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Sample records for plasmas caracterizacion cuantitativa

  1. Quantitative Characterization of Phosphor Detector for Fusion Plasmas; Caracterizacion Cuantitativa de Detectores Luminiscentes para Plasmas de Fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baciero, A; Zurro, B; McCarthy, K J

    2004-07-01

    Experiments made to characterize phosphor screens with application as broadband radiation detectors, are described. Several radiation sources, covering the spectral range between the ultraviolet and X ray, were used. In addition, details are given of three original phosphor-screen-based detectors that were designed for use as broadband detectors in magnetically confined fusion devices. The first measurements obtained with these detectors in plasmas created in the TJ-II stellarator device are presented together with the analysis performed. (Author)

  2. Synthesis and characterization of poly iodine anilines by plasma; Sintesis y caracterizacion de poliyodoanilinas por plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enriquez P, M A

    2003-07-01

    The polymers and organic materials present a numberless quantity of applications. However, it has not been but until recent times that it has been found that some of these materials can possess semiconductor properties. This has generated a great interest for the investigation in the area of semiconductor polymers. The poly aniline (Pan) it is one of the main semiconductor polymers because their electric properties change depending on the doping and of the state of oxidation to the one the molecules are subjected. The synthesis of this material has been carried out by means of chemical oxidation or electrochemistry. In this work a study is presented on the formation of poly aniline polymers with halogens chemically united to the aniline ring, poly(m-iodine aniline) (m-PAnI) and poly(m-chloroaniline) (m-PAnCI) for plasma. The plasma is generated by means of discharges of splendor with an r f amplifier to 13.5 MHz to drops pressures (10{sup -2} mbar). The synthesized polymers were obtained in form of thin film in the walls of the reactor and in the substrate introduced in the one. The electric properties of the polymers were evaluated in function of the time of reaction. Also, the conductivity of the polymers was compared synthesized in this work with reported data of synthesized poly aniline and doped with iodine for plasma. The highest values in conductivity are obtained in the poly aniline where the halogens are chemically connected to the ring that if it is doped with iodine. The atomic proportion in the surface of the polymers was analyzed by dispersive energy spectroscopy with which is deduced that the halogens come off of the molecules of the monomers or of the polymer in formation and that the atoms of iodine get lost more easily than those of chlorine. Other techniques that were used to characterize to the poly aniline were scanning electron microscopy, infrared spectroscopy, thermal gravimetric analysis and X-ray diffraction. The results are presented in

  3. Colinesterasas en sangre total medidas con técnica semicuantitativa y en eritrocitos o plasma medidas con técnicas cuantitativas: relaciones

    OpenAIRE

    Jaime Carmona-Fonseca

    2007-01-01

    Introducción. Se necesita un modelo que permita convertir valores de colinesterasa obtenidos con la técnica Lovibond® (semicuantitativa para sangre total) en cifras equivalentes en las técnicas Michel, EQM® y Monotest® (cuantitativas eritrocitarias y plasmáticas). Objetivo. Examinar la relación entre Lovibond® (técnicas tintométrica de Edson y de Limperos y Ranta) y las técnicas cuantitativas. Materiales y métodos. Diseño descriptivo, transversal, prospectivo, con dos muestras represen...

  4. Colinesterasas en sangre total medidas con técnica semicuantitativa y en eritrocitos o plasma medidas con técnicas cuantitativas: relaciones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Carmona-Fonseca

    2007-06-01

    Resultados. Se evaluaron 827 trabajadores. Según la técnica Lovibond® se clasificaron en cuatro categorías: 821 con valores de 75% o más de actividad colinesterásica (categorías 75%, 87,5% y 100% y otros seis con actividad inferior a 75%. Con cada técnica cuantitativa los valores promedios de colinesterasa eritrocitaria y plasmática correspondientes a los cuatro valores de Lovibond® fueron estadísticamente diferentes entre sí. Los promedios de cada técnica cuantitativa fueron mayores a medida que creció el valor de la técnica semicuantitativa. Con Lovibond® se clasificó muy mal (61%-73% la baja actividad enzimática eritrocitaria, pero la clasificación de la baja actividad plasmática fue absolutamente errónea (94%-96%. Conclusión. Es posible estimar en forma adecuada los valores de colinesterasa eritrocitaria o plasmática que corresponden a las técnicas de Michel y EQM® a partir de datos de la técnica Lovibond® y viceversa, pero sólo cuando la actividad colinesterásica es normal, pues Lovibond® tiene una capacidad muy deficiente para identificar como "bajos" los valores que realmente lo son según las pruebas cuantitativas.

  5. Synthesis by plasma and characterization of compounds derived from polyacetylene; Sintesis por plasma y caracterizacion de compuestos derivados del poliacetileno

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasquez O, M

    2004-07-01

    This work presents a study on, the synthesis by plasma and the characterization of an aliphatic conjugated polymer, polyacetylene-chlorinated (Pac), and two aromatic polymers, Poly pyrrole (P Py-Cl) and Poly thiophene (Pth-Cl) synthesized with chlorine and the electrical conductivity. The last two polymers were synthesized to compare the chlorine-polymer interaction in aliphatic and aromatic polymers synthesized by plasma and their repercussion on the electrical transport of charges in the material. The structure and morphology of the polymers were studied using scanning electron microscopy (Sem), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), infrared spectroscopy (Ft-IR), conductivity analysis and X-Ray photon spectroscopy (XPS). The results showed that Pac is soluble in acetone and other organic solvents, which indicates a low proportion of crosslinking in the polymers. This point is important because the crosslinking reduces the electrical conductivity in the material. The Pac conductivity is in the range of 1 x 10{sup -12} to 6 x 10{sup -4} S/cm in the internal of 35- 90% of relative humidity. A possible mechanism for the transport of electrical charges in Pac is by means of the double and simple conjugated bonds in the polymers. Pth-Cl and P Py-Cl present electric conductivity in the interval of 9 x 10{sup -5} to 1 x 10{sup -2} S/cm and show a great dependence on the relative humidity. The chlorine addition in these polymers was through simultaneous polymerization with chloroform. This last compound can decompose if the energy of the plasma is relatively high, and the fragments can link to the polymer in a hybrid process of copolymerization. An important point of this work is that the polymer is soluble, a difference of the obtained via plasma as the poli aniline, P Py-CI and Pth-Cl both studied in this work. If took in account that the Pac is single the monomer and that P Py-Cl and Pth-CI is affected by the chlorine that modifies the conductivity of the material

  6. Synthesis by plasma and characterization of semiconductor compounds derived of polyacetylene; Sintesis por plasma y caracterizacion de compuestos semiconductores derivados del poliacetileno

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasquez, M.; Cruz, G. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Timoshina, T. [ESIQIE-IPN, 07738 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Olayo, R. [UAM-I, 09340 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2003-07-01

    In this work it is made a study of the structure and electric properties of chlorate polyethylene (PE-CI) with double and simple bonds obtained by continuous plasma with resistive coupling to 13.5 MHz. The synthesis conditions are power between 10 and 14 W and pressure of (6-7) x 10{sup -2} Torr. The synthesized PE-Cl in that way is soluble in acetone what indicates that probably is formed of short chains and not it shows the generalized inter crossing that is presented in some syntheses by plasma and that it can degrade the electric properties of these polymers. The IR and XPS analysis show the vibration of the C-C, C=C and C-CI bonds. The morphology of the polymer after being dissolved shows a compact and flat configuration. The electric conductivity has an approximately lineal behavior in an interval of 35 to 90% of relative humidity. (Author)

  7. Synthesis and characterization of carbon fibers obtained through plasma techniques; Sintesis y caracterizacion de fibras de carbono obtenidas mediante tecnicas de plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valdivia B, M

    2005-07-01

    The study of carbon, particularly the nano technology is a recent field, the one which has important implications in the science of new materials. It investigation is of great interest for industries producers of ceramic, metallurgy, electronic, energy storage, biomedicine, among others. The diverse application fields are a reason at national as international level, so that many works are focused in the production of nano fibers of carbon. The Thermal plasma applications laboratory (LAPT) of the National Institute of Nuclear Research (ININ), it is carrying out works about carbon nano technology. The present work has as purpose to carry out the synthesis and characterization of the carbon nano fibers which are obtained by electric arch of alternating current (CA) to high frequencies and by a plasma gun of non transferred arch, where are used hydrocarbons like benzene, methane, acetylene like carbon source and ferrocene, nickel, yttrium and cerium oxide like catalysts. For both techniques its were thought about a relationship among hydrocarbon-catalyst that it favored to the nano fibers production. The obtained product of each experiment outlined it was analyzed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD), analysis with those were obtained pictures and diffraction graphs, which were observed to arrive to one conclusion on the operation conditions, same analysis with those were characterized the tests carried out according to the nano structures formation of carbon. (Author)

  8. Descifrando las bases moleculares de la resistencia cuantitativa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilo Lopez

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Uno de los factores mas importantes que afectan los cultivos son las enfermedades ocasionadas por los patógenos. La resistencia vegetal ha sido clásicamente dividida en dos tipos: i competa, vertical o cualitativa que es gobernada por un solo gen y ii incompleta, horizontal o cuantitativa la cual es gobernada por varios genes. Aunque la resistencia cuantitativa provee resistencia de amplio espectro y es durable, los mecanismo moleculares subyacentes no han sido estudiados en detalle. En esta revisión se propone un modelo basado en la co-localización de genes similares a los clásicos genes de resistencia cualitativa con QTLs (Quantitative Trait Loci para explicar el mecanismo involucrado en el reconocimiento del patógeno durante la resistencia cuantitativa. Además se presenta información acerca del progreso obtenido en los últimos tres años para entender este tipo de resistencia, que culminó con la clonación de varios genes asociados a la resistencia cuantitativa. En conjunto, estos datos proveen nuevas luces sobre la naturaleza genética de este tipo de resistencia y de cómo puede ser empleada en programas de mejoramiento genético.

  9. Characterization of Hospital Residuals; Caracterizacion de Residuos Hospitalarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanco Meza, A; Bonilla Jimenez, S

    1997-07-01

    The main objective of this investigation is the characterization of the solid residuals. A description of the handling of the liquid and gassy waste generated in hospitals is also given, identifying the source where they originate. To achieve the proposed objective the work was divided in three stages: The first one was the planning and the coordination with each hospital center, in this way, to determine the schedule of gathering of the waste can be possible. In the second stage a fieldwork was made; it consisted in gathering the quantitative and qualitative information of the general state of the handling of residuals. In the third and last stage, the information previously obtained was organized to express the results as the production rate per day by bed, generation of solid residuals for sampled services, type of solid residuals and density of the same ones. With the obtained results, approaches are settled down to either determine design parameters for final disposition whether for incineration, trituration, sanitary filler or recycling of some materials, and storage politics of the solid residuals that allow to determine the gathering frequency. The study concludes that it is necessary to improve the conditions of the residuals handling in some aspects, to provide the cleaning personnel of the equipment for gathering disposition and of security, minimum to carry out this work efficiently, and to maintain a control of all the dangerous waste, like sharp or polluted materials. In this way, an appreciable reduction is guaranteed in the impact on the atmosphere. (Author) [Spanish] El objetivo principal de esta investigacion es la caracterizacion de los residuos solidos. Se da tambien una descripcion del manejo de los desechos liquidos y gaseosos generados en hospitales, identificando la fuente donde se originan. Para lograr el objetivo propuesto se dividio el trabajo en tres etapas; la primera fue el planeamiento y la coordinacion con cada centro hospitalario

  10. Characterization of surface hardening in a nitrated chromium steel by microwave plasma type ECR (Electron Cyclotron Resonance); Caracterizacion del endurecimiento superficial del acero H-12 nitrurado con plasma de microondas tipo ECR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    La O C, G de

    1996-12-31

    With this work it is demonstrated the possibility of performing the nitriding process by using a CVD-ECR source, based on the results obtained after treating several samples of AISI H-12 steel. Also, the main operating parameters (time of treatment, sample temperatures and gas mixture) are determined during nitriding of this steel with the mentioned source. Samples used before nitriding were quenched and tempered at 580 Centigrade degrees. Several experiments were done by using a pure nitrogen plasma with exposure times of the samples of 20 minutes at temperatures from 450 to 550 Centigrade degrees, and by using a N{sub 2} - H{sub 2} plasma with exposure times of the samples of 20, 30 and 40 minutes at temperatures from 350 to 550 Centigrade degrees. Metallography, microhardness, EDS and Auger analysis were done to observe changes suffered for the samples after treatment. (Author).

  11. Characterization of the Plasma Edge for Technique of Atomic Helium Beam in the CIEMAT Fusion Device; Caracterizacion del Borde del Plasma del Dispositivo de Fusion TJ-II del CIEMAT mediante el Diagnostico del Haz Supersonico de Helio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hidalgo, A.

    2003-07-01

    In this report, the measurement of Electron Temperature and Density in the Boundary Plasma of TJ-II with a Supersonic Helium Beam Diagnostic and work devoted to the upgrading of this technique are described. Also, simulations of Laser Induced Fluorescence (LIF) studies of level populations of electronically excited He atoms are shown. This last technique is now being installed in the CIEMAT fusion device. (Author ) 36 refs.

  12. Characterization of stainless steel through Scanning Electron Microscopy, nitrided in the process of implantation of immersed ions in plasma; Caracterizacion de acero inoxidable mediante Microscopia Electronica de Barrido nitrurado en el proceso de implantacion de iones inmersos en plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno S, H

    2003-07-01

    The present project carries out the investigation of the nitridation of the austenitic stainless steel schedule 304, applying the novel technology of installation of nitrogen ions in immersed materials in plasma (Plll), by means of which they modify those properties of the surface of the steel. The obtained results by means of tests of Vickers microhardness, shows that the hardness was increment from 266 to 740 HV (microhardness units). It was determined by means of scanning electron microscopy, the one semiquantitative chemical analysis of the elements that constitute the austenitic stainless steel schedule 304; the obtained results, show to the nitrogen like an element of their composition in the pieces where carried out to end the PIII technology. The parameters of the plasma with which carried out the technology Plll, were monitored and determined by means of electric probes, and with which it was determined that the density of particles is stable in the interval of 1x10{sup -1} at 3x10{sup -1}Torr, and it is where better results of hardness were obtained. That reported in this work, they are the first results obtained when applying the technology Plll in Mexico, and with base in these, it is even necessary to investigate and to deepen until to dominate the process and to be in possibilities of proposing it to be carried out and exploited in an industrial way. (Author)

  13. Pumping systems characterization; Caracterizacion de los sistemas de bombeo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres Gutierrez, R. [Eficiencia Energetica, S.A. de C.V., Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1995-12-31

    In this paper the characterization of the pumping systems is discussed, and an explanation is given of the need of evaluating in detail the possibility of implementing the frequency variators as an option for energy conservation, explaining how the simple use of the similarity or affinity laws lead to over-estimate the saving. [Espanol] En este articulo se describe la caracterizacion de los sistemas de bombeo y se explica la necesidad de evaluar en detalle la posibilidad de implementacion de variadores de frecuencia, como una alternativa para el ahorro de energia, explicando como el simple uso de las leyes de semejanza o afinidad llevan a sobre-evaluar los ahorros.

  14. Pumping systems characterization; Caracterizacion de los sistemas de bombeo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres Gutierrez, R [Eficiencia Energetica, S.A. de C.V., Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1996-12-31

    In this paper the characterization of the pumping systems is discussed, and an explanation is given of the need of evaluating in detail the possibility of implementing the frequency variators as an option for energy conservation, explaining how the simple use of the similarity or affinity laws lead to over-estimate the saving. [Espanol] En este articulo se describe la caracterizacion de los sistemas de bombeo y se explica la necesidad de evaluar en detalle la posibilidad de implementacion de variadores de frecuencia, como una alternativa para el ahorro de energia, explicando como el simple uso de las leyes de semejanza o afinidad llevan a sobre-evaluar los ahorros.

  15. El concepto de ciencia como sistema, el positivismo, neopositivismo y las "investigaciones cuantitativas y cualitativas"

    OpenAIRE

    Díaz Narváez, Víctor Patricio

    2014-01-01

    El objeto de este trabajo es analizar las corrientes epistemológicas del positivismo, neopositivismo, las investigaciones cuantitativas y cualitativas asociadas al concepto de ciencia como sistema, y cómo estas corrientes confunden los métodos específicos de las ciencias particulares con las "investigaciones cuantitativas". Se analiza la falsa disyuntiva entre el tipo de investigaciones antes descritas. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the current epistemological positivism, logical...

  16. Hacia la evaluación cuantitativa de instituciones multidisciplinarias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramírez, Ana María

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Each research field has its own way of citing, working, progressing, etc. which makes comparative evaluations between disciplines a difficult task and, at times, an unjust and imperfect process. This shows traditional evaluations to have limitations and inconveniences that need to be corrected to smooth the path towards the analysis or quantification of research results that are their «raison d’être». In this paper we demonstrate the usefulness of a quantitative methodology for the evaluation of the scientific output of inter- and multidisciplinary institutions, using only three straightforward indicators to show the relevance of the scientific output, that of the average researcher and of the average article. The importance of our analysis is that it shows the methodology proposed in 2000 by Ramírez, García, and del Río, to be useful for comparing different research results, for revealing relevant information, is easy to apply and forms part of a process to adapt evaluation methods to the characteristics of science and the specifics of each discipline.

    Cada área de investigación se comporta de manera diferente en cuanto a la forma de citar, de trabajar, de desarrollarse, etc., aspectos que hacen de la evaluación comparativa de diferentes disciplinas una tarea difícil e incluso que se considere injusta e inadecuada. Esto revela la forma de evaluación tradicional con limitaciones e inconvenientes, que deben ser salvados para hacer del proceso evaluativo un camino más llano hacia el análisis o cuantificación de los resultados de la investigación, que es su razón de ser. En este trabajo mostramos la utilidad de emplear una metodología cuantitativa para evaluar la producción científica de instituciones multi e inter disciplinarias, con sólo tres indicadores que de manera sencilla muestran la relevancia de la producción científica, del investigador promedio y del artículo publicado. La importancia de nuestro an

  17. Perspectivas cualitativa y cuantitativa en investigación ¿inconmensurables?

    OpenAIRE

    de Andrea, Nidia Georgina

    2017-01-01

    Este trabajo expone las epistemologías de base de las perspectivas cuantitativa y cualitativa en investigación, considerando que diversos autores realizan esta diferenciación. Luego, se establece una relación entre ambas, sin dejar de atender a las posturas que plantean que no hay epistemologías distintas para dichas metodologías. Efectivamente, la metodología de la investigación desde una perspectiva netamente cuantitativa tiene sus bases epistemológicas en el positivismo y el postpositivism...

  18. Diseño de investigación cuantitativa y el cuestionario

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez Jaume, María José

    2007-01-01

    Presenta el proceso y los distintos elementos a tener en cuenta en el diseño de la investigación cuantitativa y se desarrolla el protocolo a seguir y elementos a tener en cuenta cuando es el cuestionario la técnica de recogida de datos.

  19. Intereses y precios: Keynes en la tradición cuantitativa de Wicksell

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    Alexander Tobón

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo tiene por objeto mostrar que el Tratado del dinero de Keynes se inscribe en la tradición cuantitativa de Knut Wicksell. La especificidad de la teoría de Keynes respecto a Wicksell se deriva de la constatación según la cual la teoría cuantitativa tradicional sólo se verifica en el equilibrio monetario. Este equilibrio está definido como la situación particular en la cual las anticipaciones sobre la variación de los precios se realizan perfectamente, mientras que en desequilibrio la teoría cuantitativa tradicional debe ser rechazada. Este distinción permite mostrar el rol preponderante que juega el concepto de “depósitos de negocios” en la explicación de una relación entre la variación de los precios de los bienes y la de los precios de los activos financieros. La contribución de Keynes es importante en la teoría macroeconómica actual ya que la nueva síntesis neoclásica de Woodford [2003] reivindica explícitamente una herencia wickseliana.

  20. La investigación cualitativa y la investigación cuantitativa

    OpenAIRE

    Velásquez Hernández, Ángel

    2014-01-01

    Se desarrolla la Perspectiva Metodológica Cualitativa y Cuantitativa en la Investigación Científica. Para analizar esta relación entre la perspectiva metodológicamente se enmarca dentro de los componentes principales que es la ciencia que es la metodología y lógicamente para comenzar una primera aproximación acerca del conocimiento científico que como todos sabemos nosotros podemos diferenciar cuando analizamos la ciencia mientras la ciencia como proceso identificaba lo que se conoce como Pro...

  1. Una lectura cuantitativa de los documentos de competencias de los nuevos grados de Derecho

    OpenAIRE

    Leví Orta, Genoveva; Ramos Méndez, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    Los documentos de formulación de competencias de los grados constituyen una fuente valiosa para el análisis, valoración y comparación del perfil de formación que ofrecen actualmente las diferentes titulaciones. Este trabajo tiene como objetivo realizar una lectura cuantitativa, basada en las ideas del Análisis de Contenido, de los documentos de competencias del grado de Derecho de distintas universidades españolas. La metodología empleada tiene dos fases. En primer lugar, se identifica en el ...

  2. Combinación estratégica: investigación sociocultural cualitativa-cuantitativa

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    Rebeca Mejía Arauz

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo discute la idea de que el proceso de investigación no puede ser definido en primer lugar por la adhesión a una tradición metodológica, sino en términos de lo que se requiere investigar de acuerdo con el foco y las preguntas de la investigación. Se revisan algunas propuestas de combinación de métodos cualitativo y cuantitativo, pero se apoya la idea de que es dentro del mismo paradigma y a nivel de estrategias de organización y análisis de datos donde se da con mayor consistencia la relación cualitativa-cuantitativa.

  3. COMBINACIÓN ESTRATÉGICA: INVESTIGACIÓN SOCIOCULTURAL CUALITATIVA-CUANTITATIVA

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    Rebeca Mejía Arauz

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo discute la idea de que el proceso de investigación no puede ser definido en primer lugar por la adhesión a una tradición metodológica, sino en términos de lo que se requiere investigar de acuerdo con el foco y las preguntas de la investigación. Se revisan algunas propuestas de combinación de métodos cualitativo y cuantitativo, pero se apoya la idea de que es dentro del mismo paradigma y a nivel de estrategias de organización y análisis de datos donde se da con mayor consistencia la relación cualitativa-cuantitativa.

  4. Keynes: la teoría cuantitativa y la no neutralidad del dinero

    OpenAIRE

    Rísquez, Justino

    2006-01-01

    En este trabajo se intenta una revisión de los planteamientos de Keynes respecto a la teoría cuantitativa del dinero clásica. En el se señala que aún antes de su principal obra “La Teoría General” ya se evidenciaban elementos que marcaban cierta distancia entre su planteamiento y la ortodoxia clásica. Asomándose elementos que permitían cuestionar la perfecta dicotomía entre la parte real y monetaria de la economía, que llevaría posteriormente, en la “Teoría General,” a establecer analíticamen...

  5. El papel de la inferencia estocástica en economía cuantitativa.

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    Carlos González Salgueiro

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available El objeto de la comunicación es poner de manifiesto los problemas derivados de la interpretación del esquema de la inferencia estocástica. Este esquema determinaría una alteración del objeto de la economía cuantitativa, planteado no como la obtención de valores numéricos para las supuestas constantes económicas, sino como la obtención de estimadores consistentes, de unos parámetros cuya existencia ni consta ni se plantea su determinación. Este planteamiento tiene consecuencias lógicas, como es suponer, que las series históricas agregadas son muestras aleatorias o procesos estocásticos autocorrelacionados, y consecuencias prácticas. Hoy, instituciones como el INE, miden las características económicas mediante encuestas muestrales, sin que se disponga de la validación poblacional, como por ejemplo, ocurre con los datos de empleo y paro. Otro ejemplo, son los notables fracasos estimadores de las encuestas de opinión, pese a no poder aplicar rigurosamente los principios de la inferencia estocástica. En último extremo, si existió una ciencia económica racional, estableciendo deductivamente leyes referidas a unidades individuales, la inexistencia de los correspondientes datos, llevó la cuantificación a basarse en datos principalmente de series históricas agregadas. La interpretación de los mismos en el esquema de la inferencia estocástica, ha supuesto un desviacionismo de los objetos de lo que entendemos debiera ser la economía cuantitativa. La ponencia se ilustra empíricamente con una revisión de los ensayos econométricos tendentes a la medición de constantes como la propensión al consumo.

  6. Determinación cuantitativa de bactericidas en cosméticos "dermoprotectores"

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    Crespo González, N.

    1992-06-01

    Full Text Available A rapid, easy and reproducible method is described for the quantitative determination of the usual antimicrobial preservatives used in the cosmetic industry in the Spanish market with a dermoprotector claim. The method is also useful for soap bars and for surfactant solutions, in this last case the method of extraction is the only change. Gas Chromatography has been chosen as the analytical process for the set up of this method because it is a rapid and available technique, and it allows the simultaneous resolution of all the studied preservatives.

    Se describe un método rápido, sencillo y reproducible para la determinación cuantitativa de los bactericidas más utilizados en la industria cosmética del mercado español con fines dermoprotectores. El método es aplicable tanto a jabones sólidos como a disoluciones de tensioactivos, variando en este caso tan sólo el método de extracción. Se ha elegido la cromatografía de gases para la elaboración de este método por ser una técnica rápida y asequible, además de permitir la resolución simultánea de todos los bactericidas estudiados.

  7. Selección natural, genética cuantitativa y evolución en culebras

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    Javier Manjarrez Silva

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Se describen los conceptos, términos y técnicas empleadas en la genética cuantitativa y la selección natural, en particular de los componentes de la varianza fenotípica y sus técnicas para reducirla. Se utiliza a las serpientes como ejemplo por las características que presentan y se justifica la aplicación de este tipo de estudios, en particular para las estimaciones de la heredabilidad de caracteres cuantitativos de las culebras, con el fin de visualizar su posible base genética e implicaciones evolutivas.

  8. El estudio de la pobreza y la exclusión social. Aproximación cuantitativa y cualitativa

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    Manuel Hernández Pedreño

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se define el fenómeno de la pobreza, incidiendo en la progresiva sustitución de este concepto por el de exclusión social en las sociedades más avanzadas, del cual se analizan sus principales características. Asimismo, se ofrecen los resultados de recientes estudios en España, realizados con distintas metodologías (cuantitativas, cualitativas o mixtas, destacándose la relevancia de los factores educativos en los procesos y dinámicas de la pobreza y la exclusión social.

  9. Characterization of the permutations by block that have reversible one dimensional cellular automata; Caracterizacion de las permutaciones en bloque que representan automatas celulares unidimensionales reversibles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seck Tuoh Mora, J. C. [Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    2001-06-01

    We present a review of reversible one dimensional cellular automata and their representation by block permutations. We analyze in detail the behavior of such block permutations to get their characterization. [Spanish] En el siguiente escrito se da una revision a la representacion y comportamiento de automatas celulares unidimensionales reversibles por medio de permutaciones en bloque. Hacemos un analisis detallado del comportamiento de dichas permutaciones para obtener su caracterizacion.

  10. Trabajo remunerado, trabajo doméstico y salud: las diferencias cualitativas y cuantitativas entre mujeres y varones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Cecilia Cruz

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se plantea la relación entre trabajo remunerado, trabajo doméstico y salud, desde la perspectiva de género. La relación entre ambos tipos de trabajo determina las características y el significado de la vida cotidiana. La metodología utilizada conjuntó técnicas cuantitativas y cualitativas. Se aplicó un cuestionario individual a 256 trabajadores y 121 trabajadoras (n = 377 de una moderna industria farmacéutica en México. También se hicieron siete entrevistas en profundidad entre trabajadores seleccionados por conveniencia. Los hallazgos principales muestran que a pesar de las enormes similitudes encontradas en el trabajo asalariado entre mujeres y varones, las diferencias pueden resumirse en dos conjuntos: por un lado, las distintas formas de segregación de género en el mercado de trabajo y, por el otro, en las formas de enfrentar la vida cotidiana. Se puede decir que los determinantes sociales que han cobijado esta desigual situación son resultado de la complejidad de las relaciones de género y dan lugar a diferentes perfiles patológicos y concepciones sobre la salud.

  11. Determinación cuantitativa por electroforesis capilar de zona de mangiferina en tabletas VIMANG® 300 mg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harold Curiel Hernández

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available La mangiferina se seleccionó como marcador en el control de calidad del ingrediente farmacéutico activo VIMANG® y sus formulaciones, que se han empleado como suplemento nutricional, cosmético y fitomedicamento. El trabajo tuvo como objetivo la validación del método electroforesis capilar para la determinación cuantitativa de mangiferina en la formulación farmacéutica tabletas VIMANG® 300 mg. Se evaluaron la especificidad, linealidad, exactitud y precisión. Los resultados obtenidos demostraron que el método fue específico, al no existir interferencias de los excipientes o sus productos de degradación. La linealidad mostró un coeficiente de correlación de 0,9979 en el intervalo de concentraciones estudiado. Los coeficientes de variación para la repetibilidad y la precisión intermedia fueron menores de 2 %. La exactitud mostró un recobrado del 100,20 % que no difiere significativamente de 100 %. En conclusión, el método validado es específico, lineal, preciso y exacto, y constituye una alternativa ventajosa al método cromatografía líquida de alta resolución establecido con anterioridad en el laboratorio.

  12. Obtención de Relaciones Cuantitativas Estructura-Propiedad en Cristales Líquidos Obtención de Relaciones Cuantitativas Estructura-Propiedad en Cristales Líquidos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Reyna Hernández

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Sixty nine thermotropic liquid crystal molecules were analyzed by different chemometric methods, including Principal Component Analysis (PCA, Genetic algorithms and Quantitative Structure-Property Relationships (QSPR. Mathematical models to predict nematic transition temperatures (TN were derived. This is the first time that Principal Component Analysis was used to predict liquid crystal properties, leading to the derivation of local (specific models for different molecule sets. Results indicate that local models have higher prediction capabilities than global models, which is consistent to our initial assumption. This methodology will be used in the study of liquid crystals used in pharmaceutical applications.Una serie de 69 cristales líquidos termotrópicos se sometió a una colección de Métodos Quimiométricos incluyendo Análisis de Componentes Principales; Algoritmos Genéticos y Relaciones Cuantitativas Estructura Propiedad para la obtención de modelos matemáticos que permitan predecir las Temperaturas de Transición Nemática, (TN. En este trabajo se aplica por primera vez el Análisis de Componentes Principales al estudio de cristales líquidos para la identifi cación de subconjuntos de moléculas para los cuales se obtuvieron modelos locales. Los resultados obtenidos muestran que la capacidad de predicción de los modelos locales es superior a la del modelo global, lo cual resultó consistente con la hipótesis planteada. La metodología utilizada se extenderá al estudio de cristales líquidoscon actividad farmacológica.

  13. Investigación cualitativa versus cuantitativa: ¿dicotomía metodológica o ideológica?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Luis González López

    Full Text Available Revisión crítica del histórico antagonismo entre investigación cuantitativa vs cualitativa en ciencias de la salud. Se analizan las diferencias e inferencias entre ambas metodologías, concluyendo que los métodos cuantitativos/cualitativos, como las perspectivas ETIC/EMIC, los signos y síntomas, son dimensiones ortogonales obligadas a entenderse, pues descifran la realidad ofreciéndonos hechos y significados. Sin embargo, en su proceso de construcción científica, la enfermería ha optado por oponer a la ortodoxia cuantitativa biomédica un fundamentalismo cualitativo diferencial. Y aunque sea lógico no deja de ser inquietante y contraproducente. Médicos y enfermeros tienen en común, frente a la mayoría de las ciencias, el mismo objeto de estudio, que no es la regularidad sino la singularidad de la enfermedad y el individuo. La investigación en salud no debe realizarse con metodología cualitativa por ser enfermera o cuantitativa por ser biomédica, sino que debe ser deudora del objeto de investigación. Los hechos son cuantificables, pero no su significado. Y ambos son caras de una misma moneda, dimensiones de la realidad a las que sólo podemos aproximarnos desde la perspectiva adecuada: cuantitativamente a los hechos, cualitativamente a sus significados.

  14. Characterization of the billow applied to Tuxpan, Veracruz; Caracterizacion del oleaje aplicada a Tuxpan, Veracruz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosales Sierra, Victor

    1999-07-01

    In this work, the criteria for the wave temporal and spectral statistical analysis were reviewed. These analysis are applied to the site Tuxpan, Veracruz, in the Mexican Gulf coast. In the temporal statistic analysis, the high (Rayleigh, Tayfun and Carter) and period (Bretchneider, Cavanie and Longuet-Higgins) theoretic probability distributions are compared with field data from Tuxpan. In the other hand, in the frequency domain analysis, the theoretic spectrums (Bretchneider-Mitsuyasu, Jonswap-Hasselmann, Pierson-Moscowitz, Neumann, ITTC, ISSC, TMA and Ochi-Hubble) are compared with the one obtained from Tuxpan measurements, then changes are made to some spectrums in order to better couple to field data. Finally, some recommendations are made to improve the wave data acquisition and analysis methods. From the study results, it's important to mention that the Tayfun high probability distribution and the Cavanie period probability distribution better fit Tuxpan field data. In the spectral analysis, the Bretchneider spectrum, modified by Mitsuyasu, better coupled to the spectrum obtained from Tuxpan field data. In the temporal statistical analysis, correct the mean level using the parabolic approximation, in order to eliminate the tidal and long period wave effects, it is recommended. For the registered individual wave calculus the zero up cross method was used. [Spanish] En este trabajo se revisan los criterios para el analisis estadisticos temporal y espectral del oleaje, mismos que son aplicados para la caracterizacion del oleaje en Tuxpan, Veracruz. En cuanto al analisis estadistico temporal, se comparan las distribuciones teoricas de probabilidad de altura de Rayleigh, Tayfun y Carter; y las de periodo de Bretchneider, Cavanie y Longuet-Higgins contra las resultantes de las mediciones en campo. Por otro lado y concerniente al analisis en el dominio de la frecuencia, se comparan los espectros teoricos de Bretchneider- Mitsuyasu, Jonswap-Hasselmann, Pierson

  15. Metodologia de la investigacion: el enfoque meta-analitico para la sintesis cuantitativa de la literatura en las ciencias del movimiento humano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Moncada Jiménez

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se presenta una descripción de diferentes tipos de tamaños de efecto utilizados para resumir de manera cuantitativa el cuerpo de investigación proveniente de diversas áreas de las ciencias del movimiento humano. En total se revisaron 108 meta análisis publicados entre 1983 y 2005. En el documento se describen dos grupos o familias principales de tamaños de efecto, la familia d y la familia r. Los indicadores de la familia d se utilizan para describir el efecto de un tratamiento sobre la variable dependiente en estudios de tipo comparativos; mientras que los indicadores de la familia r se utilizan para explicar la magnitud de las relaciones entre las variables en los estudios correlacionales. Las revisiones sistemáticas cuantitativas se han convertido en una herramienta objetiva muy importante para la toma de decisiones con respecto a la continuación o no de una línea determinada de investigación, lo cual permite maximizar el tiempo y los recursos destinados para la investigación.

  16. Una lectura histórica de las relaciones conceptuales entre psicología teórica y psicología cuantitativa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Dávila Dávila

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo presenta una revisión de la historia de las relaciones conceptuales entre psicología teórica y psicología cuantitativa. Se revisan los conceptos de psicología matemática y psicometría, así como los vínculos epistemológicos que estas áreas tienen con los estructuralismos y funcionalismos psicológicos. El trabajo resalta la necesidad de dotar a los puntos de vista cuantitativos en psicología con herramientas conceptuales propiamente psicológicas. Se propone la teoría de la inteligencia de Spearman como un modelo de integración de psicología teórica y psicología cuantitativa; también se propone la integración de la psicometría con la psicología experimental en el terreno de las pruebas de hipótesis derivadas de marcos psicomatemáticos y psicoestadísticos. This paper reviews the history of conceptual relations between theoretical and quantitative psychology. The concepts of mathematical psychology, psychometry, and their links to psychological structuralisms and functionalisms are reviewed. This work stresses the need of giving a psychological theoretical background to the quantitative point of view in psychology. Spearman's theory of intelligence is proposed as a model of synthesis between theoretical and quantitative psychology; it is proposed also to integrate psychometry with experimental psychology to proof psychological hyphotesis derived of psychomathematical and psychostatistical frames.

  17. Validación de la técnica para la determinación cuantitativa de cefotaxima sódica por Clar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liset Sordo Martínez

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó la validación del método de cromatografía líquida de alta resolución (CLAR para la determinación cuantitativa de cefotaxima sódica, un compuesto de actividad antibacteriana reconocida. Teniendo en cuenta que el método se clasifica como método para la determinación cuantitativa de ingrediente activo o compuesto mayoritario en formulaciones o materia prima, se evaluaron los parámetros: especificidad, linealidad, precisión y exactitud. Los resultados obtenidos demostraron que la técnica es fiable, pues permitió la determinación del compuesto estudiado en presencia de las impurezas de la síntesis y productos de degradación. Además, el procesamiento estadístico de los resultados evidenció la linealidad, precisión y exactitud del método.The validation of the high-performance liquid chromatography method for the quantitative determination of cefotaxime sodium, a well-known antibacterial compound, was carried out. Taking into account that this method is rated as a method for quantitative determination of the active ingredient or main compound in formulations or raw materials, the following parameters were evaluated: specificity, linearity, precision and accuracy. The results showed that the technique is reliable since it allowed the determination of the studied compound in the face of synthesis impurities and degradation products. Also, the statistical processing of the results revealed the linearity, precision and accuracy of the method.

  18. Preliminary Characterization of the Liquid Discharge of the Mexico Hospital; Caracterizacion Preliminar de la Descarga Liquida del Hospital Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez Rojas, A

    2001-07-01

    constituye un grave problema a nivel nacional. En este trabajo se realiza una caracterizacion preliminar de la descarga liquida del Hospital Mexico. Para ello se analizaron diferentes puntos de vertido dentro de la institucion, ellos son : Lavanderia, cocina central, Laboratorio Clinico, Rayos X, Laboratorio de Biomasa, Morgue y la descarga final del hospital. Esto con el fin de conocer el manejo de los desechos liquidos en el centro de salud, la calidad sanitaria de estos vertidos y su influencia en las aguas crudas del Hospital Mexico en el cuerpo receptor. Para este estudio primero se coordino con el personal de cada departamento para conocer sobre el manejo y tipo de residuos liquidos que son descargados al sistema de tuberias. Posteriormente se realizaron las pruebas fisico-quimicas y biologicas con base en dos muestreos compuestos realizados los dias 26 de octubre y 4 de noviembre de 1998. Entre las pruebas realizadas se tienen: pH, DBO, DQO, SAAM, Grasas y Aceites, Temperatura, Nitrogeno y Coliformes Fecales, dependiendo de las caracteristicas de su punto de procedencia. Al final del estudio, se evaluaron los resultados obtenidos para cada punto de vertido estudiado y luego se analizo la influencia de estos focos sobre la calidad de las aguas crudas del hospital, las cuales descargan en una quebrada localizada al costado noroeste de las instalaciones. Los resultados obtenidos permiten conocer preliminarmente la caracterizacion de la descarga liquida del Hospital Mexico y lo catalogan como una fuente de contaminacion. El Hospital requiere de una planta de tratamiento biologica para aquellos vertidos biodegradables, y de un sistema de tratamiento quimico para tratar ese tipo de productos, que son utilizados en los procesos propios de cada departamento; ademas se requiere tomar en cuenta medidas de reduccion de contaminacion que disminuyan la cantidad de desechos desde la fuente. (Author)

  19. The need of alkalinity determination in the characterization of rain; Necesidad de la determinacion de la alcalinidad en la caracterizacion de la lluvia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pal Verma, Mahendra [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1998-01-01

    In this paper is presented the alkalinity determination of the carbonic species in the rain waters by the Gran titration method. The alkalinity values obtained by this method in low electric conductivity waters are fairly reliable. Also, the existing studies on the characterization of acid rains, are discussed. [Espanol] En este trabajo se presenta la medicion de la alcalinidad y la determinacion de las especies carbonicas en las aguas de lluvia por el metodo de la titulacion de Gran. Los valores de alcalinidad obtenidos por este metodo en las aguas de baja conductividad electrica son bastante confiables. Asimismo, se discuten los estudios existentes sobre la caracterizacion de la lluvia acida en la republica mexicana.

  20. Characterization of nitrides in an AISI 1010 steel; Caracterizacion de nitruros en un acero AISI 1010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naquid G, C. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Gerencia de Ciencia de Materiales, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    1998-07-01

    It was characterized the phase formation in the 1010 carbon steel nitrided in a plasma reactor nearby to eutectoid point. The microstructure and identification of these ones were evaluated by Optical microscopy (OM), Dilatometry and X-ray diffraction (XRD). (Author)

  1. TOXICIDAD AGUDA DE PESTICIDAS ORGANOF[OSFORADOS Y ANÁLISIS DE LA RELACIÓN CUANTITATIVA DE ESTRUCTURA ACTIVIDAD (QSAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BEATRIZ EUGENIA JARAMILLO C

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Los pesticidas organofosforados son esteres del ácido fosfórico (OPs, frecuentemente utilizados como insecticidas y acaricidas. Son un grupo muy importante de contaminantes ambientales empleados en la agricultura intensiva para la protección contra las plagas, producen disturbios en las reacciones bioquímicas normales necesarias para el metabolismo, exhiben un amplio rango de toxicidad para los mamíferos y actúan sobre el sistema nervioso central como inhibidores de la acetilcolinesterasa. En este estudio se evaluó la concentración letal media (CL50 de diecisiete compuestos organofosforados usando Artemia franciscana. El compuesto que presentó mayor toxicidad fue el fentión con CL50 de 6,26 µg/mL a las 24h de exposición y de 0,11 µg/mL a las 48h y aquellos con menor toxicidad fueron: clorpirifos y malatión con valores de CL50 mayores de 100 µg/mL.Modelos QSAR (relación cuantitativa existente entre la estructura y la actividad fueron desarrollados para predecir la toxicidad de los OPs correlacionando sus valores LC50 con descriptores moleculares,usando métodos computacionales y herramientas estadísticas. El momento dipolar (µ y el coeficiente de partición octanol/agua (LogP fueron los descriptores moleculares que presentaron la mejor correlación lineal con R2 de 0,8107 y 0,8546 para 24 y 48 h de exposición,respectivamente, de OPsfrente A. franciscana.

  2. Nanoparticulas basadas en complejos de Fe(II) con transicion de espin: sintesis, caracterizacion y aplicaciones en electronica molecular

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monrabal Capilla, Maria

    Esta tesis doctoral esta organizada en 5 capitulos y esta destinada al estudio de sistemas de Fe (II) que presentan el fenomeno de la transicion de espin a escala nanometrica. El capitulo 1 contiene una introduccion general sobre materiales moleculares multifuncionales, destacando aquellos ejemplos mas importantes. Por otro lado, se explicara el fenomeno de la transicion de espin, tratando aspectos conceptuales, los antecedentes mas importantes y la situacion actual. En el capitulo 2 se describen los diferentes procesos existentes para la obtencion de diferentes tipos de nanoparticulas. Ademas, se presenta la sintesis y caracterizacion de nanoparticulas del polimero de coordinacion unidimensional [Fe(Htrz)2(trz)]BF4, obtenidas mediante el metodo de micelas inversas. Estas nanoparticulas, con una estrecha distribucion de tamanos centrada alrededor de los 11 nm, presentan una transicion de espin muy abrupta, con un ancho ciclo de histeresis termica de unos 40K. En el capitulo 3 se describe el proceso de modificacion del tamano de las nanoparticulas descritas en el capitulo anterior, llevado a cabo variando la proporcion de surfactante/H2O en el medio. Ademas, con el objetivo de modificar las propiedades magneticas de las nanoparticulas obtenidas en el capitulo 2, se lleva a cabo la sintesis de nanoparticulas de polimeros de la misma familia del [Fe(Htrz)2(trz)]BF4. En concreto se sintetizaron 3 nuevos tipos de nanoparticulas basadas en el polimero [Fe(Htrz)1-x(NH2trz)x](ClO4)2, siendo x = 0.05, 0.15 y 0.3, en cada caso. Estas nanoparticulas siguen presentando una estrecha distribucion de tamanos y una transicion de espin muy abrupta y con un ancho ciclo de histeresis. Ademas, se observa que este ciclo se desplaza a temperaturas mas proximas a la temperatura ambiente a medida que se aumenta el porcentaje de 4-amino-1, 2, 4- triazol en la muestra. Pero al mismo tiempo se produce una disminucion de la anchura de este ciclo. Por ultimo, en este capitulo se presenta la

  3. El efecto del capital humano sobre la innovación: Un análisis desde las perspectivas cuantitativa y cualitativa de la educación

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Fernández-Rodríguez Labordeta

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Objeto: El presente trabajo trata de determinar, empíricamente y para una muestra amplia de países, qué tipo de variables educativas pueden explicar mejor los procesos de innovación tecnológica, aproximados a través del número de patentes per cápita. Para ello, utilizamos un modelo que explica la capacidad innovadora de los países utilizando seis variables educativas: dos variables de cantidad –años medios de estudio, totales y universitarios- y cuatro de calidad –basadas en los resultados obtenidos en distintas pruebas internacionales de conocimiento-.Diseño/metodología/enfoque: El análisis se lleva a cabo para una muestra de más de 60 países, haciendo uso de técnicas de corte transversal para la década 2000-2010.Aportaciones y resultados: A partir de los resultados econométricos, se concluye que la innovación tecnológica, aproximada por el número de patentes per cápita, es explicada en mayor medida por la calidad educativa que por la cantidad de educación. La actividad innovadora está fuertemente vinculada al éxito en términos de competencias educativas, al tipo de competencias que se adquieren y a la excelencia educativa. A su vez, se evidencia la importancia que tiene la interacción entre la calidad y la cantidad educativa. Al introducir los efectos cruzados es cuando el modelo propuesto obtiene un mayor poder explicativo.Originalidad / Valor añadido: Frente a la perspectiva tradicional en la literatura sobre capital humano, que hace uso de indicadores basados en la cantidad de educación (habitualmente años medios de estudio, el trabajo incorpora indicadores basados en los conocimientos adquiridos. Además, plantea la interacción de variables cuantitativas y cualitativas. En conclusión, la utilización de una doble perspectiva a la hora de medir el capital humano y estudiar su interrelación con el desarrollo de innovación constituye una novedad tanto teórica como metodológica.

  4. Aplicación del metodo delphi en el diseño de una investigación cuantitativa sobre el fenómeno FABLAB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mª Elena García-Ruiz

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available La facilidad de acceso a la tecnología ha propiciado la llegada de una nueva revolución industrial que capacita a los ciudadanos para dejar de ser meros usuarios y convertirse en creadores y constructores de sus propios bienes, apoyándose en las tendencias sociales basadas en la cultura colaborativa. El surgimiento de los Fablab -Fabrication Laboratory- como entornos que potencian dichas capacidades en los usuarios ha sido decisiva en esta democratización tecnológica, y sigue un ritmo creciente incesante, extendiéndose de forma llamativa por todo el planeta. A través de siete etapas, descritas en este artículo, se presenta el proceso de construcción y validación de la herramienta de obtención de información denominada FabLab Global Survey con el objetivo de conocer y caracteriza el fenómeno FabLab. La falta de referentes teóricos y la limitada bibliografía académica sobre el tema hace necesario el diseño de dicha herramienta basándonos en aportaciones de los expertos en el fenómeno FabLab y, para ello, se consideró adecuada su validación mediante el método Delphi, ya que permite la transmisión de la información subjetiva aportada por los expertos, respetando sus peculiaridades. El reto al que nos enfrentamos como investigadores estriba en nuestra capacidad de transformar los resultados obtenidos para su valoración a través de herramientas analíticas cuantitativas. Para compensar y equilibrar la subjetividad de las opiniones expresadas por el panel de expertos mediante escalas nominales, se emplea el Modelo de Torgerson, que permite un reescalamiento de la escala original cualitativa en una escala de intervalo (cuantitativa verificando la equivalencia entre ellas. Asimismo, y una vez contrastada la adecuación de la escala utilizada, se realiza un análisis cuantitativo y cualitativo de las aportaciones generadas por el grupo de expertos que permiten perfilar las características del cuestionario resultante. La

  5. Equilibrios ácido-base. Aspectos teóricos. ¿Es posible la neutralización cuantitativa de dos protolitos débiles? Estudio del caso ácido bórico-amoníaco.

    OpenAIRE

    Milla González, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    Mediante la combinación de los balances de masa y las constantes de equilibrio del sistema, se encuentra la función y=f(x) [y = cantidad valorada del ácido débil y x la cantidad añadida de la base débil]. Se representa dicha función y se calcula su límite cuando x tiende a infinito para comprobar que no es posible la valoración (neutralización cuantitativa) del ácido bórico con la base amoníaco.

  6. Métodos de investigación cualitativa y cuantitativa en lingüística aplicada: el estudio de la motivación y las actitudes en el aula de idiomas

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez-Lifante, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    La combinación de la metodología cuantitativa y cualitativa se presenta como la elección cada vez más frecuente en las investigaciones de segundas lenguas (ASL). En este artículo, se revisa la evolución y utilidad de algunos de los instrumentos para recabar datos sobre las variables motivación y actitudes en ASL. Asimismo, se plantean algunas reflexiones sobre las futuras líneas de investigación sobre estas variables en el ámbito del español como lengua extranjera (ELE) desde un enfoque metod...

  7. Design, construction and characterization of a rural solar furnace; Diseno, construccion y caracterizacion de un horno solar rural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez Luna, Gabriela

    2001-06-15

    centigrade, followed of the condition using 6 liters of oil, in which a maximum temperature of 115 centigrade was obtained and in the tests with 6 liters of water as load a maximum temperature of 95 centigrade was registered. In these tests the temperature of the oil surpasses 60 centigrade during an approximate period of 7 hours and is higher than 80 centigrade by a lapse of 5 hours. The water temperature is higher than 60 centigrade for a period of more than 5 hours and during 3 hours is higher than 80 centigrade. These results are satisfactory, because they assure the accomplishment of the process of baking inside the furnace. A calculation program was elaborated to implement the theoretical model of the concentration. This program reads the data of radiation intensity in the horizontal plane supplied by the weather station of the CIE and determines the incident radiation in the furnace collector. The theoretical model of the thermal behavior was implemented in another computer program; this program reads the data of the incident radiation in the collector of the furnace and the data of room temperature and calculates the temperature of the furnace as a time function. The model overestimates the temperature reached in the furnace, nevertheless reproduces qualitatively the thermal behavior of the same. In spite of the limitations of the theoretical model, this can be of utility in achieving the reproduction of the temperature of the load experimentally registered, through an effective coefficient of heat losses and an effective coefficient of heat capacity, characteristic of each one of the conditions of the test. [Spanish] Esta tesis presenta el diseno, construccion y caracterizacion de un horno solar tipo caja para su uso en comunidades rurales en la zona intertropical. El trabajo presentado en esta tesis parte del diseno opto-geometrico de un horno solar tipo caja propuesto por un entusiasta grupo de jovenes estudiantes (Acosta et al., 1996, Vazquez et al., 1998

  8. LA INVESTIGACIÓN CUANTITATIVA DEL ACOSO PSICOLÓGICO LABORAL EN LOS SECTORES DE LA EDUCACIÓN SUPERIOR Y DE LA SALUD. UNA REVISIÓN SISTEMÁTICA.

    OpenAIRE

    Liliana Parra Osorio; Martín Acosta Fernández

    2010-01-01

    En este artículo el propósito fue la identificación de trabajos de investigación en acoso psicológico laboral con orientación cuantitativa enfocados preferiblemente en personal docente universitario, enfermeras y médicos a nivel nacional e internacional realizados entre 1990 y 2009. Metodología: Se realizó una revisión sistemática en fuentes electrónicas y físicas de revistas científicas especializadas. Se diseñó una matriz analítica con las siguientes variables: título del documento, materia...

  9. Characterization of the Novillo Tokamak in main discharge regime; Caracterizacion del Tokamak Novillo en regimen de descarga principal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez C, R.; Melendez L, L.; Chavez A, E.; Colunga S, S.; Valencia A, R.; Gaytan G, E

    1992-07-15

    The analytical procedure to carry out the establishment of the discharge in a Tokamak including: a) Ionization, b) Diffusion losses, recombination, union, drift speed, spurious fields, and c) Electric field is presented. In an experimental way a procedure settles down by means of which it is characterized the plasma, specially a new characteristic discharge parameter is settled down and it is the plasma current by the duration of the (I{sub p}t) discharge. (Author)

  10. Metodología de la investigación: El enfoque meta-analítico para la síntesis cuantitativa para la literatura en las ciencias del movimiento humano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moncada Jiménez, José

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: En este artículo se presenta una descripción de diferentes tipos de tamaños de efecto utilizados para resumir de manera cuantitativa el cuerpo de investigación proveniente de diversas áreas de las ciencias del movimiento humano. En total se revisaron 108 meta análisis publicados entre 1983 y 2005. En el documento se describen dos grupos o familias principales de tamaños de efecto, la familia d y la familia r. Los indicadores de la familia d se utilizan para describir el efecto de un tratamiento sobre la variable dependiente en estudios de tipo comparativos; mientras que los indicadores de la familia r se utilizan para explicar la magnitud de las relaciones entre las variables en los estudios correlacionales. Las revisiones sistemáticas cuantitativas se han convertido en una herramienta objetiva muy importante para la toma de decisiones con respecto a la continuación o no de una línea determinada de investigación, lo cual permite maximizar el tiempo y los recursos destinados para la investigación. Abstract: This article describes different effect sizes used to quantitatively summarize the body of knowledge from the different areas of the human movement sciences. A total of 108 meta-analyses dating from 1983 to 2005 were reviewed. In this document are described two effect size families, the d and the r. The d-family indicators are used to describe the effect of a treatment over the dependent variable in comparative studies; whereas the r-family indicators are used to explain the magnitude of the relationship between variables in correlational research. Systematic-quantitative reviews of literature have evolved into an useful decision making tool regarding whether a follow-up on specific research areas should be done or not. This decision might allow scholars to maximize their resources and time allowed to perform their research.

  11. La Evaluación Del Alumnado Normalista Cordobés En El Primer Tercio Del Siglo Xx. Investigación Basada En Una Metodología Cuantitativa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonia Ramírez García

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo ofrece los resultados de la evaluación del alumnado de las Escuelas Normales de Córdoba durante los tres planes de estudio existentes en el primer tercio del siglo XX en función del sexo, plan de estudios cursado, procedencia geográfica, extracción social y modalidad de enseñanza cursada. La metodología seguida ha sido predominantemente cuantitativa, los datos se han obtenido de una muestra estratificada de 618 sujetos y para el análisis de los mismos se ha recurrido a la estadística descriptiva e inferencial. Los resultados muestran que la evaluación del alumnado estuvo condicionada por el plan de estudios, el sexo y la modalidad de estudios cursada. No obstante, la procedencia geográfica y la extracción social del alumnado no determinaron los resultados alcanzados por estos alumnos. La evaluación del alumnado encuentra en la Historia un referente para evitar errores del pasado o para incorporar aspectos positivos a los actuales planes de estudio.

  12. Relación entre los factores institucionales y el emprendimiento: análisis mediante técnicas cuantitativas || Relationship between Institutional Factors and Entrepreneurship: A Quantitative Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gómez Haro, Samuel

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available La mayoría de los trabajos publicados sobre la relación entre los factores institucionales y emprendedores adolecen de un adecuado estudio empírico. Debido a la importancia que ha adquirido en los últimos años el entorno institucional, consideramos necesario un análisis riguroso mediante técnicas estadísticas cuantitativas. El objetivo del presente trabajo es el análisis empírico de la relación entre el entorno institucional y la orientación emprendedora de la empresa española, partiendo de la identificación teórica y empírica de las dimensiones reguladora, cognitiva y normativa para el entorno institucional y las dimensiones de innovación, asunción de riesgos, proactividad y autonomía para analizar el comportamiento emprendedor. || The majority of published studies about the relation between institutional and entrepreneurial factors lack of an adequate empirical study. Due to the importance that the institutional environment has acquired in the last few years, we consider necessary a rigorous analysis using quantitative statistical techniques. The aim of this paper is the empirical analysis of the relation- ship between institutional and entrepreneurial orientation Spanish company, based on theoretical and empirical identification of regulatory, cognitive and normative dimensions for the institutional environment and the dimensions of innovation, risk assumption, proactivity, and autonomy to analyze the entrepreneurial behavior.

  13. Incidencia de las técnicas de investigación cuantitativa en el diseño de estrategias de marketing electoral. Análisis de la campaña para la presidencia del partido verde 2010.

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez Bustamante, Iván Darío

    2012-01-01

    La campana política del Partido Verde para la presidencia en 2010 fue una campaña con muchas particularidades. Este trabajo analiza dicha campaña y resalta las técnicas de investigación cuantitativa y la incidencia de estas en las estrategias de marketing electoral, todo lo anterior bajo el modelo de plan de marketing del profesor Francisco Javier Barranco.

  14. Plasma turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horton, W.

    1998-07-01

    The origin of plasma turbulence from currents and spatial gradients in plasmas is described and shown to lead to the dominant transport mechanism in many plasma regimes. A wide variety of turbulent transport mechanism exists in plasmas. In this survey the authors summarize some of the universally observed plasma transport rates

  15. Plasma properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weitzner, H.

    1990-06-01

    This paper discusses the following topics: MHD plasma activity: equilibrium, stability and transport; statistical analysis; transport studies; edge physics studies; wave propagation analysis; basic plasma physics and fluid dynamics; space plasma; and numerical methods

  16. Plasma accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bingham, R.; Angelis, U. de; Johnston, T.W.

    1991-01-01

    Recently attention has focused on charged particle acceleration in a plasma by a fast, large amplitude, longitudinal electron plasma wave. The plasma beat wave and plasma wakefield accelerators are two efficient ways of producing ultra-high accelerating gradients. Starting with the plasma beat wave accelerator (PBWA) and laser wakefield accelerator (LWFA) schemes and the plasma wakefield accelerator (PWFA) steady progress has been made in theory, simulations and experiments. Computations are presented for the study of LWFA. (author)

  17. Applications of the Raman spectroscopy in the materials characterization; Aplicaciones de la espectroscopia Raman en la caracterizacion de materiales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez S, S. (ed.) [IPN, Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados, Unidad Queretaro, Libramiento Norponiente No. 2000, Fracc. Real de Juriquilla, 76230 Queretaro (Mexico); Escobar A, L. (ed.) [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Camacho L, M. A. (ed.) [Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Mexico, Instituto Literario No. 100, Col. Centro, 50000 Toluca, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2011-07-01

    The study field of the science and technology of surfaces and materials have been of primordial importance in the last years due to the impact that they have the knowledge that it generates in diverse areas. For this reason, the Mexican Society of Science and Technology of Surfaces and Materials has focused a good part of their investigation activities toward the materials science and technology development. Inside the investigation fields carried out by members of this Society, are the following: semiconductors, thin films, hard coatings, deposit techniques, plasmas, biomaterials, Ab-initio calculations, characterization techniques, photo-thermal properties, solar cells, nano science, magnetism, superconductivity and related topics. Among the techniques used for this purpose is the Raman Spectroscopy (Rs), which has demonstrated to be a powerful and versatile tool in the materials study. In the last three congresses that the Society has organized, an average of 42 works related with this topic have been presented, what gave the rule to prepare this book whose objective is on one hand diffusing part of the works that carry out different groups integrated with members of the Society that use the Rs like an important tool in its investigation work. A second objective is that it can serve like support to the students that begin to be involved, or that they are already involved, in topics where the Rs can have a decisive paper in the development of its projects. It is also expected that some of the topics included in the book are of utility for professors and researches that already uses the Rs, or that it can be of help for those who are beginning in this technique as alternative or like complementary analysis tool. (Author)

  18. Plasma device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thode, L.E.

    1981-01-01

    A method is described for electron beam heating of a high-density plasma to drive a fast liner. An annular or solid relativistic electron beam is used to heat a plasma to kilovolt temperatures through streaming instabilities in the plasma. Energy deposited in the plasma then converges on a fast liner to explosively or ablatively drive the liner to implosion. (U.K.)

  19. Plasma Modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubin, D. H. E.

    This chapter explores several aspects of the linear electrostatic normal modes of oscillation for a single-species non-neutral plasma in a Penning trap. Linearized fluid equations of motion are developed, assuming the plasma is cold but collisionless, which allow derivation of the cold plasma dielectric tensor and the electrostatic wave equation. Upper hybrid and magnetized plasma waves in an infinite uniform plasma are described. The effect of the plasma surface in a bounded plasma system is considered, and the properties of surface plasma waves are characterized. The normal modes of a cylindrical plasma column are discussed, and finally, modes of spheroidal plasmas, and finite temperature effects on the modes, are briefly described.

  20. Trabajo remunerado, trabajo doméstico y salud: las diferencias cualitativas y cuantitativas entre mujeres y varones Wage labor, housewifery, and health: qualitative and quantitative differences between men and women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Cecilia Cruz

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se plantea la relación entre trabajo remunerado, trabajo doméstico y salud, desde la perspectiva de género. La relación entre ambos tipos de trabajo determina las características y el significado de la vida cotidiana. La metodología utilizada conjuntó técnicas cuantitativas y cualitativas. Se aplicó un cuestionario individual a 256 trabajadores y 121 trabajadoras (n = 377 de una moderna industria farmacéutica en México. También se hicieron siete entrevistas en profundidad entre trabajadores seleccionados por conveniencia. Los hallazgos principales muestran que a pesar de las enormes similitudes encontradas en el trabajo asalariado entre mujeres y varones, las diferencias pueden resumirse en dos conjuntos: por un lado, las distintas formas de segregación de género en el mercado de trabajo y, por el otro, en las formas de enfrentar la vida cotidiana. Se puede decir que los determinantes sociales que han cobijado esta desigual situación son resultado de la complejidad de las relaciones de género y dan lugar a diferentes perfiles patológicos y concepciones sobre la salud.This article presents the relationship between wage labor, housewifery, and health from a gender perspective. The relationship between the two types of work determines the characteristics and meaning of daily life. The methodology combined quantitative and qualitative techniques. An individual questionnaire was applied to 256 male and 121 female workers (n = 377 in a modern pharmaceutical factory in Mexico. In addition, seven in-depth interviews were performed with selected employees. Despite important similarities between female and male wage-earners, there were two key differences: gender segregation in the workplace and the division of household work. The social determinants of this uneven situation result from a complex gender relationship, leading to different disease profiles and health concepts.

  1. Concepción de un procedimiento utilizando herramientas cuantitativas para mejorar el desempeño empresarial / Conception of a procedure using quantitative techniques in order to improve the business performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosario Garza-Ríos

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available La necesidad de hacer organizaciones eficientes y utilizar racionalmente los recursos, y la responsabilidad de ahorrar recursos energéticos para dar satisfacción a un cliente cada vez más exigente, consciente y preparado; ha provocado que haya que cambiar el paradigma decisional en cuanto a que las decisiones se tomen empíricamente, considerando la experiencia del personal involucrado, hacia un enfoque cuantitativo donde se obtienen soluciones que modelan racionalmente la forma de actuar del decisor. En este trabajo se muestra la concepción de un procedimiento para la utilización de herramientas cuantitativas de apoyo a la toma de decisiones empresariales, exponiéndose las premisas y requerimientos para su aplicación, así como las diferentes fases y pasos que lo componen. El procedimiento fue validado al ser aplicado en la solución de problemas en un restaurante de comida criolla y en una empresa de servicios de seguridad y protección, obteniéndose una mejoría en todos los indicadores analizados. / There is necessity to make efficient organizations and to use the resources rationally, as well as a responsibility of saving energetic resources in order to satisfy a more and more demanding, conscious and prepared client. This has caused the need to a change in the paradigm related to empirical decisions, considering the experience of the involved personnel, toward a quantitative focus, where the solutions that model rationally the way of acting of the person who takes the decisions, are obtained. In this work is showed the conception of a procedure for the using of quantitative tools that support the decision-making process in business, and also are exposed the premises and requirements for its application, as well as the different phases and steps that compose it. This procedure was validated when it was applied in order to solve problems at a creole food restaurant and at a safety and protection services company, obtaining an

  2. Determinación cuantitativa por electroforesis capilar de zona de mangiferina en tabletas VIMANG® 300 mg Quantitative determination through capillary zone electrophoresis of mangiferin in 300 mg VIMANG® tablets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harold Curiel Hernández

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available La mangiferina se seleccionó como marcador en el control de calidad del ingrediente farmacéutico activo VIMANG® y sus formulaciones, que se han empleado como suplemento nutricional, cosmético y fitomedicamento. El trabajo tuvo como objetivo la validación del método electroforesis capilar para la determinación cuantitativa de mangiferina en la formulación farmacéutica tabletas VIMANG® 300 mg. Se evaluaron la especificidad, linealidad, exactitud y precisión. Los resultados obtenidos demostraron que el método fue específico, al no existir interferencias de los excipientes o sus productos de degradación. La linealidad mostró un coeficiente de correlación de 0,9979 en el intervalo de concentraciones estudiado. Los coeficientes de variación para la repetibilidad y la precisión intermedia fueron menores de 2 %. La exactitud mostró un recobrado del 100,20 % que no difiere significativamente de 100 %. En conclusión, el método validado es específico, lineal, preciso y exacto, y constituye una alternativa ventajosa al método cromatografía líquida de alta resolución establecido con anterioridad en el laboratorio.Mangiferin was selected as marker in the quality control of active principle VIMANG® and its formulations, which have been used as nutritional supplement, cosmetic, and phytomedication. This paper was aimed at validating the capillary electrophoresis method for the quantitative analysis of mangiferin in the pharmaceutical formulation 300 mg VIMANG® tablets. The specificity, linearity, accuracy and precision were assessed. The results showed the method specificity owing to lack of interference by the excipients or their degradation products. Linearity showed a correlation coefficient of 0.9979 in the studied concentration range. The variation coefficients for repeatability and intermediate precision were less than 2 %. Accuracy reached a recovery rate of 100.20 % that is not statistically different from 100 %. It may be

  3. LA INVESTIGACIÓN CUANTITATIVA DEL ACOSO PSICOLÓGICO LABORAL EN LOS SECTORES DE LA EDUCACIÓN SUPERIOR Y DE LA SALUD. UNA REVISIÓN SISTEMÁTICA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Parra Osorio

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo el propósito fue la identificación de trabajos de investigación en acoso psicológico laboral con orientación cuantitativa enfocados preferiblemente en personal docente universitario, enfermeras y médicos a nivel nacional e internacional realizados entre 1990 y 2009. Metodología: Se realizó una revisión sistemática en fuentes electrónicas y físicas de revistas científicas especializadas. Se diseñó una matriz analítica con las siguientes variables: título del documento, materiales y métodos utilizados, tipo de estudio, hallazgos, discusiones e identificación de vacios en los estudios. Se recolectó un total de 115 artículos del tema acoso psicológico laboral de los cuales se seleccionaron 50 títulos que atendieran a las especificaciones definidas inicialmente. Fueron analizados, categorizados y codificados en forma cualitativa, específicamente a partir de los hallazgos y vacios expresados por el autor. Los hallazgos identificados estaban enfocados en aspectos de la personalidad y psicológicos de los acosados, del acosador, consecuencias de la salud y el trabajo de las víctimas, percepciones de las víctimas sobre el acosador, acciones sobre las víctimas por parte del acosador, entornos organizacionales que suscitan al acoso, predictores organizacionales y familiares de acoso, efectos en la organización, por último en enfermeras, médicos, docentes y el mobbing (acoso psicológico laboral. Las revisiones confirmaron en sus conclusiones y discusiones que efectivamente el contexto de trabajo en universidades e instituciones de salud en el que laboran los docentes universitarios médicos y enfermeras puede presentar ciertas condiciones organizacionales e individuales propicias para el posible desarrollo del acoso psicológico en el trabajo.

  4. ANÁLISIS DEL PENSAMIENTO DE DOCENTES NÓVELES EN EDUCACIÓN FÍSICA MEDIANTE LA UTILIZACIÓN CONJUNTA DE TÉCNICAS CUANTITATIVAS Y CUALITATIVAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Granda

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available

    RESUMEN

    En el ámbito de la investigación educativa en particular, y en el de las ciencias sociales en general, encontramos posiciones enfrentadas entre los defensores de los dos grandes paradigmas o perspectivas de investigación: la investigación positivista o cuantitativa y la investigación naturalista (también denominada etnográfica, fenomenológica, interpretativa o cualitativa. Son muchas las voces que abogan por adoptar posiciones eclécticas, donde ambos paradigmas se complementen y enriquezcan la investigación, en contraposición a situaciones de rigidez conceptual, de reduccionismo intelectual que perjudican en vez de favorecer el avance del conocimiento. El estudio que se recoge en este artículo utiliza esta vía de complementariedad entre ambos métodos, con objeto de encontrar relaciones entre las diferentes categorías halladas en el estudio del comportamiento docente de maestros-especialistas noveles en Educación Física.
    PALABRAS CLAVE: Metodogías de investigación educativas. Pensamiento del Profesor. Formación Inicial. Maestros noveles de Educación Física

     

    ABSTRACT

    In the ambit of the educational research in particular, and in that of the social sciences as a rule, we find positions faced between the advocates of the large two paradigms or perspectives of research: the positivist or quantitative research and the naturalist (also designated etnography, phenomenologic, interpretive or qualitative research. They are many the voices that advocate by adopting eclactical positions, where both paradigms are complemented and enriched with this the research, in contrast to conceptual inflexibility situations, of intellectual reductionism that prejudice instead of favoring the advance of the background. The study that is collected in this I articulate

  5. Introducción e integración de extranjeros en el Egipto del Reino Nuevo: una aproximación cuantitativa a los Anales de Tuthmosis III

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerván, Héctor Horacio

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Resumen En el Antiguo Egipto, como en todas las sociedades del discurso mítico, el orden y la interpretación del mundo se vinculaba con el plano cósmico. Los diversos mitos cosmogónicos sirvieron de sustrato ideológico al aparato estatal para fundamentar y legitimar su acción sobre los pueblos extranjeros circundantes. Pero, ¿este discurso mítico se correlacionaba directamente con la realidad histórica? En este trabajo nos proponemos responder esta pregunta a partir de un caso particular, los Anales de Tuthmosis III. Adoptaremos para este propósito una metodología esencialmente cuantitativa, haciendo uso de las herramientas que nos brinda la estadística descriptiva. El análisis estadístico será, entonces, un medio para un fin, que estará dado por la identificación de ciertos valores numéricos significativos de los Anales. A partir de esto, las categorías analíticas subyacentes a ellos serán analizadas históricamente para describir las lógicas de inclusión/exclusión de los extranjeros traídos a Egipto por las campañas del monarca. Abstract In Ancient Egypt, as in all societies of mythic discourse, order and interpretation of the world was linked to the cosmic plane. The various creation myths were used as ideological substrate from state apparatus to support and legitimize their actions on the surrounding foreign peoples. But, this mythic discourse was directly correlated with historical reality? In this paper we propose to answer this question from a particular case, the Annals of Thutmose III. We will adopt for this purpose an essentially quantitative methodology, using the tools provided to us by descriptive statistics. Statistical analysis will then be a means to an end, which is given by the identification of certain significant numerical values of the Annals. From this, the underlying analytical categories to be analyzed them historically to describe the logics of inclusion/exclusion of foreigners brought to Egypt

  6. Sociología del campo filosófico español entre el Franquismo y la Transición democrática: una validación cuantitativa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vázquez García, Francisco

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The latest research about the Spanish philosophical field between the late francoism and the democratic transition, pointed out the existence of two intellectual networks. On the one hand, an «official» section including the most scholar philosophers (e. g. Sergio Rábade. On the other hand, an «alternative» segment composed by the most vanguard thinkers (e.g. López Aranguren. La filosofía española. Herederos y pretendientes. Una lectura sociológica (1963- 1990 (Vázquez García 2009 employed a qualitative approach. Our goal, using the same sources, is to employ a correspondent analysis in order to put emphasis on reliability over validity. More than 15 variables about 50 Spanish philosophers have been measured. The conclusions explores the differences and similarities between the results obtained with the qualitative and quantitative methodologies.La más reciente investigación dedicada al análisis del campo filosófico español entre el tardofranquismo y la Transición, señaló la existencia de dos redes intelectuales: una, denominada «oficial», que aglutinaba a los filósofos de perfil más estrictamente académico (v. g. Sergio Rábade, y otra, designada como «alternativa», que integraba a los pensadores más vanguardistas (v. g. López Aranguren. Los materiales utilizados en La filosofía española. Herederos y pretendientes. Una lectura sociológica (1963-1990 (Vázquez García 2009, fueron objeto en esta obra de una aproximación cualitativa. Nuestro objetivo en este artículo, privilegiando la fiabilidad sobre la validez, es la realización de un análisis de correspondencias múltiples, en el que se han cuantificado más de 15 variables sobre cincuenta filósofos españoles. En las conclusiones se profundiza en las diferencias y similitudes entre los resultados obtenidos con las metodologías cualitativa y cuantitativa.

  7. Plasma centrifuges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karchevskij, A.I.; Potanin, E.P.

    2000-01-01

    The review of the most important studies on the isotope separation processes in the rotating plasma is presented. The device is described and the characteristics of operation of the pulse plasma centrifuges with weakly and strongly ionized plasma as well as the stationary plasma centrifuges with the medium weak ionization and devices, applying the stationary vacuum arc with the high ionization rate and the stationary beam-plasma discharge with complete ionization, are presented. The possible mechanisms of the isotope separation in plasma centrifuges are considered. The specific energy consumption for isotope separation in these devices is discussed [ru

  8. Plasma astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Kaplan, S A; ter Haar, D

    2013-01-01

    Plasma Astrophysics is a translation from the Russian language; the topics discussed are based on lectures given by V.N. Tsytovich at several universities. The book describes the physics of the various phenomena and their mathematical formulation connected with plasma astrophysics. This book also explains the theory of the interaction of fast particles plasma, their radiation activities, as well as the plasma behavior when exposed to a very strong magnetic field. The text describes the nature of collective plasma processes and of plasma turbulence. One author explains the method of elementary

  9. Plasma waves

    CERN Document Server

    Swanson, DG

    1989-01-01

    Plasma Waves discusses the basic development and equations for the many aspects of plasma waves. The book is organized into two major parts, examining both linear and nonlinear plasma waves in the eight chapters it encompasses. After briefly discussing the properties and applications of plasma wave, the book goes on examining the wave types in a cold, magnetized plasma and the general forms of the dispersion relation that characterize the waves and label the various types of solutions. Chapters 3 and 4 analyze the acoustic phenomena through the fluid model of plasma and the kinetic effects. Th

  10. Plasma device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thode, L.E.

    1981-01-01

    A method is described of providing electron beam heating of a high-density plasma to drive a fast liner to implode a structured microsphere. An annular relativistic electron beam is used to heat an annular plasma to kilovolt temperatures through streaming instabilities in the plasma. Energy deposited in the annular plasma then converges on a fast liner to explosively or ablatively drive the liner to convergence to implode the structured microsphere. (U.K.)

  11. Dusty plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, M.E.; Winske, D.; Keinigs, R.; Lemons, D.

    1996-01-01

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The objective of this project has been to develop a fundamental understanding of dusty plasmas at the Laboratory. While dusty plasmas are found in space in galactic clouds, planetary rings, and cometary tails, and as contaminants in plasma enhanced fabrication of microelectronics, many of their properties are only partially understood. Our work has involved both theoretical analysis and self-consistent plasma simulations to understand basic properties of dusty plasmas related to equilibrium, stability, and transport. Such an understanding can improve the control and elimination of plasma dust in industrial applications and may be important in the study of planetary rings and comet dust tails. We have applied our techniques to the study of charging, dynamics, and coagulation of contaminants in plasma processing reactors for industrial etching and deposition processes and to instabilities in planetary rings and other space plasma environments. The work performed in this project has application to plasma kinetics, transport, and other classical elementary processes in plasmas as well as to plasma waves, oscillations, and instabilities

  12. Plasma chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1984-01-01

    This book examines the fundamental theory and various applications of ion mobility spectroscopy. Plasma chromatography developed from research on the diffusion and mobility of ions. Topics considered include instrument design and description (e.g., performance, spectral interpretation, sample handling, mass spectrometry), the role of ion mobility in plasma chromatography (e.g., kinetic theory of ion transport), atmospheric pressure ionization (e.g., rate equations), the characterization of isomers by plasma chromatography (e.g., molecular ion characteristics, polynuclear aromatics), plasma chromatography as a gas chromatographic detection method (e.g., qualitative analysis, continuous mobility monitoring, quantitative analysis), the analysis of toxic vapors by plasma chromatography (e.g., plasma chromatograph calibration, instrument control and data processing), the analysis of semiconductor devices and microelectronic packages by plasma chromatography/mass spectroscopy (e.g., analysis of organic surface contaminants, analysis of water in sealed electronic packages), and instrument design and automation (hardware, software)

  13. Synthesis and electrochemical characterization of palladium-based cathode catalysts, resistant to the presence of methanol; Sintesis y caracterizacion electroquimica de catalizadores catodicos base paladio, resistentes a la presencia de metanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salvador, Jose J. [Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados del IPN, Mexico D.F. (Mexico)] e-mail: jsalvador@cinvestav.mx; Collins, Virginia H. [Centro de Investigacion en Materiales Avanzados, Chihuahua, Chihuahua (Mexico); Solorza Feria, Omar [Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados del IPN, Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2009-09-15

    This work presents the synthesis and characterization of palladium-based electrocatalysts (PdSn and PdPtSn) prepared with the salt-reduction method for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). The compounds obtained are characterized by sweep electron microscopy, electron transmission microscopy and x-ray diffraction of powder. The electrocatalysts obtained had particle sizes less than 10 nm. The evaluation of the catalytic activity of the catalysts was performed using cyclic voltametry and rotating disc electrode. These experiments were conducted in an H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} 0.5 M solution with different methanol concentrations. The presence of methanol improved the catalytic activity of PdSn, but did not show any effect on the PdPtSn alloy. The performance of the DMFC mono cell using PdPtSn as a cathode showed a potential of 10 mW cm{sup -2} at 50 degrees Celsius. [Spanish] En este trabajo se presenta la sintesis y caracterizacion de electrocatalizadores de base Paladio (PdSn y PdPtSn) preparados mediante el metodo de reduccion de sales, para la reaccion de reduccion de oxigeno (RRO). Los compuestos obtenidos se caracterizaron por microscopia electronica de barrido, microscopia electronica de transmision y difraccion de rayos X de polvos. Los electrocatalizadores obtenidos presentaron un tamano de particula menores a 10 nm. La evaluacion de la actividad catalitica de los catalizadores se llevo a cabo mediante voltametria Ciclica y electrodo de disco rotatorio, estos experimentos fueron realizados en una solucion de H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} 0.5 M con diferentes concentraciones de metanol. La presencia de metanol mejoro la actividad catalitica de PdSn, pero no mostro ningun efecto sobre la aleacion PdPtSn. El desempeno de la monocelda de DMFC usando como catodo PdPtSn, mostro una potencia de 10 mW cm{sup -2} a 50 grados centigrados.

  14. How general are current comparative physiology studies?: A quantitative review ¿Cuán general son los estudios en fisiología comparada actualmente?: Una revisión cuantitativa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROBERTO F. NESPOLO

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Comparative animal physiology and related fields (named here "ecological physiology" are entering a time of synthesis in the form of a quest for large scales patterns. However, these new approaches need to be supplied by great amounts of data, representative of existing animal forms. We tested whether this is the case by performing a quantitative survey in the most important media for ecological physiologists. We found that ecological physiologists have clear biases toward some taxonomic classes, which represent one third of existing animal phyla. Non-taxonomic characterization of animals (endothermy/ectothermy, aquatic/terrestrial, however, produced a more balanced picture. In addition, ecological physiologists appear to be mostly intraspecific biologists since the great majority of studies were performed in one species. Multispecific studies were the minority and comparable to two - species comparative studies. The later are still being published despite to have been strongly criticized in the past. Cross-tabulation analysis yielded results suggesting that natural populations, vertebrates and terrestrial animals are preferred over artificial populations, aquatic animals and invertebrates. Although we recognize the limitations of our survey, it has the value to indicate that historical biases need to be taken in consideration if more global approaches are being undertaking in this disciplineLa fisiología comparada y disciplinas relacionadas (definidas en este trabajo como "ecología fisiológica" han entrado a un período de síntesis en la forma de búsqueda de patrones a gran escala. Sin embargo, dichos enfoques necesitan ser provistos de una gran cantidad de datos que sean representativos de las formas animales existentes. Evaluamos si este es el caso, efectuando una revisión cuantitativa en el medio más importante para los ecólogos fisiológicos. Encontramos que los ecólogos fisiológicos tienen claros sesgos hacia ciertas clases taxon

  15. Relaciones cuantitativas entre los contenidos de azufre y de sulfuros en los aceros inoxidables tipo AISI 303: influencia de la composición química de los sulfuros

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Botella, J.

    1999-06-01

    relaciones cuantitativas entre los contenidos de azufre y de sulfuros y se estudia la influencia que en dichas relaciones tienen las composiciones químicas de los sulfuros. Se comparan los resultados experimentales con los obtenidos a partir de cálculos teóricos, obteniéndose un buen grado de aproximación cuando se tiene en cuenta que los sulfuros reales tienen composiciones químicas distintas de la del sulfuro teórico, MnS.

  16. Plasma physics

    CERN Document Server

    Drummond, James E

    1961-01-01

    A historic snapshot of the field of plasma physics, this fifty-year-old volume offers an edited collection of papers by pioneering experts in the field. In addition to assisting students in their understanding of the foundations of classical plasma physics, it provides a source of historic context for modern physicists. Highly successful upon its initial publication, this book was the standard text on plasma physics throughout the 1960s and 70s.Hailed by Science magazine as a ""well executed venture,"" the three-part treatment ranges from basic plasma theory to magnetohydrodynamics and microwa

  17. Plasma generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omichi, Takeo; Yamanaka, Toshiyuki.

    1976-01-01

    Object: To recycle a coolant in a sealed hollow portion formed interiorly of a plasma limiter itself to thereby to cause direct contact between the coolant and the plasma limiter and increase of contact area therebetween to cool the plasma limiter. Structure: The heat resulting from plasma generated during operation and applied to the body of the plasma limiter is transmitted to the coolant, which recycles through an inlet and outlet pipe, an inlet and outlet nozzle and a hollow portion to hold the plasma limiter at a level less than a predetermined temperature. On the other hand, the heater wire is, at the time of emergency operation, energized to heat the plasma limiter, but this heat is transmitted to the limiter body to increase the temperature thereof. However, the coolant recycling the hollow portion comes into direct contact with the limiter body, and since the plasma limiter surround the hollow portion, the heat amount transmitted from the limiter body to the coolant increases to sufficiently cool the plasma limiter. (Yoshihara, H.)

  18. Bridge between fusion plasma and plasma processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohno, Noriyasu; Takamura, Shuichi

    2008-01-01

    In the present review, relationship between fusion plasma and processing plasma is discussed. From boundary-plasma studies in fusion devices new applications such as high-density plasma sources, erosion of graphite in a hydrogen plasma, formation of helium bubbles in high-melting-point metals and the use of toroidal plasmas for plasma processing are emerging. The authors would like to discuss a possibility of knowledge transfer from fusion plasmas to processing plasmas. (T. Ikehata)

  19. Plasma waves

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Swanson, D. G

    1989-01-01

    ... Swanson, D.G. (Donald Gary), D a t e - Plasma waves. Bibliography: p. Includes index. 1. Plasma waves. QC718.5.W3S43 1989 ISBN 0-12-678955-X I. Title. 530.4'4 88-34388 Printed in the United Sta...

  20. Plasma properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weitzner, H.

    1991-06-01

    The Magneto-Fluid Dynamics Division continues to study a broad range of problems originating in plasma physics. Its principal focus is fusion plasma physics, and most particularly topics of particular significance for the world magnetic fusion program. During the calendar year 1990 we explored a wide range of topics including RF-induced transport as a plasma control mechanism, edge plasma modelling, further statistical analysis of L and H mode tokamak plasmas, antenna design, simulation of the edge of a tokamak plasma and the L-H transition, interpretation of the CCT experimental results at UCLA, turbulent transport, studies in chaos, the validity of moment approximations to kinetic equations and improved neoclassical modelling. In more basic studies we examined the statistical mechanisms of Coulomb systems and applied plasma ballooning mode theory to conventional fluids in order to obtain novel fluid dynamics stability results. In space plasma physics we examined the problem of reconnection, the effect of Alfven waves in space environments, and correct formulation of boundary conditions of the Earth for waves in the ionosphere

  1. Plasma container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebisawa, Katsuyuki.

    1985-01-01

    Purpose: To enable to easily detect that the thickness of material to be abraded is reduced to an allowable limit from the outerside of the plasma container even during usual operation in a plasma vessel for a thermonuclear device. Constitution: A labelled material is disposed to the inside or rear face of constituent members of a plasma container undergoing the irradiation of plasma particles. A limiter plate to be abraded in the plasma container is composed of an armour member and heat removing plate, in which the armour member is made of graphite and heat-removing plate is made of copper. If the armour member is continuously abraded under the effect of sputtering due to plasma particles, silicon nitride embedded so far in the graphite at last appears on the surface of the limiter plate to undergo the impact shocks of the plasma particles. Accordingly, abrasion of the limiter material can be detected by a detector comprising gas chromatography and it can easily be detected from the outside of the plasma content even during normal operation. (Horiuchi, T.)

  2. Cosmic plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alfven, H [California Univ., San Diego, La Jolla (USA)

    1981-01-01

    The properties of space plasmas are analyzed, based on laboratory results and data obtained by in situ measurements in the magnetosphere (including the heliosphere). Attention is given to the question of how much knowledge can be gained by a systematic comparison of different regions of plasma, and plasmas are considered with linear dimensions varying from laboratory size up to the Hubble distance. The traditional magnetic field description of plasmas is supplemented by an electric current description and it is demonstrated that many problems are easier to understand with a dualistic approach. Using the general plasma properties obtained, the origin and evolution of the solar system is summarized and the evolution and present structure of the universe (cosmology) is discussed.

  3. Plasma device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thode, L.E.

    1981-01-01

    A relativistic electron beam generator or accelerator produces a high-voltage electron beam which is modulated to initiate electron bunching within the beam which is then applied to a high-density target plasma which typically comprises DT, DD, or similar thermonuclear gas at a density of 10 17 to 10 20 electrons per cubic centimeter. As a result, relativistic streaming instabilities are initiated within the high-density target plasma causing the relativistic electron beam to efficiently deposit its energy into a small localized region of the high-density plasma target. The high-temperature plasma can be used to heat a high Z material to generate radiation. Alternatively, a tunable radiation source is produced by using a moderate Z gas or a mixture of high Z and low Z gas as the target plasma. (author)

  4. Superconducting plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohnuma, Toshiro; Ohno, J.

    1994-01-01

    Superconducting (SC) plasmas are proposed and investigated. The SC plasmas are not yet familiar and have not yet been studied. However, the existence and the importance of SC plasmas are stressed in this report. The existence of SC plasmas are found as follows. There is a fundamental property of Meissner effect in superconductors, which shows a repulsive effect of magnetic fields. Even in that case, in a microscopic view, there is a region of magnetic penetration. The penetration length λ is well-known as London's penetration depth, which is expressed as δ = (m s /μ 0 n s q s 2 ) 1/2 where m s , n s , q s and μ o show the mass, the density, the charge of SC electron and the permeability in free space, respectively. Because this expression is very simple, no one had tried it into more simple and meaningful form. Recently, one of the authors (T.O.) has found that the length can be expressed into more simple and understandable fundamental form as λ = c/ω ps where c = (ε 0 μ 0 ) -1/2 and ω ps = (n s q s 2 /m s ε 0 ) 1/2 are the light velocity and the superconducting plasma frequency. From this simple expression, the penetration depth of the magnetic field to SC is found as a SC plasma skin depth, that is, the fundamental property of SC can be expressed by the SC plasmas. This discovery indicates an importance of the studies of superconducting plasmas. From these points, several properties (propagating modes et al) of SC plasmas, which consist of SC electrons, normal electrons and lattice ions, are investigated in this report. Observations of SC plasma frequency is also reported with a use of Terahertz electromagnet-optical waves

  5. Plasma universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alfven, H.

    1986-04-01

    Traditionally the views in our cosmic environment have been based on observations in the visual octave of the electromagnetic spectrum, during the last half-century supplemented by infrared and radio observations. Space research has opened the full spectrum. Of special importance are the X-ray-gamma-ray regions, in which a number of unexpected phenomena have been discovered. Radiations in these regions are likely to originate mainly from magnetised cosmic plasma. Such a medium may also emit synchrotron radiation which is observable in the radio region. If we try to base a model of the universe on the plasma phenomena mentioned we find that the plasma universe is drastically different from the traditional visual universe. Information about the plasma universe can also be obtained by extrapolation of laboratory experiments and magnetospheric in situ measurements of plasma. This approach is possible because it is likely that the basic properties of plasma are the same everywhere. In order to test the usefulness of the plasma universe model we apply it to cosmogony. Such an approach seems to be rather successful. For example, the complicated structure of the Saturnian C ring can be accounted for. It is possible to reconstruct certain phenomena 4-5 bilions years ago with an accuracy of better than 1 percent

  6. Plasma physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    This report contains the papers delivered at the AEB - Natal University summer school on plasma physics held in Durban during January 1979. The following topics were discussed: Tokamak devices; MHD stability; trapped particles in tori; Tokamak results and experiments; operating regime of the AEB Tokamak; Tokamak equilibrium; high beta Tokamak equilibria; ideal Tokamak stability; resistive MHD instabilities; Tokamak diagnostics; Tokamak control and data acquisition; feedback control of Tokamaks; heating and refuelling; neutral beam injection; radio frequency heating; nonlinear drift wave induced plasma transport; toroidal plasma boundary layers; microinstabilities and injected beams and quasilinear theory of the ion acoustic instability

  7. Plasma centrifuge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikehata, Takashi; Mase, Hiroshi

    1998-01-01

    The plasma centrifuge is one of statistical isotope separation processes which uses the centrifugal force of a J x B driven rotating plasma in a magnetic field to give rise to the mass-dependent radial transport of isotopic ions. The system has been developed as an alternative to the gas centrifuge because a much higher rotational velocity and separation factor have been achieved. In this review, the physical aspects of the plasma centrifuge followed by the recent experimental achievements are described, especially in comparison with the gas centrifuge. (author)

  8. Characterization of a hot dry rock reservoir at Acoculco geothermal zone, Pue.; Caracterizacion de un yacimiento de roca seca caliente en la zona geotermica de Acoculco, Pue.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorenzo Pulido, Cecilia; Flores Armenta, Magaly Ramirez Silva, German [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Gerencia de Proyectos Geotermoelectricos, Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico)]. E-mail: cecilia-lorenzo@cfe.gob.mx

    2011-01-15

    metamorphism due to the emplacement of intrusive rocks (hornblende granite), which was identified in the lithologic column from both wells. Based on all these features, the Acoculco geothermal zone is a candidate for development under an EGS scheme. [Spanish] Los recursos geotermicos de roca seca caliente (HDR: Hot Dry Rock), tambien conocidos actualmente como sistemas geotermicos mejorados (EGS: Enhanced Geothermal Systems), han sido investigados de tiempo atras. El concepto de HDR es muy simple. Los yacimientos mas comunes se encuentran a unos 5000 m de profundidad y estan formados por rocas impermeables que tienen una temperatura entre 150 grados centigrados y 300 grados centigrados , y no contienen ningun tipo de fluido. La temperatura es un criterio economico principal, ya que para la generacion de energia electrica se requiere una temperatura inicial mayor a los 200 grados centigrados. Para desarrollar el sistema se hacen dos perforaciones, en una de las cuales se introduce agua fria y en la otra se obtiene agua caliente. En Francia, desde junio de 2008 se encuentra en operacion una planta de 1.5 MW como parte del proyecto Soultz-sous-Forest financiado por el European Deep Geothermal Energy Programme. A fin de caracterizar los yacimientos HDR se llevo a cabo una recopilacion de informacion multidisciplinaria referente a: (1) origen de la fuente de calor, (2) informacion cuantitativa de temperatura y mecanismos de transferencia de calor natural, (3) fallas y fracturas naturales, (4) esfuerzos locales, y (5) tipo de basamento. Esta informacion se aplico a la zona geotermica de Acoculco, Pue., explorada por el Departamento de Exploracion mediante los pozos EAC-1 y EAC-2 para determinar la presencia de un yacimiento de alta temperatura (de 220 grados centigrados a mas 250 grados centigrados). Esta zona presenta las siguientes caracteristicas: (1) Origen de la fuente de calor: volcano-tectonico; (2) Los registros de temperatura mostraron valores de 263.8 grados centigrados y

  9. Microstructural characterization of an AISI-SAE 4140 steel without nitridation and nitrided; Caracterizacion microestructural de un acero AISI-SAE 4140 sin nitrurar y nitrurado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medina F, A.; Naquid G, C. [Gerencia de Ciencia de Materiales, Depto. de Sintesis y Caracterizacion de Materiales, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    It was micro structurally characterized an AISI-SAE 4140 steel before and after of nitridation through the nitridation process by plasma post-unloading microwaves through Optical microscopy (OM), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) by means of secondary electrons and retrodispersed, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Energy dispersion spectra (EDS) and mapping of elements. (Author)

  10. Synthesis and characterization of PdAg as a catalyst for oxygen reduction reaction in acid medium; Sintesis y caracterizacion de PdAg como catalizador para la reaccion de reduccion de oxigeno en medio acido

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez-Casillas, D. C.; Vazquez-Huerta, G.; Solorza-Feria, O. [Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados del IPN, Mexico D.F. (Mexico)]. E-mail: dcmartinez@cinvestav.mx

    2009-09-15

    This work presents the synthesis of the binary compound PdAg and the electrochemical characterization for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in acid medium. The catalyst is obtained from the reduction of Pd(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}·2H{sub 2}O and AgNO{sub 3} with NaBH{sub 4} in THF. The synthesized compound was physically characterized with transmission electron microscopy (TEM), sweep electron microscopy (SEM) and x-ray diffraction (XRD) of powder. Electrochemical studies were conducted to determine the catalytic activity and intrinsic properties of the PdAg material for the ORR in acid medium using cyclic voltamperometry (CV), rotary disc electrode (RDE) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) in a solution of H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} 0.5 M at 25 degrees Celsius. The electrochemical current-potential responses were compared to those of palladium and platinum. The kinetic results showed an increase in the performance of the bimetallic electrocatalyst containing Ag as compared to pure Pd, but less than that obtained with nanometric Pt. The Tafel slopes obtained are roughly120 mV dec-1, similar to that reported for Pt and Pd and for other Ru-based electrocatalysts. [Spanish] En este trabajo se presentan la sintesis del compuesto binario PdAg y su caracterizacion electroquimica para la reaccion de reduccion de oxigeno (RRO) en medio acido. El catalizador se obtuvo a partir de la reduccion de Pd(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}·2H{sub 2}O y AgNO{sub 3} con NaBH{sub 4} en THF. El compuesto sintetizado se caracterizo fisicamente por microscopia electronica de transmision (MET), microscopia electronica de barrido (MEB) y difraccion de rayos X (DRX) de polvos. Se realizaron estudios electroquimicos para determinar la actividad catalitica y las propiedades intrinsecas del material de PdAg para la reaccion de reduccion de oxigeno (RRO) en medio acido, utilizando las tecnicas de voltamperometria ciclica (VC), electrodo disco rotatorio (EDR) y espectroscopia de impedancia electroquimica (EIE), en

  11. Synthesis and characterization of cobalt oxide and titanium mixtures using mechanical alloying and its response to oxygen reduction; Sintesis y caracterizacion de mezclas de oxidos de cobalto y titanio por aleado mecanico y su respuesta para la reduccion de oxigeno

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basurto S, R.; Bonifacio-Martinez, J.; Fernandez, S.M [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)]. E-mail: rafael.basurto@inin.gob.mx

    2009-09-15

    The synthesis of Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} and CoTiO{sub 3} oxides was conducted using mechanical alloying and combustion. Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} used was obtained using a SPEX ball mill with cobalt nitrate, Co(NO{sub 3})36H{sub 2}O plus urea, CH{sub 4}N{sub 2}O, in a molar ratio of 1:1 and a ball weight ratio of 1:4 with grinding times of 2.5 hours in an argon atmosphere. The material obtained after alloying underwent combustion at 400 degrees Celsius and 500 degrees Celsius, obtaining oxides of mixed cobalt valence. This material was mixed with TiO{sub 2} with a weight ratio of 1:1 and was mechanically alloyed with a ball weight ratio of 1:8; grinding was performed for 2.5 hours in argon atmosphere and it underwent combustion at 800 degrees Celsius. Characterization was performed using x-ray diffraction, low-vacuum sweep electron microscopy and EDS. The electrochemical performance was obtained in a galvanostat-potentiostat (Princenton Applied Research modelo 273). Both materials present electrocatalytic activity for oxygen reduction reaction in alkaline medium. [Spanish] La sintesis de los oxidos: Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} y CoTiO3 se realizo por la tecnica de aleado mecanico y combustion. El Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} utilizado, se obtuvo por con un molino de bolas SPEX, utilizando nitrato de cobalto, Co(NO{sub 3})36H{sub 2}O mas urea, CH{sub 4}N{sub 2}O, en una relacion molar 1:1.y una relacion en peso de bolas de 1:4 con tiempos de molienda de 2.5 horas, en atmosfera de argon, al termino del aleado el material obtenido se llevo a combustion a 400 grados centigrados y 500 grados centigrados, obteniendose el oxido de valencia mixta de cobalto. Este material se mezclo con TiO{sub 2}, en una relacion en peso de 1:1 y se aleo mecanicamente, con una relacion en peso de bolas de 1:8, por 2.5 horas de molienda en atmosfera de argon y llevandolo a combustion a 800 grados centigrados. La caracterizacion se hizo por: Difraccion de Rayos X, Microscopia Electronica de Barrido de Bajo Vacio y EDS El

  12. Plasma Cleaning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hintze, Paul E.

    2016-01-01

    NASA's Kennedy Space Center has developed two solvent-free precision cleaning techniques: plasma cleaning and supercritical carbon dioxide (SCCO2), that has equal performance, cost parity, and no environmental liability, as compared to existing solvent cleaning methods.

  13. Laser Plasmas

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    -focusing in a plasma ... Center for Energy Studies, Indian Institute of Technology, New Delhi 110 016, India; Tata Consultancy Services, Gurgaon, India; Ideal Institute of Technology, Ghaziabad, India; Center for Research in Cognitive, ...

  14. Plasma will…

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lunov, Oleg

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 174, č. 3 (2016), s. 486-487 ISSN 0007-0963 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : plasma * ionized gas Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics OBOR OECD: Biophysics Impact factor: 4.706, year: 2016

  15. Plasma technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drouet, M.G.

    1984-03-01

    IREQ was contracted by the Canadian Electrical Association to review plasma technology and assess the potential for application of this technology in Canada. A team of experts in the various aspects of this technology was assembled and each team member was asked to contribute to this report on the applications of plasma pertinent to his or her particular field of expertise. The following areas were examined in detail: iron, steel and strategic-metals production; surface treatment by spraying; welding and cutting; chemical processing; drying; and low-temperature treatment. A large market for the penetration of electricity has been identified. To build up confidence in the technology, support should be provided for selected R and D projects, plasma torch demonstrations at full power, and large-scale plasma process testing

  16. Plasma metallization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crowther, J.M.

    1997-09-01

    Many methods are currently used for the production of thin metal films. However, all of these have drawbacks associated with them, for example the need for UHV conditions, high temperatures, exotic metal precursors, or the inability to coat complex shaped objects. Reduction of supported metal salts by non-isothermal plasma treatment does not suffer from these drawbacks. In order to produce and analyse metal films before they become contaminated, a plasma chamber which could be attached directly to a UHV chamber with XPS capability was designed and built. This allowed plasma treatment of supported metal salts and surface analysis by XPS to be performed without exposure of the metal film to the atmosphere. Non-equilibrium plasma treatment of Nylon 66 supported gold(lll) chloride using hydrogen as the feed gas resulted in a 95% pure gold film, the remaining 5% of the film being carbon. If argon or helium were used as the feed gases during plasma treatment the resultant gold films were 100% pure. Some degree of surface contamination of the films due to plasma treatment was observed but was easily removed by argon ion cleaning. Hydrogen plasma reduction of glass supported silver(l) nitrate and palladium(ll) acetate films reveals that this metallization technique is applicable to a wide variety of metal salts and supports, and has also shown the ability of plasma reduction to retain the complex 'fern-like' structures seen for spin coated silver(l) nitrate layers. Some metal salts are susceptible to decomposition by X-rays. The reduction of Nylon 66 supported gold(lll) chloride films by soft X-rays to produce nanoscopic gold particles has been studied. The spontaneous reduction of these X-ray irradiated support gold(lll) chloride films on exposure to the atmosphere to produce gold rich metallic films has also been reported. (author)

  17. Plasma confinement

    CERN Document Server

    Hazeltine, R D

    2003-01-01

    Detailed and authoritative, this volume examines the essential physics underlying international research in magnetic confinement fusion. It offers readable, thorough accounts of the fundamental concepts behind methods of confining plasma at or near thermonuclear conditions. Designed for a one- or two-semester graduate-level course in plasma physics, it also represents a valuable reference for professional physicists in controlled fusion and related disciplines.

  18. Plasma Diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaveryaev, V [Kurchatov Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); others, and

    2012-09-15

    The success in achieving peaceful fusion power depends on the ability to control a high temperature plasma, which is an object with unique properties, possibly the most complicated object created by humans. Over years of fusion research a new branch of science has been created, namely plasma diagnostics, which involves knowledge of almost all fields of physics, from electromagnetism to nuclear physics, and up-to-date progress in engineering and technology (materials, electronics, mathematical methods of data treatment). Historically, work on controlled fusion started with pulsed systems and accordingly the methods of plasma parameter measurement were first developed for short lived and dense plasmas. Magnetically confined hot plasmas require the creation of special experimental techniques for diagnostics. The diagnostic set is the most scientifically intensive part of a plasma device. During many years of research operation some scientific tasks have been solved while new ones arose. New tasks often require significant changes in the diagnostic system, which is thus a very flexible part of plasma machines. Diagnostic systems are designed to solve several tasks. As an example here are the diagnostic tasks for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor - ITER: (1) Measurements for machine protection and basic control; (2) Measurements for advanced control; (3) Additional measurements for performance evaluation and physics. Every new plasma machine is a further step along the path to the main goal - controlled fusion - and nobody knows in advance what new phenomena will be met on the way. So in the planning of diagnostic construction we should keep in mind further system upgrading to meet possible new scientific and technical challenges. (author)

  19. Cold plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franz, G.

    1990-01-01

    This textbook discusses the following topics: Phenomenological description of a direct current glow discharge; the plasma (temperature distribution and measurement, potential variation, electron energy distribution function, charge neutralization, wall potentials, plasma oscillations); Production of charge carriers (ions, electrons, ionization in the cathode zone, negative glowing zone, Faraday dark space, positive column, anode zone, hollow cathode discharges); RF-discharges (charge carrier production, RF-Shields, scattering mechanisms); Sputtering (ion-surface interaction, kinetics, sputtering yield and energy distribution, systems and conditions, film formation and stresses, contamination, bias techniques, multicomponent film deposition, cohesion, magnetrons, triode systems, plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition); Dry etching (sputter etching, reactive etching, topography, process control, quantitative investigations); Etching mechanisms (etching of Si and SiO 2 with CF 4 , of III/V-compound-semiconductors, combination of isotrope and anisotrope etching methods, surface cleaning); ion beam systems (applications, etching); Dyclotron-resonance-systems (electron cyclotron resonance systems, whistler-sources and 'resonant inductive plasma etching'); Appendix (electron energy distribution functions, Bohm's transition zone, plasma oscillations, scattering cross sections and mean free path, metastable states, Child-Langmuir-Schottky equation, loss mechanisms, charge carrier distribution in the positive column, breakdown at high frequencies, motion in a magnetic field, skin depth of an electric field for a HF-discharge, whistler waves, dispersion relations for plane wave propagation). (orig.) With 138 figs

  20. Plasma heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilhelm, R.

    1989-01-01

    Successful plasma heating is essential in present fusion experiments, for the demonstration of DpT burn in future devices and finally for the fusion reactor itself. This paper discusses the common heating systems with respect to their present performance and their applicability to future fusion devices. The comparative discussion is oriented to the various function of heating, which are: - plasma heating to fusion-relevant parameters and to ignition in future machines, -non-inductive, steady-pstate current drive, - plasma profile control, -neutral gas breakdown and plasma build-up. In view of these different functions, the potential of neutral beam injection (NBI) and the various schemes of wave heating (ECRH, LH, ICRH and Alven wave heating) is analyzed in more detail. The analysis includes assessments of the present physical and technical state of these heating methods, and makes suggestions for future developments and about outstanding problems. Specific attention is given to the still critical problem of efficient current drive, especially with respect to further extrapolation towards an economically operating tokamak reactor. Remarks on issues such as reliability, maintenance and economy conclude this comparative overview on plasma heating systems. (author). 43 refs.; 13 figs.; 3 tabs

  1. Techniques Which Aid in Quantitative Interpretation of Scan Data; Methodes Facilitant l'Interpretation Quantitative des Scintigrammes; Metody, oblegchayushchie kolichestvennuyu interpretatsiyu dannykh skennirovaniya; Tecnicas Que Facilitan la Interpretacion Cuantitativa de los Datos Centelleograficos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charleston, D. B.; Beck, R. N.; Eidelberg, P.; Schuh, M. W. [Argonne Cancer Research Hospital, Chicago, IL (United States)

    1964-10-15

    multiescalfmetro, permite acumular la informacion numerica para obtener para cada escalon del fndice una presentacion segun el 'recuento total por linea de exploracion'. Por este procedimiento se han explorado animales pequenos y se ha obtenido una medicion cuantitativa exacta de la distribucion de la actividad en todo el animal y un perfil de actividad similar al que se obtiene al emplear un sistema de exploracion lineal mediante rendija. Esa tecnica multiescalimetrica se completa acumulando informacion numerica para presentarla en forma de 'cuentas por unidad de superficie'. Se obtiene un perfil para cada lfnea de exploracion correspondiente a cada escalon del indice y el conjunto de estos perfiles permite construir el diagrama tridimensional del fndice de recuento en aquella area. Los autores han explorado un simulador con un detector unico. Empleando lecturas multiples han obtenido en identicas condiciones estadisticas representaciones centelleograficas con o sin acentuacion del contraste y con o sin retardo en el circuito integrador, y centelleogramas de puntos de diversas formas y tamanos. La comparacion directa de las representaciones combinada con el trazado de un grafico de 'cuentas por unidad de superficie' ayuda a interpretar los resultados de la exploracion. Al registro de los datos deben anadirse informaciones exactas sobre la posicion. El sistema de exploracion del cerebro del Argonne Cancer Research Hospital permite calcular las diferencias percentuales de actividad en las regiones de interes situadas en lados opuestos de la cabeza, a partir de los datos reunidos por multiescalimetria. (author) [Russian] V nastojashhem doklade obsuzhdaetsja rjad metodov, oblegchajushhih ocenku i interpretaciju dannyh skennirovanija. Jetot rjad prostiraetsja ot prostoj vnutrennej kalibrovki dlja rasshifrovki fotoplenok do dovol'no slozhnogo vspomogatel'nogo oborudovanija dlja predstavlenija nakoplennyh cifrovyh dannyh skennirovanija v vide, prigodnom dlja sostavlenija programm dlja

  2. PLASMA DEVICE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gow, J.D.; Wilcox, J.M.

    1961-12-26

    A device is designed for producing and confining highenergy plasma from which neutrons are generated in copious quantities. A rotating sheath of electrons is established in a radial electric field and axial magnetic field produced within the device. The electron sheath serves as a strong ionizing medium to gas introdueed thereto and also functions as an extremely effective heating mechanism to the resulting plasma. In addition, improved confinement of the plasma is obtained by ring magnetic mirror fields produced at the ends of the device. Such ring mirror fields are defined by the magnetic field lines at the ends of the device diverging radially outward from the axis of the device and thereafter converging at spatial annular surfaces disposed concentrically thereabout. (AFC)

  3. Plasma properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weitzner, H.

    1989-08-01

    A cursory examination of the research activities of the Magneto-Fluid Dynamics Division for the calendar year 1988 shows the effects of the gradual transformation of the group. Although our principal activity, fusion plasma physics research, is unchanged, the work shows closer ties to problems relevant to present experiments than previously. Most notable is the concentrated effort on tokamak equilibrium and transport. We are exploring the implication of turbulence induced transport, resistive MHD effects, neoclassical transport, and possible interpretations of transport based on classical phenomena. In addition, one of our members has chosen to focus on problems of enhanced statistical methods for interpretation of experiments. All of this activity preceded the Tokamak Transport Initiative and reflects our active involvement and concern with the world-wide tokamak program. Since equilibrium and transport are by no means the only theoretical plasma physics problems affecting fusion devices we continue substantial efforts in wave propagation and heating, particle simulation of plasmas, stability theory, enhancement of numerical algorithms, and general plasma physics. We are attempting to develop effective numerical schemes for the Boltzmann equation, adaptive grid methods for MHD, and particle simulation of boundary and antenna effects. Many of these topics reflect our continuing concern to maintain a modest effort in the development of theoretical models and tools for problems of real significance to fusion, but not necessarily of immediate highest priority. We select problems which we expect to become extremely important in the future. Our space plasma physics activities, funded by agencies other than DOE, transfers knowledge learned in fusion plasma physics to another area and conversely stimulates work also relevant to fusion problems

  4. Electron plasma waves and plasma resonances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franklin, R N; Braithwaite, N St J

    2009-01-01

    In 1929 Tonks and Langmuir predicted of the existence of electron plasma waves in an infinite, uniform plasma. The more realistic laboratory environment of non-uniform and bounded plasmas frustrated early experiments. Meanwhile Landau predicted that electron plasma waves in a uniform collisionless plasma would appear to be damped. Subsequent experimental work verified this and revealed the curious phenomenon of plasma wave echoes. Electron plasma wave theory, extended to finite plasmas, has been confirmed by various experiments. Nonlinear phenomena, such as particle trapping, emerge at large amplitude. The use of electron plasma waves to determine electron density and electron temperature has not proved as convenient as other methods.

  5. ''Dusty plasmas''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsytovich, V.N.; Bingham, R.; Angelis, U. de

    1989-09-01

    The field of ''dusty plasmas'' promises to be a very rewarding topic of research for the next decade or so, not only from the academic point of view where the emphasis is on developing the theory of the often complex collective and non-linear processes, but also from the point of view of applications in astrophysics, space physics, environmental and energy research. In this ''comment'' we should like to sketch the current development of this fast growing and potentially very important research area. We will discuss the new features of ''dusty'' plasmas in the most general terms and then briefly mention some successful applications and effects which have already been examined. (author)

  6. Plasma physics and engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Fridman, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    Part I: Fundamentals of Plasma Physics and Plasma ChemistryPlasma in Nature, in the Laboratory, and in IndustryOccurrence of Plasma: Natural and Man MadeGas DischargesPlasma Applications, Plasmas in IndustryPlasma Applications for Environmental ControlPlasma Applications in Energy ConversionPlasma Application for Material ProcessingBreakthrough Plasma Applications in Modern TechnologyElementary Processes of Charged Species in PlasmaElementary Charged Particles in Plasma and Their Elastic and Inelastic CollisionsIonization ProcessesMechanisms of Electron Losses: The Electron-Ion RecombinationEl

  7. Characterization and extraction of gold contained in foundry industrial wastes; Caracterizacion y extraccion de oro contenido en matrices de desechos industriales de fundicion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vite T, J; Vite T, M; Diaz C, A; Carreno de Leon, C [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Depto. de Estudios del Ambiente, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    1999-07-01

    Gold was characterized and leached in foundry sands. These wastes are product among others of the automotive industry where they are used as molds material which are contaminated by diverse metals during the foundry. To fulfil the leaching process four coupled thermostat columns were used. To characterize the solid it was used the X-ray diffraction technique. For the qualitative analysis it was used the Activation analysis technique. Finally, for the study of liquors was used the Plasma diffraction spectroscopy (Icp-As) technique. The obtained results show that the process which was used the thermostat columns was more efficient, than the methods traditionally recommended. (Author)

  8. Plasma chromograninx

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goetze, Jens P; Hilsted, Linda M; Rehfeld, Jens F

    2014-01-01

    Cardiovascular risk assessment remains difficult in elderly patients. We examined whether chromogranin A (CgA) measurement in plasma may be valuable in assessing risk of death in elderly patients with symptoms of heart failure in a primary care setting. A total of 470 patients (mean age 73 years...

  9. Burning plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furth, H.P.; Goldston, R.J.; Zweben, S.J.

    1990-10-01

    The fraction of fusion-reaction energy that is released in energetic charged ions, such as the alpha particles of the D-T reaction, can be thermalized within the reacting plasma and used to maintain its temperature. This mechanism facilitates the achievement of very high energy-multiplication factors Q, but also raises a number of new issues of confinement physics. To ensure satisfactory reaction operation, three areas of energetic-ion interaction need to be addressed: single-ion transport in imperfectly symmetric magnetic fields or turbulent background plasmas; energetic-ion-driven (or stabilized) collective phenomena; and fusion-heat-driven collective phenomena. The first of these topics is already being explored in a number of tokamak experiments, and the second will begin to be addressed in the D-T-burning phase of TFTR and JET. Exploration of the third topic calls for high-Q operation, which is a goal of proposed next-generation plasma-burning projects. Planning for future experiments must take into consideration the full range of plasma-physics and engineering R ampersand D areas that need to be addressed on the way to a fusion power demonstration

  10. Magnetoresistive waves in plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Felber, F.S.; Hunter, R.O. Jr.; Pereira, N.R.; Tajima, T.

    1982-01-01

    The self-generated magnetic field of a current diffusing into a plasma between conductors can magnetically insulate the plasma. Propagation of magnetoresistive waves in plasmas is analyzed. Applications to plasma opening switches are discussed

  11. Prototype study of characterization of the impact that produces the diffuser of an industrial discharge into the sea water; Estudio prototipo de caracterizacion del impacto que produce el difusor de una descarga industrial sobre el medio marino

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortiz Gallarza, S. M.; Gil Zurita, A.; Garcia Hernandez, R.; Vergara Mendez, S.; Garcia Leal, M. L. [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2000-09-01

    impact. [Spanish] Para establecer limites maximos permisibles de contaminantes descargados en el mar por vertimientos antropogenicos, las autoridades involucradas en la proteccion y reglamentacion ambiental han fijado caracteristicas particulares de descarga a cada empresa. Ademas de cuidar que no se excedan los niveles establecidos, debe evaluarse el efecto de estas sustancias sobre el medio. En este contexto, se realizan estudios interdisciplinarios integrales de caracterizacion del impacto en el medio marino a causa de las industrias. Una de ellas, la cual vierte al litoral noroeste del golfo de Mexico mediante un difusor submarino, solicito un primer estudio de este genero. En este estudio prototipo se efectuaron estimaciones fisicas, quimicas, biologicas y geologicas en una red de 49 estaciones en seis transectos posicionados a bordo de una embarcacion y con teodolitos desde la costa a cinco niveles (superficie, 4, 8, 12 y 16 m de profundidad) y durante lluvias, secas y nortes. Se determinaron metales pesados en agua, sedimentos, organismos y muestras combinadas de la descarga. Se relacionaron mediciones continuas de corrientes, salinidad y temperatura en las boquillas del difusor a partir de registros de dos corrientimetros S4 InterOcean. Con vuelos en helicopteros se registraron las variaciones de desplazamiento de la pluma de contaminantes en diversas condiciones climaticas. Se adquirieron imagenes del satelite LANDSAT TM para obtener informacion de diferentes regiones del espectro electromagnetico y para corroborar observaciones sobre el comportamiento de la pluma de descarga. Ademas de los metodos convencionales para graficacion y manejo de la informacion, se empleo visualizacion tridimensional, la cual permitio interpretar patrones estacionales y de difusion. Por los excelentes resultados obtenidos con esta metodologia, se presenta a la consideracion de los especialistas este estudio como un prototipo para la determinacion de impacto en ambientes marinos

  12. Plasma physics

    CERN Document Server

    Cairns, R A

    1985-01-01

    This book is intended as an introduction to plasma physics at a level suitable for advanced undergraduates or beginning postgraduate students in physics, applied mathematics or astrophysics. The main prerequisite is a knowledge of electromagnetism and of the associated mathematics of vector calculus. SI units are used throughout. There is still a tendency amongst some plasma physics researchers to· cling to C.g.S. units, but it is the author's view that universal adoption of SI units, which have been the internationally agreed standard since 1960, is to be encouraged. After a short introductory chapter, the basic properties of a plasma con­ cerning particle orbits, fluid theory, Coulomb collisions and waves are set out in Chapters 2-5, with illustrations drawn from problems in nuclear fusion research and space physics. The emphasis is on the essential physics involved and (he theoretical and mathematical approach has been kept as simple and intuitive as possible. An attempt has been made to draw attention t...

  13. Plasma shutdown device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosogane, Nobuyuki; Nakayama, Takahide.

    1985-01-01

    Purpose: To prevent concentration of plasma currents to the plasma center upon plasma shutdown in a torus type thermonuclear device by the injection of fuels to the plasma center thereby prevent plasma disruption at the plasma center. Constitution: The plasma shutdown device comprises a plasma current measuring device that measures the current distribution of plasmas confined within a vacuum vessel and outputs a control signal for cooling the plasma center when the plasma currents concentrate to the plasma center and a fuel supply device that supplies fuels to the plasma center for cooling the center. The fuels are injected in the form of pellets into the plasmas. The direction and the velocity of the injection are set such that the pellets are ionized at the center of the plasmas. (Horiuchi, T.)

  14. Terapia regenerativa con plasma rico en plaquetas en pacientes con quemaduras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del Carmen Franco Mora

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio comparativo, longitudinal y prospectivo de 60 adultos con quemaduras profundas, atendidos en el Hospital General docente "Dr. Juan Bruno Zayas Alfonso" de Santiago de Cuba, desde febrero de 2013 hasta igual mes de 2014, para evaluar la efectividad de la terapia regenerativa con plasma rico en plaquetas para la cicatrización de estas lesiones. La muestra fue dividida en 2 grupos de 30 integrantes cada uno: a los del primero se les aplicó plasma rico en plaquetas y a los del segundo sulfadiazina de plata. Se utilizaron las frecuencias absolutas y el porcentaje como medidas de resumen para variables cualitativos, así como la media aritmética y la desviación estándar para las cuantitativas. Con el proceder aplicado la cicatrización se completó en un tiempo menor, de manera que se demostró la efectividad de esta alternativa terapéutica en relación con el tratamiento convencional

  15. Mechanical and trybological characterization of ceramic materials obtained of mine solid wastes; Caracterizacion mecanica y tribologica de materiales ceramicos obtenidos de residuos solidos mineros

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soto T, J.L

    2003-07-01

    A discussion of the physical, mechanical and tribological characterization of the ceramics Jaar, Jaca and Vijaar is presented in this work. They have been obtained from the industrial residuals, coming from metals and sand of the mining industry in Pachuca Hidalgo, Mexico. The methodology followed for the obtention and characterization of these ceramics consists on eliminating the cyanides from the tailings through columns coupled with a system controlled with thermostats. Then, the chemical composition is analysed with spectrometry emission of plasma and scanning electronic microscopy. Then the ceramics are produced. The base material is agglutinated with clay or kaolin. For this purpose, it was used a sintering processes and isothermal compacting in hot condition. Finally, the physical, chemical, mechanical and tribological properties of these new products are determined. Carbon, oxygen, sodium, magnesium, aluminium, manganese, silicon, potassium, phosphor, calcium, titanium, iron, molybdenum, silver and gold are in the chemical composition or ceramic analysed. Also these are heterogeneous mixture of clay and kaolin. The cyanide was eliminated. The results show that Vijaar has better wear resistances to the waste; this was demonstrated in tribology tests. They were not perforated with the abrasive particles. Also, they have high hardness and they can to support more loads in compression than Jaar and the Jaca. Consequently, they are less fragile and, therefore, they can tolerate bending stresses and bigger impact loading. (Author)

  16. Validación de un método analítico para la determinación cuantitativa de parabenos en el gel de hidróxido de aluminio Validation of an analytical method for the quantitative determination of parabens in aluminum hydroxide gel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Benítez Hechavarría

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó la valoración prospectiva de un método desarrollado para la cuantificación de metil y de propil parabeno en el gel de hidróxido de aluminio mediante cromatografía líquida de alta resolución en fase reversa, con columna RP18 (25* 0,4 cm y detector UV-Visible a 254 nm. Se evaluaron los parámetros especificidad, linealidad, precisión, exactitud, y adecuación cromatográfica. Los resultados obtenidos mostraron que el método cumple con las especificaciones establecidas para cada parámetro evaluado, lo cual indicó que es un método rápido, seguro y confiable para la determinación cuantitativa de los parabenos en este gelThe prospective assessment of a method developed for the quantification of methyl/propyl paraben in aluminum hydroxide gel by reverse-stage high resolution liquid chromatography on RP18 column (25*0.4 cm, and with UV detector visible at 254 nm, was made. The specificity, lineality, accuracy, exactness and chromatographic adequacy were evaluated The results obtained showed that the method meets the specifications established for each evaluated parameter, which indicates that it is a rapid, safe and reliable method for the quantitative determination of the parabens in this gel

  17. Plasma focus breeder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikuta, Kazunari.

    1981-09-01

    Instead of using linear accelerators, it is possible to breed fissile fuels with the help of high current plasma focus device. A mechanism of accelerating proton beam in plasma focus device to high energy would be a change of inductance in plasma column because of rapid growth of plasma instability. A possible scheme of plasma focus breeder is also proposed. (author)

  18. Plasma Free Metanephrines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Links Patient Resources For Health Professionals Subscribe Search Plasma Free Metanephrines Send Us Your Feedback Choose Topic ... Images View Sources Ask Us Also Known As Plasma Metanephrines Formal Name Fractionated Plasma Free Metanephrines (Metanephrine ...

  19. Improved plasma accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, D. Y.

    1971-01-01

    Converging, coaxial accelerator electrode configuration operates in vacuum as plasma gun. Plasma forms by periodic injections of high pressure gas that is ionized by electrical discharges. Deflagration mode of discharge provides acceleration, and converging contours of plasma gun provide focusing.

  20. ECR plasma photographs as a plasma diagnostic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Racz, R; Biri, S; Palinkas, J [Institute of Nuclear Research (ATOMKI), H-4026 Debrecen, Bem ter 18/c (Hungary)

    2011-04-15

    Low, medium or highly charged ions delivered by electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion sources all are produced in the ECR plasma. In order to study such plasmas, high-resolution visible light plasma photographs were taken at the ATOMKI ECR ion source. An 8 megapixel digital camera was used to photograph plasmas made from He, methane, N, O, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe gases and from their mixtures. The analysis of the photo series gave many qualitative and some valuable physical information on the nature of ECR plasmas. A comparison was made between the plasma photos and computer simulations, and conclusions were drawn regarding the cold electron component of the plasma. The warm electron component of similar simulation was compared with x-ray photos emitted by plasma ions. While the simulations are in good agreement with the photos, a significant difference was found between the spatial distribution of the cold and warm electrons.

  1. Plasma physics and fusion plasma electrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Bers, Abraham

    2016-01-01

    Plasma is a ubiquitous state of matter at high temperatures. The electrodynamics of plasmas encompasses a large number of applications, from understanding plasmas in space and the stars, to their use in processing semiconductors, and their role in controlled energy generation by nuclear fusion. This book covers collective and single particle dynamics of plasmas for fully ionized as well as partially ionized plasmas. Many aspects of plasma physics in current fusion energy generation research are addressed both in magnetic and inertial confinement plasmas. Linear and nonlinear dynamics in hydrodynamic and kinetic descriptions are offered, making both simple and complex aspects of the subject available in nearly every chapter. The approach of dividing the basic aspects of plasma physics as "linear, hydrodynamic descriptions" to be covered first because they are "easier", and postponing the "nonlinear and kinetic descriptions" for later because they are "difficult" is abandoned in this book. For teaching purpose...

  2. Plasma waves in an inhomogeneous cylindrical plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pesic, S.S.

    1976-01-01

    The complete dispersion equation governing small amplitude plasma waves propagating in an inhomogeneous cylindrical plasma confined by a helical magnetic field is solved numerically. The efficiency of the wave energy thermalization in the lower hybrid frequency range is studied

  3. Quiescent plasma machine for plasma investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, J.L.

    1993-01-01

    A large volume quiescent plasma device is being developed at INPE to study Langmuir waves and turbulence generated by electron beams (E b ≤ 500 e V) interacting with plasma. This new quiescent plasma machine was designed to allow the performance of several experiments specially those related with laboratory space plasma simulation experiments. Current-driven instabilities and related phenomena such as double-layers along magnetic field lines are some of the many experiments planned for this machine. (author)

  4. Plasma basic concepts and nitrogen containing plasmas

    OpenAIRE

    Sanz Lluch, M. del Mar; Tanarro, Isabel

    2007-01-01

    Basic concepts related to plasmas are described as well as the typical characterization methods currently available. A brief overview about some plasma applications is given, but focusing on plasma used in material processing mainly devoted to the microelectronics industry. Finally, specific applications related to plasma-assisted MBE for nitrides and dilute nitrides are given, showing some interesting research works performed to that purpose, and giving the usual characterization techniques ...

  5. Lectures in plasma diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutchinson, I.H.

    1990-06-01

    This paper discusses the following topics on plasma diagnostics: Electric probes in flowing and magnetized plasmas; Electron cyclotron emission absorption; Magnetic diagnostics; Spectroscopy; and Thomson Scattering

  6. Plasma electron losses in a multidipole plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haworth, M.D.

    1983-01-01

    The magnitude of the plasma electron cusp losses in a multidipole plasma device is determined by using a plasma electron heating technique. This method consists of suddenly generating approximately monoenergetic test electrons inside the multidipole plasma, which is in a steady-state equilibrium prior to the introduction of the test electrons. The Coulomb collisions between the test electrons and the plasma electrons result in heating the plasma electrons. The experimentally measured time evolution of the plasma electron temperature is compared with that predicted by a kinetic-theory model which calculates the time evolution of the test electron and the plasma electron distribution functions. The analytical solution of the plasma electron heating rate when the test electrons are first introduced into the plasma predicts that there is no dependence on ion mass. Experimental results in helium, neon, argon, and krypton multidipole plasmas confirm this prediction. The time-evolved solution of the kinetic equations must be solved numerically, and these results (when coupled with the experimental heating results) show that the plasma electron cusp-loss width is on the order of an electron Larmor radius

  7. Physics of plasma etching and plasma deposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schram, D.C.; Hoog, de F.J.; Bisschops, T.J.; Kroesen, G.M.W.; Howorka, F.; Lindinger, W.; Maerk, T.D.

    1986-01-01

    The kinetics and mechanism of the title processes are discussed on the basis of a model in which the plasma-surface system is subdivided into 5 regions: (I) plasma prodn., (II) plasma flow plus radicals, (III) gas adsorbed layer, (IV) modified surface, and (V) undisturbed solid (or liq.) state.

  8. Fusion plasma physics

    CERN Document Server

    Stacey, Weston M

    2012-01-01

    This revised and enlarged second edition of the popular textbook and reference contains comprehensive treatments of both the established foundations of magnetic fusion plasma physics and of the newly developing areas of active research. It concludes with a look ahead to fusion power reactors of the future. The well-established topics of fusion plasma physics -- basic plasma phenomena, Coulomb scattering, drifts of charged particles in magnetic and electric fields, plasma confinement by magnetic fields, kinetic and fluid collective plasma theories, plasma equilibria and flux surface geometry, plasma waves and instabilities, classical and neoclassical transport, plasma-materials interactions, radiation, etc. -- are fully developed from first principles through to the computational models employed in modern plasma physics. The new and emerging topics of fusion plasma physics research -- fluctuation-driven plasma transport and gyrokinetic/gyrofluid computational methodology, the physics of the divertor, neutral ...

  9. Oscillatory processes in plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallin, E.

    1980-01-01

    The oscillatory process play an important part in plasma evolution, In hot plasma in particular, the interactions between the oscillation modes are preponderant in relation to the binary collisions between particles. The nonlineary interactions between collective plasma oscillations can generate, in this case, a non-balanced steady state of plasma (steady turbulence). The paper elucidates some aspects of the oscillatory phenomena which contribute to the plasma state evolution, especially of hot plasma. A major part of the paper is devoted to the study of parametric instabilities in plasma and their role in increasing the temperature of plasma components (electrons, ions). Both parametric instabilities in plasma in the vicinity of thermodynamic balance and parametric processes is steady turbulent plasma are analysed - in relation to additional heating of hot plasma. An important result of the thesis refers to the drowing-up of a non-lineary interaction model between the oscillation modes in turbulent plasma, being responsible for the electromagnetic radiation in hot plasma. On the basis of the model suggested in the paper the existence of a low frequency radiative mode in hot plasma in a turbulent state, can be demonstrated. Its frequency could be even lower than plasma frequency in the field of long waves be even lower than plasma frequency in the field of long waves. Such a radiative mode was detected experimentally in focussed plasma installations. (author)

  10. Dust-Plasma Interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenberg, Marelene

    2005-01-01

    Our theoretical research on dust-plasma interactions has concentrated on three main areas: (a)studies of grain charging and applications; (b) waves and instabilities in weakly correlated dusty plasma with applications to space and laboratory plasmas; (c) waves in strongly coupled dusty plasmas.

  11. Communication through plasma sheaths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korotkevich, A. O.; Newell, A. C.; Zakharov, V. E.

    2007-01-01

    We wish to transmit messages to and from a hypersonic vehicle around which a plasma sheath has formed. For long distance transmission, the signal carrying these messages must be necessarily low frequency, typically 2 GHz, to which the plasma sheath is opaque. The idea is to use the plasma properties to make the plasma sheath appear transparent

  12. Plasma Turbulence General Topics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kadomtsev, B. B. [Nuclear Energy Institute, Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Moscow, USSR (Russian Federation)

    1965-06-15

    It is known that under experimental conditions plasma often shows chaotic motion. Such motion, when many degrees of freedom are excited to levels considerably above the thermal level, will be called turbulent. The properties of turbulent plasma in many respects differ from the properties of laminar plasma. It can be said that the appearance of various anomalies in plasma behaviour indicates the presence of turbulence in plasma. In order to verify directly the presence of turbulent motion in plasma we must, however, measure the fluctuation of some microscopic parameters in plasma.

  13. Introduction to plasma dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Morozov, A I

    2013-01-01

    As the twenty-first century progresses, plasma technology will play an increasing role in our lives, providing new sources of energy, ion-plasma processing of materials, wave electromagnetic radiation sources, space plasma thrusters, and more. Studies of the plasma state of matter not only accelerate technological developments but also improve the understanding of natural phenomena. Beginning with an introduction to the characteristics and types of plasmas, Introduction to Plasma Dynamics covers the basic models of classical diffuse plasmas used to describe such phenomena as linear and shock w

  14. Collisionless plasmas in astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Belmont, Gerard; Mottez, Fabrice; Pantellini, Filippo; Pelletier, Guy

    2013-01-01

    Collisionless Plasmas in Astrophysics examines the unique properties of media without collisions in plasma physics. Experts in this field, the authors present the first book to concentrate on collisionless conditions in plasmas, whether close or not to thermal equilibrium. Filling a void in scientific literature, Collisionless Plasmas in Astrophysics explains the possibilities of modeling such plasmas, using a fluid or a kinetic framework. It also addresses common misconceptions that even professionals may possess, on phenomena such as "collisionless (Landau) damping". Abundant illustrations

  15. Experimental plasma physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dreicer, H.; Banton, M.E.; Ingraham, J.C.; Wittman, F.; Wright, B.L.

    1976-01-01

    The Experimental Plasma Physics group's main efforts continue to be directed toward the understanding of the mechanisms of electromagnetic energy absorption in a plasma, and the resultant plasma heating and energy transport. The high-frequency spectrum of plasma waves parametrically excited by the microwave signal at high powers has been measured. The absorption of a small test microwave signal in a plasma made parametrically unstable by a separate high-power driver microwave signal was also studied

  16. Examples of plasma horizons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanni, R.S.

    1975-01-01

    The concept of the plasma horizon, defined as the boundary of the region in which an infinitely thin plasma can be supported against Coulomb attraction by a magnetic field, shows that the argument of selective accretion does not rule out the existence of charged black holes embedded in a conducting plasma. A detailed account of the covariant definition of plasma horizon is given and some examples of plasma horizons are presented. 7 references

  17. Medición cuantitativa de la velocidad del habla

    OpenAIRE

    Wainschenker, Rubén; Doorn, Jorge; Castro, Marcela

    2002-01-01

    La magnitud velocidad del habla no tiene una definición precisa, si bien es ampliamente utilizada tanto en actividades diarias como en tareas específicas como lo son la dactilografía, estenografía y taquigrafía, entre otras. Esta noción resulta fundamental en el contexto del estudio del comportamiento de los alófonos de un idioma, cuando se intenta realizar síntesis del habla con algún grado de control sobre la velocidad del sonido producido. No existe información precisa para el castellano y...

  18. El embarazo en adolescentes: una lectura social en clave cuantitativa

    OpenAIRE

    Mauricio Rojas Betancur; Raquel Méndez Villamizar

    2016-01-01

    El embarazo en adolescentes es construido hoy como un problema de salud pública y un fenómeno social crítico por las implicaciones individuales y colectivas en el significado otorgado al embarazo a temprana edad. La frontera biológica de edad que define contemporáneamente la adolescencia como etapa del ciclo vital y al adolescente como un ser humano en un estado específico de crecimiento y desarrollo, también representa un reto permanente para su distinción como tal. En este artículo se reali...

  19. El embarazo en adolescentes: una lectura social en clave cuantitativa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Rojas Betancur

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available El embarazo en adolescentes es construido hoy como un problema de salud pública y un fenómeno social crítico por las implicaciones individuales y colectivas en el significado otorgado al embarazo a temprana edad. La frontera biológica de edad que define contemporáneamente la adolescencia como etapa del ciclo vital y al adolescente como un ser humano en un estado específico de crecimiento y desarrollo, también representa un reto permanente para su distinción como tal. En este artículo se realiza un análisis de las tasas de embarazo en adolescentes tomando datos internacionales, nacionales y regionales para contextualizar una investigación específica para el Área Metropolitana de Bucaramanga. El análisis realizado permite establecer la disparidad de mediciones entre diferentes fuentes de consulta y la escasa información disponible en la ciudad. Se constata que dichos indicadores poco informan sobre esta realidad (puesto que el embarazo tiende a normalizarse como interacción social en un entramado de situaciones que viven los adolescentes, alrededor de la educación, la salud, la situación económica, familiar y afectiva

  20. Elements of plasma technology

    CERN Document Server

    Wong, Chiow San

    2016-01-01

    This book presents some fundamental aspects of plasma technology that are important for beginners interested to start research in the area of plasma technology . These include the properties of plasma, methods of plasma generation and basic plasma diagnostic techniques. It also discusses several low cost plasma devices, including pulsed plasma sources such as plasma focus, pulsed capillary discharge, vacuum spark and exploding wire; as well as low temperature plasmas such as glow discharge and dielectric barrier discharge which the authors believe may have potential applications in industry. The treatments are experimental rather than theoretical, although some theoretical background is provided where appropriate. The principles of operation of these devices are also reviewed and discussed.

  1. TFTR plasma feedback systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Efthimion, P.; Hawryluk, R.J.; Hojsak, W.; Marsala, R.J.; Mueller, D.; Rauch, W.; Tait, G.D.; Taylor, G.; Thompson, M.

    1985-01-01

    The Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor employs feedback control systems for four plasma parameters, i.e. for plasma current, for plasma major radius, for plasma vertical position, and for plasma density. The plasma current is controlled by adjusting the rate of change of current in the Ohmic Heating (OH) coil system. Plasma current is continuously sensed by a Rogowski coil and its associated electronics; the error between it and a preprogrammed reference plasma current history is operated upon by a ''proportional-plusintegral-plus-derivative'' (PID) control algorithm and combined with various feedforward terms, to generate compensating commands to the phase-controlled thyristor rectifiers which drive current through the OH coils. The plasma position is controlled by adjusting the currents in Equilibrium Field and Horizontal Field coil systems, which respectively determine the vertical and radial external magnetic fields producing J X B forces on the plasma current. The plasma major radius position and vertical position, sensed by ''B /sub theta/ '' and ''B /sub rho/ '' magnetic flux pickup coils with their associated electronics, are controlled toward preprogrammed reference histories by allowing PID and feedforward control algorithms to generate commands to the EF and HF coil power supplies. Plasma density is controlled by adjusting the amount of gas injected into the vacuum vessel. Time-varying gains are used to combine lineaveraged plasma density measurements from a microwave interferometer plasma diagnostic system with vacuum vessel pressure measurements from ion gauges, with various other measurements, and with preprogrammed reference histories, to determine commands to piezoelectric gas injection valves

  2. International conference on plasma physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silin, V.P.; Sitenko, A.G.

    1985-01-01

    A brief report on the 6th International conference on plasma physics and on the 6th International Congress on plasma waves and plasma instabilities, which have taken place in summer 1984 in Losanne, is presented. Main items of the conference are enlightened, such as the general theory of a plasma, laboratory plasma, thermonuclear plasma, cosmic plasma and astrophysics

  3. Plasmas and fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    Plasma and fluid physics includes the fields of fusion research and space investigation. This book discusses the most important advances in these areas over the past decade and recommends a stronger commitment to basic research in plasma and fluid physics. The book recommends that plasma and fluid physics be included in physics curriculums because of their increasing importance in energy and defense. The book also lists recent accomplishments in the fields of general plasma physics, fusion plasma confinement and heating, space and astrophysical plasmas, and fluid physics and lists research opportunities in these areas. A funding summary explains how research monies are allocated and suggests ways to improve their effectiveness

  4. Historia natural cuantitativa de una relación parásito-hospedero: el sistema Tristerix-cactáceas en Chile semiárido Quantitative natural history of a host-parasite relationship: the Tristerix-cactus system in semiarid Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RODRIGO MEDEL

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Presentamos información cuantitativa de la historia natural de la relación parásito-hospedero constituida por el muérdago holoparásito Tristerix aphyllus (Loranthaceae y sus hospederos cactáceas. Más específicamente, indagamos en los determinantes históricos y biogeográficos de la interacción y cuantificamos la autoecología de la biología floral, polinización, dispersión y parasitismo en este sistema. El impacto del parasitismo sobre la evolución de sistemas defensivos en las cactáceas hospederas es considerado tanto a nivel intraespecífico como interespecífico, tomando en cuenta el potencial para selección mediada por parásitos y la estructura geográfica de la interacción. Finalmente, sugerimos futuras avenidas de investigación en este sistema que incluyen los tópicos de: (i evolución de la virulencia, (ii estructuración de la interacción en mosaico geográfico y, (iii pruebas históricas de adaptación. Estos aspectos permitirán adquirir un mayor conocimiento de la sutileza ecológica y de la evolución de esta especial interacción en los sistemas naturales de Chile semiáridoWe present quantitative information on the natural history of a host-parasite interaction that consists on the holoparasitic mistletoe Tristerix aphyllus (Loranthaceae and its cacti host species. More specifically, we inquire into the historical and biogeographical setting of the relationship, and quantify the autoecology of the floral biology, pollination, seed dispersal, and parasitism of the system. The impact of the mistletoe on the evolution of defense systems is evaluated both at intraspecific and interspecific levels through consideration of the potential for parasite-mediated selection and the geographical structure of the host-parasite interaction. Finally, we suggest prospective lines of research which include aspects related to: (i the evolution of virulence, (ii the geographic structure of the interaction, and (iii the historical

  5. Special issue: Plasma Conversion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nozaki, T.; Bogaerts, A.; Tu, X.; van de Sanden, M. C. M.

    2017-01-01

    With growing concern of energy and environmental issues, the combination of plasma and heterogeneous catalysts receives special attention in greenhouse gas conversion, nitrogen fixation and hydrocarbon chemistry. Plasma gas conversion driven by renewable electricity is particularly important for the

  6. Neutrino beam plasma instability

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    positron or electron–proton plasma in the context of early universe, stars and supernova ... proper. Of course, in their later work on kinetic theory (KT) [5] of neutrino plasma inter- .... for electron also with additional electric potential term.

  7. Plasma kinetic theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elliott, J.A.

    1993-01-01

    Plasma kinetic theory is discussed and a comparison made with the kinetic theory of gases. The plasma is described by a modified set of fluid equations and it is shown how these fluid equations can be derived. (UK)

  8. Physics of laser plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubenchik, A.; Witkowski, S.

    1991-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive review of laser fusion plasma physics and contains the most up-to-date information on high density plasma physics and radiation transport, useful for astrophysicists and high density physicists

  9. Plasma heating in collisionless plasma at low plasma density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wulf, H.O.

    1977-01-01

    The high frequency heating of a collisionless, fully ionized low density plasma is investigated in the range: 2ωc 2 2 under pumping frequencies. A pulsed 1 MHz transmitter excites a fast standing, magneto-acoustical wave in the plasma, via the high frequency magnetic field of a Stix solenoid. The available modulation degrees are between 0.7 and 7.0%. As power consumption measurements show, there appears at all investigated pumping frequencies an effective energy transfer to the plasma that cannot be explained with the classical MHD models. Measurements with electrostatic probes and further with a miniature counter-field spectrometer yield an electron and ion temperature gain of two to three factors and 15-18, compared to the corresponding values in the initial plasma. (orig./HT) [de

  10. Introduction to Plasma Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurnett, Donald A.; Bhattacharjee, Amitava

    2017-03-01

    Preface; 1. Introduction; 2. Characteristic parameters of a plasma; 3. Single particle motions; 4. Waves in a cold plasma; 5. Kinetic theory and the moment equations; 6. Magnetohydrodynamics; 7. MHD equilibria and stability; 8. Discontinuities and shock waves; 9. Electrostatic waves in a hot unmagnetized plasma; 10. Waves in a hot magnetized plasma; 11. Nonlinear effects; 12. Collisional processes; Appendix A. Symbols; Appendix B. Useful trigonometric identities; Appendix C. Vector differential operators; Appendix D. Vector calculus identities; Index.

  11. Plasma-wall interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reichle, R.

    2004-01-01

    This document gathers the 43 slides presented in the framework of the week long lecture 'hot plasmas 2004' and dedicated to plasma-wall interaction in a tokamak. This document is divided into 4 parts: 1) thermal load on the wall, power extraction and particle recovery, 2) basic edge plasma physics, 3) processes that drive the plasma-solid interaction, and 4) material conditioning (surface treatment...) for ITER

  12. Plasma physics an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Fitzpatrick, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Plasma Physics: An Introduction is based on a series of university course lectures by a leading name in the field, and thoroughly covers the physics of the fourth state of matter. This book looks at non-relativistic, fully ionized, nondegenerate, quasi-neutral, and weakly coupled plasma. Intended for the student market, the text provides a concise and cohesive introduction to plasma physics theory, and offers a solid foundation for students wishing to take higher level courses in plasma physics.

  13. Application of plasma focus device to compression of toroidal plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikuta, Kazunari

    1980-01-01

    A new concept of compressing a toroidal plasma using a plasma focus device is considered. Maximum compression ratio of toroidal plasma is determined merely by the initial density ratio of the toroidal plasma to a sheet plasma in a focus device because of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability. An initiation senario of plasma-linear is also proposed with a possible application of this concepts to the creation of a burning plasma in reversed field configurations, i.e., burning plasma vortex. (author)

  14. Plasma membrane ATPases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palmgren, Michael Broberg; Bækgaard, Lone; Lopez Marques, Rosa Laura

    2011-01-01

    The plasma membrane separates the cellular contents from the surrounding environment. Nutrients must enter through the plasma membrane in order to reach the cell interior, and toxic metabolites and several ions leave the cell by traveling across the same barrier. Biological pumps in the plasma me...

  15. Plasma in wound healing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tipa, R.S.

    2012-01-01

    Plasmas, due to their electrical and chemical properties, release in the invironment a unique cocktail of charged species, energetic photons and active radicals. Plasmas have a miriad of applications. To mention just a few, plasmas are being used in the semiconductors industry, atomic layer

  16. Plasma in astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulsrud, R.M.

    1982-10-01

    Two examples of plasma phenomena of importance to astrophysics are reviewed. These are examples where astrophysical understanding hinges on further progress in plasma physics understanding. The two examples are magnetic reconnection and the collisionless interaction between a population of energetic particles and a cooler gas or plasma, in particular the interaction between galactic cosmic rays and the interstellar medium

  17. Plasma processing and chemistry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schram, D.C.; Mullen, van der J.J.A.M.; Sanden, van de M.C.M.

    1994-01-01

    The growing field of applications of plasma as deposition, etching, surface modification and chemical conversion has stimulated a renewed interest in plasma science in the atomic physical chemistry regime. The necessity to optimize the various plasma processing techniques in terms of rates, and

  18. Some aspects of plasma thermodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorgoraki, V.I.

    1986-01-01

    The objective reasons which have inhibited the development of a plasma-thermodynamics theory are discussed and the authors formulate the fundamental principles which can be the basis of a common plasma-thermodynamics theory. Two kinds of thermodynamic equilibrium plasmas are discussed, an isothermal plasma and a nonisothermal plasma. An isothermal plasma is a high-temperature plasma; the Saha-Eggert equation describes its behavior. A nonisothermal plasma is a low-temperature plasma, and the reactions taking place therein are purely plasma-chemical. The ionization equilibrium and the composition of such a plasma can be found with the aid of the equations presented in this paper

  19. Space plasma simulation chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    Scientific results of experiments and tests of instruments performed with the Space Plasma Simulation Chamber and its facility are reviewed in the following six categories. 1. Tests of instruments on board rockets, satellites and balloons. 2. Plasma wave experiments. 3. Measurements of plasma particles. 4. Optical measurements. 5. Plasma production. 6. Space plasms simulations. This facility has been managed under Laboratory Space Plasma Comittee since 1969 and used by scientists in cooperative programs with universities and institutes all over country. A list of publications is attached. (author)

  20. Computations in plasma physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, B.I.; Killeen, J.

    1984-01-01

    A review of computer application in plasma physics is presented. Computer contribution to the investigation of magnetic and inertial confinement of a plasma and charged particle beam propagation is described. Typical utilization of computer for simulation and control of laboratory and cosmic experiments with a plasma and for data accumulation in these experiments is considered. Basic computational methods applied in plasma physics are discussed. Future trends of computer utilization in plasma reseaches are considered in terms of an increasing role of microprocessors and high-speed data plotters and the necessity of more powerful computer application

  1. Model of detached plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshikawa, S.; Chance, M.

    1986-07-01

    Recently a tokamak plasma was observed in TFTR that was not limited by a limiter or a divertor. A model is proposed to explain this equilibrium, which is called a detached plasma. The model consists of (1) the core plasma where ohmic heating power is lost by anomalous heat conduction and (2) the shell plasma where the heat from the core plasma is radiated away by the atomic processes of impurity ions. A simple scaling law is proposed to test the validity of this model

  2. Mirror plasma apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moir, R.W.

    1981-01-01

    A mirror plasma apparatus which utilizes shielding by arc discharge to form a blanket plasma and lithium walls to reduce neutron damage to the wall of the apparatus. An embodiment involves a rotating liquid lithium blanket for a tandem mirror plasma apparatus wherein the first wall of the central mirror cell is made of liquid lithium which is spun with angular velocity great enough to keep the liquid lithium against the first material wall, a blanket plasma preventing the lithium vapor from contaminating the plasma

  3. Contemporary plasma physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sodha, M.S.; Tewari, D.P.; Subbarao, D.

    1983-01-01

    The book consists of review articles on some selected contemporary aspects of plasma physics. The selected topics present a panoramic view of contemporary plasma physics and applications to fusion, space and MHD power generation. Basic non-linear plasma theory is also covered. The book is supposed to be useful for M.S./M.Sc. students specialising in plasma physics and for those beginning research work in plasma physics. It will also serve as a valuable reference book for more advanced research workers. (M.G.B.)

  4. ECR Plasma Photos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Racz, R.; Biri, S.; Palinkas, J.

    2009-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. In order to observe and study systematically the plasma of electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion sources (ECRIS) we made a high number of high-resolution visible light plasma photos and movies in the ATOMKI ECRIS Laboratory. This required building the ECR ion source into an open plasma device, temporarily. An 8MP digital camera was used to record photos of plasmas made from He, methane, N, O, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe gases and from their mixtures. The effects of the main external setting parameters (gas pressure, gas composition, magnetic field, microwave power, microwave frequency) were studied to the shape, color and structure of the plasma. The double frequency mode (9+14 GHz) was also realized and photos of this special 'star-in-star' shape plasma were recorded. A study was performed to analyze and understand the color of the ECR plasmas. The analysis of the photo series gave us many qualitative and numerous valuable physical information on the nature of ECR plasmas. To our best knowledge our work is the first systematic study of ECR plasmas in the visible light region. When looking in the plasma chamber of an ECRIS we can see an axial image of the plasma (figure 1) in conformity with experimental setup. Most of the quantitative information was obtained through the summarised values of the Analogue Digital Unit (ADU) of pixels. By decreasing the strength of the magnetic trap we clearly observed that the brightness of the central part of the plasma gradually decreases, i.e. the plasma becomes more and more 'empty'. Figure 2 shows a photo series of ECR plasma at decreasing axial magnetic field. The radial size of the plasma increased because of the ascendant resonant zone. By increasing the power of the injected microwave an optimum (or at least saturation) was found in the brightness of the plasma. We found correlation between the gas dosing rates and plasma intensities. When sweeping the frequency of the microwave in a wide region

  5. Cyclotron waves in plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Lominadze, D G

    2013-01-01

    Cyclotron Waves in Plasma is a four-chapter text that covers the basic physical concepts of the theory of cyclotron waves and cyclotron instabilities, brought about by the existence of steady or alternating plasma currents flowing perpendicular to the magnetic field.This book considers first a wide range of questions associated with the linear theory of cyclotron oscillations in equilibrium plasmas and in electron plasmas in metals and semiconductors. The next chapter deals with the parametric excitation of electron cyclotron oscillations in plasma in an alternating electric field. A chapter f

  6. Introduction to plasma engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roth, J.R.

    1988-01-01

    The author has begun writing a textbook entitled Introduction to Plasma Engineering, which is intended for upper division undergraduates or professionals who are entering the field. This paper features a detailed topical outline of all 20 chapters of the book. The text is organized so that the first five chapters cover plasma physics and basic principles; the next 13 chapters cover the most important engineering applications of plasmas, in order of increasing plasma energy/number density; and two final chapters cover plasma diagnostics and magnetic coil design

  7. Applied plasma physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1979-01-01

    Applied Plasma Physics is a major sub-organizational unit of the Magnetic Fusion Energy (MFE) Program. It includes Fusion Plasma Theory and Experimental Plasma Research. The Fusion Plasma Theory group has the responsibility for developing theoretical-computational models in the general areas of plasma properties, equilibrium, stability, transport, and atomic physics. This group has responsibility for giving guidance to the mirror experimental program. There is a formal division of the group into theory and computational; however, in this report the efforts of the two areas are not separated since many projects have contributions from members of both. Under the Experimental Plasma Research Program we are developing a neutral-beam source, the intense, pulsed ion-neutral source (IPINS), for the generation of a reversed-field configuration on 2XIIB. We are also studying the feasibility of using certain neutron-detection techniques as plasma diagnostics in the next generation of thermonuclear experiments

  8. Plasma polymerization by Softplasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, J.; Wu, Zhenning; Benter, Maike

    2008-01-01

    , external electrode, and electrodeless microwave or high frequency reactors. [3] Softplasma™ is an internal electrode plasma setup powered by low frequenc~ gower supply. It was developed in late 90s for surface treatment of silicone rubber. [ ]- 5] It is a low pressure, low electron density, 3D homogenous......In the late 19th century, the first depositions - known today as plasma polymers, were reported. In the last century, more and more research has been put into plasma polymers. Many different deposition systems have been developed. [1, 2] Shi F. F. broadly classified them into internal electrode...... plasma. In this study, we are presenting the surface modification"pf polymers by plasma polymerization using Softplasma™. Softplasma™ can be used for two major types of polymerization: polymerization of vinyl monomers, where plasma acts as initiator; chemical vapour deposition, where plasma acts...

  9. Plasma engineering: a perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gralnick, S.L.

    1978-01-01

    This review paper will present the authors perspective of the field of Plasma Engineering as it has evolved over the preceding five years. This embrionic discipline has grown in that period of time to the point where it is sufficiently mature to become part of the curriculum, and a speciality within, the discipline of Nuclear Engineering. Plasma Engineering can be distinguished from the underlying science of plasma physics in that in the pursuit of the latter, our goal is the understanding of the fundamental processes governing the behavior of plasmas while the former discipline seeks the embodiment of these concepts in useful devices. Consequent to this goal, the plasma engineer, of necessity, is concerned with the interfaces between a plasma configuration and the device by which it is produced and maintained. These interface problems, often referred to as kitchen physics are multidisciplinary in nature, and their solution requires careful attention to both plasma physics and machine engineering detail

  10. Applied plasma physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1978-01-01

    Applied Plasma Physics is a major sub-organizational unit of the MFE Program. It includes Fusion Plasma Theory and Experimental Plasma Research. The Fusion Plasma Theory group has the responsibility for developing theoretical-computational models in the general areas of plasma properties, equilibrium, stability, transport, and atomic physics. This group has responsibility for giving guidance to the mirror experimental program. There is a formal division of the group into theory and computational; however, in this report the efforts of the two areas are not separated since many projects have contributions from members of both. Under the Experimental Plasma Research Program, we are developing the intense, pulsed neutral-beam source (IPINS) for the generation of a reversed-field configuration on 2XIIB. We are also studying the feasibility of utilizing certain neutron-detection techniques as plasma diagnostics in the next generation of thermonuclear experiments

  11. Metallurgical plasma torches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shapovalov, V.A.; Latash, Yu.V.

    2000-01-01

    The technological equipment for the plasma heating of metals, plasma melting and plasma treatment of the surface is usually developed on the basis of are plasma torches using direct or alternating current. The reasons which partly restrict the industrial application of the plasma torches are the relatively short service life of the electrode (cathode) on which the arc is supported, and the contamination of the treated metal with the products of failure of the electrode. The aim of this work was to determine the reasons for the occurrence of negative phenomena observed in the process of service of plasma torches, and propose suitable approaches to the design of metallurgical plasma torches characterised by a long service life

  12. Plasmas for medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Woedtke, Th.; Reuter, S.; Masur, K.; Weltmann, K.-D.

    2013-09-01

    Plasma medicine is an innovative and emerging field combining plasma physics, life science and clinical medicine. In a more general perspective, medical application of physical plasma can be subdivided into two principal approaches. (i) “Indirect” use of plasma-based or plasma-supplemented techniques to treat surfaces, materials or devices to realize specific qualities for subsequent special medical applications, and (ii) application of physical plasma on or in the human (or animal) body to realize therapeutic effects based on direct interaction of plasma with living tissue. The field of plasma applications for the treatment of medical materials or devices is intensively researched and partially well established for several years. However, plasma medicine in the sense of its actual definition as a new field of research focuses on the use of plasma technology in the treatment of living cells, tissues, and organs. Therefore, the aim of the new research field of plasma medicine is the exploitation of a much more differentiated interaction of specific plasma components with specific structural as well as functional elements or functionalities of living cells. This interaction can possibly lead either to stimulation or inhibition of cellular function and be finally used for therapeutic purposes. During recent years a broad spectrum of different plasma sources with various names dedicated for biomedical applications has been reported. So far, research activities were mainly focused on barrier discharges and plasma jets working at atmospheric pressure. Most efforts to realize plasma application directly on or in the human (or animal) body for medical purposes is concentrated on the broad field of dermatology including wound healing, but also includes cancer treatment, endoscopy, or dentistry. Despite the fact that the field of plasma medicine is very young and until now mostly in an empirical stage of development yet, there are first indicators of its enormous

  13. Plasma sheath in non-Maxwellian plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, Takuo; Horigome, Takashi

    1992-01-01

    Reviewing many theoretical and experimental works on the electron-energy distributions (EEDF) of various plasmas, we point out that many plasmas have EEDF of non-Maxwellian in shape. Therefore, the recent treatment of plasma sheath using the Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution approximation should be improved. To do this, we have adopted Rutcher's standard distribution as a generalized form in place of the traditional Maxwellian, and found that the minimum energy of ions entering the sheath edge (Bohm's criterion) varies largely, and have also shown the variation of Debye length with the shape of EEDF. The length is the most important parameter to proceed with more detailed analysis on plasma-sheaths, and also to control them in the future. (author)

  14. Particle modeling of plasmas computational plasma physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dawson, J.M.

    1991-01-01

    Recently, through the development of supercomputers, a powerful new method for exploring plasmas has emerged; it is computer modeling of plasmas. Such modeling can duplicate many of the complex processes that go on in a plasma and allow scientists to understand what the important processes are. It helps scientists gain an intuition about this complex state of matter. It allows scientists and engineers to explore new ideas on how to use plasma before building costly experiments; it allows them to determine if they are on the right track. It can duplicate the operation of devices and thus reduce the need to build complex and expensive devices for research and development. This is an exciting new endeavor that is in its infancy, but which can play an important role in the scientific and technological competitiveness of the US. There are a wide range of plasma models that are in use. There are particle models, fluid models, hybrid particle fluid models. These can come in many forms, such as explicit models, implicit models, reduced dimensional models, electrostatic models, magnetostatic models, electromagnetic models, and almost an endless variety of other models. Here the author will only discuss particle models. He will give a few examples of the use of such models; these will be taken from work done by the Plasma Modeling Group at UCLA because he is most familiar with work. However, it only gives a small view of the wide range of work being done around the US, or for that matter around the world

  15. Magnetospheric plasma waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shawhan, S.D.

    1977-01-01

    A brief history of plasma wave observations in the Earth's magnetosphere is recounted and a classification of the identified plasma wave phenomena is presented. The existence of plasma waves is discussed in terms of the characteristic frequencies of the plasma, the energetic particle populations and the proposed generation mechanisms. Examples are given for which plasmas waves have provided information about the plasma parameters and particle characteristics once a reasonable theory has been developed. Observational evidence and arguments by analogy to the observed Earth plasma wave processes are used to identify plasma waves that may be significant in other planetary magnetospheres. The similarities between the observed characteristics of the terrestrial kilometric radiation and radio bursts from Jupiter, Saturn and possibly Uranus are stressed. Important scientific problems concerning plasma wave processes in the solar system and beyond are identified and discussed. Models for solar flares, flare star radio outbursts and pulsars include elements which are also common to the models for magnetospheric radio bursts. Finally, a listing of the research and development in terms of instruments, missions, laboratory experiments, theory and computer simulations needed to make meaningful progress on the outstanding scientific problems of plasma wave research is given. (Auth.)

  16. Particle beams and plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofmann, A.; Messerschmid, E.; Lawson, J.D.

    1976-01-01

    These lectures present a survey of some of the concepts of plasma physics and look at some situations familiar to particle-accelerator physicists from the point of view of a plasma physicist, with the intention of helping to link together the two fields. At the outset, basic plasma concepts are presented, including definitions of a plasma, characteristic parameters, magnetic pressure and confinement. This is followed by a brief discussion on plasma kinetic theory, non-equilibrium plasma, and the temperature of moving plasmas. Examples deal with beams in the CERN Intersecting Storage Rings as well as with non-steady beams in cyclic accelerators and microwave tubes. In the final chapters, time-varying systems are considered: waves in free space and the effect of cylinder bounds, wave motion in cold stationary plasmas, and waves in plasmas with well-defined streams. The treatment throughout is informal, with emphasis on the essential physical properties of continuous beams in accelerators and storage rings in relation to the corresponding problems in plasma physics and microwave tubes. (Author)

  17. Variabilidad y genética en fríjol común (Phuseolus vulgaris L.: I. análisis de variables morfológicas y agronómicas cuantitativas. Genetic variability on shrab bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.: 1. Morphological and quantitative agronomicals analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ligarreto M. Gustavo A.

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Based in the evaluation of quantitative variables it was carried out the identification of the genetic variability of a shrub bean Colombian collection. The investigation was carried out with 30 accessions of which three are improved varieties and one is an elite line, the evaluations were carried out in seven environments, six of them in cold climate and one in template climate. The results were analyzed by univariated and multivariated methods by principal components analysis for the group of variables and cluster analysis among agreements. In the principal components analysis the first six
    components represented 87.31% of the total variation, which discriminated the cultivars of the colIection for Andean and Meso-American gene pool. The morphological and agronomical differences were bigger among the Andean accessions, because of its dispersion degree in the first three components, which is higher than in the Meso-American ones.
    The diversity among the gene pools is represented mainly by the growth habit, precocity, foliate area, yield per plant and the number of seeds by podoThe variables of high heredability represented by high repetibility coefficient r> 1 (Goodman and Paterniani, 1969 were: number of knots, pod length, pod apex length, the number of pods per plant, time to physiological maturity and the weight of 100 seeds which can be used for studies of morphological similarity and evolution.
    Con base en la evaluacón de variables cuantitativas, se llevó a cabo la identificación de la variabilidad genética de una colección colombiana de fríjol de crecimiento arbustivo. La investigación se realizó con 30 accesiones, de las cuales tres son variedades mejoradas y una línea élite; las evaluaciones se realizaron en siete ambientes, seis de ellos en clima frío y uno en clima medio. Los resultados se analizaron por métodos univariados y multivariados de componentes principales para el conjunto de variables y por an

  18. Introduction to complex plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonitz, Michael; Ludwig, Patrick; Horing, Norman

    2010-01-01

    Complex plasmas differ from traditional plasmas in many ways: these are low-temperature high pressure systems containing nanometer to micrometer size particles which may be highly charged and strongly interacting. The particles may be chemically reacting or be in contact with solid surfaces, and the electrons may show quantum behaviour. These interesting properties have led to many applications of complex plasmas in technology, medicine and science. Yet complex plasmas are extremely complicated, both experimentally and theoretically, and require a variety of new approaches which go beyond standard plasma physics courses. This book fills this gap presenting an introduction to theory, experiment and computer simulation in this field. Based on tutorial lectures at a very successful recent Summer Institute, the presentation is ideally suited for graduate students, plasma physicists and experienced undergraduates. (orig.)

  19. Introduction to Complex Plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Bonitz, Michael; Ludwig, Patrick

    2010-01-01

    Complex plasmas differ from traditional plasmas in many ways: these are low-temperature high pressure systems containing nanometer to micrometer size particles which may be highly charged and strongly interacting. The particles may be chemically reacting or be in contact with solid surfaces, and the electrons may show quantum behaviour. These interesting properties have led to many applications of complex plasmas in technology, medicine and science. Yet complex plasmas are extremely complicated, both experimentally and theoretically, and require a variety of new approaches which go beyond standard plasma physics courses. This book fills this gap presenting an introduction to theory, experiment and computer simulation in this field. Based on tutorial lectures at a very successful recent Summer Institute, the presentation is ideally suited for graduate students, plasma physicists and experienced undergraduates.

  20. Nonideal plasmas - experimental research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guenther, K.; Hess, H.; Radtke, R.

    1986-01-01

    The investigation of nonideal, strongly coupled, or non-Debye plasmas is a new field of the well-known arc plasma physics. The increased pressure and density cause different behaviour of the dense plasma. The paper surveys the main differences between the nonideal and the usual arc plasmas. The electrical conductivity, continuum radiation absorption coefficient, shift and broadening of spectral lines, and plasma phase transition are discussed. The problems of generation and diagnostics of nonideal plasmas are also described. Finally, the importance of the topic is underlined: possible applications in astrophysics and in different fields of technology: light sources, MHD generators, circuit breakers, laser mirrors and shutters, high temperature gas-phase fission reactors, material treatment and laser fusion are mentioned. (D.Gy.)

  1. Thermal plasma waste treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heberlein, Joachim; Murphy, Anthony B

    2008-01-01

    Plasma waste treatment has over the past decade become a more prominent technology because of the increasing problems with waste disposal and because of the realization of opportunities to generate valuable co-products. Plasma vitrification of hazardous slags has been a commercial technology for several years, and volume reduction of hazardous wastes using plasma processes is increasingly being used. Plasma gasification of wastes with low negative values has attracted interest as a source of energy and spawned process developments for treatment of even municipal solid wastes. Numerous technologies and approaches exist for plasma treatment of wastes. This review summarizes the approaches that have been developed, presents some of the basic physical principles, provides details of some specific processes and considers the advantages and disadvantages of thermal plasmas in waste treatment applications. (topical review)

  2. Compression of toroidal plasma by imploding plasma-liner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikuta, Kazunari.

    1979-07-01

    A new concept of compressing a plasma in a closed magnetic configuration by a version of liner implosion flux compression technique is considered. The liner consists of a dense plasma cylinder, i.e. the plasma-liner. Maximum compression ratio of toroidal plasma is determined just by the initial density ratio of the toroidal plasma to the liner plasma because of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability. A start-up senario of plasma-liner is also proposed with a possible application of this concept to the creation of a burning plasma in reversed field configurations, i.e. burning plasma vortex. (author)

  3. Space plasmas 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frankel, N.E.; Hines, K.C.; Kowalenko, V.

    1981-01-01

    The longitudinal dielectric response of an ultra-degenerate relativistic plasma composed of electrons and positrons is considered. The relativistic Hartree self-consistent field method is used to investigate the dispersion relations and damping parameters of such a plasma in the presence of a magnetic field. These properties must be studied in the various regimes appropriate for a relativistic plasma as detailed by Tsytovich and Jancovici

  4. Plasma polarization spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwamae, Atsushi; Horimoto, Yasuhiro; Fujimoto, Takashi; Hasegawa, Noboru; Sukegawa, Kouta; Kawachi, Tetsuya

    2005-01-01

    The electron velocity distribution function (EVDF) in plasma can be anisotropic in laser-produced plasmas. We have developed a new technique to evaluate the polarization degree of the emission lines in the extreme vacuum ultra violet wavelength region. The polarization of the emission lines and the continuums from the lithium-like nitrogen and from helium- and hydrogen-like carbon in recombining plasma is evaluated. Particle simulation in the velocity space gives the time scale for relaxation of anisotropic EVDFs. (author)

  5. Plasma nitriding of steels

    CERN Document Server

    Aghajani, Hossein

    2017-01-01

    This book focuses on the effect of plasma nitriding on the properties of steels. Parameters of different grades of steels are considered, such as structural and constructional steels, stainless steels and tools steels. The reader will find within the text an introduction to nitriding treatment, the basis of plasma and its roll in nitriding. The authors also address the advantages and disadvantages of plasma nitriding in comparison with other nitriding methods. .

  6. Cyclotron waves in plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lominadse, D.G.

    1975-01-01

    The book deals with fundamental physical concepts of the theory of cyclotron waves and cyclotron instabilities conditioned by the presence in plasma of direct or alternating electric currents passing in it perpendicularily to a magnetic field. A great variety of problems is considered connected with the linear theory of cyclotron oscillations in equilibrium and electron plasma of metals and semiconductors. Parametric excitations of electron cyclotron oscillations of plasma in an alternating electric field are studied. Particular attention is paid to the investigation of plasma turbulence arising as a result of development of cyclotron instabilities. Experimental data are discussed and compared with theoretical results

  7. Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-01-01

    This report discusses the following topics: principal parameters achieved in experimental devices fiscal year 1990; tokamak fusion test reactor; compact ignition tokamak; Princeton beta experiment- modification; current drive experiment-upgrade; international collaboration; x-ray laser studies; spacecraft glow experiment; plasma processing: deposition and etching of thin films; theoretical studies; tokamak modeling; international thermonuclear experimental reactor; engineering department; project planning and safety office; quality assurance and reliability; technology transfer; administrative operations; PPPL patent invention disclosures for fiscal year 1990; graduate education; plasma physics; graduate education: plasma science and technology; science education program; and Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory reports fiscal year 1990.

  8. Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This report discusses the following topics: principal parameters achieved in experimental devices fiscal year 1990; tokamak fusion test reactor; compact ignition tokamak; Princeton beta experiment- modification; current drive experiment-upgrade; international collaboration; x-ray laser studies; spacecraft glow experiment; plasma processing: deposition and etching of thin films; theoretical studies; tokamak modeling; international thermonuclear experimental reactor; engineering department; project planning and safety office; quality assurance and reliability; technology transfer; administrative operations; PPPL patent invention disclosures for fiscal year 1990; graduate education; plasma physics; graduate education: plasma science and technology; science education program; and Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory reports fiscal year 1990

  9. Plasma processing for VLSI

    CERN Document Server

    Einspruch, Norman G

    1984-01-01

    VLSI Electronics: Microstructure Science, Volume 8: Plasma Processing for VLSI (Very Large Scale Integration) discusses the utilization of plasmas for general semiconductor processing. It also includes expositions on advanced deposition of materials for metallization, lithographic methods that use plasmas as exposure sources and for multiple resist patterning, and device structures made possible by anisotropic etching.This volume is divided into four sections. It begins with the history of plasma processing, a discussion of some of the early developments and trends for VLSI. The second section

  10. Nonlinear Physics of Plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Kono, Mitsuo

    2010-01-01

    A nonlinearity is one of the most important notions in modern physics. A plasma is rich in nonlinearities and provides a variety of behaviors inherent to instabilities, coherent wave structures and turbulence. The book covers the basic concepts and mathematical methods, necessary to comprehend nonlinear problems widely encountered in contemporary plasmas, but also in other fields of physics and current research on self-organized structures and magnetized plasma turbulence. The analyses make use of strongly nonlinear models solved by analytical techniques backed by extensive simulations and available experiments. The text is written for senior undergraduates, graduate students, lecturers and researchers in laboratory, space and fusion plasmas.

  11. The plasma universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faelthammar, C.G.

    1989-12-01

    The term 'Plasma Universe', coined by Hannes Alfven, emphasices the fact that plasma phenomena discovered in the laboratory and in accessible regions of space. must be important also in the rest of the universe, which consists almost entirely of matter in the plasma state. Relevant aspect of this concept will be discussed. They include the response of the plasma to electric currents, the support of magnetic-field aligned electric fields, violation of the frozen-field condition, rapid release of magnetically stored energy, acceleration of charged particles, chemical separation, and filamentary and cellular structures. (authors)

  12. Characterization of the interaction layer in diffusion couples U-Mo-Zr/Al and U-Mo-Zr/Al-A356 at 550 C degrees; Caracterizacion de la zona de interaccion en pares de difusion a 550 grados C U-Mo-Zr/Al y U-Mo-Zr/Al-A356

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komar Varela, Carolina; Arico, Sergio; Mirandou, Marcela; Balart, Silvia; Gribaudo, Luis [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, General San Martin (Argentina). Dept. de Materiales; com, carolinakomar@gmail

    2007-07-01

    Out-of-pile diffusion experiments were performed between U-7 wt.% Mo-1 wt.% Zr and Al or Al A356 (7,1 wt.% Si) at 550 C degrees. In this work morphological characterization and phase identification on both interaction layers are presented. They were carried out by the use of different techniques: optical and scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and WDS microanalysis. In the interaction layer U-7 wt.% Mo-1 wt.% Zr/Al, the phases UAl{sub 3}, UAl{sub 4}, Al{sub 20}Mo{sub 2}U and Al{sub 43}Mo{sub 4}U{sub 6} were identified. Similar results in the interaction layer of the U-7 % Mo/Al at 580 C degrees were previously obtained. In the interaction layer U-7 wt.% Mo-1 wt.% Zr/Al A356, the phases U(Al,Si){sub 3} with 25 at.% Si and Si{sub 5}U{sub 3} were identified. This last phase, with a higher Si concentration, was identified with X-ray diffraction synchrotron radiation performed at the National Synchrotron Light Laboratory, Campinas, Brazil. (author) [Spanish] Se realizaron experiencias fuera de reactor en pares de difusion quimica U-7 % Mo-1 % Zr/Al y U-7 % Mo-1 % Zr/Al A356. En este trabajo se presentan los resultados de la caracterizacion morfologica e identificacion de fases presentes en la zona de interaccion que se forma al ser sometidos a un tratamiento isotermico de 1,5 h a 550 grados C. Las tecnicas utilizadas fueron: microscopia optica y electronica de barrido, difraccion de rayos X y microanalisis cuantitativo por sonda electronica. En la zona de interaccion correspondiente al par U-7 % Mo-1 % Zr/Al se identificaron las fases UAl{sub 3}, UAl{sub 4}, Al{sub 20}Mo{sub 2}U y Al{sub 43}Mo{sub 4}U{sub 6}. Estas cuatro fases fueron identificadas en pares U-7 % Mo/Al a 580 grados C en trabajos anteriores. En la zona de interaccion correspondiente al par U-7 % Mo-1 % Zr/Al A356 se identificaron las fases U(Al,Si){sub 3} (con una concentracion de 25 %at.Si) y Si{sub 5}U{sub 3}. Este compuesto rico en Si solo pudo ser identificado mediante la utilizacion de

  13. Characterization of the voltage control systems and speed of a synchronous machine of high power for short circuit testing; Caracterizacion de los sistemas de control de voltaje y velocidad de una maquina sincrona de alta potencia para pruebas de corto circuito

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Segura Ozuna, Victor Octavio; Hernandez Rodriguez, Isaura Victoria; Alcaide Godinez, Indira Xochiquetzal; Garduno Ramirez, Raul; Montero Cervantes, Julio Cesar [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Ruiz Rodriguez, Genaro; Martinez Torres; Ricardo [CFE-LAPEM, Irapuato, Guanajuato (Mexico)

    2012-07-01

    This paper introduces a characterization of the behavior of the speed and voltage control systems of a special purpose synchronous machine (GCC) based on measuring and monitoring physical signals, and recording of the sampled waveforms. Basically, the GCC supplies the energy to perform high-power short-circuits tests to certify electrical equipment and components, as required by the Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) in Mexico. The GCC operates alternately as motor and generator. With the GCC operating as motor, speed control during startup, acceleration, re-acceleration and braking is carried out by a static frequency converter (SFC). Complementary, the voltage controller manipulates excitation power to control terminal voltage when the GCC operates as generator and regulates excitation current when the GCC operates as motor. Compared to conventional voltage regulation systems, which must go off in case of short-circuit, the GCC voltage regulator must keep controlling field excitation to maintain the required line current and terminal voltage during short-circuit tests. Monitoring of physical signals was carried out with a portable data acquisition system based on SCXI and PXI digital platforms. A total of 78 signals were monitored with a 6 kHz sampling rate that was enough to obtain detailed signal waveforms. Data captured was processed and plotted for analysis. The signal graphs show the current real behavior of both, the voltage control system and the speed control system, and constitute a precise characterization of their behavior. [Spanish] Este documento presenta una caracterizacion del comportamiento de los sistemas de control de velocidad y voltaje de una maquina sincrona de proposito especial (GCC) basada en la medicion y monitoreo de senales fisicas, asi como en el registro de las formas de onda muestreadas. Basicamente, la GCC suministra la energia para efectuar pruebas de corto circuito de alta potencia para certificar equipo y componentes

  14. The plasma physics of plasma processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shohet, L.

    1991-01-01

    Plasma processing is used for producing new materials with unusual and superior properties, for developing new chemical compounds and processes, for machining, and for altering and refining materials and surfaces. It has direct applications to semiconductor fabrication, materials synthesis, welding, lighting, polymers, anti-corrosion coatings, machine tools, metallurgy, electrical and electronics devices, hazardous waste removal, high performance ceramics, and many other items in both high-technology and the more traditional industries. Plasma processing takes on a wide variety of apparently different forms in industry, but the techniques share many common characteristics and problems. Control of the generation and flux of ions, electrons and free radicals in the plasma and their incidence on a surface is vital. Diagnostics, sensors, modeling techniques, and associated statistical methods are needed. However, without an in-depth understanding of the variety of phenomena taking place and their application to the industrial environment, advances in this technology, and its efficient use, will occur at a diminishing rate

  15. Plasma Physics An Introduction to Laboratory, Space, and Fusion Plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Piel, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    Plasma Physics gives a comprehensive introduction to the basic processes in plasmas and demonstrates that the same fundamental concepts describe cold gas-discharge plasmas, space plasmas, and hot fusion plasmas. Starting from particle drifts in magnetic fields, the principles of magnetic confinement fusion are explained and compared with laser fusion. Collective processes are discussed in terms of plasma waves and instabilities. The concepts of plasma description by magnetohydrodynamics, kinetic theory, and particle simulation are stepwise introduced. Space charge effects in sheath regions, double layers and plasma diodes are given the necessary attention. The new fundamental mechanisms of dusty plasmas are explored and integrated into the framework of conventional plasmas. The book concludes with a brief introduction to plasma discharges. Written by an internationally renowned researcher in experimental plasma physics, the text keeps the mathematical apparatus simple and emphasizes the underlying concepts. T...

  16. EDITORIAL: Plasma jets and plasma bullets Plasma jets and plasma bullets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, M. G.; Ganguly, B. N.; Hicks, R. F.

    2012-06-01

    Plasma plumes, or plasma jets, belong to a large family of gas discharges whereby the discharge plasma is extended beyond the plasma generation region into the surrounding ambience, either by a field (e.g. electromagnetic, convective gas flow, or shock wave) or a gradient of a directionless physical quantity (e.g. particle density, pressure, or temperature). This physical extension of a plasma plume gives rise to a strong interaction with its surrounding environment, and the interaction alters the properties of both the plasma and the environment, often in a nonlinear and dynamic fashion. The plasma is therefore not confined by defined physical walls, thus extending opportunities for material treatment applications as well as bringing in new challenges in science and technology associated with complex open-boundary problems. Some of the most common examples may be found in dense plasmas with very high dissipation of externally supplied energy (e.g. in electrical, optical or thermal forms) and often in or close to thermal equilibrium. For these dense plasmas, their characteristics are determined predominantly by strong physical forces of different fields, such as electrical, magnetic, thermal, shock wave, and their nonlinear interactions [1]. Common to these dense plasma plumes are significant macroscopic plasma movement and considerable decomposition of solid materials (e.g. vaporization). Their applications are numerous and include detection of elemental traces, synthesis of high-temperature materials and welding, laser--plasma interactions, and relativistic jets in particle accelerators and in space [2]-[4]. Scientific challenges in the understanding of plasma jets are exciting and multidisciplinary, involving interweaving transitions of all four states of matter, and their technological applications are wide-ranging and growing rapidly. Using the Web of Science database, a search for journal papers on non-fusion plasma jets reveals that a long initial phase up

  17. Geospace Plasma Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-22

    perturbations. High-speed solar wind streams cause recurrent geomagnetic activity and ionospheric disturbances. In [5], we analyze the equatorial...over eight successive orbits (~12 hours). A clear pre- reversal enhancement of upward plasma drift occurred between 18:00 and 19:00 LT when plasma

  18. Introduction to Plasma Spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Kunze, H-J

    2009-01-01

    Based on lectures given at the Ruhr-University of Bochum for graduate students and postgraduates starting in plasma physics as well as from low- to high-density hot plasmas, this book introduces basic ideas and fundamental concepts and typical instrumentation from the X-ray to the infrared spectral regions

  19. General Relativistic Plasma Dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moortgat, J.B.

    2006-01-01

    In this thesis I discuss the importance of general relativity on plasma physics in several astrophysical and cosmological contexts. The first chapters show how gravitational waves can excite all three fundamental low frequency magnetohydrodynamic plasma modes, the Alfven, slow and fast

  20. Atoms in dense plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    More, R.M.

    1986-01-01

    Recent experiments with high-power pulsed lasers have strongly encouraged the development of improved theoretical understanding of highly charged ions in a dense plasma environment. This work examines the theory of dense plasmas with emphasis on general rules which govern matter at extreme high temperature and density. 106 refs., 23 figs

  1. Waves in unmagnetized plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambert, A.J.D.

    1979-01-01

    A review of linear and weakly non-linear theory of electron waves, ion waves and electromagnetic waves in plasmas is presented. The author restricts the discussion to an infinitely extended, homogeneous and isotropic plasma, not affected by external fields and described by Vlasov's and Maxwell's equations. (Auth.)

  2. Plasma processing and chemistry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schram, D.C.

    2002-01-01

    A review. Plasma deposition and plasma conversion can be characterized by five steps: prodn. by ionization, transfer of chem. to precursors, transport of radicals to the surface, surface interactions with deposition, recirculation and generation of new monomers. For very fast deposition, large flows

  3. Plasma technology directory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ward, P.P.; Dybwad, G.L.

    1995-01-01

    The Plasma Technology Directory has two main goals: (1) promote, coordinate, and share plasma technology experience and equipment within the Department of Energy; and (2) facilitate technology transfer to the commercial sector where appropriate. Personnel are averaged first by Laboratory and next by technology area. The technology areas are accelerators, cleaning and etching deposition, diagnostics, and modeling

  4. Atoms in dense plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    More, R.M.

    1986-01-01

    Recent experiments with high-power pulsed lasers have strongly encouraged the development of improved theoretical understanding of highly charged ions in a dense plasma environment. This work examines the theory of dense plasmas with emphasis on general rules which govern matter at extreme high temperature and density. 106 refs., 23 figs.

  5. Microwave plasma mode conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres, H.S.; Sakanaka, P.H.; Villarroel, C.H.

    1985-01-01

    The behavior of hot electrons during the process of laser-produced plasma is studied. The basic equations of mode conversion from electromagnetic waves to electrostatic waves are presented. It is shown by mode conversion, that, the resonant absorption and parametric instabilities appear simultaneously, but in different plasma regions. (M.C.K.) [pt

  6. Polychromatic holographic plasma diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhiglinskij, A.G.; Morozov, A.O.

    1992-01-01

    Review of holographic interferometry properties is performed and advantages of this method by plasma diagnostics are indicated. Main results obtained by the method of holographic interferometry in studies of various-type plasmas are considered. Special attention is paid to multiwave plasma diagnostics, the necessity of which is related as a rule to multicomponent composition of plasma. The eight laser and gas-discharge sources and holographic schemes, which make it possible to realize plasma polychromatic and holographic interferometry, are considered. The advantages of the method are demonstrated by examples of polychromatic holographic diagnostics of arc discharge and discharge in a hollow cathode. Review of theoretical works determining the applicability area of resonance polychromatic interferometry is carried out

  7. Chaotic phenomena in plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawai, Y.

    1991-08-01

    It has recently been recognized that the research on various aspects of chaotic dynamics grows rapidly as one of some areas in nonlinear science. On the other hands, the plasma has long been called a treasure-house of nonlinear phenomena, so it is easy to imagine that the plasma is abundant in chaotic phenomena. In fact, the research on plasma chaos is going on, such as the research on the stochastic magnetic field and the chaotic orbit in the toroidal helical system, as well as the research in other experiments. To review the present status of the research on plasma chaos and to make clear the basic common physics, a working group was organized in 1990 as a collaboration research of National Institute for Fusion Science. This is the report on its activity in 1990, with a stress on experimental data obtained in basic plasma experiments and RFP, and on the relaxed theories and computer simulations. (author)

  8. Plasma based accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caldwell, Allen [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany)

    2015-05-01

    The concept of laser-induced plasma wakefields as a technique to accelerate charged particles was introduced 35 years ago as a means to go beyond the accelerating gradients possible with metallic cavities supporting radio frequency electromagnetic fields. Significant developments in laser technology have made possible the pulse intensity needed to realize this concept, and rapid progress is now underway in the realization of laser-driven plasma wakefield acceleration. It has also been realized that similar accelerating gradients can be produced by particle beams propagating in plasmas, and experimental programs have also been undertaken to study this possibility. Positive results have been achieved with electron-driven plasma wakefields, and a demonstration experiment with proton-driven wakefields is under construction at CERN. The concepts behind these different schemes and their pros and cons are described, as well as the experimental results achieved. An outlook for future practical uses of plasma based accelerators will also be given.

  9. Solar system plasma waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurnett, Donald A.

    1995-01-01

    An overview is given of spacecraft observations of plasma waves in the solar system. In situ measurements of plasma phenomena have now been obtained at all of the planets except Mercury and Pluto, and in the interplanetary medium at heliocentric radial distances ranging from 0.29 to 58 AU. To illustrate the range of phenomena involved, we discuss plasma waves in three regions of physical interest: (1) planetary radiation belts, (2) planetary auroral acceleration regions and (3) the solar wind. In each region we describe examples of plasma waves that are of some importance, either due to the role they play in determining the physical properties of the plasma, or to the unique mechanism involved in their generation.

  10. Plasma-material interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, K.L.

    1984-01-01

    Plasma-interactive components must be resistant to erosion processes, efficient in heat removal, and effective in minimizing tritium inventory and permeation. As long as plasma edge temperatures are 50 eV, no one material can satisfy the diverse requirements imposed by these plasma materials interactions. The only solution is the design of duplex, or even more complicated, structures. The material that faces the plasma should be low atomic number, with acceptable erosion and evaporation characteristics. The substrate material must have high thermal conductivity for heat removal. Finally, materials must be selected judiciously for tritium compatibility. In conclusion, materials play a critical role in the achievement of safe and economical magnetic fusion energy. Improvements in materials have already led to many advances in present day device operation, but additional innovative materials solutions are required for the critical plasma materials interaction issues in future power reactors

  11. SUPERFAST THERMALIZATION OF PLASMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, C.C.

    1962-06-12

    A method is given for the superfast thermalization of plasma by shock conversion of the kinetic energy stored in rotating plasma rings or plasmoids colliding at near supersonic speeds in a containment field to heat energy in the resultant confined plasma mass. The method includes means for generating rotating plasmoids at the opposite ends of a Pyrotron or Astron containment field. The plasmoids are magnetically accelerated towards each other into the opposite ends of time containment field. During acceleration of the plasmoids toward the center of the containment field, the intensity of the field is sequentially increased to adiabatically compress the plasmoids and increase the plasma energy. The plasmoids hence collide with a violent shock at the eenter of the containment field, causing the substantial kinetic energy stored in the plasmoids to be converted to heat in the resultant plasma mass. (AEC)

  12. Antimatter plasmas and antihydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greaves, R.G.; Surko, C.M.

    1997-01-01

    Recent successes in confining antimatter in the form of positron and antiproton plasmas have created new scientific and technological opportunities. Plasma techniques have been the cornerstone of experimental work in this area, and this is likely to be true for the foreseeable future. Work by a number of groups on trapping antimatter plasmas is summarized, and an overview of the promises and challenges in this field is presented. Topics relating to positron plasmas include the use of positrons to study the unique properties of electron endash positron plasmas, the interaction between positrons and ordinary matter, and the laboratory modeling of positron-annihilation processes in interstellar media. The availability of cold, trapped antiprotons and positrons makes possible the production of neutral antimatter in the form of antihydrogen. This is expected to enable precise comparisons of the properties of matter and antimatter, including tests of fundamental symmetries and the measurement of the interaction of antimatter with gravity. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  13. A new large-scale plasma source with plasma cathode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamauchi, K.; Hirokawa, K.; Suzuki, H.; Satake, T.

    1996-01-01

    A new large-scale plasma source (200 mm diameter) with a plasma cathode has been investigated. The plasma has a good spatial uniformity, operates at low electron temperature, and is highly ionized under relatively low gas pressure of about 10 -4 Torr. The plasma source consists of a plasma chamber and a plasma cathode generator. The plasma chamber has an anode which is 200 mm in diameter, 150 mm in length, is made of 304 stainless steel, and acts as a plasma expansion cup. A filament-cathode-like plasma ''plasma cathode'' is placed on the central axis of this source. To improve the plasma spatial uniformity in the plasma chamber, a disk-shaped, floating electrode is placed between the plasma chamber and the plasma cathode. The 200 mm diameter plasma is measure by using Langmuir probes. As a result, the discharge voltage is relatively low (30-120 V), the plasma space potential is almost equal to the discharge voltage and can be easily controlled, the electron temperature is several electron volts, the plasma density is about 10 10 cm -3 , and the plasma density is about 10% variance in over a 100 mm diameter. (Author)

  14. Plasma sheath criterion in thermal electronegative plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghomi, Hamid; Khoramabadi, Mansour; Ghorannevis, Mahmod; Shukla, Padma Kant

    2010-01-01

    The sheath formation criterion in electronegative plasma is examined. By using a multifluid model, it is shown that in a collisional sheath there will be upper as well as lower limits for the sheath velocity criterion. However, the parameters of the negative ions only affect the lower limit.

  15. Proceedings of the thirty second national symposium on plasma science and technology: plasma for societal benefits: book of abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dave, Sandhya; Shravan Kumar, S.; Vijayakumaran; Singh, Raj; Awasthi, L.M.

    2017-01-01

    This symposium covers topics on: basic plasma, computer modelling for plasma, exotic plasma, industrial plasma, laser plasma theory, nuclear fusion, plasma diagnostics, laser plasma, plasma processing, pulsed power, space and astrophysical plasma. Papers relevant to INIS are indexed separately

  16. Plasma physics an introduction to laboratory, space, and fusion plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Piel, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    The enlarged new edition of this textbook provides a comprehensive introduction to the basic processes in plasmas and demonstrates that the same fundamental concepts describe cold gas-discharge plasmas, space plasmas, and hot fusion plasmas. Starting from particle drifts in magnetic fields, the principles of magnetic confinement fusion are explained and compared with laser fusion. Collective processes are discussed in terms of plasma waves and instabilities. The concepts of plasma description by magnetohydrodynamics, kinetic theory, and particle simulation are stepwise introduced. Space charge effects in sheath regions, double layers and plasma diodes are given the necessary attention. The novel fundamental mechanisms of dusty plasmas are explored and integrated into the framework of conventional plasmas. The book concludes with a concise description of modern plasma discharges. Written by an internationally renowned researcher in experimental plasma physics, the text keeps the mathematical apparatus simple a...

  17. Waves in Space Plasmas Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredricks, R. W.; Taylor, W. W. L.

    1981-01-01

    The Waves in Space Plasmas (WISP) program is a joint international effort involving instrumentation to be designed and fabricated by funding from NASA and the National Research Council of Canada. The instrumentation, with a tentatively planned payload for 1986, can be used to perturb the plasma with radio waves to solve problems in ionospheric, atmospheric, magnetospheric, and plasma physics. Among the ionospheric and plasma phenomena to be investigated using WISP instrumentation are VLF wave-particle interactions; ELF/VLF propagation; traveling ionospheric disturbances and gravity wave coupling; equatorial plasma bubble phenomena; plasma wave physics such as mode-coupling, dispersion, and instabilities; and plasma physics of the antenna-plasma interactions.

  18. Waves in Space Plasmas Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fredricks, R.W.; Taylor, W.W.L.

    1981-01-01

    The Waves in Space Plasmas (WISP) program is a joint international effort involving instrumentation to be designed and fabricated by funding from NASA and the National Research Council of Canada. The instrumentation, with a tentatively planned payload for 1986, can be used to perturb the plasma with radio waves to solve problems in ionospheric, atmospheric, magnetospheric, and plasma physics. Among the ionospheric and plasma phenomena to be investigated using WISP instrumentation are VLF wave-particle interactions, ELF/VLF propagation, traveling ionospheric disturbances and gravity wave coupling, equatorial plasma bubble phenomena, plasma wave physics such as mode-coupling, dispersion, and instabilities, and plasma physics of the antenna-plasma interactions

  19. Influence of plasma density and plasma sheath dynamics on the ion implantation by plasma immersion technique

    OpenAIRE

    Ensinger, Wolfgang

    1996-01-01

    Influence of plasma density and plasma sheath dynamics on the ion implantation by plasma immersion technique / B. Rauschenbach ... - In: Nuclear instruments and methods in physics research. B. 113. 1996. S. 266-269

  20. Instabilities in inhomogeneous plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikhailovsky, A.B.

    1983-01-01

    The plasma inhomogeneity across the magnetic field causes a wide class of instabilities which are called instabilities of an inhomogeneous plasma or gradient instabilities. The instabilities that can be studied in the approximation of a magnetic field with parallel straight field lines are treated first, followed by a discussion of the influence of shear on these instabilities. The instabilities of a weakly inhomogeneous plasma with the Maxwellian velocity distribution of particles caused by the density and temperature gradients are often called drift instabilities, and the corresponding types of perturbations are the drift waves. An elementary theory of drift instabilities is presented, based on the simplest equations of motion of particles in the field of low-frequency and long-wavelength perturbations. Following that is a more complete theory of inhomogeneous collisionless plasma instabilities which uses the permittivity tensor and, in the case of electrostatic perturbations, the scalar of permittivity. The results are used to study the instabilities of a strongly inhomogeneous plasma. The instabilities of a plasma in crossed fields are discussed and the electromagnetic instabilities of plasma with finite and high pressure are described. (Auth.)

  1. High energy plasma accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tajima, T.

    1985-05-01

    Colinear intense laser beams ω 0 , kappa 0 and ω 1 , kappa 1 shone on a plasma with frequency separation equal to the electron plasma frequency ω/sub pe/ are capable of creating a coherent large longitudinal electric field E/sub L/ = mc ω/sub pe//e of the order of 1GeV/cm for a plasma density of 10 18 cm -3 through the laser beat excitation of plasma oscillations. Accompanying favorable and deleterious physical effects using this process for a high energy beat-wave accelerator are discussed: the longitudinal dephasing, pump depletion, the transverse laser diffraction, plasma turbulence effects, self-steepening, self-focusing, etc. The basic equation, the driven nonlinear Schroedinger equation, is derived to describe this system. Advanced accelerator concepts to overcome some of these problems are proposed, including the plasma fiber accelerator of various variations. An advanced laser architecture suitable for the beat-wave accelerator is suggested. Accelerator physics issues such as the luminosity are discussed. Applications of the present process to the current drive in a plasma and to the excitation of collective oscillations within nuclei are also discussed

  2. Plasma Science Committee (PLSC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The Plasma Science Committee (PLSC) is a standing committee under the auspices of the Board on Physics and Astronomy, Commission on Physical Sciences, Mathematics, and Applications of the National Academy of Sciences--National Research Council. Plasma sciences represent a broad and diverse field. The PLSC has accepted the responsibility of monitoring the continuing development and assessing the general health of the field as whole. Although select advisory bodies have been created to address specific issues that affect plasma science, such as the Fusion Policy Advisory Committee (FPAC), the PLSC provides a focus for the plasma science community that is unique and essential. The membership of the PLSC is drawn from research laboratories in universities, industry, and government. Areas of expertise on the committee include accelerators and beams, space physics, astrophysics, computational physics and applied mathematics, fusion plasmas, fundamental experiments and theory, radiation sources, low temperature plasmas, and plasma-surface interactions. The PLSC is well prepared to respond to requests for studies on specific issues. This report discusses ion of the PLSC work

  3. Electromagnetic separator of plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gasilin, V.V.; Nezovibatko, Yu.N.; Poklepach, G.S.; Shvets, O.M.; Taran, V.S.; Tereshin, V.I.

    2005-01-01

    The progress in the widespread utilization of the PVD methods is determined in many respects by the plasma quality and, therefore, the necessity of an application of plasma separators, in particular magnetic separators. One needs to note that traditional magnetic separators have a number of problems their using, namely their unwieldiness, the presence of the isolated cameras and so on. We have proposed, manufactured and investigated the simple separator of plasma that doesn't require using additional cameras. As a source of metallic plasma the standard cathode vaporizer in the installation 'BULAT 6' was in use. Plasma stream from the cathode flowed through the not protected by isolation spiral solenoid. The solenoid input (from the cathode side) was under floating potential. The solenoid output was connected to the autonomous power supply system. The solenoid was prepared with stride winding and 90 degree turn. The solenoid current was 20-90 A and the solenoid voltage with respect to the vessel (earth) was +15 V. In this case drifting charged particles could freely fly out from the interior solenoid region to its boundary. The glow of the turned flow of plasma was observed during the supplying of the cathode and the solenoid. Plasma flow was separated from the coils and extended along the axis of solenoid. One can assume that this device ensures radial electric with respect to the bulk of plasma (the diameter of the bulk of plasma is comparable with the cathode diameter), the toroidal magnetic field, produced by solenoid, was of an order of 20 Oe. Magnetic field strength was sufficient for the magnetization of electrons, but it was rather small for magnetizing the ions and charged micro-droplets. The experiments carried out with aluminum cathode on the deposition of coatings at the stainless steel substrate have shown the high effectiveness of this separator operation. Coatings without droplets were obtained also on the glass substrate with HF- displacement

  4. The expanding plasma jet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanden, M.C.M. van den.

    1991-01-01

    This thesis concerns the fundamental aspects of an argon plasma expanding from a cascaded arc. This type of plasma is not only used for fundamental research but also for technologically orientated research on plasma deposition and plasma sources. The important characteristics of the plasma are a strong supersonic expansion in which the neutral particle and ion densities decrease three orders of magnitude, followed by a stationary shock front. After the shock front the plasma expands further subsonically. A part of this thesis is devoted to the discussion of a newly constructed combined Thomson-Rayleigh scattering set up. With this set up the electron density, the electron temperature and the neutral particle density are measured locally in the plasma for different conditions. In the analysis of the measured spectra weak coherent effects and the measured apparatus profile are included. The inaccuracies are small, ranging from 1 to 4 percent for the electron density and 2 to 6 percent for the electron temperature, depending on the plasma conditions. The inaccuracy of the neutral particle density determination is larger and ranges from 10 to 50 percent. The detection limits for the electron and neutral particle density are 7.10 17 m -3 and 1.10 20 m -3 respectively. A side path in this thesis is the derivation of the Saha equation for a two-temperature plasma. The reason for this derivation was the dispute in the literature about the correct form of this equation. In this thesis it is shown, from the correct extension of the second law of thermodynamics and from the non-equilibrium formalism of Zubarev, That in the limit of m e /m h ->0 the generalized Saha equation depends on the electron temperature only. (author). 221 refs.; 54 figs.; 13 tabs

  5. Transport barriers in plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caldas, I L; Szezech, J D Jr; Kroetz, T; Marcus, F A; Roberto, M; Viana, R L; Lopes, S R

    2012-01-01

    We discuss the creation of transport barriers in magnetically confined plasmas with non monotonic equilibrium radial profiles. These barriers reduce the transport in the shearless region (i.e., where the twist condition does not hold). For the chaotic motion of particles in an equilibrium electric field with a nonmonotonic radial profile, perturbed by electrostatic waves, we show that a nontwist transport barrier can be created in the plasma by modifying the electric field radial profile. We also show non twist barriers in chaotic magnetic field line transport in the plasma near to the tokamak wall with resonant modes due to electric currents in external coils.

  6. Radioimmunoassay of plasma progesterone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langer, L; Veleminsky, J [Institute of Clinical Endocrinology, Lubochna (Czechoslovakia); Hampl, R; Starka, L [Vyzkumny Ustav Endokrinologicky, Prague (Czechoslovakia); Holan, J [Comenius Univ., School of Medicine, Martin (Czechoslovakia). Dept. of Physics and Nuclear Medicine

    1978-06-30

    A simple modification of plasma progesterone radioimmunoassay is described. 11..cap alpha..-Hydroxyprogesterone hemisuccinate - BSA conjugate was used as an immunogen. (1,2,6,7-H-3) Progesterone specific radioactivity 82 Ci.mmol/sup -1/ was purchased from Radiochemical Centre Amersham (England). The method has been applied for the analysis of more than 2000 plasma samples. The typical fluctuation of progesterone in plasma during the menstrual cycle, using data obtained with this method is illustrated. The reliability criteria of the method are given.

  7. Unexpected high plasma cobalamin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arendt, Johan F B; Nexo, Ebba

    2013-01-01

    It is well-established that more than 8% of patients examined for vitamin B12 deficiency unexpectedly have increased plasma levels of the vitamin, but so far there are no guidelines for the clinical interpretation of such findings. In this review, we summarise known associations between high plasma...... cobalamin binding proteins, transcobalamin and haptocorrin. Based on current knowledge, we suggest a strategy for the clinical interpretation of unexpected high plasma cobalamin. Since a number of the associated diseases are critical and life-threatening, the strategy promotes the concept of 'think...

  8. Ambipolar diffusion in plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, T.L. da.

    1987-01-01

    Is this thesis, a numerical method for the solution of the linear diffusion equation for a plasma containing two types of ions, with the possibility of charge exchange, has been developed. It has been shown that the decay time of the electron and ion densities is much smaller than that in a plasma containing only a single type of ion. A non-linear diffusion equation, which includes the effects of an external electric field varying linearly in time, to describe a slightly ionized plasma has also been developed. It has been verified that the decay of the electron density in the presence of such an electric field is very slow. (author)

  9. Nonequilibrium Phenomena in Plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Sharma, A Surjalal

    2005-01-01

    The complexity of plasmas arises mainly from their inherent nonlinearity and far from equilibrium nature. The nonequilibrium behavior of plasmas is evident in the natural settings, for example, in the Earth's magnetosphere. Similarly, laboratory plasmas such as fusion bottles also have their fair share of complex behavior. Nonequilibrium phenomena are intimately connected with statistical dynamics and form one of the growing research areas in modern nonlinear physics. These studies encompass the ideas of self-organization, phase transition, critical phenomena, self-organized criticality and turbulence. This book presents studies of complexity in the context of nonequilibrium phenomena using theory, modeling, simulations, and experiments, both in the laboratory and in nature.

  10. Computing in plasma physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuehrenberg, J.

    1986-01-01

    These proceedings contain the articles presented at the named conference. These concern numerical methods for astrophysical plasmas, the numerical simulation of reversed-field pinch dynamics, methods for numerical simulation of ideal MHD stability of axisymmetric plasmas, calculations of the resistive internal m=1 mode in tokamaks, parallel computing and multitasking, particle simulation methods in plasma physics, 2-D Lagrangian studies of symmetry and stability of laser fusion targets, computing of rf heating and current drive in tokamaks, three-dimensional free boundary calculations using a spectral Green's function method, as well as the calculation of three-dimensional MHD equilibria with islands and stochastic regions. See hints under the relevant topics. (HSI)

  11. Plasma control and utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ensley, D.L.

    1976-01-01

    A plasma is confined and heated by a microwave field resonant in a cavity excited in a combination of the TE and TM modes while responding to the resonant frequency of the cavity as the plasma dimensions change to maintain operation at resonance. The microwave field is elliptically or circularly polarized as to prevent the electromagnetic confining field from going to zero. A high Q chamber having superconductive walls is employed to minimize wall losses while providing for extraction of thermonuclear energy produced by fusion of nuclei in the plasma. 24 claims, 15 figures

  12. Radiofrequency power in plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    This document includes the various communications that were presented at the 11th topical conference on radio frequency power in plasmas which took place in Palm Springs in May 1995. It includes current diffusion studies to assess the non-inductive current deposition profiles, experiments for plasma to reach quickly an equilibrium state, and modelling of electrons in plasma. Some comparison studies also reveal the efficiency of the Quasi-Optical Grill antenna for reactor applications. Finally, a scenario for efficient mode conversion heating in the ion cyclotron range of frequency is presented. Separate abstracts were prepared for the 6 papers in this volume. (TEC).

  13. Plasma processing: Technologies and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naddaf, M.; Saloum, S.

    2005-01-01

    This study aims to present the fundamentals of physics of plasmas, methods of generation, diagnostics, and applications for processing of materials. The first chapter defines plasma in general as well as its main parameters, the most important differential equations in plasma physics, and classifies the types of plasmas. the various methods and techniques to create and sustain plasma are presented in the second chapter. Chapter 3 focuses on plasma diagnostic methods and tools. While chapter 4 deals with applications of plasma processing such as; surface modification of materials, plasma ashing and etching, plasma cutting, and the environmental applications of plasma. Plasma polymerization and its various applications have been presented in more details in the last chapter. (Author)

  14. Direct Measurement of Tritium in Biological Materials with the Liquid Scintillation Counter; Determination quantitative directe du tritium dans les substances biologiques, au moyen de compteurs a scintillations a liquides; Neposredstvennoe izmerenie kolichestva tritiya v biologicheskikh materialakh pri pomoshchi zhidkogo stsintillyatsionnogo schetchika; Determinacion cuantitativa directa del tritio en sustancias biologicas mediante contadores de centelleador liquido

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halvorsen, K [Institutt for Atomenergi, Kjeller, Lillestroem (Norway)

    1962-01-15

    'hyamine et le rendement de la detection peut etre de 10 a 15%. L'auteur examine les techniques de correction de coupage et certains phenomenes de phosphorescence dans la mesure ou ils ont une influence sur le dispositif de comptage a un seul phototube. Cette methode, bien que moins precise que le dispositif de coincidence, l'est suffisamment pour de nombreuses applications. L'experience qui fait l'objet du memoire a porte sur des echantillons de tissus de souris auxquelles on avait injecte au prealable de la thymidine marquee au tritium. Lorsqu'une dose d'environ 1 {mu}c de thymidine tritiee par gramme de poids du corps est injectee aux souris, on peut suivre pendant un mois les transformations metaboliques de la thymidine incorporee a l'acide deoxyribonucleique (ADN) des divers tissus. (author) [Spanish] Ya se han presentado informes acerca de los procedimientos aplicados para la determinacion cuantitativa del tritio en tejidos animales y fracciones aisladas de los mismos. Sin embargo, en los trabajos respectivos se han utilizado siempre, para el recuento de la muestra, espectrometros de coincidencia de centelleador liquido. En cambio, en el presente trabajo las mediciones se han efectuado con un contador de centelleador liquido equipado con un fototubo unico. Se investigo principalmente la disolucion directa de tejido animal en la hiamina 10-KH y el recuento del tejido liofilizado en suspension en geles de centelleo. Es posible disolver directamente en hiamina tejidos diferentes tales como el hepatico, el intestinal, el sanguineo y el cutaneo, y medirlos con un rendimiento de 10 a 15%. El autor examina la tecnica aplicada para la correccion por extincion, asi como ciertos fenomenos de fosforescencia que afectan la determinacion en el sistema de recuento de fototubo unico. Parece que el metodo ofrece una sensibilidad suficiente para muchas aplicaciones, aunque un poco menor que la del dispositivo de recuento por coincidencias. La labor de que se informa se llevo a cabo con

  15. Unmatter Plasma revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smarandache, Florentin

    2017-10-01

    Unmmatter Plasma is a novel form of plasma, exclusively made of matter and its antimatter counterpart. The electron-positron beam plasma was generated in the laboratory in the beginning of 2015. This experimental fact shows that unmatter, a new form of matter that is formed by matter and antimatter bind together (mathematically predicted since 2004) really exists. That is the electron-positron plasma experiment of 2015 is the experimentum crucis verifying the mathematically predicted unmatter. Unmatter is formed by combinations of matter and antimatter that bind together, or by long-range mixture of matter and antimatter forming a weakly-coupled phase. Binding and bound state means that the interaction is sufficiently strong to tie together the particles of a system, therefore hindering them from becoming free. For example, a usual liquid is a bound state of molecules, while a gas is an un-bounded where the molecules can move freely in successive collisions.

  16. Plasma concentrations of misonidazole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Notter, G; Rylander, U; Turesson, I

    1980-10-01

    The plasma concentrations of misonidazole doses between 0.6 and 2.0 g/m/sup 2/ were analyzed in respect to the variation within the same patient and between different patients. Peak plasma levels were observed after 2 hours. The mean plasma levels of misonidazole only at 3 hours were 23.8, 47.0 and 76.5 ..mu..g/ml after misonidazole doses of 0.6, 1.2 g/m/sup 2/, respectively. The half-life of misonidazole only was found to be 8.2 hours for women and 10.5 for men. Good linearity between plasma levels and drug doses was observed after administration of different single doses to the same patient within the dose range 0.6 to 2.0 g/m/sup 2/.

  17. Plasma-surface interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurnaev, V.A.

    1996-01-01

    The latest experimental results characterizing plasma interaction with walls in thermonuclear facilities are presented. The main attention is paid to the mode of plasma ejection from the tokamak divertor receiving elements to study the properties of the so-called gas divertor. A sharp reduction of load on the receiving plates is provided in the mode at the expense of over-radiation of a substantial share of power in a layer of peripheral removed plasma. However, the sharp reduction of load on the current-receiving plates is accompanied by an increase of the main plasma charge up to an unacceptably high level. An alternative variant of solving the problem of heat and impurity removal in the form of a concept of capillary lithium divertor is described. Besides, the latest results of experiments in simulator devices are presented. 46 refs., 15 figs

  18. Plasma formation in TBR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Del Bosco, E.

    1981-01-01

    In this work are presented and discussed results of the formation and equilibrium of the plasma current in TBR, a small tokamak, designed and contructed at the Instituto de Fisica of Universidade de Sao Paulo. The measured breakdown curves for H 2 , A and He are compared with the predictions of a simple model with reasonable agreement. The influence of stray magnetic fields in the plasma formation is investigated and conditions are chosen to facilitate the breakdown. The time profile of loop voltage and plasma current for shots with plasma equilibrium are shown. A comparison is made between experimental results and analytical-numerical model for tokamaks discharges with ohmic heating. Reasonable agreement is obtained when Z, effective atomic number, is assumed as a parameter. (Author) [pt

  19. Vol. 6: Plasma Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sitenko, A.

    1993-01-01

    Problems of modern physics and the situation with physical research in Ukraine are considered. Programme of the conference includes scientific and general problems. Its proceeding are published in 6 volumes. The papers presented in this volume refer to plasma physics

  20. Ferroelectric Plasma Thruster

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kovaleski, Scott D; Kemp, Mark A

    2008-01-01

    .... When radiofrequency high voltage is applied between the electrodes, through the thickness of the crystal, a combination of triple point and piezoelectric effects produce dense plasma on the crystal surface...

  1. Fizeau plasma interferometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frank, A.M.

    1980-01-01

    This paper describes a technique by which the sensitivity of plasma interferometers can be increased. Stabilization and fractional fringe measurement techniques have improved to the point where additional optical sensitivity could be useful

  2. Plasma relativistic microwave electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuzelev, M.V.; Loza, O.T.; Rukhadze, A.A.; Strelkov, P.S.; Shkvarunets, A.G.

    2001-01-01

    One formulated the principles of plasma relativistic microwave electronics based on the induced Cherenkov radiation of electromagnetic waves at interaction of a relativistic electron beam with plasma. One developed the theory of plasma relativistic generators and accelerators of microwave radiation, designed and studied the prototypes of such devices. One studied theoretically the mechanisms of radiation, calculated the efficiencies and the frequency spectra of plasma relativistic microwave generators and accelerators. The theory findings are proved by the experiment: intensity of the designed sources of microwave radiation is equal to 500 μW, the frequency of microwave radiation is increased by 7 times (from 4 up to 28 GHz), the width of radiation frequency band may vary from several up to 100%. The designed sources of microwave radiation are no else compared in the electronics [ru

  3. Plasma turbulence in tokamaks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caldas, Ibere L.; Heller, M.V.A.P.; Brasilio, Z.A. [Sao Paulo Univ., SP, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica

    1997-12-31

    Full text. In this work we summarize the results from experiments on electrostatic and magnetic fluctuations in tokamak plasmas. Spectral analyses show that these fluctuations are turbulent, having a broad spectrum of wavectors and a broad spectrum of frequencies at each wavector. The electrostatic turbulence induces unexpected anomalous particle transport that deteriorates the plasma confinement. The relationship of these fluctuations to the current state of plasma theory is still unclear. Furthermore, we describe also attempts to control this plasma turbulence with external magnetic perturbations that create chaotic magnetic configurations. Accordingly, the magnetic field lines may become chaotic and then induce a Lagrangian diffusion. Moreover, to discuss nonlinear coupling and intermittency, we present results obtained by using numerical techniques as bi spectral and wavelet analyses. (author)

  4. Micro Plasma Spectrometer

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The purpose of this IRAD project is to develop a preliminary design elements of miniature electron and ion plasma spectrometers and supporting electronics, focusing...

  5. Gingival plasma cell granuloma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amitkumar B Pandav

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Plasma cell granuloma, also known as inflammatory pseudotumor is a tumor-like lesion that manifests primarily in the lungs. But it may occur in various other anatomic locations like orbit, head and neck, liver and rarely in the oral cavity. We here report an exceedingly rare case of gingival plasma cell granuloma in a 58 year old woman who presented with upper gingival polypoidal growth. The histopathological examination revealed a mass composed of proliferation of benign spindle mesenchymal cells in a loose myxoid and fibrocollagenous stroma along with dense infiltrate of chronic inflammatory cells predominantly containing plasma cells. Immunohistochemistry for kappa and lambda light chains showed a polyclonal staining pattern confirming a diagnosis of plasma cell granuloma.

  6. Computational plasma physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Killeen, J.

    1975-08-01

    The behavior of a plasma confined by a magnetic field is simulated by a variety of numerical models. Some models used on a short time scale give detailed knowledge of the plasma on a microscopic scale, while other models used on much longer time scales compute macroscopic properties of the plasma dynamics. In the last two years there has been a substantial increase in the numerical modelling of fusion devices. The status of MHD, transport, equilibrium, stability, Vlasov, Fokker-Planck, and Hybrid codes is reviewed. These codes have already been essential in the design and understanding of low and high beta toroidal experiments and mirror systems. The design of the next generation of fusion experiments and fusion test reactors will require continual development of these numerical models in order to include the best available plasma physics description and also to increase the geometric complexity of the model. (auth)

  7. Plasma sprayed thermoregulating coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudinov, V.V.; Puzanov, A.A.; Zambrzhitskij, A.P.; Soboleva, V.V.

    1979-01-01

    Shown is the possibility of plasma spraying application for thermoregulating coating formation. Given are test results of service properties of BeO, Al 2 O 2 plasma coatings on the substrates of the MA2-1 magnesium alloy. Described is a device for studying durability of coating optical parameters under ultraviolet irradiation in deep vacuum. Dynamics of absorption coefficient, growth caused by an increase in absorption centers amount under such irradiation is investigated

  8. Carbon plasma gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendel, C.W. Jr.; Zagar, D.M.; Mills, G.S.; Humphries, S. Jr.; Goldstein, S.A.

    1980-01-01

    A family of plasma guns supplying highly ionized carbon plasma is described. The guns are simple and inexpensive to construct and are pulsed by small capacitor banks of a few hundred joules. The output consists of 10 17 --10 18 multiply ionized carbon ions traveling at about 10 7 cm/s. Neutral output is very low and arrives well after the ionized carbon. The guns and pulsers are very reliable

  9. Plasma emission mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melrose, D.B.

    1985-01-01

    Only three emission processes are thought to play a role in solar radio emission: plasma emission, gyromagnetic emission and bremsstrahlung. In this chapter plasma emission is discussed and the processes involved in its production are treated, namely, the generation of Langmuir turbulence, the partial conversion into fundamental transverse radiation, production of secondary Langmuir waves and the generation of second-harmonic transverse radiation. (U.K.)

  10. Heating in toroidal plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canobbio, E.

    1981-01-01

    This paper reports on the 2nd Joint Grenoble-Varenna International Symposium on Heating in Toroidal Plasmas, held at Como, Italy, from the 3-12 September 1980. Important problems in relation to the different existing processes of heating. The plasma were identified and discussed. Among others, the main processes discussed were: a) neutral beam heating, b) ion-(electron)-cyclotron resonance heating, c) hybrid resonance and low frequency heating

  11. Dynamics of magnetospheric plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horwitz, J.L.

    1985-01-01

    The dynamical behavior of the magnetospheric plasmas which control the electrostatic charging of spacecraft is the result of the complex interaction of a variety of production, loss, transport, and energization mechanisms in the magnetosphere. This paper is intended to provide the spacecraft engineer with a foundation in the basic morphology and controlling processes pertaining to magnetospheric plasma dynamics in the inner magnetosphere, including the synchronous orbit region. 32 references

  12. Radio frequency plasma excitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burden, M.St.J.; Cross, K.B.

    1979-01-01

    An investigation into the use of rf sputtering for ion cleaning of insulating substrates before ion plating is reported. Initial experiments consisted of sputtering metals with rf power followed by the deposition of copper onto glass slides using rf plasma excitation and biasing supply. It was found that good quality films were obtained by rf ion plating onto plastics with excellent adhesion over a wide operating pressure range. A block schematic of the rf plasma excitation system is shown. (UK)

  13. Multicusp plasma containment apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Limpaecher, R.

    1980-01-01

    It has been discovered that plasma containment by a chamber having multi-pole magnetic cusp reflecting walls in combination with electronic injection for electrostatic containment provides the means for generating magnetic field free quiescent plasmas for practical application in ion-pumps, electronic switches, and the like. 1250 ''alnico v'' magnets 1/2 '' X 1/2 '' X 1 1/2 '' provide containment in one embodiment. Electromagnets embodying toroidal funneling extend the principle to fusion apparatus

  14. Numerical simulation of plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dnestrovskii, Y.N.; Kostomarov, D.P.

    1986-01-01

    This book contains a modern consistent and systematic presentation of numerical computer simulation of plasmas in controlled thermonuclear fusion. The authors focus on the Soviet research in mathematical modelling of Tokamak plasmas, and present kinetic hydrodynamic and transport models with special emphasis on the more recent hybrid models. Compared with the first edition (in Russian) this book has been greatly revised and updated. (orig./WL)

  15. Oscillations in quasineutral plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grenier, E.

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe the limit, as the vacuum electric permittivity goes to zero, of a plasma physics system, deduced from the Vlasov-Poisson system for special initial data (distribution functions which are analytic in the space variable, with compact support in velocity), a limit also called open-quotes quasineutral regimeclose quotes of the plasma, and the related oscillations of the electric field, with high frequency in time. 20 refs

  16. Measuring the Plasma Density of a Ferroelectric Plasma Source in an Expanding Plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunaevsky, A.; Fisch, N.J.

    2003-01-01

    The initial density and electron temperature at the surface of a ferroelectric plasma source were deduced from floating probe measurements in an expanding plasma. The method exploits negative charging of the floating probe capacitance by fast flows before the expanding plasma reaches the probe. The temporal profiles of the plasma density can be obtained from the voltage traces of the discharge of the charged probe capacitance by the ion current from the expanding plasma. The temporal profiles of the plasma density, at two different distances from the surface of the ferroelectric plasma source, could be further fitted by using the density profiles for the expanding plasma. This gives the initial values of the plasma density and electron temperature at the surface. The method could be useful for any pulsed discharge, which is accompanied by considerable electromagnetic noise, if the initial plasma parameters might be deduced from measurements in expanding plasma

  17. From particles to plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Dam, J.W.

    1989-01-01

    The title of this book, From Particles to Plasmas, has more than one meaning. First, it reflects how the scientific career of Marshall Rosenbluth has evolved, beginning in the field of elementary particle physics and extending into his major area of plasma physics. Secondly, it is meant to suggest the wide spectrum of subject matters addressed in the individual lectures, ranging from numerical simulation and space physics and accelerators to various subfields in the physics of plasmas. In the third place, the title is a reference to the way in which the theoretical description of plasmas is often constructed, namely starting from the motion of single particles and then incorporating collective effects. Most of the contributions in this book do concern various aspects of fusion plasma physics, which is the field in which most of Marshall Rosenbluth's scientific contributions have been and are being made. In this field his eminence and authority are indicated by the sobriquet pope of plasma physics that is often applied to him

  18. Plasma control device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsutomi, Akiyoshi.

    1995-01-01

    Plasma position and shape estimation values are outputted based on measured values of coil current. When the measured values of the position and the shape are judged to be abnormal, position and shape estimation values estimated by a plasma position and shape estimation means are outputted as position and shape feed back values to a plasma position and shape control means instead of the position and shape measured values. Since only a portion of the abnormal position and shape measured values may also be replaced with the position and shape estimation values, errors in the plasma position and shape feed back values can be reduced as a whole. In addition, even if the position and shape measured values are abnormal or if they can not be measured, plasma control can be continued by alternative position and shape estimation values, thereby enabling to avoid interruption of plasma control. Since the position and shape estimation values are obtained not only with the measured values of coil current but also with the position and shape estimation values, the accuracy is improved. Further, noises superposed on the position and shape measured values are filtered, and the device is stabilized compared with a prior art device. (N.H.)

  19. Plasma position control device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takase, Haruhiko.

    1987-01-01

    Purpose: To conduct position control stably to various plasmas and reduce the burden on the control coil power source. Constitution: Among the proportional, integration and differentiation controls, a proportional-differentiation control section and an integration control section are connected in parallel. Then, a signal switching circuit is disposed to the control signal input section for the proportional-differentiation control section such that either a present position of plasmas or deviation between the present plasma position and an aimed value can be selected as a control signal depending on the control procedures or the state of the plasmas. For instance, if a rapid response is required for the control, the deviation between the present plasma position and the aimed value is selected as the input signal to conduct proportional, integration and differentiation controls. While on the other hand, if it is intended to reduce the burden on the control coil power source, it is adapted such that the control signal inputted to the proportional-differentiation control section itself can select the present plasma position. (Yoshihara, H.)

  20. Thermal plasmas: fundamental aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fauchais, P.

    2005-01-01

    This article treats of thermal plasmas, i.e. mainly produced by electric arcs and RF discharges. Their main characteristic is that they are generated at a pressure close to the atmospheric pressure (between 10 4 and 10 6 Pa) and refer to the classical kinetics of the Boltzmann equation. Because of the pressure, the collisions between particles are numerous and ionization is mainly due to a thermal effect. They correspond to electron densities between 10 20 and 10 24 m -3 and temperatures between 6000 and 25000 K. In these plasmas, the electric fields and the average free trajectories are too weak to generate a ionization state by direct inelastic collision. Ionization is thus essentially a thermal phenomenon due to elastic collisions. This article presents: 1 - the particles present in a plasma: definition, energy states; 2 - characteristic data: collisions, average free path and collision cross-section, distribution function, ionization types, charged particles mobility inside an electric field, scattering, Debye length; 3 - plasmas at the thermodynamical equilibrium: conditions of equilibrium, calculation of composition, thermodynamic properties, transport properties, radiation; 4 - thermal plasmas away from equilibrium: conditions of non-equilibrium, calculation of plasma composition, calculation of transport properties, quenching phenomenon. (J.S.)

  1. Online plasma calculator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisniewski, H.; Gourdain, P.-A.

    2017-10-01

    APOLLO is an online, Linux based plasma calculator. Users can input variables that correspond to their specific plasma, such as ion and electron densities, temperatures, and external magnetic fields. The system is based on a webserver where a FastCGI protocol computes key plasma parameters including frequencies, lengths, velocities, and dimensionless numbers. FastCGI was chosen to overcome security problems caused by JAVA-based plugins. The FastCGI also speeds up calculations over PHP based systems. APOLLO is built upon the WT library, which turns any web browser into a versatile, fast graphic user interface. All values with units are expressed in SI units except temperature, which is in electron-volts. SI units were chosen over cgs units because of the gradual shift to using SI units within the plasma community. APOLLO is intended to be a fast calculator that also provides the user with the proper equations used to calculate the plasma parameters. This system is intended to be used by undergraduates taking plasma courses as well as graduate students and researchers who need a quick reference calculation.

  2. Fueling by coaxial plasma guns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, J.

    1977-01-01

    A review of the operational characteristics of ''snowplow'' and ''deflagration'' coaxial plasma guns is given. The injection of these plasmas into containment fields is discussed. The effect of a background plasma on low-beta injection is mentioned. The use of high-beta injection for reactor plasmas is described

  3. Numerical simulation in plasma physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samarskii, A.A.

    1980-01-01

    Plasma physics is not only a field for development of physical theories and mathematical models but also an object of application of the computational experiment comprising analytical and numerical methods adapted for computers. The author considers only MHD plasma physics problems. Examples treated are dissipative structures in plasma; MHD model of solar dynamo; supernova explosion simulation; and plasma compression by a liner. (Auth.)

  4. Plasma-based accelerator structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schroeder, Carl B.

    1999-01-01

    Plasma-based accelerators have the ability to sustain extremely large accelerating gradients, with possible high-energy physics applications. This dissertation further develops the theory of plasma-based accelerators by addressing three topics: the performance of a hollow plasma channel as an accelerating structure, the generation of ultrashort electron bunches, and the propagation of laser pulses is underdense plasmas

  5. Physics of partially ionized plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Krishan, Vinod

    2016-01-01

    Plasma is one of the four fundamental states of matter; the other three being solid, liquid and gas. Several components, such as molecular clouds, diffuse interstellar gas, the solar atmosphere, the Earth's ionosphere and laboratory plasmas, including fusion plasmas, constitute the partially ionized plasmas. This book discusses different aspects of partially ionized plasmas including multi-fluid description, equilibrium and types of waves. The discussion goes on to cover the reionization phase of the universe, along with a brief description of high discharge plasmas, tokomak plasmas and laser plasmas. Various elastic and inelastic collisions amongst the three particle species are also presented. In addition, the author demonstrates the novelty of partially ionized plasmas using many examples; for instance, in partially ionized plasma the magnetic induction is subjected to the ambipolar diffusion and the Hall effect, as well as the usual resistive dissipation. Also included is an observation of kinematic dynam...

  6. Echo phenomena in a plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavlenko, V.N.

    1983-01-01

    The mechanism of echo phenomenon in different plasma media: laboratory and cosmic plasma, metals and semiconductors is analyzed to get a more comprehensive idea on collective processes in a plasma and for practical applications in radiophysics and plasma diagnostics. The echo phenomenon permitted to confirm a reversible nature of the Landau damping, to prove the fact that the information on perturbation is conserved in a plasma (as non-damping oscillations of the distribution function) even after disappearing of the macroscopic field. The dependence of the diffusion coefficient on the velocity is measured, microturbulences in a plasma are investigated. New ways of the plasma wave conversion are suggested, as well as ''lightning'' of super-critical plasma layers and regions of plasma non-transparency. Prospective advantages of using echo for studying the mechanisms of charged particle interaction with the surface bounding a plasma are revealed

  7. Dust in flowing magnetized plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pandey, Birendra P.; Samarian, Alex A.; Vladimirov, Sergey V.

    2009-01-01

    Plasma flows occur in almost every laboratory device and interactions of flowing plasmas with near-wall impurities and/or dust significantly affects the efficiency and lifetime of such devices. The charged dust inside the magnetized flowing plasma moves primarily under the influence of the plasma drag and electric forces. Here, the charge on the dust, plasma potential, and plasma density are calculated self-consistently. The electrons are assumed non-Boltzmannian and the effect of electron magnetization and electron-atom collisions on the dust charge is calculated in a self-consistent fashion. For various plasma magnetization parameters viz. the ratio of the electron and ion cyclotron frequencies to their respective collision frequencies, plasma-atom and ionization frequencies, the evolution of the plasma potential and density in the flow region is investigated. The variation of the dust charge profile is shown to be a sensitive function of plasma parameters. (author)

  8. Plasma particle accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dawson, J.M.

    1988-01-01

    The Superconducting Supercollider (SSC) will require an 87-kilometer accelerator ring to boost particles to 40 TeV. The SSC's size is due in part to the fact that its operating principle is the same one that has dominated accelerator design for 50 years: it guides particles by means of magnetic fields and propels them by strong electric fields. If one were to build an equally powerful but smaller accelerator, one would need to increase the strength of the guiding and propelling fields. Actually, however, conventional technology may not be able to provide significant increases in field strength. There are two reasons. First, the forces from magnetic fields are becoming greater than the structural forces that hold a magnetic material together; the magnets that produce these fields would themselves be torn apart. Second, the energy from electric fields is reaching the energies that bind electrons to atoms; it would tear electrons from nuclei in the accelerator's support structures. It is the electric field problem that plasma accelerators can overcome. Plasma particle accelerators are based on the principle that particles can be accelerated by the electric fields generated within a plasma. Because the plasma has already been ionized, plasma particle accelerators are not susceptible to electron dissociation. They can in theory sustain accelerating fields thousands of times stronger that conventional technologies. So far two methods for creating plasma waves for accelerators have been proposed and tested: the wakefield and the beat wave. Although promising electric fields have been produced, more research is necessary to determine whether plasma particle accelerators can compete with the existing accelerators. 7 figs

  9. Plasma state. The universe's fire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehner, Th.

    2004-01-01

    The plasma is the fourth state of matter, obtained at a very high temperature by the separation of the electrons from their nuclei. Plasma represents 99% of the visible mass of our present day universe and was the unique state of matter at its very beginning. Plasmas are present in the core of stars and in the interstellar environment. More closer to us, they are responsible of spectacular phenomena, like aurora borealis, lightning, comet queues etc.. This book makes a review of the different types of plasmas (electromagnetic, Earth's plasmas, spatial plasmas, solar plasmas, astrophysical plasmas). One chapter presents the thermonuclear fusion as future energy source. Another one treats of the chaos and turbulence inside plasmas. Some applications of plasmas are reviewed: MHD and ionic propulsion systems, MHD energy conversion and MHD generators, thermo-ionic converters, solid-state plasmas, particle accelerators, coherent radiation sources, 'Zeta' machines, X-ray lasers, isotopic separation, non-neutral plasmas and charged beams, free-electrons lasers, electrons and positrons plasmas, industrial applications (etching and cleaning, manufacturing of solar cells, flat screens, industrial reactors, waste treatment, cold plasma-assisted sterilization, effluents decontamination etc.). A last chapter makes an overview of the modern research in plasma physics. (J.S.)

  10. Integrated modelling of the edge plasma and plasma facing components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coster, D.P.; Bonnin, X.; Mutzke, A.; Schneider, R.; Warrier, M.

    2007-01-01

    Modelling of the interaction between the edge plasma and plasma facing components (PFCs) has tended to place more emphasis on either the plasma or the PFCs. Either the PFCs do not change with time and the plasma evolution is studied, or the plasma is assumed to remain static and the detailed interaction of the plasma and the PFCs are examined, with no back-reaction on the plasma taken into consideration. Recent changes to the edge simulation code, SOLPS, now allow for changes in both the plasma and the PFCs to be considered. This has been done by augmenting the code to track the time-development of the properties of plasma facing components (PFCs). Results of standard mixed-materials scenarios (base and redeposited C; Be) are presented

  11. Plasma rico en plaquetas Platelet -rich plasma

    OpenAIRE

    J. González Lagunas

    2006-01-01

    El Plasma Rico en Plaquetas es una suspensión concentrada de la sangre centrifugada que contiene elevadas concentraciones de trombocitos. Durante los últimos años, este producto ha aparecido de forma repetida en publicaciones científicas y en medios de comunicación generales como un producto que por sus características induce la curación y regeneración de los tejidos. La premisa de su uso es que las elevadas concentraciones de plaquetas en el PRP, liberan cantidades significativas de factores...

  12. Low Temperature Plasma Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, David

    2013-10-01

    Ionized gas plasmas near room temperature are used in a remarkable number of technological applications mainly because they are extraordinarily efficient at exploiting electrical power for useful chemical and material transformations near room temperature. In this tutorial address, I will focus on the newest area of low temperature ionized gas plasmas (LTP), in this case operating under atmospheric pressure conditions, in which the temperature-sensitive material is living tissue. LTP research directed towards biomedical applications such as sterilization, surgery, wound healing and anti-cancer therapy has seen remarkable growth in the last 3-5 years, but the mechanisms responsible for the biomedical effects have remained mysterious. It is known that LTP readily create reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS). ROS and RNS (or RONS), in addition to a suite of other radical and non-radical reactive species, are essential actors in an important sub-field of aerobic biology termed ``redox'' (or oxidation-reduction) biology. I will review the evidence suggesting that RONS generated by plasmas are responsible for their observed therapeutic effects. Other possible bio-active mechanisms include electric fields, charges and photons. It is common in LTP applications that synergies between different mechanisms can play a role and I will review the evidence for synergies in plasma biomedicine. Finally, I will address the challenges and opportunities for plasma physicists to enter this novel, multidisciplinary field.

  13. Mechanisms of Plasma Therapeutics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, David

    2015-09-01

    In this talk, I address research directed towards biomedical applications of atmospheric pressure plasma such as sterilization, surgery, wound healing and anti-cancer therapy. The field has seen remarkable growth in the last 3-5 years, but the mechanisms responsible for the biomedical effects have remained mysterious. It is known that plasmas readily create reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS). ROS and RNS (or RONS), in addition to a suite of other radical and non-radical reactive species, are essential actors in an important sub-field of aerobic biology termed ``redox'' (or oxidation-reduction) biology. It is postulated that cold atmospheric plasma (CAP) can trigger a therapeutic shielding response in tissue in part by creating a time- and space-localized, burst-like form of oxy-nitrosative stress on near-surface exposed cells through the flux of plasma-generated RONS. RONS-exposed surface layers of cells communicate to the deeper levels of tissue via a form of the ``bystander effect,'' similar to responses to other forms of cell stress. In this proposed model of CAP therapeutics, the plasma stimulates a cellular survival mechanism through which aerobic organisms shield themselves from infection and other challenges.

  14. Plasma treatment of onychomycosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Zilan; Roe, Jeff; Grammer, Tim; Him, Yeon-Ho; Graves, David B.

    2015-09-01

    Onychomycosis or fungal infection of the toenail or fingernail is a common affliction. Approximately 10% of the world's adult population is estimated to suffer from onychomycosis. Current treatment options such as topical creams, oral drugs, or laser treatments are generally limited by a variety of problems. We present results for an alternative onychomycosis treatment scheme using atmospheric pressure cold air plasmas. Using thinned cow hoof as a model nail material, we tested the ability of various plasma sources to act through the model nail to eradicate either bacteria or fungus deposited on the opposite side. Following 20 minute exposure to a surface microdischarge (SMD) device operating in room air, we observed a ~ 2 log reduction of E. coli. A similar result was obtained against T. rubrum after 45 min plasma treatment. NOx species concentration penetrating through the model nail as well as uptake into the nail were measured as a function of nail thickness. We propose that these plasma-generated species, or perhaps their reaction products, are responsible for at least part of the observed anti-microbial effect. We also explore the use of ultraviolet light acting in synergy with plasma-generated chemical species.

  15. ITER plasma facing components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuroda, T.; Vieider, G.; Akiba, M.

    1991-01-01

    This document summarizes results of the Conceptual Design Activities (1988-1990) for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) project, namely those that pertain to the plasma facing components of the reactor vessel, of which the main components are the first wall and the divertor plates. After an introduction and an executive summary, the principal functions of the plasma-facing components are delineated, i.e., (i) define the low-impurity region within which the plasma is produced, (ii) absorb the electromagnetic radiation and charged-particle flux from the plasma, and (iii) protect the blanket/shield components from the plasma. A list of critical design issues for the divertor plates and the first wall is given, followed by discussions of the divertor plate design (including the issues of material selection, erosion lifetime, design concepts, thermal and mechanical analysis, operating limits and overall lifetime, tritium inventory, baking and conditioning, safety analysis, manufacture and testing, and advanced divertor concepts) and the first wall design (armor material and design, erosion lifetime, overall design concepts, thermal and mechanical analysis, lifetime and operating limits, tritium inventory, baking and conditioning, safety analysis, manufacture and testing, an alternative first wall design, and the limiters used instead of the divertor plates during start-up). Refs, figs and tabs

  16. Plasma-Wall Interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, J; Chen, J L [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (China); Guo, H Y [Tri Alpha Energy (United States); Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (China); McCracken, G M [Culham Science Centre, UKAEA, Abingdon (United Kingdom)

    2012-09-15

    The problem of impurities in fusion plasmas has been recognized since the beginning of the fusion programme. Early experiments in glass vacuum vessels released gas from the wall to such an extent that the radiation from the impurities prevented the plasma from being heated above about 50 eV. The radiative power loss is principally due to line radiation from partially stripped ions, which is particularly a problem during the plasma startup phase. Another problem is fuel dilution, which arises because impurity atoms produce many electrons and, for a given plasma pressure, these electrons take the place of fuel particles. Impurities can also lead to disruptions, as a result of edge cooling and consequent current profile modification. The fractional impurity level which radiates 10% of the total thermonuclear power for a 10 keV plasma is 50% for helium, 7% for carbon, and less than 0.1% for molybdenum. Clearly, impurities of low atomic number are a much less serious problem than those of high atomic number. (author)

  17. Plasma nuclear fusion method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamazaki, Shunpei; Miyanaga, Shoji; Wakaizumi, Kazuhiro; Takemura, Yasuhiko.

    1990-01-01

    Nuclear fusion reactions are attained by plasma gas phase reactions using magnetic fields and microwaves, and the degree of the reactions is controlled. That is, deuterium (D 2 ) is introduced into a plasma container by utilizing the resonance of microwaves capable of generating plasmas at high density higher by more than 10 - 10 3 times as compared with the high frequency and magnetic fields, and an electric energy is applied to convert gaseous D 2 into plasmas and nuclear fusion is conducted. Further, the deuterium ions in the plasmas are attracted to a surface of a material causing nuclear fusion under a negatively biased electric field from the outside (typically represented by Pd or Ti). Then, deuterium nuclei (d) or deuterium ions collide to the surface of the cathode on the side of palladium to conduct nuclear reaction at the surface or the inside (vicinity) thereof. However, a DC bias is applied as an external bias with the side of the palladium being negative. The cold nuclear fusion was demonstrated by placing a neutron counter in the vicinity of the container and confirming neutrons generated there. (I.S.)

  18. Plasma-surface interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goeckner, M J; Nelson, C T; Sant, S P; Jindal, A K; Joseph, E A; Zhou, B S; Padron-Wells, G; Jarvis, B; Pierce, R; Overzet, L J

    2008-01-01

    Materials processing is at a crossroads. Currently a large fraction of industrially viable materials processing is via plasmas. Until recently it has been economical to just examine the influence the plasma properties on the desired surface processes and through this ultimately optimize manufacturing. For example, it is well known that the surface processes (etch or deposition), occur in the top few mono-layers of the surface. Thus, in film growth one requires that molecules from the gas-phase land and bond on the surface. However as processing has reached the nano-scale, development of viable processes has become more and more difficult. In part, this is because of all of the free parameters that exist in plasmas. To overcome this economic issue, tool vendors and semiconductor companies have turned to complex computational models of processing plasmas. For those models to work, one requires a through understanding of all of the gas-phase and surface-phase processes that are exhibited in plasmas. Unfortunately, these processes, particularly those at the surface, are not well understood. In this article we describe a viable model of the surface-phase based on cross sections for processes that occur. While originally developed of fluorocarbon systems, the model also appears to be applicable to hydrocarbon systems.

  19. Plasma-surface interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goeckner, M J; Nelson, C T; Sant, S P; Jindal, A K; Joseph, E A; Zhou, B S; Padron-Wells, G; Jarvis, B; Pierce, R; Overzet, L J [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Texas at Dallas (United States)], E-mail: goeckner@utdallas.edu

    2008-10-01

    Materials processing is at a crossroads. Currently a large fraction of industrially viable materials processing is via plasmas. Until recently it has been economical to just examine the influence the plasma properties on the desired surface processes and through this ultimately optimize manufacturing. For example, it is well known that the surface processes (etch or deposition), occur in the top few mono-layers of the surface. Thus, in film growth one requires that molecules from the gas-phase land and bond on the surface. However as processing has reached the nano-scale, development of viable processes has become more and more difficult. In part, this is because of all of the free parameters that exist in plasmas. To overcome this economic issue, tool vendors and semiconductor companies have turned to complex computational models of processing plasmas. For those models to work, one requires a through understanding of all of the gas-phase and surface-phase processes that are exhibited in plasmas. Unfortunately, these processes, particularly those at the surface, are not well understood. In this article we describe a viable model of the surface-phase based on cross sections for processes that occur. While originally developed of fluorocarbon systems, the model also appears to be applicable to hydrocarbon systems.

  20. Optical plasma torch electron bunch generation in plasma wakefield accelerators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Wittig

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A novel, flexible method of witness electron bunch generation in plasma wakefield accelerators is described. A quasistationary plasma region is ignited by a focused laser pulse prior to the arrival of the plasma wave. This localized, shapeable optical plasma torch causes a strong distortion of the plasma blowout during passage of the electron driver bunch, leading to collective alteration of plasma electron trajectories and to controlled injection. This optically steered injection is more flexible and faster when compared to hydrodynamically controlled gas density transition injection methods.

  1. Plasma cleaning for waste minimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ward, P.P.

    1993-07-01

    Although plasma cleaning is a recognized substitute for solvent cleaning in removing organic contaminants, some universal problems in plasma cleaning processes prevent wider use of plasma techniques. Lack of understanding of the fundamental mechanisms of the process, unreliable endpoint detection techniques, and slow process times make plasma cleaning processes less than desirable. Our approach to address these plasma cleaning problems is described. A comparison of plasma cleaning rates of oxygen and oxygen/sulfur hexafluoride gases shows that fluorine-containing plasmas can enhance etch rates by 400% over oxygen alone. A discussion of various endpoint indication techniques is discussed and compared for application suitability. Work toward a plasma cleaning database is discussed. In addition to the global problems of plasma cleaning, an experiment where the specific mixed-waste problem of removal of machine oils from radioactive scrap metal is discussed.

  2. Plasma Colloquium Travel Grant Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazeltine, R.D.

    1998-01-01

    OAK B188 Plasma Colloquium Travel Grant Program. The purpose of the Travel Grant Program is to increase the awareness of plasma research. The new results and techniques of plasma research in fusion plasmas, plasma processing space plasmas, basic plasma science, etc, have broad applicability throughout science. The benefits of these results are limited by the relatively low awareness and appreciation of plasma research in the larger scientific community. Whereas spontaneous interactions between plasma scientists and other scientists are useful, a focused effort in education and outreach to other scientists is efficient and is needed. The academic scientific community is the initial focus of this effort, since that permits access to a broad cross-section of scientists and future scientists including undergraduates, graduate students, faculty, and research staff

  3. Plasma rico en plaquetas Platelet -rich plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. González Lagunas

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available El Plasma Rico en Plaquetas es una suspensión concentrada de la sangre centrifugada que contiene elevadas concentraciones de trombocitos. Durante los últimos años, este producto ha aparecido de forma repetida en publicaciones científicas y en medios de comunicación generales como un producto que por sus características induce la curación y regeneración de los tejidos. La premisa de su uso es que las elevadas concentraciones de plaquetas en el PRP, liberan cantidades significativas de factores de crecimiento. En este artículo se van a recoger las evidencias científicas que se han presentado en la literatura médica con respecto al PRP y a la curación ósea, así como las diferentes aplicaciones clínicas que se han sugerido.Platelet-rich plasma is a by-product of centrifuged whole blood that contains high levels of thrombocytes. In the last decade, scientific and media interest has been generated by this product that apparently has the capacity of inducing and promoting tissue healing and regeneration. The premise of its use is that the large number of platelets in PRP release significant amounts of growth factors. In this paper, a critical review of the medical literature regarding PRP and bone healing will be presented. Also, the suggested clinical applications of the product will be addressed.

  4. Atoms in dense plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    More, R.M.

    1987-01-01

    This paper covers some aspects of the theory of atomic processes in dense plasmas. Because the topic is very broad, a few general rules which give useful guidance about the typical behavior of dense plasmas have been selected. These rules are illustrated by semiclassical estimates, scaling laws and appeals to more elaborate calculations. Included in the paper are several previously unpublished results including a new mechanism for electron-ion heat exchange (section II), and an approximate expression for oscillator-strengths of highly charged ions (section V). However the main emphasis is not upon practical formulas but rather on questions of fundamental theory, the structural ingredients which must be used in building a model for plasma events. What are the density effects and how does one represent them? Which are most important? How does one identify an incorrect theory? The general rules help to answer these questions. 106 references, 23 figures, 2 tables

  5. Corpuscular plasma diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afrosimov, V.; Petrov, M.

    1984-01-01

    An elementary explanation is presented of the physical principles and important methods of corpuscular plasma diagnostics. The invaluable role of corpuscular methods for measuring the hot plasma ion component in thermonuclear facilities, especially hydrogen ions in tokamaks, is emphasized. All corpuscular methods employ analysis of fast neutral atoms and therefore the mechanism of their creation inside a hot plasma is explained first. The ammount of information obtainable from spectra of fast neutrals is discussed. Multichannel analyzers developed at the FTI A.F. Ioffe in Leningrad are described in detail. Classical passive corpuscular diagnostics are examined as are active methods using artifitial beams of hydrogen atoms. The method used for obtaining local values of ion temperature and density is explained. Corpuscular spectroscopic diagnostics and its application for measuring impurities is mentioned. (J.U.)

  6. Plasma cell leukemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernández de Larrea, C; Kyle, R A; Durie, B G M

    2013-01-01

    Plasma cell leukemia (PCL) is a rare and aggressive variant of myeloma characterized by the presence of circulating plasma cells. It is classified as either primary PCL occurring at diagnosis or as secondary PCL in patients with relapsed/refractory myeloma. Primary PCL is a distinct clinic......-pathological entity with different cytogenetic and molecular findings. The clinical course is aggressive with short remissions and survival duration. The diagnosis is based upon the percentage (≥ 20%) and absolute number (≥ 2 × 10(9)/l) of plasma cells in the peripheral blood. It is proposed that the thresholds...... regimens and bortezomib-based regimens are recommended followed by high-dose therapy with autologous stem cell transplantation if feasible. Allogeneic transplantation can be considered in younger patients. Prospective multicenter studies are required to provide revised definitions and better understanding...

  7. Plasma processing of nanomaterials

    CERN Document Server

    Sankaran, R Mohan

    2014-01-01

    CRC Press author R. Mohan Sankaran is the winner of the 2011 Peter Mark Memorial Award "… for the development of a tandem plasma synthesis method to grow carbon nanotubes with unprecedented control over the nanotube properties and chirality." -2011 AVS Awards Committee"Readers who want to learn about how nanomaterials are processed, using the most recent methods, will benefit greatly from this book. It contains very recent technical details on plasma processing and synthesis methods used by current researchers developing new nano-based materials, with all the major plasma-based processing techniques used today being thoroughly discussed."-John J. Shea, IEEE Electrical Insulation Magazine, May/June 2013, Vol. 29, No. 3.

  8. [Plasma properties: Annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The Magneto-Fluid Dynamics Division of the Courant Institute is engaged in a broad program of basic research in the theoretical aspects of plasma physics and magneto-fluid dynamics with emphasis on those areas which are relevant to the fusion energy program. The total research program in the division includes efforts in the areas of plasma containment, stability, equilibrium, transport, wave propagation (including shock waves), heating, orbit theory, as well as numerical experiments and the development of practical numerical methods in all plasma problems. Applications are made to the following project areas: Tokamaks, Mirrors, Stellarators, and Alternate Concepts. Developments include the whole spectrum of models from macroscopic MHD and guiding center to Vlasov, drift kinetic Fokker-Planck, and Boltzmann. This document describes research completed as well as programs in progress

  9. Heating in toroidal plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knoepfel, H.; Mazzitelli, G.

    1984-01-01

    The article is a rather detailed report on the highlights in the area of the ''Heating in toroidal plasmas'', as derived from the presentations and discussions at the international symposium with the same name, held in Rome, March 1984. The symposium covered both the physics (experiments and theory) and technology of toroidal fusion plasma heating. Both large fusion devices (either already in operation or near completion) requiring auxiliary heating systems at the level of tens of megawatts, as well as physics of their heating processes and their induced side effects (as studied on smaller devices), received attention. Substantial progress was reported on the broad front of auxiliary plasma heating and Ohmic heating. The presentation of the main conclusions of the symposium is divided under the following topics: neutral-beam heating, Alfven wave heating, ion cyclotron heating, lower hybrid heating, RF current drive, electron cyclotron heating, Ohmic heating and special contributions

  10. Relativistic plasma dispersion functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, P.A.

    1986-01-01

    The known properties of plasma dispersion functions (PDF's) for waves in weakly relativistic, magnetized, thermal plasmas are reviewed and a large number of new results are presented. The PDF's required for the description of waves with small wave number perpendicular to the magnetic field (Dnestrovskii and Shkarofsky functions) are considered in detail; these functions also arise in certain quantum electrodynamical calculations involving strongly magnetized plasmas. Series, asymptotic series, recursion relations, integral forms, derivatives, differential equations, and approximations for these functions are discussed as are their analytic properties and connections with standard transcendental functions. In addition a more general class of PDF's relevant to waves of arbitrary perpendicular wave number is introduced and a range of properties of these functions are derived

  11. Plasma Simulation Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenwald, Martin

    2011-10-04

    Many others in the fusion energy and advanced scientific computing communities participated in the development of this plan. The core planning team is grateful for their important contributions. This summary is meant as a quick overview the Fusion Simulation Program's (FSP's) purpose and intentions. There are several additional documents referenced within this one and all are supplemental or flow down from this Program Plan. The overall science goal of the DOE Office of Fusion Energy Sciences (FES) Fusion Simulation Program (FSP) is to develop predictive simulation capability for magnetically confined fusion plasmas at an unprecedented level of integration and fidelity. This will directly support and enable effective U.S. participation in International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) research and the overall mission of delivering practical fusion energy. The FSP will address a rich set of scientific issues together with experimental programs, producing validated integrated physics results. This is very well aligned with the mission of the ITER Organization to coordinate with its members the integrated modeling and control of fusion plasmas, including benchmarking and validation activities. [1]. Initial FSP research will focus on two critical Integrated Science Application (ISA) areas: ISA1, the plasma edge; and ISA2, whole device modeling (WDM) including disruption avoidance. The first of these problems involves the narrow plasma boundary layer and its complex interactions with the plasma core and the surrounding material wall. The second requires development of a computationally tractable, but comprehensive model that describes all equilibrium and dynamic processes at a sufficient level of detail to provide useful prediction of the temporal evolution of fusion plasma experiments. The initial driver for the whole device model will be prediction and avoidance of discharge-terminating disruptions, especially at high performance, which are a

  12. Pulsed Plasma Electron Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasik, Yakov

    2008-11-01

    Pulsed (˜10-7 s) electron beams with high current density (>10^2 A/cm^2) are generated in diodes with electric field of E > 10^6 V/cm. The source of electrons in these diodes is explosive emission plasma, which limits pulse duration; in the case E Saveliev, J. Appl. Phys. 98, 093308 (2005). Ya. E. Krasik, A. Dunaevsky, and J. Felsteiner, Phys. Plasmas 8, 2466 (2001). D. Yarmolich, V. Vekselman, V. Tz. Gurovich, and Ya. E. Krasik, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 075004 (2008). J. Z. Gleizer, Y. Hadas and Ya. E. Krasik, Europhysics Lett. 82, 55001 (2008).

  13. Plasma diagnostic reflectometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, B.I.; Afeyan, B.B.; Garrison, J.C.; Kaiser, T.B.; Luhmann, N.C. Jr.; Domier, C.W.; Chou, A.E.; Baang, S.

    1996-01-01

    Theoretical and experimental studies of plasma diagnostic reflectometry have been undertaken as a collaborative research project between the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and the University of California Department of Applied Science Plasma Diagnostics Group under the auspices of the Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program at LLNL. Theoretical analyses have explored the basic principles of reflectometry to understand its limitations, to address specific gaps in the understanding of reflectometry measurements in laboratory experiments, and to explore extensions of reflectometry such as ultra-short-pulse reflectometry. The theory has supported basic laboratory reflectometry experiments where reflectometry measurements can be corroborated by independent diagnostic measurements

  14. Protective plasma envelope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bocharov, V.N.; Konstantinov, S.G.; Kudryavtsev, A.M.; Myskin, O.K.; Panasyuk, V.M.; Tsel'nik, F.A.

    1984-06-01

    A method of creating an annular plasma envelope used to protect the hot plasma from flows of impurities and gases from the walls of the vacuum chamber is described. The diameter of the envelope is 30 cm, the thickness of the wall is 1.5 cm, the length is 2.5 m, and its density is from 10 13 to 10 14 cm -3 . The envelope attenuates the incident (from outside) flow of helium 10-fold and the low of hydrogen 20-fold

  15. Plasma fractionation issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrugia, Albert; Evers, Theo; Falcou, Pierre-Francois; Burnouf, Thierry; Amorim, Luiz; Thomas, Sylvia

    2009-04-01

    Procurement and processing of human plasma for fractionation of therapeutic proteins or biological medicines used in clinical practice is a multi-billion dollar international trade. Together the private sector and public sector (non-profit) provide large amounts of safe and effective therapeutic plasma proteins needed worldwide. The principal therapeutic proteins produced by the dichotomous industry include gamma globulins or immunoglobulins (including pathogen-specific hyperimmune globulins, such as hepatitis B immune globulins) albumin, factor VIII and Factor IX concentrates. Viral inactivation, principally by solvent detergent and other processes, has proven highly effective in preventing transmission of enveloped viruses, viz. HBV, HIV, and HCV.

  16. Dust-Plasma Interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenberg, M.

    2010-01-01

    The objective of our theoretical research under this grant over the past 3 years was to develop new understanding in a range of topics in the physics of dust-plasma interactions, with application to space and the laboratory. We conducted studies related to the physical properties of dust, waves and instabilities in both weakly coupled and strongly coupled dusty plasmas, and innovative possible applications. A major consideration in our choice of topics was to compare theory with experiments or observations, and to motivate new experiments, which we believe is important for developing this relatively new field. Our research is summarized, with reference to our list of journal publications.

  17. Plasma YKL-40

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Peter; Wiell, C; Milting, K

    2013-01-01

    Background  Plasma YKL-40 is an inflammatory biomarker. No useful biomarker exists in patients with psoriasis or psoriatic arthritis. Objective  To measure YKL-40 and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) in patients with psoriasis or psoriatic arthritis before and during treatment. Methods......-CRP at inclusion and during 48 weeks of adalimumab treatment. The patients with psoriatic arthritis were divided into responders and non-responders. Results  In patients with psoriasis, the baseline median PASI score was 10.8 and baseline YKL-40 was 45 μg/L. Seventeen per cent had elevated plasma YKL-40 compared...

  18. Steam torch plasma modelling

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jeništa, Jiří

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 37, č. 3 (2017), s. 653-687 ISSN 0272-4324 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-19444S Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : Arc * Evaporation * Mass flow rate * Water-vortex stabilization * Net emission coefficients * Partial characteristics * Local thermodynamic equilibrium Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics OBOR OECD: Fluids and plasma physics (including surface physics) Impact factor: 2.355, year: 2016 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11090-017-9789-7

  19. Measurement of plasma parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The physics issues of the measurements of the plasma properties necessary to provide both the control and science data for achieving the goals of the ITER device are discussed. The assessment of the requirements for these measurements is first discussed, together with priorities that relate to the experimental program. Subsequently, some of the proposed measurement techniques, the plasma diagnostics, are described with particular emphasis on their implementation on ITER and their capability to meet the requirements. A judgement on the present status of the diagnostic program on ITER is provided with some indication of the research and development program necessary to demonstrate viability of techniques or their implementation. (author)

  20. Plasma wave accelerator. II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, W.; Joshi, C.; Dawson, J.M.

    1982-01-01

    It was shown that the insertion of a cross magnetic field prevents the particles from getting out of phase with the electric field of the plasma wave in the beat wave accelerator scheme. Thus, using a CO 2 laser, n/sub c//n/sub e/ = (ω 0 /ω/sub p/) 2 approx. 35, and a 300 kG magnetic field, electrons can be (in principle) accelerated to 100 GeV in 2 meters. For comparison without the magnetic field, the same energies may be obtained in a n/sub c//n/sub e/ approx. 10 5 plasma over a distance of 100 meters

  1. Plasma-wall interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behrisch, Rainer

    1978-01-01

    The plasma wall interactions for two extreme cases, the 'vacuum model' and the 'cold gas blanket' are outlined. As a first step for understanding the plasma wall interactions the elementary interaction processes at the first wall are identified. These are energetic ion and neutral particle trapping and release, ion and neutral backscattering, ion sputtering, desorption by ions, photons and electrons and evaporation. These processes have only recently been started to be investigated in the parameter range of interest for fusion research. The few measured data and their extrapolation into regions not yet investigated are reviewed

  2. Optical properties of cluster plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kishimoto, Yasuaki; Tajima, Toshiki [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Neyagawa, Osaka (Japan). Kansai Research Establishment; Downer, M C

    1998-03-01

    It is shown that unlike a gas plasma or an electron plasma in a metal, an ionized clustered material (`cluster plasma`) permits propagation below the plasma cut-off of electromagnetic (EM) waves whose phase velocity is close to but below the speed of light. This results from the excitation of a plasma oscillation mode (and/or polarization mode) through the cluster surface which does not exist in usual gaseous plasma. The existence of this new optical mode, cluster mode, is confirmed via numerical simulation. (author)

  3. Plasma effects on subcellular structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gweon, Bomi; Kim, Dan Bee; Jung, Heesoo; Choe, Wonho; Kim, Daeyeon; Shin, Jennifer H.

    2010-01-01

    Atmospheric pressure helium plasma treated human hepatocytes exhibit distinctive zones of necrotic and live cells separated by a void. We propose that plasma induced necrosis is attributed to plasma species such as oxygen radicals, charged particles, metastables and/or severe disruption of charged cytoskeletal proteins. Interestingly, uncharged cytoskeletal intermediate filaments are only minimally disturbed by plasma, elucidating the possibility of plasma induced electrostatic effects selectively destroying charged proteins. These bona fide plasma effects, which inflict alterations in specific subcellular structures leading to necrosis and cellular detachment, were not observed by application of helium flow or electric field alone.

  4. Dynamic plasma screening effects on atomic collisions in dense plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young-Dae Jung

    1999-01-01

    Dynamic plasma screening effects are investigated on electron-ion collisional excitation and Coulomb Bremsstrahlung processes in dense plasmas. The electron-ion interaction potential is considered by introduction of the plasma dielectric function. The straight-ling trajectory method is applied to the path of the projectile electron. The transition probability including the dynamic plasma screening effect is found to be always greater than that including the static plasma screening effects. It is found that the differential Bremsstrahlung radiation cross section including the dynamic plasma screening effect is also greater than that including the static plasma screening effect. When the projectile velocity is smaller than the electron thermal velocity, the dynamic polarization screening effect becomes the static plasma screening effect. However, when the projectile velocity is greater than the electron thermal velocity, the interaction potential is almost unshielded

  5. Observation of plasma hole in a rotating plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagaoka, Kenichi; Ishihara, Tatsuzo; Okamoto, Atsushi; Yoshimura, Shinji; Tanaka, Masayoshi Y.

    2001-01-01

    Plasma hole, a cylindrical density cavity, formed in a rotating plasma has been investigated experimentally. The plasma hole is characterized by large aspect ratio (length/radius ≥ 30), steep boundary layer between the hole and the ambient plasma (10 ion Larmor radius), and extremely high positive potential (130 V). The flow velocity field associated with plasma hole structure has been measured, and is found to have interesting features: (1) plasma rotates in azimuthal direction at a maximum velocity of order of ion sound speed, (2) plasma flows radially inward across the magnetic field line, (3) there present an axial flow reversal between core and peripheral region. It is found that the flow pattern of the plasma hole is very similar to the that of well-developed typhoon with core. (author)

  6. Partially ionized plasmas including the third symposium on uranium plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishnan, M. [ed.

    1976-09-01

    Separate abstracts are included for 28 papers on electrically generated plasmas, fission generated plasmas, nuclear pumped lasers, gaseous fuel reactor research, and applications. Five papers have been previously abstracted and included in ERA.

  7. Review on plasmas in extraordinary media: plasmas in cryogenic conditions and plasmas in supercritical fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stauss, Sven; Muneoka, Hitoshi; Terashima, Kazuo

    2018-02-01

    Plasma science and technology has enabled advances in very diverse fields: micro- and nanotechnology, chemical synthesis, materials fabrication and, more recently, biotechnology and medicine. While many of the currently employed plasma tools and technologies are very advanced, the types of plasmas used in micro- and nanofabrication pose certain limits, for example, in treating heat-sensitive materials in plasma biotechnology and plasma medicine. Moreover, many physical properties of plasmas encountered in nature, and especially outer space, i.e. very-low-temperature plasmas or plasmas that occur in high-density media, are not very well understood. The present review gives a short account of laboratory plasmas generated under ’extreme’ conditions: at cryogenic temperatures and in supercritical fluids. The fundamental characteristics of these cryogenic plasmas and cryoplasmas, and plasmas in supercritical fluids, especially supercritical fluid plasmas, are presented with their main applications. The research on such exotic plasmas is expected to lead to further understanding of plasma physics and, at the same time, enable new applications in various technological fields.

  8. Double plasma system with inductively coupled source plasma and quasi-quiescent target plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massi, M.; Maciel, H.S.

    1995-01-01

    Cold plasmas have successfully been used in the plasma-assisted material processing industry. An understanding of the physicochemical mechanisms involved in the plasma-surface interaction is needed for a proper description of deposition and etching processes at material surfaces. Since these mechanisms are dependent on the plasma properties, the development of diagnostic techniques is strongly desirable for determination of the plasma parameters as well as the characterization of the electromagnetic behaviour of the discharge. In this work a dual discharge chamber, was specially designed to study the deposition of thin films via plasma polymerization process. In the Pyrex chamber an inductively coupled plasma can be excited either in the diffuse low density E-mode or in the high density H-mode. This plasma diffuses into the cylindrical stainless steel chamber which is covered with permanent magnets to produce a multidipole magnetic field configuration at the surface. By that means a double plasma is established consisting of a RF source plasma coupled to a quasi-quiescent target plasma. The preliminary results presented here refer to measurements of the profiles of plasma parameters along the central axis of the double plasma apparatus. Additionally a spectrum analysis performed by means of a Rogowski coil probe immersed into the source plasma is also presented. The discharge is made in argon with pressure varying from 10 -2 to 1 torr, and the rf from 10 to 150 W

  9. Plasma rotation study in Tore Supra radio frequency heated plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chouli, Bilal

    2014-01-01

    Toroidal flows are found to improve the performance of the magnetic confinement devices with increase of the plasma stability and confinement. In ITER or future reactors, the torque from NBI should be less important than in present-day tokamaks. Consequently, it is of interest to study other intrinsic mechanisms that can give rise to plasma rotation in order to predict the rotation profile in experiments. Intriguing observations of plasmas rotation have been made in radio frequency (RF) heated plasmas with little or no external momentum injection. Toroidal rotation in both the direction of the plasma current (co-current) and in the opposite direction (counter-current) has been observed depending on the heating schemes and plasma performance. In Tore Supra, most observations in L-mode plasmas have been in the counter-current direction. However, in this thesis, we show that in lower hybrid current drive (LHCD), the core toroidal rotation increment is in co- or counter-current direction depending on the plasma current amplitude. At low plasma current the rotation change is in the co-current direction while at high plasma current, the change is in the counter-current direction. In both low and high plasma current cases, rotation increments are found to increase linearly with the injected LH power. Several mechanisms in competition which can induce co- or counter-current rotation in Tore Supra LHCD plasmas are investigated and typical order of magnitude are discussed in this thesis. (author) [fr

  10. Filamentary magnetohydrodynamic plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinney, R.; Tajima, T.; McWilliams, J.C.; Petviashvili, N.

    1994-01-01

    A filamentary construct of magnetohydrodynamical plasma dynamics based on the Elsaesser variables is developed. This approach is modeled after discrete vortex models of hydrodynamical turbulence, which cannot be expected in general to produce results identical to those based on a Fourier decomposition of the fields. In a highly intermittent plasma, the induction force is small compared to the convective motion, and when this force is neglected, the plasma vortex system is described by a Hamiltonian. A statistical treatment of a collection of discrete current-vorticity concentrations is given. Canonical and microcanonical statistical calculations show that both the vorticity and the current spectra are peaked at long wavelengths, and the expected states revert to known hydrodynamical states as the magnetic field vanishes. These results differ from previous Fourier-based statistical theories, but it is found that when the filament calculation is expanded to include the inductive force, the results approach the Fourier equilibria in the low-temperature limit, and the previous Hamiltonian plasma vortex results in the high-temperature limit. Numerical simulations of a large number of filaments are carried out and support the theory. A three-dimensional vortex model is presented as well, which is also Hamiltonian when the inductive force is neglected. A statistical calculation in the canonical ensemble and numerical simulations show that a nonzero large-scale magnetic field is statistically favored, and that the preferred shape of this field is a long, thin tube of flux. Possible applications to a variety of physical phenomena are suggested

  11. Plasma physics and instabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lashmore-Davies, C.N.

    1981-01-01

    These lectures procide an introduction to the theory of plasmas and their instabilities. Starting from the Bogoliubov, Born, Green, Kirkwood, and Yvon (BBGKY) hierarchy of kinetic equations, the additional concept of self-consistent fields leads to the fundamental Vlasov equation and hence to the warm two-fluid model and the one-fluid MHD, or cold, model. The properties of small-amplitude waves in magnetized (and unmagnetized) plasmas, and the instabilities to which they give rise, are described in some detail, and a complete chapter is devoted to Landau damping. The linear theory of plasma instabilities is illustrated by the current-driven electrostatic kind, with descriptions of the Penrose criterion and the energy principle of ideal MHD. There is a brief account of the application of feedback control. The non-linear theory is represented by three examples: quasi-linear velocity-space instabilities, three-wave instabilities, and the stability of an arbitrarily largeamplitude wave in a plasma. (orig.)

  12. Plasma focus matching conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soliman, H.M.; Masoud, M.M.; Elkhalafawy, T.A.

    1988-01-01

    A snow-plough and slug models have been used to obtain the optimum matching conditions of the plasma in the focus. The dimensions of the plasma focus device are, inner electrode radius = 2 cm, outer electrode radius = 5.5 cm, and its length = 8 cm. It was found that the maximum magnetic energy of 12.26 kJ has to be delivered to plasma focus whose density is 10 19 /cm 3 at focusing time of 2.55 μs and with total external inductance of 24.2 n H. The same method is used to evaluate the optimum matching conditions for the previous coaxial discharge system which had inner electrode radius = 1.6 cm, outer electrode radius = 3.3 cm and its length = 31.5 cm. These conditions are charging voltage = 12 kV, capacity of the condenser bank = 430 μf, plasma focus density = 10 19 /cm 3 focusing time = 8 μs and total external inductance = 60.32 n H.3 fig., 2 tab

  13. Plasma deposition of refractories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudinov, V.V.; Ivanov, V.M.

    1981-01-01

    The problems of deposition, testing and application of plasma coating of refractory metals and oxides are considered. The process fundamentals, various manufacturing procedures and equipment for their realization are described in detail. Coating materials are given (Al, Mg, Al 2 O 3 , ZrO 2 , MgAlO 4 ) which are used in reactor engineering and their designated purposes are shown [ru

  14. 5. Laser plasma interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labaune, C.; Fuchs, J.; Bandulet, H.

    2002-01-01

    Imprint elimination, smoothing and preheat control are considerable problems in inertial fusion and their possible solution can be achieved by using low-density porous materials as a buffer in target design. The articles gathered in this document present various aspects of the laser-plasma interaction, among which we have noticed: -) numerical algorithmic improvements of the Vlasov solver toward the simulation of the laser-plasma interaction are proposed, -) the dependence of radiation temperatures and X-ray conversion efficiencies of hohlraum on the target structures and laser irradiation conditions are investigated, -) a study of laser interaction with ultra low-density (0,5 - 20 mg/cm 3 ) porous media analyzing backscattered light at incident laser frequency ω 0 and its harmonics 3*ω 0 /2 and 2*ω 0 is presented, -) investigations of laser interaction with solid targets and crater formation are carried out with the objective to determine the ablation loading efficiency, -) a self organization in an intense laser-driven plasma and the measure of the relative degree of order of the states in an open system based on the S-theorem are investigated, and -) the existence and stability of electromagnetic solitons generated in a relativistic interaction of an intense laser light with uniform under-dense cold plasma are studied

  15. Fundamentals of plasma physics

    CERN Document Server

    Bittencourt, J A

    1986-01-01

    A general introduction designed to present a comprehensive, logical and unified treatment of the fundamentals of plasma physics based on statistical kinetic theory. Its clarity and completeness make it suitable for self-learning and self-paced courses. Problems are included.

  16. Plasma source ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conrad, J.R.; Forest, C.

    1986-01-01

    The authors' technique allows the ion implantation to be performed directly within the ion source at higher currents without ion beam extraction and transport. The potential benefits include greatly increased production rates (factors of 10-1000) and the ability to implant non-planar targets without rastering or shadowing. The technique eliminates the ion extractor grid set, beam raster equipment, drift space and target manipulator equipment. The target to be implanted is placed directly within the plasma source and is biased to a large negative potential so that plasma ions gain energy as they accelerate through the potential drop across the sheath that forms at the plasma boundary. Because the sheath surrounds the target on all sides, all surfaces of the target are implanted without the necessity to raster the beam or to rotate the target. The authors have succeeded in implanting nitrogen ions in a silicon target to the depths and concentrations required for surface treatment of materials like stainless steel and titanium alloys. They have performed ESCA measurements of the penetration depth profile of a silicon target that was biased to 30 kV in a nitrogen discharge plasma. Nitrogen ions were implanted to a depth of 700A at a peak concentration of 30% atomic. The measured profile is quite similar to a previously obtained profile in titanium targets with conventional techniques

  17. Plasma skin regeneration technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogle, M A

    2006-09-01

    Plasma skin regeneration (PSR) technology uses energy delivered from plasma rather than light or radiofrequency. Plasma is the fourth state of matter in which electrons are stripped from atoms to form an ionized gas. The plasma is emitted in a millisecond pulse to deliver energy to target tissue upon contact without reliance on skin chromophores. The technology can be used at varying energies for different depths of effect, from superficial epidermal sloughing to deeper dermal heating. With the Portrait PSR device (Rhytec, Inc.) there are three treatment guidelines termed PSR1, PSR2, and PSR3. The PSR1 protocol uses a series of low-energy treatments (1.0,1.2 Joules) spaced 3 weeks apart. The PSR2 protocol uses one high-energy pass (3.0, 4.0 Joules) performed in a single treatment, and the PSR3 protocol uses two high-energy passes (3.0 4.0 Joules) performed in a single treatment. All protocols improve fine lines, textural irregularities, and dyspigmentation; however, skin tightening is probably more pronounced with the high-energy treatments.

  18. Stirring Strongly Coupled Plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Fadafan, Kazem Bitaghsir; Rajagopal, Krishna; Wiedemann, Urs Achim

    2009-01-01

    We determine the energy it takes to move a test quark along a circle of radius L with angular frequency w through the strongly coupled plasma of N=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills (SYM) theory. We find that for most values of L and w the energy deposited by stirring the plasma in this way is governed either by the drag force acting on a test quark moving through the plasma in a straight line with speed v=Lw or by the energy radiated by a quark in circular motion in the absence of any plasma, whichever is larger. There is a continuous crossover from the drag-dominated regime to the radiation-dominated regime. In the crossover regime we find evidence for significant destructive interference between energy loss due to drag and that due to radiation as if in vacuum. The rotating quark thus serves as a model system in which the relative strength of, and interplay between, two different mechanisms of parton energy loss is accessible via a controlled classical gravity calculation. We close by speculating on the implicati...

  19. Reprocessing of spent plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pierini, G.

    1981-01-01

    This invention relates to a process for removing helium and other impurities from a mixture containing deuterium and tritium, a deuterium/tritium mixture when purified in accordance with such a process and, more particularly, to a process for the reprocessing of spent plasma removed from a thermofusion reactor. (U.K.)

  20. Planetary plasmas and fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roederer, J.G.

    1976-01-01

    The magnetospheres of earth, Jupiter, and Mercury are discussed. The main features and physical processes characteristic of the quiet time earth magnetosphere are examined. Jupiter's larger and more distant magnetosphere is compared with the earth's and recent findings are reviewed. The plasma and field environment of Mercury is also discussed and similarities with the earth's magnetosphere are noted

  1. Implicit plasma simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langdon, A.B.

    1985-01-01

    Implicit time integration methods have been used extensively in numerical modelling of slowly varying phenomena in systems that also support rapid variation. Examples include diffusion, hydrodynamics and reaction kinetics. This article discussed implementation of implicit time integration in plasma codes of the ''particle-in-cell'' family, and the benefits to be gained

  2. Fundamentals of Plasma Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cargill, P J

    2007-01-01

    The widespread importance of plasmas in many areas of contemporary physics makes good textbooks in the field that are both introductory and comprehensive invaluable. This new book by Paul Bellen from CalTech by and large meets these goals. It covers the traditional textbook topics such as particle orbits, the derivation of the MHD equations from Vlasov theory, cold and warm plasma waves, Landau damping, as well as in the later chapters less common subjects such as magnetic helicity, nonlinear processes and dusty plasmas. The book is clearly written, neatly presented, and each chapter has a number of exercises or problems at their end. The author has also thankfully steered clear of the pitfall of filling the book with his own research results. The preface notes that the book is designed to provide an introduction to plasma physics for final year undergraduate and post-graduate students. However, it is difficult to see many physics undergraduates now at UK universities getting to grips with much of the content since their mathematics is not of a high enough standard. Students in Applied Mathematics departments would certainly fare better. An additional problem for the beginner is that some of the chapters do not lead the reader gently into a subject, but begin with quite advanced concepts. Being a multi-disciplinary subject, beginners tend to find plasma physics quite hard enough even when done simply. For postgraduate students these criticisms fade away and this book provides an excellent introduction. More senior researchers should also enjoy the book, especially Chapters 11-17 where more advanced topics are discussed. I found myself continually comparing the book with my favourite text for many years, 'The Physics of Plasmas' by T J M Boyd and J J Sanderson, reissued by Cambridge University Press in 2003. Researchers would want both books on their shelves, both for the different ways basic plasma physics is covered, and the diversity of more advanced topics. For

  3. Plasma Wave Electronic Terahertz Technology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shur, Michael

    2003-01-01

    Plasma waves are oscillations of electron density in time and space. In deep submicron field effect transistors plasma wave frequencies lie in the terahertz range and can be tuned by applied gate bias...

  4. Probing of flowing electron plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Himura, H.; Nakashima, C.; Saito, H.; Yoshida, Z.

    2001-01-01

    Probing of streaming electron plasmas with finite temperature is studied. For the first time, a current-voltage characteristic of an electric probe is measured in electron plasmas. Due to the fast flow of the electron plasmas, the characteristic curve spreads out significantly and exhibits a long tail. This feature can be explained calculating the currents collected to the probe. In flowing electron plasmas, the distribution function observed in the laboratory frame is non-Maxwellian even if the plasmas come to a state of thermal equilibrium. Another significant feature of the characteristic is that it determines a floating potential where the current equals zero, despite there being very few ions in the electron plasma. A high impedance probe, which is popularly used to determine the space potential of electron plasmas, outputs the potential. The method is available only for plasmas with density much smaller than the Brillouin limit

  5. High-frequency plasma oscillations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akhiezer, A I; Fainberg, Y B; Sitenko, A G; Stepanov, K; Kurilko, V; Gorbatenko, M; Kirochkin, U [Academy of Sciences of the Ukrainian SSR (USSR)

    1958-07-01

    It is well known that the electrical conductivity of a plasma, the ion-electron equilibration time, and the time required to heat the electron component of the plasma all increase greatly with increasing temperature. Consequently, the usual method of Joule heating a plasma may be difficult to apply in the region of high temperatures (> 10{sup 6}K), especially if the plasma current alone, without any additional measures, is used to generate magnetic fields for the confinement of the plasma. Therefore, it is of interest to study methods of plasma heating that do not directly use Joule heat, especially methods by which energy is directly supplied to the ion component during the time between collisions. Some of these methods make use of ionic resonance as well as other resonance phenomena which can occur in plasma in an external magnetic field. This paper deals with certain aspects of the theory of high-frequency plasma oscillations.

  6. Basic physics of colloidal plasmas

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Plasma Physics Division, Institute of Advanced Study in Science and Technology, Khanapara, ..... tic wave) to form a random collection of the nonlinear wave grains (like ... [8] M S Sodha and S Guha, in Advances in plasma phyiscs edited by A ...

  7. Plasma devices for hydrocarbon reformation

    KAUST Repository

    Cha, Min

    2017-01-01

    Plasma devices for hydrocarbon reformation are provided. Methods of using the devices for hydrocarbon reformation are also provided. The devices can include a liquid container to receive a hydrocarbon source, and a plasma torch configured

  8. Water-stabilized plasma generators

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hrabovský, Milan

    1998-01-01

    Roč. 70, č. 6 (1998), s. 1157-1162 ISSN 0033-4545 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA102/95/0592; GA ČR GV106/96/K245 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2043910 Keywords : thermal plasma, plasma torch, water-stabilized plasma Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 1.677, year: 1998

  9. Controlled fusion and plasma heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-06-01

    The contributions presented in the 17th European Conference on Controlled Fusion and Plasma Heating were focused on Tore Supra investigations. The following subjects were presented: ohmic discharges, lower hybrid experiments, runaway electrons, Thomson scattering, plasma density measurements, magnetic fluctuations, polarization scattering, plasma currents, plasma fluctuation measurements, evaporation of hydrogen pellets in presence of fast electrons, ripple induced stochastic diffusion of trapped particles, tearing mode stabilization, edge effects on turbulence behavior, electron cyclotron heating, micro-tearing modes, divertors, limiters

  10. Information Theory and Plasma Turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dendy, R. O.

    2009-01-01

    Information theory, applied directly to measured signals, yields new perspectives on, and quantitative knowledge of, the physics of strongly nonlinear and turbulent phenomena in plasmas. It represents a new and productive element of the topical research programmes that use modern techniques to characterise strongly nonlinear signals from plasmas, and that address global plasma behaviour from a complex systems perspective. We here review some pioneering studies of mutual information in solar wind and magnetospheric plasmas, using techniques tested on standard complex systems.

  11. Transition in plasma fluctuation between attached and detached plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okazaki, Katsuya; Ohno, Noriyasu; Kajita, Shin; Tanaka, Hirohiko

    2012-01-01

    The static and dynamic behaviors of detached plasmas have received considerable attention because the use of a detached divertor is thought to provide a promising method for reducing the heat flux to plasma-facing components. In this study, fluctuations were measured with an electrostatic probe as the plasma was changed from attached to detached states by increasing the neutral gas pressure. The transition from an attached plasma to a detached plasma was found to change the phase relation between the density and the potential. (author)

  12. Plasma simulation in space propulsion : the helicon plasma thruster

    OpenAIRE

    Navarro Cavallé, Jaume

    2017-01-01

    The Helicon Plasma Thruster (HPT) is an electrodynamic rocket proposed in the early 2000s. It matches an Helicon Plasma Source (HPS), which ionizes the neutral gas and heats up the plasma, with aMagneticNozzle (MN),where the plasma is supersonically accelerated resulting in thrust. Although the core of this thruster inherits the knowledge on Helicon Plasma sources, dated from the seventies, the HPT technology is still not developed and remains below TRL 4. A deep review of the HPT State-of-ar...

  13. Dusty plasma phase in a steady state plasma device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang Xiaoping; Zheng Jian; Ma Jinxiu; Liu Wangdong; Zhuang Ge; Xie Jinlin; Wang Congrong; Yu Changxuan

    2000-01-01

    A DC discharge dusty plasma device used for study of waves in dusty plasma is introduced. A dusty plasma column is produced with about 30 cm in length and about 8.4 cm in diameter. The electron saturation current of Langmuir probe is obviously decreasing while the dust grains are present in the plasma. The negative charge on dust grains is directly proportional to the rotation rate of the dispenser. And the dust grains carry up to 40% of the negative charges in the whole plasma

  14. Gas injected washer plasma gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, K.K.; John, P.I.; Punithavelu, A.M.; Rao, P.P.

    1980-01-01

    A plasma gun similar in geometry to the washer plasma gun has been operated with gas injected externally. hydrogen, nitrogen and argon plasmas have been ionised and accelerated to velocities of the order of 10 7 mm s -1 and densities 10 11 mm -3 . Higher parameter range is possible with higher electrical input power. (author)

  15. High-temperature plasma physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furth, H.P.

    1988-03-01

    Both magnetic and inertial confinement research are entering the plasma parameter range of fusion reactor interest. This paper reviews the individual and common technical problems of these two approaches to the generation of thermonuclear plasmas, and describes some related applications of high-temperature plasma physics

  16. Plasma Physics Applied (New Book)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabbe, Crockett

    2007-03-01

    0.5cm Plasma physics applications are one of the most rapidly growing fields in engineering & applied science today. The last decade alone has seen the rapid emergence of new applications such as dusty plasmas in the semiconductor and microchip industries, and plasma TVs. In addition, this last decade saw the achievement of the 50-year Lawson breakeven condition for fusion. With new discoveries in space plasma physics and applications to spacecraft for worldwide communication and space weather, as well as new applications being discovered, this diversity is always expanding. The new book Plasma Physics Applied reviews developments in several of these areas. Chapter 1 reviews the content and its authors, and is followed by a more comprehensive review of plasma physics applications in general in Chapter 2. Plasma applications in combustion and environmental uses are presented in Chapter 3. Lightning effects in planetary magnetospheres and potential application are described in Chapter 4. The area of dusty plasmas in both industrial and space plasmas and their applications are reviewed in Chapter 5. The particular area of Coulomb clusters in dusty plasmas is presented in Chapter 6. The variety of approaches to plasma confinement in magnetic devices for fusion are laid out in Chapter 7. Finally, an overview of plasma accelerator developments and their applications are presented in Chapter 8.

  17. Introduction to dusty plasma physics

    CERN Document Server

    Shukla, PK

    2001-01-01

    Introduction to Dusty Plasma Physics contains a detailed description of the occurrence of dusty plasmas in our Solar System, the Earth''s mesosphere, and in laboratory discharges. The book illustrates numerous mechanisms for charging dust particles and provides studies of the grain dynamics under the influence of forces that are common in dusty plasma environments.

  18. Elements of plasma kinetic theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guasp, J.

    1976-01-01

    The physical foundations of plasma kinetic equations are exposed inside a series of seminars on plasma and fusion physics. The Vlasov and collisional equations with its application range have been discussed. The momenta equations for the macroscopic magnitudes and the more usual approximations have been obtained: two fluid equations for cold and warm plasmas, magnetohydrodynamic equations and the double-adiabatic theory. (author)

  19. Optical properties of dense plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guenther, S.

    1996-05-01

    The following topics were dealt with: Stellar spectra and stellar atmospheres, spectrocopic methods in the plasma diagnostic, Green function method, influence of charged plasma particles on the line profile, Storer-Strahler interaction, dynamic screening effects, line profile shift and asymmetry, collective plasma excitations, ion dynamic effects on line profiles

  20. Containment of high temperature plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bass, R.W.; Ferguson, H.R.P.; Fletcher, H. Jr.; Gardner, J.; Harrison, B.K.; Larsen, K.M.

    1973-01-01

    Apparatus is described for confining a high temperature plasma which comprises: 1) envelope means shaped to form a toroidal hollow chamber containing a plasma, 2) magnetic field line generating means for confining the plasma in a smooth toroidal shape without cusps. (R.L.)

  1. Large-scale numerical simulations of plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamaguchi, Satoshi

    2004-01-01

    The recent trend of large scales simulations of fusion plasma and processing plasmas is briefly summarized. Many advanced simulation techniques have been developed for fusion plasmas and some of these techniques are now applied to analyses of processing plasmas. (author)

  2. Miniature Coaxial Plasma injector Diagnostics by Beam Plasma Interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Tayeb, H.; El-Gamal, H.

    2003-01-01

    A miniature coaxial gun has been used to study the interaction between plasma beam and low density plasma formed in glow discharge. The peak discharge current flow between the coaxial electrodes was 5.25 kA as a single pulse with pulse width of 60 mu. Investigations are carried out with argon gas at pressure 0.4 Torr. The plasma stream ejected from the coaxial discharge propagates in the neutral argon atoms with mean velocity of 1.2x10 5 cm/s. The plasma stream temperature and density were 4.2 eV and 2.4x10 13 cm -3 respectively. An argon negative glow has been used as base plasma where its electron temperature and density were 2.2 eV and 6.2x10 7 cm -3 respectively. When the plasma stream propagates through the negative glow discharge region its velocity decreased to 8.8 x 10 4 cm/s and also the plasma electron temperature decreased to 3.1 eV, while the stream density remained the same. An excited wave appeared on the electric probe having frequency equal to the plasma frequency of the plasma under consideration. Simulation of the problem showed that this method could be applied for plasma diagnostics within the region of investigation. Those further studies for high temperature, dense, and magnetized plasma will be considered

  3. Synthesis and characterization of carbon nano fibers for its application in the adsorption of toxic gases; Sintesis y caracterizacion de nanofibras de carbono para su aplicacion en la adsorcion de gases toxicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juanico L, J A

    2004-07-01

    The production of carbon nano fibers (CNF's) by diverse techniques as the electric arc, laser ablation, or chemical deposition in vapor phase, among other, they have been so far used from final of the 90's. However, the synthesis method by discharge Glow arc of alternating current and high frequency developed by Pacheco and collaborators, is a once alternative for its obtaining. In the plasma Application Laboratory (LAP) of the National Institute of Nuclear Research (INlN) it was designed and manufactured a reactor of alternating current and high frequency that produces a Glow arc able to synthesize carbon nano fibers. Its were carried out nano fibers synthesis with different catalysts to different proportions and with distinct conditions of vacuum pressure and methane flow until obtaining the best nano fibers samples and for it, this nano structures were characterized by Scanning and Transmission Electron Microscopy, X-ray Diffraction, Raman spectrometry and EDS spectrometry. Once found the optimal conditions for the nano fibers production its were contaminated with NO{sub 2} toxic gas and it was determined if they present adsorption, for it was used the thermal gravimetric analysis technique. This work is divided in three parts, in the first one, conformed by the chapters 1, at the 3, they are considered the foundations of the carbon nano fibers, their history, their characteristics, growth mechanisms, synthesis techniques, the thermal gravimetric analysis principles and the adsorption properties of the nano fibers. In the second part, consistent of the chapters 4 and 5, the methodology of synthesis and characterization of the nano fibers is provided. Finally, in third part its were carried out the activation energy calculation, the adsorption of the CNF's is analyzed and the conclusions are carried out. The present study evaluates the adsorption of environmental gas pollutants as the nitrogen oxides on carbon nano fibers at environmental or near conditions. Also

  4. Streaming metal plasma generation by vacuum arc plasma guns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacGill, R.A.; Dickinson, M.R.; Anders, A.; Monteiro, O.R.; Brown, I.G.

    1998-01-01

    We have developed several different embodiments of repetitively pulsed vacuum arc metal plasma gun, including miniature versions, multicathode versions that can produce up to 18 different metal plasma species between which one can switch, and a compact high-duty cycle well-cooled version, as well as a larger dc gun. Plasma guns of this kind can be incorporated into a vacuum arc ion source for the production of high-energy metal ion beams, or used as a plasma source for thin film formation and for metal plasma immersion ion implantation and deposition. The source can also be viewed as a low-energy metal ion source with ion drift velocity in the range 20 - 200 eV depending on the metal species used. Here we describe the plasma sources that we have developed, the properties of the plasma generated, and summarize their performance and limitations. copyright 1998 American Institute of Physics

  5. The Plasma Archipelago: Plasma Physics in the 1960s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisel, Gary J.

    2017-09-01

    With the foundation of the Division of Plasma Physics of the American Physical Society in April 1959, plasma physics was presented as the general study of ionized gases. This paper investigates the degree to which plasma physics, during its first decade, established a community of interrelated specialties, one that brought together work in gaseous electronics, astrophysics, controlled thermonuclear fusion, space science, and aerospace engineering. It finds that, in some regards, the plasma community was indeed greater than the sum of its parts and that its larger identity was sometimes glimpsed in inter-specialty work and studies of fundamental plasma behaviors. Nevertheless, the plasma specialties usually worked separately for two inter-related reasons: prejudices about what constituted "basic physics," both in the general physics community and within the plasma community itself; and a compartmentalized funding structure, in which each funding agency served different missions.

  6. Scattering of electromagnetic waves into plasma oscillations via plasma particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, A.T.; Dawson, J.M.

    1975-01-01

    A plasma subjected to an intense electromagnetic wave can exhibit a large number of parametric instabilities. An interesting example which has received little attention is the decay of the electromagnetic wave into a plasma oscillation with the excess energy and momentum being carried off by electrons. This process has been simulated on a one-and-two-halves dimensional electromagnetic code. The incident electromagnetic wave had a frequency near the plasma frequency so that decay into a plasma oscillation and a backscattered electromagnetic wave was excluded. As expected, the threshold for this instability was very large , so it is unlikely that this instability is competitive in most laser plasmas. Nevertheless, the physical mechanism involved provides a means for absorption of laser light and acceleration of particles in a plasma containing large amplitude plasma oscillations

  7. Merging and Splitting of Plasma Spheroids in a Dusty Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikikian, Maxime; Tawidian, Hagop; Lecas, Thomas

    2012-12-01

    Dust particle growth in a plasma is a strongly disturbing phenomenon for the plasma equilibrium. It can induce many different types of low-frequency instabilities that can be experimentally observed, especially using high-speed imaging. A spectacular case has been observed in a krypton plasma where a huge density of dust particles is grown by material sputtering. The instability consists of well-defined regions of enhanced optical emission that emerge from the electrode vicinity and propagate towards the discharge center. These plasma spheroids have complex motions resulting from their mutual interaction that can also lead to the merging of two plasma spheroids into a single one. The reverse situation is also observed with the splitting of a plasma spheroid into two parts. These results are presented for the first time and reveal new behaviors in dusty plasmas.

  8. Interaction between electromagnetic waves and plasma waves in motional plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, S. Y.; Gao, M.; Tang, C. J.; Peng, X. D.

    2009-01-01

    The electromagnetic wave (EM wave) behavior and the electromagnetic instability caused by the interaction between an EM wave and a plasma wave in motional plasma are studied. The dispersion relation of EM waves and the dielectric tensor of motional plasma are derived by magnetohydrodynamics, and the wave phenomenon in motional plasma is displayed. As a result, the electromagnetic instability, which is excited by the interaction between the EM waves and the plasma waves, is revealed. The mechanism of the instability is the coupling between high frequency electromagnetic field and the transverse electron oscillation derived from the deflection of longitudinal electron oscillation due to self-magnetic field. The present research is useful with regard to the new type of plasma radiation source, ion-focusing accelerator, and plasma diagnostic technique.

  9. High beta plasma operation in a toroidal plasma producing device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarke, J.F.

    1978-01-01

    A high beta plasma is produced in a plasma producing device of toroidal configuration by ohmic heating and auxiliary heating. The plasma pressure is continuously monitored and used in a control system to program the current in the poloidal field windings. Throughout the heating process, magnetic flux is conserved inside the plasma and the distortion of the flux surfaces drives a current in the plasma. As a consequence, the total current increases and the poloidal field windings are driven with an equal and opposing increasing current. The spatial distribution of the current in the poloidal field windings is determined by the plasma pressure. Plasma equilibrium is maintained thereby, and high temperature, high beta operation results

  10. Experimental Plasma Research project summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-09-01

    This report contains descriptions of the activities supported by the Experimental Plasma Research Branch of APP. The individual project summaries were prepared by the principal investigators and include objectives and milestones for each project. The projects are arranged in six research categories: Plasma Properties; Plasma Heating; Plasma Diagnostics; Atomic, Molecular and Nuclear Physics; Advanced Superconducting Materials; and the Fusion Plasma Research Facility (FPRF). Each category is introduced with a statement of objectives and recent progress and followed by descriptions of individual projects. An overall budget summary is provided at the beginning of the report

  11. Plasma expansion: fundamentals and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engeln, R; Mazouffre, S; Vankan, P; Bakker, I; Schram, D C

    2002-01-01

    The study of plasma expansion is interesting from a fundamental point of view as well as from a more applied point of view. We here give a short overview of the way properties like density, velocity and temperature behave in an expanding thermal plasma. Experimental data show that the basic phenomena of plasma expansion are to some extent similar to those of the expansion of a hot neutral gas. From the application point of view, we present first results on the use of an expanding thermal plasma in the plasma-activated catalysis of ammonia, from N 2 -H 2 mixtures

  12. Atmospheric-pressure plasma technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kogelschatz, U

    2004-01-01

    Major industrial plasma processes operating close to atmospheric pressure are discussed. Applications of thermal plasmas include electric arc furnaces and plasma torches for generation of powders, for spraying refractory materials, for cutting and welding and for destruction of hazardous waste. Other applications include miniature circuit breakers and electrical discharge machining. Non-equilibrium cold plasmas at atmospheric pressure are obtained in corona discharges used in electrostatic precipitators and in dielectric-barrier discharges used for generation of ozone, for pollution control and for surface treatment. More recent applications include UV excimer lamps, mercury-free fluorescent lamps and flat plasma displays

  13. Tecnical report- Group of Plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakanaka, P.H.; Boeckelmann, H.K.; Marotta, A.

    1985-01-01

    The research activities of Plasma Laboratory at UNICAMP (University of Campinas, Brazil) in the period from november 84 to july/85 are described. In the TUPA project, several works related to substructure and research programs were developed. Diagnostic techniques to analyse the theta Pinch implosion phase, a presure probe, an electrostatic ion energy analyser and laser-produced plasma spectroscopy were developed. The experimental results were obtained, using multiple magnetic probes inserted in the plasma. These results were analysed by numerical code using some MHD equations in 2 dimensions. A description of plasma dynamic was determined and the plasma parameters such as density and temperature were estimated. (M.C.K.) [pt

  14. Plasma devices for hydrocarbon reformation

    KAUST Repository

    Cha, Min Suk

    2017-02-16

    Plasma devices for hydrocarbon reformation are provided. Methods of using the devices for hydrocarbon reformation are also provided. The devices can include a liquid container to receive a hydrocarbon source, and a plasma torch configured to be submerged in the liquid. The plasma plume from the plasma torch can cause reformation of the hydrocarbon. The device can use a variety of plasma torches that can be arranged in a variety of positions in the liquid container. The devices can be used for the reformation of gaseous hydrocarbons and/or liquid hydrocarbons. The reformation can produce methane, lower hydrocarbons, higher hydrocarbons, hydrogen gas, water, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, or a combination thereof.

  15. Experimental plasma research project summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-08-01

    This report contans descriptions of the activities supported by the Experimental Plasma Research Branch of APP. The individual project summaries were prepared by the principal investigators and include objectives and milestones for each project. The projects are arranged in six research categories: Plasma Properties; Plasma Heating; Plasma Measurements and Instrumentation; Atomic, Molecular and Nuclear Physics; Advanced Superconducting Materials; and the Fusion Plasma Research Facility (FPRF). Each category is introduced with a statement of objectives and recent progress and followed by descriptions of individual projects. An overall budget summary is provided at the beginning of the report

  16. Experimental Plasma Research project summaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-09-01

    This report contains descriptions of the activities supported by the Experimental Plasma Research Branch of APP. The individual project summaries were prepared by the principal investigators and include objectives and milestones for each project. The projects are arranged in six research categories: Plasma Properties; Plasma Heating; Plasma Diagnostics; Atomic, Molecular and Nuclear Physics; Advanced Superconducting Materials; and the Fusion Plasma Research Facility (FPRF). Each category is introduced with a statement of objectives and recent progress and followed by descriptions of individual projects. An overall budget summary is provided at the beginning of the report.

  17. Plasmas and intense laser light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, E.T.

    1984-01-01

    The present article begins with a description of the laser technology required to reach the high irradiances of interest and provides a brief outline of the more important diagnostic techniques used in investigating the plasmas. An introduction to plasma waves is given and the linear and nonlinear excitation of waves is discussed. The remainder of the article describes some of the experimental evidence supporting the interpretation of the plasma behaviour at high laser-light intensities in terms of the excitation of plasma waves and the subsequent heating of plasma by these waves. (author)

  18. Waves and Oscillations in Plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Pecseli, Hans L

    2012-01-01

    The result of more than 15 years of lectures in plasma sciences presented at universities in Denmark, Norway, and the United States, Waves and Oscillations in Plasmas addresses central issues in modern plasma sciences. The book covers fluid models as well as kinetic plasma models, including a detailed discussion of, for instance, collisionless Landau damping. Offering a clear separation of linear and nonlinear models, the book can be tailored for readers of varying levels of expertise.Designed to provide basic training in linear as well as nonlinear plasma dynamics, and practical in areas as d

  19. Adiabatic plasma buncher

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrario, M. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Frascati, RM (Italy); Katsouleas, T.C. [Los Angeles Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Serafini, L. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Milan (Italy); Ben Zvi, I. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States)

    2000-07-01

    In this paper is presented a new scheme of injection into a plasma accelerator, aimed at producing a high quality beam while relaxing the demands on the bunch length of the injected beam. The beam dynamics in the injector, consisting of a high voltage pulsed photo-diode, is analyzed and optimized to produce a {lambda}{sub p}/20 long electron bunch at 2.5 MeV. This bunch is injected into a plasma wave in which it compresses down to {lambda}{sub p}/100 while simultaneously accelerating up to 250 MeV. This simultaneous bunching and acceleration of a high quality beam requires a proper combination of injection energy and injection phase. Preliminary results from simulations are shown to assess the potentials of the scheme.

  20. Magnetospheric plasma physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bingham, R.

    1989-09-01

    The discovery of the earth's radiation belts in 1957 by Van Allen marked the beginning of what is now known as magnetospheric physics. In this study of plasma physics in the magnetosphere, we shall take the magnetosphere to be that part of the earth's ionized atmosphere which is formed by the interaction of the solar wind with the earth's dipole-like magnetic field. It extends from approximately 100km above the earth's surface where the proton-neutral atom collision frequency is equal to the proton gyrofrequency to about ten earth radii (R E ∼ 6380km) in the sunward direction and to several hundred earth radii in the anti-sunward direction. The collision dominated region is called the ionosphere and is sometimes considered separate from the collisionless plasma region. In the ionosphere ion-neutral collisions are dominant and one may think of the ionosphere as a frictional boundary layer ∼ 1000km thick. Other planets are also considered. (author)

  1. Underwater plasma arc cutting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leautier, R.; Pilot, G.

    1991-01-01

    This report describes the work done to develop underwater plasma arc cutting techniques, to characterise aerosols from cutting operations on radioactive and non-radioactive work-pieces, and to develop suitable ventilation and filtration techniques. The work has been carried out in the framework of a contract between CEA-CEN Cadarache and the Commission of European Communities. Furthermore, this work has been carried out in close cooperation with CEA-CEN Saclay mainly for secondary emissions and radioactive analysis. The contract started in May 1986 and was completed in December 1988 by a supplementary agreement. This report has been compiled from several progress reports submitted during the work period, contains the main findings of the work and encloses the results of comparative tests on plasma arc cutting

  2. Plasma and the universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falthammar, C.G.

    1988-01-01

    Hannes Alfven has enjoyed a long and spectacular career in which he has time and again pioneered the path that other workers were able fruitfully to exploit. One thinks of the Alven waves, the concept of gyrocenter drift and the perturbation theory based on it, and the critical velocity phenomenon in the interaction of a plasma with a neutral gas. All of these discoveries have been of fundamental importance. By no means content to rest on his laurels, Alfven has, during the last decade, contributed to science in a major sense, especially in the field of cosmogeny. For example, he has used the latest data from the Voyager spacecraft to test his detailed predictions of the structure of the Saturnian rings. Alfven's current preoccupation is with the Plasma Universe and, as may be expected, some of his concepts are receiving observational support, while others are still controversial

  3. Magnetron plasma and nanotechnology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kashtanov, Pavel V; Smirnov, Boris M; Hippler, Rainer

    2007-01-01

    Magnetron plasma processes involving metal atoms and clusters are reviewed. The formation of metal atoms near the cathode and their nucleation in a buffer gas flow are discussed. The flow of a buffer gas with metal clusters through a magnetron chamber disturbs the equilibrium between the buffer gas flow and clusters near the exit orifice and is accompanied by cluster attachment to the chamber walls. Cluster charging far off the cathode, the disturbance of equilibrium between the buffer gas flow and cluster drift, and the attachment of charged clusters to the chamber walls - the factors determining the output parameters of the cluster beam escaping the magnetron chamber - are analyzed. Cluster deposition on a solid surface and on dusty plasma particles is considered. (reviews of topical problems)

  4. Estimating plasma temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nash, J.K.; Iglesias, C.A.; Chen, M.H.; Rogers, F.J.

    1992-04-01

    Recent laser-produced plasma experiments have relied on spectroscopic comparisons with models to infer plasma temperatures. The models use an experimentally determined value for the matter density as input and treat the temperature as a free parameter to obtain a best fit to the experimental absorption spectrum. However, uncertainties in the ionization balance theories lead to inferred temperatures that are model dependent. We report results of a new approach which combines high=quality atomic data with an ionization balance obtained from systematic expansions of the grand canonical ensemble. The latter avoids the ad hoc cutoffs required in free energy minimization schemes and includes Coulomb corrections usually neglected in other models. Comparisons to experimental spectra show excellent agreement

  5. Ion plasma electron gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakalopulos, G.

    1976-01-01

    In the disclosed electron gun positive ions generated by a hollow cathode plasma discharge in a first chamber are accelerated through control and shield grids into a second chamber containing a high voltage cold cathode. These positive ions bombard a surface of the cathode causing the cathode to emit secondary electrons which form an electron beam having a distribution adjacent to the cathode emissive surface substantially the same as the distribution of the ion beam impinging upon the cathode. After passing through the grids and the plasma discharge chamber, the electron beam exits from the electron gun via a foil window. Control of the generated electron beam is achieved by applying a relatively low control voltage between the control grid and the electron gun housing (which resides at ground potential) to control the density of the positive ions bombarding the cathode

  6. Plasma Theory Division

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Callen, J.D.; Dory, R.A.; Aghevli, R.

    1977-01-01

    The progress during the past year is organized by group efforts and divided into five major areas. The basic tokamak areas and the sections in which their work is summarized are: magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) theory, kinetic theory, and transport simulation. The ELMO Bumpy Torus (EBT) theory work has its own research projects on MHD theory, kinetic theory, and transport simulation. In the plasma engineering area, relevant research work is further developed and synthesized into models that are used in the design of advanced fusion systems--The Next Step (TNS), demonstration fusion reactor (Demo), EBT ignition test, etc. Specific plasma engineering projects on providing the TNS physics basis and the development of the EBT reactor study are discussed. The computing support activities during the past year are summarized

  7. Electron waves and resonances in bounded plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Vandenplas, Paul E

    1968-01-01

    General theoretical methods and experimental techniques ; the uniform plasma slab-condenser system ; the hollow cylindrical plasma ; scattering of a plane electromagnetic wave by a plasma column in steady magnetic fields (cold plasma approximation) ; hot non-uniform plasma column ; metallic and dielectric resonance probes, plasma-dielectric coated antenna, general considerations.

  8. Transport processes in space plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birn, J.; Elphic, R.C.; Feldman, W.C.

    1997-01-01

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The project represents a comprehensive research effort to study plasma and field transport processes relevant for solar-terrestrial interaction, involving the solar wind and imbedded magnetic field and plasma structures, the bow shock of the Earth's magnetosphere and associated waves, the Earth's magnetopause with imbedded flux rope structures and their connection with the Earth, plasma flow in the Earth's magnetotail, and ionospheric beam/wave interactions. The focus of the work was on the interaction between plasma and magnetic and electric fields in the regions where different plasma populations exist adjacent to or superposed on each other. These are the regions of particularly dynamic plasma behavior, important for plasma and energy transport and rapid energy releases. The research addressed questions about how this interaction takes place, what waves, instabilities, and particle/field interactions are involved, how the penetration of plasma and energy through characteristic boundaries takes place, and how the characteristic properties of the plasmas and fields of the different populations influence each other on different spatial and temporal scales. These topics were investigated through combining efforts in the analysis of plasma and field data obtained through space missions with theory and computer simulations of the plasma behavior

  9. Plasma turbulence calculations on supercomputers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carreras, B.A.; Charlton, L.A.; Dominguez, N.; Drake, J.B.; Garcia, L.; Leboeuf, J.N.; Lee, D.K.; Lynch, V.E.; Sidikman, K.

    1991-01-01

    Although the single-particle picture of magnetic confinement is helpful in understanding some basic physics of plasma confinement, it does not give a full description. Collective effects dominate plasma behavior. Any analysis of plasma confinement requires a self-consistent treatment of the particles and fields. The general picture is further complicated because the plasma, in general, is turbulent. The study of fluid turbulence is a rather complex field by itself. In addition to the difficulties of classical fluid turbulence, plasma turbulence studies face the problems caused by the induced magnetic turbulence, which couples field by itself. In addition to the difficulties of classical fluid turbulence, plasma turbulence studies face the problems caused by the induced magnetic turbulence, which couples back to the fluid. Since the fluid is not a perfect conductor, this turbulence can lead to changes in the topology of the magnetic field structure, causing the magnetic field lines to wander radially. Because the plasma fluid flows along field lines, they carry the particles with them, and this enhances the losses caused by collisions. The changes in topology are critical for the plasma confinement. The study of plasma turbulence and the concomitant transport is a challenging problem. Because of the importance of solving the plasma turbulence problem for controlled thermonuclear research, the high complexity of the problem, and the necessity of attacking the problem with supercomputers, the study of plasma turbulence in magnetic confinement devices is a Grand Challenge problem

  10. Spectroscopic diagnostics of industrial plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshi, N.K.

    2004-01-01

    Plasmas play key role in modern industry and are being used for processing micro electronic circuits to the destruction of toxic waste. Characterization of industrial plasmas which includes both 'thermal plasmas' and non-equilibrium plasmas or 'cold plasmas' in industrial environment offers quite a challenge. Numerous diagnostic techniques have been developed for the measurement of these partially ionized plasma and/or particulate parameters. The 'simple' non-invasive spectroscopic methods for characterization of industrial plasmas will be discussed in detail in this paper. The excitation temperature in thermal (DC/RF) plasma jets has been determined using atomic Boltzmann technique. The central axis temperature of thermal plasma jets in a spray torch can be determined using modified atomic Boltzmann technique with out using Abel inversion. The Stark broadening of H β and Ar-I (430 nm) lines have been used to determine the electron number density in thermal plasma jets. In low-pressure non-equilibrium argon plasma, electron temperature has been measured using the Corona model from the ratio of line intensities of atomic and ionic transitions. (author)

  11. On neutral plasma oscillations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shadwick, B.A.; Morrison, P.J.

    1993-06-01

    We examine the conditions for the existence of spectrally stable neutral modes in a Vlasov-Poisson plasma and show that for stable equilibria of systems that have unbounded spatial domain, the only possible neutral modes are those with phase velocities that correspond to stationary inflection points of the equilibrium distribution function. It is seen that these neutral modes can possess positive or negative free energy

  12. Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory:

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, C.A. (ed.)

    1986-01-01

    This paper discusses progress on experiments at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory. The projects and areas discussed are: Principal Parameters Achieved in Experimental Devices, Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor, Princeton Large Torus, Princeton Beta Experiment, S-1 Spheromak, Current-Drive Experiment, X-ray Laser Studies, Theoretical Division, Tokamak Modeling, Spacecraft Glow Experiment, Compact Ignition Tokamak, Engineering Department, Project Planning and Safety Office, Quality Assurance and Reliability, and Administrative Operations.

  13. Topics in Plasma Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vahala, Linda [Old Dominion Univ., Norfolk, VA (United States)

    2015-05-31

    During the period 1998-2013, research under the auspices of the Department of Energy was performed on RF waves in plasmas. This research was performed in close collaboration with Josef Preinhaelter, Jakub Urban, Vladimir Fuchs, Pavol Pavlo and Frantisek Zacek (Czech Academy of Sciences), Martin Valovic and Vladimir Shevchenko (Culham). This research is detailed and all 38 papers which were published by this team are cited.

  14. Quark-Gluon Plasma

    CERN Document Server

    1990-01-01

    This volume contains 14 review articles on the theory and phenomenology of the creation and diagnosis of quark-gluon plasma. They are written by active investigators of in the various research topics, which range from the QCD foundation through transport theory and thermalization models to the examination of possible signatures. The monograph should be useful not only to the experienced researchers in the subject but also to newcomers.

  15. Magnetized plasma kinetic theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, M.H.A.; Watson, C.J.H.

    1977-01-01

    The magnetized Balescu-Lenard Collision integral for a multi-species plasma in the form derived by Hassan and Watson (1976) is approximated by ignoring wave effects. The resulting collision integral is put in Fokker-Planck form and most of the integrals occurring in the coefficients are performed analytically. The remaining integral is evaluated approximately in various limits for ion-electron, electron-electron and electron-ion interactions. (author)

  16. Basic plasma physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galeev, A.A.; Sudan, R.N.

    1989-01-01

    Most of the chapters in this book are devoted to the theory of small amplitude perturbations which is the most well developed aspect of the subject. The remaining chapters are concerned with weak nonlinear waves, and collapse and self-focusing of Langmuir waves, two topics of widespread interest and application. A chapter on particle simulation has been included, as that numerical technique plays an essential role in the development an understanding of plasma physics

  17. Plasma antioxidants from chocolate

    OpenAIRE

    Serafini, M.; Bugianesi, R.; Maiani, G.; Valtuena, S.; De Santis, S.; Crozier, A.

    2003-01-01

    There is some speculation that dietary flavonoids from chocolate, in particular (-)epicatechin, may promote cardiovascular health as a result of direct antioxidant effects or through antithrombotic mechanisms. Here we show that consumption of plain, dark chocolate results in an increase in both the total antioxidant capacity and the (-)epicatechin content of blood plasma, but that these effects are markedly reduced when the chocolate is consumed with milk or if milk is incorporated as milk ch...

  18. Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory:

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, C.A.

    1986-01-01

    This paper discusses progress on experiments at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory. The projects and areas discussed are: Principal Parameters Achieved in Experimental Devices, Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor, Princeton Large Torus, Princeton Beta Experiment, S-1 Spheromak, Current-Drive Experiment, X-ray Laser Studies, Theoretical Division, Tokamak Modeling, Spacecraft Glow Experiment, Compact Ignition Tokamak, Engineering Department, Project Planning and Safety Office, Quality Assurance and Reliability, and Administrative Operations

  19. Dense Plasma Focus Modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Hui [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Li, Shengtai [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Jungman, Gerard [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Hayes-Sterbenz, Anna Catherine [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-08-31

    The mechanisms for pinch formation in Dense Plasma Focus (DPF) devices, with the generation of high-energy ions beams and subsequent neutron production over a relatively short distance, are not fully understood. Here we report on high-fidelity 2D and 3D numerical magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations using the LA-COMPASS code to study the pinch formation dynamics and its associated instabilities and neutron production.

  20. Fundamental Processes in Plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Driscoll, Charles Fred [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2017-11-03

    This Final Technical Report gives brief summaries of the plasma physics results developed under DOE grant DE-SC0002451; and provides reference to the published journal articles giving full scientific descriptions. General topics include 1) cyclotron modes; 2) damping and decay of Langmuir modes; 3) 2D vortex dynamics and diocotron modes; 4) separatrix-induced transport and damping; and 5) long-range collisional velocity slowing.

  1. On neutral plasma oscillations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shadwick, B.A.; Texas Univ., Austin; Morrison, P.J.; Texas Univ., Austin

    1994-01-01

    We examine the conditions for the existence of spectrally stable neutral modes in a Vlasov-Poisson plasma and show that for stable equilibria of systems that have unbounded spatial domain, the only possible neutral modes are those with phase velocities that correspond to stationary inflection points of the equilibrium distribution function. It is seen that these neutral modes can posses positive or negative free energy. (orig.)

  2. Collisional processes in supersymmetric plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czajka, Alina; Mrowczynski, Stanislaw

    2011-01-01

    Collisional processes in ultrarelativistic N=1 supersymmetric QED plasma are studied and compared to those in an electromagnetic plasma of electrons, positrons and photons. Cross sections of all binary interactions which occur in the supersymmetric plasma at the order of e 4 are computed. Some processes, in particular, the Compton scattering on selectrons, appear to be independent of momentum transfer and thus they are qualitatively different from processes in an electromagnetic plasma. It suggests that the transport properties of the supersymmetric plasma are different than those of its nonsupersymmetric counterpart. Energy loss and momentum broadening of a particle traversing the supersymmetric plasma are discussed in detail and the characteristics are shown to be surprisingly similar to those of QED plasma.

  3. Spheromak type plasma experiment apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odagiri, Kiyoyuki; Miyauchi, Yasuyuki; Oomura, Hiroshi

    1985-01-01

    The fusion power reactor which is expected to be the most promising energy has been developed for several plasma confinement systems. Under these circumstances, Spheromak configuration has recently attracted attention because of its simple structure and efficient plasma confinement. This apparatus was ordered by the Engineering Department of University of Tokyo for basic studies of the Spheromak plasma confinement technologies. This forms Spheromak plasma according to the induction discharge system which injects this plasma with magnetic energy generated by a toroidal current in the plasma and discharges the current through the electrical feed through. Toroidal current is induced by the poloidal coil in the vessel. We worked together with the researchers of University of Tokyo to conduct experiments and confirmed the formation and confinement of Spheromak plasma in the initial test. (author)

  4. Synthesis and characterization of carbon nano fibers for its application in the adsorption of toxic gases; Sintesis y caracterizacion de nanofibras de carbono para su aplicacion en la adsorcion de gases toxicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juanico L, J.A

    2004-07-01

    The production of carbon nano fibers (CNF's) by diverse techniques as the electric arc, laser ablation, or chemical deposition in vapor phase, among other, they have been so far used from final of the 90's. However, the synthesis method by discharge Glow arc of alternating current and high frequency developed by Pacheco and collaborators, is a once alternative for its obtaining. In the plasma Application Laboratory (LAP) of the National Institute of Nuclear Research (INlN) it was designed and manufactured a reactor of alternating current and high frequency that produces a Glow arc able to synthesize carbon nano fibers. Its were carried out nano fibers synthesis with different catalysts to different proportions and with distinct conditions of vacuum pressure and methane flow until obtaining the best nano fibers samples and for it, this nano structures were characterized by Scanning and Transmission Electron Microscopy, X-ray Diffraction, Raman spectrometry and EDS spectrometry. Once found the optimal conditions for the nano fibers production its were contaminated with NO{sub 2} toxic gas and it was determined if they present adsorption, for it was used the thermal gravimetric analysis technique. This work is divided in three parts, in the first one, conformed by the chapters 1, at the 3, they are considered the foundations of the carbon nano fibers, their history, their characteristics, growth mechanisms, synthesis techniques, the thermal gravimetric analysis principles and the adsorption properties of the nano fibers. In the second part, consistent of the chapters 4 and 5, the methodology of synthesis and characterization of the nano fibers is provided. Finally, in third part its were carried out the activation energy calculation, the adsorption of the CNF's is analyzed and the conclusions are carried out. The present study evaluates the adsorption of environmental gas pollutants as the nitrogen oxides on carbon nano fibers at environmental or near

  5. Plasma control device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takase, Haruhiko.

    1987-01-01

    Purpose: To obtain the optimum controllability for the plasmas and the thermonuclear device by selectively executing control operation for proportion, integration and differentiation (PID) by first and second controllers respectively based on selection instruction signals. Constitution: Deviation between a vertical direction equilibrium position: Zp as the plasma status amount measured in a measuring section and an aimed value Zref thereof is inputted to a first PID selection controller. The first controller selectively executes one of the PID control operations in accordance with the first selection signal instruction instructed by a PID control operation instruction circuit. Further, Zp is also inputted to a second PID selection controller, which selectively executes one of the PID control operations in accordance with the second selection instruction signal in the same manner as in the first controller. The deviation amount u between operations signals u1 and u2 from the first and second PID selection controllers is inputted to a power source to thereby supply a predetermined current value to control coils that generate equilibrium magnetic fields for making the vertical direction equilibrium position of plasmas constant. (Kamimura, M.)

  6. A nanoparticle in plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martynenko, Yu. V.; Nagel', M. Yu.; Orlov, M. A.

    2009-01-01

    Charge and energy fluxes onto a nanoparticle under conditions typical of laboratory plasmas are investigated theoretically. Here, by a nanoparticle is meant a grain the size of which is much smaller than both the electron Larmor radius and Debye length and the thermionic emission from which is not limited by the space charge. Under conditions at which thermionic emission plays an important role, the electric potential and temperature T p of a nanoparticle are determined by solving a self-consistent set of equations describing the balance of energy and charge fluxes onto the nanoparticle. It is shown that, when the degree of plasma ionization exceeds a critical level, the potential of the nanoparticle and the energy flux onto it increase with increasing nanoparticle temperature, so that, starting from a certain temperature, the nanoparticle potential becomes positive. The critical degree of ionization starting from which the potential of a nanoparticle is always positive is determined as a function of the plasma density and electron temperature. The nanoparticle temperature T p corresponding to the equilibrium state of a positively charged nanoparticle is found as a function of the electron density for different electron temperatures.

  7. Screening Resonances In Plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winkler, P.

    1998-01-01

    When it was suggested that a new recombination mechanism (Resonant Radiative Recombination (RRR)) which, based on very general physical arguments, should happen in dense plasmas and promises to provide useful information for the local temperature and density diagnostics of plasmas, they assumed the existence of screening resonances. For model potentials the existence of screening resonances has been demonstrated beyond reasonable doubt in a number of calculations. The key question, how well those potentials describe the dominant effects of a real plasma remains open. The relation of theoretical predictions to experimentally measurable effects is an important issue at the present stage of their research. In particular, RRR is expected to account for enhanced recombination rates of low energetic electrons with their ions, since the first stage is the resonant capture of a slow electron by an atom or ion. The mechanism that traps an electron is a combination of complicated many-body interactions of the ions and electrons. For clarity they start here, however, with a discussion in terms of local potential traps the shapes of which are determined predominantly and in an average way by two factors: the degree of screening present at the ionic site and the degree of short-range order in the immediate neighborhood of this ion

  8. Plasma focus project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahlin, H.L.

    1975-12-01

    The primary objective of this project is to provide a relatively simple pulsed power source for high density pulsed fusion studies with a variety of DT and other fusion microexplosion targets. The plasma focus operated on DT at 1 MJ should produce greater than or equal to 10 15 DT neutrons per pulse corresponding to 2800 J of nuclear energy release and for low pressure operation and appropriately configured high Z anode center should yield an x-ray burst of about 1000 J with a substantial fraction of this x-ray energy concentrated in the 5-100 kV range. Because of its x-ray and neutron production potential, the operation of the focus as an x-ray source is also under study and an initial design study for a repetitively pulsed 1 MJ plasma focus as a pulsed neutron materials testing source has been completed. The plasma focus seems particularly appropriate for application as a materials testing source for pulsed fusion reactors, for example, based on laser driven fusion microexplosions. The construction status of the device is described

  9. Sterilization by oxygen plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, Adir Jose; Mansano, Ronaldo Domingues; Andreoli Pinto, Terezinha de Jesus; Ruas, Ronaldo; Silva Zambon, Luis da; Silva, Monica Valero da; Verdonck, Patrick Bernard

    2004-07-31

    The use of polymeric medical devices has stimulated the development of new sterilization methods. The traditional techniques rely on ethylene oxide, but there are many questions concerning the carcinogenic properties of the ethylene oxide residues adsorbed on the materials after processing. Another common technique is the gamma irradiation process, but it is costly, its safe operation requires an isolated site and it also affects the bulk properties of the polymers. The use of a gas plasma is an elegant alternative sterilization technique. The plasma promotes an efficient inactivation of the micro-organisms, minimises the damage to the materials and presents very little danger for personnel and the environment. Pure oxygen reactive ion etching type of plasmas were applied to inactivate a biologic indicator, the Bacillus stearothermophilus, to confirm the efficiency of this process. The sterilization processes took a short time, in a few minutes the mortality was complete. In situ analysis of the micro-organisms' inactivating time was possible using emission spectrophotometry. The increase in the intensity of the 777.5 nm oxygen line shows the end of the oxidation of the biologic materials. The results were also observed and corroborated by scanning electron microscopy.

  10. 2XIIB plasma confinement experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coensgen, F.H.; Clauser, J.F.; Correll, D.L.

    1976-01-01

    This paper reports results of 2XIIB neutral-beam injection experiments with plasma-stream stabilization. The plasma stream is provided either by a pulsed plasma generator located on the field lines outside the plasma region or by ionization of neutral gas introduced at the mirror throat. In the latter case, the gas is ionized by the normal particle flux through the magnetic mirror. A method of plasma startup and sustenance in a steady-state magnetic field is reported in which the plasma stream from the pulsed plasma generator serves as the initial target for the neutral beams. After an energetic plasma of sufficient density is established, the plasma generator stream is replaced by the gas-fed stream. Lifetimes of the stabilized plasma increase with plasma temperature in agreement with the plasma stabilization of the drift-cyclotron loss-cone mode. The following plasma parameters are attained using the pulsed plasma generator for stabilization: n approximately 5 x 10 13 cm -3 , anti W/sub i/ approximately 13 keV, T/sub e/ = 140 eV, and ntau/sub p/ approximately 7 x 10 10 cm -3 .s. With the gas feed, the mean deuterium ion energy is 9 keV and the peak density n approximately 10 14 cm -3 . In the latter case, the energy confinement parameter reaches ntau/sub E/ = 7 x 10 10 cm -3 .s, and the particle confinement parameter reaches ntau/sub p/ = 1 x 10 11 cm -3 .s

  11. High-beta plasma blobs in the morningside plasma sheet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Haerendel

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Equator-S frequently encountered, i.e. on 30% of the orbits between 1 March and 17 April 1998, strong variations of the magnetic field strength of typically 5–15-min duration outside about 9RE during the late-night/early-morning hours. Very high-plasma beta values were found, varying between 1 and 10 or more. Close conjunctions between Equator-S and Geotail revealed the spatial structure of these "plasma blobs" and their lifetime. They are typically 5–10° wide in longitude and have an antisymmetric plasma or magnetic pressure distribution with respect to the equator, while being altogether low-latitude phenomena  (≤ 15°. They drift slowly sunward, exchange plasma across the equator and have a lifetime of at least 15–30 min. While their spatial structure may be due to some sort of mirror instability, little is known about the origin of the high-beta plasma. It is speculated that the morningside boundary layer somewhat further tailward may be the source of this plasma. This would be consistent with the preference of the plasma blobs to occur during quiet conditions, although they are also found during substorm periods. The relation to auroral phenomena in the morningside oval is uncertain. The energy deposition may be mostly too weak to generate a visible signature. However, patchy aurora remains a candidate for more disturbed periods.Key words. Magnetospheric physics (plasma convection; plasma sheet; plasma waves and instabilities

  12. Edge plasma physical investigations of tokamak plasmas in CRIP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakos, J.; Ignacz, P.; Koltai, L.; Paszti, F.; Petravich, G.; Szigeti, J.; Zoletnik, S.

    1988-01-01

    The results of the measurements performed in the field of thermonuclear high temperature plasma physics in CRIP (Hungary) are summarized. In the field of the edge plasma physics solid probes were used to test the external zone of plasma edges, and atom beams and balls were used to investigate both the external and internal zones. The plasma density distribution was measured by laser blow-off technics, using Na atoms, which are evaporated by laser pulses. The excitation of Na atom ball by tokamak plasma gives information on the status of the plasma edge. The toroidal asymmetry of particle transport in tokamak plasma was measured by erosion probes. The evaporated and transported impurities were collected on an other part of the plasma edge and were analyzed by SIMS and Rutherford backscattering. The interactions in plasma near the limiter were investigated by a special limiter with implemented probes. Recycling and charge exchange processes were measured. Disruption phenomena of tokamak plasma were analyzed and a special kind of disruptions, 'soft disruptions' and the related preliminary perturbations were discovered. (D.Gy.) 10 figs

  13. Momentum transfer to rotating magnetized plasma from gun plasma injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shamim, Imran; Hassam, A. B.; Ellis, R. F.; Witherspoon, F. D.; Phillips, M. W.

    2006-01-01

    Numerical simulations are carried out to investigate the penetration and momentum coupling of a gun-injected plasma slug into a rotating magnetized plasma. An experiment along these lines is envisioned for the Maryland Centrifugal Experiment (MCX) [R. F. Ellis et al., Phys. Plasmas 8, 2057 (2001)] using a coaxial plasma accelerator gun developed by HyperV Technologies Corp. [F. D. Witherspoon et al., Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 50, LP1 87 (2005)]. The plasma gun would be located in the axial midplane and fired off-axis into the rotating MCX plasma annulus. The numerical simulation is set up so that the initial momentum in the injected plasma slug is of the order of the initial momentum of the target plasma. Several numerical firings are done into the cylindrical rotating plasma. Axial symmetry is assumed. The slug is seen to penetrate readily and deform into a mushroom, characteristic of interchange deformations. It is found that up to 25% of the momentum in the slug can be transferred to the background plasma in one pass across a cylindrical chord. For the same initial momentum, a high-speed low density slug gives more momentum transfer than a low-speed high density slug. Details of the numerical simulations and a scaling study are presented

  14. Plasma probe characteristics in low density hydrogen pulsed plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Astakhov, D I; Lee, C J; Bijkerk, F; Goedheer, W J; Ivanov, V V; Krivtsun, V M; Zotovich, A I; Zyryanov, S M; Lopaev, D V

    2015-01-01

    Probe theories are only applicable in the regime where the probe’s perturbation of the plasma can be neglected. However, it is not always possible to know, a priori, that a particular probe theory can be successfully applied, especially in low density plasmas. This is especially difficult in the case of transient, low density plasmas. Here, we applied probe diagnostics in combination with a 2D particle-in-cell model, to an experiment with a pulsed low density hydrogen plasma. The calculations took into account the full chamber geometry, including the plasma probe as an electrode in the chamber. It was found that the simulations reproduce the time evolution of the probe IV characteristics with good accuracy. The disagreement between the simulated and probe measured plasma density is attributed to the limited applicability of probe theory to measurements of low density pulsed plasmas on a similarly short time scale as investigated here. Indeed, in the case studied here, probe measurements would lead to, either a large overestimate, or underestimate of the plasma density, depending on the chosen probe theory. In contrast, the simulations of the plasma evolution and the probe characteristics do not suffer from such strict applicability limits. These studies show that probe theory cannot be justified through probe measurements. However, limiting cases of probe theories can be used to estimate upper and lower bounds on plasma densities. These theories include and neglect orbital motion, respectively, with different collisional terms leading to intermediate estimates. (paper)

  15. Innovative technical plasma applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wintner, E.

    2013-01-01

    Plasma is the predominant status of matter, in stars as well as in interstellar space. In science, it was only recognized rather late as a specific (fourth) state of matter: Sir William Crookes described it in 1879 as “radiant matter”, Irving Langmuir created the name “plasma” in 1928. Technically generated plasma is employed very broadly in modern technology. Some examples are Plasma Displays, Fluorescent Lamps (also the modern Energy Saving Lamps), Corona Discharges (for e.g. Ozone generation, or even engine ignition), arc welding and cutting, reactive ion etching, mass spectroscopy, ion rocket engines and many more. Very early since the development of the laser, it was also employed to generate a plasma (spark) in air or on surfaces. Generally, for this purpose at least ns (“Giant”) pulses have to be used. In more recent times, pico- and femtosecond pulses have allowed to create plasma very easily and effectively. Laser fusion may represent the ultimate application in this direction, based on highly amplified ns pulses for inertial confinement or ps pulses designed as fast igniter. The idea of employing laser pulses for the ignition of engines was attempted for the first time in 1978, although with inadequate tools like the CO2 laser. After a long time of inactivity in this field, about 10 years ago a few institutions like Vienna University of Technology first resumed this approach with the help of modern type solid-state lasers and started systematic investigations around the idea of laser ignition of internal combustion engines. Now, this technique has reached a high degree of maturity; remaining problems lie on the development level and are to be solved soon. Ambitious product development by leading engine producers or ignition equipment suppliers has been started world-wide since several years and, as a result, in one or two years laser ignition will probably be imple-mented into high power gas engines or, somewhat later, high-priced automotive

  16. Plasma's sweeping arc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pichon, Max

    2010-01-01

    Full text: It is purely elemental, returning materials to their basic atoms through extreme heat and then recondensing them in useful ways. Plasma arc gasification is the latest advanced waste treatment (AWT)concept to hit our shores, courtesy of Zenergy Australia. According to its fans, plasma technology can eliminate all domestic waste to landfill and turn it into beneficial by-products. Japan has toyed with it for a decade, but the idea is now creating a bit of buzz, in the US in particular. Consultancy URS last year undertook a review of 16 advanced technologies for the City of Los Angeles and determined plasma arc gasification was one of the most promising. The Waste Management Association of Australia (VVMAA), however, is cautious - too many AWT projects here have failed to live up to their promises. Plasma arc gasification works on the same principle as a welding machine. An inert gas is passed through an electrical arc between two electrodes and becomes ionised (called plasma), reaching temperatures as high as 13,900°C. It is then injected into the plasma converter holding the waste. Zenergy is working with US technology company Plasma Waste Recycling (PWR), which says it can convert 80 per cent of waste to syngas, a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen that can be used to generate renewable electricity. The inorganic compounds in the waste come out as a solid, either molten metal to be cast as scrap steel or a slag that can be used as a building material aggregate or spun into mineral wool. “The plasma arc process is the next generation for AWT plants as there is no incineration involved, no fly ash, no bottom ash and nothing left to landfill,” said Zenergy Australia's Paul Prasad. He estimates a plant could convert up to 175,000 tonnes of household waste a year into energy or reusable by-products. Technically, it also gets around Australia's fears over incineration, though whether that is really the case in practice remains to be seen. Prasad says

  17. Vaporized wall material/plasma interaction during plasma disruption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merrill, B.J.; Carroll, M.C.; Jardin, S.C.

    1983-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss a new plasma disruption model that has been developed for analyzing the consequences to the limiter/first wall structures. This model accounts for: nonequilibrium surface vaporization for the ablating structure, nonequilibrium ionization of and radiation emitted from the ablated material in the plasma, plasma particle and energy transport, and plasma electromagnetic field evolution during the disruption event. Calculations were performed for a 5 ms disruption on a stainless steel flat limiter as part of a D-shaped first wall. These results indicated that the effectiveness of the ablated wall material to shield the exposed structure is greater than predicted by earlier models, and that the rate of redeposition of the ablated wall material ions is very dramatic. Impurity transport along magnetic field lines, global plasma motion, and radiation transport in an optically thick plasma are important factors that require additional modeling. Experimental measurements are needed to verify these models

  18. Plasmas: from space to laboratory. 'Introduction to plasma physics' course

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savoini, Philippe

    2011-01-01

    This course addresses the different basic concepts of plasma physics. After an introduction which addresses the plasma state, basic equations, the different theoretical approaches (orbitals, kinetic, multi-fluid, magnetohydrodynamics), and the different characteristic scales, waves are addressed and presented as a disordered electromagnetism: existence of plasma waves, generalities on waves, relationship of formal dispersion of plasmas, plasma without magnetic field (longitudinal, transverse, or low frequency wave), plasma with magnetic field (parallel, perpendicular, or arbitrary propagation). The next parts present various approaches: the particle-based approach (case of constant and uniform magnetic fields, case of non-uniform magnetic fields), the statistical approach (elements of kinetic theory, the collision phenomenon, the equilibrium state), and the fluid approach (fluid equations according to the multi-fluid theory, comparison with the particle-based approach, presentation of magnetohydrodynamics as the single-fluid model, validity of MHD)

  19. Plasma immersion surface modification with metal ion plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, I.G.; Yu, K.M.; Godechot, X.

    1991-04-01

    We describe here a novel technique for surface modification in which metal plasma is employed and by which various blends of plasma deposition and ion implantation can be obtained. The new technique is a variation of the plasma immersion technique described by Conrad and co-workers. When a substrate is immersed in a metal plasma, the plasma that condenses on the substrate remains there as a film, and when the substrate is then implanted, qualitatively different processes can follow, including' conventional' high energy ion implantation, recoil implantation, ion beam mixing, ion beam assisted deposition, and metallic thin film and multilayer fabrication with or without species mixing. Multiple metal plasma guns can be used with different metal ion species, films can be bonded to the substrate through ion beam mixing at the interface, and multilayer structures can be tailored with graded or abrupt interfaces. We have fabricated several different kinds of modified surface layers in this way. 22 refs., 4 figs

  20. The diverse applications of plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Mukul; Dubey, Shivani; Darwhekar, Gajanan; Jain, Sudhir Kumar

    2015-07-01

    Plasma being the fourth state of matter has always been an attraction for Physicists and Chemists. With the advent of time, plasma energy has been recognized in having widening horizons in the field of Biomedical Sciences. Plasma medicine can be subdivided into three main fields; Non-thermal atmospheric-pressure direct plasma for medical therapy; Plasma-assisted modification of bio-relevant surfaces and Plasma-based bio-decontamination and sterilization. The basis of the research is that as it has free carrier molecules, it has the ability to target specific cells and regulate functions like wound healing. Plasma does not harm healthy human cells but can kill bacteria and possibly even cancer cells to help treat various diseases. Nosocomial infection control, prevention and containment of contagious diseases, disinfection of medical devices, surface treatment (heat and UV sensitive surfaces) are research of interest. Recent success in generating plasma at very low temperature ie. Cold plasma makes the therapy painless. It has the ability to activate cellular responses and important mechanisms in the body. They target specific molecules such as prothrombin for blood coagulation, cytokines for killing bacteria, and angiogenesis for tissue regeneration. Plasma has bactericidal, fungicidal and virucidal properties. Plasma technology has flourishing future in diverse fields like Textiles, Nanofabrication, Automotives, Waste management, Microbiology, Food Hygiene, Medical Science like Skin treatments, sterilisation of wounds, Hand disinfection, Dental treatments etc. Food hygiene using plasma can be achieved in disinfection of food containers, food surface disinfection, hygiene in food handling, preparation and packaging. Therefore Plasma is most promising field for budding Scientist for fluorishing research in Biological Sciences.

  1. The diverse applications of plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Mukul; Darwhekar, Gajanan; Dubey, Shivani; Jain, Sudhir Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Plasma being the fourth state of matter has always been an attraction for Physicists and Chemists. With the advent of time, plasma energy has been recognized in having widening horizons in the field of Biomedical Sciences. Plasma medicine can be subdivided into three main fields; Non-thermal atmospheric-pressure direct plasma for medical therapy; Plasma-assisted modification of bio-relevant surfaces and Plasma-based bio-decontamination and sterilization. The basis of the research is that as it has free carrier molecules, it has the ability to target specific cells and regulate functions like wound healing. Plasma does not harm healthy human cells but can kill bacteria and possibly even cancer cells to help treat various diseases. Nosocomial infection control, prevention and containment of contagious diseases, disinfection of medical devices, surface treatment (heat and UV sensitive surfaces) are research of interest. Recent success in generating plasma at very low temperature ie. Cold plasma makes the therapy painless. It has the ability to activate cellular responses and important mechanisms in the body. They target specific molecules such as prothrombin for blood coagulation, cytokines for killing bacteria, and angiogenesis for tissue regeneration. Plasma has bactericidal, fungicidal and virucidal properties. Plasma technology has flourishing future in diverse fields like Textiles, Nanofabrication, Automotives, Waste management, Microbiology, Food Hygiene, Medical Science like Skin treatments, sterilisation of wounds, Hand disinfection, Dental treatments etc. Food hygiene using plasma can be achieved in disinfection of food containers, food surface disinfection, hygiene in food handling, preparation and packaging. Therefore Plasma is most promising field for budding Scientist for fluorishing research in Biological Sciences

  2. The diverse applications of plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Mukul, E-mail: mukulsharma@acropolis.edu.in; Darwhekar, Gajanan, E-mail: gdarwhekar@acropolis.edu.in [Acropolis Institute of Pharmaceutical Education & Research, Indore MP India (India); Dubey, Shivani, E-mail: dubeyshivani08@rediffmail.com [Mata Gujri College of Professional Studies, Indore MP India (India); Jain, Sudhir Kumar, E-mail: sudhirkjain1@rediffmail.com [School of Studies in Microbiology, Vikram University, Ujjain MP India (India)

    2015-07-31

    Plasma being the fourth state of matter has always been an attraction for Physicists and Chemists. With the advent of time, plasma energy has been recognized in having widening horizons in the field of Biomedical Sciences. Plasma medicine can be subdivided into three main fields; Non-thermal atmospheric-pressure direct plasma for medical therapy; Plasma-assisted modification of bio-relevant surfaces and Plasma-based bio-decontamination and sterilization. The basis of the research is that as it has free carrier molecules, it has the ability to target specific cells and regulate functions like wound healing. Plasma does not harm healthy human cells but can kill bacteria and possibly even cancer cells to help treat various diseases. Nosocomial infection control, prevention and containment of contagious diseases, disinfection of medical devices, surface treatment (heat and UV sensitive surfaces) are research of interest. Recent success in generating plasma at very low temperature ie. Cold plasma makes the therapy painless. It has the ability to activate cellular responses and important mechanisms in the body. They target specific molecules such as prothrombin for blood coagulation, cytokines for killing bacteria, and angiogenesis for tissue regeneration. Plasma has bactericidal, fungicidal and virucidal properties. Plasma technology has flourishing future in diverse fields like Textiles, Nanofabrication, Automotives, Waste management, Microbiology, Food Hygiene, Medical Science like Skin treatments, sterilisation of wounds, Hand disinfection, Dental treatments etc. Food hygiene using plasma can be achieved in disinfection of food containers, food surface disinfection, hygiene in food handling, preparation and packaging. Therefore Plasma is most promising field for budding Scientist for fluorishing research in Biological Sciences.

  3. Visualization of intermittent blobby plasma transport in attached and detached plasmas of the NAGDIS-II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohno, Noriyasu; Furuta, Katsuhiro; Takamura, Shuichi

    2004-01-01

    We investigated the intermittent convective plasma transport in a attached and/or detached plasma condition of the linear divertor plasma simulator, NAGDIS-II. Images taken by a fast-imaging camera clearly show that in attached plasmas, blobs are peeled off the bulk plasma, and propagate outward with an azimuthal motion. In detached plasmas, plasma turbulence observed near the plasma recombining region drives strong intermittent radial plasma transport, which could broaden the radial density profile. (author)

  4. Lightweight Portable Plasma Medical Device - Plasma Engineering Research Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    monocytic leukemia cancer cells ( THP -1) were also tested and the results 19 demonstrate that a preference for apoptosis in plasma treated THP -1...unanswered questions. We have tested the effects of indirect exposure of non-thermal air plasma on monocytic leukemia cancer cells ( THP -1) and deciphering... tested and the results are shown in Fig. above. The results demonstrate that a preference for apoptosis in plasma treated THP -1 cells under

  5. A contoured gap coaxial plasma gun with injected plasma armature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witherspoon, F. Douglas; Case, Andrew; Messer, Sarah J.; Bomgardner, Richard II; Phillips, Michael W.; Brockington, Samuel; Elton, Raymond [HyperV Technologies Corp., Chantilly, Virginia 20151 (United States)

    2009-08-15

    A new coaxial plasma gun is described. The long term objective is to accelerate 100-200 {mu}g of plasma with density above 10{sup 17} cm{sup -3} to greater than 200 km/s with a Mach number above 10. Such high velocity dense plasma jets have a number of potential fusion applications, including plasma refueling, magnetized target fusion, injection of angular momentum into centrifugally confined mirrors, high energy density plasmas, and others. The approach uses symmetric injection of high density plasma into a coaxial electromagnetic accelerator having an annular gap geometry tailored to prevent formation of the blow-by instability. The injected plasma is generated by numerous (currently 32) radially oriented capillary discharges arranged uniformly around the circumference of the angled annular injection region of the accelerator. Magnetohydrodynamic modeling identified electrode profiles that can achieve the desired plasma jet parameters. The experimental hardware is described along with initial experimental results in which approximately 200 {mu}g has been accelerated to 100 km/s in a half-scale prototype gun. Initial observations of 64 merging injector jets in a planar cylindrical testing array are presented. Density and velocity are presently limited by available peak current and injection sources. Steps to increase both the drive current and the injected plasma mass are described for next generation experiments.

  6. Revisiting the plasma sheath—dust in plasma sheath

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, G. C. [Mathematical Science Division, IASST, Guwahati 781014 (India); Deka, R.; Bora, M. P., E-mail: mpbora@gauhati.ac.in [Physics Department, Gauhati University, Guwahati 781014 (India)

    2016-04-15

    In this work, we have considered the formation of warm plasma sheath in the vicinity of a wall in a plasma with considerable presence of dust particles. As an example, we have used the parameters relevant in case of plasma sheath formed around surfaces of various solid bodies in space, though the results obtained in this work can be applied to any other physical situation such as laboratory plasma. In the ion-acoustic time scale, we neglect the dust dynamics. The dust particles affect the sheath dynamics by affecting the Poisson equation which determines the plasma potential in the sheath region. It is important to note that our calculations are valid only when the amount of dust particles is not sufficient so as to affect the plasma dynamics in the dust-acoustic time scale, but enough to affect the plasma sheath. We have assumed the current to a dust particle to be balanced throughout the analysis. This makes the grain potential dependent on plasma potential, which is then incorporated into the Poisson equation. The resultant numerical model becomes an initial value problem, which is described by a 1-D integro-differential equation, which is then solved self-consistently by incorporating the change in plasma potential caused by inclusion of the dust potential in the Poisson equation.

  7. A contoured gap coaxial plasma gun with injected plasma armature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witherspoon, F Douglas; Case, Andrew; Messer, Sarah J; Bomgardner, Richard; Phillips, Michael W; Brockington, Samuel; Elton, Raymond

    2009-08-01

    A new coaxial plasma gun is described. The long term objective is to accelerate 100-200 microg of plasma with density above 10(17) cm(-3) to greater than 200 km/s with a Mach number above 10. Such high velocity dense plasma jets have a number of potential fusion applications, including plasma refueling, magnetized target fusion, injection of angular momentum into centrifugally confined mirrors, high energy density plasmas, and others. The approach uses symmetric injection of high density plasma into a coaxial electromagnetic accelerator having an annular gap geometry tailored to prevent formation of the blow-by instability. The injected plasma is generated by numerous (currently 32) radially oriented capillary discharges arranged uniformly around the circumference of the angled annular injection region of the accelerator. Magnetohydrodynamic modeling identified electrode profiles that can achieve the desired plasma jet parameters. The experimental hardware is described along with initial experimental results in which approximately 200 microg has been accelerated to 100 km/s in a half-scale prototype gun. Initial observations of 64 merging injector jets in a planar cylindrical testing array are presented. Density and velocity are presently limited by available peak current and injection sources. Steps to increase both the drive current and the injected plasma mass are described for next generation experiments.

  8. A contoured gap coaxial plasma gun with injected plasma armature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witherspoon, F. Douglas; Case, Andrew; Messer, Sarah J.; Bomgardner, Richard II; Phillips, Michael W.; Brockington, Samuel; Elton, Raymond

    2009-01-01

    A new coaxial plasma gun is described. The long term objective is to accelerate 100-200 μg of plasma with density above 10 17 cm -3 to greater than 200 km/s with a Mach number above 10. Such high velocity dense plasma jets have a number of potential fusion applications, including plasma refueling, magnetized target fusion, injection of angular momentum into centrifugally confined mirrors, high energy density plasmas, and others. The approach uses symmetric injection of high density plasma into a coaxial electromagnetic accelerator having an annular gap geometry tailored to prevent formation of the blow-by instability. The injected plasma is generated by numerous (currently 32) radially oriented capillary discharges arranged uniformly around the circumference of the angled annular injection region of the accelerator. Magnetohydrodynamic modeling identified electrode profiles that can achieve the desired plasma jet parameters. The experimental hardware is described along with initial experimental results in which approximately 200 μg has been accelerated to 100 km/s in a half-scale prototype gun. Initial observations of 64 merging injector jets in a planar cylindrical testing array are presented. Density and velocity are presently limited by available peak current and injection sources. Steps to increase both the drive current and the injected plasma mass are described for next generation experiments.

  9. Electron density and plasma dynamics of a colliding plasma experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiechula, J., E-mail: wiechula@physik.uni-frankfurt.de; Schönlein, A.; Iberler, M.; Hock, C.; Manegold, T.; Bohlender, B.; Jacoby, J. [Plasma Physics Group, Institute of Applied Physics, Goethe University, 60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    2016-07-15

    We present experimental results of two head-on colliding plasma sheaths accelerated by pulsed-power-driven coaxial plasma accelerators. The measurements have been performed in a small vacuum chamber with a neutral-gas prefill of ArH{sub 2} at gas pressures between 17 Pa and 400 Pa and load voltages between 4 kV and 9 kV. As the plasma sheaths collide, the electron density is significantly increased. The electron density reaches maximum values of ≈8 ⋅ 10{sup 15} cm{sup −3} for a single accelerated plasma and a maximum value of ≈2.6 ⋅ 10{sup 16} cm{sup −3} for the plasma collision. Overall a raise of the plasma density by a factor of 1.3 to 3.8 has been achieved. A scaling behavior has been derived from the values of the electron density which shows a disproportionately high increase of the electron density of the collisional case for higher applied voltages in comparison to a single accelerated plasma. Sequences of the plasma collision have been taken, using a fast framing camera to study the plasma dynamics. These sequences indicate a maximum collision velocity of 34 km/s.

  10. MHD description of plasma: handbook of plasma physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulsrud, R.M.

    1980-10-01

    The basic sets of MHD equations for the description of a plasma in various limits are derived and their usefulness and limits of validity are discussed. These limits are: the one fluid collisional plasma, the two fluid collisional plasma, the Chew-Goldberger Low formulation of the guiding center limit of a collisionless plasma and the double-adiabatic limit. Conservation relations are derived from these sets and the mathematics of the concept of flux freezing is given. An example is given illustrating the differences between guiding center theory and double adiabatic theory

  11. Quantitative Evaluation of Dose-Response Relationships in Human Beings with Skeletal Burdens of Radium-226 and Radium-228; Evaluation Quantitative de la Relation entre Dose et Reponse chez des Sujets Ayant une Charge Squelettique de Radium 226 et Radium 228; 041a 041e 041b 0414 ; Evaluacion Cuantitativa de las Relaciones Dosis-Respuesta en Seres Humanos con Cargas de Radio-226 y Radio-228 en el Esqueleto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maletskos, C. J.; Braun, A. G.; Shanahan, M. M.; Evans, R. D. [Radioactivity Center, Department of Physics. Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1964-11-15

    resultats cliniques obtenus sur ces sujets avec les resultats obtenus sur des sujets temoins ayant des charges normales de radium, qu'il y ait ou non variation en fonction de la dose. Les resultats preliminaires indiquent que les radiogrammes revelent la correlation la plus marquee avec la dose due a la contamination interne. Pour des charges elevees, on a releve des indications certaines d'effets sur des parties de l'organisme autres que le squelette, notamment sur le sang (numeration lymphocytaire et vitesse de sedimentation); ces effets sont semblables a ceux qui ont ete observes lors d'experiences faites sur des chiens dans l'Utah, Les auteurs estiment qu'il convient de poursuivre les analyses. Aucun signe ni symptome clinique important n'a ete observe pour un equivalent minimum de radium 226 pur inferieur a 0,5 {mu}c. Lorsque l'equivalent minimum de radium 226 pur se situe entre 10{sup -3} et 10{sup -1} {mu}c, les donnees cliniques ne depassent pas les limites de la normale. (author) [Spanish] El grupo de 361 sujetos con cargas de radio-226 y radio-228 en el esqueleto, estudiado por los autores, constituye una muestra suficientemente grande para permitir la evaluacion cuantitativa de las relaciones existentes entre la respuesta biologica y la dosis de irradiacion interna. En la memoria se describen los procedimientos de estudio aplicados y los resultados preliminares obtenidos. Las respuestas biologicas constan de una variedad de datos clinicos tales como cuadros radiograficos resultados de examenes de tumores y fracturas, analisis de orina, pruebas hematologicas y hematoquimicas y electroforesis de las proteinas. La dosis debida a la irradiacion interna se expresa por la carga corporal retenida en microcuries de quivalente minimo de radio-226 puro en rads acumulativos y en rad-aflos acumulativos. El primer paso del analisis consiste en comprobar si existe o no alguna relacion entre un parametro clinico dado y la dosis de irradiacion. Esta determinacion se efectua

  12. Renormalization and plasma physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krommes, J.A.

    1980-02-01

    A review is given of modern theories of statistical dynamics as applied to problems in plasma physics. The derivation of consistent renormalized kinetic equations is discussed, first heuristically, later in terms of powerful functional techniques. The equations are illustrated with models of various degrees of idealization, including the exactly soluble stochastic oscillator, a prototype for several important applications. The direct-interaction approximation is described in detail. Applications discussed include test particle diffusion and the justification of quasilinear theory, convective cells, E vector x B vector turbulence, the renormalized dielectric function, phase space granulation, and stochastic magnetic fields

  13. Ionization of anisothermal plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dennery, F.M.

    1994-01-01

    During this last mid-century, only the temperature of electrons has been involved in the Saha's mass action law, whatever be the other ionic and neutral ones in any isothermal or anisothermal plasma. In order to set aside this underlying paradox in the case of argon ionization, it is necessary to improve this equation of partial equilibrium after having defined: - the basic Gibbs-Duhem's relations for such a polythermal mixture, - the inhomogeneous equilibrium issued from chemical reactions according to Le Chatelier's principle. (author). 3 refs

  14. Plasma beta HCG determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amaral, L.B.D.; Pinto, J.C.M.; Linhares, E.; Linhares, Estevao

    1981-01-01

    There are three important indications for the early diagnosis of pregnancy through the determination of the beta sub-unit of chorionic gonadotrophin using radioimmunoassay: 1) some patient's or doctor's anxiety to discover the problem; 2) when it will be necessary to employ diagnostic or treatment procedures susceptible to affect the ovum; and 3) in the differential diagnosis of amenorrhoea, uterine hemorrhage and abdominal tumors. Other user's are the diagnosis of missed absortion, and the diagnosis and follow-up of chrorioncarcinoma. The AA. studied 200 determinations of plasma beta-HCG, considering the main difficulties occuring in the clinical use of this relevant laboratory tool in actual Obstetrics. (author) [pt

  15. Theoretical plasma physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boozer, A.H.; Vahala, G.

    1989-08-01

    During the past year we have studied stellarator equilibria with quasi-helical symmetry and the relation between the trajectories of the exact and the drift Hamiltonian. The relation between these trajectories is particularly important to issue of α particle confinement in a reactor. Work has also been done on the bootstrap current in the absence of symmetry, the effects of tearing modes on the current profile in a tokamak, and models of plasma turbulence. In addition, considerable time was spent during the year by Allen Boozer chairing the task force on Alternate Transport as part of the DoE transport initiative

  16. Renormalization and plasma physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krommes, J.A.

    1980-02-01

    A review is given of modern theories of statistical dynamics as applied to problems in plasma physics. The derivation of consistent renormalized kinetic equations is discussed, first heuristically, later in terms of powerful functional techniques. The equations are illustrated with models of various degrees of idealization, including the exactly soluble stochastic oscillator, a prototype for several important applications. The direct-interaction approximation is described in detail. Applications discussed include test particle diffusion and the justification of quasilinear theory, convective cells, E vector x B vector turbulence, the renormalized dielectric function, phase space granulation, and stochastic magnetic fields.

  17. CTR plasma engineering studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miley, G.H.

    1990-01-01

    The main focus of the work by the Fusion Plasma Engineering Group at the University during the prior contract year involved a study of fusion ash (helium) effects on burn efficiency and on potential ways to control ash buildup. This work has wide application to a variety of fusion reactor concepts, but the immediate application for the present work is in the ARIES tokamak reactor design study now being undertaken by a national design team headed by the UCLA. The examples presented here largely deal with the ARIES-I design which is a D-T device operating in the first instability regime

  18. Optical plasma diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gross, B.

    1973-01-01

    The measurement is described of the radial courses of temperature and electron, atom and ion density in the plasma of a water-stabilized arc with currents from 20 A to 60 A. For temperature measurement a method based on the determination of the relative intensity of Balmer lines was used. The electron density was measured by determining the Hsub(β) line profile and the relative density of other particles was measured by determining the intensity ratio of radiation emitted by the respective atoms or ions. (author)

  19. Plasma diagnostics discharge parameters and chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Auciello, Orlando

    1989-01-01

    Plasma Diagnostics, Volume 1: Discharge Parameters and Chemistry covers seven chapters on the important diagnostic techniques for plasmas and details their use in particular applications. The book discusses optical diagnostic techniques for low pressure plasmas and plasma processing; plasma diagnostics for electrical discharge light sources; as well as Langmuir probes. The text also describes the mass spectroscopy of plasmas, microwave diagnostics, paramagnetic resonance diagnostics, and diagnostics in thermal plasma processing. Electrical engineers, nuclear engineers, microwave engineers, che

  20. Electron cyclotron resonance plasma photos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Racz, R.; Palinkas, J. [Institute of Nuclear Research (ATOMKI), H-4026 Debrecen, Bem ter 18/c (Hungary); University of Debrecen, H-4010 Debrecen, Egyetem ter 1 (Hungary); Biri, S. [Institute of Nuclear Research (ATOMKI), H-4026 Debrecen, Bem ter 18/c (Hungary)

    2010-02-15

    In order to observe and study systematically the plasma of electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion sources (ECRIS) we made a high number of high-resolution visible light plasma photos and movies in the ATOMKI ECRIS Laboratory. This required building the ECR ion source into an open ECR plasma device, temporarily. An 8MP digital camera was used to record photos of plasmas made from Ne, Ar, and Kr gases and from their mixtures. We studied and recorded the effect of ion source setting parameters (gas pressure, gas composition, magnetic field, and microwave power) to the shape, color, and structure of the plasma. The analysis of the photo series gave us many qualitative and numerous valuable physical information on the nature of ECR plasmas.

  1. Space plasma branch at NRL

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Naval Research Laboratory (Washington, D.C.) formed the Space Plasma Branch within its Plasma Physics Division on July 1. Vithal Patel, former Program Director of Magnetospheric Physics, National Science Foundation, also joined NRL on the same date as Associate Superintendent of the Plasma Physics Division. Barret Ripin is head of the newly organized branch. The Space Plasma branch will do basic and applied space plasma research using a multidisciplinary approach. It consolidates traditional rocket and satellite space experiments, space plasma theory and computation, with laboratory space-related experiments. About 40 research scientists, postdoctoral fellows, engineers, and technicians are divided among its five sections. The Theory and Computation sections are led by Joseph Huba and Joel Fedder, the Space Experiments section is led by Paul Rodriguez, and the Pharos Laser Facility and Laser Experiments sections are headed by Charles Manka and Jacob Grun.

  2. Electron cyclotron resonance plasma photos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Racz, R.; Palinkas, J.; Biri, S.

    2010-01-01

    In order to observe and study systematically the plasma of electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion sources (ECRIS) we made a high number of high-resolution visible light plasma photos and movies in the ATOMKI ECRIS Laboratory. This required building the ECR ion source into an open ECR plasma device, temporarily. An 8MP digital camera was used to record photos of plasmas made from Ne, Ar, and Kr gases and from their mixtures. We studied and recorded the effect of ion source setting parameters (gas pressure, gas composition, magnetic field, and microwave power) to the shape, color, and structure of the plasma. The analysis of the photo series gave us many qualitative and numerous valuable physical information on the nature of ECR plasmas.

  3. The control of TCV plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lister, J.B.; Hofmann, F.; Moret, J.M.

    1996-07-01

    The general control of tokamak plasmas has evolved considerably over the last few years with an increase in the plasma pulse length, an increase in the control of additional heating and fuelling and an increase in the degree to which the shape of the plasma can be varied. The TCV tokamak is specifically designed to explore the operational benefits of plasma shaping over a wide variety of plasma shapes. Consequently, considerable attention has been given to the control of the poloidal field coil currents which impose the desired shape. This paper deals with all aspects of the control of TCV plasmas, from the diagnostic measurements to the power supplies, via control algorithms and overall supervision. (author) 44 figs., tabs., 25 refs

  4. The control of TCV plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lister, J B; Hofmann, F; Moret, J M [Ecole Polytechnique Federale, Lausanne (Switzerland). Centre de Recherche en Physique des Plasma (CRPP); and others

    1996-07-01

    The general control of tokamak plasmas has evolved considerably over the last few years with an increase in the plasma pulse length, an increase in the control of additional heating and fuelling and an increase in the degree to which the shape of the plasma can be varied. The TCV tokamak is specifically designed to explore the operational benefits of plasma shaping over a wide variety of plasma shapes. Consequently, considerable attention has been given to the control of the poloidal field coil currents which impose the desired shape. This paper deals with all aspects of the control of TCV plasmas, from the diagnostic measurements to the power supplies, via control algorithms and overall supervision. (author) 44 figs., tabs., 25 refs.

  5. Converging-barrel plasma accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paine, T.O.

    1971-01-01

    The invention comprises a device for generating and accelerating plasma to extremely high velocity, while focusing the plasma to a decreasing cross section for attaining a very dense high-velocity plasma burst capable of causing nuclear fusion reactions. A converging coaxial accelerator-electrode configuration is employed with ''high-pressure'' gas injection in controlled amounts to achieve acceleration by deflagration and focusing by the shaped electromagnetic fields. (U.S.)

  6. Computational Methods in Plasma Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Jardin, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    Assuming no prior knowledge of plasma physics or numerical methods, Computational Methods in Plasma Physics covers the computational mathematics and techniques needed to simulate magnetically confined plasmas in modern magnetic fusion experiments and future magnetic fusion reactors. Largely self-contained, the text presents the basic concepts necessary for the numerical solution of partial differential equations. Along with discussing numerical stability and accuracy, the author explores many of the algorithms used today in enough depth so that readers can analyze their stability, efficiency,

  7. Plasma cell granuloma of lip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Sabarinath

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Plasma cells are medium-sized round-to-oval cells with eccentrically placed nuclei, usually found in the red pulp of the spleen, tonsils, medulla of the lymph nodes, nasal mucosa, upper airway, lamina propria of the gastrointestinal tract, and sites of inflammation. Plasma cell granuloma is a rare reactive tumor-like proliferation composed chiefly of plasmacytic infiltrate. Here, we present a case of plasma cell granuloma of lip in a female patient.

  8. Radioimmunoassay for plasma renin activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    A radioimmunoassay for the determination of renin activity in blood plasma is described. The plasma sample is mixed with a generator buffer solution also containing an inhibitor for enzymes which convert angiotensin I into other substances. The renin in the plasma sample converts angiotensinogen into angiotensin I. The amount of angiotensin I is then measured with a competitive binding method using 125 I-labelled angiotensin I and antibodies to angiotensin I

  9. Monitoring system for thermal plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romero G, M.; Vilchis P, A.E.

    1999-01-01

    In the Thermal plasma applications laboratory it has been the degradation project of oils for isolation in transformers. These are a very hazardous residues and at this time in the country they are stored in metal barrels. It has been the intention to undergo the oils to plasma for degradate them to non-hazardous residues. The system behavior must be monitored to establish the thermal plasma behavior. (Author)

  10. Important plasma problems in astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulsrud, R.M.

    1995-01-01

    In astrophysics, plasmas occur under very extreme conditions. For example, there are ultrastrong magnetic fields in neutron stars, relativistic plasmas around black holes and in jets, extremely energetic particles such as cosmic rays in the interstellar medium, extremely dense plasmas in accretion disks, and extremely large magnetic Reynolds numbers in the interstellar medium. These extreme limits for astrophysical plasmas make plasma phenomena much simpler to analyze in astrophysics than in the laboratory. An understanding of such phenomena often results in an interesting way, by simply taking the extreme limiting case of a known plasma theory. The author will describe one of the more exciting examples and will attempt to convey the excitement he felt when he was first exposed to it. However, not all plasma astrophysical phenomena are so simple. There are certain important plasma phenomena in astrophysics that have not been so easily resolved. In fact, a resolution of them is blocking significant progress in astrophysical research. They have not yet yielded to attacks by theoretical astrophysicists nor to extensive numerical simulation. The author will attempt to describe one of the more important of these plasma--astrophysical problems, and discuss why its resolution is so important to astrophysics. This significant example is fast, magnetic reconnection. Another significant example is the large-magnetic-Reynolds number magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) dynamos

  11. Atomic phenomena in dense plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weisheit, J.C.

    1981-03-01

    The following chapters are included: (1) the plasma environment, (2) perturbations of atomic structure, (3) perturbations of atomic collisions, (4) formation of spectral lines, and (5) dielectronic recombination

  12. Introduction to burning plasma physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Momota, Hiromu

    1982-01-01

    The free energy of fusion-produced charged particles, the critical plasma Q-value for the thermal instability, and the Cherenkov's emission are discussed. The free energy of fusion-produced charged particles is large even in DT burning plasma. The primary role of fusion-produced energetic charged particles is the heating of fuel plasma. If the charged particle heating is large, burning may be thermally unstable. A zero dimensional analysis shows that the critical plasma Q-values for this thermal instability are nearly 5 for DT burning plasma of 14 keV and 1.6 for D-He 3 burning plasma of 60 keV. These critical plasma Q-values are small as compared to that required for commercial reactors. Then, some methods of burning-control should be introduced to fusion plasma. Another feature of energetic charged particles may be Cherenkov's emission of various waves in fusion plasma. The relationship between this micro-instability and transport phenomena may be the important problem to be clarified. The fusion-produced energetic charged particles have large Larmor radii, and they may have effects on balooning mode instability. (Kato, T.)

  13. Autoresonant Excitation of Antiproton Plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Andresen, Gorm B; Baquero-Ruiz, Marcelo; Bertsche, William; Bowe, Paul D; Butler, Eoin; Carpenter, P T; Cesar, Claudio L; Chapman, Steven; Charlton, Michael; Fajans, Joel; Friesen, Tim; Fujiwara, Makoto C; Gill, David R; Hangst, Jeffrey S; Hardy, Walter N; Hayden, Michael E; Humphries, Andrew J; Hurt, J L; Hydomako, Richard; Jonsell, Svante; Madsen, Niels; Menary, Scott; Nolan, Paul; Olchanski, Konstantin; Olin, Art; Povilus, Alexander; Pusa, Petteri; Robicheaux, Francis; Sarid, Eli; Silveira, Daniel M; So, Chukman; Storey, James W; Thompson, Robert I; van der Werf, Dirk P; Wurtele, Jonathan S; Yamazaki, Yasunori

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate controllable excitation of the center-of-mass longitudinal motion of a thermal antiproton plasma using a swept-frequency autoresonant drive. When the plasma is cold, dense, and highly collective in nature, we observe that the entire system behaves as a single-particle nonlinear oscillator, as predicted by a recent theory. In contrast, only a fraction of the antiprotons in a warm plasma can be similarly excited. Antihydrogen was produced and trapped by using this technique to drive antiprotons into a positron plasma, thereby initiating atomic recombination.

  14. Plasma physics for controlled fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyamoto, K.

    2010-01-01

    The primary objective of this lecture note is to present the theories and experiments of plasma physics for recent activities of controlled fusion research for graduate and senior undergraduate students. Chapters 1-6 describe the basic knowledge of plasma and magnetohydrodynamics (MHD). MHD instabilities limit the beta ratio (ratio of plasma pressure to magnetic pressure) of confined plasma. Chapters 7-9 provide the kinetic theory of hot plasma and discuss the wave heating and non-inductive current drive. The dispersion relation derived by the kinetic theory are used to discuss plasma waves and perturbed modes. Landau damping is the essential mechanism of plasma heating and the stabilization of perturbation. Landau inverse damping brings the amplification of waves and the destabilization of perturbed modes. Chapter 10 explains the plasma transport due to turbulence, which is the most important and challenging subject for plasma confinement. Theories and simulations including subject of zonal flow are introduced. Chapters 11, 12 and 13 describe the recent activities of tokamak including ITER as well as spherical tokamak, reversed field pinch (RFP) and stellarator including quasi-symmetric configurations. Emphasis has been given to tokamak research since it made the most remarkable progress and the construction phase of 'International Tokamak Experimental Reactor' called ITER has already started. (author)

  15. White paper on dusty plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whipple, E.C.

    1986-04-01

    Dusty plasmas is the name given to plasmas heavily laden with charged dust grains which together with the surrounding ions and electrons constitute a kind of plasma regime. This field of study is receiving increased attention because of the observation of dust during recent spacecraft missions to the planets and comets, together with the dawning recognition that the evolution of dusty plasma clouds in space may be quite different from that of nondusty clouds. Recent work in this field is reviewed and recommendations are made on the kind of research that is needed in the immediate future

  16. Rippled plasma wall accelerating structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavenago, M.

    1992-01-01

    A concept to form a hot, pulsed, inhomogeneous plasma and to use it as a linac structure is presented. The plasma spatial distribution is controlled by an external magnetic field and by the location of thermionic emitters; microwave ECR heating at frequency ω 1 favours plasma build up and reduces plasma resistivity. A shorter microwave pulse with frequency ω 2 ≠ ω 1 excites a longitudinal mode. An expression for the maximum attainable accelerating field is found. A linearized theory of accelerating modes is given. (Author) 6 refs., 3 figs

  17. All plasma spheromak: the plasmak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koloc, P.; Ogden, J.

    1981-01-01

    There has been an evolutionary pattern established in magnetic fusion concepts. The flow in ideas follows three directions. By extrapolating this evolutionary movement, we have anticipated the concept called Spheromak and have predicted the omega of this evolution which is called PLASMAK, or Plasma Spheromak. The evolutionary directions are from open systems to closed systems, from zero or low dimensional compression schemes to three dimensional compression, and finally from plasma configurations without any self confining currents to a plasma configuration which is completely self confined except for the mechanical pressure necessary to maintain the verticle field and hoop stress. Nevertheless, the plasma is imprisoned by heavy poloidal coils and a vacuum wall

  18. Proceedings of the 1. Brazilian Congress on Plasma Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The 1. Brazilian Congress on Plasma Physics proceedings presents technical papers on magnetohydrodynamics, plasma diagnostic, plasma waves, plasma impurities, plasma instabilities, and astrophysics plasma. (L.C.J.A.)

  19. The FORMEX plasma formulary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Junker, J.

    1994-01-01

    A collection of formulas frequently used in the field of plasma physics has been compiled and prepared for evaluation with the Microsoft Excel spreadsheet program, which runs on an IBM-compatible PC as well as on a Macintosh computer. The present version of this plasma formulary, a worksheet named FORMEX, comprises 133 formulas depending on 23 variables. The formulas are evaluated numerically and these numerical values are promptly updated whenever any of the input variables is changed. A complete set of input variables can be chosen by the name of an experimental device. Stellarators and tokamaks, 16 altogether, have been incorporated in the formulary. A diagram can be displayed to show how a specific formula depends on any of its input variables. Each formula is extensively annotated to show it origin and give literature references. The formulary is operated with a series of macros, all inside the macro sheet named FORMAK, which are invoked by menu commands from a special menu bar. All the information from the formulary, the genuine formulas, the table of numerically evaluated plot coordinates, the notes, and the diagrams can be further processed or transferred to any other application with the help of the usual Excel commands. The formulary is open to adding more formulas and, if needed, variables as well as data of further experimental devices. The FORMEX and FORMAK files are made available by ANONYMOUS FTP via the address FTP.IPP-GARCHING.MPG.DE, which allows public access. (orig.)

  20. Plasma-driven liners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kilic, H.; Linhart, J.G.; Bortolotti, A.; Nardi, V.

    1992-01-01

    The deposition of thermal energy by laser or ion beams in an ablator is capable of producing a very large acceleration of the adjacent pusher - for power densities of 100 Terrawatts/cm 2 , ablator pressure in the range of 10 Mbar is attainable. In the case of a plasma drive such driving pressures and accelerations are not directly possible. When a snowplough (SP) is used to accelerate a thin liner, the driving pressure is that of the magnetic piston pushing the SP, i.e. at most 0.1 Mbar. However, the initial radius r 0 of the liner can be a few centimeters, instead of 1 (mm) as in the case in direct pellet implosions. In order to compete with the performance of the beam-driven liners, the plasma drive must demonstrate that a) thin liner retains a high density during the implosion (lasting a fraction of a μsec); b) radial compression ratio r 0 /r min of the order of 100 can be attained. It is also attractive to consider the staging of two or more liners in order to get sharpening and amplifications of the pressure and/or radiation pulse. If a) and b) are verified then the final pressures produced will be comparable with those of the beam-driven implosions. (author) 5 refs., 3 figs

  1. Quark gluon plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Nayak, Tapan; Sarkar, Sourav

    2014-01-01

    At extremely high temperatures and densities, protons and neutrons may dissolve into a "soup" of quarks and gluons, called the Quark-Gluon Plasma (QGP). For a few microseconds, shortly after the Big Bang, the Universe was filled with the QGP matter. The search and study of Quark-Gluon Plasma (QGP) is one of the most fundamental research topics of our times. The QGP matter has been probed by colliding heavy ions at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider at Brookhaven National Laboratory, New York and the Large Hadron Collider at CERN, Geneva. By colliding heavy-ions at a speed close to that of light, scientists aim to obtain - albeit over a tiny volume of the size of a nucleus and for an infinitesimally short instant - a QGP state. This QGP state can be observed by dedicated experiments, as it reverts to hadronic matter through expansion and cooling. This volume presents some of the current theoretical and experimental understandings in the field of QGP.

  2. Undamped electrostatic plasma waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valentini, F.; Perrone, D.; Veltri, P. [Dipartimento di Fisica and CNISM, Universita della Calabria, 87036 Rende (CS) (Italy); Califano, F.; Pegoraro, F. [Dipartimento di Fisica and CNISM, Universita di Pisa, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Morrison, P. J. [Institute for Fusion Studies and Department of Physics, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712-1060 (United States); O' Neil, T. M. [Department of Physics, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 (United States)

    2012-09-15

    Electrostatic waves in a collision-free unmagnetized plasma of electrons with fixed ions are investigated for electron equilibrium velocity distribution functions that deviate slightly from Maxwellian. Of interest are undamped waves that are the small amplitude limit of nonlinear excitations, such as electron acoustic waves (EAWs). A deviation consisting of a small plateau, a region with zero velocity derivative over a width that is a very small fraction of the electron thermal speed, is shown to give rise to new undamped modes, which here are named corner modes. The presence of the plateau turns off Landau damping and allows oscillations with phase speeds within the plateau. These undamped waves are obtained in a wide region of the (k,{omega}{sub R}) plane ({omega}{sub R} being the real part of the wave frequency and k the wavenumber), away from the well-known 'thumb curve' for Langmuir waves and EAWs based on the Maxwellian. Results of nonlinear Vlasov-Poisson simulations that corroborate the existence of these modes are described. It is also shown that deviations caused by fattening the tail of the distribution shift roots off of the thumb curve toward lower k-values and chopping the tail shifts them toward higher k-values. In addition, a rule of thumb is obtained for assessing how the existence of a plateau shifts roots off of the thumb curve. Suggestions are made for interpreting experimental observations of electrostatic waves, such as recent ones in nonneutral plasmas.

  3. Undamped electrostatic plasma waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valentini, F.; Perrone, D.; Veltri, P.; Califano, F.; Pegoraro, F.; Morrison, P. J.; O'Neil, T. M.

    2012-01-01

    Electrostatic waves in a collision-free unmagnetized plasma of electrons with fixed ions are investigated for electron equilibrium velocity distribution functions that deviate slightly from Maxwellian. Of interest are undamped waves that are the small amplitude limit of nonlinear excitations, such as electron acoustic waves (EAWs). A deviation consisting of a small plateau, a region with zero velocity derivative over a width that is a very small fraction of the electron thermal speed, is shown to give rise to new undamped modes, which here are named corner modes. The presence of the plateau turns off Landau damping and allows oscillations with phase speeds within the plateau. These undamped waves are obtained in a wide region of the (k,ω R ) plane (ω R being the real part of the wave frequency and k the wavenumber), away from the well-known “thumb curve” for Langmuir waves and EAWs based on the Maxwellian. Results of nonlinear Vlasov-Poisson simulations that corroborate the existence of these modes are described. It is also shown that deviations caused by fattening the tail of the distribution shift roots off of the thumb curve toward lower k-values and chopping the tail shifts them toward higher k-values. In addition, a rule of thumb is obtained for assessing how the existence of a plateau shifts roots off of the thumb curve. Suggestions are made for interpreting experimental observations of electrostatic waves, such as recent ones in nonneutral plasmas.

  4. Electrostatic Plasma Accelerator (EPA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brophy, John R.; Aston, Graeme

    1995-01-01

    The application of electric propulsion to communications satellites, however, has been limited to the use of hydrazine thrusters with electric heaters for thrust and specific impulse augmentation. These electrothermal thrusters operate at specific impulse levels of approximately 300 s with heater powers of about 500 W. Low power arcjets (1-3 kW) are currently being investigated as a way to increase specific impulse levels to approximately 500 s. Ion propulsion systems can easily produce specific impulses of 3000 s or greater, but have yet to be applied to communications satellites. The reasons most often given for not using ion propulsion systems are their high level of overall complexity, low thrust with long burn times, and the difficulty of integrating the propulsion system into existing commercial spacecraft busses. The Electrostatic Plasma Accelerator (EPA) is a thruster concept which promises specific impulse levels between low power arcjets and those of the ion engine while retaining the relative simplicity of the arcjet. The EPA thruster produces thrust through the electrostatic acceleration of a moderately dense plasma. No accelerating electrodes are used and the specific impulse is a direct function of the applied discharge voltage and the propellant atomic mass.

  5. Theoretical Plasma Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vahala, George M. [College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA (United States)

    2013-12-31

    Lattice Boltzmann algorithms are a mesoscopic method to solve problems in nonlinear physics which are highly parallelized – unlike the direction solution of the original problem. These methods are applied to both fluid and magnetohydrodynamic turbulence. By introducing entropic constraints one can enforce the positive definiteness of the distribution functions and so be able to simulate fluids at high Reynolds numbers without numerical instabilities. By introducing a vector distribution function for the magnetic field one can enforce the divergence free condition on the magnetic field automatically, without the need of divergence cleaning as needed in most direct numerical solutions of the resistive magnetohydrodynamic equations. The principal reason for the high parallelization of lattice Boltzmann codes is that they consist of a kinetic collisional relaxation step (which is purely local) followed by a simple shift of the relaxed data to neighboring lattice sites. In large eddy simulations, the closure schemes are highly nonlocal – the most famous of these schemes is that due to Smagorinsky. Under a lattice Boltzmann representation the Smagorinsky closure is purely local – being simply a particular moment on the perturbed distribution fucntions. After nonlocal fluid moment models were discovered to represent Landau damping, it was found possible to model these fluid models using an appropriate lattice Boltzmann algorithm. The close to ideal parallelization of the lattice Boltzmann codes permitted us to be Gordon Bell finalists on using the Earth Simulation in Japan. We have also been involved in the radio frequency propagation of waves into a tokamak and into a spherical overdense tokamak plasma. Initially we investigated the use of a quasi-optical grill for the launching of lower hybrid waves into a tokamak. It was found that the conducting walls do not prevent the rods from being properly irradiated, the overloading of the quasi-optical grill is not severe

  6. Synthesis and characterization of RUM catalysts (M=SE,MO,W,SN) applied in ORR for a PEMFC fuel battery; Sintesis y caracterizacion de catalizadores RUM (M=SE,MO,W,SN) aplicados en la RRO para una pila de combustible PEMFC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ezeta-Mejia, A.; Arce Estrada, E.M. [Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)]. E-mail: araceli-ezeta@hotmail.com; earce@ipn.mx

    2009-09-15

    baja temperatura y ofrecen una alta combinacion entre densidad de potencia y alta eficiencia en la conversion de energia, lo que las hace adecuadas para aplicaciones portatiles. Sin embargo, la reaccion de reduccion de oxigeno, RRO, que se lleva a cabo en el catodo de la pila, juega un papel determinante debido a que es la reaccion limitante del proceso, por lo que se requiere el empleo de electrocatalizadores mas eficientes. El electrocatalizador optimo para esta reaccion es el Pt, pero debido a su costo elevado se han tenido que buscar electrocatalizadores alternativos que conjuguen una alta actividad, estabilidad y bajo costo. Muchas investigaciones han mostrado que los catalizadores binarios base Pt tales como Pt-M (M= Co, Fe, etc.) presentan una buena actividad electrocatalitica para la RRO; otros estudios demuestran que los catalizadores base Ru (RuSe, RuSe,Mo, RuSeRh) tambien poseen una adecuada actividad para esta reaccion. En este estudio, se reporta la sintesis por aleado mecanico a diferentes tiempos de molienda (0, 20 y 40 h) de electrocatalizadores nanoparticulados de tipo RuPt{sub x}M (x=0, 0.6% y M=Se,Mo,W,Sn). Los materiales sintetizados por aleado mecanico se caracterizaron por microscopia electronica de barrido y por difraccion de rayos X, obteniendose particulas aglomeradas y dispersas entre 1 y 30 {mu}m. La caracterizacion electrocatalitica se llevo a cabo mediante las tecnicas de VC y EDR en una solucion de H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} 0.5 M a temperatura ambiente. Los sistemas presentan un orden de reaccion de 1, respecto a la RRO y una transferencia global multielectronica de 4e{sup -} para la formacion de agua. Se realizo una comparacion de la actividad electrocatalitica en presencia y ausencia de Pt, mostrando que el Pt incrementa la actividad catalitica de los materiales en al menos un orden de magnitud.

  7. Plasma transport in the Scrape-off-Layer of magnetically confined plasma and the plasma exhaust

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jens Juul; Naulin, Volker; Nielsen, Anders Henry

    An overview of the plasma dynamics in the Scrape-off-Layer (SOL) of magnetically confined plasma is presented. The SOL is the exhaust channel of the warm plasma from the core, and the understanding of the SOL plasma dynamics is one of the key issues in contemporary fusion research. It is essential...... for operation of fusion experiments and ultimately fusion power plants. Recent results clearly demonstrate that the plasma transport through the SOL is dominated by turbulent intermittent fluctuations organized into filamentary structures convecting particles, energy, and momentum through the SOL region. Thus......, the transport cannot be described and parametrized by simple diffusive type models. The transport leads to strong localized power loads on the first wall and the plasma facing components, which have serious lasting influence....

  8. Weakly nonlinear electron plasma waves in collisional plasmas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pecseli, H. L.; Rasmussen, J. Juul; Tagare, S. G.

    1986-01-01

    The nonlinear evolution of a high frequency plasma wave in a weakly magnetized, collisional plasma is considered. In addition to the ponderomotive-force-nonlinearity the nonlinearity due to the heating of the electrons is taken into account. A set of nonlinear equations including the effect...

  9. KINETIC THEORY OF PLASMA WAVES: Part II: Homogeneous Plasma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerhof, E.

    2010-01-01

    The theory of electromagnetic waves in a homogeneous plasma is reviewed. The linear response of the plasma to the waves is obtained in the form of the dielectric tensor. Waves ranging from the low frequency Alfven to the high frequency electron cyclotron waves are discussed in the limit of the cold

  10. Kinetic theory of plasma waves: Part II homogeneous plasma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerhof, E.

    2000-01-01

    The theory of electromagnetic waves in a homogeneous plasma is reviewed. The linear response of the plasma to the waves is obtained in the form of the dielectric tensor. Waves ranging from the low frequency Alfven to the high frequency electron cyclotron waves are discussed in the limit of the cold

  11. Kinetic theory of plasma waves - Part II: Homogeneous plasma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerhof, E.

    2008-01-01

    The theory of electromagnetic waves in a homogeneous plasma is reviewed. The linear response of the plasma to the waves is obtained in the form of the dielectric tensor. Waves ranging from the low frequency Alfven to the high frequency electron cyclotron waves axe discussed in the limit of the cold

  12. Plasma formulary for physics, astronomy, and technology

    CERN Document Server

    Diver, Declan

    2013-01-01

    This collection of fundamental formulae, up-to-date references and definitions in plasma physics is vital to anyone with an interest in plasmas or ionized gases, whether in physics, astronomy or engineering. Both theorists and experimentalists will find this book useful, as it incorporates the latest results and findings, with extended coverage of fusion plasma, plasma in stellar winds, reaction rates, engineering plasma and many other topics. The text is also unique in treating astrophysical plasmas, fusion plasmas, industrial plasmas and low temperature plasmas as aspects of the same discipline.

  13. On the excess energy of nonequilibrium plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timofeev, A. V.

    2012-01-01

    The energy that can be released in plasma due to the onset of instability (the excess plasma energy) is estimated. Three potentially unstable plasma states are considered, namely, plasma with an anisotropic Maxwellian velocity distribution of plasma particles, plasma with a two-beam velocity distribution, and an inhomogeneous plasma in a magnetic field with a local Maxwellian velocity distribution. The excess energy can serve as a measure of the degree to which plasma is nonequilibrium. In particular, this quantity can be used to compare plasmas in different nonequilibrium states.

  14. Study of plasma-maser instability in an inhomogeneous plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Mahinder

    2006-01-01

    The plasma-maser, an interesting nonlinear process in plasmas, is an effective means of energy up-conversion in frequency from low-frequency turbulence to a high-frequency wave. A theoretical study is made of the amplification mechanism of an electrostatic Bernstein mode wave in presence of Langmuir wave turbulence in a magnetized inhomogeneous plasma on the basis of a plasma-maser interaction. It is shown that a test high-frequency electrostatic Bernstein mode wave is unstable in the presence of low-frequency Langmuir wave turbulence. The growth rate of a test high-frequency Bernstein mode wave is calculated with the involvement of a spatial density gradient parameter. A comparative study on the role of density gradient in the generation of the Bernstein mode on the basis of the plasma-maser effect is presented

  15. Experimental results from detached plasmas in TFTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strachan, J.D.; Boody, F.P.; Bush, C.E.

    1986-10-01

    Detached plasmas are formed in TFTR which have the principal property of the boundary to the high temperature plasma core being defined by a radiating layer. This paper documents the properties of TFTR ohmic-detached plasmas with a range of plasma densities at two different plasma currents

  16. Non equilibrium atomic processes and plasma spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Takako

    2003-01-01

    Along with the technical progress in plasma spectroscopy, non equilibrium ionization processes have been recently observed. We study non local thermodynamic equilibrium and non ionization equilibrium for various kinds of plasmas. Specifically we discuss non equilibrium atomic processes in magnetically confined plasmas, solar flares and laser produced plasmas using a collisional radiative model based on plasma spectroscopic data. (author)

  17. Plasma treatment of crane rails

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Владислав Олександрович Мазур

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Crane operation results in wear and tear of rails and crane wheels. Renovation and efficiency of these details is therefore relevant. Modern technologies of wheels and rails restoration use surfacing or high-frequency currents treatment. Surface treatment with highly concentrated streams of energy- with a laser beam, plasma jet- is a promising direction.. It is proposed to increase the efficiency of crane rails by means of surface plasma treatment. The modes of treatment have been chosen.. Modelling of plasma jet thermal impact on a solid body of complex shape has been made. Plasma hardening regimes that meet the requirements of production have been defined. Structural transformation of the material in the crane rails on plasma treatment has been investigated. It has been concluded that for carbon and low alloy crane steels the plasma exposure zone is characterized by a high degree of hardened structure dispersion and higher hardness as compared to the hardness after high-frequency quenching. As this takes place phase transformations are both shift (in the upper zone of plasma influence and fluctuation (in the lower zone of the plasma. With high-speed plasma heating granular or lamellar pearlite mainly transforms into austenite. The level of service characteristics of hardened steel, which is achieved in this case is determined by the kinetics and completeness of pearlite → austenite transformation. For carbon and low alloy rail steels plasma hardening can replace bulk hardening, hardening by high-frequency currents, or surfacing. The modes for plasma treatment which make it possible to obtain a surface layer with a certain service characteristics have been defined

  18. Caracterizacion morfológica de 24 accesiones de uchuva del banco de germoplasma de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia Sede Palmira Morphologic characterization of 24 accessions of Cape gooseberry from the National University at Palmira's  campus  germplasm bank

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Liliana Bonilla Betancourt

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Se caracterizaron 24 accesiones de uchuva Physalis peruviana L. de la colección de trabajo de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia sede Palmira, mediante 27 descriptores morfológicos (10 cualitativos y 17 cuantitativos. Se analizó la correspondencia múltiple (ACM y clasificación jerárquica ascendente para variables cualitativas y de componentes principales (ACP para variables cuantitativas. en el ACM tres ejes explicaron el 65.64% de la variabilidad; el primero con 38.53% reunió las variables color de máculas, color de anteras, color de la baya madura y color de semilla y la clasificación jerárquica generó tres grupos. Los dos primeros ejes del ACP explicaron 32.04% y 17.02% de la variación. el mayor aporte a la variabilidad fue dado por peso del fruto, tamaño transversal y longitudinal del fruto, peso de semilla húmeda y seca, número de semillas y contenido de sólidos solubles. La clasificación jerárquica determinó la conformación de cinco grupos. Se identificaron 5 materiales con potencialidades para el procesamiento, mercado y programas de mejoramiento por poseer alto peso del fruto, bajo número de semillas y valor alto de grados Brix.24 accessions of Cape gooseberry Physalis peruviana L. from the National University of Colombia at Palmira's campus work collection were characterized using 27 morphologic descriptors (10 qualitative and 17 quantitative. Two different analyses were made, the multiple correspondence analyses (MCA and the ascendant hierarchy classification for qualitative variables and the principal component analysis (PCA for quantitative variables. The results showed that 65.64% of variability was explained with three axes in the MCA. The first axe with 38.53% contained the variables colour of petals, anthers, berry ripped and seeds. The hierarchy classification generated three groups. The two first axes in ACP analysis explained 32.04% and 17.02% of the variation. In addition , the highest variability was

  19. 10. LAWPP: Latin American workshop on plasma physics; 7. EBFP: Brazilian meeting on plasma physics. Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    Theoretical and experimental short communications are presented on plasma and fusion covering the following subjects: plasma production, confinement, plasma waves, diagnostics, heating, tokamak, impurities, astrophysics plasma and technological applications

  20. High-beta plasma blobs in the morningside plasma sheet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Haerendel

    Full Text Available Equator-S frequently encountered, i.e. on 30% of the orbits between 1 March and 17 April 1998, strong variations of the magnetic field strength of typically 5–15-min duration outside about 9RE during the late-night/early-morning hours. Very high-plasma beta values were found, varying between 1 and 10 or more. Close conjunctions between Equator-S and Geotail revealed the spatial structure of these "plasma blobs" and their lifetime. They are typically 5–10° wide in longitude and have an antisymmetric plasma or magnetic pressure distribution with respect to the equator, while being altogether low-latitude phenomena 
    (≤ 15°. They drift slowly sunward, exchange plasma across the equator and have a lifetime of at least 15–30 min. While their spatial structure may be due to some sort of mirror instability, little is known about the origin of the high-beta plasma. It is speculated that the morningside boundary layer somewhat further tailward may be the source of this plasma. This would be consistent with the preference of the plasma blobs to occur during quiet conditions, although they are also found during substorm periods. The relation to auroral phenomena in the morningside oval is uncertain. The energy deposition may be mostly too weak to generate a visible signature. However, patchy aurora remains a candidate for more disturbed periods.

    Key words. Magnetospheric physics (plasma convection; plasma sheet; plasma waves and instabilities

  1. Modeling plasma behavior in a plasma electrode Pockels cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boley, C.D.; Rhodes, M.A.

    1999-01-01

    The authors present three interrelated models of plasma behavior in a plasma electrode Pockels cell (PEPC). In a PEPC, plasma discharges are formed on both sides of a thin, large-aperture electro-optic crystal (typically KDP). The plasmas act as optically transparent, highly conductive electrodes, allowing uniform application of a longitudinal field to induce birefringence in the crystal. First, they model the plasma in the thin direction, perpendicular to the crystal, via a one-dimensional fluid model. This yields the electron temperature and the density and velocity profiles in this direction as functions of the neutral pressure, the plasma channel width, and the discharge current density. Next, they model the temporal response of the crystal to the charging process, combining a circuit model with a model of the sheath which forms near the crystal boundary. This model gives the time-dependent voltage drop across the sheath as a function of electron density at the sheath entrance. Finally, they develop a two-dimensional MHD model of the planar plasma, in order to calculate the response of the plasma to magnetic fields. They show how the plasma uniformity is affected by the design of the current return, by the longitudinal field from the cathode magnetron, and by fields from other sources. This model also gives the plasma sensitivity to the boundary potential at which the top and bottom of the discharge are held. They validate these models by showing how they explain observations in three large Pockels cells built at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

  2. Abstracts of the 6. Brazilian meeting on plasma physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    Theoretical and experimental short communications are presented on the following subjects: plasma, ionized gases, plasma waves and instability, plasma diagnostic and heating, probes, magnetic confinements and plasma instability

  3. Solitons and chaos in plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichikawa, Y.H.

    1990-09-01

    Plasma exhibits a full of variety of nonlinear phenomena. Active research in nonlinear plasma physics contributed to explore the concepts of soliton and chaos. Structure of soliton equations and dynamics of low dimensional Hamiltonian systems are discussed to emphasize the universality of these novel concepts in the wide branch of science and engineering. (author) 52 refs

  4. Turbulent transport in magnetized plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Horton, Wendell

    2012-01-01

    This book explains how magnetized plasmas self-organize in states of electromagnetic turbulence that transports particles and energy out of the core plasma faster than anticipated by the fusion scientists designing magnetic confinement systems in the 20th century. It describes theory, experiments and simulations in a unified and up-to-date presentation of the issues of achieving nuclear fusion power.

  5. Protease activity of plasma hemopexin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, WW; Borghuis, T; Harmsen, MC; van den Berg, Anke; Kema, IP; Niezen, KE; Kapojos, JJ

    Background. Previous studies into the relevance of a putative circulating factor in the pathogenesis of minimal change nephrotic syndrome have opened the possibility that plasma hemopexin might be an important effector molecule in this disorder. Thus, intra renal infusion of isolated plasma

  6. Supersonic induction plasma jet modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selezneva, S.E.; Boulos, M.I.

    2001-01-01

    Numerical simulations have been applied to study the argon plasma flow downstream of the induction plasma torch. It is shown that by means of the convergent-divergent nozzle adjustment and chamber pressure reduction, a supersonic plasma jet can be obtained. We investigate the supersonic and a more traditional subsonic plasma jets impinging onto a normal substrate. Comparing to the subsonic jet, the supersonic one is narrower and much faster. Near-substrate velocity and temperature boundary layers are thinner, so the heat flux near the stagnation point is higher in the supersonic jet. The supersonic plasma jet is characterized by the electron overpopulation and the domination of the recombination over the dissociation, resulting into the heating of the electron gas. Because of these processes, the supersonic induction plasma permits to separate spatially different functions (dissociation and ionization, transport and deposition) and to optimize each of them. The considered configuration can be advantageous in some industrial applications, such as plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition of diamond and polymer-like films and in plasma spraying of nanoscaled powders

  7. Plasma medicine: an introductory review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kong, M.G.; Kroesen, G.M.W.; Morfill, G.; Nosenko, T.; Shimizu, T.; Dijk, van J.; Zimmermann, J.L.

    2009-01-01

    This introductory review on plasma health care is intended to provide the interested reader with a summary of the current status of this emerging field, its scope, and its broad interdisciplinary approach, ranging from plasma physics, chemistry and technology, to microbiology, biochemistry,

  8. Hollow core plasma channel generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quast, Heinrich Martin

    2018-03-01

    The use of a hollow plasma channel in plasma-based acceleration has beneficial properties for the acceleration of electron and positron bunches. In the scope of the FLASHForward facility at DESY, the generation of such a plasma structure is examined. Therefore, the generation of a ring-shaped laser intensity profile with different techniques is analyzed. From the obtained intensity profiles the electron density of a hollow plasma channel is simulated in the focal region. Different parameters are scanned to understand their influence on the electron density distribution - an important parameter being, for example, the radius of the central region of the channel. In addition to the simulations, experiments are presented, during which a laser pulse is transformed into a hollow beam with a spiral phase plate. Subsequently, it forms a plasma during the interaction with hydrogen, where the plasma is imaged with interferometry. For energies above 0.9 mJ a hollow plasma structure can be observed at the location of first plasma formation.

  9. ECRH Studies on Tokamak Plasmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-10-10

    r.I*cru.Dtrtibution uUnliited 300 Unicorn Pork Drive Woburn, Massachusetts 04801 ECRH STUDIES ON TOKAMAK PLASMAS JAYCOR Project No. 6183 Final Report...up techniques now in use or being suggested, include growing the plasma from a small minor radius or applying a negative voltage spike immediately

  10. Plasma theory and simulation research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birdsall, C.K.

    1989-01-01

    Our research group uses both theory and simulation as tools in order to increase the understanding of instabilities, heating, diffusion, transport and other phenomena in plasmas. We also work on the improvement of simulation, both theoretically and practically. Our focus has been more and more on the plasma edge (the ''sheath''), interactions with boundaries, leading to simulations of whole devices (someday a numerical tokamak)

  11. Plasma chemistry and organic synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tezuka, M.

    1980-01-01

    The characteristic features of chemical reactions using low temperature plasmas are described and differentiated from those seen in other reaction systems. A number of examples of applications of plasma chemistry to synthetic reactions are mentioned. The production of amino acids by discharge reactions in hydrocarbon-ammonia-water systems is discussed, and its implications for the origins of life are mentioned.

  12. Model for resonant plasma probe.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warne, Larry Kevin; Johnson, William Arthur; Hebner, Gregory Albert; Jorgenson, Roy E.; Coats, Rebecca Sue

    2007-04-01

    This report constructs simple circuit models for a hairpin shaped resonant plasma probe. Effects of the plasma sheath region surrounding the wires making up the probe are determined. Electromagnetic simulations of the probe are compared to the circuit model results. The perturbing effects of the disc cavity in which the probe operates are also found.

  13. Nippon paint atmospheric plasma system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuchiya, Y.; Akutsu, K.

    1996-01-01

    An invitational plasma systems which are able to generate the wide and stable plasma (discharge distance 30 cm length, discharge electrode length max. 16 m) under normal air and pressure by using and narrow wave-form of pulse voltage has been developed. Its technical outline and some applied examples are reported

  14. Control method for thermonuclear plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azuma, Kingo; Oda, Yasushi.

    1997-01-01

    CT (Compact Troid) is a doughnut-like shaped plasmas having a toroidal current and a poloidal current at the inside and forming a poloidal magnetic fluxes and toroidal magnetic flux. The structure of the CT is collapsed at a time of stationary state, accordingly, when it is injected to thermonuclear plasmas, particles can be supplied locally, and the state of the plasmas to be supplied can be changed by changing the direction of the injection. If a CT which is reverse to the poloidal magnetic fields is injected, plasmas with excessive ions can be supplied locally thereby enabling to form magnetic field in the thermonuclear plasmas. If the magnetic fields are formed in the vicinity of the surface of the thermonuclear plasmas, fast ions which have come over the magnetic field structure can be returned to the central portion of the plasmas. Then, confining performance of thermonuclear plasmas can be greatly improved, the efficiency for fuel supply can be increased, and energy required for ignition can be suppressed. (N.H.)

  15. Continuous supersonic plasma wind tunnel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, S.A.; Jensen, Vagn Orla; Nielsen, P.

    1969-01-01

    The normal magnetic field configuration of a Q device has been modified to obtain a 'magnetic Laval nozzle'. Continuous supersonic plasma 'winds' are obtained with Mach numbers ~3. The magnetic nozzle appears well suited for the study of the interaction of supersonic plasma 'winds' with either...

  16. Continuous supersonic plasma wind tunnel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, S.A.; Jensen, Vagn Orla; Nielsen, P.

    1968-01-01

    The B field configuration of a Q-device has been modified into a magnetic Laval nozzle. Continuous supersonic plasma flow is observed with M≈3......The B field configuration of a Q-device has been modified into a magnetic Laval nozzle. Continuous supersonic plasma flow is observed with M≈3...

  17. Plasma technology for powder particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kranz, E. (Technische Hochschule, Ilmenau (German Democratic Republic))

    1983-03-01

    A survey is given of principles and applications of plasma spraying and of powder transformation and generation in plasma considering spheroidization, grain size transformation, powder particle formation, powder reduction, and melting within the power range of 10/sup 3/ to 10/sup 7/ W. The products are applied in many industrial fields such as nuclear engineering, hard metal production, metallurgy, catalysis, and semiconductor techniques.

  18. The division of plasma physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, T.E.; Guilhem, D.; Klepper, C.C.

    1990-07-01

    The investigations presented in the 31th meeting on plasma physics were: the main results and observations during the ergodic divertor experiments in Tore Supra tokamak; the modifications of power scrape-off-length and power deposition during various configurations in Tore Supra plasmas; the results of pressure measurements and particle fluxes in the Tore Supra pump limiter

  19. Plasma technology for waste treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohn, D.R.

    1995-01-01

    Improved environmental cleanup technology is needed to meet demanding goals for remediation and treatment of future waste streams. Plasma technology has unique features which could provide advantages of reduced secondary waste, lower cost, and onsite treatment for a wide variety of applications. Plasma technology can provide highly controllable processing without the need for combustion heating. It can be used to provide high temperature processing (∼10,000 degrees C). Plasma technology can also be employed for low temperature processing (down to room temperature range) through selective plasma chemistry. A graphite electrode arc plasma furnace at MIT has been used to investigate high temperature processing of simulated solid waste for Department of Energy environmental cleanup applications. Stable, non-leachable glass has been produced. To ensure reliable operation and to meet environmental objectives, new process diagnostics have been developed to measure furnace temperature and to determine metals emissions in the gaseous effluent. Selective plasma destruction of dilute concentrations of hazardous compounds in gaseous waste streams has been investigated using electron beam generated plasmas. Selective destruction makes it possible to treat the gas steam at relatively low temperatures in the 30-300 degrees C range. On-line infrared measurements have been used in feedback operation to maximize efficiency and ensure desired performance. Plasma technology and associated process diagnostics will be used in future studies of a wide range of waste streams

  20. Dipole plasma in molecular crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotel'nikov, Yu.E.; Kochelaev, B.I.

    1976-01-01

    Collective oscillations in a system of electric dipoles of molecular crystals are investigated. It has been proved in the exciton approximation that in an elementary cell of a molecular crystal with one molecule there may exist energy fluctuations of the ''dipole'' plasma, analogous to plasma oscillations in the charged Fermi liquid

  1. Quasilinear diffusion in inhomogeneous plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hooley, D.L.

    1975-05-01

    The problem of inhomogeneous diffusion in a plasma is considered with emphasis on its possible application to relativistic electron beams. A one-dimensional model with a background electrostatic field is used to illustrate the basic approach, which is then extended to a two-dimensional plasma with a background magnetic field. Only preliminary results are available. (U.S.)

  2. Stability of the plasma sheath

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franklin, R.N.

    1979-12-01

    The stability of a collisionless sheath joined to a plasma in the presence of secondary emission of electrons from the sheath boundary is examined in the fluid approximation. Instability is unlikely to occur under floating conditions but if significant currents flow corresponding to increased wall-plasma potentials the system can go unstable. (author)

  3. Plasma core reactor applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latham, T.S.; Rodgers, R.J.

    1976-01-01

    Analytical and experimental investigations are being conducted to demonstrate the feasibility of fissioning uranium plasma core reactors and to characterize space and terrestrial applications for such reactors. Uranium hexafluoride (UF 6 ) fuel is injected into core cavities and confined away from the surface by argon buffer gas injected tangentially from the peripheral walls. Power, in the form of thermal radiation emitted from the high-temperature nuclear fuel, is transmitted through fused-silica transparent walls to working fluids which flow in axial channels embedded in segments of the cavity walls. Radiant heat transfer calculations were performed for a six-cavity reactor configuration; each cavity is approximately 1 m in diameter by 4.35 m in length. Axial working fluid channels are located along a fraction of each cavity peripheral wall

  4. Self-organizing plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, T.; Sato, T.

    1999-01-01

    The primary purpose of this paper is to extract a grand view of self-organization through an extensive computer simulation of plasmas. The assertion is made that self-organization is governed by three key processes, i.e. the existence of an open complex system, the existence of information (energy) sources and the existence of entropy generation and expulsion processes. We find that self-organization takes place in an intermittent fashion when energy is supplied continuously from outside. In contrast, when the system state is suddenly changed into a non-equilibrium state externally, the system evolves stepwise and reaches a minimum energy state. We also find that the entropy production rate is maximized whenever a new ordered structure is created and that if the entropy generated during the self-organizing process is expelled from the system, then the self-organized structure becomes more prominent and clear. (author)

  5. Physics of Space Plasma Activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cramer, N F

    2007-01-01

    This book provides a timely review of our present understanding of plasma phenomena in magnetized terrestrial and solar space plasmas. The author's emphasis is on the fluid and particle modeling and interpretation of observed active processes in space plasmas, i.e. 'the physical background of large plasma eruptions in space'. It is somewhat alarming for a plasma physicist to read that an emphasis on processes in spatially inhomogeneous plasmas means that the work '... excludes a considerable fraction of the available methods in space plasma physics, such as the theory of waves, instabilities and wave particle interactions on a homogeneous background', particularly in light of the fact that much of our knowledge of these plasmas is derived from observations of such waves. However, it is clear on reading the book that such a restriction is not a disadvantage, but allows the author to concentrate on the main theme of the book, namely the use of fluid and particle pictures to model the equilibrium and active states of space plasmas. There are many other books which cover the wave aspects of space plasmas, and would complement this book. The book's coverage is based on the extensive and profound research of the author and his colleagues in the area of fluid and particle modeling of space plasma structures. After an introduction to the physical setting of active plasmas, and a necessarily concise, but effective, discussion of the fluid and particle models to be used, the steady states of the magnetized plasmas of interest are treated, including the magnetosphere, solar plasmas and current sheets. Next the dynamics of unstable states is covered, including MHD and tearing instabilities, and nonlinear aspects, with a detailed discussion of magnetic reconnection. Finally, the models are applied to magnetospheric and solar observations. The book is attractively written and produced, and this reviewer managed to find a minimum number of errors. A particularly attractive

  6. NCSX Plasma Heating Methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kugel, H.W.; Spong, D.; Majeski, R.; Zarnstorff, M.

    2008-01-01

    The National Compact Stellarator Experiment (NCSX) has been designed to accommodate a variety of heating systems, including ohmic heating, neutral beam injection, and radio-frequency (rf). Neutral beams will provide one of the primary heating methods for NCSX. In addition to plasma heating, neutral beams are also expected to provide a means for external control over the level of toroidal plasma rotation velocity and its profile. The experimental plan requires 3 MW of 50-keV balanced neutral beam tangential injection with pulse lengths of 500 ms for initial experiments, to be upgradeable to pulse lengths of 1.5 s. Subsequent upgrades will add 3MW of neutral beam injection (NBI). This paper discusses the NCSX NBI requirements and design issues and shows how these are provided by the candidate PBX-M NBI system. In addition, estimations are given for beam heating efficiencies, scaling of heating efficiency with machine size and magnetic field level, parameter studies of the optimum beam injection tangency radius and toroidal injection location, and loss patterns of beam ions on the vacuum chamber wall to assist placement of wall armor and for minimizing the generation of impurities by the energetic beam ions. Finally, subsequent upgrades could add an additional 6 MW of rf heating by mode conversion ion Bernstein wave (MCIBW) heating, and if desired as possible future upgrades, the design also will accommodate high-harmonic fast-wave and electron cyclotron heating. The initial MCIBW heating technique and the design of the rf system lend themselves to current drive, so if current drive became desirable for any reason, only minor modifications to the heating system described here would be needed. The rf system will also be capable of localized ion heating (bulk or tail), and possibly IBW-generated sheared flows

  7. NCSX Plasma Heating Methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kugel, H.W.; Spong, D.; Majeski, R.; Zarnstorff, M.

    2003-01-01

    The NCSX (National Compact Stellarator Experiment) has been designed to accommodate a variety of heating systems, including ohmic heating, neutral-beam injection, and radio-frequency. Neutral beams will provide one of the primary heating methods for NCSX. In addition to plasma heating, beams are also expected to provide a means for external control over the level of toroidal plasma rotation velocity and its profile. The plan is to provide 3 MW of 50 keV balanced neutral-beam tangential injection with pulse lengths of 500 msec for initial experiments, and to be upgradeable to pulse lengths of 1.5 sec. Subsequent upgrades will add 3 MW of neutral-beam injection. This Chapter discusses the NCSX neutral-beam injection requirements and design issues, and shows how these are provided by the candidate PBX-M (Princeton Beta Experiment-Modification) neutral-beam injection system. In addition, estimations are given for beam-heating efficiencies, scaling of heating efficiency with machine size an d magnetic field level, parameter studies of the optimum beam-injection tangency radius and toroidal injection location, and loss patterns of beam ions on the vacuum chamber wall to assist placement of wall armor and for minimizing the generation of impurities by the energetic beam ions. Finally, subsequent upgrades could add an additional 6 MW of radio-frequency heating by mode-conversion ion-Bernstein wave (MCIBW) heating, and if desired as possible future upgrades, the design also will accommodate high-harmonic fast-wave and electron-cyclotron heating. The initial MCIBW heating technique and the design of the radio-frequency system lend themselves to current drive, so that if current drive became desirable for any reason only minor modifications to the heating system described here would be needed. The radio-frequency system will also be capable of localized ion heating (bulk or tail), and possibly ion-Bernstein-wave-generated sheared flows

  8. Potentials of fissioning plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karlheinz, Thom.

    1979-01-01

    Successful experiments with the nuclear pumping of lasers have demonstrated that in gaseous medium the kinetic energy of fission fragments can be converted directly into non-equilibrium optical radiation. This confirms the concept that the fissioning medium in a gas-phase nuclear reactor shows an internal structure such as a plasma in nearly thermal equilibrium varying up to a state of extreme-non-equilibrium. The accompanying variations of temperatures, pressure and radiative spectrum suggest wide ranges of applications. For example, in the gas-phase fission reactor concept enriched uranium hexafluoride or an uranium plasma replaces conventional fuel elements and permits operation above the melting point of solid materials. This potential has been motivation for the US National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) to conduct relevant research for high specific impulse propulsion in space. The need to separate the high temperature gaseous fuel from the surfaces of a containing vessel and to protect them against thermal radiation has led to the concept of an externally moderated reactor in which the fissioning gaseous material is suspended by fluid dynamic means and the flow of opaque buffer gas removes the power. The gaseous nuclear fuel can slowly be circulated through the reactor for continuous on-site reprocessing including the annihilation of transuranium actinides at fission when being fed back into the reactor. An equilibrium of the generation and destruction of such actinides at fission when being fed back into the reactor. An equilibrium of the generation and destruction of such actinides can thus be achieved. These characteristics and the unique radiative properties led to the expectation that the gas-phase fission reactor could feature improved safety, safeguarding and economy, in addition to new technologies such as processing, photochemistry and the transmission of power over large distances in space

  9. Waves in plasmas (part 1 - wave-plasma interaction general background)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dumont, R.

    2004-01-01

    This document gathers a series of transparencies presented in the framework of the week-long lectures 'hot plasmas 2004' and dedicated to the physics of wave-plasma interaction. The structure of this document is as follows: 1) wave and diverse plasmas, 2) basic equations (Maxwell equations), 3) waves in a fluid plasma, and 4) waves in a kinetic plasma (collisionless plasma)

  10. Physical domains in plasma physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liboff, R.L.

    1987-01-01

    Do the plasma in the sun's core and the electron-conduction plasma in a semiconductor behave in the same way? This question is both fundamental and practical, for plasma physics plays a role in a vast area of natural phenomena and in many engineering devices. Understanding the cosmos, or designing a computer chip or a thermonuclear fusion reactor, requires first of all a realization of equations of motion that are appropriate to the particular problem. Similar physical differences occur in engineered structures. The plasmas in most thermonuclear fusion devices are basically like the plasma in the core of the sun: weakly coupled and classical - that is, obeying Newton's laws and Maxwell's equations. The conduction electrons in a semiconductor, on the other hand, obey the laws of quantum mechanics

  11. The isentropic relation in plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burm, K T A L

    2004-01-01

    The isentropic relation from gas dynamics relates pressure, density and temperature. The use of this relation may ease the hydrodynamic modelling effort. Characteristic for the isentropic relation is the constant isentropic exponent. The isentropic exponent is also in the case of plasmas a constant as long as the ionization degree is between 5 and 80%. This constant is lower due to the extra degree of freedom which comes with ionization in plasmas. The occurrence of ionization means that plasmas are never isentropic. The isentropic relation itself is therefore adapted here to include plasmas within its concept. From the plasma isentropic relation a further extension is to include viscosity and heating. It is found that all extra non-isentropic inclusions further lower the (quasi-) isentropic exponent in the adapted isentropic relation

  12. Spark gap produced plasma diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, H.Y.

    1990-01-01

    A Spark Gap (Applied voltage : 2-8KV, Capacitor : 4 Micro F. Dia of the tube : 1 inch, Electrode distance : .3 ∼.5 inch) was made to generate a small size dynamic plasma. To measure the plasma density and temperature as a function of time and position, we installed and have been installing four detection systems - Mach-Zehnder type Interferometer for the plasma refractivity, Expansion speed detector using two He-Ne laser beams, Image Processing using Lens and A Optical-Fiber Array for Pointwise Radiation Sensing, Faraday Rotation of a Optical Fiber to measure the azimuthal component of B-field generated by the plasma drift. These systems was used for the wire explosion diagnostics, and can be used for the Laser driven plasma also

  13. Pair plasma relaxation time scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksenov, A G; Ruffini, R; Vereshchagin, G V

    2010-04-01

    By numerically solving the relativistic Boltzmann equations, we compute the time scale for relaxation to thermal equilibrium for an optically thick electron-positron plasma with baryon loading. We focus on the time scales of electromagnetic interactions. The collisional integrals are obtained directly from the corresponding QED matrix elements. Thermalization time scales are computed for a wide range of values of both the total-energy density (over 10 orders of magnitude) and of the baryonic loading parameter (over 6 orders of magnitude). This also allows us to study such interesting limiting cases as the almost purely electron-positron plasma or electron-proton plasma as well as intermediate cases. These results appear to be important both for laboratory experiments aimed at generating optically thick pair plasmas as well as for astrophysical models in which electron-positron pair plasmas play a relevant role.

  14. An ECR table plasma generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Racz, R.; Palinkas, J.; Bin, S.

    2012-01-01

    A compact ECR plasma device was built in our lab using the 'spare parts' of the ATOMKI ECR ion source. We call it 'ECR Table Plasma Generator'. It consists of a relatively big plasma chamber (ID=10 cm, L=40 cm) in a thin NdFeB hexapole magnet with independent vacuum and gas dosing systems. For microwave coupling two low power TWTAs (Travelling Wave tube amplifier) can be applied individually or simultaneously, operating in the 6-18 GHz range. There is no axial magnetic trap and there is no extraction. The technical details of the plasma generator and preliminary plasma photo study results are shown. This paper is followed by the associated poster. (authors)

  15. Plasma modelling and numerical simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Dijk, J; Kroesen, G M W; Bogaerts, A

    2009-01-01

    Plasma modelling is an exciting subject in which virtually all physical disciplines are represented. Plasma models combine the electromagnetic, statistical and fluid dynamical theories that have their roots in the 19th century with the modern insights concerning the structure of matter that were developed throughout the 20th century. The present cluster issue consists of 20 invited contributions, which are representative of the state of the art in plasma modelling and numerical simulation. These contributions provide an in-depth discussion of the major theories and modelling and simulation strategies, and their applications to contemporary plasma-based technologies. In this editorial review, we introduce and complement those papers by providing a bird's eye perspective on plasma modelling and discussing the historical context in which it has surfaced. (editorial review)

  16. Cyclotron radiation from hot plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pohl, F.; Henning, J.; Duechs, D.

    1975-11-01

    In calculating the energy transport and losses due to cyclotron radiation there are two major requirements: the absorption coefficient has to be known and the proper geometry of the plasma has to be taken into account. In this report Trubnikov's integral formulae for the absorption coefficient have been evaluated numerically and compared with the approximative formulas of previous authors. Deviations by a factor of 2 - 10 in various frequency regimes are not unusual. With these coefficients the rate of change of the energy density due to cyclotron radiation in a plasma as well as the radiation density at a plasma surface are computed for plasma slab and plasma cylinder. Sometimes considerable differences to the results of previons papers can found. Many simple formulae interpolating the numerical results are given in the text, and the FORTRAN computer programs have been reproduced in the appendices. (orig.) [de

  17. Experimental plasma research project summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-06-01

    This is the latest in a series of Project Summary books going back to 1976 and is the first after a hiatus of several years. They are published to provide a short description of each project supported by the Experimental Plasma Research Branch of the Division of Applied Plasma Physics in the Office of Fusion Energy. The Experimental Plasma Research Branch seeks to provide a broad range of experimental data, physics understanding, and new experimental techniques that contribute to operation, interpretation, and improvement of high temperature plasma as a source of fusion energy. In pursuit of these objectives, the branch supports research at universities, DOE laboratories, other federal laboratories and industry. About 70 percent of the funds expended are spent at universities and a significant function of this program is the training of students in fusion physics. The branch supports small- and medium-scale experimental studies directly related to specific critical plasma issues of the magnetic fusion program. Plasma physics experiments are conducted on transport of particles and energy within plasma and innovative approaches for operating, controlling, and heating plasma are evaluated for application to the larger confinement devices of the magnetic fusion program. New diagnostic approaches to measuring the properties of high temperature plasmas are developed to the point where they can be applied with confidence on the large-scale confinement experiments. Atomic data necessary for impurity control, interpretation of diagnostic data, development of heating devices, and analysis of cooling by impurity ion radiation are obtained. The project summaries are grouped into these three categories of plasma physics, diagnostic development and atomic physics

  18. Arc Plasma Gun With Coaxial Powder Feed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaplatynsky, Isidor

    1988-01-01

    Redesigned plasma gun provides improved metallic and ceramic coatings. Particles injected directly through coaxial bore in cathode into central region of plasma jet. Introduced into hotter and faster region of plasma jet.

  19. The 2017 Plasma Roadmap: Low temperature plasma science and technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamovich, I.; Baalrud, S. D.; Bogaerts, A.; Bruggeman, P. J.; Cappelli, M.; Colombo, V.; Czarnetzki, U.; Ebert, U.; Eden, J. G.; Favia, P.; Graves, D. B.; Hamaguchi, S.; Hieftje, G.; Hori, M.; Kaganovich, I. D.; Kortshagen, U.; Kushner, M. J.; Mason, N. J.; Mazouffre, S.; Mededovic Thagard, S.; Metelmann, H.-R.; Mizuno, A.; Moreau, E.; Murphy, A. B.; Niemira, B. A.; Oehrlein, G. S.; Petrovic, Z. Lj; Pitchford, L. C.; Pu, Y.-K.; Rauf, S.; Sakai, O.; Samukawa, S.; Starikovskaia, S.; Tennyson, J.; Terashima, K.; Turner, M. M.; van de Sanden, M. C. M.; Vardelle, A.

    2017-08-01

    Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics published the first Plasma Roadmap in 2012 consisting of the individual perspectives of 16 leading experts in the various sub-fields of low temperature plasma science and technology. The 2017 Plasma Roadmap is the first update of a planned series of periodic updates of the Plasma Roadmap. The continuously growing interdisciplinary nature of the low temperature plasma field and its equally broad range of applications are making it increasingly difficult to identify major challenges that encompass all of the many sub-fields and applications. This intellectual diversity is ultimately a strength of the field. The current state of the art for the 19 sub-fields addressed in this roadmap demonstrates the enviable track record of the low temperature plasma field in the development of plasmas as an enabling technology for a vast range of technologies that underpin our modern society. At the same time, the many important scientific and technological challenges shared in this roadmap show that the path forward is not only scientifically rich but has the potential to make wide and far reaching contributions to many societal challenges.

  20. Project of experimental study on plasma waves and plasma turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, J.L.

    1990-09-01

    The objective of this project is to perform experiments with wave phenomena on plasmas. Particular attention will be given to Langmuir and whistler waves due to its relations with several phenomena occuring on space and laboratory plasmas. The new concepts of particle acceleration with electromagnetic waves, the auroral phenomena on the polar regions and the charged particle precipitation to the atmosphere through anomalies of the earth magnetic field are examples where these waves have an important role. In this project we intend to study the propagation of these waves in a quiescent plasma machine. This machine is able to produce a plasma with density and temperature with values similar to what is met in the ionosphere. This project will be a part of the activities of the basic plasma group of the INPE's Associated Plasma Laboratory (LAP). It will have the collaboration of the departments of Aeronomy and Geophysics also from INPE, and the collaboration of the Plasma and Gas Physics Laboratory from University of Paris - South, in France. (author)