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Sample records for plasmas gas-filled targets

  1. Gas-filled targets for large scalelength plasma interaction experiments on Nova

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powers, L.V.; Berger, R.L.; Munro, D.H.

    1994-11-01

    Stimulated Brillouin backscatter from large scale length gas-filled targets has been measured on Nova. These targets were designed to approximate conditions in indirect drive ignition target designs in underdense plasma electron density (n e ∼10 21 /cm 3 ), temperature (T e >3 keV), and gradient scale lengths (L n ∼ mm, L v >6 mm) as well as calculated gain for stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS). The targets used in these experiments were gas-filled balloons with polyimide walls (gasbags) and gas-filled hohlraums. Detailed characterization using x-ray imaging and x-ray and optical spectroscopy verifies that the calculated plasma conditions are achieved. Time-resolved SBS backscatter from these targets is <3% for conditions similar to ignition target designs

  2. Fabrication and testing of gas filled targets for large scale plasma experiments on Nova

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stone, G.F.; Spragge, M.; Wallace, R.J.; Rivers, C.J.

    1995-01-01

    An experimental campaign on the Nova laser was started in July 1993 to study one st of target conditions for the point design of the National Ignition Facility (NIF). The targets were specified to investigate the current NIF target conditions--a plasma of ∼3 keV electron temperature and an electron density of ∼1.0 E + 21 cm -3 . A gas cell target design was chosen to confine as gas of ∼0.01 cm 3 in volume at ∼ 1 atmosphere. This paper will describe the major steps and processes necessary in the fabrication, testing and delivery of these targets for shots on the Nova Laser at LLNL

  3. Gas-filled capillaries for plasma-based accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filippi, F; Anania, M P; Brentegani, E; Biagioni, A; Chiadroni, E; Ferrario, M; Pompili, R; Romeo, S; Cianchi, A; Zigler, A

    2017-01-01

    Plasma Wakefield Accelerators are based on the excitation of large amplitude plasma waves excited by either a laser or a particle driver beam. The amplitude of the waves, as well as their spatial dimensions and the consequent accelerating gradient depend strongly on the background electron density along the path of the accelerated particles. The process needs stable and reliable plasma sources, whose density profile must be controlled and properly engineered to ensure the appropriate accelerating mechanism. Plasma confinement inside gas filled capillaries have been studied in the past since this technique allows to control the evolution of the plasma, ensuring a stable and repeatable plasma density distribution during the interaction with the drivers. Moreover, in a gas filled capillary plasma can be pre-ionized by a current discharge to avoid ionization losses. Different capillary geometries have been studied to allow the proper temporal and spatial evolution of the plasma along the acceleration length. Results of this analysis obtained by varying the length and the number of gas inlets will be presented. (paper)

  4. Gas-filled capillaries for plasma-based accelerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippi, F.; Anania, M. P.; Brentegani, E.; Biagioni, A.; Cianchi, A.; Chiadroni, E.; Ferrario, M.; Pompili, R.; Romeo, S.; Zigler, A.

    2017-07-01

    Plasma Wakefield Accelerators are based on the excitation of large amplitude plasma waves excited by either a laser or a particle driver beam. The amplitude of the waves, as well as their spatial dimensions and the consequent accelerating gradient depend strongly on the background electron density along the path of the accelerated particles. The process needs stable and reliable plasma sources, whose density profile must be controlled and properly engineered to ensure the appropriate accelerating mechanism. Plasma confinement inside gas filled capillaries have been studied in the past since this technique allows to control the evolution of the plasma, ensuring a stable and repeatable plasma density distribution during the interaction with the drivers. Moreover, in a gas filled capillary plasma can be pre-ionized by a current discharge to avoid ionization losses. Different capillary geometries have been studied to allow the proper temporal and spatial evolution of the plasma along the acceleration length. Results of this analysis obtained by varying the length and the number of gas inlets will be presented.

  5. Opportunities of influence of plasma streams formed in IKA with continuos nor king gas filling en the surface of materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Useinov, B.M.; Useinova, A.M.; Amrenova, A.U.; Pusankov, S.A.; Sartin, S.A.; Virko, P.G.

    2001-01-01

    The results of the investigation of influence of plasma stream formed in IKA with continuous working gas filling on the surface of stainless steel 12X18H10T and aluminum are given in this article. It is shown here that the effect of influence of plasma stream on the surface of materials depends on the way of working gas filling. There is the comparison of influence of plasma stream formed in plasma accelerator with impulse and continuous working gas filling

  6. Soliton-plasma nonlinear dynamics in mid-IR gas-filled hollow-core fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Habib, Selim; Markos, Christos; Bang, Ole

    2017-01-01

    We investigate numerically soliton-plasma interaction in a noble-gas-filled silica hollow-core anti-resonant fiber pumped in the mid-IR at 3.0 mu m. We observe multiple soliton self-compression stages due to distinct stages where either the self-focusing or the self-defocusing nonlinearity...

  7. A Concept for a Low Pressure Noble Gas Fill Intervention in the IFE Fusion Test Facility (FTF) Target Chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gentile, C.A.; Blanchard, W.R.; Kozub, T.A.; Aristova, M.; McGahan, C.; Natta, S.; Pagdon, K.; Zelenty, J.

    2010-01-01

    An engineering evaluation has been initiated to investigate conceptual engineering methods for implementing a viable gas shield strategy in the Fusion Test Facility (FTF) target chamber. The employment of a low pressure noble gas in the target chamber to thermalize energetic helium ions prior to interaction with the wall could dramatically increase the useful life of the first wall in the FTF reactor1. For the purpose of providing flexibility, two target chamber configurations are addressed: a five meter radius sphere and a ten meter radius sphere. Experimental studies at Nike have indicated that a low pressure, ambient gas resident in the target chamber during laser pulsing does not appear to impair the ability of laser light from illuminating targets2. In addition, current investigations into delivering, maintaining, and processing low pressure gas appear to be viable with slight modification to current pumping and plasma exhaust processing technologies3,4. Employment of a gas fill solution for protecting the dry wall target chamber in the FTF may reduce, or possibly eliminate the need for other attenuating technologies designed for keeping He ions from implanting in first wall structures and components. The gas fill concept appears to provide an effective means of extending the life of the first wall while employing mostly commercial off the shelf (COTS) technologies. Although a gas fill configuration may provide a methodology for attenuating damage inflicted on chamber surfaces, issues associated with target injection need to be further analyzed to ensure that the gas fill concept is viable in the integrated FTF design5. In the proposed system, the ambient noble gas is heated via the energetic helium ions produced by target detonation. The gas is subsequently cooled by the chamber wall to approximately 800oC, removed from the chamber, and processed by the chamber gas processing system (CGPS). In an optimized scenario of the above stated concept, the chamber

  8. Effect of gas filling pressure and operation energy on ion and neutron emission in a medium energy plasma focus device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niranjan, Ram; Rout, R. K.; Srivastava, Rohit; Kaushik, T. C.

    2018-03-01

    The effects of gas filling pressure and operation energy on deuterium ions and neutrons have been studied in a medium energy plasma focus device, MEPF-12. The deuterium gas filling pressure was varied from 1 to 10 mbar at an operation energy of 9.7 kJ. Also, the operation energy was varied from 3.9 to 9.7 kJ at a deuterium gas filling pressure of 4 mbar. Time resolved emission of deuterium ions was measured using a Faraday cup. Simultaneously, time integrated and time resolved emissions of neutrons were measured using a silver activation detector and plastic scintillator detector, respectively. Various characteristics (fluence, peak density, and most probable energy) of deuterium ions were estimated using the Faraday cup signal. The fluence was found to be nearly independent of the gas filling pressure and operation energy, but the peak density and most probable energy of deuterium ions were found to be varying. The neutron yield was observed to be varying with the gas filling pressure and operation energy. The effect of ions on neutrons emission was observed at each operation condition.

  9. Studies of implosion dynamics of D{sup 3}He gas-filled plastic targets using nuclear diagnostics at OMEGA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falk, Magnus

    2004-09-01

    Information about target-implosion dynamics is essential for understanding how assembly occurs. Without carefully tailored assembly of the fuel, hot-spot ignition on National Ignition Facility (NIF) will fail. Hot spot ignition relies on shock convergence to 'ignite' the hot spot (shock burn), followed by propagation of the burn into the compressed shell material (compressive burn). The relationship between these events must be understood to ensure the success of Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) ignition. To further improve our knowledge about the timing of these events, temporal evolution of areal density (density times radius, normally referred to as {rho}R) and burn of direct-drive, D{sup 3}He gas-filled plastic target implosions have been studied using dd neutrons and d{sup 3}He protons. The proton temporal diagnostic (PTD) code was developed for this purpose. {rho}R asymmetries were observed at shock-bang time (time of peak burn during shock phase) and grew approximately twice as fast as the average {rho}R, without any phase changes. Furthermore, it was observed that the shock-bang and compression-bang time occur earlier, and that the time difference between these events decreases for higher laser energy on target, which indicates that the compression-bang time is more sensitive to the variation of laser energy on target. It was also observed that the duration of shock and compression phase might decrease for higher laser energy on target.

  10. Studies of implosion dynamics of D3He gas-filled plastic targets using nuclear diagnostics at OMEGA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falk, Magnus

    2004-09-01

    Information about target-implosion dynamics is essential for understanding how assembly occurs. Without carefully tailored assembly of the fuel, hot-spot ignition on National Ignition Facility (NIF) will fail. Hot spot ignition relies on shock convergence to 'ignite' the hot spot (shock burn), followed by propagation of the burn into the compressed shell material (compressive burn). The relationship between these events must be understood to ensure the success of Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) ignition. To further improve our knowledge about the timing of these events, temporal evolution of areal density (density times radius, normally referred to as ρR) and burn of direct-drive, D 3 He gas-filled plastic target implosions have been studied using dd neutrons and d 3 He protons. The proton temporal diagnostic (PTD) code was developed for this purpose. ρR asymmetries were observed at shock-bang time (time of peak burn during shock phase) and grew approximately twice as fast as the average ρR, without any phase changes. Furthermore, it was observed that the shock-bang and compression-bang time occur earlier, and that the time difference between these events decreases for higher laser energy on target, which indicates that the compression-bang time is more sensitive to the variation of laser energy on target. It was also observed that the duration of shock and compression phase might decrease for higher laser energy on target

  11. The role of the gas/plasma plume and self-focusing in a gas-filled capillary discharge waveguide for high-power laser-plasma applications

    CERN Document Server

    Ciocarlan, C.; Islam, M. R.; Ersfeld, B.; Abuazoum, S.; Wilson, R.; Aniculaesei, C.; Welsh, G. H.; Vieux, G.; Jaroszynski, D. A.; 10.1063/1.4822333

    2013-01-01

    The role of the gas/plasma plume at the entrance of a gas-filled capillary discharge plasma waveguide in increasing the laser intensity has been investigated. Distinction is made between neutral gas and hot plasma plumes that, respectively, develop before and after discharge breakdown. Time-averaged measurements show that the on-axis plasma density of a fully expanded plasma plume over this region is similar to that inside the waveguide. Above the critical power, relativistic and ponderomotive selffocusing lead to an increase in the intensity, which can be nearly a factor of 2 compared with the case without a plume. When used as a laser plasma wakefield accelerator, the enhancement of intensity can lead to prompt electron injection very close to the entrance of the waveguide. Self-focusing occurs within two Rayleigh lengths of the waveguide entrance plane in the region, where the laser beam is converging. Analytical theory and numerical simulations show that, for a density of 3.01018 cm3, the peak normalized...

  12. Gas filled detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephan, C.

    1993-01-01

    The main types of gas filled nuclear detectors: ionization chambers, proportional counters, parallel-plate avalanche counters (PPAC) and microstrip detectors are described. New devices are shown. A description of the processes involved in such detectors is also given. (K.A.) 123 refs.; 25 figs.; 3 tabs

  13. Simulation of electron beam formation and transport in a gas-filled electron-optical system with a plasma emitter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grishkov, A. A. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of High Current Electronics, Siberian Branch (Russian Federation); Kornilov, S. Yu., E-mail: kornilovsy@gmail.com; Rempe, N. G. [Tomsk State University of Control Systems and Radioelectronics (Russian Federation); Shidlovskiy, S. V. [Tomsk State University (Russian Federation); Shklyaev, V. A. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of High Current Electronics, Siberian Branch (Russian Federation)

    2016-07-15

    The results of computer simulations of the electron-optical system of an electron gun with a plasma emitter are presented. The simulations are performed using the KOBRA3-INP, XOOPIC, and ANSYS codes. The results describe the electron beam formation and transport. The electron trajectories are analyzed. The mechanisms of gas influence on the energy inhomogeneity of the beam and its current in the regions of beam primary formation, acceleration, and transport are described. Recommendations for optimizing the electron-optical system with a plasma emitter are presented.

  14. Electron temperature measurements inside the ablating plasma of gas-filled hohlraums at the National Ignition Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrios, M. A.; Liedahl, D. A.; Schneider, M. B.; Jones, O.; Brown, G. V.; Fournier, K. B.; Moore, A. S.; Ross, J. S.; Landen, O.; Kauffman, R. L.; Nikroo, A.; Kroll, J.; Callahan, D. A.; Hinkel, D. E.; Bradley, D.; Moody, J. D. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94551 (United States); Regan, S. P. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, Rochester, New York 14623 (United States); Jaquez, J.; Huang, H. [General Atomics, San Diego, California 92121 (United States); Hansen, S. B. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87123 (United States)

    2016-05-15

    The first measurement of the electron temperature (T{sub e}) inside a National Ignition Facility hohlraum is obtained using temporally resolved K-shell X-ray spectroscopy of a mid-Z tracer dot. Both isoelectronic- and interstage-line ratios are used to calculate the local T{sub e} via the collisional–radiative atomic physics code SCRAM [Hansen et al., High Energy Density Phys 3, 109 (2007)]. The trajectory of the mid-Z dot as it is ablated from the capsule surface and moves toward the laser entrance hole (LEH) is measured using side-on x-ray imaging, characterizing the plasma flow of the ablating capsule. Data show that the measured dot location is farther away from the LEH in comparison to the radiation-hydrodynamics simulation prediction using HYDRA [Marinak et al., Phys. Plasmas 3, 2070 (1996)]. To account for this discrepancy, the predicted simulation T{sub e} is evaluated at the measured dot trajectory. The peak T{sub e}, measured to be 4.2 keV ± 0.2 keV, is ∼0.5 keV hotter than the simulation prediction.

  15. Experimental Study of High-Z Gas Buffers in Gas-Filled ICF Engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rhodes, M A; Kane, J; Loosmore, G; DeMuth, J; Latkowski, J

    2010-12-03

    ICF power plants, such as the LIFE scheme at LLNL, may employ a high-Z, target-chamber gas-fill to moderate the first-wall heat-pulse due to x-rays and energetic ions released during target detonation. To reduce the uncertainties of cooling and beam/target propagation through such gas-filled chambers, we present a pulsed plasma source producing 2-5 eV plasma comprised of high-Z gases. We use a 5-kJ, 100-ns theta discharge for high peak plasma-heating-power, an electrode-less discharge for minimizing impurities, and unobstructed axial access for diagnostics and beam (and/or target) propagation studies. We will report on the plasma source requirements, design process, and the system design.

  16. Gas-Filled Capillary Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinhauer, L. C.; Kimura, W. D.

    2006-01-01

    We have developed a 1-D, quasi-steady-state numerical model for a gas-filled capillary discharge that is designed to aid in selecting the optimum capillary radius in order to guide a laser beam with the required intensity through the capillary. The model also includes the option for an external solenoid B-field around the capillary, which increases the depth of the parabolic density channel in the capillary, thereby allowing for propagation of smaller laser beam waists. The model has been used to select the parameters for gas-filled capillaries to be utilized during the Staged Electron Laser Acceleration -- Laser Wakefield (STELLA-LW) experiment

  17. Gas-filled hohlraum fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salazar, M.A.; Gobby, P.L.; Foreman, L.R.; Bush, H. Jr.; Gomez, V.M.; Moore, J.E.; Stone, G.F.

    1995-01-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) researchers have fabricated and fielded gas-filled hohlraums at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Nova laser. Fill pressures of 1--5 atmospheres have been typical. We describe the production of the parts, their assembly and fielding. Emphasis is placed on the production of gas-tight polyimide windows and the fielding apparatus and procedure

  18. Early-time radiation flux symmetry optimization and its effect on gas-filled hohlraum ignition targets on the National Ignition Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milovich, J. L., E-mail: milovich1@llnl.gov; Dewald, E. L.; Pak, A.; Michel, P.; Town, R. P. J.; Bradley, D. K.; Landen, O.; Edwards, M. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)

    2016-03-15

    Achieving ignition on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) is tied to our ability to control and minimize deviations from sphericity of the capsule implosion. Low-mode asymmetries of the hot spot result from the combined effect of radiation drive asymmetries throughout the laser pulse and initial roughness on the capsule surface. In this paper, we report on simulations and experiments designed to assess, measure, and correct the drive asymmetries produced by the early-time (≈first 2 ns or “picket”) period of the laser pulse. The drive asymmetry during the picket is commonly thought to introduce distortions in the hot-spot shape at ignition time. However, a more subtle effect not previously considered is that it also leads to an asymmetry in shock velocity and timing, thereby increasing the fuel adiabat and reducing the margin for ignition. It is shown via hydrodynamic simulations that minimizing this effect requires that the early-time asymmetry be kept below 7.5% in the second Legendre mode (P{sub 2}), thus keeping the loss of performance margin below ≈10% for a layered implosion. Asymmetries during the picket of the laser pulse are measured using the instantaneous self-emission of a high-Z re-emission sphere in place of an ignition capsule in a hohlraum with large azimuthal diagnostic windows. Three dimensional simulations using the code HYDRA (to capture the effect of non-azimuthal hohlraum features) coupled to a cross-beam energy transfer model [Michel et al., Phys. Plasmas 17, 056305 (2010)] are used to establish the surrogacy of the re-emit target and to assess the early-time drive symmetry. Calculations using this model exhibit the same sensitivity to variations in the relative input powers between the different cones of NIF beams as measured for the “Rev5” CH target [Haan et al., Phys Plasmas 18, 051001 (2011)] and reported by Dewald et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 235001 (2013)]. The same methodology applied to recently improved implosions

  19. Early-time radiation flux symmetry optimization and its effect on gas-filled hohlraum ignition targets on the National Ignition Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milovich, J. L.; Dewald, E. L.; Pak, A.; Michel, P.; Town, R. P. J.; Bradley, D. K.; Landen, O.; Edwards, M. J.

    2016-01-01

    Achieving ignition on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) is tied to our ability to control and minimize deviations from sphericity of the capsule implosion. Low-mode asymmetries of the hot spot result from the combined effect of radiation drive asymmetries throughout the laser pulse and initial roughness on the capsule surface. In this paper, we report on simulations and experiments designed to assess, measure, and correct the drive asymmetries produced by the early-time (≈first 2 ns or “picket”) period of the laser pulse. The drive asymmetry during the picket is commonly thought to introduce distortions in the hot-spot shape at ignition time. However, a more subtle effect not previously considered is that it also leads to an asymmetry in shock velocity and timing, thereby increasing the fuel adiabat and reducing the margin for ignition. It is shown via hydrodynamic simulations that minimizing this effect requires that the early-time asymmetry be kept below 7.5% in the second Legendre mode (P_2), thus keeping the loss of performance margin below ≈10% for a layered implosion. Asymmetries during the picket of the laser pulse are measured using the instantaneous self-emission of a high-Z re-emission sphere in place of an ignition capsule in a hohlraum with large azimuthal diagnostic windows. Three dimensional simulations using the code HYDRA (to capture the effect of non-azimuthal hohlraum features) coupled to a cross-beam energy transfer model [Michel et al., Phys. Plasmas 17, 056305 (2010)] are used to establish the surrogacy of the re-emit target and to assess the early-time drive symmetry. Calculations using this model exhibit the same sensitivity to variations in the relative input powers between the different cones of NIF beams as measured for the “Rev5” CH target [Haan et al., Phys Plasmas 18, 051001 (2011)] and reported by Dewald et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 235001 (2013)]. The same methodology applied to recently improved implosions using

  20. Early-time radiation flux symmetry optimization and its effect on gas-filled hohlraum ignition targets on the National Ignition Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milovich, J. L.; Dewald, E. L.; Pak, A.; Michel, P.; Town, R. P. J.; Bradley, D. K.; Landen, O.; Edwards, M. J.

    2016-03-01

    Achieving ignition on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) is tied to our ability to control and minimize deviations from sphericity of the capsule implosion. Low-mode asymmetries of the hot spot result from the combined effect of radiation drive asymmetries throughout the laser pulse and initial roughness on the capsule surface. In this paper, we report on simulations and experiments designed to assess, measure, and correct the drive asymmetries produced by the early-time (≈first 2 ns or "picket") period of the laser pulse. The drive asymmetry during the picket is commonly thought to introduce distortions in the hot-spot shape at ignition time. However, a more subtle effect not previously considered is that it also leads to an asymmetry in shock velocity and timing, thereby increasing the fuel adiabat and reducing the margin for ignition. It is shown via hydrodynamic simulations that minimizing this effect requires that the early-time asymmetry be kept below 7.5% in the second Legendre mode (P2), thus keeping the loss of performance margin below ≈10% for a layered implosion. Asymmetries during the picket of the laser pulse are measured using the instantaneous self-emission of a high-Z re-emission sphere in place of an ignition capsule in a hohlraum with large azimuthal diagnostic windows. Three dimensional simulations using the code HYDRA (to capture the effect of non-azimuthal hohlraum features) coupled to a cross-beam energy transfer model [Michel et al., Phys. Plasmas 17, 056305 (2010)] are used to establish the surrogacy of the re-emit target and to assess the early-time drive symmetry. Calculations using this model exhibit the same sensitivity to variations in the relative input powers between the different cones of NIF beams as measured for the "Rev5" CH target [Haan et al., Phys Plasmas 18, 051001 (2011)] and reported by Dewald et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 235001 (2013)]. The same methodology applied to recently improved implosions using different

  1. Gas-filled hohlraum experiments at the national ignition facility.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernández, J. C. (Juan C.); Gautier, D. C. (Donald Cort); Goldman, S. R. (Sanford R.); Grimm, B. M.; Hegelich, B. M. (Bjorn M.); Kline, J. L. (John L.); Montgomery, D. S. (David S.); Lanier, N. E. (Nicholas E.); Rose, H. A. (Harvey A.); Schmidt, D. M. (David M.); Swift, D. C.; Workman, J. B. (Jonathan B.); Alvarez, Sharon; Bower, Dan.; Braun, Dave.; Campbell, K. (Katherine); DeWald, E.; Glenzer, S. (Siegfried); Holder, J. (Joe P.); Kamperschroer, J. H. (James H.); Kimbrough, Joe (Joseph R.); Kirkwood, Robert (Bob); Landen, O. L. (Otto L.); Mccarville, Tom (Tomas J.); Macgowan, B.; Mackinnon, A.; Niemann, C.; Schein, J.; Schneider, M; Watts, Phil; Young, Ben-li [number : znumber] 194154; Young B.

    2004-01-01

    The summary of this paper is: (1) We have fielded on NIF a gas-filled hohlraum designed for future ignition experiments; (2) Wall-motion measurements are consistent with LASNEX simulations; (3) LPI back-scattering results have confounded expectations - (a) Stimulated Brillouin (SBS) dominates Raman (SRS) for any gas-fill species, (b) Measured SBS time-averaged reflectivity values are high, peak values are even higher, (c) SRS and SBS peak while laser-pulse is rising; and (4) Plasma conditions at the onset of high back-scattering yield high SBS convective linear gain - Wavelengths of the back-scattered light is predicted by linear theory.

  2. Gas-filled hohlraum experiments at the national ignition facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, J.C.; Gautier, D.C.; Goldman, S.R.; Grimm, B.M.; Hegelich, B.M.; Kline, J.L.; Montgomery, D.S.; Lanier, N.E.; Rose, H.A.; Schmidt, D.M.; Swift, D.C.; Workman, J.B.; Alvarez, Sharon; Bower, Dan; Braun, Dave; Campbell, K.; DeWald, E.; Glenzer, S.; Holder, J.; Kamperschroer, J.H.; Kimbrough, Joe; Kirkwood, Robert; Landen, O.L.; Mccarville, Tom; Macgowan, B.; Mackinnon, A.; Niemann, C.; Schein, J.; Schneider, M.; Watts, Phil; Young, Ben-li; Young B.

    2004-01-01

    The summary of this paper is: (1) We have fielded on NIF a gas-filled hohlraum designed for future ignition experiments; (2) Wall-motion measurements are consistent with LASNEX simulations; (3) LPI back-scattering results have confounded expectations - (a) Stimulated Brillouin (SBS) dominates Raman (SRS) for any gas-fill species, (b) Measured SBS time-averaged reflectivity values are high, peak values are even higher, (c) SRS and SBS peak while laser-pulse is rising; and (4) Plasma conditions at the onset of high back-scattering yield high SBS convective linear gain - Wavelengths of the back-scattered light is predicted by linear theory.

  3. Dynamics of the spectral behaviour of an ultrashort laser pulse in an argon-gas-filled capillary discharge-preformed plasma channel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakai S.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available We have reported the argon plasma waveguide produced in an alumina (Al2O3 capillary discharge and used to guide ultrashort laser pulses at intensities of the order of 1016  W/cm2. A one-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic (MHD code was used to evaluate the average degree of ionization of Ar in the preformed plasma channel. The spectrum of the propagated laser pulse in the Ar plasma waveguide was not modified and was well reproduced by a particle-in-cell (PIC simulation under initial ion charge state of Ar3+ in the preformed plasma waveguide. The optimum timing for the laser pulse injection was around 150 ns after initiation of a discharge with a peak current of 200 A.

  4. [Time resolved plasma spectroscopy of imploded gas-filled microballoons: The next generation]. Final technical report, 17 April 1995--30 September 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hooper, C.F. Jr.

    1998-03-01

    This report is comprised of three documents which deal with plasma spectroscopy of laser-produced plasmas. In Appendix A the authors present a discussion of plasma line broadening with emphasis on the effects of accounting for ion-dynamic corrections. For two decades, high power lasers have been used to implode microballoons filled with gases such as neon, argon, deuterium, or mixtures of deuterium and argon. These implosions have generated high-temperature (∼ 1 keV) and high density (∼ 10 23 /cc--10 25 /cc) plasmas. As a result of these experiments, the authors are able to observe the radiative properties of highly charged ions in the presence of a variety of strongly coupled plasmas. Spectral radiation observed from these experiments is frequently in the x-ray region and the radiative properties are greatly influenced by plasma effects. In section 2 of this paper the authors discuss the theoretical techniques employed to interpret these spectra and describe two sets of implosion experiments. In section 3 they list some conclusions. Appendix B presents more research related to ion-dynamic corrections. The authors examine the combined effects of ion dynamics and opacity on line profiles used in the analysis of hot dense plasmas. Specifically, they have calculated Stark broadened line profiles for both resonance and satellite lines in highly stripped Ar ions, both in the quasi-static ion approximation, and including the effects of ion dynamics. Using the results of an NLTE kinetics code, combined with an escape factor formalism to account for the effects of radiative transfer, they have calculated the relative intensities of these lines, as well as the effects of opacity on their profiles. This model spectra is used in the analysis of experimental data. In a series of experiments performed at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics plastic microballoons filled with DD and doped with Ar were imploded using the Omega laser system. Here, the authors use time-resolved K

  5. Development of plasma targets for interaction experiments at Tokyo Institute of Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosokai, T.; Miyamoto, S.; Ogawa, M.

    1996-01-01

    A plasma target of z-pinch discharge is developed to obtain a hydrogen plasma of density approaching 10 18 cm -3 . The target plasma has a duration of about 1 μs for an initial gas pressure of 80 Pa. Prior to the gas flow type of target, the z-pinch process of a gas-filled discharge tube was studied by comparison with a computer simulation. The behavior of the z pinch is understood in terms of the dynamics of a shock wave and a current boundary sheet. A laser-induced plasma is also examined as an alternative plasma target free from the plasma lens effect. (orig.)

  6. Gas-filled hohlraum experiments at the National Ignition Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, Juan C.; Goldman, S.R.; Kline, J.L.; Dodd, E.S.; Gautier, C.; Grim, G.P.; Hegelich, B.M.; Montgomery, D.S.; Lanier, N.E.; Rose, H.; Schmidt, D.W.; Workman, J.B.; Braun, D.G.; Dewald, E.L.; Landen, O.L.; Campbell, K.M.; Holder, J.P.; MacKinnon, A.J.; Niemann, C.; Schein, J.

    2006-01-01

    Experiments done at the National Ignition Facility laser [J. A. Paisner, E. M. Campbell, and W. Hogan, Fusion Technol. 26, 755 (1994)] using gas-filled hohlraums demonstrate a key ignition design feature, i.e., using plasma pressure from a gas fill to tamp the hohlraum-wall expansion for the duration of the laser pulse. Moreover, our understanding of hohlraum energetics and the ability to predict the hohlraum soft-x-ray drive has been validated in ignition-relevant conditions. Finally, the laser reflectivity from stimulated Raman scattering in the fill plasma, a key threat to hohlraum performance, is shown to be suppressed by choosing a design with a sufficiently high ratio of electron temperature to density

  7. INS gas-filled recoil isotope separator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyatake, M.; Nomura, T.; Kawakami, H.

    1986-09-01

    The characteristics and performance of a small sized gas-filled recoil isotope separator recently made at INS are described. The total efficiency and the ΔBρ/Bρ values have been measured using low velocity 16 O, 40 Ar and 68 As ions and found to be 10 and 5 %, respectively. The Z-dependence of the mean charge is discussed. (author)

  8. Electromagnetic radiations from laser interaction with gas-filled Hohlraum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ming; Yang, Yongmei; Li, Tingshuai; Yi, Tao; Wang, Chuanke; Liu, Shenye; Jiang, Shaoen; Ding, Yongkun

    2018-01-01

    The emission of intensive electromagnetic pulse (EMP) due to laser-target interactions at the ShenGuang-III laser facility has been evaluated by probes. EMP signals measured using the small discone antennas demonstrated two variation trends including a bilateral oscillation wave and a unilateral oscillation wave. The new trend of unilateral oscillation could be attributed to the hohlraum structure and low-Z gas in the hohlraum. The EMP waveform showed multiple peaks when the gas-filled hohlraum was shot by the high-power laser. Comparing the EMP signals with the verification of stimulated Raman scattering energy and hard x-ray energy spectrum, we found that the intensity of EMP signals decreased with the increase of the hohlraum size. The current results are expected to offer preliminary information to study physical processes on laser injecting gas-filled hohlraums in the National Ignition Facility implementation.

  9. Flammability of Gas-Filled Polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ushkov Valentin Anatol'evich

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The regularities of flame propagation on the horizontal surface of gas-filled polymers are considered depending on the concentration of oxygen in the oxidizer flow. The values of the coefficients in the expression describing relationship between the rate of flame propagation on the surface of foams and oxygen concentration are obtained. It was shown that with the mass content of reactive organophosphorus compounds reaching 4.0...5.9%, non-smoldering resole foam plastics with high performance characteristics are obtained. It was found that in order to obtain moderately combustible polyurethane foams based on oxyethylated phosphorus-containing polyols, the phosphorus concentration should not exceed 3 % of mass. To obtain flame-retardant urea-formaldehyde foam cellular plastics, the concentration of phosphorus should not exceed 0.3 % of mass. Physical-mechanical properties and flammability indices of developed gas-filled polymers based on reactive oligomers are presented.

  10. Pulse formation of gas-filled counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwatani, Kazuo; Teshima, Kazunori; Shizuma, Kiyoshi; Hasai, Hiromi

    1991-01-01

    The pulse formation of gas-filled counter has been calculated by simple models for the proportional and self-quenching streamer (SQS) modes. Calculated pulse shapes of counter output have accurately reproduced the observed ones for both modes. As a result, it is shown that the special density distribution of ion pairs in a streamer can be estimated with the rising part of observed pulse shape, using the model. (author)

  11. Multiple soliton compression stages in mid-IR gas-filled hollow-core fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Habib, Md Selim; Markos, Christos; Bang, Ole

    2017-01-01

    The light confinement inside hollow-core (HC) fibers filled with noble gases constitutes an efficient route to study interesting soliton-plasma dynamics [1]. More recently, plasma-induced soliton splitting at the self-compression point was observed in a gas-filled fiber in the near-IR [2]. However...

  12. The gas filled separator as a separation method to detect transuranic elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ninov, V.

    1992-08-01

    The mass spectrometer NASE (NAchSEparator) built as a post-separator and located behind the velocity filter SHIP at the GSI in Darmstadt, was taken into operation as a gas-filled separator, and its separation properties for fusion products from heavy ion reactions were studied. Chapter 2 describes the principle of separation in a gas-filled magnet. The technical specifications of the separator, the detectors and the setup of detection electronics are outlined in chapter 3. The studies of separation properties are described in chapter 4, and chapter 5 deals with preliminary applications of the gas-filled separator to detect isotopes poor in neutrons, with an atomic number Z = 92, 93. Chapter 6 is concerned with preliminary tests to detect heavy nuclei with an atomic number Z > = 100 by means of light radiation and actinide targets. The experimental results of comparative measurements between the velocity filter SHIP and the gas-filled separator are pointed out in chapter 7, and future application possibilities of gas-filled separators for synthesis of heaviest nuclei through asymmetric reactions are discussed. (orig./BBR) [de

  13. Laser-Plasma Interactions in Drive Campaign targets on the National Ignition Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinkel, D E; Callahan, D A; Moody, J D; Amendt, P A; Lasinski, B F; MacGowan, B J; Meeker, D; Michel, P A; Ralph, J; Rosen, M D; Ross, J S; Schneider, M B; Storm, E; Strozzi, D J; Williams, E A

    2016-01-01

    The Drive campaign [D A Callahan et al., this conference] on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) laser [E. I. Moses, R. N. Boyd, B. A. Remington, C. J. Keane, R. Al-Ayat, Phys. Plasmas 16, 041006 (2009)] has the focused goal of understanding and optimizing the hohlraum for ignition. Both the temperature and symmetry of the radiation drive depend on laser and hohlraum characteristics. The drive temperature depends on the coupling of laser energy to the hohlraum, and the symmetry of the drive depends on beam-to-beam interactions that result in energy transfer [P. A. Michel, S. H. Glenzer, L. Divol, et al, Phys. Plasmas 17, 056305 (2010).] within the hohlraum. To this end, hohlraums are being fielded where shape (rugby vs. cylindrical hohlraums), gas fill composition (neopentane at room temperature vs. cryogenic helium), and gas fill density (increase of ∼ 150%) are independently changed. Cylindrical hohlraums with higher gas fill density show improved inner beam propagation, as should rugby hohlraums, because of the larger radius over the capsule (7 mm vs. 5.75 mm in a cylindrical hohlraum). Energy coupling improves in room temperature neopentane targets, as well as in hohlraums at higher gas fill density. In addition cross-beam energy transfer is being addressed directly by using targets that mock up one end of a hohlraum, but allow observation of the laser beam uniformity after energy transfer. Ideas such as splitting quads into “doublets” by re-pointing the right and left half of quads are also being pursued. LPI results of the Drive campaign will be summarized, and analyses of future directions presented. (paper)

  14. Laser driven implosion of gas filled microballoons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Key, M.H.; Evans, R.G.; Nicholas, D.J.

    1978-01-01

    The characteristics of the exploding pusher compression process have been studied experimentally and by computer modelling. Time and space resolved imaging and spectroscopy of X-ray emission has been used to determine the plasma parameters in both the outer corona and the implosion core. Neutron yield has been applied as an ion temperature indicator. The data thus obtained are related to 1D computer modelling with emphasis on the role of hot electron energy transport. Physical processes in the plasma corona have been investigated through observations of fast ions, hard X-rays and harmonic generation. Diagnostic methods for dense implosion plasma will be discussed. (author)

  15. High-density carbon ablator ignition path with low-density gas-filled rugby hohlraum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amendt, Peter; Ho, Darwin D.; Jones, Ogden S.

    2015-01-01

    A recent low gas-fill density (0.6 mg/cc 4 He) cylindrical hohlraum experiment on the National Ignition Facility has shown high laser-coupling efficiency (>96%), reduced phenomenological laser drive corrections, and improved high-density carbon capsule implosion symmetry [Jones et al., Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 59(15), 66 (2014)]. In this Letter, an ignition design using a large rugby-shaped hohlraum [Amendt et al., Phys. Plasmas 21, 112703 (2014)] for high energetics efficiency and symmetry control with the same low gas-fill density (0.6 mg/cc 4 He) is developed as a potentially robust platform for demonstrating thermonuclear burn. The companion high-density carbon capsule for this hohlraum design is driven by an adiabat-shaped [Betti et al., Phys. Plasmas 9, 2277 (2002)] 4-shock drive profile for robust high gain (>10) 1-D ignition performance and large margin to 2-D perturbation growth

  16. High-density carbon ablator ignition path with low-density gas-filled rugby hohlraum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amendt, Peter; Ho, Darwin D.; Jones, Ogden S.

    2015-04-01

    A recent low gas-fill density (0.6 mg/cc 4He) cylindrical hohlraum experiment on the National Ignition Facility has shown high laser-coupling efficiency (>96%), reduced phenomenological laser drive corrections, and improved high-density carbon capsule implosion symmetry [Jones et al., Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 59(15), 66 (2014)]. In this Letter, an ignition design using a large rugby-shaped hohlraum [Amendt et al., Phys. Plasmas 21, 112703 (2014)] for high energetics efficiency and symmetry control with the same low gas-fill density (0.6 mg/cc 4He) is developed as a potentially robust platform for demonstrating thermonuclear burn. The companion high-density carbon capsule for this hohlraum design is driven by an adiabat-shaped [Betti et al., Phys. Plasmas 9, 2277 (2002)] 4-shock drive profile for robust high gain (>10) 1-D ignition performance and large margin to 2-D perturbation growth.

  17. High-density carbon ablator ignition path with low-density gas-filled rugby hohlraum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amendt, Peter; Ho, Darwin D.; Jones, Ogden S. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94551 (United States)

    2015-04-15

    A recent low gas-fill density (0.6 mg/cc {sup 4}He) cylindrical hohlraum experiment on the National Ignition Facility has shown high laser-coupling efficiency (>96%), reduced phenomenological laser drive corrections, and improved high-density carbon capsule implosion symmetry [Jones et al., Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 59(15), 66 (2014)]. In this Letter, an ignition design using a large rugby-shaped hohlraum [Amendt et al., Phys. Plasmas 21, 112703 (2014)] for high energetics efficiency and symmetry control with the same low gas-fill density (0.6 mg/cc {sup 4}He) is developed as a potentially robust platform for demonstrating thermonuclear burn. The companion high-density carbon capsule for this hohlraum design is driven by an adiabat-shaped [Betti et al., Phys. Plasmas 9, 2277 (2002)] 4-shock drive profile for robust high gain (>10) 1-D ignition performance and large margin to 2-D perturbation growth.

  18. Automation of experiments at Dubna Gas-Filled Recoil Separator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsyganov, Yu. S.

    2016-01-01

    Approaches to solving the problems of automation of basic processes in long-term experiments in heavy ion beams of the Dubna Gas-Filled Recoil Separator (DGFRS) facility are considered. Approaches in the field of spectrometry, both of rare α decays of superheavy nuclei and those for constructing monitoring systems to provide accident-free experiment running with highly radioactive targets and recording basic parameters of experiment, are described. The specific features of Double Side Silicon Strip Detectors (DSSSDs) are considered, special attention is paid to the role of boundary effects of neighboring p-n transitions in the "active correlations" method. An example of an off-beam experiment attempting to observe Zeno effect is briefly considered. Basic examples for nuclear reactions of complete fusion at 48Ca ion beams of U-400 cyclotron (LNR, JINR) are given. A scenario of development of the "active correlations" method for the case of very high intensity beams of heavy ions at promising accelerators of LNR, JINR, is presented.

  19. Dynamics of Dispersive Wave Generation in Gas-Filled Photonic Crystal Fiber with the Normal Dispersion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhixiang Deng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The absence of Raman and unique pressure-tunable dispersion is the characteristic feature of gas-filled photonic crystal fiber (PCF, and its zero dispersion points can be extended to the near-infrared by increasing gas pressure. The generation of dispersive wave (DW in the normal group velocity dispersion (GVD region of PCF is investigated. It is demonstrated that considering the self-steepening (SS and introducing the chirp of the initial input pulse are two suitable means to control the DW generation. The SS enhances the relative average intensity of blue-shift DW while weakening that of red-shift DW. The required propagation distance of DW emission is markedly varied by introducing the frequency chirp. Manipulating DW generation in gas-filled PCF by the combined effects of either SS or chirp and three-order dispersion (TOD provides a method for a concentrated transfer of energy into the targeted wavelengths.

  20. Radiation damage: special reference to gas filled radiation detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaur, Sudha; Joshi, Pankaj Kumar; Rathore, Shakuntla

    2012-01-01

    Radiation damage is a term associated with ionizing radiation. In gas filled particle detectors, radiation damage to gases plays an important role in the device's ageing, especially in devices exposed to high intensity radiation, e.g. detector for the large hadrons collide. Ionization processes require energy above 10 eV, while splitting covalent bond in molecules and generating free radical require only 3-4 eV. The electrical discharges initiated by the ionization event by the particles result in plasma populated by large amount of free radical. The highly reactive free radical can recombine back to original molecules, or initiate a chain of free radical polymerization reaction with other molecules, yielding compounds with increasing molecular weight. These high molecular weight compounds then precipitate from gases phase, forming conductive or non-conductive deposits on the electrodes an insulating surfaces of the detector and distorting it's response. Gases containing hydrocarbon quenchers, e.g. argon-methane, are typically sensitive to ageing by polymerization; addition of oxygen tends to lower the ageing rates. Trace amount of silicon oils, present form out gassing of silicon elastomers and especially from traces of silicon lubricant tend to decompose and form deposits of silicon crystals on the surfaces. Gases mixture of argon (or xenon) with CO 2 and optimally also with 2-3 % of oxygen are highly tolerant to high radiation fluxes. The oxygen is added as noble gas with CO 2 has too high transparency for high energy photons; ozone formed from the oxygen is a strong absorber of ultra violet photons. Carbon tetra fluoride can be used as a component of the gas for high-rate detectors; the fluorine radical produced during the operation however limit the choice of materials for the chambers and electrodes (e.g. gold electrodes are required, as the fluorine radicals attack metals, forming fluorides). Addition of carbon tetra fluoride can however eliminate the

  1. Improved gas mixtures for gas-filled particle detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christophorou, L.G.; McCorkle, D.L.; Maxey, D.V.; Carter, J.G.

    Improved binary and tertiary gas mixture for gas-filled particle detectors are provided. The components are chosen on the basis of the principle that the first component is one gas or mixture of two gases having a large electron scattering cross section at energies of about 0.5 eV and higher, and the second component is a gas (Ar) having a very small cross section at and below about 0.5 eV; whereby fast electrons in the gaseous mixture are slowed into the energy range of about 0.5 eV where the cross section for the mixture is small and hence the electron mean free path is large. The reduction in both the cross section and the electron energy results in an increase in the drift velocity of the electrons in the gas mixtures over that for the separate components for a range of E/P (pressure-reduced electron field) values. Several gas mixtures are provided that provide faster response in gas-filled detectors for convenient E/P ranges as compared with conventional gas mixtures.

  2. Buoyancy of gas-filled bladders at great depth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priede, Imants G.

    2018-02-01

    At high hydrostatic pressures exceeding 20 MPa or 200 bar, equivalent to depths exceeding ca.2000 m, the behaviour of gases deviates significantly from the predictions of standard equations such as Boyle's Law, the Ideal Gas Law and Van der Waals equation. The predictions of these equations are compared with experimental data for nitrogen, oxygen and air at 0 °C and 15 °C, at pressures up to 1100 bar (110 MPa) equivalent to full ocean depth of ca. 11000 m. Owing to reduced compressibility of gases at high pressures, gas-filled bladders at full ocean depth have a density of 847 kg m-3 for Oxygen, 622 kg m-3 for Nitrogen and 660 kg m-3 for air providing potentially useful buoyancy comparable with that available from man-made materials. This helps explain why some of the deepest-living fishes at ca. 7000 m depth (700 bar or 70 MPa) have gas-filled swim bladders. A table is provided of the density and buoyancy of oxygen, nitrogen and air at 0 °C and 15 °C from 100 to 1100 bar.

  3. The Experimental Study of Dynamics of Scaled Gas-Filled Bubble Collapse in Liquid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlenko, Alexander

    2011-06-01

    The article provides results of analyzing special features of the single-bubble sonoluminescence, developing the special apparatus to investigate this phenomenon on a larger-scale basis. Certain very important effects of high energy density physics, i.e. liquid compressibility, shock-wave formation under the collapse of the gas cavity in liquid, shock-wave focusing in the gas-filled cavity, occurrence of hot dense plasma in the focusing area, and high-temperature radiation yield are observed in this phenomenon. Specificity of the process is conditioned by the ``ideal'' preparation and sphericity of the gas-and-liquid contact boundary what makes the collapse process efficient due to the reduced influence of hydrodynamic instabilities. Results of experimental investigations; results of developing the facilities, description of methods used to register parameters of facilities and the system under consideration; analytical estimates how gas-filled bubbles evolve in liquid with the regard for scale effects; results of preliminary 1-D gas dynamic calculations of the gas bubble evolution are presented. The work supported by ISTC Project #2116.

  4. High pressure gas-filled cermet spark gaps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avilov, Eh.A.; Yur'ev, A.L.

    2000-01-01

    The results of modernization of the R-48 and R-49 spark gaps making it possible to improve their electrical characteristics are presented. The design is described and characteristics of gas-filled cermet spark gaps are presented. By the voltage rise time of 5-6 μs in the Marx generator scheme they provide for the pulse break-through voltage of 120 and 150 kV. By the voltage rise time of 0.5-1 μs the break-through voltage of these spark gaps may be increased up to 130 and 220 kV. The proper commutation time is equal to ≤ 0.5 ns. Practical recommendations relative to designing cermet spark gaps are given [ru

  5. New model of universal gas-filled neutron tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bespalov, D.F.; Bessarabskii, I.G.; Voitsik, L.R.; Mints, A.Z.

    1985-01-01

    The UNG-1 gas-filled neutron tube is serially produced. In type UNG neutron generators, the tube operates in the pulsed mode in the high voltage doubling circuit arrangement. During extended operation, its advantages were discovered: long operating time, fairly stable neutron yield, and simplicity of use and operation. However, the mean neutron yield (approx.10 7 s -1 ) generated by the tube in the optimal mode at the present time proved to be inadequate in solving numerous geophysical problems. So a model of a neutron tube, model UNG-2, was designed, ensuring an enhanced neutron yield of 10 8 s -1 in the continuous-operating mode. When the tube is connected to the high voltage doubling circuit, the mean neutron yield is only somewhat in excess of the neutron yield from the UNG-1 tube

  6. Pressure regulation system for modern gas-filled detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, R.J.

    1986-08-01

    A gas pressure and flow regulation system has been designed and constructed to service a wide variety of gas-filled detectors which operate at pressures of ∼2 to 1000 Torr and flow rate of ∼5 to 200 standard cubic centimeters per minute (sccm). Pressure regulation is done at the detector input by a pressure transducer linked to a solenoid leak valve via an electronic control system. Gas flow is controlled via a mechanical leak valve at the detector output. Interchangeable transducers, flowmeters, and leak valves allow for different pressure and flow ranges. The differential pressure transducer and control system provide automatic let-up of vacuum chambers to atmospheric pressure while maintaining a controlled overpressure in the detector. The gas system is constructed on a standard 19'' rack-mounted panel from commercially available parts. Five of these systems have been built and are routinely used for both ionization chambers and position-sensitive avalanche detectors

  7. Ion beam characteristics of the controlatron/zetatron family of the gas filled neutron tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berg, R.S.; Shope, L.A.; O' Neal, M.L.; Boers, J.E.; Bickes, R.W. Jr.

    1981-03-01

    A gas filled tube used to produce a neutron flux with the D(T,He/sup 4/)n reaction is described. Deuterium and tritium ions generated in a reflex discharge are extracted and accelerated to 100 keV by means of an accelerator electrode onto a deutero-tritide target electrode. The electrodes are designed to focus the ion beam onto the target. Total tube currents consisting of extracted ions, unsuppressed secondary electrons, and ions generated by interactions with the background gas are typically 100 mA. The characteristics of the extracted ion beam are discussed. Accelerating voltages greater than 50 kV are required to focus the beam through the accelerator aperture for configurations that give beams with the proper energy density onto the target. The perveance of the beam is discussed. Maximum perveance values are 2 to 20 nanopervs. Tube focusing and neutron production characteristics are described.

  8. Magnetized Target Fusion Driven by Plasma Liners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thio, Y. C. Francis; Cassibry, Jason; Eskridge, Richard; Kirkpatrick, Ronald C.; Knapp, Charles E.; Lee, Michael; Martin, Adam; Smith, James; Wu, S. T.; Rodgers, Stephen L. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    For practical applications of magnetized target fusion, standoff drivers to deliver the imploding momentum flux to the target plasma remotely are required. Quasi-spherically converging plasma jets have been proposed as standoff drivers for this purpose. The concept involves the dynamic formation of a quasi-spherical plasma liner by the merging of plasma jets, and the use of the liner so formed to compress a spheromak or a field reversed configuration (FRC). Theoretical analysis and computer modeling of the concept are presented. It is shown that, with the appropriate choice of the flow parameters in the liner and the target, the impact between the liner and the target plasma can be made to be shockless in the liner or to generate at most a very weak shock in the liner. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  9. Plasma flow interaction with a solid target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karlykuanov, N.G.; Martynenko, Yu.V.; Matveenko, Yu.I.

    1996-01-01

    The physical-mathematical model of plasma interactions with a solid target wherein equations with a solid target of ion levels population and radiation transport in lines and continuum as well as kinetics of the target destruction and evaporation is presented

  10. Laser absorption, power transfer, and radiation symmetry during the first shock of inertial confinement fusion gas-filled hohlraum experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pak, A.; Dewald, E. L.; Landen, O. L.; Milovich, J.; Strozzi, D. J.; Berzak Hopkins, L. F.; Bradley, D. K.; Divol, L.; Ho, D. D.; MacKinnon, A. J.; Meezan, N. B.; Michel, P.; Moody, J. D.; Moore, A. S.; Schneider, M. B.; Town, R. P. J.; Hsing, W. W.; Edwards, M. J.

    2015-01-01

    Temporally resolved measurements of the hohlraum radiation flux asymmetry incident onto a bismuth coated surrogate capsule have been made over the first two nanoseconds of ignition relevant laser pulses. Specifically, we study the P2 asymmetry of the incoming flux as a function of cone fraction, defined as the inner-to-total laser beam power ratio, for a variety of hohlraums with different scales and gas fills. This work was performed to understand the relevance of recent experiments, conducted in new reduced-scale neopentane gas filled hohlraums, to full scale helium filled ignition targets. Experimental measurements, matched by 3D view factor calculations, are used to infer differences in symmetry, relative beam absorption, and cross beam energy transfer (CBET), employing an analytic model. Despite differences in hohlraum dimensions and gas fill, as well as in laser beam pointing and power, we find that laser absorption, CBET, and the cone fraction, at which a symmetric flux is achieved, are similar to within 25% between experiments conducted in the reduced and full scale hohlraums. This work demonstrates a close surrogacy in the dynamics during the first shock between reduced-scale and full scale implosion experiments and is an important step in enabling the increased rate of study for physics associated with inertial confinement fusion

  11. Laser absorption, power transfer, and radiation symmetry during the first shock of inertial confinement fusion gas-filled hohlraum experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pak, A.; Dewald, E. L.; Landen, O. L.; Milovich, J.; Strozzi, D. J.; Berzak Hopkins, L. F.; Bradley, D. K.; Divol, L.; Ho, D. D.; MacKinnon, A. J.; Meezan, N. B.; Michel, P.; Moody, J. D.; Moore, A. S.; Schneider, M. B.; Town, R. P. J.; Hsing, W. W.; Edwards, M. J.

    2015-12-01

    Temporally resolved measurements of the hohlraum radiation flux asymmetry incident onto a bismuth coated surrogate capsule have been made over the first two nanoseconds of ignition relevant laser pulses. Specifically, we study the P2 asymmetry of the incoming flux as a function of cone fraction, defined as the inner-to-total laser beam power ratio, for a variety of hohlraums with different scales and gas fills. This work was performed to understand the relevance of recent experiments, conducted in new reduced-scale neopentane gas filled hohlraums, to full scale helium filled ignition targets. Experimental measurements, matched by 3D view factor calculations, are used to infer differences in symmetry, relative beam absorption, and cross beam energy transfer (CBET), employing an analytic model. Despite differences in hohlraum dimensions and gas fill, as well as in laser beam pointing and power, we find that laser absorption, CBET, and the cone fraction, at which a symmetric flux is achieved, are similar to within 25% between experiments conducted in the reduced and full scale hohlraums. This work demonstrates a close surrogacy in the dynamics during the first shock between reduced-scale and full scale implosion experiments and is an important step in enabling the increased rate of study for physics associated with inertial confinement fusion.

  12. Laser absorption, power transfer, and radiation symmetry during the first shock of inertial confinement fusion gas-filled hohlraum experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pak, A.; Dewald, E. L.; Landen, O. L.; Milovich, J.; Strozzi, D. J.; Berzak Hopkins, L. F.; Bradley, D. K.; Divol, L.; Ho, D. D.; MacKinnon, A. J.; Meezan, N. B.; Michel, P.; Moody, J. D.; Moore, A. S.; Schneider, M. B.; Town, R. P. J.; Hsing, W. W.; Edwards, M. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California, 94550 (United States)

    2015-12-15

    Temporally resolved measurements of the hohlraum radiation flux asymmetry incident onto a bismuth coated surrogate capsule have been made over the first two nanoseconds of ignition relevant laser pulses. Specifically, we study the P2 asymmetry of the incoming flux as a function of cone fraction, defined as the inner-to-total laser beam power ratio, for a variety of hohlraums with different scales and gas fills. This work was performed to understand the relevance of recent experiments, conducted in new reduced-scale neopentane gas filled hohlraums, to full scale helium filled ignition targets. Experimental measurements, matched by 3D view factor calculations, are used to infer differences in symmetry, relative beam absorption, and cross beam energy transfer (CBET), employing an analytic model. Despite differences in hohlraum dimensions and gas fill, as well as in laser beam pointing and power, we find that laser absorption, CBET, and the cone fraction, at which a symmetric flux is achieved, are similar to within 25% between experiments conducted in the reduced and full scale hohlraums. This work demonstrates a close surrogacy in the dynamics during the first shock between reduced-scale and full scale implosion experiments and is an important step in enabling the increased rate of study for physics associated with inertial confinement fusion.

  13. Carbohydrate plasma expanders for passive tumor targeting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Stefan; Caysa, Henrike; Kuntsche, Judith

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the suitability of carbohydrate plasma volume expanders as a novel polymer platform for tumor targeting. Many synthetic polymers have already been synthesized for targeted tumor therapy, but potential advantages of these carbohydrates include inexpen...... was characterized in human colon carcinoma xenograft bearing nude mice. A tumor specific accumulation of HES 450 was observed, which proves it’s potential as carrier for passive tumor targeting....

  14. Long-term deconditioning of gas-filled surge arresters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanković, Koviljka; Brajović, Dragan; Alimpijević, Mališa; Lončar, Boris

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this paper is to identify parameters that influence the long-term deconditioning effect of gas-filled surge arrester (GFSA) and to provide practical recommendations for mitigating this effect. Namely, after some period of time, on order of hours or days, during which there is no activation due to overvoltage, the deconditioning of GFSA occurs. This effect was observed experimentally within the paper. The observed parameters that could influence the long-term deconditioning effect were the following: shape of voltage load, gas type, gas pressure, interelectrode distance, electrode material, electrode surface topography as well as GFSA design such as two- or three-electrode configuration. According to the results obtained, it has been shown that the occurrence of long-term deconditioning in an insulating system, insulated by a noble gas at a subpressure and with small interelectrode distances, is a phenomenon that always occurs when the insulating system is at rest for about an hour. It has been found that the type of noble gas does not influence the long-term deconditioning. Analysis of such insulating systems' parameters, with a prospect of being used as GFSAs, has demonstrated that this phenomenon is less pronounced at higher pressures (for the same value of the pressure (p) and interelectrode distance (d) product) and for electrodes with microscopically embossed surfaces. According to the results that were obtained by noble gases and their mixtures, as well as the results that were obtained by mixtures of SF6 gas with noble gasses, it can be claimed with confidence that the effect of the long-term deconditioning is an electrode effect. It has also been established that the deconditioning effect does not depend on the electrode material except in the case of electrodes made out of noble metals, which reduce the effect. Based on these results, it can be recommended that the working point of GFSAs be set (according to the DC breakdown voltage value) at a

  15. Positrons in gas filled traps and their transport in molecular gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrovic, Z Lj; Bankovic, A; Marjanovic, S; Suvakov, M; Dujko, S; Malovic, G [Institute of Physics, University of Belgrade, Pregrevica 118, POB 68, Zemun (Serbia); White, R D [ARC Centre for Antimatter-Matter Studies, James Cook University, Townsville 4810, QLD (Australia); Buckman, S J, E-mail: zoran@ipb.ac.rs [ARC Centre for Antimatter-Matter Studies, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT, 0200 (Australia)

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we give a review of two recent developments in positron transport, calculation of transport coefficients for a relatively complete set of collision cross sections for water vapour and for application of they Monte Carlo technique to model gas filled subexcitation positron traps such as Penning Malmberg Surko (Surko) trap. Calculated transport coefficients, very much like those for argon and other molecular gases show several new kinetic phenomena. The most important is the negative differential conductivity (NDC) for the bulk drift velocity when the flux drift velocity shows no sign of NDC. These results in water vapour are similar to the results in argon or hydrogen. The same technique that has been used for positron (and previously electron) transport may be applied to model development of particles in a Surko trap. We have provided calculation of the ensemble of positrons in the trap from an initial beam like distribution to the fully thermalised distribution. This model, however, does not include plasma effects (interaction between charged particles) and may be applied for lower positron densities.

  16. Low pressure gas filling of laser fusion microspheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koo, J.C.; Dressler, J.L.; Hendricks, C.D.

    1979-01-01

    In our laser fusion microsphere production, large, thin gel-microspheres are formed before the chemicals are fused into glass. In this transient stage,, the gel-microspheres are found to be highly permeable to argon and many other inert gases. When the gel transforms to glass, the argon gas, for example, is trapped within to form argon filled, fusion target quality, glass microspheres. On the average, the partial pressure of the argon fills attained in this process is around 2 x 10 4 Pa at room temperature

  17. Ignition target and laser-plasma instabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laffite, S.; Loiseau, P.

    2010-01-01

    For the first time indirect drive ignition targets have been designed with the constraint of limiting laser-plasma instabilities. The amplification of these instabilities is directly proportional to the luminous flux density, it means to the sizes of the focal spots too. This study shows that increasing the sizes of the focal spots does not reduce linear amplification gains in a proportional way because the global optimization of the target implies changes in hydrodynamical conditions that in turn have an impact on the value of the amplification gain. The design of the target is a 2-step approach: the first step aims at assuring a uniform irradiation and compression of the target. The first step requires information concerning the laser focusing spots, the dimensions of the hohlraum, the inert gas contained in it, the materials of the wall. The second step is an optimization approach whose aim is to reduce the risk of laser-plasmas instabilities. This optimization is made through simulations of the amplification gains of stimulated Raman and Brillouin backscattering. This method has allowed us to design an optimized target for a rugby-shaped hohlraum. (A.C.)

  18. FABRICATION OF GAS-FILLED TUNGSTEN-COATED GLASS SHELLS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NIKROO, A; BAUGH, W; STEINMAN, D.A.

    2003-09-01

    OAK-B135 Deuterium (D 2 ) filled glass shells coated with a high Z element are needed for high energy density (HED) experiments by researchers at Los Alamos National Laboratory. They report here on our initial attempt to produce such shells. Glass shells made using the drop tower technique were coated with gold, palladium or tungsten, or a mixture of two of these elements. It was found that gold and palladium coatings did not stick well to the glass and resulted in poor or delaminated films. Tungsten coatings resulted in films suitable for these targets. Bouncing of shells during coating resulted in uniform tungsten coatings, but the surface of such coatings were filled with small nodules. Proper agitation of shells using a tapping technique resulted in smooth films with minimal particulate contamination. For coating rates of ∼ 0.15 (micro)m/hr coatings with ∼ 2 nm RMS surface finish could be deposited. The surface roughness of coatings at higher rates, 0.7 (micro)m/hr, was considerably worse (∼ 100 nm RMS). The columnar structure of the coatings allowed permeation filling of the tungsten coated glass shells with deuterium at 300 C

  19. Development of data logger for atmospheric pressure, temperature and relative humidity for gas-filled detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahu, S.; Sahu, P.K.; Bhuyan, M.R.; Biswas, S.; Mohanty, B.

    2014-01-01

    At IoP-NISER an initiative has been taken to build and test micro-pattern gas detector such as Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) for several upcoming High-Energy Physics (HEP) experiment projects. Temperature (t), atmospheric pressure (p) and relative humidity (RH) monitor and recording is very important for gas filled detector development. A data logger to monitor and record the ambient parameters such as temperature, relative humidity and pressure has been developed. With this data logger continuous recording of t, p, RH and time stamp can be done with a programmable sampling interval. This data is necessary to correct the gain of a gas filled detector

  20. New gas-filled mode of the large-acceptance spectrometer VAMOS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitt, C.; Rejmund, M.; Navin, A.; Lecornu, B.; Jacquot, B.; France, G. de; Lemasson, A.; Shrivastava, A.; Greenlees, P.; Uusitalo, J.; Subotic, K.; Gaudefroy, L.; Theisen, Ch.; Sulignano, B.; Dorvaux, O.; Stuttge, L.

    2010-01-01

    A new gas-filled operation mode of the large-acceptance spectrometer VAMOS at GANIL is reported. A beam rejection factor greater than 10 10 is obtained for the 40 Ca+ 150 Sm system at 196 MeV. The unprecedented transmission efficiency for the evaporation residues produced in this reaction is estimated to be around 80% for αx n channels and above 95% for x ny p channels. A detailed study of the performance of the gas-filled VAMOS and future developments are discussed. This new operation mode opens avenues to explore the potential of fusion reactions in various kinematics.

  1. Double plasma system with inductively coupled source plasma and quasi-quiescent target plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massi, M.; Maciel, H.S.

    1995-01-01

    Cold plasmas have successfully been used in the plasma-assisted material processing industry. An understanding of the physicochemical mechanisms involved in the plasma-surface interaction is needed for a proper description of deposition and etching processes at material surfaces. Since these mechanisms are dependent on the plasma properties, the development of diagnostic techniques is strongly desirable for determination of the plasma parameters as well as the characterization of the electromagnetic behaviour of the discharge. In this work a dual discharge chamber, was specially designed to study the deposition of thin films via plasma polymerization process. In the Pyrex chamber an inductively coupled plasma can be excited either in the diffuse low density E-mode or in the high density H-mode. This plasma diffuses into the cylindrical stainless steel chamber which is covered with permanent magnets to produce a multidipole magnetic field configuration at the surface. By that means a double plasma is established consisting of a RF source plasma coupled to a quasi-quiescent target plasma. The preliminary results presented here refer to measurements of the profiles of plasma parameters along the central axis of the double plasma apparatus. Additionally a spectrum analysis performed by means of a Rogowski coil probe immersed into the source plasma is also presented. The discharge is made in argon with pressure varying from 10 -2 to 1 torr, and the rf from 10 to 150 W

  2. In-beam electron spectrometer used in conjunction with a gas-filled recoil separator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kankaanpaeae, H.; Butler, P.A.; Greenlees, P.T.; Bastin, J.E.; Herzberg, R.D.; Humphreys, R.D.; Jones, G.D.; Jones, P.; Julin, R.; Keenan, A.; Kettunen, H.; Leino, M.; Miettinen, L.; Page, T.; Rahkila, P.; Scholey, C.; Uusitalo, J.

    2004-01-01

    The conversion-electron spectrometer SACRED has been redesigned for use in conjunction with the RITU gas-filled recoil separator. The system allows in-beam recoil-decay-tagging (RDT) measurements of internal conversion electrons. The performance of the system using standard sources and in-beam is described

  3. Simulations of indirectly driven gas-filled capsules at the National Ignition Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, S. V.; Casey, D. T.; Eder, D. C.; Pino, J. E.; Smalyuk, V. A.; Remington, B. A.; Rowley, D. P.; Yeamans, C. B.; Tipton, R. E.; Barrios, M.; Benedetti, R.; Berzak Hopkins, L.; Bleuel, D. L.; Bond, E. J.; Bradley, D. K.; Caggiano, J. A.; Callahan, D. A.; Cerjan, C. J.; Clark, D. S.; Divol, L. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); and others

    2014-11-15

    Gas-filled capsules imploded with indirect drive on the National Ignition Facility have been employed as symmetry surrogates for cryogenic-layered ignition capsules and to explore interfacial mix. Plastic capsules containing deuterated layers and filled with tritium gas provide a direct measure of mix of ablator into the gas fuel. Other plastic capsules have employed DT or D{sup 3}He gas fill. We present the results of two-dimensional simulations of gas-filled capsule implosions with known degradation sources represented as in modeling of inertial confinement fusion ignition designs; these are time-dependent drive asymmetry, the capsule support tent, roughness at material interfaces, and prescribed gas-ablator interface mix. Unlike the case of cryogenic-layered implosions, many observables of gas-filled implosions are in reasonable agreement with predictions of these simulations. Yields of TT and DT neutrons as well as other x-ray and nuclear diagnostics are matched for CD-layered implosions. Yields of DT-filled capsules are over-predicted by factors of 1.4–2, while D{sup 3}He capsule yields are matched, as well as other metrics for both capsule types.

  4. Welfare assessment of gas-filled foam as an agent for killing poultry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerritzen, M.A.; Reimert, H.G.M.; Hindle, V.A.; Mckeegan, D.E.F.; Sparrey, J.

    2010-01-01

    During outbreaks of notifiable diseases in poultry measures are taken to restrict the spread of the disease. Mass on-farm killing of birds using gasfilled foam is such a measure. This study examines the method and technologies involved using gas-filled foam and looks at the problems involved by

  5. Physiological and behavioral responses of poultry exposed to gas-filled high expansion foam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mckeegan, D.E.F.; Reimert, H.G.M.; Hindle, V.A.; Boulcott, P.; Sparrey, J.M.; Wathes, C.M.; Demmers, T.G.M.; Gerritzen, M.A.

    2013-01-01

    Disease control measures require poultry to be killed on farms to minimize the risk of disease being transmitted to other poultry and, in some cases, to protect public health. We assessed the welfare implications for poultry of the use of high-expansion gas-filled foam as a potentially humane,

  6. Hybrid recoil mass analyzer at IUAC – First results using gas-filled ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    kinematics (to access heavy nuclei around 200 amu mass and beyond) and both ... totype each of RFQ and DTL are undergoing detailed tests for field ... magnet MD1 in gas-filled mode and is especially attractive in reactions induced by ... calculated using GIOS [11] ion-optical program to get the maximum count rate on.

  7. Plasma processed coating of laser fusion targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, W.L.; Letts, S.A.; Myers, D.W.; Crane, J.K.; Illige, J.D.; Hatcher, C.W.

    1979-01-01

    Coatings for laser fusion targets have been deposited in an inductively coupled discharge device by plasma polymerization. Two feed gases were used: perfluoro-2-butene, which produced a fluorocarbon coating (CF 1 3 ) with a density of 1.8 g/cc, and trans-2-butene which produced a hydrocarbon coating (CH 1 3 ) with a density of 1.0 g/cc. Uniform pin-hole free films have been deposited to a thickness of up to 30 μm of fluorocarbon and up to 110 μm of hydrocarbon. The effect of process variables on surface smoothness has been investigated. The basic defect in the coating has been found to result from shadowing by a small surface irregularity in an anisotropic coating flux

  8. Improvement in the heat transfer of a gas filled thermal switch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, J.

    1984-01-01

    This chapter attempts to clarify the heat transfer mechanism of a gas filled stainless steel tube, and shows how the maximum heat transfer rate is determined under various filling pressures. The thermal switch is a convenient device for a thermal link between the cold heat of a cryocooler and a magnet dewar, because the switch acts as an active thermal conductor at the precooling stage and as an insulator after collecting liquid helium in the dewar. Topics considered include the switch structure, the heat transfer process, the delay of condensation, and the precooling stage and switching. It is determined that the heat transfer mechanism of the gas filled switch is due to normal nucleate boiling at the bottom and condensation on the upper cone. The higher the initial pressure, the larger the maximum heat flow obtained. Evaporation and condensation surfaces play an important role in the heat transfer rate

  9. Laser plasma focus produced in a ring target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saint-Hilaire, G.; Szili, Z.

    1976-01-01

    A new geometry for generating a laser-produced plasma is presented. A toroidal mirror is used to focus a CO 2 laser beam on the inside wall of a copper ring target. The plasma produced converges at the center of the ring where an axial plasma focus is formed. High-speed photography shows details of a plasma generated at a distance from the target surface. This new geometry could have important applications in the field of x-ray lasers

  10. Demonstrated high performance of gas-filled rugby-shaped hohlraums on Omega

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Philippe, F.; Villette, B. [CEA, DAM, DIF, F-91297 Arpajon (France); Michel, P. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Petrasso, R. [Plasma Science and Fusion Center, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Stoeckl, C. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14623 (United States); Giraldez, E. [General Atomics, P.O. Box 85608, San Diego, California 92186-5608 (United States); Tassin, V.; Depierreux, S.; Gauthier, P.; Masson-Laborde, P. E.; Monteil, M. C.; Seytor, P.; Lasinski, B.; Park, H. S.; Ross, J. S.; Amendt, P.; Döppner, T.; Hinkel, D. E.; Wallace, R.; Williams, E.; and others

    2014-07-15

    A direct experimental comparison of rugby-shaped and cylindrical shaped gas-filled hohlraums on the Omega laser facility demonstrates that higher coupling and minimal backscatter can be achieved in the rugby geometry, leading to significantly enhanced implosion performance. A nearly 50% increase of x-ray drive is associated with earlier bangtime and increase of neutron production. The observed drive enhancement from rugby geometry in this study is almost twice stronger than in previously published results.

  11. Demonstrated high performance of gas-filled rugby-shaped hohlraums on Omega

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philippe, F.; Tassin, V.; Depierreux, S.; Gauthier, P.; Masson-Laborde, P. E.; Monteil, M. C.; Seytor, P.; Villette, B.; Lasinski, B.; Park, H. S.; Ross, J. S.; Amendt, P.; Döppner, T.; Hinkel, D. E.; Wallace, R.; Williams, E.; Michel, P.; Frenje, J.; Gatu-Johnson, M.; Li, C. K.; Petrasso, R.; Glebov, V.; Sorce, C.; Stoeckl, C.; Nikroo, A.; Giraldez, E.

    2014-07-01

    A direct experimental comparison of rugby-shaped and cylindrical shaped gas-filled hohlraums on the Omega laser facility demonstrates that higher coupling and minimal backscatter can be achieved in the rugby geometry, leading to significantly enhanced implosion performance. A nearly 50% increase of x-ray drive is associated with earlier bangtime and increase of neutron production. The observed drive enhancement from rugby geometry in this study is almost twice stronger than in previously published results.

  12. Demonstrated high performance of gas-filled rugby-shaped hohlraums on Omega

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Philippe, F.; Villette, B.; Michel, P.; Petrasso, R.; Stoeckl, C.; Giraldez, E.; Tassin, V.; Depierreux, S.; Gauthier, P.; Masson-Laborde, P. E.; Monteil, M. C.; Seytor, P.; Lasinski, B.; Park, H. S.; Ross, J. S.; Amendt, P.; Döppner, T.; Hinkel, D. E.; Wallace, R.; Williams, E.

    2014-01-01

    A direct experimental comparison of rugby-shaped and cylindrical shaped gas-filled hohlraums on the Omega laser facility demonstrates that higher coupling and minimal backscatter can be achieved in the rugby geometry, leading to significantly enhanced implosion performance. A nearly 50% increase of x-ray drive is associated with earlier bangtime and increase of neutron production. The observed drive enhancement from rugby geometry in this study is almost twice stronger than in previously published results

  13. Demonstrated high performance of gas-filled rugby-shaped hohlraums on Omega

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Philippe, F. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives (CEA), Arpajon (France); Tassin, V. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives (CEA), Arpajon (France); Depierreux, S. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives (CEA), Arpajon (France); Gauthier, P. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives (CEA), Arpajon (France); Masson-Laborde, P. E. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives (CEA), Arpajon (France); Monteil, M. C. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives (CEA), Arpajon (France); Seytor, P. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives (CEA), Arpajon (France); Villette, B. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives (CEA), Arpajon (France); Lasinski, B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Park, H. S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Ross, J. S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Amendt, P. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Doeppner, T. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Hinkel, D. E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Wallace, R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Williams, E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Michel, P. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Frenje, J. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States). Plasma Science and Fusion Center; Gatu-Johnson, M. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States). Plasma Science and Fusion Center; Li, C. K. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States). Plasma Science and Fusion Center; Petrasso, R. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States). Plasma Science and Fusion Center; Glebov, V. [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States). Lab. for Laser Energetics; Sorce, C. [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States). Lab. for Laser Energetics; Stoeckl, C. [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States). Lab. for Laser Energetics; Nikroo, A. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Giraldez, E. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2014-07-25

    A direct experimental comparison of rugby-shaped and cylindrical shaped gas-filled hohlraums on the Omega laser facility demonstrates that higher coupling and minimal backscatter can be achieved in the rugby geometry, leading to significantly enhanced implosion performance. A nearly 50% increase of x-ray drive is associated with earlier bangtime and increase of neutron production. The observed drive enhancement from rugby geometry in this study is almost twice stronger than in previously published results.

  14. Measurements of gas filled halfraum energetics at the national ignition facility using a single quad

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kline, J.L.; Fernandez, J.C.; Goldman, S.R.; Gautier, D.C.; Hegelich, B.M.; Montgomery, D.S.; Lanier, N.E.; Rose, H.A.; Workman, J.B. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM (United States); Braun, D.; Landen, O.; Niemann, C.; Campbell, K.; Celeste, J.; Dewald, E.; Glenzer, S.; Hinkel, D.; Holder, J.; Kalantar, D.; Kamperschroer, J.; Kimbrough, J.; Kirkwood, R.; Lee, F.D.; MacGowan, B.; MacKinnon, A.; McDonald, J.; Schein, J.; Schneider, M.; Suter, L.; Young, B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    2006-06-15

    Gas filled halfraum experiments were conducted at the National Ignition Facility which provided an excellent test of the tools needed to understand halfraum energetics in an ignition relevant regime. The experiments used a highly shaped laser pulse and measured large levels of backscattered laser energy. These two components challenge the ability of radiation hydrodynamic simulations to model the experiments. The results show good agreement between experimental measurements and simulations. (authors)

  15. Measurements of gas filled halfraum energetics at the national ignition facility using a single quad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kline, J.L.; Fernandez, J.C.; Goldman, S.R.; Gautier, D.C.; Hegelich, B.M.; Montgomery, D.S.; Lanier, N.E.; Rose, H.A.; Workman, J.B.; Braun, D.; Landen, O.; Niemann, C.; Campbell, K.; Celeste, J.; Dewald, E.; Glenzer, S.; Hinkel, D.; Holder, J.; Kalantar, D.; Kamperschroer, J.; Kimbrough, J.; Kirkwood, R.; Lee, F.D.; MacGowan, B.; MacKinnon, A.; McDonald, J.; Schein, J.; Schneider, M.; Suter, L.; Young, B.

    2006-01-01

    Gas filled halfraum experiments were conducted at the National Ignition Facility which provided an excellent test of the tools needed to understand halfraum energetics in an ignition relevant regime. The experiments used a highly shaped laser pulse and measured large levels of backscattered laser energy. These two components challenge the ability of radiation hydrodynamic simulations to model the experiments. The results show good agreement between experimental measurements and simulations. (authors)

  16. Thermoregulated Nitric Cryosystem for Cooling Gas-Filled Detectors of Ionizing Radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zharkov I.P.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Cryosystem for cooling and filling of gas-filled detectors of ionizing radiation with compressed inert gas on the basis of wide-nitrogen cryostat, which provides detetector temperature control in a range of 173 — 293 K and its stabilization with accuracy of ± 1°. The work was carried out within the Ukraine — NATO Program of Collaboration, Grant SfP #984655.

  17. The relationship between gas fill density and hohlraum drive performance at the National Ignition Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, G. N.; Jones, O. S.; Strozzi, D. J.; Moody, J. D.; Turnbull, D.; Ralph, J.; Michel, P. A.; Hohenberger, M.; Moore, A. S.; Landen, O. L.; Divol, L.; Bradley, D. K.; Hinkel, D. E.; Mackinnon, A. J.; Town, R. P. J.; Meezan, N. B.; Berzak Hopkins, L.; Izumi, N.

    2017-05-01

    Indirect drive inertial confinement fusion experiments were conducted at the National Ignition Facility to investigate the performance of the hohlraum drive as a function of hohlraum gas fill density by imploding high-density-carbon capsules using a 2-shock laser pulse. Measurements characterized the backscatter behavior, the production of hot electrons, the motion and brightness of the laser spots on the hohlraum wall, and the efficiency of the hohlraum x-ray drive as a function of gas fill density ρgf between 0.03 mg/cc ("near vacuum") and 1.6 mg/cc. For hohlraums with ρgf up to 0.85 mg/cc, very little stimulated Raman backscatter (SRS) was observed. For higher ρgf, significant SRS was produced and was observed to occur during the rise to peak laser power and throughout the main pulse. The efficiency with which laser energy absorbed by the hohlraum is converted into drive energy was measured to be the same for ρgf ≥ 0.6 mg/cc once the laser reached peak power. However, for the near vacuum case, the absorbed energy was converted to drive energy more efficiently throughout the pulse and maintained an efficiency ˜10% higher than the gas filled hohlraums throughout the main pulse.

  18. Laser parametric instability experiments of a 3ω, 15 kJ, 6-ns laser pulse in gas-filled hohlraums at the Ligne d'Intégration Laser facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rousseaux, C.; Huser, G.; Loiseau, P.; Casanova, M.; Alozy, E.; Villette, B.; Wrobel, R. [Commissariat à l' Energie Atomique, DAM, DIF, F-91297 Arpajon (France); Henry, O.; Raffestin, D. [Commissariat à l' Energie Atomique, DAM, CESTA, F-33114 Le Barp (France)

    2015-02-15

    Experimental investigation of stimulated Raman (SRS) and Brillouin (SBS) scattering have been obtained at the Ligne-d'Intégration-Laser facility (LIL, CEA-Cesta, France). The parametric instabilities (LPI) are driven by firing four laser beamlets (one quad) into millimeter size, gas-filled hohlraum targets. A quad delivers energy on target of 15 kJ at 3ω in a 6-ns shaped laser pulse. The quad is focused by means of 3ω gratings and is optically smoothed with a kinoform phase plate and with smoothing by spectral dispersion-like 2 GHz and/or 14 GHz laser bandwidth. Open- and closed-geometry hohlraums have been used, all being filled with 1-atm, neo-pentane (C{sub 5}H{sub 12}) gas. For SRS and SBS studies, the light backscattered into the focusing optics is analyzed with spectral and time resolutions. Near-backscattered light at 3ω and transmitted light at 3ω are also monitored in the open geometry case. Depending on the target geometry (plasma length and hydrodynamic evolution of the plasma), it is shown that, at maximum laser intensity about 9 × 10{sup 14} W/cm{sup 2}, Raman reflectivity noticeably increases up to 30% in 4-mm long plasmas while SBS stays below 10%. Consequently, laser transmission through long plasmas drops to about 10% of incident energy. Adding 14 GHz bandwidth to the laser always reduces LPI reflectivities, although this reduction is not dramatic.

  19. Focal spot size predictions for beam transport through a gas-filled reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, S.S.; Lee, E.P.; Buchanan, H.L.

    1980-01-01

    Results from calculations of focal spot size for beam transport through a gas-filled reactor are summarized. In the converging beam mode, we find an enlargement of the focal spot due to multiple scattering and zeroth order self-field effects. This enlargement can be minimized by maintaining small reactors together with a careful choice of the gaseous medium. The self-focused mode, on the other hand, is relatively insensitive to the reactor environment, but is critically dependent upon initial beam quality. This requirement on beam quality can be significantly eased by the injection of an electron beam of modest current from the opposite wall

  20. R & D of a Gas-Filled RF Beam Profile Monitor for Intense Neutrino Beam Experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yonehara, K. [Fermilab; Backfish, M. [Fermilab; Moretti, A. [Fermilab; Tollestrup, A. V. [Fermilab; Watts, A. [Fermilab; Zwaska, R. M. [Fermilab; Abrams, R. [MUONS Inc., Batavia; Cummings, M. A.; Dudas, A. [MUONS Inc., Batavia; Johnson, R. P. [MUONS Inc., Batavia; Kazakevich, G. [MUONS Inc., Batavia; Neubauer, M. [MUONS Inc., Batavia; Liu, Q. [Case Western Reserve U.

    2017-05-01

    We report the R&D of a novel radiation-robust hadron beam profile monitor based on a gas-filled RF cavity for intense neutrino beam experiments. An equivalent RF circuit model was made and simulated to optimize the RF parameter in a wide beam intensity range. As a result, the maximum acceptable beam intensity in the monitor is significantly increased by using a low-quality factor RF cavity. The plan for the demonstration test is set up to prepare for future neutrino beam experiments.

  1. BiCMOS amplifier-discriminator integrated circuit for gas-filled detector readout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herve, C.; Dzahini, D.; Le Caer, T.; Richer, J.-P.; Torki, K.

    2005-01-01

    The paper presents a 16-channel amplifier-discriminator designed in BiCMOS technology. It will be used for the binary parallel readout of gas-filled detectors being designed at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility. The circuit (named AMS211) has been manufactured. The measured transimpedance gain (400 KΩ), bandwidth (25 MHz) and noise (1570 e - +95 e - /pF ENC) well match the simulated results. The discriminator thresholds are individually controlled by built-in Digital to Analogue Converter. The experience gained with a first prototype of readout electronics indicates that the AMS211 should meet our requirements

  2. BiCMOS amplifier-discriminator integrated circuit for gas-filled detector readout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herve, C. [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, BP 220, 38043 Grenoble Cedex (France)]. E-mail: herve@esrf.fr; Dzahini, D. [Laboratoire de Physique Subatomique et de Cosmologie, Grenoble (France); Le Caer, T. [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, BP 220, 38043 Grenoble Cedex (France); Richer, J.-P. [Laboratoire de Physique Subatomique et de Cosmologie, Grenoble (France); Torki, K. [Laboratoire TIMA, Grenoble (France)

    2005-03-21

    The paper presents a 16-channel amplifier-discriminator designed in BiCMOS technology. It will be used for the binary parallel readout of gas-filled detectors being designed at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility. The circuit (named AMS211) has been manufactured. The measured transimpedance gain (400 K{omega}), bandwidth (25 MHz) and noise (1570 e{sup -}+95 e{sup -}/pF ENC) well match the simulated results. The discriminator thresholds are individually controlled by built-in Digital to Analogue Converter. The experience gained with a first prototype of readout electronics indicates that the AMS211 should meet our requirements.

  3. The plasma membrane as radiosensitive target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koeteles, Gy.J.

    1986-01-01

    Components and conditions rendering the plasma membrane susceptible for ionizing radiation are discussed. The list of reviews and articles pointing to various aspects of radiation effects on membranes is analyzed. Radiation induced alterations of plasma membrane and energy deposition in cellular microstructures are overviewed. The possible role of membrane alterations in the fate of irradiated cell is also discussed. (author)

  4. Gas phase chemical studies of superheavy elements using the Dubna gas-filled recoil separator - Stopping range determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wittwer, D.; Abdullin, F.Sh.; Aksenov, N.V.; Albin, Yu.V.; Bozhikov, G.A.; Dmitriev, S.N.; Dressler, R.; Eichler, R.; Gaeggeler, H.W.; Henderson, R.A.; Huebener, S.; Kenneally, J.M.; Lebedev, V.Ya.; Lobanov, Yu.V.; Moody, K.J.; Oganessian, Yu.Ts.; Petrushkin, O.V.; Polyakov, A.N.; Piguet, D.; Rasmussen, P.

    2010-01-01

    Currently, gas phase chemistry experiments with heaviest elements are usually performed with the gas-jet technique with the disadvantage that all reaction products are collected in a gas-filled thermalisation chamber adjacent to the target. The incorporation of a physical preseparation device between target and collection chamber opens up the perspective to perform new chemical studies. But this approach requires detailed knowledge of the stopping force (STF) of the heaviest elements in various materials. Measurements of the energy loss of mercury (Hg), radon (Rn), and nobelium (No) in Mylar and argon (Ar) were performed at low kinetic energies of around (40-270) keV per nucleon. The experimentally obtained values were compared with STF calculations of the commonly used program for calculating stopping and ranges of ions in matter (SRIM). Using the obtained data points an extrapolation of the STF up to element 114, eka-lead, in the same stopping media was carried out. These estimations were applied to design and to perform a first chemical experiment with a superheavy element behind a physical preseparator using the nuclear fusion reaction 244 Pu( 48 Ca; 3n) 289 114. One decay chain assigned to an atom of 285 112, the α-decay product of 289 114, was observed.

  5. Differentiated muscles are mandatory for gas-filling of the Drosophila airway system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiwen Wang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available At the end of development, organs acquire functionality, thereby ensuring autonomy of an organism when it separates from its mother or a protective egg. In insects, respiratory competence starts when the tracheal system fills with gas just before hatching of the juvenile animal. Cellular and molecular mechanisms of this process are not fully understood. Analyses of the phenotype of Drosophila embryos with malformed muscles revealed that they fail to gas-fill their tracheal system. Indeed, we show that major regulators of muscle formation like Lame duck and Blown fuse are important, while factors involved in the development of subsets of muscles including cardiac and visceral muscles are dispensable for this process, suggesting that somatic muscles (or parts of them are essential to enable tracheal terminal differentiation. Based on our phenotypic data, we assume that somatic muscle defect severity correlates with the penetrance of the gas-filling phenotype. This argues that a limiting molecular or mechanical muscle-borne signal tunes tracheal differentiation. We think that in analogy to the function of smooth muscles in vertebrate lungs, a balance of physical forces between muscles and the elasticity of tracheal walls may be decisive for tracheal terminal differentiation in Drosophila.

  6. AMS of 93Zr: Passive absorber versus gas-filled magnet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hain, Karin; Deneva, Boyana; Faestermann, Thomas; Fimiani, Leticia; Gómez-Guzmán, José Manuel; Koll, Dominik; Korschinek, Gunther; Ludwig, Peter; Sergeyeva, Victoria; Thiollay, Nicolas

    2018-05-01

    Two different isobar separation techniques were tested for the detection of the long-lived fission product 93Zr (T1/2 = 1.64 · 106 a) using Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS), i.e. a passive absorber and a gas-filled magnet, respectively. Both techniques were used in combination with a Time-of-Flight path for the identification of the stable neighboring isotopes 92Zr and 94Zr. The passive absorber was represented by a stack of silicon nitride foils for high flexibility regarding the thickness for optimal isobar separation. Ion beams with a large variety of energies, between 80 and 180 MeV, were provided for this experiment by the tandem accelerator at the Maier-Leibnitz Laboratory in Garching, Germany. With these beams, the stopping powers of 93Zr and 93Nb as a function of energy were determined experimentally and compared to the results obtained with the simulation program SRIM. Considerable discrepancies regarding the energy dependence of the two stopping power curves relative to each other were found. The lowest detection limit for 93Zr achieved with the passive absorber setup was 93Zr/Zr = 1 · 10-10. In comparison, by optimizing the gas-filled magnet set-up, 93Nb was suppressed by around six orders of magnitude and a detection limit of 93Zr/Zr = 5 · 10-11 was obtained. To our knowledge, these results represent the lowest detection limit achieved for 93Zr until now.

  7. Progress In Magnetized Target Fusion Driven by Plasma Liners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thio, Francis Y. C.; Kirkpatrick, Ronald C.; Knapp, Charles E.; Cassibry, Jason; Eskridge, Richard; Lee, Michael; Smith, James; Martin, Adam; Wu, S. T.; Schmidt, George; hide

    2001-01-01

    Magnetized target fusion (MTF) attempts to combine the favorable attributes of magnetic confinement fusion (MCF) for energy confinement with the attributes of inertial confinement fusion (ICF) for efficient compression heating and wall-free containment of the fusing plasma. It uses a material liner to compress and contain a magnetized plasma. For practical applications, standoff drivers to deliver the imploding momentum flux to the target plasma remotely are required. Spherically converging plasma jets have been proposed as standoff drivers for this purpose. The concept involves the dynamic formation of a spherical plasma liner by the merging of plasma jets, and the use of the liner so formed to compress a spheromak or a field reversed configuration (FRC).

  8. Interaction of two plasma jets produced successively from Cu target

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kasperczuk, A.; Pisarczyk, T.; Badziak, J.; Borodziuk, S.; Chodukowski, T.; Parys, P.; Ullschmied, Jiří; Krouský, Eduard; Mašek, Karel; Pfeifer, Miroslav; Rohlena, Karel; Skála, Jiří; Pisarczyk, P.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 28, č. 3 (2010), s. 497-504 ISSN 0263-0346 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC528 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508; CEZ:AV0Z10100523 Keywords : Laser targets * laser produced-plasma jets * interaction of plasma jets * PALS laser Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 3.656, year: 2010

  9. Physiological and behavioral responses of poultry exposed to gas-filled high expansion foam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKeegan, D E F; Reimert, H G M; Hindle, V A; Boulcott, P; Sparrey, J M; Wathes, C M; Demmers, T G M; Gerritzen, M A

    2013-05-01

    Disease control measures require poultry to be killed on farms to minimize the risk of disease being transmitted to other poultry and, in some cases, to protect public health. We assessed the welfare implications for poultry of the use of high-expansion gas-filled foam as a potentially humane, emergency killing method. In laboratory trials, broiler chickens, adult laying hens, ducks, and turkeys were exposed to air-, N2-, or CO2-filled high expansion foam (expansion ratio 300:1) under standardized conditions. Birds were equipped with sensors to measure cardiac and brain activity, and measurements of oxygen concentration in the foam were carried out. Initial behavioral responses to foam were not pronounced but included headshakes and brief bouts of wing flapping. Both N2- and CO2-filled foam rapidly induced ataxia/loss of posture and vigorous wing flapping in all species, characteristic of anoxic death. Immersion in air-filled, high expansion foam had little effect on physiology or behavior. Physiological responses to both N2- and CO2-filled foam were characterized by a pronounced bradyarrythymia and a series of consistent changes in the appearance of the electroencephalogram. These were used to determine an unequivocal time to loss of consciousness in relation to submersion. Mean time to loss of consciousness was 30 s in hens and 18 s in broilers exposed to N2-filled foam, and 16 s in broilers, 1 s in ducks, and 15 s in turkeys exposed to CO2-filled foam. Euthanasia achieved with anoxic foam was particularly rapid, which is explained by the very low oxygen concentrations (below 1%) inside the foam. Physiological observations and postmortem examination showed that the mode of action of high expansion, gas-filled foam is anoxia, not occlusion of the airway. These trials provide proof-of-principle that submersion in gas-filled, high expansion foam provides a rapid and highly effective method of euthanasia, which may have potential to provide humane emergency killing

  10. Magnetized Target Fusion Propulsion: Plasma Injectors for MTF Guns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Steven T.

    2003-01-01

    To achieve increased payload size and decreased trip time for interplanetary travel, a low mass, high specific impulse, high thrust propulsion system is required. This suggests the need for research into fusion as a source of power and high temperature plasma. The plasma would be deflected by magnetic fields to provide thrust. Magnetized Target Fusion (MTF) research consists of several related investigations into these topics. These include the orientation and timing of the plasma guns and the convergence and interface development of the "pusher" plasma. Computer simulations of the gun as it relates to plasma initiation and repeatability are under investigation. One of the items under development is the plasma injector. This is a surface breakdown driven plasma generator designed to function at very low pressures. The performance, operating conditions and limitations of these injectors need to be determined.

  11. The size and structure of the laser entrance hole in gas-filled hohlraums at the National Ignition Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, M. B., E-mail: schneider5@llnl.gov; MacLaren, S. A.; Widmann, K.; Meezan, N. B.; Hammer, J. H.; Yoxall, B. E.; Bell, P. M.; Benedetti, L. R.; Bradley, D. K.; Callahan, D. A.; Dewald, E. L.; Döppner, T.; Eder, D. C.; Edwards, M. J.; Hinkel, D. E.; Hsing, W. W.; Kervin, M. L.; Landen, O. L.; Lindl, J. D.; May, M. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); and others

    2015-12-15

    At the National Ignition Facility, a thermal X-ray drive is created by laser energy from 192 beams heating the inside walls of a gold cylinder called a “hohlraum.” The x-ray drive heats and implodes a fuel capsule. The laser beams enter the hohlraum via laser entrance holes (LEHs) at each end. The LEH radius decreases as heated plasma from the LEH material blows radially inward but this is largely balanced by hot plasma from the high-intensity region in the center of the LEH pushing radially outward. The x-ray drive on the capsule is deduced by measuring the time evolution and spectra of the x-radiation coming out of the LEH and correcting for geometry and for the radius of the LEH. Previously, the LEH radius was measured using time-integrated images in an x-ray band of 3–5 keV (outside the thermal x-ray region). For gas-filled hohlraums, the measurements showed that the LEH radius is larger than that predicted by the standard High Flux radiation-hydrodynamic model by about 10%. A new platform using a truncated hohlraum (“ViewFactor hohlraum”) is described, which allows time-resolved measurements of the LEH radius at thermal x-ray energies from two views, from outside the hohlraum and from inside the hohlraum. These measurements show that the LEH radius closes during the low power part of the pulse but opens up again at peak power. The LEH radius at peak power is larger than that predicted by the models by about 15%–20% and does not change very much with time. In addition, time-resolved images in a >4 keV (non-thermal) x-ray band show a ring of hot, optically thin gold plasma just inside the optically thick LEH plasma. The structure of this plasma varies with time and with Cross Beam Energy Transfer.

  12. Acoustically modulated magnetic resonance imaging of gas-filled protein nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, George J.; Farhadi, Arash; Szablowski, Jerzy O.; Lee-Gosselin, Audrey; Barnes, Samuel R.; Lakshmanan, Anupama; Bourdeau, Raymond W.; Shapiro, Mikhail G.

    2018-05-01

    Non-invasive biological imaging requires materials capable of interacting with deeply penetrant forms of energy such as magnetic fields and sound waves. Here, we show that gas vesicles (GVs), a unique class of gas-filled protein nanostructures with differential magnetic susceptibility relative to water, can produce robust contrast in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at sub-nanomolar concentrations, and that this contrast can be inactivated with ultrasound in situ to enable background-free imaging. We demonstrate this capability in vitro, in cells expressing these nanostructures as genetically encoded reporters, and in three model in vivo scenarios. Genetic variants of GVs, differing in their magnetic or mechanical phenotypes, allow multiplexed imaging using parametric MRI and differential acoustic sensitivity. Additionally, clustering-induced changes in MRI contrast enable the design of dynamic molecular sensors. By coupling the complementary physics of MRI and ultrasound, this nanomaterial gives rise to a distinct modality for molecular imaging with unique advantages and capabilities.

  13. Study of Electron Swarm in High Pressure Hydrogen Gas Filled RF Cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yonehara, K.; Chung, M.; Jansson, A.; Moretti, A.; Popovic, M.; Tollestrup, A.; Alsharo'a, M.; Johnson, R.P.; Notani, M.; Oka, T.; Wang, H.

    2010-01-01

    A high pressure hydrogen gas filled RF cavity has been proposed for use in the muon collection system for a muon collider. It allows for high electric field gradients in RF cavities located in strong magnetic fields, a condition frequently encountered in a muon cooling channel. In addition, an intense muon beam will generate an electron swarm via the ionization process in the cavity. A large amount of RF power will be consumed into the swarm. We show the results from our studies of the HV RF breakdown in a cavity without a beam and present some results on the resulting electron swarm dynamics. This is preliminary to actual beam tests which will take place late in 2010.

  14. A new focal plane detector for the gas-filled separator TASCA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorshkov, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    Superheavy elements (SHE) exist solely because of enhanced nuclear stability due to shell effects. The production cross sections for the synthesis of SHE decrease continuously, thus, exploration of SHE nuclei is close to the border of present technical limitation. To increase the efficiency and sensitivity in SHE experiments, highly efficient recoil separators with state-of-the-art detection systems are required. In the framework of this thesis, the new focal plane detection system with the dedicated electronics have been developed for the gas-filled recoil separator TASCA at the GSI Helmholtzzentrum for Schwerionenforschung GmbH. The new detection system has been successfully used in recent experiments on synthesis of the E114.

  15. Convergent ablation measurements of plastic ablators in gas-filled rugby hohlraums on OMEGA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casner, A.; Jalinaud, T.; Masse, L.; Galmiche, D.

    2015-10-01

    Indirect-drive implosions experiments were conducted on the Omega Laser Facility to test the performance of uniformly doped plastic ablators for Inertial Confinement Fusion. The first convergent ablation measurements in gas-filled rugby hohlraums are reported. Ignition relevant limb velocities in the range from 150 to 300 μm .n s-1 have been reached by varying the laser drive energy and the initial capsule aspect ratio. The measured capsule trajectory and implosion velocity are in good agreement with 2D integrated simulations and a zero-dimensional modeling of the implosions. We demonstrate experimentally the scaling law for the maximum implosion velocity predicted by the improved rocket model [Y. Saillard, Nucl. Fusion 46, 1017 (2006)] in the high-ablation regime case.

  16. Wall-shaped hohlraum influence on symmetry and energetics in gas-filled hohlraums

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tassin, Veronique; Philippe, Franck; Laffite, Stephane; Videau, Laurent; Monteil, Marie-Christine; Villette, Bruno; Stemmler, Philippe; Bednarczyk, Sophie; Peche, Emilie; Reneaume, Benoit; Thessieux, Christian

    2008-11-01

    On the way to the LMJ completion, achieving ignition with 40 quads in a 2-cone configuration will be attempted as a first step. Theoretical investigation of a rugby-shaped hohlraum shows energetics optimization and a better symmetry control compared to a cylindrical hohlraum [1]. We recently conducted experiments on the Omega laser facility with 3 different wall-shaped methane-filled hohlraum configurations. We present here the experimental results. Energetics benefits are shown for reduced wall area hohlraums. The wall-shaped hohlraum influence on time-dependent radiation symmetry is also discussed. For the 3 gas-filled hohlraums configurations, we compare the foamball early-time radiographs, the D2Ar-filled capsule time-integrated images and the core self-emission images. [1] M. Vandenboomgaerde, Phys. Rev. Lett., 99, 065004 (2007).

  17. A supersonic gas target for a bundle divertor plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, F.R.; Fisher, J.L.

    1982-01-01

    A novel gas target concept for recovering both energy and particles from a high-energy plasma stream is presented. This concept includes the maintenance of a pressure discontinuity by a normal shock and a very high mass flow rate in a relatively small system. The pressure discontinuity allows the exhaust plasma stream to minimize backflow into the plasma, by interacting with the target in a low-pressure region; the high mass flow rate allows exit temperatures that are reasonable from a materials viewpoint and suitable for energy recovery. (author)

  18. Automatic targeting of plasma spray gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbatiello, L.A.; Neal, R.E.

    1978-01-01

    A means for monitoring the material portion in the flame of a plasma spray gun during spraying operations is described. A collimated detector, sensitive to certain wavelengths of light emission, is used to locate the centroid of the material with each pass of the gun. The response from the detector is then relayed to the gun controller to be used to automatically realign the gun

  19. Automatic targeting of plasma spray gun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbatiello, Leonard A.; Neal, Richard E.

    1978-01-01

    A means for monitoring the material portion in the flame of a plasma spray gun during spraying operations is provided. A collimated detector, sensitive to certain wavelengths of light emission, is used to locate the centroid of the material with each pass of the gun. The response from the detector is then relayed to the gun controller to be used to automatically realign the gun.

  20. Amplification of spontaneous emission of neon-like argon in a fast gas-filled capillary discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolacek, K.; Schmidt, J.; Bohacek, V.; Ripa, M.; Frolov, O.; Vrba, P.; Straus, J.; Prukner, V.; Rupasov, A. A.; Shikanov, A. S.

    2008-01-01

    The evolution of the CAPEX facility and its basic diagnostics are described. The experiments carried out in the last modification of this facility accomplished with the demonstration of amplified spontaneous emission of neon-like argon (Ar 8+ ) at the wavelength 46.88 nm. The first version of the facility, CAPEX1, operated with a plastic capillary and had a short high-power passive prepulse and an imperfect gas-filling system. In the second version, CAPEX2, a ceramic capillary was used, the prepulse amplitude was lowered, and the gas-filling system was improved. In the third, most successful version, CAPEX3, the capillary bending was reduced, a longer external prepulse was used, and the gas-filling system was further optimized. For each version, results of X-ray measurements are presented and interpreted

  1. Signal-Pressure Curves of Cascaded Four-Wave Mixing in Gas-Filled Capillary by fs Pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Baozhen; Huang Zuqia

    2005-01-01

    The theoretical framework for the cascaded four waves mixing (CFWM) in gas-filled capillary by fs pulses is constructed. Based on the theoretical framework, the signal-pressure curves (SPC) of the CFWM in gas-filled capillary by fs pulses are calculated. With a comparison between the theoretical and experimental SPC we have discussed the influence of the walk-off and phase modulation on the SPC. At the same time, we have discussed the possible origin of the first three peaks of the SPC.

  2. Developments for transactinide chemistry experiments behind the gas-filled separator TASCA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Even, Julia

    2011-01-01

    Topic of this thesis is the development of experiments behind the gas-filled separator TASCA (TransActinide Separator and Chemistry Apparatus) to study the chemical properties of the transactinide elements. In the first part of the thesis, the electrodepositions of short-lived isotopes of ruthenium and osmium on gold electrodes were studied as model experiments for hassium. From literature it is known that the deposition potential of single atoms differs significantly from the potential predicted by the Nernst equation. This shift of the potential depends on the adsorption enthalpy of therndeposited element on the electrode material. If the adsorption on the electrode-material is favoured over the adsorption on a surface made of the same element as the deposited atom, the electrode potential is shifted to higher potentials. This phenomenon is called underpotential deposition. Possibilities to automatize an electro chemistry experiment behind the gas-filled separator were explored for later studies with transactinide elements. The second part of this thesis is about the in-situ synthesis of transition-metal-carbonyl complexes with nuclear reaction products. Fission products of uranium-235 and californium-249 were produced at the TRIGA Mainz reactor and thermalized in a carbon-monoxide containing atmosphere. The formed volatile metal-carbonyl complexes could be transported in a gas-stream. Furthermore, short-lived isotopes of tungsten, rhenium, osmium, and iridium were synthesised at the linear accelerator UNILAC at GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt. The recoiling fusion products were separated from the primary beam and the transfer products in the gas-filled separator TASCA. The fusion products were stopped in the focal plane of TASCA in a recoil transfer chamber. This chamber contained a carbon-monoxide - helium gas mixture. The formed metal-carbonyl complexes could be transported in a gas stream to various experimental setups. All

  3. X-ray emission characteristics of foam target plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fronya, A.A.; Borisenko, N.G.; Chernodub, M.L.; Merkuliev, Yu.A.; Osipov, M.V.; Puzyrev, V.N.; Sahakyan, A.T.; Starodub, A.N.; Vasin, B.L.; Yakushev, O.F.

    2010-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Experimental results of laser radiation interaction with a foam targets are presented. The spatial, temporal and energy characteristics of x-ray plasma radiation have been investigated. The pinhole-camera and Schwarzschild objective have been used for the plasma image formation in different spectral ranges. The plasma image is registered by the Schwarzschild objective in a narrow spectral range 180 - 200 A. Spectral characteristics of x-ray radiation registered by pinhole-camera have been defined by means outer filters. The use of the filters with different transmission curves allowed one the determine the localization of x-ray radiation with fixed wavelength. Spatial resolution accounts 16 μm in the pinhole-camera diagnostic channel and 2.5 μm in the Schwarzschild objective diagnostic channel. The plasma images in the intrinsic x-ray radiation show that the emission area in the transverse direction with respect to the direction of the propagating heating radiation exceeds the focal spot size. This fact indicates that the target heating in the transverse direction is due to internal energy of the created plasma. The average value of plasma electron temperature is ∼ 0.4 - 1.4 keV. Acknowledgements. The work is partly supported by the Russian Foundation for Basic Researches, grant no. 10-02-00113 and by Federal Target Program 'Research and scientific-pedagogical cadres of Innovative Russia' (grant 2009-1.1-122-052-025).

  4. Portable optical frequency standard based on sealed gas-filled hollow-core fiber using a novel encapsulation technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Triches, Marco; Brusch, Anders; Hald, Jan

    2015-01-01

    A portable stand-alone optical frequency standard based on a gas-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fiber is developed to stabilize a fiber laser to the 13C2H2 P(16) (ν1 + ν3) transition at 1542 nm using saturated absorption. A novel encapsulation technique is developed to permanently seal...

  5. Modular data acquisition system and its use in gas-filled detector readout at ESRF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sever, F.; Epaud, F.; Poncet, F.; Grave, M.; Rey-Bakaikoa, V.

    1996-01-01

    Since 1992, 18 ESRF beamlines are open to users. Although the data acquisition requirements vary a lot from one beamline to another, we are trying to implement a modular data acquisition system architecture that would fit with the maximum number of acquisition projects at ESRF. Common to all of these systems are large acquisition memories and the requirement to visualize the data during an acquisition run and to transfer them quickly after the run to safe storage. We developed a general memory API handling the acquisition memory and its organization and another library that provides calls for transferring the data over TCP/IP sockets. Interesting utility programs using these libraries are the open-quote online display close-quote program and the open-quote data transfer close-quote program. The data transfer program as well as an acquisition control program rely on our well-established open-quote device server model close-quote, which was originally designed for the machine control system and then successfully reused in beamline control systems. In the second half of this paper, the acquisition system for a 2D gas-filled detector is presented, which is one of the first concrete examples using the proposed modular data acquisition architecture. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  6. The development of a gas-filled time-of-flight detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guan Yongjing; He Ming; Ruan Xiangdong; Wang Huijuan; Wu Shaoyong; Dong Kejun; Lin Min; Yuan Jian; Jiang Shan

    2007-01-01

    A gas-filled time-of-flight (GF-TOF) detector system for isobaric identification has been developed at the AMS facility of the China Institute of Atomic Energy (CIAE). The newly built GF-TOF detector was tested by using a 36 Cl standard sample ( 36 Cl/Cl = 2.88 x 10 -11 ) with the 36 Cl ion energies of 64, 49 and 33 MeV. Time resolutions of 350 ps, 580 ps and 920 ps were obtained for 64, 49 and 33 MeV 36 S, respectively, without gas. 36 Cl and 36 S particles were successfully separated in the TOF spectra from the GF-TOF detector at the three different incident energies. The dependence of time resolution and separation power of GF-TOF method on the incidence energy and the residual energy is discussed. The comparison of separation power for isobars between the GF-TOF method and the ΔE-E method is described. A combination of GF-TOF method and ΔE-E method may further improve the separation power for isobars. The results show that the sensitivity for 36 Cl AMS measurements is 10 -14 at the energy of 33 MeV. Some results obtained with the GF-TOF method are given

  7. Modular data acquisition system and its use in gas-filled detector readout at ESRF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sever, F.; Epaud, F.; Poncet, F.; Grave, M.; Rey-Bakaikoa, V.

    1996-09-01

    Since 1992, 18 ESRF beamlines are open to users. Although the data acquisition requirements vary a lot from one beamline to another, we are trying to implement a modular data acquisition system architecture that would fit with the maximum number of acquisition projects at ESRF. Common to all of these systems are large acquisition memories and the requirement to visualize the data during an acquisition run and to transfer them quickly after the run to safe storage. We developed a general memory API handling the acquisition memory and its organization and another library that provides calls for transferring the data over TCP/IP sockets. Interesting utility programs using these libraries are the `online display' program and the `data transfer' program. The data transfer program as well as an acquisition control program rely on our well-established `device server model', which was originally designed for the machine control system and then successfully reused in beamline control systems. In the second half of this paper, the acquisition system for a 2D gas-filled detector is presented, which is one of the first concrete examples using the proposed modular data acquisition architecture.

  8. Determination of absorption coefficient based on laser beam thermal blooming in gas-filled tube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafizi, B; Peñano, J; Fischer, R; DiComo, G; Ting, A

    2014-08-01

    Thermal blooming of a laser beam propagating in a gas-filled tube is investigated both analytically and experimentally. A self-consistent formulation taking into account heating of the gas and the resultant laser beam spreading (including diffraction) is presented. The heat equation is used to determine the temperature variation while the paraxial wave equation is solved in the eikonal approximation to determine the temporal and spatial variation of the Gaussian laser spot radius, Gouy phase (longitudinal phase delay), and wavefront curvature. The analysis is benchmarked against a thermal blooming experiment in the literature using a CO₂ laser beam propagating in a tube filled with air and propane. New experimental results are presented in which a CW fiber laser (1 μm) propagates in a tube filled with nitrogen and water vapor. By matching laboratory and theoretical results, the absorption coefficient of water vapor is found to agree with calculations using MODTRAN (the MODerate-resolution atmospheric TRANsmission molecular absorption database) and HITRAN (the HIgh-resolution atmospheric TRANsmission molecular absorption database).

  9. Convergent ablation measurements with gas-filled rugby hohlraum on OMEGA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casner, A.; Jalinaud, T.; Galmiche, D.

    2016-03-01

    Convergent ablation experiments with gas-filled rugby hohlraum were performed for the first time on the OMEGA laser facility. A time resolved 1D streaked radiography of capsule implosion is acquired in the direction perpendicular to hohlraum axis, whereas a 2D gated radiography is acquired at the same time along the hohlraum axis on a x-ray framing camera. The implosion trajectory has been measured for various kinds of uniformly doped ablators, including germanium-doped and silicon-doped polymers (CH), at two different doping fraction (2% and 4% at.). Our experiments aimed also at measuring the implosion performance of laminated capsules. A laminated ablator is constituted by thin alternate layers of un-doped and doped CH. It has been previously shown in planar geometry that laminated ablators could mitigate Rayleigh Taylor growth at ablation front. Our results confirm that the implosion of a capsule constituted with a uniform or laminated ablator behaves similarly, in accordance with post-shot simulations performed with the CEA hydrocode FCI2.

  10. Gas-filled Rugby hohlraum energetics and implosions experiments on OMEGA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casner, Alexis; Philippe, F.; Tassin, V.; Seytor, P.; Monteil, M. C.; Villette, B.; Reverdin, C.

    2010-11-01

    Recent experiments [1,2] have validated the x-ray drive enhancement provided by rugby-shaped hohlraums over cylinders in the indirect drive (ID) approach to inertial confinement fusion (ICF). This class of hohlraum is the baseline design for the Laser Mégajoule program, is also applicable to the National Ignition Facility and could therefore benefit ID Inertial Fusion Energy studies. We have carried out a serie of energetics and implosions experiments with OMEGA ``scale 1'' rugby hohlraums [1,2]. For empty hohlraums these experiments provide complementary measurements of backscattered light along 42 cone, as well as detailed drive history. In the case of gas-filled rugby hohlraums we have also study implosion performance (symmetry, yield, bangtime, hotspot spectra...) using a high contrast shaped pulse leading to a different implosion regime and for a range of capsule convergence ratios. These results will be compared with FCI2 hydrocodes calculations and future experimental campaigns will be suggested. [4pt] [1] F. Philippe et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 035004 (2010). [0pt] [2] H. Robey et al., Phys. Plasnas 17, 056313 (2010).

  11. Convergent ablation measurements with gas-filled rugby hohlraum on OMEGA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casner, A.; Jalinaud, T.; Galmiche, D.

    2016-01-01

    Convergent ablation experiments with gas-filled rugby hohlraum were performed for the first time on the OMEGA laser facility. A time resolved 1D streaked radiography of capsule implosion is acquired in the direction perpendicular to hohlraum axis, whereas a 2D gated radiography is acquired at the same time along the hohlraum axis on a x-ray framing camera. The implosion trajectory has been measured for various kinds of uniformly doped ablators, including germanium-doped and silicon-doped polymers (CH), at two different doping fraction (2% and 4% at.). Our experiments aimed also at measuring the implosion performance of laminated capsules. A laminated ablator is constituted by thin alternate layers of un-doped and doped CH. It has been previously shown in planar geometry that laminated ablators could mitigate Rayleigh Taylor growth at ablation front. Our results confirm that the implosion of a capsule constituted with a uniform or laminated ablator behaves similarly, in accordance with post-shot simulations performed with the CEA hydrocode FCI2. (paper)

  12. Development of high pressure-high vacuum-high conductance piston valve for gas-filled radiation detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasad, D N; Ayyappan, R; Kamble, L P; Singh, J P; Muralikrishna, L V; Alex, M; Balagi, V; Mukhopadhyay, P K

    2008-01-01

    Gas-filled radiation detectors need gas filling at pressures that range from few cms of mercury to as high as 25kg/cm 2 at room temperature. Before gas-filling these detectors require evacuation to a vacuum of the order of ∼1 x 10 -5 mbar. For these operations of evacuation and gas filling a system consisting of a vacuum pump with a high vacuum gauge, gas cylinder with a pressure gauge and a valve is used. The valve has to meet the three requirements of compatibility with high-pressure and high vacuum and high conductance. A piston valve suitable for the evacuation and gas filling of radiation detectors has been designed and fabricated to meet the above requirements. The stainless steel body (80mmx160mm overall dimensions) valve with a piston arrangement has a 1/2 inch inlet/outlet opening, neoprene/viton O-ring at piston face and diameter for sealing and a knob for opening and closing the valve. The piston movement mechanism is designed to have minimum wear of sealing O-rings. The valve has been hydrostatic pressure tested up to 75bars and has Helium leak rate of less than 9.6x10 -9 m bar ltr/sec in vacuum mode and 2x10 -7 mbar ltr/sec in pressure mode. As compared to a commercial diaphragm valve, which needed 3 hours to evacuate a 7 litre chamber to 2.5x10 -5 mbar, the new valve achieved vacuum 7.4x10 -6 mbar in the same time under the same conditions

  13. Plasma jet generation by flyer disk collision with massive target

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kasperczuk, A.; Pisarczyk, T.; Borodziuk, S.; Gus'kov, S. Yu.; Ullschmied, Jiří; Krouský, Eduard; Mašek, Karel; Pfeifer, Miroslav; Rohlena, Karel; Skála, Jiří; Kálal, M.; Pisarczyk, P.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 37, č. 1 (2007), s. 1-10 ISSN 0078-5466 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC528 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508; CEZ:AV0Z10100523 Keywords : Plasma jets * flyer targets * laser targets * laser ablation * shock waves * craters * PALS facility Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 0.284, year: 2007

  14. First Laser-Plasma Interaction and Hohlraum Experiments on NIF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dewald, E L; Glenzer, S H; Landen, O L; Suter, L J; Jones, O S; Schein, J; Froula, D; Divol, L; Campbell, K; Schneider, M S; McDonald, J W; Niemann, C; Mackinnon, A J

    2005-01-01

    Recently the first hohlraum experiments have been performed at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) in support of indirect drive Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) designs. The effects of laser beam smoothing by spectral dispersion (SSD) and polarization smoothing (PS) on the beam propagation in long scale gas-filled pipes has been studied at plasma scales as found in indirect drive gas filled ignition hohlraum designs. The long scale gas-filled target experiments have shown propagation over 7 mm of dense plasma without filamentation and beam break up when using full laser smoothing. Vacuum hohlraums have been irradiated with laser powers up to 6 TW, 1-9 ns pulse lengths and energies up to 17 kJ to activate several diagnostics, to study the hohlraum radiation temperature scaling with the laser power and hohlraum size, and to make contact with hohlraum experiments performed at the NOVA and Omega laser facilities. Subsequently, novel long laser pulse hohlraum experiments have tested models of hohlraum plasma filling and long pulse hohlraum radiation production. The validity of the plasma filling assessment in analytical models and in LASNEX calculations has been proven for the first time. The comparison of these results with modeling will be discussed

  15. Research on interactions of plasma streams with CFC targets in the Rod Plasma Injector facility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaloga Dobromil R.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper present results of optical spectroscopy studies of interactions of intense plasma streams with a solid target made of carbon fibre composite (CFC. The experiments were carried out within the Rod Plasma Injector (RPI IBIS facility. The optical measurements were performed first for a freely propagating plasma stream in order to determine the optimal operational parameters of this facility. Optical emission spectra (OES were recorded for different operational modes of the RPI IBIS device, and spectral lines were identified originating from the working gas (deuterium as well as some lines from the electrode material (molybdenum. Subsequently, optical measurements of plasma interacting with the CFC target were performed. In the optical spectra recorded with the irradiated CFC samples, in addition to deuterium and molybdenum lines, many carbon lines, which enabled to estimate erosion of the investigated targets, were recorded. In order to study changes in the irradiated CFC samples, their surfaces were analysed (before and after several plasma discharges by means of scanning electron microscope (SEM and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS techniques. The analysis of the obtained SEM images showed that the plasma irradiation induces noticeable changes in the surface morphology, for example vaporisation of some carbon fibres and formation of microcracks. The obtained EDS images showed that upon the irradiated target surface, some impurity ions are also deposited, particularly molybdenum ions from the applied electrodes.

  16. Developments for transactinide chemistry experiments behind the gas-filled separator TASCA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Even, Julia

    2011-12-13

    Topic of this thesis is the development of experiments behind the gas-filled separator TASCA (TransActinide Separator and Chemistry Apparatus) to study the chemical properties of the transactinide elements. In the first part of the thesis, the electrodepositions of short-lived isotopes of ruthenium and osmium on gold electrodes were studied as model experiments for hassium. From literature it is known that the deposition potential of single atoms differs significantly from the potential predicted by the Nernst equation. This shift of the potential depends on the adsorption enthalpy of therndeposited element on the electrode material. If the adsorption on the electrode-material is favoured over the adsorption on a surface made of the same element as the deposited atom, the electrode potential is shifted to higher potentials. This phenomenon is called underpotential deposition. Possibilities to automatize an electro chemistry experiment behind the gas-filled separator were explored for later studies with transactinide elements. The second part of this thesis is about the in-situ synthesis of transition-metal-carbonyl complexes with nuclear reaction products. Fission products of uranium-235 and californium-249 were produced at the TRIGA Mainz reactor and thermalized in a carbon-monoxide containing atmosphere. The formed volatile metal-carbonyl complexes could be transported in a gas-stream. Furthermore, short-lived isotopes of tungsten, rhenium, osmium, and iridium were synthesised at the linear accelerator UNILAC at GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt. The recoiling fusion products were separated from the primary beam and the transfer products in the gas-filled separator TASCA. The fusion products were stopped in the focal plane of TASCA in a recoil transfer chamber. This chamber contained a carbon-monoxide - helium gas mixture. The formed metal-carbonyl complexes could be transported in a gas stream to various experimental setups. All

  17. Reliability of semiconductor and gas-filled diodes for over-voltage protection exposed to ionizing radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanković Koviljka

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The wide-spread use of semiconductor and gas-filled diodes for non-linear over-voltage protection results in a variety of possible working conditions. It is therefore essential to have a thorough insight into their reliability in exploitation environments which imply exposure to ionizing radiation. The aim of this paper is to investigate the influence of irradiation on over-voltage diode characteristics by exposing the diodes to californium-252 combined neutron/gamma radiation field. The irradiation of semiconductor over-voltage diodes causes severe degradation of their protection characteristics. On the other hand, gas-filled over-voltage diodes exhibit a temporal improvement of performance. The results are presented with the accompanying theoretical interpretations of the observed changes in over-voltage diode behaviour, based on the interaction of radiation with materials constituting the diodes.

  18. On-line system on the base of the ELEKTRONIKA D3-28 microcomputer for gas filling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Artemov, A.A.; Baranchuk, N.S.; Livitskij, M.M.; Platonov, V.P.; Chernyak, V.Ya.

    1989-01-01

    On-line system for gas filling on the base of SNA-1 pressure controller, ELEKTRONIKA D3-28 microcomputer and interface device and program for information exchange within the system are described. The system is designed for on-line measurement of gas pressure and filling and is used during operation without pumping out. Volume of vacuum chamber is 0.8 m 3 , pressure of filled-out gas (nitrogen) is 1 atm. The system enables to change pressure up to 0.1 Torr with 1x10 -4 Torr accuracy. Actuation time of g as filling-on system is determined with program control and depends on pressure measurement. Minimal actuation time of gas filling-on system is determined with program control and depends on pressure measurement. Minimal actuation time is 12 ms

  19. Plasma properties of RF magnetron sputtering system using Zn target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nafarizal, N.; Andreas Albert, A. R.; Sharifah Amirah, A. S.; Salwa, O.; Riyaz Ahmad, M. A. [Microelectronic and Nanotechnology - Shamsuddin Research Centre (MiNT-SRC), Faculty of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia 86400 Parit Raja, Batu Pahat, Johor (Malaysia)

    2012-06-29

    In the present work, we investigate the fundamental properties of magnetron sputtering plasma using Zn target and its deposited Zn thin film. The magnetron sputtering plasma was produced using radio frequency (RF) power supply and Argon (Ar) as ambient gas. A Langmuir probe was used to collect the current from the plasma and from the current intensity, we calculate the electron density and electron temperature. The properties of Zn sputtering plasma at various discharge conditions were studied. At the RF power ranging from 20 to 100 W and gas pressure 5 mTorr, we found that the electron temperature was almost unchanged between 2-2.5 eV. On the other hand, the electron temperature increased drastically from 6 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 9} to 1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 10}cm{sup -3} when the discharge gas pressure increased from 5 to 10 mTorr. The electron microscope images show that the grain size of Zn thin film increase when the discharge power is increased. This may be due to the enhancement of plasma density and sputtered Zn density.

  20. Baseball II-T, a new target plasma startup experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chargin, A.; Denhoy, B.; Frank, A.; Thomas, S.

    1975-01-01

    A brief description is given of modifications and additions to the existing Baseball II experiment. These changes will make it possible to study target plasma buildup in a steady-state magnetic field. This experiment, now called Baseball II-T + will use a pellet generator to deliver ammonia pellets into the center of the magnetic mirror field where they will be heated with a 300-J, 50-ns, CO 2 laser. The plasma created by this method will have a density of approximately 10 13 cm -3 and a temperature of about 1 keV. This target plasma will be used for neutral beam injection startup studies with a 50-A, 20-keV neutral beam. Later, the beam power will be increased to study buildup. With ion injection energies of up to 50 keV, it may be possible to achieve etatau as high as 10 12 cm -3 s. The new components necessary to achieve these goals are described

  1. Plasma target output from a magnetically augmented, gas-injected, washer-stack plasma gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osher, J.E.

    1982-01-01

    This article describes a new washer-stack gun design developed for the application of plasma target production for the startup of neutral-beam trapping in a fusion research magnetic confinement system. The gun is a Mo anode type that is D 2 injected and has an auxiliary pulsed magnet for control of plasma-flux mapping. One of the principal features of 2--10-ms duration pulses for gun operation in a suitable magnetic field is the formation of an arc column along magnetic field lines from the gun's central cathode electrode to the vacuum chamber walls (at common anode potential). The primary power output from a 5.0-cm-i.d. gun is typically carried along this arc column by a stream of approximately 2000 A of 50--250-eV electrons. This primary stream of relatively low-density energetic electrons efficiently ionizes the injected gas, forming a quasi-dc source of denser secondary plasma of approx.10 13 /cm 3 at a few eV, which is able to flow or diffuse away along a somewhat larger column of magnetic field lines. In plasma-target production tests on a test stand, a gun operated at a D 2 gas flow of 22 Torr ls -1 yielded 250 A of equivalent plasma flow

  2. Route to Soft X-ray Laser Pumped by Gas-Filled-Capillary Discharge

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Koláček, Karel; Schmidt, Jiří; Prukner, Václav; Řípa, Milan; Frolov, Oleksandr; Štraus, Jaroslav; Vrba, Pavel

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 34, - (2004), s. 154-157 ISSN 1433-5581. [First Cairo Conference on Plasma Physics & Applications. Cairo, 11.10.2003-15.10.2003] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA202/03/0711 Grant - others:GA MŠk1(CZ) LA 235 Keywords : fast capillary discharge * soft x-Ray laser Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics

  3. Collodion-reinforcement and plasma-cleaning of target foils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoner, John O.

    2002-03-01

    The preparation of evaporated target foils can often be facilitated by use of collodion coatings either on the substrate sides or on the exterior surfaces of the foils. Later, such coatings must usually be removed. Cleaning of a foil is necessary if thin layers of adhesives have crept onto the foil. Removal and/or cleaning can often be done satisfactorily with an oxygen plasma. Apparatus and procedures used for this are described. Foils that were cleaned successfully, and some that were incompatible with the cleaning process are listed.

  4. Collodion-reinforcement and plasma-cleaning of target foils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoner, John O.

    2002-01-01

    The preparation of evaporated target foils can often be facilitated by use of collodion coatings either on the substrate sides or on the exterior surfaces of the foils. Later, such coatings must usually be removed. Cleaning of a foil is necessary if thin layers of adhesives have crept onto the foil. Removal and/or cleaning can often be done satisfactorily with an oxygen plasma. Apparatus and procedures used for this are described. Foils that were cleaned successfully, and some that were incompatible with the cleaning process are listed

  5. Generation and compression of a target plasma for magnetized target fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirkpatrick, R.C.; Lindemuth, I.R.; Sheehey, P.T.

    1998-01-01

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Magnetized target fusion (MTF) is intermediate between the two very different approaches to fusion: inertial and magnetic confinement fusion (ICF and MCF). Results from collaboration with a Russian MTF team on their MAGO experiments suggest they have a target plasma suitable for compression to provide an MTF proof of principle. This LDRD project had tow main objectives: first, to provide a computational basis for experimental investigation of an alternative MTF plasma, and second to explore the physics and computational needs for a continuing program. Secondary objectives included analytic and computational support for MTF experiments. The first objective was fulfilled. The second main objective has several facets to be described in the body of this report. Finally, the authors have developed tools for analyzing data collected on the MAGO and LDRD experiments, and have tested them on limited MAGO data

  6. Ultrasmooth plasma polymerized coatings for laser-fusion targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Letts, S.A.; Myers, D.W.; Witt, L.A.

    1980-01-01

    Coatings for laser fusion targets were deposited up to 135 μm thick by plasma polymerization onto 140 μm diameter DT filled glass microspheres. Ultrasmooth surfaces (no defect higher than 0.1 μm) were achieved by eliminating particulate contamination. Process generated particles were eliminated by determining the optimum operating conditions of power, gas flow, and pressure, and maintaining these conditions through feedback control. From a study of coating defects grown over known surface irregularities, a quantitative relationship between irregularity size, film thickness, and defect size was determined. This relationship was used to set standards for the maximum microshell surface irregularity tolerable in the production of hydrocarbon or fluorocarbon coated laser fusion targets

  7. Characterisation of target plasma required for REB-plasma interaction studies using cylindrical Langmuir probes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roychowdhury, P.; Paithankar, A.S.; Iyyengar, S.K.; Rohatgi, V.K.

    1987-01-01

    The target plasma required for relativistic electron beam (REB)-plasma interaction studies has been generated by coaxial plasma gun. The measurement of electron density and temperature has been carried out using cylindrical Langmuir probes. Probes both oriented parallel and transverse to the flow have been used. The spatial as well as temporal variation of electron density and temperature have been studied. The typical electron density and temperature measured by probe were in the range of 9.0-3.5 x 10 13 cm -3 and 5-7 eV respectively. The typical e-folding decay time of density was 6.2 μs, while no appreciable change in electron temperature was observed until 10 μs after the peak density. The density decays by about 50% at distance of 30 cm from the gun. The plasma flow velocity has been measured by the time of flight technique and was found to be 2.5 x 10 6 cm s -1 . The plasma radius measured by dosimeter film, at distance of 30 cm from the gun was 3 cm. (author)

  8. Posterior subtenon triamcinolone acetonide in gas-filled eyes as an adjunctive treatment for complicated proliferative diabetic retinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yongeun; Kang, Seungbum; Park, Young-Hoon

    2013-02-01

    To evaluate the effect of adjunctive subtenon injection of triamcinolone acetonide (TA) in gas-filled eyes after vitrectomy for complicated proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR). This nonrandomized comparative study included 27 patients (27 eyes) who underwent pars plana vitrectomy and gas tamponade for treatment of PDR with tractional or combined tractional-rhegmatogenous retinal detachment and who received subtenon injection of TA (40 mg) at the end of surgery. The study group was compared with the control group (29 eyes), which was matched with the study group for preoperative and intraoperative parameters, but underwent pars plana vitrectomy and gas tamponade without a subtenon injection of TA. Retinal reattachments without reoperation were achieved in 25 eyes (92.6%) and 26 eyes (89.7%) at 6 months (p = 1.000) in the study and control groups, respectively. The study group and the control group did not differ significantly in the frequency of postoperative proliferative vitreoretinopathy, retinal redetachment rate, reoperation rate, macular pucker formation, postoperative vitreous hemorrhage, gain in visual acuity, intraocular pressure, and intraocular inflammation (p > 0.05). The clinical results of pars plana vitrectomy for complicated PDR are not improved significantly by an adjunctive subtenon TA injection in gas-filled eyes.

  9. Ultrasmooth plasma polymerized coatings for laser fusion targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Letts, S.A.; Myers, D.W.; Witt, L.A.

    1980-01-01

    Coatings for laser fusion were deposited up to 135μm thick by plasma polymerization onto 140 μm diameter DT filled glass microspheres. Ultrasmooth surfaces (no defect higher than 0.1 μm) were achieved by eliminating particulate contamination. Process generated particles were eliminated by determining the optimum operating conditions of power (20 watts), gas flow (0.3 sccm trans-2-butene, 10.0 sccm hydrogen), and pressure (75 millitorr), and maintaining these conditions through feedback control. From a study of coating defects grown over known surface irregularities, a quantitative relationship between irregularity size, film thickness, and defect size was determined. This relationship was used to set standards for the maximum microshell surface irregularity tolerable in the production of hydrocarbon or fluorocarbon coated laser fusion targets

  10. Electron density measurement in gas discharge plasmas by optical and acoustic methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biagioni, A.; Anania, M.P.; Bellaveglia, M.; Chiadroni, E.; Giovenale, D. Di; Pirro, G. Di; Ferrario, M.; Pompili, R.; Shpakov, V.; Vaccarezza, C.; Villa, F.; Cianchi, A.; Filippi, F.; Mostacci, A.; Zigler, A.

    2016-01-01

    Plasma density represents a very important parameter for both laser wakefield and plasma wakefield acceleration, which use a gas-filled capillary plasma source. Several techniques can be used to measure the plasma density within a capillary discharge, which are mainly based on optical diagnostic methods, as for example the well-known spectroscopic method using the Stark broadening effect. In this work, we introduce a preliminary study on an alternative way to detect the plasma density, based on the shock waves produced by gas discharge in a capillary. Firstly, the measurements of the acoustic spectral content relative to the laser-induced plasmas by a solid target allowed us to understand the main properties of the acoustic waves produced during this kind of plasma generation; afterwards, we have extended such acoustic technique to the capillary plasma source in order to calibrate it by comparison with the stark broadening method.

  11. The gas-filled counting tube of the PTB - a device for the activity determination of radioactive gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guenther, E.W.

    1993-08-01

    A measuring device for the activity determination of gaseous radioactive materials (H-3, Kr-85, C-14 O 2 ) has been set up as a PTB primary standard. Samples measured in it or their initial substances are the basis for activity standards. The gaseous samples are introduced directly into the vacuum device. The amount of gas filled can be determined by measuring pressure, volume and temperature. After the gas has been mixed with a counting gas (methane, argon/methane or propane), the count-rates are measured and the activity of the gas calculated. The activity of solid or liquid radioactive substances can also be determined with the device described, if they can be converted into a suitable gas. For this purpose there are additional devices (e.g. for producing hydrogen from water or C-14 O 2 from carbonate). The first models of these devices have been developed and are described. (orig.) [de

  12. Magnetic discharge accelerating diode for the gas-filled pulsed neutron generators based on inertial confinement of ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozlovskij, K I; Shikanov, A E; Vovchenko, E D; Shatokhin, V L; Isaev, A A; Martynenko, A S

    2016-01-01

    The paper deals with magnetic discharge diode module with inertial electrostatic ions confinement for the gas-filled pulsed neutron generators. The basis of the design is geometry with the central hollow cathode surrounded by the outer cylindrical anode and electrodes made of permanent magnets. The induction magnitude about 0.1-0.4 T in the central region of the discharge volume ensures the confinement of electrons in the space of hollow (virtual) cathode and leads to space charge compensation of accelerated ions in the centre. The research results of different excitation modes in pulsed high-voltage discharge are presented. The stable form of the volume discharge preserveing the shape and amplitude of the pulse current in the pressure range of 10 -3 -10 -1 Torr and at the accelerating voltage up to 200 kV was observed. (paper)

  13. Electromagnetically induced transparency and ultraslow optical solitons in a coherent atomic gas filled in a slot waveguide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jin; Huang, Guoxiang

    2013-02-25

    We investigate the electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) and nonlinear pulse propagation in a Λ-type three-level atomic gas filled in a slot waveguide, in which electric field is strongly confined inside the slot of the waveguide due to the discontinuity of dielectric constant. We find that EIT effect can be greatly enhanced due to the reduction of optical-field mode volume contributed by waveguide geometry. Comparing with the atomic gases in free space, the EIT transparency window in the slot waveguide system can be much wider and deeper, and the Kerr nonlinearity of probe laser field can be much stronger. We also prove that using slot waveguide ultraslow optical solitons can be produced efficiently with extremely low generation power.

  14. Broadband high-resolution multi-species CARS in gas-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trabold, Barbara M; Hupfer, Robert J R; Abdolvand, Amir; St J Russell, Philip

    2017-09-01

    We report the use of coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS) in gas-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fiber (HC-PCF) for trace gas detection. The long optical path-lengths yield a 60 dB increase in the signal level compared with free-space arrangements. This enables a relatively weak supercontinuum (SC) to be used as Stokes seed, along with a ns pump pulse, paving the way for broadband (>4000  cm -1 ) single-shot CARS with an unprecedented resolution of ∼100  MHz. A kagomé-style HC-PCF provides broadband guidance, and, by operating close to the pressure-tunable zero dispersion wavelength, we can ensure simultaneous phase-matching of all gas species. We demonstrate simultaneous measurement of the concentrations of multiple trace gases in a gas sample introduced into the core of the HC-PCF.

  15. Development of a selective thin film and of a hermetically sealed flat plate solar collector with gas filling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zernial, W.

    1982-12-01

    The industrial productibility of a selective absorbing thin film was investigated on the basis of reactive cathodic sputtering of Ni. On substrates of 1.8 sq m of Al, Cu, steel and stainless steel, solar absorption values up to 97% were achieved at emissivities of 5 to 10%. A prototype flat plate collector for high temperatures with two covers and hermetical sealing was developed. The technical data of the collector were measured, dependent on the selectivity of the absorber, gas fillings of dry air, argon or SF6 and the geometry and were compared with those of an evacuated flat plate collector. A hermetical sealed double flat plate collector for low temperatures was developed which has the advantage of lower no load temperatures and higher energy gain for heating swimming pool water compared with a conventional flat plate collector. The insolation values on collectors were measured and were used for a calculation of the energy gains of different collector types.

  16. Simulation of oscillatory processes in a beam-plasma system with a virtual cathode in gas-filled interaction space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filatov, R. A.; Hramov, A. E.

    2011-01-01

    Physical processes occurring in an intense electron beam with a virtual cathode in an interaction space filled with neutral gas are studied in a two-dimensional model. A mathematical model is proposed for investigating complicated self-consistent processes of neutral gas ionization by the beam electrons and the dynamics of an electron beam and heavy positive ions in the common space charge field with allowance for the two-dimensional motion of charged particles. Three characteristic dynamic regimes of the system are revealed: complete suppression of oscillations of the virtual cathode as a result of neutralizing its space charge by positive ions; the pulsed generation regime, in which the ions dynamics repeatedly suppresses and restores the virtual cathode oscillations; and the continuous generation regime with an anomalously high level of noisy oscillations.

  17. Laser beam smoothing and backscatter saturation processes in plasmas relevant to national ignition facility hohlraums

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacGowan, B.J.; Berger, R.L.; Cohen, B.I.

    2001-01-01

    We have used gas-filled targets irradiated by the Nova laser to simulate National Ignition Facility (NIF) hohlraum plasmas and to study the dependence of Stimulated Raman (SRS) and Brillouin (SBS) Scattering on beam smoothing at a range of laser intensities (3ω, 2-410 15 Wcm -2 ) and plasma conditions. We have demonstrated the effectiveness of polarization smoothing as a potential upgrade to the NIF. Experiments with higher intensities and higher densities characteristic of 350eV hohlraum designs indicate that with appropriate beam smoothing the backscatter from such hohlraums may be tolerable. (author)

  18. Ultrafast Mid-IR Nonlinear Optics in Gas-filled Hollow-core Photonic Crystal Fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Habib, Selim

    Invention of hollow-core fiber has been proven an ideal medium to study light-gas interaction. Tight confinement of light inside hollowcore fiber allows unremitting and tailored interaction between light and gas over long distances. In this work, we used a special kind of hollowcore fiber − hollow......-core anti-resonant (HC-AR) fiber to study the various nonlinear effects filled with Raman free noble gas. One of the main striking features of HC-AR fiber is that ∼99.99% light can be guided inside the central hollow-core region, which significantly enhances damage threshold level. HC-AR fiber can sustain...... be tuned by simply changing the pressure of the gas while at the same time providing extremely wide transparency ranges. In this thesis, we propose several low-loss broadband guidance HC-AR fibers and investigate soliton-plasma dynamics using HC-AR fiber filled with noble gas in the mid-IR. The combined...

  19. Capacitor Bank 'CHANDI' for Plasma Target Production for Liner Plasma Interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shukla, R.; Sharma, S.K.; Debnath, K.; Shyam, A.

    2006-01-01

    A capacitor bank is fabricated to drive (JXB) Plasma gun to generate hot plasma (target) for liner plasma investigation. The bank will also be used for driving other pintch experiments. The bank consists of 8 capacitors connected in parallel, each having capacitance of 178 μF giving a total of 1424uF. The bank is charged at 15 kV using a 28 kV power supply charging the capacitors in 65 seconds utilizing full wave charging technique. The total energy of the bank is 160kJ at 15kV. A modeling of power supply was done so that all the components involved are utilized to their operating limit safely. Moreover to give fault protection to the capacitor bank we have implemented the neutral control technique in the power supply. The capacitor bank is discharged to the inductive load through an ignitron switch of very high coulomb rating and capable of withstanding high voltages at its electrodes. The cables used for connecting capacitor bank with ignitron switch are used in parallel to give them collective capability of bearing capacitor discharge currents. These cables are capable of holding high DC voltages (40kV), which appear at the time of charging of the bank. The bank is tested and is operational

  20. Technologies for ITER divertor vertical target plasma facing components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlosser, J.; Escourbiac, F.; Merola, M.; Fouquet, S.; Bayetti, P.; Cordier, J.J.; Grosman, A.; Missirlian, M.; Tivey, R.; Roedig, M.

    2005-01-01

    The ITER divertor vertical target has to sustain heat fluxes up to 20 MW m -2 . The concept developed for this plasma facing component working at steady state is based on carbon fibre composite armour for the lower straight part and tungsten for the curved upper part. The main challenges involved in the use of such components include the removal of the high heat fluxes deposited and mechanically and thermally joining the armour to the metallic heat sink, despite the mismatch in the thermal expansions. Two solutions based on the use of a CuCrZr hardened copper alloy and an active metal casting (AMC (registered) ) process were investigated during the ITER EDA phase: the first one called 'flat tile geometry' was mainly developed for the Tore Supra pumped limiter, the second one called 'monoblock geometry' was developed by the EU Participating Team for the ITER project. This paper presents a review of these two solutions and analyses their assets and drawbacks: pressure drop, critical heat flux, surface temperature and expected behaviour during operation, risks during the manufacture, control of the armour defects during the manufacture and at the reception, and the possibility of repairing defective tiles

  1. Heavy ion beam propagation through a gas-filled chamber for inertial confinement fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barboza, N.O.

    1996-10-01

    The work presented here evaluates the dynamics of a beam of heavy ions propagating through a chamber filled with gas. The motivation for this research stems from the possibility of using heavy ion beams as a driver in inertial confinement fusion reactors for the purpose of generating electricity. Such a study is important in determining the constraints on the beam which limit its focus to the small radius necessary for the ignition of thermonuclear microexplosions which are the source of fusion energy. Nuclear fusion is the process of combining light nuclei to form heavier ones. One possible fusion reaction combines two isotopes of hydrogen, deuterium and tritium, to form an alpha particle and a neutron, with an accompanying release of ∼17.6 MeV of energy. Generating electricity from fusion requires that we create such reactions in an efficient and controlled fashion, and harness the resulting energy. In the inertial confinement fusion (ICF) approach to energy production, a small spherical target, a few millimeters in radius, of deuterium and tritium fuel is compressed so that the density and temperature of the fuel are high enough, ∼200 g/cm 3 and ∼20 keV, that a substantial number of fusion reactions occur; the pellet microexplosion typically releases ∼350 MJ of energy in optimized power plant scenarios

  2. Angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy with 9-eV photon-energy pulses generated in a gas-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fiber

    OpenAIRE

    Bromberger, H.; Ermolov, A.; Belli, F.; Liu, H.; Calegari, F.; Chavez-Cervantes, M.; Li, M. T.; Lin, C. T.; Abdolvand, A.; Russell, P. St. J.; Cavalleri, A.; Travers, J. C.; Gierz, I.

    2015-01-01

    A recently developed source of ultraviolet radiation, based on optical soliton propagation in a gas-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fiber, is applied here to angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES). Near-infrared femtosecond pulses of only few {\\mu}J energy generate vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) radiation between 5.5 and 9 eV inside the gas-filled fiber. These pulses are used to measure the band structure of the topological insulator Bi2Se3 with a signal to noise ratio comparable to ...

  3. Targets on the basis of ferrites and high-temperature superconductors for ion-plasma sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lepeshev, A.A.; Saunin, V.N.; Telegin, S.V.; Polyakova, K.P.; Seredkin, V.A.; Pol'skij, A.I.

    2000-01-01

    Paper describes a method to produce targets for ion-plasma sputtering using plasma splaying of the appropriate powders on a cooled metal basis. Application of the plasma process was demonstrated to enable to produce complex shaped targets under the controlled atmosphere on the basis of ceramic materials ensuring their high composition homogeneity, as well as, reliable mechanical and thermal contact of the resultant coating with the base. One carried out experiments in ion-plasma sputtering of targets to prepare ferrite polycrystalline films to be used in magnetooptics and to prepare high-temperature superconductor epitaxial films [ru

  4. Integrated PC-based system for detecting and parameter monitoring at the Dubna Gas Filled Recoil Separator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsyganov, Yu.S.; Polyakov, A.N.; Sukhov, A.M.

    2012-01-01

    New detection system of the Dubna Gas Filled Recoil Separator (DGFRS) was put into operation in May 2012. It includes 32-strip position sensitive PIPS detector manufactured by CANBERRA NV, 24-strip back side PIPS detector, 8-strip V ETO P IPS detector, time-of-flight low pressure (∼1.7 Torr) pentane-filled gaseous detector, CAMAC fast ADC's with 5 μs dead time per three signals (energy, top position, bottom position), modified CC012 crate controller and PC-based C ++ Builder code for spectrometry data acquisition. New parameter monitoring system (project) is reported too together with the brief review of the present system. It is planned to put into operation with this system during 2013-2014. Examples of applications in the long-term experiments aimed at the synthesis of superheavy elements in 48 Ca induced complete fusion nuclear reactions are also presented. Namely with the DGFRS facility 45 new isotopes of superheavy nuclei were synthesized since 2001

  5. Investigations of space charge effects in the cryogenic gas filled stopping cell for the FRS ion catcher

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heisse, Fabian [IKTP, TU Dresden (Germany); GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung (Germany); Dickel, Timo; Plass, Wolfgang; Geissel, Hans; Scheidenberger, Christoph [II. Physikalisches Institut, JLU Giessen (Germany); GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung (Germany); Reiter, Moritz Pascal; Rink, Ann-Kathrin [II. Physikalisches Institut, JLU Giessen (Germany); Zuber, Kai [IKTP, TU Dresden (Germany); Collaboration: FRS Ion Catcher-Collaboration

    2015-07-01

    At the FRS Ion Catcher experiment precision mass measurements of short lived projectile and fission fragments are performed. Therefore highly charged ions with relativistic energies need to be thermalized to kinetic energies of several eV. This process takes place in the cryogenic gas filled stopping cell (CSC). All stopping cells suffer at large ion rates under space charge effects, which lead to decreasing efficiencies and can also influence the extraction time. Thus the understanding of space charge effects is of greatest importance to make full use of the higher yields at future rare ion beam facilities like FAIR. For this purpose simulation with the software SIMION {sup registered} concerning space charge effects were done. In this presentation the calculated transport efficiency of the CSC for different intensities, electric fields and spill structures are discussed and compared with measured results. Furthermore an outlook and first results of the simulation for the new CSC for the Low-Energy Branch at FAIR are given.

  6. FIBER LASER CONSTRUCTION AND THEORY INCLUDING FIBER BRAGG GRATINGS Photonic Crystal Fibers (PCFs) and applications of gas filled PCFs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutton, Jacob O. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-03-08

    The principles used in fiber lasers have been around for a while but it is only within the past few years that fiber lasers have become commercially available and used in high power laser applications. This paper will focus on the basic design principles of fiber lasers, including fiber Bragg gratings, principles of operation, and forms of non-linear effects. It will describe the type and associated doping of the fiber used and difficult designs used to guide energy from the pump to the active medium. Topics covered include fiber laser design, fiber Bragg gratings, materials used, differences in quantum energy loss, thermo-optical effects, stimulated Raman scattering, Brillouin scattering, photonic crystal fibers and applications of gas filled Photonic Crystal Fibers (PCFs). Thanks to fiber lasers, the energy required to produce high power lasers has greatly dropped and as such we can now produce kW power using a standard 120V 15A circuit. High power laser applications are always requiring more power. The fiber laser can now deliver the greater power that these applications demand. Future applications requiring more power than can be combined using standard materials or configurations will need to be developed to overcome the high energy density and high non-linear optical scattering effects present during high power operations.

  7. On the Adequacy of API 521 Relief-Valve Sizing Method for Gas-Filled Pressure Vessels Exposed to Fire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anders Andreasen

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the adequacy of the legacy API 521 guidance on pressure relief valve (PRV sizing for gas-filled vessels subjected to external fire is investigated. Multiple studies show that in many cases, the installation of a PRV offers little or no protection—therefore provides an unfounded sense of security. Often the vessel wall will be weakened by high temperatures, before the PRV relieving pressure is reached. In this article, a multiparameter study has been performed taking into consideration various vessel sizes, design pressures (implicitly vessel wall thickness, vessel operating pressure, fire type (pool fire or jet fire by applying the methodology presented in the Scandpower guideline. A transient thermomechanical response analysis has been carried out to accurately determine vessel rupture times. It is demonstrated that only vessels with relatively thick walls, as a result of high design pressures, benefit from the presence of a PRV, while for most cases no appreciable increase in the vessel survival time beyond the onset of relief is observed. For most of the cases studied, vessel rupture will occur before the relieving pressure of the PRV is reached.

  8. Target Monitoring and Plasma Diagnosis using 2ω probe beam for CANDY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, Katsuhiro; Mori, Yoshitaka; Hanayama, Ryohei; Nakayama, Suisei; Okihara, Shinichiro; Fujita, Kazuhisa; Nishimura, Yasuhiko; Sekina, Takashi; Sato, Nakahiro; Kurita, Takashi; Kawashima, Toshiyuki; Kan, Hirofumi; Komeda, Osamu; Nakamura, Naoki; Kondo, Takuya; Fujine, Manabu; Azuma, Hirozumi; Hioki, Tatsumi; Kakeno, Mitsutaka; Motohiro, Tomoyoshi

    2016-01-01

    We have developed the shadowgraph and interferometer with second-harmonic of heating pulses laser to observe target and plasma in highly-repetitive fusion reaction experiments. In the deuterated polystyrene ((C 8 D 8 )n double foil experiment, we confirm implosion plasma and plasma collision. In target injection experiment at a 1 Hz rate, we measure the position of the flying deuterated polystyrene beads at the moment of laser pulse illumination and observe the plasma generation by counter-illumination by 0.63 J, 800 nm, and 104 fs laser pulses. (paper)

  9. FDTD analysis of 3-D conducting target coated by anisotropic magnetized plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Lijun; Liu Shaobin; Mo Jinjun; Yuan Naichang

    2006-01-01

    The JEC finite-difference time-domain (JEC-FDTD) method is extended to three dimensional anisotropic dispersive media- the magnetized plasma. The problem which incorporates both anisotropy and frequency dispersion at the same time is solved for the electromagnetic wave propagation. The three dimensional JEC-FDTD formulations for anisotropic magnetized plasma are derived. The method is applied to the electromagnetic scattering of dihedral corner reflector and sphere-cone coated with anisotropic magnetized plasma. By simulating the interaction of electromagnetic wave with magnetized plasma, some numerical results are obtained, which indicate that an appropriate plasma coating may efficiently reduce the RCS of a metallic target. (authors)

  10. Heat and mass transfer across gas-filled enclosed spaces between a hot liquid surface and a cooled roof

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ralph, J C; Bennett, A W [Atomic Energy Research Establishment, Harwell, Oxfordshire (United Kingdom)

    1977-01-01

    A detailed knowledge is required of the amounts of sodium vapour which may be transported from the hot surface of a fast reactor coolant pool through the cover gas to cooler regions of the structure. Evaporation from the unbounded liquid surfaces of lakes and seas has been studied extensively but the heat and mass transfer mechanisms in gas-vapour mixtures which occur in enclosed spaces have received less attention. Recent work at Harwell has provided a theoretical model from which the heat and mass transfer in idealised plane cavities can be calculated. An experimental study is reported in this paper which seeks to verify the theoretical prediction. Heat and mass transfer measurements have been made on a system in which a heated water pool transfers heat and mass across a gas-filled space to a cooled horizontal cover plate. Several cover gases were used in the experiments and the results show that, provided the partial density of the vapour is low compared with that of the gas, the heat transfer mechanism is that of combined convection and radiation. The enhancement in heat transfer due to the presence of the vapour is broadly consistent with assumption of a direct analogy between heat and mass transfer neglecting condensation in the interspace. The mass transfer measurements, in which water condensing on the cooled roof was measured directly, showed for low roof temperatures an imbalance between the mass and heat transfer. This observation is consistent with the theoretical predictions that heat transfer in the convecting system should be independent of the amount of condensation and 'rain-back' within the cavity. The results of tests with helium showed that convection was entirely suppressed by the presence of the water vapour. This confirms the behaviour predicted for gas-vapour mixtures in which the vapour density is of the same order as the gas density. (author)

  11. Spectropolarimetry of blood plasma in optimal molecular targeted therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voloshynska, Katerina; Ilashchuk, Tetjana; Yermolenko, Sergey

    2015-02-01

    The aim of the study was to establish objective parameters of the field of laser and incoherent radiation of different spectral ranges (UV, visible, IR) as a non-invasive optical method of interaction with different samples of biological tissues and fluids of patients to determine the dynamics of metabolic syndrome and choosing the best personal treatment. As diagnostic methods have been used ultraviolet spectrometry samples of blood plasma in the liquid state, infrared spectroscopy middle range (2,5 - 25 microns) dry residue of plasma polarization and laser diagnostic technique of thin histological sections of biological tissues.

  12. XUV radiation from gaseous nitrogen and argon target laser plasmas

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vrba, Pavel; Vrbová, M.; Brůža, P.; Pánek, D.; Krejčí, F.; Kroupa, M.; Jakůbek, J.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 370, č. 1 (2012), s. 012049 ISSN 1742-6588. [Latin American Workshop on Plasma Physics (LAWPP 2011)/14/. Mar del Plata, 20.11.2011-25.11.2011] R&D Projects: GA MŠk LA08024; GA MŠk(CZ) LC528 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : Laser plasma source of XUV radiation in water window range * RHMD Z* engine code Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers http://iopscience.iop.org/1742-6596/370/1/012049/pdf/1742-6596_370_1_012049.pdf

  13. Imaging axial and radial electric field components in dielectric targets under plasma exposure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slikboer, E.T.; Sobota, A.; Guaitella, O.; Garcia-Caurel, E.

    2018-01-01

    This work presents new ways to investigate the individual electric field components in a dielectric target induced by a non thermal atmospheric pressure plasma jet. Mueller polarimetry is applied to investigate electro-optic crystals under exposure of guided ionization waves produced by a plasma

  14. Radiation in plasma target interaction events typical for ITER tokamak disruptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wuerz, H.; Bazylev, B.; Landman, I.; Safronov, V.

    1996-01-01

    Plasma wall interactions under conditions simulating ITER hard disruptions and ELMs are studied at the plasma gun facilities 2MK-200 CUSP and MK-200 UG at Troitsk. The experimental data for carbon plasma shields are used for validation of the theoretical modeling of the plasma wall interaction. The important features of the non-LTE plasma shield such as temperature and density distribution, its evolution and the conversion efficiency of the energy of the plasma stream into total and soft x-ray radiation from highly ionized evaporated target material and the energy balance are reproduced quite well. Thus a realistic modelling of ITER disruptive plasma wall interaction using the validated models is now possible. 8 refs., 6 figs

  15. Interaction of a laser-breakdown plasma with a charged metallic target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasil'ev, B.I.; Grasyuk, A.Z.; Dyad'kin, A.P.; Sukhanov, A.N.

    1981-01-01

    A study was made of the influence of a laser plasma on the potential of an insulated conducting target. It was discovered that the target potential changed stepwise on illumination with a high-power TEA CO 2 laser. A step, ΔU, in the target potential was observed and the dependences of ΔU on the initial potential, laser radiation energy density, and geometrical dimensions of the illuminated region were determined. There was an optimal pressure of the surrounding air for which ΔU had the maximum value. The dependence of ΔU on the pressure was determined, when illuminating a target in air and in nitrogen. The temporal characteristics of the variation in ΔU were correlated with the time variation of the visible and ultraviolet luminescence from the plasma. A mechanism was proposed to explain the potential step accompanying the interaction of a laser-produced plasma with a charged metallic target

  16. Angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy with 9-eV photon-energy pulses generated in a gas-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromberger, H.; Ermolov, A.; Belli, F.; Liu, H.; Calegari, F.; Chávez-Cervantes, M.; Li, M. T.; Lin, C. T.; Abdolvand, A.; Russell, P. St. J.; Cavalleri, A.; Travers, J. C.; Gierz, I.

    2015-08-01

    A recently developed source of ultraviolet radiation, based on optical soliton propagation in a gas-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fiber, is applied here to angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES). Near-infrared femtosecond pulses of only few μJ energy generate vacuum ultraviolet radiation between 5.5 and 9 eV inside the gas-filled fiber. These pulses are used to measure the band structure of the topological insulator Bi2Se3 with a signal to noise ratio comparable to that obtained with high order harmonics from a gas jet. The two-order-of-magnitude gain in efficiency promises time-resolved ARPES measurements at repetition rates of hundreds of kHz or even MHz, with photon energies that cover the first Brillouin zone of most materials.

  17. Angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy with 9-eV photon-energy pulses generated in a gas-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fiber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bromberger, H.; Liu, H.; Chávez-Cervantes, M.; Gierz, I.; Ermolov, A.; Belli, F.; Abdolvand, A.; Russell, P. St. J.; Travers, J. C.; Calegari, F.; Li, M. T.; Lin, C. T.; Cavalleri, A.

    2015-01-01

    A recently developed source of ultraviolet radiation, based on optical soliton propagation in a gas-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fiber, is applied here to angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES). Near-infrared femtosecond pulses of only few μJ energy generate vacuum ultraviolet radiation between 5.5 and 9 eV inside the gas-filled fiber. These pulses are used to measure the band structure of the topological insulator Bi 2 Se 3 with a signal to noise ratio comparable to that obtained with high order harmonics from a gas jet. The two-order-of-magnitude gain in efficiency promises time-resolved ARPES measurements at repetition rates of hundreds of kHz or even MHz, with photon energies that cover the first Brillouin zone of most materials

  18. Angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy with 9-eV photon-energy pulses generated in a gas-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fiber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bromberger, H., E-mail: Hubertus.Bromberger@mpsd.mpg.de; Liu, H.; Chávez-Cervantes, M.; Gierz, I. [Max Planck Institute for the Structure and Dynamics of Matter, Luruper Chaussee 149, 22761 Hamburg (Germany); Ermolov, A.; Belli, F.; Abdolvand, A.; Russell, P. St. J.; Travers, J. C. [Max Planck Institute for the Science of Light, Günther-Scharowsky-Str. 1, 91058 Erlangen (Germany); Calegari, F. [Max Planck Institute for the Structure and Dynamics of Matter, Luruper Chaussee 149, 22761 Hamburg (Germany); Institute for Photonics and Nanotechnologies, IFN-CNR, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Li, M. T.; Lin, C. T. [Max Planck Institute for Solid State Research, Heisenbergstr. 1, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Cavalleri, A. [Max Planck Institute for the Structure and Dynamics of Matter, Luruper Chaussee 149, 22761 Hamburg (Germany); Clarendon Laboratory, Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Parks Rd. Oxford OX1 3PU (United Kingdom)

    2015-08-31

    A recently developed source of ultraviolet radiation, based on optical soliton propagation in a gas-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fiber, is applied here to angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES). Near-infrared femtosecond pulses of only few μJ energy generate vacuum ultraviolet radiation between 5.5 and 9 eV inside the gas-filled fiber. These pulses are used to measure the band structure of the topological insulator Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3} with a signal to noise ratio comparable to that obtained with high order harmonics from a gas jet. The two-order-of-magnitude gain in efficiency promises time-resolved ARPES measurements at repetition rates of hundreds of kHz or even MHz, with photon energies that cover the first Brillouin zone of most materials.

  19. Palmitoylation of POTE family proteins for plasma membrane targeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, Sudipto; Ise, Tomoko; Nagata, Satoshi; Maeda, Hiroshi; Bera, Tapan K.; Pastan, Ira

    2007-01-01

    The POTE gene family is composed of 13 paralogs and likely evolved by duplications and remodeling of the human genome. One common property of POTE proteins is their localization on the inner aspect of the plasma membrane. To determine the structural elements required for membrane localization, we expressed mutants of different POTEs in 293T cells as EGFP fusion proteins. We also tested their palmitoylation by a biotin-switch assay. Our data indicate that the membrane localizations of different POTEs are mediated by similar 3-4 short cysteine rich repeats (CRRs) near the amino-terminuses and that palmitoylation on paired cysteine residues in each CRR motif is responsible for the localization. Multiple palmitoylation in the small CRRs can result in the strong association of whole POTEs with plasma membrane

  20. Laser-Irradiated Gas Puff Target Plasma Modeling

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vrba, Pavel; Vrbová, M.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 42, č. 10 (2014), s. 2600-2601 ISSN 0093-3813 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP102/12/2043 Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) CZ.1.07/2.3.00/20.0092 Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : Gas puff laser plasma * water window radiation source * RHMD code Z* Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 1.101, year: 2014 http://ieeexplore.ieee.org

  1. Evaporation and Vapor Shielding of CFC Targets Exposed to Plasma Heat Fluxes Relevant to ITER ELMs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Safronov, V.; Arkhipov, N.I.; Toporkov, D.A.; Zhitlukhin, A.M.; Landman, I.

    2007-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: Carbon-fibre composite (CFC) is foreseen presently as armour material for the divertor target in ITER. During the transient processes such as instabilities of Edge Localized Modes (ELMs) the target as anticipated will be exposed to the plasma heat loads of a few MJ/m 2 on the time scale of a fraction of ms, which causes an intense evaporation at the target surface and contaminates tokamak plasma by evaporated carbon. The ITER transient loads are not achievable at existing tokamaks therefore for testing divertor armour materials other facilities, in particular plasma guns are employed. In the present work the CFC targets have been tested for ITER at the plasma gun facility MK- 200 UG in Troitsk by ELM relevant heat fluxes. The targets in the applied magnetic field up to 2 T were irradiated by hydrogen plasma streams of diameter 6 - 8 cm, impact ion energy 2 - 3 keV, pulse duration 0.05 ms and energy density varying in the range 0.05 - 1 MJ/m 2 . Primary attention has been focused on the measurement of evaporation threshold and investigation of carbon vapor properties. Fast infrared pyrometer, optical and VUV spectrometers, framing cameras and plasma calorimeters were applied as diagnostics. The paper reports the results obtained on the evaporation threshold of CFC, the evaporation rate of the carbon fibers oriented parallel and perpendicular to the exposed target surface, the velocity of carbon vapor motion along and across the magnetic field lines, and the parameters of carbon plasma such as temperature, density and ionization state measured up to the distance 15 cm at varying plasma load. First experimental results on investigation of the vapor shield onset conditions are presented also. (authors)

  2. Mass analyzer ``MASHA'' high temperature target and plasma ion source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semchenkov, A. G.; Rassadov, D. N.; Bekhterev, V. V.; Bystrov, V. A.; Chizov, A. Yu.; Dmitriev, S. N.; Efremov, A. A.; Guljaev, A. V.; Kozulin, E. M.; Oganessian, Yu. Ts.; Starodub, G. Ya.; Voskresensky, V. M.; Bogomolov, S. L.; Paschenko, S. V.; Zelenak, A.; Tikhonov, V. I.

    2004-05-01

    A new separator and mass analyzer of super heavy atoms (MASHA) has been created at the FLNR JINR Dubna to separate and measure masses of nuclei and molecules with precision better than 10-3. First experiments with the FEBIAD plasma ion source have been done and give an efficiency of ionization of up to 20% for Kr with a low flow test leak (6 particle μA). We suppose a magnetic field optimization, using the additional electrode (einzel lens type) in the extracting system, and an improving of the vacuum conditions in order to increase the ion source efficiency.

  3. Mass analyzer 'MASHA' high temperature target and plasma ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semchenkov, A.G.; Rassadov, D.N.; Bekhterev, V.V.; Bystrov, V.A.; Chizov, A.Yu.; Dmitriev, S.N.; Efremov, A.A.; Guljaev, A.V.; Kozulin, E.M.; Oganessian, Yu.Ts.; Starodub, G.Ya.; Voskresensky, V.M.; Bogomolov, S.L.; Paschenko, S.V.; Zelenak, A.; Tikhonov, V.I.

    2004-01-01

    A new separator and mass analyzer of super heavy atoms (MASHA) has been created at the FLNR JINR Dubna to separate and measure masses of nuclei and molecules with precision better than 10 -3 . First experiments with the FEBIAD plasma ion source have been done and give an efficiency of ionization of up to 20% for Kr with a low flow test leak (6 particle μA). We suppose a magnetic field optimization, using the additional electrode (einzel lens type) in the extracting system, and an improving of the vacuum conditions in order to increase the ion source efficiency

  4. Low-velocity ion stopping in a dense and low-temperature plasma target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deutsch, Claude; Popoff, Romain

    2007-07-01

    We investigate the stopping specificities involved in the heating of thin foils irradiated by intense ion beams in the 0.3-3 MeV/amu energy range and in close vicinity of the Bragg peak. Considering a swiftly ionized target to eV temperatures before expansion while retaining solid-state density, a typical warm dense matter (WDM) situation thus arises. We stress low Vp stopping through ion diffusion in the given target plasma. This allows to include the case of a strongly magnetized target in a guiding center approximation. We also demonstrate that the ion projectile penetration depth in target is significantly affected by multiple scattering on target electrons. The given plasma target is taken weakly coupled with Maxwell electron either with no magnetic field ( B=0) or strongly magnetized ( B≠0). Dynamical coupling between ion projectiles energy losses and projectiles charge state will also be addressed.

  5. Characterization of long-scale-length plasmas produced from plastic foam targets for laser plasma instability (LPI) research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Jaechul; Weaver, J. L.; Serlin, V.; Obenschain, S. P.

    2017-10-01

    We report on an experimental effort to produce plasmas with long scale lengths for the study of parametric instabilities, such as two plasmon decay (TPD) and stimulated Raman scattering (SRS), under conditions relevant to fusion plasma. In the current experiment, plasmas are formed from low density (10-100 mg/cc) CH foam targets irradiated by Nike krypton fluoride laser pulses (λ = 248 nm, 1 nsec FWHM) with energies up to 1 kJ. This experiment is conducted with two primary diagnostics: the grid image refractometer (Nike-GIR) to measure electron density and temperature profiles of the coronas, and time-resolved spectrometers with absolute intensity calibration to examine scattered light features of TPD or SRS. Nike-GIR was recently upgraded with a 5th harmonic probe laser (λ = 213 nm) to access plasma regions near quarter critical density of 248 nm light (4.5 ×1021 cm-3). The results will be discussed with data obtained from 120 μm scale-length plasmas created on solid CH targets in previous LPI experiments at Nike. Work supported by DoE/NNSA.

  6. Comparison of experimental target currents with analytical model results for plasma immersion ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    En, W.G.; Lieberman, M.A.; Cheung, N.W.

    1995-01-01

    Ion implantation is a standard fabrication technique used in semiconductor manufacturing. Implantation has also been used to modify the surface properties of materials to improve their resistance to wear, corrosion and fatigue. However, conventional ion implanters require complex optics to scan a narrow ion beam across the target to achieve implantation uniformity. An alternative implantation technique, called Plasma Immersion Ion Implantation (PIII), immerses the target into a plasma. The ions are extracted from the plasma directly and accelerated by applying negative high-voltage pulses to the target. An analytical model of the voltage and current characteristics of a remote plasma is presented. The model simulates the ion, electron and secondary electron currents induced before, during and after a high voltage negative pulse is applied to a target immersed in a plasma. The model also includes analytical relations that describe the sheath expansion and collapse due to negative high voltage pulses. The sheath collapse is found to be important for high repetition rate pulses. Good correlation is shown between the model and experiment for a wide variety of voltage pulses and plasma conditions

  7. Studies of plasma interactions with tungsten targets in PF-1000U facility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ladygina Maryna S.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents results of experimental studies of tungsten samples of 99.95% purity, which were irradiated by intense plasma-ion streams. The behaviour of tungsten, and particularly its structural change induced by high plasma loads, is of great importance for fusion technology. The reported measurements were performed within a modified PF-1000U plasma-focus facility operated at the IFPiLM in Warsaw, Poland. The working gas was pure deuterium. In order to determine the main plasma parameters and to study the behaviour of impurities at different instants of the plasma discharge, the optical emission spectroscopy was used. The dependence of plasma parameters on the initial charging voltage (16, 19 and 21 kV was studied. Detailed optical measurements were performed during interactions of a plasma stream with the tungsten samples placed at the z-axis of the facility, at a distance of 6 cm from the electrode outlets. The recorded spectra showed distinct WI and WII spectral lines. Investigation of a target surface morphology, after its irradiation by intense plasma streams, was performed by means of an optical microscope. The observations revealed that some amounts of the electrodes material (mainly copper were deposited upon the irradiated sample surface. In all the cases, melted zones were observed upon the irradiated target surface, and in experiments performed at the highest charging voltage there were formed some cracks.

  8. Summary abstract: microspot target development with seeded and patterned plasma polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Letts, S.A.; Miller, D.E.; Corley, R.A.; Tillotson, T.M.; Witt, L.A.

    1985-01-01

    In inertial confinement fusion (ICF) energy is transferred from the laser to the target through the interaction of extremely high intensity laser light with the target plasma. To better understand laser-plasma interactions, a new class of targets was designed to study long scale-length plasmas (many hundred times the laser wavelength) by measurement of the temperature and density of the plasma as a function of time. The specifications for the target called for a freestanding hydrocarbon polymer (CH) film with a sharply defined spot (microspot) in the center seeded with either silicon or sulfur. The target film was fabricated using a three-step procedure which consisted of deposition of the hydrocarbon film, definition of the microspot, and then deposition of a seeded spot through a mask. In the final assembly step, the film containing the microspot was mounted over a 1.5 mm diam hole in a support. The support was either a plastic ring or a copper foil electroplated with 3 μm of gold. The fabrication of this type of target is described

  9. Interaction of a laser breakdown plasma with a charged metallic target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasil' ev, B I; Grasyuk, A Z; Dyad' kin, A P; Sukhanov, A N [AN SSSR, Moscow. Fizicheskij Inst.

    1981-11-01

    An effect has been studied of the laser plasma on potential of an insulated conducting target made of aluminium. Targets of 2.4 and 6 cm diameter were used. Spot sizes on the target changed by means of a diaphragm. A change has been found in the charged target potential upon exposure to the high-power TEA CO/sub 2/ laser radiation. Dependences are presented of the jump in the target potential ..delta..U on the initial target potential, laser radiation energy density, geometrical size of the exposed region. It has been established that there is an optimal pressure of the ambient air under which ..delta..U reaches maximum. A dependence is presented of ..delta..U on the pressure upon target exposure in the air and in nitrogen. Temporal characteristics of the ..delta..U variation correlate with those of plasma glow in the visible and ultraviolet bands. A mechanism is suggested which explains the potential jump under the interaction between the laser plasma and the charged metallic target.

  10. Propagation velocities of laser-produced plasmas from copper wire targets and water droplets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Kyo-Dong; Alexander, Dennis R.

    1994-01-01

    Experiments were performed to determine the plasma propagation velocities resulting from KrF laser irradiation of copper wire target (75 microns diameter) and water droplets (75 microns diameter) at irradiance levels ranging from 25 to 150 GW/sq cm. Plasma propagation velocities were measured using a streak camera system oriented orthogonally to the high-energy laser propagation axis. Plasma velocities were studied as a function of position in the focused beam. Results show that both the shape of the plasma formation and material removal from the copper wire are different and depend on whether the targets are focused or slightly defocused (approximately = 0.5 mm movement in the beam axis). Plasma formation and its position relative to the target is an important factor in determining the practical focal point during high-energy laser interaction with materials. At irradiance of 100 GW/sq cm, the air plasma has two weak-velocity components which propagate toward and away from the incident laser while a strong-velocity component propagates away from the laser beam as a detonation wave. Comparison of the measured breakdown velocities (in the range of 2.22-2.27 x 10(exp 5) m/s) for air and the value calculated by the nonlinear breakdown wave theory at irradiance of 100 GW/sq cm showed a quantitative agreement within approximately 50% while the linear theory and Gaussian pulse theory failed. The detonation wave velocities of plasma generated from water droplets and copper wire targets for different focused cases were measured and analyzed theoretically. The propagation velocities of laser-induced plasma liquid droplets obtained by previous research are compared with current work.

  11. Specificity of Plasma Membrane Targeting by the Rous Sarcoma Virus Gag Protein

    OpenAIRE

    Scheifele, Lisa Z.; Rhoads, Jonathan D.; Parent, Leslie J.

    2003-01-01

    Budding of C-type retroviruses begins when the viral Gag polyprotein is directed to the plasma membrane by an N-terminal membrane-binding (M) domain. While dispersed basic amino acids within the M domain are critical for stable membrane association and consequent particle assembly, additional residues or motifs may be required for specific plasma membrane targeting and binding. We have identified an assembly-defective Rous sarcoma virus (RSV) Gag mutant that retains significant membrane affin...

  12. Target Surface Area Effects on Hot Electron Dynamics from High Intensity Laser-Plasma Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-19

    Science, University ofMichigan, AnnArbor,MI 48109-2099, USA E-mail: czulick@umich.edu Keywords: laser- plasma ,mass-limited, fast electrons , sheath...New J. Phys. 18 (2016) 063020 doi:10.1088/1367-2630/18/6/063020 PAPER Target surface area effects on hot electron dynamics from high intensity laser... plasma interactions CZulick, ARaymond,AMcKelvey, VChvykov, AMaksimchuk, AGRThomas, LWillingale, VYanovsky andKKrushelnick Center forUltrafast Optical

  13. Fusion-product energy loss in inertial confinement fusion plasmas with applications to target burns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, D.B.; Miley, G.H.

    1984-01-01

    Inertial confinement fusion (ICF) has been proposed as a competitor to magnetic fusion in the drive towards energy production, but ICF target performance still contains many uncertainties. One such area is the energy-loss rate of fusion products. This situation is due in part to the unique plasma parameters encountered in ICF plasmas which are compressed to more than one-thousand times solid density. The work presented here investigates three aspects of this uncertainty

  14. Some estimates of mirror plasma startup by neutral beam heating of pellet and gas cloud targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shearer, J.W.; Willmann, P.A.

    1978-01-01

    Hot plasma buildup by neutral beam injection into an initially cold solid or gaseous target is found to be conceivable in large mirror machine experiments such as 2XIIB or MFTF. A simple analysis shows that existing neutral beam intensities are sufficient to ablate suitable targets to form a gas or vapor cloud. An approximate rate equation model is used to follow the subsequent processes of ionization, heating, and hot plasma formation. Solutions of these rate equations are obtained by means of the ''GEAR'' techniques for solving ''stiff'' systems of differential equations. These solutions are in rough agreement with the 2XIIB stream plasma buildup experiment. They also predict that buildup on a suitable nitrogen-like target will occur in the MFTF geometry. In 2XIIB the solutions are marginal; buildup may be possible, but is not certain

  15. Target micro-displacement measurement by a "comb" structure of intensity distribution in laser plasma propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Z. Y.; Zhang, S. Q.; Gao, L.; Gao, H.

    2015-05-01

    A "comb" structure of beam intensity distribution is designed and achieved to measure a target displacement of micrometer level in laser plasma propulsion. Base on the "comb" structure, the target displacement generated by nanosecond laser ablation solid target is measured and discussed. It is found that the "comb" structure is more suitable for a thin film target with a velocity lower than tens of millimeters per second. Combing with a light-electric monitor, the `comb' structure can be used to measure a large range velocity.

  16. 2D simulations of hohlraum targets for laser-plasma experiments and ion stopping measurement in hot plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basko, M.M. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung mbH, Darmstadt (Germany). ExtreMe Matter Institute EMMI; Maruhn, J.; Tauschwitz, Anna [Frankfurt Univ. (Germany); Novikov, V.G.; Grushin, A.S. [Keldysh Institute of Applied Mathematics, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2011-12-15

    An attractive way to create uniform plasma states at high temperatures and densities is by using hohlraums - cavities with heavy-metal walls that are either directly or indirectly heated by intense laser pulses to x-ray temperatures of tens and hundreds electron volts. A sample material, whose plasma state is to be studied, can be placed inside such a hohlraum (usually in the form of a low-density foam) and uniformly heated to a high temperature. In this case a high-Z hohlraum enclosure serves a double purpose: it prevents the hot plasma from rapid disassembly due to hydrodynamic expansion and, at the same time, suppresses its rapid radiative cooling by providing high diffusive resistivity for X-rays. Of course, both the inertial and the thermal confinement of high-temperature plasmas can be achieved only for a limited period of time - on the order of nanoseconds for millimeter-scale hohlraums. Some time ago such hohlraum targets were proposed for measurements of the stopping power of hot dense plasmas for fast ions at GSI (Darmstadt). Theoretical modeling of hohlraum targets has always been a challenging task for computational physics because it should combine multidimensional hydrodynamic simulations with the solution of the spectral transfer equation for thermal radiation. In this work we report on our latest progress in this direction, namely, we present the results of 2D (two-dimensional) simulations with a newly developed radiation-hydrodynamics code RALEF-2D of two types of the hohlraum targets proposed for experiments on the PHELIX laser at GSI. The first configuration is a simple spherical hohlraum with gold walls and empty interior, which has two holes - one for laser beam entrance, and the other for diagnostics. The hohlraums of this type have already been used in several experimental sessions with the NHELIX and PHELIX lasers at GSI. The second type is a two-chamber cylindrical hohlraum with a characteristic {omega}-shaped cross-section of the enclosure

  17. Neutral Beam Source and Target Plasma for Development of a Local Electric Field Fluctuation Diagnostic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakken, M. R.; Burke, M. G.; Fonck, R. J.; Lewicki, B. T.; Rhodes, A. T.; Winz, G. R.

    2016-10-01

    A new diagnostic measuring local E-> (r , t) fluctuations is being developed for plasma turbulence studies in tokamaks. This is accomplished by measuring fluctuations in the separation of the π components in the Hα motional Stark spectrum. Fluctuations in this separation are expected to be Ẽ / ẼEMSE 10-3EMSE 10-3 . In addition to a high throughput, high speed spectrometer, the project requires a low divergence (Ω 0 .5°) , 80 keV, 2.5 A H0 beam and a target plasma test stand. The beam employs a washer-stack arc ion source to achieve a high species fraction at full energy. Laboratory tests of the ion source demonstrate repeatable plasmas with Te 10 eV and ne 1.6 ×1017 m-3, sufficient for the beam ion optics requirements. Te and ne scalings of the ion source plasma are presented with respect to operational parameters. A novel three-phase resonant converter power supply will provide 6 mA/cm2 of 80 keV H0 at the focal plane for pulse lengths up to 15 ms, with low ripple δV / 80 keV 0.05 % at 280 kHz. Diagnostic development and validation tests will be performed on a magnetized plasma test stand with 0.5 T field. The test chamber will utilize a washer-stack arc source to produce a target plasma comparable to edge tokamak plasmas. A bias-plate with programmable power supply will be used to impose Ẽ within the target plasma. Work supported by US DOE Grant DE-FG02-89ER53296.

  18. The RIKEN gas-filled recoil separator and a possible new approach to superheavy elements by the (HI, αxn) reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nomura, T.

    1990-10-01

    The (HI, αxn) reaction, in which precompound α particle emission takes place, is shown to occur significantly even near the Coulomb barrier. Because the α emission can efficiently cool down a highly excited nucleus both in energy and angular momentum, it is considered to be very effective for production of heavy elements like SHE. However, the angular distributions of residual nuclei produced in this reaction are side-peaked, requiring a recoil-type separator with large angular acceptance when it is applied for collection of the relevant nuclei. A brief description is given about a gas-filled separator recently constructed at RIKEN, which meets the above requirement. (author)

  19. Improvement of the 36Cl-AMS system at MALT using a Monte Carlo ion-trajectory simulation in a gas-filled magnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aze, Takahiro; Matsuzaki, Hiroyuki; Matsumura, Hiroshi; Nagai, Hisao; Fujimura, Masatsugu; Noguchi, Mayumi; Hongo, Yayoi; Yokoyama, Yusuke

    2007-01-01

    We developed and experimentally confirmed a Monte Carlo simulation code to describe the trajectories of 36 Cl and 36 S ions in a gas-filled magnet (GFM) at the MALT, University of Tokyo. The simulation revealed that the central trajectories of the ions in the GFM are almost spiral and most of the 36 S ions collided with the interior wall of the GFM. Based on this property of the trajectories, we have found a more advantageous condition for suppressing 36 S. As a result, the background level of the 36 Cl/Cl ratio was lowered to 10 -15

  20. Effect of vapor plasma on the coupling of laser radiation with aluminum targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shui, V H; Kivel, B; Weyl, G M

    1978-12-01

    The effect of vapor plasma on thermal and impulse coupling of laser radiation with aluminum targets is studied to understand and explain experimental data showing anomalously high coupling to 10.6-micron laser radiation. Heating of vapor by inverse bremsstrahlung absorption of laser radiation, subsequent reradiation in the uv and deep uv by ionized species, and vapor layer growth are modeled. A computer code has been developed to solve the governing equations. Major conclusions include the following: (1) vapor plasma radiative transport can be an important mechanism for laser/target coupling, (2) aluminum vapor (density times thickness) approximately equal to 10 to the 17th power/sq cm (corresponding to about 0.01 micron of target material) can result in thermal coupling coefficients of 20% or more, and (3) too much vapor reduces the net flux at the target.

  1. Binding and Fusion of Extracellular Vesicles to the Plasma Membrane of Their Cell Targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prada, Ilaria; Meldolesi, Jacopo

    2016-08-09

    Exosomes and ectosomes, extracellular vesicles of two types generated by all cells at multivesicular bodies and the plasma membrane, respectively, play critical roles in physiology and pathology. A key mechanism of their function, analogous for both types of vesicles, is the fusion of their membrane to the plasma membrane of specific target cells, followed by discharge to the cytoplasm of their luminal cargo containing proteins, RNAs, and DNA. Here we summarize the present knowledge about the interactions, binding and fusions of vesicles with the cell plasma membrane. The sequence initiates with dynamic interactions, during which vesicles roll over the plasma membrane, followed by the binding of specific membrane proteins to their cell receptors. Membrane binding is then converted rapidly into fusion by mechanisms analogous to those of retroviruses. Specifically, proteins of the extracellular vesicle membranes are structurally rearranged, and their hydrophobic sequences insert into the target cell plasma membrane which undergoes lipid reorganization, protein restructuring and membrane dimpling. Single fusions are not the only process of vesicle/cell interactions. Upon intracellular reassembly of their luminal cargoes, vesicles can be regenerated, released and fused horizontally to other target cells. Fusions of extracellular vesicles are relevant also for specific therapy processes, now intensely investigated.

  2. Basolateral cholesterol depletion alters Aquaporin-2 post-translational modifications and disrupts apical plasma membrane targeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeller, Hanne B; Fuglsang, Cecilia Hvitfeldt; Pedersen, Cecilie Nøhr; Fenton, Robert A

    2018-01-01

    Apical plasma membrane accumulation of the water channel Aquaporin-2 (AQP2) in kidney collecting duct principal cells is critical for body water homeostasis. Posttranslational modification (PTM) of AQP2 is important for regulating AQP2 trafficking. The aim of this study was to determine the role of cholesterol in regulation of AQP2 PTM and in apical plasma membrane targeting of AQP2. Cholesterol depletion from the basolateral plasma membrane of a collecting duct cell line (mpkCCD14) using methyl-beta-cyclodextrin (MBCD) increased AQP2 ubiquitylation. Forskolin, cAMP or dDAVP-mediated AQP2 phosphorylation at Ser269 (pS269-AQP2) was prevented by cholesterol depletion from the basolateral membrane. None of these effects on pS269-AQP2 were observed when cholesterol was depleted from the apical side of cells, or when MBCD was applied subsequent to dDAVP stimulation. Basolateral, but not apical, MBCD application prevented cAMP-induced apical plasma membrane accumulation of AQP2. These studies indicate that manipulation of the cholesterol content of the basolateral plasma membrane interferes with AQP2 PTM and subsequently regulated apical plasma membrane targeting of AQP2. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Analysis of laser-induced evaporation of Al target under conditions of vapour plasma formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazhukin, V.I.; Nossov, V.V.; Smurov, I.

    2004-01-01

    The plasma-controlled evaporation of the Al target induced by the laser pulse with intensity of 10 9 W/cm 2 and wavelength of 1.06 μm is analysed with account for the two-dimensional effects. The self consistent model is applied, including the heat transfer equation in condensed medium, the equations of radiation gas dynamics in evaporated substance and the Knudsen layer model at the two media boundary. It is found that the phase transition at the target surface is controlled by the two factors: the surface temperature that depends on the transmitted radiation intensity, and the plasma pressure, governed by the expansion regime. The process comes through three characteristic stages, the sonic evaporation at the beginning, the condensation during the period of plasma formation and initial expansion, and finally, the re-start of evaporation in subsonic regime after the partial brightening of the plasma. During the subsonic evaporation stage the vapour flow and the mass removal rate are much higher near the beam boundaries than in the centre due to smaller plasma counter-pressure. The vapour plasma pattern is characterised by the dense hot zone near the surface where the absorption of laser energy occurs, and rapid decrease of density outside the zone due to three-dimensional expansion

  4. Electric field and temperature in a target induced by a plasma jet imaged using Mueller polarimetry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slikboer, E.T.; Sobota, A.; Guaitella, O.; Garcia-Caurel, E.

    2018-01-01

    Mueller polarimetry is used to investigate the behavior of an electro optic target (BSO crystal) under exposure of guided ionization waves produced by an atmospheric pressure plasma jet. For the first time, this optical technique is time resolved to obtain the complete Mueller matrix of the sample

  5. Non-targeted plasma metabolome of early and late lactation gilts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Female pigs nursing their first litter (first-parity gilts) have increased energy requirements not only to support their piglets, but they themselves are still maturing. Non-targeted plasma metabolomics were used to investigate the differences between (1) post-farrowing and weaning (early or late l...

  6. Chemically different non-thermal plasmas target distinct cell death pathways

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lunov, O.; Zablotskyy, V.; Chrupina, O.; Lunova, M.; Jirsa, M.; Dejneka, A.; Kubinová, Šárka

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 7, apr (2017), s. 600 ISSN 2045-2322 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1309 Institutional support: RVO:68378041 Keywords : chemically different * non-thermal plasmas * target distinct cell death pathways Subject RIV: FP - Other Medical Disciplines OBOR OECD: Biophysics Impact factor: 4.259, year: 2016

  7. Effects of target electron collisions on energy loss straggling in plasmas of all degeneracies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barriga Carrasco, Manuel D. [E.T.S.I. Industriales, Universisdad de Castilla La Mancha, Ciudad Real E13071 (Spain)]. E-mail: ManuelD.Barriga@uclm.es

    2007-07-01

    The purpose of the present paper is to describe the effects of target electron collisions on the energy loss straggling in plasmas of any degeneracy. We focus our analysis on targets that are in the limit of weakly coupled electron gases, where the random phase approximation can be applied. This type of plasmas targets has not been studied extensively, though they are very important for inertial confinement fusion. The energy loss straggling is obtained from an exact quantum mechanical evaluation, which takes into account the degeneracy of the target plasma, and later it is compared with common classical and degenerate approximations. Also we consider electron collisions in the exact quantum mechanical straggling calculation. Now the maximum straggling occurs at velocities smaller than for the calculations without considering collisions for all kinds of plasmas analyzed. The straggling remains equal or enhances for velocities less than or equal to the velocity at maximum while is slightly decreases for higher velocities. Differences are significant in all cases, that can let large errors creep on in further energy deposition and projectile range studies.

  8. Effects of target electron collisions on energy loss straggling in plasmas of all degeneracies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barriga Carrasco, Manuel D.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the present paper is to describe the effects of target electron collisions on the energy loss straggling in plasmas of any degeneracy. We focus our analysis on targets that are in the limit of weakly coupled electron gases, where the random phase approximation can be applied. This type of plasmas targets has not been studied extensively, though they are very important for inertial confinement fusion. The energy loss straggling is obtained from an exact quantum mechanical evaluation, which takes into account the degeneracy of the target plasma, and later it is compared with common classical and degenerate approximations. Also we consider electron collisions in the exact quantum mechanical straggling calculation. Now the maximum straggling occurs at velocities smaller than for the calculations without considering collisions for all kinds of plasmas analyzed. The straggling remains equal or enhances for velocities less than or equal to the velocity at maximum while is slightly decreases for higher velocities. Differences are significant in all cases, that can let large errors creep on in further energy deposition and projectile range studies

  9. Targeted exonic sequencing of GWAS loci in the high extremes of the plasma lipids distribution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Patel, Aniruddh P.; Peloso, Gina M.; Pirruccello, James P.; Johansen, Christopher T.; Dubé, Joseph B.; Larach, Daniel B.; Ban, Matthew R.; Dallinge-Thie, Geesje M.; Gupta, Namrata; Boehnke, Michael; Abecasis, Gonçalo R.; Kastelein, John J. P.; Hovingh, G. Kees; Hegele, Robert A.; Rader, Daniel J.; Kathiresan, Sekar

    2016-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) for plasma lipid levels have mapped numerous genomic loci, with each region often containing many protein-coding genes. Targeted re-sequencing of exons is a strategy to pinpoint causal variants and genes. We performed solution-based hybrid selection of 9008

  10. Video Views and Reviews: Golgi Export, Targeting, and Plasma Membrane Caveolae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watters, Christopher

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the author reviews videos from "Molecular Biology of the Cell (MBC)" depicting various aspects of plasma membrane (PM) dynamics, including the targeting of newly synthesized components and the organization of those PM invaginations called caveolae. The papers accompanying these videos describe, respectively, the constitutive…

  11. Comparison of intraocular pressure measured by non-contact air puff versus Goldmann applanation tonometers in gas-filled vitrectomized eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patikulsila, Direk; Taweemankongsab, Srisuda; Ngamtipakorn, Supob

    2003-05-01

    To compare intraocular pressure (IOP) measured by two different instruments, air puff tonometer (APT) versus Goldmann applanation tonometer (GAT), in gas-filled vitrectomized eyes. Three-month, prospective, comparative trial. Thirty-eight patients (38 eyes), who underwent a pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) with gas injection, were enrolled in the study. The IOP was measured by an APT, followed by GAT within 10 minutes by two different, masked investigators. IOPs were measured by two methods and then were compared. Overall, there was a high correlation between both measurements (r = 0.908, p 0.05). By a subgroup analysis of 17 eyes with IOP measured by a GAT of 21 mmHg or less, the APT readings (15.28 +/- 4.81) and GAT readings (14.47 +/- 3.89) were not significantly different (p > 0.05). Of 21 eyes, with IOP measured by a GAT of 22 mmHg or more, the APT readings (26.88 +/- 8.81) were significantly lower than those obtained by the GAT (29.62 +/- 7.69) (p < 0.05). In gas-filled vitrectomized eyes, IOP measurements obtained by an APT correlated well with those obtained by GAT, especially when the IOP was within normal range. However, in eyes with elevated IOP, the APT significantly underestimated the IOP measurement when compared to the gold standard, GAT.

  12. Laser-produced plasma EUV source using a colloidal microjet target containing tin dioxide nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higashiguchi, Takeshi; Dojyo, Naoto; Sasaki, Wataru; Kubodera, Shoichi

    2006-10-01

    We realized a low-debris laser-produced plasma extreme ultraviolet (EUV) source by use of a colloidal microjet target, which contained low-concentration (6 wt%) tin-dioxide nanoparticles. An Nd:YAG laser was used to produce a plasma at the intensity on the order of 10^11 W/cm^2. The use of low concentration nanoparticles in a microjet target with a diameter of 50 μm regulated the neutral debris emission from a target, which was monitored by a silicon witness plate placed 30 cm apart from the source in a vacuum chamber. No XPS signals of tin and/or oxygen atoms were observed on the plate after ten thousand laser exposures. The low concentration nature of the target was compensated and the conversion efficiency (CE) was improved by introducing double pulses of two Nd:YAG lasers operated at 532 and 1064 nm as a result of controlling the micro-plasma characteristics. The EUV CE reached its maximum of 1.2% at the delay time of approximately 100 ns with the main laser intensiy of 2 x10^11 W/cm^2. The CE value was comparable to that of a tin bulk target, which, however, produced a significant amount of neutral debris.

  13. Damage to preheated tungsten targets after multiple plasma impacts simulating ITER ELMs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garkusha, I.E. [Institute of Plasma Physics of the NSC KIPT, Akademicheskaya 1, 61108 Kharkov (Ukraine)], E-mail: garkusha@ipp.kharkov.ua; Bandura, A.N.; Byrka, O.V.; Chebotarev, V.V. [Institute of Plasma Physics of the NSC KIPT, Akademicheskaya 1, 61108 Kharkov (Ukraine); Landman, I. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, IHM, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Makhlaj, V.A. [Institute of Plasma Physics of the NSC KIPT, Akademicheskaya 1, 61108 Kharkov (Ukraine); Pestchanyi, S. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, IHM, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Tereshin, V.I. [Institute of Plasma Physics of the NSC KIPT, Akademicheskaya 1, 61108 Kharkov (Ukraine)

    2009-04-30

    The behavior of a preheated at 650 deg. C tungsten targets under repetitive ELM-like plasma pulses is studied in simulation experiments with the quasi-stationary plasma accelerator QSPA Kh-50. The targets have been exposed up to 350 pulses of the duration 0.25 ms and the surface heat loads either 0.45 MJ/m{sup 2} or 0.75 MJ/m{sup 2}, which is below and above the melting threshold, respectively. The development of surface morphology of the exposed targets as well as cracking and swelling at the surface is discussed. First comparisons of obtained experimental results with corresponding numerical simulations of the code PEGASUS-3D are presented.

  14. HIGH SPATIAL RESOLUTION IMAGING OF INERTIAL FUSION TARGET PLASMAS USING BUBBLE NEUTRON DETECTORS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    FISHER, R.K.

    2003-01-01

    OAK B202 HIGH SPATIAL RESOLUTION IMAGING OF INERTIAL FUSION TARGET PLASMAS USING BUBBLE NEUTRON DETECTORS. Bubble detectors, which can detect neutrons with a spatial 5 to 30 (micro), are the most promising approach to imaging NIF target plasmas with the desired 5 (micro) spatial resolution in the target plane. Gel bubble detectors are being tested to record neutron images of ICF implosions in OMEGA experiments. By improving the noise reduction techniques used in analyzing the data taken in June 2000, we have been able to image the neutron emission from 6 · 10 13 yield DT target plasmas with a target plane spatial resolution of ∼ 140 (micro). As expected, the spatial resolution was limited by counting statistics as a result of the low neutron detection efficiency of the easy-to-use gel bubble detectors. The results have been submitted for publication and will be the subject of an invited talk at the October 2001 Meeting of the Division of Plasma Physics of the American Physical Society. To improve the counting statistics, data was taken in May 2001 using a stack of four gel detectors and integrated over a series of up to seven high-yield DT shots. Analysis of the 2001 data is still in its early stages. Gel detectors were chosen for these initial tests since the bubbles can be photographed several hours after the neutron exposure. They consist of ∼ 5000 drops (∼ 100 (micro) in diameter) of bubble detector liquid/cm 3 suspended in an inactive support gel that occupies ∼ 99% of the detector volume. Using a liquid bubble chamber detector and a light scattering system to record the bubble locations a few microseconds after the neutron exposure when the bubbles are ∼ 10 (micro) in diameter, should result in ∼ 1000 times higher neutron detection efficiency and a target plane resolution on OMEGA of ∼ 10 to 50 (micro)

  15. Only a fraction of patients with ischaemic diseases or diabetes are treated to recommended target values for plasma lipids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siggaard-Andersen, Niels; Freiberg, Jacob J; Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2012-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that individuals in the general population with and without ischaemic cardiovascular disease, or with diabetes, are treated to recommended target values for plasma lipids.......We tested the hypothesis that individuals in the general population with and without ischaemic cardiovascular disease, or with diabetes, are treated to recommended target values for plasma lipids....

  16. Longitudinal gas-density profilometry for plasma-wakefield acceleration targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaper, Lucas, E-mail: lschaper01@qub.ac.uk [Universität Hamburg, FB Physik, Institut für Experimentalphysik, Luruper Chaussee 149, 22761 Hamburg (Germany); Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Notkestraße 85, 22607 Hamburg (Germany); Goldberg, Lars; Kleinwächter, Tobias; Schwinkendorf, Jan-Patrick; Osterhoff, Jens [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Notkestraße 85, 22607 Hamburg (Germany)

    2014-03-11

    Precise tailoring of plasma-density profiles has been identified as one of the critical points in achieving stable and reproducible conditions in plasma wakefield accelerators. Here, the strict requirements of next generation plasma-wakefield concepts, such as hybrid-accelerators, with densities around 10{sup 17} cm{sup −3} pose challenges to target fabrication as well as to their reliable diagnosis. To mitigate these issues we combine target simulation with fabrication and characterization. The resulting density profiles in capillaries with gas jet and multiple in- and outlets are simulated with the fluid code OpenFOAM. Satisfactory simulation results then are followed by fabrication of the desired target shapes with structures down to the 10 µm level. The detection of Raman scattered photons using lenses with large collection solid angle allows to measure the corresponding longitudinal density profiles at different number densities and allows a detection sensitivity down to the low 10{sup 17} cm{sup −3} density range at high spatial resolution. This offers the possibility to gain insight into steep density gradients as for example in gas jets and at the plasma-to-vacuum transition.

  17. Longitudinal gas-density profilometry for plasma-wakefield acceleration targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaper, Lucas; Goldberg, Lars; Kleinwächter, Tobias; Schwinkendorf, Jan-Patrick; Osterhoff, Jens

    2014-03-01

    Precise tailoring of plasma-density profiles has been identified as one of the critical points in achieving stable and reproducible conditions in plasma wakefield accelerators. Here, the strict requirements of next generation plasma-wakefield concepts, such as hybrid-accelerators, with densities around 1017 cm-3 pose challenges to target fabrication as well as to their reliable diagnosis. To mitigate these issues we combine target simulation with fabrication and characterization. The resulting density profiles in capillaries with gas jet and multiple in- and outlets are simulated with the fluid code OpenFOAM. Satisfactory simulation results then are followed by fabrication of the desired target shapes with structures down to the 10 μm level. The detection of Raman scattered photons using lenses with large collection solid angle allows to measure the corresponding longitudinal density profiles at different number densities and allows a detection sensitivity down to the low 1017 cm-3 density range at high spatial resolution. This offers the possibility to gain insight into steep density gradients as for example in gas jets and at the plasma-to-vacuum transition.

  18. High-energy 4ω probe laser for laser-plasma experiments at Nova

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glenzer, S.H.; Weiland, T.L.; Bower, J.; MacKinnon, A.J.; MacGowan, B.J.

    1999-01-01

    For the characterization of inertial confinement fusion plasmas, we implemented a high-energy 4ω probe laser at the Nova laser facility. A total energy of >50 J at 4ω, a focal spot size of order 100 μm, and a pointing accuracy of 100 μm was demonstrated for target shots. This laser provides intensities of up to 3x10 14 Wcm -2 and therefore fulfills high-power requirements for laser-plasma interaction experiments. The 4ω probe laser is now routinely used for Thomson scattering. Successful experiments were performed in gas-filled hohlraums at electron densities of n e >2x10 21 cm -3 which represents the highest density plasma so far being diagnosed with Thomson scattering. copyright 1999 American Institute of Physics

  19. Structure and properties of optical-discharge plasma in CO2-laser beam near target surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danshchikov, Ye. V.; Dymshakov, V. A.; Lebedev, F. V.; Ryazanov, A. V.

    1986-05-01

    An experimental study of optical-discharge plasma in a CO2-laser beam at a target surface was made for the purpose of exploring the not yet understood role of this plasma in the laser-target interaction process. Such a plasma was produced by means of a quasi-continuous CO2-laser with an unstable resonator, its power being maintained constant for 1 ms periods. Its radiation was focused on the surfaces of thick and seeding thin Al, Ti, and Ta targets inclined at an approximately 70 deg. angle to the beam, inside a hermetic chamber containing air, argon, or helium under atmospheric pressure. The radiation intensity distribution over the focal plane and the nearest caustic surface in the laser beam was measured along with the plasma parameters, the latter by the methods of spectral analysis and photoelectric recording. The instrumentation for this purpose included an MDR-3 monochromator with an entrance slit, a double electron-optical converter, a memory oscillograph, and an SI-10-30 ribbon lamp as radiation reference standard. The results yielded integral diametral intensity distributions of the emission lines Ti-II (457.2 nm), Ti-I (464 nm), Ar-II (462 nm), radial and axial temperature profiles of optical discharge in metal vapor in surrounding gas, and the radial temperature profile of irradiated metal surface at successive instants of time. The results reveal marked differences between the structures and the properties of optical-discharge plasma in metal vapor and in surrounding gas, optical discharge in the former being characterized by localization within the laser beam and optical discharge in the latter being characterized by a drift away from the target.

  20. Effects of target plasma electron-electron collisions on correlated motion of fragmented H2+ protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barriga-Carrasco, Manuel D.

    2006-01-01

    The objective of the present work is to examined the effects of plasma target electron-electron collisions on H 2 + protons traversing it. Specifically, the target is deuterium in a plasma state with temperature T e =10 eV and density n=10 23 cm -3 , and proton velocities are v p =v th , v p =2v th , and v p =3v th , where v th is the electron thermal velocity of the target plasma. Proton interactions with plasma electrons are treated by means of the dielectric formalism. The interactions among close protons through plasma electronic medium are called vicinage forces. It is checked that these forces always screen the Coulomb explosions of the two fragmented protons from the same H 2 + ion decreasing their relative distance. They also align the interproton vector along the motion direction, and increase the energy loss of the two protons at early dwell times while for longer times the energy loss tends to the value of two isolated protons. Nevertheless, vicinage forces and effects are modified by the target electron collisions. These collisions enhance the calculated self-stopping and vicinage forces over the collisionless results. Regarding proton correlated motion, when these collisions are included, the interproton vector along the motion direction overaligns at slower proton velocities (v p =v th ) and misaligns for faster ones (v p =2v th , v p =3v th ). They also contribute to a great extend to increase the energy loss of the fragmented H 2 + ion. This later effect is more significant in reducing projectile velocity

  1. Radiation inactivation target size of rat adipocyte glucose transporters in the plasma membrane and intracellular pools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobs, D.B.; Berenski, C.J.; Spangler, R.A.; Jung, C.Y.

    1987-01-01

    The in situ assembly states of the glucose transport carrier protein in the plasma membrane and in the intracellular (microsomal) storage pool of rat adipocytes were assessed by studying radiation-induced inactivation of the D-glucose-sensitive cytochalasin B binding activities. High energy radiation inactivated the glucose-sensitive cytochalasin B binding of each of these membrane preparations by reducing the total number of the binding sites without affecting the dissociation constant. The reduction in total number of binding sites was analyzed as a function of radiation dose based on target theory, from which a radiation-sensitive mass (target size) was calculated. When the plasma membranes of insulin-treated adipocytes were used, a target size of approximately 58,000 daltons was obtained. For adipocyte microsomal membranes, we obtained target sizes of approximately 112,000 and 109,000 daltons prior to and after insulin treatment, respectively. In the case of microsomal membranes, however, inactivation data showed anomalously low radiation sensitivities at low radiation doses, which may be interpreted as indicating the presence of a radiation-sensitive inhibitor. These results suggest that the adipocyte glucose transporter occurs as a monomer in the plasma membrane while existing in the intracellular reserve pool either as a homodimer or as a stoichiometric complex with a protein of an approximately equal size

  2. Target surface structure effects on x-ray generation from laser produced plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishikawa, Tadashi; Nakano, Hidetoshi; Uesugi, Naoshi [NTT Basic Research Laboratories, Atsugi, Kanagawa (Japan)

    2000-03-01

    We demonstrated two different methods to increase the x-ray conversion efficiency of laser-produced plasma by modifying the target surface structure. One way is making a rectangular groove on a target surface and confining a laser-produced plasma in it. By the plasma collision process, a time and wavelength (4-10 nm) integrated soft x-ray fluence enhancement of 35 times was obtained at a groove width of 20 {mu}m and a groove depth of 100 {mu}m on a Nd-doped glass target. The other way is making an array of nanoholes on an alumina target and increasing the laser interaction depth with it. The x-ray fluence enhancement increases as the ionization level of Al becomes higher and the x-ray wavelength becomes shorter. Over 50-fold enhancement was obtained at a soft x-ray wavelength around 6 nm, which corresponds to the emission from Al{sup 8+,9+} ions. (author)

  3. Target surface structure effects on x-ray generation from laser produced plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishikawa, Tadashi; Nakano, Hidetoshi; Uesugi, Naoshi

    2000-01-01

    We demonstrated two different methods to increase the x-ray conversion efficiency of laser-produced plasma by modifying the target surface structure. One way is making a rectangular groove on a target surface and confining a laser-produced plasma in it. By the plasma collision process, a time and wavelength (4-10 nm) integrated soft x-ray fluence enhancement of 35 times was obtained at a groove width of 20 μm and a groove depth of 100 μm on a Nd-doped glass target. The other way is making an array of nanoholes on an alumina target and increasing the laser interaction depth with it. The x-ray fluence enhancement increases as the ionization level of Al becomes higher and the x-ray wavelength becomes shorter. Over 50-fold enhancement was obtained at a soft x-ray wavelength around 6 nm, which corresponds to the emission from Al 8+,9+ ions. (author)

  4. Amplification of spontaneous emission of neon-like argon in a fast gas-filled capillary discharge

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Koláček, Karel; Schmidt, Jiří; Boháček, Vladislav; Řípa, Milan; Frolov, Oleksandr; Vrba, Pavel; Štraus, Jaroslav; Prukner, Václav; Rupasov, A. A.; Shikanov, A. S.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 34, č. 2 (2008), s. 162-168 ISSN 1063-780X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/06/1324; GA MŠk LA08024; GA AV ČR KJB100430702; GA AV ČR KAN300100702 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : soft X-ray * laser * fast high-current * capillary discharge Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 0.785, year: 2008

  5. Absorption of the laser radiation by the laser plasma with gas microjet targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borisevichus, D. A.; Zabrodskii, V. V.; Kalmykov, S. G.; Sasin, M. E.; Seisyan, R. P.

    2017-01-01

    An upper limit of absorption of the laser radiation in the plasma produced in a gas jet Xe target with the average density of (3-6) × 1018 cm-3 and the effective diameter of 0.7 mm is found. It is equal to ≈50% and remains constant under any variation in this range of densities. This result contradicts both theoretical assessments that have predicted virtually complete absorption and results of earlier experiments with the laser spark in an unlimited stationary Xe gas with the same density, where the upper limit of absorption was close to 100%. An analysis shows that nonlinearity of absorption and plasma nonequilibrium lead to the reduction of the absorption coefficient that, along with the limited size of plasma, can explain the experimental results.

  6. Differential proteomics of human seminal plasma: A potential target for searching male infertility marker proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomar, Anil Kumar; Sooch, Balwinder Singh; Singh, Sarman; Yadav, Savita

    2012-04-01

    The clinical fertility tests, available in the market, fail to define the exact cause of male infertility in almost half of the cases and point toward a crucial need of developing better ways of infertility investigations. The protein biomarkers may help us toward better understanding of unknown cases of male infertility that, in turn, can guide us to find better therapeutic solutions. Many clinical attempts have been made to identify biomarkers of male infertility in sperm proteome but only few studies have targeted seminal plasma. Human seminal plasma is a rich source of proteins that are essentially required for development of sperm and successful fertilization. This viewpoint article highlights the importance of human seminal plasma proteome in reproductive physiology and suggests that differential proteomics integrated with functional analysis may help us in searching potential biomarkers of male infertility. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Design and Demonstration of a Material-Plasma Exposure Target Station for Neutron Irradiated Samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rapp, Juergen; Aaron, A. M.; Bell, Gary L.; Burgess, Thomas W.; Ellis, Ronald James; Giuliano, D.; Howard, R.; Kiggans, James O.; Lessard, Timothy L.; Ohriner, Evan Keith; Perkins, Dale E.; Varma, Venugopal Koikal

    2015-01-01

    Fusion energy is the most promising energy source for the future, and one of the most important problems to be solved progressing to a commercial fusion reactor is the identification of plasma-facing materials compatible with the extreme conditions in the fusion reactor environment. The development of plasma-material interaction (PMI) science and the technology of plasma-facing components are key elements in the development of the next step fusion device in the United States, the so-called Fusion Nuclear Science Facility (FNSF). All of these PMI issues and the uncertain impact of the 14-MeV neutron irradiation have been identified in numerous expert panel reports to the fusion community. The 2007 Greenwald report classifies reactor plasma-facing materials (PFCs) and materials as the only Tier 1 issues, requiring a ''. . . major extrapolation from the current state of knowledge, need for qualitative improvements and substantial development for both the short and long term.'' The Greenwald report goes on to list 19 gaps in understanding and performance related to the plasma-material interface for the technology facilities needed for DEMO-oriented R&D and DEMO itself. Of the 15 major gaps, six (G7, G9, G10, G12, G13) can possibly be addressed with ORNL's proposal of an advanced Material Plasma Exposure eXperiment. Establishing this mid-scale plasma materials test facility at ORNL is a key element in ORNL's strategy to secure a leadership role for decades of fusion R&D. That is to say, our end goal is to bring the ''signature facility'' FNSF home to ORNL. This project is related to the pre-conceptual design of an innovative target station for a future Material-Plasma Exposure eXperiment (MPEX). The target station will be designed to expose candidate fusion reactor plasma-facing materials and components (PFMs and PFCs) to conditions anticipated in fusion reactors, where PFCs will be exposed to dense high-temperature hydrogen plasmas providing steady-state heat fluxes of

  8. Splitter target for controlling magnetic reconnection in relativistic laser plasma interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Y. J.; Bulanov, S. S.; Korn, G.; Bulanov, S. V.

    2018-04-01

    The utilization of a conical target irradiated by a high power laser is proposed to study fast magnetic reconnection in relativistic plasma interactions. Such target, placed in front of the near critical density gas jet, splits the laser pulse, forming two parallel laser pulses in the 2D case and a donut shaped pulse in the 3D case. The magnetic annihilation and reconnection occur in the density downramp region of the subsequent gas jet. The magnetic field energy is converted into the particle kinetic energy. As a result, a backward accelerated electron beam is obtained as a signature of reconnection. The above mechanisms are demonstrated using particle-in-cell simulations in both 2D and 3D cases. Facilitating the synchronization of two laser beams, the proposed approach can be used in designing the corresponding experiments on studying fundamental problems of relativistic plasma physics.

  9. Preparation of germanium doped plasma polymerized coatings as ICF target ablators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brusasco, R.M.; Saculla, M.D.; Cook, R.C.

    1994-01-01

    Targets for Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) experiments at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) utilize an organic (CH) ablator coating prepared by plasma polymerization. Some of these experiments require a mid-Z dopant in the ablator coating to modify the opacity of the shell. Bromine had been used in the past, but the surface finish of brominated CH degrades rapidly with time upon exposure to air. This paper describes the preparation and characterization of plasma polymer layers containing germanium as a dopant at concentrations of between 1.25 and 2.25 atom percent. The coatings are stable in air and have an rms surface roughness of 7--9 nm (modes 10--1,000) which is similar to that obtained with undoped coatings. High levels of dopant result in cracking of the inner mandrel during target assembly. Possible explanations for the observed cracking behavior will be discussed

  10. Metal doped fluorocarbon polymer films prepared by plasma polymerization using an RF planar magnetron target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biederman, H.; Holland, L.

    1983-01-01

    Fluorocarbon films have been prepared by plasma polymerization of CF 4 using an RF planar magnetron with an aluminium target. More than one order of magnitude higher deposition rate has been achieved in comparison with an r.f. diode system operated under similar conditions of monomer pressure and flow rate and power input. A glow discharge in a CF 4 [25%]-argon[75%] mixture was used to incorporate aluminium from a target electrode into the polymer films. The foregoing mixture and another based on CF 4 [87%]-argon[13%] were used in the RF discharge with a copper target. Some experiments with a gold target and pure CF 4 as the inlet gas were also made. The film structure was examined by SEM and TEM and characteristic micrographs are presented here. The composition of the films was estimated from an EAS study. The sheet resistivity of the metal/polymer film complexes was determined. (orig.)

  11. Multi-pulse enhanced laser ion acceleration using plasma half cavity targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, G. G.; Brenner, C. M.; Neely, D.; Green, J. S.; Robinson, A. P. L.; Spindloe, C.; Bagnoud, V.; Brabetz, C.; Zielbauer, B.; Carroll, D. C.; MacLellan, D. A.; McKenna, P.; Roth, M.; Wagner, F.

    2012-01-01

    We report on a plasma half cavity target design for laser driven ion acceleration that enhances the laser to proton energy conversion efficiency and has been found to modify the low energy region of the proton spectrum. The target design utilizes the high fraction of laser energy reflected from an ionized surface and refocuses it such that a double pulse interaction is attained. We report on numerical simulations and experimental results demonstrating that conversion efficiencies can be doubled, compared to planar foil interactions, when the secondary pulse is delivered within picoseconds of the primary pulse.

  12. Multi-pulse enhanced laser ion acceleration using plasma half cavity targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, G. G.; Brenner, C. M.; Neely, D. [Central Laser Facility, STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, OX11 0QX Didcot (United Kingdom); Department of Physics SUPA, University of Strathclyde, G4 0NG Glasgow (United Kingdom); Green, J. S.; Robinson, A. P. L.; Spindloe, C. [Central Laser Facility, STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, OX11 0QX Didcot (United Kingdom); Bagnoud, V.; Brabetz, C.; Zielbauer, B. [PHELIX Group, Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung, D-64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Carroll, D. C.; MacLellan, D. A.; McKenna, P. [Department of Physics SUPA, University of Strathclyde, G4 0NG Glasgow (United Kingdom); Roth, M. [Fachbereich Physik, Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, D-64289 Darmstadt (Germany); Wagner, F. [PHELIX Group, Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung, D-64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Fachbereich Physik, Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, D-64289 Darmstadt (Germany)

    2012-07-09

    We report on a plasma half cavity target design for laser driven ion acceleration that enhances the laser to proton energy conversion efficiency and has been found to modify the low energy region of the proton spectrum. The target design utilizes the high fraction of laser energy reflected from an ionized surface and refocuses it such that a double pulse interaction is attained. We report on numerical simulations and experimental results demonstrating that conversion efficiencies can be doubled, compared to planar foil interactions, when the secondary pulse is delivered within picoseconds of the primary pulse.

  13. Experimental studies of the effect target geometry on the evolution of laser produced plasma plumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beatty, Cuyler; Anderson, Austin; Iratcabal, Jeremy; Dutra, Eric; Covington, Aaron

    2016-10-01

    The expansion of the laser plumes was shown to be dependent on the initial target geometry. A 16 channel framing camera was used to record the plume shape and propagation speeds were determined from analysis of the images. Plastic targets were manufactured using different methods including 3D printing, CNC machining and vacuum casting. Preliminary target designs were made using a 3D printer and ABS plastic material. These targets were then tested using a 3 J laser with a 5 ns duration pulse. Targets with a deep conical depression were shown to produce highly collimated plumes when compared to flat top targets. Preliminary results of these experiments will be discussed along with planned future experiments that will use the indented targets with a 30 J laser with a 0.8 ns duration pulse in preparation for pinched laser plume experiments at the Nevada Terawatt Facility. Other polymers that are readily available in a deuterated form will also be explored as part of an effort to develop a cost effective plasma plume target for follow on neutron production experiments. Dr. Austin Anderson.

  14. Chemically different non-thermal plasmas target distinct cell death pathways

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lunov, Oleg; Zablotskyy, Vitaliy A.; Churpita, Olexandr; Lunova, M.; Jirsa, M.; Dejneka, Alexandr; Kubinová, Šárka

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 1 (2017), s. 1-17, č. článku 600. ISSN 2045-2322 Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) Fellowship J. E. Purkyně Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : chemically different * non-thermal plasmas * target distinct cell death pathways Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics OBOR OECD: Biophysics Impact factor: 4.259, year: 2016

  15. [Experimental investigation of laser plasma soft X-ray source with gas target].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Qi-liang; Gong, Yan; Lin, Jing-quan; Chen, Bo; Cao, Jian-lin

    2003-02-01

    This paper describes a debris-free laser plasma soft X-ray source with a gas target, which has high operating frequency and can produce strong soft X-ray radiation. The valve of this light source is drived by a piezoelectrical ceramic whose operating frequency is up to 400 Hz. In comparison with laser plasma soft X-ray sources using metal target, the light source is debris-free. And it has higher operating frequency than gas target soft X-ray sources whose nozzle is controlled by a solenoid valve. A channel electron multiplier (CEM) operating in analog mode is used to detect the soft X-ray generated by the laser plasma source, and the CEM's output is fed to to a charge-sensitive preamplifier for further amplification purpose. Output charges from the CEM are proportional to the amplitude of the preamplifier's output voltage. Spectra of CO2, Xe and Kr at 8-14 nm wavelength which can be used for soft X-ray projection lithography are measured. The spectrum for CO2 consists of separate spectral lines originate mainly from the transitions in Li-like and Be-like ions. The Xe spectrum originating mainly from 4d-5f, 4d-4f, 4d-6p and 4d-5p transitions in multiply charged xenon ions. The spectrum for Kr consists of separate spectral lines and continuous broad spectra originating mainly from the transitions in Cu-, Ni-, Co- and Fe-like ions.

  16. Diagnostics of plasma produced by femtosecond laser pulse impact upon a target with an internal nanostructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skobelev, I. Yu.; Faenov, A. Ya.; Gasilov, S. V.; Pikuz, T. A.; Pikuz, S. A.; Magunov, A. I.; Boldarev, A. S.; Gasilov, V. A.

    2010-01-01

    X-ray diagnostics of the interaction of femtosecond laser pulses with intensities of 10 16 -10 18 W/cm 2 with CO 2 clusters and frozen nanosize water particles is carried out. The stage of cluster expansion and the formation of a plasma channel, which governs the parameters of the formed X-ray radiation source and accelerated ion flows, is studied. The measurements are based on recording spatially resolved X-ray spectra of H- and He-like oxygen ions. Utilization of Rydberg transitions for spectra diagnostics makes it possible to determine plasma parameters on a time scale of t ∼ 10 ps after the beginning of a femtosecond pulse. The role of the rear edge of the laser pulse in sustaining the plasma temperature at a level of ∼100 eV in the stage of a nonadiabatic cluster expansion is shown. The analysis of the profiles and relative intensities of spectral lines allows one to determine the temperature and density of plasma electrons and distinguish the populations of 'thermal' ions and ions that are accelerated up to energies of a few tens of kiloelectronvolts. It is shown that the use of solid clusters made of frozen nanoscale water droplets as targets leads to a substantial increase in the number of fast He-like ions. In this case, however, the efficiency of acceleration of H-like ions does not increase, because the time of their ionization in plasma exceeds the time of cluster expansion.

  17. X-ray spectroscopic diagnostics of plasma produced by femtosecond laser pulses at interaction with cluster target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skobelev, I.Yu.; Faenov, A.Ya.; Magunov, A.I.

    2002-01-01

    By means of X-ray spectroscopy one determined parameters of plasma produced at interaction of supershort laser pulses with cluster targets. One investigated into the effect of both initial properties of a cluster target and properties of a laser pulse on plasma characteristics. To diagnose plasma one applied a model of production of emitting spectra covering a whole number of free parameters. The conducted experimental investigations show that the investigated model of cluster heating by supershort pulses is the actual physical model, while the applied fitting parameters have a meaning of average values of plasma parameters [ru

  18. Design and Demonstration of a Material-Plasma Exposure Target Station for Neutron Irradiated Samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rapp, Juergen [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Aaron, A. M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Bell, Gary L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Burgess, Thomas W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Ellis, Ronald James [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Giuliano, D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Howard, R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Kiggans, James O. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Lessard, Timothy L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Ohriner, Evan Keith [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Perkins, Dale E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Varma, Venugopal Koikal [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-10-20

    Fusion energy is the most promising energy source for the future, and one of the most important problems to be solved progressing to a commercial fusion reactor is the identification of plasma-facing materials compatible with the extreme conditions in the fusion reactor environment. The development of plasma–material interaction (PMI) science and the technology of plasma-facing components are key elements in the development of the next step fusion device in the United States, the so-called Fusion Nuclear Science Facility (FNSF). All of these PMI issues and the uncertain impact of the 14-MeV neutron irradiation have been identified in numerous expert panel reports to the fusion community. The 2007 Greenwald report classifies reactor plasma-facing materials (PFCs) and materials as the only Tier 1 issues, requiring a “. . . major extrapolation from the current state of knowledge, need for qualitative improvements and substantial development for both the short and long term.” The Greenwald report goes on to list 19 gaps in understanding and performance related to the plasma–material interface for the technology facilities needed for DEMO-oriented R&D and DEMO itself. Of the 15 major gaps, six (G7, G9, G10, G12, G13) can possibly be addressed with ORNL’s proposal of an advanced Material Plasma Exposure eXperiment. Establishing this mid-scale plasma materials test facility at ORNL is a key element in ORNL’s strategy to secure a leadership role for decades of fusion R&D. That is to say, our end goal is to bring the “signature facility” FNSF home to ORNL. This project is related to the pre-conceptual design of an innovative target station for a future Material–Plasma Exposure eXperiment (MPEX). The target station will be designed to expose candidate fusion reactor plasma-facing materials and components (PFMs and PFCs) to conditions anticipated in fusion reactors, where PFCs will be exposed to dense high-temperature hydrogen plasmas providing steady

  19. Numerical simulation of neutral injection in a hot-electron mirror target plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werkoff, F.; Bardet, R.; Briand, P.; Dupas, L.; Gormezano, C.; Melin, G.; Association Euratom-CEA, Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires de Grenoble, 38

    1976-01-01

    In the case of neutral injection into a hot-electron target plasma, the use of the existing Fokker-Planck codes is greatly complicated by the fact that the scale of the energies and times of the confined ions and electrons is very large. To avoid this difficulty, a simplified multi-species model is set up, in which each species is described by time-dependent density and energy equations with analytical approximations for the interactions between the species. During the neutral injection, instantaneous high values of the ambipolar potential (higher than the half value of hot-ion energy) may appear, but do not prevent hot-ion density build-up. However, the hot-electron target plasma must not be maintained for a too long time. Numerical runs are performed with typical target parameters: density 2x10 13 cm -3 , electron energy 30 keV, ion energy 400 eV, time duration during which the target density is maintained 1 ms. Hot-ion density, a few 10 14 cm -3 , can be achieved with a neutral beam of 100 A, 20 keV. (author)

  20. Investigation of possibilities of ignition of target plasma in conditions of inertial thermonuclear synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreev, A.A.; Gus'kov, S.Yu.; Rozanov, V.B.; Il'in, D.V.; Levkovskij, A.A.; Sherman, V.E.

    2001-01-01

    On the basis of mathematical simulation of thermonuclear burning of DT-plasma of laser targets one calculated G factors of thermonuclear intensification for a space and a spark ignitions at various parameters of target plasma and igniters (both isobaric and isochoric). One calculated the critical parameters of igniters upon reaching of which the efficient thermonuclear burst with G ∼ 100 took place. It is shown that further increase of temperature and of dimensions of igniters does not practically affect the efficiency of DT-fuel burnup and independently of the way of ignition G value may be estimated using a simple asymptotic expression. At the same time the values of the critical parameters of igniters depend essentially on the way of ignition and on target parameters. One studied in detail the spark ignition with isochoric igniter. Thermal energy generated at absorption of supershort additional laser pulse is shown to be the key critical parameter for the optimal isochoric igniters. Critical parameters of this energy are calculated [ru

  1. Two-dimensional particle-in-cell plasma source ion implantation of a prolate spheroid target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng-Sen, Liu; Hong-Ying, Han; Xiao-Qing, Peng; Ye, Chang; De-Zhen, Wang

    2010-01-01

    A two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulation is used to study the time-dependent evolution of the sheath surrounding a prolate spheroid target during a high voltage pulse in plasma source ion implantation. Our study shows that the potential contour lines pack more closely in the plasma sheath near the vertex of the major axis, i.e. where a thinner sheath is formed, and a non-uniform total ion dose distribution is incident along the surface of the prolate spheroid target due to the focusing of ions by the potential structure. Ion focusing takes place not only at the vertex of the major axis, where dense potential contour lines exist, but also at the vertex of the minor axis, where sparse contour lines exist. This results in two peaks of the received ion dose, locating at the vertices of the major and minor axes of the prolate spheroid target, and an ion dose valley, staying always between the vertices, rather than at the vertex of the minor axis

  2. Two-dimensional particle-in-cell plasma source ion implantation of a prolate spheroid target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Cheng-Sen; Han, Hong-Ying; Peng, Xiao-Qing; Chang, Ye; Wang, De-Zhen

    2010-03-01

    A two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulation is used to study the time-dependent evolution of the sheath surrounding a prolate spheroid target during a high voltage pulse in plasma source ion implantation. Our study shows that the potential contour lines pack more closely in the plasma sheath near the vertex of the major axis, i.e. where a thinner sheath is formed, and a non-uniform total ion dose distribution is incident along the surface of the prolate spheroid target due to the focusing of ions by the potential structure. Ion focusing takes place not only at the vertex of the major axis, where dense potential contour lines exist, but also at the vertex of the minor axis, where sparse contour lines exist. This results in two peaks of the received ion dose, locating at the vertices of the major and minor axes of the prolate spheroid target, and an ion dose valley, staying always between the vertices, rather than at the vertex of the minor axis.

  3. Development and characterization of plasma targets for controlled injection of electrons into laser-driven wakefields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinwaechter, Tobias; Goldberg, Lars; Palmer, Charlotte; Schaper, Lucas; Schwinkendorf, Jan-Patrick; Osterhoff, Jens

    2012-10-01

    Laser-driven wakefield acceleration within capillary discharge waveguides has been used to generate high-quality electron bunches with GeV-scale energies. However, owing to fluctuations in laser and plasma conditions in combination with a difficult to control self-injection mechanism in the non-linear wakefield regime these bunches are often not reproducible and can feature large energy spreads. Specialized plasma targets with tailored density profiles offer the possibility to overcome these issues by controlling the injection and acceleration processes. This requires precise manipulation of the longitudinal density profile. Therefore our target concept is based on a capillary structure with multiple gas in- and outlets. Potential target designs are simulated using the fluid code OpenFOAM and those meeting the specified criteria are fabricated using femtosecond-laser machining of structures into sapphire plates. Density profiles are measured over a range of inlet pressures utilizing gas-density profilometry via Raman scattering and pressure calibration with longitudinal interferometry. In combination these allow absolute density mapping. Here we report the preliminary results.

  4. Influence of plasma pressure gradient on melt layer macroscopic erosion of metal targets in disruption simulation experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tereshin, V.I.; Garkusha, I.E. E-mail: garkusha@ipp.kharkov.ua; Bandura, A.N.; Byrka, O.V.; Chebotarev, V.V.; Makhlaj, V.A.; Solyakov, D.G.; Wuerz, H

    2003-03-01

    Melt layer erosion of metal targets under pulsed high heat loads is discussed. Tungsten, copper, aluminum, and titanium targets were exposed to perpendicular and inclined plasma impact in the quasi-steady-state plasma accelerator QSPA Kh-50. Melt layer motion results in erosion crater formation with rather large mountains of the resolidified material at the crater edge. It is shown that macroscopic motion of the melt layer and surface cracking are the main factors responsible for tungsten erosion.

  5. Influence of plasma pressure gradient on melt layer macroscopic erosion of metal targets in disruption simulation experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tereshin, V.I.; Garkusha, I.E.; Bandura, A.N.; Byrka, O.V.; Chebotarev, V.V.; Makhlaj, V.A.; Solyakov, D.G.; Wuerz, H.

    2003-01-01

    Melt layer erosion of metal targets under pulsed high heat loads is discussed. Tungsten, copper, aluminum, and titanium targets were exposed to perpendicular and inclined plasma impact in the quasi-steady-state plasma accelerator QSPA Kh-50. Melt layer motion results in erosion crater formation with rather large mountains of the resolidified material at the crater edge. It is shown that macroscopic motion of the melt layer and surface cracking are the main factors responsible for tungsten erosion

  6. The effect of target materials on the propagation of atmospheric-pressure plasma jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Longfei; Yan, Wen; Xia, Yang; Liu, Dongping

    2018-05-01

    The current study is focused on the effect of target materials (quartz plate, copper sheet, and quartz plate with a grounded copper sheet on the back) on the propagation of atmospheric-pressure helium plasma jets. The dynamics of ionization waves (IWs) and the relative amount of reactive oxygen species (OH and O) in the IW front were compared by using spatial and temporal images and relative optical emission spectroscopy. Our measurements show that the targets can significantly affect the propagation and intensity of the IWs. In addition, strong OH emission lines were detected when the IWs impinged upon the damp surface. Numerical simulations have been carried out to explain the experimental observation. The propagation velocity of IWs predicted by the simulation was in good agreement with the experimental results. Simulation results suggest that the density and velocity of IWs mainly depend on the electric field between the high voltage electrode tip and the target. Analysis indicates that the targets could change the electric field distribution between the high voltage electrode and targets and thus affect the dynamics and the density of the IWs, the generation of reactive oxygen species, and the corresponding sterilization efficiency.

  7. Plasma formation and target preheating by prepulse of PW laser light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sentoku, Yasuhiko; Iwata, Natsumi; Koga, James; Dover, Nicholas; Nishiuchi, Mamiko

    2017-10-01

    An intense short pulse laser with intensity over 1021 W/cm2 has become available, i.e. J-KAREN-P at QST. Although the contrast of the short pulse is improved to be of the order of 10-11, there is an unavoidable prepulse, which has multiple spikes (ps) on top of an exponential profile with intensity greater than 1014 W/cm2 about 50 ps in front of the main pulse. The prepulse preheats the target and also produces tenuous plasmas in front of a target before the main pulse arrives. It is critical to understand such preheating of the target, where the nonlocal heat transport is essential at intensity >1014 W/cm2, since the target condition might totally change before the interaction with the main pulse. Using a hydro code, FLASH, and a collisional particle-in-cell code, PICLS, we study the preplasma formation and target preheating over tens of picoseconds timescale, and discuss the prepulse effects on the main pulse interaction. Work supported by the JSPS KAKENHI under Grant No. JP15K21767.

  8. Compression of a spherically symmetric deuterium-tritium plasma liner onto a magnetized deuterium-tritium target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santarius, J. F.

    2012-01-01

    Converging plasma jets may be able to reach the regime of high energy density plasmas (HEDP). The successful application of plasma jets to magneto-inertial fusion (MIF) would heat the plasma by fusion products and should increase the plasma energy density. This paper reports the results of using the University of Wisconsin’s 1-D Lagrangian, radiation-hydrodynamics, fusion code BUCKY to investigate two MIF converging plasma jet test cases originally analyzed by Samulyak et al.[Physics of Plasmas 17, 092702 (2010)]. In these cases, 15 cm or 5 cm radially thick deuterium-tritium (DT) plasma jets merge at 60 cm from the origin and converge radially onto a DT target magnetized to 2 T and of radius 5 cm. The BUCKY calculations reported here model these cases, starting from the time of initial contact of the jets and target. Compared to the one-temperature Samulyak et al. calculations, the one-temperature BUCKY results show similar behavior, except that the plasma radius remains about twice as long near maximum compression. One-temperature and two-temperature BUCKY results differ, reflecting the sensitivity of the calculations to timing and plasma parameter details, with the two-temperature case giving a more sustained compression.

  9. Gamma-rays generated from plasmas in the interaction of solid targets with femtosecond laser pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Jingtang; Zhang Ping; Chen Duanbao; Li Zuhao; Tang Xiaowei; Zhang Ying; Wang Long; Feng Baohua; Zhang Xiulan; Wei Zhiyi; Li Zanliang; Zhang Jie

    1998-01-01

    The γ-rays with energies up to 300 keV have been observed from plasmas produced by femtosecond laser pulses at a focused intensity of 5 x 10 15 W·cm -2 ·μm 2 irradiating Ta, Mo and Cu targets. By introducing an 8% prepulse of 70 ps before the main pulse, the fraction of high energy γ-ray photons (hν>100 keV) was significantly enhanced relative to low energy photons (hν<100 keV)

  10. A Gas Target with a Tritium Gas Handling System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmqvist, B; Wiedling, T

    1963-12-15

    A detailed description is given of a simple tritium gas target and its tritium gas filling system, and how to put it into operation. By using the T (p,n) He reaction the gas target has been employed for production of monoenergetic fast neutrons of well defined energy and high intensity. The target has been operated successfully for a long time.

  11. Prototype high-speed tape target transport for a laser plasma soft-x-ray projection lithography source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haney, S.J.; Berger, K.W.; Kubiak, G.D.; Rockett, P.D.; Hunter, J.

    1993-01-01

    A prototype high-speed tape target transport is constructed for use in a high-repetition-rate laser plasma source. To reduce plasma debris, a 1000--5000-A-thick film of target material is supported by thin Mylar tape backing. Tape is transported to the laser focal volume at a maximum velocity of 356 cm/s, a rate sufficient to accommodate laser repetition rates of 1 kHz. The transport is fully vacuum compatible and can be retracted and then isolated from the laser plasma vacuum enclosure during tape reel replacement. The operating characteristics of the transport are described

  12. Wire-Array Precursor Plasma Interactions With On-Axis Foam Targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, J. B. A.; Bland, S. N.

    2005-10-01

    The Dynamic Hohlraum (DH) Z-pinch on Z at Sandia National Laboratory (SNL) has been used to drive Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) and High Energy Density Physics (HEDP) relevant experiments. The power pulse from the DH cannot yet be reproduced using codes that can reproduce the performance of a Vacuum Hohlraum (VH) configuration on Z. Unlike the VH the DH has a low-density CH foam cylinder placed on the array axis. Production of precursor plasma, prior to the main implosion, is not included in the codes. This plasma is accelerated towards the array axis by the global J x B force and impacts onto the on-axis target. This bombardment alters the foam in various ways. Experiments have been performed on the 1 MA MAGPIE generator at Imperial College, London, to investigate the effect of this precursor bombardment. Diagnostics used were point-projection radiography with x-pinches, x-ray emission framing cameras, shadowgraphy and photoconduction diodes. Results show ablation of low-density plasma from the foam surface and compression of the foam by precursor pressure. Research sponsored by AWE, SNL, the SSAA program of NNSA under DOE Cooperative Agreement DE-FC03-02NA00057.

  13. Study of the average charge states of 188Pb and 252,254No ions at the gas-filled separator TASCA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khuyagbaatar, J.; Ackermann, D.; Andersson, L.-L.; Ballof, J.; Brüchle, W.; Düllmann, Ch.E.; Dvorak, J.; Eberhardt, K.; Even, J.; Gorshkov, A.; Graeger, R.; Heßberger, F.-P.; Hild, D.; Hoischen, R.; Jäger, E.; Kindler, B.

    2012-01-01

    The average charge states of 188 Pb and 252,254 No ions in dilute helium gas were measured at the gas-filled recoil separator TASCA. Hydrogen gas was also used as a filling gas for measurements of the average charge state of 254 No. Helium and hydrogen gases at pressures from 0.2 mbar to 2.0 mbar were used. A strong dependence of the average charge state on the pressure of the filling gases was observed for both, helium and hydrogen. The influence of this dependence, classically attributed to the so-called “density effect”, on the performance of TASCA was investigated. The average charge states of 254 No ions were also measured in mixtures of helium and hydrogen gases at low gas pressures around 1.0 mbar. From the experimental results simple expressions for the prediction of average charge states of heavy ions moving in rarefied helium gas, hydrogen gas, and in their mixture were derived.

  14. Calculation for laser-produced plasmas conditions of thin middle-Z targets: Pt.I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng Huimin; Zhang Guoping; Sheng Jiatian; Shao Yunfeng; Zhang Yinchun

    1988-01-01

    An one-dimentional non-LTE laser irradiated code was used to simulate the laser-produced plasmas conditions of thin middle Z targets with high intensities (about 10 13 W/cm 2 ) irradiation. Following physical processes are considered: bremsstrahlung, radiative ionization, collisional ionization by electrons and their inverse processes, Compton scattering. Fokker-Planck approximtaion is used in Compton scattering; the thermal flux limits are taken for electrons and ions in the calculating, and the multigroup flux-limited diffusion approximation is taken for the radiative transport equations. The average-atom model is used to calculate the population probabilities of atoms. Laser absorption via inverse bremsstrahlung is considered to be the most important in the simulation. Using laser beams with intensities 5 x 10 13 W/cm 2 and 1 x 10 14 W/cm 2 , λ L = 0.53 μm, τ = 450 ps to irradiate thin Se target from single-side and double-sides separately, the computational results for laser-produced plasmas conditions are well agree with experimental results

  15. Metal doped fluorocarbon polymer films prepared by plasma polymerization using an RF planar magnetron target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biederman, H.; Holland, L. (Sussex Univ., Brighton (UK). Lab. for Plasma Materials Processing)

    1983-07-01

    Fluorocarbon films have been prepared by plasma polymerization of CF/sub 4/ using an RF planar magnetron with an aluminium target. More than one order of magnitude higher deposition rate has been achieved in comparison with an R.F. diode system operated under similar conditions of monomer pressure and flow rate and power input. A glow discharge in a CF/sub 4/(25%)-argon(75%) mixture was used to incorporate aluminium from a target electrode into the polymer films. The foregoing mixture and another based on CF/sub 4/(87%)-argon(13%) were used in the RF discharge with a copper target. Some experiments with a gold target and pure CF/sub 4/ as the inlet gas were also made. The film structure was examined by SEM and TEM and characteristic micrographs are presented here. The composition of the films was estimated from an EAS study. The sheet resistivity of the metal/polymer film complexes was determined.

  16. Tracking of buried layers during plasma-assisted femtosecond laser drilling of compound targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhvaniya, I. A., E-mail: irina.zhvaniya@physics.msu.ru; Garmatina, A. A.; Makarov, I. A.; Gordienko, V. M. [Faculty of Physics and International Laser Center, M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, 119991, GSP-1, 1-2 Leninskiye Gory, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2016-07-28

    It was shown that drilling of multi-layered target placed in the air by tightly focused femtosecond laser radiation with high fluence (up to 1000 J/cm{sup 2}) can be monitored online using plasma-induced X-ray emission and second harmonic of incident laser radiation. The technique based on X-rays registration is appeared to be more flexible than the method based on detection of second harmonic since its accuracy depends crucially on the target type. We demonstrated that the X-ray signal clearly indicates the transition from one layer to another during the microdrilling of targets consisting of 2–4 layers of titanium foil when a laser beam is focused beneath the target surface at a depth comparable to the layer thickness. The diagnostics of microchannel production in the chicken eggshell was performed for the first time. It was found that the presence of albumen beneath the shell accounts for longtime generation of X-ray pulses.

  17. HRP facility for fabrication of ITER vertical target divertor full scale plasma facing units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Visca, Eliseo; Roccella, S.; Candura, D.; Palermo, M.; Rossi, P.; Pizzuto, A.; Sanguinetti, G.P.; Mancini, A.; Verdini, L.; Cacciotti, E.; Cerri, V.; Mugnaini, G.; Reale, A.; Giacomi, G.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • R&D activities for the manufacturing of ITER divertor high heat flux plasma-facing components (HHFC). • ENEA and Ansaldo have jointly manufactured several actively cooled monoblock mock-ups and prototypical components. • ENEA and ANSALDO NUCLEARE jointly participate to the European program for the qualification of the manufacturing technology for the ITER divertor IVT. • Successful manufacturing by HRP (Hot Radial Pressing) of first full-scale full-W armored IVT qualification prototype. - Abstract: ENEA and Ansaldo Nucleare S.p.A. (ANN) have being deeply involved in the European development activities for the manufacturing of the ITER Divertor Inner Vertical Target (IVT) plasma-facing components. During normal operation the heat flux deposited on the bottom segment of divertor is 5–10 MW/m 2 but the capability to remove up to 20 MW/m 2 during transient events of 10 s must also be demonstrated. In order to fulfill ITER requirements, ENEA has set up and widely tested a manufacturing process, named Hot Radial Pressing (HRP). The last challenge is now to fabricate full-scale prototypes of the IVT, aimed to be qualified for the next step, i.e. the series production. On the basis of the experience of manufacturing hundreds of small mock-ups, ENEA designed and installed a new suitable HRP facility. The objective of getting a final shaped plasma facing unit (PFU) that satisfies these requirements is an ambitious target because tolerances set by ITER/F4E are very tight. The setting-up of the equipment started with the fabrication of full scale and representative ‘dummies’ in which stainless steel instead of CFC or W was used for monoblocks. The results confirmed that dimensions were compliant with the required tolerances. The paper reports a brief description of the innovative HRP equipment and the dimensional check results after HRP of the first full-scale full-W PFU.

  18. Plasma Immersion Ion Implantation with Solid Targets for Space and Aerospace Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, R. M.; Goncalves, J. A. N.; Ueda, M.; Silva, G.; Baba, K.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes successful results obtained by a new type of plasma source, named as Vaporization of Solid Targets (VAST), for treatment of materials for space and aerospace applications, by means of plasma immersion ion implantation and deposition (PIII and D). Here, the solid element is vaporized in a high pressure glow discharge, being further ionized and implanted/deposited in a low pressure cycle, with the aid of an extra electrode. First experiments in VAST were run using lithium as the solid target. Samples of silicon and aluminum alloy (2024) were immersed into highly ionized lithium plasma, whose density was measured by a double Langmuir probe. Measurements performed with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed clear modification of the cross-sectioned treated silicon samples. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis revealed that lithium was implanted/deposited into/onto the surface of the silicon. Implantation depth profiles may vary according to the condition of operation of VAST. One direct application of this treatment concerns the protection against radiation damage for silicon solar cells. For the case of the aluminum alloy, X-ray diffraction analysis indicated the appearance of prominent new peaks. Surface modification of A12024 by lithium implantation/deposition can lower the coefficient of friction and improve the resistance to fatigue of this alloy. Recently, cadmium was vaporized and ionized in VAST. The main benefit of this element is associated with the improvement of corrosion resistance of metallic substrates. Besides lithium and cadmium, VAST allows to performing PIII and D with other species, leading to the modification of the near-surface of materials for distinct purposes, including applications in the space and aerospace areas.

  19. HRP facility for fabrication of ITER vertical target divertor full scale plasma facing units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Visca, Eliseo, E-mail: eliseo.visca@enea.it [Unità Tecnica Fusione, ENEA C. R. Frascati, via E. Fermi 45, IT-00044 Frascati (Roma) (Italy); Roccella, S. [Unità Tecnica Fusione, ENEA C. R. Frascati, via E. Fermi 45, IT-00044 Frascati (Roma) (Italy); Candura, D.; Palermo, M. [Ansaldo Nucleare S.p.A., Corso Perrone 25, IT-16152 Genova (Italy); Rossi, P.; Pizzuto, A. [Unità Tecnica Fusione, ENEA C. R. Frascati, via E. Fermi 45, IT-00044 Frascati (Roma) (Italy); Sanguinetti, G.P. [Ansaldo Nucleare S.p.A., Corso Perrone 25, IT-16152 Genova (Italy); Mancini, A.; Verdini, L.; Cacciotti, E.; Cerri, V.; Mugnaini, G.; Reale, A.; Giacomi, G. [Unità Tecnica Fusione, ENEA C. R. Frascati, via E. Fermi 45, IT-00044 Frascati (Roma) (Italy)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • R&D activities for the manufacturing of ITER divertor high heat flux plasma-facing components (HHFC). • ENEA and Ansaldo have jointly manufactured several actively cooled monoblock mock-ups and prototypical components. • ENEA and ANSALDO NUCLEARE jointly participate to the European program for the qualification of the manufacturing technology for the ITER divertor IVT. • Successful manufacturing by HRP (Hot Radial Pressing) of first full-scale full-W armored IVT qualification prototype. - Abstract: ENEA and Ansaldo Nucleare S.p.A. (ANN) have being deeply involved in the European development activities for the manufacturing of the ITER Divertor Inner Vertical Target (IVT) plasma-facing components. During normal operation the heat flux deposited on the bottom segment of divertor is 5–10 MW/m{sup 2} but the capability to remove up to 20 MW/m{sup 2} during transient events of 10 s must also be demonstrated. In order to fulfill ITER requirements, ENEA has set up and widely tested a manufacturing process, named Hot Radial Pressing (HRP). The last challenge is now to fabricate full-scale prototypes of the IVT, aimed to be qualified for the next step, i.e. the series production. On the basis of the experience of manufacturing hundreds of small mock-ups, ENEA designed and installed a new suitable HRP facility. The objective of getting a final shaped plasma facing unit (PFU) that satisfies these requirements is an ambitious target because tolerances set by ITER/F4E are very tight. The setting-up of the equipment started with the fabrication of full scale and representative ‘dummies’ in which stainless steel instead of CFC or W was used for monoblocks. The results confirmed that dimensions were compliant with the required tolerances. The paper reports a brief description of the innovative HRP equipment and the dimensional check results after HRP of the first full-scale full-W PFU.

  20. Gas Fills | Efficient Windows Collaborative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foundry Foundry New Construction Windows Window Selection Tool Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Replacement Windows Window Selection Tool Assessing Options Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Understanding Windows Benefits Design Considerations Measuring Performance Performance Standards

  1. Damage to Preheated Tungsten Targets after Multiple Plasma Impacts Simulating ITER ELMs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garkusha, I.E.; Bandura, A.N.; Byrka, O.V.; Chebotarev, V.V.; Makhlay, V.A.; Tereshin, V.I. [Kharkov Inst. of Physics and Technology, Inst. of Plasma Physics of National Science Center, Akademicheskaya street, 1, 61108 Kharkov (Ukraine); Landman, I.; Pestchanyi, S. [FZK-Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Association Euratom-FZK, Technik und Umwelt, Postfach 3640, D-7602 1 Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: The energy loads onto ITER divertor surfaces associated with the Type I ELMs are expected to be up to 1 MJ/m{sup 2} during 0.1-0.5 ms, with the number of pulses about 103 per discharge. Tungsten is a candidate material for major part of the surface, but its brittleness can result in substantial macroscopic erosion after the repetitive heat loads. To minimize the brittle destruction, tungsten may be preheated above the ductile-to-brittle transition temperature. In this work the behavior of preheated tungsten targets under repetitive ELM-like plasma pulses is studied in simulation experiments with the quasi-stationary plasma accelerator QSPA Kh-50. The targets have been exposed up to 450 pulses of the duration 0.25 ms and the heat loads either 0.45 MJ/m{sup 2} or 0.75 MJ/m{sup 2}, which is respectively below and above the melting threshold. During the exposures the targets were permanently kept preheated at 650 deg. C by a heater at target backside. In the course of exposures the irradiated surfaces were examined after regular numbers of pulses using the SEM and the optical microscopy. The profilometry, XRD, microhardness and weight loss measurements have been performed, as well as comparisons of surface damages after the heat loads both below and above the melting threshold. It is obtained that macro-cracks do not develop on the preheated surface. After the impacts with surface melting, a fine mesh of intergranular microcracks has appeared. The width of fine intergranular cracks grows with pulse number, achieving 1-1.5 microns after 100 pulses, and after 210 pulses the crack width increases up to 20 microns, which is comparable with grain sizes. Threshold changes in surface morphology resulting in corrugation structures and pits on the surface as well as importance of surface tension in resulted 'micro-brush' structures are discussed. Further evolution of the surface pattern is caused by loss of separated grains on exposed

  2. Dependence of Au- production upon the target work function in a plasma-sputter-type negative ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okabe, Yushirou; Sasao, Mamiko; Fujita, Junji; Yamaoka, Hitoshi; Wada, Motoi.

    1991-01-01

    A method to measure the work function of the target surface in a plasma-sputter-type negative ion source has been developed. The method can determine the work function by measuring the photoelectric current induced by two lasers (He-Ne, Ar + laser). The dependence of Au - production upon the work function of the target surface in the ion source was studied using this method. The time variation of the target work function and Au - production rate were measured during the cesium coverage decrease due to the plasma ion sputtering. The observed minimum work function of a cesiated gold surface in an Ar plasma was 1.3 eV. At the same time, the negative ion production rate (Au - current/target current) took the maximum value. The negative ion production rate indicated the same dependence on the incident ion energy as that of the sputtering rate when the work function was constant. (author)

  3. Particle and power deposition on divertor targets in EAST H-mode plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, L.; Xu, G.S.; Guo, H.Y.; Chen, R.; Ding, S.; Gan, K.F.; Gao, X.; Gong, X.Z.; Jiang, M.; Liu, P.; Liu, S.C.; Luo, G.N.; Ming, T.F.; Wan, B.N.; Wang, D.S.; Wang, F.M.; Wang, H.Q.; Wu, Z.W.; Yan, N.; Zhang, L.

    2012-01-01

    The effects of edge-localized modes (ELMs) on divertor particle and heat fluxes were investigated for the first time in the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST). The experiments were carried out with both double null and lower single null divertor configurations, and comparisons were made between the H-mode plasmas with lower hybrid current drive (LHCD) and those with combined ion cyclotron resonance heating (ICRH). The particle and heat flux profiles between and during ELMs were obtained from Langmuir triple-probe arrays embedded in the divertor target plates. And isolated ELMs were chosen for analysis in order to reduce the uncertainty resulting from the influence of fast electrons on Langmuir triple-probe evaluation during ELMs. The power deposition obtained from Langmuir triple probes was consistent with that from the divertor infra-red camera during an ELM-free period. It was demonstrated that ELM-induced radial transport predominantly originated from the low-field side region, in good agreement with the ballooning-like transport model and experimental results of other tokamaks. ELMs significantly enhanced the divertor particle and heat fluxes, without significantly broadening the SOL width and plasma-wetted area on the divertor target in both LHCD and LHCD + ICRH H-modes, thus posing a great challenge for the next-step high-power, long-pulse operation in EAST. Increasing the divertor-wetted area was also observed to reduce the peak heat flux and particle recycling at the divertor target, hence facilitating long-pulse H-mode operation. The particle and heat flux profiles during ELMs appeared to exhibit multiple peak structures, and were analysed in terms of the behaviour of ELM filaments and the flux tubes induced by modified magnetic topology during ELMs. (paper)

  4. Current progress in NIF target concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gobby, P.L.; Foreman, L.R.; Thoma, D.J.; Jacobson, L.A.; Hollis, R.V.; Barrera, J.; Mitchell, M.A.; Salazar, M.A.; Salzer, L.J.

    1996-01-01

    Target concepts for the National Ignition Facility (NIF) require progress in the art and science of target fabrication. Three distinct issues are addressed: beryllium fuel capsules, foam-buffered direct drive, and high-density gas-filled hohlraums. In all cases experiments on the existing Nova laser at LLNL are either in progress or planned for the near future to test the various concepts. Consequently, target fabrication must be able to deliver targets appropriate for each

  5. Circulating MicroRNAs in Plasma of Hepatitis B e Antigen Positive Children Reveal Liver-Specific Target Genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Thilde Nordmann; Jacobsen, Kari Stougaard; Mirza, Aashiq Hussain

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aim. Hepatitis B e antigen positive (HBeAg-positive) children are at high risk of severe complications such as hepatocellular carcinoma and cirrhosis. Liver damage is caused by the host immune response to infected hepatocytes, and we hypothesise that specific microRNAs play a role...... in this complex interaction between virus and host. The study aimed to identify microRNAs with aberrant plasma expressions in HBeAg-positive children and with liver-specific target genes. Methods. By revisiting our previous screen of microRNA plasma levels in HBeAg-positive and HBeAg-negative children...... with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) and in healthy controls, candidate microRNAs with aberrant plasma expressions in HBeAg-positive children were identified. MicroRNAs targeting liver-specific genes were selected based on bioinformatics analysis and validated by qRT-PCR using plasma samples from 34 HBe...

  6. Excimer laser produced plasmas in copper wire targets and water droplets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Kyo-Dong; Alexander, D. R.

    1994-01-01

    Elastically scattered incident radiation (ESIR) from a copper wire target illuminated by a KrF laser pulse at lambda = 248 nm shows a dinstinct two-peak structure which is dependent on the incident energy. The time required to reach the critical electron density (n(sub c) approximately = 1.8 x 10(exp 22) electrons/cu cm) is estimated at 11 ns based on experimental results. Detailed ESIR characteristics for water have been reported previously by the authors. Initiation of the broadband emission for copper plasma begins at 6.5 +/- 1.45 ns after the arrival of the laser pulse. However, the broadband emission occurs at 11 +/- 0.36 ns for water. For a diatomic substance such as water, the electron energy rapidly dissipates due to dissociation of water molecules, which is absent in a monatomic species such as copper. When the energy falls below the excitation energy of the lowest electron state for water, it becomes a subexcitation electron. Lifetimes of the subexcited electrons to the vibrational states are estimated to be of the order of 10(exp -9) s. In addition, the ionization potential of copper (440-530 nm) is approximately 6 eV, which is about two times smaller than the 13 eV ionization potential reported for water. The higher ionization potential contributes to the longer observed delay time for plasma formation in water. After initiation, a longer time is required for copper plasma to reach its peak value. This time delay in reaching the maximum intensity is attributed to the energy loss during the interband transition in copper.

  7. Melt layer behavior of metal targets irradiatead by powerful plasma streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bandura, A.N.; Byrka, O.V.; Chebotarev, V.V.; Garkusha, I.E.; Makhlaj, V.A.; Solyakov, D.G.; Tereshin, V.I.; Wuerz, H.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper melt layer erosion of metal targets under pulsed high-heat loads is studied. Experiments with steel, copper, aluminum and titanium samples were carried out in two plasma accelerator devices with different time durations of the heat load. The surfaces of the resolidified melt layers show a considerable roughness with microcraters and ridge like relief on the surface. For each material the mass loss was determined. Melt layer erosion by melt motion was clearly identified. However it is masked by boiling, bubble expansion and bubble collapse and by formation of a Kelvin-Helmholtz instability. The experimental results can be used for validation of numerical codes which model melt layer erosion of metallic armour materials in off-normal events, in tokamaks

  8. Melt layer behavior of metal targets irradiatead by powerful plasma streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bandura, A.N.; Byrka, O.V.; Chebotarev, V.V.; Garkusha, I.E. E-mail: garkusha@ipp.kharkov.ua; Makhlaj, V.A.; Solyakov, D.G.; Tereshin, V.I.; Wuerz, H

    2002-12-01

    In this paper melt layer erosion of metal targets under pulsed high-heat loads is studied. Experiments with steel, copper, aluminum and titanium samples were carried out in two plasma accelerator devices with different time durations of the heat load. The surfaces of the resolidified melt layers show a considerable roughness with microcraters and ridge like relief on the surface. For each material the mass loss was determined. Melt layer erosion by melt motion was clearly identified. However it is masked by boiling, bubble expansion and bubble collapse and by formation of a Kelvin-Helmholtz instability. The experimental results can be used for validation of numerical codes which model melt layer erosion of metallic armour materials in off-normal events, in tokamaks.

  9. Progress in the Design of the Stabilized Liner Compressor for MTF/MIF Plasma Target Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frese, Sherry; Frese, Michael; Turchi, Peter; Gale, Don

    2016-10-01

    The Stabilized Liner Compressor (SLC) seeks to extend concepts for repetitive, rotationally stabilized, liquid-metal liners driven by free-pistons to much higher drive pressures (25 vs 5 kpsi) and faster implosion speeds (2000 vs 100 m/s) than previously demonstrated. Such extension is needed to enable experiments with magnetized-plasma targets presently offering sizes and lifetimes of 10's cm diam and 10's microsec. SLC represents the confluence of several difficult technologies, including pulsed high pressures, high-speed rotating machinery and alkali-metal (Na, NaK) handling. Solution of the two-dimensional, unsteady, compressible flow of a rotating liquid-metal liner requires advanced numerical techniques. We report the use of the 2-1/2 dimensional MHD code MACH2 to explore flow options, including magnetic flux compression, and to provide pulsed pressure distributions for mechanical design. Supported by ARPA-E ALPHA Program.

  10. Confinement effects of shock waves on laser-induced plasma from a graphite target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Feiling; Liang, Peipei; Yang, Xu; Cai, Hua; Wu, Jiada; Xu, Ning; Ying, Zhifeng; Sun, Jian, E-mail: jsun@fudan.edu.cn [Shanghai Ultra-Precision Optical Manufacturing Engineering Center, Department of Optical Science and Engineering, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China)

    2015-06-15

    The spatial confinement effects of shock waves on the laser-induced plasma (LIP) from a graphite target in air were studied by probe beam deflection (PBD) measurements and optical emission spectroscopy (OES). A clear relationship between the confinement of the LIP by the shock wave and the effects on the LIP emission was observed, and the underlying mechanisms are discussed. PBD monitoring revealed that the laser-ablation induced shock wave could be well analogized to the shock wave generated by a point explosion and would be reflected by a block. OES measurements indicated that the optical emission of the LIP exhibited significant variations with the block placement. A first enhancement and then a fast decay of CN molecular emission as well as a suppression of carbon atomic emission were observed in the presence of the block. The results revealed that the reflected shock wave spatially confined the expansion of the LIP and compressed the LIP after encountering it, pushing back the species of the LIP and changing the density of the LIP species including luminous carbon atoms and CN molecules. It is suggested that the change of the LIP emission is attributed to the density variation of the LIP species due to the compression of the LIP and the reactions occurring in the plasma.

  11. Laser-Driven Ion Acceleration from Plasma Micro-Channel Targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, D. B.; Pukhov, A.; Yi, L. Q.; Zhou, H. B.; Yu, T. P.; Yin, Y.; Shao, F. Q.

    2017-02-01

    Efficient energy boost of the laser-accelerated ions is critical for their applications in biomedical and hadron research. Achiev-able energies continue to rise, with currently highest energies, allowing access to medical therapy energy windows. Here, a new regime of simultaneous acceleration of ~100 MeV protons and multi-100 MeV carbon-ions from plasma micro-channel targets is proposed by using a ~1020 W/cm2 modest intensity laser pulse. It is found that two trains of overdense electron bunches are dragged out from the micro-channel and effectively accelerated by the longitudinal electric-field excited in the plasma channel. With the optimized channel size, these “superponderomotive” energetic electrons can be focused on the front surface of the attached plastic substrate. The much intense sheath electric-field is formed on the rear side, leading to up to ~10-fold ionic energy increase compared to the simple planar geometry. The analytical prediction of the optimal channel size and ion maximum energies is derived, which shows good agreement with the particle-in-cell simulations.

  12. Interfacial Stability of Spherically Converging Plasma Jets for Magnetized Target Fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thio, Y. C. Francis; Cassibry, Jason; Wu, S. T.; Eskridge, Richard; Smith, James; Lee, Michael; Rodgers, Stephen L. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    A fusion propulsion scheme has been proposed that makes use of the merging of a spherical distribution of plasma jets to dynamically form a gaseous liner to implode a magnetized target to produce the fusion reaction. In this paper, a study is made of the interfacial stability of the interaction of these jets. Specifically, the Orr-Sommerfeld equation is integrated to obtain the growth rate of a perturbation to the primary flow at the interface between the colliding jets. The results lead to an estimate on the tolerances on the relative flow velocities of the merging plasma jets to form a stable, imploding liner. The results show that the maximum temporal growth rate of the perturbed flow at the jet interface is very small in comparison with the time to full compression of the liner. These data suggest that, as far as the stability of the interface between the merging jets is concerned, the formation of the gaseous liner can withstand velocity variation of the order of 10% between the neighboring jets over the density and temperature ranges investigated.

  13. Interferometric analysis of laboratory photoionized plasmas utilizing supersonic gas jet targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Kyle James; Ivanov, Vladimir; Mancini, Roberto; Mayes, Daniel C.

    2018-06-01

    Photoionized plasmas are an important component of active galactic nuclei, x-ray binary systems and other astrophysical objects. Laboratory produced photoionized plasmas have mainly been studied at large scale facilities, due to the need for high intensity broadband x-ray flux. Using supersonic gas jets as targets has allowed university scale pulsed power generators to begin similar research. The two main advantages of this approach with supersonic gas jets include: possibility of a closer location to the x-ray source and no attenuation related to material used for containment and or tamping. Due to these factors, this experimental platform creates a laboratory environment that more closely resembles astrophysical environments. This system was developed at the Nevada Terawatt Facility using the 1 MA pulsed power generator Zebra. Neon, argon, and nitrogen supersonic gas jets are produced approximately 7-8mm from the z-pinch axis. The high intensity broadband x-ray flux produced by the collapse of the z-pinch wire array implosion irradiates the gas jet. Cylindrical wire arrays are made with 4 and 8 gold 10µm thick wire. The z-pinch radiates approximately 12-16kj of x-ray energy, with x-ray photons under 1Kev in energy. The photoionized plasma is measured via x-ray absorption spectroscopy and interferometry. A Mach-Zehnder interferometer is used to the measure neutral density of the jet prior to the zebra shot at a wavelength of 266 nm. A dual channel air-wedge shearing interferometer is used to measure electron density of the ionized gas jet during the shot, at wavelengths of 532nm and 266nm. Using a newly developed interferometric analysis tool, average ionization state maps of the plasma can be calculated. Interferometry for nitrogen and argon show an average ionization state in the range of 3-8. Preliminary x-ray absorption spectroscopy collected show neon absorption lines. This work was sponsored in part by DOE Office of Science Grant DE-SC0014451.

  14. The thermal evolution of targets under plasma focus pulsed ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez, G.; Feugeas, J.

    1997-01-01

    Pulsed ion beam implantation with plasma focus has proved to be an effective method of metal surface treatment for tribological purposes. Nevertheless, the pulsed nature and the continuous energy spectrum of the ion beams differ from those of the standard ion implantation processes. In this paper a model of the thermal evolution of the surface layers of stainless steel, titanium and copper, during and after nitrogen and argon ion beam incidence, is presented using the finite-difference method. In the calculations, the geometry and physical characteristics of the ion beams, the single-ion-solid interaction process and the thermal properties of the materials were used. The results showed a strong thermal effect consisting in the generation of transitory heating slopes and heating speeds as high as ∼3600 K μm -1 and ∼40 K ns -1 respectively, with maximum temperatures that can reach even the material evaporation point at the surface layers. The cooling down process, through the thermal conduction mechanism at the target bulk, turns out to be fast enough to produce the complete thermal relaxation of the target in only a few microseconds after the end of the ion beam incidence. The results presented are contrasted with experiments performed in similar conditions to those used in the numerical model. (Author)

  15. Electron and ion beam transport to fusion targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freeman, J.R.; Baker, L.; Miller, P.A.; Mix, L.P.; Olsen, J.N.; Poukey, J.W.; Wright, T.P.

    1979-01-01

    ICF reactors have been proposed which incorporate a gas-filled chamber to reduce x-ray and debris loading of the first wall. Focused beams of either electrons or ions must be transported efficiently for 2-4 m to a centrally located fusion target. Laser-initiated current-carrying plasma discharge channels provide the guiding magnetic field and the charge- and current-neutralizing medium required for beam propagation. Computational studies of plasma channel formation in air using a 1-D MHD model with multigroup radiation diffusion have provided a good comparison with the expansions velocity and time dependent refractivity profile determined by holographic interferometry. Trajectory calculations have identified a beam expansion mechanism which combines with the usual ohmic dissipation to reduce somewhat the transported beam fluence for electrons. Additional trajectory calculations have been performed for both electrons and light ions to predict the limits on the particle current density which can be delivered to a central target by overlapping the many independently-generated beams. Critical features of the use of plasma channels for transport and overlap of charged particle beams are being tested experimentally with up to twelve electron beams from the Proto II accelerator

  16. Spectroscopy of reactive species produced by low-energy atmospheric-pressure plasma on conductive target material surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Hiromasa; Sakakita, Hajime; Kato, Susumu; Kim, Jaeho; Kiyama, Satoru; Fujiwara, Masanori; Itagaki, Hirotomo; Ikehara, Yuzuru; Okazaki, Toshiya; Ikehara, Sanae; Nakanishi, Hayao; Shimizu, Nobuyuki

    2016-01-01

    A method for blood coagulation using low-energy atmospheric-pressure plasma (LEAPP) is confirmed as an alternative procedure to reduce tissue damage caused by heat. Blood coagulation using LEAPP behaves differently depending on working gas species; helium is more effective than argon in promoting fast coagulation. To analyse the difference in reactive species produced by helium and argon plasma, spectroscopic measurements were conducted without and with a target material. To compare emissions, blood coagulation experiments using LEAPP for both plasmas were performed under almost identical conditions. Although many kinds of reactive species such as hydroxyl radicals and excited nitrogen molecules were observed with similar intensity in both plasmas, intensities of nitrogen ion molecules and nitric oxide molecules were extremely strong in the helium plasma. It is considered that nitrogen ion molecules were mainly produced by penning ionization by helium metastable. Near the target, a significant increase in the emissions of reactive species is observed. There is a possibility that electron acceleration was induced in a local electric field formed on the surface. However, in argon plasma, emissions from nitrogen ion were not measured even near the target surface. These differences between the two plasmas may be producing the difference in blood coagulation behaviour. To control the surrounding gas of the plasma, a gas-component-controllable chamber was assembled. Filling the chamber with O 2 /He or N 2 /He gas mixtures selectively produces either reactive oxygen species or reactive nitrogen species. Through selective treatments, this chamber would be useful in studying the effects of specific reactive species on blood coagulation. (paper)

  17. Spectroscopy of reactive species produced by low-energy atmospheric-pressure plasma on conductive target material surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Hiromasa; Sakakita, Hajime; Kato, Susumu; Kim, Jaeho; Kiyama, Satoru; Fujiwara, Masanori; Itagaki, Hirotomo; Okazaki, Toshiya; Ikehara, Sanae; Nakanishi, Hayao; Shimizu, Nobuyuki; Ikehara, Yuzuru

    2016-10-01

    A method for blood coagulation using low-energy atmospheric-pressure plasma (LEAPP) is confirmed as an alternative procedure to reduce tissue damage caused by heat. Blood coagulation using LEAPP behaves differently depending on working gas species; helium is more effective than argon in promoting fast coagulation. To analyse the difference in reactive species produced by helium and argon plasma, spectroscopic measurements were conducted without and with a target material. To compare emissions, blood coagulation experiments using LEAPP for both plasmas were performed under almost identical conditions. Although many kinds of reactive species such as hydroxyl radicals and excited nitrogen molecules were observed with similar intensity in both plasmas, intensities of nitrogen ion molecules and nitric oxide molecules were extremely strong in the helium plasma. It is considered that nitrogen ion molecules were mainly produced by penning ionization by helium metastable. Near the target, a significant increase in the emissions of reactive species is observed. There is a possibility that electron acceleration was induced in a local electric field formed on the surface. However, in argon plasma, emissions from nitrogen ion were not measured even near the target surface. These differences between the two plasmas may be producing the difference in blood coagulation behaviour. To control the surrounding gas of the plasma, a gas-component-controllable chamber was assembled. Filling the chamber with O2/He or N2/He gas mixtures selectively produces either reactive oxygen species or reactive nitrogen species. Through selective treatments, this chamber would be useful in studying the effects of specific reactive species on blood coagulation.

  18. Optical spectroscopy of free-propagating plasma and its interaction with tungsten targets in PF-1000 facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skladnik-Sadowska, E.; Malinowski, K. [The Andrzej Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies, IPJ, 05-400 Otwock-Swierk (Poland); Sadowski, M.J. [The Andrzej Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies, IPJ, 05-400 Otwock-Swierk (Poland)] [Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion, IPPLM, 01-497 Warsaw (Poland); Kubkowska, M.; Jakubowska, K.; Paduch, M.; Scholz, M. [Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion, IPPLM, 01-497 Warsaw (Poland); Garkusha, I.E.; Ladygina, M.; Tereshin, V.I. [Institute of Plasma Physics, NSC KIPT, 61-108 Kharkov (Ukraine)

    2011-07-01

    The paper reports on optical spectroscopy of pulsed plasma streams during their free propagation within a vacuum chamber and their interaction with tungsten targets. Experiments were performed with the PF-1000 facility and particular attention was paid to improvements in spectroscopic diagnostics techniques. In contrary to preliminary studies, the recent spectroscopic measurements of the free plasma streams were carried out perpendicular to the z-axis and at a larger distance from the electrode outlet. The center of the observation quartz-window was located at z = 30 cm in order to observe first a pure deuterium-plasma stream, and later on some heavy impurities which might reach that distance with a delay induced by differences in their production and time-of-flight. The recorded spectral lines were identified by means of a Kurucz database. It was confirmed that at the pure D{sub 2}-filling the PF-1000 facility emits first the deuterium-plasma stream and one can observe intense deuterium Balmer lines, but at a distance z = 30 cm, after about 2 microseconds there appear many impurity lines originating mainly from the Cu-electrodes, i.e. Cu-lines. The second part of the experiment concerned the spectroscopic measurements of metal plasma 'pillow' produced by the plasma stream impinging upon a solid target made of pure tungsten. The described measurements enabled the most intense spectral lines to be identified. This document is composed of an abstract followed by the slides of the presentation

  19. Increase in the temperature of a laser plasma formed by two-frequency UV - IR irradiation of metal targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antipov, A A; Grasyuk, Arkadii Z; Efimovskii, S V; Kurbasov, Sergei V; Losev, Leonid L; Soskov, V I

    1998-01-01

    An experimental investigation was made of a laser plasma formed by successive irradiation of a metal target with 30-ps UV and IR laser pulses. The UV prepulse, of 266 nm wavelength, was of relatively low intensity (∼ 10 12 W cm -2 ), whereas the intensity of an IR pulse, of 10.6 μm wavelength, was considerably higher (∼3 x 10 14 W cm -2 ) and it was delayed by 0 - 6 ns (the optimal delay was 2 ns). Such two-frequency UV - IR irradiation produced a laser plasma with an electron temperature 5 times higher than that of a plasma created by singe-frequency IR pulses of the same (∼3 x 10 14 W cm -2 ) intensity. (interaction of laser radiation with matter. laser plasma)

  20. Progress in Long Scale Length Laser-Plasma Interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glenzer, S H; Arnold, P; Bardsley, G; Berger, R L; Bonanno, G; Borger, T; Bower, D E; Bowers, M; Bryant, R; Buckman, S.; Burkhart, S C; Campbell, K; Chrisp, M P; Cohen, B I; Constantin, G; Cooper, F; Cox, J; Dewald, E; Divol, L; Dixit, S; Duncan, J; Eder, D; Edwards, J; Erbert, G; Felker, B; Fornes, J; Frieders, G; Froula, D H; Gardner, S D; Gates, C; Gonzalez, M; Grace, S; Gregori, G; Greenwood, A; Griffith, R; Hall, T; Hammel, B A; Haynam, C; Heestand, G; Henesian, M; Hermes, G; Hinkel, D; Holder, J; Holdner, F; Holtmeier, G; Hsing, W; Huber, S; James, T; Johnson, S; Jones, O S; Kalantar, D; Kamperschroer, J H; Kauffman, R; Kelleher, T; Knight, J; Kirkwood, R K; Kruer, W L; Labiak, W; Landen, O L; Langdon, A B; Langer, S; Latray, D; Lee, A; Lee, F D; Lund, D; MacGowan, B; Marshall, S; McBride, J; McCarville, T; McGrew, L; Mackinnon, A J; Mahavandi, S; Manes, K; Marshall, C; Mertens, E; Meezan, N; Miller, G; Montelongo, S; Moody, J D; Moses, E; Munro, D; Murray, J; Neumann, J; Newton, M; Ng, E; Niemann, C; Nikitin, A; Opsahl, P; Padilla, E; Parham, T; Parrish, G; Petty, C; Polk, M; Powell, C; Reinbachs, I; Rekow, V; Rinnert, R; Riordan, B; Rhodes, M.

    2003-01-01

    The first experiments on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) have employed the first four beams to measure propagation and laser backscattering losses in large ignition-size plasmas. Gas-filled targets between 2 mm and 7 mm length have been heated from one side by overlapping the focal spots of the four beams from one quad operated at 351 nm (3ω) with a total intensity of 2 x 10 15 W cm -2 . The targets were filled with 1 atm of CO 2 producing of up to 7 mm long homogeneously heated plasmas with densities of n e = 6 x 10 20 cm -3 and temperatures of T e = 2 keV. The high energy in a NIF quad of beams of 16kJ, illuminating the target from one direction, creates unique conditions for the study of laser plasma interactions at scale lengths not previously accessible. The propagation through the large-scale plasma was measured with a gated x-ray imager that was filtered for 3.5 keV x rays. These data indicate that the beams interact with the full length of this ignition-scale plasma during the last ∼1 ns of the experiment. During that time, the full aperture measurements of the stimulated Brillouin scattering and stimulated Raman scattering show scattering into the four focusing lenses of 6% for the smallest length (∼2 mm). increasing to 12% for ∼7 mm. These results demonstrate the NIF experimental capabilities and further provide a benchmark for three-dimensional modeling of the laser-plasma interactions at ignition-size scale lengths

  1. Issues with Strong Compression of Plasma Target by Stabilized Imploding Liner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turchi, Peter; Frese, Sherry; Frese, Michael

    2017-10-01

    Strong compression (10:1 in radius) of an FRC by imploding liquid metal liners, stabilized against Rayleigh-Taylor modes, using different scalings for loss based on Bohm vs 100X classical diffusion rates, predict useful compressions with implosion times half the initial energy lifetime. The elongation (length-to-diameter ratio) near peak compression needed to satisfy empirical stability criterion and also retain alpha-particles is about ten. The present paper extends these considerations to issues of the initial FRC, including stability conditions (S*/E) and allowable angular speeds. Furthermore, efficient recovery of the implosion energy and alpha-particle work, in order to reduce the necessary nuclear gain for an economical power reactor, is seen as an important element of the stabilized liner implosion concept for fusion. We describe recent progress in design and construction of the high energy-density prototype of a Stabilized Liner Compressor (SLC) leading to repetitive laboratory experiments to develop the plasma target. Supported by ARPA-E ALPHA Program.

  2. Target-plasma production by laser irradiation of a pellet in the Baseball II-T experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damm, C.C.; Foote, J.H.; Futch, A.H.; Goodman, R.K.; Hornady, R.S.; Osher, J.E.; Porter, G.D.

    1977-01-01

    One way to generate a plasma target that can be used in conjunction with an injected neutral beam to initiate a high-energy plasma in a steady-state, magnetic-mirror field is by the laser irradiation of a solid pellet located within the confinement region. In the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory Baseball II-T experiment, a CO 2 laser was used to provide a two-sided irradiation of an ammonia pellet; the maximum laser intensity on the pellet was approximately 4 x 10 12 W/cm 2 . The 150-μm-dia pellets were guided to the laser focal spot in the Baseball II-T magnetic field using steering voltages controlled by a microcomputer-based system. Diagnostics showed complete ionization of the pellet, average ion energies in the keV range, synchronized triggering of the laser and the neutral beam, and rapid expansion of the plasma to a diameter that was a good match to the diameter of the neutral beam. Predictions obtained from the LASNEX code compared well with measured results. Although the laser-pellet approach was proven usable as a target-plasma startup system, it would be much more complicated and expensive than the method in which streaming plasma is used to trap the neutal beams

  3. Insulin alters the target size of the peripheral cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase but not the integral cyclic GMP-stimulated cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase in liver plasma membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallace, A.V.; Martin, B.R.; Houslay, M.D.

    1990-01-01

    Radiation inactivation of the two high affinity cyclic AMP phosphodiesterases (PDE) found in liver plasma membranes afforded an estimation of their molecular target sizes in situ. The activity of the peripheral plasma membrane PDE decayed as a single exponential with a target size corresponding to a monomer of circa 54 kDa. The integral, cyclic GMP-stimulated PDE decayed as a dimer of circa 125 kDa. Preincubation of plasma membranes with insulin (10nM), prior to irradiation, caused the target size of only the peripheral plasma membrane PDE to increase. We suggest that insulin addition causes the peripheral plasma membrane PDE to alter its coupling to an integral plasma membrane protein with a target size of circa 90 kDa

  4. Optical and plasma smoothing of laser imprinting in targets driven by lasers with SSD bandwidths up to 1 THz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehly, T.R.; Goncharov, V.N.; Gotchev, O.; Knauer, J.P.; Meyerhofer, D.D.; Oron, D.; Regan, S.P.; Srebro, Y.; Seka, W.; Shvarts, D.; Skupsky, S.; Smalyuk, V.A.

    2001-01-01

    The creation of a plasma atmosphere in laser-target interactions increases the distance between the regions of laser absorption and hydrodynamic instability (ablation front), thus allowing thermal smoothing and a reduction of laser-imprinted modulations that reach the unstable ablation region. The total laser imprinting is reduced with pulse shapes that produce a plasma atmosphere more rapidly and by the implementation of temporal beam smoothing. These effects are measured and found to be consistent with models for the hydrodynamics and optical smoothing by spectral dispersion (SSD). Imprinting is reduced as the laser bandwidth is increased from 0.2 to 1.0 THz

  5. Dominant role of dielectron satellites in emission spectra of laser plasma near target surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozmej, F.; Faenov, A.Ya.; Pikuz, T.A.

    1997-01-01

    It is shown that satellite structures of resonance lines may become more intensive than resonance lines themselves. The experimental and theoretical studies show that the conditions whereby the satellite structures become predominant in the plasma emission spectrum, are sufficiently easily realized in the experiment and moreover they obviously will present typical cases by studies on the plasma condensed areas in the experiments on inertial thermonuclear synthesis and by investigation of plasma, created through pico- and femtosecond laser pulses of high contrast

  6. Efficient extreme ultraviolet plasma source generated by a CO2 laser and a liquid xenon microjet target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueno, Yoshifumi; Ariga, Tatsuya; Soumagne, George; Higashiguchi, Takeshi; Kubodera, Shoichi; Pogorelsky, Igor; Pavlishin, Igor; Stolyarov, Daniil; Babzien, Marcus; Kusche, Karl; Yakimenko, Vitaly

    2007-05-01

    We demonstrated efficacy of a CO2-laser-produced xenon plasma in the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) spectral region at 13.5nm at variable laser pulse widths between 200ps and 25ns. The plasma target was a 30μm liquid xenon microjet. To ensure the optimum coupling of CO2 laser energy with the plasma, they applied a prepulse yttrium aluminum garnet laser. The authors measured the conversion efficiency (CE) of the 13.5nm EUV emission for different pulse widths of the CO2 laser. A maximum CE of 0.6% was obtained for a CO2 laser pulse width of 25ns at an intensity of 5×1010W/cm2.

  7. Efficient extreme ultraviolet plasma source generated by a CO2 laser and a liquid xenon microjet target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueno, Yoshifumi; Ariga, Tatsuya; Soumagne, George; Higashiguchi, Takeshi; Kubodera, Shoichi; Pogorelsky, Igor; Pavlishin, Igor; Stolyarov, Daniil; Babzien, Marcus; Kusche, Karl; Yakimenko, Vitaly

    2007-01-01

    We demonstrated efficacy of a CO 2 -laser-produced xenon plasma in the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) spectral region at 13.5 nm at variable laser pulse widths between 200 ps and 25 ns. The plasma target was a 30 μm liquid xenon microjet. To ensure the optimum coupling of CO 2 laser energy with the plasma, they applied a prepulse yttrium aluminum garnet laser. The authors measured the conversion efficiency (CE) of the 13.5 nm EUV emission for different pulse widths of the CO 2 laser. A maximum CE of 0.6% was obtained for a CO 2 laser pulse width of 25 ns at an intensity of 5x10 10 W/cm 2

  8. Exposures of EU W-CFC combined targets with QSPA Kh-50 plasma streams simulating ITER ELM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makhlaj, V.A.; Garkusha, I.E.; Tereshin, V.I.; Bandura, A.N.; Chebotarev, V.V.; Staltsov, V.V.; Linke, J.; Pintsuk, G.

    2009-01-01

    Repeated load tests of special combined W-CFC samples were performed with QSPA plasma streams either resulting in strong melting of W surface layer or below the melting, but above the cracking threshold. Experiments show that in result of target exposures with heat load of 0.4 MJ/m 2 (no melting) only cracks formation was found on both tungsten and CFC surfaces. It is obtained that enhanced evaporation of CFC results in additional shielding of tungsten surface by C cloud and protects W surface from evaporation even for essentially increased energy density in impacting plasma. Exposures of combined target with heat loads of 0.82 MJ/m 2 resulted in strong melting of tungsten. Meshes of macro-cracks and micro-cracks as well as ripple structures are appeared on the resolidified surface

  9. LeCPK1, a Calcium-Dependent Protein Kinase from Tomato. Plasma Membrane Targeting and Biochemical Characterization1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutschmann, Frank; Stalder, Urs; Piotrowski, Markus; Oecking, Claudia; Schaller, Andreas

    2002-01-01

    The cDNA of LeCPK1, a calcium-dependent protein kinase, was cloned from tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.). LeCPK1 was expressed in Escherichia coli and purified from bacterial extracts. The recombinant protein was shown to be a functional protein kinase using a synthetic peptide as the substrate (syntide-2, Km = 85 μm). Autophosphorylation of LeCPK1 was observed on threonine and serine residues, one of which was identified as serine-439. Kinase activity was shown to be Ca2+ dependent and required the C-terminal, calmodulin-like domain of LeCPK1. Two classes of high- and low-affinity Ca2+-binding sites were observed, exhibiting dissociation constants of 0.6 and 55 μm, respectively. LeCPK1 was found to phosphorylate the regulatory C-terminal domain of the plasma membrane H+-ATPase in vitro. A potential role in the regulation of proton pump activity is corroborated by the apparent colocalization of the plasma membrane H+-ATPase and LeCPK1 in vivo. Upon transient expression in suspension-cultured cells, a C-terminal fusion of LeCPK1 with the green fluorescent protein was targeted to the plasma membrane. Myristoylation of the LeCPK1 N terminus was found to be required for plasma membrane targeting. PMID:12011347

  10. Influence of the distance between target surface and focal point on the expansion dynamics of a laser-induced silicon plasma with spatial confinement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dan; Chen, Anmin; Wang, Xiaowei; Wang, Ying; Sui, Laizhi; Ke, Da; Li, Suyu; Jiang, Yuanfei; Jin, Mingxing

    2018-05-01

    Expansion dynamics of a laser-induced plasma plume, with spatial confinement, for various distances between the target surface and focal point were studied by the fast photography technique. A silicon wafer was ablated to induce the plasma with a Nd:YAG laser in an atmospheric environment. The expansion dynamics of the plasma plume depended on the distance between the target surface and focal point. In addition, spatially confined time-resolved images showed the different structures of the plasma plumes at different distances between the target surface and focal point. By analyzing the plume images, the optimal distance for emission enhancement was found to be approximately 6 mm away from the geometrical focus using a 10 cm focal length lens. This optimized distance resulted in the strongest compression ratio of the plasma plume by the reflected shock wave. Furthermore, the duration of the interaction between the reflected shock wave and the plasma plume was also prolonged.

  11. Targeting of a Nicotiana plumbaginifolia H+ -ATPase to the plasma membrane is not by default and requires cytosolic structural determinants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefebvre, Benoit; Batoko, Henri; Duby, Geoffrey; Boutry, Marc

    2004-07-01

    The structural determinants involved in the targeting of multitransmembrane-span proteins to the plasma membrane (PM) remain poorly understood. The plasma membrane H+ -ATPase (PMA) from Nicotiana plumbaginifolia, a well-characterized 10 transmembrane-span enzyme, was used as a model to identify structural elements essential for targeting to the PM. When PMA2 and PMA4, representatives of the two main PMA subfamilies, were fused to green fluorescent protein (GFP), the chimeras were shown to be still functional and to be correctly and rapidly targeted to the PM in transgenic tobacco. By contrast, chimeric proteins containing various combinations of PMA transmembrane spanning domains accumulated in the Golgi apparatus and not in the PM and displayed slow traffic properties through the secretory pathway. Individual deletion of three of the four cytosolic domains did not prevent PM targeting, but deletion of the large loop or of its nucleotide binding domain resulted in GFP fluorescence accumulating exclusively in the endoplasmic reticulum. The results show that, at least for this polytopic protein, the PM is not the default pathway and that, in contrast with single-pass membrane proteins, cytosolic structural determinants are required for correct targeting.

  12. Plasma membrane proteomics of human breast cancer cell lines identifies potential targets for breast cancer diagnosis and treatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvonne S Ziegler

    Full Text Available The use of broad spectrum chemotherapeutic agents to treat breast cancer results in substantial and debilitating side effects, necessitating the development of targeted therapies to limit tumor proliferation and prevent metastasis. In recent years, the list of approved targeted therapies has expanded, and it includes both monoclonal antibodies and small molecule inhibitors that interfere with key proteins involved in the uncontrolled growth and migration of cancer cells. The targeting of plasma membrane proteins has been most successful to date, and this is reflected in the large representation of these proteins as targets of newer therapies. In view of these facts, experiments were designed to investigate the plasma membrane proteome of a variety of human breast cancer cell lines representing hormone-responsive, ErbB2 over-expressing and triple negative cell types, as well as a benign control. Plasma membranes were isolated by using an aqueous two-phase system, and the resulting proteins were subjected to mass spectrometry analysis. Overall, each of the cell lines expressed some unique proteins, and a number of proteins were expressed in multiple cell lines, but in patterns that did not always follow traditional clinical definitions of breast cancer type. From our data, it can be deduced that most cancer cells possess multiple strategies to promote uncontrolled growth, reflected in aberrant expression of tyrosine kinases, cellular adhesion molecules, and structural proteins. Our data set provides a very rich and complex picture of plasma membrane proteins present on breast cancer cells, and the sorting and categorizing of this data provides interesting insights into the biology, classification, and potential treatment of this prevalent and debilitating disease.

  13. X-ray emission spectra of the plasma produced by an ultrashort laser pulse in cluster targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stenz, C; Bagnoud, V; Blasco, F; Roche, J R; Salin, F; Faenov, A Ya; Skobelev, I Yu; Magunov, A I; Pikuz, T A

    2000-01-01

    The first observation of x-ray emission spectra of multiply charged ions in the plasma produced by a 35-fs laser pulse with an intensity up to 10 17 W cm -2 in CO 2 and Kr gas jet targets is reported. The emission in the wavelength ranges of the 1snp-1s 2 (n=3-6) transitions of O VII ions and the Ly α line of O VIII ions, as well as of the (2s 1/2 2p 6 3p 3/2 ) 1 -2s 2 2p 6 1 S 0 and (2s 1/2 2p 6 3p 1/2 ) 1 -2s 2 2p 6 1 S 0 lines of Ne-like KrXXVII ions testifies that the highly ionised plasma is formed by collision processes in clusters. Modelling the shape of the spectral lines of oxygen ions by including the principal mechanisms of broadening and absorption in optically dense plasmas reveals that the main contribution to the time-integrated intensity is made by the plasma with the parameters N e =(2-20)x10 20 cm -3 and T e =100 - 115 eV. (interaction of laser radiation with matter. laser plasma)

  14. NF-κB2 mutation targets survival, proliferation and differentiation pathways in the pathogenesis of plasma cell tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McCarthy Brian A

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Abnormal NF-κB2 activation has been implicated in the pathogenesis of multiple myeloma, a cancer of plasma cells. However, a causal role for aberrant NF-κB2 signaling in the development of plasma cell tumors has not been established. Also unclear is the molecular mechanism that drives the tumorigenic process. We investigated these questions by using a transgenic mouse model with lymphocyte-targeted expression of p80HT, a lymphoma-associated NF-κB2 mutant, and human multiple myeloma cell lines. Methods We conducted a detailed histopathological characterization of lymphomas developed in p80HT transgenic mice and microarray gene expression profiling of p80HT B cells with the goal of identifying genes that drive plasma cell tumor development. We further verified the significance of our findings in human multiple myeloma cell lines. Results Approximately 40% of p80HT mice showed elevated levels of monoclonal immunoglobulin (M-protein in the serum and developed plasma cell tumors. Some of these mice displayed key features of human multiple myeloma with accumulation of plasma cells in the bone marrow, osteolytic bone lesions and/or diffuse osteoporosis. Gene expression profiling of B cells from M-protein-positive p80HT mice revealed aberrant expression of genes known to be important in the pathogenesis of multiple myeloma, including cyclin D1, cyclin D2, Blimp1, survivin, IL-10 and IL-15. In vitro assays demonstrated a critical role of Stat3, a key downstream component of IL-10 signaling, in the survival of human multiple myeloma cells. Conclusions These findings provide a mouse model for human multiple myeloma with aberrant NF-κB2 activation and suggest a molecular mechanism for NF-κB2 signaling in the pathogenesis of plasma cell tumors by coordinated regulation of plasma cell generation, proliferation and survival.

  15. Plasma source ion implantation of metal ions: Synchronization of cathodic-arc plasma production and target bias pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, B.P.; Reass, W.A.; Henins, I.

    1995-01-01

    An erbium cathodic-arc has been installed on a Plasma Source Ion Implantation (PSII) experiment to allow the implantation of erbium metal and the growth of adherent erbia (erbium oxide) films on a variety of substrates. Operation of the PSII pulser and the cathodic-arc are synchronized to achieve pure implantation, rather than the hybrid implantation/deposition being investigated in other laboratories. The relative phase of the 20 μs PSII and cathodic-arc pulses can to adjusted to tailor the energy distribution of implanted ions and suppress the initial high-current drain on the pulse modulator. The authors present experimental data on this effect and make a comparison to results from particle-in-cell simulations

  16. Ion implantation on nickel targets by means of repetitive plasma focus device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vitulli, S.; Rapezzi, L. [ENEA Brasimone, Camugnano, Bologna (Italy); Apicella, M.L.; Samuelli, M. [ENEA Frascati, Frascati, Roma (Italy)

    2004-07-01

    Some test has been done in order to assess the possible use of a plasma focus as an implanter. The device utilized is the repetitive Plasma Focus operating in the ENEA Brasimone Center. The implanted sample is a sheet of Nickel with a surface of 17 cm{sup 2} inserted in a rigid sample at a variable distance from the top of the anode. After irradiation the sample is analyzed with Auger spectroscopy that provides the surface concentration of the various elements on the sample at different implantation depths. The result of the analysis shows that the Plasma Focus is an effective implantation source, even for metallurgical applications. (orig.)

  17. Evaporation and vapor shielding of CFC targets exposed to plasma heat fluxes relevant to ITER ELMs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Safronov, V.M.; Arkhipov, N.I.; Landman, I.S.; Pestchanyi, S.E.; Toporkov, D.A.; Zhitlukhin, A.M.

    2009-01-01

    Carbon fibre composite NB31 was tested at plasma gun facility MK-200UG by plasma heat fluxes relevant to Edge Localised Modes in ITER. The paper reports the results obtained on the evaporation threshold of carbon fibre composite, the velocity of carbon vapor motion along and across the magnetic field lines, and the parameters of carbon plasma such as temperature, density and ionization state. First experimental results on investigation of the vapor shield onset conditions are presented also. The obtained experimental data are compared with the results of numerical modeling.

  18. Effect of liner non-uniformity on plasma instabilities in an inverse Z-pinch magnetized target fusion system: liner-on-plasma simulations and comparison with linear stability analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subhash, P V; Madhavan, S; Chaturvedi, S

    2008-01-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) liner-on-plasma computations have been performed to study the growth of instabilities in a magnetized target fusion system involving the cylindrical compression of an inverse Z-pinch target plasma by a metallic liner. The growth of modes in the plasma can be divided into two phases. During the first phase, the plasma continues to be Kadomtsev stable. The dominant mode in the liner instability is imposed upon the plasma in the form of a growing perturbation. This mode further transfers part of its energy to its harmonics. During the second phase, however, non-uniform implosion of the liner leads to axial variations in plasma quantities near the liner-plasma interface, such that certain regions of the plasma locally violate the Kadomtsev criteria. Further growth ofthe plasma modes is then due to plasma instability. The above numerical study has been complemented with a linear stability analysis for the plasma, the boundary conditions for this analysis being obtained from the liner-on-plasma simulation. The stability of axisymmetric modes in the first phase is found to satisfy the Kadomtsev condition Q 0 1 modes, using equilibrium profiles from the 2D MHD study, shows that their growth rates can exceed those for m=0 by as much as an order of magnitude

  19. Triple nuclear reactions (d, n) in laser-generated plasma from deuterated targets

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Torrisi, L.; Cutroneo, Mariapompea

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 24, č. 6 (2017), č. článku 063102. ISSN 1070-664X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP108/12/G108; GA MŠk LM2015056 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : ion acceleration * pulsed laser * polyethylene Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics OBOR OECD: Fluids and plasma physics (including surface physics) Impact factor: 2.115, year: 2016

  20. Targeting the plasma membrane of neoplastic cells through alkylation: a novel approach to cancer chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trendowski, Matthew; Fondy, Thomas P

    2015-08-01

    Although DNA-directed alkylating agents and related compounds have been a mainstay in chemotherapeutic protocols due to their ability to readily interfere with the rapid mitotic progression of malignant cells, their clinical utility is limited by DNA repair mechanisms and immunosuppression. However, the same destructive nature of alkylation can be reciprocated at the cell surface using novel plasma membrane alkylating agents. Plasma membrane alkylating agents have elicited long term survival in mammalian models challenged with carcinomas, sarcomas, and leukemias. Further, a specialized group of plasma membrane alkylating agents known as tetra-O-acetate haloacetamido carbohydrate analogs (Tet-OAHCs) potentiates a substantial leukocyte influx at the administration and primary tumor site, indicative of a potent immune response. The effects of plasma membrane alkylating agents may be further potentiated through the use of another novel class of chemotherapeutic agents, known as dihydroxyacetone phosphate (DHAP) inhibitors, since many cancer types are known to rely on the DHAP pathway for lipid synthesis. Despite these compelling data, preliminary clinical trials for plasma membrane-directed agents have yet to be considered. Therefore, this review is intended for academics and clinicians to postulate a novel approach of chemotherapy; altering critical malignant cell signaling at the plasma membrane surface through alkylation, thereby inducing irreversible changes to functions needed for cell survival.

  1. Deep-Dive Targeted Quantification for Ultrasensitive Analysis of Proteins in Nondepleted Human Blood Plasma/Serum and Tissues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nie, Song [Biological Sciences Division; Shi, Tujin [Biological Sciences Division; Fillmore, Thomas L. [Biological Sciences Division; Schepmoes, Athena A. [Biological Sciences Division; Brewer, Heather [Biological Sciences Division; Gao, Yuqian [Biological Sciences Division; Song, Ehwang [Biological Sciences Division; Wang, Hui [Biological Sciences Division; Rodland, Karin D. [Biological Sciences Division; Qian, Wei-Jun [Biological Sciences Division; Smith, Richard D. [Biological Sciences Division; Liu, Tao [Biological Sciences Division

    2017-08-11

    Mass spectrometry-based targeted proteomics (e.g., selected reaction monitoring, SRM) is emerging as an attractive alternative to immunoassays for protein quantification. Recently we have made significant progress in SRM sensitivity for enabling quantification of low ng/mL to sub-ng/mL level proteins in nondepleted human blood plasma/serum without affinity enrichment. However, precise quantification of extremely low abundant but biologically important proteins (e.g., ≤100 pg/mL in blood plasma/serum) using targeted proteomics approaches still remains challenging. To address this need, we have developed an antibody-independent Deep-Dive SRM (DD-SRM) approach that capitalizes on multidimensional high-resolution reversed-phase liquid chromatography (LC) separation for target peptide enrichment combined with precise selection of target peptide fractions of interest, significantly improving SRM sensitivity by ~5 orders of magnitude when compared to conventional LC-SRM. Application of DD-SRM to human serum and tissue has been demonstrated to enable precise quantification of endogenous proteins at ~10 pg/mL level in nondepleted serum and at <10 copies per cell level in tissue. Thus, DD-SRM holds great promise for precisely measuring extremely low abundance proteins or protein modifications, especially when high-quality antibody is not available.

  2. Coating of Titanium Nitride on Stainless Steel Targets by a 4 kJ Plasma Focus Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omrani, M.; Habibi, M.; Amrollahi, R.

    2012-08-01

    Titanium nitride thin films were deposited on stainless steel (SS316L) targets by using a 4 kJ plasma focus device. The corresponding energy flux delivered to SS316L surface is estimated to be 2.69 × 1013 kev cm-3 ns-1. X-ray diffraction analysis reveals the formation of a nanocrystalline titanium nitride coating on the surface of targets. Thickness of the elements found on the surface of treated samples which are obtained by Rutherford backscattering spectrometry analysis (RBS) were (×1015 at/cm2) .45% Ti, 50% N and 5% Fe. Scanning electron microscopy was used to indicate changes in surface morphology. Existence of grains in different size confirms the formation of TiN crystals on the surface of targets.

  3. Targeting of OSBP-related protein 3 (ORP3) to endoplasmic reticulum and plasma membrane is controlled by multiple determinants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehto, Markku; Hynynen, Riikka; Karjalainen, Katja; Kuismanen, Esa; Hyvaerinen, Kati; Olkkonen, Vesa M.

    2005-01-01

    The intracellular targeting determinants of oxysterol binding protein (OSBP)-related protein 3 (ORP3) were studied using a series of truncated and point mutated constructs. The pleckstrin homology (PH) domain of ORP3 binds the phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K) products, PI(3,4)P 2 and PI(3,4,5)P 3 . A functional PH domain and flanking sequences are crucial for the plasma membrane (PM) targeting of ORP3. The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) targeting of ORP3 is regulated the by a FFAT motif (EFFDAxE), which mediates interaction with VAMP-associated protein (VAP)-A. The targeting function of the FFAT motif dominates over that of the PH domain. In addition, the exon 10/11 region modulates interaction of ORP3 with the ER and the nuclear membrane. Analysis of a chimeric ORP3:OSBP protein suggests that ligand binding by the C-terminal domain of OSBP induces allosteric changes that activate the N-terminal targeting modules of ORP3. Notably, over-expression of ORP3 together with VAP-A induces stacked ER membrane structures also known as organized smooth ER (OSER). Moreover, lipid starvation promotes formation of dilated peripheral ER (DPER) structures dependent on the ORP3 protein. Based on the present data, we introduce a model for the inter-relationships of the functional domains of ORP3 in the membrane targeting of the protein

  4. A state-of-the-art plasma polymerization coater for ICF targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devine, G.; Letts, S.; Cook, R.; Brusasco, R.

    1992-01-01

    Increasingly stringent demands on the characteristics of plasma polymer coatings for use in Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) experiments have created a need for a plasma Polymerization coating system with the capability of producing a wide variety of different types of coatings as well as one that can be used to do fundamental investigations of the process conditions leading to desirable films. We report on the construction and use of just such a coating instrument. We have recognized the usefulness of computer assisted process monitoring and control, currently being developed by the semiconductor industry, in designing our own, State-of-the-art plasma polymerization device. Our system is fully computer interfaced to provide the user with the capability of collecting system parameter data over the length of the deposition experiment. The system is also designed to allow for any degree of computer control of the deposition process in the future

  5. Liver/kidney microsomal antibody type 1 targets CYP2D6 on hepatocyte plasma membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muratori, L; Parola, M; Ripalti, A; Robino, G; Muratori, P; Bellomo, G; Carini, R; Lenzi, M; Landini, M P; Albano, E; Bianchi, F B

    2000-04-01

    Liver/kidney microsomal antibody type 1 (LKM1) is the marker of type 2 autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) and is detected in up to 6% of patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. It recognises linear and conformational epitopes of cytochrome P450IID6 (CYP2D6) and may have liver damaging activity, provided that CYP2D6 is accessible to effector mechanisms of autoimmune attack. The presence of LKM1 in the plasma membrane was investigated by indirect immunofluorescence and confocal laser microscopy of isolated rat hepatocytes probed with 10 LKM1 positive sera (five from patients with AIH and five from patients with chronic HCV infection) and a rabbit polyclonal anti-CYP2D6 serum. Serum from both types of patient stained the plasma membrane of non-permeabilised cells, where the fluorescent signal could be visualised as discrete clumps. Conversely, permeabilised hepatocytes showed diffuse submembranous/cytoplasmic staining. Adsorption with recombinant CYP2D6 substantially reduced plasma membrane staining and LKM1 immunoblot reactivity. Plasma membrane staining of LKM1 colocalised with that of anti-CYP2D6. Immunoprecipitation experiments showed that a single 50 kDa protein recognised by anti-CYP2D6 can be isolated from the plasma membrane of intact hepatocytes. AIH and HCV related LKM1 recognise CYP2D6 exposed on the plasma membrane of isolated hepatocytes. This observation supports the notion that anti-CYP2D6 autoreactivity may be involved in the pathogenesis of liver damage.

  6. Efficiency of ablative plasma energy transfer into a massive aluminum target using different atomic number ablators

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kasperczuk, A.; Pisarczyk, T.; Chodukowski, T.; Kalinowska, Z.; Stepniewski, W.; Jach, K.; Swierczynski, R.; Renner, Oldřich; Šmíd, Michal; Ullschmied, Jiří; Cikhart, J.; Klír, D.; Kubeš, P.; Řezáč, K.; Krouský, Eduard; Pfeifer, Miroslav; Skála, Jiří

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 33, č. 3 (2015), s. 379-386 ISSN 0263-0346 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ED1.1.00/02.0061; GA MŠk(CZ) LD14089 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 284464 - LASERLAB-EUROPE Grant - others:ELI Beamlines(XE) CZ.1.05/1.1.00/02.0061; AVČR(CZ) M100101208 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 ; RVO:61389021 Keywords : ablator atomic number * crater volume * laser energy transfer * plasma ablative pressure Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics; BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers (UFP-V) Impact factor: 1.649, year: 2015

  7. Experimental characterization of a strongly coupled solid density plasma generated in a short-pulse laser target interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregori, G.; Hansen, S.B.; Key, M.H.; King, J.; Mackinnon, A.J.; Park, H.; Patel, P.K.; Shepard, R.; Snavely, R.A.; Wilks, S.C.; Glenzer, S.H.

    2005-01-01

    We have measured high resolution copper Kα spectra from a picosecond high intensity laser produced plasma. By fitting the shape of the experimental spectra with a self-consistent-field model which includes all the relevant line shifts from multiply ionized atoms, we are able to infer time and spatially averaged electron temperatures (T e ) and ionization state (Z) in the foil. Our results show increasing values for T e and Z when the overall mass of the target is reduced. In particular, we measure temperatures in excess of 200 eV with Z ∼ 13-14. For these conditions the ion-ion coupling constant is Λ ii ∼ 8-9, thus suggesting the achievement of a strongly coupled plasma regime

  8. Experimental characterization of a strongly coupled solid density plasma generated in a short-pulse laser target interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregori, G; Hansen, S B; Key, M H; King, J; Mackinnon, A J; Park, H; Patel, P K; Shepard, R; Snavely, R A; Wilks, S C; Glenzer, S H

    2005-03-17

    We have measured high resolution copper K{alpha} spectra from a picosecond high intensity laser produced plasma. By fitting the shape of the experimental spectra with a self-consistent-field model which includes all the relevant line shifts from multiply ionized atoms, we are able to infer time and spatially averaged electron temperatures (T{sub e}) and ionization state (Z) in the foil. Our results show increasing values for T{sub e} and Z when the overall mass of the target is reduced. In particular, we measure temperatures in excess of 200 eV with Z {approx} 13-14. For these conditions the ion-ion coupling constant is {Lambda}{sub ii} {approx} 8-9, thus suggesting the achievement of a strongly coupled plasma regime.

  9. Spherical cauliflower-like carbon dust formed by interaction between deuterium plasma and graphite target and its internal structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohno, N. [Department of Energy Engineering and Science, Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan)], E-mail: ohno@ees.nagoya-u.ac.jp; Yoshimi, M. [Department of Energy Engineering and Science, Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Tokitani, M. [National Institute for Fusion Science, Oroshi 322-6, Toki 509-5292 (Japan); Takamura, S. [Department of Electronics, Aichi Institute of Technology, Yakusa-cho, Toyota 470-0392 (Japan); Tokunaga, K.; Yoshida, N. [Research Institute for Applied Mechanics, Kyushu University, Kasuga, Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan)

    2009-06-15

    Simulated experiments to produce carbon dust particles with cauliflower structure have been performed in a liner plasma device, NAGDIS-II by exposing high density deuterium plasma to a graphite sample (IG-430U). Formation of carbon dust depends on the surface temperature and the incident ion energy. At a surface temperature 600-700 K, a lot of isolated spherical dust particles are observed on the graphite target. The internal structure of an isolated dust particle was observed with Focused Ion Beam (FIB) system and Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) in detail. FIB analysis clearly shows there exist honey-combed cell structure with thin carbon walls in the dust particle and the dust particle grows from the graphite surface. TEM image also shows that the dust particle is made of amorphous carbon with crystallized grains with diameters of 10-50 nm.

  10. Low-debris, efficient laser-produced plasma extreme ultraviolet source by use of a regenerative liquid microjet target containing tin dioxide (SnO2) nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higashiguchi, Takeshi; Dojyo, Naoto; Hamada, Masaya; Sasaki, Wataru; Kubodera, Shoichi

    2006-05-01

    We demonstrated a low-debris, efficient laser-produced plasma extreme ultraviolet (EUV) source by use of a regenerative liquid microjet target containing tin-dioxide (SnO2) nanoparticles. By using a low SnO2 concentration (6%) solution and dual laser pulses for the plasma control, we observed the EUV conversion efficiency of 1.2% with undetectable debris.

  11. Low-debris, efficient laser-produced plasma extreme ultraviolet source by use of a regenerative liquid microjet target containing tin dioxide (SnO2) nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higashiguchi, Takeshi; Dojyo, Naoto; Hamada, Masaya; Sasaki, Wataru; Kubodera, Shoichi

    2006-01-01

    We demonstrated a low-debris, efficient laser-produced plasma extreme ultraviolet (EUV) source by use of a regenerative liquid microjet target containing tin-dioxide (SnO 2 ) nanoparticles. By using a low SnO 2 concentration (6%) solution and dual laser pulses for the plasma control, we observed the EUV conversion efficiency of 1.2% with undetectable debris

  12. Evaluation of plasma membrane calcium/calmodulin-dependent ATPase isoform 4 as a potential target for fertility control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartwright, Elizabeth J; Neyses, Ludwig

    2010-01-01

    The array of contraceptives currently available is clearly inadequate and does not meet consumer demands since it is estimated that up to a quarter of all pregnancies worldwide are unintended. There is, therefore, an overwhelming global need to develop new effective, safe, ideally non-hormonal contraceptives for both male and female use. The contraceptive field, unlike other areas such as cancer, has a dearth of new targets. We have addressed this issue and propose that isoform 4 of the plasma membrane calcium ATPase is a potentially exciting novel target for fertility control. The plasma membrane calcium ATPase is a ubiquitously expressed calcium pump whose primary function in the majority of cells is to extrude calcium to the extracellular milieu. Two isoforms of this gene family, PMCA1 and PMCA4, are expressed in spermatozoa, with PMCA4 being the predominant isoform. Although this gene is ubiquitously expressed, its function is highly tissue-specific. Genetic deletion of PMCA4, in PMCA4 knockout mice, led to 100% infertility specifically in the male mutant mice due to a selective defect in sperm motility. It is important to note that the gene deletion did not affect normal mating characteristics in these mice. This phenotype was mimicked in wild-type sperm treated with the non-specific PMCA inhibitor 5-(and 6-) carboxyeosin diacetate succinimidyl ester; a proof-of-principle that inhibition of PMCA4 has potential importance in the control of fertility. This review outlines the potential for PMCA4 to be a novel target for fertility control by acting to inhibit sperm motility. It will outline the characteristics that make this target drugable and will describe methodologies to identify and validate novel inhibitors of this target.

  13. Plasma polymerization coating of D-T filled glass shells for laser fusion targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, W.L.; Hatcher, C.W.; Hendricks, C.D.; Letts, S.A.; Lorensen, L.E.

    1977-01-01

    Three plasma sources are described which activate monomers of perfluoro-2-butene or tetrafluoroethylene to produce coatings 10 to 20 μm thick with surfaces finishes <0.1 μm. Electrical and chemical controls of the polymerization processes are shown to improve the surface finish

  14. Elimination of defects in plasma polymerized films used in laser fusion targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Letts, S.A.; Johnson, W.L.; Myers, D.W.; Illige, J.D.; Lorensen, L.E.; Hatcher, C.W.

    1979-01-01

    This study was conducted to understand and control the parameters governing the formation of defects in plasma polymerized surfaces. An inductively-coupled discharge was used as the source of activated monomer. Four types of well characterized surface irregularities were produced on glass slides which were subsequently fluorocarbon coated. Optimization of the process variables is discussed

  15. Fast imaging of laser induced plasma emission of vanadium dioxide (VO2) target

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Masina, BN

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study is to fully optimise the synthesis of vanadium oxide nanostructures using pulsed laser deposition. We will attempt to realise this by studying the mechanism of the plasma formation and expansion during the pulsed...

  16. Interaction of 0.53 {mu}m laser pulse with millimeter-scale plasmas generated by gasbag target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Zhichao; Guo Liang [CAS Key Laboratory of Basic Plasma Physics, and Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui (China); Research Center of Laser Fusion, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang, Sichuan (China); Zheng Jian; Yuan Peng [CAS Key Laboratory of Basic Plasma Physics, and Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui (China); Jiang Xiaohua; Wang Zhebin; Yang Dong; Zhang Huan; Li Sanwei; Yin Qiang; Zhu Fanghua; Peng Xiaoshi; Wang Feng; Yuan Zheng; Chen Li; Liu Shenye; Jiang Shaoen; Ding Yongkun [Research Center of Laser Fusion, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang, Sichuan (China); Shao Ping [Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, CAS, Shanghai (China)

    2012-06-15

    Detailed research on the interaction of a 0.53 {mu}m laser pulse with millimeter-scale plasmas produced by a gasbag target on the Shengguang-II facility is presented. The x-ray pinhole images confirm that millimeter-scale plasmas are generated and the x-ray framing images show a temporal window of 0.6-1.1 ns during which the millimeter-scale plasmas exist. The electron temperature is measured with a collective Thomson scattering system, providing 0.64 keV for C{sub 5}H{sub 12} and 1.8 keV for Xe plasmas. The electron density is inferred from the stimulated Raman scattering spectra. The experimental spectra show large differences for C{sub 5}H{sub 12}- and Xe-filled gasbags. A one-dimensional code based upon steady-state, kinetic linear theory is applied to calculate the stimulated Raman scattering spectra. Excellent agreement between the calculated and experimental results shows that the plasma parameters, especially the electron density and the temperature, dominate the disruption behavior of stimulated Raman scattering. The results also indicate that stimulated Raman scattering is probably located within specific region of the gasbag. The time-integrated reflectivity of both the stimulated Raman and Brillouin scattering is at a low level, even in the conditions of high laser intensity (1.5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 15} W/cm{sup 2}) and no beam-smoothing. The experimental results are promising for future ignition experiments with a 0.53 {mu}m laser as the driver.

  17. Laser plasma interaction in rugby-shaped hohlraums

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masson-Laborde, P.-E.; Philippe, F.; Tassin, V.; Monteil, M.-C.; Gauthier, P.; Casner, A.; Depierreux, S.; Seytor, P.; Teychenne, D.; Loiseau, P.; Freymerie, P.

    2014-10-01

    Rugby shaped-hohlraum has proven to give high performance compared to a classical similar-diameter cylinder hohlraum. Due to this performance, this hohlraum has been chosen as baseline ignition target for the Laser MegaJoule (LMJ). Many experiments have therefore been performed during the last years on the Omega laser facility in order to study in details the rugby hohlraum. In this talk, we will discuss the interpretation of these experiments from the point of view of the laser plasma instability problem. Experimental comparisons have been done between rugby, cylinder and elliptical shape rugby hohlraums and we will discuss how the geometry differences will affect the evolution of laser plasma instabilities (LPI). The efficiency of laser smoothing techniques on these instabilities will also be discussed as well as gas filling effect. The experimental results will be compared with FCI2 hydroradiative calculations and linear postprocessing with Piranah. Experimental Raman and Brillouin spectrum, from which we can infer the location of the parametric instabilities, will be compared to simulated ones, and will give the possibility to compare LPI between the different hohlraum geometries.

  18. Understanding the dynamics of photoionization-induced nonlinear effects and solitons in gas-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saleh, Mohammed F.; Biancalana, Fabio [Max Planck Institute for the Science of Light, Guenther-Scharowsky Str. 1, DE-91058 Erlangen (Germany)

    2011-12-15

    We present the details of our previously formulated model [Saleh et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 203902 (2011)] that governs pulse propagation in hollow-core photonic crystal fibers filled by an ionizable gas. By using perturbative methods, we find that the photoionization process induces the opposite phenomenon of the well-known Raman self-frequency redshift of solitons in solid-core glass fibers, as was recently experimentally demonstrated [Hoelzer et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 203901 (2011)]. This process is only limited by ionization losses, and leads to a constant acceleration of solitons in the time domain with a continuous blueshift in the frequency domain. By applying the Gagnon-Belanger gauge transformation, multipeak ''inverted gravitylike'' solitary waves are predicted. We also demonstrate that the pulse dynamics shows the ejection of solitons during propagation in such fibers, analogous to what happens in conventional solid-core fibers. Moreover, unconventional long-range nonlocal interactions between temporally distant solitons, unique of gas plasma systems, are predicted and studied. Finally, the effects of higher-order dispersion coefficients and the shock operator on the pulse dynamics are investigated, showing that the conversion efficiency of resonant radiation into the deep UV can be improved via plasma formation.

  19. Acceleration of protons in plasma produced from a thin plastic or aluminum target by a femtosecond laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosinski, M.; Badziak, J.; Parys, P.; Zaras-Szydlowska, A.; Ryc, L.; Makowski, J.; Torrisi, L.; Szydlowski, A.; Malinowska, A.; Kaczmarczyk, B.; Torrisi, A.

    2016-01-01

    The acceleration of protons in plasma produced from thin mylar (3.5 μ m) and aluminum (2 μm) targets by a 45-fs laser pulses with the energy of 400 mJ and the intensity of up to 10 19 W/cm 2 was investigated. Characteristics of forward-accelerated protons were measured by the time-of-flight method. In the measurements, special attention was paid to the dependence of proton beam parameters on the laser focus position (FP) in relation to the target surface which resulted in the intensity change within a factor of ∼ 10. It was observed that in the case of using the Mylar target, the dependence of both the maximum ( E pmax ) and the mean (( E p )) proton energy on |Δ x | is clearly non-symmetric with regard to the point where FP = 0 (the focal plane on the target surface) and highest proton energies are achieved when the focal plane is situated in front of the target. In particular, for the target with the thickness of 3.5 μ m E pmax reached 2.2 MeV for FP = +50 μm while for FP = 0 and FP = −100 μm the maximum proton energies reached only 1.6 MeV and 1.3 MeV, respectively. For the aluminum target of 2 μm thickness E p changed only within ∼ 40% and the highest proton energies reached 2.4 MeV.

  20. Interferometric investigation of shock waves induced by a TEA-CO2 laser produced plasma in air in front of a solid target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apostol, D.; Apostol, I.; Cojocaru, E.; Draganescu, V.; Mihailescu, N.I.; Morjan, I.; Konov, I.V.

    1979-06-01

    The shock waves induced in the surrounding atmosphere by an air plasma were investigated by laser interferometry. The air breakdown plasma was produced by a TEA-CO 2 laser in front of a solid target. The results were compared to the predictions of theory of intense explosions in gases and a good agreement was inferred. It was also determined that the symmetry of the expansion of the initial shock wave is determined by the plasma source shape and, accordingly, depends on the laser power density incident on the target surface. However, for further stages all the shock waves expand spherically. (author)

  1. Ionic debye screening in dense liquid plasmas observed for Li+p, d reactions with liquid Li target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasagi, J.; Yonemura, H.; Toriyabe, Y.; Nakagawa, A.; Sugawara, T.; Wang Tieshan

    2009-01-01

    Thick target yields of α particles emitted in the 6 Li(d,α) 4 He and 7 Li(p,α) 4 He reactions were measured for Li target in the solid and liquid phase. Observed reaction rates for the liquid Li are always larger than those for the solid. This suggests that the stopping power of hydrogen ion in the liquid Li metal might be smaller than in the solid. Using the empirically obtained stopping power for the liquid Li, we have deduced the screening potentials of the Li+p and Li+d reactions in both phases. The deduced screening potential for the liquid Li is about 500 eV larger than for the solid. This difference is attributed to the effect of liquefied Li + ions. It is concluded that the ionic screening is much stronger than the electronic screening in a low-temperature dense plasmas. (authors)

  2. Ionic Debye Screening in Dense Liquid Plasmas Observed for Li+p,d Reactions with Liquid Li Target

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J.Kasagi; H.Yonemura; Y.Toriyabe; A.Nakagawa; T.Sugawara; WANG Tie-shan

    2009-01-01

    Thick target yields of a particles emitted in the ~6Li(d,a)~4 He and ~7Li(p,a)~4 He reactions were measured for Li target in the solid and liquid phase.Observed reaction rates for the liquid Li are always larger than those for the solid.This suggests that the stopping power of hydrogen ion in the liquid Li metal might be smaller than in the solid.Using the empirically obtained stopping power for the liquid Li,we have deduced the screening potentials of the Li+p and Li+d reactions in both phases.The deduced screening potential for the liquid Li is about 500 eV larger than for the solid.This difference is attributed to the effect of liquefied Li~+ ions.It is concluded that the ionic screening is much stronger than the electronic screening in a low-temperature dense plasmas.

  3. Laboratory facility for production of cryogenic targets for hot plasma experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadowski, M.; Szydlowski, A.; Jakubowski, L.; Cwiek, E.

    1990-10-01

    Results of preliminary operational tests of the cryogenic stand designed for the production of small droplets of liquid hydrogen or deuterium are presented. Such cryogenic micro-targets are needed for nuclear and thermonuclear experiments. (author)

  4. Differential Impact of Plasma Proteins on the Adhesion Efficiency of Vascular-Targeted Carriers (VTCs) in Blood of Common Laboratory Animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namdee, Katawut; Sobczynski, Daniel J; Onyskiw, Peter J; Eniola-Adefeso, Omolola

    2015-12-16

    Vascular-targeted carrier (VTC) interaction with human plasma is known to reduce targeted adhesion efficiency in vitro. However, the role of plasma proteins on the adhesion efficiency of VTCs in laboratory animals remains unknown. Here, in vitro blood flow assays are used to explore the effects of plasma from mouse, rabbit, and porcine on VTC adhesion. Porcine blood exhibited a strong negative plasma effect on VTC adhesion while no significant plasma effect was found with rabbit and mouse blood. A brush density poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) on VTCs was effective at improving adhesion of microsized, but not nanosized, VTCs in porcine blood. Overall, the results suggest that porcine models, as opposed to mouse, can serve as better models in preclinical research for predicting the in vivo functionality of VTCs for use in humans. These considerations hold great importance for the design of various pharmaceutical products and development of reliable drug delivery systems.

  5. Laser-induced carbon plasma emission spectroscopic measurements on solid targets and in gas-phase optical breakdown

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemes, Laszlo; Keszler, Anna M.; Hornkohl, James O.; Parigger, Christian

    2005-01-01

    We report measurements of time- and spatially averaged spontaneous-emission spectra following laser-induced breakdown on a solid graphite/ambient gas interface and on solid graphite in vacuum, and also emission spectra from gas-phase optical breakdown in allene C3H4 and helium, and in CO2 and helium mixtures. These emission spectra were dominated by CII (singly ionized carbon), CIII (doubly ionized carbon), hydrogen Balmer beta (H b eta), and Swan C2 band features. Using the local thermodynamic equilibrium and thin plasma assumptions, we derived electron number density and electron temperature estimates. The former was in the 1016 cm -3 range, while the latter was found to be near 20000 K. In addition, the vibration-rotation temperature of the Swan bands of the C2 radical was determined to be between 4500 and 7000 K, using an exact theoretical model for simulating diatomic emission spectra. This temperature range is probably caused by the spatial inhomogeneity of the laser-induced plasma plume. Differences are pointed out in the role of ambient CO2 in a solid graphite target and in gas-phase breakdown plasma

  6. High excitation of the species in nitrogen–aluminum plasma generated by electron cyclotron resonance microwave discharge of N2 gas and pulsed laser ablation of Al target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, Peipei; Li, Yanli; Cai, Hua; You, Qinghu; Yang, Xu; Huang, Feiling; Sun, Jian; Xu, Ning; Wu, Jiada

    2014-01-01

    A reactive nitrogen–aluminum plasma generated by electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) microwave discharge of N 2 gas and pulsed laser ablation of an Al target is characterized spectroscopically by time-integrated and time-resolved optical emission spectroscopy (OES). The vibrational and rotational temperatures of N 2 species are determined by spectral simulation. The generated plasma strongly emits radiation from a variety of excited species including ambient nitrogen and ablated aluminum and exhibits unique features in optical emission and temperature evolution compared with the plasmas generated by a pure ECR discharge or by the expansion of the ablation plume. The working N 2 gas is first excited by ECR discharge and the excitation of nitrogen is further enhanced due to the fast expansion of the aluminum plume induced by target ablation, while the excitation of the ablated aluminum is prolonged during the plume expansion in the ECR nitrogen plasma, resulting in the formation of strongly reactive nitrogen–aluminum plasma which contains highly excited species with high vibrational and rotational temperatures. The enhanced intensities and the prolonged duration of the optical emissions of the combined plasma would provide an improved analytical capability for spectrochemical analysis. - Highlights: • ECR discharge and pulsed laser ablation generate highly excited ECR–PLA plasma. • The expansion of PLA plasma results in excitation enhancement of ECR plasma species. • The ECR plasma leads to excitation prolongation of PLA plasma species. • The ECR–PLA plasma emits strong emissions from a variety of excited species. • The ECR–PLA plasma maintains high vibrational–rotational temperatures for a long time

  7. Characterization of extreme ultraviolet light-emitting plasmas from a laser-excited fluorine containing liquid polymer jet target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abel, B.; Assmann, J.; Faubel, M.; Gaebel, K.; Kranzusch, S.; Lugovoj, E.; Mann, K.; Missalla, T.; Peth, Ch.

    2004-01-01

    The operation of a liquid polymer jet laser-plasma target and the characterization of the absolute x-ray emission in the extreme ultraviolet wavelength window from 9-19 nm is reported. The target is a liquid polymer (perfluoro-polyether) that is exposed to pulsed and focused laser light at 532 nm in the form of a thin, liquid microjet (d=40 to 160 μm) in vacuum. The spectral brightness of the source in the 13 nm range is relatively high because a large fraction of radiative energy is emitted in one single line only, which is assigned to be the 2p-3d F VII doublet at 12.8 nm, with a laser energy conversion efficiency of 0.45% (2π sr, 2% bandwidth) in our initial experiment. A further increase of the relative emission has been found in the wavelength range between 7 and 17 nm when the jet diameter was increased from 40 to 160 μm. The two-dimensional spatial profile of the source plasma (d=40 to 50 μm) has been analyzed with a pinhole camera

  8. Results of high heat flux tests of tungsten divertor targets under plasma heat loads expected in ITER and tokamaks (review)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Budaev, V. P., E-mail: budaev@mail.ru [National Research Centre Kurchatov Institute (Russian Federation)

    2016-12-15

    Heat loads on the tungsten divertor targets in the ITER and the tokamak power reactors reach ~10MW m{sup −2} in the steady state of DT discharges, increasing to ~0.6–3.5 GW m{sup −2} under disruptions and ELMs. The results of high heat flux tests (HHFTs) of tungsten under such transient plasma heat loads are reviewed in the paper. The main attention is paid to description of the surface microstructure, recrystallization, and the morphology of the cracks on the target. Effects of melting, cracking of tungsten, drop erosion of the surface, and formation of corrugated and porous layers are observed. Production of submicron-sized tungsten dust and the effects of the inhomogeneous surface of tungsten on the plasma–wall interaction are discussed. In conclusion, the necessity of further HHFTs and investigations of the durability of tungsten under high pulsed plasma loads on the ITER divertor plates, including disruptions and ELMs, is stressed.

  9. Ponderomotive ion acceleration in dense magnetized laser-irradiated thick target plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Ujjwal; Kaw, Predhiman

    2012-03-01

    When a circularly polarized laser pulse falls on an overdense plasma, it displaces the electrons via ponderomotive force creating a double layer. The double layer constitutes of an ion and electron sheath with in which the electrostatic field present is responsible for ion acceleration. In this paper, we have analyzed the effect a static longitudinal magnetic field has over the ion acceleration mechanism. The longitudinal magnetic field changes the plasma dielectric constant due to cyclotron effects which in turn enhances or reduces the ponderomotive force exerted by the laser depending on whether the laser is left or right circularly polarized. Also, the analysis of the ion space charge region present behind the ion sheath of the laser piston that undergoes coulomb explosion has been explored for the first time. We have studied the interaction of an incoming ion beam with the laser piston and the ion space charge. It has been found that the exploding ion space charge has the ability to act as an energy amplifier for incoming ion beams.

  10. Fabrication of a nanocarrier system through self-assembly of plasma protein and its tumor targeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong Guangming; Zhi Feng; Wang Kaikai; Tang Xiaolei; Yuan Ahu; Zhao Lili; Ding Dawei; Hu Yiqiao

    2011-01-01

    Human serum albumin (HSA) nanoparticles hold great promise as a nanocarrier system for targeted drug delivery. The objective of this study was to explore the possibility of preparing size controllable albumin nanoparticles using the disulfide bond breaking reagent β-mercaptoethanol (β-ME). The results showed that the protein concentration and temperature had positive effects on the sizes of the albumin nanoparticles, while pH had a negative effect on the rate of nanoparticle formation. The addition of β-ME induced changes in HSA secondary structure and exposed the hydrophobic core of HSA, leading to the formation of nanoparticles. Human serum albumin nanoparticles could be internalized by MCF-7 cells and mainly accumulated in cytoplasm. After injection in tumor bearing mice, the HSA nanoparticles accumulated in tumor tissues, demonstrating the targeting ability of the nanoparticles. Therefore, human serum albumin can be fabricated into nanoparticles by breaking the disulfide bonds and these nanoparticles exhibit high tumor targeting ability. Human serum albumin nanoparticles could be ideal for the targeted delivery of pharmacologically active substances.

  11. Dose-current discharge correlation analysis in a Mather type Plasma Focus device for medical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumini, M.; Mostacci, D.; Tartari, A.; Mazza, A.; Cucchi, G.; Isolan, L.; Buontempo, F.; Zironi, I.; Castellani, G.

    2017-11-01

    In a Plasma Focus device the plasma collapses into the pinch where it reaches thermonuclear conditions for a few tens of nanoseconds, becoming a multi-radiation source. The nature of the radiation generated depends on the gas filling the chamber and the device working parameters. The self-collimated electron beam generated in the backward direction with respect to the plasma motion is one of the main radiation sources of interest also for medical applications. The electron beam may be guided against a high Z material target to produce an X-ray beam. This technique offers an ultra-high dose rate source of X-rays, able to deliver during the pinch a massive dose (up to 1 Gy per discharge for the PFMA-3 test device), as measured with EBT3 GafchromicⒸfilm tissue equivalent dosimeters. Given the stochastic behavior of the discharge process, a reliable on-line estimate of the dose-delivered is a very challenging task, in some way preventing a systematic application as a potentially interesting therapy device. This work presents an approach to linking the dose registered by the EBT3 GafchromicⒸfilms with the information contained in the signal recorded during the current discharge process. Processing the signal with the Wigner-Ville distribution, a spectrogram was obtained, displaying the information on intensity at various frequency scales, identifying the band of frequencies representative of the pinch events and define some patterns correlated with the dose.

  12. Plasma ion emission from high intensity picosecond laser pulse interactions with solid targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fews, A.P.; Norreys, P.A.; Beg, F.N.; Bell, A.R.; Dangor, A.E.; Danson, C.N.; Lee, P.; Rose, S.J.

    1994-01-01

    The fast ion emission from high intensity, picosecond laser plasmas has been measured to give the characteristic ion energy and the amount of laser energy transferred to ions with energies ≥100 keV/nucleon as a function of incident intensity. The characteristic ion energy varies from 0.2 to 1.3 MeV over the range 2.0x10 17 --2.0x10 18 W cm -2 . Ten percent of the laser energy is transferred into MeV ions at 2.0x10 18 W cm -2 . Calculations of stopping power in high density materials are presented that show that fast ions cannot be ignored in modeling fast ignitor schemes

  13. An N-Terminal ER Export Signal Facilitates the Plasma Membrane Targeting of HCN1 Channels in Photoreceptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Yuan; Laird, Joseph G; Yamaguchi, David M; Baker, Sheila A

    2015-06-01

    Hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated 1 (HCN1) channels are widely expressed in the retina. In photoreceptors, the hyperpolarization-activated current (Ih) carried by HCN1 is important for shaping the light response. It has been shown in multiple systems that trafficking HCN1 channels to specific compartments is key to their function. The localization of HCN1 in photoreceptors is concentrated in the plasma membrane of the inner segment (IS). The mechanisms controlling this localization are not understood. We previously identified a di-arginine endoplasmic reticulum (ER) retention motif that negatively regulates the surface targeting of HCN1. In this study, we sought to identify a forward trafficking signal that could counter the function of the ER retention signal. We studied trafficking of HCN1 and several mutants by imaging their subcellular localization in transgenic X. laevis photoreceptors. Velocity sedimentation was used to assay the assembly state of HCN1 channels. We found the HCN1 N-terminus can redirect a membrane reporter from outer segments (OS) to the plasma membrane of the IS. The sequence necessary for this behavior was mapped to a 20 amino acid region containing a leucine-based ER export motif. The ER export signal is necessary for forward trafficking but not channel oligomerization. Moreover, this ER export signal alone counteracted the di-arginine ER retention signal. We identified an ER export signal in HCN1 that functions with the ER retention signal to maintain equilibrium of HCN1 between the endomembrane system and the plasma membrane.

  14. The GEKKO XII-HIPER (High Intensity Plasma Experimental Research) system relevant to ignition targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyanaga, N.; Nakatsuka, M.; Azechi, H.

    2001-01-01

    To test high gain targets surrogated in the planar geometry, we have constructed a new experimental system (HIPER) which provides the high ablation pressure with a uniform irradiance profile. These performances were achieved by bundling twelve beams of the existing GEKKO XII into a F/3 focus cone. The partially coherent light is introduced for the beam smoothing of a green foot pulse consisting of three beams, and the three-directional smoothing by spectral dispersion is utilized for residual nine beams delivering a blue main drive pulse. The detail of design concept and results of initial activation of this system are reported. (author)

  15. Investigating the foil-generated deuteron beam interaction with a DT target in degenerate and classical plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrangiz, M.; Ghasemizad, A.

    2017-06-01

    Deuteron fast ignition of a conically guided pre-compressed DT fuel is investigated. For this purpose, the acceleration of the deuterated thin foil by the intense laser beam is evaluated. The acceleration values and the number of foil-generated deuterons are calculated in terms of the laser pulse duration. Using the created deuterons as the fast ignitors, we investigate the fast ignition scheme by comparing fully degenerate, partial degenerate and classical types of DT plasma. The total energy gain of deuterons "beam fusion" is calculated to show the efficiency of beam reactions in increasing fusion rate. Besides, the stopping time and stopping range of incident deuterons are evaluated. Our numerical results indicate that degeneracy increases the beam-target collisions. Thus, it prepares the ignition situation sooner than the classical plasma. Moreover, the number of generated deuterons and their acceleration depend on the foil thickness and laser parameters. We show that when a 4ps laser with intensity of 10^{19} W/cm^2 focused onto a 20μm foil, 35× 10^{15} deuterons are generated. Moreover, under our analysis, in order to have a practicable fast ignition, 18% of the laser energy is necessary to convert into a deuteron driver.

  16. The influence of plasma-surface interaction on the performance of tungsten at the ITER divertor vertical targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Temmerman, G.; Hirai, T.; Pitts, R. A.

    2018-04-01

    The tungsten (W) material in the high heat flux regions of the ITER divertor will be exposed to high fluxes of low-energy particles (e.g. H, D, T, He, Ne and/or N). Combined with long-pulse operations, this implies fluences well in excess of the highest values reached in today’s tokamak experiments. Shaping of the individual monoblock top surface and tilting of the vertical targets for leading-edge protection lead to an increased surface heat flux, and thus increased surface temperature and a reduced margin to remain below the temperature at which recrystallization and grain growth begin. Significant morphology changes are known to occur on W after exposure to high fluences of low-energy particles, be it H or He. An analysis of the formation conditions of these morphology changes is made in relation to the conditions expected at the vertical targets during different phases of operations. It is concluded that both H and He-related effects can occur in ITER. In particular, the case of He-induced nanostructure (also known as ‘fuzz’) is reviewed. Fuzz formation appears possible over a limited region of the outer vertical target, the inner target being generally a net Be deposition area. A simple analysis of the fuzz growth rate including the effect of edge-localized modes (ELMs) and the reduced thermal conductivity of fuzz shows that the fuzz thickness is likely to be limited by the occurrence of annealing during ELM-induced thermal excursions. Not only the morphology, but the material mechanical and thermal properties can be modified by plasma exposure. A review of the existing literature is made, but the existing data are insufficient to conclude quantitatively on the importance and extent of these effects for ITER. As a consequence of the high surface temperatures in ITER, W recrystallization is an important effect to consider, since it leads to a decrease in material strength. An approach is proposed here to develop an operational budget for the W material, i

  17. Plasma sample based analysis of gastric cancer progression using targeted metabolomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lario, Sergio; Ramírez-Lázaro, Maria José; Sanjuan-Herráez, Daniel; Brunet-Vega, Anna; Pericay, Carles; Gombau, Lourdes; Junquera, Félix; Quintás, Guillermo; Calvet, Xavier

    2017-12-19

    Gastric carcinogenesis is a multifactorial process described as a stepwise progression from non-active gastritis (NAG), chronic active gastritis (CAG), precursor lesions of gastric cancer (PLGC) and gastric adenocarcinoma. Gastric cancer (GC) 5-year survival rate is highly dependent upon stage of disease at diagnosis, which is based on endoscopy, biopsy and pathological examinations. Non-invasive GC biomarkers would facilitate its diagnosis at early stages leading to improved GC prognosis. We analyzed plasma samples collected from 80 patients diagnosed with NAG without H. pylori infection (NAG-), CAG with H. pylori infection (CAG+), PLGC and GC. A panel of 208 metabolites including acylcarnitines, amino acids and biogenic amines, sphingolipids, glycerophospholipids, hexoses, and tryptophan and phenylalanine metabolites were quantified using two complementary quantitative approaches: Biocrates AbsoluteIDQ®p180 kit and a LC-MS method designed for the analysis of 29 tryptophan pathway and phenylalanine metabolites. Significantly altered metabolic profiles were found in GC patients that allowing discrimination from NAG-, CAG+ and PLGC patients. Pathway analysis showed significantly altered tryptophan and nitrogen metabolic pathways (FDR P < 0.01). Three metabolites (histidine, tryprophan and phenylacetylglutamine) discriminated between non-GC and GC groups. These metabolic signatures open new possibilities to improve surveillance of PLGC patients using a minimally invasive blood analysis.

  18. Plasma Membrane Targeting of Protocadherin 15 Is Regulated by the Golgi-Associated Chaperone Protein PIST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyun Nie

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Protocadherin 15 (PCDH15 is a core component of hair cell tip-links and crucial for proper function of inner ear hair cells. Mutations of PCDH15 gene cause syndromic and nonsyndromic hearing loss. At present, the regulatory mechanisms responsible for the intracellular transportation of PCDH15 largely remain unknown. Here we show that PIST, a Golgi-associated, PDZ domain-containing protein, interacts with PCDH15. The interaction is mediated by the PDZ domain of PIST and the C-terminal PDZ domain-binding interface (PBI of PCDH15. Through this interaction, PIST retains PCDH15 in the trans-Golgi network (TGN and reduces the membrane expression of PCDH15. We have previously showed that PIST regulates the membrane expression of another tip-link component, cadherin 23 (CDH23. Taken together, our finding suggests that PIST regulates the intracellular trafficking and membrane targeting of the tip-link proteins CDH23 and PCDH15.

  19. Characterization of a plasma produced using a high power laser with a gas puff target for x-ray laser experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiedorowicz, H.; Bartnik, A.; Gac, K.; Parys, P.; Szczurek, M.; Tyl, J.

    1995-01-01

    A high temperature, high density plasma can be produced by using a nanosecond, high-power laser with a gas puff target. The gas puff target is formed by puffing a small amount of gas from a high-pressure reservoir through a nozzle into a vacuum chamber. In this paper we present the gas puff target specially designed for x-ray laser experiments. The solenoid valve with the nozzle in the form of a slit 0.3-mm wide and up to 40-mm long, allows to form an elongated gas puff suitable for the creation of an x-ray laser active medium by its perpendicular irradiation with the use of a laser beam focused to a line. Preliminary results of the experiments on the laser irradiation of the gas puff targets, produced by the new valve, show that hot plasma suitable for x-ray lasers is created

  20. Magnetic properties of Co-N films deposited by ECR nitrogen/argon plasma with DC negative-biased Co target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, H.; Zhang, Y.C.; Yang, K.; Liu, H.X.; Zhu, X.D., E-mail: xdzhu@ustc.edu.cn; Zhou, H.Y.

    2017-06-01

    Highlights: • A new method of synthesizing Co-N films containing Co{sub 4}N phase. • Tunable magnetic properties achieved in ECR plasma CVD. • The change of magnetic properties is related to atoms mobility on substrate and the concentration of active species in plasma vapor. - Abstract: By introducing DC negative-biased Co target in the Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) nitrogen/argon plasma, the Co-N films containing Co{sub 4}N phase were synthesized on Si(100) substrate. Effects of processing parameters on magnetic properties of the films are investigated. It is found that magnetic properties of Co-N films vary with N{sub 2}/Ar flow ratio, substrate temperature, and target biasing voltage. The saturation magnetization M{sub s} decreased by increasing the N{sub 2}/Ar gas flow ratio or decreasing target biasing voltage, while the coercive field H{sub c} increased, which is ascribed to the variation of relative concentration for N or Co active species in plasma vapor. The magnetic properties present complex dependency with growth temperature, which is related to the atom mobility on the substrate affected by the growth temperature. This study exhibits a potential of ECR plasma chemical vapor deposition to synthesize the interstitial compounds and tune magnetic properties of films.

  1. Perspectives of Super-Heavy Nuclei research with the upcoming separator-spectrometer setup S3 at GANIL/SPIRAL2 - The VAMOS Gas-Filled separator and AGATA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theisen, Christophe

    2017-11-01

    Several facilities or apparatus for the synthesis and spectroscopy of the Super-Heavy Nuclei (SHN) are presently under construction in the world, which reflect the large interest for this region of extreme mass and charge, but also for the need of even more advanced research infrastructures. Among this new generation, the GANIL/SPIRAL2 facility in Caen, France, will soon deliver very high intense ion beams of several tens of particle μA. The Super Separator Spectrometer S3 has been designed to exploit these new beams for the study of SHN after separation. It will provide the needed beam rejection, mass selection and full arsenal of state-of-the art detection setups. Still at GANIL, the AGATA new generation gamma-ray tracking array is being operated. The VAMOS high acceptance spectrometer is being upgraded as a gas-filled separator. Its coupling with AGATA will lower the spectroscopic limits for the prompt gamma-ray studies of heavy and super-heavy nuclei. In this proceeding, these new devices will be presented along with a selected physics case.

  2. Production of a rapidly rotating plasma by cross-field injection of gun-produced plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohzu, Akira; Ikehata, Takashi; Tanabe, Toshio; Mase, Hiroshi

    1984-01-01

    Cross-field plasma injection with use of a JxB plasma gun is described as a method to produce rapidly rotating plasma in a crossed electric and magnetic field system. The rotational velocity of the plasma is seriously limited by neutrals surrounding the plasma through strong interactions at the boundary layer. The concentration of neutrals can be reduced by the injection of fully or partially ionized plasma into the discharge volume instead of filling the volume with an operating gas. With use of this method, it is observed that the rotational velocity increases by a factor of 2 to 3 when compared with the conventional method of stationary gas-filling. (author)

  3. Study of the effect of low-power pulse laser on arc plasma and magnesium alloy target in hybrid welding by spectral diagnosis technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Liming; Hao, Xinfeng

    2008-10-01

    In order to study the effect of laser pulses on arc plasma and target metal in the hybrid welding process, the spectra of the plasmas in the welding process of magnesium alloys are analysed in this paper. The acquisition system of plasma spectra is set up and the spectral lines of welding plasma are acquired. Compared with tungsten-inert gas (TIG) welding, the intensities of the spectral lines of magnesium increase sharply while those of Ar decrease for strong evaporation and ionization of magnesium alloys in low-power laser/arc hybrid welding. The electron temperature and density are estimated by the Boltzmann plot method and the Stark broadening effect. The result shows that the electron temperature of arc plasma in the hybrid welding process is much lower than that in TIG welding, especially in the laser beam-affected zone. In contrast, the electron density of the plasma is enhanced. The influences of laser parameters on electron temperature are also studied. The changes in electron temperature and density indicate that the effect of laser pulse on the target metal is the dominant factor influencing the electron temperature and density in low-power laser/arc hybrid welding.

  4. A compact, quasi-monochromatic laser-plasma EUV source based on a double-stream gas-puff target at 13.8 nm wavelength

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Wachulak, P.W.; Bartnik, A.; Fiedorowicz, H.; Feigl, T.; Jarocki, R.; Kostecki, J.; Rudawski, P.; Sawicka, Magdalena; Szczurek, M.; Szczurek, A.; Zawadzki, Z.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 100, č. 3 (2010), 461-469 ISSN 0946-2171 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100523 Keywords : laser-plasma * EUV source * gas puff target * elliptical multi- layer * mirror * table-top setup Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 2.239, year: 2010

  5. Development of a plasma assisted ITER level controlled heat source and observation of novel micro/nanostructures produced upon exposure of tungsten targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aomoa, N.; Sarmah, Trinayan; Sah, Puspalata [CIMPLE-PSI Laboratory, Centre of Plasma Physics-Institute for Plasma Research, Sonapur 782 402 Assam (India); Chaudhuri, P.; Khirwarker, S.; Ghosh, J. [Institute for Plasma Research, Gandhinagar 382428 Gujarat (India); Satpati, B. [Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF Bidhannagar, Kolkata 700 064 (India); Kakati, M., E-mail: mayurkak@rediffmail.com [CIMPLE-PSI Laboratory, Centre of Plasma Physics-Institute for Plasma Research, Sonapur 782 402 Assam (India); De Temmerman, G. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon-sur-Verdon, CS 90 046 Saint Paul Lez Durance, Cedex (France)

    2016-05-15

    Highlights: • Developed a plasma assisted ITER level high heat flux device for material testing. • The beam deposits over 10 MW/m{sup 2} flux uniformly over a remote material target. • Hopper micro-crystals were growing while exposing Plansee tungsten in the device. • CIMPLE-PSI being developed for exact reproduction of Tokomak Divertor conditions. - Abstract: This paper reports on the development of a simple, low-cost, segmented plasma torch assisted high-heat flux device for material testing, which can simulate the extreme heat flux expected in future fusion devices. Calorimetric measurements confirmed uniform heat deposition by the well collimated argon plasma beam over a target surface with power fluxes in excess of 10 MW/m{sup 2} during high current, high gas flow rate operations. To understand the outcome of possible melting of first wall material in an ITER like machine, an Plansee tungsten target was exposed in this device, which witnessed growth of micrometer level Hopper crystals and their aggregation to vertical grains in central exposed region. Increase in viscosity of the metal during high under-cooling is believed to have lead to the skeletal patterns, observed for the first time for tungsten here. Transmission electron microscopy confirmed that re-solidified grains on the target actually had crystalline substructures in the nanometer level. This laboratory is in the process of developing an exact linear Tokamak Divertor simulator, where a magnetized hydrogen/helium collimated plasma jet will be produced at higher vacuum, for plasma material interaction studies with direct relevance to modern plasma fusion machines.

  6. Population pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic target attainment analysis of imipenem plasma and urine data in neonates and children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshizawa, Kenichi; Ikawa, Kazuro; Ikeda, Kayo; Ohge, Hiroki; Morikawa, Norifumi

    2013-11-01

    Population pharmacokinetic (PK)-pharmacodynamic target attainment analysis of imipenem was performed to elucidate the PK properties in neonates and children and to rationalize and optimize dosing regimens. Population PK models were separately developed in neonates and children by simultaneously fitting plasma and urine data from 60 neonates and 39 children. The newly developed models were then used to estimate the probability of attaining the pharmacodynamic target (40% of the time above the minimum inhibitory concentration) against clinical isolates of common bacteria in pediatric patients. The data were best described by a 1-compartment model in neonates and a 2-compartment model in children, respectively. Renal clearance in children (0.187 L/h/kg) was double that of neonates (0.0783 L/h/kg), whereas the volume of distribution at steady-state was approximately 1.8-fold larger in neonates (0.466 L/kg) than in children (0.260 L/kg). Age was not a statistically significant covariate in the PK of both groups. Infusions (0.5 h) of 15 mg/kg every 8 h (45 mg/kg/day) and 25 mg/kg every 12 h (50 mg/kg/day) were shown to be sufficient against common bacterial isolates in both patient populations. However, 1.5-h infusions of 25 mg/kg every 8 h (75 mg/kg/day) in neonates and 25 mg/kg every 6 h (100 mg/kg/day) in children were required to be effective against Pseudomonas aeruginosa (minimum inhibitory concentration for 90% of the isolates=16 μg/mL). These results explain the changes in imipenem PK properties during the human growth process and provide guidance for tailoring dosing regimens in each pediatric age group.

  7. The role of aspartic acid residues 405 and 416 of the kidney isotype of sodium-bicarbonate cotransporter 1 in its targeting to the plasma membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucher, Volodymyr; Li, Emily Y.; Conforti, Laura; Zahedi, Kamyar A.

    2012-01-01

    The NH2 terminus of the sodium-bicarbonate cotransporter 1 (NBCe1) plays an important role in its targeting to the plasma membrane. To identify the amino acid residues that contribute to the targeting of NBCe1 to the plasma membrane, polarized MDCK cells were transfected with expression constructs coding for green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged NBCe1 NH2-terminal deletion mutants, and the localization of GFP-tagged proteins was analyzed by confocal microscopy. Our results indicate that the amino acids between residues 399 and 424 of NBCe1A contain important sequences that contribute to its localization to the plasma membrane. Site-directed mutagenesis studies showed that GFP-NBCe1A mutants D405A and D416A are retained in the cytoplasm of the polarized MDCK epithelial cells. Examination of functional activities of D405A and D416A reveals that their activities are reduced compared with the wild-type NBCe1A. Similarly, aspartic acid residues 449 and 460 of pancreatic NBCe1 (NBCe1B), which correspond to residues 405 and 416 of NBCe1A, are also required for its full functional activity and accurate targeting to the plasma membrane. In addition, while replacement of D416 with glutamic acid did not affect the targeting or functional activity of NBCe1A, substitution of D405 with glutamic acid led to the retention of the mutated protein in the intracellular compartment and impaired functional activity. These studies demonstrate that aspartic acid residues 405 and 416 in the NH2 terminus of NBCe1A are important in its accurate targeting to the plasma membrane. PMID:22442137

  8. Deconstructing the pig sex metabolome: Targeted metabolomics in heavy pigs revealed sexual dimorphisms in plasma biomarkers and metabolic pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovo, S; Mazzoni, G; Calò, D G; Galimberti, G; Fanelli, F; Mezzullo, M; Schiavo, G; Scotti, E; Manisi, A; Samoré, A B; Bertolini, F; Trevisi, P; Bosi, P; Dall'Olio, S; Pagotto, U; Fontanesi, L

    2015-12-01

    Metabolomics has opened new possibilities to investigate metabolic differences among animals. In this study, we applied a targeted metabolomic approach to deconstruct the pig sex metabolome as defined by castrated males and entire gilts. Plasma from 545 performance-tested Italian Large White pigs (172 castrated males and 373 females) sampled at about 160 kg live weight were analyzed for 186 metabolites using the Biocrates AbsoluteIDQ p180 Kit. After filtering, 132 metabolites (20 AA, 11 biogenic amines, 1 hexose, 13 acylcarnitines, 11 sphingomyelins, 67 phosphatidylcholines, and 9 lysophosphatidylcholines) were retained for further analyses. The multivariate approach of the sparse partial least squares discriminant analysis was applied, together with a specifically designed statistical pipeline, that included a permutation test and a 10 cross-fold validation procedure that produced stability and effect size statistics for each metabolite. Using this approach, we identified 85 biomarkers (with metabolites from all analyzed chemical families) that contributed to the differences between the 2 groups of pigs ( metabolic shift in castrated males toward energy storage and lipid production. Similar general patterns were observed for most sphingomyelins, phosphatidylcholines, and lysophosphatidylcholines. Metabolomic pathway analysis and pathway enrichment identified several differences between the 2 sexes. This metabolomic overview opened new clues on the biochemical mechanisms underlying sexual dimorphism that, on one hand, might explain differences in terms of economic traits between castrated male pigs and entire gilts and, on the other hand, could strengthen the pig as a model to define metabolic mechanisms related to fat deposition.

  9. X-ray spectroscopic study of nonequilibrium laser produced plasma in porous targets of low average density

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burdonskiy, I.N.; Dimitrenko, V.V.; Fasakhov, I.K.; Gavrilov, V.V.; Goltsov, A.Y.; Kovalskii, N.G.; Mironov, B.N. [Science Research Center of Russian Federation Troitsk Institute for Innovation and Fusion Research, Troitsk, Moscow Reg. (Russian Federation); Faenov, A.Y.; Magunov, A.I.; Pikuz, T.A.; Skobelev, I.Y. [Multicharged Ions Spectra Data Center, VNIIFTRI, Mendeleevo (Russian Federation)

    2006-06-15

    New experimental results on laser irradiation (I {<=} 10{sup 14} W/cm{sup 2}, {lambda} = 1.053 {mu}m) of low-density fibrous agar are presented. X-ray spectrometers with spherically bent mica crystals were used for measuring with high spectral resolution the line spectra of multicharged ions. Detailed analysis of the measured spectra made it possible to determine the temperature of electrons and ions in hot plasma created in laser irradiated low-density samples in dependence on average material density and average intensity within a focal spot. Both the ion and electron temperatures are found to decrease by a factor 1.5 - 2 following a factor of about 3 as increase of the target average density (5 mg/cm{sup 3} and 15 mg/cm{sup 3}) for I 5*10{sup 13} W/cm{sup 2}. In all cases the ion temperature exceeds the electron temperature by a factor of 2 - 3.

  10. Damage of target edges in brush-like geometry in the course of ELM-like plasma pulses in QSPA Kh-50

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makhlaj, V. A.; Garkusha, I. E.; Aksenov, N. N.; Bazylev, B.; Byrka, O. V.; Chebotarev, V. V.; Landman, I.; Herashchenko, S. S.; Staltsov, V. V.

    2015-08-01

    Castellated edges of macro-brush armour elements of ITER divertor can be a source of molten/solid dust particles which are injected into the plasma. The targets that combined in brush-like geometry have been irradiated under different inclination angles in QSPA Kh-50. The cubic brushes element has typical size of 1 cm. The titanium was used to investigate dynamics of mountains' formation. The onset of dust particles ejection from the exposed castellated targets has been studied. Formation of resolidified bridges through the gaps of brush-like targets due to the melt motion is studied in dynamics. With following plasma impacts such resolidified bridges became additional source of dust.

  11. Damage of target edges in brush-like geometry in the course of ELM-like plasma pulses in QSPA Kh-50

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makhlaj, V.A.; Garkusha, I.E.; Aksenov, N.N.; Bazylev, B.; Byrka, O.V.; Chebotarev, V.V.; Landman, I.; Herashchenko, S.S.; Staltsov, V.V.

    2015-01-01

    Castellated edges of macro-brush armour elements of ITER divertor can be a source of molten/solid dust particles which are injected into the plasma. The targets that combined in brush-like geometry have been irradiated under different inclination angles in QSPA Kh-50. The cubic brushes element has typical size of 1 cm. The titanium was used to investigate dynamics of mountains’ formation. The onset of dust particles ejection from the exposed castellated targets has been studied. Formation of resolidified bridges through the gaps of brush-like targets due to the melt motion is studied in dynamics. With following plasma impacts such resolidified bridges became additional source of dust

  12. Damage of target edges in brush-like geometry in the course of ELM-like plasma pulses in QSPA Kh-50

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makhlaj, V.A., E-mail: makhlay@ipp.kharkov.ua [Institute of Plasma Physics of the NSC KIPT, 61108 Kharkov (Ukraine); Garkusha, I.E.; Aksenov, N.N. [Institute of Plasma Physics of the NSC KIPT, 61108 Kharkov (Ukraine); Bazylev, B. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), IHM, 76344 Karlsruhe (Germany); Byrka, O.V.; Chebotarev, V.V. [Institute of Plasma Physics of the NSC KIPT, 61108 Kharkov (Ukraine); Landman, I. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), IHM, 76344 Karlsruhe (Germany); Herashchenko, S.S.; Staltsov, V.V. [Institute of Plasma Physics of the NSC KIPT, 61108 Kharkov (Ukraine)

    2015-08-15

    Castellated edges of macro-brush armour elements of ITER divertor can be a source of molten/solid dust particles which are injected into the plasma. The targets that combined in brush-like geometry have been irradiated under different inclination angles in QSPA Kh-50. The cubic brushes element has typical size of 1 cm. The titanium was used to investigate dynamics of mountains’ formation. The onset of dust particles ejection from the exposed castellated targets has been studied. Formation of resolidified bridges through the gaps of brush-like targets due to the melt motion is studied in dynamics. With following plasma impacts such resolidified bridges became additional source of dust.

  13. Quantify Plasma Response to Non-Axisymmetric (3D) Magnetic Fields in Tokamaks, Final Report for FES (Fusion Energy Sciences) FY2014 Joint Research Target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strait, E. J.; Park, J. K.; Marmar, E. S.; Ahn, J. W.; Berkery, J. W.; Burrell, K. H.; Canik, J. M.; Delgado-Aparicio, L.; Ferraro, N. M.; Garofalo, A. M.; Gates, D. A.; Greenwald, M.; Kim, K.; King, J. D.; Lanctot, M. J.; Lazerson, S. A.; Liu, Y. Q.; Lore, J. D.; Menard, J. E.; Nazikian, R.; Shafer, M. W.; Paz-Soldan, C.; Reiman, A. H.; Rice, J. E.; Sabbagh, S. A.; Sugiyama, L.; Turnbull, A. D.; Volpe, F.; Wang, Z. R.; Wolfe, S. M.

    2014-01-01

    The goal of the 2014 Joint Research Target (JRT) has been to conduct experiments and analysis to investigate and quantify the response of tokamak plasmas to non-axisymmetric (3D) magnetic fields. Although tokamaks are conceptually axisymmetric devices, small asymmetries often result from inaccuracies in the manufacture and assembly of the magnet coils, or from nearby magnetized objects. In addition, non-axisymmetric fields may be deliberately applied for various purposes. Even at small amplitudes of order 10 -4 of the main axisymmetric field, such ''3D'' fields can have profound impacts on the plasma performance. The effects are often detrimental (reduction of stabilizing plasma rotation, degradation of energy confinement, localized heat flux to the divertor, or excitation of instabilities) but may in some case be beneficial (maintenance of rotation, or suppression of instabilities). In general, the magnetic response of the plasma alters the 3D field, so that the magnetic field configuration within the plasma is not simply the sum of the external 3D field and the original axisymmetric field. Typically the plasma response consists of a mixture of local screening of the external field by currents induced at resonant surfaces in the plasma, and amplification of the external field by stable kink modes. Thus, validated magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) models of the plasma response to 3D fields are crucial to the interpretation of existing experiments and the prediction of plasma performance in future devices. The non-axisymmetric coil sets available at each facility allow well-controlled studies of the response to external 3D fields. The work performed in support of the 2014 Joint Research Target has included joint modeling and analysis of existing experimental data, and collaboration on new experiments designed to address the goals of the JRT. A major focus of the work was validation of numerical models through quantitative comparison to experimental data

  14. Quantify Plasma Response to Non-Axisymmetric (3D) Magnetic Fields in Tokamaks, Final Report for FES (Fusion Energy Sciences) FY2014 Joint Research Target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strait, E. J. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Park, J. -K. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Marmar, E. S. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Ahn, J. -W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Berkery, J. W. [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States); Burrell, K. H. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Canik, J. M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Delgado-Aparicio, L. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Ferraro, N. M. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Garofalo, A. M. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Gates, D. A. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Greenwald, M. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Kim, K. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); King, J. D. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Lanctot, M. J. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Lazerson, S. A. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Liu, Y. Q. [Culham Science Centre, Abingdon (United Kingdom). Euratom/CCFE Association; Logan, N. C. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Lore, J. D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Menard, J. E. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Nazikian, R. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Shafer, M. W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Paz-Soldan, C. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Reiman, A. H. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Rice, J. E. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Sabbagh, S. A. [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States); Sugiyama, L. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Turnbull, A. D. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Volpe, F. [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States); Wang, Z. R. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Wolfe, S. M. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2014-09-30

    The goal of the 2014 Joint Research Target (JRT) has been to conduct experiments and analysis to investigate and quantify the response of tokamak plasmas to non-axisymmetric (3D) magnetic fields. Although tokamaks are conceptually axisymmetric devices, small asymmetries often result from inaccuracies in the manufacture and assembly of the magnet coils, or from nearby magnetized objects. In addition, non-axisymmetric fields may be deliberately applied for various purposes. Even at small amplitudes of order 10-4 of the main axisymmetric field, such “3D” fields can have profound impacts on the plasma performance. The effects are often detrimental (reduction of stabilizing plasma rotation, degradation of energy confinement, localized heat flux to the divertor, or excitation of instabilities) but may in some case be beneficial (maintenance of rotation, or suppression of instabilities). In general, the magnetic response of the plasma alters the 3D field, so that the magnetic field configuration within the plasma is not simply the sum of the external 3D field and the original axisymmetric field. Typically the plasma response consists of a mixture of local screening of the external field by currents induced at resonant surfaces in the plasma, and amplification of the external field by stable kink modes. Thus, validated magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) models of the plasma response to 3D fields are crucial to the interpretation of existing experiments and the prediction of plasma performance in future devices. The non-axisymmetric coil sets available at each facility allow well-controlled studies of the response to external 3D fields. The work performed in support of the 2014 Joint Research Target has included joint modeling and analysis of existing experimental data, and collaboration on new experiments designed to address the goals of the JRT. A major focus of the work was validation of numerical models through quantitative comparison to experimental data, in

  15. Influence of target material on structure of the plasma outflow produced by a partly defocused laser beam

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kasperczuk, A.; Pisarczyk, T.; Kálal, M.; Ullschmied, Jiří; Krouský, Eduard; Mašek, Karel; Pfeifer, Miroslav; Rohlena, Karel; Skála, Jiří; Pisarczyk, P.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 94, č. 8 (2009), 081501-1-081501-3 ISSN 0003-6951 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC528; GA MŠk(CZ) 7E08094 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508; CEZ:AV0Z10100523 Keywords : plasma diagnostics * plasma jets * plasma production by laser Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 3.554, year: 2009 http://link.aip.org/link/?APPLAB/94/081501/1

  16. Prediction of hot electron production by ultraintense KrF laser-plasma interactions on solid-density targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Susumu; Takahashi, Eiichi; Miura, Eisuke; Owadano, Yoshiro; Nakamura, Tatsufumi; Kato, Tomokazu

    2002-01-01

    The scaling of hot electron temperature and the spectrum of electron energy by intense laser plasma interactions are reexamined from a viewpoint of the difference in laser wavelength. Laser plasma interaction such as parametric instabilities is usually determined by the Iλ2 scaling, where I and λ is the laser intensity and wavelength, respectively. However, the hot electron temperature is proportional to (ncr/ne0)1/2 [(1 + a 0 2 ) 1/2 - 1] rather than [(1 + a 0 2 ) 1/2 - 1] at the interaction with overdense plasmas, where ne0 is a electron density of overdense plasmas and a0 is a normalized laser intensity

  17. Integrative analysis reveals CD38 as a therapeutic target for plasma cell-rich pre-disease and established rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Suzanne; Walsh, Alice; Yin, Xuefeng; Wechalekar, Mihir D; Smith, Malcolm D; Proudman, Susanna M; Veale, Douglas J; Fearon, Ursula; Pitzalis, Costantino; Humby, Frances; Bombardieri, Michele; Axel, Amy; Adams, Homer; Chiu, Christopher; Sharp, Michael; Alvarez, John; Anderson, Ian; Madakamutil, Loui; Nagpal, Sunil; Guo, Yanxia

    2018-05-02

    Plasmablasts and plasma cells play a key role in many autoimmune diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). This study was undertaken to evaluate the potential of targeting CD38 as a plasma cell/plasmablast depletion mechanism by daratumumab in the treatment of patients with RA and SLE. RNA-sequencing analysis of synovial biopsies from various stages of RA disease progression, flow cytometry analysis of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from patients with RA or SLE and healthy donors, immunohistochemistry assessment (IHC) of synovial biopsies from patients with early RA, and ex vivo immune cell depletion assays using daratumumab (an anti-CD38 monoclonal antibody) were used to assess CD38 as a therapeutic target. We demonstrated that the plasma cell/plasmablast-related genes CD38, XBP1, IRF4, PRDM1, IGJ and TNFSF13B are significantly up-regulated in synovial biopsies from patients with arthralgia, undifferentiated arthritis (UA), early RA and established RA as compared to healthy controls and control patients with osteoarthritis. In addition, the highest CD38 expression was observed on plasma cells and plasmablasts compared to natural killer (NK) cells, classical dendritic cells (DCs), plasmacytoid DCs (pDCs) and T cells, in blood from healthy controls and patients with SLE and RA. Furthermore, IHC showed CD38 staining in the same region as CD3 and CD138 staining in synovial tissue biopsies from patients with early RA. Most importantly, our data show for the first time that daratumumab effectively depletes plasma cells/plasmablasts in PBMC from patients with SLE and RA in a dose-dependent manner ex vivo. These results indicate that CD38 may be a potential target for RA disease interception and daratumumab should be evaluated clinically for the treatment of both RA and SLE.

  18. Relationship of plasma proadrenomedullin and cortisol levels with systemic inflammatory response and target organ damage in children with sepsis after burn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing Wei

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the relationship of plasma proadrenomedullin (pro-ADM and cortisol (Cor levels with systemic inflammatory response and target organ damage in children with sepsis after burn. Methods: A total of 30 children with sepsis after burn who were treated in the hospital between August 2014 and August 2016 were collected as observation group, and 30 normal children who received vaccination in the hospital during the same period were collected as normal control group. The pro-ADM and Cor levels in plasma as well as the levels of inflammatory factors, myocardial injury markers and intestinal barrier function indexes in serum of the two groups were determined. Pearson test was used to assess the correlation of plasma pro-ADM and Cor levels with systemic inflammatory response and target organ damage in patients with sepsis after burn. Results: Plasma pro-ADM and Cor levels in observation group were higher than those in normal control group. Serum inflammatory cytokines IL-1, IL-6, IL-10 and TNF-α levels in observation group were higher than those in normal control group; serum myocardial injury markers CK-MB, cTnⅠ and NT-proBNP levels were higher than those in normal control group; serum intestinal barrier function indexes ET, DAO and D-L levels were higher than those in normal control group. Conclusion: Plasma pro-ADM and Cor levels increase in patients with sepsis after burn, and are highly consistent with systemic inflammatory response and target organ injury.

  19. Design a 10 kJ IS Mather Type Plasma Focus for Solid Target Activation to Produce Short-Lived Radioisotopes 12C(d,n)13N

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadat Kiai, S. M.; Adlparvar, S.; Sheibani, S.; Elahi, M.; Safarien, A.; Farhangi, S.; Zirak, A. R.; Alhooie, S.; Mortazavi, B. N.; Khalaj, M. M.; Khanchi, A. R.; Dabirzadeh, A. A.; Kashani, A.; Zahedi, F.

    2010-10-01

    A 10 kJ (15 kV, 88 μF) IS (Iranian Sun) Mather type plasma focus device has been studied to determine the activity of a compound exogenous carbon solid target through 12C(d,n)13N nuclear reaction. The produced 13N is a short-lived radioisotope with a half-life of 9.97 min and threshold energy of 0.28 MeV. The results indicate that energetic deuterons impinging on the solid target can produce yield of = 6.7 × 10-5 with an activity of A = 6.8 × 104 Bq for one plasma focus shut and A ν = 4 × 105 Bq for 6 shut per mint when the projectile maximum deuterons energy is E max = 3 MeV.

  20. Mechanism for the generation of 109 G magnetic fields in the interaction of ultraintense short laser pulse with an overdense plasma target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudan, R.N.

    1993-01-01

    The physical mechanism for the generation of very high ''dc'' magnetic fields in the interaction of ultraintense short laser pulse with an overdense plasma target originates in the spatial gradients and nonstationary character of the ponderomotive force. A set of model equations to determine the evolution of the ''dc'' fields is derived and it is shown that the ''dc'' magnetic field is of the same order of magnitude as the high frequency laser magnetic field

  1. Plasma conditions generated by interaction of a high brightness, prepulse free Raman amplified KrF laser pulse with solid targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riley, D.; Gizzi, L.A.; Khattak, F.Y.; Mackinnon, A.J.; Viana, S.M.; Willi, O.

    1992-01-01

    A high brightness, Raman amplified KrF laser has been used to irradiate solid targets with 12 ps laser pulses at intensities above 10 15 W/cm 2 without the presence of a preformed plasma caused by low level amplified spontaneous emission prepulse. Time-resolved x-ray spectroscopy of the K-shell emission from aluminum was used to infer electron densities in excess of 10 23 cm -3 at temperatures of several hundred electronvolts

  2. GRP1 PH Domain, Like AKT1 PH Domain, Possesses a Sentry Glutamate Residue Essential for Specific Targeting to Plasma Membrane PI(3,4,5)P3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilling, Carissa; Landgraf, Kyle E.; Falke, Joseph J.

    2011-01-01

    During the appearance of the signaling lipid PI(3,4,5)P3, an important subset of pleckstrin homology (PH) domains target signaling proteins to the plasma membrane. To ensure proper pathway regulation, such PI(3,4,5)P3-specific PH domains must exclude the more prevalant, constitutive plasma membrane lipid PI(4,5)P2 and bind the rare PI(3,4,5)P3 target lipid with sufficiently high affinity. Our previous study of the E17K mutant of protein kinase B (AKT1) PH domain, together with evidence from Carpten et al (1), revealed that the native AKT1 E17 residue serves as a sentry glutamate that excludes PI(4,5)P2, thereby playing an essential role in specific PI(3,4,5)P3 targeting (2). The sentry glutamate hypothesis proposes that an analogous sentry glutamate residue is a widespread feature of PI(3,4,5)P3-specific PH domains, and that charge reversal mutation at the sentry glutamate position will yield both increased PI(4,5)P2 affinity and constitutive plasma membrane targeting. To test this hypothesis the present study investigates the E345 residue, a putative sentry glutamate, of General Receptor for Phosphoinositides 1 (GRP1) PH domain. The results show that incorporation of the E345K charge reversal mutation into GRP1 PH domain enhances PI(4,5)P2 affinity 8-fold and yields constitutive plasma membrane targeting in cells, reminiscent of the effects of the E17K mutation in AKT1 PH domain. Hydrolysis of plasma membrane PI(4,5)P2 releases E345K GRP1 PH domain into the cytoplasm and the efficiency of this release increases when target Arf6 binding is disrupted. Overall, the findings provide strong support for the sentry glutamate hypothesis and suggest that the GRP1 E345K mutation will be linked to changes in cell physiology and human pathologies, as demonstrated for AKT1 E17K (1, 3). Analysis of available PH domain structures suggests that a lone glutamate residue (or, in some cases an aspartate) is a common, perhaps ubiquitous, feature of PI(3,4,5)P3-specific binding

  3. Influence of plasma-induced energy deposition effects, the equation of state, thermal ionization, pulse shaping, and radiation on ion-beam-driven expansions of plane metal targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, K.A.; Tahir, N.A.

    1986-01-01

    In a previous paper by Long and Tahir [Phys. Fluids 29, 275 (1986)], the motion of plane targets irradiated by ion beams whose energy deposition was assumed to be independent of the ion energy, and the temperature and density of the plasma, was analyzed. In this paper, the analytic solution is extended in order to include the effects of a temperature-and density-dependent energy deposition as a result of electron excitation, an improved equation of state, thermal ionization, a pulse shape, and radiation losses. The change in the energy deposition with temperature and density leads to range shortening and an increased power deposition in the target. It is shown how the analytic theory can be used to analyze experiments to measure the enhanced energy deposition. In order to further analyze experiments, numerical simulations are presented which include the plasma-induced effects on the energy deposition. It is shown that since the change in the range is due to both decrease in density and the increase in temperature, it is not possible to separate these two effects in present experiments. Therefore, the experiments which measure the time-dependent energy of the ions emerging from the back side of a plane target do not as yet measure the energy loss as a function of the density and temperature of the plasma or of the energy of the ion, but only an averaged loss over certain ranges of these physical quantities

  4. Particle-in-cell simulations of the plasma interaction with poloidal gaps in the ITER divertor outer vertical target.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Komm, Michael; Gunn, J. P.; Dejarnac, Renaud; Pánek, Radomír; Pitts, R.A.; Podolník, Aleš

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 57, č. 12 (2017), č. článku 126047. ISSN 0029-5515 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-14228S; GA MŠk(CZ) 8D15001 Grant - others:Ga MŠk(CZ) LM2015070 Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : tokamak * plasma * ITER * particle-in-cell * heat loads * monoblock Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics OBOR OECD: Fluids and plasma physics (including surface physics) Impact factor: 3.307, year: 2016 http://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1741-4326/aa8a9a/meta

  5. Pre-plasma effect on energy transfer from laser beam to shock wave generated in solid target

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pisarczyk, T.; Gus’kov, S.Yu.; Kalinowska, Z.; Badziak, J.; Batani, D.; Antonelli, L.; Folpini, G.; Maheut, Y.; Baffigi, F.; Borodziuk, S.; Chodukowski, T.; Cristoforetti, G.; Demchenko, N. N.; Gizzi, L.A.; Kasperczuk, A.; Koester, P.; Krouský, Eduard; Labate, L.; Parys, P.; Pfeifer, Miroslav; Renner, Oldřich; Šmíd, Michal; Rosinski, M.; Skála, Jiří; Dudžák, Roman; Ullschmied, Jiří; Pisarczyk, P.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 21, č. 1 (2014), 012708/1-012708/7 ISSN 1070-664X R&D Projects: GA MŠk LM2010014; GA MŠk ED1.1.00/02.0061; GA MŠk EE2.3.20.0279 Institutional support: RVO:61389021 ; RVO:68378271 Keywords : Energy transfer * laser ablation * shock waves * plasma waves * laser beam effects Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics; BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics (FZU-D) Impact factor: 2.142, year: 2014 http://scitation.aip.org/content/aip/journal/pop/21/1/10.1063/1.4862784

  6. Properties of the Dense Plasma Produced in Plasma Focus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peacock, N.J.; Wilcock, P.D.; Speer, R.J.; Morgan, P.D.

    1969-01-01

    The plasma produced by the focus or quasi-cylindrical magnetic compression which occurs at the open end of a metal-walled, coaxial plasma gun has been studied, using the electrical waveforms and the electromagnetic and reaction particle, emission. The electromagnetic radiation in the XUV region of the spectrum has previously been briefly reported, and the present paper describes further more detailed analyses of the line emission at wavelengths shorter than 10 Å when impurities are added to the gas filling. The emission is characteristic of a plasma with a temperature of a few keV and a density greater than 10 19 cm -3 , while the appearance of optical transitions in highly stripped ions, e. g. A XVIII, gives a measure of the thermalization in the plasma. The stored electrical energy has been doubled and the scaling of the neutron emission with the applied voltage and the initial particle density is presented. The duration of the neutron and X-ray emission is considerably longer than the observed instability growth time in the plasma filament. Calculations of the mode of heating and the confinement of the plasma are compared with experimental observations. (author)

  7. Plasma device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thode, L.E.

    1981-01-01

    A relativistic electron beam generator or accelerator produces a high-voltage electron beam which is modulated to initiate electron bunching within the beam which is then applied to a high-density target plasma which typically comprises DT, DD, or similar thermonuclear gas at a density of 10 17 to 10 20 electrons per cubic centimeter. As a result, relativistic streaming instabilities are initiated within the high-density target plasma causing the relativistic electron beam to efficiently deposit its energy into a small localized region of the high-density plasma target. The high-temperature plasma can be used to heat a high Z material to generate radiation. Alternatively, a tunable radiation source is produced by using a moderate Z gas or a mixture of high Z and low Z gas as the target plasma. (author)

  8. Clinical Determinants of Target Non-Attainment of Linezolid in Plasma and Interstitial Space Fluid: A Pooled Population Pharmacokinetic Analysis with Focus on Critically Ill Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minichmayr, Iris K; Schaeftlein, André; Kuti, Joseph L; Zeitlinger, Markus; Kloft, Charlotte

    2017-06-01

    We aimed to assess linezolid pharmacokinetics in the plasma and interstitial space fluid (ISF) of patients with sepsis, diabetic foot infections or cystic fibrosis and healthy volunteers. The impacts of joint characteristics and disease on plasma and target-site exposure were to be identified together with the benefit of dose intensification in critically ill patients. Rich plasma (n = 1598) and ISF concentrations in subcutaneous adipose (n = 1430) and muscle tissue (n = 1089) measured by microdialysis were pooled from three clinical trials with 51 individuals receiving 600 mg of intravenous and oral linezolid. All data were analysed simultaneously by a population approach also considering methodological aspects of microdialysis. The impact of covariates on the attainment of the pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic targets, AUC/MIC = 100 (area under the concentration-time curve/minimum inhibitory concentration) and fT >MIC  = 99 % (time that unbound concentrations exceed the MIC), was assessed by deterministic and Monte Carlo simulations. A two-compartment pharmacokinetic model with nonlinear elimination and tissue distribution factors accounting for differences between plasma and ISF concentrations adequately predicted all measurements. Clearance (CL) was highest in septic patients (11.2 L/h vs. CL Healthy /CL Cystic fibrosis /CL Diabetic  = 7.67/6.87/6.35 L/h). Penetration into subcutaneous adipose ISF was lowest in diabetic patients (-34.9 % compared with healthy volunteers). Creatinine clearance and total body weight further impacted linezolid exposure. To achieve timely efficacious therapy, front-loaded dosing and continuous infusion seemed beneficial in septic patients. Our analysis suggests that after standard linezolid doses, particularly patients with sepsis and conserved renal function are at risk of not attaining pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic targets and would benefit from initial dose intensification.

  9. Pulsed laser ablation of wire-shaped target in a thin water jet: effects of plasma features and bubble dynamics on the PLAL process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dell’Aglio, Marcella; De Giacomo, Alessandro; Kohsakowski, Sebastian; Barcikowski, Stephan; Wagener, Philipp; Santagata, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, emission spectroscopy and fast imaging surveys during pulsed laser ablation in liquid (PLAL) for nanoparticles (NPs) production have been used, in order to provide further details about the process involved and the potentialities offered by a wire-shaped sample ablated in a flowing water jet. This kind of set-up has been explored because the laser ablation efficiency in water increases when a thin water layer and a wire-shaped target are used. In order to understand the physical processes causing the increasing ablation efficiency, both the laser-induced plasma and bubble dynamics generated in a flowing liquid jet have been analysed. The plasma parameters and the bubble behaviour in such a system have been compared with those observed in conventional PLAL experiments, where either a bulk or a wire-shaped target is immersed in bulk water. From the data presented here it is evidenced that the plasma and shockwave induced during the breakdown process can play a direct role in the ablation efficiency variation observed. With regard to the cavitation bubbles evolving near a free surface (the interface between water and air) it should be noted that these have to be treated with caution as a consequence of the strong influence played in these circumstances by the boundary of the water jet during its expansion dynamics. The effects due to the size of the liquid layer, the presence of the water/air interface, the liquid characteristics, the target shape, the plasma evolution and the bubble dynamics together with their outcomes on the NPs’ production, are presented and discussed. (paper)

  10. Investigation of the effect of laser parameters on the target, plume and plasma behavior during and after laser-solid interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stancalie, A.; Ciobanu, S. S.; Sporea, D.

    2017-09-01

    A detailed theoretical and experimental analysis is performed for a wide range of laser operating conditions, typical for laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) and laser ablation (LA) experiments on copper metallic target. The plasma parameters were experimentally estimated from the line intensities ratio which reflects the relative population of neutral excited species in the plasma. In the case of LA experiments the highest temperature observed was 8210 ± 370 K. In case of LIBS measurements, a maximum temperature of 8123 K has been determined. The experimental results are in good agreement with a stationary, hydrodynamic model. We have theoretically investigated the plasma emission based on the generalized collisional-radiative model as implemented in the ADAS interconnected set of computer codes and data collections. The ionic population density distribution over the ground and excited states into the cooper plasma is graphically displayed as output from the code. The theoretical line intensity ratios are in good agreement with experimental values for the electron density and temperature range measured in our experiments.

  11. Liver/kidney microsomal antibody type 1 targets CYP2D6 on hepatocyte plasma membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muratori, L; Parola, M; Ripalti, A; Robino, G; Muratori, P; Bellomo, G; Carini, R; Lenzi, M; Landini, M; Albano, E; Bianchi, F

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Liver/kidney microsomal antibody type 1 (LKM1) is the marker of type 2 autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) and is detected in up to 6% of patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. It recognises linear and conformational epitopes of cytochrome P450IID6 (CYP2D6) and may have liver damaging activity, provided that CYP2D6 is accessible to effector mechanisms of autoimmune attack.
METHODS—The presence of LKM1 in the plasma membrane was investigated by indirect immunofluorescence and confocal laser microscopy of isolated rat hepatocytes probed with 10 LKM1 positive sera (five from patients with AIH and five from patients with chronic HCV infection) and a rabbit polyclonal anti-CYP2D6 serum.
RESULTS—Serum from both types of patient stained the plasma membrane of non-permeabilised cells, where the fluorescent signal could be visualised as discrete clumps. Conversely, permeabilised hepatocytes showed diffuse submembranous/cytoplasmic staining. Adsorption with recombinant CYP2D6 substantially reduced plasma membrane staining and LKM1 immunoblot reactivity. Plasma membrane staining of LKM1 colocalised with that of anti-CYP2D6. Immunoprecipitation experiments showed that a single 50 kDa protein recognised by anti-CYP2D6 can be isolated from the plasma membrane of intact hepatocytes.
CONCLUSIONS—AIH and HCV related LKM1 recognise CYP2D6 exposed on the plasma membrane of isolated hepatocytes. This observation supports the notion that anti-CYP2D6 autoreactivity may be involved in the pathogenesis of liver damage.


Keywords: liver/kidney microsomal antibody type 1; autoimmunity; autoimmune hepatitis; hepatitis C virus infection; confocal microscopy PMID:10716687

  12. On the possibility of using lithium-6 deuteride, irradiated with gas discharge plasma in a target with polarized nuclei of deuterium and lithium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bunyatova, E.I.; Bubnov, N.N.; Solodovnikov, S.P.

    1991-01-01

    A target with polarized nuclei made on the basis of irradiated lithium-6 deuteride is of great interest for carrying out investigations in elementary particle physics. Up to now high-energy electrons have been used for generation of F-centers in 6 LiD. It is shown that one can, in principle, use ultraviolet irradiation and gas discharge plasma for generation of F-centers in 6 LiD. Both types of irradiation cause electron paramagnetic resonance signals from conductance electrons of lithium and form F-centers in 6 LiD. It seems possible to obtain the necessary samples by exposing 6 LiD to the gas discharge plasma. 9 refs.; 2 figs

  13. Identification of ERdj3 and OBF-1/BOB-1/OCA-B as direct targets of XBP-1 during plasma cell differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Ying; Hendershot, Linda M

    2007-09-01

    Plasma cell differentiation is accompanied by a modified unfolded protein response (UPR), which involves activation of the Ire1 and activating transcription factor 6 branches, but not the PKR-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase branch. Ire1-mediated splicing of XBP-1 (XBP-1(S)) is required for terminal differentiation, although the direct targets of XBP-1(S) in this process have not been identified. We demonstrate that XBP-1(S) binds to the promoter of ERdj3 in plasmacytoma cells and in LPS-stimulated primary splenic B cells, which corresponds to increased expression of ERdj3 transcripts in both cases. When small hairpin RNA was used to decrease XBP-1 expression in plasmacytoma lines, ERdj3 transcripts were concomitantly reduced. The accumulation of Ig gamma H chain protein was also diminished, but unexpectedly this occurred at the transcriptional level as opposed to effects on H chain stability. The decrease in H chain transcripts correlated with a reduction in mRNA encoding the H chain transcription factor, OBF-1/BOB-1/OCA-B. Chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments revealed that XBP-1(S) binds to the OBF-1/BOB-1/OCA-B promoter in the plasmacytoma line and in primary B cells not only during plasma cell differentiation, but also in response to classical UPR activation. Gel shift assays suggest that XBP-1(S) binding occurs through a UPR element conserved in both murine and human OBF-1/BOB-1/OCA-B promoters as opposed to endoplasmic reticulum stress response elements. Our studies are the first to identify direct downstream targets of XBP-1(S) during either plasma cell differentiation or the UPR. In addition, our data further define the XBP-1(S)-binding sequence and provide yet another role for this protein as a master regulator of plasma cell differentiation.

  14. Plasma membrane associated, virus-specific polypeptides required for the formation of target antigen complexes recognized by virus-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domber, E.A.

    1986-01-01

    These studies were undertaken to define some of the poxvirus-specific target antigens which are synthesized in infected cells and recognized by vaccinia virus-specific CTLs (VV-CTLs). Since vaccinia virus infected, unmanipulated target cells express numerous virus-specific antigens on the plasma membrane, attempts were made to manipulate expression of the poxvirus genome after infection so that one or a few defined virus-specified antigens were expressed on the surface of infected cells. In vitro [ 51 Cr]-release assays determined that viral DNA synthesis and expression of late viral proteins were not necessary to form a target cell which was fully competent for lysis by VV-CTLs. Under the conditions employed in these experiments, 90-120 minutes of viral protein synthesis were necessary to produce a competent cell for lysis by VV-CTLs. In order to further inhibit the expression of early viral proteins in infected cells, partially UV-inactivated vaccinia virus was employed to infect target cells. It was determined that L-cells infected with virus preparations which had been UV-irradiated for 90 seconds were fully competent for lysis by VV-CTLs. Cells infected with 90 second UV-irr virus expressed 3 predominant, plasma membrane associated antigens of 36-37K, 27-28K, and 19-17K. These 3 viral antigens represent the predominant membrane-associated viral antigens available for interaction with class I, major histocompatibility antigens and hence are potential target antigens for VV-CTLs

  15. Momentum, heat, and neutral mass transport in convective atmospheric pressure plasma-liquid systems and implications for aqueous targets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindsay, A.; Anderson, C.; Slikboer, E.T.; Shannon, S.; Graves, D.

    2015-01-01

    There is a growing interest in the study of plasma-liquid interactions with application to biomedicine, chemical disinfection, agriculture, and other fields. This work models the momentum, heat, and neutral species mass transfer between gas and aqueous phases in the context of a streamer discharge;

  16. The C-terminal hypervariable domain targets Aradopsis ROP9 to the invaginated pollen tube plasma membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rop9 is a small GTPase of the Type II class, whereas the often studied type I Rops play roles during pollen tube growth. In pollen, Rop9 is located at the invaginated plasma membrane that surrounds the sperm cells, whereas type I Rops are located at the apical membrane of the pollen tube. The C-ter...

  17. Momentum, heat, and neutral mass transport in convective atmospheric pressure plasma-liquid systems and implications for aqueous targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, Alexander; Anderson, Carly; Slikboer, Elmar; Shannon, Steven; Graves, David

    2015-10-01

    There is a growing interest in the study of plasma-liquid interactions with application to biomedicine, chemical disinfection, agriculture, and other fields. This work models the momentum, heat, and neutral species mass transfer between gas and aqueous phases in the context of a streamer discharge; the qualitative conclusions are generally applicable to plasma-liquid systems. The problem domain is discretized using the finite element method. The most interesting and relevant model result for application purposes is the steep gradients in reactive species at the interface. At the center of where the reactive gas stream impinges on the water surface, the aqueous concentrations of OH and ONOOH decrease by roughly 9 and 4 orders of magnitude respectively within 50 μ m of the interface. Recognizing the limited penetration of reactive plasma species into the aqueous phase is critical to discussions about the therapeutic mechanisms for direct plasma treatment of biological solutions. Other interesting results from this study include the presence of a 10 K temperature drop in the gas boundary layer adjacent to the interface that arises from convective cooling. Though the temperature magnitudes may vary among atmospheric discharge types (different amounts of plasma-gas heating), this relative difference between gas and liquid bulk temperatures is expected to be present for any system in which convection is significant. Accounting for the resulting difference between gas and liquid bulk temperatures has a significant impact on reaction kinetics; factor of two changes in terminal aqueous species concentrations like H2O2, NO2- , and NO3- are observed in this study if the effect of evaporative cooling is not included.

  18. Information management data base for fusion target fabrication processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynolds, J.

    1983-01-01

    A computer-based data management system has been developed to handle data associated with target fabrication processes including glass microballoon characterization, gas filling, materials coating, and storage locations. The system provides automatic data storage and computation, flexible data entry procedures, fast access, automated report generation, and secure data transfer. It resides on a CDC CYBER 175 computer and is compatible with the CDC data base language Query Update, but is based on custom fortran software interacting directly with the CYBER's file management system. The described data base maintains detailed, accurate, and readily available records of fusion targets information

  19. Theoretical and experimental investigation of the Z pinch plasma as a source of power pulse of soft X radiation for generation of shock waves in condensed targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grabovskij, E.V.; Smirnov, V.P.; Zakharov, S.V.; Vorob'ev, O.Yu.; Dyabilin, K.S.; Lebedev, M.E.; Fortov, V.E.; Frolov, A.A.

    1996-01-01

    Paper presents the results of theoretical analysis of processes occurring in Z-pinch plasma under conditions initiating a powerful pulse of soft X-radiation. The main attention is focused on double liner circuit designs. Estimations of power of radiation and spectrum are studied. The results are used to simulate processes occurring at generation of shock waves under the effect of soft X-radiation on the target. Experiments to generate shock waves with up to 3 Mbar amplitude pressure in lead under the effect of soft X-radiation were conducted using Angara-5 plant. 24 refs., 9 figs

  20. Scaling laws for simple heavy ion targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gula, W.P.; Magelssen, G.R.

    1981-01-01

    We have examined the behavior of single shell DT gas filled spherical targets irradiated by a constant power heavy ion beam pulse. For targets in which the ion range is less than the shell thickness, our computational results suggest that the target can be divided into three regions: (1) the absorber (100 to 400 eV for the energies we have considered), (2) the cold pusher (a few eV), and (3) the DT gas fuel. We have examined the pusher collapse time, velocity, and maximum kinetic energy variations as functions of the various target parameters and ion beam energy. The results are expressed in analytic terms and verified by computer simulation

  1. Development of a liquid tin microjet target for an efficient laser-produced plasma extreme ultraviolet source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higashiguchi, Takeshi; Hamada, Masaya; Kubodera, Shoichi

    2007-03-01

    A regenerative tin liquid microjet target was developed for a high average power extreme ultraviolet (EUV) source. The diameter of the target was smaller than 160 microm and good vacuum lower than 0.5 Pa was maintained during the operation. A maximum EUV conversion efficiency of 1.8% at the Nd:yttrium-aluminum-garnet laser intensity of around 2 x 10(11) Wcm(2) with a spot diameter of 175 microm (full width at half maximum) was observed. The angular distribution of the EUV emission remained almost isotropic, whereas suprathermal ions mainly emerged toward the target normal.

  2. Development of a liquid tin microjet target for an efficient laser-produced plasma extreme ultraviolet source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higashiguchi, Takeshi; Hamada, Masaya; Kubodera, Shoichi

    2007-03-01

    A regenerative tin liquid microjet target was developed for a high average power extreme ultraviolet (EUV) source. The diameter of the target was smaller than 160 μm and good vacuum lower than 0.5 Pa was maintained during the operation. A maximum EUV conversion efficiency of 1.8% at the Nd:yttrium-aluminum-garnet laser intensity of around 2×1011 W/cm2 with a spot diameter of 175 μm (full width at half maximum) was observed. The angular distribution of the EUV emission remained almost isotropic, whereas suprathermal ions mainly emerged toward the target normal.

  3. Development of a liquid tin microjet target for an efficient laser-produced plasma extreme ultraviolet source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higashiguchi, Takeshi; Hamada, Masaya; Kubodera, Shoichi

    2007-01-01

    A regenerative tin liquid microjet target was developed for a high average power extreme ultraviolet (EUV) source. The diameter of the target was smaller than 160 μm and good vacuum lower than 0.5 Pa was maintained during the operation. A maximum EUV conversion efficiency of 1.8% at the Nd:yttrium-aluminum-garnet laser intensity of around 2x10 11 W/cm 2 with a spot diameter of 175 μm (full width at half maximum) was observed. The angular distribution of the EUV emission remained almost isotropic, whereas suprathermal ions mainly emerged toward the target normal

  4. Pre-plasma effect on laser beam energy transfer to a dense target under conditions relevant to shock ignition

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pisarczyk, T.; Gus’kov, S.Yu.; Renner, Oldřich; Demchenko, N. N.; Kalinowska, Z.; Chodukowski, T.; Rosinski, M.; Parys, P.; Šmíd, Michal; Dostál, Jan; Badziak, J.; Batani, D.; Volpe, L.; Krouský, Eduard; Dudžák, Roman; Ullschmied, Jiří; Turčičová, Hana; Hřebíček, Jan; Medřík, Tomáš; Pfeifer, Miroslav; Skála, Jiří; Zaras-Szydlowska, A.; Antonelli, L.; Maheut, Y.; Borodziuk, S.; Kasperczuk, A.; Pisarczyk, P.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 33, č. 2 (2015), s. 221-236 ISSN 0263-0346 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ED1.1.00/02.0061; GA MŠk(CZ) LD14089; GA MŠk LM2010014; GA ČR GPP205/11/P712 Grant - others:ELI Beamlines(XE) CZ.1.05/1.1.00/02.0061; AVČR(CZ) M100101208; FP7(XE) 284464 Program:FP7 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 ; RVO:61389021 Keywords : energy transport * fast electrons * femtosecond interferometry * laser-produced plasma * shock ignition Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics; BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers (UFP-V) Impact factor: 1.649, year: 2015

  5. Application of a high-density gas laser target to the physics of x-ray lasers and coronal plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pronko, J.G.; Kohler, D.

    1996-01-01

    An experiment has been proposed to investigate a photopumped x-ray laser approach using a novel, high-density, laser heated supersonic gas jet plasma to prepare the lasant plasma. The scheme uses the He- like sodium 1.10027 nm line to pump the He-like neon 1s-4p transition at 1.10003 nm with the lasing transitions between the n=4 to n=2,3 states and the n=3 to n=2 state at 5.8 nm, 23.0 nm, and 8.2 nm, respectively. The experiment had been proposed in 1990 and funding began Jan. 1991; however circumstances made it impossible to pursue the research over the past 5 years, and it was decided not to pursue the research any further

  6. Meat and Seafood Consumption in Relation to Plasma Metabolic Profiles in a Chinese Population: A Combined Untargeted and Targeted Metabolomics Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yonghai; Zou, Li; Su, Jin; Tai, E Shyong; Whitton, Clare; Dam, Rob M van; Ong, Choon Nam

    2017-06-30

    We examined the relationship between different patterns of meat and seafood consumption and plasma metabolic profiles in an Asian population. We selected 270 ethnic Chinese men and women from the Singapore Prospective Study Program based on their dietary habits assessed with a validated food frequency questionnaire. Participants were divided into four subgroups: high meat and high seafood ( n = 60), high meat and low seafood ( n = 64), low meat and high seafood ( n = 60), and low meat and low seafood ( n = 86) consumers. Plasma metabolites were measured using both targeted and untargeted mass spectroscopy-based analyses. A total of 42 metabolites differed significantly by dietary group. Higher concentrations of essential amino acids, polyunsaturated fatty acids, and d-glucose were found in high meat and/or seafood consumers as compared with the group with a low consumption of these animal foods. Red meat, poultry, fish, shellfish, soy products, and dairy were each correlated with at least one differential metabolite ( r = -0.308 to 0.448). Some observations, such as the correlation between fish and 3-carboxy-4-methyl-5-propyl-2-furanpropanoic acid (CMPF), confirmed previous studies. Other observations, such as the correlation between shellfish and phosphatidylethanolamine (p36:4), were novel. We also observed significant correlations between plasma metabolites and clinical characteristics, such as CMPF with fasting blood glucose ( r = 0.401). These findings demonstrate a significant influence of meat and seafood consumption on metabolic profiles in the Asian population.

  7. TiO2 thin and thick films grown on Si/glass by sputtering of titanium targets in an RF inductively coupled plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valencia-Alvarado, R; López-Callejas, R; Mercado-Cabrera, A; Peña-Eguiluz, R; Muñoz-Castro, A E; Rodríguez-Méndez, B G; De la Piedad-Beneitez, A; De la Rosa-Vázquez, J M

    2015-01-01

    TiO 2 thin and thick films were deposited on silicon/glass substrates using RF inductive plasma in continuous wave. The films thickness, as well as phases control, is achieved with a gradual increase in temperature substrates varying supplied RF power or working gas pressure besides deposition time as well. The deposition conditions were: argon 80%/oxygen 20% carefully calibrated mixture of 2 to 7×10 −2 mbar as working gas pressure range. Deposition time 0.5 to 5 hours, 500 or 600 W RF power at 13.56 MHz frequency and 242-345 °C substrates temperature range. The titanium dioxide deposited on the substrates is grown by sputtering of a titanium target negatively polarized at 3-5 kV DC situated 14 mm in front of such substrates. The plasma reactor is a simple Pyrex-like glass cylindrical vessel of 50 cm long and 20 cm in diameter. Using the before describe plasma parameters we obtained films only anatase and both anatase/rutile phases with stoichiometric different. The films were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), stylus profilometer, X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Raman spectroscopy. (paper)

  8. Plasma satellites of X-ray spectral lines of ions in a plasma of solid-state targets, heated by a picosecond laser pulse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belyaev, V.S.; Vinogradov, V.I.; Kurilov, A.S.; Matafonov, A.P.; Lisitsa, V.S.; Gavrilenko, V.P.; Faenov, A.Ya.; Pikuz, T.A.; Skobelev, I.Yu.; Magunov, A.I.; Pikuz, S.A.

    2003-01-01

    The results of measuring the ions X-ray spectral lines by the interaction of the picosecond laser pulses with the solid-state target are presented. The spectra of the X-ray radiation were observed on the fluorine ion line. The spectral lines satellites, testifying to the availability, are identified. The position of the satellites and the distance between them make it possible to connect them with the intensive electrostatic oscillations with the amplitude, exceeding 10 8 V/cm, and the frequency close to 7 x 10 14 s -1 , substantially lower than the laser wave frequency. The experimental results are compared with the calculated data on the multicharge ions spectra [ru

  9. Liver/kidney microsomal antibody type 1 targets CYP2D6 on hepatocyte plasma membrane

    OpenAIRE

    Muratori, L; Parola, M; Ripalti, A; Robino, G; Muratori, P; Bellomo, G; Carini, R; Lenzi, M; Landini, M; Albano, E; Bianchi, F

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Liver/kidney microsomal antibody type 1 (LKM1) is the marker of type 2 autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) and is detected in up to 6% of patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. It recognises linear and conformational epitopes of cytochrome P450IID6 (CYP2D6) and may have liver damaging activity, provided that CYP2D6 is accessible to effector mechanisms of autoimmune attack.
METHODS—The presence of LKM1 in the plasma membrane was investigated by indirect immunofluorescence and confo...

  10. Technical note: Protozoa-specific antibodies raised in sheep plasma bind to their target protozoa in the rumen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Y J; Rea, S M; Popovski, S; Skillman, L C; Wright, A-D G

    2014-12-01

    Binding of IgG antibodies to Entodinium spp. in the rumen of sheep (Ovis aries) was investigated by adding IgG, purified from plasma, directly into the rumen. Plasma IgG was sourced from sheep that had or had not been immunized with a vaccine containing whole fixed Entodinium spp. cells. Ruminal fluid was sampled approximately 2 h after each antibody dosing. Binding of protozoa by a specific antibody was detected using an indirect fluorescent antibody test. An antibody titer in the ruminal fluid was determined by ELISA, and the concentration of ruminal fluid ammonia-N and ruminal pH were also determined. Entodinium spp. and total protozoa from IgG-infused sheep were enumerated by microscopic counts. Two-hourly additions of IgG maintained a low antibody titer in the rumen for 12 h and the binding of the antibody to the rumen protozoa was demonstrated. Increased ammonia-N concentrations and altered ruminal fluid pH patterns indicated that additional fermentation of protein was occurring in the rumen after addition of IgG. No reduction in numbers of Entodinium spp. was observed (P>0.05). Although binding of antibodies to protozoa has been demonstrated in the rumen, it is unclear how much cell death occurred. On the balance of probability, it would appear that the antibody was degraded or partially degraded, and the impact of this on protozoal populations and the measurement of a specific titer is also unclear.

  11. The C-terminal HRET sequence of Kv1.3 regulates gating rather than targeting of Kv1.3 to the plasma membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voros, Orsolya; Szilagyi, Orsolya; Balajthy, András; Somodi, Sándor; Panyi, Gyorgy; Hajdu, Péter

    2018-04-12

    Kv1.3 channels are expressed in several cell types including immune cells, such as T lymphocytes. The targeting of Kv1.3 to the plasma membrane is essential for T cell clonal expansion and assumed to be guided by the C-terminus of the channel. Using two point mutants of Kv1.3 with remarkably different features compared to the wild-type Kv1.3 (A413V and H399K having fast inactivation kinetics and tetraethylammonium-insensitivity, respectively) we showed that both Kv1.3 channel variants target to the membrane when the C-terminus was truncated right after the conserved HRET sequence and produce currents identical to those with a full-length C-terminus. The truncation before the HRET sequence (NOHRET channels) resulted in reduced membrane-targeting but non-functional phenotypes. NOHRET channels did not display gating currents, and coexpression with wild-type Kv1.3 did not rescue the NOHRET-A413V phenotype, no heteromeric current was observed. Interestingly, mutants of wild-type Kv1.3 lacking HRET(E) (deletion) or substituted with five alanines for the HRET(E) motif expressed current indistinguishable from the wild-type. These results demonstrate that the C-terminal region of Kv1.3 immediately proximal to the S6 helix is required for the activation gating and conduction, whereas the presence of the distal region of the C-terminus is not exclusively required for trafficking of Kv1.3 to the plasma membrane.

  12. Development of an x-ray Talbot-Lau moire deflectometer for fast density profile measurements of dense plasmas generated by beam-target interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clayton, Dan [National Security Technol., LLC, Los Alamos, NM (United States); Berninger, M; Meidinger, A; Stutman, Dan; Valdivia, Maria Pia

    2015-05-01

    For the first time an x-ray Talbot-Lau moire deflectometer is being developed that will use a flash tube source and fast detector for dynamic density gradient measurements. In Talbot-Lau moire deflectometry, an x-ray grating makes an image of itself on a second grating (the Talbot effect) to produce a moire pattern on a detector. The test object is placed between these gratings, with variations in index of refraction changing the pattern. A third grating in front of an incoherent x-ray source produces an array of coherent sources. With a 150 kV x-ray flash tube as the source, the gratings are placed in a glancing angle setup for performance at ~60 keV. The detector is a gated CCD with a fast scintillator for x-ray conversion. This diagnostic, designed for the Dual-Axis Radiographic Hydrodynamic Test facility (DARHT) at Los Alamos National Laboratory, measures the density profile of dense plasma plumes ejected from beam-target interactions. DARHT has two high-current, pulsed, inductive linear electron accelerators with bremsstrahlung targets at the end of each beam line to create 2-D radiographic images of hydrodynamic tests. One multi-pulse accelerator has up to four beam pulses striking the same target within 2 μs. Computer simulations that model target evolution and ejected material between pulses are used to design these targets for optimal radiographic performance; the x-ray deflectometer will directly measure density gradients in the ejected plumes and provide the first experimental constraints to these models. During the first year, currently underway, the diagnostic systems are being designed. In year two, the flash tube and fast detector will be deployed at DARHT for radiographic imaging while the deflectometer is built and tested on the bench with a continuous source. Finally, in year three, the fast deflectometer will be installed on DARHT and density measurements will be performed.

  13. Full absorption of 3rd harmonic ECH in TCV target plasmas produced by 2nd harmonic ECH and ECCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alberti, S.; Goodman, T.; Henderson, M.A.

    2001-01-01

    An experimental study of the extraordinary mode (X-mode) absorption at the third cyclotron harmonic frequency (118GHz) has been performed on the TCV Tokamak in plasmas preheated by X-mode at the second harmonic (82.7GHz). Various preheating configurations have been experimentally investigated, ranging from counter-ECCD, ECH to CO-ECCD at various power levels. Full absorption of the 470kW of injected X3 power was measured with as little as 350kW of X2-CO-ECCD preheating. The measured absorption exceeds that predicted by the linear ray tracing code TORAY by more than a factor of 2 for the CO-ECCD case. Experimental evidence indicates that a large fraction of the X3 power is absorbed by electrons in an energetic tail created by the X2-ECCD preheating. (author)

  14. Pre-qualification of brazed plasma facing components of divertor target elements for ITER like tokamak application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, K.P.; Pandya, Santosh P.; Khirwadkar, S.S.; Patel, Alpesh; Patil, Y.; Buch, J.J.U.; Khan, M.S.; Tripathi, Sudhir; Pandya, Shwetang; Govindrajan, J.; Jaman, P.M.; Rathore, Devendra; Rangaraj, L.; Divakar, C.

    2011-01-01

    Qualification of tungsten (W) and graphite (C) based brazed plasma facing components (PFCs) is an important R and D area in fusion research. Pre-qualification tests for brazed joints between W-CuCrZr and C-CuCrZr using NDT (IR thermography and ultrasonic test) and thermal fatigue test are attempted. Mockups having good quality brazed joints of W and C based PFCs were identified using NDT. Subsequently, thermal fatigue test was performed on the identified mockups. All brazed tiles of W based PFC mockups could withstand thermal fatigue test, however, few tiles of C based PFC mockup were found detached. Thermal analyses of mockups are performed using finite element analysis (ANSYS) software to simulate the thermal hydraulic condition with 10 MW/m 2 uniform heat flux. Details about experimental and computational work are presented here.

  15. Pre-qualification of brazed plasma facing components of divertor target elements for ITER like tokamak application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, K.P., E-mail: kpsingh@ipr.res.in [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar, Gujarat (India); Pandya, Santosh P.; Khirwadkar, S.S.; Patel, Alpesh; Patil, Y.; Buch, J.J.U.; Khan, M.S.; Tripathi, Sudhir; Pandya, Shwetang; Govindrajan, J. [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar, Gujarat (India); Jaman, P.M.; Rathore, Devendra; Rangaraj, L.; Divakar, C. [Materials Science Division, National Aerospace Laboratories, CSIR, Bangalore, Karnataka (India)

    2011-10-15

    Qualification of tungsten (W) and graphite (C) based brazed plasma facing components (PFCs) is an important R and D area in fusion research. Pre-qualification tests for brazed joints between W-CuCrZr and C-CuCrZr using NDT (IR thermography and ultrasonic test) and thermal fatigue test are attempted. Mockups having good quality brazed joints of W and C based PFCs were identified using NDT. Subsequently, thermal fatigue test was performed on the identified mockups. All brazed tiles of W based PFC mockups could withstand thermal fatigue test, however, few tiles of C based PFC mockup were found detached. Thermal analyses of mockups are performed using finite element analysis (ANSYS) software to simulate the thermal hydraulic condition with 10 MW/m{sup 2} uniform heat flux. Details about experimental and computational work are presented here.

  16. Chamber and Wall Response to Target Implosion in Inertial and Z-Pinch Fusion and Lithography Devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassanein, A.; Konkashbaev, I.; Morozov, V.; Sizyuk, V.

    2006-01-01

    The chamber walls, both solid and liquid, in inertial fusion energy (IFE) and Z-pinch reactors and Lithography devices are exposed to harsh conditions following each target implosion or pinching of plasma. Key issues of the cyclic IFE operation include intense photon and ion deposition, wall thermal and hydrodynamic evolution, wall erosion and fatigue lifetime, and chamber clearing and evacuation to ensure desirable conditions prior to target implosion. Detailed models have been developed for reflected laser light, emitted photons, neutrons, and target debris deposition and interaction with chamber components and have been implemented in the comprehensive HEIGHTS software package. The hydrodynamic response of chamber walls in bare or in gas-filled cavities and the photon transport of the deposited energy has been calculated by means of new and advanced numerical techniques for accurate shock treatment and propagation. These models include detail media hydrodynamics, non-LTE multi-group for both continuum and line radiation transport, and dynamics of eroded debris resulting from the intense energy deposition. The focus of this study is to critically assess the reliability and the dynamic response of chamber walls in various proposed protection methods for IFE systems. Key requirements are that: (i) the chamber wall accommodates the cyclic energy deposition while providing the required lifetime due to various erosion mechanisms, such as vaporization, chemical and physical sputtering, melt/liquid splashing and explosive erosion, and fragmentation of liquid walls, and (ii) after each shot the chamber is cleared and returned to a quiescent state in preparation for the target injection and the firing of the driver for the subsequent shot. This paper investigates in details these two important issues and found that the required operating frequency of the IFE reactors for power production may be severely limited due to these two requirements. (author)

  17. A PEGylated platelet free plasma hydrogel based composite scaffold enables stable vascularization and targeted cell delivery for volumetric muscle loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aurora, Amit; Wrice, Nicole; Walters, Thomas J; Christy, Robert J; Natesan, Shanmugasundaram

    2018-01-01

    Extracellular matrix (ECM) scaffolds are being used for the clinical repair of soft tissue injuries. Although improved functional outcomes have been reported, ECM scaffolds show limited tissue specific remodeling response with concomitant deposition of fibrotic tissue. One plausible explanation is the regression of blood vessels which may be limiting the diffusion of oxygen and nutrients across the scaffold. Herein we develop a composite scaffold as a vasculo-inductive platform by integrating PEGylated platelet free plasma (PFP) hydrogel with a muscle derived ECM scaffold (m-ECM). In vitro, adipose derived stem cells (ASCs) seeded onto the composite scaffold differentiated into two distinct morphologies, a tubular network in the hydrogel, and elongated structures along the m-ECM scaffold. The composite scaffold showed a high expression of ITGA5, ITGB1, and FN and a synergistic up-regulation of ang1 and tie-2 transcripts. The in vitro ability of the composite scaffold to provide extracellular milieu for cell adhesion and molecular cues to support vessel formation was investigated in a rodent volumetric muscle loss (VML) model. The composite scaffold delivered with ASCs supported robust and stable vascularization. Additionally, the composite scaffold supported increased localization of ASCs in the defect demonstrating its ability for localized cell delivery. Interestingly, ASCs were observed homing in the injured muscle and around the perivascular space possibly to stabilize the host vasculature. In conclusion, the composite scaffold delivered with ASCs presents a promising approach for scaffold vascularization. The versatile nature of the composite scaffold also makes it easily adaptable for the repair of soft tissue injuries. Decellularized extracellular matrix (ECM) scaffolds when used for soft tissue repair is often accompanied by deposition of fibrotic tissue possibly due to limited scaffold vascularization, which limits the diffusion of oxygen and nutrients

  18. Numerical model for swirl flow cooling in high-heat-flux particle beam targets and the design of a swirl-flow-based plasma limiter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milora, S.L.; Combs, S.K.; Foster, C.A.

    1984-11-01

    An unsteady, two-dimensional heat conduction code has been used to study the performance of swirl-flow-based neutral particle beam targets. The model includes the effects of two-phase heat transfer and asymmetric heating of tubular elements. The calorimeter installed in the Medium Energy Test Facility, which has been subjected to 30-s neutral beam pulses with incident heat flux intensities of greater than or equal to 5 kW/cm 2 , has been modeled. The numerical results indicate that local heat fluxes in excess of 7 kW/cm 2 occur at the water-cooled surface on the side exposed to the beam. This exceeds critical heat flux limits for uniformly heated tubes wih straight flow by approximately a factor of 5. The design of a plasma limiter based on swirl flow heat transfer is presented

  19. Alpha-spectrometry and fractal analysis of surface micro-images for characterisation of porous materials used in manufacture of targets for laser plasma experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aushev, A A; Barinov, S P; Vasin, M G; Drozdov, Yu M; Ignat' ev, Yu V; Izgorodin, V M; Kovshov, D K; Lakhtikov, A E; Lukovkina, D D; Markelov, V V; Morovov, A P; Shishlov, V V [Russian Federal Nuclear Center ' All-Russian Research Institute of Experimental Physics' , Sarov, Nizhnii Novgorod region (Russian Federation)

    2015-06-30

    We present the results of employing the alpha-spectrometry method to determine the characteristics of porous materials used in targets for laser plasma experiments. It is shown that the energy spectrum of alpha-particles, after their passage through porous samples, allows one to determine the distribution of their path length in the foam skeleton. We describe the procedure of deriving such a distribution, excluding both the distribution broadening due to statistical nature of the alpha-particle interaction with an atomic structure (straggling) and hardware effects. The fractal analysis of micro-images is applied to the same porous surface samples that have been studied by alpha-spectrometry. The fractal dimension and size distribution of the number of the foam skeleton grains are obtained. Using the data obtained, a distribution of the total foam skeleton thickness along a chosen direction is constructed. It roughly coincides with the path length distribution of alpha-particles within a range of larger path lengths. It is concluded that the combined use of the alpha-spectrometry method and fractal analysis of images will make it possible to determine the size distribution of foam skeleton grains (or pores). The results can be used as initial data in theoretical studies on propagation of the laser and X-ray radiation in specific porous samples. (laser plasma)

  20. Models of plasma membrane organization can be applied to mitochondrial membranes to target human health and disease with polyunsaturated fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raza Shaikh, Saame; Brown, David A

    2013-01-01

    Bioactive n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), abundant in fish oil, have potential for treating symptoms associated with inflammatory and metabolic disorders; therefore, it is essential to determine their fundamental molecular mechanisms. Recently, several labs have demonstrated the n-3 PUFA docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) exerts anti-inflammatory effects by targeting the molecular organization of plasma membrane microdomains. Here we briefly review the evidence that DHA reorganizes the spatial distribution of microdomains in several model systems. We then emphasize how models on DHA and plasma membrane microdomains can be applied to mitochondrial membranes. We discuss the role of DHA acyl chains in regulating mitochondrial lipid-protein clustering, and how these changes alter several aspects of mitochondrial function. In particular, we summarize effects of DHA on mitochondrial respiration, electron leak, permeability transition, and mitochondrial calcium handling. Finally, we conclude by postulating future experiments that will augment our understanding of DHA-dependent membrane organization in health and disease. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Functionalization of alkyne-terminated thermally hydrocarbonized porous silicon nanoparticles with targeting peptides and antifouling polymers: effect on the human plasma protein adsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chang-Fang; Mäkilä, Ermei M; Bonduelle, Colin; Rytkönen, Jussi; Raula, Janne; Almeida, Sérgio; Närvänen, Ale; Salonen, Jarno J; Lecommandoux, Sebastien; Hirvonen, Jouni T; Santos, Hélder A

    2015-01-28

    Porous silicon (PSi) nanomaterials combine a high drug loading capacity and tunable surface chemistry with various surface modifications to meet the requirements for biomedical applications. In this work, alkyne-terminated thermally hydrocarbonized porous silicon (THCPSi) nanoparticles were fabricated and postmodified using five bioactive molecules (targeting peptides and antifouling polymers) via a single-step click chemistry to modulate the bioactivity of the THCPSi nanoparticles, such as enhancing the cellular uptake and reducing the plasma protein association. The size of the nanoparticles after modification was increased from 176 to 180-220 nm. Dextran 40 kDa modified THCPSi nanoparticles showed the highest stability in aqueous buffer. Both peptide- and polymer-functionalized THCPSi nanoparticles showed an extensive cellular uptake which was dependent on the functionalized moieties presented on the surface of the nanoparticles. The plasma protein adsorption study showed that the surface modification with different peptides or polymers induced different protein association profiles. Dextran 40 kDa functionalized THCPSi nanoparticles presented the least protein association. Overall, these results demonstrate that the "click" conjugation of the biomolecules onto the alkyne-terminated THCPSi nanoparticles is a versatile and simple approach to modulate the surface chemistry, which has high potential for biomedical applications.

  2. Ta-ion implantation induced by a high-intensity laser for plasma diagnostics and target preparation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cutroneo, M., E-mail: cutroneo@ujf.cas.cz [Nuclear Physics Institute, ASCR, 250 68 Rez (Czech Republic); Malinsky, P.; Mackova, A. [Nuclear Physics Institute, ASCR, 250 68 Rez (Czech Republic); Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, J.E. Purkinje University, Ceske mladeze 8, 400 96 Usti nad Labem (Czech Republic); Matousek, J. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, J.E. Purkinje University, Ceske mladeze 8, 400 96 Usti nad Labem (Czech Republic); Torrisi, L. [Department of Physics and Earth Science, Messina University, V.le F.S. d’Alcontres 31, 981 66 S. Agata, Messina (Italy); Slepicka, P. [Department of Solid State Engineering, Institute of Chemical Technology, 166 28 Prague (Czech Republic); Ullschmied, J. [Institute of Physics, ASCR, v.v.i., 182 21 Prague 8 (Czech Republic)

    2015-12-15

    The present work is focused on the implantation of Ta ions into silicon substrates covered by a silicon dioxide layer 50–300 nm thick. The implantation is achieved using sub-nanosecond pulsed laser ablation (10{sup 15} W/cm{sup 2}) with the objective of accelerating non-equilibrium plasma ions. The accelerated Ta ions are implanted into the exposed silicon substrates at energies of approximately 20 keV per charge state. By changing a few variables in the laser pulse, it is possible to control the kinetic energy, the yield and the angular distribution of the emitted ions. Rutherford Back-Scattering analysis was performed using 2.0 MeV He{sup +} as the probe ions to determine the elemental depth profiles and the chemical composition of the laser-implanted substrates. The depth distributions of the implanted Ta ions were compared to SRIM 2012 simulations. The evaluated results of energy distribution were compared with online techniques, such as Ion Collectors (IC) and an Ion Energy Analyser (IEA), for a detailed identification of the produced ion species and their energy-to-charge ratios (M/z). Moreover, XPS (X-ray Photon Spectroscopy) and AFM (Atomic Force Microscopy) analyses were carried out to obtain information on the surface morphology and the chemical composition of the modified implanted layers, as these features are important for further application of such structures.

  3. Targeted In Situ Gene Correction of Dysfunctional APOE Alleles to Produce Atheroprotective Plasma ApoE3 Protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis Papaioannou

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease is the leading worldwide cause of death. Apolipoprotein E (ApoE is a 34-kDa circulating glycoprotein, secreted by the liver and macrophages with pleiotropic antiatherogenic functions and hence a candidate to treat hypercholesterolaemia and atherosclerosis. Here, we describe atheroprotective properties of ApoE, though also potential proatherogenic actions, and the prevalence of dysfunctional isoforms, outline conventional gene transfer strategies, and then focus on gene correction therapeutics that can repair defective APOE alleles. In particular, we discuss the possibility and potential benefit of applying in combination two technical advances to repair aberrant APOE genes: (i an engineered endonuclease to introduce a double-strand break (DSB in exon 4, which contains the common, but dysfunctional, ε2 and ε4 alleles; (ii an efficient and selectable template for homologous recombination (HR repair, namely, an adeno-associated viral (AAV vector, which harbours wild-type APOE sequence. This technology is applicable ex vivo, for example to target haematopoietic or induced pluripotent stem cells, and also for in vivo hepatic gene targeting. It is to be hoped that such emerging technology will eventually translate to patient therapy to reduce CVD risk.

  4. Effect of the Camelid's Seminal Plasma Ovulation-Inducing Factor/β-NGF: A Kisspeptin Target Hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Allali, Khalid; El Bousmaki, Najlae; Ainani, Hassan; Simonneaux, Valérie

    2017-01-01

    Female mammals are classified into spontaneous and induced ovulators based on the mechanism eliciting ovulation. Ovulation in spontaneous species (e.g., human, sheep, cattle, horse, pigs, and most rodents) occurs at regular intervals and depends upon the circulating estradiol. However, in induced ovulators (e.g., rabbits, ferrets, cats, and camelids), ovulation is associated with coitus. In the later, various factors have been proposed to trigger ovulation, including auditory, visual, olfactory, and mechanic stimuli. However, other studies have identified a biochemical component in the semen of induced ovulators responsible for the induction of ovulation and named accordingly ovulation-inducing factor (OIF). In camelids, intramuscular or intrauterine administration of seminal plasma (SP) was shown to induce the preovulatory luteinizing hormone (LH) surge followed by ovulation and subsequent formation of corpus luteum. Recently, this OIF has been identified from SP as a neurotrophin, the β subunit of nerve growth factor (β-NGF). β-NGF is well known as promoting neuron survival and growth, but in this case, it appears to induce ovulation through an endocrine mode of action. Indeed, β-NGF may be absorbed through the endometrium to be conveyed, via the blood stream, to the central structures regulating the LH preovulatory surge. In this review, we provide a summary of the most relevant results obtained in the field, and we propose a working hypothesis for the central action of β-NGF based on our recent demonstration of the presence of neurons expressing kisspeptin, a potent stimulator of GnRH/LH, in the camel hypothalamus.

  5. Effect of the Camelid’s Seminal Plasma Ovulation-Inducing Factor/β-NGF: A Kisspeptin Target Hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Allali, Khalid; El Bousmaki, Najlae; Ainani, Hassan; Simonneaux, Valérie

    2017-01-01

    Female mammals are classified into spontaneous and induced ovulators based on the mechanism eliciting ovulation. Ovulation in spontaneous species (e.g., human, sheep, cattle, horse, pigs, and most rodents) occurs at regular intervals and depends upon the circulating estradiol. However, in induced ovulators (e.g., rabbits, ferrets, cats, and camelids), ovulation is associated with coitus. In the later, various factors have been proposed to trigger ovulation, including auditory, visual, olfactory, and mechanic stimuli. However, other studies have identified a biochemical component in the semen of induced ovulators responsible for the induction of ovulation and named accordingly ovulation-inducing factor (OIF). In camelids, intramuscular or intrauterine administration of seminal plasma (SP) was shown to induce the preovulatory luteinizing hormone (LH) surge followed by ovulation and subsequent formation of corpus luteum. Recently, this OIF has been identified from SP as a neurotrophin, the β subunit of nerve growth factor (β-NGF). β-NGF is well known as promoting neuron survival and growth, but in this case, it appears to induce ovulation through an endocrine mode of action. Indeed, β-NGF may be absorbed through the endometrium to be conveyed, via the blood stream, to the central structures regulating the LH preovulatory surge. In this review, we provide a summary of the most relevant results obtained in the field, and we propose a working hypothesis for the central action of β-NGF based on our recent demonstration of the presence of neurons expressing kisspeptin, a potent stimulator of GnRH/LH, in the camel hypothalamus. PMID:28713816

  6. Effect of the Camelid’s Seminal Plasma Ovulation-Inducing Factor/β-NGF: A Kisspeptin Target Hypothesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid El Allali

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Female mammals are classified into spontaneous and induced ovulators based on the mechanism eliciting ovulation. Ovulation in spontaneous species (e.g., human, sheep, cattle, horse, pigs, and most rodents occurs at regular intervals and depends upon the circulating estradiol. However, in induced ovulators (e.g., rabbits, ferrets, cats, and camelids, ovulation is associated with coitus. In the later, various factors have been proposed to trigger ovulation, including auditory, visual, olfactory, and mechanic stimuli. However, other studies have identified a biochemical component in the semen of induced ovulators responsible for the induction of ovulation and named accordingly ovulation-inducing factor (OIF. In camelids, intramuscular or intrauterine administration of seminal plasma (SP was shown to induce the preovulatory luteinizing hormone (LH surge followed by ovulation and subsequent formation of corpus luteum. Recently, this OIF has been identified from SP as a neurotrophin, the β subunit of nerve growth factor (β-NGF. β-NGF is well known as promoting neuron survival and growth, but in this case, it appears to induce ovulation through an endocrine mode of action. Indeed, β-NGF may be absorbed through the endometrium to be conveyed, via the blood stream, to the central structures regulating the LH preovulatory surge. In this review, we provide a summary of the most relevant results obtained in the field, and we propose a working hypothesis for the central action of β-NGF based on our recent demonstration of the presence of neurons expressing kisspeptin, a potent stimulator of GnRH/LH, in the camel hypothalamus.

  7. Near-Infrared Spectroscopy for Zeeman Spectra of Ti I in Plasma Using a Facing Target Sputtering System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Shinji; Nishimiya, Nobuo; Suzuki, Masao

    2017-10-01

    The saturated absorption lines of neutral titanium were measured in the region of 9950-14380 cm-1 using a Ti:sapphire ring laser. A facing target sputtering system was used to obtain the gaseous state of a Ti I atom. The Zeeman splitting of 38 transitions was observed under the condition that the electric field component of a linearly polarized laser beam was parallel to the magnetic field. The gJ factors of the odd parity states were determined for 28 states belonging to 3d24s4p and 3d34p using those of the even parity states reported by Stachowska in 1997. The gJ factors of z5P1,2,3 levels were newly determined. gJ of y3F2, y3D2, z3P2, and z5S2 levels were refined.

  8. Cascades, ``Blobby'' Turbulence, and Target Pattern Formation in Elastic Systems: A New Take on Classic Themes in Plasma Turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Xiang

    2017-10-01

    Concerns central to understanding turbulence and transport include: 1) Dynamics of dual cascades in EM turbulence; 2) Understanding `negative viscosity phenomena' in drift-ZF systems; 3) The physics of blobby turbulence (re: SOL). Here, we present a study of a simple model - that of Cahn-Hilliard Navier-Stokes (CHNS) Turbulence - which sheds important new light on these issues. The CHNS equations describe the motion of binary fluid undergoing a second order phase transition and separation called spinodal decomposition. The CHNS system and 2D MHD are analogous, as they both contain a vorticity equation and a ``diffusion'' equation. The CHNS system differs from 2D MHD by the appearance of negative diffusivity, and a nonlinear dissipative flux. An analogue of the Alfven wave exists in the 2D CHNS system. DNS shows that mean square concentration spectrum Hkψ scales as k - 7 / 3 in the elastic range. This suggests an inverse cascade of Hψ . However, the kinetic energy spectrum EkK scales as k-3 , as in the direct enstrophy cascade range for a 2D fluid (not MHD!). The resolution is that the feedback of capillarity acts only at blob interfaces. Thus, as blob merger progresses, the packing fraction of interfaces decreases, thus explaining the weakened surface tension feedback and the outcome for EkK. We also examine the evolution of scalar concentration in a single eddy in the Cahn-Hilliard system. This extends the classic problem of flux expulsion in 2D MHD. The simulation results show that a target pattern is formed. Target pattern is a meta stable state, since the band merger process continues on a time scale exponentially long relative to the eddy turnover time. Band merger resembles step merger in drift-ZF staircases. This material is based upon work supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Fusion Energy Sciences, under Award Number DE-FG02-04ER54738.

  9. Determination of major, minor and trace elements in rock samples by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry: Progress in the utilization of borate glasses as targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leite, Tacito Dantas F.; Escalfoni, Rainerio; Fonseca, Teresa Cristina O. da; Miekeley, Norbert

    2011-01-01

    The present work is a continuation of a research study performed at our laboratory aiming at the multielement analysis of rock samples (basalts and shale) by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry in combination with laser ablation using borate glasses as analytical targets. Argon, nitrogen-argon mixtures and helium were evaluated as cell gases, the latter confirming its better performance. Different operational parameters of the laser, such as gas flow, energy, focus, scanning speed and sampling frequency were optimized. External calibration was made with standards prepared by fusion of geological reference materials (basalts 688 and BCR-2, obsidian SRM 278, and shale SGR-1) of different mass fractions in the meta-tetra borate matrix. Coefficients of determination (R 2 ) were > 0.99 for 30 elements from o total of 40 determined. Method validation was then performed using additional certified reference materials (BHVO-2, BIR-1, SCo-1) produced as borate targets in a similar way. Accuracies were better than 10% for most of the elements studied and analytical precisions, calculated from the residual standard deviations of calibration curves were, typically, between 6% and 10%. Additionally, the semiquantitative TotalQuant (registered) technique was applied, which gave, within the expected uncertainty for this calibration technique, concordant results when compared to the quantitative external calibration procedure. Both methods were then used for the analysis of marine shale samples, which are of great geological interest in petroleum prospecting.

  10. Plasma membrane profiling defines an expanded class of cell surface proteins selectively targeted for degradation by HCMV US2 in cooperation with UL141.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jye-Lin Hsu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV US2, US3, US6 and US11 act in concert to prevent immune recognition of virally infected cells by CD8+ T-lymphocytes through downregulation of MHC class I molecules (MHC-I. Here we show that US2 function goes far beyond MHC-I degradation. A systematic proteomic study using Plasma Membrane Profiling revealed US2 was unique in downregulating additional cellular targets, including: five distinct integrin α-chains, CD112, the interleukin-12 receptor, PTPRJ and thrombomodulin. US2 recruited the cellular E3 ligase TRC8 to direct the proteasomal degradation of all its targets, reminiscent of its degradation of MHC-I. Whereas integrin α-chains were selectively degraded, their integrin β1 binding partner accumulated in the ER. Consequently integrin signaling, cell adhesion and migration were strongly suppressed. US2 was necessary and sufficient for degradation of the majority of its substrates, but remarkably, the HCMV NK cell evasion function UL141 requisitioned US2 to enhance downregulation of the NK cell ligand CD112. UL141 retained CD112 in the ER from where US2 promoted its TRC8-dependent retrotranslocation and degradation. These findings redefine US2 as a multifunctional degradation hub which, through recruitment of the cellular E3 ligase TRC8, modulates diverse immune pathways involved in antigen presentation, NK cell activation, migration and coagulation; and highlight US2's impact on HCMV pathogenesis.

  11. Spatial organization of the cytoskeleton enhances cargo delivery to specific target areas on the plasma membrane of spherical cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafner, Anne E.; Rieger, Heiko

    2016-12-01

    Intracellular transport is vital for the proper functioning and survival of a cell. Cargo (proteins, vesicles, organelles, etc) is transferred from its place of creation to its target locations via molecular motor assisted transport along cytoskeletal filaments. The transport efficiency is strongly affected by the spatial organization of the cytoskeleton, which constitutes an inhomogeneous, complex network. In cells with a centrosome microtubules grow radially from the central microtubule organizing center towards the cell periphery whereas actin filaments form a dense meshwork, the actin cortex, underneath the cell membrane with a broad range of orientations. The emerging ballistic motion along filaments is frequently interrupted due to constricting intersection nodes or cycles of detachment and reattachment processes in the crowded cytoplasm. In order to investigate the efficiency of search strategies established by the cell’s specific spatial organization of the cytoskeleton we formulate a random velocity model with intermittent arrest states. With extensive computer simulations we analyze the dependence of the mean first passage times for narrow escape problems on the structural characteristics of the cytoskeleton, the motor properties and the fraction of time spent in each state. We find that an inhomogeneous architecture with a small width of the actin cortex constitutes an efficient intracellular search strategy.

  12. Spatial organization of the cytoskeleton enhances cargo delivery to specific target areas on the plasma membrane of spherical cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafner, Anne E; Rieger, Heiko

    2016-11-15

    Intracellular transport is vital for the proper functioning and survival of a cell. Cargo (proteins, vesicles, organelles, etc) is transferred from its place of creation to its target locations via molecular motor assisted transport along cytoskeletal filaments. The transport efficiency is strongly affected by the spatial organization of the cytoskeleton, which constitutes an inhomogeneous, complex network. In cells with a centrosome microtubules grow radially from the central microtubule organizing center towards the cell periphery whereas actin filaments form a dense meshwork, the actin cortex, underneath the cell membrane with a broad range of orientations. The emerging ballistic motion along filaments is frequently interrupted due to constricting intersection nodes or cycles of detachment and reattachment processes in the crowded cytoplasm. In order to investigate the efficiency of search strategies established by the cell's specific spatial organization of the cytoskeleton we formulate a random velocity model with intermittent arrest states. With extensive computer simulations we analyze the dependence of the mean first passage times for narrow escape problems on the structural characteristics of the cytoskeleton, the motor properties and the fraction of time spent in each state. We find that an inhomogeneous architecture with a small width of the actin cortex constitutes an efficient intracellular search strategy.

  13. Confinement of laser plasma expansion with strong external magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Hui-bo; Hu, Guang-yue; Liang, Yi-han; Tao, Tao; Wang, Yu-lin; Hu, Peng; Zhao, Bin; Zheng, Jian

    2018-05-01

    The evolutions of laser ablation plasma, expanding in strong (∼10 T) transverse external magnetic field, were investigated in experiments and simulations. The experimental results show that the magnetic field pressure causes the plasma decelerate and accumulate at the plasma-field interface, and then form a low-density plasma bubble. The saturation size of the plasma bubble has a scaling law on laser energy and magnetic field intensity. Magnetohydrodynamic simulation results support the observation and find that the scaling law (V max ∝ E p /B 2, where V max is the maximum volume of the plasma bubble, E p is the absorbed laser energy, and B is the magnetic field intensity) is effective in a broad laser energy range from several joules to kilo-joules, since the plasma is always in the state of magnetic field frozen while expanding. About 15% absorbed laser energy converts into magnetic field energy stored in compressed and curved magnetic field lines. The duration that the plasma bubble comes to maximum size has another scaling law t max ∝ E p 1/2/B 2. The plasma expanding dynamics in external magnetic field have a similar character with that in underdense gas, which indicates that the external magnetic field may be a feasible approach to replace the gas filled in hohlraum to suppress the wall plasma expansion and mitigate the stimulated scattering process in indirect drive ignition.

  14. First laser-plasma interaction and hohlraum experiments on the National Ignition Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dewald, E L; Glenzer, S H; Landen, O L; Suter, L J; Jones, O S; Schein, J; Froula, D; Divol, L; Campbell, K; Schneider, M S; Holder, J; McDonald, J W; Niemann, C; Mackinnon, A J; Hammel, B A [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, PO Box 808, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States)

    2005-12-15

    Recently the first laser-plasma interaction and hohlraum experiments have been performed at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) in support of indirect drive inertial confinement fusion designs. The effects of laser beam smoothing by spectral dispersion and polarization smoothing on the intense (2 x 10{sup 15} W cm{sup -2}) beam propagation in gas-filled tubes has been studied at up to 7 mm plasma scales as found in indirect drive gas filled ignition hohlraum designs. These experiments have shown the expected full propagation without filamentation and beam break up when using full laser smoothing. In addition, vacuum hohlraums have been irradiated with laser powers up to 6 TW, 1-9 ns pulse lengths and energies up to 17 kJ to activate several diagnostics, to study the hohlraum radiation temperature scaling with the laser power and hohlraum size, and to make contact with hohlraum experiments performed at the Nova and Omega laser facilities. Subsequently, novel long laser pulse hohlraum experiments have tested models of hohlraum plasma filling and long pulse hohlraum radiation production. The validity of the plasma filling assessment using in analytical models and radiation hydrodynamics calculations with the code LASNEX has been proven in these studies. The comparison of these results with modelling will be discussed.

  15. [The spectra of a laser-produced plasma source with CO2, O2 and CF4 liquid aerosol spray target].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Qi-Liang; Chen, Bo

    2008-11-01

    A laser-produced plasma (LPP) source with liquid aerosol spray target and nanosecond laser was developed, based on both soft X-ray radiation metrology and extreme ultraviolet projection lithography (EUVL). The LPP source is composed of a stainless steel solenoid valve whose temperature can be continuously controlled, a Nd : YAG laser with pulse width, working wavelength and pulse energy being 7 ns, 1.064 microm and 1J respectively, and a pulse generator which can synchronously control the valve and the laser. A standard General Valve Corporation series 99 stainless steel solenoid valve with copper gasket seals and a Kel-F poppet are used in order to minimize leakage and poppet deformation during high-pressure cryogenic operation. A close fitting copper cooling jacket surrounds the valve body. The jacket clamps a copper coolant carrying tube 3 mm in diameter, which is fed by an automatically pressurized liquid nitrogen-filled dewar. The valve temperature can be controlled between 77 and 473 K. For sufficiently high backing pressure and low temperature, the valve reservoir gas can undergo a gas-to-liquid phase transition. Upon valve pulsing, the liquid is ejected into a vacuum and breaks up into droplets, which is called liquid aerosol spray target. For the above-mentioned LPP source, firstly, by the use of Cowan program on the basis of non-relativistic quantum mechanics, the authors computed the radiative transition wavelengths and probabilities in soft X-ray region for O4+, O5+, O6+, O7+, F5+, F6+ and F7+ ions which were correspondingly produced from the interaction of the 10(11)-10(12) W x cm(-2) power laser with liquid O2, CO2 and CF4 aerosol spray targets. Secondly, the authors measured the spectra of liquid O2, CO2 and CF4 aerosol spray target LPP sources in the 6-20 nm band for the 8 x 10(11) W x cm(-2) laser irradiance. The measured results were compared with the Cowan calculated results ones, and the radiative transition wavelength and probability for the

  16. Information-management data base for fusion-target fabrication processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynolds, J.

    1982-01-01

    A computer-based data-management system has been developed to handle data associated with target-fabrication processes including glass microballoon characterization, gas filling, materials coating, and storage locations. The system provides automatic data storage and computation, flexible data-entry procedures, fast access, automated report generation, and secure data transfer. It resides on a CDC CYBER 175 computer and is compatible with the CDC data-base-language Query Update, but is based on custom FORTRAN software interacting directly with the CYBER's file-management system. The described data base maintains detailed, accurate, and readily available records of fusion targets information

  17. Laser driven compression and neutron generation with spherical shell targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, P.M.; Hammerling, P.; Johnson, R.R.; Kubis, J.J.; Mayer, F.J.

    1977-01-01

    Laser-driven implosion experiments using DT-gas-filled spherical glass-shell targets are described. Neutron yields to 5 x 10 7 are produced from implosions of small ( -- 55 μm-diameter) targets spherically illuminated with an on-target laser power of 0.4 terawatt. Nuclear reaction product diagnostics, X-ray pinhole photographs, fast-ion spectra and X-ray measurements are used in conjunction with hydrodynamic computer code simulations to investigate the implosion phenomenology as well as the target corona evolution. Simulations using completely classical effects are not able to describe the full range of experimental data. Electron or radiation preheating may be required to explain some implosion measurements. (auth.)

  18. Haploid genetic screens identify an essential role for PLP2 in the downregulation of novel plasma membrane targets by viral E3 ubiquitin ligases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard T Timms

    Full Text Available The Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus gene products K3 and K5 are viral ubiquitin E3 ligases which downregulate MHC-I and additional cell surface immunoreceptors. To identify novel cellular genes required for K5 function we performed a forward genetic screen in near-haploid human KBM7 cells. The screen identified proteolipid protein 2 (PLP2, a MARVEL domain protein of unknown function, as essential for K5 activity. Genetic loss of PLP2 traps the viral ligase in the endoplasmic reticulum, where it is unable to ubiquitinate and degrade its substrates. Subsequent analysis of the plasma membrane proteome of K5-expressing KBM7 cells in the presence and absence of PLP2 revealed a wide range of novel K5 targets, all of which required PLP2 for their K5-mediated downregulation. This work ascribes a critical function to PLP2 for viral ligase activity and underlines the power of non-lethal haploid genetic screens in human cells to identify the genes involved in pathogen manipulation of the host immune system.

  19. [Effect of ear point embedding on plasma and effect site concentrations of propofol-remifentanil in elderly patients after target-controlled induction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xiaochun; Wan, Liling; Gao, Fei; Chen, Jianghu; Tu, Wenshao

    2017-08-12

    To observe the clinical effect of ear point embedding on plasma and effect site concentrations of propofol-remifentanil in elderly patients who underwent abdominal external hernia surgery at the time of consciousness and pain disappearing by target-controlled infusion (TCI) and bispectral index (BIS). Fifty patients who underwent elective abdominal hernia surgery were randomly assigned into an observation group and a control group, 25 cases in each one. In the observation group, 30 minutes before anesthesia induction, Fugugou (Extra), Gan (CO 12 ), Pizhixia (AT 4 ), and Shenmen (TF 4 ) were embedded by auricular needles until the end of surgery, 10 times of counter press each point. In the control group, the same amount of auricular tape was applied until the end of surgery at the same points without stimulation 30 minutes before anesthesia induction. Patients in the two groups were given total intravenous anesthesia, and BIS was monitored by BIS anesthesia depth monitor. Propofol was infused by TCI at a beginning concentration of 1.5μg/L and increased by 0.3μg/L every 30s until the patients lost their consciousness. After that, remifentanil was infused by TCI at a beginning concentration of 2.0μg/L and increased by 0.3μg/L every 30s until the patients had no body reaction to pain stimulation (orbital reflex). Indices were recorded, including mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR) and the BIS values, at the time of T 0 (entering into the operation room), T 1 (losing consciousness) and T 2 (pain relief), the plasma and effect site concentrations of propofol at T 1 , the plasma and effect site concentrations of remifentanil at T 2 . After surgery we recorded the total amounts of propofol and remifentanil, surgery time and anesthesia time. At T 1 and T 2 , MAP and HR of the observation group were higher than those of the control group ( P effect site concentrations of propofol in the observation group were significantly lower than those in the control group

  20. Operational characteristics of a high voltage plasma focus device working with deuterium and heavy gas mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zoita, V.; Presura, R.; Gherendi, F.; Dumitrescu-Zoita, C.; Aliaga, R.

    1992-01-01

    The addition of a few neon percents to the deuterium gas filling of a medium energy plasma focus device (PFD) changes dramatically the radiation characteristics of the discharge as well as the pinch configuration. One exceptional result is the generation of high aspect ratio pinches shown clearly and reproducibly on X-ray pinhole camera images and on schlieren pictures. Another remarkable result is that these pinches which show no macroscopic instabilities copiously produce neutrons and hard X-rays. This confirms an experimental fact previously identified on a lower voltage PFD: the macroscopic instabilities do not play the decisive role in the neutronic performance of medium energy PFD's. (Author)

  1. FABRICATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF FAST IGNITION TARGETS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HILL, D.W; CASTILLO, E; CHEN, K.C; GRANT, S.E; GREENWOOD, A.L; KAAE, J.L; NIKROO, A; PAGUIO, S.P; SHEARER, C; SMITH, J.N Jr.; STEPHENS, R.B; STEINMAN, D.A; WALL, J.

    2003-09-01

    OAK-B135 Fast ignition is a novel scheme for achieving laser fusion. A class of these targets involves cone mounted CH shells. The authors have been fabricating such targets with shells with a wide variety of diameters and wall thicknesses for several years at General Atomics. In addition, recently such shells were needed for implosion experiments at Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE) that for the first time were required to be gas retentive. Fabrication of these targets requires producing appropriate cones and shells, assembling the targets, and characterization of the assembled targets. The cones are produced using micromachining and plating techniques. The shells are fabricated using the depolymerizable mandrel technique followed by micromachining a hole for the cone. The cone and the shell then need to be assembled properly for gas retention and precisely in order to position the cone tip at the desired position within the shell. Both are critical for the fast ignition experiments. The presence of the cone in the shell creates new challenges in characterization of the assembled targets. Finally, for targets requiring a gas fill, the cone-shell assembly needs to be tested for gas retention and proper strength at the glue joint. This paper presents an overview of the developmental efforts and technical issues addressed during the fabrication of fast ignition targets

  2. High-resolution measurement, line identification, and spectral modeling of the Kβ spectrum of heliumlike argon emitted by a laser-produced plasma using a gas-puff target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skobelev, I.Y.; Faenov, A.Y.; Dyakin, V.M.; Fiedorowicz, H.; Bartnik, A.; Szczurek, M.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Nilsen, J.; Osterheld, A.L.

    1997-01-01

    We present an analysis of the spectrum of satellite transitions to the He-β line in ArXVII. High-resolution measurements of the spectra from laser-heated Ar-gas-puff targets are made with spectral resolution of 10000 and spatial resolution of better than 50 μm. These are compared with tokamak measurements. Several different lines are identified in the spectra and the spectral analysis is used to determine the plasma parameters in the gas-puff laser-produced plasma. The data complement those from tokamak measurements to provide more complete information on the satellite spectra. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  3. Brain Targeted Intranasal Zaleplon Nano-emulsion: In-Vitro Characterization and Assessment of Gamma Aminobutyric Acid Levels in rabbits' Brain and Plasma at low and high Doses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd-Elrasheed, Eman; El-Helaly, Sara Nageeb; El-Ashmoony, Manal M; Salah, Salwa

    2017-11-30

    Zaleplon is a pyrazolopyrimidin derivative hypnotic drug indicated for the short-term management of insomnia. Zaleplon belongs to Class II drugs, according to the biopharmaceutical classification system (BCS), showing poor solubility and high permeability. It undergoes extensive first-pass hepatic metabolism after oral absorption, with only 30% of Zaleplon being systemically available. It is available in tablet form which is unable to overcome the previous problems. The aim of this study is to enhance solubility and bioavailability via utilizing nanotechnology in the formulation of intranasal Zaleplon nano-emulsion (ZP-NE) to bypass the barriers and deliver an effective therapy to the brain. Screening studies were carried out wherein the solubility of zaleplon in various oils, surfactants(S) and co-surfactants(CoS) were estimated. Pseudo-ternary phase diagrams were constructed and various nano-emulsion formulations were prepared. These formulations were subjected to thermodynamic stability, in-vitro characterization, histopathological studies and assessment of the gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA) level in plasma and brain in rabbits compared to the market product (Sleep aid®). Stable NEs were successfully developed with a particle size range of 44.57±3.351 to 136.90±1.62 nm. A NE composed of 10% Miglyol® 812, 40%Cremophor® RH40 40%Transcutol® HP and 10% water successfully enhanced the bioavailability and brain targeting in the rabbits, showing a three to four folds increase than the marketed product. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  4. Start-up assist by magnetized plasma flow injection in TPE-RX reversed-field pinch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asai, T. [College of Science and Technology, Nihon University, 1-8 Kanda-Surugadai, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 101-8308 (Japan)]. E-mail: asai@phys.cst.nihon-u.ac.jp; Nagata, M. [Graduate School of Engineering, University of Hyogo, Himeji (Japan); Koguchi, H. [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba (Japan); Hirano, Y. [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba (Japan); Sakakita, H. [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba (Japan); Yambe, K. [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba (Japan); Kiyama, S. [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba (Japan)

    2006-11-15

    A reversed-field pinch (RFP) start-up assisted by a magnetized plasma flow injection was demonstrated for the first time on a TPE-RX machine. This sequence of experiments aimed to establish a new method of ionization, gas-fill and helicity injection in the start-up phase of an RFP. In this start-up method, magnetized and well-ionized plasma is formed by a magnetized coaxial plasma gun and injected into the torus chamber as an initial pre-ionized plasma for RFP formation. In the initial experiments, attenuated density pump-out and comparatively slow decay of the toroidal flux and plasma current were observed as evidence of its being an effective start-up method.

  5. Influence of the reactive atmosphere on the formation of nanoparticles in the plasma plume induced by nanosecond pulsed laser irradiation of metallic targets at atmospheric pressure and high repetition rate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Girault, M. [Laboratoire Interdisciplinaire Carnot de Bourgogne, UMR 6303 CNRS-Univ. Bourgogne Franche-Comté, 9 Av. A. Savary, BP 47 870, F-21078 Dijon Cedex (France); Le Garrec, J.-L.; Mitchell, J.B.A. [Institut de Physique de Rennes, UMR 6251 CNRS-Université de Rennes 1, 35042 Rennes Cedex (France); Jouvard, J.-M. [Laboratoire Interdisciplinaire Carnot de Bourgogne, UMR 6303 CNRS-Univ. Bourgogne Franche-Comté, 9 Av. A. Savary, BP 47 870, F-21078 Dijon Cedex (France); Carvou, E. [Institut de Physique de Rennes, UMR 6251 CNRS-Université de Rennes 1, 35042 Rennes Cedex (France); Menneveux, J.; Yu, J. [Institut Lumière Matière, UMR5306 Université Lyon 1-CNRS, Université de Lyon, 69622 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Ouf, F.-X. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Sureté Nucléaire IRSN/PSN-RES/SCA/LPMA BP 68, 91192 Gif-Sur-Yvette (France); Carles, S. [Institut de Physique de Rennes, UMR 6251 CNRS-Université de Rennes 1, 35042 Rennes Cedex (France); Potin, V.; Pillon, G.; Bourgeois, S. [Laboratoire Interdisciplinaire Carnot de Bourgogne, UMR 6303 CNRS-Univ. Bourgogne Franche-Comté, 9 Av. A. Savary, BP 47 870, F-21078 Dijon Cedex (France); Perez, J. [Synchrotron SOLEIL, L’Orme des Merisiers, Saint-Aubin, F-91192 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Marco de Lucas, M.C., E-mail: delucas@u-bourgogne.fr [Laboratoire Interdisciplinaire Carnot de Bourgogne, UMR 6303 CNRS-Univ. Bourgogne Franche-Comté, 9 Av. A. Savary, BP 47 870, F-21078 Dijon Cedex (France); and others

    2016-06-30

    Highlights: • NPs formed in a plasma-plume during laser irradiation of metals (Al, Ti, Ag) were studied. • In situ SAXS and ex situ TEM, XRD and Raman spectra were measured. • NPs size decreased when increasing the O{sub 2} fraction in a controlled O{sub 2}+N{sub 2} atmosphere. • The oxidation of metal NPs in the plasma restricts the increase of the size of the NPs. - Abstract: The influence of a reactive atmosphere on the formation of nanoparticles (NPs) in the plasma plume generated by nanosecond pulsed laser irradiation of metal targets (Ti, Al, Ag) was probed in situ using Small Angle X-ray Scattering (SAXS). Air and different O{sub 2}–N{sub 2} gas mixtures were used as reactive gas within atmospheric pressure. SAXS results showed the formation of NPs in the plasma-plume with a mean radius varying in the 2–5 nm range. A decrease of the NPs size with increasing the O{sub 2} percentage in the O{sub 2}–N{sub 2} gas mixture was also showed. Ex situ observations by transmission electron microscopy and structural characterizations by X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy were also performed for powders collected in experiments done using air as ambient gas. The stability of the different metal oxides is discussed as being a key parameter influencing the formation of NPs in the plasma-plume.

  6. Computational numerical modelling of plasma focus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brollo, Fabricio

    2005-01-01

    Several models for calculation of the dynamics of Plasma Focus have been developed. All of them begin from the same physic principle: the current sheet run down the anode length, ionizing and collecting the gas that finds in its way.This is known as snow-plow model.Concerning pinch's compression, a MHD model is proposed.The plasma is treated as a fluid , particularly as a high ionized gas.However, there are not many models that, taking into account thermal equilibrium inside the plasma, make approximated calculations of the maximum temperatures reached in the pinch.Besides, there are no models which use those temperatures to estimate the termofusion neutron yield for the Deuterium or Deuterium-Tritium gas filled cases.In the PLADEMA network (Dense Magnetized Plasmas) a code was developed with the objective of describe the plasma focus dynamics, in a conceptual engineering stage.The codes calculates the principal variables (currents, time to focus, etc) and estimates the neutron yield in Deuterium-filled plasma focus devices.It can be affirmed that the code's experimental validation, in its axial and radial stages, was very successfully. However, it was accepted that the compression stage should be formulated again, to find a solution for a large variation of a parameter related with velocity profiles for the particles trapped inside the pinch.The objectives of this work can be stated in the next way : - Check the compression's model hypothesis. Develop a new model .- Implement the new model in the code. Compare results against experimental data of Plasma Focus devices from all around the world [es

  7. Generation of ultra-high-pressure shocks by collision of a fast plasma projectile driven in the laser-induced cavity pressure acceleration scheme with a solid target

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Badziak, J.; Rosinski, M.; Krouský, Eduard; Kucharik, M.; Liska, R.; Ullschmied, Jiří

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 22, č. 3 (2015), s. 1-11, č. článku 032709. ISSN 1070-664X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LD14089; GA MŠk LM2010014 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 284464 - LASERLAB-EUROPE Institutional support: RVO:68378271 ; RVO:61389021 Keywords : laser-produced plasma * ultra-high-pressure shocks * laser-induced cavity pressure acceleration Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics OBOR OECD: Fluids and plasma physics (including surface physics) Impact factor: 2.207, year: 2015

  8. Synthesis of high Al content AlxGa1−xN ternary films by pulsed laser co-ablation of GaAs and Al targets assisted by nitrogen plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai, Hua; You, Qinghu; Hu, Zhigao; Guo, Shuang; Yang, Xu; Sun, Jian; Xu, Ning; Wu, Jiada

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Al x Ga 1−x N films were synthesized by co-ablation of an Al target and a GaAs target. • Nitrogen plasma was used to assist the synthesis of Al x Ga 1−x N ternary films. • The Al x Ga 1−x N films are slightly rich in N with an Al content above 0.6. • The Al x Ga 1−x N films are hexagonal wurtzite in crystal structure. • The Al x Ga 1−x N films have an absorption edge of 260 nm and a band gap of 4.7 eV. - Abstract: We present the synthesis of Al x Ga 1−x N ternary films by pulsed laser co-ablation of a polycrystalline GaAs target and a metallic Al target in the environment of nitrogen plasma which provides nitrogen for the films and assists the formation of nitride films. Field emission scanning electron microscopy exposes the smooth surface appearance and dense film structure. X-ray diffraction, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and Raman scattering spectroscopy reveal the hexagonal wurtzite structure. Optical characterization shows high optical transmittance with an absorption edge of about 260 nm and a band gap of 4.7 eV. Compositional analysis gives the Al content of about 0.6. The structure and optical properties of the Al x Ga 1−x N films are compared with those of binary GaN and AlN films synthesized by ablating GaAs or Al target with the same nitrogen plasma assistance

  9. The GRP1 PH domain, like the AKT1 PH domain, possesses a sentry glutamate residue essential for specific targeting to plasma membrane PI(3,4,5)P(3).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilling, Carissa; Landgraf, Kyle E; Falke, Joseph J

    2011-11-15

    During the appearance of the signaling lipid PI(3,4,5)P(3), an important subset of pleckstrin homology (PH) domains target signaling proteins to the plasma membrane. To ensure proper pathway regulation, such PI(3,4,5)P(3)-specific PH domains must exclude the more prevalant, constitutive plasma membrane lipid PI(4,5)P(2) and bind the rare PI(3,4,5)P(3) target lipid with sufficiently high affinity. Our previous study of the E17K mutant of the protein kinase B (AKT1) PH domain, together with evidence from Carpten et al. [Carpten, J. D., et al. (2007) Nature 448, 439-444], revealed that the native AKT1 E17 residue serves as a sentry glutamate that excludes PI(4,5)P(2), thereby playing an essential role in specific PI(3,4,5)P(3) targeting [Landgraf, K. E., et al. (2008) Biochemistry 47, 12260-12269]. The sentry glutamate hypothesis proposes that an analogous sentry glutamate residue is a widespread feature of PI(3,4,5)P(3)-specific PH domains, and that charge reversal mutation at the sentry glutamate position will yield both increased PI(4,5)P(2) affinity and constitutive plasma membrane targeting. To test this hypothesis, we investigated the E345 residue, a putative sentry glutamate, of the general receptor for phosphoinositides 1 (GRP1) PH domain. The results show that incorporation of the E345K charge reversal mutation into the GRP1 PH domain enhances PI(4,5)P(2) affinity 8-fold and yields constitutive plasma membrane targeting in cells, reminiscent of the effects of the E17K mutation in the AKT1 PH domain. Hydrolysis of plasma membrane PI(4,5)P(2) releases the E345K GRP1 PH domain into the cytoplasm, and the efficiency of this release increases when Arf6 binding is disrupted. Overall, the findings provide strong support for the sentry glutamate hypothesis and suggest that the GRP1 E345K mutation will be linked to changes in cell physiology and human pathologies, as demonstrated for AKT1 E17K [Carpten, J. D., et al. (2007) Nature 448, 439-444; Lindhurst, M. J., et al

  10. Environmental Impact Assessment of Petrol and Gas Filling Stations ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated pollutants emissions from filling stations and their impact on the air quality. Gas monitors were employed to identify the different pollutants present in the ambient air of the study areas. The results showed that the most prominent pollutants present in the ambient air are the volatile organic compounds ...

  11. Beam cooling using a gas-filled RFQ ion guide

    CERN Document Server

    Henry, S; De Saint-Simon, M; Jacotin, M; Képinski, J F; Lunney, M D

    1999-01-01

    A radiofrequency quadrupole mass filter is being developed for use as a high-transmission beam cooler by operating it in buffer gas at high pressure. Such a device will increase the sensitivity of on-line experiments that make use of weakly produced radioactive ion beams. We present simulations and some preliminary measurements for a device designed to cool the beam for the MISTRAL RF mass spectrometer on- line at ISOLDE. The work is carried out partly within the frame of the European Community research network: EXOTRAPS. (9 refs).

  12. Electron cloud sizes in gas-filled detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boggende, A.J.F. den; Schrijver, C.J.

    1984-01-01

    Electron cloud sizes have been calculated for gas mixtures containing Ar, Xe, CO 2 , CH 4 , and N 2 for drifts through a constant electric field. The transport coefficients w and D/μ are in good agreement with experimental data of various sources for pure gases. Results of measurements, also performed in this work, for Ar+CO 2 , Ar+CH 4 , and Ar+Xe+CO 2 mixtures are in fair agreement with the calculated cloud sizes. For a large number of useful gas mixtures calculated electron cloud sizes are presented and discussed, most of which are given for the first time. A suggestion is made for an optimal gas mixture for an X-ray position sensitive proportional counter for medium and low energies. (orig.)

  13. Interferometric studies of the pre-plasma influence on the laser energy transfer to the shock wave with the use of two-layer planar targets

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kalinowska, Z.; Pisarczyk, T.; Badziak, J.; Borodziuk, S.; Chodukowski, T.; Kasperczuk, A.; Gus´kov, S.Y.; Demchenko, N. N.; Ullschmied, Jiří; Renner, Oldřich; Krouský, Eduard; Pfeifer, Miroslav; Skála, Jiří; Šmíd, Michal; Pisarczyk, P.

    T161, May (2014), 014023-014023 ISSN 0031-8949 Grant - others:FP7(XE) 284464 Program:FP7 Institutional support: RVO:61389021 ; RVO:68378271 Keywords : ablation pressure * fast electron * interferometry * resonance absorption * scale length of electron density * shock ignition conception Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics; BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics (FZU-D) Impact factor: 1.126, year: 2014 http://iopscience.iop.org/1402-4896/2014/T161/014023

  14. Highly ionized plasma plume generation by long-pulse CO2 laser irradiation of solid targets in strong axial magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, A.L.; Crawford, E.A.

    1982-01-01

    The present work utilizes high f number optics and is directed primarily at controlling the conditions in the magnetically confined plume. Typically, fully ionized carbon plasmas have been produced with 10 18 cm -3 electron densities and 100 to 150 eV electron temperatures. These carbon plasmas have been doped with high Z atoms in order to study ionization and emission rates at the above conditions

  15. High-fidelity target sequencing of individual molecules identified using barcode sequences: de novo detection and absolute quantitation of mutations in plasma cell-free DNA from cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukita, Yoji; Matoba, Ryo; Uchida, Junji; Hamakawa, Takuya; Doki, Yuichiro; Imamura, Fumio; Kato, Kikuya

    2015-08-01

    Circulating tumour DNA (ctDNA) is an emerging field of cancer research. However, current ctDNA analysis is usually restricted to one or a few mutation sites due to technical limitations. In the case of massively parallel DNA sequencers, the number of false positives caused by a high read error rate is a major problem. In addition, the final sequence reads do not represent the original DNA population due to the global amplification step during the template preparation. We established a high-fidelity target sequencing system of individual molecules identified in plasma cell-free DNA using barcode sequences; this system consists of the following two steps. (i) A novel target sequencing method that adds barcode sequences by adaptor ligation. This method uses linear amplification to eliminate the errors introduced during the early cycles of polymerase chain reaction. (ii) The monitoring and removal of erroneous barcode tags. This process involves the identification of individual molecules that have been sequenced and for which the number of mutations have been absolute quantitated. Using plasma cell-free DNA from patients with gastric or lung cancer, we demonstrated that the system achieved near complete elimination of false positives and enabled de novo detection and absolute quantitation of mutations in plasma cell-free DNA. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Kazusa DNA Research Institute.

  16. Chamber wall response to target implosion in inertial fusion reactors : new and critical assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassanein, A.; Morozov, V.

    2002-01-01

    The chamber walls in inertial fusion energy (IFE) reactors are exposed to harsh conditions following each target implosion. Key issues of the cyclic IFE operation include intense photon and ion deposition, wall thermal and hydrodynamic evolution, wall erosion and fatigue lifetime, and chamber clearing and evacuation to ensure desirable conditions prior to target implosion. Several methods for wall protection have been proposed in the past, each having its own advantages and disadvantages. These methods include use of solid bare walls, gas-filled cavities, and liquid walls/jets. Detailed models have been developed for reflected laser light, emitted photons, and target debris deposition and interaction with chamber components and have been implemented in the comprehensive HEIGHTS software package. The hydrodynamic response of gas filled cavities and photon radiation transport of the deposited energy has been calculated by means of new and advanced numerical techniques. Fragmentation models of liquid jets as a result of the deposited energy have also been developed, and the impact on chamber clearing dynamics has been evaluated. Th focus of this study is to critically assess the reliability and the dynamic response of chamber walls in various proposed protection methods for IFE systems. Of particular concern is the effect on wall erosion lifetime of various erosion mechanisms, such as vaporization, chemical and physical sputtering, melt/liquid splashing and explosive erosion, and fragmentation of liquid walls

  17. Production of Sn/SnO2/MWCNT composites by plasma oxidation after thermal evaporation from pure Sn targets onto buckypapers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaf, M; Gultekin, D; Akbulut, H

    2012-12-01

    In this study, tin/tinoxide/multi oxide/multi walled carbon nano tube (Sn/SnO2/MWCNT) composites were produced by thermal evaporation and then subsequent plasma oxidation. Buckypapers having controlled porosity were prepared by vacuum filtration from functionalized MWCNTs. Pure metallic tin was thermally evaporated on the buckypapers in argon atmosphere with different thicknesses. It was determined that the evaporated pure tin nano crystals were mechanically penetrated into pores of buckypaper to form a nanocomposite. The tin/MWCNT composites were subjected to plasma oxidation process at oxygen/argon gas mixture. Three different plasma oxidation times (30, 45 and 60 minutes) were used to investigate oxidation and physical and microstructural properties. The effect of coating thickness and oxidation time was investigated to understand the effect of process parameters on the Sn and SnO2 phases after plasma oxidation. Quantitative phase analysis was performed in order to determine the relative phase amounts. The structural properties were studied by field-emission gun scanning electron microscopy (FEG-SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD).

  18. COPT6 is a plasma membrane transporter that functions in copper homeostasis in Arabidopsis and is a novel target of SQUAMOSA promoter binding protein-like 7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Among the mechanisms controlling copper homeostasis in plants is the regulation of its uptake and tissue partitioning. Here we characterized a newly identified member of the conserved CTR/COPT family of copper transporters in Arabidopsis thaliana, COPT6. We showed that COPT6 resides at the plasma me...

  19. Combined therapy of mixed dyslipidemia in patients with high cardiovascular risk and changes in the lipid target values and atherogenic index of plasma

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rosolová, H.; Dobiášová, Milada; Soška, V.; Bláha, V.; Češka, R.; Nussbaumerová, B.; Pelikánová, T.; Souček, M.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 56, č. 2 (2014), e133-e139 ISSN 1803-7712 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : mixed dyslipidemia * atherogenic index of plasma (AIP=log[triglycerides/HDL-cholesterol]) * combined lipid modifying therapy Subject RIV: FB - Endocrinology, Diabetology, Metabolism, Nutrition

  20. Development of distributed target

    CERN Document Server

    Yu Hai Jun; Li Qin; Zhou Fu Xin; Shi Jin Shui; Ma Bing; Chen Nan; Jing Xiao Bing

    2002-01-01

    Linear introduction accelerator is expected to generate small diameter X-ray spots with high intensity. The interaction of the electron beam with plasmas generated at the X-ray converter will make the spot on target increase with time and debase the X-ray dose and the imaging resolving power. A distributed target is developed which has about 24 pieces of thin 0.05 mm tantalum films distributed over 1 cm. due to the structure adoption, the distributed target material over a large volume decreases the energy deposition per unit volume and hence reduces the temperature of target surface, then reduces the initial plasma formalizing and its expansion velocity. The comparison and analysis with two kinds of target structures are presented using numerical calculation and experiments, the results show the X-ray dose and normalized angle distribution of the two is basically the same, while the surface of the distributed target is not destroyed like the previous block target

  1. Angular measurement of the energy distribution of neutrons from the thick target 7Li(p,n)7Be source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rose, A.

    1981-11-01

    The energy spectrum of neutrons emitted from a thick lithium target bombarded by protons has been measured as a function of neutron angle of emission. The measurements were done at proton energies up to 2.8 MeV and at 30 deg. intervals in the range 0 to 120 deg. using proportional detectors with gas fillings of hydrogen and methane. A review is given of papers published on the 7 Li(p,n) 7 Be reactions at 0 deg.; where applicable, comparisons are made with the present results

  2. Progress on the physics of ignition for radiation driven inertial confinement fusion (ICF) targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindl, J.D.; Marinak, M.M.

    1996-09-01

    Extensive modeling of proposed National Ignition Facility (NIF) ignition targets has resulted in a variety of targets using different materials in the fuel shell, using driving temperatures which range from 250-300 eV, and requiring energies from 15 W/cm 2 for this type of hohlraum. The symmetry in Nova gas- filled hohlraums is affected by the gas fill. A large body of evidence now exists which indicates that this effect is due to laser beam filamentation which can be largely controlled by beam smoothing. We present here the firs 3-D simulations of hydrodynamic instability for the NIF point design capsule. These simulations, with the HYDRA radiation hydrodynamics code, indicate that spikes can penetrate up to 10 μm into the 30μm radius hot spot before ignition is quenched. Using capsules whose surface is modified by laser ablation, Nova experiments have been used to quantify the degradation of implosions subject to near NIF levels of hydrodynamic instability

  3. Development of Diagnostic Fragment Ion Library for Glycated Peptides of Human Serum Albumin: Targeted Quantification in Prediabetic, Diabetic, and Microalbuminuria Plasma by Parallel Reaction Monitoring, SWATH, and MSE*

    OpenAIRE

    Korwar, Arvind M.; Vannuruswamy, Garikapati; Jagadeeshaprasad, Mashanipalya G.; Jayaramaiah, Ramesha H.; Bhat, Shweta; Regin, Bhaskaran S.; Ramaswamy, Sureshkumar; Giri, Ashok P.; Mohan, Viswanathan; Balasubramanyam, Muthuswamy; Kulkarni, Mahesh J.

    2015-01-01

    Human serum albumin is one of the most abundant plasma proteins that readily undergoes glycation, thus glycated albumin has been suggested as an additional marker for monitoring glycemic status. Hitherto, only Amadori-modified peptides of albumin were quantified. In this study, we report the construction of fragment ion library for Amadori-modified lysine (AML), N(ε)-(carboxymethyl)lysine (CML)-, and N(ε)-(carboxyethyl)lysine (CEL)-modified peptides of the corresponding synthetically modified...

  4. Effect of laser beam focus position on ion emission from plasmas produced by picosecond and sub-nanosecond laser pulses from solid targets

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Woryna, E.; Badziak, J.; Makowski, J.; Parys, P.; Wolowski, J.; Krása, Josef; Láska, Leoš; Rohlena, Karel; Vankov, A. B.

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 31, č. 4 (2001), s. 791-798 ISSN 0078-5466 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA1010105 Grant - others:KBN(PL) 2 P03B 082 19 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010921 Keywords : laser-produced plasma * laser beam focus position influence Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 0.298, year: 2001

  5. Strong temperature effect on X-ray photo-etching of polytetrafluoroethylene using a 10Hz laser-plasma radiation source based on a gas puff target

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bartnik, A.; Fiedorowicz, H.; Jarocki, R.; Juha, Libor; Kostecki, J.; Rakowski, R.; Szczurek, M.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 82, - (2006), s. 529-532 ISSN 0946-2171 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC510 Grant - others:Ministery of Scientific Research(PL) 3 T08C 002 27 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100523 Keywords : photo-etching * organic polymers * laser-produced plasmas Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 2.023, year: 2006

  6. Quantitative evaluation of high-energy O− ion particle flux in a DC magnetron sputter plasma with an indium-tin-oxide target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suyama, Taku; Bae, Hansin; Setaka, Kenta; Ogawa, Hayato; Fukuoka, Yushi; Suzuki, Haruka; Toyoda, Hirotaka

    2017-01-01

    O − ion flux from the indium tin oxide (ITO) sputter target under Ar ion bombardment is quantitatively evaluated using a calorimetry method. Using a mass spectrometer with an energy analyzer, O − energy distribution is measured with spatial dependence. Directional high-energy O − ion ejected from the target surface is observed. Using a calorimetry method, localized heat flux originated from high-energy O − ion is measured. From absolute evaluation of the heat flux from O − ion, O − particle flux in order of 10 18 m −2 s −1 is evaluated at a distance of 10 cm from the target. Production yield of O − ion on the ITO target by one Ar + ion impingement at a kinetic energy of 244 eV is estimated to be 3.3  ×  10 −3 as the minimum value. (paper)

  7. Quantitative evaluation of high-energy O- ion particle flux in a DC magnetron sputter plasma with an indium-tin-oxide target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suyama, Taku; Bae, Hansin; Setaka, Kenta; Ogawa, Hayato; Fukuoka, Yushi; Suzuki, Haruka; Toyoda, Hirotaka

    2017-11-01

    O- ion flux from the indium tin oxide (ITO) sputter target under Ar ion bombardment is quantitatively evaluated using a calorimetry method. Using a mass spectrometer with an energy analyzer, O- energy distribution is measured with spatial dependence. Directional high-energy O- ion ejected from the target surface is observed. Using a calorimetry method, localized heat flux originated from high-energy O- ion is measured. From absolute evaluation of the heat flux from O- ion, O- particle flux in order of 1018 m-2 s-1 is evaluated at a distance of 10 cm from the target. Production yield of O- ion on the ITO target by one Ar+ ion impingement at a kinetic energy of 244 eV is estimated to be 3.3  ×  10-3 as the minimum value.

  8. Plasma wave amplitude measurement created by guided laser wakefield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wojda, Franck

    2010-01-01

    The interaction of an intense laser pulse of short duration with a plasma produces a plasma wave with large amplitude in its wake, which is associated with a longitudinal electric field. It can be used to accelerate relativistic electrons injected into the wave to energies in the GeV range over distances of the order of a few centimeters, short compared to acceleration lengths in conventional accelerators. The control of the electron beam characteristics during the acceleration process is fundamental for achieving a usable laser-plasma acceleration stage. The main result of this thesis is the creation and characterization of a plasma wave in a weakly nonlinear regime over a length of several centimeters. Capillary tubes are used to guide the laser beam over these distances, while maintaining a large enough intensity (∼ 10 17 W/cm 2 ). The guided laser beam ionizes the gas in the tube and creates the plasma wave. A diagnostic based on the modification of the laser pulse spectrum was used to determine the amplitude of the plasma wave along the tube. The amplitude of the plasma wave was studied as a function of gas filling pressure, length of the capillary and laser energy. Experimental results are compared; they are in excellent agreement with analytical results and modeling. They show that the electric field associated with the plasma wave is between 1 and 10 GV/m over a length of up to 8 cm. This work has demonstrated the ability to create a controlled plasma wave in a weakly nonlinear regime. (author)

  9. Spatial structure of radio frequency ring-shaped magnetized discharge sputtering plasma using two facing ZnO/Al2O3 cylindrical targets for Al-doped ZnO thin film preparation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Sumiyama

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Spatial structure of high-density radio frequency ring-shaped magnetized discharge plasma sputtering with two facing ZnO/Al2O3 cylindrical targets mounted in ring-shaped hollow cathode has been measured and Al-doped ZnO (AZO thin film is deposited without substrate heating. The plasma density has a peak at ring-shaped hollow trench near the cathode. The radial profile becomes uniform with increasing the distance from the target cathode. A low ion current flowing to the substrate of 0.19 mA/cm2 is attained. Large area AZO films with a resistivity of 4.1 – 6.7×10-4 Ω cm can be prepared at a substrate room temperature. The transmittance is 84.5 % in a visible region. The surface roughnesses of AZO films are 0.86, 0.68, 0.64, 1.7 nm at radial positions of r = 0, 15, 30, 40 mm, respectively, while diffraction peak of AZO films is 34.26°. The grains exhibit a preferential orientation along (002 axis.

  10. Formation of a fine-dispersed liquid-metal target under the action of femto- and picosecond laser pulses for a laser-plasma radiation source in the extreme ultraviolet range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinokhodov, A Yu; Krivokorytov, M S [EUV Labs, Ltd., Troitsk, Moscow (Russian Federation); Koshelev, K N; Krivtsun, V M; Sidelnikov, Yu V; Medvedev, V V; Kompanets, V O; Melnikov, A A; Chekalin, S V [Institute of Spectroscopy, Russian Academy of Sciences, Troitsk, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2016-01-31

    We report the results of studying the dynamics of deformation and fragmentation of liquid-metal droplets under the action of ultrashort laser pulses. The experiments have been performed to optimise the shape of the droplet target used in extreme ultraviolet (EUV) radiation sources based on the laser-produced plasma using the pre-pulse technology. The pre-pulse is generated by a system incorporating a master Ti : sapphire oscillator and a regenerative amplifier, allowing one to vary the pulse duration from 50 fs to 50 ps. The power density of laser radiation at the droplet target, averaged over the pulse duration and spatial coordinates, has reached 3 × 10{sup 15} W cm{sup -2}. The production of liquid-metal droplets has been implemented by means of a droplet generator based on a nozzle with a ring piezoceramic actuator. The droplet material is the eutectic indium – tin alloy. The droplet generator could operate in the droplet and jet regime with a maximal rate of stable operation 5 and 150 kHz, respectively. The spatial stability of droplet position σ = 1% – 2% of its diameter is achieved. The size of the droplets varied within 30 – 70 μm, their velocity was 2 – 8 m s{sup -1} depending on the operation regime. (interaction of laser radiation with matter. laser plasma)

  11. Plasma source ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conrad, J.R.; Forest, C.

    1986-01-01

    The authors' technique allows the ion implantation to be performed directly within the ion source at higher currents without ion beam extraction and transport. The potential benefits include greatly increased production rates (factors of 10-1000) and the ability to implant non-planar targets without rastering or shadowing. The technique eliminates the ion extractor grid set, beam raster equipment, drift space and target manipulator equipment. The target to be implanted is placed directly within the plasma source and is biased to a large negative potential so that plasma ions gain energy as they accelerate through the potential drop across the sheath that forms at the plasma boundary. Because the sheath surrounds the target on all sides, all surfaces of the target are implanted without the necessity to raster the beam or to rotate the target. The authors have succeeded in implanting nitrogen ions in a silicon target to the depths and concentrations required for surface treatment of materials like stainless steel and titanium alloys. They have performed ESCA measurements of the penetration depth profile of a silicon target that was biased to 30 kV in a nitrogen discharge plasma. Nitrogen ions were implanted to a depth of 700A at a peak concentration of 30% atomic. The measured profile is quite similar to a previously obtained profile in titanium targets with conventional techniques

  12. INTERACTION OF RADIATION WITH MATTER. LASER PLASMA: Increase in the amplitude of hf currents during exposure of a neutral target to microsecond CO2 laser pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antipov, A. A.; Losev, Leonid L.; Meshalkin, E. A.

    1988-09-01

    High-frequency electric currents were generated by irradiation of a metal target with CO2 laser pulses. It was found that the region where the ambient gas was photoionized had a decisive influence on the hf current amplitude. A method for increasing the amplitude of the current by creating an auxiliary laser jet on the target was proposed and used. An hf current of up to 1 A amplitude was observed at a frequency of 75 MHz and this current lasted for 1.5 μs.

  13. Non-equilibrium modeling of UV laser induced plasma on a copper target in the presence of Cu{sup 2+}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ait Oumeziane, Amina, E-mail: a.aitoumeziane@gmail.com; Liani, Bachir [Laboratoire de Physique Théorique, Abou Beker Blekaid University (Algeria); Parisse, Jean-Denis [IUSTI UMR CNRS 7343, Aix-Marseille University (France); French Air School, Salon de Provence (France)

    2016-03-15

    This work is a contribution to the understanding of UV laser ablation of a copper sample in the presence of Cu{sup 2+} species as well as electronic non-equilibrium in the laser induced plasma. This particular study extends a previous paper and develops a 1D hydrodynamic model to describe the behavior of the laser induced plume, including the thermal non-equilibrium between electrons and heavy particles. Incorporating the formation of doubly charged ions (Cu{sup 2+}) in such an approach has not been considered previously. We evaluate the effect of the presence of doubly ionized species on the characteristics of the plume, i.e., temperature, pressure, and expansion velocity, and on the material itself by evaluating the ablation depth and plasma shielding effects. This study evaluates the effects of the doubly charged species using a non-equilibrium hydrodynamic approach which comprises a contribution to the understanding of the governing processes of the interaction of ultraviolet nanosecond laser pulses with metals and the parameter optimization depending on the intended application.

  14. Increae of thermonuclear field on fast implosion of cold shell targets by means on nonlinear interaction of laser radiation with plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khora, Kh.

    1976-01-01

    The nonlinear interaction force between laser fields and cold plasma shells efficiently transforms radiant energy into mechanical energy of implosion. This transfer of energy has been considered before in numerical experiments and is treated here analytically in a didactic example starting with the inhomogeneous Rayleigh density profile. Up to 50% of the laser energy can be transferred into the energy of compression is a single, untailored pulse of 2.5x10 16 W/cm 2 intensity and of only a few picoseconds duration is used for spherical illumination of the shell. If the pulse is short enough to reduce collisional thermalization, then the collapse and compression of the plasma can remain both at the threshold of Fermi degeneracy and adiabatic. This results in nuclear reaction gains G, based on the deposited energy, E 0 , and without a-particle reheating, of G=400 for E 0 =2.25 kJ (DT), 900 kJ(DD), 13MJ (HB). About 1000 times less laser energy is necessary than in the case of gas dynamic ablation resulting in the same nuclear reaction yields

  15. Targeting of conserved gag-epitopes in early HIV infection is associated with lower plasma viral load and slower CD4+ T cell depletion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perez, Carina L.; Milush, Jeffrey M.; Buggert, Marcus

    2013-01-01

    We aimed to investigate whether the character of the immunodominant HIV-Gag peptide (variable or conserved) targeted by CD8+ T cells in early HIV infection would influence the quality and quantity of T cell responses, and whether this would affect the rate of disease progression. Treatment-naive ...

  16. The Vasopressin Type-2 Receptor and Prostaglandin Receptors EP2 and EP4 can Increase Aquaporin-2 Plasma Membrane Targeting Through a cAMP Independent Pathway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Emma Tina Bisgaard; Moeller, Hanne Bjerregaard; Assentoft, Mette

    2016-01-01

    Apical membrane targeting of the collecting duct water channel aquaporin-2 (AQP2) is essential for body water balance. As this event is regulated by Gs coupled 7-transmembrane receptors such as the vasopressin type 2 receptor (V2R) and the prostanoid receptors EP2 and EP4, it is believed to be c...

  17. Exploding pusher targets illuminated using f/1 lenses at approx. 0.4 TW

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Storm, E.K.; Ahlstrom, H.G.; Holzrichter, J.F.

    1976-01-01

    A series of laser fusion microimplosion experiments have been performed with the LLL two beam laser system JANUS. The JANUS laser is capable of focusing up to 400 gigawatts of 1.06 μm laser power (32J in 80 psec) on microscopic laser fusion targets, producing intensities in excess of 10 17 w/cm 2 . In these experiments the targets were Deuterium--Tritium (DT) gas filled, thin walled (.5 to 1.0 μm) SiO 2 microshells with diameters of 40 to 100 μm. Targets with these dimensions, properties and laser powers operate in what has become known as the exploding pusher mode. A summary of the salient points of each design limit is illustrated

  18. Plasma Lens for Muon and Neutrino Beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Stephen; Korenev, Sergey; Bishai, Mary; Diwan, Milind; Gallardo, Juan; Hershcovitch, Ady; Johnson, Brant

    2008-04-01

    The plasma lens is examined as an alternate to focusing horns and solenoids for use in a neutrino or muon beam facility. The plasma lens concept is based on a combined high-current lens/target configuration. The current is fed at electrodes located upstream and downstream from the target where pion capturing is needed. The current flows primarily in the plasma, which has a lower resistivity than the target. A second plasma lens section, with an additional current feed, follows the target to provide shaping of the plasma stability. The geometry of the plasma is shaped to provide optimal pion capture. Simulations of this plasma lens system have shown a 25% higher neutrino production than the horn system. A plasma lens has additional advantage: larger axial current than horns, minimal neutrino contamination during antineutrino running, and negligible pion absorption or scattering. Results from particle simulations using a plasma lens will be presented.

  19. The Expected Cardiovascular Benefit of Plasma Cholesterol Lowering with or Without LDL-C Targets in Healthy Individuals at Higher Cardiovascular Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Henpin Yue Cesena

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: There is controversy whether management of blood cholesterol should be based or not on LDL-cholesterol (LDL-c target concentrations. Objectives: To compare the estimated impact of different lipid-lowering strategies, based or not on LDL-c targets, on the risk of major cardiovascular events in a population with higher cardiovascular risk. Methods: We included consecutive individuals undergoing a routine health screening in a single center who had a 10-year risk for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD ≥ 7.5% (pooled cohort equations, ACC/AHA, 2013. For each individual, we simulated two strategies based on LDL-c target (≤ 100 mg/dL [Starget-100] or ≤ 70 mg/dL [Starget-70] and two strategies based on percent LDL-c reduction (30% [S30%] or 50% [S50%]. Results: In 1,897 subjects (57 ± 7 years, 96% men, 10-year ASCVD risk 13.7 ± 7.1%, LDL-c would be lowered from 141 ± 33 mg/dL to 99 ± 23 mg/dL in S30%, 71 ± 16 mg/dL in S50%, 98 ± 9 mg/dL in Starget-100, and 70 ± 2 mg/dL in Starget-70. Ten-year ASCVD risk would be reduced to 8.8 ± 4.8% in S50% and 8.9 ± 5.2 in Starget-70. The number of major cardiovascular events prevented in 10 years per 1,000 individuals would be 32 in S30%, 31 in Starget-100, 49 in S50%, and 48 in Starget-70. Compared with Starget-70, S50% would prevent more events in the lower LDL-c tertile and fewer events in the higher LDL-c tertile. Conclusions: The more aggressive lipid-lowering approaches simulated in this study, based on LDL-c target or percent reduction, may potentially prevent approximately 50% more hard cardiovascular events in the population compared with the less intensive treatments. Baseline LDL-c determines which strategy (based or not on LDL-c target is more appropriate at the individual level.

  20. Palm top plasma focus device as a portable pulsed neutron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rout, R. K.; Niranjan, Ram; Srivastava, R.; Rawool, A. M.; Kaushik, T. C.; Gupta, Satish C.; Mishra, P.

    2013-01-01

    Development of a palm top plasma focus device generating (5.2 ± 0.8) × 10 4 neutrons/pulse into 4π steradians with a pulse width of 15 ± 3 ns is reported for the first time. The weight of the system is less than 1.5 kg. The system comprises a compact capacitor bank, a triggered open air spark gap switch, and a sealed type miniature plasma focus tube. The setup is around 14 cm in diameter and 12.5 cm in length. The energy driver for the unit is a capacitor bank of four cylindrical commercially available electrolytic capacitors. Each capacitor is of 2 μF capacity, 4.5 cm in diameter, and 9.8 cm in length. The cost of each capacitor is less than US$ 10. The internal diameter and the effective length of the plasma focus unit are 2.9 cm and 5 cm, respectively. A DC to DC converter power supply powered by two rechargeable batteries charges the capacitor bank to the desired voltage and also provides a trigger pulse of −15 kV to the spark gap. The maximum energy of operation of the device is 100 J (8 μF, 5 kV, 59 kA) with deuterium gas filling pressure of 3 mbar. The neutrons have also been produced at energy as low as 36 J (3 kV) of operation. The neutron diagnostics are carried out with a bank of 3 He detectors and with a plastic scintillator detector. The device is portable, reusable, and can be operated for multiple shots with a single gas filling.

  1. Plasma turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horton, W.

    1998-07-01

    The origin of plasma turbulence from currents and spatial gradients in plasmas is described and shown to lead to the dominant transport mechanism in many plasma regimes. A wide variety of turbulent transport mechanism exists in plasmas. In this survey the authors summarize some of the universally observed plasma transport rates

  2. The effect of MEP pathway and other inhibitors on the intracellular localization of a plasma membrane-targeted, isoprenylable GFP reporter protein in tobacco BY-2 cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bach, Thomas J

    2013-01-01

    We have established an in vivo visualization system for the geranylgeranylation of proteins in a stably transformed tobacco BY-2 cell line, based on the expression of a dexamethasone-inducible GFP fused to the carboxy-terminal basic domain of the rice calmodulin CaM61, which naturally bears a CaaL geranylgeranylation motif (GFP-BD-CVIL). By using pathway-specific inhibitors it was demonstrated that inhibition of the methylerythritol phosphate (MEP) pathway with known inhibitors like oxoclomazone and fosmidomycin, as well as inhibition of the protein geranylgeranyltransferase type 1 (PGGT-1), shifted the localization of the GFP-BD-CVIL protein from the membrane to the nucleus. In contrast, the inhibition of the mevalonate (MVA) pathway with mevinolin did not affect the localization. During the present work, this test system has been used to examine the effect of newly designed inhibitors of the MEP pathway and inhibitors of sterol biosynthesis such as squalestatin, terbinafine and Ro48-8071. In addition, we also studied the impact of different post-prenylation inhibitors or those suspected to affect the transport of proteins to the plasma membrane on the localization of the geranylgeranylable fusion protein GFP-BD-CVIL. PMID:24555083

  3. Dynamin-like protein 1 at the Golgi complex: A novel component of the sorting/targeting machinery en route to the plasma membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonekamp, Nina A.; Vormund, Kerstin; Jacob, Ralf; Schrader, Michael

    2010-01-01

    The final step in the liberation of secretory vesicles from the trans-Golgi network (TGN) involves the mechanical action of the large GTPase dynamin as well as conserved dynamin-independent fission mechanisms, e.g. mediated by Brefeldin A-dependent ADP-ribosylated substrate (BARS). Another member of the dynamin family is the mammalian dynamin-like protein 1 (DLP1/Drp1) that is known to constrict and tubulate membranes, and to divide mitochondria and peroxisomes. Here, we examined a potential role for DLP1 at the Golgi complex. DLP1 localized to the Golgi complex in some but not all cell lines tested, thus explaining controversial reports on its cellular distribution. After silencing of DLP1, an accumulation of the apical reporter protein YFP-GL-GPI, but not the basolateral reporter VSVG-SP-GFP at the Golgi complex was observed. A reduction in the transport of YFP-GL-GPI to the plasma membrane was confirmed by surface immunoprecipitation and TGN-exit assays. In contrast, YFP-GL-GPI trafficking was not disturbed in cells silenced for BARS, which is involved in basolateral sorting and trafficking of VSVG-SP-GFP in COS-7 cells. Our data indicate a new role for DLP1 at the Golgi complex and thus a role for DLP1 as a novel component of the apical sorting machinery at the TGN is discussed.

  4. Mitigation of stimulated Raman scattering in hohlraum plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kline, J L; Montgomery, D S; Rose, H A; Goldman, S R; Froula, D H; Ross, J S; Stevenson, R M; Lushnikov, P M

    2008-01-01

    One aspect of recent research to control Stimulated Raman Scattering (SRS) in hohlraum plasmas is the investigation of risk mitigation strategies for indirect drive inertial confinement fusion. Experimental tests of these strategies, based on prior theoretical and experimental knowledge of SRS, are performed in hohlraum experiments. In the last year, two strategies have been investigated. The first is the use of high Z dopants to reduce SRS backscatter. Forward stimulated Brillouin scattering (FSBS) could lead to beam spray reducing SRS. Since FSBS depends on the electron temperature and thermal effects depend strongly on Z 2 , a small amount of a high Z dopant, 1-2%, can have a large effect. Experiments have been conducted at the Omega laser to test this theory by varying the amount of Xe dopant in neo-pentane gas filled hohlraums. The experimental measurements do show a decrease in SRS backscatter as Xe dopant is added. However, there are still uncertainties regarding the responsible mechanism since increases inverse-Bremsstrahlung absorption of the SRS light may play a role. The second strategy investigated is using high kλ D plasmas to reduce SRS backscatter. Experiments conducted at the Omega laser facility in hohlraum plasmas determined the critical onset intensity for a range of kλ D . A scaling of the critical onset intensity as a function of kλ D has been determined

  5. Plasma radiation in tokamak disruption simulation experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arkhipov, N.; Bakhtin, V.; Safronov, V.; Toporkov, D.; Vasenin, S.; Zhitlukhin, A.; Wuerz, H.

    1995-01-01

    Plasma impact results in sudden evaporation of divertor plate material and produces a plasma cloud which acts as a protective shield. The incoming energy flux is absorbed in the plasma shield and is converted mainly into radiation. Thus the radiative characteristics of the target plasma determine the dissipation of the incoming energy and the heat load at the target. Radiation of target plasma is studied at the two plasma gun facility 2MK-200 at Troitsk. Space- and time-resolved spectroscopy and time-integrated space-resolved calorimetry are employed as diagnostics. Graphite and tungsten samples are exposed to deuterium plasma streams. It is found that the radiative characteristics depend strongly on the target material. Tungsten plasma arises within 1 micros close to the surface and shows continuum radiation only. Expansion of tungsten plasma is restricted. For a graphite target the plasma shield is a mixture of carbon and deuterium. It expands along the magnetic field lines with a velocity of v = (3--4) 10 6 cm/s. The plasma shield is a two zone plasma with a hot low dense corona and a cold dense layer close to the target. The plasma corona emits intense soft x-ray (SXR) line radiation in the frequency range from 300--380 eV mainly from CV ions. It acts as effective dissipation system and converts volumetrically the incoming energy flux into SXR radiation

  6. Proton Radiography of Spontaneous Fields, Plasma Flows and Dynamics in X-Ray Driven Inertial-Confinement Fusion Implosions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, C. K.; Seguin, F. H.; Frenje, J. A.; Rosenberg, M.; Zylstra, A. B.; Rinderknecht, H. G.; Petrasso, R. D.; Amendt, P. A.; Landen, O. L.; Town, R. P. J.; Betti, R.; Knauer, J. P.; Meyerhofer, D. D.; Back, C. A.; Kilkenny, J. D.; Nikroo, A.

    2010-11-01

    Backlighting of x-ray-driven implosions in empty hohlraums with mono-energetic protons on the OMEGA laser facility has allowed a number of important phenomena to be observed. Several critical parameters were determined, including plasma flow, three types of spontaneous electric fields and megaGauss magnetic fields. These results provide insight into important issues in indirect-drive ICF. Even though the cavity is effectively a Faraday cage, the strong, local fields inside the hohlraum can affect laser-plasma instabilities, electron distributions and implosion symmetry. They are of fundamental scientific importance for a range of new experiments at the frontiers of high-energy-density physics. Future experiments designed to characterize the field formation and evolution in low-Z gas fill hohlraums will be discussed.

  7. Plasma properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weitzner, H.

    1990-06-01

    This paper discusses the following topics: MHD plasma activity: equilibrium, stability and transport; statistical analysis; transport studies; edge physics studies; wave propagation analysis; basic plasma physics and fluid dynamics; space plasma; and numerical methods

  8. Enhancement of Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV Infection by Seminal Plasma and Semen Amyloids Implicates a New Target for the Prevention of HSV Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilith Torres

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Human herpesviruses cause different infectious diseases, resulting in world-wide health problems. Sexual transmission is a major route for the spread of both herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1 and -2. Semen plays an important role in carrying the viral particle that invades the vaginal or rectal mucosa and, thereby, initiates viral replication. Previously, we demonstrated that the amyloid fibrils semenogelin (SEM and semen-derived enhancer of viral infection (SEVI, and seminal plasma (SP augment cytomegalovirus infection (Tang et al., J. Virol 2013. Whether SEM or SEVI amyloids or SP could also enhance other herpesvirus infections has not been examined. In this study, we found that the two amyloids as well as SP strongly enhance both HSV-1 and -2 infections in cell culture. Along with SP, SEM and SEVI amyloids enhanced viral entry and increased infection rates by more than 10-fold, as assessed by flow cytometry assay and fluorescence microscopy. Viral replication was increased by about 50- to 100-fold. Moreover, viral growth curve assays showed that SEM and SEVI amyloids, as well as SP, sped up the kinetics of HSV replication such that the virus reached its replicative peak more quickly. The interactions of SEM, SEVI, and SP with HSVs are direct. Furthermore, we discovered that the enhancing effects of SP, SEM, and SEVI can be significantly reduced by heparin, a sulfated polysaccharide with an anionic charge. It is probable that heparin abrogates said enhancing effects by interfering with the interaction of the viral particle and the amyloids, which interaction results in the binding of the viral particles and both SEM and SEVI.

  9. Structured cylindrical targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, R.

    1986-01-01

    A variety of experimental concepts using high-energy heavy-ion beams in cylindrical targets have been studied through numerical simulation. With an accelerator planned for GSl, plasma temperatures of 100 eV can be reached by cylindrical compression, using inhomogeneous hollow-shell targets. Magnetic insulation, using external fields, has been explored as an aid in reaching high core temperatures. Experiments on collision-pumped x-ray laser physics are also discussed. (ii) Two-dimensional PlC code simulations of homogeneous solid targets show hydrodynamic effects not found in previous 1-D calculations. (iii) Preliminary ideas for an experiment on non-equilibrium heavy-ion charge-states using an existing accelerator and a pre-formed plasma target are outlined. (author)

  10. Structured cylindrical targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, R.; Lackner-Russo, D.; Meyer-ter-Vehn, J.; Hoffmann, I.

    1986-01-01

    A variety of experimental concepts using high-energy heavy-ion beams in cylindrical targets have been studied through numerical simulation. With an accelerator planned for GSl, plasma temperatures of 100 eV can be reached by cylindrical compression, using inhomogenous hollow-shell targets. Magnetic insulation, using external fields, has been explored as an aid in reaching high core temperatures. Experiments on collision-pumped x-ray laser physics are also discussed. (ii) Two-dimensional PlC code simulations of homogeneous solid targets show hydrodynamic effects not found in previous l-D calculations. (iii) Preliminary ideas for an experiment on non-equilibrium heavy-ion charge-states using an existing accelerator and a pre-formed plasma target are outlined. (author)

  11. Plasma accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bingham, R.; Angelis, U. de; Johnston, T.W.

    1991-01-01

    Recently attention has focused on charged particle acceleration in a plasma by a fast, large amplitude, longitudinal electron plasma wave. The plasma beat wave and plasma wakefield accelerators are two efficient ways of producing ultra-high accelerating gradients. Starting with the plasma beat wave accelerator (PBWA) and laser wakefield accelerator (LWFA) schemes and the plasma wakefield accelerator (PWFA) steady progress has been made in theory, simulations and experiments. Computations are presented for the study of LWFA. (author)

  12. Numerical simulation of exploding pusher targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atzeni, S.; Rosenberg, M. J.; Gatu Johnson, M.; Petrasso, R. D.

    2017-10-01

    Exploding pusher targets, i.e. gas-filled large aspect-ratio glass or plastic shells, driven by a strong laser-generated shock, are widely used as pulsed sources of neutrons and fast charged particles. Recent experiments on exploding pushers provided evidence for the transition from a purely fluid behavior to a kinetic one. Indeed, fluid models largely overpredict yield and temperature as the Knudsen number Kn (ratio of ion mean-free path to compressed gas radius) is comparable or larger than one. At Kn = 0.3 - 1, fluid codes reasonably estimate integral quantities as yield and neutron-averaged temperatures, but do not reproduce burn radii, burn profiles and DD/DHe3 yield ratio. This motivated a detailed simulation study of intermediate-Kn exploding pushers. We will show how simulation results depend on models for laser-interaction, electron conductivity (flux-limited local vs nonlocal), viscosity (physical vs artificial), and ion mixing. Work partially supported by Sapienza Project C26A15YTMA, Sapienza 2016 (n. 257584), and Eurofusion Project AWP17-ENR-IFE-CEA-01.

  13. Computing in plasma physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuehrenberg, J.

    1986-01-01

    These proceedings contain the articles presented at the named conference. These concern numerical methods for astrophysical plasmas, the numerical simulation of reversed-field pinch dynamics, methods for numerical simulation of ideal MHD stability of axisymmetric plasmas, calculations of the resistive internal m=1 mode in tokamaks, parallel computing and multitasking, particle simulation methods in plasma physics, 2-D Lagrangian studies of symmetry and stability of laser fusion targets, computing of rf heating and current drive in tokamaks, three-dimensional free boundary calculations using a spectral Green's function method, as well as the calculation of three-dimensional MHD equilibria with islands and stochastic regions. See hints under the relevant topics. (HSI)

  14. Matriptase and prostasin are expressed in human skin in an inverse trend over the course of differentiation and are targeted to different regions of the plasma membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Hsin Lai

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Matriptase and prostasin, acting as a tightly coupled proteolytic cascade, were reported to be required for epidermal barrier formation in mouse skin. Here we show that, in human skin, matriptase and prostasin are expressed with an inverse pattern over the course of differentiation. Matriptase was detected primarily in epidermal basal keratinocytes and the basaloid cells in the outer root sheath of hair follicles and the sebaceous gland, where prostasin was not detected. In contrast, prostasin was detected primarily in differentiated cells in the epidermal granular layer, the inner root sheath of hair follicles, and the sebaceous gland, where matriptase expression is negligible. While co-expressed in the middle stage of differentiation, prostasin was detected as polarized patches, and matriptase at intercellular junctions. Targeting to different subcellular localizations is also observed in HaCaT human keratinocytes, in which matriptase was detected primarily at intercellular junctions, and prostasin primarily on membrane protrusion. Furthermore, upon induction of zymogen activation, free active prostasin remains cell-associated and free active matriptase is rapidly shed into the extracellular milieu. Our data suggest that matriptase and prostasin likely function as independent entities in human skin rather than as a tightly coupled proteolytic cascade as observed in mouse skin.

  15. Rice calcium-dependent protein kinase OsCPK17 targets plasma membrane intrinsic protein and sucrose phosphate synthase and is required for a proper cold stress response

    KAUST Repository

    Almadanim, M. Cecília

    2017-01-19

    Calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs) are involved in plant tolerance mechanisms to abiotic stresses. Although CDPKs are recognized as key messengers in signal transduction, the specific role of most members of this family remains unknown. Here we test the hypothesis that OsCPK17 plays a role in rice cold stress response by analyzing OsCPK17 knockout, silencing, and overexpressing rice lines under low temperature. Altered OsCPK17 gene expression compromises cold tolerance performance, without affecting the expression of key cold stress-inducible genes. A comparative phosphoproteomic approach led to the identification of six potential in vivo OsCPK17 targets, which are associated with sugar and nitrogen metabolism, and with osmotic regulation. To test direct interaction, in vitro kinase assays were performed, showing that the sucrose phosphate synthase OsSPS4, and the aquaporin OsPIP2;1/OsPIP2;6 are phosphorylated by OsCPK17 in a calcium-dependent manner. Altogether, our data indicates that OsCPK17 is required for a proper cold stress response in rice, likely affecting the activity of membrane channels and sugar metabolism.

  16. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry with hexapole collision cell: figures of merit and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boulyga, S.F. [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany). Zentralabteilung fuer Chemische Analysen]|[Radiation Physics and Chemistry Problems Inst., Minsk (Belarus); Becker, J.S. [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany). Zentralabteilung fuer Chemische Analysen

    2000-11-01

    The use of gas-filled multipole collision cells represents important progress in ICP-MS instrumentation. It enables an increase in element sensitivity based on the improvement of ion transmission efficiency from near thermalization and collisional focusing of ions. In addition, gas-phase ion-molecule chemistry can be applied in order to reduce mass spectral interferences via charge transfer reaction of interfering ions with reaction gas or via fragmentation of interfering molecular ions by collision-induced dissociation. The application of a hexapole collision cell in quadrupole based ICP-MS (HEX-ICP-QMS) was studied systematically in order to characterize the analytical figures of merit of this approach. Additionally, the performance of different solution introduction systems as well as an inductively coupled plasma shielded torch was studied for use with HEX-ICP-QMS. (orig.)

  17. Plasma device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thode, L.E.

    1981-01-01

    A method is described for electron beam heating of a high-density plasma to drive a fast liner. An annular or solid relativistic electron beam is used to heat a plasma to kilovolt temperatures through streaming instabilities in the plasma. Energy deposited in the plasma then converges on a fast liner to explosively or ablatively drive the liner to implosion. (U.K.)

  18. Interaction of heavy ion beams with a hydrogen plasma: plasma lens effect and stopping power enhancement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gardes, D.; Bimbot, R.; Della-Negra, S.; Dumail, M.; Kubica, B.; Richard, A.; Rivet, M.F.; Servajean, A.; Deutsch, C.; Maynard, G.

    1988-01-01

    By coupling a hydrogen plasma to a Tandem accelerator, transmission and energy losses of 2 MeV/u carbon and sulfur beams passing through a plasma target have been investigated. Fluctuations in beam transmission have been observed and attributed to a plasma lens effect. Moreover, energy loss measurements indicate an enhanced stopping power of the plasma relative to its cold matter equivalent

  19. Plasma Modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubin, D. H. E.

    This chapter explores several aspects of the linear electrostatic normal modes of oscillation for a single-species non-neutral plasma in a Penning trap. Linearized fluid equations of motion are developed, assuming the plasma is cold but collisionless, which allow derivation of the cold plasma dielectric tensor and the electrostatic wave equation. Upper hybrid and magnetized plasma waves in an infinite uniform plasma are described. The effect of the plasma surface in a bounded plasma system is considered, and the properties of surface plasma waves are characterized. The normal modes of a cylindrical plasma column are discussed, and finally, modes of spheroidal plasmas, and finite temperature effects on the modes, are briefly described.

  20. Shiva target irradiation facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manes, K.R.; Ahlstrom, H.G.; Coleman, L.W.; Storm, E.K.; Glaze, J.A.; Hurley, C.A.; Rienecker, F.; O'Neal, W.C.

    1977-01-01

    The first laser/plasma studies performed with the Shiva laser system will be two sided irradiations extending the data obtained by other LLL lasers to higher powers. The twenty approximately 1 TW laser pulses will reach the target simultaneously from above and below in nested pentagonal clusters. The upper and lower clusters of ten beams each are radially polarized so that they strike the target in p-polarization and maximize absorption. This geometry introduces laser system isolation problems which will be briefly discussed. The layout and types of target diagnostics will be described and a brief status report on the facility given

  1. Experiments with laser heated cavity targets for the investigation of heavy ion-plasma interaction; Experimente mit lasergeheizten Hohlraeumen fuer die Untersuchung der Wechselwirkung von Schwerionen mit ionisierter Materie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaumann, G

    2007-07-01

    This dissertation research aims to develop a cavity as a converter for laser radiation into soft X-rays, and to characterise this thermal radiation. The concept of indirect heating allows for the production of a spatially homogenous plasma at solid state density. For the purpose of this research, the Nhelix laser system has been extended by a second oscillator with a shorter pulse length, and the optical system layout has been redesigned for both beams. This dissertation presents data on the energy loss of Ar-ions in plasma targets generated by direct heating of carbon foils with the Nhelix laser. Due to the use of a new ion detector, the energy resolution ({delta}E/E{approx}0.1%) and the signal-to-noise ratio of the measurements were improved. Measurements with thin carbon foil showed the maximum energy loss in the plasma to be 31% above the energy loss in comparison with the cold foil. The transparency of thin carbon foils for laser light has been investigated as a function of foil thickness and pulse length, which resulted in a maximum laser pulse length applicable for a certain foil thickness and laser intensity. an interferometer was developed and constructed, with which the electron density could be determined with spatial resolution, and for the first time also at different times during the experiment. This diagnostic provides images of the interference pattern with a time difference of 1.5 ns and allows determination of the free electron density up to a maximum density of 2 x 10{sup 20} cm{sup -3}. In order to characterise the cavity radiation, a spectrometer with high time resolution was developed and calibrated in terms of absolute intensity units with a deuterium-lamp. While the laser heats the cavity, the rise in temperature was measured with a time resolution <1 ns up to a maximal radiation temperature of 73{+-}8 eV/k{sub B} (85 x 10{sup 4} C). For this particular cavity geometry, conversion efficiency (with time resolution) of laser energy to thermal

  2. Extreme degree of ionization in homogenous micro-capillary plasma columns heated by ultrafast current pulses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avaria, G; Grisham, M; Li, J; Tomasel, F G; Shlyaptsev, V N; Busquet, M; Woolston, M; Rocca, J J

    2015-03-06

    Homogeneous plasma columns with ionization levels typical of megaampere discharges are created by rapidly heating gas-filled 520-μm-diameter channels with nanosecond rise time current pulses of 40 kA. Current densities of up to 0.3  GA cm^{-2} greatly increase Joule heating with respect to conventional capillary discharge Z pinches, reaching unprecedented degrees of ionization for a high-Z plasma column heated by a current pulse of remarkably low amplitude. Dense xenon plasmas are ionized to Xe^{28+}, while xenon impurities in hydrogen discharges reach Xe^{30+}. The unique characteristics of these hot, ∼300:1 length-to-diameter aspect ratio plasmas allow the observation of unexpected spectroscopic phenomena. Axial spectra show the unusual dominance of the intercombination line over the resonance line of He-like Al by nearly an order of magnitude, caused by differences in opacities in the axial and radial directions. These plasma columns could enable the development of sub-10-nm x-ray lasers.

  3. Surface modification study of zirconium on exposure to fusion grade plasma in an 11.5 kJ plasma focus device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, Rohit; Niranjan, Ram; Rout, R.K.; Kaushik, T.C.; Chakravarthy, Y.; Mishra, P.

    2017-01-01

    In continuation of our investigation on effect of fusion grade plasma produced in an existing MEPF-12 (11.5 kJ, 40 μF, 24 kV) plasma focus (PF) facility on different materials, likely to be used in future fusion reactors, we have reported here the study on Zirconium (Zr) metal. In the present work, the Zr sample in disc (2 mm thick, 10 mm diameter) form was exposed to twenty shots of plasma focus operated at 4 mbar deuterium gas filling pressure and 11.5 kJ bank energy. The samples were placed at a distance of 6 cm from the tip of the anode in the MEPF-12 PF device. The emissions from the device comprise of deuterium ions in wide energy range (a few keV to several hundreds of keV), high temperature plasma (in general a few keV) and neutrons of 2.45 MeV energy produced due to D(D, 3 He)n fusion reactions

  4. Plasma centrifuges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karchevskij, A.I.; Potanin, E.P.

    2000-01-01

    The review of the most important studies on the isotope separation processes in the rotating plasma is presented. The device is described and the characteristics of operation of the pulse plasma centrifuges with weakly and strongly ionized plasma as well as the stationary plasma centrifuges with the medium weak ionization and devices, applying the stationary vacuum arc with the high ionization rate and the stationary beam-plasma discharge with complete ionization, are presented. The possible mechanisms of the isotope separation in plasma centrifuges are considered. The specific energy consumption for isotope separation in these devices is discussed [ru

  5. Plasma astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Kaplan, S A; ter Haar, D

    2013-01-01

    Plasma Astrophysics is a translation from the Russian language; the topics discussed are based on lectures given by V.N. Tsytovich at several universities. The book describes the physics of the various phenomena and their mathematical formulation connected with plasma astrophysics. This book also explains the theory of the interaction of fast particles plasma, their radiation activities, as well as the plasma behavior when exposed to a very strong magnetic field. The text describes the nature of collective plasma processes and of plasma turbulence. One author explains the method of elementary

  6. Plasma waves

    CERN Document Server

    Swanson, DG

    1989-01-01

    Plasma Waves discusses the basic development and equations for the many aspects of plasma waves. The book is organized into two major parts, examining both linear and nonlinear plasma waves in the eight chapters it encompasses. After briefly discussing the properties and applications of plasma wave, the book goes on examining the wave types in a cold, magnetized plasma and the general forms of the dispersion relation that characterize the waves and label the various types of solutions. Chapters 3 and 4 analyze the acoustic phenomena through the fluid model of plasma and the kinetic effects. Th

  7. Plasma device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thode, L.E.

    1981-01-01

    A method is described of providing electron beam heating of a high-density plasma to drive a fast liner to implode a structured microsphere. An annular relativistic electron beam is used to heat an annular plasma to kilovolt temperatures through streaming instabilities in the plasma. Energy deposited in the annular plasma then converges on a fast liner to explosively or ablatively drive the liner to convergence to implode the structured microsphere. (U.K.)

  8. Production of field-reversed mirror plasma with a coaxial plasma gun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, C.W.; Shearer, J.W.

    The use of a coaxial plasma gun to produce a plasma ring which is directed into a magnetic field so as to form a field-reversed plasma confined in a magnetic mirror. Plasma thus produced may be used as a target for subsequent neutral beam injection or other similarly produced and projected plasma rings or for direct fusion energy release in a pulsed mode.

  9. Production of field-reversed mirror plasma with a coaxial plasma gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartman, C.W.; Shearer, J.W.

    1982-01-01

    The use of a coaxial plasma gun to produce a plasma ring which is directed into a magnetic field so as to form a field-reversed plasma confined in a magnetic mirror. Plasma thus produced may be used as a target for subsequent neutral beam injection or other similarly produced and projected plasma rings or for direct fusion energy release in a pulsed mode

  10. Intense microwave pulse propagation through gas breakdown plasmas in a waveguide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byrne, D.P.

    1986-01-01

    High-power microwave pulse-compression techniques are used to generate 2.856 GHz pulses which are propagated in a TE 10 mode through a gas filled section of waveguide, where the pulses interact with self-generated gas-breakdown plasmas. Pulse envelopes transmitted through the plasmas, with duration varying from 2 ns to greater than 1 μs, and peak powers of a few kW to nearly 100 MW, are measured as a function of incident pulse and gas pressure for air, nitrogen, and helium. In addition, the spatial and temporal development of the optical radiation emitted by the breakdown plasmas are measured. For transmitted pulse durations ≥ 100 ns, good agreement is found with both theory and existing measurements. For transmitted pulse duration as short as 2 ns (less than 10 rf cycles), a two-dimensional model is used in which the electrons in the plasma are treated as a fluid whose interactions with the microwave pulse are governed by a self-consistent set of fluid equations and Maxwell's equations for the electromagnetic field. The predictions of this model for air are compared with the experimental results over a pressure range of 0.8 torr to 300 torr. Good agreement is obtained above about 1 torr pressure, demonstrating that microwave pulse propagation above the breakdown threshold can be accurately modeled on this time scale. 63 refs., 44 figs., 2 tabs

  11. The diverse applications of plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Mukul; Dubey, Shivani; Darwhekar, Gajanan; Jain, Sudhir Kumar

    2015-07-01

    Plasma being the fourth state of matter has always been an attraction for Physicists and Chemists. With the advent of time, plasma energy has been recognized in having widening horizons in the field of Biomedical Sciences. Plasma medicine can be subdivided into three main fields; Non-thermal atmospheric-pressure direct plasma for medical therapy; Plasma-assisted modification of bio-relevant surfaces and Plasma-based bio-decontamination and sterilization. The basis of the research is that as it has free carrier molecules, it has the ability to target specific cells and regulate functions like wound healing. Plasma does not harm healthy human cells but can kill bacteria and possibly even cancer cells to help treat various diseases. Nosocomial infection control, prevention and containment of contagious diseases, disinfection of medical devices, surface treatment (heat and UV sensitive surfaces) are research of interest. Recent success in generating plasma at very low temperature ie. Cold plasma makes the therapy painless. It has the ability to activate cellular responses and important mechanisms in the body. They target specific molecules such as prothrombin for blood coagulation, cytokines for killing bacteria, and angiogenesis for tissue regeneration. Plasma has bactericidal, fungicidal and virucidal properties. Plasma technology has flourishing future in diverse fields like Textiles, Nanofabrication, Automotives, Waste management, Microbiology, Food Hygiene, Medical Science like Skin treatments, sterilisation of wounds, Hand disinfection, Dental treatments etc. Food hygiene using plasma can be achieved in disinfection of food containers, food surface disinfection, hygiene in food handling, preparation and packaging. Therefore Plasma is most promising field for budding Scientist for fluorishing research in Biological Sciences.

  12. The diverse applications of plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Mukul; Darwhekar, Gajanan; Dubey, Shivani; Jain, Sudhir Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Plasma being the fourth state of matter has always been an attraction for Physicists and Chemists. With the advent of time, plasma energy has been recognized in having widening horizons in the field of Biomedical Sciences. Plasma medicine can be subdivided into three main fields; Non-thermal atmospheric-pressure direct plasma for medical therapy; Plasma-assisted modification of bio-relevant surfaces and Plasma-based bio-decontamination and sterilization. The basis of the research is that as it has free carrier molecules, it has the ability to target specific cells and regulate functions like wound healing. Plasma does not harm healthy human cells but can kill bacteria and possibly even cancer cells to help treat various diseases. Nosocomial infection control, prevention and containment of contagious diseases, disinfection of medical devices, surface treatment (heat and UV sensitive surfaces) are research of interest. Recent success in generating plasma at very low temperature ie. Cold plasma makes the therapy painless. It has the ability to activate cellular responses and important mechanisms in the body. They target specific molecules such as prothrombin for blood coagulation, cytokines for killing bacteria, and angiogenesis for tissue regeneration. Plasma has bactericidal, fungicidal and virucidal properties. Plasma technology has flourishing future in diverse fields like Textiles, Nanofabrication, Automotives, Waste management, Microbiology, Food Hygiene, Medical Science like Skin treatments, sterilisation of wounds, Hand disinfection, Dental treatments etc. Food hygiene using plasma can be achieved in disinfection of food containers, food surface disinfection, hygiene in food handling, preparation and packaging. Therefore Plasma is most promising field for budding Scientist for fluorishing research in Biological Sciences

  13. The diverse applications of plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Mukul, E-mail: mukulsharma@acropolis.edu.in; Darwhekar, Gajanan, E-mail: gdarwhekar@acropolis.edu.in [Acropolis Institute of Pharmaceutical Education & Research, Indore MP India (India); Dubey, Shivani, E-mail: dubeyshivani08@rediffmail.com [Mata Gujri College of Professional Studies, Indore MP India (India); Jain, Sudhir Kumar, E-mail: sudhirkjain1@rediffmail.com [School of Studies in Microbiology, Vikram University, Ujjain MP India (India)

    2015-07-31

    Plasma being the fourth state of matter has always been an attraction for Physicists and Chemists. With the advent of time, plasma energy has been recognized in having widening horizons in the field of Biomedical Sciences. Plasma medicine can be subdivided into three main fields; Non-thermal atmospheric-pressure direct plasma for medical therapy; Plasma-assisted modification of bio-relevant surfaces and Plasma-based bio-decontamination and sterilization. The basis of the research is that as it has free carrier molecules, it has the ability to target specific cells and regulate functions like wound healing. Plasma does not harm healthy human cells but can kill bacteria and possibly even cancer cells to help treat various diseases. Nosocomial infection control, prevention and containment of contagious diseases, disinfection of medical devices, surface treatment (heat and UV sensitive surfaces) are research of interest. Recent success in generating plasma at very low temperature ie. Cold plasma makes the therapy painless. It has the ability to activate cellular responses and important mechanisms in the body. They target specific molecules such as prothrombin for blood coagulation, cytokines for killing bacteria, and angiogenesis for tissue regeneration. Plasma has bactericidal, fungicidal and virucidal properties. Plasma technology has flourishing future in diverse fields like Textiles, Nanofabrication, Automotives, Waste management, Microbiology, Food Hygiene, Medical Science like Skin treatments, sterilisation of wounds, Hand disinfection, Dental treatments etc. Food hygiene using plasma can be achieved in disinfection of food containers, food surface disinfection, hygiene in food handling, preparation and packaging. Therefore Plasma is most promising field for budding Scientist for fluorishing research in Biological Sciences.

  14. Dusty plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, M.E.; Winske, D.; Keinigs, R.; Lemons, D.

    1996-01-01

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The objective of this project has been to develop a fundamental understanding of dusty plasmas at the Laboratory. While dusty plasmas are found in space in galactic clouds, planetary rings, and cometary tails, and as contaminants in plasma enhanced fabrication of microelectronics, many of their properties are only partially understood. Our work has involved both theoretical analysis and self-consistent plasma simulations to understand basic properties of dusty plasmas related to equilibrium, stability, and transport. Such an understanding can improve the control and elimination of plasma dust in industrial applications and may be important in the study of planetary rings and comet dust tails. We have applied our techniques to the study of charging, dynamics, and coagulation of contaminants in plasma processing reactors for industrial etching and deposition processes and to instabilities in planetary rings and other space plasma environments. The work performed in this project has application to plasma kinetics, transport, and other classical elementary processes in plasmas as well as to plasma waves, oscillations, and instabilities

  15. Targets development at Sandia National Laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, M.L.; Hebron, D.; Derzon, M.; Olson, R.; Alberts, T.

    1997-01-01

    For many years, Sandia National Laboratories under contract to the Department of Energy has produced targets designed to understand complex ion beam and z-pinch plasma physics. This poster focuses on the features of target designs that make them suitable for Z-pinch plasma physics applications. Precision diagnostic targets will prove critical in understanding the plasma physics model needed for future ion beam and z-pinch design. Targets are designed to meet specific physics needs; in this case the authors have fabricated targets to maximize information about the end-on versus side-on x-ray emission and z-pinch hohlraum development. In this poster, they describe the fabrication and characterization techniques. They include discussion of current targets under development as well as target fabrication capabilities. Advanced target designs are fabricated by Sandia National Laboratories in cooperation with General Atomics of San Diego, CA and W.J. Schafer Associates, Inc. of Livermore, CA

  16. Plasma chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1984-01-01

    This book examines the fundamental theory and various applications of ion mobility spectroscopy. Plasma chromatography developed from research on the diffusion and mobility of ions. Topics considered include instrument design and description (e.g., performance, spectral interpretation, sample handling, mass spectrometry), the role of ion mobility in plasma chromatography (e.g., kinetic theory of ion transport), atmospheric pressure ionization (e.g., rate equations), the characterization of isomers by plasma chromatography (e.g., molecular ion characteristics, polynuclear aromatics), plasma chromatography as a gas chromatographic detection method (e.g., qualitative analysis, continuous mobility monitoring, quantitative analysis), the analysis of toxic vapors by plasma chromatography (e.g., plasma chromatograph calibration, instrument control and data processing), the analysis of semiconductor devices and microelectronic packages by plasma chromatography/mass spectroscopy (e.g., analysis of organic surface contaminants, analysis of water in sealed electronic packages), and instrument design and automation (hardware, software)

  17. 5. Laser plasma interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labaune, C.; Fuchs, J.; Bandulet, H.

    2002-01-01

    Imprint elimination, smoothing and preheat control are considerable problems in inertial fusion and their possible solution can be achieved by using low-density porous materials as a buffer in target design. The articles gathered in this document present various aspects of the laser-plasma interaction, among which we have noticed: -) numerical algorithmic improvements of the Vlasov solver toward the simulation of the laser-plasma interaction are proposed, -) the dependence of radiation temperatures and X-ray conversion efficiencies of hohlraum on the target structures and laser irradiation conditions are investigated, -) a study of laser interaction with ultra low-density (0,5 - 20 mg/cm 3 ) porous media analyzing backscattered light at incident laser frequency ω 0 and its harmonics 3*ω 0 /2 and 2*ω 0 is presented, -) investigations of laser interaction with solid targets and crater formation are carried out with the objective to determine the ablation loading efficiency, -) a self organization in an intense laser-driven plasma and the measure of the relative degree of order of the states in an open system based on the S-theorem are investigated, and -) the existence and stability of electromagnetic solitons generated in a relativistic interaction of an intense laser light with uniform under-dense cold plasma are studied

  18. CERN: Fixed target targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1993-03-15

    Full text: While the immediate priority of CERN's research programme is to exploit to the full the world's largest accelerator, the LEP electron-positron collider and its concomitant LEP200 energy upgrade (January, page 1), CERN is also mindful of its long tradition of diversified research. Away from LEP and preparations for the LHC proton-proton collider to be built above LEP in the same 27-kilometre tunnel, CERN is also preparing for a new generation of heavy ion experiments using a new source, providing heavier ions (April 1992, page 8), with first physics expected next year. CERN's smallest accelerator, the LEAR Low Energy Antiproton Ring continues to cover a wide range of research topics, and saw a record number of hours of operation in 1992. The new ISOLDE on-line isotope separator was inaugurated last year (July, page 5) and physics is already underway. The remaining effort concentrates around fixed target experiments at the SPS synchrotron, which formed the main thrust of CERN's research during the late 1970s. With the SPS and LEAR now approaching middle age, their research future was extensively studied last year. Broadly, a vigorous SPS programme looks assured until at least the end of 1995. Decisions for the longer term future of the West Experimental Area of the SPS will have to take into account the heavy demand for test beams from work towards experiments at big colliders, both at CERN and elsewhere. The North Experimental Area is the scene of larger experiments with longer lead times. Several more years of LEAR exploitation are already in the pipeline, but for the longer term, the ambitious Superlear project for a superconducting ring (January 1992, page 7) did not catch on. Neutrino physics has a long tradition at CERN, and this continues with the preparations for two major projects, the Chorus and Nomad experiments (November 1991, page 7), to start next year in the West Area. Delicate neutrino oscillation effects could become visible for the first

  19. Plasma neutralizer for H- beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grossman, M.W.

    1977-01-01

    Neutralization of H - beams by a hydrogen plasma is discussed. Optimum target thickness and maximum neutralization efficiency as a function of the fraction of the hydrogen target gas ionized is calculated for different H - beam energies. Also, the variation of neutralization efficiency with respect to target thickness for different H - beam energies is computed. The dispersion of the neutralized beam by a magnetic field for different energies and different values of B . z is found. Finally, a type of plasma jet is proposed, which may be suitable for a compact H - neutralizer

  20. Plasma Lens for Muon and Neutrino Beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahn, S.A.; Korenev, S.; Bishai, M.; Diwan, M.; Gallardo, J.C.; Hershcovitch, A.; Johnson, B.M.

    2008-01-01

    The plasma lens is examined as an alternate to focusing horns and solenoids for use in a neutrino or muon beam facility. The plasma lens concept is based on a combined high-energy lens/target configuration. The current is fed at electrodes located upstream and downstream from the target where pion capturing is needed. The current flows primarily in the plasma, which has a lower resistivity than the target. A second plasma lens section, with an additional current feed, follows the target to provide shaping of the plasma for optimum focusing. The plasma lens is immersed in an additional solenoid magnetic field to facilitate the plasma stability. The geometry of the plasma is shaped to provide optimal pion capture. Simulations of this plasma lens system have shown a 25% higher neutrino production than the horn system. Plasma lenses have the additional advantage of negligible pion absorption and scattering by the lens material and reduced neutrino contamination during anti-neutrino running. Results of particle simulations using plasma lens will be presented

  1. CERN: Fixed target targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    Full text: While the immediate priority of CERN's research programme is to exploit to the full the world's largest accelerator, the LEP electron-positron collider and its concomitant LEP200 energy upgrade (January, page 1), CERN is also mindful of its long tradition of diversified research. Away from LEP and preparations for the LHC proton-proton collider to be built above LEP in the same 27-kilometre tunnel, CERN is also preparing for a new generation of heavy ion experiments using a new source, providing heavier ions (April 1992, page 8), with first physics expected next year. CERN's smallest accelerator, the LEAR Low Energy Antiproton Ring continues to cover a wide range of research topics, and saw a record number of hours of operation in 1992. The new ISOLDE on-line isotope separator was inaugurated last year (July, page 5) and physics is already underway. The remaining effort concentrates around fixed target experiments at the SPS synchrotron, which formed the main thrust of CERN's research during the late 1970s. With the SPS and LEAR now approaching middle age, their research future was extensively studied last year. Broadly, a vigorous SPS programme looks assured until at least the end of 1995. Decisions for the longer term future of the West Experimental Area of the SPS will have to take into account the heavy demand for test beams from work towards experiments at big colliders, both at CERN and elsewhere. The North Experimental Area is the scene of larger experiments with longer lead times. Several more years of LEAR exploitation are already in the pipeline, but for the longer term, the ambitious Superlear project for a superconducting ring (January 1992, page 7) did not catch on. Neutrino physics has a long tradition at CERN, and this continues with the preparations for two major projects, the Chorus and Nomad experiments (November 1991, page 7), to start next year in the West Area. Delicate neutrino oscillation effects could become

  2. Momentum transfer to rotating magnetized plasma from gun plasma injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shamim, Imran; Hassam, A. B.; Ellis, R. F.; Witherspoon, F. D.; Phillips, M. W.

    2006-01-01

    Numerical simulations are carried out to investigate the penetration and momentum coupling of a gun-injected plasma slug into a rotating magnetized plasma. An experiment along these lines is envisioned for the Maryland Centrifugal Experiment (MCX) [R. F. Ellis et al., Phys. Plasmas 8, 2057 (2001)] using a coaxial plasma accelerator gun developed by HyperV Technologies Corp. [F. D. Witherspoon et al., Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 50, LP1 87 (2005)]. The plasma gun would be located in the axial midplane and fired off-axis into the rotating MCX plasma annulus. The numerical simulation is set up so that the initial momentum in the injected plasma slug is of the order of the initial momentum of the target plasma. Several numerical firings are done into the cylindrical rotating plasma. Axial symmetry is assumed. The slug is seen to penetrate readily and deform into a mushroom, characteristic of interchange deformations. It is found that up to 25% of the momentum in the slug can be transferred to the background plasma in one pass across a cylindrical chord. For the same initial momentum, a high-speed low density slug gives more momentum transfer than a low-speed high density slug. Details of the numerical simulations and a scaling study are presented

  3. A new ultrafast and high-throughput mass spectrometric approach for the therapeutic drug monitoring of the multi-targeted anti-folate pemetrexed in plasma from lung cancer patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.J.W. Meesters (Roland); R. Cornelissen (Robin); R.J. van Klaveren (Rob); R. de Jonge (Robert); E. den Boer (Ethan); J. Lindemans (Jan); T.M. Luider (Theo)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractAn analytical assay has been developed and validated for ultrafast and high-throughput mass spectrometric determination of pemetrexed concentrations in plasma using matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization-triple quadrupole-tandem mass spectrometry. Patient plasma samples spiked with

  4. 2XIIB plasma confinement experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coensgen, F.H.; Clauser, J.F.; Correll, D.L.

    1976-01-01

    This paper reports results of 2XIIB neutral-beam injection experiments with plasma-stream stabilization. The plasma stream is provided either by a pulsed plasma generator located on the field lines outside the plasma region or by ionization of neutral gas introduced at the mirror throat. In the latter case, the gas is ionized by the normal particle flux through the magnetic mirror. A method of plasma startup and sustenance in a steady-state magnetic field is reported in which the plasma stream from the pulsed plasma generator serves as the initial target for the neutral beams. After an energetic plasma of sufficient density is established, the plasma generator stream is replaced by the gas-fed stream. Lifetimes of the stabilized plasma increase with plasma temperature in agreement with the plasma stabilization of the drift-cyclotron loss-cone mode. The following plasma parameters are attained using the pulsed plasma generator for stabilization: n approximately 5 x 10 13 cm -3 , anti W/sub i/ approximately 13 keV, T/sub e/ = 140 eV, and ntau/sub p/ approximately 7 x 10 10 cm -3 .s. With the gas feed, the mean deuterium ion energy is 9 keV and the peak density n approximately 10 14 cm -3 . In the latter case, the energy confinement parameter reaches ntau/sub E/ = 7 x 10 10 cm -3 .s, and the particle confinement parameter reaches ntau/sub p/ = 1 x 10 11 cm -3 .s

  5. Plasma physics

    CERN Document Server

    Drummond, James E

    1961-01-01

    A historic snapshot of the field of plasma physics, this fifty-year-old volume offers an edited collection of papers by pioneering experts in the field. In addition to assisting students in their understanding of the foundations of classical plasma physics, it provides a source of historic context for modern physicists. Highly successful upon its initial publication, this book was the standard text on plasma physics throughout the 1960s and 70s.Hailed by Science magazine as a ""well executed venture,"" the three-part treatment ranges from basic plasma theory to magnetohydrodynamics and microwa

  6. Plasma generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omichi, Takeo; Yamanaka, Toshiyuki.

    1976-01-01

    Object: To recycle a coolant in a sealed hollow portion formed interiorly of a plasma limiter itself to thereby to cause direct contact between the coolant and the plasma limiter and increase of contact area therebetween to cool the plasma limiter. Structure: The heat resulting from plasma generated during operation and applied to the body of the plasma limiter is transmitted to the coolant, which recycles through an inlet and outlet pipe, an inlet and outlet nozzle and a hollow portion to hold the plasma limiter at a level less than a predetermined temperature. On the other hand, the heater wire is, at the time of emergency operation, energized to heat the plasma limiter, but this heat is transmitted to the limiter body to increase the temperature thereof. However, the coolant recycling the hollow portion comes into direct contact with the limiter body, and since the plasma limiter surround the hollow portion, the heat amount transmitted from the limiter body to the coolant increases to sufficiently cool the plasma limiter. (Yoshihara, H.)

  7. Target laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ephraim, D.C.; Pednekar, A.R.

    1993-01-01

    A target laboratory to make stripper foils for the accelerator and various targets for use in the experiments is set up in the pelletron accelerator facility. The facilities available in the laboratory are: (1) D.C. glow discharge setup, (2) carbon arc set up, and (3) vacuum evaporation set up (resistance heating), electron beam source, rolling mill - all for target preparation. They are described. Centrifugal deposition technique is used for target preparation. (author). 3 figs

  8. Proton emission from laser-generated plasmas at different intensities

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Torrisi, L.; Cutroneo, M.; Cavallaro, S.; Giuffrida, L.; Margarone, Daniele

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 57, č. 2 (2012), s. 237-240 ISSN 0029-5922. [International Conference on Research and Applications of Plasmas (PLASMA). Warsaw, 12.09.2011-16.09.2011] Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : laser-generated plasma * hydrogenated targets * proton acceleration Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 0.507, year: 2012

  9. Ice targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacheco, C.; Stark, C.; Tanaka, N.; Hodgkins, D.; Barnhart, J.; Kosty, J.

    1979-12-01

    This report presents a description of ice targets that were constructed for research work at the High Resolution Spectrometer (HRS) and at the Energetic Pion Channel and Spectrometer (EPICS). Reasons for using these ice targets and the instructions for their construction are given. Results of research using ice targets will be published at a later date

  10. Bridge between fusion plasma and plasma processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohno, Noriyasu; Takamura, Shuichi

    2008-01-01

    In the present review, relationship between fusion plasma and processing plasma is discussed. From boundary-plasma studies in fusion devices new applications such as high-density plasma sources, erosion of graphite in a hydrogen plasma, formation of helium bubbles in high-melting-point metals and the use of toroidal plasmas for plasma processing are emerging. The authors would like to discuss a possibility of knowledge transfer from fusion plasmas to processing plasmas. (T. Ikehata)

  11. Integrated models for plasma/material interaction during loss of plasma confinement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassanein, A.

    1998-01-01

    A comprehensive computer package, High Energy Interaction with General Heterogeneous Target Systems (HEIGHTS), has been developed to evaluate the damage incurred on plasma-facing materials during loss of plasma confinement. The HEIGHTS package consists of several integrated computer models that follow the start of a plasma disruption at the scrape-off layer (SOL) through the transport of the eroded debris and splashed target materials to nearby locations as a result of the energy deposited. The package includes new models to study turbulent plasma behavior in the SOL and predicts the plasma parameters and conditions at the divertor plate. Full two-dimensional comprehensive radiation magnetohydrodynamic models are coupled with target thermodynamics and liquid hydrodynamics to evaluate the integrated response of plasma-facing materials. A brief description of the HEIGHTS package and its capabilities are given in this work with emphasis on turbulent plasma behavior in the SOL during disruptions

  12. Simulation of laser interaction with ablative plasma and hydrodynamic behavior of laser supported plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tong Huifeng; Yuan Hong [Institute of Fluid Physics, Chinese Academy of Engineering Physics, P.O. Box 919-101, Mianyang, Sichuan 621900 (China); Tang Zhiping [CAS Key Laboratory for Mechanical Behavior and Design of Materials, Department of Mechanics and Mechanical Engineering, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China)

    2013-01-28

    When an intense laser beam irradiates on a solid target, ambient air ionizes and becomes plasma, while part of the target rises in temperature, melts, vaporizes, ionizes, and yet becomes plasma. A general Godunov finite difference scheme WENO (Weighted Essentially Non-Oscillatory Scheme) with fifth-order accuracy is used to simulate 2-dimensional axis symmetrical laser-supported plasma flow field in the process of laser ablation. The model of the calculation of ionization degree of plasma and the interaction between laser beam and plasma are considered in the simulation. The numerical simulations obtain the profiles of temperature, density, and velocity at different times which show the evolvement of the ablative plasma. The simulated results show that the laser energy is strongly absorbed by plasma on target surface and that the velocity of laser supported detonation (LSD) wave is half of the ideal LSD value derived from Chapman-Jouguet detonation theory.

  13. Plasma waves

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Swanson, D. G

    1989-01-01

    ... Swanson, D.G. (Donald Gary), D a t e - Plasma waves. Bibliography: p. Includes index. 1. Plasma waves. QC718.5.W3S43 1989 ISBN 0-12-678955-X I. Title. 530.4'4 88-34388 Printed in the United Sta...

  14. Plasma properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weitzner, H.

    1991-06-01

    The Magneto-Fluid Dynamics Division continues to study a broad range of problems originating in plasma physics. Its principal focus is fusion plasma physics, and most particularly topics of particular significance for the world magnetic fusion program. During the calendar year 1990 we explored a wide range of topics including RF-induced transport as a plasma control mechanism, edge plasma modelling, further statistical analysis of L and H mode tokamak plasmas, antenna design, simulation of the edge of a tokamak plasma and the L-H transition, interpretation of the CCT experimental results at UCLA, turbulent transport, studies in chaos, the validity of moment approximations to kinetic equations and improved neoclassical modelling. In more basic studies we examined the statistical mechanisms of Coulomb systems and applied plasma ballooning mode theory to conventional fluids in order to obtain novel fluid dynamics stability results. In space plasma physics we examined the problem of reconnection, the effect of Alfven waves in space environments, and correct formulation of boundary conditions of the Earth for waves in the ionosphere

  15. Plasma container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebisawa, Katsuyuki.

    1985-01-01

    Purpose: To enable to easily detect that the thickness of material to be abraded is reduced to an allowable limit from the outerside of the plasma container even during usual operation in a plasma vessel for a thermonuclear device. Constitution: A labelled material is disposed to the inside or rear face of constituent members of a plasma container undergoing the irradiation of plasma particles. A limiter plate to be abraded in the plasma container is composed of an armour member and heat removing plate, in which the armour member is made of graphite and heat-removing plate is made of copper. If the armour member is continuously abraded under the effect of sputtering due to plasma particles, silicon nitride embedded so far in the graphite at last appears on the surface of the limiter plate to undergo the impact shocks of the plasma particles. Accordingly, abrasion of the limiter material can be detected by a detector comprising gas chromatography and it can easily be detected from the outside of the plasma content even during normal operation. (Horiuchi, T.)

  16. A contoured gap coaxial plasma gun with injected plasma armature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witherspoon, F. Douglas; Case, Andrew; Messer, Sarah J.; Bomgardner, Richard II; Phillips, Michael W.; Brockington, Samuel; Elton, Raymond [HyperV Technologies Corp., Chantilly, Virginia 20151 (United States)

    2009-08-15

    A new coaxial plasma gun is described. The long term objective is to accelerate 100-200 {mu}g of plasma with density above 10{sup 17} cm{sup -3} to greater than 200 km/s with a Mach number above 10. Such high velocity dense plasma jets have a number of potential fusion applications, including plasma refueling, magnetized target fusion, injection of angular momentum into centrifugally confined mirrors, high energy density plasmas, and others. The approach uses symmetric injection of high density plasma into a coaxial electromagnetic accelerator having an annular gap geometry tailored to prevent formation of the blow-by instability. The injected plasma is generated by numerous (currently 32) radially oriented capillary discharges arranged uniformly around the circumference of the angled annular injection region of the accelerator. Magnetohydrodynamic modeling identified electrode profiles that can achieve the desired plasma jet parameters. The experimental hardware is described along with initial experimental results in which approximately 200 {mu}g has been accelerated to 100 km/s in a half-scale prototype gun. Initial observations of 64 merging injector jets in a planar cylindrical testing array are presented. Density and velocity are presently limited by available peak current and injection sources. Steps to increase both the drive current and the injected plasma mass are described for next generation experiments.

  17. A contoured gap coaxial plasma gun with injected plasma armature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witherspoon, F Douglas; Case, Andrew; Messer, Sarah J; Bomgardner, Richard; Phillips, Michael W; Brockington, Samuel; Elton, Raymond

    2009-08-01

    A new coaxial plasma gun is described. The long term objective is to accelerate 100-200 microg of plasma with density above 10(17) cm(-3) to greater than 200 km/s with a Mach number above 10. Such high velocity dense plasma jets have a number of potential fusion applications, including plasma refueling, magnetized target fusion, injection of angular momentum into centrifugally confined mirrors, high energy density plasmas, and others. The approach uses symmetric injection of high density plasma into a coaxial electromagnetic accelerator having an annular gap geometry tailored to prevent formation of the blow-by instability. The injected plasma is generated by numerous (currently 32) radially oriented capillary discharges arranged uniformly around the circumference of the angled annular injection region of the accelerator. Magnetohydrodynamic modeling identified electrode profiles that can achieve the desired plasma jet parameters. The experimental hardware is described along with initial experimental results in which approximately 200 microg has been accelerated to 100 km/s in a half-scale prototype gun. Initial observations of 64 merging injector jets in a planar cylindrical testing array are presented. Density and velocity are presently limited by available peak current and injection sources. Steps to increase both the drive current and the injected plasma mass are described for next generation experiments.

  18. A contoured gap coaxial plasma gun with injected plasma armature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witherspoon, F. Douglas; Case, Andrew; Messer, Sarah J.; Bomgardner, Richard II; Phillips, Michael W.; Brockington, Samuel; Elton, Raymond

    2009-01-01

    A new coaxial plasma gun is described. The long term objective is to accelerate 100-200 μg of plasma with density above 10 17 cm -3 to greater than 200 km/s with a Mach number above 10. Such high velocity dense plasma jets have a number of potential fusion applications, including plasma refueling, magnetized target fusion, injection of angular momentum into centrifugally confined mirrors, high energy density plasmas, and others. The approach uses symmetric injection of high density plasma into a coaxial electromagnetic accelerator having an annular gap geometry tailored to prevent formation of the blow-by instability. The injected plasma is generated by numerous (currently 32) radially oriented capillary discharges arranged uniformly around the circumference of the angled annular injection region of the accelerator. Magnetohydrodynamic modeling identified electrode profiles that can achieve the desired plasma jet parameters. The experimental hardware is described along with initial experimental results in which approximately 200 μg has been accelerated to 100 km/s in a half-scale prototype gun. Initial observations of 64 merging injector jets in a planar cylindrical testing array are presented. Density and velocity are presently limited by available peak current and injection sources. Steps to increase both the drive current and the injected plasma mass are described for next generation experiments.

  19. Cosmic plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alfven, H [California Univ., San Diego, La Jolla (USA)

    1981-01-01

    The properties of space plasmas are analyzed, based on laboratory results and data obtained by in situ measurements in the magnetosphere (including the heliosphere). Attention is given to the question of how much knowledge can be gained by a systematic comparison of different regions of plasma, and plasmas are considered with linear dimensions varying from laboratory size up to the Hubble distance. The traditional magnetic field description of plasmas is supplemented by an electric current description and it is demonstrated that many problems are easier to understand with a dualistic approach. Using the general plasma properties obtained, the origin and evolution of the solar system is summarized and the evolution and present structure of the universe (cosmology) is discussed.

  20. Superconducting plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohnuma, Toshiro; Ohno, J.

    1994-01-01

    Superconducting (SC) plasmas are proposed and investigated. The SC plasmas are not yet familiar and have not yet been studied. However, the existence and the importance of SC plasmas are stressed in this report. The existence of SC plasmas are found as follows. There is a fundamental property of Meissner effect in superconductors, which shows a repulsive effect of magnetic fields. Even in that case, in a microscopic view, there is a region of magnetic penetration. The penetration length λ is well-known as London's penetration depth, which is expressed as δ = (m s /μ 0 n s q s 2 ) 1/2 where m s , n s , q s and μ o show the mass, the density, the charge of SC electron and the permeability in free space, respectively. Because this expression is very simple, no one had tried it into more simple and meaningful form. Recently, one of the authors (T.O.) has found that the length can be expressed into more simple and understandable fundamental form as λ = c/ω ps where c = (ε 0 μ 0 ) -1/2 and ω ps = (n s q s 2 /m s ε 0 ) 1/2 are the light velocity and the superconducting plasma frequency. From this simple expression, the penetration depth of the magnetic field to SC is found as a SC plasma skin depth, that is, the fundamental property of SC can be expressed by the SC plasmas. This discovery indicates an importance of the studies of superconducting plasmas. From these points, several properties (propagating modes et al) of SC plasmas, which consist of SC electrons, normal electrons and lattice ions, are investigated in this report. Observations of SC plasma frequency is also reported with a use of Terahertz electromagnet-optical waves