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Sample records for plasmasphere

  1. Plasmaspheric electron content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartmann, G.K.

    1978-01-01

    Measurements of the plasmaspheric electron content are reviewed with particular reference to the ATS-6 radio beacon experiment. From the review, it appears likely that measurement of the plasmaspheric electron content is the only one capable of monitoring electron fluxes continuously between L 1 and L 2. Some recent important results deduced from plasmaspheric electron content measurements are discussed

  2. The Plasmasphere Boundary Layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. L. Carpenter

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available As an inner magnetospheric phenomenon the plasmapause region is of interest for a number of reasons, one being the occurrence there of geophysically important interactions between the plasmas of the hot plasma sheet and of the cool plasmasphere. There is a need for a conceptual framework within which to examine and discuss these interactions and their consequences, and we therefore suggest that the plasmapause region be called the Plasmasphere Boundary Layer, or PBL. Such a term has been slow to emerge because of the complexity and variability of the plasma populations that can exist near the plasmapause and because of the variety of criteria used to identify the plasmapause in experimental data. Furthermore, and quite importantly in our view, a substantial obstacle to the consideration of the plasmapause region as a boundary layer has been the longstanding tendency of textbooks on space physics to limit introductory material on the plasmapause phenomenon to zeroth order descriptions in terms of ideal MHD theory, thus implying that the plasmasphere is relatively well understood. A textbook may introduce the concept of shielding of the inner magnetosphere from perturbing convection electric fields, but attention is not usually paid to the variety of physical processes reported to occur in the PBL, such as heating, instabilities, and fast longitudinal flows, processes which must play roles in plasmasphere dynamics in concert with the flow regimes associated with the major dynamo sources of electric fields. We believe that through the use of the PBL concept in future textbook discussions of the plasmasphere and in scientific communications, much progress can be made on longstanding questions about the physics involved in the formation of the plasmapause and in the cycles of erosion and recovery of the plasmasphere.

    Key words. Magnetospheric physics (plasmasphere; plasma convection; MHD waves and instabilities

  3. The Plasmasphere Boundary Layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. L. Carpenter

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available As an inner magnetospheric phenomenon the plasmapause region is of interest for a number of reasons, one being the occurrence there of geophysically important interactions between the plasmas of the hot plasma sheet and of the cool plasmasphere. There is a need for a conceptual framework within which to examine and discuss these interactions and their consequences, and we therefore suggest that the plasmapause region be called the Plasmasphere Boundary Layer, or PBL. Such a term has been slow to emerge because of the complexity and variability of the plasma populations that can exist near the plasmapause and because of the variety of criteria used to identify the plasmapause in experimental data. Furthermore, and quite importantly in our view, a substantial obstacle to the consideration of the plasmapause region as a boundary layer has been the longstanding tendency of textbooks on space physics to limit introductory material on the plasmapause phenomenon to zeroth order descriptions in terms of ideal MHD theory, thus implying that the plasmasphere is relatively well understood. A textbook may introduce the concept of shielding of the inner magnetosphere from perturbing convection electric fields, but attention is not usually paid to the variety of physical processes reported to occur in the PBL, such as heating, instabilities, and fast longitudinal flows, processes which must play roles in plasmasphere dynamics in concert with the flow regimes associated with the major dynamo sources of electric fields. We believe that through the use of the PBL concept in future textbook discussions of the plasmasphere and in scientific communications, much progress can be made on longstanding questions about the physics involved in the formation of the plasmapause and in the cycles of erosion and recovery of the plasmasphere. Key words. Magnetospheric physics (plasmasphere; plasma convection; MHD waves and instabilities

  4. The Earth's Plasmasphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, D. L.

    2015-01-01

    The Earth's plasmasphere is an inner part of the magneteosphere. It is located just outside the upper ionosphere located in Earth's atmosphere. It is a region of dense, cold plasma that surrounds the Earth. Although plasma is found throughout the magnetosphere, the plasmasphere usually contains the coldest plasma. Here's how it works: The upper reaches of our planet's atmosphere are exposed to ultraviolet light from the Sun, and they are ionized with electrons that are freed from neutral atmospheric particles. The results are electrically charged negative and positive particles. The negative particles are electrons, and the positive particles are now called ions (formerly atoms and molecules). If the density of these particles is low enough, this electrically charged gas behaves differently than it would if it were neutral. Now this gas is called plasma. The atmospheric gas density becomes low enough to support the conditions for a plasma around earth at about 90 kilometers above Earth's surface. The electrons in plasma gain more energy, and they are very low in mass. They move along Earth's magnetic field lines and their increased energy is enough to escape Earth's gravity. Because electrons are very light, they don't have to gain too much kinetic energy from the Sun's ultraviolet light before gravity loses its grip on them. Gravity is not all that holds them back, however. As more and more electrons begin to escape outward, they leave behind a growing net positive electric charge in the ionosphere and create a growing net negative electric charge above the ionosphere; an electric field begins to develop (the Pannekoek-Rosseland E-field). Thus, these different interacting charges result in a positively charged ionosphere and negatively charged region of space above it. Very quickly this resulting electric field opposed upward movement of the electrons out of the ionosphere. The electrons still have this increased energy, however, so the electric field doesn't just

  5. Topics in planetary plasmaspheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, C.K.

    1977-01-01

    Contributions to the understanding of two distinct kinds of planetary plasmaspheres: namely the earth-type characterized by an ionospheric source and a convection limited radial extent, and the Jupiter-type characterized by a satellite source and a radial extent determined by flux tube interchange motions. In both cases the central question is the geometry of the plasma distribution in the magnetosphere as it is determined by the appropriate production and loss mechanisms. The contributions contained herein concern the explication and clarification of these production and loss mechanisms

  6. Fine Structure of Plasmaspheric Hiss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summers, D.; Omura, Y.; Nakamura, S.; Kletzing, C.

    2014-12-01

    Plasmaspheric hiss plays a key role in controlling the structure and dynamics of Earth's radiation belts.The quiet time slot region between the inner and outer belts can be explained as a steady-state balance between earthward radial diffusion and pitch-angle scattering loss of energetic electrons to the atmosphere induced by plasmaspheric hiss. Plasmaspheric hiss can also induce gradual precipitation loss of MeV electrons from the outer radiation belt. Plasmaspheric hiss has been widely regarded as a broadband,structureless,incoherent emission. Here, by examining burst-mode vector waveform data from the EMFISIS instrument on the Van Allen Probes mission,we show that plasmaspheric hiss is a coherent emission with complex fine structure. Specifically, plasmaspheric hiss appears as discrete rising tone and falling tone elements. By means of waveform analysis we identify typical amplitudes,phase profiles,and sweep rates of the rising and falling tone elements. The new observations reported here can be expected to fuel a re-examination of the properties of plasmaspheric hiss, including a further re-analysis of the generation mechanism for hiss.

  7. Identifying the source region of plasmaspheric hiss

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Laakso, H.; Santolík, Ondřej; Horne, R.; Kolmašová, Ivana; Escoubet, P.; Masson, A.; Taylor, P.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 42, č. 9 (2015), s. 3141-3149 ISSN 0094-8276 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LH12231 Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : plasmaspheric hiss * plasmaspheric drainage plumes * plasmasphere * equatorial region of plumes Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 4.212, year: 2015 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/2015GL063755/full

  8. Argon-ion contamination of the plasmasphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiu, Y.T.; Cornwall, J.M.; Luhmann, J.G.; Schulz, M.

    1979-01-01

    This paper applies present observational and analytic knowledge on effects of plasma beam interaction wth the magnetosphere to the plasmasphere contamination problem of the argon ion engine exhaust expected to be deposited in the magnetosphere during the construction phase of the Satellite Power System. Effects of plasmasphere, ionosphere, and radiation belt modifications are discussed

  9. Physics-based models of the plasmasphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jordanova, Vania K [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Pierrard, Vivane [BELGIUM; Goldstein, Jerry [SWRI; Andr' e, Nicolas [ESTEC/ESA; Kotova, Galina A [SRI, RUSSIA; Lemaire, Joseph F [BELGIUM; Liemohn, Mike W [U OF MICHIGAN; Matsui, H [UNIV OF NEW HAMPSHIRE

    2008-01-01

    We describe recent progress in physics-based models of the plasmasphere using the Auid and the kinetic approaches. Global modeling of the dynamics and inAuence of the plasmasphere is presented. Results from global plasmasphere simulations are used to understand and quantify (i) the electric potential pattern and evolution during geomagnetic storms, and (ii) the inAuence of the plasmasphere on the excitation of electromagnetic ion cyclotron (ElvIIC) waves a.nd precipitation of energetic ions in the inner magnetosphere. The interactions of the plasmasphere with the ionosphere a.nd the other regions of the magnetosphere are pointed out. We show the results of simulations for the formation of the plasmapause and discuss the inAuence of plasmaspheric wind and of ultra low frequency (ULF) waves for transport of plasmaspheric material. Theoretical formulations used to model the electric field and plasma distribution in the plasmasphere are given. Model predictions are compared to recent CLUSTER and MAGE observations, but also to results of earlier models and satellite observations.

  10. Density structures inside the plasmasphere: Cluster observations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Darrouzet, F.; Decreau, P.M.E.; De Keyser, J.

    2004-01-01

    The electron density profiles derived from the EFW and WHISPER instruments on board the four Cluster spacecraft reveal density structures inside the plasmasphere and at its outer boundary, the plasmapause. We have conducted a statistical study to characterize these density structures. We focus...... on the plasmasphere crossing on I I April 2002, during which Cluster observed several density irregularities inside the plasmasphere, as well as a plasmaspheric plume. We derive the density gradient vectors from simultaneous density measurements by the four spacecraft. We also determine the normal velocity...... of the boundaries of the plume and of the irregularities from the time delays between those boundaries in the four individual density profiles, assuming they are planar. These new observations yield novel insights about the occurrence of density irregularities, their geometry and their dynamics. These in...

  11. Dynamic of non relativistic electrons and protons in the plasmasphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendes Junior, O.; Pinto Junior, O.; Gonzalez, W.D.

    1985-01-01

    A study of the dynamics of electrons and protons inside the plasmasphere is presented. These particles are subjected to the geomagnetic field and to plasmaspheric electric fields, given by simple static models, during magnetically quiet and disturbed periods. (author) [pt

  12. Refilling the plasmasphere through the exospheric sieve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krall, J.; Huba, J.; Emmert, J. T.

    2016-12-01

    The ability to compute plasmasphere densities is critical to many space weather concerns. The sensitivity of refilling to the solar cycle is compelling because, paradoxically, refilling rates are generally lowest when the ionosphere is strongest. In the past, this has been attributed to a dearth of exosphere H at solar maximum. While H is needed to supply H + O+ -> H+ + O charge exchange, recent work demonstrates a significant sensitivity to O [1]. Results will be based on preliminary model-data comparisons using in situ Van Allen Probe EMFISIS data and the SAMI3 ionosphere/plasmasphere code. We will assess the impact of atmospheric composition (i.e., O and H) and solar activity (e.g., F10.7) on plasmasphere refilling rates and density following magnetic storms. SAMI3 (Sami3 is Also a Model of the Ionosphere) is a first-principles ionosphere/plasmasphere model. SAMI3 includes 7 ion species (H+, He+, O+, N+, O2+, N2+, NO+), each treated as a separate fluid, with temperature equations being solved for H+, He+, O+ and e- [2]. SAMI3 uses the empirical MSIS thermosphere/exosphere model to specify O and H densities. SAMI3 includes scaling factors that can be used to tune MSIS densities to bring them in line with measurements of satellite drag. Key inputs for this data-driven modeling are the thermosphere oxygen (O) and hydrogen (H) densities, and the F10.7 proxy for solar ultraviolet irradiance. [1 ]Krall, J., J. T. Emmert, F. Sassi, S. E. McDonald, and J. D. Huba (2016), Day-to-day variability in the thermosphere and its impact on plasmasphere refilling, J. Geophys. Res. Space Physics, 121, doi:10.1002/2015JA022328. [2] Huba, J. and J. Krall (2013), Modeling the plasmasphere with SAMI3, Geophys. Res. Lett., 40, 6-10, doi:10.1029/2012GL054300 Research supported by NRL base funds.

  13. Plasmaspheric hiss properties: Observations from Polar

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tsurutani, B. T.; Falkowski, B. J.; Pickett, J. S.; Santolík, Ondřej; Lakhina, G. S.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 120, č. 1 (2015), s. 414-431 ISSN 2169-9380 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP205/10/2279 Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : plasmasphere * hiss * Polar Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 3.318, year: 2015 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/2014JA020518/abstract

  14. The fate of the outer plasmasphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elphic, R.C.; Thomsen, M.F.; Borovsky, J.E.

    1997-01-01

    Both the solar wind and the ionosphere contribute to Earth close-quote s magnetospheric plasma environment. However, it is not widely appreciated that the plasmasphere is a large reservoir of ionospheric ions that can be tapped to populate the plasma sheet. We employ empirical models of high-latitude ionospheric convection and the geomagnetic field to describe the transport of outer plasmasphere flux tubes from the dayside, over the polar cap and into the magnetotail during the early phases of a geomagnetic storm. We calculate that this process can give rise to high densities of cold plasma in the magnetotail lobes and in the near-Earth plasma sheet during times of enhanced geomagnetic activity, and especially during storms. This model can help explain both polar cap ionization patches and the presence of cold flowing ions downtail.copyright 1997 American Geophysical Union

  15. Analysis of plasmaspheric plumes: CLUSTER and IMAGE observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Darrouzet

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Plasmaspheric plumes have been routinely observed by CLUSTER and IMAGE. The CLUSTER mission provides high time resolution four-point measurements of the plasmasphere near perigee. Total electron density profiles have been derived from the electron plasma frequency identified by the WHISPER sounder supplemented, in-between soundings, by relative variations of the spacecraft potential measured by the electric field instrument EFW; ion velocity is also measured onboard these satellites. The EUV imager onboard the IMAGE spacecraft provides global images of the plasmasphere with a spatial resolution of 0.1 RE every 10 min; such images acquired near apogee from high above the pole show the geometry of plasmaspheric plumes, their evolution and motion. We present coordinated observations of three plume events and compare CLUSTER in-situ data with global images of the plasmasphere obtained by IMAGE. In particular, we study the geometry and the orientation of plasmaspheric plumes by using four-point analysis methods. We compare several aspects of plume motion as determined by different methods: (i inner and outer plume boundary velocity calculated from time delays of this boundary as observed by the wave experiment WHISPER on the four spacecraft, (ii drift velocity measured by the electron drift instrument EDI onboard CLUSTER and (iii global velocity determined from successive EUV images. These different techniques consistently indicate that plasmaspheric plumes rotate around the Earth, with their foot fully co-rotating, but with their tip rotating slower and moving farther out.

  16. The Earth’s Plasmasphere A CLUSTER and IMAGE Perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Darrouzet, F; Pierrard, V

    2009-01-01

    The Earth's Plasmasphere reviews the state of the art in plasmaspheric science based on the modern observations provded by ESA's CLUSTER and NASA's IMAGE spacecraft. The plasmasphere, discovered at the beginning of the space age, has remained largely unexplored territory. Now, with innovative observational techniques, new light is being shed on this key region of the magnetosphere. This book sketches the emerging overall picture of a highly structured plasma, sculpted by the ever-changing electromagnetic fields that result from the interaction of the solar wind with the magnetosphere. The Earth's Plasmasphere, written by an international group of scientists representative of the world-wide community, is aimed at researchers and graduate students with an interest in magnetospheric physics, space plasma physics and geophysics.

  17. Reduction in plasmaspheric hiss wave amplitudes during a substorm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, H.; Yuan, Z.; Yu, X.; Deng, X.; Tang, R.; Chen, Z.; Zhou, M.; Huang, S.

    2017-12-01

    Plasmaspheric hiss is an important plasma wave in controlling the overall structure and dynamics of radiation belt electrons, so the distribution and generation mechanism of plasmaspheric hiss waves is worthy of study. Previous studies have found that the amplitude of plasmaspheric hiss waves tends to increase as substorm activity increases. In this study, through analysis of a hiss event observed by the Van Allen Radiation Belt Storm Probes (RBSP), it is found that the intensity of plasmaspheric hiss waves at magnetic local time (MLT) > 1300 (L≈5) is reduced or even disappears during a substorm. After calculating energetic electron trajectories, we suggest that this is because electrons are prevented from entering the plasmasphere at MLT > 1300 (L≈5) by the stronger convection electric field during the substorm. The calculations are consistent with direct observations from the RBSP satellites. The results highlight the significant and complex variability of plasmaspheric hiss waves. The amplitude of these waves on the dayside is not necessarily positively correlated with substorm activity, as negative correlations may be observed on the afternoon side during a substorm.

  18. Modeling Saturn's Inner Plasmasphere: Cassini's Closest Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, L.; Mendillo, M.

    2005-05-01

    Ion densities from the three-dimensional Saturn-Thermosphere-Ionosphere-Model (STIM, Moore et al., 2004) are extended above the plasma exobase using the formalism of Pierrard and Lemaire (1996, 1998), which evaluates the balance of gravitational, centrifugal and electric forces on the plasma. The parameter space of low-energy ionospheric contributions to Saturn's plasmasphere is explored by comparing results that span the observed extremes of plasma temperature, 650 K to 1700 K, and a range of velocity distributions, Lorentzian (or Kappa) to Maxwellian. Calculations are made for plasma densities along the path of the Cassini spacecraft's orbital insertion on 1 July 2004. These calculations neglect any ring or satellite sources of plasma, which are most likely minor contributors at 1.3 Saturn radii. Modeled densities will be compared with Cassini measurements as they become available. Moore, L.E., M. Mendillo, I.C.F. Mueller-Wodarg, and D.L. Murr, Icarus, 172, 503-520, 2004. Pierrard, V. and J. Lemaire, J. Geophys. Res., 101, 7923-7934, 1996. Pierrard, V. and J. Lemaire, J. Geophys. Res., 103, 4117, 1998.

  19. A storm-time plasmasphere evolution study using data assimilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikoukar, R.; Bust, G. S.; Bishop, R. L.; Coster, A. J.; Lemon, C.; Turner, D. L.; Roeder, J. L.

    2017-12-01

    In this work, we study the evolution of the Earth's plasmasphere during geomagnetic active periods using the Plasmasphere Data Assimilation (PDA) model. The total electron content (TEC) measurements from an extensive network of global ground-based GPS receivers as well as GPS receivers on-board Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere and Climate (COSMIC) satellites and Communications/Navigation Outage Forecasting System (C/NOFS) satellite are ingested into the model. Global Core Plasma model, which is an empirical plasmasphere model, is utilized as the background model. Based on the 3D-VAR optimization, the PDA assimilative model benefits from incorporation of regularization techniques to prevent non-physical altitudinal variation in density estimates due to the limited-angle observational geometry. This work focuses on the plasmapause location, plasmasphere erosion time scales and refilling rates during the main and recovery phases of geomagnetic storms as estimated from the PDA 3-dimensional global maps of electron density in the ionosphere/plasmasphere. The comparison between the PDA results with in-situ density measurements from THEMIS and Van Allen Probes, and the RCM-E first-principle model will be also presented.

  20. Outlying plasmasphere structure detected by whistlers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ho, D.; Carpenter, D.L.

    1976-01-01

    Whistlers recorded at Eights (L approximately equal to 4) and Byrd (L approximately equal to 7), Antarctica have been used to study large-scale structure in equatorial plasma density at geocentric distances approximately equal to 3 to 6 Rsub(E). The observations were made during conditions of magnetic quieting following moderate disturbance. The structures were detected by a 'scanning' process involving relative motion, at about one tenth of the Earth's angular velocity or greater, between the observed density features and the observing whistler station or stations. Three case studies are described, from 26 March 1965, 11 May 1965 and 29 August 1966. The cases support satellite results by showing outlying high density regions at approximately equal to 4 to 6 Rsub(E) that are separated from the main plasmasphere by trough-like depressions ranging in width from 0.2 to 1 Rsub(E). The structures evidently endured for periods of 12 hr or more. In the cases of deepest quieting their slow east-west motions with respect to the Earth are probably of dynamo origin. The cases observed during deep quieting (11 May 1965 and 29 August 1966) suggest the approximate rotation with the Earth of structure formed during previous moderate disturbance activity in the dusk sector. The third case, from 26 March 1965, may represent a structure formed near local midnight. The reported structures appear to be closely related to the bulge phenomenon. The present work supports other experimental and theoretical evidence that the dusk sector is one of major importance in the generation of outlying density structure. (author)

  1. Obervations of low energy magnetospheric plasma outside the plasmasphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hultqvist, B.

    1985-01-01

    After some introductory discussions about morphological concepts and limitations of various measurement techniques, existing low energy plasma data, orginating primarily from the GEOS, Dynamics Explorer, and Prognoz spacecraft, is described and discussed. The plasmasphere measurements are not included (but for some observations of plasmasphere refilling). It is finally concluded that we are very far from a complete picture of the low-energy plasma component in the magnetosphere and that this problem has to be given high priority in planning payloads of future space plasma physics missions. (Author)

  2. SAMI3 Simulations of the Persistent May 1994 Plasmasphere Plume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krall, J.; Huba, J.; Borovsky, J.

    2017-12-01

    We use the Naval Research Laboratory SAMI3 ionosphere/plasmasphere model[1] to explore the physics of a long-lived plasmasphere plume. A plasmasphere plume is a storm feature that extends the cold plasma that is normally trapped by the geomagnetic field (the plasmasphere) outward towards the bow shock. In the case of the May 1994 storm, the storm and the plume continued for 12 days. For the model storm, we imposed a Kp-driven Volland/Stern-Maynard/Chen potential [2-4]. Results are compared to measurements of the cold ion density from the 1989-046 spacecraft in geosynchronous orbit [5]. We find that many details of the observed plume are reproduced by SAMI3, but only if a background magnetosphere density is included as a boundary condition. We also find that high-speed, field aligned plasma flows contribute significantly to the observed plume density. [1] Huba, J. and J. Krall (2013), Modeling the plasmasphere with SAMI3, Geophys. Res. Lett., 40, 6-10, doi:10.1029/2012GL054300 [2] Volland, H. (1973), A semiempirical model of large-scale magnetospheric electric fields, Journal of Geophysical Research, 78, 171-180, doi:10.1029/JA078i001p00171 [3] Stern, D.P. (1975), The motion of a proton in the equatorial magnetosphere, Journal of Geophysical Research, 80, 595-599, doi:10.1029/JA080i004p00595 [4] Maynard, N.C., and A.J. Chen (1975), Isolated cold plasma regions: Observations and their relation to possible production mechanisms, Journal of Geophysical Research, 80, 1009-1013, doi:10.1029/JA080i007p01009 [5] Borovsky, J.E., D.T. Welling, M.F. Thomsen, and M.H. Denton (2014), Long-lived plasmaspheric drainage plumes: Where does the plasma come from?, Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics, 119, 6496-6520, doi:10.1002/2014JA020228 Research supported by NRL base funds.

  3. Improved analysis of plasmasphere motion using the VLA radio interferometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. W. Hoogeveen

    1997-02-01

    Full Text Available Observations using the very large (VLA radio interferometer during the past five years have enabled the discovery of a new type of plasmasphere disturbance, the magnetic eastward-directed wave. Previous work indicated these disturbances were likely frozen to the geomagnetic field as determined from their azimuth distributions. This work provides a method to explain more accurately the azimuth distribution, thereby allowing the calculation of the disturbances' location in the plasmasphere independently of the measured velocity. The measurable velocity due to corotation is calculated and subtracted from the measured trace velocity. This difference, or deviation from corotation, is attributed to electrodynamic convection; the measurement of plasmaspheric convection may lead to the eventual monitoring of mid-latitude electric fields. Disturbances are seen convecting predominantly westward, with the fastest having angular velocities greater than the anticorotating VLA line of sight. The direction of convection and conditions of observations indicate that the disturbances are likely the same phenomenon seen by the Los Alamos satellite beacon array.

  4. Improved analysis of plasmasphere motion using the VLA radio interferometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. W. Hoogeveen

    Full Text Available Observations using the very large (VLA radio interferometer during the past five years have enabled the discovery of a new type of plasmasphere disturbance, the magnetic eastward-directed wave. Previous work indicated these disturbances were likely frozen to the geomagnetic field as determined from their azimuth distributions. This work provides a method to explain more accurately the azimuth distribution, thereby allowing the calculation of the disturbances' location in the plasmasphere independently of the measured velocity. The measurable velocity due to corotation is calculated and subtracted from the measured trace velocity. This difference, or deviation from corotation, is attributed to electrodynamic convection; the measurement of plasmaspheric convection may lead to the eventual monitoring of mid-latitude electric fields. Disturbances are seen convecting predominantly westward, with the fastest having angular velocities greater than the anticorotating VLA line of sight. The direction of convection and conditions of observations indicate that the disturbances are likely the same phenomenon seen by the Los Alamos satellite beacon array.

  5. A case study of electron precipitation fluxes due to plasmaspheric hiss

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hardman, R.; Clilverd, M. A.; Rodger, C. J.; Brundell, J. B.; Duthie, R.; Holzworth, R. H.; Mann, I. R.; Milling, D. K.; Macúšová, Eva

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 120, č. 8 (2015), s. 6736-6748 ISSN 2169-9380 Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : plasmasphere * plasmaspheric hiss * electron precipitation * radiation belt electrons Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 3.318, year: 2015 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/2015JA021429/abstract

  6. Regions of low electron density in the Earth plasmasphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grigor'eva, V.P.; Pisareva, V.V.

    1987-01-01

    Regions with low electron density N e were detected in night, morning and evening hours according to observations of natural noise, made on board ''Prognos-5'' satellite from January till June, 1977 in the plasmasphere for the southern Earth semisphere. The largest regions with low N e values were located in the region of the Brazil magnetic anomaly in the range of geographic latitudes ∼ ± 30 deg from the equator and longitudes from 100 up to 240 deg E, as well as in the latitudes near-by the geomagnetic equator and in the regions with slight shift from it to the winter hemisphere

  7. Pitch Angle Scattering of Energetic Electrons by Plasmaspheric Hiss Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobita, M.; Omura, Y.; Summers, D.

    2017-12-01

    We study scattering of energetic electrons in pitch angles and kinetic energies through their resonance with plasmaspheric hiss emissions consisting of many coherent discrete whistler-mode wave packets with rising and falling frequencies [1,2,3]. Using test particle simulations, we evaluate the efficiency of scattering, which depends on the inhomogeneity ratio S of whistler mode wave-particle interaction [4]. The value of S is determined by the wave amplitude, frequency sweep rate, and the gradient of the background magnetic field. We first modulate those parameters and observe variations of pitch angles and kinetic energies of electrons with a single wave under various S values so as to obtain basic understanding. We then include many waves into the system to simulate plasmaspheric hiss emissions. As the wave packets propagate away from the magnetic equator, the nonlinear trapping potential at the resonance velocity is deformed, making a channel of gyrophase for untrapped electrons to cross the resonance velocity, and causing modulations in their pitch angles and kinetic energies. We find efficient scattering of pitch angles and kinetic energies because of coherent nonlinear wave-particle interaction, resulting in electron precipitations into the polar atmosphere. We compare the results with the bounce averaged pitch angle diffusion coefficient based on quasi-linear theory, and show that the nonlinear wave model with many coherent packets can cause scattering of resonant electrons much faster than the quasi-linear diffusion process. [1] Summers, D., Omura, Y., Nakamura, S., and C. A. Kletzing (2014), Fine structure of plasmaspheric hiss, J. Geophys. Res., 119, 9134-9149. [2] Omura, Y., Y. Miyashita, M. Yoshikawa, D. Summers, M. Hikishima, Y. Ebihara, and Y. Kubota (2015), Formation process of relativistic electron flux through interaction with chorus emissions in the Earth's inner magnetosphere, J. Geophys. Res. Space Physics, 120, 9545-9562. [3] Nakamura, S., Y

  8. Plasmasphere and ring current electric fields observed by GEOS 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, R.; Pedersen, A.

    1988-01-01

    The electric field double probe data from GEOS 2 have been statistically examined to study the consecutive passage of the afternoon plasmaspheric bulge and the trough at the geostationary orbit. It was found that the average location of the bulge depends on the magnetic activity and was encountered at earlier local times for higher magnetospheric activity. Within the bulge the electric field showed very frequently a typical directional change from dawnward outside to duskward inside the bulge. The magnitude of the magnetic field was frequently much smaller near the outbound crossing of the plasmaspheric bulge than is expected from a long-term average. The E x B/B-squared drift pointed azimuthally eastward prior to the encounter of the bulge and rotated into the sunward direction within the bulge. Following its passage through the dense, cold plasma in the bulge, GEOS 2 encountered a hot and tenuous plasma sheet-type plasma in the trough that occasionally corrupted the electric field measurements. Generally, the electric field in the trough is much smaller than in the bulge. A possible cause of the sunward plasma flow within the bulge is discussed on the basis of these data. 13 references

  9. Magnetic storm effects on the mid-latitude plasmasphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, A.J.; Clilverd, M.A.

    1991-01-01

    Whistler mode group delays observed at Faraday, Antarctica (65 o S,64 0 W) decrease after the onset of magnetic storms, and slowly recover to normal levels in 1 or 2 days. This is interpreted as a decrease (typically of ∼50%) and recovery of the plasmaspheric electron density at L = 2.5. Within 1 day of the main phase of storms with K p (max) between 6 and 8, the number of observed whistler ducts increases by a factor of 2 or 3, recovering in a few days. During the most intense storms (K p > 8) the duct number decreases. The frequency of occurrence of observed whistler mode signals increases during storms, due probably to enhanced ionospheric propagation of the signals; the storm time dependence implies that there is no link with the apparent increase in duct numbers. The amplitudes of received whistler mode signals are increased by up to a factor of 10 during storms: this is interpreted in terms of magnetospheric amplification through wave-particle interactions, though the evidence suggests that amplification is not necessarily the mechanism by which increased duct numbers are observed. There appears to be a real increase in the duct formation rate, consistent with Walker's (1978) theory in which ring current penetration of the plasmasphere creates a preferential region for duct formation 1.5 R E inside the plasmapause. (author)

  10. Empirical Modeling of the Plasmasphere Dynamics Using Neural Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhelavskaya, I. S.; Shprits, Y.; Spasojevic, M.

    2017-12-01

    We present a new empirical model for reconstructing the global dynamics of the cold plasma density distribution based only on solar wind data and geomagnetic indices. Utilizing the density database obtained using the NURD (Neural-network-based Upper hybrid Resonance Determination) algorithm for the period of October 1, 2012 - July 1, 2016, in conjunction with solar wind data and geomagnetic indices, we develop a neural network model that is capable of globally reconstructing the dynamics of the cold plasma density distribution for 2 ≤ L ≤ 6 and all local times. We validate and test the model by measuring its performance on independent datasets withheld from the training set and by comparing the model predicted global evolution with global images of He+ distribution in the Earth's plasmasphere from the IMAGE Extreme UltraViolet (EUV) instrument. We identify the parameters that best quantify the plasmasphere dynamics by training and comparing multiple neural networks with different combinations of input parameters (geomagnetic indices, solar wind data, and different durations of their time history). We demonstrate results of both local and global plasma density reconstruction. This study illustrates how global dynamics can be reconstructed from local in-situ observations by using machine learning techniques.

  11. First Results of Modeling Radiation Belt Electron Dynamics with the SAMI3 Plasmasphere Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komar, C. M.; Glocer, A.; Huba, J.; Fok, M. C. H.; Kang, S. B.; Buzulukova, N.

    2017-12-01

    The radiation belts were one of the first discoveries of the Space Age some sixty years ago and radiation belt models have been improving since the discovery of the radiation belts. The plasmasphere is one region that has been critically important to determining the dynamics of radiation belt populations. This region of space plays a critical role in describing the distribution of chorus and magnetospheric hiss waves throughout the inner magnetosphere. Both of these waves have been shown to interact with energetic electrons in the radiation belts and can result in the energization or loss of radiation belt electrons. However, radiation belt models have been historically limited in describing the distribution of cold plasmaspheric plasma and have relied on empirically determined plasmasphere models. Some plasmasphere models use an azimuthally symmetric distribution of the plasmasphere which can fail to capture important plasmaspheric dynamics such as the development of plasmaspheric drainage plumes. Previous work have coupled the kinetic bounce-averaged Comprehensive Inner Magnetosphere-Ionosphere (CIMI) model used to model ring current and radiation belt populations with the Block-adaptive Tree Solar wind Roe-type Upwind Scheme (BATSRUS) global magnetohydrodynamic model to self-consistently obtain the magnetospheric magnetic field and ionospheric potential. The present work will utilize this previous coupling and will additionally couple the SAMI3 plasmasphere model to better represent the dynamics on the plasmasphere and its role in determining the distribution of waves throughout the inner magnetosphere. First results on the relevance of chorus, hiss, and ultralow frequency waves on radiation belt electron dynamics will be discussed in context of the June 1st, 2013 storm-time dropout event.

  12. Plasmasphere dynamics in the duskside bulge region: A new look at old topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, D. L.; Giles, B. L.; Chappell, C. R.; Decreau, P. M. E.; Anderson, R. R.; Persoon, A. M.; Smith, A. J.; Corcuff, Y.; Canu, P.

    1993-01-01

    Data acquired during several multiday periods in 1982 at ground stations Siple, Halley, and Kerguelen and on satellites Dynamics Explorer 1, International Sun Earth Explorer 1, and GEOS 2 have been used to investigate thermal plasma structure and dynamics in the duskside plasmasphere bulge region of the Earth. The distribution of thermal plasma in the dusk bulge sector is difficult to describe realistically, in part because of the time integral manner in which the thermal plasma distribution depends upon on the effects of bulk cross-B flow and interchange plasma flows along B. While relatively simple MHD models can be useful for qualitatively predicting certain effects of enhanced convection on a quiet plasmasphere, such as an initial sunward entrainment of the outer regions, they are of limited value in predicting the duskside thermal plasma structures that are observed. Furthermore, use of such models can be misleading if one fails to realize that they do not address the question of the formation of the steep plasmapause profile or provide for a possible role of instabilities or other irreversible processes in plasmapause formation. Our specific findings, which are based both upon the present case studies and upon earlier work, include the following: (1) during active periods the plasmasphere appears to become divided into two entities, a main plasmasphere and a duskside bulge region. (2) in the aftermath of an increase in convection activity, the main plasmasphere tends (from a statistical point of view) to become roughly circular in equatorial cross section, with only a slight bulge at dusk; (3) the abrupt westward edge of the duskside bulge observed from whistlers represents a state in the evolution of sunward extending streamers; (4) in the aftermath of a weak magnetic storm, 10 to 30% of the plasma 'removed' from the outer plasmasphere appears to remain in the afternoon-dusk sector beyond the main plasmasphere. (5) outlying dense plasma structures may

  13. CIMI simulations with recently developed multi-parameter chorus and plasmaspheric hiss models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aryan, Homayon; Sibeck, David; Kang, Suk-bin; Balikhin, Michael; Fok, Mei-ching

    2017-04-01

    Simulation studies of the Earth's radiation belts are very useful in understanding the acceleration and loss of energetic particles. The Comprehensive Inner Magnetosphere-Ionosphere (CIMI) model considers the effects of the ring current and plasmasphere on the radiation belts. CIMI was formed by merging the Comprehensive Ring Current Model (CRCM) and the Radiation Belt Environment (RBE) model to solves for many essential quantities in the inner magnetosphere, including radiation belt enhancements and dropouts. It incorporates chorus and plasmaspheric hiss wave diffusion of energetic electrons in energy, pitch angle, and cross terms. Usually the chorus and plasmaspheric hiss models used in CIMI are based on single-parameter geomagnetic index (AE). Here we integrate recently developed multi-parameter chorus and plasmaspheric hiss wave models based on geomagnetic index and solar wind parameters. We then perform CIMI simulations for different storms and compare the results with data from the Van Allen Probes and the Two Wide-angle Imaging Neutral-atom Spectrometers and Akebono satellites. We find that the CIMI simulations with multi-parameter chorus and plasmaspheric hiss wave models are more comparable to data than the single-parameter wave models.

  14. On a possible nature of the ''hot'' zone in the Earth plasmasphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krinberg, I.A.; Tashchilin, A.V.; Fridman, S.V.

    1980-01-01

    The structure of the Earth plasmasphere according to the data obtained by the ''Prognoz'' satellite is discussed. According to the measurements of ion temperature TsuO(i) the Earth plasmasphere is divided into two zones: ''cold'' inner with Tsub(i) 4 K and ''hot'' outer with Tsub(n) >= 10 5 K. For theoretic study of the plasma sphere peculiarities a previously developed model of the ionosphere-plasmasphere system is used. Numerical solution of hydrodynamic equations for O + and H + ions and electrons along separate geomagnetic force tubes, at the ends of which the fluxes of particles and energy are supposed to be equal to zero, is the model basis. To study the effect of hot plasmaspheric ions with Tsub(i)=10 5 K upon the ionosphere below the geomagnetic force tube with L=5 is chosen. Distributions of ion compositions and temperatures depending on the height along the force line for 14 hr LT are presented. It is shown that ''hot'' zone of plasmasphere presents a region where alongside with thermal plasma with the temperature of approximately 10 4 K hot protons with the energy E > 0.1 keV and concentration of approximately 1 cm -3 are present [ru

  15. Some characteristics of midlatitude F layer storms generated by thermosphere-plasmasphere coupling processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, N.J.

    1983-01-01

    In this dissertation, calculations are interpreted that have been made to describe stormtime variations in equinoctial dayside plasma parameters when the variations are primarily caused by processes dependent upon collisional coupling between the thermosphere and the plasmasphere. The calculations are made with a computer model formed by linking two theoretical models: a pre-existing thermospheric model that describes dayside variations in thermospheric parameters during stormtime heating of the thermosphere; a plasmaspheric model which was developed to describe dayside plasmaspheric variations caused by the thermospheric variations described by the thermospheric model and by variations in a magnetospheric electric field. Both portions of the computerized storm model solve partial differential equations describing conservation of species, momentum, and energy by replacing dependent variables with expansions in time series. The thermospheric portion of the storm model solves for variations in gas temperature, horizontal wind velocity, and densities of atomic oxygen and molecular nitrogen while the plasmaspheric portion of the storm model solves for variations in ion densities of oxygen and hydrogen, ion fluxes and electrons, and heat fluxes through ions and electrons. Other calculations that have been used to describe variations in thermospheric and plasmaspheric parameters are summarized and the advantages and limitations of the model calculations used to obtain results presented in this dissertation are noted

  16. CIMI simulations with newly developed multiparameter chorus and plasmaspheric hiss wave models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aryan, Homayon; Sibeck, David G.; Kang, Suk-Bin; Balikhin, Michael A.; Fok, Mei-Ching; Agapitov, Oleksiy; Komar, Colin M.; Kanekal, Shrikanth G.; Nagai, Tsugunobu

    2017-09-01

    Numerical simulation studies of the Earth's radiation belts are important to understand the acceleration and loss of energetic electrons. The Comprehensive Inner Magnetosphere-Ionosphere (CIMI) model considers the effects of the ring current and plasmasphere on the radiation belts to obtain plausible results. The CIMI model incorporates pitch angle, energy, and cross diffusion of electrons, due to chorus and plasmaspheric hiss waves. These parameters are calculated using statistical wave distribution models of chorus and plasmaspheric hiss amplitudes. However, currently, these wave distribution models are based only on a single-parameter, geomagnetic index (AE) and could potentially underestimate the wave amplitudes. Here we incorporate recently developed multiparameter chorus and plasmaspheric hiss wave models based on geomagnetic index and solar wind parameters. We then perform CIMI simulations for two geomagnetic storms and compare the flux enhancement of MeV electrons with data from the Van Allen Probes and Akebono satellites. We show that the relativistic electron fluxes calculated with multiparameter wave models resemble the observations more accurately than the relativistic electron fluxes calculated with single-parameter wave models. This indicates that wave models based on a combination of geomagnetic index and solar wind parameters are more effective as inputs to radiation belt models.

  17. New aspects in plasmaspheric ion temperature variations from INTERBALL 2 and MAGION 5 measurements

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kotova, G.; Bezrukikh, V.; Verigin, M.; Šmilauer, Jan

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 70, 2-4 (2008), s. 399-406 ISSN 1364-6826 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30420517 Keywords : Plasmasphere * Ion temperature * Electron temperature * Magnetic storm Subject RIV: JV - Space Technology Impact factor: 1.667, year: 2008

  18. A new electron density model of the plasmasphere for operational applications and services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakowski, Norbert; Hoque, Mohammed Mainul

    2018-03-01

    The Earth's plasmasphere contributes essentially to total electron content (TEC) measurements from ground or satellite platforms. Furthermore, as an integral part of space weather, associated plasmaspheric phenomena must be addressed in conjunction with ionosphere weather monitoring by operational space weather services. For supporting space weather services and mitigation of propagation errors in Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) applications we have developed the empirical Neustrelitz plasmasphere model (NPSM). The model consists of an upper L shell dependent part and a lower altitude dependent part, both described by specific exponential decays. Here the McIllwain parameter L defines the geomagnetic field lines in a centered dipole model for the geomagnetic field. The coefficients of the developed approaches are successfully fitted to numerous electron density data derived from dual frequency GPS measurements on-board the CHAMP satellite mission from 2000 to 2005. The data are utilized for fitting up to the L shell L = 3 because a previous validation has shown a good agreement with IMAGE/RPI measurements up to this value. Using the solar radio flux index F10.7 as the only external parameter, the operation of the model is robust, with 40 coefficients fast and sufficiently accurate to be used as a background model for estimating TEC or electron density profiles in near real time GNSS applications and services. In addition to this, the model approach is sensitive to ionospheric coupling resulting in anomalies such as the Nighttime Winter Anomaly and the related Mid-Summer Nighttime Anomaly and even shows a slight plasmasphere compression of the dayside plasmasphere due to solar wind pressure. Modelled electron density and TEC values agree with estimates reported in the literature in similar cases.

  19. Numerical solution of the kinetic equation for photoelectrons in the plasmasphere with account for free and trapped zones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khazanov, G.V.; Koen, M.A.; Burenkov, S.I.

    1979-01-01

    Considered is the dinamics of photoelectron fluxes formation in the Earth plasmasphere with account of zone interaction of free and trapped photoelectrons. An algorithm and the results of numerical solution of the equation are presented. The problem of boundary condition choice is discussed. The angular distribution of 10 eV energy photoelectrons at different altitudes of plasmasphere is presented as an example. It is shown that the changes of photoelectron distribution function from bottom of plasmasphere to the top of a force line of the geomagnetic field are within the 1.6 limits. Presented is the estimate of plasmasphere transmittance value and its comparison with the experiment for Mc Ilwain parameter L=2

  20. Simulation and measurement of the plasmaspheric electron content. Final report, 1 October 1974--30 September 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poletti-Liuzzi, D.A.; Yeh, K.C.; Liu, C.H.

    1976-09-01

    Two techniques are used to measure the plasmaspheric electron content. The Faraday effect, which is weighted by the Earth magnetic field, is insensitive to electrons in the plasmasphere. The differential group delay is equally sensitive to all electrons along the radio path. Therefore, by combining these techniques, the plasmaspheric content can be measured. However, the sensitivity of the techniques depend on the ionospheric parameters. Therefore, in order to obtain consistent results from the data, computer simulations investigating the sensitivity of the techniques to different ionospheric models are carried out and discussed. The equipment contribution and effects to the measurements are also investigated. Results of the measured plasmaspheric content from the ATS-6 data under normal geomagnetic conditions and during magnetic storms are presented. The possible causes of the observed behavior are also presented

  1. Model of electron lifetimes inside the plasmasphere calculated using a CRRES derived hiss wave amplitude model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlova, Ksenia; Spasojevic, Maria; Shprits, Yuri

    Particle populations in the inner magnetosphere can change by orders of magnitude on very short time scales. For the last decade observations and theoretical computations showed that resonant interaction of electrons with various plasma waves plays an important role in acceleration and loss mechanisms. Using data from the CRRES plasma wave experiment, we develop quadratic fits to the mean of the wave amplitude squared for plasmaspheric hiss as a function of geomagnetic activity (Kp) and magnetic latitude (lambda) for the dayside (6pitch-angle diffusion coefficients of energetic and relativistic electrons. We take into account the obliqueness of hiss waves and increase of plasmaspheric density with increasing magnetic latitude. The lifetimes of electrons are then calculated from the diffusion coefficients. The obtained lifetimes are parameterized as a function of energy, Kp-index, L-shell and can be used in 2D/3D/4D convection and particle tracing codes.

  2. Quantitative Simulation of a Magnetospheric Substorm. 3. Plasmaspheric Electric Fields and Evolution of the Plasmapause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-25

    plasmaspheric electric fields during magnetically disturbed periods are based on incoherent scatter radar results fromn St. Santin [ Testud et al., 1975...Millstone Hill radar results showing westward F-region ion drifts of almost 200 m/sec in the afternoon sector on 14 May, 1969. Testud et al. [1975...electrojet (AE) index. Testud et al. [1975] and Blanc et al. £1977] have both presented St. Santin backscatter measurements that show westward and

  3. Remote sensing the plasmasphere, plasmapause, plumes and other features using ground-based magnetometers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menk Frederick

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The plasmapause is a highly dynamic boundary between different magnetospheric particle populations and convection regimes. Some of the most important space weather processes involve wave-particle interactions in this region, but wave properties may also be used to remote sense the plasmasphere and plasmapause, contributing to plasmasphere models. This paper discusses the use of existing ground magnetometer arrays for such remote sensing. Using case studies we illustrate measurement of plasmapause location, shape and movement during storms; refilling of flux tubes within and outside the plasmasphere; storm-time increase in heavy ion concentration near the plasmapause; and detection and mapping of density irregularities near the plasmapause, including drainage plumes, biteouts and bulges. We also use a 2D MHD model of wave propagation through the magnetosphere, incorporating a realistic ionosphere boundary and Alfvén speed profile, to simulate ground array observations of power and cross-phase spectra, hence confirming the signatures of plumes and other density structures.

  4. Application of multi-parameter chorus and plasmaspheric hiss wave models in radiation belt modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aryan, H.; Kang, S. B.; Balikhin, M. A.; Fok, M. C. H.; Agapitov, O. V.; Komar, C. M.; Kanekal, S. G.; Nagai, T.; Sibeck, D. G.

    2017-12-01

    Numerical simulation studies of the Earth's radiation belts are important to understand the acceleration and loss of energetic electrons. The Comprehensive Inner Magnetosphere-Ionosphere (CIMI) model along with many other radiation belt models require inputs for pitch angle, energy, and cross diffusion of electrons, due to chorus and plasmaspheric hiss waves. These parameters are calculated using statistical wave distribution models of chorus and plasmaspheric hiss amplitudes. In this study we incorporate recently developed multi-parameter chorus and plasmaspheric hiss wave models based on geomagnetic index and solar wind parameters. We perform CIMI simulations for two geomagnetic storms and compare the flux enhancement of MeV electrons with data from the Van Allen Probes and Akebono satellites. We show that the relativistic electron fluxes calculated with multi-parameter wave models resembles the observations more accurately than the relativistic electron fluxes calculated with single-parameter wave models. This indicates that wave models based on a combination of geomagnetic index and solar wind parameters are more effective as inputs to radiation belt models.

  5. Kinetic Framework for the Magnetosphere-Ionosphere-Plasmasphere-Polar Wind System: Modeling Ion Outflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schunk, R. W.; Barakat, A. R.; Eccles, V.; Karimabadi, H.; Omelchenko, Y.; Khazanov, G. V.; Glocer, A.; Kistler, L. M.

    2014-12-01

    A Kinetic Framework for the Magnetosphere-Ionosphere-Plasmasphere-Polar Wind System is being developed in order to provide a rigorous approach to modeling the interaction of hot and cold particle interactions. The framework will include ion and electron kinetic species in the ionosphere, plasmasphere and polar wind, and kinetic ion, super-thermal electron and fluid electron species in the magnetosphere. The framework is ideally suited to modeling ion outflow from the ionosphere and plasmasphere, where a wide range for fluid and kinetic processes are important. These include escaping ion interactions with (1) photoelectrons, (2) cusp/auroral waves, double layers, and field-aligned currents, (3) double layers in the polar cap due to the interaction of cold ionospheric and hot magnetospheric electrons, (4) counter-streaming ions, and (5) electromagnetic wave turbulence. The kinetic ion interactions are particularly strong during geomagnetic storms and substorms. The presentation will provide a brief description of the models involved and discuss the effect that kinetic processes have on the ion outflow.

  6. Multi-spacecraft observations of small-scale fluctuations in density and fields in plasmaspheric plumes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Matsui

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In this event study, small-scale fluctuations in plasmaspheric plumes with time scales of ~10 s to minutes in the spacecraft frame are examined. In one event, plasmaspheric plumes are observed by Cluster, while IMAGE measured density enhancement at a similar location. Fluctuations in density exist in plumes as detected by Cluster and are accompanied by fluctuations in magnetic fields and electric fields. Magnetic fluctuations are transverse and along the direction of the plumes. The E/B ratio is smaller than the Alfvén velocity. Another similar event is briefly presented. We then consider physical properties of the fluctuations. Alfvén mode modulated by the feedback instability is one possibility, although non-local generation is likely. It is hard to show that the fluctuations represent a fast mode. Interchange motion is possible due to the consistency between measurements and expectations. The energy source could be a pressure or density gradient in plasmaspheric plumes. When more events are accumulated so that statistical analysis becomes feasible, this type of study will be useful to understand the time evolution of plumes.

  7. Refilling process in the plasmasphere: a 3-D statistical characterization based on Cluster density observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Lointier

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The Cluster mission offers an excellent opportunity to investigate the evolution of the plasma population in a large part of the inner magnetosphere, explored near its orbit's perigee, over a complete solar cycle. The WHISPER sounder, on board each satellite of the mission, is particularly suitable to study the electron density in this region, between 0.2 and 80 cm−3. Compiling WHISPER observations during 1339 perigee passes distributed over more than three years of the Cluster mission, we present first results of a statistical analysis dedicated to the study of the electron density morphology and dynamics along and across magnetic field lines between L = 2 and L = 10. In this study, we examine a specific topic: the refilling of the plasmasphere and trough regions during extended periods of quiet magnetic conditions. To do so, we survey the evolution of the ap index during the days preceding each perigee crossing and sort out electron density profiles along the orbit according to three classes, namely after respectively less than 2 days, between 2 and 4 days, and more than 4 days of quiet magnetic conditions (ap ≤ 15 nT following an active episode (ap > 15 nT. This leads to three independent data subsets. Comparisons between density distributions in the 3-D plasmasphere and trough regions at the three stages of quiet magnetosphere provide novel views about the distribution of matter inside the inner magnetosphere during several days of low activity. Clear signatures of a refilling process inside an expended plasmasphere in formation are noted. A plasmapause-like boundary, at L ~ 6 for all MLT sectors, is formed after 3 to 4 days and expends somewhat further after that. In the outer part of the plasmasphere (L ~ 8, latitudinal profiles of median density values vary essentially according to the MLT sector considered rather than according to the refilling duration. The shape of these density profiles indicates that magnetic flux tubes are not

  8. Quantitative simulation of a magnetospheric substorm 3. Plasmaspheric electric fields and evolution of the plasmapause

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spiro, R.W.; Harel, M.; Wolf, R.A.; Reiff, P.H.

    1981-01-01

    Results of the Rice University substorm simulation have been used to investigate the penetration of substorm-associated electric fields into the plasmasphere. Near 4 R/sub E/ in the equatorial plane, our time dependent electric field model is characterized by eastward components in the dusk-midnight local time sector and westward components after midnight. Except for a small region just before dusk, the model predicts eastward electric field components throughout the daytime sector. The characteristic radial component is directed inward at all local times except for a small region just after dawn. These results compare favorably with available whistler and incoherent-scatter radar measurements obtained during magnetically disturbed periods. By assuming an initial plasmapause shape and by followig the computed E> x B> drift trajectories of plasma flux tubes from that initial boundary we have examined the short term evolution of the plasmapause during the substorm-like event of September 19, 1976. We find that narrow filamentary tails can be drawn out from the plasmasphere near dusk within hours of substorm onset. These tail-like appendages to the plasmasphere subsequently drift rapidly from the dusk sector toward the daytime magnetopause. Investigation of the large-scale time dependent flow of plasma in the evening sector indicates that some mid-latitude plasma flux tubes that drift eastward past the dusk terminator reverse their motion between dusk and midnight and begin to drift westward toward dusk. Such time dependent changes in flow trajectories may be related to the formation of F region ionization troughs

  9. 3D Reconfigurable NoC Multiprocessor Portable Sounder for Plasmaspheric Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekoulis, George

    2016-07-01

    The paper describes the development of a prototype imaging sounder for studying the irregularities of the ionospheric plasma. Cutting edge three-dimensional reconfigurable logic has been implemented allowing highly-intensive scientific calculations to be performed in hardware. The new parallel processing algorithms implemented offer a significant amount of performance improvement in the range of 80% compared to existing digital sounder implementations. The current system configuration is taking into consideration the modern scientific needs for portability during scientific campaigns. The prototype acts as a digital signal processing experimentation platform for future larger-scale digital sounder instrumentations for measuring complex planetary plasmaspheric environments.

  10. The Inversion of Ionospheric/plasmaspheric Electron Density From GPS Beacon Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Y. H.; Xu, J. S.; Ma, S. Y.

    It is a space-time 4-D tomography to reconstruct ionospheric/ plasmaspheric elec- tron density, Ne, from ground-based GPS beacon measurements. The mathematical foundation of such inversion is studied in this paper and some simulation results of reconstruction for GPS network observation are presented. Assuming reasonably a power law dependence of NE on time with an index number of 1-3 during one ob- servational time of GPS (60-90min.), 4-D inversion in consideration is reduced to a 3-D cone-beam tomography with incomplete projections. To see clearly the effects of the incompleteness on the quality of reconstruction for 3-D condition, we deduced theoretically the formulae of 3-D parallel-beam tomography. After establishing the mathematical basis, we adopt linear temporal dependence of NE and voxel elemental functions to perform simulation of NE reconstruction with the help of IRI90 model. Reasonable time-dependent 3-D images of ionosphere/ plasmasphere electron density distributions are obtained when taking proper layout of the GPS network and allowing variable resolutions in vertical.

  11. Observations of inner plasmasphere irregularities with a satellite-beacon radio-interferometer array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobson, A.R.; Hoogeveen, G.; Carlos, R.C.; Wu, G.; Fejer, B.G.; Kelley, M.C.

    1996-01-01

    A radio-interferometer array illuminated by 136-MHz beacons of several geosynchronous satellites has been used to study small (≥10 13 m -2 ) transient disturbances in the total electron content along the lines of sight to the satellites. High-frequency (f>3 mHz) electron content oscillations are persistently observed, particularly during night and particularly during geomagnetically disturbed periods. The oscillations move across the array plane at speeds in the range 200 endash 2000 m/s, with propagation azimuths that are strongly peaked in lobes toward the western half-plane. Detailed analysis of this azimuth behavior, involving comparison between observations on various satellite positions, indicates compellingly that the phase oscillations originate in radio refraction due to geomagnetically aligned plasma density perturbations in the inner plasmasphere. The motion of the phase perturbations across the array plane is caused by EXB drift of the plasma medium in which the irregularities are embedded. We review the statistics of 2.5 years of around-the-clock data on the local time, magnetic disturbance, seasonal, and line-of-sight variations of these observed irregularities. We compare the irregularities close-quote inferred electrodynamic drifts to what is known about midlatitude plasma drift from incoherent scatter. Finally, we show in detail how the observation of these irregularities provides a unique and complementary monitor of inner plasmasphere irregularity incidence and zonal drift.copyright 1996 American Geophysical Union

  12. Study on plasmaspheric electric fields and theirs influences on charged particle dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendes Junior, O.

    1986-04-01

    An analysis of plasmaspheric electric field measurements obtained by the S3-3 satellite in 1976-77, at L approx. 2 an during periods of intense geomagnetic activity, is presented. It is concluded that these measurements must have contributions both of the penetration electric field, associated with convection at the outer magnetosphere, as well as of the fields due to the 'disturbed' ionospheric dynamo. A study of the dynamics of electrons (within 10 -1 to 10 2 KeV) and protons (within 10 -1 to 10 2 KeV) inside the plasmasphere is also presented. It is concluded that, during quiet geomagnetic periods, electrons tend to corrotate with the Earth and simultaneously drift away from it. On the other hand, protons show a more complex dynamical behaviour, strongly depending on energy and on local time; presenting open orbits, similar to those of the electrons, except for an energy range in which closed orbits exist within determinate intervals of local time. During magnetically disturbed periods, the behaviour of electrons and protons remain approximately unaltered, although the energy intervals for which the open and closed orbits of protons occur get shifted. (author) [pt

  13. Unexpected storm-time nightside plasmaspheric density enhancement at low L shell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, X.; Bortnik, J.; Denton, R. E.; Yue, C.

    2017-12-01

    We have developed a three-dimensional dynamic electron density (DEN3D) model in the inner magnetosphere using a neural network approach. The DEN3D model can provide spatiotemporal distribution of the electron density at any location and time that spacecraft observations are not available. Given DEN3D's good performance in predicting the structure and dynamic evolution of the plasma density, the salient features of the DEN3D model can be used to gain further insight into the physics. For instance, the DEN3D models can be used to find unusual phenomena that are difficult to detect in observations or simulations. We report, for the first time, an unexpected plasmaspheric density increase at low L shell regions on the nightside during the main phase of a moderate storm during 12-16 October 2004, as opposed to the expected density decrease due to storm-time plasmaspheric erosion. The unexpected density increase is first discovered in the modeled electron density distribution using the DEN3D model, and then validated using in-situ density measurements obtained from the IMAGE satellite. The density increase was likely caused by increased earthward transverse field plasma transport due to enhanced nightside ExB drift, which coincided with enhanced solar wind electric field and substorm activity. This is consistent with the results of physics-based simulation SAMI3 model which show earthward enhanced plasma transport and electron density increase at low L shells during storm main phase.

  14. Link between EMIC waves in a plasmaspheric plume and a detached sub-auroral proton arc with observations of Cluster and IMAGE satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Zhigang; Deng, Xiaohua; Lin, Xi; Pang, Ye; Zhou, Meng; Décréau, P. M. E.; Trotignon, J. G.; Lucek, E.; Frey, H. U.; Wang, Jingfang

    2010-04-01

    In this paper, we report observations from a Cluster satellite showing that ULF wave occurred in the outer boundary of a plasmaspheric plume on September 4, 2005. The band of observed ULF waves is between the He+ ion gyrofrequency and O+ ion gyrofrequency at the equatorial plane, implying that those ULF waves can be identified as EMIC waves generated by ring current ions in the equatorial plane and strongly affected by rich cold He+ ions in plasmaspheric plumes. During the interval of observed EMIC waves, the footprint of Cluster SC3 lies in a subauroral proton arc observed by the IMAGE FUV instrument, demonstrating that the subauroral proton arc was caused by energetic ring current protons scattered into the loss cone under the Ring Current (RC)-EMIC interaction in the plasmaspheric plume. Therefore, the paper provides a direct proof that EMIC waves can be generated in the plasmaspheric plume and scatter RC ions to cause subauroral proton arcs.

  15. The Study of the plasmaspheric refilling using the data from the ERG, the VAPs, the ground-based magnetometers and the IPE model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obana, Y.; Maruyama, N.; Masahito, N.; Matsuoka, A.; Teramoto, M.; Nomura, R.; Fujimoto, A.; Tanaka, Y.; Shinohara, M.; Kasahara, Y.; Matsuda, S.; Kumamoto, A.; Tsuchiya, F.; Yoshizumi, M.; Shinohara, I.

    2017-12-01

    Earth's inner magnetosphere is a complex dynamical region of geo space comprising plasma populations with wide energy ranges, the plasmasphere, ring current, and radiation belts. They form a closely coupled system, thus, the plasmasphere is the lowest energy population in the inner magnetosphere, but the accurate prediction of the evolution of the plasmasphere is critical in understanding the dynamics of the inner magnetosphere, which include even the highest energy population, the radiation belts. In this study, we study plasmaspheric refilling following geomagnetic storms using data from ERG-MGF, ERG-PWE, RBSP-EMFISIS and Ground-based magneto­meters. DC magnetic field data measured by ERG-MGF, RBSP-EMFISIS and ground-based magnetometers provides the frequency of the toroidal mode field line resonances. From this information, the equatorial plasma mass density is estimated by solving the MHD wave equation for suitable models of the magnetic field and the field line density distribution. ERG-PWE and RBSP-EMFISIS provide measurements of wave electric and magnetic field, thus we can estimate the local electron density from the plasma wave spectrograms by identifying narrow-band emission at the upper-hybrid resonance frequency. Furthermore, using Ionosphere Plasmasphere Electrodynamics Model (IPE), we calculate the plasmaspheric refilling rates and evaluate the relative contribution of various mechanisms (heating, neutral particle density, composition and wings, etc.) to the refilling rate.

  16. Self-Consistent Model of Magnetospheric Electric Field, Ring Current, Plasmasphere, and Electromagnetic Ion Cyclotron Waves: Initial Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamayunov, K. V.; Khazanov, G. V.; Liemohn, M. W.; Fok, M.-C.; Ridley, A. J.

    2009-01-01

    Further development of our self-consistent model of interacting ring current (RC) ions and electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves is presented. This model incorporates large scale magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling and treats self-consistently not only EMIC waves and RC ions, but also the magnetospheric electric field, RC, and plasmasphere. Initial simulations indicate that the region beyond geostationary orbit should be included in the simulation of the magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling. Additionally, a self-consistent description, based on first principles, of the ionospheric conductance is required. These initial simulations further show that in order to model the EMIC wave distribution and wave spectral properties accurately, the plasmasphere should also be simulated self-consistently, since its fine structure requires as much care as that of the RC. Finally, an effect of the finite time needed to reestablish a new potential pattern throughout the ionosphere and to communicate between the ionosphere and the equatorial magnetosphere cannot be ignored.

  17. A Parametric Study of the Cold Plasma Refilling Rate on the Plasmasphere and Inner Magnetosphere Dynamics during the 17-March-2013 and 28-June-2013 Magnetic Storms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemon, C.; Bishop, R. L.; Coster, A. J.; Nikoukar, R.; Chen, M.; Turner, D. L.; Roeder, J. L.; Shumko, M.; Payne, C.; Bhatt, R.

    2017-12-01

    Magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling is a complex process, and researchers must consider a number of factors: particle transport in the electric and magnetic fields drives plasma from the high latitude tail to the mid-latitude inner magnetosphere; particle precipitation into the ionosphere, which is frequently driven by wave-particle interactions, enhances the ionospheric conductivities; feedback of the ionospheric conductivities on the electric fields determines how well the convection electric field penetrates to the mid-latitude ionosphere; and the erosion and refilling of cold plasma in the plasmasphere substantially determines the mass of plasma on magnetospheric field lines and the subsequent wave environment that drives particle precipitation. While we model all of these processes, in this presentation we focus on the role of the plasmasphere and its role in M-I coupling. We present RCM-E simulations in which particle transport through self-consistent fields controls the drainage of the plasmasphere, an outflow model determines the plasmasphere refilling rate, and electron and ion precipitation influences the electric field by enhancing the ionospheric conductivity. The plasmasphere significantly affects the spatial structure of the wave environment and electron precipitation rates. This impacts the dynamics of the sub-auroral polarization stream (SAPS) in the pre-midnight region equatorward of the auroral boundary, which itself drives erosion of the plasmasphere through strong westward electric fields near the plasmapause. We present comparisons with Van Allen Probes, THEMIS, the Plasmasphere Data Assimilation (PDA) model, and line-of-sight observations from Millstone Hill ISR and space-based GPS receivers, showing how our modeled plasmasphere compares with observational data during the 17-March-2013 and 28-June-2013 magnetic storms. To better understand refilling, we focus particular attention on densities in the recently-depleted flux tubes in the

  18. A case study of storm commencement and recovery plasmaspheric electric fields near L=2.5 at equinox

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. F. Balmforth (*

    Full Text Available Data from the VLF Doppler experiment at Faraday, Antarctica (65° S, 64° W are used to study the penetration of the high-latitude convection electric field to lower latitudes during severely disturbed conditions. Alterations of the electric field at L-values within the range 2.0 - 2.7 are studied for two cases at equinox (10 - 12 September 1986 and 1 - 3 May 1986. The recovery of the electric field is found to be approximately an exponential function of time. Values for the equatorial meridional E×B drift velocity, inferred from the data, are used as inputs to a model of the plasmasphere and ionosphere. The model and experimental results are used to investigate the post-storm alteration of ionospheric coupling processes. The magnitude of the effect of ionosphere-plasmasphere coupling fluxes on NmF2 values and the O+-H+ transition height is dependent on the local time of storm commencement, and on the orientation of the electric field. The coupling fluxes appear to have a maximum influence on ionospheric content during the main phase of geomagnetic activity that produces outward motion of plasmaspheric whistler ducts.

  19. Interaction of ring current and radiation belt protons with ducted plasmaspheric hiss. 2. Time evolution of the distribution function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozyra, J. U.; Rasmussen, C. E.; Miller, R. H.; Villalon, E.

    1995-11-01

    The evolution of the bounce-averaged ring current/radiation belt proton distribution is simulated during resonant interactions with ducted plasmaspheric hiss. The plasmaspheric hiss is assumed to be generated by ring current electrons and to be damped by the energetic protons. Thus energy is transferred between energetic electrons and protons using the plasmaspheric hiss as a mediary. The problem is not solved self-consistently. During the simulation period, interactions with ring current electrons (not represented in the model) are assumed to maintain the wave amplitudes in the presence of damping by the energetic protons, allowing the wave spectrum to be held fixed. Diffusion coefficients in pitch angle, cross pitch angle/energy, and energy were previously calculated by Kozyra et al. (1994) and are adopted for the present study. The simulation treats the energy range, E>=80 keV, within which the wave diffusion operates on a shorter timescale than other proton loss processes (i.e., Coulomb drag and charge exchange). These other loss processes are not included in the simulation. An interesting result of the simulation is that energy diffusion maximizes at moderate pitch angles near the edge of the atmospheric loss cone. Over the simulation period, diffusion in energy creates an order of magnitude enhancement in the bounce-averaged proton distribution function at moderate pitch angles. The loss cone is nearly empty because scattering of particles at small pitch angles is weak. The bounce-averaged flux distribution, mapped to ionospheric heights, results in elevated locally mirroring proton fluxes. OGO 5 observed order of magnitude enhancements in locally mirroring energetic protons at altitudes between 350 and 1300 km and invariant latitudes between 50° and 60° (Lundblad and Soraas, 1978). The proton distributions were highly anisotropic in pitch angle with nearly empty loss cones. The similarity between the observed distributions and those resulting from this

  20. Spatial and temporal characteristics of poloidal waves in the terrestrial plasmasphere: a CLUSTER case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Schäfer

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Oscillating magnetic field lines are frequently observed by spacecraft in the terrestrial and other planetary magnetospheres. The CLUSTER mission is a very suitable tool to further study these Alfvén waves as the four CLUSTER spacecraft provide for an opportunity to separate spatial and temporal structures in the terrestrial magnetosphere. Using a large scaled configuration formed by the four spacecraft we are able to detect a poloidal Ultra-Low-Frequency (ULF pulsation of the magnetic and electric field in order to analyze its temporal and spatial structures. For this purpose the measurements are transformed into a specific field line related coordinate system to investigate their specific amplitude pattern depending on the path of the CLUSTER spacecraft across oscillating field lines. These measurements are then compared with modeled spacecraft observations across a localized poloidal wave resonator in the dayside plasmasphere. A detailed investigation of theoretically expected poloidal eigenfrequencies allows us to specify the observed 16 mHz pulsation as a third harmonic oscillation. Based on this we perform a case study providing a clear identification of wave properties such as an spatial scale structure of about 0.67 RE, the azimuthal wave number m≈30, temporal evolution, and energy transport in the detected ULF pulsations.

  1. Resonant Scattering of Relativistic Outer Zone Electrons by Plasmaspheric Plume Electromagnetic Ion Cyclotron Waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhen-Peng, Su; Hui-Nan, Zheng

    2009-01-01

    The bounce-averaged Fokker–Planck equation is solved to study the relativistic electron phase space density (PSD) evolution in the outer radiation belt due to resonant interactions with plasmaspheric plume electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves. It is found that the PSDs of relativistic electrons can be depleted by 1–3 orders of magnitude in 5h, supporting the previous finding that resonant interactions with EMIC waves may account for the frequently observed relativistic electron flux dropouts in the outer radiation belt during the main phase of a storm. The significant precipitation loss of ∼MeV electrons is primarily induced by the EMIC waves in H + and He + bands. The rapid remove of highly relativistic electrons (> 5 MeV) is mainly driven by the EMIC waves in O + band at lower pitch-angles, as well as the EMIC waves in H + and He + bands at larger pitch-angles. Moreover, a stronger depletion of relativistic electrons is found to occur over a wider pitch angle range when EMIC waves are centering relatively higher in the band

  2. Effects of ion temperature anisotropy on the interhemispheric plasma transport during plasmaspheric refilling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, N.; Torr, D.G.

    1990-01-01

    Effects of temperature anisotropies on the early stage refilling of the outer plasmasphere are studied by solving an appropriate set of hydrodynamic equations. The anisotropies result from the supersonic outflows from the conjugate ionospheres and from the perpendicular ion heating in the equatorial region. The equatorial ion heating affected by wave-particle interaction is included phenomenologically. Even for the equatorial heating associated with moderate wave levels, the mirror force on the flows severely limits the interhemispheric plasma exchange. The temporal evolution of the flow developing in an empty flux tube is characterized by: (1) supersonic plasma outflows from the conjugate ionospheres, (2) reflections of the flows by the mirror force as they begin to penetrate into the opposite hemispheres, (3) formation of shocks in the reflection region and (4) propagations of the shocks to the ionospheres of the origins of the flows. In the quasi-steady state when flow completely subsides, the density distribution in the flux tube shows distinctive large-scale features, determined by the balance between electric, pressure and anisotropy forces. The latter force becomes significant in a broad equatorial region where T t >> T p and also at relatively high geomagnetic latitudes where T t p ; T t and T p are the perpendicular and parallel ion temperatures, respectively

  3. Resonant scattering of energetic electrons in the plasmasphere by monotonic whistler-mode waves artificially generated by ionospheric modification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. Chang

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Modulated high-frequency (HF heating of the ionosphere provides a feasible means of artificially generating extremely low-frequency (ELF/very low-frequency (VLF whistler waves, which can leak into the inner magnetosphere and contribute to resonant interactions with high-energy electrons in the plasmasphere. By ray tracing the magnetospheric propagation of ELF/VLF emissions artificially generated at low-invariant latitudes, we evaluate the relativistic electron resonant energies along the ray paths and show that propagating artificial ELF/VLF waves can resonate with electrons from ~ 100 keV to ~ 10 MeV. We further implement test particle simulations to investigate the effects of resonant scattering of energetic electrons due to triggered monotonic/single-frequency ELF/VLF waves. The results indicate that within the period of a resonance timescale, changes in electron pitch angle and kinetic energy are stochastic, and the overall effect is cumulative, that is, the changes averaged over all test electrons increase monotonically with time. The localized rates of wave-induced pitch-angle scattering and momentum diffusion in the plasmasphere are analyzed in detail for artificially generated ELF/VLF whistlers with an observable in situ amplitude of ~ 10 pT. While the local momentum diffusion of relativistic electrons is small, with a rate of −7 s−1, the local pitch-angle scattering can be intense near the loss cone with a rate of ~ 10−4 s−1. Our investigation further supports the feasibility of artificial triggering of ELF/VLF whistler waves for removal of high-energy electrons at lower L shells within the plasmasphere. Moreover, our test particle simulation results show quantitatively good agreement with quasi-linear diffusion coefficients, confirming the applicability of both methods to evaluate the resonant diffusion effect of artificial generated ELF/VLF whistlers.

  4. Transverse eV Ion Heating by Random Electric Field Fluctuations in the Plasmasphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artemyev, A. V.; Mourenas, D.; Agapitov, O. V.; Blum, L.

    2017-01-01

    Charged particle acceleration in the Earth inner magnetosphere is believed to be mainly due to the local resonant wave-particle interaction or particle transport processes. However, the Van Allen Probes have recently provided interesting evidence of a relatively slow transverse heating of eV ions at distances about 2-3 Earth radii during quiet times. Waves that are able to resonantly interact with such very cold ions are generally rare in this region of space, called the plasmasphere. Thus, non-resonant wave-particle interactions are expected to play an important role in the observed ion heating. We demonstrate that stochastic heating by random transverse electric field fluctuations of whistler (and possibly electromagnetic ion cyclotron) waves could explain this weak and slow transverse heating of H+ and O+ ions in the inner magnetosphere. The essential element of the proposed model of ion heating is the presence of trains of random whistler (hiss) wave packets, with significant amplitude modulations produced by strong wave damping, rapid wave growth, or a superposition of wave packets of different frequencies, phases, and amplitudes. Such characteristics correspond to measured characteristics of hiss waves in this region. Using test particle simulations with typical wave and plasma parameters, we demonstrate that the corresponding stochastic transverse ion heating reaches 0.07-0.2 eV/h for protons and 0.007-0.015 eV/h for O+ ions. This global temperature increase of the Maxwellian ion population from an initial Ti approx. 0.3 eV could potentially explain the observations.

  5. He+ dominance in the plasmasphere during geomagnetically disturbed periods: 1. Observational results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. R. Wilford

    Full Text Available Observations made by the DMSP F10 satellite during the recovery phase from geomagnetic disturbances in June 1991 show regions of He+ dominance around 830 km altitude at 09:00 MLT. These regions are co-located with a trough in ionisation observed around 55° in the winter hemisphere. Plasma temperature and concentration observations made during the severe geomagnetic storm of 24 March 1991 are used as a case study to determine the effects of geomagnetic disturbances along the orbit of the F10 satellite. Previous explanations for He+ dominance in this trough region relate to the part of the respective flux tubes that is in darkness. Such conditions are not relevant for this study, since the whole of the respective flux tubes are sunlit. A new mechanism is proposed to explain the He+ dominance in the trough region. This mechanism is based on plasma transport and chemical reaction effects in the F-region and topside ionosphere, and on the time scales for such chemical reactions. Flux tubes previously depleted by geomagnetic storm effects refill during the recovery phase from the ionosphere as a result of pressure differences along the flux tubes. Following a geomagnetic disturbance, the He+ ion recovers quickly via the rapid photoionisation of neutral helium, in the F-region and the topside. The recovery of the O+ and H+ ions is less rapid. This is proposed as a result of the respective charge exchange reactions with neutral atomic hydrogen and oxygen. Preliminary model calculations support the proposed mechanism.Key words. Magnetospheric physics (storms and sub-storms, plasmasphere

  6. Development of a methodology for deriving Plasmaspheric Total Electron Content from In-Situ electron density measurements in highly eccentric equatorial orbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadhique, Aliyuthuman; Buckley, Andrew; Gough, Paul; Sussex Space Science Centre Team

    2017-10-01

    The contribution of the Upper Plasmasphere (defined as the altitudes above semi-synchronous orbit height to the Plasmapause height) to the TEC has been and continues to be un-quantified. The PEACE instrument in the Chinese - ESA Double Star TC1 satellite, the mission's orbit's high eccentricity, low perigee, high apogee and the resulting smaller incident angle while in the above altitude range provide the ideal geometric opportunity to build a methodology and to utilize its empirical in-situ electron density measurements to determine the Upper Plasmaspheric TEC component. Furthermore, the variation of the Inclination Angle of TC1 makes it a suitable equatorial mission confined to the Near-Equatorial region, ie 200 - 250 on either sides of the magnetic equator. As the most pronounced absolute TEC values and variations are within this region, it offers an excellent opportunity to build a Upper Plasmaspheric TEC database. This research generates such, first-ever database along its orbital path, using a methodology of approximation equating arcs of the orbits to straight-line TEC Bars, utilizing complex mathematics, also enabling the determination of the whole Plasmaspheric TEC from any eccentric orbital probe. Presented the paper in 15th International Workshop on Technical and Scientific Aspects of MST radar (MST15/iMST2)'' and ``18th EISCAT Symposium (EISCAT18)'' in Tokyo, Japan and The Royal Astronomical Society National Astronomy Meeting 2017.

  7. Comparison of the measured and modelled electron densities and temperatures in the ionosphere and plasmasphere during 20-30 January, 1993

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Pavlov

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available We present a comparison of the electron density and temperature behaviour in the ionosphere and plasmasphere measured by the Millstone Hill incoherent-scatter radar and the instruments on board of the EXOS-D satellite with numerical model calculations from a time-dependent mathematical model of the Earth's ionosphere and plasmasphere during the geomagnetically quiet and storm period on 20–30 January, 1993. We have evaluated the value of the additional heating rate that should be added to the normal photoelectron heating in the electron energy equation in the daytime plasmasphere region above 5000 km along the magnetic field line to explain the high electron temperature measured by the instruments on board of the EXOS-D satellite within the Millstone Hill magnetic field flux tube in the Northern Hemisphere. The additional heating brings the measured and modelled electron temperatures into agreement in the plasmasphere and into very large disagreement in the ionosphere if the classical electron heat flux along magnetic field line is used in the model. A new approach, based on a new effective electron thermal conductivity coefficient along the magnetic field line, is presented to model the electron temperature in the ionosphere and plasmasphere. This new approach leads to a heat flux which is less than that given by the classical Spitzer-Harm theory. The evaluated additional heating of electrons in the plasmasphere and the decrease of the thermal conductivity in the topside ionosphere and the greater part of the plasmasphere found for the first time here allow the model to accurately reproduce the electron temperatures observed by the instruments on board the EXOS-D satellite in the plasmasphere and the Millstone Hill incoherent-scatter radar in the ionosphere. The effects of the daytime additional plasmaspheric heating of electrons on the electron temperature and density are small at the F-region altitudes if the modified electron heat flux is

  8. The CuSPED Mission: CubeSat for GNSS Sounding of the Ionosphere-Plasmasphere Electron Density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Jason N.; Keesee, Amy M.; Christian, John A.; Gu, Yu; Scime, Earl; Komjathy, Attila; Lightsey, E. Glenn; Pollock, Craig J.

    2016-01-01

    The CubeSat for GNSS Sounding of Ionosphere-Plasmasphere Electron Density (CuSPED) is a 3U CubeSat mission concept that has been developed in response to the NASA Heliophysics program's decadal science goal of the determining of the dynamics and coupling of the Earth's magnetosphere, ionosphere, and atmosphere and their response to solar and terrestrial inputs. The mission was formulated through a collaboration between West Virginia University, Georgia Tech, NASA GSFC and NASA JPL, and features a 3U CubeSat that hosts both a miniaturized space capable Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) receiver for topside atmospheric sounding, along with a Thermal Electron Capped Hemispherical Spectrometer (TECHS) for the purpose of in situ electron precipitation measurements. These two complimentary measurement techniques will provide data for the purpose of constraining ionosphere-magnetosphere coupling models and will also enable studies of the local plasma environment and spacecraft charging; a phenomenon which is known to lead to significant errors in the measurement of low-energy, charged species from instruments aboard spacecraft traversing the ionosphere. This paper will provide an overview of the concept including its science motivation and implementation.

  9. The analysis of influence of field of co-rotation on motion of submicronic particles in the Earth's plasmasphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakovlev, A. B.

    2018-05-01

    The analysis of the motion of micro-particles with radii of several dozens of nanometers in the Earth's plasmasphere has confirmed that the earlier proved statement about conservation of the form for an orbit of a particle with constant electric charge which moves in superposition of the central gravitational field and the field of a magnetic dipole is true also for the case of a quasi-equilibrium electric charge. For a wide range of altitudes and the sizes of micro-particles other forces that act on the charged grain make considerably smaller impact on its motion. On the basis of numerical simulation it has been shown that for motion in an equatorial plane the field of co-rotation leads to very small monotonous growth of the semimajor axis and an orbit eccentricity, and for not-equatorial orbits there are fluctuations of the semimajor axis, an eccentricity and an inclination of an orbit with the period that considerably exceeds the period of orbital motion. In this paper, on the basis of the analysis of the canonical equations of the motion of a micro-particle in superposition of the central gravitational field and the field of co-rotation the explanation of the time dependences obtained numerically for the basic characteristics of an orbit of a micro-particle is proposed.

  10. The Distribution of Chorus and Plasmaspheric Hiss Waves in the Inner Magnetospahere as Functions of Geomagnetic Activity and Solar Wind Parameters as Observed by The Van Allen Probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aryan, H.; Sibeck, D. G.; Balikhin, M. A.; Agapitov, O. V.; Kletzing, C.

    2015-12-01

    The dynamics of the radiation belts is dependent upon the acceleration and loss of radiation belt electrons that is largely determined by the interaction of georesonant wave particles with chorus and plasmaspheric hiss waves. The distribution of these waves in the inner magnetosphere is commonly presented as a function of geomagnetic activity as expressed by the geomagnetic indices (Ae, Kp, and Dst). However, it has been shown that not all geomagnetic storms necessarily increase the flux of energetic electrons at the radiation belts. In fact, almost 20% of all geomagnetic storms cause a decrease in the flux of energetic electrons, while 30% has relatively no effect. Also, the geomagnetic indices are indirect, nonspecific parameters compiled from imperfectly covered ground based measurements that lack time history. This emphasises the need to present wave distributions as a function of both geomagnetic activity and solar wind parameters, such as velocity (V), density (n), and interplanetary magnetic field component (Bz), that are known to be predominantly effective in the control of radiation belt energetic electron fluxes. This study presents the distribution of chorus and plasmaspheric hiss waves in the inner magnetosphere as functions of both geomagnetic activity and solar wind parameters for different L-shell, magnetic local time, and magnetic latitude. This study uses almost three years of data measured by the EMFISIS on board the Van Allen Probes. Initial results indicate that the intensity of chorus and plasmaspheric hiss emissions are not only dependent on the geomagnetic activity but also dependent on solar wind parameters. The largest average wave intensities are observed with equatorial chorus in the region 4

  11. Investigation of the single layer model of GPS ionospheric data processing using IRI-90 and the attached diffusive equilibrium model of plasmaspheric electron density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Bànyai

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available The single layer model of GPS ionospheric data processing is compared with the International Reference Ionosphere í 1990 and the attached Diffusive Equilibrium model of Plasmasphere (IRI-90+DEP which proved to be a good supplement to GPS data processing. These models can be used to estimate the single layer height and to improve the mapping function in day-time. The code delays estimated from IRI-90+DEP models are compared with GPS measurements carried out by TurboRogue receiver. These models can be used to estimate the preliminary receiver biases especially in the case of cross-correlation tracking mode. The practical drawback of the IRI-90 model is the sharp discontinuity of the ion components during sunset and sunrise at an elevation of 1000 km, because it also causes a sharp discontinuity in the TEC values computed from the DEP model. The GPS data may be a good source to improve the topside region of the IRI model estimating smooth TEC transition before and after sunrise in the plasmasphere.

  12. Comprehensive Analysis of the Geoeffective Solar Event of 21 June 2015: Effects on the Magnetosphere, Plasmasphere, and Ionosphere Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piersanti, Mirko; Alberti, Tommaso; Bemporad, Alessandro; Berrilli, Francesco; Bruno, Roberto; Capparelli, Vincenzo; Carbone, Vincenzo; Cesaroni, Claudio; Consolini, Giuseppe; Cristaldi, Alice; Del Corpo, Alfredo; Del Moro, Dario; Di Matteo, Simone; Ermolli, Ilaria; Fineschi, Silvano; Giannattasio, Fabio; Giorgi, Fabrizio; Giovannelli, Luca; Guglielmino, Salvatore Luigi; Laurenza, Monica; Lepreti, Fabio; Marcucci, Maria Federica; Martucci, Matteo; Mergè, Matteo; Pezzopane, Michael; Pietropaolo, Ermanno; Romano, Paolo; Sparvoli, Roberta; Spogli, Luca; Stangalini, Marco; Vecchio, Antonio; Vellante, Massimo; Villante, Umberto; Zuccarello, Francesca; Heilig, Balázs; Reda, Jan; Lichtenberger, János

    2017-11-01

    , to investigate the influence of the disturbed electric field on the low-latitude ionosphere induced by geomagnetic storms, we focused on the morphology of the crests of the equatorial ionospheric anomaly by the simultaneous use of the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) receivers, ionosondes, and Langmuir probes onboard the Swarm constellation satellites. Moreover, we investigated the dynamics of the plasmasphere during the different phases of the geomagnetic storm by examining the time evolution of the radial profiles of the equatorial plasma mass density derived from field line resonances detected at the EMMA network (1.5 < L < 6.5). Finally, we present the general features of the geomagnetic response to the CME by applying innovative data analysis tools that allow us to investigate the time variation of ground-based observations of the Earth's magnetic field during the associated geomagnetic storm.

  13. Reply to [“Comment on “There is no magnestosphere...nor is there a plasmasphere!’”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser-Smith, A. C.

    Despite the thorough introduction to four-letter words being given to our children at an early age by the television and recording industries, it is difficult to avoid the impression that accuracy in the use of words is declining in our society. Indeed, Orwellian doublespeak has become the norm at the leadership level: we all know what tax reform really means, for example. With this background, it is a pleasure to see Behannon and Anderson consulting their dictionaries and taking me to task for my literal interpretation of the “sphere” in magnetosphere and plasmasphere. However, I had earlier rejected the “sphere of influence,” or “place or range of action or existence” connotation, and I continue to do so, for the following reasons.

  14. Least-squares gradient calculation from multi-point observations of scalar and vector fields: methodology and applications with Cluster in the plasmasphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. De Keyser

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a general-purpose algorithm for computing the gradients in space and time of a scalar field, a vector field, or a divergence-free vector field, from in situ measurements by one or more spacecraft. The algorithm provides total error estimates on the computed gradient, including the effects of measurement errors, the errors due to a lack of spatio-temporal homogeneity, and errors due to small-scale fluctuations. It also has the ability to diagnose the conditioning of the problem. Optimal use is made of the data, in terms of exploiting the maximum amount of information relative to the uncertainty on the data, by solving the problem in a weighted least-squares sense. The method is illustrated using Cluster magnetic field and electron density data to compute various gradients during a traversal of the inner magnetosphere. In particular, Cluster is shown to cross azimuthal density structure, and the existence of field-aligned currents in the plasmasphere is demonstrated.

  15. Statistical modeling of Earth's plasmasphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veibell, Victoir

    The behavior of plasma near Earth's geosynchronous orbit is of vital importance to both satellite operators and magnetosphere modelers because it also has a significant influence on energy transport, ion composition, and induced currents. The system is highly complex in both time and space, making the forecasting of extreme space weather events difficult. This dissertation examines the behavior and statistical properties of plasma mass density near geosynchronous orbit by using both linear and nonlinear models, as well as epoch analyses, in an attempt to better understand the physical processes that precipitates and drives its variations. It is shown that while equatorial mass density does vary significantly on an hourly timescale when a drop in the disturbance time scale index ( Dst) was observed, it does not vary significantly between the day of a Dst event onset and the day immediately following. It is also shown that increases in equatorial mass density were not, on average, preceded or followed by any significant change in the examined solar wind or geomagnetic variables, including Dst, despite prior results that considered a few selected events and found a notable influence. It is verified that equatorial mass density and and solar activity via the F10.7 index have a strong correlation, which is stronger over longer timescales such as 27 days than it is over an hourly timescale. It is then shown that this connection seems to affect the behavior of equatorial mass density most during periods of strong solar activity leading to large mass density reactions to Dst drops for high values of F10.7. It is also shown that equatorial mass density behaves differently before and after events based on the value of F10.7 at the onset of an equatorial mass density event or a Dst event, and that a southward interplanetary magnetic field at onset leads to slowed mass density growth after event onset. These behavioral differences provide insight into how solar and geomagnetic conditions impact mass density at geosynchronous orbit, enabling operators to better anticipate the response to space weather events and magnetosphere models to include mass density effects in magnetosphere simulations. It is shown that it is possible to classify an equatorial mass density event onset as being distinct from the three hours preceding it, indicating that there are distinguishing characteristics of solar wind and geomagnetic conditions surrounding an event. It is also been shown that given four days of solar and geomagnetic conditions, an event can be forecasted a day in advance with reasonable accuracy, but also with a number of false positives. These false positives have similarly distributed values as the true positives, though, indicating more data are needed to distinguish impending events.

  16. Plasmaspheric noise radiation during geomagnetic storms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larkina, V.I.; Likhter, Ya.I.

    1981-01-01

    Variations of plasmospheric background radiations during geomagnetic storms of different intensity are investigated. Used are results of ELF and VLF radiation measurements as well as electron fluxes of energies Esub(e)>40 keV carried out by Intercosmos 3 and Intercosmos 5 satellites. Dependences of radiation amplitude variations at 1.6 and 25 kHz frequencies on L shell for various geomagnetic activity in the day-time as well as data on variations of quasicaptured electron fluxes at Esub(e)>40 keV, are given. It is shown that experimental data agree with the existing theories of plasmospheric noise excitation. It is concluded that the plasmospheric noise excitation area Lsub(max) is always in the region of gap between radiation belts and inner slope of external radiation belt during magnetic storms. During magnetic storms Lsub(max) area moves simultaneously with the area, where particle flux of the external radiation belt is the most intensive [ru

  17. Plasmaspheric, Faraday and Total Electron Contents, 1977 and 1978.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-12-01

    8217I ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ -C’] -11-4- Nt1 in1 tN N-A’ N ) C" C o"-’ C’] J Nj.i- n -4-289 - TiW 174-as *r - 4 i.S.Q :-r - -1 1 l-_C. r%- ’ 7 -’" IJC O * I...8217NJ LOOWN kO ID U 04!’-. CO-)M.C) ww it t kD4N- Cell tI’m n al ))or ’CNN f- in iI Dt’DC)0 aa- CU’, CI’. - n N s N- ’t0t 0. IN 0T ION 0j) N- qt in

  18. Plasmaspheric-ionospheric contents deduced from ATS-6 measurements over Lannion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleury, R.

    1978-01-01

    The present paper deals with ATS-6 radio beacon measurements at the Lannion Station, of the total columnar electron content between transmitter and receiver and the ionospheric columnar content along the ray path between the receiver and the satellite. The main equations of the method of analysis proposed by Davies et al. (1975) are summarized

  19. Variations of plasmaspheric field-aligned electron and ion densities (90-4000 km) during quiet to moderately active (Kp < 4) geomagnetic conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonwalkar, V. S.; Reddy, A.

    2017-12-01

    Variation in field-aligned electron and ion densities as a function of geomagnetic activity are important parameters in the physics of the thermosphere-ionosphere-magnetosphere coupling. Using whistler mode sounding from IMAGE, we report variations in field-aligned electron density and O+/H+ transition height (HT) during two periods (16-23 Aug 2005; 24 Sep-06 Oct 2005) when geomagnetic conditions were quiet (maximum Kp in the past 24 hours, Kpmax,24 ≤ 2) to moderately active (2 quiet time, during moderate geomagnetic activity: (1) O+/H+ transition height was roughly same; (2) electron density variations below HT showed no trend; (3) electron density above HT increased ( 10-40 %). The measured electron density is in agreement with in situ measurements from CHAMP (350 km) and DMSP (850 km) and past space borne (e. g., ISIS) measurements but the F2 peak density is a factor of 2 lower relative to that measured by ground ionosondes and that predicted by IRI-2012 empirical model. The measured transition height is consistent with OGO 4, Explorer 31, and C/NOFS measurements but is lower than that from IRI-2012. The observed variations in electron density at F2 peak are consistent with past work and are attributed to solar, geomagnetic, and meteorological causes [e. g. Risibeth and Mendillo, 2001; Forbes et al., 2000]. To the best of our knowledge, variations in field-aligned electron density above transition height at mid-latitudes during quiet to moderately active periods have not been reported in the past. Further investigation using physics based models (e. g., SAMI3) is required to explain the observed variations.

  20. Variations of daytime and nighttime electron temperature and heat flux in the upper ionosphere, topside ionosphere and lower plasmasphere for low and high solar activity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Truhlík, Vladimír; Třísková, Ludmila; Bilitza, D.; Podolská, Kateřina

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 71, 17-18 (2009), s. 2055-2063 ISSN 1364-6826 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA300420603 Grant - others: NASA (US) NNH06CD17C Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30420517 Keywords : Electron temperature * Solar activity variation * Latitudinal and field aligned profiles * Heat flux Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 1.643, year: 2009

  1. Inner Magnetospheric Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Dennis

    2018-01-01

    Outline - Inner Magnetosphere Effects: Historical Background; Main regions and transport processes: Ionosphere, Plasmasphere, Plasma sheet, Ring current, Radiation belt; Geomagnetic Activity: Storms, Substorm; Models.

  2. The characteristic response of whistler mode waves to interplanetary shocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, C.; Chen, L.; Bortnik, J.; Ma, Q.; Thorne, R. M.; Angelopoulos, V.; Li, J.; An, X.; Zhou, C.

    2017-12-01

    Magnetospheric whistler mode waves play a key role in regulating the dynamics of the electron radiation belts. Recent satellite observations indicate a significant influence of interplanetary (IP) shocks on whistler mode wave power in the inner magnetosphere. In this study, we statistically investigate the response of whistler mode chorus and plasmaspheric hiss to IP shocks based on Van Allen Probes and THEMIS satellite observations. Immediately after the IP shock arrival, chorus wave power is usually intensified, often at dawn, while plasmaspheric hiss wave power predominantly decreases near the dayside but intensifies near the nightside. We conclude that chorus wave intensification outside the plasmasphere is probably associated with the suprathermal electron flux enhancement caused by the IP shock. On the other hand, the solar wind dynamic pressure increase changes the magnetic field configuration to favor ray penetration into the nightside and promote ray refraction away from the dayside, explaining the magnetic local time (MLT) dependent responses of plasmaspheric hiss waves following IP shock arrivals.

  3. Extremely intense ELF magnetosonic waves: A survey of polar observations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tsurutani, B. T.; Falkowski, B. J.; Pickett, J. S.; Verkhoglyadova, O. P.; Santolík, Ondřej; Lakhina, G. S.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 119, č. 2 (2014), s. 964-977 ISSN 2169-9380 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP205/10/2279; GA MŠk(CZ) LH11122 Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : Magneotosonic waves * plasmaspheric hiss * plasmasphere * substorm protons * mode conversion Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 3.426, year: 2014 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/2013JA019284/abstract

  4. Plasma Physics of the Subauroral Space Weather

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-20

    or convey any rights or permission to manufacture, use, or sell any patented invention that may relate to them. This report was cleared for...irregular subauroral regions create strong scintillations of UHF and GPS L1 band signals. Irregular structures in the plasmasphere guide VLF whistler waves ...drifts, substorm-injected plasma jets, SAID/SAPS-related plasma waves , plasmaspheric boundary layer 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF

  5. The quiet time structure of energetic (35--560 keV) radiation belt electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyons, L.R.; Williams, D.J.

    1975-01-01

    Detailed Explorer 45 equatorial observations of the quiet time structure of radiation belt electrons (35--560 keV) for 1.7approximately-less-thanLapproximately-less-than5.2 are presented. Throughout the slot region and outer regions of the plasmasphere the observed pitch angle distributions are found to agree with those expected from resonant interactions with the plasmaspheric whistler mode wave band. Coulomb collisions become the dominant loss mechanism within the inner zone. The overall two-zone structure of the observed radial profiles is found to agree with the equilibrium structure expected to result from a balance between pitch angle scattering losses and radial diffusion from an average outer zone source. This agreement suggests that the dominant quiet time source and loss mechanisms have been identified and evaluated for energetic radiation belt electrons within the plasmasphere. In the outer regions of the plasmasphere (Lapprox.5) the equilibrium structure is observed to be modified by daily flux variations associated with changes in the level of magnetic activity that occur even during relatively quiet times. Within the inner region of the plasmasphere (Lapproximately-less-than3.5), electron fluxes are decoupled from these magnetic activity variations by the long time scales (>10 days) required for pitch angle and radial diffusion. Consequently, fluxes of these electrons are observed to remain nearly constant at equilibrium levels throughout the quiet periods examined

  6. Antartic observations of plasma convection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, H.J.

    1983-01-01

    This thesis is concerned with the use of whistler duct tracking as a diagnostic for the behaviour of plasma in the plasmasphere. As a setting for the results given in the thesis, a broad review is presented which embraces pertinent aspects of previous experimental and theoretical studies of the plasmasphere. From a study of 24 hours of continuous whistler data recorded at Sanae, (L = 3,98), it is shown that associated with quiet magnetic conditions (Av Ksub(p)=1), there exists two plasmasphere bulges centred on about 1700 and 0100 UT. There is evidence that these plasmasphere bulge structures are part of a ground-state or reference base drift pattern. Electric field measurements provide some evidence that quiet time plasmasphere drift behaviour is controlled by the internal ionospheric current systems of dynamo origin, rather than being controlled by magnetospheric convection. Finally, this thesis describes an application of the whistler duct tracking technique to whistler data recorded simultaneously at two ground-based stations (Sanae (L = 3,98) and Halley (L = 4,23)). The identification of common whistler components on each station's data set provides a means of estimating the lifetimes of the associated whistler ducts. Duct lifetimes of as little as 30 minutes are found. Such short lived ducts have important implications for current theories of duct formation

  7. Hiss or equatorial noise? Ambiguities in analyzing suprathermal ion plasma wave resonance

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sarno-Smith, L. K.; Liemohn, M. W.; Skoug, R. M.; Santolík, Ondřej; Morley, S. K.; Breneman, A.; Larsen, B. A.; Reeves, G.; Wygant, J. R.; Hospodarsky, G.; Kletzing, C.; Moldwin, M. B.; Katus, R. M.; Zou, S.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 121, č. 10 (2016), s. 9619-9631 ISSN 2169-9380 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LH15304 Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) AP1401 Program:Akademická prémie - Praemium Academiae Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : equatorial noise * low-energy ions * plasma waves * plasmasphere * plasmaspheric hiss Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.733, year: 2016 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/2016JA022975/abstract

  8. Recent progress in satellite radio beacon studies with particular emphasis on the ATS-6 radio beacon experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, K.

    1980-01-01

    In May 1974 a new era in satellite radio beacon studies of the ionosphere opened with the ATS-6 Radio Beacon Experiment. The history of radio beacon studies up to that time is reviewed briefly and the particular features of the ATS-6 beacon are discussed together with the basic theory required to interpret the measurements. The main emphasis is on the ATS-6 beacon experiment but other beacon data are discussed which provide the necessary background. The diurnal and seasonal variations of the total electron content and the plasmaspheric content are presented for the U.S.A. and Europe. In winter the plasmaspheric content over the Western Hemisphere maximizes at night while in Europe and the Pacific it appears to peak near noon. This is thought to be caused by flow of plasma from the local and conjugate ionospheres. Night maxima of total electron content are found showing that they do not arise from depletions of the plasmaspheric content. The plasmaspheric content is highly sensitive to solar-terrestrial disturbance, it reaches a minimum on the third day of a storm and may take between 10 and 20 days of partial filling and emptying to recover. Travelling disturbances in U.S.A., Europe, and India show similarities of speeds but not of direction. Beacon observations of micropulsations in total content, tropospheric fluctuations and Fresnel diffraction by intense ionospheric irregularities are discussed together with radio wave scintillations and some applications of beacon radio data to communications and navigation. (orig.)

  9. Comparison of H+ and He+ plasmapause locations based on the resurrected and reevaluated OGO-5 ion composition data base

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Truhlík, Vladimír; Třísková, Ludmila; Benson, R. F.; Bilitza, D.; Grebowsky, J.; Richards, P. G.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 119, NOV (2014), s. 27-34 ISSN 1364-6826 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LH11123 Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : plasmasphere * plasmapause * FLIP * empirical model * OGO-5 Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 1.474, year: 2014 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/ article /pii/S1364682614001321#

  10. Conceptual Design of Geophysical Microsatellite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matviyenko, S.A.

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The article covers the issue of Earth gravitational field (EGF parameters measurement from space. The radiophysical method of measurement of gravitational frequency shift of electromagnetic radiation using existent GNSS and its two variants are developed by the author. The designlayout drawing of geophysical microsatellite, which implements the radiophysical method of EGF measurement and provides Earth plasmasphere and magnetosphere monitoring, is offered.

  11. Magnetospheric and atmospheric physics at the University of Natal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, A.D.M.

    1982-01-01

    A historical outline of geophysical work done at the University of Natal from 1938-1982 is given. Mention is also made of experimental work concerning whistlers and VLF, low-light level TV and geomagnetic pulsations. Current work on the magnetosphere, namely plasma convection in plasmasphere, auroral features, geomagnetic pulsations and the measuring of plasma properties is discussed

  12. Some measurements of total electron content made with the ATS-6 radio beacon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, K.; Degenhardt, W.; Hartmann, G.K.

    1978-01-01

    The paper deals with some measurements made with the radio beacon on board the ATS-6 satellite in the American and European sectors. Measurements of the slant electron content, the Faraday content, and the plasmaspheric (or residual) content, made under different geographic and geomagnetic conditions, are discussed and compared

  13. The Warm Plasma Composition in the Inner Magnetosphere during 2012-2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahn, J. M.; Goldstein, J.; Reeves, G. D.; Fernandes, P. A.; Skoug, R. M.; Larsen, B.; Spence, H. E.

    2017-12-01

    Ionospheric heavy ions play an important role in the dynamics of Earth's magnetosphere. The greater mass and gyro radius of ionospheric oxygen differentiates its behavior from protons at the same energies. Oxygen may have an impact on tail reconnection processes, and it can at least temporarily dominate the energy content of the ring current during geomagnetic storms. At sub-keV energies, multi-species ion populations in the inner magnetosphere form the warm plasma cloak, occupying the energy range between the plasmasphere and the ring current. Lastly, cold lighter ions from the mid-latitude ionosphere create the co-rotating plasmasphere whose outer regions can interact with the plasma cloak, plasma sheet, ring current, and outer electron belt. In this paper we present a statistical view of warm, cloak-like ion populations in the inner magnetosphere, contrasting in particular the warm plasma composition during quiet and active times. We study the relative abundances and absolute densities of warm plasma measured by the Van Allen Probes, whose two spacecraft cover the inner magnetosphere from plasmaspheric altitudes close to Earth to just inside geostationary orbit. We observe that warm (> 30 eV) oxygen is most abundant closer to the plasmasphere boundary whereas warm hydrogen dominates closer to geostationary orbit. Warm helium is usually a minor constituent, but shows a noticeable enhancement in the near-Earth dusk sector.

  14. Simulating Sources of Superstorm Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fok, Mei-Ching

    2008-01-01

    We evaluated the contributions to magnetospheric pressure (ring current) of the solar wind, polar wind, auroral wind, and plasmaspheric wind, with the surprising result that the main phase pressure is dominated by plasmaspheric protons. We used global simulation fields from the LFM single fluid ideal MHD model. We embedded the Comprehensive Ring Current Model within it, driven by the LFM transpolar potential, and supplied with plasmas at its boundary including solar wind protons, polar wind protons, auroral wind O+, and plasmaspheric protons. We included auroral outflows and acceleration driven by the LFM ionospheric boundary condition, including parallel ion acceleration driven by upward currents. Our plasmasphere model runs within the CRCM and is driven by it. Ionospheric sources were treated using our Global Ion Kinetics code based on full equations of motion. This treatment neglects inertial loading and pressure exerted by the ionospheric plasmas, and will be superceded by multifluid simulations that include those effects. However, these simulations provide new insights into the respective role of ionospheric sources in storm-time magnetospheric dynamics.

  15. ULF turbulence in magnetospheric boundary layers during April 1997 as measured aboard Magion-4 subsatellite

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hristov, P.; Nenovski, P.; Teodosiev, D.; Koleva, R.; Shibaev, I.; Vojta, Jaroslav; Tříska, Pavel; Chum, Jaroslav

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 31, č. 5 (2003), s. 1297-1302 ISSN 0273-1177 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z3042911 Keywords : magnetospheric physics * plasmasphere * wave propagation Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 0.483, year: 2003

  16. The importance of neutral hydrogen for the maintenance of the midlatitude winter nighttime ionosphere: Evidence from IS observations at Kharkiv, Ukraine, and field line interhemispheric plasma model simulations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kotov, K. V.; Richards, P. G.; Bogomaz, O. V.; Chernogor, L. F.; Truhlík, Vladimír; Emelyanov, L. Ya.; Chepurnyy, Ya. M.; Domnin, I. F.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 121, č. 7 (2016), s. 7013-7025 ISSN 2169-9380 Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : ionosphere * thermosphere * hydrogen * electron density * nighttime Nm F2 enhancement * plasmasphere Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 2.733, year: 2016 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/2016JA022442/full

  17. Plasmapause Dynamics Observed During the 17 March and 28 June 2013 Storms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, R. L.; Coster, A. J.; Turner, D. L.; Nikoukar, R.; Lemon, C.; Roeder, J. L.; Shumko, M.; Bhatt, R.; Payne, C.; Bust, G. S.

    2017-12-01

    Earth's plasmasphere is a region of cold (T ≤ 1 eV), dense (n 101 to 104 cm-3) plasma located in the inner magnetosphere and coincident with a portion of the ionosphere that co-rotates with the planet in the geomagnetic field. Plasmaspheric plasma originates in the ionosphere and fills the magnetic flux tubes on which the corotation electric field dominates over the convection electric field. The corotation electric field results from Earth's spinning magnetic field while the convection electric field results from the solar wind driving of global plasma convection within the magnetosphere. The outer boundary of the plasmasphere is the plasmapause, and it corresponds to the transition region between corotation-driven vs. convection-driven plasmas. When the convection electric field is enhanced during active solar wind periods, such as magnetic storms, the plasmasphere can rapidly erode to L 2.5 or less. During subsequent quiet periods of low solar wind speed and weak interplanetary magnetic field (IMF), ionospheric outflow from lower altitudes refills the plasmasphere over the course of several days or more, with the plasmapause expanding to higher L-shells. The combination of convection, corotation, and ionospheric plasma outflow during and after a storm leads to characteristic features such as plasmaspheric shoulders, notches, and plumes. In this presentation, we focus on the dynamics of the plasmapause during two storms in 2013: March 17 and June 28. The minimum Dst for the two storms were -139 and -98 nT, respectively. We examine plasmapause dynamics utilizing data from an extensive global network of ground-based scientific GPS receivers ( 4000) and line-of-sight observations from the GPS receivers on the COSMIC and C/NOFS satellites, along with data from THEMIS and van Allen Probes, and Millstone Hill Incoherent Scatter Radar. Using the various datasets, we will compare the pre-storm and storm-time plasmasphere. We will also examine the location, evolution

  18. Modeling magnetospheric plasma; Proceedings of the First Huntsville Workshop on Magnetosphere/Ionosphere Plasma Models, Guntersville, AL, Oct. 14-16, 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, T.E.; Waite, J.H. Jr.

    1988-01-01

    The conference presents papers on the global modeling of magnetospheric plasma processes, the modeling of the midlatitude ionosphere and plasmasphere, the modeling of the auroral zone and boundary layer, the modeling of the polar magnetosphere and ionosphere, and the modeling of the plasma sheet and ring current. Particular attention is given to the kinetic approach in magnetospheric plasma transport modeling, self-consistent neutral point current and fields from single particle dynamics, preliminary statistical survey of plasmaspheric ion properties from observations by DE 1/RIMS, and a model of auroral potential structures based on dynamics explorer plasma data. Other topics include internal shear layers in auroral dynamics, quantitative parameterization of energetic ionospheric ion outflow, and open flux merging in an expanding polarcap model

  19. Some early results from the ATS-6 radio beacon experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, K.; Fritz, R.B.; Grubb, R.N.; Jones, J.E.

    1975-01-01

    The multifrequency satellite radio beacon enables the measurement of the columnar electron content of the ionosphere and plasmasphere along the ray path and its spatial and temporal structure. Measurements include modulation phase, Faraday rotation, and amplitude. The characteristics of the beacon transmitter and its design are presented together with the design of the Boulder receiver and antennas and the calibration procedures. A shape factor F is defined which depends on the electron density and geomagnetic field distributions. It is found that F varies by about 30 percent from day to night. It is shown that the ratio of the plasmaspheric content to total content varies from about 0.08 during the day to about 0.35 at night. Other examples which are presented to illustrate the uses of the radio beacon include sunrise effects, solar flare enhancements of total content, and the ionospheric storms of early July 1974

  20. Cluster observations of reflected EMIC-triggered emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grison, B.; Darrouzet, F.; Santolík, O.; Cornilleau-Wehrlin, N.; Masson, A.

    2016-05-01

    On 19 March 2001, the Cluster fleet recorded an electromagnetic rising tone on the nightside of the plasmasphere. The emission was found to propagate toward the Earth and toward the magnetic equator at a group velocity of about 200 km/s. The Poynting vector is mainly oblique to the background magnetic field and directed toward the Earth. The propagation angle θk,B0 becomes more oblique with increasing magnetic latitude. Inside each rising tone θk,B0 is more field aligned for higher frequencies. Comparing our results to previous ray tracing analysis we conclude that this emission is a triggered electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) wave generated at the nightside plasmapause. We detect the wave just after its reflection in the plasmasphere. The reflection makes the tone slope shallower. This process can contribute to the formation of pearl pulsations.

  1. Observation of magntosphere and ionosphere through HF and VLF standard waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, Toru

    1974-01-01

    The observation of magnetosphere and ionosphere through HF and VLF standard waves is a part of the IMS research subject I on the structure and dynamics of the earth's plasmasphere. By receiving the HF and VLF standard waves with high accuracy, and through the changes of the phase and frequency, continuous observation is made concerning the lower plasmasphere at equator and middle/low latitudes and the upper layers in polar regions. In this way, the dynamic state at the time of disturbance such as magnetic storm can be explored. The following matters are described: features of standard-wave observation, purpose and observation plans, the exhcange of data with overseas countries and satellites, and the results of observation expected. (Mori, K.)

  2. Stormtime Simulations of Sub-Auroral Polarization Streams (SAPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huba, J.; Sazykin, S. Y.; Coster, A. J.

    2017-12-01

    We present simulation results from the self-consistently coupled SAMI3/RCM code on the impact of geomagnetic storms on the ionosphere/plasmasphere system with an emphasis on the development of sub-auroral plasma streams (SAPS). We consider the following storm events: March 31, 2001, March 17, 2013, March 17, 2015, September 3, 2012, and June 23, 2015. We compare and contrast the development of SAPS for these storms. The main results are the development of sub-auroral (< 60 degrees) low-density, high-speed flows (1 - 2 km/s). Additionally, we discuss the impact on plasmaspheric dynamics. We compare our model results to data (e.g., Millstone Hill radar, GPS TEC).

  3. 3D Reconfigurable NoC Multiprocessor Imaging Interferometer for Space Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekoulis, George

    2016-07-01

    This paper describes the development of an imaging interferometer for long-term observations of solar activity related events. Heliospheric physics phenomena are responsible for causing irregularities to the ionospheric-magnetospheric plasmasphere. Distinct signatures of these events are captured and studied over long periods of time deducting crucial conclusions about the short-term Space Weather and in the long run about Space Climate. The new prototype features an eight-channel implementation. The available hardware resources permit a 256- channel configuration for accurate beam scanning of the Earth's plasmasphere. A dual-polarization scheme has been implemented for obtaining accurate measurements. The system is based on state-of-the-art three-dimensional reconfigurable logic and exhibits a performance increase in the range of 70% compared to similar instruments in operation. Special circuits allow measurements of the most intense heliospheric physics events to be fully captured and analyzed.

  4. Using the cold plasma dispersion relation and whistler mode waves to quantify the antenna sheath impedance of the Van Allen Probes EFW instrument

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hartley, D. P.; Kletzing, C. A.; Kurth, W. S.; Bounds, S. R.; Averkamp, T. F.; Hospodarsky, G. B.; Wygant, J. R.; Bonnell, J. W.; Santolík, Ondřej; Watt, C. E. J.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 121, č. 5 (2016), s. 4590-4606 ISSN 2169-9380 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LH15304 Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : EFW * EMFISIS * plasmaspheric hiss * sheath impedance * Van Allen Probes * whistler mode chorus Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 2.733, year: 2016 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/2016JA022501/abstract

  5. Vertical circulation and thermospheric composition: a modelling study

    OpenAIRE

    H. Rishbeth; I. C. F. Müller-Wodarg; I. C. F. Müller-Wodarg

    1999-01-01

    The coupled thermosphere-ionosphere-plasmasphere model CTIP is used to study the global three-dimensional circulation and its effect on neutral composition in the midlatitude F-layer. At equinox, the vertical air motion is basically up by day, down by night, and the atomic oxygen/molecular nitrogen [O/N2] concentration ratio is symmetrical about the equator. At solstice there is a summer-to-winter flow of air, with downwelling at subauroral latitudes in winter that produc...

  6. Mechanisms of the electron density depletion in the SAR arc region

    OpenAIRE

    A. V. Pavlov

    1996-01-01

    This study compares the measurements of electron density and temperature and the integral airglow intensity at 630 nm in the SAR arc region and slightly south of this (obtained by the Isis 2 spacecraft during the 18 December 1971 magnetic storm), with the model results obtained using the time dependent one-dimensional mathematical model of the Earth's ionosphere and plasmasphere. The explicit expression in the third Enskog approximation for the electron thermal conductivity coefficient i...

  7. Nonducted propagation of chorus emissions and their observation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chum, Jaroslav; Jiříček, František; Šmilauer, Jan

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 53, 1-3 (2005), s. 307-315 ISSN 0032-0633 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA3042201; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAB3042104; GA ČR(CZ) GA205/03/0953 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30420517 Keywords : Plasmasphere * Plasma waves and instabilities * Wave-particle interactions * Wave propagation Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 1.408, year: 2005

  8. Properties of ELF electromagnetic waves in and above the earth's ionosphere deduced from plasma wave experiments on the OV1-17 and Ogo 6 satellites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelley, M.C.; Tsurutani, B.T.; Mozer, F.S.

    1975-01-01

    An analysis of ac electric field data obtained on board the OV1-17 satellite and ac magnetic field data obtained on board the Ogo 6 satellite has been made during the northern hemisphere spring and summer of 1969 with the purpose of studying extreme low frequency (ELF) electromagnetic waves above the earth's ionosphere. The results are in basic agreement with a number of previous ground-based and low-altitude satellite experiments in that the peak signal was observed at high latitudes outside the statistical location of the plasmapause on the day side of the earth, that ELF chorus was very often observed in conjunction with the steady ELF hiss emissions, that the winter hemisphere signal was considerably smaller than that observed in summer or in equinoctial months, and that the emission strength and region of occurrence are asymmetric about magnetic noon. Observations of such strong hiss signals outside the plasmasphere are somewhat surprising in light of Ogo 3 and Ogo 5 measurements which show steady ELF hiss to be closely confined to the plasmasphere at high altitudes during normal circumstances. The present study supports the hypothesis that hiss leaks out of the plasmasphere and refracts downward into the lower ionosphere; such a model predicts the observed summer-winter asymmetry and the poleward skewing of the ELF peak signal strength with decreasing altitude

  9. Initial assessment of the effects of energetic-ion injections in the magnetosphere due to the transport of satellite-power-system components from low earth orbit to geosynchronous earth orbit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curtis, S.A.; Grebowsky, J.M.

    1980-07-01

    Potentially serious environmental effects exist when cargo orbital transfer vehicle (COTV) ion propulsion is used on the scale proposed in the preliminary definition studies of the Satellite Power System. These effects of the large scale injections of ion propulsion exhaust in the plasmasphere and in the outer magnetosphere are shown to be highly model dependent with major differences existing in the predicted effects of two models - the ion cloud model and the ion sheath model. The expected total number density deposition of the propellant Ar + in the plasmasphere, the energy spectra of the deposited Ar + and time-dependent behavior of the Ar + injected into the plasmasphere by a fleet of COTV vehicles differ drastically between the two models. The major environmental effect of the former model is communication disturbance due to plasma density irregularities, in contrast to the spectacular predictions of the latter model which include power line tripping and pipe line corrosion. The ion sheath model is demonstrated to be applicable to the proposed Ar + beam physics if the beam is divergent and turbulent whereas the ion cloud model is not a realistic approximation for such a beam because the frozen-field assumption on which it is based is not valid. Finally, it is shown that the environmental effects of ion propulsion may be mitigated by the appropriate adjustment of the beam parameters

  10. Case Studies on MHD Wave Propagation by the Exos-D Electric Field Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeong-Seon Hwang

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Magnetohydrodynamic wave phenomena have been investigated in the deep plasmasphere by the electric field measurements in the EXOS-D(Akebono satellite. EXOS-D has highly eccentric orbits(the perigee: 274km, the apogee: 10,500km, which allows relatively long observational time interval near the apogee region compared to othe satellites which pass by the same region with less eccentric orbits. Case studies are peformed on one month data of October in 1989 where the apogee is located near the equator and the magnetic local time is about 9:00-12:00 a.m. in the dayside plasmasphere. The observational region ranges from L=2 to L=3 and the magnetic latitude is restricted to less than 30 degress. The power spectrum is examined for each 128 point series of 8-sec averaged data through a FFT, which covers f=0-62.3 mHz frequency bands. The results are well consistent with field line resonances(FLRs and cavity modes in the plasmasphere.

  11. Hidden ion population: Revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsen, R.C.; Chappell, C.R.; Gallagher, D.L.; Green, J.L.; Gurnett, D.A.

    1985-01-01

    Satellite potentials in the outer plasmasphere range from near zero to +5 to +10 V. Under such conditions ion measurements may not include the low energy core of the plasma population. In eclipse, the photoelectron current drops to zero, and the spacecraft potential can drop to near zero volts. In regions where the ambient plasma density is below 100 cm -3 , previously unobserved portions of the ambient plasma distribution function can become visible in eclipse. A survey of the data obtained from the retarding ion mass spectrometer (RIMS) on Dynamics Explorer 1 shows that the RIMS detector generally measured the isotropic background in both sunlight and eclipse in the plasma-sphere. Absolute density measurements for the ''hidden'' ion population are obtained for the first time using the plasma wave instrument observations of the upper hybrid resonance. Agreement in total density is found in sunlight and eclipse measurements at densities above 80 cm -3 . In eclipse, agreement is found at densities as low as 20 cm -3 . The isotropic plasma composition is primarily H + , with approx.10% He + , and 0.1 to 1.0% O + . A low energy field-aligned ion population appears in eclipse measurements outside the plasmasphere, which is obscured in sunlight. These field-aligned ions can be interpreted as field-aligned flows with densities of a few particles per cubic centimeter, flowing at 5-20 km/s. The problem in measuring these field-aligned flows in sunlight is the masking of the high energy tail of the field-aligned distribution by the isotropic background. Effective measurement of the core of the magnetospheric plasma distribution awaits satellites with active means of controlling the satellite potential

  12. Electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves observed near the oxygen cyclotron frequency by ISEE 1 and 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fraser, B.J.; Samson, J.C.; Hu, Y.D.; McPherron, R.L.; Russell, C.T.

    1992-01-01

    Pc 2 electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves at 0.1 waves at 0.1 Hz, near the oxygen cyclotron frequency, have been observed by ISEE 1 and 2 between L = 7.6 and 5.8 on an inbound near-equatorial pass in the dusk sector. The waves occurred in a thick plasmapause of width ∼ 1.5 R E and penetrated ∼1 R E into the plasmasphere. Wave onset was accompanied by significant increases in the thermal (0-100 eV) He + and the warm (0.1-16 keV/e) O + and He + heavy ion populations. The most intense waves (8 nT) were observed in the outer plasmasphere where convection drift velocities (E x B)/B 2 were largest and the Alfven velocity was a minimum. Wave polarization is predominantly left-handed with propagation almost parallel to the ambient magnetic field, and the spectral slot and polarization reversal predicted by cold plasma propagation theory are identified in the wave data. Poynting fluxes calculated during the first 15 min of the event show wave energy propagation directions both parallel and antiparallel to the field. Computations of the experimental wave spectra during the passage through the plasmapause show that the spectral slots relate to local plasma parameters, possibly suggesting an ion cyclotron wave growth source near the spacecraft. A regular wave packet structure seen over the first 30 min of the event may be attributed to the modulation of this energy source by the Pc 5 waves seen at the same time. Overall, the results are considered an example of an electromagnetic ion cyclotron wave-particle interaction occurring during the outer plasmasphere refilling process at the time of the substorm recovery phase

  13. A Regional GPS Receiver Network For Monitoring Mid-latitude Total Electron Content During Storms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernon, A.; Cander, Lj. R.

    A regional GPS receiver network has been used for monitoring mid-latitude total elec- tron content (TEC) during ionospheric storms at the current solar maximum. Differ- ent individual storms were examined to study how the temporal patterns of changes develop and how they are related to solar and geomagnetic activity for parameter de- scriptive of plasmaspheric-ionospheric ionisation. Use is then made of computer con- touring techniques to produce snapshot maps of TEC for different study cases. Com- parisons with the local ionosonde data at different phases of the storms enable the storm developments to be studied in detail.

  14. Measurement of visible and UV emission from Energetic Neutral Atom Precipitation (ENAP), on Spacelab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinsley, B. A.

    1980-01-01

    The charge exchange of plasmaspheric ions and exospheric H and O and of solar wind ions with exospheric and interplanetary H are sources of precipitating neutrals whose faint emission may be observed by the imaging spectrometric observatory during dark periods of the SL-1 orbit. Measurements of the interactions of these precipitating atoms with the thermosphere are needed to evaluate the heating and ionization effects on the atmosphere as well as the selective loss of i energetic ions from the sources (predominantly the ring current).

  15. A three-dimensional phase space dynamical model of the Earth's radiation belt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boscher, D. M.; Beutier, T.; Bourdarie, S.

    1996-01-01

    A three dimensional phase space model of the Earth's radiation belt is presented. We have taken into account the magnetic and electric radial diffusions, the pitch angle diffusions due to Coulomb interactions and interactions with the plasmaspheric hiss, and the Coulomb drag. First, a steady state of the belt is presented. Two main maxima are obtained, corresponding to the inner and outer parts of the belt. Then, we have modelled a simple injection at the external boundary. The particle transport seems like what was measured aboard satellites. A high energy particle loss is found, by comparing the model results and the measurements. It remains to be explained

  16. Low energy plasma observations at synchronous orbit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reasoner, D.L.; Lennartsson, W.

    1977-08-01

    The University of California at San Diego Auroral Particles Experiment on the ATS-6 Satellite in synchronous orbit has detected a low-energy plasma population which is separate and distinct from both the ring current and plasma sheet populations. These observations suggest that this plasma is the outer zone of the plasmasphere. During magnetically active periods, this low energy plasma is often observed flowing sunward. In the dusk sector, enhanced plasma flow is often observed for 1-2 hours prior to the onset of a substorm-associated particle injection. (author)

  17. A new global empirical model of the electron temperature with the inclusion of the solar activity variations for IRI

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Truhlík, Vladimír; Bilitza, D.; Třísková, Ludmila

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 64, č. 6 (2012), s. 531-543 ISSN 1343-8832 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA300420603; GA ČR GAP209/10/2086 Grant - others: NASA (US) NNH06CD17C. Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : Electron temperature * ionosphere * plasmasphere * empirical models * International Reference Ionosphere Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 2.921, year: 2012 http://www.terrapub.co.jp/journals/EPS/abstract/6406/64060531.html

  18. Poynting vector and wave vector directions of equatorial chorus

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Taubenschuss, Ulrich; Santolík, Ondřej; Breuillard, H.; Li, W.; Le Contel, O.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 121, č. 12 (2016), s. 11912-11928 ISSN 2169-9380 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-31899S; GA MŠk(CZ) LH15304 Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) AP1401 Program:Akademická prémie - Praemium Academiae Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : whistler-mode waves * Earth 's inner magnetosphere * Van Allen probes * plasmaspheric hiss * magnetic reconnection * outer magnetosphere * source region * emissions * propagation * THEMIS Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 2.733, year: 2016

  19. The Community-based Whole Magnetosphere Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-15

    2008. Colloquia A.J. Ridley Y. Yu, M. W. Liemohn, A. M. Dodger , Understanding the geoeffective proper- ties of rapid changes in the solar wind and in...enhancement, 2010 AGU Fall Meeting, San Francisco, CA, December 13-17, 2010. A. M. Dodger , A.J. Ridley Comparing a Cou- pled Ionosphere-Plasmasphere Model to...Meeting, San Francisco, CA, December 13-17, 2010. CWMM-20 Ridley CWMM Final Report A. M. Jorgensen, A.J. Ridley A. M. Dodger , J. Lichtenberger

  20. Development of VLF noise storm and its relation to dynamics of magnetosphere during geomagnetic storms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fedyakina, N.I.; Khorosheva, O.V.

    1989-01-01

    Dependence between the development of geomagnetic storm and VLF noise storm is studied. Two conditions should be met for the development of noise storm in VLF-hiss (f ≅ 0.5-10 kHz): a) threshold intensity of electron fluxes with E e > 40 keV in plasma layers; b) the presence of substorms resulting to widening of electron belt and its collision with cold plasma of plasmasphere. The noise storm at the fixed longitude begins about midnight independently of the phase of magnetic storm; Noise storm duration is connected with geomagnetic storm intensity by direct linear relationship

  1. The Inner Magnetosphere Plasma Response to Interplanetary Shocks: Van Allen Probes HOPE Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, L. M.; Denton, M.; Ferradas, C.; Henderson, M. G.; Larsen, B.; Reeves, G.; Skoug, R. M.; Thomsen, M. F.

    2017-12-01

    The Van Allen Probes' Helium, Oxygen, Proton, and Electron (HOPE) sensors measure ion and electron populations in the plasmasphere, plasma sheet, and lower-energy ring current, providing unique observations at low energies (0.001-50 keV) and low L-shell (down to 1.5 RE). We use the capabilities of these two spacecraft to probe changes in the low energy particles in response to interplanetary (IP) shocks. We focus on changes in the plasma energies, composition, and pitch angle distributions following IP shocks and storm sudden commencements from 2012-2017 through a comparison of HOPE observations preceding and post shock.

  2. Source of the low-altitude hiss in the ionosphere

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chen, L.; Santolík, Ondřej; Hájoš, Mychajlo; Zheng, L.; Zhima, Z.; Heelis, R.; Hanzelka, Miroslav; Horne, R. B.; Parrot, M.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 44, č. 5 (2017), s. 2060-2069 ISSN 0094-8276 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA17-07027S; GA MŠk(CZ) LH15304 Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) AP1401 Program:Akademická prémie - Praemium Academiae Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : ionospheric hiss * low-altitude hiss * plasmaspheric hiss * ray tracing Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics OBOR OECD: Fluids and plasma physics (including surface physics) Impact factor: 4.253, year: 2016 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/2016GL072181/full

  3. Equatorial noise emissions with a quasiperiodic modulation observed by DEMETER at harmonics of the O+ ion gyrofrequency

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Parrot, M.; Nĕmec, F.; Santolík, Ondřej; Cornilleau-Wehrlin, N.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 121, č. 10 (2016), s. 10289-10302 ISSN 2169-9380 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LH15304; GA ČR(CZ) GA14-31899S Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) AP1401 Program:Akademická prémie - Praemium Academiae Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : Van Allen Probes * magnetosonic waves * spatiotemporal variability * conjugate observations * cluster spacecraft * staff experiment * propagation * proton * plasmasphere * frequency Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 2.733, year: 2016 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/2016JA022989/abstract

  4. Radial plasma drifts deduced from VLF whistler mode signals - A modelling study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulter, E. M.; Andrews, M. K.; Bailey, G. J.; Moffett, R. J.

    1984-05-01

    VLF whistler mode signals have previously been used to infer radial plasma drifts in the equatorial plane of the plasmasphere and the field-aligned ionosphere-protonosphere coupling fluxes. Physical models of the plasmasphere consisting of O(+) adn H(+) ions along dipole magnetic field lines, and including radial E x B drifts, are applied to a mid-latitude flux tube appropriate to whistler mode signals received at Wellington, New Zealand, from the fixed frequency VLF transmitter NLK (18.6 kHz) in Seattle, U.S.A. These models are first shown to provide a good representation of the recorded Doppler shift and group delay data. They are then used to simulate the process of deducing the drifts and fluxes from the recorded data. Provided the initial whistler mode duct latitude and the ionospheric contributions are known, the drifts at the equatorial plane can be estimated to about + or - 20 m/s (approximately 10-15 percent), and the two hemisphere ionosphere-protonosphere coupling fluxes to about + or - 10 to the 12th/sq m-sec (approximately 40 percent).

  5. Ion transition heights from topside electron density profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Titheridge, J.E.

    1976-01-01

    Theoretical electron density profiles are calculated for the topside ionosphere to determine the major factors controlling the profile shape. Only the mean temperature, the vertical temperature gradient and the O + /H + ion transition height are important. Vertical proton fluxes alter the ion transition height but have no other effect on the profile shape. Diffusive equilibrium profiles including only these three effects fit observed profiles, at all latitudes, to within experimental accuracy. Values of plasma temperature, temperature gradient and ion transition height hsub(T) were determined by fitting theoretical models to 60,000 experimental profiles obtained from Alouette 1 ionograms, at latitudes of 75 0 S to 85 0 N near solar minimum. Inside the plasmasphere hsub(T) varies from about 500 km on winter nights to 850 km on summer days. Diurnal variations are caused primarily by the production and loss of O + in the ionosphere. The approximately constant winter night value of hsub(T) is close to the level for chemical equilibrium. In summer hsub(T) is always above the equilibrium level, giving a continual production of protons which travel along lines of force to aid in maintaining the conjugate winter night ionosphere. Outside the plasmasphere hsub(T) is 300 to 600 km above the equilibrium level at all times. This implies a continual near-limiting upwards flux of protons which persists down to latitudes of about 60 0 at night and 50 0 during the day. (author)

  6. Determination of the Earth's Plasmapause Location from the CE-3 EUVC Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Fei; Zhang, Xiao-Xin; Chen, Bo; Fok, Mei-Ching; Nakano, Shinya

    2016-01-01

    The Moon-based Extreme Ultraviolet Camera (EUVC) aboard China's Chang'e-3 (CE-3) mission has successfully imaged the entire Earth's plasmasphere for the first time from the side views on lunar surface. An EUVC image on 21 April 2014 is used in this study to demonstrate the characteristics and configurations of the Moon-based EUV imaging and to illustrate the determination algorithm of the plasmapause locations on the magnetic equator. The plasmapause locations determined from all the available EUVC images with the Minimum L Algorithm are quantitatively compared with those extracted from insitu observations (Defense Meteorological Satellite Program, Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms, and Radiation Belt Storm Probes). Excellent agreement between the determined plasmapauses seen by EUVC and the extracted ones from other satellites indicates the reliability of the Moon-based EUVC images as well as the determination algorithm. This preliminary study provides an important basis for future investigation of the dynamics of the plasmasphere with the Moon-based EUVC imaging.

  7. Developments of STIM, the Saturn Thermosphere Ionosphere Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aylward, A. D.; Smith, C. G.; Miller, S.; Millward, G.

    2005-05-01

    The STIM (Saturn Thermosphere Ionosphere Model) model is a joint venture betwen University College London, Imperial College London, Boston University and the University of Arizona to develop a 3-d global circulation model of the Saturnian system - the primary aim being to use this as a tool for interpretation and testing of Cassini data. After initial work producing a basic thermosphere model (Muller-Wodarg et al 2005), examining issues to do with the ionosphere (Moore et al 2005) and examining auroral heating effects (Smith et al 2005), a global coupled ionosphere-plasmasphere has been added to the model. At low latitudes the model calculates ion densities on closed flux tubes passing through the ring plane. At high latitudes it performs self-consistent calculations of Joule heating and ion drag based on the calculated thermospheric and ionospheric parameters. The plasmasphere is complicated for Saturn by the strength of the centrifugal force which can dominate the forces in the outer flux tubes. Studies initially used H+ and H3+ as the principle ions but for the future it will be necessary to look at the consequences of the rings supplying OH or oxygen from ring ice particles. The high-latitude morphology is being refined as Cassini data constrains it. Long-term plans for the STIM development will be discussed.

  8. Enhancement of low energy particle flux around plasmapause under quiet geomagnetic condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J.

    2016-12-01

    Plasmapause is the boundary of the plasmaspheric region where cold plasma is dominant. In this boundary, the plasma density shows depletion to 1 10 on direction from the plasmasphere to magnetosphere and changes composition of energy distribution of particle. Some previous study provides that the location of the plasmapause expand beyond geosynchronous orbit under the quiet geomagnetic conditions. In this work, we study the changed characteristic of particle flux around the plasmapause using measurement from Van Allen Probes. On 23 April 2013, the satellites observed simultaneously proton and electron fluxes enhancement with E > 100 eV. During 12 hours prior to this event, the geomagnetic conditions were very quiet, Kp < 1, and geomagnetic storm did not occur. This event maintain for 15 minutes and only proton flux decrease rapidly in the magnetosphere. In this period SYM-H index enhanced abruptly in response to the impact of the dynamic pressure enhancement and AE index increased gradually up to about 200 nT. Electric field started to perturb in coincidence with enhancement of particle flux from the plasmapause. To explain the variation of low energy particle flux we will compare kinetic property of low energy particle by using velocity space distribution function at region of inner and outer boundary of the plasmapause.

  9. Upper Atmospheric Studies using a 3D Embedded Reconfigurable Interferometer and NASA's THEMIS Space Probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekoulis, George

    2016-07-01

    This paper describes the latest results obtained from the implementation of a new three-dimensional embedded reconfigurable interferometer that remotely senses the irregularities in the plasma present in the ionospheric-magnetospheric coupled system. The results are seriatim compared to the data obtained from NASA's THEMIS satellite cluster mission. The new instrument acts as a support in measuring the immense plasmasphere that surrounds Earth. The main scientific algorithms implemented into reconfigurable hardware are explained. The system performs regular self-calibration and automatically adjusts its settings to fully capture events associated to high heliospheric activity. The importance of studying the behavior of the energetic particles is explained. The energized particles are either restrained in the magnetospheric plasma or swift to the planet's surface through the coupled ionospheric-magnetospheric complex system. The various phenomena associated to the particles' movement are captured by the new system. Measurements that were obtained during intense solar activity are presented. The system captures activity related to particle precipitation of energy levels >9 KeV. Other instruments suitable for capturing activity related to energy levels <9 KeV are required for fully measuring the plasmaspheric conditions.

  10. Solar-terrestrial disturbances of June-September 1982, 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ondoh, Tadanori; Nakamura, Yoshikatsu; Watanabe, Shigeaki

    1986-01-01

    Wide-band VLF hisses similar to the auroral hiss, choruses and a hook-type emission were observed at mid-latitudes during the daytime of four geomagnetic storms in July and September 1982 by ISIS satellites at Kashima Station, Radio Research Laboratories (RRL), Japan. The occurrences of the high-latitude-type VLF emissions in mid-latitudes are clearly caused by geomagnetic storm effects. During the main phase of geomagnetic storm on July 14, 1982, auroral-type hisses occurred at frequencies above 4 kHz at invariant latitudes above 43 deg which were below the observed latitude, 47 deg of whistler echo trains. The auroral type hiss observed at mid-latitudes seems to be generated by the Cherenkov radiations from precipitating electrons with energy above a few keV. The precipitating electrons may result from an interaction of the ring current particles with the plasmaspheric cold plasma. The occurrence of choruses at mid-latitudes during the geomagnetic storm of September 22 seems to represent inward movements of the outer-radiation-zone electrons due to an enhanced westward electric field in the magnetosphere during the geomagnetic storm. Another storm effect observed is that the upper limit frequency, lower limit frequency and bandwidth of ELF hiss became smaller at lower latitudes. This effect seems to be caused by the ionic compositions of the topside ionosphere and the conditions of the outer plasmasphere, where the ELF hiss is generated, during geomagnetic storms. (author)

  11. Dynamical processes in space: Cluster results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. P. Escoubet

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available After 12 years of operations, the Cluster mission continues to successfully fulfil its scientific objectives. The main goal of the Cluster mission, comprised of four identical spacecraft, is to study in three dimensions small-scale plasma structures in key plasma regions of the Earth's environment: solar wind and bow shock, magnetopause, polar cusps, magnetotail, plasmasphere and auroral zone. During the course of the mission, the relative distance between the four spacecraft has been varied from 20 km to 36 000 km to study the scientific regions of interest at different scales. Since summer 2005, new multi-scale constellations have been implemented, wherein three spacecraft (C1, C2, C3 are separated by 10 000 km, while the fourth one (C4 is at a variable distance ranging between 20 km and 10 000 km from C3. Recent observations were conducted in the auroral acceleration region with the spacecraft separated by 1000s km. We present highlights of the results obtained during the last 12 years on collisionless shocks, magnetopause waves, magnetotail dynamics, plasmaspheric structures, and the auroral acceleration region. In addition, we highlight Cluster results on understanding the impact of Coronal Mass Ejections (CME on the Earth environment. We will also present Cluster data accessibility through the Cluster Science Data System (CSDS, and the Cluster Active Archive (CAA, which was implemented to provide a permanent and public archive of high resolution Cluster data from all instruments.

  12. Geomagnetic storm effects in ionospheric TEC at an euatorial station: contribution of EXB drifts and meridional neutral winds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dabas, R.S.; Jain, A.R.

    1985-01-01

    Storm-time variations in TEC measurements at the Indian station Ootacamund with IEC data for four stations in the anomaly region. Variations in Nsub(T)(OOTY) are found to be smaller compared to those observed at anomaly stations. The equatorial electrojet control of Nsub(T)(OOTY) is weaker compared to that of Nsub(m)F2. This result and absence of midday biteout in Nsub(T)(OOTY) are interpreted in terms of plasma exchange between ionosphere and plasmasphere which, to some extent, compensates the loss of plasma in the column due to E x B drifts. The anomaly depth is found to be well correlated with the electrojet strength. It is also noticed that for the same anomaly is weaker on a storm day than for quiet days. This is interpreted in terms of converging equatorward meridional winds. Thus, ionosphere-plasmasphere plasma exchange and, during disturbed period, the converging equatorward meridional winds also have significant effects on the distribution of ionization at these latitudes though the E x B drifts are most important in affecting the ionization distribution at low latitudes. (author)

  13. Near equality of ion phase space densities at earth, Jupiter, and Saturn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, A. F.; Krimigis, S. M.; Armstrong, T. P.

    1985-01-01

    Energetic-ion phase-space density profiles are strikingly similar in the inner magnetospheres of earth, Jupiter, and Saturn for ions of first adiabatic invariant near 100 MeV/G and small mirror latitudes. Losses occur inside L approximately equal to 7 for Jupiter and Saturn and inside L approximately equal to 5 at earth. At these L values there exist steep plasma-density gradients at all three planets, associated with the Io plasma torus at Jupiter, the Rhea-Dione-Tethys torus at Saturn, and the plasmasphere at earth. Measurements of ion flux-tube contents at Jupiter and Saturn by the low-energy charged-particle experiment show that these are similar (for O ions at L = 5-9) to those at earth (for protons at L = 2-6). Furthermore, the thermal-ion flux-tube contents from Voyager plasma-science data at Jupiter and Saturn are also very nearly equal, and again similar to those at earth, differing by less than a factor of 3 at the respective L values. The near equality of energetic and thermal ion flux-tube contents at earth, Jupiter, and Saturn suggests the possibility of strong physical analogies in the interaction between plasma and energetic particles at the plasma tori/plasma sheets of Jupiter and Saturn and the plasmasphere of earth.

  14. The Comprehensive Inner Magnetosphere-Ionosphere Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fok, M.-C.; Buzulukova, N. Y.; Chen, S.-H.; Glocer, A.; Nagai, T.; Valek, P.; Perez, J. D.

    2014-01-01

    Simulation studies of the Earth's radiation belts and ring current are very useful in understanding the acceleration, transport, and loss of energetic particles. Recently, the Comprehensive Ring Current Model (CRCM) and the Radiation Belt Environment (RBE) model were merged to form a Comprehensive Inner Magnetosphere-Ionosphere (CIMI) model. CIMI solves for many essential quantities in the inner magnetosphere, including ion and electron distributions in the ring current and radiation belts, plasmaspheric density, Region 2 currents, convection potential, and precipitation in the ionosphere. It incorporates whistler mode chorus and hiss wave diffusion of energetic electrons in energy, pitch angle, and cross terms. CIMI thus represents a comprehensive model that considers the effects of the ring current and plasmasphere on the radiation belts. We have performed a CIMI simulation for the storm on 5-9 April 2010 and then compared our results with data from the Two Wide-angle Imaging Neutral-atom Spectrometers and Akebono satellites. We identify the dominant energization and loss processes for the ring current and radiation belts. We find that the interactions with the whistler mode chorus waves are the main cause of the flux increase of MeV electrons during the recovery phase of this particular storm. When a self-consistent electric field from the CRCM is used, the enhancement of MeV electrons is higher than when an empirical convection model is applied. We also demonstrate how CIMI can be a powerful tool for analyzing and interpreting data from the new Van Allen Probes mission.

  15. Plasma and Energetic Particle Behaviors During Asymmetric Magnetic Reconnection at the Magnetopause

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S. H.; Zhang, H.; Zong, Q.-G.; Otto, A.; Sibeck, D. G.; Wang, Y.; Glassmeier, K.-H.; Daly, P.W.; Reme, H.

    2014-01-01

    The factors controlling asymmetric reconnection and the role of the cold plasma population in the reconnection process are two outstanding questions. We present a case study of multipoint Cluster observations demonstrating that the separatrix and flow boundary angles are greater on the magnetosheath than on the magnetospheric side of the magnetopause, probably due to the stronger density than magnetic field asymmetry at this boundary. The motion of cold plasmaspheric ions entering the reconnection region differs from that of warmer magnetosheath and magnetospheric ions. In contrast to the warmer ions, which are probably accelerated by reconnection in the diffusion region near the subsolar magnetopause, the colder ions are simply entrained by ??×?? drifts at high latitudes on the recently reconnected magnetic field lines. This indicates that plasmaspheric ions can sometimes play only a very limited role in asymmetric reconnection, in contrast to previous simulation studies. Three cold ion populations (probably H+, He+, and O+) appear in the energy spectrum, consistent with ion acceleration to a common velocity.

  16. Simultaneous Observations of pi 2 Pulsations on the Satellite and Geound-Based Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. H. Lee

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available We have investigated Pi2 pulsations which were observed both on ground magnetometer array and by satellites. On November 9th in 1994, pi2 pulsations appeared globally on the 190/210 magnetometer chain and Hermanus station when two satellites(EXOS-D and ETS-VI were located near the magnetic meridian of the 210 array. The local time of measurements covers form morning(LT=8.47hr to afternoon(LT=20.3hr and the bandwidth of peak frequency is found relatively small. The signals of the electric field measurement of board the EXOS-D, which is located inside the plasmasphere(L=2.35, are highly coherent with the ground-based observations with the out of phase oscillations. However, the magnetic field measurement on the ETS-VI in the outer magnetosphere(L=6.60 shows no signature of pi2 pulsations over the same time interval and the correlation with any of ground-based stations is found to be very weak, even though both satellites and magnetometer chain are located close to each other in local time. We suggest that this event may be a direct evidence of Pi2 pulsations as virtual resonant modes which are localized in the plasmasphere(Lee 1996. The results show that the cavity mode oscillations can occur in the inner magnetosphere with less spectral noise compared to the outer magnetospheric case.

  17. NeQuick 2 and IRI Plas VTEC predictions for low latitude and South American sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezquer, R. G.; Scidá, L. A.; Migoya Orué, Y.; Nava, B.; Cabrera, M. A.; Brunini, C.

    2018-04-01

    the plasmaspheric contribution to the vertical total electron content. Moreover, the results of this study could be suggesting that in the case of NeQuick, the underestimation trend could be due to the lack of a proper plasmaspheric model in its topside representation. In contrast, the plasmaspheric model included in IRI, leads to clear overestimations of GPS derived TEC.

  18. A comparison between TEC obtained by the TOPEX/Poseidon borne GPS receiver and TEC from the Gallagher model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciraolo, L.

    2003-01-01

    JPL archived RINEX files relative to the GPS receiver of TOPEX at the site bodhi.jplnasa.gov/pub/topex/rinex for years 1992, 1993, 1994, 1995, 1997. The GPS receiver on board was intended as a tool for precise orbitography, but from such data it is possible to extract Differential Phase and Group Delays providing with a biased estimate of slant Total Electron Content (TEC) from TOPEX to GPS. This means a very useful information about TEC in an area above 1340 up to 20000 km, or high topside and plasmasphere. It was possible to get some estimate of the minimum magnitude of slants that can be observed in such region. A comparison with slants obtained by the Gallagher was carried out, with interesting results

  19. Long-term analysis of ionospheric polar patches based on CHAMP TEC data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noja, M.; Stolle, Claudia; Park, J.

    2013-01-01

    Total electron content (TEC) from LEO satellites offers great possibility to sound the upper ionosphere and plasmasphere. This paper describes a method to derive absolute TEC observations aboard CHAMP considering multipath effects and receiver differential code bias. The long-term data set of 9...... years GPS observations is used to investigate the climatological behavior of high-latitude plasma patches in both hemispheres. The occurrence of polar patches has a clear correlation with the solar cycle, which is less pronounced in the Southern Hemisphere (SH). Summed over all years, we observed...... a higher number of patches in the SH. The maximum occurrence rate of patches has been found at the dayside polar cusp during 12:00-18:00 MLT (magnetic local time) supporting the mechanisms for patch creation by local particle precipitation and by intrusion of subauroral plasma into the polar cap through...

  20. Electron and VLF travel time differences for wave-particle interactions at L=4: Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rash, J.P.S.; Scourfield, M.W.J.; Dougherty, M.K.

    1984-01-01

    The cyclotron resonance or gyroresonance interaction has been widely invoked as a generation mechanism for discrete VLF emissions and plasmaspheric hiss. This interaction involves electrons and VLF waves travelling in opposite directions along a geomagnetic field line. We examine, for an interaction region in the equatorial plane at L=4, the energy of the resonant electrons as a function of VLF wave frequency and ambient equatorial electron density. Then for two different spatial configurations of the interaction and two standard plasma distribution models we examine the difference in travel times to a ground-based observer in the Southern hemisphere for the electrons and waves taking part in the interaction. This difference in travel times is shown as a function of VLF wave frequency and equatorial electron density. The results, and their significance for observations of auroral electrons and VLF at Sanae, Antarctica, are discussed and compared with similar results for the Cerenkov interaction discussed in an earlier paper

  1. Electromagnetic radiation trapped in the magnetosphere above the plasma frequency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurnett, D. A.; Shaw, R. R.

    1973-01-01

    An electromagnetic noise band is frequently observed in the outer magnetosphere by the Imp 6 spacecraft at frequencies from about 5 to 20 kHz. This noise band generally extends throughout the region from near the plasmapause boundary to near the magnetopause boundary. The noise typically has a broadband field strength of about 5 microvolts/meter. The noise band often has a sharp lower cutoff frequency at about 5 to 10 kHz, and this cutoff has been identified as the local electron plasma frequency. Since the plasma frequency in the plasmasphere and solar wind is usually above 20 kHz, it is concluded that this noise must be trapped in the low-density region between the plasmapause and magnetopause boundaries. The noise bands often contain a harmonic frequency structure which suggests that the radiation is associated with harmonics of the electron cyclotron frequency.

  2. Storm-time slab thickness at low latitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chauhan, N.S.; Gurm, H.S.

    1981-01-01

    The ATS-6 data for a period of 1975-76 is used for the study of slab thickness during two moderate storms (Ksub(p) - ) around the crest of the anomaly, Ahmedabad and a very great (Ksub(p) + ) outside the equatorial anomaly region, Delhi. While at Ahmedabad, on the average, the slab thickness is found to be above the frequency. Comparison of slab thickness with foF2 and the equatorial magnetic record (for Ahmedabad only) shows that the foF2 changes alone cannot be held responsible for the slab thickness variation and thus entry of the plasma flux from the plasmasphere cannot be ruled out. The pressure variation effect of storm-time heating on the slab thickness at Ahmedabad is that even for Ksub(p)=8, the thermal expansion and the contraction effects are unable to explain complete quantitative and qualitative features of the observations

  3. Research in magnetospheric wave phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barfield, J.N.

    1975-01-01

    During the last 4 years a number of developments have occurred which have led to an increased understanding of the role of wave phenomena in the physical processes of the magnetosphere. While the studies span the frequency regime from millihertz to the electron gyrofrequency, the developments to be discussed in this paper have in common that they have added substantially to the understanding of the controlling processes, regions, and boundaries in the magnetosphere. The topics discussed are the increased awareness and documentation of the role of the plasmapause in micropulsation generation and propagation; the establishment of the role of ion cyclotron waves in the wave-particle interactions at the plasmapause; the discovery of magnetospheric electrostatic waves with ω = (3/2)Ω/sub -/; the discovery and preliminary identification of the source of plasmaspheric hiss; and the analysis of storm time Pc 5 waves as observed on the satellites ATS 1 and Explorer 45. (auth)

  4. Dynamics of the earth's radiation belts and inner magnetosphere (geophysical monograph series)

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    Dynamics of the Earth's Radiation Belts and Inner Magnetosphere draws together current knowledge of the radiation belts prior to the launch of Radiation Belt Storm Probes (RPSP) and other imminent space missions, making this volume timely and unique. The volume will serve as a useful benchmark at this exciting and pivotal period in radiation belt research in advance of the new discoveries that the RPSP mission will surely bring. Highlights include the following: a review of the current state of the art of radiation belt science; a complete and up-to-date account of the wave-particle interactions that control the dynamical acceleration and loss processes of particles in the Earth's radiation belts and inner magnetosphere; a discussion emphasizing the importance of the cross-energy coupling of the particle populations of the radiation belts, ring current, and plasmasphere in controlling the dynamics of the inner magnetosphe...

  5. Observations and model calculations of an additional layer in the topside ionosphere above Fortaleza, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Jenkins

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available Calculations using the Sheffield University plasmasphere ionosphere model have shown that under certain conditions an additional layer can form in the low latitude topside ionosphere. This layer (the F3 layer has subsequently been observed in ionograms recorded at Fortaleza in Brazil. It has not been observed in ionograms recorded at the neighbouring station São Luis. Model calculations have shown that the F3 layer is most likely to form in summer at Fortaleza due to a combination of the neutral wind and the E×B drift acting to raise the plasma. At the location of São Luis, almost on the geomagnetic equator, the neutral wind has a smaller vertical component so the F3 layer does not form.

  6. Is there a hole in the topside, equatorial ionosphere?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Gallagher

    Full Text Available A paper in 2000 (Huba, 2000 found a depression in electron density in the topside ionosphere near the magnetic equator, based on the SAMI-2 physical ionospheric model. The model showed, for the first time, the formation of a hole in electron density in the altitude range 1500–2500 km at geomagnetic equatorial latitudes. The model produced the hole because of transhemispheric O+ flows that collisionally couple to H+, transporting it to lower altitudes, and thereby reducing the electron density at high altitudes. At that time and until now, no published observations have been reported to confirm or refute this numerical result. Recent, new analysis of Dynamics Explorer 1 Retarding Ion Mass Spectrometer measurements provides the first tentative experimental support for this model result. Keywords: Ionosphere, Topside, Magnetic equator, Plasmasphere

  7. Propagation effects on radio range and noise in earth-space telecommunications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flock, W. L.; Slobin, S. D.; Smith, E. K.

    1982-01-01

    Attention is given to the propagation effects on radio range and noise in earth-space telecommunications. The use of higher frequencies minimizes ionospheric effects on propagation, but tropospheric effects often increase or dominate. For paths of geostationary satellites, and beyond, the excess range delay caused by the ionosphere and plasmasphere is proportional to the total electron content along the path and inversely proportional to frequency squared. The delay due to dry air is usually of the order of a few meters while the delay due to water vapor (a few tens of centimeters) is responsible for most of the temporal variation in the range delay for clean air. For systems such as that of the Voyager spacecraft, and for attenuation values up to about 10 dB, increased sky noise degrades the received signal-to-noise ratio more than does the reduction in signal level due to attenuation.

  8. Operation of a quadripole probe on magnetospheric satellite (GEOS experiment). Contribution to cold plasma behaviour study near equatorial plasma pause

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decreau-Prior, P.

    1983-06-01

    This thesis is concerned with the exploitation of GEOS Satellite RF quadripole probe measurements, GEOS satellites have explored magnetosphere on the geostationary orbit and around it. Results a low to qualify the instrument in magnetospheric plasma (previously, it had been used only in ionosphere). Furthermore existence, outside the outer plasmasphere, of a cold population (from 0,4 to 8 eV) with medium density (from 2 to 50 particles cm -3 ) is shown. This population had been ignored until then, by in situ particle measure experiment. So, new perspectives on coupling nature of the explored region with ionosphere, and with plasma sheet, more particularly because the temperature measured at the equator is on an average, clearly higher than in high ionosphere the principal source of magnetospheric cold plasma [fr

  9. Interhemispheric ionospheric coupling at the American sector during low solar activity. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foerster, M.; Jakowski, N.

    1986-01-01

    A physical-numerical model of the coupled system ionosphere - plasmasphere - magnetically conjugated ionosphere is presented and applied to a co-rotating tube of plasma at L = 1.5 in the American sector (Cuba). Numerical simulations are carried out for low solar activity and quiet geomagnetic conditions. Observational data of Faraday content and ionosonde measurements of both solstices of 1976 (Jakowski et al., paper I) are compared with calculations using different patterns of neutral horizontal winds. Reasonable meridional wind patterns provide an annual effect of plasmapheric tube content. During December solstice the higher tube content and the convenient behaviour of meridional neutral wind in both hemispheres causes more intense nighttime fluxes into the winter ionosphere. (author)

  10. A comparison between TEC obtained by the TOPEX/Poseidon borne GPS receiver and TEC from the Gallagher model

    CERN Document Server

    Ciraolo, L

    2002-01-01

    JPL archived RINEX files relative to the GPS receiver of TOPEX at the site bodhi.jplnasa.gov/pub/topex/rinex for years 1992, 1993, 1994, 1995, 1997. The GPS receiver on board was intended as a tool for precise orbitography, but from such data it is possible to extract Differential Phase and Group Delays providing with a biased estimate of slant Total Electron Content (TEC) from TOPEX to GPS. This means a very useful information about TEC in an area above 1340 up to 20000 km, or high topside and plasmasphere. It was possible to get some estimate of the minimum magnitude of slants that can be observed in such region. A comparison with slants obtained by the Gallagher was carried out, with interesting results.

  11. Beam generated electrostatic electron waves in the magnetosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hultqvist, B.

    1986-03-01

    The generation of growing electrostatic electron waves by electron beams in the ionosphere and magnetosphere is investigated. The auroral F-region, the high latitude exosphere, the auroral acceleration region around 1 Rsub(e), the outer plasmasphere and the plasmasheet are treated. It is found that auroral electron beams can amplify electrostatic waves in all these regions but in different k-ranges. The growth rate, in terms of ωsub(i)/ω, generally increases outward. The propagation direction range of the waves discussed varies from a narrow cone around the magnetic field lines to all directions except close to perpendicularity. Strong cyclotron resonance effects at propagation angles close to 90 degrees are not dealt with. The method used can easily be applied to any plasma system where free energy is available in the form of an electron beam, including laboratory plasma. (author)

  12. Electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves observed near the oxygen cyclotron frequency by ISEE 1 and 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, B. J.; Samson, J. C.; Hu, Y. D.; Mcpherron, R. L.; Russell, C. T.

    1992-01-01

    The first results of observations of ion cyclotron waves by the elliptically orbiting ISEE 1 and 2 pair of spacecraft are reported. The most intense waves (8 nT) were observed in the outer plasmasphere where convection drift velocities were largest and the Alfven velocity was a minimum. Wave polarization is predominantly left-handed with propagation almost parallel to the ambient magnetic field, and the spectral slot and polarization reversal predicted by cold plasma propagation theory are identified in the wave data. Computations of the experimental wave spectra during the passage through the plasmapause show that the spectral slots relate to the local plasma parameters, possibly suggesting an ion cyclotron wave growth source near the spacecraft. A regular wave packet structure seen over the first 30 min of the event is attributed to the modulation of this energy source by the Pc 5 waves seen at the same time.

  13. Spatial characteristics of magnetotail reconnection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genestreti, Kevin J.

    of the distribution function. The second method for determining temperatures involves a comparison of the energy-dependent and total plasma number densities. Both methods assume an infinitely thin sheath model for space- craft charging, a Maxwellian-type plasma, and bulk velocities that are strictly governed by ExB drift, which we model with a dipole magnetic field and a Volland-Stern electric potential field. The two methods are applied to RBSP observations of the plasmasphere proper. We find positive agreement with existing measurements of the temperatures, which were based upon data from low-altitude polar orbiting spacecraft. We also find evidence for in situ heating of the plasmasphere at the equator in the ring current overlap region. Finally, we apply these techniques to a single conjunction event, where MMS and RBSP provided simultaneous and nearly continuous coverage of the plasmasphere and plume from its equatorial base to the reconnecting magnetopause. We develop scaling laws for the temperature and density of the plasmasphere as a function of geocentric distance, showing that it is heated and density depleted by factors 20 and 200 (respectively) from L = 5 to the magnetospheric side of the reconnection boundary layer.

  14. The nighttime winter anomaly (NWA) effect at the Asian longitude sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jakowski, N.; Landrock, R.; Jungstand, A.

    1990-01-01

    Ionospheric electron content N F and vertical sounding f.F2 data obtained in Havana/Cuba are used to demonstrate some features of the NWA effect. The assumed close correlation with the solar geomagnetic-geographic control of the ionospheric/plasmaspheric plasma is probed by a comparison with ionosonde data obtained at the Asian sector characterized by a hemispherically reversed but besides that very similar geomagnetic-geographic relationship. The f.F2 data from Mundaring/Australia indicate the existence of the NWA effect at low solar activity as well as a very similar monthly variation of night-time f.F2 data between Mundaring and the magnetically conjugated region represented by f.F2 data obtained in Irkutsk/USSR. In order to explain these observations the same mechanism is suggested as it was proposed for Havana. (author)

  15. Examining Coherency Scales, Substructure, and Propagation of Whistler Mode Chorus Elements With Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Turner, D. L.; Lee, J.H.; Claudepierre, S.G.; Fennell, J.F.; Blake, J. B.; Jaynes, A.N.; Leonard, T.; Wilder, F.D.; Ergun, R. E.; Baker, D. N.; Cohen, I.J.; Mauk, B.H.; Strangeway, R. J.; Hartley, D. P.; Kletzing, C. A.; Breuillard, H.; Le Contel, O.; Khotyaintsev, Y. V.; Torbert, R. B.; Allen, R.C.; Burch, J.L.; Santolík, Ondřej

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 122, č. 11 (2017), s. 11201-11226 ISSN 2169-9380 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LH15304 Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) AP1401 Program:Akademická prémie - Praemium Academiae Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : outer radiation belt * relativistic electron-scattering * storm -time chorus * wave-form data * inner magnetosphere * plasmaspheric hiss * source region * generation mechanisms * phase-space * acceleration Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics OBOR OECD: Fluids and plasma physics (including surface physics) Impact factor: 2.733, year: 2016 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/2017JA024474/pdf

  16. DC Langmuir Probe for Measurement of Space Plasma: A Brief Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koichiro Oyama

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Herein, we discuss the in situ measurement of the electron temperature in the ionosphere/plasmasphere by means of DC Langmuir probes. Major instruments which have been reported are a conventional DC Langmuir probe, whose probe voltage is swept; a pulsed probe, which uses pulsed bias voltage; a rectification probe, which uses sinusoidal signal; and a resonance cone probe, which uses radio wave propagation. The content reviews past observations made with the instruments above. We also discuss technical factors that should be taken into account for reliable measurement, such as problems related to the contamination of electrodes and the satellite surface. Finally, we discuss research topics to be studied in the near future.

  17. The effect of vibrationally excited nitrogen on the low-latitude ionosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Jenkins

    1997-11-01

    Full Text Available The first five vibrationally excited states of molecular nitrogen have been included in the Sheffield University plasmasphere ionosphere model. Vibrationally excited molecular nitrogen reacts much more strongly with atomic oxygen ions than ground-state nitrogen; this means that more O+ ions are converted to NO+ ions, which in turn combine with the electrons to give reduced electron densities. Model calculations have been carried out to investigate the effect of including vibrationally excited molecular nitrogen on the low-latitude ionosphere. In contrast to mid-latitudes, a reduction in electron density is seen in all seasons during solar maximum, the greatest effect being at the location of the equatorial trough.

  18. Electrostatic noise bands associated with the electron gyrofrequency and plasma frequency in the outer magnetosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaw, R.R.

    1975-01-01

    Naturally occurring noise bands near the electron plasma frequency are frequently detected by the University of Iowa plasma wave experiment on the IMP 6 satellite in the region from just inside the plasmapause to radial distances of about 10 earth radii in the outer magnetosphere. The electric field strength of these noise bands is usually small with electric field spectral densities near 10 -15 volts 2 meter -2 Hz -1 . A wave magnetic field has been detected only in a few unusually intense cases, and in these cases the magnetic field energy density is several orders of magnitude smaller than the electric field energy density. The bands are observed at all magnetic latitudes covered by the IMP 6 orbit (parallelγ/sub m/parallel less than or equal to 45 0 ) and appear to be a permanent feature of the outer magnetosphere. They are found at all local times and occur least frequently in the quadrant from 18 to 24 hours. The bands appear to consist of two distinct spectral types, diffuse and narrow. In both types the center frequency of the noise band is bounded by consecutive harmonics of the electron gyrofrequency, and the bands occur most often between harmonics that are near the local electron plasma frequency. These bands appear to merge continuously into two types of plasma wave emissions that are found in dissimilar regions of the magnetosphere (upper hybrid resonance noise, also called Region 3 noise, inside the plasmasphere and (n + 1/2)f/sub g/ harmonics in the outer magnetosphere). It is suggested that this smooth merging is caused by changes in the plasma wave dispersion relation that occur as the spacecraft moves from the cold plasma within the plasmasphere into the warm non-Maxwellian plasma found in the outer magnetosphere

  19. Field-aligned flows of H+ and He+ in the mid-latitude topside ionosphere at solar maximum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, G.J.; Sellek, R.

    1992-01-01

    A time-dependent mathematical model of the Earth's ionosphere and plasmasphere has been used to investigate the field-aligned flows of H + and He + in the topside ionosphere at L = 3 during solar maximum. When the flux-tube content is low there are upward flows of H + and He + during daytime in both the winter and summer topside ionospheres. During winter night-time the directions of flow are, in general, downwards for He + , because of the night-time decrease in He + scale height, and upwards for H + , because of the replenishment needs of the flux tube. In the winter topside ionosphere, during the later stages of flux-tube replenishment, H + generally flows downwards during both day and night as a result of the greater plasma pressure in the summer hemisphere whilst He + flows upwards during the day and downwards at night. In the summer topside ionosphere H + flows upward to replace the H + lost from the plasmasphere to the winter topside ionosphere whilst the winter helium bulge leads to flows of He + that are in the direction winter hemisphere to summer hemisphere. When the flux-tube content is low, counterstreaming of H + and He + , with H + flowing upwards and He + downwards, occurs for most of the day above about 5000 km altitude in the summer hemisphere. There are occurrences of this type of counterstreaming in both the summer and winter hemispheres during the night. When the flux-tube content is high, counterstreaming of H + and He + occurs less frequently and over smaller regions of the flux tube. There are regions in both hemispheres where H + flows downwards whilst He + flows upwards. (Author)

  20. Numerical simulations of counterstreaming plasmas and their relevance to interhemispheric flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, N.; Schunk, R.W.

    1983-01-01

    The collisionless expansion of ccounterstreaming plasmas has been studied by solving the self-consistent set of Vlasov and Poisson equations in one dimension. The motivation for the study is to elucidate some of the basic physical processes which may occur during the initial refilling of depleted flux tubes after a magnetic storm. The simulation geometry consisted of two high-density H + -O + -electron plasmas (conjugate ionospheres) separated by a low density H + -electron plasma (equatorial plasmasphere). The temporal evolution of the expandinng plasmas and the electrostatic potential in the region between the two sources hass the following characteristics. The initially minor H + ions rapidly flow out of the source regions, creating counterstreaming density shock fronts which propagate at the Sagdeev Mach number for ion acoustic shocks (Mapprox.1.6). However, the shocks are preceded by suprathermal forerunner ions, which are the first to fill the ''equatorial'' region. When the counterstreaming ion acoustic shocks collide, the density in the equatorial region becomes nearly a constant, twice the value of the density in the individual shocks. The electrostatic potential distribution from the source plasmas to the midpoint of the expansion region displays an interesting feature. A potential hill forms near the midpoint after the arrival of the main density shock fronts. This localized potential hill plays an important role in the thermalization of the ion streams and may occur in the equatorial plasmasphere after magnetic storms. The numerical simulations indicate that the ion beams in the counterstreaming plasmas are remarkably stable with respect to the ion acoustic instability, which is in agreement with the linear instability theory

  1. The Effect of Neutral Winds on Simulated Inner Magnetospheric Electric Fields During the 17 March 2013 Storm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, M.; Lemon, C.; Walterscheid, R. L.; Hecht, J. H.; Sazykin, S. Y.; Wolf, R.

    2017-12-01

    We investigate how neutral winds and particle precipitation affect the simulated development of electric fields including Sub-Auroral Polarization Streams (SAPS) during the 17 March 2013 storm. Our approach is to use the magnetically and electrically self-consistent Rice Convection Model - Equilibrium (RCM-E) to simulate the inner magnetospheric electric field. We use parameterized rates of whistler-generated electron pitch-angle scattering from Orlova and Shprits [JGR, 2014] that depend on equatorial radial distance, magnetic activity (Kp), and magnetic local time (MLT) outside the simulated plasmasphere. Inside the plasmasphere, parameterized scattering rates due to hiss [Orlova et al., GRL, 2014] are used. Ions are scattered at a fraction of strong pitch-angle scattering where the fraction is scaled by epsilon, the ratio of the gyroradius to the field-line radius of curvature, when epsilon is greater than 0.1. The electron and proton contributions to the auroral conductance in the RCM-E are calculated using the empirical Robinson et al. [JGR, 1987] and Galand and Richmond [JGR, 2001] equations, respectively. The "background" ionospheric conductance is based on parameters from the International Reference Ionosphere [Bilitza and Reinisch, JASR, 2008] but modified to include the effect of specified ionospheric troughs. Neutral winds are modeled by the empirical Horizontal Wind Model (HWM07) in the RCM-E. We compare simulated precipitating particle energy flux, E x B velocities with DMSP observations during the 17 March 2013 storm with and without the inclusion of neutral winds. Discrepancies between the simulations and observations will aid us in assessing needed improvements in the model.

  2. Comparisons of Simulated and Observed Sub-Auroral Polarization Stream (SAPS) during the 17 March 2013 Storm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, M.; Lemon, C.; Sazykin, S. Y.; Wolf, R.; Anderson, P. C.

    2016-12-01

    Sub-Auroral Polarization Streams (SAPS), characterized by large subauroral E x B velocities that span from dusk to the early morning sector for high magnetic activity, result from strong magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling. We investigate how electron and ion precipitation and the ionospheric conductance affect the simulated development of the SAPS electric field for the 17 March 2013 storm. Our approach is to use the magnetically and electrically self-consistent Rice Convection Model - Equilibrium (RCM-E) of the inner magnetosphere to simulate the SAPS. We use parameterized rates of whistler-generated electron pitch-angle scattering from Orlova and Shprits [JGR, 2014] that depend on equatorial radial distance, magnetic activity (Kp), and magnetic local time (MLT) outside the simulated plasmasphere. Inside the plasmasphere, parameterized scattering rates due to hiss [Orlova et al., GRL, 2014] are used. Ions are scattered at a fraction of strong pitch-angle scattering where the fraction is scaled by epsilon, the ratio of the gyroradius to the field-line radius of curvature, when epsilon is greater than 0.1. The electron and proton contributions to the auroral conductance in the RCM-E are calculated using the empirical Robinson et al. [JGR, 1987] and Galand and Richmond [JGR, 2001] equations, respectively. The "background" ionospheric conductance is based on parameters from the International Reference Ionosphere [Bilitza and Reinisch, JASR, 2008] but modified to include the effect of specified ionospheric troughs. Parameterized simulations will aid in understanding the underlying physical process. We compare simulated precipitating particle energy flux and E x B velocities with DMSP observations where SAPS are observed during the 17 March 2013 storm. Analysis of discerpancies between the simulation results and data will aid us in assessing needed improvements in the model.

  3. Simultaneous measurements from the Millstone Hill radar and the Active satellite during the SAID/SAR arc event of the March 1990 CEDAR storm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Förster

    Full Text Available During a nearby passage of the Active satellite above the Millstone Hill radar on 21 March 1990 at local sunset, the satellite and the radar performed simultaneous measurements of upper ionospheric parameters in nearly the same spatial volume. For this purpose the radar carried out a special azimuth-elevation scan to track the satellite. Direct comparisons of radar data and in situ satellite measurements have been carried out quite rarely. In this case, the coincidence of co-ordinated measurements and active ionospheric-magnetospheric processes during an extended storm recovery phase presents a unique occasion resulting in a very valuable data set. The measurements show generally good agreement both during quiet prestorm and storm conditions and the combination of radar and satellite observations gives a more comprehensive picture of the physical processes involved. We find a close relationship between the rapid westward ion drift peak at subauroral latitudes (SAID event and the occurrence of a stable auroral red (SAR arc observed after sunset by an all-sky imager and reported in an earlier study of this event. The SAID electric field is caused by the penetration of energetic ions with energies between about 1 keV and 100 keV into the outer plasmasphere to a latitude equatorward of the extent of the plasmasheet electrons. Charge separation results in the observed polarisation field and the SAID. Unusually high molecular ion densities measured by the satellite at altitudes of 700-870 km at subauroral and auroral latitudes point on strong upward-directed ion acceleration processes and an intense neutral gas upwelling. These structures are collocated with a narrow trough in electron density and an electron temperature peak as observed simultaneously by the radar and the satellite probes.

    Key words. Ionosphere (ionosphere-magnetosphere interactions; plasma temperature and density; Magnetospheric physics (plasmasphere.

  4. Similarity and differences in morphology and mechanisms of the foF2 and TEC disturbances during the geomagnetic storms on 26–30 September 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Klimenko

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This study presents an analysis of the ground-based observations and model simulations of ionospheric electron density disturbances at three longitudinal sectors (eastern European, Siberian and American during geomagnetic storms that occurred on 26–30 September 2011. We use the Global Self-consistent Model of the Thermosphere, Ionosphere and Protonosphere (GSM TIP to reveal the main mechanisms influencing the storm-time behavior of the total electron content (TEC and the ionospheric F2 peak critical frequency (foF2 during different phases of geomagnetic storms. During the storm's main phase the long-lasting positive disturbances in TEC and foF2 at sunlit mid-latitudes are mainly explained by the storm-time equatorward neutral wind. The effects of eastward electric field can only explain the positive ionospheric storm in the first few hours of the initial storm phase. During the main phase the ionosphere was more changeable than the plasmasphere. The positive disturbances in the electron content at the plasmaspheric heights (800–20 000 km at high latitudes can appear simultaneously with the negative disturbances in TEC and foF2. The daytime positive disturbances in foF2 and TEC occurred at middle and low latitudes and at the Equator due to n(O ∕ n(N2 enhancement during later stage of the main phase and during the recovery phase of the geomagnetic storm. The plasma tube diffusional depletion and negative disturbances in electron and neutral temperature were the main formation mechanisms of the simultaneous formation of the positive disturbances in foF2 and negative disturbances in TEC at low latitudes during the storm's recovery phase.

  5. Observational Test of the Dayside Magnetopause Reconnection Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, S.; Kistler, L. M.; Mouikis, C.

    2014-12-01

    In asymmetric reconnection, the reconnection rate (R) is expected to follow the Cassak-Shay formula with an aspect ratio of around 0.1. At the magnetopause, reconnection is asymmetric, with the dense shocked solar wind population on the magnetosheath side, and a normally hot and tenuous population on the magnetospheric side. However, the hot magnetospheric population can contain a significant O+ component that increases the mass density, and the magnetospheric population may also include a cold dense population of plasmaspheric origin. We perform a statistical study of 13 magnetopause reconnection events observed by Cluster to determine how the reconnection rate depends on these different populations. The events are mainly at high latitudes, due to the Cluster orbit. Our results show that the measured R generally follows the Cassak-Shay prediction when all populations are included. However, the predicted rate only considering the magnetosheath contribution also correlates well with the measured R. For individual events, cold ions can make a comparable contribution to the magnetosheath H+ when there are plasmaspheric drainage plumes; the contribution of the magnetospheric hot O+ can be up to ~30%. However, the variation of solar wind conditions has a larger effect on the variation in the reconnection rate. The aspect ratio does not vary systematically with the O+ content, and 0.1 is a reasonable estimation. The outflow velocity is around the hybrid Alfven speed, but there is not a strong correlation. This may be due to motion of the x-line, or effects of the magnetosheath shear flow.

  6. Abnormal distribution of low-latitude ionospheric electron density during November 2004 superstorm as reconstructed by 3-D CT technique from IGS and LEO/GPS observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, R.; Ma, S.; Xu, J.; Xiong, C.; Yan, W.; Luhr, H.; Jakowski, N.

    2010-12-01

    Using time-dependent 3-D tomography method, the electron density distributions in the mid- and low-latitude ionosphere are reconstructed from GPS observations of joint ground-based IGS network and onboard CHAMP/GRACE satellites during November 2004 super-storm. For LEO satellite-based GPS receiving, both the occultation TEC data and that along the radio propagation paths above the LEO are used. The electron density images versus latitude/altitude/longitude are reconstructed for different sectors of America/Asia/Europe and produced every hour. The reconstructed electron densities are validated by satellite in situ measurements of CHAMP Langmuir probe and GRACE Ka-band SST (low-low satellite-to-satellite tracking) derived electron density averaged between the two satellites, as well as by CIT simulations. It reveals some very interesting storm-time structures of Ne distributions, such as top-hat-like F2-3 double layer and column-like enhanced electron densities (CEED). The double layer structure appeared over a large latitude range from about -30 degree to 20 degree along East-Asian/Australia longitudes before local noon, looking like one additional smaller EIA structure standing above the usual one of EIA. It is consistent with the F-3 layer observed by ionosonde at an Australian low-latitude station. The CEED are found just 1-2 hours before the minimum of Dst and in the longitudinal sector about 157 E. They extend from the topside ionosphere toward plasmasphere, reaching at least about 2000 km as high. Their footprints stand on the two peaks of the EIA. This CEED is also seen in the image of 30.4 nm He ++ radiation by IMAGE, showing a narrow channel of enhanced density extending from afternoon ionosphere to plasmsphere westward. The forming mechanism of CEED and its relationship with SED and plasmaspheric plumes are worthy of further study. Acknowledgement: This work is supported by NSFC (No.40674078).

  7. A long-lived refilling event of the slot region between the Van Allen radiation belts from Nov 2004 to Jan 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, X.

    2015-12-01

    A powerful relativistic electron enhancement in the slot region between the inner and outer radiation belts is investigated by multi-satellites measurements. The measurement from Space Particle Component Detectors (SPCDs) aboard Fengyun-1 indicates that the relativistic electron (>1.6MeV) flux began to enhance obviously on early 10 November with the flux peak fixed at L~3.0. In the next day, the relativistic electron populations increased dramatically. Subsequently, the flux had been enhancing slowly, but unceasingly, until 17 November, and the maximum flux reached up to 7.8×104 cm-2·sr-1·s-1 at last. The flux peak fixed at L~3.0 and the very slow decay rate in this event make it to be an unusual long-lived slot region refilling event. We trace the cause of the event back to the interplanetary environment and find that there were two evident magnetic cloud constructions: dramatically enhanced magnetic field strength and long and smooth rotation of field vector from late 7 to 8 November and from late 9 to 10 November, respectively; solar wind speed increased in 'step-like' fashion on late 7 November and persisted the level of high speed >560 km·s-1 for about 124 hours. Owed to the interplanetary disturbances, very strong magnetic storms and substorms occurred in the magnetosphere. Responding to the extraordinarily magnetic perturbations, the plasmasphere shrank sharply. The location of plasmapause inferred from Dst indicates that the plasmapause shrank inward to as low as L~2.5. On account of these magnetospheric conditions, strong chorus emissions are expected near the earth. In fact, the STAFF on Cluster mission measured intensive whistler mode chorus emissions on 10 and 12 November, corresponding to the period of the remarkable enhancement of relativistic electron. Furthermore, we investigate the radial profile of phase space density (PSD) by electron flux from multi-satellites, and the evolution of the phase space density profile reveals that the local

  8. Performance of Solar Proxy Options of IRI-Plas Model for Equinox Seasons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sezen, Umut; Gulyaeva, Tamara L.; Arikan, Feza

    2018-02-01

    International Reference Ionosphere (IRI) is the most acclaimed climatic model of the ionosphere. Since 2009, the range of the IRI model has been extended to the Global Positioning System (GPS) orbital height of 20,000 km in the plasmasphere. The new model, which is called IRI extended to Plasmasphere (IRI-Plas), can input not only the ionosonde foF2 and hmF2 but also the GPS-total electron content (TEC). IRI-Plas has been provided at www.ionolab.org, where online computation of ionospheric parameters is accomplished through a user-friendly interface. The solar proxies that are available in IRI-Plas can be listed as sunspot number (SSN1), SSN2, F10.7, global electron content (GEC), TEC, IG, Mg II, Lyman-α, and GEC_RZ. In this study, ionosonde foF2 data are compared with IRI-Plas foF2 values with the Consultative Committee International Radio (CCIR) and International Union of Radio Science (URSI) model choices for each solar proxy, with or without the GPS-TEC input for the equinox months of October 2011 and March 2015. It has been observed that the best fitting model choices in Root Mean Square (RMS) and Normalized RMS (NRMS) sense are the Jet Propulsion Laboratory global ionospheric maps-TEC input with Lyman-α solar proxy option for both months. The input of TEC definitely lowers the difference between the model and ionosonde foF2 values. The IG and Mg II solar proxies produce similar model foF2 values, and they usually are the second and third best fits to the ionosonde foF2 for the midlatitude ionosphere. In high-latitude regions, Jet Propulsion Laboratory global ionospheric map-TEC inputs to IRI-Plas with Lyman-α, GEC_RZ, and TEC solar proxies are the best choices. In equatorial region, the best fitting solar proxies are IG, Lyman-α, and Mg II.

  9. Modeling the ionosphere-thermosphere response to a geomagnetic storm using physics-based magnetospheric energy input: OpenGGCM-CTIM results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Connor Hyunju Kim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The magnetosphere is a major source of energy for the Earth’s ionosphere and thermosphere (IT system. Current IT models drive the upper atmosphere using empirically calculated magnetospheric energy input. Thus, they do not sufficiently capture the storm-time dynamics, particularly at high latitudes. To improve the prediction capability of IT models, a physics-based magnetospheric input is necessary. Here, we use the Open Global General Circulation Model (OpenGGCM coupled with the Coupled Thermosphere Ionosphere Model (CTIM. OpenGGCM calculates a three-dimensional global magnetosphere and a two-dimensional high-latitude ionosphere by solving resistive magnetohydrodynamic (MHD equations with solar wind input. CTIM calculates a global thermosphere and a high-latitude ionosphere in three dimensions using realistic magnetospheric inputs from the OpenGGCM. We investigate whether the coupled model improves the storm-time IT responses by simulating a geomagnetic storm that is preceded by a strong solar wind pressure front on August 24, 2005. We compare the OpenGGCM-CTIM results with low-earth-orbit satellite observations and with the model results of Coupled Thermosphere-Ionosphere-Plasmasphere electrodynamics (CTIPe. CTIPe is an up-to-date version of CTIM that incorporates more IT dynamics such as a low-latitude ionosphere and a plasmasphere, but uses empirical magnetospheric input. OpenGGCM-CTIM reproduces localized neutral density peaks at ~ 400 km altitude in the high-latitude dayside regions in agreement with in situ observations during the pressure shock and the early phase of the storm. Although CTIPe is in some sense a much superior model than CTIM, it misses these localized enhancements. Unlike the CTIPe empirical input models, OpenGGCM-CTIM more faithfully produces localized increases of both auroral precipitation and ionospheric electric fields near the high-latitude dayside region after the pressure shock and after the storm onset

  10. The Whisper Relaxation Sounder onboard Cluster: A Powerful Tool for Space Plasma Diagnosis around the Earth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trotignon, J.G.; Decreau, P.M.E.; Rauch, J.L.; LeGuirriec, E.; Canu, P.; Darrouzet, F.

    2001-01-01

    The WHISPER relaxation sounder that is onboard the four CLUSTER spacecraft has for main scientific objectives to monitor the natural waves in the 2 kHz - 80 kHz frequency range and, mostly, to determine the total plasma density from the solar wind down to the Earth's plasmasphere. To fulfil these objectives, the WHISPER uses the two long double sphere antennae of the Electric Field and Wave experiment as transmitting and receiving sensors. In its active working mode, the WHISPER works according to principles that have been worked out for topside sounding. A radio wave transmitter sends an almost monochromatic and short wave train. A few milliseconds after, a receiver listens to the surrounding plasma response. Strong and long lasting echoes are actually received whenever the transmitting frequencies coincide with characteristic plasma frequencies. Provided that these echoes, also called resonances, may be identified, the WHISPER relaxation sounder becomes a reliable and powerful tool for plasma diagnosis. When the transmitter is off, the WHISPER behaves like a passive receiver, allowing natural waves to be monitored. The paper aims mainly at the resonance identification process description and the WHISPER capabilities and performance highlighting. (author)

  11. A corotation electric field model of the Earth derived from Swarm satellite magnetic field measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maus, Stefan

    2017-08-01

    Rotation of the Earth in its own geomagnetic field sets up a primary corotation electric field, compensated by a secondary electric field of induced electrical charges. For the geomagnetic field measured by the Swarm constellation of satellites, a derivation of the global corotation electric field inside and outside of the corotation region is provided here, in both inertial and corotating reference frames. The Earth is assumed an electrical conductor, the lower atmosphere an insulator, followed by the corotating ionospheric E region again as a conductor. Outside of the Earth's core, the induced charge is immediately accessible from the spherical harmonic Gauss coefficients of the geomagnetic field. The charge density is positive at high northern and southern latitudes, negative at midlatitudes, and increases strongly toward the Earth's center. Small vertical electric fields of about 0.3 mV/m in the insulating atmospheric gap are caused by the corotation charges located in the ionosphere above and the Earth below. The corotation charges also flow outward into the region of closed magnetic field lines, forcing the plasmasphere to corotate. The electric field of the corotation charges further extends outside of the corotating regions, contributing radial outward electric fields of about 10 mV/m in the northern and southern polar caps. Depending on how the magnetosphere responds to these fields, the Earth may carry a net electric charge.

  12. Preface: The Chang'e-3 lander and rover mission to the Moon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ip Wing-Huen; Yan Jun; Li Chun-Lai; Ouyang Zi-Yuan

    2014-01-01

    The Chang'e-3 (CE-3) lander and rover mission to the Moon was an intermediate step in China's lunar exploration program, which will be followed by a sample return mission. The lander was equipped with a number of remote-sensing instruments including a pair of cameras (Landing Camera and Terrain Camera) for recording the landing process and surveying terrain, an extreme ultraviolet camera for monitoring activities in the Earth's plasmasphere, and a first-ever Moon-based ultraviolet telescope for astronomical observations. The Yutu rover successfully carried out close-up observations with the Panoramic Camera, mineralogical investigations with the VIS-NIR Imaging Spectrometer, study of elemental abundances with the Active Particle-induced X-ray Spectrometer, and pioneering measurements of the lunar subsurface with Lunar Penetrating Radar. This special issue provides a collection of key information on the instrumental designs, calibration methods and data processing procedures used by these experiments with a perspective of facilitating further analyses of scientific data from CE-3 in preparation for future missions

  13. The structure of standing Alfvén waves in a dipole magnetosphere with moving plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Kozlov

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The structure and spectrum of standing Alfvén waves were theoretically investigated in a dipole magnetosphere with moving plasma. Plasma motion was simulated with its azimuthal rotation. The model's scope allowed for describing a transition from the inner plasmasphere at rest to the outer magnetosphere with convecting plasma and, through the magnetopause, to the moving plasma of the solar wind. Solutions were found to equations describing longitudinal and transverse (those formed, respectively, along field lines and across magnetic shells structures of standing Alfvén waves with high azimuthal wave numbers m>>1. Spectra were constructed for a number of first harmonics of poloidal and toroidal standing Alfvén waves inside the magnetosphere. For charged particles with velocities greatly exceeding the velocity of the background plasma, an effective parallel wave component of the electric field appears in the region occupied by such waves. This results in structured high-energy-particle flows and in the appearance of multiband aurorae. The transverse structure of the standing Alfvén waves' basic harmonic was shown to be analogous to the structure of a discrete auroral arc.

  14. An initial response of magnetic fields at geosynchronous orbit to Pi 2 onset as observed from the dip-equator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Saka

    1998-05-01

    Full Text Available Fluxgate magnetometer data recorded at the dip-equator (Huancayo, Peru; 1.44°N, 355.9° in geomagnetic coordinates; 12.1°S, 75.2°W in geographic coordinates; L = 1.00 with higher accuracy of timing (0.1 s and amplitude resolution (0.01 nT were utilized to survey an onset of Pi 2 pulsations in the midnight sector (2100–0100 LT during PROMIS (Polar Region and Outer Magnetosphere International Study periods (1 March–20 June, 1986. It is found that changing field line magnitude and vector as observed by magnetometer on board the synchronous satellites in the midnight sector often takes place simultaneously with the onset of Pi 2 pulsations at the dip-equator. The field disturbances that follow thereafter tend to last for some time both at the geosynchronous altitudes and the dip-equator. In this report, we examine the initial response of the field lines in space, and attempt to classify how the field line vector changed in the meridional plane. Key words. Magnetospheric physics · Magnetospheric configuration and dynamics · MHD waves and instabilities · Plasmasphere

  15. An initial response of magnetic fields at geosynchronous orbit to Pi 2 onset as observed from the dip-equator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Saka

    Full Text Available Fluxgate magnetometer data recorded at the dip-equator (Huancayo, Peru; 1.44°N, 355.9° in geomagnetic coordinates; 12.1°S, 75.2°W in geographic coordinates; L = 1.00 with higher accuracy of timing (0.1 s and amplitude resolution (0.01 nT were utilized to survey an onset of Pi 2 pulsations in the midnight sector (2100–0100 LT during PROMIS (Polar Region and Outer Magnetosphere International Study periods (1 March–20 June, 1986. It is found that changing field line magnitude and vector as observed by magnetometer on board the synchronous satellites in the midnight sector often takes place simultaneously with the onset of Pi 2 pulsations at the dip-equator. The field disturbances that follow thereafter tend to last for some time both at the geosynchronous altitudes and the dip-equator. In this report, we examine the initial response of the field lines in space, and attempt to classify how the field line vector changed in the meridional plane.

    Key words. Magnetospheric physics · Magnetospheric configuration and dynamics · MHD waves and instabilities · Plasmasphere

  16. A Full-wave Model for Wave Propagation and Dissipation in the Inner Magnetosphere Using the Finite Element Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valeo, Ernest; Johnson, Jay R.; Kim, Eun-Hwa; Phillips, Cynthia

    2012-01-01

    A wide variety of plasma waves play an important role in the energization and loss of particles in the inner magnetosphere. Our ability to understand and model wave-particle interactions in this region requires improved knowledge of the spatial distribution and properties of these waves as well as improved understanding of how the waves depend on changes in solar wind forcing and/or geomagnetic activity. To this end, we have developed a two-dimensional, finite element code that solves the full wave equations in global magnetospheric geometry. The code describes three-dimensional wave structure including mode conversion when ULF, EMIC, and whistler waves are launched in a two-dimensional axisymmetric background plasma with general magnetic field topology. We illustrate the capabilities of the code by examining the role of plasmaspheric plumes on magnetosonic wave propagation; mode conversion at the ion-ion and Alfven resonances resulting from external, solar wind compressions; and wave structure and mode conversion of electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves launched in the equatorial magnetosphere, which propagate along the magnetic field lines toward the ionosphere. We also discuss advantages of the finite element method for resolving resonant structures, and how the model may be adapted to include nonlocal kinetic effects.

  17. Preface: The Chang'e-3 lander and rover mission to the Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ip, Wing-Huen; Yan, Jun; Li, Chun-Lai; Ouyang, Zi-Yuan

    2014-12-01

    The Chang'e-3 (CE-3) lander and rover mission to the Moon was an intermediate step in China's lunar exploration program, which will be followed by a sample return mission. The lander was equipped with a number of remote-sensing instruments including a pair of cameras (Landing Camera and Terrain Camera) for recording the landing process and surveying terrain, an extreme ultraviolet camera for monitoring activities in the Earth's plasmasphere, and a first-ever Moon-based ultraviolet telescope for astronomical observations. The Yutu rover successfully carried out close-up observations with the Panoramic Camera, mineralogical investigations with the VIS-NIR Imaging Spectrometer, study of elemental abundances with the Active Particle-induced X-ray Spectrometer, and pioneering measurements of the lunar subsurface with Lunar Penetrating Radar. This special issue provides a collection of key information on the instrumental designs, calibration methods and data processing procedures used by these experiments with a perspective of facilitating further analyses of scientific data from CE-3 in preparation for future missions.

  18. Space Weather Effects in the Earth's Radiation Belts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, D. N.; Erickson, P. J.; Fennell, J. F.; Foster, J. C.; Jaynes, A. N.; Verronen, P. T.

    2018-02-01

    The first major scientific discovery of the Space Age was that the Earth is enshrouded in toroids, or belts, of very high-energy magnetically trapped charged particles. Early observations of the radiation environment clearly indicated that the Van Allen belts could be delineated into an inner zone dominated by high-energy protons and an outer zone dominated by high-energy electrons. The energy distribution, spatial extent and particle species makeup of the Van Allen belts has been subsequently explored by several space missions. Recent observations by the NASA dual-spacecraft Van Allen Probes mission have revealed many novel properties of the radiation belts, especially for electrons at highly relativistic and ultra-relativistic kinetic energies. In this review we summarize the space weather impacts of the radiation belts. We demonstrate that many remarkable features of energetic particle changes are driven by strong solar and solar wind forcings. Recent comprehensive data show broadly and in many ways how high energy particles are accelerated, transported, and lost in the magnetosphere due to interplanetary shock wave interactions, coronal mass ejection impacts, and high-speed solar wind streams. We also discuss how radiation belt particles are intimately tied to other parts of the geospace system through atmosphere, ionosphere, and plasmasphere coupling. The new data have in many ways rewritten the textbooks about the radiation belts as a key space weather threat to human technological systems.

  19. Dispersion equations for field-aligned cyclotron waves in axisymmetric magnetospheric plasmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. I. Grishanov

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we derive the dispersion equations for field-aligned cyclotron waves in two-dimensional (2-D magnetospheric plasmas with anisotropic temperature. Two magnetic field configurations are considered with dipole and circular magnetic field lines. The main contribution of the trapped particles to the transverse dielectric permittivity is estimated by solving the linearized Vlasov equation for their perturbed distribution functions, accounting for the cyclotron and bounce resonances, neglecting the drift effects, and assuming the weak connection of the left-hand and right-hand polarized waves. Both the bi-Maxwellian and bi-Lorentzian distribution functions are considered to model the ring current ions and electrons in the dipole magnetosphere. A numerical code has been developed to analyze the dispersion characteristics of electromagnetic ion-cyclotron waves in an electron-proton magnetospheric plasma with circular magnetic field lines, assuming that the steady-state distribution function of the energetic protons is bi-Maxwellian. As in the uniform magnetic field case, the growth rate of the proton-cyclotron instability (PCI in the 2-D magnetospheric plasmas is defined by the contribution of the energetic ions/protons to the imaginary part of the transverse permittivity elements. We demonstrate that the PCI growth rate in the 2-D axisymmetric plasmasphere can be significantly smaller than that for the straight magnetic field case with the same macroscopic bulk parameters.

  20. Atmospheric solar tides and their electrodynamic effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forbes, J.M.; Lindzen, R.S.

    1977-01-01

    In this final part of a three-part study, the polarization electric field generated by E-region dynamo action is considered, and its consistency with presently available experimental measurements is established. This serves as an independent check on some of the results and conclusions described in Parts I and II (Forbes and Lindzen, J. Atmos. Terr. Phys.; 38:897,911 (1976)). Incoherent scatter measurements of ionospheric drifts are reviewed from the point of view of determining the origin of the polarization electric field in the quiet-time ionosphere, and are compared with the theoretical dynamo electric fields which drive the current systems in Parts I and II. The analysis indicates that the polarization fields originating from E-region dynamo action are consistent with daytime F-region drift measurements, but are in poor agreement at night. This supports previous suggestions that electric fields generated by the plasmaspheric and F-region dynamos are short-circuited by the high E-region conductivity during the day, but contribite strongly to the night-time electric field. (author)

  1. Latitude-dependent delay in the responses of the equatorial electrojet and Sq currents to X-class solar flares

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, Paulo A. B.; Abdu, Mangalathayil A.; Souza, Jonas R.; Denardini, Clezio M.; Barbosa Neto, Paulo F.; Serra de Souza da Costa, João P.; Silva, Ana P. M.

    2018-01-01

    We have analyzed low-latitude ionospheric current responses to two intense (X-class) solar flares that occurred on 13 May 2013 and 11 March 2015. Sudden intensifications, in response to solar flare radiation impulses, in the Sq and equatorial electrojet (EEJ) currents, as detected by magnetometers over equatorial and low-latitude sites in South America, are studied. In particular we show for the first time that a 5 to 8 min time delay is present in the peak effect in the EEJ, with respect that of Sq current outside the magnetic equator, in response to the flare radiation enhancement. The Sq current intensification peaks close to the flare X-ray peak, while the EEJ peak occurs 5 to 8 min later. We have used the Sheffield University Plasmasphere-Ionosphere Model at National Institute for Space Research (SUPIM-INPE) to simulate the E-region conductivity enhancement as caused by the flare enhanced solar extreme ultraviolet (EUV) and soft X-rays flux. We propose that the flare-induced enhancement in neutral wind occurring with a time delay (with respect to the flare radiation) could be responsible for a delayed zonal electric field disturbance driving the EEJ, in which the Cowling conductivity offers enhanced sensitivity to the driving zonal electric field.

  2. Solar-terrestrial physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, V.L.

    1977-01-01

    The Glossary is designed to be a technical dictionary that will provide solar workers of various specialties, students, other astronomers and theoreticians with concise information on the nature and the properties of phenomena of solar and solar-terrestrial physics. Each term, or group of related terms, is given a concise phenomenological and quantitative description, including the relationship to other phenomena and an interpretation in terms of physical processes. The references are intended to lead the non-specialist reader into the literature. This section deals with: geomagnetic field; coordinate systems; geomagnetic indices; Dst index; auroral electrojet index AE; daily, 27-day and semi-annual variations of geomagnetic field; micropulsation; geomagnetic storms; storm sudden commencement (SSC) or sudden commencement (SC); initial phase; ring current; sudden impulses; ionosphere; D region; polar cap absorption; sudden ionospheric disturbance; E region; sporadic E; equatorial electrojet; solar flare effect; F 1 and F 2 regions; spread F; travelling ionospheric disturbances; magnetosphere; magnetospheric coordinate systems; plasmasphere; magnetosheath; magnetospheric tail; substorm; radiation belts or Van Allen belts; whistlers; VLF emissions; aurora; auroral forms; auroral oval and auroral zones; auroral intensity; stable auroral red arcs; pulsing aurora; polar glow aurora; and airglow. (B.R.H.)

  3. The VLF Wave and Particle Precipitation Mapper (VPM) Cubesat Payload Suite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inan, U.; Linscott, I.; Marshall, R. A.; Lauben, D.; Starks, M. J.; Doolittle, J. H.

    2012-12-01

    The VLF Wave and Particle Precipitation Mapper (VPM) payload is under development at Stanford University for a Cubesat mission that is planned to fly in low-earth-orbit in 2015. The VPM payload suite includes a 2-meter electric-field dipole antenna; a single-axis magnetic search coil; and a two-channel relativistic electron detector, measuring both trapped and loss-cone electrons. VPM will measure waves and relativistic electrons with the following primary goals: i) develop an improved climatology of plasmaspheric hiss in the L-shell range 1 < L < 3 at all local times; ii) detect VLF waves launched by space-based VLF transmitters, as well as energetic electrons scattered by those in-situ injected waves; iii) develop an improved climatology of lightning-generated whistlers and lightning-induced electron precipitation; iv)measure waves and electron precipitation produced by ground-based VLF transmitters; and v) validate propagation and wave-particle interaction models. In this paper we outline these science objectives of the VPM payload instrument suite, and describe the payload instruments and data products that will meet these science goals.

  4. A survey of plasma irregularities as seen by the midlatitude Blackstone SuperDARN radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, A. J.; Ruohoniemi, J. M.; Baker, J. B. H.; Clausen, L. B. N.; Greenwald, R. A.; Lester, M.

    2012-02-01

    The Super Dual Auroral Radar Network (SuperDARN) is a chain of HF radars that monitor plasma dynamics in the ionosphere. In recent years, SuperDARN has expanded to midlatitudes in order to provide enhanced coverage during geomagnetically active periods. A new type of backscatter from F region plasma irregularities with low Doppler velocity has been frequently observed on the nightside during quiescent conditions. Using three years of data from the Blackstone, VA radar, we have implemented a method for extracting this new type of backscatter from routine observations. We have statistically characterized the occurrence properties of the Sub Auroral Ionospheric Scatter (SAIS) events, including the latitudinal relationships to the equatorward edge of the auroral oval and the ionospheric projection of the plasmapause. We find that the backscatter is confined to local night, occurs on ≈70% of nights, is fixed in geomagnetic latitude, and is equatorward of both the auroral region and the plasmapause boundary. We conclude that SAIS irregularities are observed within a range of latitudes that is conjugate to the inner magnetosphere (plasmasphere).

  5. Rocket observations of the precipitation of electrons by ground VLF transmitters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnoldy, R.L.; Kintner, P.M.

    1989-01-01

    Below an altitude of 400 km or less over the NASA Wallops Island range, stably trapped particles do not exist because of the South Atlantic Anomaly. In an experiment to measure scattered electrons at these altitudes (NASA flight 36:013), electron detectors clearly measured two monoenergetic electron peaks above the low background. The two monoernergetic peaks are attributed to the resonant interaction of electrons with VLF waves from Navy ground transmitters at Cutler, Maine, and Annapolis, Maryland. The transmitter signals were measured with electric and magnetic receivers aboard the rocket, and their propagation through the ionosphere and correlation with the precipitated electrons are discussed. In addition, energetic ions were also measured to be in the bounce loss cone during this rocket flight. Because of increased geomagnetic activity, it apears that the ring current extended inward to at least the L=2.5 magnetic shell and enhanced convection eroded the plasmasphere. The inward movement or compression of the plasmapause is consistent with a steep gradient in the equatorial cold plasma density and a localized equatorial interaction region needed to account for the monoenergetic elecrtron precipitation. The role of the geomagnetic activity in ''priming'' the trapped electron population for cyclotron resonance with VLF waves such that there is continuous scattering into the bounce loss cone remains uncertain. copyright American Geophysical Union 1989

  6. Understanding the Driver of Energetic Electron Precipitation Using Coordinated Multi-Satellite Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capannolo, L.; Li, W.; Ma, Q.

    2017-12-01

    Electron precipitation into the upper atmosphere is one of the important loss mechanisms in the Earth's inner magnetosphere. Various magnetospheric plasma waves (i.e., chorus, plasmaspheric hiss, electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves, etc.) play an important role in scattering energetic electrons into the loss cone, thus enhance ionization in the upper atmosphere and affect ring current and radiation belt dynamics. The present study evaluates conjunction events where low-earth-orbiting satellites (twin AeroCube-6) and near-equatorial satellites (twin Van Allen Probes) are located roughly along the same magnetic field line. By analyzing electron flux variation at various energies (> 35 keV) measured by AeroCube-6 and wave and electron measurements by Van Allen Probes, together with quasilinear diffusion theory and modeling, we determine the physical process of driving the observed energetic electron precipitation for the identified electron precipitation events. Moreover, the twin AeroCube-6 also helps us understand the spatiotemporal effect and constrain the coherent size of each electron precipitation event.

  7. Recent investigation at INPE in magnetospheric physics and geomagnetism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzales, W.D.; Trivedi, N.B.

    1984-01-01

    During recent years the following research activities related to the earth's magnetosphere have been intensified: a) studies on electric field and energy transfer from the solar wind to the magnetosphere; b) studies on high latitude magnetospheric electric fields and on their penetration into the plasmasphere; c) measurements of atmospheric-large scale-electric fields, related to the low latitude magnetospheric-ionospheric coupling and to the local atmospheric electrodynamics, using detectors on board stratospheric balloons; and d) measurements of atmospheric X-rays, related to the process of energetic particle precipitation at the South Atlantic Magnetic Anomaly, using detectors also on board stratospheric balloons. Similarly, the following research activities related to geomagnetism are being pursued: a) studies on the variability of the geomagnetic field and on the dynamics of the equatorial electrojet from local geomagnetic field measurements; b) studies on terrestrial electromagnetic induction through local measurements of the geo-electromagnetic field; and c) studies on the influence of geomagnetic activity on particle precipitation at the South Atlantic Magnetic Anomaly. (Author) [pt

  8. Radio sounding of the magnetosphere from a lunar-based VLF array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, James L.; Fung, Shing F.

    1994-01-01

    Using a lunar-based active radio transmitter and receiver system operating in the 'free space' wave modes, we can obtain much information on the structures and dynamics of remote magnetospheric plasma regions in a way similar to ionosondes. Powerful, narrow-band electromagnetic pulses can be transmitted over a wide frequency range (from 10 kHz to 1 MHz). The signals would be refracted and reflected off magnetospheric structures such as the plasmapause, plasmasheet, magnetopause, and the high and low latitude boundary layers. With a series of long dipole antennas, ranging in size from 400 m to 20 km with an output voltage ranging from 6 kV to less than 0.2 kV, a target plasma region at up to 100 R(sub E) can be explored. We illustrate this remote sensing technique by using the plasmasphere as a remote target, and modeling the propagations of the sounder transmitted and received pulses by ray tracing calculations.

  9. Ground-satellite study of wave-particle correlations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, C.G.; Lin, C.S.; Parks, G.K.

    1981-01-01

    Very low frequency (VLF) waves recorded at Siple, Antarctica (Lapprox.4; 84 0 W, geographic), are compared with low-energy ( 0 W, near the outer edge of the nominal ''viewing area'' of the Siple VLF receiver, which is estimated to be Lapprox.2-6 and +- 20 0 longitude. The results reveal two distinct types of chorus observed at Siple. One type is closely correlated with enhanced fluxes of >5-keV electrons detected at the synchronous altitude, and its generation region is inferred to be outside the plasmapause. The chorus upper cutoff frequency increases with time in a characteristic manner, consistent with the expected adiabatic motion of injected electrons in cyclotron resonance with the waves. The second type of chorus, which we refer to as ''plasmaspheric chorus,'' occurs inside the plasmapause, has no apparent relationship to particle injection at the synchronous altitude and shows clear evidence of being triggered by whistlers, power line radiation, and other signals. The two different types of chorus are readily distinguishable in frequency-time spectrograms

  10. Why is there more ionosphere in January than in July? The annual asymmetry in the F2-layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Rishbeth

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Adding together the northern and southern hemisphere values for pairs of stations, the combined peak electron density NmF2 is greater in December-January than in June–July. The same applies to the total height-integrated electron content. This "F2-layer annual asymmetry" between northern and southern solstices is typically 30%, and thus greatly exceeds the 7% asymmetry in ion production due to the annual variation of Sun-Earth distance. Though it was noticed in ionospheric data almost seventy years ago, the asymmetry is still unexplained.

    Using ionosonde data and also values derived from the International Reference Ionosphere, we show that the asymmetry exists at noon and at midnight, at all latitudes from equatorial to sub-auroral, and tends to be greater at solar minimum than solar maximum. We find a similar asymmetry in neutral composition in the MSIS model of the thermosphere. Numerical computations with the Coupled Thermosphere-Ionosphere-Plasmasphere (CTIP model give a much smaller annual asymmetry in electron density and neutral composition than is observed. Including mesospheric tides in the model makes little difference. After considering possible explanations, which do not account for the asymmetry, we are left with the conclusion that dynamical influences of the lower atmosphere (below about 30 km, not included in our computations, are the most likely cause of the asymmetry.

  11. Vertical circulation and thermospheric composition: a modelling study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Rishbeth

    Full Text Available The coupled thermosphere-ionosphere-plasmasphere model CTIP is used to study the global three-dimensional circulation and its effect on neutral composition in the midlatitude F-layer. At equinox, the vertical air motion is basically up by day, down by night, and the atomic oxygen/molecular nitrogen [O/N2] concentration ratio is symmetrical about the equator. At solstice there is a summer-to-winter flow of air, with downwelling at subauroral latitudes in winter that produces regions of large [O/N2] ratio. Because the thermospheric circulation is influenced by the high-latitude energy inputs, which are related to the geometry of the Earth's magnetic field, the latitude of the downwelling regions varies with longitude. The downwelling regions give rise to large F2-layer electron densities when they are sunlit, but not when they are in darkness, with implications for the distribution of seasonal and semiannual variations of the F2-layer. It is also found that the vertical distributions of O and N2 may depart appreciably from diffusive equilibrium at heights up to about 160 km, especially in the summer hemisphere where there is strong upwelling.

    Atmospheric composition and structure (thermosphere · composition and chemistry · Ionosphere (ionosphere · atmosphere interactions

  12. Vertical circulation and thermospheric composition: a modelling study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Rishbeth

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available The coupled thermosphere-ionosphere-plasmasphere model CTIP is used to study the global three-dimensional circulation and its effect on neutral composition in the midlatitude F-layer. At equinox, the vertical air motion is basically up by day, down by night, and the atomic oxygen/molecular nitrogen [O/N2] concentration ratio is symmetrical about the equator. At solstice there is a summer-to-winter flow of air, with downwelling at subauroral latitudes in winter that produces regions of large [O/N2] ratio. Because the thermospheric circulation is influenced by the high-latitude energy inputs, which are related to the geometry of the Earth's magnetic field, the latitude of the downwelling regions varies with longitude. The downwelling regions give rise to large F2-layer electron densities when they are sunlit, but not when they are in darkness, with implications for the distribution of seasonal and semiannual variations of the F2-layer. It is also found that the vertical distributions of O and N2 may depart appreciably from diffusive equilibrium at heights up to about 160 km, especially in the summer hemisphere where there is strong upwelling. Atmospheric composition and structure (thermosphere · composition and chemistry · Ionosphere (ionosphere · atmosphere interactions

  13. Why is there more ionosphere in January than in July? The annual asymmetry in the F2-layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Rishbeth

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Adding together the northern and southern hemisphere values for pairs of stations, the combined peak electron density NmF2 is greater in December-January than in June–July. The same applies to the total height-integrated electron content. This "F2-layer annual asymmetry" between northern and southern solstices is typically 30%, and thus greatly exceeds the 7% asymmetry in ion production due to the annual variation of Sun-Earth distance. Though it was noticed in ionospheric data almost seventy years ago, the asymmetry is still unexplained. Using ionosonde data and also values derived from the International Reference Ionosphere, we show that the asymmetry exists at noon and at midnight, at all latitudes from equatorial to sub-auroral, and tends to be greater at solar minimum than solar maximum. We find a similar asymmetry in neutral composition in the MSIS model of the thermosphere. Numerical computations with the Coupled Thermosphere-Ionosphere-Plasmasphere (CTIP model give a much smaller annual asymmetry in electron density and neutral composition than is observed. Including mesospheric tides in the model makes little difference. After considering possible explanations, which do not account for the asymmetry, we are left with the conclusion that dynamical influences of the lower atmosphere (below about 30 km, not included in our computations, are the most likely cause of the asymmetry.

  14. Physical Processes for Driving Ionospheric Outflows in Global Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Thomas Earle; Strangeway, Robert J.

    2009-01-01

    We review and assess the importance of processes thought to drive ionospheric outflows, linking them as appropriate to the solar wind and interplanetary magnetic field, and to the spatial and temporal distribution of their magnetospheric internal responses. These begin with the diffuse effects of photoionization and thermal equilibrium of the ionospheric topside, enhancing Jeans' escape, with ambipolar diffusion and acceleration. Auroral outflows begin with dayside reconnexion and resultant field-aligned currents and driven convection. These produce plasmaspheric plumes, collisional heating and wave-particle interactions, centrifugal acceleration, and auroral acceleration by parallel electric fields, including enhanced ambipolar fields from electron heating by precipitating particles. Observations and simulations show that solar wind energy dissipation into the atmosphere is concentrated by the geomagnetic field into auroral regions with an amplification factor of 10-100, enhancing heavy species plasma and gas escape from gravity, and providing more current carrying capacity. Internal plasmas thus enable electromagnetic driving via coupling to the plasma, neutral gas and by extension, the entire body " We assess the Importance of each of these processes in terms of local escape flux production as well as global outflow, and suggest methods for their implementation within multispecies global simulation codes. We complete 'he survey with an assessment of outstanding obstacles to this objective.

  15. Ionizing nightglow: sources, intensity, and spatial distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, J.M.; Troy, B.E. Jr.; Johnson, C.Y.; Holmes, J.C.

    1975-01-01

    Photometers carried aboard an Aerobee rocket mapped the ultraviolet night sky at White Sands, New Mexico. Maps for five 300 A passbands in the wavelength range 170 to 1400 A reveal spatial radiation patterns unique to each spectral subregion. The major ultraviolet features seen in these maps are ascribed to a variety of sources: 1) solar Lyman α (1216 A) and Lyman β (1026 A), resonantly scattered by geocoronal hydrogen; 2) solar HeII (304 A) resonantly scattered by ionized helium in the Earth's plasmasphere; 3) solar HeI (584 A) resonantly scattered by neutral helium in the interstellar wind and Doppler shifted so that it penetrates the Earth's helium blanket; and 4) starlight in the 912 to 1400 A band, primarily from early-type stars in the Orion region. Not explained are the presence of small, but measurable, albedo signals observed near the peak of flight. Intensities vary from several kilorayleighs for Lyman α to a few rayleighs for HeII. (auth)

  16. Investigating the ionosphere response to exhaust products of “Progress” cargo spacecraft engines on the basis of Irkutsk Incoherent Scatter Radar data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shpynev B.G.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The FSUE Central Research Institute of Machine Building (TsNIIMash, Rocket and Space Corporation “Energia”, and Institute of Solar-Terrestrial Physics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences (ISTP SB RAS jointly conducted the active space experiment “Radar-Progress” in 2007–2015. During this experiment, the Irkutsk Incoherent Scatter Radar was used to study space-time characteristics of ionospheric disturbances generated by exhaust products of Progress cargo spacecraft engines. As the basic effect during exhaust product injection we consider the formation of new centers for recombination of ambient ionospheric ions O+ on molecules of water and carbon dioxide. This produces an ionization “hole” in the region of injection. In nighttime conditions when the ma-jority of experiments were performed, this hole was filled with hydrogen ions from the plasmasphere, thus changing the ion composition in the vicinity of the hole and incoherent scatter spectra. For successful observation of the ioni-zation hole dynamics, the critical factors are the degree of filling of the antenna pattern with exhaust products and the velocity of the thermospheric neutral wind, which makes exhaust gases move from the antenna pattern. These two factors lead to poor repeatability of successful experiments. Successful experiments recorded a decrease in electron density up to 35 % in the hole that existed for 30 min. The lifetime of the region with high concentration of H+ ions can be as long as one hour.

  17. SAID/SAPS Revisited: A Causal Relation to the Substorm Current Wedge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishin, E. V.

    2017-12-01

    We present multi-spacecraft observations of enhanced flow/electric field channels in the inner magnetosphere and conjugate subauroral ionosphere, i.e., subauroral polarization streams (SAPS) near dusk and subauroral ion drifts (SAID) near midnight. The channels collocate with ring current (RC) injections lagging the onset of substorms by a few to ˜20 minutes, i.e., significantly shorter than the gradient-curvature drift time of tens of keV ions. The time lag is of the order of the propagation time of reconnection-injected hot plasma jets to the premidnight plasmasphere and the substorm current wedge (SCW) to dusk. The observations confirm and expand on the previous results on the SAID features that negate the paradigm of voltage and current generators. Fast-time duskside SAPS/RC injections appear intimately related to a two-loop circuit of the substorm current wedge (SCW2L). We suggest that the poleward electric field inherent in the SCW2L circuit, which demands closure of the Region 1- and Region 2-sense field-aligned currents via meridional currents, is the ultimate cause of fast RC injections and SAPS on the duskside.

  18. Modeling radiation belt dynamics using a 3-D layer method code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C.; Ma, Q.; Tao, X.; Zhang, Y.; Teng, S.; Albert, J. M.; Chan, A. A.; Li, W.; Ni, B.; Lu, Q.; Wang, S.

    2017-08-01

    A new 3-D diffusion code using a recently published layer method has been developed to analyze radiation belt electron dynamics. The code guarantees the positivity of the solution even when mixed diffusion terms are included. Unlike most of the previous codes, our 3-D code is developed directly in equatorial pitch angle (α0), momentum (p), and L shell coordinates; this eliminates the need to transform back and forth between (α0,p) coordinates and adiabatic invariant coordinates. Using (α0,p,L) is also convenient for direct comparison with satellite data. The new code has been validated by various numerical tests, and we apply the 3-D code to model the rapid electron flux enhancement following the geomagnetic storm on 17 March 2013, which is one of the Geospace Environment Modeling Focus Group challenge events. An event-specific global chorus wave model, an AL-dependent statistical plasmaspheric hiss wave model, and a recently published radial diffusion coefficient formula from Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms (THEMIS) statistics are used. The simulation results show good agreement with satellite observations, in general, supporting the scenario that the rapid enhancement of radiation belt electron flux for this event results from an increased level of the seed population by radial diffusion, with subsequent acceleration by chorus waves. Our results prove that the layer method can be readily used to model global radiation belt dynamics in three dimensions.

  19. ULF fluctuations of the geomagnetic field and ionospheric sounding measurements at low latitudes during the first CAWSES campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Villante

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available We present an analysis of ULF geomagnetic field fluctuations at low latitudes during the first CAWSES campaign (29 March-3 April 2004. During the whole campaign, mainly in the prenoon sector, a moderate Pc3-4 pulsation activity is observed, clearly related to interplanetary upstream waves. On 3 April, in correspondence to the Earth's arrival of a coronal mass ejection, two SIs are observed whose waveforms are indicative of a contribution of the high-latitude ionospheric currents to the low-latitude ground field. During the following geomagnetic storm, low frequency (Pc5 waves are observed at discrete frequencies. Their correspondence with the same frequencies detected in the radial components of the interplanetary magnetic field and solar wind speed suggests that Alfvénic solar wind fluctuations may act as direct drivers of magnetospheric fluctuations. A cross-phase analysis, using different pairs of stations, is also presented for identifying field line resonant frequencies and monitoring changes in plasmaspheric mass density. Lastly, an analysis of ionospheric vertical soundings, measured at the Rome ionosonde station (41.8° N, 12.5° E, and vertical TEC measurements deduced from GPS signals within an European network shows the relation between the ULF resonances in the inner magnetosphere and thermal plasma density variations during geomagnetically quiet conditions, in contrast to various storm phases at the end of the CAWSES campaign.

  20. Multi-instrument observations of the solar eclipse on 20 March 2015 and its effects on the ionosphere over Belgium and Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stankov, Stanimir M.; Bergeot, Nicolas; Berghmans, David; Bolsée, David; Bruyninx, Carine; Chevalier, Jean-Marie; Clette, Frédéric; De Backer, Hugo; De Keyser, Johan; D'Huys, Elke; Dominique, Marie; Lemaire, Joseph F.; Magdalenić, Jasmina; Marqué, Christophe; Pereira, Nuno; Pierrard, Viviane; Sapundjiev, Danislav; Seaton, Daniel B.; Stegen, Koen; Van der Linden, Ronald; Verhulst, Tobias G. W.; West, Matthew J.

    2017-08-01

    A total solar eclipse occurred on 20 March 2015, with a totality path passing mostly above the North Atlantic Ocean, which resulted in a partial solar eclipse over Belgium and large parts of Europe. In anticipation of this event, a dedicated observational campaign was set up at the Belgian Solar-Terrestrial Centre of Excellence (STCE). The objective was to perform high-quality observations of the eclipse and the associated effects on the geospace environment by utilising the advanced space- and ground-based instrumentation available to the STCE in order to further our understanding of these effects, particularly on the ionosphere. The study highlights the crucial importance of taking into account the eclipse geometry when analysing the ionospheric behaviour during eclipses and interpreting the eclipse effects. A detailed review of the eclipse geometry proves that considering the actual obscuration level and solar zenith angle at ionospheric heights is much more important for the analysis than at the commonly referenced Earth's surface or at the plasmaspheric heights. The eclipse occurred during the recovery phase of a strong geomagnetic storm which certainly had an impact on (some of) the ionospheric characteristics and perhaps caused the omission of some "low-profile" effects. However, the analysis of the ionosonde measurements, carried out at unprecedented high rates during the eclipse, suggests the occurrence of travelling ionospheric disturbances (TIDs). Also, the high temporal and spatial resolution measurements proved very important in revealing and estimating some finer details of the delay in the ionospheric reaction and the ionospheric disturbances.

  1. Space Weather Effects Produced by the Ring Current Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganushkina, Natalia; Jaynes, Allison; Liemohn, Michael

    2017-11-01

    One of the definitions of space weather describes it as the time-varying space environment that may be hazardous to technological systems in space and/or on the ground and/or endanger human health or life. The ring current has its contributions to space weather effects, both in terms of particles, ions and electrons, which constitute it, and magnetic and electric fields produced and modified by it at the ground and in space. We address the main aspects of the space weather effects from the ring current starting with brief review of ring current discovery and physical processes and the Dst-index and predictions of the ring current and storm occurrence based on it. Special attention is paid to the effects on satellites produced by the ring current electrons. The ring current is responsible for several processes in the other inner magnetosphere populations, such as the plasmasphere and radiation belts which is also described. Finally, we discuss the ring current influence on the ionosphere and the generation of geomagnetically induced currents (GIC).

  2. Parametric validations of analytical lifetime estimates for radiation belt electron diffusion by whistler waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Artemyev

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The lifetimes of electrons trapped in Earth's radiation belts can be calculated from quasi-linear pitch-angle diffusion by whistler-mode waves, provided that their frequency spectrum is broad enough and/or their average amplitude is not too large. Extensive comparisons between improved analytical lifetime estimates and full numerical calculations have been performed in a broad parameter range representative of a large part of the magnetosphere from L ~ 2 to 6. The effects of observed very oblique whistler waves are taken into account in both numerical and analytical calculations. Analytical lifetimes (and pitch-angle diffusion coefficients are found to be in good agreement with full numerical calculations based on CRRES and Cluster hiss and lightning-generated wave measurements inside the plasmasphere and Cluster lower-band chorus waves measurements in the outer belt for electron energies ranging from 100 keV to 5 MeV. Comparisons with lifetimes recently obtained from electron flux measurements on SAMPEX, SCATHA, SAC-C and DEMETER also show reasonable agreement.

  3. Space Electron Density Gradient Studies using a 3D Embedded Reconfigurable Sounder and ESA/NASA CLUSTER Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekoulis, George

    2016-07-01

    This paper provides a direct comparison between data captured by a new embedded reconfigurable digital sounder, different ground-based ionospheric sounders spread around Europe and the ESA/NASA CLUSTER mission. The CLUSTER mission consists of four identical space probes flying in a formation that allows measurements of the electron density gradient in the local magnetic field. Both the ground-based and the spacecraft instrumentations assist in studying the motion, geometry and boundaries of the plasmasphere. The comparison results are in accordance to each other. Some slight deviations among the captured data were expected from the beginning of this investigation. These small discrepancies are reasonable and seriatim analyzed. The results of this research are significant, since the level of the plasma's ionization, which is related to the solar activity, dominates the propagation of electromagnetic waves through it. Similarly, unusually high solar activity presents serious hazards to orbiting satellites, spaceborne instrumentation, satellite communications and infrastructure located on the Earth's surface. Long-term collaborative study of the data is required to continue, in order to identify and determine the enhanced risk in advance. This would allow scientists to propose an immediate cure.

  4. ULF waves associated with enhanced subauroral proton precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Immel, Thomas J.; Mende, S. B.; Frey, H. U.; Patel, J.; Bonnell, J. W.; Engebretson, M. J.; Fuselier, S. A.

    Several types of sub-auroral proton precipitation events have been identified using the Spectrographic Imager (SI) onboard the NASA-IMAGE satellite, including dayside subauroral proton flashes and detached proton arcs in the dusk sector. These have been observed at various levels of geomagnetic activity and solar wind conditions and the mechanism driving the precipitation has often been assumed to be scattering of protons into the loss cone by enhancement of ion-cyclotron waves in the interaction of the thermal plasmaspheric populations and more energetic ring current particles. Indeed, recent investigation of the detached arcs using the MPA instruments aboard the LANL geosynchronous satellites has shown there are nearly always heightened densities of cold plasma on high-altitude field lines which map down directly to the sub-auroral precipitation. If the ion-cyclotron instability is a causative mechanism, the enhancement of wave activity at ion-cyclotron frequencies should be measurable. It is here reported that magnetic pulsations in the Pc1 range occur in the vicinity of each of 4 detached arcs observed in 2000-2002, though with widely varying signatures. Additionally, longer period pulsations in the Pc5 ranges are also observed in the vicinity of the arcs, leading to the conclusion that a bounce-resonance of ring-current protons with the azimuthal Pc5 wave structure may also contribute to the detached precipitation.

  5. Theory, modeling, and integrated studies in the Arase (ERG) project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seki, Kanako; Miyoshi, Yoshizumi; Ebihara, Yusuke; Katoh, Yuto; Amano, Takanobu; Saito, Shinji; Shoji, Masafumi; Nakamizo, Aoi; Keika, Kunihiro; Hori, Tomoaki; Nakano, Shin'ya; Watanabe, Shigeto; Kamiya, Kei; Takahashi, Naoko; Omura, Yoshiharu; Nose, Masahito; Fok, Mei-Ching; Tanaka, Takashi; Ieda, Akimasa; Yoshikawa, Akimasa

    2018-02-01

    Understanding of underlying mechanisms of drastic variations of the near-Earth space (geospace) is one of the current focuses of the magnetospheric physics. The science target of the geospace research project Exploration of energization and Radiation in Geospace (ERG) is to understand the geospace variations with a focus on the relativistic electron acceleration and loss processes. In order to achieve the goal, the ERG project consists of the three parts: the Arase (ERG) satellite, ground-based observations, and theory/modeling/integrated studies. The role of theory/modeling/integrated studies part is to promote relevant theoretical and simulation studies as well as integrated data analysis to combine different kinds of observations and modeling. Here we provide technical reports on simulation and empirical models related to the ERG project together with their roles in the integrated studies of dynamic geospace variations. The simulation and empirical models covered include the radial diffusion model of the radiation belt electrons, GEMSIS-RB and RBW models, CIMI model with global MHD simulation REPPU, GEMSIS-RC model, plasmasphere thermosphere model, self-consistent wave-particle interaction simulations (electron hybrid code and ion hybrid code), the ionospheric electric potential (GEMSIS-POT) model, and SuperDARN electric field models with data assimilation. ERG (Arase) science center tools to support integrated studies with various kinds of data are also briefly introduced.[Figure not available: see fulltext.

  6. The thermospheric effects of a rapid polar cap expansion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. W. Idenden

    Full Text Available In a previous publication we used results from a coupled thermosphere-ionosphere-plasmasphere model to illustrate a new mechanism for the formation of a large-scale patch of ionisation arising from a rapid polar cap expansion. Here we describe the thermospheric response to that polar cap expansion, and to the ionospheric structure produced. The response is dominated by the energy and momentum input at the dayside throat during the expansion phase itself. These inputs give rise to a large-scale travelling atmospheric disturbance (TAD that propagates both antisunward across the polar cap and equatorward at speeds much greater than both the ion drifts and the neutral winds. We concentrate only on the initially poleward travelling disturbance. The disturbance is manifested in the neutral temperature and wind fields, the height of the pressure level surfaces and in the neutral density at fixed heights. The thermospheric effects caused by the ionospheric structure produced during the expansion are hard to discern due to the dominating effects of the TAD.

    Key words. Ionosphere (ionosphere · atmosphere interaction; modeling and forecasting; plasma convection.

  7. Pre-storm NmF2 enhancements at middle latitudes: delusion or reality?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Mikhailov

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available A critical analysis of recent publications devoted to the NmF2 pre-storm enhancements is performed. There are no convincing arguments that the observed cases of NmF2 enhancements at middle and sub-auroral latitudes bear a relation to the following magnetic storms. In all cases considered the NmF2 pre-storm enhancements were due to previous geomagnetic storms, moderate auroral activity or they presented the class of positive quiet time events (Q-disturbances. Therefore, it is possible to conclude that there is no such an effect as the pre-storm NmF2 enhancement as a phenomenon inalienably related to the following magnetic storm. The observed nighttime NmF2 enhancements at sub-auroral latitudes may result from plasma transfer from the plasma ring area by meridional thermospheric wind. Enhanced plasmaspheric fluxes into the nighttime F2-region resulted from westward substorm-associated electric fields is another possible source of nighttime NmF2 enhancements. Daytime positive Q-disturbances occurring under very low geomagnetic activity level may be related to the dayside cusp activity.

  8. The characteristic pitch angle distributions of 1 eV to 600 keV protons near the equator based on Van Allen Probes observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, C.; Bortnik, J.; Thorne, R. M.; Ma, Q.; An, X.; Chappell, C. R.; Gerrard, A. J.; Lanzerotti, L. J.; Shi, Q.

    2017-12-01

    Understanding the source and loss processes of various plasma populations is greatly aided by having accurate knowledge of their pitch angle distributions (PADs). Here, we statistically analyze 1 eV to 600 keV hydrogen (H+) PADs near the geomagnetic equator in the inner magnetosphere based on Van Allen Probes measurements, to comprehensively investigate how the H+ PADs vary with different energies, magnetic local times (MLTs), L-shells, and geomagnetic conditions. Our survey clearly indicates four distinct populations with different PADs: (1) a pancake distribution of the plasmaspheric H+ at low L-shells except for dawn sector; (2) a bi-directional field-aligned distribution of the warm plasma cloak; (3) pancake or isotropic distributions of ring current H+; (4) radiation belt particles show pancake, butterfly and isotropic distributions depending on their energy, MLT and L-shell. Meanwhile, the pancake distribution of ring current H+ moves to lower energies as L-shell increases which is primarily caused by adiabatic transport. Furthermore, energetic H+ (> 10 keV) PADs become more isotropic following the substorm injections, indicating wave-particle interactions. The radiation belt H+ butterfly distributions are identified in a narrow energy range of 100 5), which are less significant during quiet times and extend from dusk to dawn sector through midnight during substorms. The different PADs near the equator provide clues of the underlying physical processes that produce the dynamics of these different populations.

  9. Electron Density Measurement on JUICE Mission by Mutual Impedance Technique: MIME Instrument as a Part of RPWI Consortium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauch, J. L.; Henri, P.; Wahlund, J. E.; Le Duff, O.; Sene, O.; Colin, F.; Lagoutte, D.; Gilet, N.; Ahlen, L.; Bergman, J.; Gill, R.; Puccio, W.

    2017-09-01

    Mutual Impedance MEasurements (MIME) instrument is a part of the Radio Wave Plasma Investigation (RPWI) consortium which has been selected by European Space Agency (ESA) on the nest planetary mission JJUpiter ICy moons Exploer (JUICE) for a launch in 2022. The goals are to explore Jupiter and its potentially habitable icy moons and to study its plasma environment. Impedance probes, which are well known in geophysical prospection, in particular for ground permittivity investigations, have been successfully transposed to space plasmas diagnostic. Transmitting and receiving electrodes are used for measuring on open circuit the dynamic impedance of the system at several fixed frequencies over a range that includes characteristic frequencies of the ambient plasma. The measurements are then interpreted using a suitable theory and the values of plasma parameters, such as the electron density and possibly the temperature of the plasma can be deduced. To show how powerful this technique is, results obtained in the Earth's plasmasphere by the mutual impedance probe onboard ROSETTA are presented as example. MIME instrument proposal is then described and its ability to make valuable measurements in the Jupiter space environment and in particular around Europe, Callisto and Ganymede is investigated..

  10. Electric fields in the magnetosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faelthammar, C.G.

    1989-12-01

    The electric field plays an important role in the complex plasma system called the magnetosphere. In spite of this, direct measurement of this quantity are still scarce except in its lowest-altitude part, i.e. the ionosphere. The large scale ionospheric electric field has been determined from measurement on the ground and in low satellite orbit. For most of the magnetosphere, our concepts of the electric field have mostly been based on theoretical considerations and extrapolations of the ionspheric electric field. Direct, in situ, electric field measurements in the outer parts of the magnetosphere have been made only relatively recently. A few satellite missions. most recently the Viking mission, have extended the direct empirical knowledge so as to include major parts of the magnetosphere. These measurements have revealed a number of unexpected features. The actual electric field has been found to have unexpectedly strong space and time variations, which reflect the dynamic nature of the system. Examples are give of measured electric fields in the plasmasphere, the plasmasheet, the neutral sheet, the magnetotail, the flanks of the magnetosphere, the dayside magnetopause and the auroral acceleration region. (author)

  11. Ducted whistler-mode signals received at two widely spaced locations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Clilverd

    Full Text Available Whistler-mode signals from a single VLF transmitter that have propagated in the same duct, have been observed simultaneously at Faraday, Antarctica (65°S, 64°W and Dunedin, New Zealand (46°S, 171°E. The signals received have group-delay times that differ in the order of 10 ms, which can be explained by the differences in southern-hemisphere sub-ionospheric propagation time from duct exit region to receiver for the two sites. This difference has been used to determine the location of the duct exit region, with confirmation provided by arrival-bearing information from both sites. The whistler-mode signals typically occur one or two days after geomagnetic activity, with Kpgeq5. The sub-ionospheric-propagation model, LWPC, is used to estimate the whistler-mode power radiated from the duct exit region. These results are then combined with estimated loss values for ionospheric and ducted transmission to investigate the role of wave-particle amplification or absorption. On at least half of the events studied, plasmaspheric amplification of the signals appears to be needed to explain the observed whistler-mode signal strengths.

  12. Ducted whistler-mode signals received at two widely spaced locations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Clilverd

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available Whistler-mode signals from a single VLF transmitter that have propagated in the same duct, have been observed simultaneously at Faraday, Antarctica (65°S, 64°W and Dunedin, New Zealand (46°S, 171°E. The signals received have group-delay times that differ in the order of 10 ms, which can be explained by the differences in southern-hemisphere sub-ionospheric propagation time from duct exit region to receiver for the two sites. This difference has been used to determine the location of the duct exit region, with confirmation provided by arrival-bearing information from both sites. The whistler-mode signals typically occur one or two days after geomagnetic activity, with Kp\\geq5. The sub-ionospheric-propagation model, LWPC, is used to estimate the whistler-mode power radiated from the duct exit region. These results are then combined with estimated loss values for ionospheric and ducted transmission to investigate the role of wave-particle amplification or absorption. On at least half of the events studied, plasmaspheric amplification of the signals appears to be needed to explain the observed whistler-mode signal strengths.

  13. Wide-banded NTC radiation: local to remote observations by the four Cluster satellites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. M. E. Décréau

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The Cluster multi-point mission offers a unique collection of non-thermal continuum (NTC radio waves observed in the 2–80 kHz frequency range over almost 15 years, from various view points over the radiating plasmasphere. Here we present rather infrequent case events, such as when primary electrostatic sources of such waves are embedded within the plasmapause boundary far from the magnetic equatorial plane. The spectral signature of the emitted electromagnetic waves is structured as a series of wide harmonic bands within the range covered by the step in plasma frequency encountered at the boundary. Developing the concept that the frequency distance df between harmonic bands measures the magnetic field magnitude B at the source (df = Fce, electron gyrofrequency, we analyse three selected events. The first one (studied in Grimald et al., 2008 presents electric field signatures observed by a Cluster constellation of small size (~ 200 to 1000 km spacecraft separation placed in the vicinity of sources. The electric field frequency spectra display frequency peaks placed at frequencies fs = n df (n being an integer, with df of the order of Fce values encountered at the plasmapause by the spacecraft. The second event, taken from the Cluster tilt campaign, leads to a 3-D view of NTC waves ray path orientations and to a localization of a global source region at several Earth radii (RE from Cluster (Décréau et al., 2013. The measured spectra present successive peaks placed at fs ~ (n+ 1/2 df. Next, considering if both situations might be two facets of the same phenomenon, we analyze a third event. The Cluster fleet, configured into a constellation of large size (~ 8000 to 25 000 km spacecraft separation, allows us to observe wide-banded NTC waves at different distances from their sources. Two new findings can be derived from our analysis. First, we point out that a large portion of the plasmasphere boundary layer, covering a large range of magnetic

  14. Atmospheric solar tides and their electrodynamic effects. I. The global Ssub(q) current system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forbes, J M; Lindzen, R S [Harvard Univ., Cambridge, Mass. (USA)

    1976-09-01

    This paper is Part I of a study dealing with the electrodynamic consequences of solar tides in the E-region of the Earth's atmosphere. The major result to emerge from Part I is that E-region dynamo action of combined diurnal and semidiurnal winds consistent with measurements is found to account for the Ssub(q) variations in ground magnetic data, without having to resort to electric fields of plasmaspheric origin as suggested in the recent literature. Real discrepancies of the order of 20% in amplitude and 1 to 2 h in phase still exist between the data and the present theoretical model. The model couples a global thin-shell dynamo solution which takes into account the vertical structure of the winds with a full three-dimensional model of the equatorial electrojet. Part I is primarily concerned with the classical thin-shell global solution, whereas Part II (Forbes et al., J. Atmos. Terr. Phys.; 38:911 (1976)) deals solely with the equatorial electrojet; however, the equatorial magnetic variations to be presented here are taken from Part II. Previous global dynamo models have utilized winds which are shown to be unrealistic by recent measurements and dissipative tidal theory, and do not include the important effects of vertical current flow at the magnetic equator. Inclusion of vertical current effects, which are discussed in detail in Part II, relaxes the need for E-region diurnal wind speeds as large as those required by previous workers to reproduce the Ssub(q) current system. Computed vertical structures of the Ssub(q) currents explain some puzzling features of the few midlatitude rocket magnetometer measurements that are available. The Joule heating by Ssub(q) currents is comparable to solar EUV heating above 60/sup 0/N, but contribute negligibly to the total heat budget of the thermosphere.

  15. Space-borne observation of mesospheric bore by Visible and near Infrared Spectral Imager onboard the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hozumi, Y.; Saito, A.; Sakanoi, T.; Yamazaki, A.; Hosokawa, K.

    2017-12-01

    Mesospheric bores were observed by Visible and near Infrared Spectral Imager (VISI) of the ISS-IMAP mission (Ionosphere, Mesosphere, upper Atmosphere and Plasmasphere mapping mission from the International Space Station) in O2 airglow at 762 nm wavelength. The mesospheric bore is moving front of sharp jump followed by undulations or turbulence in the mesopause region. Since previous studies of mesospheric bore were mainly based on ground-based airglow imaging that is limited in field-of-view and observing site, little is known about its horizontal extent and global behavior. Space-borne imaging by ISS-IMAP/VISI provides an opportunity to study the mesospheric bore with a wide field-of-view and global coverage. A mesospheric bore was captured by VISI in two consecutive paths on 9 July 2015 over the south of African continent (48ºS - 54ºS and 15ºE). The wave front aligned with south-north direction and propagated to west. The phase velocity and wave length of the following undulation were estimated to 100 m/s and 30 km, respectively. Those parameters are similar to those reported by previous studies. 30º anti-clockwise rotation of the wave front was recognized in 100 min. Another mesospheric bore was captured on 9 May 2013 over the south Atlantic ocean (35ºS - 43ºS and 24ºW - 1ºE) with more than 2,200 km horizontal extent of wave front. The wave front aligned with southeast-northwest direction. Because the following undulation is recognized in the southwest side of the wave front, it is estimated to propagate to northeast direction. The wave front was modulated with 1,000 km wave length. This modulation implies inhomogeneity of the phase velocity.

  16. Energetic particle counterparts for geomagnetic pulsations of Pc1 and IPDP types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Yahnina

    Full Text Available Using the low-altitude NOAA satellite particle data, we study two kinds of localised variations of energetic proton fluxes at low altitude within the anisotropic zone equatorward of the isotropy boundary. These flux variation types have a common feature, i.e. the presence of precipitating protons measured by the MEPED instrument at energies more than 30 keV, but they are distinguished by the fact of the presence or absence of the lower-energy component as measured by the TED detector on board the NOAA satellite. The localised proton precipitating without a low-energy component occurs mostly in the morning-day sector, during quiet geomagnetic conditions, without substorm injections at geosynchronous orbit, and without any signatures of plasmaspheric plasma expansion to the geosynchronous distance. This precipitation pattern closely correlates with ground-based observations of continuous narrow-band Pc1 pulsations in the frequency range 0.1–2 Hz (hereafter Pc1. The precipitation pattern containing the low energy component occurs mostly in the evening sector, under disturbed geomagnetic conditions, and in association with energetic proton injections and significant increases of cold plasma density at geosynchronous orbit. This precipitation pattern is associated with geomagnetic pulsations called Intervals of Pulsations with Diminishing Periods (IPDP, but some minor part of the events is also related to narrow-band Pc1. Both Pc1 and IPDP pulsations are believed to be the electromagnetic ion-cyclotron waves generated by the ion-cyclotron instability in the equatorial plane. These waves scatter energetic protons in pitch angles, so we conclude that the precipitation patterns studied here are the particle counterparts of the ion-cyclotron waves.

    Key words. Ionosphere (particle precipitation – Magnetospheric physics (energetic particles, precipitating – Space plasma physics (wave-particle interactions

  17. Energetic particle counterparts for geomagnetic pulsations of Pc1 and IPDP types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Yahnina

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Using the low-altitude NOAA satellite particle data, we study two kinds of localised variations of energetic proton fluxes at low altitude within the anisotropic zone equatorward of the isotropy boundary. These flux variation types have a common feature, i.e. the presence of precipitating protons measured by the MEPED instrument at energies more than 30 keV, but they are distinguished by the fact of the presence or absence of the lower-energy component as measured by the TED detector on board the NOAA satellite. The localised proton precipitating without a low-energy component occurs mostly in the morning-day sector, during quiet geomagnetic conditions, without substorm injections at geosynchronous orbit, and without any signatures of plasmaspheric plasma expansion to the geosynchronous distance. This precipitation pattern closely correlates with ground-based observations of continuous narrow-band Pc1 pulsations in the frequency range 0.1–2 Hz (hereafter Pc1. The precipitation pattern containing the low energy component occurs mostly in the evening sector, under disturbed geomagnetic conditions, and in association with energetic proton injections and significant increases of cold plasma density at geosynchronous orbit. This precipitation pattern is associated with geomagnetic pulsations called Intervals of Pulsations with Diminishing Periods (IPDP, but some minor part of the events is also related to narrow-band Pc1. Both Pc1 and IPDP pulsations are believed to be the electromagnetic ion-cyclotron waves generated by the ion-cyclotron instability in the equatorial plane. These waves scatter energetic protons in pitch angles, so we conclude that the precipitation patterns studied here are the particle counterparts of the ion-cyclotron waves.Key words. Ionosphere (particle precipitation – Magnetospheric physics (energetic particles, precipitating – Space plasma physics (wave-particle interactions

  18. Evolution of Field-Aligned Electron and Ion Densities From Whistler Mode Radio Soundings During Quiet to Moderately Active Period and Comparisons With SAMI2 Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, A.; Sonwalkar, V. S.; Huba, J. D.

    2018-02-01

    Knowledge of field-aligned electron and ion distributions is necessary for understanding the physical processes causing variations in field-aligned electron and ion densities. Using whistler mode sounding by Radio Plasma Imager/Imager for Magnetopause-to-Aurora Global Exploration (RPI/IMAGE), we determined the evolution of dayside electron and ion densities along L ˜ 2 and L ˜ 3 (90-4,000 km) during a 7 day (21-27 November 2005) geomagnetically quiet to moderately active period. Over this period the O+/H+ transition height was ˜880 ± 60 km and ˜1000 ± 100 km, respectively, at L ˜ 2 and L ˜ 3. The electron density varied in a complex manner; it was different at L ˜ 2 and L ˜ 3 and below and above the O+/H+ transition height. The measured electron and ion densities are consistent with those from Challenging Minisatellite Payload (CHAMP) and Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) and other past measurements, but they deviated from bottomside sounding and International Reference Ionosphere (IRI) 2012 empirical model results. Using SAMI2 (Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) ionosphere model) with reasonably adjusted values of inputs (neutral densities, winds, electric fields, and photoelectron heating), we simulated the evolution of O+/H+ transition height and field-aligned electron and ion densities so that a fair agreement was obtained between the simulation results and observations. Simulation studies indicated that reduced neutral densities (H and/or O) with time limited O+-H charge exchange process. This reduction in neutral densities combined with changes in neutral winds and plasma temperature led to the observed variations in the electron and ion densities. The observation/simulation method presented here can be extended to investigate the role of neutral densities and composition, disturbed winds, and prompt penetration electric fields in the storm time ionosphere/plasmasphere dynamics.

  19. Pc 4-5 pulsations in the electric field at geostationary orbit (GEOS 2) triggered by sudden storm commencements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laakso, H.; Schmidt, R.

    1989-01-01

    A frequently observed feature in the electric field data on board GEOS 2 is the sudden occurrence of large-amplitude Pc 4-5 waves lasting from a few tens of minutes up to a few hours. For the events the authors have chosen it was found that the large-amplitude events (≥ 2 mV/m) are often accompanied by magnetic field data containing the signature of a compression of the magnetosphere. The occurrence of the compression coincides with the recording of an ssc (sudden storm commencement) on ground. The dc electric field measurements suggest that the Ex B/B 2 drift rapidly and temporarily rotates into a tailward plasma drift at 6.6 R E . The transient disturbances of the magnetopause also changed the widely scattered frequency distribution of the nearly always present fluctuations in the Pc 4-5 range into a narrow-band distribution, with frequently large amplitudes, after the occurrence of the ssc. The frequency distribution reveals a weak dependence on the local time such that the frequencies are close to 4 mHz near noon and abut 3 mHz near dawn and dusk. The rotational sense of polarization is left-handed between 0200 and 1200 LT and right-handed between 1400 and 2200 LT; a transition region exists between 1200 and 1400 LT. The authors argue that the transverse waves are the fundamental modes of the field line resonances while the compressional modes might be the fundamental modes and the second harmonics of the cavity resonances or the plasmasphere modes

  20. The inner magnetosphere imager mission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, L.; Herrmann, M.

    1993-01-01

    After 30 years of in situ measurements of the Earth's magnetosphere, scientists have assembled an incomplete picture of its global composition and dynamics. Imaging the magnetosphere from space will enable scientists to better understand the global shape of the inner magnetosphere, its components and processes. The proposed inner magnetosphere imager (IMI) mission will obtain the first simultaneous images of the component regions of the inner magnetosphere and will enable scientists to relate these global images to internal and external influences as well as local observations. To obtain simultaneous images of component regions of the inner magnetosphere, measurements will comprise: the ring current and inner plasma sheet using energetic neutral atoms; the plasmasphere using extreme ultraviolet; the electron and proton auroras using far ultraviolet (FUV) and x rays; and the geocorona using FUV. The George C. Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is performing a concept definition study of the proposed mission. NASA's Office of Space Science and Applications has placed the IMI third in its queue of intermediate-class missions for launch in the 1990's. An instrument complement of approximately seven imagers will fly in an elliptical Earth orbit with a seven Earth Radii (R E ) altitude apogee and approximately 4,800-kin altitude perigee. Several spacecraft concepts were examined for the mission. The first concept utilizes a spinning spacecraft with a despun platform. The second concept splits the instruments onto a spin-stabilized spacecraft and a complementary three-axis stabilized spacecraft. Launch options being assessed for the spacecraft range from a Delta 11 for the single and dual spacecraft concepts to dual Taurus launches for the two smaller spacecraft. This paper will address the mission objectives, the spacecraft design considerations, the results of the MSFC concept definition study, and future mission plans

  1. Modeling Whistler Wave Generation Regimes In Magnetospheric Cyclotron Maser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasmanik, D. L.; Demekhov, A. G.; Trakhtengerts, V. Y.; Parrot, M.

    Numerical analysis of the model for cyclotron instability development in the Earth magnetosphere is made.This model, based on the self-consistent set of equations of quasi-linear plasma theory, describes different regimes of wave generation and related energetic particle precipitation. As the source of free energy the injection of energetic electrons with transverse anisotropic distribution function to the interaction region is considered. Two different mechanisms of energetic electron loss from the interaction region are discussed. The first one is precipitation of energetic particles via the loss cone. The other mechanism is drift of particles away from the interaction region across the mag- netic field line. In the case of interaction in plasmasphere or rather large areas of cold plasma density enhancement the loss cone precipitation are dominant. For interaction in a subauroral duct losses due to drift are most effective. A parametric study of the model for both mechanisms of particle losses is made. The main attention is paid to the analysis of generation regimes for different characteristics of energetic electron source, such as the shape of pitch-angle distributions and elec- tron density. We show that in addition to the well-known stationary generation and periodic regime with successive spikes of similar shape, more complex forms of wave spectrum exist. In particular, we found a periodic regime, in which a single period in- cludes two separate spikes with different spectral shapes. In another regime, periodic generation of spikes at higher frequencies together with quasi-stationary generation at lower frequencies occurs. Quasi-periodic regime with spike overlapping, i.e. when generation of a new spike begins before the previous one is over is also found. Results obtained are compared with experimental data on quasi-periodic regimes of whistler wave generation.

  2. Multiple loss processes of relativistic electrons outside the heart of outer radiation belt during a storm sudden commencement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, J.

    2015-01-01

    By examining the compression-induced changes in the electron phase space density and pitch angle distribution observed by two satellites of Van Allen Probes (RBSP-A/B), we find that the relativistic electrons (>2 MeV) outside the heart of outer radiation belt (L*≥5) undergo multiple losses during a storm sudden commencement. The relativistic electron loss mainly occurs in the field-aligned direction (pitch angle α < 30° or >150°), and the flux decay of the field-aligned electrons is independent of the spatial location variations of the two satellites. However, the relativistic electrons in the pitch angle range of 30°–150° increase (decrease) with the decreasing (increasing) geocentric distance (|ΔL|<0.25) of the RBSP-B (RBSP-A) location, and the electron fluxes in the quasi-perpendicular direction display energy-dispersive oscillations in the Pc5 period range (2–10 min). The relativistic electron loss is confirmed by the decrease of electron phase space density at high-L shell after the magnetospheric compressions, and their loss is associated with the intense plasmaspheric hiss, electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves, relativistic electron precipitation (observed by POES/NOAA satellites at 850 km), and magnetic field fluctuations in the Pc5 band. Finally, the intense EMIC waves and whistler mode hiss jointly cause the rapidly pitch angle scattering loss of the relativistic electrons within 10 h. Moreover, the Pc5 ULF waves also lead to the slowly outward radial diffusion of the relativistic electrons in the high-L region with a negative electron phase space density gradient.

  3. Formation Mechanisms of the Spring-Autumn Asymmetry of the Midlatitudinal NmF2 under Daytime Quiet Geomagnetic Conditions at Low Solar Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlov, A. V.; Pavlova, N. M.

    2018-05-01

    Formation mechanism of the spring-autumn asymmetry of the F2-layer peak electron number density of the midlatitudinal ionosphere, NmF2, under daytime quiet geomagnetic conditions at low solar activity are studied. We used the ionospheric parameters measured by the ionosonde and incoherent scatter radar at Millstone Hill on March 3, 2007, March 29, 2007, September 12, 2007, and September 18, 1984. The altitudinal profiles of the electron density and temperature were calculated for the studied conditions using a one-dimensional, nonstationary, ionosphere-plasmasphere theoretical model for middle geomagnetic latitudes. The study has shown that there are two main factors contributing to the formation of the observed spring-autumn asymmetry of NmF2: first, the spring-autumn variations of the plasma drift along the geomagnetic field due to the corresponding variations in the components of the neutral wind velocity, and, second, the difference between the composition of the neutral atmosphere under the spring and autumn conditions at the same values of the universal time and the ionospheric F2-layer peak altitude. The seasonal variations of the rate of O+(4S) ion production, which are associated with chemical reactions with the participation of the electronically excited ions of atomic oxygen, does not significantly affect the studied NmF2 asymmetry. The difference in the degree of influence of O+(4S) ion reactions with vibrationally excited N2 and O2 on NmF2 under spring and autumn conditions does not significantly change the spring-autumn asymmetry of NmF2.

  4. Localized electron density enhancements in the high-altitude polar ionosphere and their relationships with storm-enhanced density (SED plumes and polar tongues of ionization (TOI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Kitanoya

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Events of localized electron density increase in the high-altitude (>3000 km polar ionosphere are occasionally identified by the thermal plasma instruments on the Akebono satellite. In this paper, we investigate the vertical density structure in one of such events in detail using simultaneous observations by the Akebono and DMSP F15 satellites, the SuperDARN radars, and a network of ground Global Positioning System (GPS receivers, and the statistical characteristics of a large number (>10 000 of such events using Akebono data over half of an 11-year solar cycle. At Akebono altitude, the parallel drift velocity is remarkably low and the O+ ion composition ratio remarkably high, inside the high plasma-density regions at high altitude. Detailed comparisons between Akebono, DMSP ion velocity and density, and GPS total electron content (TEC data suggest that the localized plasma density increase observed at high altitude on Akebono was likely connected with the polar tongue of ionization (TOI and/or storm enhanced density (SED plume observed in the F-region ionosphere. Together with the SuperDARN plasma convection map these data suggest that the TOI/SED plume penetrated into the polar cap due to anti-sunward convection and the plume existed in the same convection channel as the dense plasma at high altitude; in other words, the two were probably connected to each other by the convecting magnetic field lines. The observed features are consistent with the observed high-density plasma being transported from the mid-latitude ionosphere or plasmasphere and unlikely a part of the polar wind population.

  5. Solar-terrestrial disturbances of June-September 1982, 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ondoh, Tadanori; Sano, Yukizo.

    1985-01-01

    Global equivalent-current systems for geomagnetic variations observed at various ground stations are described on the northern polar map at 1630 UT, July 13 just after the SC, at 2330 UT, July 13 in an initial part of the main phase and at 0030 UT, July 14 in a well-developed part of the main phase during the geomagnetic storm of July 13-14, 1982. The equivalent current system just after the SC has two polar current vortices which are similar to those of the geomagnetically quiet equivalent -current system, Ssub(q)sup(p) in the sunlit polar region and the former current density is about ten times the latter. The equivalent current system in an initial part of the geomagnetic-storm main phase is similar to the DP-2 current system, and it seems to be caused by an intensified magnetospheric plasma-convection due to an enhancement of the large scale westward cross-tail electric field. The equivalent current system in a well-developed part of the storm main phase consists of a global current vortex which extends to mid-latitudes and it has strong westward currents in the dayside active region. The geomagnetically active region in the dayside mid-latitudes coincides approximately with the auroral-type hiss region observed by the ISIS-2 during the storm main-phase of July 14, 1982. The storm-time ionospheric ionization produced by precipitating electrons from an interaction between the plasmasphere and well-developed ring-current particles seems to contribute considerably to the change in the equivalent current system from two current vortices of the DP-2 type to one current vortex. This change in equivalent current system corresponds apparently to an expansion of the auroral zone towards mid-latitudes during the main phase of geomagnetic storm. (author)

  6. SuperDARN HOP radars observation of ionospheric convection associated with low-latitude aurora observed at Hokkaido, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishitani, N.; Hori, T.; Kataoka, R.; Ebihara, Y.; Shiokawa, K.; Otsuka, Y.; Suzuki, H.; Yoshikawa, A.

    2016-12-01

    The SuperDARN HOkkaido Pair of (HOP) radars, consisting of the Hokkaido East (2006-) and West (2014-) radars, are the SuperDARN radars located at the lowest geomagnetic latitude (36.5 degrees), and have been continuously measuring ionospheric convection at high to subauroral and middle latitudes with high temporal resolutions (Japan from 15 to 19 UT on March 17, 2015 and from 1900 to 2030 UT on December 20, 2015, identified using optical instruments such as all-sky CCD camera, wide field of view digital camera and meridian scanning photometer. Both events occurred during the main phase of the relatively large geomagnetic storms with minimum Dst of -223 nT and -170 nT respectively. The ionospheric convection at mid-latitude regions associated with the low-latitude auroral emission is characterized by (1) transient equatorward flows up to about 500 m/s in the initial phase of the emission (the geomagnetic field data at Paratunka, Far East Russia show corresponding negative excursions), and (2) sheared flow structure consisting of westward flow (about 500 m/s) equatorward of eastward flow (1000 m/s), with the equatorward boundary of auroral emission embedded in the westward flow region which expanded up to below 50 deg geomagnetic latitude. These observations imply that the electric field / convection distribution plays important roles in continuously generating the low latitude auroral emission. In particular the observation of the equatorward flow (dawn-dusk electric field) up to as low as about 50 deg geomagnetic latitude is the direct evidence for the presence of electric field to drive ring current particles into the plasmaspheric regions.

  7. Storm time electric field penetration observed at mid-latitude

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeh, H.C.; Foster, J.C.; Rich, F.J.; Swider, W.

    1991-01-01

    During the height of the February 8-9, 1986, magnetic storm the Millstone Hill radar was in the evening local time sector (1600-2200 MLT). Radar observations indicate that high speed (>1,000 m s -1 ) westward ion flow penetrated deeply below 50 degree invariant latitude (Λ) and persisted for 6 hours between 2100 UT on February 8 and 0300 UT on February 9. The double-peaked ion convection feature was pronounced throughout the period, and the separation in the dual maxima ranged from 4 degree to 10 degree. The latitude positions of the high-latitude ion drift peak and the convection reversal varied in unison. The low-latitude ion drift peak (∼49 degree Λ or L =2.3) did not show significant universal time/magnetic local time (UT/MLT) variation in its latitude location but showed a decrease in magnitude during the initial recovery phase of the storm. Using simultaneous particle (30 eV-30 keV) precipitation data from the DMSP F6 and F7 satellites, the authors find the high-latitude ion drift peak to coincide with the boundary plasma sheet/central plasma sheet transition in the high ionospheric conductivity (>15 mho) region. The low-latitude ion drift peak lay between the equatorward edges of the electron and soft ( + dominated ring current energy density in magnetic latitude. The low-latitude ion drift peak is the low-altitude signature of the electric field shielding effect associated with ring current penetration into the outer layer of the storm time plasmasphere

  8. Multipoint spacecraft observations of long-lasting poloidal Pc4 pulsations in the dayside magnetosphere on 1–2 May 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Korotova

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available We use magnetic field and plasma observations from the Van Allen Probes, Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms (THEMIS and Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite system (GOES spacecraft to study the spatial and temporal characteristics of long-lasting poloidal Pc4 pulsations in the dayside magnetosphere. The pulsations were observed after the main phase of a moderate storm during low geomagnetic activity. The pulsations occurred during various interplanetary conditions and the solar wind parameters do not seem to control the occurrence of the pulsations. The most striking feature of the Pc4 magnetic field pulsations was their occurrence at similar locations during three of four successive orbits. We used this information to study the latitudinal nodal structure of the pulsations and demonstrated that the latitudinal extent of the magnetic field pulsations did not exceed 2 Earth radii (RE. A phase shift between the azimuthal and radial components of the electric and magnetic fields was observed from ZSM  =  0.30 RE to ZSM  =  −0.16 RE. We used magnetic and electric field data from Van Allen Probes to determine the structure of ULF waves. We showed that the Pc4 magnetic field pulsations were radially polarized and are the second-mode harmonic waves. We suggest that the spacecraft were near a magnetic field null during the second orbit when they failed to observe the magnetic field pulsations at the local times where pulsations were observed on previous and successive orbits. We investigated the spectral structure of the Pc4 pulsations. Each spacecraft observed a decrease of the dominant period as it moved to a smaller L shell (stronger magnetic field strength. We demonstrated that higher frequencies occurred at times and locations where Alfvén velocities were greater, i.e., on Orbit 1. There is some evidence that the periods of the pulsations increased during the plasmasphere refilling

  9. Observations from Millstone Hill during the geomagnetic disturbances of March and April 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buonsanto, M.J.; Foster, J.C.; Sipler, D.P.

    1992-01-01

    The incoherent scatter radars at Millstone Hill operated continuously during the periods March 16-23 and April 6-12, 1990, providing observations of large-scale ionospheric structure and dynamics over a large portion of eastern North America. Major geomagnetic storms occurred during each of these periods, with deep nighttime ionospheric troughs and large magnetospheric convection electric fields observed equatorward of Millstone. The Millstone observations provide a comprehensive data set detailing storm-induced ionospheric effects over a 35 degree span of latitude during both of these intervals. At the latitude of Millstone the ionospheric peak height hmF2 rose above 600 km the into trough on March 22 and 23 and reached ∼500 km at night on April 11 and 12. Increased recombination, apparently due to the strong electric fields, te temperature dependent recombination rate coefficient, and neutral composition changes, greatly depleted the F2 region over a wide latitude range during the day on April 10, 1990. This resulted in an ionosphere dominated by molecular ions, with ionospheric peak heights below 200 km on this day. A number of frictional heating events during the disturbed periods are seen from comparison of ion temperature and velocity measurements. The most intense event took place near 1200 UT on April 10, 1990, when Kp reached 8. At 0100 UT on March 21, line of sight ion velocities in excess of 500 ms -1 were observed at the extreme southern limit of the Millstone steerable radar's field of view (40 degree apex magnetic latitude at an altitude of 700 km). These could be due to penetration of magnetospheric electric fields or electric fields associated with ring current shielding in the storm-time outer plasmasphere. About an hour later, ion outflow was observed just equatorward of Millstone

  10. Electron precipitation induced by VLF noise bursts at the plasmapause and detected at conjugate ground stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dingle, B.; Carpenter, D.L.

    1981-01-01

    A new type of wave-induced electron precipitation event has been identified. During observations at conjugate stations Siple, Antarctica, and Roberval, Canada (L-4.2), VLF noise bursts were found to be associated on a one-to-one basis with amplitude perturbations of subionispheric radio propagation. The amplitude perturbations are attributed to patches of enhanced ionization that extended below approx.80 km in the nighttime ionosphere and that were produced by precipitating electron bursts. Similar amplitude perturbations seen previously were correlated with whistlers that propagated within the plasmasphere. For the new events the driving waves were structured collections of rising elements that propagated just beyond the plasmapause at roughly 5-min intervals over a several-hour period. These noise bursts were of relatively long duration (approx.10 s) and strong intensity (inferred to be >30 pT at the equator). Triggering of the noise bursts appears to have been mostly by whistlers but changed in character with time. Some later bursts had narrowband precursors at constant frequencies possibly locked to power line harmonic radiation. The burst initiation characteristics suggest the existence of a variable threshold for rapid temporal growth in the magnetosphere controlled by the trapped electron dynamics. The temporal signatures of the amplitude perturbations show that precipitation was maintained over multiple bounces of the trapped magnetospheric electrons. In some cases these signatures include a new undershoot effect during the recovery phase lasting 2--5 min. This effect may have been related to cutoff of background drizzle precipitation. Precipitation effects were observed on both long (approx.10 Mm) and short (approx.1/2 Mm) subionospheric paths and were monitored simultaneously at the conjugate stations. Similarities in the perturbation signatures on long and short paths suggest that the form of the signatures was governed by ionospheric changes

  11. SSC-excited pulsations recorded near noon on GEOS 2 and on the ground (CDAW 6)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wedeken, U.; Voelker, H.; Knott, K.; Lester, M.

    1986-01-01

    The SSC occurring on March 22, 1979, at 0826 UT had an unusually sharp onset in Scandinavia, in Middle Europe and in experiments on the geostationary satellite GEOS 2, which was near noon, local magnetic time. The ground magnetometer stations showed a small preimpuse which started approx.5 s before the main impulse. Both impulses needed approx.2 s to ''propagate'' from ground stations at L = 6.3-4.6. Search coil magnetometers indicate a very small precursor in northern Finland (Lapprox.4.4-6.0) which started approx.15-20 s before the main impulse. This small precursor also occurred close to the time of the SSC onset at GEOS 2. We interpret this precursor as an effect of precipitating electrons changing the ionospheric conductivity in a localized region. The main impulse triggered damped magnetic pulsations (Psc) with periods near 160 s and 50 s visible in northern Scandinavia and the electric field detector on GEOS 2. Furthermore, the magnetic field and the energetic ions at GEOS observed pulsations with periods near 80 s, but these could only be observed at the northernmost ground stations. There are several indications that the first three harmonics of standing hydromagnetic waves are detected. They may correspond to periodic oscillations of the subsolar point or eigenperiods of the SSC-excited fast mode (compressional cavity resonance). The tentatively identified second harmonic wave (period approx.80 s) is indicative of a bounce resonance of ring current protons. Inside the plasmasphere the dominant period of a superimposed Psc 4 event increased with latitude for the H component indicating several toroidal eigenoscillations

  12. Possible Cause of Extremely Bright Aurora Witnessed in East Asia on 17 September 1770

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebihara, Yusuke; Hayakawa, Hisashi; Iwahashi, Kiyomi; Tamazawa, Harufumi; Kawamura, Akito Davis; Isobe, Hiroaki

    2017-10-01

    Extremely bright aurora was witnessed in East Asia on 17 September 1770, according to historical documents. The aurora was described as "as bright as a night with full moon" at magnetic latitude of 25°. The aurora was dominated by red color extending from near the horizon up beyond the polar star (corresponding to elevation angle of 35°). We performed a two-stream electron transport code to calculate the volume emission rates at 557.7 nm (OI) and 630.0 nm (OI). Two types of distribution of precipitating electrons were assumed. The first one is based on the unusually intense electron flux measured by the DMSP satellite in the March 1989 storm. The distribution consists of hot (peaking at 3 keV) and cold (peaking at 71 eV) components. The second one is the same as the first one, but the hot component is removed. We call this high-intensity low-energy electrons (HILEEs). The first spectrum results in an auroral display with a bright, lower green border. The second one results in red-dominated aurora extending up to the elevation angle of 35° when the equatorward boundary of the electron precipitation is located at 32° invariant latitude. The poleward boundary of the precipitation would be 42° invariant latitude or greater to explain the auroral display extending from near the horizon. The origin of the HILEEs is probably the plasma sheet or the plasmasphere that is transported earthward to L 1.39 due to enhanced magnetospheric convection. Local heating or acceleration is also plausible.

  13. Annual and semiannual variations in the ionospheric F2-layer. I. Modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Zou

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available Annual, seasonal and semiannual variations of F2-layer electron density (NmF2 and height (hmF2 have been compared with the coupled thermosphere-ionosphere-plasmasphere computational model (CTIP, for geomagnetically quiet conditions. Compared with results from ionosonde data from midlatitudes, CTIP reproduces quite well many observed features of NmF2, such as the dominant winter maxima at high midlatitudes in longitude sectors near the magnetic poles, the equinox maxima in sectors remote from the magnetic poles and at lower latitudes generally, and the form of the month-to-month variations at latitudes between about 60°N and 50°S. CTIP also reproduces the seasonal behaviour of NmF2 at midnight and the summer-winter changes of hmF2. Some features of the F2-layer, not reproduced by the present version of CTIP, are attributed to processes not included in the modelling. Examples are the increased prevalence of the winter maxima of noon NmF2 at higher solar activity, which may be a consequence of the increase of F2-layer loss rate in summer by vibrationally excited molecular nitrogen, and the semiannual variation in hmF2, which may be due to tidal effects. An unexpected feature of the computed distributions of NmF2 is an east-west hemisphere difference, which seems to be linked to the geomagnetic field configuration. Physical discussion is reserved to the companion paper by Rishbeth et al.Key words: Atmospheric composition and structure (thermosphere-composition and chemistry - Ionosphere (mid-latitude ionosphere; modelling and forecasting

  14. Annual and semiannual variations in the ionospheric F2-layer. I. Modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Zou

    Full Text Available Annual, seasonal and semiannual variations of F2-layer electron density (NmF2 and height (hmF2 have been compared with the coupled thermosphere-ionosphere-plasmasphere computational model (CTIP, for geomagnetically quiet conditions. Compared with results from ionosonde data from midlatitudes, CTIP reproduces quite well many observed features of NmF2, such as the dominant winter maxima at high midlatitudes in longitude sectors near the magnetic poles, the equinox maxima in sectors remote from the magnetic poles and at lower latitudes generally, and the form of the month-to-month variations at latitudes between about 60°N and 50°S. CTIP also reproduces the seasonal behaviour of NmF2 at midnight and the summer-winter changes of hmF2. Some features of the F2-layer, not reproduced by the present version of CTIP, are attributed to processes not included in the modelling. Examples are the increased prevalence of the winter maxima of noon NmF2 at higher solar activity, which may be a consequence of the increase of F2-layer loss rate in summer by vibrationally excited molecular nitrogen, and the semiannual variation in hmF2, which may be due to tidal effects. An unexpected feature of the computed distributions of NmF2 is an east-west hemisphere difference, which seems to be linked to the geomagnetic field configuration. Physical discussion is reserved to the companion paper by Rishbeth et al.

    Key words: Atmospheric composition and structure (thermosphere-composition and chemistry - Ionosphere (mid-latitude ionosphere; modelling and forecasting

  15. Quantitative Simulation of QARBM Challenge Events During Radiation Belt Enhancements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, W.; Ma, Q.; Thorne, R. M.; Bortnik, J.; Chu, X.

    2017-12-01

    Various physical processes are known to affect energetic electron dynamics in the Earth's radiation belts, but their quantitative effects at different times and locations in space need further investigation. This presentation focuses on discussing the quantitative roles of various physical processes that affect Earth's radiation belt electron dynamics during radiation belt enhancement challenge events (storm-time vs. non-storm-time) selected by the GEM Quantitative Assessment of Radiation Belt Modeling (QARBM) focus group. We construct realistic global distributions of whistler-mode chorus waves, adopt various versions of radial diffusion models (statistical and event-specific), and use the global evolution of other potentially important plasma waves including plasmaspheric hiss, magnetosonic waves, and electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves from all available multi-satellite measurements. These state-of-the-art wave properties and distributions on a global scale are used to calculate diffusion coefficients, that are then adopted as inputs to simulate the dynamical electron evolution using a 3D diffusion simulation during the storm-time and the non-storm-time acceleration events respectively. We explore the similarities and differences in the dominant physical processes that cause radiation belt electron dynamics during the storm-time and non-storm-time acceleration events. The quantitative role of each physical process is determined by comparing against the Van Allen Probes electron observations at different energies, pitch angles, and L-MLT regions. This quantitative comparison further indicates instances when quasilinear theory is sufficient to explain the observed electron dynamics or when nonlinear interaction is required to reproduce the energetic electron evolution observed by the Van Allen Probes.

  16. Fundamental processes in the expansion, energization, and coupling of single- and multi-Ion plasmas in space: Laboratory simulation experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szuszczewicz, E. P.; Bateman, T. T.

    1996-01-01

    We have conducted a laboratory investigation into the physics of plasma expansions and their associated energization processes. We studied single- and multi-ion plasma processes in self-expansions, and included light and heavy ions and heavy/light mixtures to encompass the phenomenological regimes of the solar and polar winds and the AMPTE and CRRES chemical release programs. The laboratory experiments provided spatially-distributed time-dependent measurements of total plasma density, temperature, and density fluctuation power spectra with the data confirming the long-theorized electron energization process in an expanding cloud - a result that was impossible to determine in spaceborne experiments (as e.g., in the CRRES program). These results provided the missing link in previous laboratory and spaceborne programs. confirming important elements in our understanding of such solar-terrestrial processes as manifested in expanding plasmas in the solar wind (e.g., CMES) and in ionospheric outflow in plasmaspheric fluctuate refilling after a storm. The energization signatures were seen in an entire series of runs that varied the ion species (Ar', Xe', Kr' and Ne'), and correlative studies included spectral analyses of electrostatic waves collocated with the energized electron distributions. In all cases wave energies were most intense during the times in which the suprathermal populations were present, with wave intensity increasing with the intensity of the suprathermal electron population. This is consistent with theoretical expectations wherein the energization process is directly attributable to wave particle interactions. No resonance conditions were observed, in an overall framework in which the general wave characteristics were broadband with power decreasing with increasing frequency.

  17. Multi-scale model of the ionosphere from the combination of modern space-geodetic satellite techniques - project status and first results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, M.; Hugentobler, U.; Jakowski, N.; Dettmering, D.; Liang, W.; Limberger, M.; Wilken, V.; Gerzen, T.; Hoque, M.; Berdermann, J.

    2012-04-01

    Near real-time high resolution and high precision ionosphere models are needed for a large number of applications, e.g. in navigation, positioning, telecommunications or astronautics. Today these ionosphere models are mostly empirical, i.e., based purely on mathematical approaches. In the DFG project 'Multi-scale model of the ionosphere from the combination of modern space-geodetic satellite techniques (MuSIK)' the complex phenomena within the ionosphere are described vertically by combining the Chapman electron density profile with a plasmasphere layer. In order to consider the horizontal and temporal behaviour the fundamental target parameters of this physics-motivated approach are modelled by series expansions in terms of tensor products of localizing B-spline functions depending on longitude, latitude and time. For testing the procedure the model will be applied to an appropriate region in South America, which covers relevant ionospheric processes and phenomena such as the Equatorial Anomaly. The project connects the expertise of the three project partners, namely Deutsches Geodätisches Forschungsinstitut (DGFI) Munich, the Institute of Astronomical and Physical Geodesy (IAPG) of the Technical University Munich (TUM) and the German Aerospace Center (DLR), Neustrelitz. In this presentation we focus on the current status of the project. In the first year of the project we studied the behaviour of the ionosphere in the test region, we setup appropriate test periods covering high and low solar activity as well as winter and summer and started the data collection, analysis, pre-processing and archiving. We developed partly the mathematical-physical modelling approach and performed first computations based on simulated input data. Here we present information on the data coverage for the area and the time periods of our investigations and we outline challenges of the multi-dimensional mathematical-physical modelling approach. We show first results, discuss problems

  18. Radiation belt electron acceleration during the 17 March 2015 geomagnetic storm: Observations and simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, W.; Ma, Q.; Thorne, R. M.; Bortnik, J.; Zhang, X.-J.

    2016-01-01

    Various physical processes are known to cause acceleration, loss, and transport of energetic electrons in the Earth's radiation belts, but their quantitative roles in different time and space need further investigation. During the largest storm over the past decade (17 March 2015), relativistic electrons experienced fairly rapid acceleration up to ~7 MeV within 2 days after an initial substantial dropout, as observed by Van Allen Probes. In the present paper, we evaluate the relative roles of various physical processes during the recovery phase of this large storm using a 3-D diffusion simulation. By quantitatively comparing the observed and simulated electron evolution, we found that chorus plays a critical role in accelerating electrons up to several MeV near the developing peak location and produces characteristic flat-top pitch angle distributions. By only including radial diffusion, the simulation underestimates the observed electron acceleration, while radial diffusion plays an important role in redistributing electrons and potentially accelerates them to even higher energies. Moreover, plasmaspheric hiss is found to provide efficient pitch angle scattering losses for hundreds of keV electrons, while its scattering effect on > 1 MeV electrons is relatively slow. Although an additional loss process is required to fully explain the overestimated electron fluxes at multi-MeV, the combined physical processes of radial diffusion and pitch angle and energy diffusion by chorus and hiss reproduce the observed electron dynamics remarkably well, suggesting that quasi-linear diffusion theory is reasonable to evaluate radiation belt electron dynamics during this big storm.

  19. Occurrence of the dayside three-peak density structure in the F2 and the topside ionosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astafyeva, Elvira; Zakharenkova, Irina; Pineau, Yann

    2016-07-01

    In this work, we discuss the occurrence of the dayside three-peak electron density structure in the ionosphere. We first use a set of ground-based and satellite-borne instruments to demonstrate the development of a large-amplitude electron density perturbation at the recovery phase of a moderate storm of 11 October 2008. The perturbation developed in the F2 and low topside ionospheric regions over the American sector; it was concentrated on the north from the equatorial ionization anomaly (EIA) but was clearly separated from it. At the F2 region height, the amplitude of the observed perturbation was comparable or even exceeded that of the EIA. Further analysis of the observational data together with the Coupled Thermosphere Ionosphere Plasmasphere Electrodynamics model simulation results showed that a particular local combination of the thermospheric wind surges provided favorable conditions for the generation of the three-peak EIA structure. We further proceed with a statistical study of occurrence of the three-peak density structure in the ionosphere in general. Based on the analysis of 7 years of the in situ data from CHAMP satellite, we found that such three-peak density structure occurs sufficiently often during geomagnetically quiet time. The third ionization peak develops in the afternoon hours in the summer hemisphere at solstice periods. Based on analysis of several quiet time events, we conclude that during geomagnetically quiet time, the prevailing summer-to-winter thermospheric circulation acts in similar manner as the storm-time enhanced thermospheric winds, playing the decisive role in generation of the third ionization peak in the daytime ionosphere.

  20. The impact of exospheric neutral dynamics on ring current decay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilie, R.; Liemohn, M. W.; Skoug, R. M.; Funsten, H. O.; Gruntman, M.; Bailey, J. J.; Toth, G.

    2015-12-01

    The geocorona plays an important role in the energy budget of the Earth's inner magnetosphere since charge exchange of energetic ions with exospheric neutrals makes the exosphere act as an energy sink for ring current particles. Long-term ring current decay following a magnetic storm is mainly due to these electron transfer reactions, leading to the formation energetic neutral atoms (ENAs) that leave the ring current system on ballistic trajectories. The number of ENAs emitted from a given region of space depends on several factors, such as the energy and species of the energetic ion population in that region and the density of the neutral gas with which the ions undergo charge exchange. However, the density and structure of the exosphere are strongly dependent on changes in atmospheric temperature and density as well as charge exchange with the ions of plasmaspheric origin, which depletes the geocorona (by having a neutral removed from the system). Moreover, the radiation pressure exerted by solar far-ultraviolet photons pushes the geocoronal hydrogen away from the Earth in an anti-sunward direction to form a tail of neutral hydrogen. TWINS ENA images provide a direct measurement of these ENA losses and therefore insight into the dynamics of the ring current decay through interactions with the geocorona. We assess the influence of geocoronal neutrals on ring current formation and decay by analysis of the predicted ENA emissions using 6 different geocoronal models and simulations from the HEIDI ring current model during storm time. Comparison with TWINS ENA images shows that the location of the peak ENA enhancements is highly dependent on the distribution of geocoronal hydrogen density. We show that the neutral dynamics has a strong influence on the time evolution of the ring current populations as well as on the formation of energetic neutral atoms.

  1. Narrow-band emission with 0.5 to 3.5 Hz varying frequency in the background of the main phase of the 17 March 2013 magnetic storm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Potapov A.S.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We present results of the analysis of an unusually long narrow-band emission in the Pc1 range with increasing carrier frequency. The event was observed against the background of the main phase of a strong magnetic storm caused by arrival of a high-speed solar wind stream with a shock wave in the stream head and a long interval of negative vertical component of the interplanetary magnetic field. Emission of approximately 9-hour duration had a local character, appearing only at three stations located in the range of geographical longitude λ=100–130 E and magnetic shells L=2.2–3.4. The signal carrier frequency grew in a stepped mode from 0.5 to 3.5 Hz. We propose an emission interpretation based on the standard model of the generation of ion cyclotron waves in the magnetosphere due to the resonant wave-particle interaction with ion fluxes of moderate energies. We suppose that a continuous shift of the generation region, located in the outer area of the plasmasphere, to smaller L-shell is able to explain both the phenomenon locality and the range of the frequency increase. A narrow emission frequency band is associated with the formation of nose-like structures in the energy spectrum of ion fluxes penetrating from the geomagnetic tail into the magnetosphere. We offer a possible scenario of the processes leading to the generation of the observed emission. The scenario contains specific values of the generation region position, plasma density, magnetic field, and resonant proton energies. We discuss morphological differences of the emissions considered from known types of geomagnetic pulsations, and reasons for the occurrence of this unusual event.

  2. The effects of nitric oxide cooling and the photodissociation of molecular oxygen on the thermosphere/ionosphere system over the Argentine Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. D. Wells

    1997-03-01

    Full Text Available In the past the global, fully coupled, time-dependent mathematical model of the Earth's thermosphere/ionosphere/plasmasphere (CTIP has been unable to reproduce accurately observed values of the maximum plasma frequency, foF2, at extreme geophysical locations such as the Argentine Islands during the summer solstice where the ionosphere remains in sunlight throughout the day. This is probably because the seasonal dependence of thermospheric cooling by 5.3 µm nitric oxide has been neglected and the photodissociation of O2 and heating rate calculations have been over-simplified. Now we have included an up-to-date calculation of the solar EUV and UV thermospheric heating rate, coupled with a new calculation of a diurnally varying O2 photodissociation rate, in the model. Seasonally dependent 5.3 µm nitric oxide cooling is also included. With these important improvements, it is found that model values of foF2 are in substantially better agreement with observation. The height of the F2-peak is reduced throughout the day, but remains within acceptable limits of values derived from observation, except at around 0600 h LT. We also carry out two studies of the sensitivity of the upper atmosphere to changes in the magnitude of nitric oxide cooling and photodissociation rates. We find that hmF2 increases with increased heating, whilst foF2 falls. The converse is true for an increase in the cooling rate. Similarly increasing the photodissociation rate increases both hmF2 and foF2. These changes are explained in terms of changes in the neutral temperature, composition and neutral wind.

  3. Positive and negative ionospheric storms occurring during the 15 May 2005 geomagnetic superstorm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvath, Ildiko; Lovell, Brian C.

    2015-09-01

    This study focuses on the 15 May 2005 geomagnetic superstorm and aims to investigate the global variation of positive and negative storm phases and their development. Observations are provided by a series of global total electron content maps and multi-instrument line plots. Coupled Thermosphere-Ionosphere-Plasmasphere electrodynamics (CTIPe) simulations are also employed. Results reveal some sunward streaming plumes of storm-enhanced density (SED) over Asia and a well-developed midlatitude trough over North America forming isolated positive and negative storms, respectively. The simultaneous development of positive and negative storms over North America is also shown. Then, some enhanced auroral ionizations maintained by strong equatorward neutral winds appeared in the depleted nighttime ionosphere. Meanwhile, the northern nighttime polar region became significantly depleted as the SED plume plasma could not progress further than the dayside cusp. Oppositely, a polar tongue of ionization (TOI) developed in the daytime southern polar region. According to CTIP simulations, solar heating locally maximized (minimized) over the southern (northern) magnetic pole. Furthermore, strong upward surges of molecular-rich air created O/N2 decreases both in the auroral zone and in the trough region, while some SED-related downward surges produced O/N2 increases. From these results we conclude for the time period studied that (1) composition changes contributed to the formation of positive and negative storms, (2) strengthening polar convection and increasing solar heating of the polar cap supported polar TOI development, and (3) a weaker polar convection and minimized solar heating of the polar cap aided the depletion of polar plasma.

  4. Multi-satellite study of the excitation of Pc3 and Pc4-5 ULF waves and their penetration across the plasmapause during the 2003 Halloween superstorm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasis, G.; Daglis, I. A.; Mann, I. R.; Papadimitriou, C.; Zesta, E.; Georgiou, M.; Haagmans, R.; Tsinganos, K.

    2015-10-01

    We use multi-satellite and ground-based magnetic data to investigate the concurrent characteristics of Pc3 (22-100 mHz) and Pc4-5 (1-22 mHz) ultra-low-frequency (ULF) waves on the 31 October 2003 during the Halloween magnetic superstorm. ULF waves are seen in the Earth's magnetosphere, topside ionosphere, and Earth's surface, enabling an examination of their propagation characteristics. We employ a time-frequency analysis technique and examine data from when the Cluster and CHAMP spacecraft were in good local time (LT) conjunction near the dayside noon-midnight meridian. We find clear evidence of the excitation of both Pc3 and Pc4-5 waves, but more significantly we find a clear separation in the L shell of occurrence of the Pc4-5 and Pc3 waves in the equatorial inner magnetosphere, separated by the density gradients at the plasmapause boundary layer. A key finding of the wavelet spectral analysis of data collected from the Geotail, Cluster, and CHAMP spacecraft and the CARISMA and GIMA magnetometer networks was a remarkably clear transition of the waves' frequency into dominance in a higher-frequency regime within the Pc3 range. Analysis of the local field line resonance frequency suggests that the separation of the Pc4-5 and Pc3 emissions across the plasmapause is consistent with the structure of the inhomogeneous field line resonance Alfvén continuum. The Pc4-5 waves are consistent with direct excitation by the solar wind in the plasma trough, as well as Pc3 wave absorption in the plasmasphere following excitation by upstream waves originating at the bow shock in the local noon sector. However, despite good solar wind coverage, our study was not able to unambiguously identify a clear explanation for the sharp universal time (UT) onset of the discrete frequency and large-amplitude Pc3 wave power.

  5. Equatorial westward electrojet impacting equatorial ionization anomaly development during the 6 April 2000 superstorm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvath, Ildiko; Lovell, Brian C.

    2013-11-01

    investigate the forward plasma fountain and the equatorial ionosphere in the topside region during the 6 April 2000 superstorm in the Australian sector at ~0900 LT. Space- and ground-based multi-instrument measurements, Coupled Thermosphere-Ionosphere-Plasmasphere Electrodynamics (CTIPe) simulations, and field-aligned observations comprise our results. These reveal an unusual storm development during which the eastward prompt penetration electric (E) field (PPEF) developed and operated under the continuous effects of the westward disturbance dynamo E-field (DDEF) while large-scale traveling ionospheric disturbances (TIDs) traveled equatorward and generated strong equatorward wind surges. We have identified the eastward PPEF by the superfountain effect causing the equatorial ionization anomaly (EIA)'s development with crests situated at ~±28°N (geomagnetic) in the topside ionosphere at ~840 km altitude. The westward DDEF's occurrence is confirmed by mapping the "anti-Sq" current system wherein the equatorial westward current created a weak long-lasting westward electrojet event. Line plots of vertical drift data tracked large-scale TIDs. Four scenarios, covering ~3.5 h in universal time, demonstrate that the westward DDEF became superimposed on the eastward PPEF. As these E-fields of different origins became mapped into the F region, they could interact. Consequently, the eastward PPEF-related equatorial upward E × B drift became locally reduced by up to 75 m/s near the dip equator by the westward DDEF-related equatorial downward E × B drift. Meanwhile, the EIA displayed a better development as equatorial wind surges, reproduced by CTIPe, increased from 501 to 629 m/s, demonstrating the crucial role of mechanical wind effects keeping plasma density high.

  6. Multi-satellite study of the excitation of Pc3 and Pc4-5 ULF waves and their penetration across the plasmapause during the 2003 Halloween superstorm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Balasis

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available We use multi-satellite and ground-based magnetic data to investigate the concurrent characteristics of Pc3 (22–100 mHz and Pc4-5 (1–22 mHz ultra-low-frequency (ULF waves on the 31 October 2003 during the Halloween magnetic superstorm. ULF waves are seen in the Earth's magnetosphere, topside ionosphere, and Earth's surface, enabling an examination of their propagation characteristics. We employ a time–frequency analysis technique and examine data from when the Cluster and CHAMP spacecraft were in good local time (LT conjunction near the dayside noon–midnight meridian. We find clear evidence of the excitation of both Pc3 and Pc4-5 waves, but more significantly we find a clear separation in the L shell of occurrence of the Pc4-5 and Pc3 waves in the equatorial inner magnetosphere, separated by the density gradients at the plasmapause boundary layer. A key finding of the wavelet spectral analysis of data collected from the Geotail, Cluster, and CHAMP spacecraft and the CARISMA and GIMA magnetometer networks was a remarkably clear transition of the waves' frequency into dominance in a higher-frequency regime within the Pc3 range. Analysis of the local field line resonance frequency suggests that the separation of the Pc4-5 and Pc3 emissions across the plasmapause is consistent with the structure of the inhomogeneous field line resonance Alfvén continuum. The Pc4-5 waves are consistent with direct excitation by the solar wind in the plasma trough, as well as Pc3 wave absorption in the plasmasphere following excitation by upstream waves originating at the bow shock in the local noon sector. However, despite good solar wind coverage, our study was not able to unambiguously identify a clear explanation for the sharp universal time (UT onset of the discrete frequency and large-amplitude Pc3 wave power.

  7. Comparison of GPS-derived TEC with IRI-2012 and IRI-2007 TEC predictions at Surat, a location around the EIA crest in the Indian sector, during the ascending phase of solar cycle 24

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, N. C.; Karia, S. P.; Pathak, K. N.

    2017-07-01

    This paper presents a comparison of GPS-derived TEC with IRI-2012 and IRI-2007 TEC Predictions at Surat (21.16°N Geographic latitude, 72.78°E Geographic longitude, 12.90°N Geomagnetic latitude) a location around the Equatorial Ionisation Anomaly (EIA) crest in the Indian sector, during the Ascending Phase of Solar Cycle 24, for a period of three years (January 2010-December 2012). In this comparison, plasmaspheric electron content (PEC) contribution to the GPS-TEC has been removed. It is observed that percentage PEC contribution to the GPS-TEC varies from about ∼15% (at the noon local time) to about ∼30% (at the morning local time). From the monthly comparison of GPS-TEC with IRI-TEC, it is observed that, TEC predicted by both the models overestimates in June-2012 and underestimates TEC in November-2011, December-2011 and March-2011. For all other months IRI estimates the TEC well. From the seasonal comparison, it is observed that the peak time appears ∼1-h later than the actual peak time in Winter 2010, Summer 2011, and Equinox 2010 and 2012 (the result suggest that it may be due to discrepancies/disagreement of both the versions of the IRI model in estimating the peak density as well as the thickness and shape parameters of the electron density profiles). For the Summer season, the IRI-TEC estimates the TEC well for all the years. Further, the seasonal variation of the GPS-TEC for all the three years matches well with IRI-2012 model compared to IRI-2007 model. Also, the mean annual TEC is predicted well by both the versions of the IRI model.

  8. Mapping lightning discharges on Earth with lightning-generated whistlers wave emission in space and their effects on radiation belt electrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farges, T.; Ripoll, J. F.; Santolik, O.; Kolmasova, I.; Kurth, W. S.; Hospodarsky, G. B.; Kletzing, C.

    2017-12-01

    It is widely accepted that the slot region of the Van Allen radiation belts is sculpted by the presence of whistler mode waves especially by plasmaspheric hiss emissions. In this work, we investigate the role of lightning-generated whistler waves (LGW), which also contribute to scatter electrons trapped in the plasmaphere but, in general, to a lesser extent due to their low mean amplitude and occurrence rate. Our goal is to revisit the characterization of LGW occurrence in the Earth's atmosphere and in space as well as the computation of LGW effects by looking at a series of particular events, among which intense events, in order to characterize maximal scattering effects. We use multicomponent measurements of whistler mode waves by the Waves instrument of Electric and Magnetic Field Instrument Suite and Integrated Science (EMFISIS) onboard the Van Allen Probes spacecraft as our primary data source. We combine this data set with local measurements of the plasma density. We also use the data of the World Wide Lightning Location Network in order to localize the source of lightning discharges on Earth and their radiated energy, both locally at the footprint of the spacecraft and, globally, along the drift path. We discuss how to relate the signal measured in space with the estimation of the power emitted in the atmosphere and the associated complexity. Using these unique data sets we model the coefficients of quasi-linear pitch angle diffusion and we estimate effects of these waves on radiation belt electrons. We show evidence that lightning generated whistlers can, at least in some cases, influence the radiation belt dynamics.

  9. Solar-terrestrial disturbances of June-September 1982, 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ondoh, Tadanori; Sano, Yukizo.

    1986-01-01

    Global equivalent current-systems for geomagnetic variations observed at various ground stations are described on the northern polar map at 1630 UT, July 13 just after the SC, at 2330 UT, July 13 in an initial part of the main phase and at 0030 UT, July 14 in a well-developed part of the main phase during the geomagnetic storm of July 13 - 14, 1982. The equivalent current system just after the SC has two polar current cells which are similar to those of the geomagnetically quiet equivalent current system, S q p in the sunlit polar region and the current density of the former current system is one order larger than the latter. The equivalent current system in an initial part of the geomagnetic storm main phase is similar to the DP-2 current system, and it seems to be caused by an intensified magnetospheric plasma convection due to an enhancement of the large scale westward cross-tail electric field. The equivalent current system in a well-developed part of the storm main phase consists of a global current cell which extends to mid-latitudes and it has strong westward currents in the dayside active region. The geomagnetically active region in the dayside mid-latitudes coincides approximately with the auroral-type hiss region observed by ISIS-2 during the storm main-phase of July 14, 1982. The storm-time ionospheric ionization produced by precipitating electrons resulting from an interaction between the plasmasphere and well-developed equatorial ring-current particles seems to contribute considerably to the change in the equivalent current system from two current cells of the DP-2 type to one current cell. This change in equivalent current system corresponds apparently to an expansion of the auroral zeone towards mid-latitudes during the main phase of geomagnetic storm. (author)

  10. Magnetic storm injection of 0.9- to 16-keV/e solar and terrestrial ions into the high-altitude magnetosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balsiger, H.; Eberhardt, P.; Geiss, J.; Young, D.T.

    1980-01-01

    The Geos 1 ion composition experiments has surveyed the plasma composition in the energy per charge range below 16 keV/e at all local times and at L=3--8. During quiet and moderately disturbed times, H + is the dominant species with a few percent of heavy (M/Q>1) ions. Substorms and storms increase the relative amount of heavy ions, and occasionally, they can become the dominant species in the outer magnetosphere. Two sources, the solar wind (characterized by 4 He ++ ) and the ionosphere (characterized by O + ), give on the average comparable contributions to storm time plasma, although in individual storms one or the other may dominate. Data presented here suggest that high-altitude thermal plasma or the plasmasphere (characterized by He + and O ++ ) must be considered as a third source. Under storm conditions with Geos in the dawn-noon local time sector we have observed a mixed composition region just inside the magnetopause where high fluxes of H + , He ++ , O + , and occasionally He + ions are present. During several storms a composition profile could be measured down to Lapprox.3. Both O + and He + increase toward low altitudes, and O + (within our energy range) can become dominant at the inner edge of the ring current. On April 30, 1978, during a storm, O + contributed > or approx. =8% to the total local energy density of the ring current particles at L=4.1. In no storm has He + been observed to be the main constituent during the recovery phase. During storm recovery, H + and O + are the dominant ions, the H + /O + ratio remaining constant or even increasing during the days following the main phase of the storms. This suggests that charge exchange is not the only loss mechanism for the storm time ring current and/or that H + is replenished during the recovery phase

  11. Actions of magnetospheres on planetary atmospheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hultqvist, Bengt.

    1989-12-01

    Planet Earth is rather special in terms of transfer of magnetospheric energy to the atmosphere (apart from Jupiter, which is extreme in almost all respects). The auroral particle energy input rate to the atmosphere per unit area, and therefore the resulting auroral emission intensity, is second only to that of Jupiter. The contribution of the Joule heating to the heating of the upper atmosphere, measured in terms of the energetic particle precipitation power, is probably larger on Earth than on all the other planets, possibly with the exception of Uranus (and perhaps Neptune, which we know nothing of when this is written). For all those planets which have a corotating plasmasphere extending to the magnetopause, the Joule heating power is small compared with the precipitating particle power. The extremely successful Pioneer and Voyager missions have provided us with most impressive sets of data from the outer planets and Phobos has recently added unique new data from Mars. Still, the conclusion that the observational basis for our understanding of the physics of the magnetosphere-atmosphere interactions at all the planets other than Earth is very limited, is a self-evident one. Even at Earth many aspects of this interaction are frontline areas of research. The grand tour of the Voyagers has demonstrated very clearly how different the magnetospheres and atmospheres of the various planets are and the very high degree of complexity of the plasma systems around the planets. Most questions of physics are still unanswered; those related to source and sink processes of the plasma and energetic particles being one set of examples. The Galileo and Cassini-Huygens missions will certainly contribute in very important ways to the answering of many open questions. (147 refs.)

  12. Anisotropic electron distribution functions and the transition between the Weibel and the whistler instabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pegoraro, F.; Palodhi, L.; Califano, F.

    2013-01-01

    Electron distribution functions that are anisotropic in phase space are a common feature of collisionless plasmas both in space and in the laboratory and the investigation of the processes through which these distributions relax is of primary interest. In fact, the free energy that is made available by the unbalance of the particle “temperatures” in the different directions can be transferred, depending on the plasma conditions, to quasistatic magnetic fields, to electromagnetic or electrostatic coherent structures or to particle acceleration. The anisotropy of the electron distribution function in an unmagnetized plasma can give rise to the onset of the well known Weibel instability which generates a quasistatic magnetic field. If a magnetic field is already present in the plasma, the Weibel instability driven by the anisotropy of the electron energy distribution turns into the so called whistler instability, in which case circularly polarized whistler waves are generated by the relaxation of the electron distribution function. Whistler waves are actually ubiquitous in plasmas and their generation has been extensively studied in recent years in the laboratory. Whistler instabilities have been reported in space where bursts of whistler mode magnetic noise are found to be present in the magnetosphere, close to the magnetopause and are also a likely source of several different magnetospheric fluctuations including plasmaspheric hiss and magnetospheric chorus. In this presentation the transition between non resonant (Weibel-type) and resonant (whistler) instabilities is investigated numerically in plasma configurations with an ambient magnetic field of increasing amplitudes. The Vlasov-Maxwell system is solved in a configuration where the fields have three components but depend only on one coordinate and on time. The nonlinear evolution of these instabilities is shown to lead to the excitation of electromagnetic and electrostatic modes at the first few harmonics

  13. Whistler Observations on DEMETER Compared with Full Electromagnetic Wave Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compston, A. J.; Cohen, M.; Lehtinen, N. G.; Inan, U.; Linscott, I.; Said, R.; Parrot, M.

    2014-12-01

    Terrestrial Very Low Frequency (VLF) electromagnetic radiation, which strongly impacts the Van Allen radiation belt electron dynamics, is injected across the ionosphere into the Earth's plasmasphere from two primary sources: man-made VLF transmitters and lightning discharges. Numerical models of trans-ionospheric propagation of such waves remain unvalidated, and early models may have overestimated the absorption, hindering a comprehensive understanding of the global impact of VLF waves in the loss of radiation belt electrons. In an attempt to remedy the problem of a lack of accurate trans-ionospheric propagation models, we have used a full electromagnetic wave method (FWM) numerical code to simulate the propagation of lightning-generated whistlers into the magnetosphere and compared the results with whistlers observed on the DEMETER satellite and paired with lightning stroke data from the National Lightning Detection Network (NLDN). We have identified over 20,000 whistlers occuring in 14 different passes of DEMETER over the central United States during the summer of 2009, and 14,000 of those occured within the 2000 km x 2000 km simulation grid we used. As shown in the attached figure, which shows a histogram of the ratio of the simulated whistler energy to the measured whistler energy for the 14,000 whistlers we compared, the simulation tends to slightly underestimate the total whistler energy injected by about 5 dB. However, the simulation underestimates the DEMETER measurements more as one gets further from the source lightning stroke, so since the signal to noise ratio of more distant whistlers will be smaller, possibly additive noise in the DEMETER measurements (which of course is not accounted for in the model) may explain some of the observed discrepancy.

  14. Possible biophysical mechanism of the effect of the solar activity on the human central nervous system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikhailova, G. A.; Mikhailov, Y. M.

    Numerous studies, beginning with Tchizhevsky's works, demonstrated the undeniable effect of the solar activity on the human body. A possible geophysical mechanism of the effect of the solar activity on the human body was proposed by Vladimirsky. In this mechanism solar disturbances (powerful chromospheres flares) cause "magnetosphere and plasmasphere disturbances on the Earth (sudden magnetic storms), which are accompanied by a change in the spectrum of the electromagnetic field on the Earth's surface in the extremely low frequency band. In its turn, this brings about shifts in the phisiological indices of the human body". In this model, the human body is regarded as a self-oscillating system affected by external geophysical factors. We also adhere to the main principles of this model but refine the part of this model that describes the change in the spectrum of the electromagnetic field on the Earth's surface in the extremely low frequency band. Unlike Vladimirsky model, we regard the human is not as a self-oscillating system but as one of two coupled oscillating system with discrete resonance frequencies in the human-habitat ensemble. Solar processes and their induced changes in one of the two coupled oscillating systems, specifically, the habitat play the role of an external force. Such an approach is based on the fact that the brain rhythms have the following definite frequencies: the alpha rhythm, 8-13 Hz; the beta rhythm, 14-30 Hz; the gamma rhythm, above 30 Hz; the delta rhythm, 1.5-3 Hz; and the theta rhythm, 4-7 Hz. On the other hand, the natural electromagnetic field on the Earth's surface in the extremely low frequency band also has a quite distinct resonance distribution. There are so-called Schuman resonances of the cavity formed by the Earth's surface and the lower boundary of the ionosphere (the D and E layers) at f1=10.6; f2=18.3; f3=25.9; f4=33.5; f5=41.1 Hz. These resonance frequencies are variable and most sensitive to variations of the

  15. 2015 Los Alamos Space Weather Summer School Research Reports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cowee, Misa [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Chen, Yuxi [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Desai, Ravindra [Univ. College London, Bloomsbury (United Kingdom); Hassan, Ehab [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States); Kalmoni, Nadine [Univ. College London, Bloomsbury (United Kingdom); Lin, Dong [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States); Depascuale, Sebastian [Univ. of Iowa, Iowa City, IA (United States); Hughes, Randall Scott [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Zhou, Hong [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2015-11-24

    The fifth Los Alamos Space Weather Summer School was held June 1st - July 24th, 2015, at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). With renewed support from the Institute of Geophysics, Planetary Physics, and Signatures (IGPPS) and additional support from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science, we hosted a new class of five students from various U.S. and foreign research institutions. The summer school curriculum includes a series of structured lectures as well as mentored research and practicum opportunities. Lecture topics including general and specialized topics in the field of space weather were given by a number of researchers affiliated with LANL. Students were given the opportunity to engage in research projects through a mentored practicum experience. Each student works with one or more LANL-affiliated mentors to execute a collaborative research project, typically linked with a larger ongoing research effort at LANL and/or the student’s PhD thesis research. This model provides a valuable learning experience for the student while developing the opportunity for future collaboration. This report includes a summary of the research efforts fostered and facilitated by the Space Weather Summer School. These reports should be viewed as work-in-progress as the short session typically only offers sufficient time for preliminary results. At the close of the summer school session, students present a summary of their research efforts. Titles of the papers included in this report are as follows: Full particle-in-cell (PIC) simulation of whistler wave generation, Hybrid simulations of the right-hand ion cyclotron anisotropy instability in a sub-Alfvénic plasma flow, A statistical ensemble for solar wind measurements, Observations and models of substorm injection dispersion patterns, Heavy ion effects on Kelvin-Helmholtz instability: hybrid study, Simulating plasmaspheric electron densities with a two

  16. Whistlers in space plasma, their role for particle populations in the inner magnetosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shklyar, David

    Of many wave modes, which propagate in the plasmaspheric region of the magnetosphere, whistler waves play the most important role in the dynamics of energetic particles (chiefly elec-trons, but not excepting protons), as their resonant interactions are very efficient. There are three main sources of whistler mode waves in the magnetosphere, namely, lightning strokes, VLF transmitter signals, and far and away various kinds of kinetic instabilities leading to generation of whistler mode waves. Resonant interactions of energetic electrons with whistlers may lead to electron acceleration, scattering into loss-cone, and consequent precipitation into the iono-sphere and atmosphere. While electron resonant interaction with lightning-induced whistlers and VLF transmitter signals may, to a certain approximation, be considered as particle dy-namics in given electromagnetic fields, resonant wave-particle interaction in the case of plasma instability is intrinsically a self-consistent process. An important aspect of whistler-electron interactions (particularly in the case of plasma instability) is the possibility of energy exchange between different energetic electron populations. Thus, in many cases, whistler wave growth rate is determined by "competition" between the first cyclotron and Cerenkov resonances, one (depending on energetic electron distribution) leading to wave growth and the other one to wave damping. Since particles which give rise to wave growth loose their energy, while parti-cles which lead to wave damping gain energy at the expense of the wave, and since the first cyclotron and Cerenkov resonances correspond to different particle energies, wave generation as the result of plasma instability may lead, at the same time, to energy exchange between two populations of energetic particles. While the role of whistlers in dynamics of energetic electrons in the magnetosphere is gener-ally recognized, their role for protons seems to be underestimated. At the same

  17. First results from the Cluster wideband plasma wave investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Gurnett

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available In this report we present the first results from the Cluster wideband plasma wave investigation. The four Cluster spacecraft were successfully placed in closely spaced, high-inclination eccentric orbits around the Earth during two separate launches in July – August 2000. Each spacecraft includes a wideband plasma wave instrument designed to provide high-resolution electric and magnetic field wave-forms via both stored data and direct downlinks to the NASA Deep Space Network. Results are presented for three commonly occurring magnetospheric plasma wave phenomena: (1 whistlers, (2 chorus, and (3 auroral kilometric radiation. Lightning-generated whistlers are frequently observed when the spacecraft is inside the plasmasphere. Usually the same whistler can be detected by all spacecraft, indicating that the whistler wave packet extends over a spatial dimension at least as large as the separation distances transverse to the magnetic field, which during these observations were a few hundred km. This is what would be expected for nonducted whistler propagation. No case has been found in which a strong whistler was detected at one spacecraft, with no signal at the other spacecraft, which would indicate ducted propagation. Whistler-mode chorus emissions are also observed in the inner region of the magnetosphere. In contrast to lightning-generated whistlers, the individual chorus elements seldom show a one-to-one correspondence between the spacecraft, indicating that a typical chorus wave packet has dimensions transverse to the magnetic field of only a few hundred km or less. In one case where a good one-to-one correspondence existed, significant frequency variations were observed between the spacecraft, indicating that the frequency of the wave packet may be evolving as the wave propagates. Auroral kilometric radiation, which is an intense radio emission generated along the auroral field lines, is frequently observed over the polar regions. The

  18. The role of vibrationally excited nitrogen and oxygen in the ionosphere over Millstone Hill during 16-23 March, 1990

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Pavlov

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available We present a comparison of the observed behavior of the F region ionosphere over Millstone Hill during the geomagnetically quiet and storm period on 16-23 March, 1990, with numerical model calculations from the time-dependent mathematical model of the Earth's ionosphere and plasmasphere. The effects of vibrationally excited N2(v and O2(v on the electron density and temperature are studied using the N2(v and O2(v Boltzmann and non-Boltzmann distribution assumptions. The deviations from the Boltzmann distribution for the first five vibrational levels of N2(v and O2(v were calculated. The present study suggests that these deviations are not significant at vibrational levels v = 1 and 2, and the calculated distributions of N2(v and O2(v are highly non-Boltzmann at vibrational levels v > 2. The N2(v and O2(v non-Boltzmann distribution assumption leads to the decrease of the calculated daytime NmF2 up to a factor of 1.44 (maximum value in comparison with the N2(v and O2(v Boltzmann distribution assumption. The resulting effects of N2(v > 0 and O2(v > 0 on the NmF2 is the decrease of the calculated daytime NmF2 up to a factor of 2.8 (maximum value for Boltzmann populations of N2(v and O2(v and up to a factor of 3.5 (maximum value for non-Boltzmann populations of N2(v and O2(v . This decrease in electron density results in the increase of the calculated daytime electron temperature up to about 1040-1410 K (maximum value at the F2 peak altitude giving closer agreement between the measured and modeled electron temperatures. Both the daytime and nighttime densities are not reproduced by the model without N2(v > 0 and O2(v > 0 , and inclusion of vibrationally excited N2 and O2 brings the model and data into better agreement. The effects of vibrationally excited O2 and N2 on the electron density and temperature are most pronounced during daytime.Key words: Ionosphere (ion chemistry and composition; ionosphere-atmosphere interactions; ionospheric disturbances

  19. Analysis of the positive ionospheric response to a moderate geomagnetic storm using a global numerical model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Namgaladze

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available Current theories of F-layer storms are discussed using numerical simulations with the Upper Atmosphere Model, a global self-consistent, time dependent numerical model of the thermosphere-ionosphere-plasmasphere-magnetosphere system including electrodynamical coupling effects. A case study of a moderate geomagnetic storm at low solar activity during the northern winter solstice exemplifies the complex storm phenomena. The study focuses on positive ionospheric storm effects in relation to thermospheric disturbances in general and thermospheric composition changes in particular. It investigates the dynamical effects of both neutral meridional winds and electric fields caused by the disturbance dynamo effect. The penetration of short-time electric fields of magnetospheric origin during storm intensification phases is shown for the first time in this model study. Comparisons of the calculated thermospheric composition changes with satellite observations of AE-C and ESRO-4 during storm time show a good agreement. The empirical MSISE90 model, however, is less consistent with the simulations. It does not show the equatorward propagation of the disturbances and predicts that they have a gentler latitudinal gradient. Both theoretical and experimental data reveal that although the ratio of [O]/[N2] at high latitudes decreases significantly during the magnetic storm compared with the quiet time level, at mid to low latitudes it does not increase (at fixed altitudes above the quiet reference level. Meanwhile, the ionospheric storm is positive there. We conclude that the positive phase of the ionospheric storm is mainly due to uplifting of ionospheric F2-region plasma at mid latitudes and its equatorward movement at low latitudes along geomagnetic field lines caused by large-scale neutral wind circulation and the passage of travelling atmospheric disturbances (TADs. The calculated zonal electric field disturbances also help to create the positive ionospheric

  20. Analysis of the positive ionospheric response to a moderate geomagnetic storm using a global numerical model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Namgaladze

    Full Text Available Current theories of F-layer storms are discussed using numerical simulations with the Upper Atmosphere Model, a global self-consistent, time dependent numerical model of the thermosphere-ionosphere-plasmasphere-magnetosphere system including electrodynamical coupling effects. A case study of a moderate geomagnetic storm at low solar activity during the northern winter solstice exemplifies the complex storm phenomena. The study focuses on positive ionospheric storm effects in relation to thermospheric disturbances in general and thermospheric composition changes in particular. It investigates the dynamical effects of both neutral meridional winds and electric fields caused by the disturbance dynamo effect. The penetration of short-time electric fields of magnetospheric origin during storm intensification phases is shown for the first time in this model study. Comparisons of the calculated thermospheric composition changes with satellite observations of AE-C and ESRO-4 during storm time show a good agreement. The empirical MSISE90 model, however, is less consistent with the simulations. It does not show the equatorward propagation of the disturbances and predicts that they have a gentler latitudinal gradient. Both theoretical and experimental data reveal that although the ratio of [O]/[N2] at high latitudes decreases significantly during the magnetic storm compared with the quiet time level, at mid to low latitudes it does not increase (at fixed altitudes above the quiet reference level. Meanwhile, the ionospheric storm is positive there. We conclude that the positive phase of the ionospheric storm is mainly due to uplifting of ionospheric F2-region plasma at mid latitudes and its equatorward movement at low latitudes along geomagnetic field lines caused by large-scale neutral wind circulation and the passage of travelling atmospheric disturbances (TADs. The calculated zonal electric field disturbances also help

  1. Outstanding Issues and Future Directions of Inner Magnetospheric Research (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, P. C.

    2009-12-01

    plasma pressure distribution and the associated currents (example: IMAGE and stereo imaging from TWINS), EUV imaging to retrieve the global plasmaspheric dynamics (example: IMAGE), magnetospheric magnetic field measurements to reconstruct the global dynamics of the magnetic field and current systems (example: TS07d), global networks of radar measurements of ionospheric flows (example: superDarn), tomographic inversion of GPS signal measurements to reconstruct 3D electron density profiles (example: COSMIC), low-altitude magnetic field measurements to derive maps of field-aligned currents (example: Iridium and AMPERE).

  2. Deduction of the rates of radial diffusion of protons from the structure of the Earth's radiation belts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovtyukh, Alexander S.

    2016-11-01

    From the data on the fluxes and energy spectra of protons with an equatorial pitch angle of α0 ≈ 90° during quiet and slightly disturbed (Kp ≤ 2) periods, I directly calculated the value DLL, which is a measure of the rate of radial transport (diffusion) of trapped particles. This is done by successively solving the systems (chains) of integrodifferential equations which describe the balance of radial transport/acceleration and ionization losses of low-energy protons of the stationary belt. This was done for the first time. For these calculations, I used data of International Sun-Earth Explorer 1 (ISEE-1) for protons with an energy of 24 to 2081 keV at L = 2-10 and data of Explorer-45 for protons with an energy of 78.6 to 872 keV at L = 2-5. Ionization losses of protons (Coulomb losses and charge exchange) were calculated on the basis of modern models of the plasmasphere and the exosphere. It is shown that for protons with μ from ˜ 0.7 to ˜ 7 keV nT-1 at L ≈ 4.5-10, the functions of DLL can be approximated by the following equivalent expressions: DLL ≈ 4.9 × 10-14μ-4.1L8.2 or DLL ≈ 1.3 × 105(EL)-4.1 or DLL ≈ 1.2 × 10-9fd-4.1, where fd is the drift frequency of the protons (in mHz), DLL is measured in s-1, E is measured in kiloelectronvolt and μ is measured in kiloelectronvolt per nanotesla. These results are consistent with the radial diffusion of particles under the action of the electric field fluctuations (pulsations) in the range of Pc6 and contradict the mechanism of the radial diffusion of particles under the action of sudden impulses (SIs) of the magnetic field and also under the action of substorm impulses of the electric field. During magnetic storms DLL increases, and the expressions for DLL obtained here can change completely.

  3. Deduction of the rates of radial diffusion of protons from the structure of the Earth's radiation belts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Kovtyukh

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available From the data on the fluxes and energy spectra of protons with an equatorial pitch angle of α0 ≈ 90° during quiet and slightly disturbed (Kp ≤ 2 periods, I directly calculated the value DLL, which is a measure of the rate of radial transport (diffusion of trapped particles. This is done by successively solving the systems (chains of integrodifferential equations which describe the balance of radial transport/acceleration and ionization losses of low-energy protons of the stationary belt. This was done for the first time. For these calculations, I used data of International Sun–Earth Explorer 1 (ISEE-1 for protons with an energy of 24 to 2081 keV at L = 2–10 and data of Explorer-45 for protons with an energy of 78.6 to 872 keV at L = 2–5. Ionization losses of protons (Coulomb losses and charge exchange were calculated on the basis of modern models of the plasmasphere and the exosphere. It is shown that for protons with μ from  ∼ 0.7 to ∼ 7 keV nT−1 at L ≈ 4.5–10, the functions of DLL can be approximated by the following equivalent expressions: DLL ≈ 4.9 × 10−14μ−4.1L8.2 or DLL ≈ 1.3 × 105(EL−4.1 or DLL ≈ 1.2 × 10−9fd−4.1, where fd is the drift frequency of the protons (in mHz, DLL is measured in s−1, E is measured in kiloelectronvolt and μ is measured in kiloelectronvolt per nanotesla. These results are consistent with the radial diffusion of particles under the action of the electric field fluctuations (pulsations in the range of Pc6 and contradict the mechanism of the radial diffusion of particles under the action of sudden impulses (SIs of the magnetic field and also under the action of substorm impulses of the electric field. During magnetic storms DLL increases, and the expressions for DLL obtained here can change completely.

  4. Deduction of the rates of radial diffusion of protons from the structure of the Earth's radiation belts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovtyukh, Alexander S. [Moscow State Univ. (Russian Federation). Skobeltsyn Inst. of Nuclear Physics

    2016-07-01

    From the data on the fluxes and energy spectra of protons with an equatorial pitch angle of α{sub 0} ∼ 90 during quiet and slightly disturbed (Kp≤2) periods, I directly calculated the value D{sub LL}, which is a measure of the rate of radial transport (diffusion) of trapped particles. This is done by successively solving the systems (chains) of integrodifferential equations which describe the balance of radial transport/acceleration and ionization losses of low-energy protons of the stationary belt. This was done for the first time. For these calculations, I used data of International Sun-Earth Explorer 1 (ISEE-1) for protons with an energy of 24 to 2081 keV at L = 2-10 and data of Explorer-45 for protons with an energy of 78.6 to 872 keV at L = 2-5. Ionization losses of protons (Coulomb losses and charge exchange) were calculated on the basis of modern models of the plasmasphere and the exosphere. It is shown that for protons with μ from ∝0.7 to ∝7 keV nT{sup -1} at L ∼ 4.5-10, the functions of D{sub LL} can be approximated by the following equivalent expressions: D{sub LL} ∼ 4.9 x 10{sup -14}μ{sup -4.1}L{sup 8.2} or D{sub LL} ∼ 1.3 x 10{sup 5}(EL){sup -4.1} or D{sub LL} ∼ 1.2 x 10{sup -9}f{sub d}{sup -4.1}, where f{sub d} is the drift frequency of the protons (in mHz), D{sub LL} is measured in s{sup -1}, E is measured in kiloelectronvolt and μ is measured in kiloelectronvolt per nanotesla. These results are consistent with the radial diffusion of particles under the action of the electric field fluctuations (pulsations) in the range of Pc6 and contradict the mechanism of the radial diffusion of particles under the action of sudden impulses (SIs) of the magnetic field and also under the action of substorm impulses of the electric field. During magnetic storms D{sub LL} increases, and the expressions for D{sub LL} obtained here can change completely.

  5. Registering parameters and granules of wave observations: IMAGE RPI success story

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galkin, I. A.; Charisi, A.; Fung, S. F.; Benson, R. F.; Reinisch, B. W.

    2015-12-01

    . Numerical data products include plasmagram-derived records containing signatures of local and remote signal propagation, as well as field-aligned profiles of electron density in the plasmasphere. Registered granules of RPI observations are available in ESPAS for their content-targeted search and retrieval.

  6. Experimental simulation of satellite observations of 100 kHz radio waves from relativistic electron beams above thunderclouds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Füllekrug

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Relativistic electron beams above thunderclouds emit 100 kHz radio waves which illuminate the Earth's atmosphere and near-Earth space. This contribution aims to clarify the physical processes which are relevant for the spatial spreading of the radio wave energy below and above the ionosphere and thereby enables an experimental simulation of satellite observations of 100 kHz radio waves from relativistic electron beams above thunderclouds. The simulation uses the DEMETER satellite which observes 100 kHz radio waves from fifty terrestrial Long Range Aid to Navigation (LORAN transmitters. Their mean luminosity patch in the plasmasphere is a circular area with a radius of 300 km and a power density of 22 μW/Hz as observed at 660 km height above the ground. The luminosity patches exhibit a southward displacement of 450 km with respect to the locations of the LORAN transmitters. The displacement is reduced to 150 km when an upward propagation of the radio waves along the geomagnetic field line is assumed. This residual displacement indicates that the radio waves undergo 150 km sub-ionospheric propagation prior to entering a magnetospheric duct and escaping into near-Earth space. The residual displacement at low (L < 2.14 and high (L > 2.14 geomagnetic latitudes ranges from 100 km to 200 km which suggests that the smaller inclination of the geomagnetic field lines at low latitudes helps to trap the radio waves and to keep them in the magnetospheric duct. Diffuse luminosity areas are observed northward of the magnetic conjugate locations of LORAN transmitters at extremely low geomagnetic latitudes (L < 1.36 in Southeast Asia. This result suggests that the propagation along the geomagnetic field lines results in a spatial spreading of the radio wave energy over distances of 1 Mm. The summative assessment of the electric field intensities measured in space show that nadir observations of terrestrial 100 kHz radio waves, e.g., from

  7. First results from the Cluster wideband plasma wave investigation

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    D. A. Gurnett

    Full Text Available In this report we present the first results from the Cluster wideband plasma wave investigation. The four Cluster spacecraft were successfully placed in closely spaced, high-inclination eccentric orbits around the Earth during two separate launches in July – August 2000. Each spacecraft includes a wideband plasma wave instrument designed to provide high-resolution electric and magnetic field wave-forms via both stored data and direct downlinks to the NASA Deep Space Network. Results are presented for three commonly occurring magnetospheric plasma wave phenomena: (1 whistlers, (2 chorus, and (3 auroral kilometric radiation. Lightning-generated whistlers are frequently observed when the spacecraft is inside the plasmasphere. Usually the same whistler can be detected by all spacecraft, indicating that the whistler wave packet extends over a spatial dimension at least as large as the separation distances transverse to the magnetic field, which during these observations were a few hundred km. This is what would be expected for nonducted whistler propagation. No case has been found in which a strong whistler was detected at one spacecraft, with no signal at the other spacecraft, which would indicate ducted propagation. Whistler-mode chorus emissions are also observed in the inner region of the magnetosphere. In contrast to lightning-generated whistlers, the individual chorus elements seldom show a one-to-one correspondence between the spacecraft, indicating that a typical chorus wave packet has dimensions transverse to the magnetic field of only a few hundred km or less. In one case where a good one-to-one correspondence existed, significant frequency variations were observed between the spacecraft, indicating that the frequency of the wave packet may be evolving as the wave propagates. Auroral kilometric radiation, which is an intense radio emission generated along the auroral field lines, is frequently observed over the polar regions. The

  8. An auroral westward flow channel (AWFC and its relationship to field-aligned current, ring current, and plasmapause location determined using multiple spacecraft observations

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    M. L. Parkinson

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available An auroral westward flow channel (AWFC is a latitudinally narrow channel of unstable F-region plasma with intense westward drift in the dusk-to-midnight sector ionosphere. AWFCs tend to overlap the equatorward edge of the auroral oval, and their life cycle is often synchronised to that of substorms: they commence close to substorm expansion phase onset, intensify during the expansion phase, and then decay during the recovery phase. Here we define for the first time the relationship between an AWFC, large-scale field-aligned current (FAC, the ring current, and plasmapause location. The Tasman International Geospace Environment Radar (TIGER, a Southern Hemisphere HF SuperDARN radar, observed a jet-like AWFC during ~08:35 to 13:28 UT on 7 April 2001. The initiation of the AWFC was preceded by a band of equatorward expanding ionospheric scatter (BEES which conveyed an intense poleward electric field through the inner plasma sheet. Unlike previous AWFCs, this event was not associated with a distinct substorm surge; rather it occurred during an interval of persistent, moderate magnetic activity characterised by AL~−200 nT. The four Cluster spacecraft had perigees within the dusk sector plasmasphere, and their trajectories were magnetically conjugate to the radar observations. The Waves of High frequency and Sounder for Probing Electron density by Relaxation (WHISPER instruments on board Cluster were used to identify the plasmapause location. The Imager for Magnetopause-to-Aurora Global Exploration (IMAGE EUV experiment also provided global-scale observations of the plasmapause. The Cluster fluxgate magnetometers (FGM provided successive measurements specifying the relative location of the ring current and filamentary plasma sheet current. An analysis of Iridium spacecraft magnetometer measurements provided estimates of large-scale ionospheric FAC in relation to the AWFC evolution. Peak flows in the AWFC were located close to the peak of a Region 2

  9. VLF Technique and Science in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakravarty, S. C.

    2010-01-01

    Since IGY period (1957-58), natural and artificially produced Very Low Frequency (VLF) electromagnetic radiations are being recorded at large number of ground stations and on board satellites to study various wave-plasma interactive phenomena. The terrestrial propagation of these VLF radio waves are primarily enabled through the earth ionosphere wave guide (EIWG) system to long horizontal distances around the globe and ducted along the geomagnetic field lines into the conjugate hemisphere through the ionosphere-plasmasphere-magnetosphere routes. The time frequency spectra indicate presence of dispersion and various cut-off frequencies providing several types of received signals like whistlers, chorus, tweeks, hiss, hisslers etc., which can be heard on an earphone with distinguishing audio structures. While the VLF technique has been a very effective tool for studying middle and high latitude phenomena, the importance of various anomalous characteristics over the Indian low latitude stations provide potentially new challenges for their scientific interpretation and modelling. The ducted and non-ducted propagation, low latitude TRIMPI/TLE effects, D-region ionisation perturbations due to solar and stellar x- and γ ray emissions and detecting precursors of seismic activities are a few problems which will gain from low latitude studies. Since the conjugate points of Indian stations lie over the Indian oceanic region, the VLF propagation effects would be relatively noise free to observe rare and new phenomena requiring better SNR to detect such changes. The VLF signals emanating from the active seismic zones would require high sensitivity of the system and suitable network of transmitting and receiving stations. Results obtained on whistlers and related studies from a number of Indian stations covering geomagnetic latitude range between 13-24 deg. N are mentioned and reviewed in the background of theoretical understanding of the lightning return stroke signal elements

  10. 2015 Los Alamos Space Weather Summer School Research Reports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowee, Misa; Chen, Yuxi; Desai, Ravindra; Hassan, Ehab; Kalmoni, Nadine; Lin, Dong; Depascuale, Sebastian; Hughes, Randall Scott; Zhou, Hong

    2015-01-01

    The fifth Los Alamos Space Weather Summer School was held June 1st - July 24th, 2015, at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). With renewed support from the Institute of Geophysics, Planetary Physics, and Signatures (IGPPS) and additional support from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science, we hosted a new class of five students from various U.S. and foreign research institutions. The summer school curriculum includes a series of structured lectures as well as mentored research and practicum opportunities. Lecture topics including general and specialized topics in the field of space weather were given by a number of researchers affiliated with LANL. Students were given the opportunity to engage in research projects through a mentored practicum experience. Each student works with one or more LANL-affiliated mentors to execute a collaborative research project, typically linked with a larger ongoing research effort at LANL and/or the student's PhD thesis research. This model provides a valuable learning experience for the student while developing the opportunity for future collaboration. This report includes a summary of the research efforts fostered and facilitated by the Space Weather Summer School. These reports should be viewed as work-in-progress as the short session typically only offers sufficient time for preliminary results. At the close of the summer school session, students present a summary of their research efforts. Titles of the papers included in this report are as follows: Full particle-in-cell (PIC) simulation of whistler wave generation, Hybrid simulations of the right-hand ion cyclotron anisotropy instability in a sub-Alfv@@nic plasma flow, A statistical ensemble for solar wind measurements, Observations and models of substorm injection dispersion patterns, Heavy ion effects on Kelvin-Helmholtz instability: hybrid study, Simulating plasmaspheric electron densities with a

  11. Disturbance zonal and vertical plasma drifts in the Peruvian sector during solar minimum phases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, A. M.; Abdu, M. A.; Souza, J. R.; Sobral, J. H. A.; Batista, I. S.

    2016-03-01

    In the present work, we investigate the behavior of the equatorial F region zonal plasma drifts over the Peruvian region under magnetically disturbed conditions during two solar minimum epochs, one of them being the recent prolonged solar activity minimum. The study utilizes the vertical and zonal components of the plasma drifts measured by the Jicamarca (11.95°S; 76.87°W) incoherent scatter radar during two events that occurred on 10 April 1997 and 24 June 2008 and model calculation of the zonal drift in a realistic ionosphere simulated by the Sheffield University Plasmasphere-Ionosphere Model-INPE. Two main points are focused: (1) the connection between electric fields and plasma drifts under prompt penetration electric field during a disturbed periods and (2) anomalous behavior of daytime zonal drift in the absence of any magnetic storm. A perfect anticorrelation between vertical and zonal drifts was observed during the night and in the initial and growth phases of the magnetic storm. For the first time, based on a realistic low-latitude ionosphere, we will show, on a detailed quantitative basis, that this anticorrelation is driven mainly by a vertical Hall electric field induced by the primary zonal electric field in the presence of an enhanced nighttime E region ionization. It is shown that an increase in the field line-integrated Hall-to-Pedersen conductivity ratio (∑H/∑P), which can arise from precipitation of energetic particles in the region of the South American Magnetic Anomaly, is capable of explaining the observed anticorrelation between the vertical and zonal plasma drifts. Evidence for the particle ionization is provided from the occurrence of anomalous sporadic E layers over the low-latitude station, Cachoeira Paulista (22.67°S; 44.9°W)—Brazil. It will also be shown that the zonal plasma drift reversal to eastward in the afternoon two hours earlier than its reference quiet time pattern is possibly caused by weakening of the zonal wind

  12. Polar observations of electron density distribution in the Earth’s magnetosphere. 2. Density profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Laakso

    2002-11-01

    that the density tends to be an order of magnitude higher on the day-side (~1 cm-3 than on the nightside (~0.1–1 cm-3, particularly during low Kp.Key words. Magnetospheric physics (auroral phenomena; plasmasphere; polar cap phenomena

  13. Mechanisms of the electron density depletion in the SAR arc region

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    A. V. Pavlov

    1996-02-01

    Full Text Available This study compares the measurements of electron density and temperature and the integral airglow intensity at 630 nm in the SAR arc region and slightly south of this (obtained by the Isis 2 spacecraft during the 18 December 1971 magnetic storm, with the model results obtained using the time dependent one-dimensional mathematical model of the Earth\\'s ionosphere and plasmasphere. The explicit expression in the third Enskog approximation for the electron thermal conductivity coefficient in the multicomponent mixture of ionized gases and a simplified calculation method for this coefficient presents an opportunity to calculate more exactly the electron temperature and density and 630 nm emission within SAR arc region are used in the model. Collisions between N2 and hot thermal electrons in the SAR arc region produce vibrationally excited nitrogen molecules. It appears that the loss rate of O+(4S due to reactions with the vibrationally excited nitrogen is enough to explain electron density depression by a factor of two at F-region heights and the topside ionosphere density variations within the SAR arc if the erosion of plasma within geomagnetic field tubes, during the main phase of the geomagnetic storm and subsequent filling of geomagnetic tubes during the recovery phase, are considered. To explain the disagreement by a factor 1.5 between the observed and modeled SAR arc electron densities an additional plasma drift velocity ~–30 m s–1 in the ion continuity equations is needed during the recovery phase. This additional plasma drift velocity is likely caused by the transition from convecting to corotating flux tubes on the equatorward wall of the trough. The electron densities and temperatures and 630 nm integral intensity at the SAR arc and slightly south of this region as measured for the 18 December 1971 magnetic storm were correctly described by the model without perpendicular electric fields. Within this model framework the effect of the

  14. Mechanisms of the electron density depletion in the SAR arc region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Pavlov

    Full Text Available This study compares the measurements of electron density and temperature and the integral airglow intensity at 630 nm in the SAR arc region and slightly south of this (obtained by the Isis 2 spacecraft during the 18 December 1971 magnetic storm, with the model results obtained using the time dependent one-dimensional mathematical model of the Earth's ionosphere and plasmasphere. The explicit expression in the third Enskog approximation for the electron thermal conductivity coefficient in the multicomponent mixture of ionized gases and a simplified calculation method for this coefficient presents an opportunity to calculate more exactly the electron temperature and density and 630 nm emission within SAR arc region are used in the model. Collisions between N2 and hot thermal electrons in the SAR arc region produce vibrationally excited nitrogen molecules. It appears that the loss rate of O+(4S due to reactions with the vibrationally excited nitrogen is enough to explain electron density depression by a factor of two at F-region heights and the topside ionosphere density variations within the SAR arc if the erosion of plasma within geomagnetic field tubes, during the main phase of the geomagnetic storm and subsequent filling of geomagnetic tubes during the recovery phase, are considered. To explain the disagreement by a factor 1.5 between the observed and modeled SAR arc electron densities an additional plasma drift velocity ~–30 m s–1 in the ion continuity equations is needed during the recovery phase. This additional plasma drift velocity is likely caused by the transition from convecting to corotating flux tubes on the equatorward wall of the trough. The electron densities and temperatures and 630 nm integral intensity at the SAR arc and slightly south of this region as measured for the 18 December 1971 magnetic storm were correctly described by the model without perpendicular electric fields

  15. Scientific Achievements of Global ENA Imaging and Future Outlook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, P. C.; Stephens, G. K.; Hsieh, S. Y. W.; Demajistre, R.; Gkioulidou, M.

    2017-12-01

    Energetic Neutral Atom (ENA) imaging is the only technique that can capture the instantaneous global state of energetic ion distributions in planetary magnetospheres and from the heliosheath. In particular at Earth, ENA imaging has been used to diagnose the morphology and dynamics of the ring current and plasma sheet down to several minutes time resolution and is therefore a critical tool to validate global ring current physics models. However, this requires a detailed understanding for how ENAs are produced from the ring current and inversion techniques that are thoroughly validated against in-situ measurements. To date, several missions have carried out planetary and heliospheric ENA imaging including Cassini, JUICE, IBEX of the heliosphere, and POLAR, Astrid-1, Double Star, TWINS and IMAGE of the terrestrial magnetosphere. Because of their path-finding successes, a future global-imaging mission concept, MEDICI, has been recommended in the Heliophysics Decadal Survey. Its core mission consists of two satellites in one circular, near-polar orbit beyond the radiation belts at around 8 RE, with ENA, EUV and FUV cameras. This recommendation has driven the definition of smaller mission concepts that address specific science aspects of the MEDICI concept. In this presentation, we review the past scientific achievements of ENA imaging with a focus on the terrestrial magnetosphere from primarily the NASA IMAGE and the TWINS missions. The highlighted achievements include the storm, sub-storm and quiet-time morphology, dynamics and pitch-angle distributions of the ring current, global differential acceleration of protons versus O+ ions, the structure of the global electrical current systems associated with the plasma pressure of protons and O+ ions up to around 200 keV, and the relation between ring current and plasmasphere. We discuss the need for future global observations of the ring current, plasma sheet and magnetosheath ion distributions based and derive their

  16. Real-time reconstruction of topside ionosphere scale height from coordinated GPS-TEC and ionosonde observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulyaeva, Tamara; Poustovalova, Ljubov

    The International Reference Ionosphere model extended to the plasmasphere, IRI-Plas, has been recently updated for assimilation of total electron content, TEC, derived from observations with Global Navigation Satellite System, GNSS. The ionosonde products of the F2 layer peak density (NmF2) and height (hmF2) ensure true electron density maximum at the F2 peak. The daily solar and magnetic indices used by IRI-Plas code are compiled in data files including the 3-hour ap and kp magnetic index from 1958 onward, 12-monthly smoothed sunspot number R12 and Global Electron Content GEC12, daily solar radio flux F10.7 and daily sunspot number Ri. The 3-h ap-index is available in Real Time, RT, mode from GFZ, Potsdam, Germany, daily update of F10.7 is provided by Space Weather Canada service, and daily estimated international sunspot number Ri is provided by Solar Influences Data Analysis Center, SIDC, Belgium. For IRI-Plas-RT operation in regime of the daily update and prediction of the F2 layer peak parameters, the proxy kp and ap forecast for 3 to 24 hours ahead based on data for preceding 12 hours is applied online at http://www.izmiran.ru/services/iweather/. The topside electron density profile of IRI-Plas code is expressed with complementary half-peak density anchor height above hmF2 which corresponds to transition O+/H+ height. The present investigation is focused on reconstruction of topside ionosphere scale height using vertical total electron content (TEC) data derived from the Global Positioning System GPS observations and the ionosonde derived F2 layer peak parameters from 25 observatories ingested into IRI-Plas model. GPS-TEC and ionosonde measurements at solar maximum (September, 2002, and October, 2003) for quiet, positively disturbed, and negatively disturbed days of the month are used to obtain the topside scale height, Htop, representing the range of altitudes from hmF2 to the height where NmF2 decay by e times occurs. Mapping of the F2 layer peak parameters

  17. Effect of Ionosphere on Geostationary Communication Satellite Signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdem, Esra; Arikan, Feza; Gulgonul, Senol

    2016-07-01

    Geostationary orbit (GEO) communications satellites allow radio, television, and telephone transmissions to be sent live anywhere in the world. They are extremely important in daily life and also for military applications. Since, satellite communication is an expensive technology addressing crowd of people, it is critical to improve the performance of this technology. GEO satellites are at 35,786 kilometres from Earth's surface situated directly over the equator. A satellite in a geostationary orbit (GEO) appears to stand still in the sky, in a fixed position with respect to an observer on the earth, because the satellite's orbital period is the same as the rotation rate of the Earth. The advantage of this orbit is that ground antennas can be fixed to point towards to satellite without their having to track the satellite's motion. Radio frequency ranges used in satellite communications are C, X, Ku, Ka and even EHG and V-band. Satellite signals are disturbed by atmospheric effects on the path between the satellite and the receiver antenna. These effects are mostly rain, cloud and gaseous attenuation. It is expected that ionosphere has a minor effect on the satellite signals when the ionosphere is quiet. But there are anomalies and perturbations on the structure of ionosphere with respect to geomagnetic field and solar activity and these conditions may cause further affects on the satellite signals. In this study IONOLAB-RAY algorithm is adopted to examine the effect of ionosphere on satellite signals. IONOLAB-RAY is developed to calculate propagation path and characteristics of high frequency signals. The algorithm does not have any frequency limitation and models the plasmasphere up to 20,200 km altitude, so that propagation between a GEO satellite and antenna on Earth can be simulated. The algorithm models inhomogeneous, anisotropic and time dependent structure of the ionosphere with a 3-D spherical grid geometry and calculates physical parameters of the

  18. Subauroral red arcs as a conjugate phenomenon: comparison of OV1-10 satellite data with numerical calculations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Pavlov

    Full Text Available This study compares the OV1-10 satellite measurements of the integral airglow intensities at 630 nm in the SAR arc regions observed in the northern and southern hemisphere as a conjugate phenomenon, with the model results obtained using the time-dependent one-dimensional mathematical model of the Earth ionosphere and plasmasphere (the IZMIRAN model during the geomagnetic storm of the period 15–17 February 1967. The major enhancements to the IZMIRAN model developed in this study are the inclusion of He+ ions (three major ions: O+, H+, and He+, and three ion temperatures, the updated photochemistry and energy balance equations for ions and electrons, the diffusion of NO+ and O2+ ions and O(1D and the revised electron cooling rates arising from their collisions with unexcited N2, O2 molecules and N2 molecules at the first vibrational level. The updated model includes the option to use the models of the Boltzmann or non-Boltzmann distributions of vibrationally excited molecular nitrogen. Deviations from the Boltzmann distribution for the first five vibrational levels of N2 were calculated. The calculated distribution is highly non-Boltzmann at vibrational levels v > 2 and leads to a decrease in the calculated electron density and integral intensity at 630 nm in the northern and southern hemispheres in comparison with the electron density and integral intensity calculated using the Boltzmann vibrational distribution of N2. It is found that the intensity at 630 nm is very sensitive to the oxygen number densities. Good agreement between the modelled and measured intensities is obtained provided that at all altitudes of the southern hemisphere a reduction of about factor 1.35 in MSIS-86 atomic oxygen densities is included in the IZMIRAN model with the non-Boltzmann vibrational distribution of N2

  19. Europlanet NA2 Science Networking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harri, Ari-Matti; Szego, Karoly; Genzer, Maria; Schmidt, Walter; Krupp, Norbert; Lammer, Helmut; Kallio, Esa; Haukka, Harri

    2013-04-01

    workshops and in addition there were numerous smaller NA2 WG meetings during the conferences (EPSC, EGU, etc.) and other events. The total number of NA2 meetings and workshops was 37. There were three NA2 supported ISSI workshops within the Europlanet project. The first ISSI workshop "Comparison of the plasma-spheres of Mars, Venus, and Titan" organized by K. Szego was held in December 2009. The second workshop "Quantifying the Martian Geochemical Reservoirs" by M. Toplis was held in April 2011. The third one, themed "Giant Planet Magnetodiscs and Aurorae" by N. Krupp, N. Achilleos and C. Arridge, was in November 2012. All three ISSI workshops were selected by the ISSI scientific committee to be organized within the frame of ISSI/Europlanet agreement and held in Bern. The main objective of the Expert Exchange Program was to support the activities of Europlanet RI with experts whenever needed. The programme provided funding for short visits (up to one week) of expert with the goal of improving infrastructure facilities and services offered to the scientific community by the Europlanet RI participant (contractor) laboratories or institutes. Between July 2009 and September 2012 26 applications were selected. Acknowledgement: Europlanet RI was funded by the European Commission under the 7th Framework Program, grant 228319 "Capacities Specific Programme" - Research Infrastructures Action. References: [1] http://www.europlanet-ri.eu/ [2] https://europlanet-scinet.fi/

  20. A modeling study of ionospheric F2-region storm effects at low geomagnetic latitudes during 17-22 March 1990

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Pavlov

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available We have presented a comparison between the modeled NmF2 and hmF2, and NmF2 and hmF2, which were observed in the low-latitude ionosphere simultaneously by the Kokubunji, Yamagawa, Okinawa, Manila, Vanimo, and Darwin ionospheric sounders, by the middle and upper atmosphere (MU radar during 17-22 March 1990, and by the Arecibo radar for the time period of 20-22 March 1990. A comparison between the electron and ion temperatures measured by the MU and Arecibo radars and those produced by the model of the ionosphere and plasmasphere is presented. The empirical zonal electric field, the meridional neutral wind taken from the HWM90 wind model, and the NRLMSISE-00 neutral temperature and densities are corrected so that the model results agree reasonably with the ionospheric sounder observations, and the MU and Arecibo radar data. It is proved that the nighttime weakening of the equatorial zonal electric field (in comparison with that produced by the empirical model of Fejer and Scherliess (1997 or Scherliess and Fejer (1999, in combination with the corrected wind-induced plasma drift along magnetic field lines, provides the development of the nighttime enhancements in NmF2 observed over Manila during 17-22 March 1990. As a result, the new physical mechanism of the nighttime NmF2 enhancement formation close to the geomagnetic equator includes the nighttime weakening of the equatorial zonal electric field and equatorward nighttime plasma drift along magnetic field lines caused by neutral wind in the both geomagnetic hemispheres. It is found that the latitudinal positions of the crests depend on the E×B drift velocity and on the neutral wind velocity. The relative role of the main mechanisms of the equatorial anomaly suppression observed during geomagnetic storms is studied for the first time in terms of storm-time variations of the model crest-to-trough ratios of the equatorial anomaly. During most of the studied time period, a total contribution from

  1. F-region ionospheric perturbations in the low-latitude ionosphere during the geomagnetic storm of 25-27 August 1987

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    A. V. Pavlov

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available We have presented a comparison between the modeled NmF2 and hmF2, and NmF2 and hmF2 which were observed at the equatorial anomaly crest and close to the geomagnetic equator simultaneously by the Akita, Kokubunji, Yamagawa, Okinawa, Manila, Vanimo, and Darwin ionospheric sounders and by the middle and upper atmosphere (MU radar (34.85° N, 136.10° E during the 25-27 August 1987 geomagnetically storm-time period at low solar activity near 201°, geomagnetic longitude. A comparison between the electron and ion temperatures measured by the MU radar and those produced by the model of the ionosphere and plasmasphere is presented. The corrections of the storm-time zonal electric field, EΛ, from 16:30 UT to 21:00 UT on 25 August bring the modeled and measured hmF2 into reasonable agreement. In both hemispheres, the meridional neutral wind, W, taken from the HWW90 wind model and the NRLMSISE-00 neutral temperature, Tn, and densities are corrected so that the model results agree with the ionospheric sounders and MU radar observations. The geomagnetic latitude variations in NmF2 on 26 August differ significantly from those on 25 and 27 August. The equatorial plasma fountain undergoes significant inhibition on 26 August. This suppression of the equatorial anomaly on 26 August is not due to a reduction in the meridional component of the plasma drift perpendicular to the geomagnetic field direction, but is due to the action of storm-time changes in neutral winds and densities on the plasma fountain process. The asymmetry in W determines most of the north-south asymmetry in hmF2 and NmF2 on 25 and 27 August between about 01:00-01:30 UT and about 14:00 UT when the equatorial anomaly exists in the ionosphere, while asymmetries in W, Tn, and neutral densities relative to the geomagnetic equator are responsible for the north-south asymmetry in NmF2 and hmF2 on 26 August. A theory of the primary mechanisms causing the morning and evening peaks in the electron

  2. Demeter high resolution observations of the ionospheric thermal plasma response to magnetospheric energy input during the magnetic storm of November 2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Séran

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available High resolution Demeter plasma and wave observations were available during one of the geomagnetic storms of November 2004 when the ionospheric footprint of the plasmasphere was pushed below 64 degrees in the midnight sector. We report here onboard observations of thermal/suprathermal plasma and HF electric field variations with a temporal resolution of 0.4 s, which corresponds to a spatial resolution of 3 km. Local perturbations of the plasma parameters at the altitude of 730 km are analysed with respect to the variation of the field-aligned currents, electron and proton precipitation and large-scale electric fields, measured in-situ by Demeter and by remote optical methods from the IMAGE/Polar satellites.

    Flow monitoring in the 21:00 and 24:00 MLT sectors during storm conditions reveals two distinct regions of O+ outflow, i.e. the region of the field-aligned currents, which often comprises few layers of opposite currents, and the region of velocity reversal toward dusk at sub-auroral latitudes. Average upward O+ velocities are identical in both local time sectors and vary between 200 and 450 m s−1, with an exception of a few cases of higher speed (~1000 m s−1 outflow, observed in the midnight sector. Each individual outflow event does not indicate any heating process of the thermal O+ population. On the contrary, the temperature of the O+, outflowing from auroral latitudes, is found to be even colder than that of the ambient ion plasma. The only ion population which is observed to be involved in the heating is the O+ with energies a few times higher than the thermal energy. Such a population was detected at sub-auroral latitudes in the region of duskward flow reversal. Its temperature raises up to a few eV inside the layer of sheared velocity.

    A deep decrease in the H+ density at heights and latitudes, where, according to the IRI model

  3. Demeter high resolution observations of the ionospheric thermal plasma response to magnetospheric energy input during the magnetic storm of November 2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Séran

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available High resolution Demeter plasma and wave observations were available during one of the geomagnetic storms of November 2004 when the ionospheric footprint of the plasmasphere was pushed below 64 degrees in the midnight sector. We report here onboard observations of thermal/suprathermal plasma and HF electric field variations with a temporal resolution of 0.4 s, which corresponds to a spatial resolution of 3 km. Local perturbations of the plasma parameters at the altitude of 730 km are analysed with respect to the variation of the field-aligned currents, electron and proton precipitation and large-scale electric fields, measured in-situ by Demeter and by remote optical methods from the IMAGE/Polar satellites. Flow monitoring in the 21:00 and 24:00 MLT sectors during storm conditions reveals two distinct regions of O+ outflow, i.e. the region of the field-aligned currents, which often comprises few layers of opposite currents, and the region of velocity reversal toward dusk at sub-auroral latitudes. Average upward O+ velocities are identical in both local time sectors and vary between 200 and 450 m s−1, with an exception of a few cases of higher speed (~1000 m s−1 outflow, observed in the midnight sector. Each individual outflow event does not indicate any heating process of the thermal O+ population. On the contrary, the temperature of the O+, outflowing from auroral latitudes, is found to be even colder than that of the ambient ion plasma. The only ion population which is observed to be involved in the heating is the O+ with energies a few times higher than the thermal energy. Such a population was detected at sub-auroral latitudes in the region of duskward flow reversal. Its temperature raises up to a few eV inside the layer of sheared velocity. A deep decrease in the H+ density at heights and latitudes, where, according to the IRI model, these ions are expected to comprise ~50% of the positive charge, indicates that the thermospheric balance

  4. An anomalous subauroral red arc on 4 August, 1972: comparison of ISIS-2 satellite data with numerical calculations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Lobzin

    Full Text Available This study compares the Isis II satellite measurements of the electron density and temperature, the integral airglow intensity and volume emission rate at 630 nm in the SAR arc region, observed at dusk on 4 August, 1972, in the Southern Hemisphere, during the main phase of the geomagnetic storm. The model results were obtained using the time dependent one-dimensional mathematical model of the Earth's ionosphere and plasmasphere (the IZMIRAN model. The major enhancement to the IZMIRAN model developed in this study to explain the two component 630 nm emission observed is the analytical yield spectrum approach to calculate the fluxes of precipitating electrons and the additional production rates of N+2, O+2, O+(4S, O+(2D, O(2P, and O+(2P ions, and O(1D in the SAR arc regions in the Northern and Southern Hemispheres. In order to bring the measured and modelled electron temperatures into agreement, the additional heating electron rate of 1.05 eV cm–3 s–1 was added in the energy balance equation of electrons at altitudes above 5000 km during the main phase of the geomagnetic storm. This additional heating electron rate determines the thermally excited 630 nm emission observed. The IZMIRAN model calculates a 630 nm integral intensity above 350 km of 4.1 kR and a total 630 nm integral intensity of 8.1 kR, values which are slightly lower compared to the observed 4.7 kR and 10.6 kR. We conclude that the 630 nm emission observed can be explained considering both the soft energy electron excited component and the thermally excited component. It is found that the inclusion of N2(v > 0 and O2(v > 0 in the calculations of the O+(4S loss rate improves the agreement between the calculated N

  5. An anomalous subauroral red arc on 4 August, 1972: comparison of ISIS-2 satellite data with numerical calculations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Lobzin

    1999-11-01

    Full Text Available This study compares the Isis II satellite measurements of the electron density and temperature, the integral airglow intensity and volume emission rate at 630 nm in the SAR arc region, observed at dusk on 4 August, 1972, in the Southern Hemisphere, during the main phase of the geomagnetic storm. The model results were obtained using the time dependent one-dimensional mathematical model of the Earth's ionosphere and plasmasphere (the IZMIRAN model. The major enhancement to the IZMIRAN model developed in this study to explain the two component 630 nm emission observed is the analytical yield spectrum approach to calculate the fluxes of precipitating electrons and the additional production rates of N+2, O+2, O+(4S, O+(2D, O–(2P, and O+(2P ions, and O(1D in the SAR arc regions in the Northern and Southern Hemispheres. In order to bring the measured and modelled electron temperatures into agreement, the additional heating electron rate of 1.05 eV cm–3 s–1 was added in the energy balance equation of electrons at altitudes above 5000 km during the main phase of the geomagnetic storm. This additional heating electron rate determines the thermally excited 630 nm emission observed. The IZMIRAN model calculates a 630 nm integral intensity above 350 km of 4.1 kR and a total 630 nm integral intensity of 8.1 kR, values which are slightly lower compared to the observed 4.7 kR and 10.6 kR. We conclude that the 630 nm emission observed can be explained considering both the soft energy electron excited component and the thermally excited component. It is found that the inclusion of N2(v > 0 and O2(v > 0 in the calculations of the O+(4S loss rate improves the agreement between the calculated Ne and the data on 4 August, 1972. The  N2(v > 0 and O2(v > 0 effects are enough to explain the electron density depression in the SAR arc F-region and above F2 peak altitude. Our calculations show that the increase in the O++N2 rate factor due to the vibrationally

  6. Imaging Plasma Density Structures in the Soft X-Rays Generated by Solar Wind Charge Exchange with Neutrals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibeck, David G.; Allen, R.; Aryan, H.; Bodewits, D.; Brandt, P.; Branduardi-Raymont, G.; Brown, G.; Carter, J. A.; Collado-Vega, Y. M.; Collier, M. R.; Connor, H. K.; Cravens, T. E.; Ezoe, Y.; Fok, M.-C.; Galeazzi, M.; Gutynska, O.; Holmström, M.; Hsieh, S.-Y.; Ishikawa, K.; Koutroumpa, D.; Kuntz, K. D.; Leutenegger, M.; Miyoshi, Y.; Porter, F. S.; Purucker, M. E.; Read, A. M.; Raeder, J.; Robertson, I. P.; Samsonov, A. A.; Sembay, S.; Snowden, S. L.; Thomas, N. E.; von Steiger, R.; Walsh, B. M.; Wing, S.

    2018-06-01

    measurements rarely suffice to determine the global extent of these density structures or their global variation as a function of solar wind conditions, except in the form of empirical studies based on observations from many different times and solar wind conditions. Remote sensing observations provide global information about auroral ovals (FUV and hard X-ray), the terrestrial plasmasphere (EUV), and the terrestrial ring current (ENA). ENA instruments with low energy thresholds (˜1 keV) have recently been used to obtain important information concerning the magnetosheaths of Venus, Mars, and the Earth. Recent technological developments make these magnetosheaths valuable potential targets for high-cadence wide-field-of-view soft X-ray imagers. Section 2 describes proposed dayside interaction mechanisms, including reconnection, the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability, and other processes in greater detail with an emphasis on the plasma density structures that they generate. It focuses upon the questions that remain as yet unanswered, such as the significance of each proposed interaction mode, which can be determined from its occurrence pattern as a function of location and solar wind conditions. Section 3 outlines the physics underlying the charge exchange generation of soft X-rays. Section 4 lists the background sources (helium focusing cone, planetary, and cosmic) of soft X-rays from which the charge exchange emissions generated by solar wind exchange must be distinguished. With the help of simulations employing state-of-the-art magnetohydrodynamic models for the solar wind-magnetosphere interaction, models for Earth's exosphere, and knowledge concerning these background emissions, Sect. 5 demonstrates that boundaries and regions such as the bow shock, magnetosheath, magnetopause, and cusps can readily be identified in images of charge exchange emissions. Section 6 reviews observations by (generally narrow) field of view (FOV) astrophysical telescopes that confirm the presence of

  7. COST 296 scientific results designed for operational use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Pezzopane

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available

    The main objective of the COST 296 Action «Mitigation of Ionospheric Effects on Radio Systems» is the establishment/

    improvement of ionospheric services by coordinating the development of specific algorithms, models,

    and tools capable of operating in a near-real-time mode.

    Key elements of these activities are contributions related to monitoring, modelling, and imaging of customer-relevant

    ionospheric quantities. COST stimulates, coordinates, and supports Europe’s goals of development and

    global cooperation by providing high quality information and knowledge of ionospheric and plasmaspheric conditions

    enabling high quality and reliable operation of radio systems.

    It also provides a platform for sharing such tools as algorithms or models, and for the joint development of advanced

    technologies. It takes advantage of many national and European service initiatives, for example DIAS

    (http://dias.space.noa.gr, SWACI (http://w3swaci.dlr.de, ESWUA (http://www.eswua.ingv.it/ingv, RWC-Warsaw

    (http://www.cbk.waw.pl/rwc, the COST Prompt Ionospheric Database http://www.wdc.rl.ac.uk/cgibin/

    digisondes/cost_database.pl, http://www.izmiran.ru/services, and others.