxes by $10\\% - 30\\%$ depending on the model. We also investigate the uncertainty using the QCD scales allowed by the charm cross section data from RHIC and LHC experiments.

  7. Heat Transfer of Condensation in Smooth Round Tube from Superheated Vapor

    OpenAIRE

    Xiao, Jiange; Hrnjak, Pega

    2016-01-01

    Heat transfer of R134a condensing in a horizontal smooth round tube with 6.1 mm inner diameter is invested in this study. Experimental results on the heat transfer coefficient (HTC) with mass flux from 50 to 200 kg m-2 s-1 and heat flux from 5 to 15 kW m-2 are provided. Heat transfer behavior is compared between condensing superheated (CSH) region and two-phase (TP) region. Experimental result shows that in TP region, higher mass flux results in higher HTC while heat flux does not affect HTC....

  8. Effect of the sequence of tube rolling in a tube bundle of a shell and tube heat exchanger on the stress-deformed state of the tube sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tselishchev, M. F.; Plotnikov, P. N.; Brodov, Yu. M.

    2015-11-01

    Rolling the tube sheet of a heat exchanger with U-shaped tubes, as exemplified by the vapor cooler GP-24, was simulated. The simulation was performed using the finite element method with account of elas- tic-plastic properties of the tube and tube sheet materials. The simulation consisted of two stages; at the first stage, maximum and residual contact stress in the conjunction of a separate tube and the tube sheet was determined using the "equivalent sleeve" model; at the second stage, the obtained contact stress was applied to the hole surface in the tube sheet. Thus, different tube rolling sequences were simulated: from the center to the periphery of the tube sheet and from the periphery to the center along a spiral line. The studies showed that the tube rolling sequence noticeably influences the value of the tube sheet residual deflection for the same rolling parameters of separate tubes. Residual deflection of the tube sheet in different planes was determined. It was established that the smallest residual deflection corresponds to the tube rolling sequence from the periphery to the center of the tube sheet. The following dependences were obtained for different rolling sequences: maximum deformation of the tube sheet as a function of the number of rolled tubes, residual deformation of the tube sheet along its surface, and residual deflection of the tube sheet as a function of the rotation angle at the periphery. The preferred sequence of tube rolling for minimizing the tube sheet deformation is indicated.

  9. Optical Manipulation of Single Flux Quanta

    CERN Document Server

    Veshchunov, I S; Mironov, S V; Godin, A G; Trebbia, J -B; Buzdin, A I; Tamarat, Ph; Lounis, B

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic field can penetrate into type-II superconductors in the form of Abrikosov vortices, which are magnetic flux tubes surrounded by circulating supercurrents often trapped at defects referred to as pinning sites. Although the average properties of the vortex matter can be tuned with magnetic fields, temperature or electric currents, handling of individual vortices remains challenging and has been demonstrated only with sophisticated magnetic force, superconducting quantum interference device or strain-induced scanning local probe microscopies. Here, we introduce a far-field optical method based on local heating of the superconductor with a focused laser beam to realize a fast, precise and non-invasive manipulation of individual Abrikosov vortices, in the same way as with optical tweezers. This simple approach provides the perfect basis for sculpting the magnetic flux profile in superconducting devices like a vortex lens or a vortex cleaner, without resorting to static pinning or ratchet effects. Since a ...

  10. Explosive welding of a tube into a tube sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, Sheryll C. (London, OH); Linse, Vonne D. (Columbus, OH)

    1978-10-03

    A cartridge containing an explosive charge is placed within a tube assembled within a tube sheet. The charge is detonated through use of a detonator cord containing a minimum but effective amount of explosive material. The cord is contained inside a tubular shield throughout most of its length within the cartridge. A small length of the cord extends beyond the tubular shield to contact and detonate the explosive charge in its rear portion near the cartridge base. The cartridge base is provided of substantial mass and thickness in respect to side and front walls of the cartridge to minimize bulging beyond the rear face of the tube sheet. For remote activation an electrically activated detonator of higher charge density than the cord is attached to the cord at a location spaced from the tube sheet, cartridge and tube.

  11. Explosive welding of a tube into a tube sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, S.C.; Linse, V.D.

    1978-10-03

    A cartridge containing an explosive charge is placed within a tube assembled within a tube sheet. The charge is detonated through use of a detonator cord containing a minimum but effective amount of explosive material. The cord is contained inside a tubular shield throughout most of its length within the cartridge. A small length of the cord extends beyond the tublar shield to contact and detonate the explosive charge in its rear portion near the cartridge base. The cartridge base is provided of substantial mass and thickness in respect to side and front walls of the cartridge to minimize bulging beyond the rear face of the tube sheet. For remote activation an electrically activated detonator of higher charge density than the cord is attached to the cord at a location spaced from the tube sheet, cartridge and tube.

  12. Nasogastric tube syndrome induced by an indwelling long intestinal tube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sano, Naoki; Yamamoto, Masayoshi; Nagai, Kentaro; Yamada, Keiichi; Ohkohchi, Nobuhiro

    2016-04-21

    The nasogastric tube (NGT) has become a frequently used device to alleviate gastrointestinal symptoms. Nasogastric tube syndrome (NTS) is an uncommon but potentially life-threatening complication of an indwelling NGT. NTS is characterized by acute upper airway obstruction due to bilateral vocal cord paralysis. We report a case of a 76-year-old man with NTS, induced by an indwelling long intestinal tube. He was admitted to our hospital for treatment of sigmoid colon cancer. He underwent sigmoidectomy to release a bowel obstruction, and had a long intestinal tube inserted to decompress the intestinal tract. He presented acute dyspnea following prolonged intestinal intubation, and bronchoscopy showed bilateral vocal cord paralysis. The NGT was removed immediately, and tracheotomy was performed. The patient was finally discharged in a fully recovered state. NTS be considered in patients complaining of acute upper airway obstruction, not only with a NGT inserted but also with a long intestinal tube.

  13. A Numerical Investigation of Unsheared Flux Cancelation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpen, J. T.; Antiochos, S. K.; DeVore, C. R.; Linton, M. G.

    Cancelation of magnetic flux in the solar photosphere and chromosphere has been linked observationally and theoretically to a broad range of solar activity phenomena, from filament channel formation to CME initiation. Because cancelation is typically measured at only a single layer in the atmosphere and only in the radial (line of sight) component of the magnetic field, the actual processes behind its observational signature are not fully understood. We have used our 3D MHD code with adaptive mesh refinement, ARMS, to investigate numerically the physics of flux cancelation, beginning with the simplest possible configuration: a subphotospheric Lundquist flux tube surrounded by a potential field in a gravitationally stratified atmosphere. Cancelation is driven by a two-cell circulation pattern imposed in the convection zone, in which the flows converge and form a downdraft at the polarity inversion line (PIL). We present and compare the results of 2D and 3D simulations of cancelation of initially unsheared flux - to our knowledge, these are the first such calculations in which the computational domain extends below the photosphere. The 2D simulation produces a flattened flux rope (plasmoid) whose axis remains centered along the PIL about 1650km above the photosphere, without rising higher into the corona by the end of the run (10,000 s). Our calculations also show that 3D cancelation in an arcade geometry does not produce a fully disconnected flux tube in the corona, in contrast to the 2D results. Rather, most of the reconnected field stays rooted in the photosphere and is gradually submerged by the downdrafts at the PIL. An interchange-like instability develops above the region where the converging flows are driven, breaking the horizontal symmetry along the PIL. This generates an alternating pattern of magnetic shear (magnetic field component aligned with the PIL), which ultimately produces systematic footpoint shuffling through reconnection across the folds of the

  14. Video Meteor Fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell-Brown, M. D.; Braid, D.

    2011-01-01

    The flux of meteoroids, or number of meteoroids per unit area per unit time, is critical for calibrating models of meteoroid stream formation and for estimating the hazard to spacecraft from shower and sporadic meteors. Although observations of meteors in the millimetre to centimetre size range are common, flux measurements (particularly for sporadic meteors, which make up the majority of meteoroid flux) are less so. It is necessary to know the collecting area and collection time for a given set of observations, and to correct for observing biases and the sensitivity of the system. Previous measurements of sporadic fluxes are summarized in Figure 1; the values are given as a total number of meteoroids striking the earth in one year to a given limiting mass. The Gr n et al. (1985) flux model is included in the figure for reference. Fluxes for sporadic meteoroids impacting the Earth have been calculated for objects in the centimeter size range using Super-Schmidt observations (Hawkins & Upton, 1958); this study used about 300 meteors, and used only the physical area of overlap of the cameras at 90 km to calculate the flux, corrected for angular speed of meteors, since a large angular speed reduces the maximum brightness of the meteor on the film, and radiant elevation, which takes into account the geometric reduction in flux when the meteors are not perpendicular to the horizontal. They bring up corrections for both partial trails (which tends to increase the collecting area) and incomplete overlap at heights other than 90 km (which tends to decrease it) as effects that will affect the flux, but estimated that the two effects cancelled one another. Halliday et al. (1984) calculated the flux of meteorite-dropping fireballs with fragment masses greater than 50 g, over the physical area of sky accessible to the MORP fireball cameras, counting only observations in clear weather. In the micron size range, LDEF measurements of small craters on spacecraft have been used to

  15. Piezoelectric Rotary Tube Motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Charles D.; Badescu, Mircea; Braun, David F.; Culhane, Robert

    2011-01-01

    A custom rotary SQUIGGLE(Registered TradeMark) motor has been developed that sets new benchmarks for small motor size, high position resolution, and high torque without gear reduction. Its capabilities cannot be achieved with conventional electromagnetic motors. It consists of piezoelectric plates mounted on a square flexible tube. The plates are actuated via voltage waveforms 90 out of phase at the resonant frequency of the device to create rotary motion. The motors were incorporated into a two-axis postioner that was designed for fiber-fed spectroscopy for ground-based and space-based projects. The positioner enables large-scale celestial object surveys to take place in a practical amount of time.

  16. Primary Fallopian Tube Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasad K Shetty

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary Fallopian Tube Carcinoma (PFTC is rare and accounts for about 0.3% of all gynecologic cancers. Less than 1500 cases have been reported in the literature. It arises in postmenopausal women and typically presents with abdominal pelvic pain, vaginal bleeding and watery discharge. However, a correct diagnosis is rarely achieved preoperative, and in many cases, the diagnosis is made after incidental surgery for unrelated conditions commonly being ovarian carcinoma . Compared with ovarian carcinoma, PFTC more often presents at early stages, but it has a worse prognosis. PFTC is usually managed in the same manner as ovarian cancer. We report a case of Left PFTC that presented as Left ovarian mass, and we briefly review the literature.

  17. Spatial Transport of Magnetic Flux Surfaces in Strongly Anisotropic Turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthaeus, W. H.; Servidio, S.; Wan, M.; Ruffolo, D. J.; Rappazzo, A. F.; Oughton, S.

    2013-12-01

    Magnetic flux surfaces afford familiar descriptions of spatial structure, dynamics, and connectivity of magnetic fields, with particular relevance in contexts such as solar coronal flux tubes, magnetic field connectivity in the interplanetary and interstellar medium, as well as in laboratory plasmas and dynamo problems [1-4]. Typical models assume that field-lines are orderly, and flux tubes remain identifiable over macroscopic distances; however, a previous study has shown that flux tubes shred in the presence of fluctuations, typically losing identity after several correlation scales [5]. Here, the structure of magnetic flux surfaces is numerically investigated in a reduced magnetohydrodynamic (RMHD) model of homogeneous turbulence. Short and long-wavelength behavior is studied statistically by propagating magnetic surfaces along the mean field. At small scales magnetic surfaces become complex, experiencing an exponential thinning. At large scales, instead, the magnetic flux undergoes a diffusive behavior. The link between the diffusion of the coarse-grained flux and field-line random walk is established by means of a multiple scale analysis. Both large and small scales limits are controlled by the Kubo number. These results have consequences for understanding and interpreting processes such as magnetic reconnection and field-line diffusion in plasmas [6]. [1] E. N. Parker, Cosmical Magnetic Fields (Oxford Univ. Press, New York, 1979). [2] J. R. Jokipii and E. N. Parker, Phys. Rev. Lett. 21, 44 (1968). [3] R. Bruno et al., Planet. Space Sci. 49, 1201 (2001). [4] M. N. Rosenbluth et al., Nuclear Fusion 6, 297 (1966). [5] W. H. Matthaeus et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 2136 (1995). [6] S. Servidio et al., submitted (2013).

  18. Spectra of Semi-Infinite Quantum Graph Tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shipman, Stephen P.; Tillay, Jeremy

    2016-10-01

    The spectrum of a semi-infinite quantum graph tube with square period cells is analyzed. The structure is obtained by rolling up a doubly periodic quantum graph into a tube along a period vector and then retaining only a semi-infinite half of the tube. The eigenfunctions associated to the spectrum of the half-tube involve all Floquet modes of the full tube. This requires solving the complex dispersion relation {D(λ,k_1,k_2)=0} with {(k_1,k_2)in({C}/2π{Z})^2} subject to the constraint {a k_1 + b k_2 ≡ 0} (mod {2π}), where a and b are integers. The number of Floquet modes for a given {λin{R}} is {2max{ a, b }}. Rightward and leftward modes are determined according to an indefinite energy flux form. The spectrum may contain eigenvalues that depend on the boundary conditions, and some eigenvalues may be embedded in the continuous spectrum.

  19. Subcooled choked flow through steam generator tube cracks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Brian J.

    The work presented here describes an experimental investigation into the choked flow of initially subcooled water through simulated steam generator tube cracks at pressures up to 6.9 MPa. The study of such flow is relevant to the prediction of leak flow rates from a nuclear reactor primary side to secondary side through cracks in steam generator tubes. An experimental approach to measuring such flow is de- scribed. Experimental results from data found in literature as well as the data collected in this work are compared with predictions from presented models as well as predictions from the thermal-hydraulic system code RELAP5. It is found that the homogeneous equilibrium model underpredicts choked flow rates of subcooled water through slits and artificial steam generator tube cracks. Additional modeling of thermal non-equilibrium improves the predictibility of choking mass flux for homogeneous models, however they fail to account for the characteristics of the two-phase pressure drop. An integral modeling approach is enhanced using a correlation developed from the data herein. Also, an assessment of the thermal-hydraulics code RELAP5 is performed and it’s applicability to predict choking flow rates through steam generator tube cracks is addressed. This assessment determined that the Henry & Fauske model, as coded in RELAP5, is best suited for modeling choked flow through steam generator tube cracks. Finally, an approach to applying choked flow data that is not at the same thermo-dynamic conditions as a prototype is developed.

  20. Flaming on YouTube

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moor, Peter J.; Heuvelman, A.; Verleur, R.

    2010-01-01

    In this explorative study, flaming on YouTube was studied using surveys of YouTube users. Flaming is defined as displaying hostility by insulting, swearing or using otherwise offensive language. Three general conclusions were drawn. First, although many users said that they themselves do not flame,

  1. Interpreting Shock Tube Ignition Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-10-01

    times only for high concentrations (of order 1% fuel or greater). The requirements of engine (IC, HCCI , CI and SI) modelers also present a different...Paper 03F-61 Interpreting Shock Tube Ignition Data D. F. Davidson and R. K. Hanson Mechanical Engineering ... Engineering Department Stanford University, Stanford CA 94305 Abstract Chemical kinetic modelers make extensive use of shock tube ignition data

  2. Flaming on YouTube

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moor, Peter J.; Heuvelman, Ard; Verleur, Ria

    2010-01-01

    In this explorative study, flaming on YouTube was studied using surveys of YouTube users. Flaming is defined as displaying hostility by insulting, swearing or using otherwise offensive language. Three general conclusions were drawn. First, although many users said that they themselves do not flame,

  3. Electron heat flux instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeed, Sundas; Sarfraz, M.; Yoon, P. H.; Lazar, M.; Qureshi, M. N. S.

    2017-02-01

    The heat flux instability is an electromagnetic mode excited by a relative drift between the protons and two-component core-halo electrons. The most prominent application may be in association with the solar wind where drifting electron velocity distributions are observed. The heat flux instability is somewhat analogous to the electrostatic Buneman or ion-acoustic instability driven by the net drift between the protons and bulk electrons, except that the heat flux instability operates in magnetized plasmas and possesses transverse electromagnetic polarization. The heat flux instability is also distinct from the electrostatic counterpart in that it requires two electron species with relative drifts with each other. In the literature, the heat flux instability is often called the 'whistler' heat flux instability, but it is actually polarized in the opposite sense to the whistler wave. This paper elucidates all of these fundamental plasma physical properties associated with the heat flux instability starting from a simple model, and gradually building up more complexity towards a solar wind-like distribution functions. It is found that the essential properties of the instability are already present in the cold counter-streaming electron model, and that the instability is absent if the protons are ignored. These instability characteristics are highly reminiscent of the electron firehose instability driven by excessive parallel temperature anisotropy, propagating in parallel direction with respect to the ambient magnetic field, except that the free energy source for the heat flux instability resides in the effective parallel pressure provided by the counter-streaming electrons.

  4. High efficiency fluorescent tubes. An efficient solution for the economical lighting of industrial and tertiary buildings; Les tubes fluorescents haut rendement. Une solution performante pour l'eclairage economique des locaux indutriels et tertiaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    Fluorescent lamps are low pressure mercury vapor lamps (discharge lamps). The high efficiency fluorescent tubes have a greater lighting efficiency thanks to the integration of tri-chromatic powders emitting in the three fundamental colors (red, green, blue). Their useful lifetime is exceptionally long (90% of their initial flux after 12000 hours of use), and they require a lower maintenance with respect to the traditional fluorescent tubes. This document presents the characteristics and advantages of high efficiency fluorescent tubes for professional use and their cost and performance with respect to standard fluorescent tubes. (J.S.)

  5. High-T{sub c} DC SQUID system cooled by pulse-tube cooler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, D.F.; Nakamura, M.; Yoshizawa, M

    2003-10-15

    We developed a high-T{sub c} DC SQUID system cooled by pulse-tube cooler. To avoid the influence of the wire resistance between SQUID and preamplifier, and to reduce the influence of the temperature fluctuation of pulse-tube cooler, DC coupling between SQUID chip and preamplifier was used and the flux locked loop worked in modulation mode. We also developed a temperature controller, using the DC SQUID as temperature sensor, to control and stabilize the operating temperature of the pulse-tube cooler. With the temperature controller, the DC SQUID system could remain locked for over 8 h.

  6. Condensation Heat-Transfer Measurements of Refrigerants on Externally Enhanced Tubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-06-01

    fins (m 2) as Coefficient used in eqn. 5.6 At Area of smooth tube (same as Ao) (m 2) cb Fraction of tube surface flooded C, Sieder -Tate-type...modified Wilson plot method was used to process all data. The Sieder -Tate-type equation (eqn. 4.6)- was used for the inside heat-transfer coefficient. A...Flux 2.535E+04 (W/m𔃼) Tube-metal thermal conduc. 385.0 (W/m.K) Sieder -Tate constant 0.0280 UNCERTAINTY ANALYSIS: VARIABLE PERCENT UNCERTAINTY Mass

  7. Thermalhydraulics of advanced 37-element fuel bundle in crept pressure tubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Park Joo Hwan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A CANDU-6 reactor, which has 380 fuel channels of a pressure tube type, is suffering from aging or creep of the pressure tubes. Most of the aging effects for the CANDU primary heat transport system were originated from the horizontal crept pressure tubes. As the operating years of a CANDU reactor proceed, a pressure tube experiences high neutron irradiation damage under high temperature and pressure. The crept pressure tube can deteriorate the Critical Heat Flux (CHF of a fuel channel and finally worsen the reactor operating performance and thermal margin. Recently, the modification of the central subchannel area with increasing inner pitch length of a standard 37-element fuel bundle was proposed and studied in terms of the dryout power enhancement for the uncrept pressure tube since a standard 37-element fuel bundle has a relatively small flow area and high flow resistance at the central region. This study introduced a subchannel analysis for the crept pressure tubes loaded with the inner pitch length modification of a standard 37-element fuel bundle. In addition, the subchannel characteristics were investigated according to the flow area change of the center subchannels for the crept pressure tubes. Also, it was discussed how much the crept pressure tubes affected the thermalhydraulic characteristics of the fuel channel as well as the dryout power for the modification of a standard 37-element fuel bundle.

  8. Evaluation of the heat transfer performance of helical coils of non-circular tubes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jundika C.KURNIA; Agus P.SASMITO; Arun S.MUJUMDAR

    2011-01-01

    This study addresses heat transfer performance of various configurations of coiled non-circular tubes, e. g. , in-plane spiral ducts, helical spiral ducts, and conical spiral ducts. The laminar flow of a Newtonian fluid in helical coils made of square cross section tubes is simulated using the computational fluid dynamic approach. The effects of tube Reynolds number, fluid Prandtl number, coil diameter, etc. , are quantified and discussed. Both constant wall temperature and constant heat flux conditions are simulated. The effect of in-plane coil versus a cylindrical design of constant coil, as well as a conical coil design is discussed. Results are compared with those for a straight square tube of the same length as that used to form the coils. Advantages and limitations of using coiled tubes are discussed in light of the numerical results.

  9. Two-phase flow patterns for flow condensation in small-diameter tubes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Two-phase flow patterns have been observed visually to investigate the effects of tube diameter, mass flux and tube inclination on flow condensation in small-diameter tubes. For horizontal or inclined small-diameter tubes, gravity-domination is decreased by shear stress and surface tension on phase change interface, which weakens the stratification of condensate and vapor flow due to the action of gravity perpendicular to flow direction. As decreasing the tube diameter from 5.79 mm to 2.18 mm, the annular or sub-annular flows become prevailing in flow regime map. The existing flow regime maps for macro scale cannot predict the experimental data in the present study.

  10. Water-storage-tube systems. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hemker, P.

    1981-12-24

    Passive solar collection/storage/distribution systems were surveyed, designed, fabricated, and mechanically and thermally tested. The types studied were clear and opaque fiberglass tubes, metal tubes with plastic liners, and thermosyphoning tubes. (MHR)

  11. Vidicon storage tube electrical input/output

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipoma, P.

    1972-01-01

    Electrical data storage tube is assembled from standard vidicon tube using conventional amplification and control circuits. Vidicon storage tube is simple, inexpensive and has an erase and preparation time of less than 5 microseconds.

  12. Experimental study on flow boiling heat transfer of LNG in a vertical smooth tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dongsheng; Shi, Yumei

    2013-10-01

    An experimental apparatus is set up in this work to study the upward flow boiling heat transfer characteristics of LNG (liquefied natural gas) in vertical smooth tubes with inner diameters of 8 mm and 14 mm. The experiments were performed at various inlet pressures from 0.3 to 0.7 MPa. The results were obtained over the mass flux range from 16 to 200 kg m-2 s-1 and heat fluxes ranging from 8.0 to 32 kW m-2. The influences of quality, heat flux and mass flux, tube diameter on the heat transfer characteristic are examined and discussed. The comparisons of the experimental heat transfer coefficients with the predicted values from the existing correlations are analyzed. The correlation by Zou et al. [16] shows the best accuracy with the RMS deviation of 31.7% in comparison with the experimental data.

  13. A study on the characteristics of evaporation heat transfer of carbon dioxide flowing upward in a vertical smooth tube

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yong Jin; Cho, Jin Min; Kim, Min Soo [Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-07-01

    Because of the ozone layer depletion and global warming, new alternative refrigerants are being developed. In this study, evaporation heat transfer characteristics of carbon dioxide flowing upward in a vertical tube have been investigated by experiment. Before the test section, a pre-heater is installed to adjust the inlet quality of the refrigerant to a desired value. A smooth tube with outer diameter of 5 mm and length of 1.44 m was selected as a test tube. The test was conducted at mass fluxes of 212 to 530 kg/m{sup 2}s, saturation temperature of -5 to 20 .deg. C, and heat fluxes of 20 to 45 kW/m{sup 2}. As the vapor quality and mass fluxes increase, the heat transfer coefficients of carbon dioxide are decreased, and the heat transfer coefficients increase when the heat fluxes and saturation temperatures increase.

  14. Expanding Taylor bubble under constant heat flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voirand, Antoine; Benselama, Adel M.; Ayel, Vincent; Bertin, Yves

    2016-09-01

    Modelization of non-isothermal bubbles expanding in a capillary, as a contribution to the understanding of the physical phenomena taking place in Pulsating Heat Pipes (PHPs), is the scope of this paper. The liquid film problem is simplified and solved, while the thermal problem takes into account a constant heat flux density applied at the capillary tube wall, exchanging with the liquid film surrounding the bubble and also with the capillary tube outside medium. The liquid slug dynamics is solved using the Lucas-Washburn equation. Mass and energy balance on the vapor phase allow governing equations of bubble expansion to be written. The liquid and vapor phases are coupled only through the saturation temperature associated with the vapor pressure, assumed to be uniform throughout the bubble. Results show an over-heating of the vapor phase, although the particular thermal boundary condition used here always ensures an evaporative mass flux at the liquid-vapor interface. Global heat exchange is also investigated, showing a strong decreasing of the PHP performance to convey heat by phase change means for large meniscus velocities.

  15. Magnetic flux emergence in granular convection: radiative MHD simulations and observational signatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, M. C. M.; Schüssler, M.; Moreno-Insertis, F.

    2007-05-01

    Aims:We study the emergence of magnetic flux from the near-surface layers of the solar convection zone into the photosphere. Methods: To model magnetic flux emergence, we carried out a set of numerical radiative magnetohydrodynamics simulations. Our simulations take into account the effects of compressibility, energy exchange via radiative transfer, and partial ionization in the equation of state. All these physical ingredients are essential for a proper treatment of the problem. Furthermore, the inclusion of radiative transfer allows us to directly compare the simulation results with actual observations of emerging flux. Results: We find that the interaction between the magnetic flux tube and the external flow field has an important influence on the emergent morphology of the magnetic field. Depending on the initial properties of the flux tube (e.g. field strength, twist, entropy etc.), the emergence process can also modify the local granulation pattern. The emergence of magnetic flux tubes with a flux of 1019 Mx disturbs the granulation and leads to the transient appearance of a dark lane, which is coincident with upflowing material. These results are consistent with observed properties of emerging magnetic flux. Movies are only available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  16. Magnetic flux generation and transport in cool stars

    CERN Document Server

    Işık, Emre; Schüssler, Manfred

    2011-01-01

    The Sun and other cool stars harbouring outer convection zones manifest magnetic activity in their atmospheres. The connection between this activity and the properties of a deep-seated dynamo generating the magnetic flux is not well understood. By employing physical models, we study the spatial and temporal characteristics of the observable surface field for various stellar parameters. We combine models for magnetic flux generation, buoyancy instability, and transport, which encompass the entire convection zone. The model components are: (1) a thin-layer alpha-Omega dynamo at the base of the convection zone; (2) buoyancy instabilities and the rise of flux tubes through the convection zone in 3D, which provides a physically consistent determination of emergence latitudes and tilt angles; and (3) horizontal flux transport at the surface. For solar-type stars and rotation periods longer than about 10 days, the latitudinal dynamo waves generated by the deep-seated alpha-Omega dynamo are faithfully reflected by th...

  17. Baseline high heat flux and plasma facing materials for fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, Y.; Schmid, K.; Balden, M.; Coenen, J. W.; Loewenhoff, Th.; Ito, A.; Hasegawa, A.; Hardie, C.; Porton, M.; Gilbert, M.

    2017-09-01

    In fusion reactors, surfaces of plasma facing components (PFCs) are exposed to high heat and particle flux. Tungsten and Copper alloys are primary candidates for plasma facing materials (PFMs) and coolant tube materials, respectively, mainly due to high thermal conductivity and, in the case of tungsten, its high melting point. In this paper, recent understandings and future issues on responses of tungsten and Cu alloys to fusion environments (high particle flux (including T and He), high heat flux, and high neutron doses) are reviewed. This review paper includes; Tritium retention in tungsten (K. Schmid and M. Balden), Impact of stationary and transient heat loads on tungsten (J.W. Coenen and Th. Loewenhoff), Helium effects on surface morphology of tungsten (Y. Ueda and A. Ito), Neutron radiation effects in tungsten (A. Hasegawa), and Copper and copper alloys development for high heat flux components (C. Hardie, M. Porton, and M. Gilbert).

  18. Chromospheric and Coronal Wave Generation in a Magnetic Flux Sheath

    CERN Document Server

    Kato, Yoshiaki; Hansteen, Viggo; Gudiksen, Boris; Wedemeyer, Sven; Carlsson, Mats

    2016-01-01

    Using radiation magnetohydrodynamic simulations of the solar atmospheric layers from the upper convection zone to the lower corona, we investigate the self-consistent excitation of slow magneto-acoustic body waves (slow modes) in a magnetic flux concentration. We find that the convective downdrafts in the close surroundings of a two-dimensional flux slab "pump" the plasma inside it in the downward direction. This action produces a downflow inside the flux slab, which encompasses ever higher layers, causing an upwardly propagating rarefaction wave. The slow mode, excited by the adiabatic compression of the downflow near the optical surface, travels along the magnetic field in the upward direction at the tube speed. It develops into a shock wave at chromospheric heights, where it dissipates, lifts the transition region, and produces an offspring in the form of a compressive wave that propagates further into the corona. In the wake of downflows and propagating shock waves, the atmosphere inside the flux slab in ...

  19. Acoustical studies on corrugated tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaguru, Rajavel

    Corrugated tubes and pipes offer greater global flexibility combined with local rigidity. They are used in numerous engineering applications such as vacuum cleaner hosing, air conditioning systems of aircraft and automobiles, HVAC control systems of heating ducts in buildings, compact heat exchangers, medical equipment and offshore gas and oil transportation flexible riser pipelines. Recently there has been a renewed research interest in analyzing the flow through a corrugated tube to understand the underlying mechanism of so called whistling, although the whistling in such a tube was identified in early twentieth century. The phenomenon of whistling in a corrugated tube is interesting because an airflow through a smooth walled tube of similar dimensions will not generate any whistling tones. Study of whistling in corrugated tubes is important because, it not only causes an undesirable noise problem but also results in flow-acoustic coupling. Such a coupling can cause significant structural vibrations due to flow-acoustic-structure interaction. This interaction would cause flow-induced vibrations that could result in severe damage to mechanical systems having corrugated tubes. In this research work, sound generation (whistling) in corrugated tubes due to airflow is analyzed using experimental as well as Computational Fluid Dynamics-Large Eddy Simulation (CFD-LES) techniques. Sound generation mechanisms resulting in whistling have been investigated. The whistling in terms of frequencies and sound pressure levels for different flow velocities are studied. The analytical and experimental studies are carried out to understand the influence of various parameters of corrugated tubes such as cavity length, cavity width, cavity depth, pitch, Reynolds numbers and number of corrugations. The results indicate that there is a good agreement between theoretically calculated, computationally predicted and experimentally measured whistling frequencies and sound pressure levels

  20. Electronic components, tubes and transistors

    CERN Document Server

    Dummer, G W A

    1965-01-01

    Electronic Components, Tubes and Transistors aims to bridge the gap between the basic measurement theory of resistance, capacitance, and inductance and the practical application of electronic components in equipments. The more practical or usage aspect of electron tubes and semiconductors is given emphasis over theory. The essential characteristics of each main type of component, tube, and transistor are summarized. This book is comprised of six chapters and begins with a discussion on the essential characteristics in terms of the parameters usually required in choosing a resistor, including s

  1. PEG tubes: dealing with complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhi, Hardip; Thompson, Rosie

    A percutaneous endoscopic gastronomy tube can be used to deliver nutrition, hydration and medicines directly into the patient's stomach. Patients will require a tube if they are unable to swallow safely, putting them at risk of aspiration of food, drink and medicines into their lungs. It is vital that nurses are aware of the complications that may arise when caring for a patient with a PEG tube. It is equally important that nurses know how to deal with these complications or from where tc seek advice. This article provides a quick troubleshooting guide to help nurses deal with complications that can arise with PEG feeding.

  2. Mass- and heat transfer at water trickled finned tubes. Waerme- und Stoffaustausch an wasserberieselten Rippenrohren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vilser, L.

    1982-11-22

    At five finned tubes of different geometries measurements were made of the heat and mass transfer during spraying with water and simultaneous passing of an air stream. Mass flow, air temperature, air moisture and air velocity were varied. From the results of the measurements the overall heat flux, the heat flux removed by the spray film, the heat flux transfered to the air by convection, the amount of evaporated water, the heat transfer coefficient between tube wall and spray film, the heat transfer coefficient between spray film and air stream, the mass transfer coefficient and the pressure drop in the air stream were calculated. The results are presented in diagrams, the heat transfer coefficient between spray film and air and the mass transfer coefficient are described by formulae. The comparison of the heat flux densities at the five different tubes shows that for the combination of dry cooling and spraying of the finned tubes, tubes with a small inner tube diameter and small height of the fins are most suited. The assumption frequently made, that the heat transfer coefficient between a gas flow and a spray film may be described by the mathematical interrelationships valid for the gas flow at a stationary wall is true only to a very limited extent. The same is valid for the determination of the pressure loss at the gas side. With a theoretical model it was tried to evaluate the phenomena at the finned tube by means of calculation. Starting from an overall concept described in the introduction formulations for solutions of partial problems were elaborated and results are presented. Because of the necessary simplifications a correlation with the results of the measurements was only achieved in subdomains. Possible starting points for improving the mathematical model are qualitatively described.

  3. Simulations of Emerging Magnetic Flux. II. The Formation of Unstable Coronal Flux Ropes and the Initiation of Coronal Mass Ejections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leake, James E.; Linton, Mark G.; Antiochos, Spiro K.

    2014-01-01

    We present results from three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic simulations of the emergence of a twisted convection zone flux tube into a pre-existing coronal dipole field. As in previous simulations, following the partial emergence of the sub-surface flux into the corona, a combination of vortical motions and internal magnetic reconnection forms a coronal flux rope. Then, in the simulations presented here, external reconnection between the emerging field and the pre-existing dipole coronal field allows further expansion of the coronal flux rope into the corona. After sufficient expansion, internal reconnection occurs beneath the coronal flux rope axis, and the flux rope erupts up to the top boundary of the simulation domain (approximately 36 Mm above the surface).We find that the presence of a pre-existing field, orientated in a direction to facilitate reconnection with the emerging field, is vital to the fast rise of the coronal flux rope. The simulations shown in this paper are able to self-consistently create many of the surface and coronal signatures used by coronal mass ejection (CME) models. These signatures include surface shearing and rotational motions, quadrupolar geometry above the surface, central sheared arcades reconnecting with oppositely orientated overlying dipole fields, the formation of coronal flux ropes underlying potential coronal field, and internal reconnection which resembles the classical flare reconnection scenario. This suggests that proposed mechanisms for the initiation of a CME, such as "magnetic breakout," are operating during the emergence of new active regions.

  4. Net Ecosystem Carbon Flux

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Net Ecosystem Carbon Flux is defined as the year-over-year change in Total Ecosystem Carbon Stock, or the net rate of carbon exchange between an ecosystem and the...

  5. Aeronet Solar Flux

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — SolRad-Net (Solar Radiation Network) is an established network of ground-based sensors providing high-frequency solar flux measurements in quasi-realtime to the...

  6. Flux in Tallinn

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2004-01-01

    Rahvusvahelise elektroonilise kunsti sümpoosioni ISEA2004 klubiõhtu "Flux in Tallinn" klubis Bon Bon. Eestit esindasid Ropotator, Ars Intel Inc., Urmas Puhkan, Joel Tammik, Taavi Tulev (pseud. Wochtzchee). Klubiõhtu koordinaator Andres Lõo

  7. Flux in Tallinn

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2004-01-01

    Rahvusvahelise elektroonilise kunsti sümpoosioni ISEA2004 klubiõhtu "Flux in Tallinn" klubis Bon Bon. Eestit esindasid Ropotator, Ars Intel Inc., Urmas Puhkan, Joel Tammik, Taavi Tulev (pseud. Wochtzchee). Klubiõhtu koordinaator Andres Lõo

  8. Nitrous Oxide Flux

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Nitrous Oxide (N20) flux is the net rate of nitrous oxide exchange between an ecosystem and the atmosphere. Data of this variable were generated by the USGS...

  9. Carbon Dioxide Flux Measurement Systems

    Data.gov (United States)

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory — The Southern Great Plains (SGP) carbon dioxide flux (CO2 flux) measurement systems provide half-hour average fluxes of CO2, H2O (latent heat), and sensible heat. The...

  10. Flux Emergence (Theory)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Mark C. M.; Isobe, Hiroaki

    2014-12-01

    Magnetic flux emergence from the solar convection zone into the overlying atmosphere is the driver of a diverse range of phenomena associated with solar activity. In this article, we introduce theoretical concepts central to the study of flux emergence and discuss how the inclusion of different physical effects (e.g., magnetic buoyancy, magnetoconvection, reconnection, magnetic twist, interaction with ambient field) in models impact the evolution of the emerging field and plasma.

  11. Theoretical magnetic flux emergence

    OpenAIRE

    MacTaggart, David

    2011-01-01

    Magnetic flux emergence is the subject of how magnetic fields from the solar interior can rise and expand into the atmosphere to produce active regions. It is the link that joins dynamics in the convection zone with dynamics in the atmosphere. In this thesis, we study many aspects of magnetic flux emergence through mathematical modelling and computer simulations. Our primary aim is to understand the key physical processes that lie behind emergence. The first chapter intro...

  12. Flux Emergence (Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark C. M. Cheung

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic flux emergence from the solar convection zone into the overlying atmosphere is the driver of a diverse range of phenomena associated with solar activity. In this article, we introduce theoretical concepts central to the study of flux emergence and discuss how the inclusion of different physical effects (e.g., magnetic buoyancy, magnetoconvection, reconnection, magnetic twist, interaction with ambient field in models impact the evolution of the emerging field and plasma.

  13. NEI You Tube Videos: Amblyopia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... questions Clinical Studies Publications Catalog Photos and Images Spanish Language Information Dilated Exam Grants and Funding Extramural ... Low Vision Refractive Errors Retinopathy of Prematurity Science Spanish Videos Webinars NEI YouTube Videos: Amblyopia Embedded video ...

  14. Tube-wave seismic imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korneev, Valeri A [LaFayette, CA

    2009-05-05

    The detailed analysis of cross well seismic data for a gas reservoir in Texas revealed two newly detected seismic wave effects, recorded approximately 2000 feet above the reservoir. A tube-wave (150) is initiated in a source well (110) by a source (111), travels in the source well (110), is coupled to a geological feature (140), propagates (151) through the geological feature (140), is coupled back to a tube-wave (152) at a receiver well (120), and is and received by receiver(s) (121) in either the same (110) or a different receiving well (120). The tube-wave has been shown to be extremely sensitive to changes in reservoir characteristics. Tube-waves appear to couple most effectively to reservoirs where the well casing is perforated, allowing direct fluid contact from the interior of a well case to the reservoir.

  15. NEI You Tube Videos: Amblyopia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... questions Clinical Studies Publications Catalog Photos and Images Spanish Language Information Grants and Funding Extramural Research Division ... Low Vision Refractive Errors Retinopathy of Prematurity Science Spanish Videos Webinars NEI YouTube Videos: Amblyopia Embedded video ...

  16. NEI You Tube Videos: Amblyopia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Grants and Funding Extramural Research Division of Extramural Science Programs Division of Extramural Activities Extramural Contacts NEI ... Amaurosis Low Vision Refractive Errors Retinopathy of Prematurity Science Spanish Videos Webinars NEI YouTube Videos: Amblyopia Embedded ...

  17. Pulse tube refrigerator; Parusukan reitoki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hozumi, Yoshikazu [University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba (Japan); Shiraishi, Masao [Hiroshima University, Hiroshima (Japan)

    1999-06-05

    In the cryogenic field, high temperature superconductivity and research and development of the peripheral technology are popular. Refrigerating machine development of the very low temperature is also one of the results. Research and development are mainly advanced as a refrigerating machine of the center for the aerospace plane installation. There is special and small very low temperature refrigerating machine called 'the pulse tube refrigerating machine' of which the practical application is also recently being attempted for the semiconductor cooling using high temperature superconductivity. At present, the basic research of elucidation of refrigeration phenomenon of pulse tube refrigerating machine and development of high-performance pulse tube refrigerating machine is carried out by experiment in the Ministry of International Trade and Industry Mechanical Engineering Lab., Agency of Industrial Sci. and Technology and numerical simulation in Chiyoda Corp. In this report, the pulse tube refrigerating machine is introduced, and the application in the chemical engineering field is considered. (NEDO)

  18. Lunar Core Drive Tubes Summary

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Contains a brief summary and high resolution imagery from various lunar rock and core drive tubes collected from the Apollo and Luna missions to the moon.

  19. Tube wall thickness measurement apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lagasse, P.R.

    1987-01-06

    An apparatus is described for measuring the thickness of a tube's wall for the tube's entire length and circumference by determining the deviation of the tube wall thickness from the known thickness of a selected standard item, the apparatus comprising: a. a base; b. a first support member having first and second ends, the first end being connected to the base, the first support member having a sufficiently small circumference that the tube can be slid over the first support member; c. a spherical element, the spherical element being connected to the second end of the first support member. The spherical element has a sufficiently small circumference at its equator that the tube can be slid over the spherical element, the spherical element having at its equator a larger circumference than the first support member; d. a second support member having first and second ends, the first end being connected to the base, the second support member being spaced apart form the first support member; e. a positioning element connected to and moveable relative to the second support member; and f. an indicator connected to the positioning element and being moveable thereby to a location proximate the spherical element. The indicator includes a contact ball for contacting the selected standard item and holding it against the spherical element, the contact ball contacting the tube when the tube is disposed about the spherical element. The indicator includes a dial having a rotatable needle for indicating the deviation of the tube wall thickness from the thickness of the selected standard item, the rotatable needle being operatively connected to and responsive to the position of the contact ball.

  20. Tube wall thickness measurement apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lagasse, P.R.

    1985-06-21

    An apparatus for measuring the thickness of a tube's wall for the tube's entire length and radius by determining the deviation of the tube wall thickness from the known thickness of a selected standard item. The apparatus comprises a base and a first support member having first and second ends. The first end is connected to the base and the second end is connected to a spherical element. A second support member is connected to the base and spaced apart from the first support member. A positioning element is connected to and movable relative to the second support member. An indicator is connected to the positioning element and is movable to a location proximate the spherical element. The indicator includes a contact ball for first contacting the selected standard item and holding it against the spherical element. The contact ball then contacts the tube when the tube is disposed about the spherical element. The indicator includes a dial having a rotatable needle for indicating the deviation of the tube wall thickness from the thickness of the selected standard item.