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Sample records for plasmapheresis pbmp purified

  1. [Plasmapheresis in haematology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woźniak, Krzysztof; Urbanowska, Elżbieta; Snarski, Emilian

    2015-01-01

    Plasmapheresis also known as a therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE) is a procedure of plasma removal with it's ineligible plasma's component. Usually it is a supportive measure used simultaneously with the treatment, but in a few diseases, e.g. in trombotictrombocytopenic purpura (TTP), it is a first-choice treatment. During the plasmapheresis plasma is mostly replaced by 20% solution of albumin or combination of 20% solution of albumin and 0.9% solution of NaCl, however in some diseases fresh frozen plasma (FFP) is used. Plasmaphereses have found a wide application in different branches of medicine: hematology, neurology, nephrology, reumatology. Plasmapheresis is an invasive procedure, but when performed by qualified staff it is rather safe and serious complications are very rare.The most common complications of plasmapheresis are mild, usually caused by electrolyte disturbances (hypokalemia, hypokalcemia) or anticoagulation. More serious complication can be associated with FFP transfusion, extracorporeal circulation or presence of intravenous catheter. The latter one is usually necessary to perform the plasmapheresis. In haematology the most common indication for plasmapheresis is the supportive treatment of multiple myeloma. The procedure is performed in patients with high protein levels endangered with hyperviscosity syndrome. Less frequent indications to plasmapheresis in haematology are: Waldenström's macroblobulynaemia, idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP), pure red cell aplasia (PRCA), polyneuropaties connected with haematological disorders. Supportive treatment of haemofagocytic syndrome (HLH--hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis) is one of the new indications. Plasmaphereses are used in treatment of about 150 different diseases and more and more new needs for this method are identified.

  2. Management of plasmapheresis in Germany.

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    Müller, N

    1996-05-01

    In Germany, plasmapheresis is carried out for many years in a "mixed" system by private and non-profit organisation. Most of the institutions and blood transfusion service, active in the field of plasmapheresis are members of the "Association for the Establishment, Co-ordination and Working Methods of the Plasmapheresis Centres". All centres are authorized by governmental bodies for manufacturing of pharmaceutical products with regulatory controls regarding licensing and accreditation of blood collection establishment. All parties concerned agree that self-sufficiency of plasma has to be achieved. For this purpose there is a shortage of about 400,000 1 of plasma. In 1994, about 240,000 1 of plasma were collected by plasmapheresis, 91% for fractionation and 8.7% for direct clinical uses. In addition about 970,000 1 of plasma were derived from whole blood donations. The dualism of non-profit making and commercial organisations should be regarded as a chance for diversification in the collection and processing of plasma. A long term increase in plasmapheresis plasma can be achieved by initiating plasmapheresis programmes and co-operation using the existing infrastructures and supports the aim for self-sufficiency.

  3. Value of plasmapheresis in hepatic encephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riviello, J J; Halligan, G E; Dunn, S P; Widzer, S J; Foley, C M; Breningstall, G N; Grover, W D

    1990-01-01

    Plasmapheresis is used for treating the complications of liver failure. We performed plasmapheresis on 6 children with hepatic encephalopathy resulting from acute hepatic failure and prospectively assessed its effects on neurologic and electrophysiologic (electroencephalography and evoked potentials) function. Clinical improvement was observed in 3 of 6 patients; changes in the serum ammonia value or the results of initial electrophysiologic tests did not predict the patient response. Two patients underwent transplantation after neurologic improvement was produced by plasmapheresis; however, despite plasmapheresis, 4 patients progressed to brain death. Our data demonstrate that plasmapheresis may transiently improve the encephalopathy of acute hepatic failure but is not curative alone. Therefore, plasmapheresis may be a useful adjunct in the treatment of liver failure, potentially improving the pretransplantation status of the patient.

  4. Ectopic study of calcium phosphate cement seeded with pBMP-2 modified canine bMSCs mediated by a non-viral PEI derivative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, Kaige; Zeng, Deliang; Zhang, Wenjie; Xia, Lunguo; Xu, Ling; Jiang, Xinquan; Zhang, Fuqiang

    2012-02-01

    We have evaluated the ectopic new bone formation effects of CPC (calcium phosphate cement) seeded with pBMP-2 (plasmids containing bone morphogenetic protein-2 gene) transfected canine bMSCs (bone marrow stromal cells) mediated by a non-viral PEI (polyethylenimine) derivative (GenEscort™ II) in nude mice. Canine bMSCs were transfected with pBMP-2 or pEGFP (plasmids containing enhanced green fluorescent protein gene) mediated by GenEscort™ II in vitro, and the osteoblastic differentiation was explored by ALP (alkaline phosphatase) staining, ARS (alizarin red S) staining and RT-qPCR (real-time quantitative PCR) analysis. Ectopic bone formation effects of CPC/pBMP-2 transfected bMSCs were evaluated and compared with CPC/pEGFP transfected bMSCs or CPC/untransfected bMSCs through histological, histomorphological and immunohistochemical analysis 8 and 12 weeks post-operation in nude mice. Transfection efficiency was up ∼35% as demonstrated by EGFP (enhanced green fluorescent protein) expression. ALP and ARS staining were stronger with pBMP-2 gene transfection, and mRNA expression of BMP-2 (bone morphogenetic protein-2), Col 1 (collagen 1) and OCN (osteocalcin) in pBMP-2 group was significantly up-regulated at 6 and 9 days. Significantly higher NBV (new bone volume) was achieved in pBMP-2 group than in the control groups at 8 and 12 weeks (P<0.05). In addition, immunohistochemical analysis indicated higher OCN expression in pBMP-2 group (P<0.01). We conclude that CPC seeded with pBMP-2 transfected bMSCs mediated by GenEscort™ II could enhance ectopic new bone formation in nude mice, suggesting that GenEscort™ II mediated pBMP-2 gene transfer is an effective non-viral method and CPC is a suitable scaffold for gene enhanced bone tissue engineering.

  5. Plasmapheresis in the management of severe hypertriglyceridemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seda, Gilbert; Meyer, Jill M; Amundson, Dennis E; Daheshia, Massoud

    2013-08-01

    Plasmapheresis can benefit a variety of critically ill patients. A woman with diabetic ketoacidosis and severe hypertriglyceridemia was treated with plasmapheresis when conventional treatments did not markedly reduce her triglyceridemia. The patient was admitted to a medical intensive care unit because of diabetic ketoacidosis with severe lipemia. The lipemia-associated interference in laboratory studies made treatment of electrolyte abnormalities extremely difficult. The hypertriglyceridemia was initially treated with insulin, antilipidemic medications, and heparin, but the levels of triglycerides remained elevated, delaying results of needed laboratory studies for hours. After plasmapheresis, the serum level of triglycerides decreased by 77% in less than 24 hours. Severe lipemia interferes with photometric laboratory studies, yielding an underestimation of serum levels of electrolytes. Plasmapheresis is safe, rapid, and effective for emergent management of severe hypertriglyceridemia in critically ill patients. The impact of the procedure on critical care nursing is growing as nurses become involved in the treatment and follow-up care of patients who have plasmapheresis.

  6. [Clinical experience of automated double filtration plasmapheresis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, C T; Chuang, F R; Hsu, K T; Lam, K K; Liao, S C; Liu, C C; Chen, J B; Jang, S W; Chien, Y S; Pan, H H

    1996-12-01

    Double filtration plasmapheresis, one kind of fractionation plasmapheresis, was developed from membrane type plasmapheresis to remove only the pathogen and return the normal protein back to the patient. We started our automated double filtration plasmapheresis since December 1993. There were 13 patients who received one hundred treatments totally during one year period. And they are myasthenia gravis (8 patients); acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (1 patient), multiple myeloma (1 patient); acquired factor VIII inhibitor (1 patient); autoimmune hemolytic anemia (1 patient); systemic lupus erythematous (1 patient). Technically double filtration plasmapheresis is easy to perform and time-saving. It also makes necessity of replacement fluid less frequent. Incidence of complication is rare, and this includes hypotension 2%, palpitation 1%, headache 1%, hemolysis 4%, air emboli 1%, high secondary pressure 2%, and no motality during our treatment. Clinical response is documented in cases of myasthenia gravis; acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy and acquired factor VIII inhibitor in our study. In conclusion, double filtration plasmapheresis is a time-saving, convenient, and safe therapeutic modality with rare complication. Because its effectiveness on limited kinds of diseases and costs relatively high price, thus plasmapheresis should be used in selected cases and treat aggressively if indicated.

  7. Treatment of plasmapheresis refractory thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura with double-filtration membrane plasmapheresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakus, Volkan; Deveci, Burak; Kurtoğlu, Erdal

    2013-06-01

    Thrombotic thrombocytic purpura (TTP) is a life-threatening disorder. Without plasma exchange treatment (PET) the mortality rate is quite high. Double-filtration plasmapheresis is an alternative opportunity for TTP patients refractory to PET. Here we report our experience in a refractory TTP patient who was successfully treated by means of double-filtration plasmapheresis therapy.

  8. Removal of 10-hydroxycarbazepine by plasmapheresis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, J; Balslev, T; Villadsen, J;

    2001-01-01

    with studies on other anticonvulsant medications (carbamazepine, valproic acid, phenobarbital, and phenytoin), indicating that minor fractions (2% to 10%) of body stores of these drugs are depleted during plasmapheresis. The authors conclude that it is unnecessary to adjust the oxcarbazepine dosage when...

  9. Removal of 10-hydroxycarbazepine by plasmapheresis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, J; Balslev, T; Villadsen, J

    2001-01-01

    with studies on other anticonvulsant medications (carbamazepine, valproic acid, phenobarbital, and phenytoin), indicating that minor fractions (2% to 10%) of body stores of these drugs are depleted during plasmapheresis. The authors conclude that it is unnecessary to adjust the oxcarbazepine dosage when...

  10. Plasmapheresis/immunoadsorption in patients with pemphigus

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    Rıfkiye Küçükoğlu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Design: Plasmapheresis or immunoadsorption which is a more advanced method are among the treatment options that induce a rapid remission in severe and resistant pemphigus. The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy and safety of plasmapheresis or immunoadsorption therapies via the clinical experience gained from our patients with pemphigus vulgaris and paraneoplastic pemphigus. Materials and Methods: Among patients who were diagnosed with pemphigus according to the histopathology and/or immunofluorescence methods and followed-up at our bullous diseases outpatient clinic between the years 1987 and 2013, 7 patients (5 PV, 2 PNP, who were treated with plasmapheresis or immunoadsorption, were retrospectively analyzed. Among these patients, 3 were treated with classical plasmapheresis, whereas 2 with double-filtration plasmapheresis, 1 with immunoadsorption, and 1 initially with classical plasmapheresis followed by immunoadsorption due to impairment of the hemodynamic parameters. The clinical findings, antibody titers, and immunological responses before and after the therapy, the therapy dosages and adverse effects were evaluated according to the data gained from the patient files. Results: In 4 patients (1., 3., 4. and 5. patients with pemphigus vulgaris, complete clinical response was achieved, while 1 patient (2. patient showed partial regression in skin lesions. In both of the patients (6.,7. patients with paraneoplastic pemphigus the therapy discontinued due to complications. In all of the evaluated patients, the analysis of the antibody titers before and after the therapy revealed lower levels in comparison to those detected at the initiation of the therapy. In 2 patients hypoalbuminemia and in 2 patients catheter infection were developed as the side effects of the therapy. Conclusion: Even though plasmapheresis or immunoadsorption may be chosen as a good mid-treatment method to decrease the severity of the disease

  11. Purifying Nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Ching-Cheh (Inventor); Hurst, Janet (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A method of purifying a nanomaterial and the resultant purified nanomaterial in which a salt, such as ferric chloride, at or near its liquid phase temperature, is used to penetrate and wet the internal surfaces of a nanomaterial to dissolve impurities that may be present, for example, from processes used in the manufacture of the nanomaterial.

  12. Therapeutic plasmapheresis using membrane plasma separation.

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    Sinha, Aditi; Tiwari, Anand Narain; Chanchlani, Rahul; Seetharamanjaneyulu, V; Hari, Pankaj; Bagga, Arvind

    2012-08-01

    The authors present their experience with therapeutic plasmapheresis (TPE) using membrane filters at the pediatric dialysis unit of a referral center. Between January 2006 and December 2010, 486 sessions of TPE were performed in 39 patients (range 6-17 y), chiefly for atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS, n = 22), crescentic glomerulonephritis (n = 8) and focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (n = 5). Satisfactory response was noted in 32 patients, particularly with HUS (n = 22) or crescentic glomerulonephritis (n = 6). Adverse effects included chills or urticaria (n = 8 sessions), hypocalcemia (n = 6) and hypotension (n = 5). The present findings highlight the safety, efficacy and feasibility of TPE using membrane filtration.

  13. USE OF THERAPEUTIC PLASMAPHERESIS IN ETHYLENE DIBRO MIDE INTOXICATION

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    Dolly

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: In view of high incidence of mortality with Ethylen e dibromide poisoning, a retrospective study was conducted, with objectives t o compare demographic, toxicological & clinical outcome in patients treated conservatively and those who underwent therapeutic plasmapheresis

  14. Plasmapheresis and other extracorporeal filtration techniques in critical patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daga Ruiz, D; Fonseca San Miguel, F; González de Molina, F J; Úbeda-Iglesias, A; Navas Pérez, A; Jannone Forés, R

    2017-04-01

    Plasmapheresis is an extracorporeal technique that eliminates macromolecules involved in pathological processes from plasma. A review is made of the technical aspects, main indications in critical care and potential complications of plasmapheresis, as well as of other extracorporeal filtration techniques such as endotoxin-removal columns and other devices designed to eliminate cytokines or modulate the inflammatory immune response in critical patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.

  15. PELA microspheres with encapsulated arginine-chitosan/pBMP-2 nanoparticles induce pBMP-2 controlled-release, transfected osteoblastic progenitor cells, and promoted osteogenic differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaolong; Qiu, Sujun; Zhang, Yuxian; Yin, Jie; Min, Shaoxiong

    2017-03-01

    Repair of the bone injury remains a challenge in clinical practices. Recent progress in tissue engineering and therapeutic gene delivery systems have led to promising new strategies for successful acceleration of bone repair process. The aim of this study was to create a controlled-release system to slowly release the arginine-chitosan/plasmid DNA nanoparticles encoding BMP-2 gene (Arg-CS/pBMP-2 NPs), efficiently transfect osteoblastic progenitor cells, secrete functional BMP-2 protein, and promote osteogenic differentiation. In this study, chitosan was conjugated with arginine to generate arginine-chitosan polymer (Arg-CS) for gene delivery. Mix the Arg-CS with pBMP-2 to condense pBMP-2 into nano-sized particles. In vitro transfection assays demonstrated that the transfection efficiency of Arg-CS/pBMP-2 nanoparticles and the expression level of BMP-2 was obviously exceed control groups. Further, PELA microspheres as the controlled-release carrier for the nanoparticles were used to encapsulate Arg-CS/pBMP-2 NPs. We demonstrated that the Arg-CS/pBMP-2 NPs could slowly release from the PELA microspheres at least for 42 d. During the co-culture with the PELA microspheres, the content of BMP-2 protein secreted by MC3T3-E1 reached the peak at 7 d. After 21d, the secretion of BMP-2 protein still maintain a higher level. The alkaline phosphatase activity, alizarin red staining, and osteogenesis-related gene expression by real-time quantitative PCR analysis all showed the PELA microspheres entrapping with Arg-CS/pBMP-2 NPs can obviously induce the osteogenic differentiation. The results indicated that the Arg-CS is a suitable gene vector which can promote the gene transfection. And the novel PELA microspheres-nanoparticle controlled-release system has potential clinical application in the future after further research.

  16. Purified Humanism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nickelsen, Niels Christian Mossfeldt

    2016-01-01

    Abstract. The aim of the Leicester Conference is to help managers by way of experiential learning to acquire the prerequisites to influence effectively organizational change. For some time there has been an ongoing debate on the innovative potential of social psychological experiments...... and techniques. This article discusses the analytical possibilities of the notion “purified humanism” as part of an alternative analysis of the effective mechanisms of a widely used social psychological experiment. The article unfolds a number of ideas in relation to the socio-material provocations and maneuvers...

  17. Purified humanism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nickelsen, Niels Christian Mossfeldt

    2016-01-01

    Abstract. The aim of the Leicester Conference is to help managers by way of experiential learning to acquire the prerequisites to influence effectively organizational change. For some time there has been an ongoing debate on the innovative potential of social psychological experiments...... and culturally specific attitudes in relation to leadership and the question of authority among participants. Keywords: The Leicester Conference, experiential learning, authority, socio-materiality, social techniques...... and techniques. This article discusses the analytical possibilities of the notion “purified humanism” as part of an alternative analysis of the effective mechanisms of a widely used social psychological experiment. The article unfolds a number of ideas in relation to the socio-material provocations and maneuvers...

  18. 21 CFR 606.110 - Plateletpheresis, leukapheresis, and plasmapheresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Plateletpheresis, leukapheresis, and plasmapheresis. 606.110 Section 606.110 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE FOR BLOOD AND BLOOD COMPONENTS Production and Process Controls §...

  19. A plasmapheresis protocol for refractory pulmonary alveolar proteinosis.

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    Garber, Bryan; Albores, Jeffrey; Wang, Tisha; Neville, Thanh H

    2015-04-01

    Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) is a rare lung disease characterized by the accumulation of proteinaceous material within the lungs. While typically managed with whole lung lavage (WLL), more recent PAP therapies aimed at reducing granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor autoantibodies (anti-GM-CSF) have reduced symptoms and improved lung function. We present a patient with PAP refractory to WLL, exogenous GM-CSF and rituximab who underwent a novel plasmapheresis protocol as a therapeutic trial. While previously reported regimens have utilized plasmapheresis sessions distributed over months, our patient underwent five consecutive days of plasmapheresis, followed by rituximab. Anti-GM-CSF levels decreased from 24.8 to 2.7 mcg/mL post-plasmapheresis. This reduction of autoantibody correlated with reduction in WLL frequency, increase in diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide, and subjective improvement in dyspnea. Our case suggests that five consecutive days of plasmapharesis results in increased clearance of anti-GM-CSF and may be potentially efficacious in cases of refractory PAP.

  20. Severe childhood amitriptyline intoxication and plasmapheresis: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karacı, Mehmet; Özçetin, Mustafa; Dilsiz, Günter; Güçlü-Songür, Yaşar Gözde

    2013-01-01

    Tricyclic antidepressant intoxication is one of the most frequently encountered and life-threatening causes of intoxication among referrals to emergency departments due to drug intoxication. There is no known antidote against any of the tricyclic antidepressants. The American Society for Apheresis (ASFA) recommends plasmapheresis to support primary treatment in this type of drug poisoning, which does not respond to certain and traditional treatments. We present a 15-year-old girl who ingested amitriptyline with suicidal intent. On admission, she was in a comatose state (Glasgow Coma Scale score: 5), with no spontaneous respiration and presence of pathological reflexes. Due to the intake history of lethal doses and the severe clinical picture, plasmapheresis was performed. She was discharged on her fifth day of hospitalization.Due to the high plasma protein binding property of amitriptyline, plasma exchange therapy should be considered in cases of severe amitriptyline intoxication as a life-saving therapeutic modality.

  1. A memantin HCL intoxication responsive to plasmapheresis therapy.

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    Cekmen, N; Bedel, P; Erdemli, O

    2011-01-01

    Memantin HCL (Ebixa) is a drug which antagonizes the effects of N-methyl-D-aspartat receptors and which is used for the treatment of acute Alzheimer patients. Plasmapheresis is a method of cleaning nonspecific extracorporeal blood and it is applied in many immunologic and toxicologic diseases. Female patient at the age of 35 was admitted to the emergency department with complaints of tendency to sleep and sensory loss. About 12 hours before her history she had taken 200 tablets of 10 mg memantin HCL (Ebixa) (2000 mg) and she was transferred to an intensive care department with the diagnosis of drug toxicity (400 mg toxic dose). Her memantin HCL (Ebixa) level in blood was 12,000 ng/mL. It was reported in her physical examination that she was unconscious, her general condition was bad, there were no cooperation and orientation, ahe hadmydriasis and reflexes of light, cornea and eyelash were bilaterally positive and she had horizontal nystagmus. Glascow Coma Scale of the patient was 6, body temperature was 37.5 degrees C and she had tachycardia (130/min) and hypertension (160/90 mmHg). Intravenous Diazepam was effective aginst recurring convulsions. Sinusoidal tachycardia was detected with electrocardiography (EKG) and respiratory alkalosis in arterial blood gases. Six cysles of plasmapheresis were aplied and in the sixth cycle the memantin HCL (Ebixa) level turned to normal. As a result of the sixth plasmapheresis the findings were normal and that is why she was discharged from the hospital. Plasmapheresis should be taken into consideration in case of drug overdose or high doses of plasmatic proteinous drug toxicities (Ref. 11).

  2. Adult-onset Satoyoshi syndrome and response to plasmapheresis

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    Rajeshwari Aghoram

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Satoyoshi syndrome is a rare disease characterized by alopecia, recurrent muscle spasms, diarrhea, and skeletal abnormalities Adult-onset disease is reported only in five patients. Most of the reports have not characterized the nature of muscle spasm in the disease. In this paper, we report the first case of adult-onset Satoyoshi syndrome from India and the clinical and electrophysiological response to plasmapheresis.

  3. Long-term experience of plasmapheresis in antibody-mediated rejection in renal transplantation.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Brown, C M

    2009-11-01

    Antibody-mediated rejection (AMR) continues to pose a serious challenge in renal transplantation with potentially devastating consequences. Treatment options for this condition include plasmapheresis, high-dose intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG), plasmapheresis with low-dose IVIG, and the use of rituximab (anti-CD20 chimeric antibody). We previously reported on the short-term outcome of plasmapheresis as a rescue therapy for AMR in our centre. We now report on the long-term follow up.

  4. Protective Antigen (PA) and Toxin Neutralization (TNA) Antibody Patterns in Anthrax Vaccinees Undergoing Serial Plasmapheresis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-03-28

    Undergoing Serial Plasmapheresis Phillip R. Pittman,1 Susan F. Leitman,2 Julio G. Barrera Oro,3 Sarah L. Norris,4 Nina M. Marano,5 Manmohan V. Ranadive...plasmapheresis on serum proteins and immunoglobulins. Transfusion 15:467–472. 12. Gold, H. 1936 . Studies on anthrax. Clinical report of ten human cases

  5. Reducing the economic burden in management of Guillain–Barre syndrome using modified plasmapheresis

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    Rekha Ramaswamy Iyer

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Guillain–Barre syndrome (GBS is an autoimmune acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy affecting the peripheral nervous system treated with high-dose immunoglobulin, physical therapy, or plasmapheresis. Immunoglobulins are expensive and even plasmapheresis might not be affordable to patients visiting government set-ups.Aims: This study was undertaken to emphasize the efficacy of plasmapheresis in treatment of adult GBS patients and to narrate methods of reducing the economic burden in the treatment of these patients using modified plasmapheresis. Methods: A study was conducted on 12 adult GBS patients at Sir Takhtasinhji General Hospital, Bhavnagar from July 2012 to July 2014. Patients were assessed on a 6-point disability scale. They were treated with plasmapheresis over 10 days with REF627 kit from Haemonetics Corporation Limited on MCS+ machine. Improvement was noted by the change in the disability scale score and expenses of various modes of treatment were also considered. Results: Seventy-five percent showed improvement at the end of the treatment. The cost of modified plasmapheresis was Rs. 8000/cycle, i.e., Rs. 40,000/patient. Conclusion: Plasmapheresis along with proper supportive measures is a more cost-effective efficacious mode of therapy in adult patients of GBS. Further, modified plasmapheresis using REF627 kit and 6% hexastarch as replacement fluid on MCS+ apheresis machine reduces the cost of therapy for poor patients visiting government set-ups.

  6. Effect of plasmapheresis on the immune system in endotoxin-induced sepsis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, P; Schmidt, R; Broechner, A C

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It has been proposed that plasmapheresis is most effective when applied early in Gram-negative sepsis. We therefore studied the effect of early plasmapheresis on immunity in experimental Escherichia coli endotoxin-induced sepsis. METHODS: 20 pigs received 30 microg/kg of E. coli...

  7. Obilježja bolesnika liječenih plazmaferezom [Characteristics of patients treated with plasmapheresis

    OpenAIRE

    Brunetta Gavranić, Bruna

    2015-01-01

    Frequent use of therapeutic plasmapheresis and advances in medicine and technology generated significant changes in indications, complications, method and epidemiological characteristics of patients treated with this procedure. Nevertheless many questions still remain open. Database of the National Referral Centre for therapeutic plasmapheresis and apheresis was retrospectively analyzed for changes in indications, complications, method and epidemiological characteristics of patients treate...

  8. Improvement of advanced postvaccinal demyelinating encephalitis due to plasmapheresis

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    Andreas Rogalewski

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Andreas Rogalewski1, Jörg Kraus3, Martin Hasselblatt2, Christoffer Kraemer1, Wolf-Rüdiger Schäbitz11Department of Neurology; 2Institute of Neuropathology, University of Muenster, Germany, 3Paracelsus Private Medical University and Salzburger Landesklinken, Christian-Doppler-Klinik, Department of Neurology, Salzburg, AustriaAbstract: We report a case of acute demyelinating encephalitis that occurred after viral vaccination against hepatitis A-, hepatitis B-, and poliovirus and vaccination against bacterial toxins of diphtheria and tetanus. After different diagnosis had been excluded, we diagnosed postvaccinal demyelinating encephalitis and started treatment with high dose intravenous methylprednisolone, followed by peroral application in decreasing dosages for three weeks. A few days after the treatment with methylprednisolone had been finished, the patient’s medical condition deteriorated again. Thus, we initiated plasma exchange at an advanced state of illness, which led to significant continuous improvement. The role of plasma exchange is discussed controversially, in particular the issue of timing. We report a case that shows improvement due to plasmapheresis several weeks after symptom onset.Keywords: ADEM, vaccination, encephalitis, plasmapheresis, demyelination, plasma exchange

  9. [Goodpasture syndrome: treatment initiation with plasmapheresis before histologic diagnostic verification].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gartenschläger, M; Lenci, G; Schinzel, H; Schweden, F; Dienes, H P; Weilemann, L S

    1996-11-01

    A 28 years old male patient presented, after a history of previous recurrent hemoptysis, with diffuse bilateral air space consolidation at chest radiography (CXR). Within 48 hours, partial respiratory insufficiency developed and required intubation. On a clinical and roentgenographic basis, the diagnosis of a Goodpasture syndrome was suspected. Plasmapheresis and immunosuppressive therapy with prednisone and cyclophosphamide were started immediately. Three days after admission, macrohematuria developed and serum creatinine began to rise to a maximum of 3.9 mg/dl. Totally, 13 plasmaphereses were performed within 27 days. Clinical, laboratory and radiological findings improved markedly. 30 days after admission, the patient was discharged and followed on an outpatient basis. Serum creatinine eventually decreased to 1.1 mg/dl. Initially, circulating antibodies against glomerular basement membrane (GBM) were positive, controls remained negative. Renal biopsy was performed after the acute phase and showed glomerulonephritis and linear immunoglobulin deposition along the GBM. Radiologic findings at CXR and high resolution computed tomography are demonstrated.

  10. Electroconvulsive therapy and/or plasmapheresis in autoimmune encephalitis?

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    Gough, Jessica L; Coebergh, Jan; Chandra, Brunda; Nilforooshan, Ramin

    2016-01-01

    Autoimmune encephalitis is a poorly understood condition that can present with a combination of neurological and psychiatric symptoms, either of which may predominate. There are many autoantibodies associated with a variety of clinical syndromes - anti-N-Methyl-D-Aspartate receptor (NMDAR) is the commonest. Currently, the most widely used therapy is prompt plasmapheresis and steroid treatment (and tumour resection if indicated), followed by second line immunosuppression if this fails. Given the growing awareness of autoimmune encephalitis as an entity, it is increasingly important that we consider it as a potential diagnosis in order to provide timely, effective treatment. We discuss several previously published case reports and one new case. These reports examined the effects of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) on patients with autoimmune encephalitis, particularly those in whom psychiatric symptoms are especially debilitating and refractory to standard treatment. We also discuss factors predicting good outcome and possible mechanisms by which ECT may be effective. Numerous cases, such as those presented by Wingfield, Tsutsui, Florance, Sansing, Braakman and Matsumoto, demonstrate effective use of ECT in anti-NMDAR encephalitis patients with severe psychiatric symptoms such as catatonia, psychosis, narcolepsy and stupor who had failed to respond to standard treatments alone. We also present a new case of a 71-year-old female who presented to a psychiatric unit initially with depression, which escalated to catatonia, delusions, nihilism and auditory hallucinations. After anti-NMDAR antibodies were isolated, she was treated by the neurology team with plasmapheresis and steroids, with a partial response. She received multiple sessions of ECT and her psychiatric symptoms completely resolved and she returned to her premorbid state. For this reason, we suggest that ECT should be considered, particularly in those patients who are non-responders to standard therapies. PMID

  11. Utility of Double Filtration Plasmapheresis in Acute Antibody Mediated Renal Allograft Rejection: Report of Three Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yalçın SOLAK

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Plasmapheresis is an extracorporeal procedure, which is often employed to rapidly lower circulating titers of autoantibodies, immune complexes or toxins. There are two types of plasmapheresis namely, regular plasmapheresis (RPP by centrifugation and membrane filtration, and double filtration plasmapheresis (DFPP which is a special form of membrane filtration in which two membranes called as plasma separator and plasma fractionator are employed to filter macromolecules more selectively. DFPP have several advantages over RP. Despite widespread utilization of DFPP in the setting of ABO blood group incompatible kidney transplantation, there is no report regarding DFPP in patients with antibody mediated acute renal allograft rejection who are good candidates for beneficial effects of DFPP. Here we report three renal transplant recipients in whom DFPP was applied as a component of anti-rejection treatment regimen.

  12. Development of recurrent facial palsy during plasmapheresis in Guillain-Barré syndrome: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Weimer Louis H; Stevenson Mary L; Bogorad Ilya V

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Introduction Guillain-Barré syndrome is an immune-mediated polyneuropathy that is routinely initially treated with either intravenous immunoglobulin or plasmapheresis. To the best of our knowledge, no association between plasmapheresis treatment and acute onset of facial neuropathy has been reported. Case presentation A 35-year-old Caucasian man with no significant prior medical history developed ascending motor weakness and laboratory findings consistent with a diagnosis of Guillain...

  13. Development of recurrent facial palsy during plasmapheresis in Guillain-Barré syndrome: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weimer Louis H

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Guillain-Barré syndrome is an immune-mediated polyneuropathy that is routinely initially treated with either intravenous immunoglobulin or plasmapheresis. To the best of our knowledge, no association between plasmapheresis treatment and acute onset of facial neuropathy has been reported. Case presentation A 35-year-old Caucasian man with no significant prior medical history developed ascending motor weakness and laboratory findings consistent with a diagnosis of Guillain-Barré syndrome. Plasmapheresis was initiated. Acute facial palsy developed during the plasma exchange that subsequently resolved and then acutely recurred during the subsequent plasma exchange. Conclusion To the best of our knowledge, no prior cases of acute facial palsy developing during plasmapheresis treatment are known. Although facial nerve involvement is common in typical Guillain-Barré syndrome, the temporal association with treatment, near-complete resolution and later recurrence support the association. The possible mechanism of plasmapheresis-induced worsening of peripheral nerve function in Guillain-Barré syndrome is unknown.

  14. Handbook of purified gases

    CERN Document Server

    Schoen, Helmut

    2015-01-01

    Technical gases are used in almost every field of industry, science and medicine and also as a means of control by government authorities and institutions and are regarded as indispensable means of assistance. In this complete handbook of purified gases the physical foundations of purified gases and mixtures as well as their manufacturing, purification, analysis, storage, handling and transport are presented in a comprehensive way. This important reference work is accompanied with a large number of Data Sheets dedicated to the most important purified gases.  

  15. The steroid-sparing effect of long-term plasmapheresis in pemphigus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Klaus; Carstens, Jan; Jørgensen, Jan

    1995-01-01

    Glucocorticoids and immunosuppressive agents can induce remission in most patients with pemphigus, but mortality remains at 5 to 15% due to complications from these drugs. We reviewed the adjunctive effect of long-term plasmapheresis in 8 patients with pemphigus. Four cases had been resistant to ...... where cyclosporine was introduced. This first report of long-term plasmapheresis demonstrates clinical efficacy in pemphigus and a considerable steroid-sparing effect.......Glucocorticoids and immunosuppressive agents can induce remission in most patients with pemphigus, but mortality remains at 5 to 15% due to complications from these drugs. We reviewed the adjunctive effect of long-term plasmapheresis in 8 patients with pemphigus. Four cases had been resistant...

  16. Double filtration plasmapheresis in a dog with multiple myeloma and hyperviscosity syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Lippi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A 12 year old, 38 kg, mix-breed, intact male dog presented with a 20 day history of clinical signs consistent with hyperviscosity syndrome secondary to multiple myeloma. The dog received three double filtration plasmapheresis treatments on day 0, 7 and 22 after presentation. A significant (p<0.05 reduction in serum total protein, alpha-2 and gamma globulins was found following each treatment. These reductions were accompanied by a complete resolution, although temporary, of the clinical signs of hyperviscosity syndrome. The present study reported for the first time the use of double filtration plasmapheresis to reduce clinical signs of hyperviscosity syndrome in a dog with multiple myeloma.

  17. Successful treatment of malaria tropica with acute renal failure and cerebral involvement by plasmapheresis and hemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuby, U; Kaiser, W; Biesenbach, G; Zazgornik, J

    1988-01-01

    A non-immune, 31-year-old woman developed an acute infection with Plasmodium falciparum after travelling to Kenia. The parasites proved resistant to chloroquine and sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine. The course of the disease was complicated by acute renal failure, hepatocellular damage, disorders of blood coagulation, thrombocytopenia, hemolysis and cerebral involvement. Despite a very high level of parasitemia (50% parasitized erythrocytes) a rapid clinical improvement was achieved by plasmapheresis and hemodialysis. Our experience shows that plasmapheresis and hemodialysis are excellent additive methods which rapidly improve clinical symptoms and may reduce morbidity and mortality in severe malaria tropica.

  18. Early plasmapheresis and rituximab for acute humoral rejection after ABO-compatible liver transplantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nassim Kamar; Laurence Lavayssière; Fabrice Muscari; Janick Selves; Céline Guilbeau-Frugier; Isabelle Cardeau; Laure Esposito; Olivier Cointault; Marie Béatrice Nogier; Jean Marie Peron; Philippe Otal; Marylise Fort; Lionel Rostaing

    2009-01-01

    Acute humoral rejection (AHR) is uncommon after ABOcompatible liver transplantation. Herein, we report two cases of AHR treated with plasmapheresis and rituximab in two ABO-compatible liver-transplant patients with preformed anti-human leukocyte antigen donor-specific antibodies. Patient 1 experienced a biopsy-proven AHR at day 10 post-transplant. She was treated by steroid pulses, and OKT3. Because of persisting signs of biopsy-proven AHR at day 26, she was treated by plasmapheresis and rituximab. Liver enzyme levels did not improve, and she died on day 41. Patient 2 experienced a biopsy-proven AHR on day 10 post-transplant. She was treated by steroid pulses, plasmapheresis, and rituximab.Liver enzymes returned to within normal range 18 dafter diagnosis. Liver biopsies, at 3 and 9 mo post-transplant,showed complete resolution of AHR. We conclude that plasmapheresis should be started as soon as AHR is diagnosed, and be associated with a B-cell depleting agent. Rituximab may be considered as a first-line therapy.

  19. Possible role for exchange plasmapheresis with fresh frozen plasma for maternal indications in selected cases of preeclampsia and eclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, M L

    1986-07-01

    A new case of a preeclamptic who developed the diagnostic criteria for the hemolytic uremic syndrome and who was treated with plasmapheresis is presented. Fourteen case reports of gravidas with preeclampsia treated by exchange plasmapheresis with fresh frozen plasma for maternal indications are reviewed. Only four cases had been reported as eclampsia or preeclampsia. The other cases had been reported as thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura, the postpartum hemolytic uremic syndrome, or fatty liver of pregnancy. The possible role of plasmapheresis in treating very carefully selected cases of preeclampsia is discussed.

  20. Purified water quality study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spinka, H.; Jackowski, P.

    2000-04-03

    Argonne National Laboratory (HEP) is examining the use of purified water for the detection medium in cosmic ray sensors. These sensors are to be deployed in a remote location in Argentina. The purpose of this study is to provide information and preliminary analysis of available water treatment options and associated costs. This information, along with the technical requirements of the sensors, will allow the project team to determine the required water quality to meet the overall project goals.

  1. Plasmapheresis Rescue Therapy in Progressive Systemic ANCA-Associated Vasculitis : Single-Center Results of Stepwise Escalation of Immunosuppression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Joode, Anoek A. E.; Sanders, Jan Stephan; Smid, W. Martin; Stegeman, Coen A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: We evaluated 26 patients with antineutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis (AAV) with progressive disease despite treatment with cyclophosphamide and steroids treated with additional plasmapheresis and compared outcome with 50 matched-disease controls. Methods: Pat

  2. Fulminant Wilson's Disease Managed with Plasmapheresis as a Bridge to Liver Transplant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilal, Talal; Morehead, R Scott

    2014-01-01

    New-onset jaundice can be a manifestation of multiple pathologic processes including hemolysis, parenchymal liver disease, and cholestasis; the differential diagnosis is broad and requires a systematic approach. We report a case of a patient who presented with jaundice after starting minocycline for the treatment of acne vulgaris and rapidly developed fulminant liver failure found to be due to Wilson's disease. She also manifested severe Coomb's negative hemolytic anemia and renal failure secondary to hepatorenal syndrome. As a bridge to liver transplant, she was successfully treated with plasmapheresis to decrease serum copper in addition to hemodialysis for acidosis and hyperkalemia. She was able to receive a liver and made a full recovery. The case highlights the use of plasmapheresis as an adjunctive treatment modality in cases of fulminant liver failure due to Wilson's disease.

  3. Fulminant Wilson’s Disease Managed with Plasmapheresis as a Bridge to Liver Transplant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talal Hilal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available New-onset jaundice can be a manifestation of multiple pathologic processes including hemolysis, parenchymal liver disease, and cholestasis; the differential diagnosis is broad and requires a systematic approach. We report a case of a patient who presented with jaundice after starting minocycline for the treatment of acne vulgaris and rapidly developed fulminant liver failure found to be due to Wilson’s disease. She also manifested severe Coomb’s negative hemolytic anemia and renal failure secondary to hepatorenal syndrome. As a bridge to liver transplant, she was successfully treated with plasmapheresis to decrease serum copper in addition to hemodialysis for acidosis and hyperkalemia. She was able to receive a liver and made a full recovery. The case highlights the use of plasmapheresis as an adjunctive treatment modality in cases of fulminant liver failure due to Wilson’s disease.

  4. An alternative treatment in hypertriglyceridemia-induced acute pancreatitis in pregnancy: Plasmapheresis

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Hormonal influences during pregnancy can compromise otherwise controlled lipid levels in women with familial hypertriglyceridemia and predispose to pancreatitis leading to increased morbidity in both mother and fetus. Both cholesterol and triglyceride levels in serum increase progressively during pregnancy. The mainstay of treatment includes dietary restriction of fatty meal and lipid-lowering medications. Experiences with plasmapheresis are limited. We report two cases of hypertriglyceridemi...

  5. Acute Respiratory Failure due to Neuromyelitis Optica Treated Successfully with Plasmapheresis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massa Zantah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Neuromyelitis Optica (NMO is a demyelinating autoimmune disease involving the central nervous system. Acute respiratory failure from cervical myelitis due to NMO is known to occur but is uncommon in monophasic disease and is treated with high dose steroids. We report a case of a patient with NMO who developed acute respiratory failure related to cervical spinal cord involvement, refractory to pulse dose steroid therapy, which resolved with plasmapheresis.

  6. Plasmapheresis for Preventing Complication of Hypertriglyceridemia: A Case Report and Review of Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costantini, Nicoletta; Mameli, Antonella; Marongiu, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Severe hypertriglyceridemia is a common indication for the need of plasma exchange in treatment of hypertriglyceridemic-induced pancreatitis when normal therapies fail to garner a response. Application of plasmapheresis to prevent complication of hypertriglyceridemia is limited because of its cost and availability. We present a case of a 44-year-old man with metabolic syndrome and a medical history of secondary polycythemia in obesity hypoventilation syndrome, whose laboratory tests revealed a triglycerides value of 3965 mg/dL. To prevent the complication of pancreatitis due to hypertriglyceridemia, we performed plasma exchange 3 times when conventional treatments did not sufficiently reduce the high level of triglycerides. A review of the current available literature was therefore conducted to provide an overview of the present data on apheretic treatment for patients with severe hypertriglyceridemia. Several case reports and case series have used plasmapheresis in acute treatment of hypertriglyceridemia pancreatitis related. In our case, the choice of plasmapheresis was applied in prevention of possible complications of hypertriglyceridemia.

  7. Response to Plasmapheresis Measured by Angiogenic Factors in a Woman with Antiphospholipid Syndrome in Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karoline Mayer-Pickel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An imbalance of angiogenic and antiangiogenic placental factors such as endoglin and soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase 1 has been implicated in the pathophysiology of preeclampsia. Extraction of these substances by plasmapheresis might be a therapeutical approach in cases of severe early-onset preeclampsia. Case Report. A 21-year-old primigravida with antiphospholipid syndrome developed early-onset preeclampsia at 18 weeks’ gestation. She was treated successfully with plasmapheresis in order to prolong pregnancy. Endoglin and sflt-1-levels were measured by ELISA before and after treatment. Endoglin levels decreased significantly after treatment (p < 0.05 and showed a significant decrease throughout pregnancy. A rerise of endoglin and sflt-1 preceded placental abruption 4 weeks before onset of incident. Conclusion. Due to the limited long-term therapeutical possibilities for pregnancies complicated by PE, plasmapheresis seems to be a therapeutical option. This consideration refers especially to pregnancies with early-onset preeclampsia, in which, after first conventional treatment of PE, prolongation of pregnancy should be above all.

  8. Natural Air Purifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    NASA environmental research has led to a plant-based air filtering system. Dr. B.C. Wolverton, a former NASA engineer who developed a biological filtering system for space life support, served as a consultant to Terra Firma Environmental. The company is marketing the BioFilter, a natural air purifier that combines activated carbon and other filter media with living plants and microorganisms. The filter material traps and holds indoor pollutants; plant roots and microorganisms then convert the pollutants into food for the plant. Most non-flowering house plants will work. After pollutants have been removed, the cleansed air is returned to the room through slits in the planter. Terra Firma is currently developing a filter that will also disinfect the air.

  9. Device for purifying drilling mud

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Surkov, V.T.; Dorosh, M.M.; Khariv, I.Yu.; Makedonov, N.I.

    1982-01-01

    A device is proposed for purifying drilling mud which includes a dynamic filter made in the form of a spiral-shaped tube with input and output sleeves, and a container for purified solution with outlet sleeve. It is distinguished by the fact that in order to simplify the design, the spiral-shaped tube is perforated from the inside and is installed in the container for the purified solution.

  10. TRADITIONAL AND CASCADE PLASMAPHERESIS IN ANTIBODY TITERS’ REDUCTION IN RENAL TRANSPLANT RECIPIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. Vatazin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. One of the current tasks of transplantology is to overcome «graft-host» immune confl ict. Partially this confl ict is caused by the presence of circulating pre-existing antibodies. Highly sensitized patients have a greater risk of rejection and subsequent graft loss. There are several methods to remove the antibodies, one of which is a double fi ltration plasmapheresis (DFPF. This report presents our experience of DFPF in recipients of high immunologic risk.Aim: to compare the effectiveness of traditional and double filtration plasmapheresis in desensitization of patients with high risk of immunological complications.Methods. The study included 30 patients after kidney transplantation. All patients were classifi ed as high-immunologic risk group. In 15 patients of study group we performed DFPF, in 15 patients of comparison group – traditional plasmapheresis. We monitored the immune status: markers of humoral immunity activation – IgG, IgM, IgA before and after the procedures. DFPF procedure was performed on OctoNova (MeSys, Germany with a plasmafi lter and plasma components separator. Protocol biopsies were performed on days 30 and 90.Results. The concentration of antibodies may be effectively reduced with DFPF. Total IgM and IgG antibodies were reduced by 30–55% of the original level. There was a less albumin loss in case of DFPF application. There is 1 patient with antibody-mediated rejection with graft dysfunction in study group. There are no signs of rejection in 30- and 90-day biopsy in study group. But there were three patients with subclinical antibody-mediated rejection in the comparison group.Conclusion. DFPF can safely and effectively reduce the high titers of antibodies that are responsible for humoral rejection of renal allograft. Reduction of antibodies in sensitized patients immediately after transplantation may improve graft function.

  11. AN OVERVIEW ON BLOOD PURIFIER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabia Chauhan

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Blood is a connective tissue which protects us from different problems. Without blood body cannot functions at all and blood doesn’t purify itself. When blood does not purifies itself that times kidney, liver and lymphatic system work together that they help’s to purifiers the blood. Causes which are included in blood impurities are modern life style, junk food, alcohol etc. If the blood becomes impure it causes different problems e.g. acne, rashes, allergic etc. There is not any proper synthetic medication for blood impurities. Only herbal formulations are used for the blood purifier. In this review article we discussed about the market formulations and the different plants which are used in them with their different activities which are helpful in purifies the blood and also protects from other problems.

  12. FEATURES OF PLASMAPHERESIS IN THE TREATMENT OF GRAFT REJECTION AFTER KIDNEY TRANSPLANTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Vatazin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The development of immunological confl ict in the form of host-versus-graft reaction has always been main problem in transplantation. The worst case is the development of humoral rejection with the presence of circulating immune complexes and antibodies. There are several methods for quick removal of antibodies; among those are traditional plasmapheresis (PA and double fi ltration plasmapheresis (DFPF. In this paper we present our experience with these two methods and give a comparative evaluation of the effectiveness in the treatment of acute humoral rejection in renal allograft. Aim: to compare the effectiveness of traditional and double fi ltration plasmapheresis while processing different volumes of plasma in the treatment of host-versus-graft disease after kidney transplantation.Methods. The study included 58 patients after kidney transplantation. All patients had increased activity of humoral immunity, which was confi rmed by immunofl uorescence with luminescence C4d complement component. In 26 patients we performed DFPF, in 32 patients – traditional PA. We divided the DFPF patients into 4 subgroups depending on the amount of processed plasma: > 50% (5 patients, 50–100% (8 patients, 100–150% (7 patients, 150–200% (6 patients of circulating plasma volume. We also divided PA patients into four subgroups depending on the volume of plasma removed: >50% (8 patients, 50–70% (12 patients, 70–90% (7 patients, 90–110% (5 patients of the volume of circulating plasma. We monitored the immune status with markers of humoral immunity activation IgM, IgG before and after each of the procedures.Results. Each procedure of traditional PA and DFPF was accompanied by a marked decrease in blood concentrations of IgM and IgG antibodies. Their level decreased by an average of 30–55% of the original. However, some patients in both groups showed an increase in the concentration of these immunoglobulins in 1–2 days

  13. [Myocardiopathy diagnosed in utero in a mother with SS-A antibodies treated with plasmapheresis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arroyave, C M; Puente Ledezma, F; Montiel Amoroso, G; Martínez García, A C

    1995-03-01

    We report a 36 years old patient with Sjogren's syndrome, who during her second pregnancy, the product developed a miocardiopathy with complete heart block that was diagnosed in utero at 26 weeks of pregnancy. Simultaneously, laboratory data reported a SS-A/Ro titer of 1:50,000 with positive antiphospholipids antibodies. Patient was subjected three times to plasmapheresis with three blood volume exchange each time. During the procedures, we had monitor the product and no hemodinamic changes were observed. Unfortunately, 25 days later the patient reported absence of fetal movement and by ecosonography and Doppler was not observed fetal movement or cardiac function. This pregnancy ends in cesarea. The patient is in perfect clinical conditions under control using prednisone and methotrexate.

  14. The beneficial effect of plasmapheresis in mixed connective tissue disease with coexisting antiphospholipid syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szodoray, P; Hajas, A; Toth, L; Szakall, S; Nakken, B; Soltesz, P; Bodolay, E

    2014-09-01

    The authors report a rare case of a female patient with mixed connective tissue disease (MCTD) with coexisting antiphospholipid syndrome (APS). Five years after the diagnosis of MCTD high concentrations of anticardiolipin (anti-CL) and anti-β2-glycoprotein (anti-β2GPI) autoantibodies were present in the patient's serum without thrombotic events. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) reactivation provoked APS, with the clinical manifestations of livedo reticularis, digital gangrene and leg ulcers. Skin biopsy from the necrotic area showed multiple fibrin microthrombi in the superficial vessels. Corticosteroid pulse therapy, and plasma exchange in combination with synchronized cyclophosphamide was administered, which led to improvement of the digital gangrenes, while no new lesions developed. The number of CD27high plasma cells decreased, and the previous high levels of autoantibodies also normalized in the peripheral blood. In the case of MCTD with coexisting APS combination therapy, including plasmapheresis has beneficial effects.

  15. Modeling hepatitis C virus therapies combining drugs and lectin affinity plasmapheresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tullis, Richard H; Duffin, R Paul; Ichim, Thomas E; Joyce, James A; Levin, Nathan W

    2010-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection can be cured by standard pegylated interferon (IFN) + ribavirin drug therapy in 30-50% of treatment-naïve genotype 1 HCV patients. Cure rate is defined as a sustained viral response measured 6 months after the end of treatment. Recently, Fujiwara et al. [Hepatol Res 2007;37:701-710], using a double-filtration plasmapheresis (DFPP) technique, showed that simple physical reduction in circulating HCV using a 1-week pretreatment increased the cure rate for treatment-naïve type 1 HCV patients from 50 (controls) to 78% (treated). For previous nonresponders, the cure rate increased from 30 to 71%. This effect occurs even though the DFPP per treatment HCV viral load reduction averaged 26%. In clinical studies discussed here, a lectin affinity plasmapheresis (LAP) device caused an estimated 41% decrease in viral load as previously reported. A more detailed analysis using normalized data to correct for any variations in initial viral load gave an average 29% per treatment viral load reduction in 5 HCV-positive dialysis patients. The latter data indicate that continuous application of LAP could bring HCV viral load to undetectable levels in 4.1 days. Compared to DFPP, the LAP approach has the advantage that no plasma losses are incurred. In addition hemopurification can be carried out for extended periods of time analogous to continuous renal replacement therapy for the treatment of acute kidney failure, making the process much more effective. Calculations based on these data predict that continuous hemopurification would substantially increase the rate of viral load reduction (approx. 14-fold) and therefore increase the cure rate for HCV standard-of-care drug therapies without adding additional drugs and their associated side effects.

  16. Acute pancreatitis induced by hypertriglyceridemia and treatment with plasmapheresis: case report = Pancreatitis aguda inducida por hipertrigliceridemia y tratamiento con plasmaféresis: reporte de un caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muñoz Ortiz, Édison

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Hypertriglyceridemia (HTG is a potential cause of acute pancreatitis (AP, especially when its values are greater than 1.000 mg/dL. Different therapeutic measures have been proposed for patients with AP secondary to HTG, including the one that seems to be more effective: plasmapheresis. We report the case of a patient with severe HTG (triglycerides 6.480 mg/dL that suffered from AP, and had favorable evolution with plasmapheresis.

  17. Life Saving Plasmapheresis for the Management of Hemolytic Crisis and Acute Liver Failure in Wilson’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Pashaei

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Wilson's disease, caused by a deficient cellular copper export system, is transmitted as an autosomal recessive inherited disorder and results in copper accumulation in liver and other organs, particularly in brain. Acute hepatic failure and severe Coombs' negative hemolysis may occur in the course of the disease which has a poor prognosis and most patients do not survive the crisis. Only liver transplantation has been recommended as an effective medical intervention. Herein, we presented a 25-year-old woman with impaired consciousness, acute hepatic failure and hemolysis who was treated with plasmapheresis and albumin replacement. Beside improvement in medical condition, serum copper and hemolysis decreased significantly and renal function was preserved. We concluded that plasmapheresis may be a life saving intervention during fulminant hepatic failure of Wilson's disease.

  18. Part of plasmapheresis with plasma filtration adsorption combined with continuous hemodiafiltration in the treatment of severe acute liver failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Maoqin; Wang, Zhidong; Wang, Yining; Du, Changhong; Li, Songhai; Shi, Zaixiang; Lu, Bo

    2016-01-01

    The present study is a retrospective analysis of 11 cases with severe acute liver failure combined with multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) performed during the period June, 2012 to December, 2014. After part of plasmapheresis with plasma filtration adsorption combined with continuous hemodiafiltration treatment, good curative effects were obtained and the main clinical symptoms and biochemical index were significantly improved. Following treatment, 8 of the 11 patients survived at a survival rate of 72.7%, and 3 patients succumbed with a mortality of 27.3%. The results suggested that part of plasmapheresis with plasma filtration adsorption combined with continuous venovenous hemodiafiltration (CVVHDF) treatment is beneficial in the removal of metabolites and toxins. Additonally, it can effectively improve liver function and clinical symptoms, improve hepatic encephalopathy, correct the disorder of internal environment, and improve the prognosis of patients. PMID:27698760

  19. Goodpasture syndrome: selective removal of anti-alpha 3 (IV) collagen autoantibodies. A potential therapeutic alternative to plasmapheresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutaud, A A; Kalluri, R; Kahsai, T Z; Noelken, M E; Hudson, B G

    1996-01-01

    Anti-alpha 3(IV) collagen autoantibodies have been implicated in the pathogenesis of Goodpasture syndrome, an autoimmune disorder causing glomerulonephritis and pulmonary hemorrhage. Currently treatment involves removal of the entire IgG fraction of plasma by plasmapheresis or adsorption to protein A. The present study shows that the anti-alpha 3(IV)NC1 autoantibodies can be removed from plasma specifically and quantitatively by affinity chromatography utilizing either alpha 3 NC1 domain of bovine type IV collagen or recombinant alpha 3 NC1 domain of human type IV collagen immobilized to agarose beads. This study shows the feasibility of using affinity chromatography, as an alternative to plasmapheresis, to exclusively remove the pathogenic autoantibodies from the plasma of patients with Goodpasture syndrome.

  20. A successful case of anti-NMDAR encephalitis without tumor treated with a prolonged regimen of plasmapheresis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateus Mistieri Simabukuro

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis is a severe but treatable autoimmune disease of the CNS. However, the use of immunotherapy and long-term outcomes have yet to be defined for this disease. We describe a case of an 18-year-old male diagnosed with anti-NMDAR encephalitis not associated with tumor, which did not respond to initial treatment with immunoglobulin, followed by corticosteroids, cyclophosphamide and evolved with significant clinical improvement after a prolonged course of plasmapheresis. Although it is not possible to affirm the good outcome was due solely to the prolonged plasmapheresis regimen, recently published data shows that improvement may take weeks or months to occur. This case discloses another therapeutic possibility for patients with refractory disease who fail to respond to recommended first-line and second-line therapy.

  1. Process for purifying geothermal steam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, C.T.

    Steam containing hydrogen sulfide is purified and sulfur recovered by passing the steam through a reactor packed with activated carbon in the presence of a stoichiometric amount of oxygen which oxidizes the hydrogen sulfide to elemental sulfur which is adsorbed on the bed. The carbon can be recycled after the sulfur has been recovered by vacuum distillation, inert gas entrainment or solvent extraction. The process is suitable for the purification of steam from geothermal sources which may also contain other noncondensable gases.

  2. Conotoxins Are Purified and Cloned

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ A group of CAS scientists have succeeded in purifying many conotoxins and cloning more than 100 new genes from six species of cone snails living in waters off the coast of the South China Sea, paving the way for the development of new drugs to relieve neuropathic pains. The work has been honored with a first prize from the 2005 Awards for S&T Progress in Shanghai.

  3. Plasmapheresis for refractory status epilepticus, part I: A scoping systematic review of the adult literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeiler, F A; Matuszczak, M; Teitelbaum, J; Kazina, C J; Gillman, L M

    2016-12-01

    Our goal was to perform a scoping systematic review of the literature on the use of plasmapheresis or plasma exchange (PE) for refractory status epilepticus (RSE) in adults. Articles from MEDLINE, BIOSIS, EMBASE, Global Health, Healthstar, Scopus, Cochrane Library, the International Clinical Trials Registry Platform, clinicaltrials.gov (inception to May 2016), reference lists of relevant articles, and gray literature were searched. The strength of evidence was adjudicated using both the Oxford and GRADE methodology by two independent reviewers. Twenty-two original articles were identified. Twenty-seven adult patients were described in these articles, with a variety of autoimmune conditions leading to RSE. Seizure response with the application of PE therapy occurred in 14 of the 27 patients (51.9%), with 1 (3.7%) and 13 (48.1%) displaying partial and complete responses respectively. Generalized RSE was the most likely seizure subtype to respond to PE therapy. One patient had recorded an adverse events related to PE therapy. Oxford level 4, GRADE D evidence exists to suggest an uncertain response of adult autoimmune RSE to PE therapy. Thus, the routine application of PE therapy for adult autoimmune RSE cannot be recommended at this time. Copyright © 2016 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Evidence of relative iron deficiency in platelet- and plasma-pheresis donors correlates with donation frequency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huihui; Condon, Frances; Kessler, Debra; Nandi, Vijay; Rebosa, Mark; Westerman, Mark; Shaz, Beth H; Ginzburg, Yelena

    2016-12-01

    The loss of iron stores and resulting iron deficiency is well documented in whole blood or red blood cell donors. We hypothesized that relative iron deficiency also occurs as a result of more frequent platelet- and plasma-pheresis (apheresis) donation. To test this hypothesis, we proposed a pilot cross-sectional study to analyze erythropoiesis- and iron-related parameters in white male apheresis donors: (1) relative to controls, (2) in correlation with apheresis donation frequency, and (3) in correlation with pre-donation platelet count. Fifty eligible apheresis donors and eight controls were enrolled in the study. Apheresis donors were found to have a lower serum ferritin and serum hepcidin and exhibited evidence of iron restricted erythropoiesis relative to controls. Furthermore, among donors, lower MCV, CH(r) , hepcidin concentration, and serum ferritin were observed in more frequent apheresis donors. Correlations between donation frequency and hepcidin and ferritin were noted in apheresis donors. This pilot study demonstrates that apheresis donors are relatively iron deficient compared to controls and supports the premise that frequent apheresis donation correlates with relatively iron restricted erythropoiesis. An analysis of iron- and erythropoiesis-related parameters in a broader population of frequent apheresis donors (i.e., female and non-white donors) may demonstrate larger deficits and an even greater potential benefit of iron replacement. J. Clin. Apheresis 31:551-558, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Emergency Plasmapheresis in a case of ThromboticThrombocytopenic Purpura (TTP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariaserena Pioli Di Marco

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available An 84 year-old female was admitted to our Department of Vascular Internal Medicine after a sudden onset of weakness on her right side and aphasia along with signs of myocardial ischemia from Electrocardiogram (EKG. Clinical and blood exams led to a suspicion of Moschcowitz syndrome, which was reinforced by the presence of numerous schistocytes on a peripheral blood smear.Due to a rapid deterioration of vital signs as well as alertness, the patient underwent an emergency transfusion and plasmapheresis treatment as recommended by American Society of Apheresis (ASFA guidelines: one plasma volume was replaced with fresh frozen plasma (FFP every 24 hours, for the first eight days, in order to reach at least a level of 150,000 platelets/mm3 over three consecutive days accompanied by a decrease in LDH until to 670 UI/l.After this therapy, the clinical picture significantly improved with a complete recovery of consciousness and the disappearance of neurological defects.Examinations to determine the etiology made us hypothesize a secondary status of thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura due to an autoimmune disorder compatible with Sjogren’s syndrome. The patient was discharged and prescribed prednisone.Currently the patient is in good clinical condition and continues the therapy with prednisone (5 mg/die.

  6. Steroid unresponsive anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis during pregnancy successfully treated with plasmapheresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahani, Lokesh

    2015-04-29

    Anti-N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor encephalitis is an autoimmune disorder resulting in neurological and psychiatric symptoms. It is rare during pregnancy and treatment is extremely challenging as little data exist to guide management. A 26-year-old woman presented at 22 weeks of gestation with intermittent headache and an acute episode of bizarre behaviour and grandiose delusions resulting in hospitalisation. The patient was worked up for encephalitis and was found to have anti-NMDA receptor antibody in cerebrospinal fluid as well as in serum. She was initially treated with high-dose steroids but failed to improve clinically and serologically. She was then treated with plasmapheresis and showed clinical and serological response. She had a successful delivery at 37 weeks and the baby did not show serological evidence of disease. This case adds to the sparse literature of anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis during pregnancy and adds to the differential diagnosis of new onset psychiatric symptoms during pregnancy.

  7. Methods for Purifying Enzymes for Mycoremediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullings, Kenneth W. (Inventor); DeSimone, Julia C. (Inventor); Paavola, Chad D. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A process for purifying laccase from an ectomycorrhizal fruiting body is disclosed. The process includes steps of homogenization, sonication, centrifugation, filtration, affinity chromatography, ion exchange chromatography, and gel filtration. Purified laccase can also be separated into isomers.

  8. Evaluation of a portable air purifier.

    OpenAIRE

    Lawrence, J.C.; Lilly, H. A.; Wilkins, M. D.

    1981-01-01

    A portable air purifier significantly reduced mal odour in a small room. If the atmosphere was deliberately contaminated with Serratia marcescens the unit rapidly removed this organism. However, if incorrectly sited, the purifier could disperse organisms into the atmosphere.

  9. Plasmapheresis reverses all side-effects of a cisplatin overdose – a case report and treatment recommendation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ploner Ferdinand

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cisplatin is widely used as an antineoplastic agent since it is effective against a broad spectrum of different tumours. Nevertheless, it has several potential side effects affecting different organ systems and an overdose may lead to life-threatening complications and even death. Case presentation We report on a 46-year old woman with non-small cell lung cancer who accidentally received 225 mg/m2 of cisplatin, which was threefold the dose as scheduled, within a 3-day period. Two days later, the patient presented with hearing loss, severe nausea and vomiting, acute renal failure as well as elevated liver enzymes. In addition, she developed a severe myelodepression. After plasmapheresis on two consecutive days and vigorous supportive treatment, the toxicity-related symptoms improved and the patient recovered without any sequelae. Conclusion To date, no general accepted guidelines for the treatment of cisplatin overdoses are available. Along with the experience from other published cases, our report shows that plasmapheresis is capable of lowering cisplatin plasma and serum levels efficiently. Therefore, plasma exchange performed as soon as possible can ameliorate all side effects of a cisplatin overdose and be a potential tool for clinicians for treatment. However, additional intensive supportive treatment-modalities are necessary to control all occurring side effects.

  10. Hydrogen purifier module with membrane support

    Science.gov (United States)

    A hydrogen purifier utilizing a hydrogen-permeable membrane to purify hydrogen from mixed gases containing hydrogen is disclosed. Improved mechanical support for the permeable membrane is described, enabling forward or reverse differential pressurization of the membrane, which further stabilizes the membrane from wrinkling upon hydrogen uptake.

    2012-07-24

    A hydrogen purifier utilizing a hydrogen-permeable membrane to purify hydrogen from mixed gases containing hydrogen is disclosed. Improved mechanical support for the permeable membrane is described, enabling forward or reverse differential pressurization of the membrane, which further stabilizes the membrane from wrinkling upon hydrogen uptake.

  11. Therapeutic Plasmapheresis. A Gate to an Effective Treatment of Severe Pathological Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Stefanutti

    2014-07-01

    pregnancy do not exist (6. A further complication of the apheresis issue is represented by the indication of sepsis with multi organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS as the most common cause of death in patients in non-coronary intensive care units. Presently, an effective treatment to reduce mortality in sepsis and MODS patients is still not available. Therapeutic PEX in the management of sepsis and MODS was suggested several years ago and more recently (7, 8. On the other side, even a selective LA technique such as Heparin induced Extracorporeal Lipoprotein Precipitation (H.E.L.P. was used in the treatment of sepsis and it is still on use (9. In conclusion, extracorporeal therapeutic techniques can be clinically helpful in emergency, in deferred urgency and in chronic, long-term use. As these techniques are invasive and relatively complex, appropriate equipment and highly skillful medical and non-medical staff personnel is a necessary complement.   Key words: Therapeutic Plasmapheresis, Plasma Exchange, Lipoprotein Apheresis, Hyperlipidemic Pancreatitis, Acute Pancreatitis, Homozygous- Heterozygous Familial Hypercholesterolemia, Hyper Lp(a lipoproteinemia

  12. Early primary graft failure after a pediatric heart transplant and successful rescue with plasmapheresis, immunoglobulins, and alemtuzumab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shashi Raj

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Early primary graft failure after pediatric orthotopic heart transplantation (OHT has a high mortality rate and can occur due to several causes including but not limited to prolonged graft ischemia time, suboptimal preimplant myocardial preservation, hyperacute rejection, and maladaptation of the graft to the host's hemodynamic status. Mechanical circulatory support with either extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO or ventricular assist device has been used for the rescue of primary graft failure in pediatric patients after heart transplant. Cardiac arrest before ECMO initiation in these patients is associated with adverse neurologic outcome although those surviving to hospital discharge generally have excellent long-term outcome. We report a case of early primary graft failure after OHT who required ECMO support and successful rescue with plasmapheresis, immunoglobulins, and alemtuzumab.

  13. Double Filtration Plasmapheresis in Treatment of Patients With Co-Infection of Hepatitis C and Human Immunodeficiency Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mednikov, Roman V; Rabinovich, Vladislav I; Kizlo, Svetlana N; Belyakov, Nikolai A; Sokolov, Alexey A

    2016-08-01

    One of the main causes of mortality of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients are complications of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV). Combining drug therapy for HCV with double filtration plasmapheresis (DFPP) has significantly increased the effectiveness of treatment for these patients. However, there are no data on the use of this method for the treatment of patients co-infected with HIV and HCV. We demonstrated that positive clinical effect in the treatment of HCV patients by DFPP (previously demonstrated) is also achieved in the treatment of HIV infected patients, co-infected with HCV. The obtained efficiency of 62.5% is almost two times higher than the predicted treatment efficiency. We can conclude that the complex therapy of hepatitis C, including DFPP and medication by PEG-IFN + RBV is an effective and safe approach for the treatment of HCV in patients co-infected with HCV and HIV.

  14. Plasmapheresis and corticosteroid treatment for persistent jaundice after successful drainage of common bile duct stones by endoscopic retrograde cholangiography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ulku Saritas; Bunyamin Aydin; Yucel Ustundag

    2007-01-01

    Prolonged cholestasis is a very rare complication of endoscopic retrograde cholangiography (ERC). Only few cases with this complication are reported in the English literature. We report persisting cholestatic jaundice in a 73-year old man after successful therapeutic ERC for choledocholithiasis. Serologic tests for viral and autoimmune hepatitis were all negative. A second-look ERC was normal also. He denied any medication except for prophylaxis given intravenous 1 g ceftriaxon prior to the ERC procedure.After an unsuccessful trial with ursodeoxycholic acid and cholestyramine for 2 wk, this case was efficiently treated with corticosteroids and plasmapheresis. His cholestatic enzymes became normal and intense pruritis quickly resolved after this treatment which lasted during his follow-up period. We discussed the possible mechanisms and treatment alternatives of intrahepatic cholestasis associated with the ERC procedure.

  15. Ceramic materials purified by experimental method

    Science.gov (United States)

    1965-01-01

    Crystalline ceramic materials are purified for use as high-temperature electrical insulators. Any impurities migrate to the cathode when a dc voltage is applied across the material while it is heated in an inert gas atmosphere.

  16. Recurrent Proliferative Glomerulonephritis With Monoclonal IgG Deposits After a Renal Transplant Which Was Insensitive to Pulse Therapy Remitted by Double Filtration Plasmapheresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Di; Chen, Jin-Song; Cheng, Dong-Rui; Chen, Hao; Li, Xue; Ji, Shu-Ming; Xie, Ke-Nan; Ni, Xue-Feng; Liu, Zhi-Hong; Wen, Ji-Qiu

    2015-10-01

    Proliferative glomerulonephritis with monoclonal IgG deposits manifesting as a nephrotic syndrome recently has been described as a renal disease with the pathological features of mesangial and subendothelial deposits of monoclonal IgG. Eight cases of recurrent proliferative glomerulonephritis with monoclonal IgG deposits after a renal transplant have been reported. Almost all of these patients had a certain remission of proteinuria by steroids alone or with cyclophosphamide, and had further remission through other special treatments (ie, rituximab and plasmapheresis). We present a case of recurrent proliferative glomerulonephritis with monoclonal IgG deposits of the IgG3? subtype after a renal transplant, which was insensitive to pulse intravenous methyl-prednisolone and cyclophosphamide remitted by double filtration plasmapheresis. This case report reveals that recurrent proliferative glomerulo-nephritis with monoclonal IgG deposits may be insensitive to intravenous pulse therapy of methylprednisolone and cyclophosphamide. We advocate double filtration plasmapheresis as an effective treatment of proliferative glomerulo-nephritis with monoclonal IgG deposits on remission of proteinuria.

  17. Extracorporeal blood therapy in sepsis and acute respiratory distress syndrome: the "purifying dream".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xuefeng; Dai, Huaping; Jia, Chun'e; Wang, Chen

    2014-01-01

    To discuss the rationale, hypothesis, modality of extracorporeal blood purification (EBP) techniques for the critically ill animal models or patients, and to summarize the experimental and clinical studies with inconsistent data which explored the EBP's efficacy in the areas of critical care medicine. Articles referred in this review were collected from the database of PubMed published in English up to June 2014. We had done a literature search by using the term "(sepsis OR acute lung injury OR acute respiratory distress syndrome) AND (extracorporeal blood purification OR hemofiltration OR hemoperfusion OR plasma exchange OR plasmapheresis OR adsorpiton)". Related original or review articles were included and carefully analyzed. Acute cellular and humoral immune disturbances occur in both sepsis and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Treatments aimed at targeting one single pro-/anti-inflammatory mediator have largely failed with no proven clinical benefits. Such failure shifts the therapeutic rationale to the nonspecific, broad-spectrum methods for modulating the over-activated inflammatory and anti-inflammatory response. Therefore, EBP techniques have become the potential weapons with high promise for removing the circulating pro-/anti-inflammatory mediators and promoting immune reconstitution. Over the years, multiple extracorporeal techniques for the critically ill animal models or patients have been developed, including hemofiltration (HF), high-volume hemofiltration (HVHF), high-cutoff hemofiltration (HCO-HF), hemo-perfusion or -adsorption (HP/HA), coupled plasma filtration adsorption (CPFA), and plasma exchange (PE). These previous studies showed that EBP therapy was feasible and safe for the critically ill animal models or patients. However, data on their efficacy (especially on the clinical benefits, such as mortality) were inconsistent. It is not now to conclude that EBP intervention can purify septic or ARDS patients with high clinical efficacy

  18. Bacteria that purify sludge; Des bacteries epuratrices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peignen-Seraline, P.; Manem, J. [Cirsee, Lyonnaise des Eaux, 92 - Nanterre (France)

    1997-03-01

    Inherent in water purification processes, the formation of sludges is intensively studied. Recently, original bacteria have been observed by searchers: some of them purify water making ``tassels``, others separate them and some of them even participate in the elimination of the first. This research study is described into details and will probably be used in the future at the industrial scale. (O.M.)

  19. Why CLEAN when you can PURIFY?

    CERN Document Server

    Carrillo, Rafael E; Wiaux, Yves

    2013-01-01

    We extend previously proposed radio-interferometric imaging approaches based on convex optimization to handle continuous visibilities and large-scale optimization problems. We propose a general algorithmic framework based on the simultaneous-direction method of multipliers to solve sparse imaging problems. The algorithm offers a parallel implementation structure, thus providing a significant gain in terms of speed and scalability to very high dimensions. We implement various state-of-the-art sparsity regularization priors, including our recent average sparsity approach SARA, in a new imaging software dubbed PURIFY. We evaluate through realistic simulations the performance of the software in terms of reconstruction quality and computational speed. Simulation results confirm both the superiority of SARA for continuous Fourier measurements and the fact that the new algorithmic structure offers a promising path to handle large-scale problems. Code is available at https://github.com/basp-group/purify

  20. Steroidogenesis in amlodipine treated purified Leydig cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Latif, Rabia, E-mail: rabialatif08@hotmail.com [Department of Physiology, Army Medical College, National University of Sciences and Technology, Islamabad (Pakistan); Lodhi, Ghulam Mustafa, E-mail: drmustafa786@gmail.com [Department of Physiology, Wah Medical College, Wah (Pakistan); Hameed, Waqas, E-mail: waqham@hotmail.com [Department of Physiology, Rehman Medical College, Peshawar (Pakistan); Aslam, Muhammad, E-mail: professormaslam@yahoo.com [Department of Physiology, Shifa College of Medicine, Islamabad (Pakistan)

    2012-01-01

    Drugs have been shown to adversely affect male fertility and recently anti-hypertensive drugs were added to the list. The anti-fertility effects of amlodipine, a calcium channel blocker, are well-illustrated in in vivo experiments but lack an in vitro proof. The present study was designed to experimentally elucidate the effects of amlodipine on Leydig cell steroidogenesis and intracellular calcium in vitro. Leydig cells of Sprague–Dawley rats were isolated and purified by Percoll. Cells were incubated for 3 h with/without amlodipine in the presence/absence of LH, dbcAMP, Pregnenolone and 25-Hydroxycholesterol. Cytosolic calcium was measured in purified Leydig cells by fluorometric technique. The results showed significantly reduced (P < 0.05) steroidogenesis and intracellular calcium in amlodipine exposed rats. The site of amlodipine induced steroidogenic inhibition seems to be prior to the formation of Pregnenolone at the level of StAR protein. -- Highlights: ► Inhibition of steroidogenesis in isolated and purified Leydig cells by amlodipine. ► Site of inhibition was before Pregnenolone formation, at the level of StAR protein. ► Inhibition of LH stimulated rise in cytosolic calcium by amlodipine.

  1. Utilization of purified cellulose in fiber studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penner, M H; Liaw, E T

    1990-01-01

    Purified cellulose-type fiber products are widely used in experimental nutrition. Their use in a broad spectrum of studies may potentially lead to the acceptance of the misconception that the various commercially available cellulose products are equivalent. In this paper we have attempted to show that this is not the case. The comparative structural data of Table 2 and the compositional data of Olsen et al provide examples which indicate that purified cellulose preparations should not necessarily be considered equivalent. Unfortunately, our current lack of understanding of how fibers are metabolized and how they may affect specific physiological parameters makes it difficult to determine which, if any, of the measurable structural and chemical properties will be of relevance for a given in vivo study. At present, it appears that researchers utilizing/evaluating the consequences of consuming a purified cellulose-type fiber would be prudent to provide at least a limited amount of data on the properties of the cellulose preparation used in their studies. The characterization of the cellulose product may be done by a variety of methods depending on the expertise of the laboratory. The methods and results discussed in this paper provide an example of the type of information which may be obtained from an in vitro characterization of cellulose products.

  2. Some Properties of Purified and Non-purified Rumen Tissue Arginase in Cattle

    OpenAIRE

    ERİŞİR, Mine; OZAN, Sema Temizer

    1998-01-01

    Some biochemical properties of purified and non-purified rumen tissue arginase were compared. Homogenization, heating, treatment with aceton, precipitation with ammonium sulfate, dialysis, several centrifugations, gel filtration on sephadex G-200 processes were utilized in the purification procedure of the enzyme. It was found that pre-incubation temperature (60 °C) of arginase and Km (4mM) to its substrate, L-arginine, did not change before and after purification. While pre-incubation peri...

  3. Air Purifiers Eliminate Pathogens, Preserve Food

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    NASA-funded researchers produced an ethylene reduction device for a plant growth unit. KES Science & Technology Inc., a Kennesaw, Georgia-based company specializing in sustaining perishable foods, licensed the ethylene scrubbing technology. KES partnered with Akida Holdings, of Jacksonville, Florida, which now markets the NASA-developed technology as AiroCide. According to the company, it is the only air purifier that completely destroys airborne bacteria, mold, fungi, mycotoxins, viruses, volatile organic compounds (like ethylene), and odors. What?s more, the devices have no filters that need changing and produce no harmful byproducts, such as the ozone created by some filtration systems.

  4. Study on soot purifying of molding shop in coking factory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Duo-song; ZHANG Hui; BAI Xiang-yu

    2006-01-01

    Exhaust gas in molding shop was complicated in component and characteristic in Iow thickness asphalt smoke, mass steam-gas and dust. It was difficult to purify the soot with common purifier. So we must consider them roundly and develop new multifunction purifier. PFP multifunction soot purifier was made on the base of design optimization and was installed at Shenhuo Coking Factory in 2004. The combined effects of multi- mechanism in purifier make purifying ratio keep in high level. The remove ratio of smut reaches at 92.8%, and asphalt smoke at 83.7%.

  5. Ozone Air Purifiers: Can They Improve Asthma Symptoms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... daughter has asthma. Would she benefit from an ozone air purifier in her room? Answers from James ... Li, M.D., Ph.D. Despite manufacturers' claims, ozone air purifiers don't remove asthma triggers from ...

  6. Plasmapheresis as preparatory method for thymectomy in myasthenia gravis Plasmaferese como método preparatório de timectomia em miastenia grave

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carlos Brant Seggia

    1995-09-01

    Full Text Available To study the effects of plasmapheresis in preparation for thymectomy, two groups of 40 patients were selected from a sample of 286 patients with myasthenia gravis examined by the first author Group 1 included patients (15 male and 25 female; age range 8-64 yrs who underwent thymectomy without previous plasmapheresis, whereas patients in group 2 (17 male and 23 female; age range 11-61 yrs were thymectomized after plasmapheresis. We required patients to have a minimum follow-up period of 12 months to be included in the study. A clinical evaluation protocol composed of 76 items was developed for the study. We found significant improvement in respiratory function and muscular strength in patients thymetomized after plasmapheresis. Furthermore, the combined treatment reduced cost and length of hospital stay. Therefore, we conclude that plasmapheresis should be considered as a coadjuvant to thymectomy in the treatment of myasthenia gravis.No intuito de estudar as repercussões de um curso de plasmaferese como método preparatório para a timectomia, tomamos duas amostras de 40 pacientes selecionados de um universo de 286 casos de miastenia gravis, em que a investigação clínica, eletrofisiológica, laboratorial, o seguimento e o protocolo foram completamente realizados. Consideramos como grupo 1 aquele em que a timectomia foi realizada sem preparação pre-operatória e grupo 2 aquele em que a plasmaferese foi executada como coadjuvante a timectomia. O grupo 1 era composto de 15 pacientes do sexo masculino e 25 do feminino; a idade variou de 8 a 64 anos com mediana de 30 anos. No segundo grupo, 17 eram masculinos e 23 femininos; a idade variou de 11 a 61 anos com mediana de 33 anos. Foi preenchida ficha de avaliação clínica sequencial de 76 itens e traçamos um curso de plasmaferese de 5 sessões seguido da timectomia, mantendo a mesma técnica operatória, realizada pela mesma equipe cirúrgica, tentando assim minimizar as distorções na an

  7. Isolating and Purifying Clostridium difficile Spores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Adrianne N.; McBride, Shonna M.

    2016-01-01

    Summary The ability for the obligate anaerobe, Clostridium difficile, to form a metabolically dormant spore is critical for the survival of this organism outside of the host. This spore form is resistant to a myriad of environmental stresses, including heat, desiccation and exposure to disinfectants and antimicrobials. These intrinsic properties of spores allow C. difficile to survive long-term in an oxygenated environment, to be easily transmitted from host-to-host and to persist within the host following antibiotic treatment. Because of the importance of the spore form to the C. difficile lifecycle and treatment and prevention of C. difficile infection (CDI), the isolation and purification of spores are necessary to study the mechanisms of sporulation and germination, investigate spore properties and resistances, and for use in animal models of CDI. This chapter provides basic protocols, in vitro growth conditions and additional considerations for purifying C. difficile spores for a variety of downstream applications. PMID:27507337

  8. 21 CFR 880.6710 - Medical ultraviolet water purifier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Medical ultraviolet water purifier. 880.6710... Miscellaneous Devices § 880.6710 Medical ultraviolet water purifier. (a) Identification. A medical ultraviolet water purifier is a device intended for medical purposes that is used to destroy bacteria in water...

  9. Extracorporeal blood therapy in sepsis and acute respiratory distress syndrome: the "purifying dream"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Xuefeng; Dai Huaping; Jia Chun'e; Wang Chen

    2014-01-01

    Objective To discuss the rationale,hypothesis,modality of extracorporeal blood purification (EBP) techniques for the critically ill animal models or patients,and to summarize the experimental and clinical studies with inconsistent data which explored the EBP's efficacy in the areas of critical care medicine.Data sources Articles referred in this review were collected from the database of PubMed published in English up to June 2014.Study selection We had done a literature search by using the term "(sepsis OR acute lung injury OR acute respiratory distress syndrome) AND (extracorporeal blood purification OR hemofiltration OR hemoperfusion OR plasma exchange OR plasmapheresis OR adsorpiton)".Related original or review articles were included and carefully analyzed.Results Acute cellular and humoral immune disturbances occur in both sepsis and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS).Treatments aimed at targeting one single pro-/anti-inflammatory mediator have largely failed with no proven clinical benefits.Such failure shifts the therapeutic rationale to the nonspecific,broad-spectrum methods for modulating the over-activated inflammatory and anti-inflammatory response.Therefore,EBP techniques have become the potential weapons with high promise for removing the circulating pro-/anti-inflammatory mediators and promoting immune reconstitution.Over the years,multiple extracorporeal techniques for the critically ill animal models or patients have been developed,including hemofiltration (HF),high-volume hemofiltration (HVHF),high-cutoff hemofiltration (HCO-HF),hemo-perfusion or-adsorption (HP/HA),coupled plasma filtration adsorption (CPFA),and plasma exchange (PE).These previous studies showed that EBP therapy was feasible and safe for the critically ill animal models or patients.However,data on their efficacy (especially on the clinical benefits,such as mortality) were inconsistent.Conclusions It is not now to conclude that EBP intervention can purify septic or ARDS

  10. Single molecule DNA compaction by purified histones

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RAN ShiYong; WANG XiaoLing; FU WenBo; WANG WeiChi; LI Ming

    2008-01-01

    The compaction of single DNA molecules by purified histones is studied using magnetic tweezers, The compaction rate increases rapidly when the histone concentration is increased from 0.002 to 0.2 mmol/L, and saturates when the concentration is beyond 0.2 mmol/L, The time course of compaction is exponential at low histone concentrations. It becomes sigmoidal at high concentrations. Cooperativity between the histones bound to DNA is proposed to be responsible for the transition. The histones are loaded onto DNA randomly at low concentrations. They tend to bind DNA cooperatively at high con-centrations because the structural torsions of DNA induced by the bound histones become overlapping so that the binding of one histone facilitates the binding of others. Under very large forces, the com-pacted histone-DNA complex can be disrupted in a discrete manner with a step size of ~60 nm. But the histones cannot be completely stripped off DNA, as is revealed by the lowered B-S transition plateau of the histone-bound DNA.

  11. Membrane purifier prototype for hydrogen purification from towngas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, A.; Boyd, T.; Gulamhusein, A.; Grace, J.R.; Lim, C.J. [Membrane Reactor Technologies Ltd., Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2007-07-01

    A prototype membrane purifier designed to purify hydrogen from towngas was described. The purifier was developed as a result of growing demands for metallic membrane purifiers. This paper provided details of a simulation conducted to observe the membrane's ability to purify towngas. The purifier was comprised of a cast-pressured vessel and a membrane module stack able to accommodate up to 6 palladium-silver (Pd-Ag) alloy membrane modules. Performance of the purifier was tested with both a hydrogen and a hydrogen and nitrogen oxide (N{sub 2}) mixture at 400 degrees C under various operating conditions. Results of the study showed that the purifier remained stable during temperature cycling. The hydrogen permeation rate followed Sievert's law in the tested temperature range. The hydrogen permeation rate increased when towngas flow rates and feeding pressures were increased. Hydrogen diffusion through the alloy membrane determined permeation rates through the membrane modules. No N{sub 2} leaks were detected using the mixtures. 1 ref., 1 tab., 6 figs.

  12. 75 FR 73035 - Purified Carboxymethylcellulose From Finland; Notice of Final Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-29

    ... International Trade Administration Purified Carboxymethylcellulose From Finland; Notice of Final Results of... order on purified carboxymethylcellulose from Finland. See Purified Carboxymethylcellulose from Finland... order covering purified carboxymethylcellulose from Finland. See Preliminary Results. The...

  13. Study of gas purifiers for the CMS RPC detector

    CERN Document Server

    Benussi, L; Colafranceschi, S; Fabbri, F L; Felli, F; Ferrini, M; Giardoni, M; Greci, T; Paolozzi, A; Passamonti, L; Piccolo, D; Pierluigi, D; Russo, A; Saviano, G; Buontempo, S; Cimmino, A; de Gruttola, M; Fabozzi, F; Iorio, A O M; Lista, L; Paolucci, P; Baesso, P; Belli, G; Pagano, D; Ratti, S P; Vicini, A; Vitulo, P; Viviani, C; Guida, R; Sharma, A

    2012-01-01

    The CMS RPC muon detector utilizes a gas recirculation system called closed loop (CL) to cope with large gas mixture volumes and costs. A systematic study of CL gas purifiers has been carried out over 400 days between July 2008 and August 2009 at CERN in a low-radiation test area, with the use of RPC chambers with currents monitoring, and gas analysis sampling points. The study aimed to fully clarify the presence of pollutants, the chemistry of purifiers used in the CL, and the regeneration procedure. Preliminary results on contaminants release and purifier characterization are reported.

  14. Immunodiffusion Studies of Purified Equine Infectious Anemia Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Hideo; Ushimi, Chuzo

    1971-01-01

    Antigenicity of purified equine infectious anemia (EIA) virus was examined by immunodiffusion against sera obtained from horses experimentally infected with EIA virus. The purified virus reacted with the infected horse serum, and virus-specific precipitating antibody was demonstrated. Furthermore, it was found that purified EIA virus reacted against the serum of horses infected with all strains of EIA virus which were antigenically different from one another. From the result, group-specific components of the virus rather than strain-specific ones were considered to be involved in the reaction. Serological reactivity was lost by adding antiserum from the infected horse to the antigen. The precipitating antibody usually appeared in the serum 1 to 2 weeks after the first febrile attack of EIA and remained for a longer period. Some characteristics of the purified antigen and specificity of the reaction for EIA are described. Images PMID:16557982

  15. Study of gas purifiers in the CMS RPC detector

    CERN Document Server

    Saviano, Giovanna

    2010-01-01

    The CMS RPC muon detector utilizes a gas recirculation system (Closed Loop) to cope with high gas mixture volumes and costs. A systematic study of Closed Loop gas purifiers has been carried out in 2008 and 2009 at the ISR experimental area of CERN, with the use of RPC chambers with currents monitoring, and gas analysis sampling points. Results on contaminants release and purifier characterization are presented

  16. The natural course of hepatitis C virus infection 18 years after an epidemic outbreak of non-A, non-B hepatitis in a plasmapheresis centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datz, C; Cramp, M; Haas, T; Dietze, O; Nitschko, H; Froesner, G; Muss, N; Sandhofer, F; Vogel, W

    1999-04-01

    The natural history of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is variable and factors determining the course of the illness are unclear. To determine the natural course of HCV infection in a well characterised group of patients 18 years after an epidemic outbreak of non-A, non-B hepatitis at a plasmapheresis centre. Between 1994 and 1996, 20 of 30 affected individuals were studied. HCV infection was confirmed using second and third generation ELISA test kits. HCV RNA was detected by a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method and HCV genotyping was performed by analysing amplicons from the conserved 5'-non-translated region generated by nested PCR. Thirty two liver biopsies were carried out in 14 patients. HCV antibodies were detected in all subjects. Eighteen patients had abnormal liver enzymes and 17 were HCV RNA positive, all of whom were infected with genotype 1a. Ninety per cent of this cohort showed evidence of chronic HCV infection with 50% having progressive liver disease and 20% cirrhosis 18 years after acute onset of non-A, non-B hepatitis. Considerable variation in disease outcome occurred between individuals and no correlation with clinical features of the acute illness was found. Variability in the consequences of HCV infection in cases infected with the same virus suggests that host factors are important in determining disease outcome. The factors which determine differences in the natural history of the disease still remain to be elucidated.

  17. Desensitization with plasmapheresis and anti-Cd20 for ABO incompatible kidney transplantation from living donor: experience of a single center in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvestre, C; Furian, L; Marson, P; Tison, T; Valente, M; Marchini, F; Rossi, B; Bonfante, L; Valerio, F; Cozzi, E; Rigotti, P

    2014-09-01

    Blood group incompatibility in kidney transplants from a living donor can be successfully overcome by using various desensitization protocols: intravenous immunoglobulin, plasmapheresis (PP), immunoadsorption, and double filtration PP. From July 2010 to October 2013, we performed 10 ABO incompatible kidney transplantation (KT) procedures from a living donor. The desensitization protocol was based on rituximab and PP+cytomegalovirus immune globulin. All patients received induction with basiliximab, except 1 case treated with Thymoglobuline® (ATG) for the simultaneous presence of donor-specific antibody. Tacrolimus and mycophenolate mofetil were initiated at the time of desensitization and continued after the transplant. After a mean follow-up of 11.6±10.4 months, all patients are alive with a functioning graft. The mean serum creatinine concentration at 1 month, 3 months, 6 months, and 1 year was 1.48±0.29, 1.47±0.18, 1.47±0.27, and 1.5±0.27 mg/dl. Three episodes of acute cellular rejection occurred in 2 patients. There was only 1 case of BK virus infection, treated with reduction of immunosuppressive therapy. The protocol biopsy specimens at 1, 3, and 6 months were C4d positive in the absence of acute rejection. Desensitization with rituximab, PP, and anti-cytomegalovirus immune globulin allowed us to perform transplants from living donors to ABO incompatible recipients with excellent results and reduced costs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Strong purifying selection at genes escaping X chromosome inactivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chungoo; Carrel, Laura; Makova, Kateryna D

    2010-11-01

    To achieve dosage balance of X-linked genes between mammalian males and females, one female X chromosome becomes inactivated. However, approximately 15% of genes on this inactivated chromosome escape X chromosome inactivation (XCI). Here, using a chromosome-wide analysis of primate X-linked orthologs, we test a hypothesis that such genes evolve under a unique selective pressure. We find that escape genes are subject to stronger purifying selection than inactivated genes and that positive selection does not significantly affect the evolution of these genes. The strength of selection does not differ between escape genes with similar versus different expression levels in males versus females. Intriguingly, escape genes possessing Y homologs evolve under the strongest purifying selection. We also found evidence of stronger conservation in gene expression levels in escape than inactivated genes. We hypothesize that divergence in function and expression between X and Y gametologs is driving such strong purifying selection for escape genes.

  19. A combination therapy protocol of plasmapheresis, intravenous immunoglobulins and betamethasone to treat anti-Ro/La-related congenital atrioventricular block. A case series and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffatti, Amelia; Marson, Piero; Svaluto-Moreolo, Giorgio; Marozio, Luca; Tibaldi, Maria; Favaro, Maria; Calligaro, Antonia; Grava, Chiara; Hoxha, Ariela; Pengo, Vittorio; Punzi, Leonardo

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this report was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a combined treatment protocol used to treat 2nd and 3rd degree anti-Ro/La-related congenital atrioventricular block (CAVB). Six consecutive women diagnosed with 2nd degree (three cases) or 3rd degree block (three cases) between 2009 and 2011 referred to our outpatient clinic underwent a combination therapy protocol composed of weekly plasmapheresis, fortnightly 1g/kg intravenous immunoglobulins (IVIG) and daily betamethasone (4mg/day) throughout pregnancy. IVIG (1g/kg) treatment in the neonates was begun at birth and administered every fifteen days until passive maternal antibodies became undetectable. The fetuses affected with 2nd degree block (cases 1, 2 and 3) reverted to a normal atrioventricular conduction after combined therapy, while those with a 3rd degree block remained stable (case 4), showed an increase in the ventricular rate (case 5) or an improvement in cardiac function (case 6). None of the fetuses with 3rd degree CAVB had other cardiac complications such as cardiomyopathy or fetal hydrops. The follow-up of the children affected with 2nd degree CAVB revealed a complete regression of the block in cases 1 and 3, and no signs of relevant worsening in case 2. The infants affected with 3rd degree block (cases 4, 5, and 6) remained stable and until now only one has required a pacemaker at the age of 10months. If these results are confirmed by large-scale studies, this protocol could lead to improved outcomes in the treatment of this devastating disease. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. 76 FR 29194 - Purified Carboxymethylcellulose From Mexico and Sweden: Revocation of Antidumping Duty Orders

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-20

    ... International Trade Administration Purified Carboxymethylcellulose From Mexico and Sweden: Revocation of... duty orders on purified carboxymethylcellulose from Mexico and Sweden. Pursuant to section 751(c) of... of the existing antidumping duty orders on purified carboxymethylcellulose from Mexico and...

  1. 75 FR 57815 - Purified Carboxymethylcellulose From Finland, Mexico, Netherlands, and Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-22

    ... COMMISSION Purified Carboxymethylcellulose From Finland, Mexico, Netherlands, and Sweden AGENCY: United... antidumping duty orders on purified carboxymethylcellulose from Finland, Mexico, Netherlands, and Sweden... antidumping duty orders on purified carboxymethylcellulose from Finland, Mexico, Netherlands, and Sweden...

  2. 76 FR 29191 - Purified Carboxymethylcellulose From Finland and the Netherlands: Continuation of Antidumping...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-20

    ... International Trade Administration Purified Carboxymethylcellulose From Finland and the Netherlands... from Finland and the Netherlands would likely lead to continuation or recurrence of dumping and... orders on purified carboxymethylcellulose (purified CMC) from Finland and the Netherlands. See Notice...

  3. Study on infection of human immunodeficiency virus among cases of plasmapheresis-borne malaria%单采血浆相关性疟疾合并艾滋病病毒感染的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈素良; 赵宏儒; 张玉琪; 赵翠英; 李保军; 白广义; 梁良; 陈志强

    2012-01-01

    目的 了解单采血浆相关性疟疾病例中,艾滋病病毒(HIV)感染情况.方法 对1993-2005年间单采血浆相关性疟疾病例和非疟疾既往单采血浆供血者进行调查和采集血标本,采用快速蛋白印迹试验或酶联免疫吸附试验检测HIV抗体,初筛阳性者再用蛋白印迹试验进行确认;对现症疟疾病例的血标本用吉氏液染色-光学显微镜(油镜)检查疟原虫.结果 220例单采血浆相关性疟疾病例的HIV感染率为30.0%(66/220),3 008例非疟疾单采血浆供血者的HIV感染率为2.4% (72/3 008).1993年12月和1994年1月采集并检测的上述两人群,HIV抗体均为阴性;而1995年3月至2005年采集并检测的上述两人群,HIV阳性率则分别为43.4%(66/152)和2.4%(72/2 958).单采血浆相关性疟疾为间日疟,感染的HIV为HIV-1型.结论 单采血浆相关性疟疾病例的HIV感染率较高.%Objective To understand characteristics of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection among cases of plasmapheresis -borne malaria. Methods Two hundred and twenty cases of plasmapheresis-borne malaria occurred between 1993 and March 1995, and 3 008 former plamapheresis donors were investigated and their blood specimens were collected. Staining of giemsa-optical microscope (oil lens) inspection method was used to detect plasmodium. HIV antibodies were detected by the screening assay of ELISA and confirming assay of Western blot. Results The rates of HIV infection was 30. 0%(66/220)for cases of plasmapheresis-borne malaria and 2. 4%(72/3 008) for plasmapheresis donors without history of malaria. Sera samples taken from the above two population groups in December 1993 and January 1994 were negative for HIV antibody. Moreover, positive rate of HIV antibody of sera taken in March 1995 to 2005 were 43. 42% (66/152)and 2. 43%(72/2 958) respectively. The type of plasmapheresis-borne malaria was tertian malaria and that of the infected virus was HIV-1. Conclusion The infection

  4. Purified guar galactomannan as an improved pharmaceutical excipient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebert, M S; Friend, D R

    1998-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess certain pharmaceutical attributes of guar galactomannan, a hydrocolloid polysaccharide obtained from the endosperm of the leguminous plant Cyamopsis tetragonolobus (L.), following purification using both literature procedures and new processes. Experiments were performed to measure viscosity, hydration rate, tablet hardness, and dissolution profiles of guar galactomannan both before and after purification. The viscosity of an aqueous 1% purified galactomannan solution is typically 40-50% higher than its unpurified guar galactomannan precursor. The hydration rate of an aqueous 1% purified galactomannan solution increases by 100% after purification. These physicochemical changes resulted in improvements in pharmaceutical properties such as better stir speed independence in both tablet and capsule dissolution profiles and improved tablet hardness. For instance, time to 50% dissolution of ranitidine HCl from capsules containing unpurified guar gum was 0.4 and 1.8 hr at 20 and 40 rpm, respectively, using USP Apparatus II. Using the same amount of purified guar gum and the same conditions (20 and 40 rpm), these values were increased to 2.9 and 3.8 hr, respectively. These data demonstrate a reduced effect of changing agitation conditions and the need for less guar gum to sustain the release of a water-soluble drug. Tablet hardness of purified guar gum (particle size < 75 microns) was about 7 kP and the same unpurified guar gum of equal particle size and hydration gave a hardness of less than 1 kP.

  5. Partial characterization of hog renin purified by affinity chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devaux, C; Ménard, J; Sicard, P; Corvol, P

    1976-05-01

    A method has been set up to purify renin on a large scale by affinity chromatography using Pepstatin, a potent inhibitor of renin, as a ligand. Pepstatin was covalently coupled to Sepharose via six different spacer 'arms'. The Sepharose-hexamethylenediamino-Pepstatin appeared to be the better derivative for renin purification even at a concentration as low as 160 nmol of Pepstatin/ml of moist gel. Renin was extracted from 100 kg of hog kidneys and semi-purified by ammonium sulfate precipitations and chromatography on DEAE-cellulose. The active fraction (48.5 g of proteins) was applied on a 500-ml affinity column. Renin was eluted in the starting buffer containing 6 M urea. Renin was purified 120-fold by the affinity chromatography step with a 79% recovery. Physico-chemical characterization of highly purified renin was performed. Isoelectrofocusing on a pH gradient from 3 to 6 showed a major peak with an isoelectric point (pI) of 4.95 and a minor peak (pI = 4.70). Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, pH 7.8, at different gel concentrations, showed a single peak of renin activity which was found in the major protein band. Molecular size estimated on agarose-acrylamide gel filtration was 40 000. All these physical parameters were similar before and after purification.

  6. Influence of a highly purified senna extract on colonic epithelium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gorkom, B A; Karrenbeld, A; van Der Sluis, T; Koudstaal, J; de Vries, E G; Kleibeuker, J H

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Chronic use of sennoside laxatives often causes pseudomelanosis coli. A recent study suggested that pseudomelanosis coli is associated with an increased colorectal cancer risk. A single high dose of highly purified senna extract increased proliferation rate and reduced crypt length in th

  7. Mechanical Properties, Purifying Techniques and Processing Methods of Metal Yttrium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The mechanical properties of metal yttrium such as strength, plasticity, hardness and elasticity were introduced. The purifying techniques of yttrium were discussed in detail. The processing methods for metal yttrium including extruding, forging, rolling, wiredrawing and welding were also introduced. Finally, the potential use of yttrium and its alloys were prospected.

  8. Strong Purifying Selection in Transmission of Mammalian Mitochondrial DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, James Bruce; Freyer, Christoph; Elson, Joanna L; Wredenberg, Anna; Cansu, Zekiye; Trifunovic, Aleksandra; Larsson, Nils-Göran

    2008-01-01

    There is an intense debate concerning whether selection or demographics has been most important in shaping the sequence variation observed in modern human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). Purifying selection is thought to be important in shaping mtDNA sequence evolution, but the strength of this selection has been debated, mainly due to the threshold effect of pathogenic mtDNA mutations and an observed excess of new mtDNA mutations in human population data. We experimentally addressed this issue by studying the maternal transmission of random mtDNA mutations in mtDNA mutator mice expressing a proofreading-deficient mitochondrial DNA polymerase. We report a rapid and strong elimination of nonsynonymous changes in protein-coding genes; the hallmark of purifying selection. There are striking similarities between the mutational patterns in our experimental mouse system and human mtDNA polymorphisms. These data show strong purifying selection against mutations within mtDNA protein-coding genes. To our knowledge, our study presents the first direct experimental observations of the fate of random mtDNA mutations in the mammalian germ line and demonstrates the importance of purifying selection in shaping mitochondrial sequence diversity. PMID:18232733

  9. Highly thermostable xylanase purified from Rhizomucor miehei NRL 3169.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fawzi, E M

    2011-03-01

    A thermostable xylanase was purified and characterized from the thermophilic fungus Rhizomucor miehei (Cooney & Emerson) Schipper. The enzyme was purified to homogeneity by ammonium sulfate precipitation, sephadex G-100 gel filtration and diethylaminoethyl cellulose anion exchange chromatography with a 29.1-fold. The enzyme was highly active within a range of pH from 5.0 to 6.5. The optimum temperature of the purified enzyme was 75°C. The enzyme showed high thermal stability at 70°C and 75°C and the half-life of the xylanase at 90°C was 30 min. Km and Vmax values at 50°C of the purified enzyme were 0.055 mg/ml and 113.5 μmol min⁻¹ mg⁻¹ respectively. The enzyme was activated by Ca²+, Cu²+, K+ and Na+. On the other hand, Ag²+, Hg²+, Ba²+, and Zn²+ inhibited the enzyme. The molecular weight of the xylanase was estimated to be 27 kDa by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The present study is among the first works to examine and describe a secreted highly thermostable endoxylanase from the Rhizomucor miehei fungus. This enzyme displays a number of biochemical properties that make it a potentially strong candidate for industrial and commercial application in pulp bleaching.

  10. 双重滤过血浆置换抢救吉兰-巴雷综合征一例%Double filtration plasmapheresis rescues a case of Guillain-Barré syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋欣欣; 冯剑; 胡卫民; 陆明晰; 屠春艳; 王本勇; 叶有新

    2010-01-01

    @@ 体液免疫在吉兰-巴雷综合征(Guillain-Barré syndrome,GBS)中起着重要作用[1].肾上腺皮质激素无法阻止其病情进展,但是清除患者体内的致病物质可以达到治疗目的[2].我们试用双重滤过血浆置换(double-filtration plasmapheresis,DFPP)抢救吉兰.巴雷综合征1例,效果良好,报道如下.

  11. Microbiological stability of homeopathic medicines using purified water as vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia Teresa Cegalla

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Homeopathic medicines are prepared in homeopathic pharmacies. This leads to freedom of prescription but requires more knowledge of the clinicians to achieve the best results. Preparations made of purified water receive a validity of 24 hours, but there are prescriptions for up to 30 days. This contradiction raises tensions among physicians, pharmacists and patients. Aims: to evaluate the increase in microbiological contamination in homeopathic medicines using purified water as vehicle compared with the microbiological stability of purified water. Contribute to the quality of homeopathic medicine and treatment. Methodology: daily microbiological analysis for one week to assess the growth of heterotrophic bacteria, Pseudomonas, yeasts and molds. The reference used was the USP 32/NF 27 and the Brazilian Pharmacopoeia 5th edition. Results: there was a higher growth of microorganisms on the medicine, compared with purified water. From the 2nd day on, this growth has been beyond the legal limits. Discussion: medicines for oral use are not sterile preparations, but they must remain stable during its shelf life. Our results indicate that contamination occurs from the earliest days of use. This shows the need to change the prescription in relation of the vehicle, to ensure hygiene and avoid potential contamination of the patient. It is necessary to prevent conflict of information between pharmacists and patients, and the contradiction of the doctor's advice, besides the potential risk of responsibility to be attributed to the pharmacy. It is necessary to promote a discussion between pharmacists and clinicians, to spread this information for those that prescribe. Conclusion: there was an increased of microbiological contamination of the medicines dispensed in purified water, which harms the quality of homeopathic medicine and homeopathic treatment.

  12. Properties of purified recombinant human polyamine oxidase, PAOh1/SMO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanlin; Murray-Stewart, Tracy; Devereux, Wendy; Hacker, Amy; Frydman, Benjamin; Woster, Patrick M; Casero, Robert A

    2003-05-16

    The discovery of an inducible oxidase whose apparent substrate preference is spermine indicates that polyamine catabolism is more complex than that originally proposed. To facilitate the study of this enzyme, the purification and characterization of the recombinant human PAOh1/SMO polyamine oxidase are reported. Purified PAOh1/SMO oxidizes both spermine (K(m)=1.6 microM) and N(1)-acetylspermine (K(m)=51 microM), but does not oxidize spermidine. The purified human enzyme also does not oxidize eight representative antitumor polyamine analogues; however, specific oligamine analogues were found to be potent inhibitors of the oxidation of spermine by PAOh1/SMO. The results of these studies are consistent with the hypothesis that PAOh1/SMO represents a new addition to the polyamine metabolic pathway that may represent a new target for antineoplastic drug development.

  13. Thermal inactivation kinetics of partially purified mango pectin methylesterase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Alonso DÍAZ-CRUZ

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Kinetic parameters of thermal inactivation of pectin methylesterase (PME in a partially purified mango enzyme extract were determined. The PME of mango partially purified by salting out showed different patterns of thermal inactivation, indicating the presence of a thermostable fraction at 70 °C and a thermolabile fraction at lower temperatures. The inactivation of the thermostable fraction exhibited a linear behavior that yielded a z-value of 9.44 °C and an activation energy (Ea of 245.6 kJ mol-1 K-1 using the Arrhenius model. The thermostable mango PME fraction represented 17% of total crude enzyme extract, which emphasizes the importance of residual enzyme activity after heat treatment.

  14. 42 CFR 84.171 - Non-powered air-purifying particulate respirators; required components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Non-powered air-purifying particulate respirators... PROTECTIVE DEVICES Non-Powered Air-Purifying Particulate Respirators § 84.171 Non-powered air-purifying particulate respirators; required components. (a) Each non-powered air-purifying particulate...

  15. 42 CFR 84.170 - Non-powered air-purifying particulate respirators; description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Non-powered air-purifying particulate respirators... DEVICES Non-Powered Air-Purifying Particulate Respirators § 84.170 Non-powered air-purifying particulate respirators; description. (a) Non-powered air-purifying particulate respirators utilize the wearer's...

  16. Asparaginase-associated concurrence of hyperlipidemia, hyperglobulinemia, and thrombocytosis was successfully treated by centrifuge/membrane hybrid double-filtration plasmapheresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Taina; Xu, Bin; Fan, Rong; Liu, Zhihong; Gong, Dehua

    2016-01-01

    Asparaginase-associated concurrence of hyperlipidemia, hyperglobulinemia, and thrombocytosis is a rare complication requiring aggressive lipoprotein apheresis, but no one of currently available lipoprotein apheresis methods can simultaneously resolve the 3 abnormalities. Herein, we reported a construction of double-filtration plasmapheresis (DFPP) using a combination of centrifugal/membranous plasma separation techniques to successfully treat a patient with hyperlipidemia, hyperglobulinemia, and thrombocytosis. A male presented with severe hyperlipidemia, hyperglobulinemia, and thrombocytosis during asparaginase treatment for NK/T-cell lymphoblastic lymphoma and was scheduled to receive lipoprotein apheresis. To simultaneously remove lipoproteins, immunoglobulin, and deplete platelets from blood, a centrifuge/membrane hybrid DFPP was constructed as following steps: plasma and part of platelets were separated first from whole blood by centrifugal technique and then divided by a fraction plasma separator into 2 parts: platelets and plasma components with large size, which were discarded; and those containing albumin, which were returned to blood with a supplement of extrinsic albumin solution. DFPP lasted 240 minutes uneventfully, processing 5450-mL plasma. The concentrations of plasma components before DFPP were as follows: triglycerides 38.22 mmol/L, total cholesterols 22.98 mmol/L, immunoglobulin A (IgA) 15.7 g/L, IgG 12.7 g/L, and IgM 14.3 g/L; whereas after treatment were 5.69 mmol/L, 2.38 mmol/L, 2.5 g/L, 7.7 g/L, and 0.4 g/L, respectively. The respective reduction ratio was 85.1%, 89.6%, 83.9%, 39.4%, and 96.9%. Platelet count decreased by 40.4% (from 612 × 10(9)/L to 365 × 10(9)/L). Centrifuge/membrane hybrid DFPP can simultaneously remove lipoproteins, immunoglobulin, and deplete platelets, with a success in treatment of asparaginase treatment-induced hyperlipidemia, hyperglobulinemia, and thrombocytosis, and may be useful for patients

  17. Isolation of Microorganisms Able To Metabolize Purified Natural Rubber

    OpenAIRE

    Heisey, R. M.; Papadatos, S

    1995-01-01

    Bacteria able to grow on purified natural rubber in the absence of other organic carbon sources were isolated from soil. Ten isolates reduced the weight of vulcanized rubber from latex gloves by >10% in 6 weeks. Scanning electron microscopy clearly revealed the ability of the microorganisms to colonize, penetrate, and dramatically alter the physical structure of the rubber. The rubber-metabolizing bacteria were identified on the basis of fatty acid profiles and cell wall characteristics. Seve...

  18. Survey of Air Purifier Market Acceptance in China

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Shan

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, air cleaner products have drawn a wide attention due to the extensive concern of air pollution in China. The study aims at research market acceptance of air purifiers. Meanwhile, an outlook of present market and competitive environment were introduced for driving forces of the research as background knowledge. In this thesis, a theoretical framework was designed to express the theory of customer acceptance, which provided theoretical support for the analysis process in th...

  19. Proteomic analysis of purified Newcastle disease virus particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ren Xiangpeng

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Newcastle disease virus (NDV is an enveloped RNA virus, bearing severe economic losses to the poultry industry worldwide. Previous virion proteomic studies have shown that enveloped viruses carry multiple host cellular proteins both internally and externally during their life cycle. To address whether it also occurred during NDV infection, we performed a comprehensive proteomic analysis of highly purified NDV La Sota strain particles. Results In addition to five viral structural proteins, we detected thirty cellular proteins associated with purified NDV La Sota particles. The identified cellular proteins comprised several functional categories, including cytoskeleton proteins, annexins, molecular chaperones, chromatin modifying proteins, enzymes-binding proteins, calcium-binding proteins and signal transduction-associated proteins. Among these, three host proteins have not been previously reported in virions of other virus families, including two signal transduction-associated proteins (syntenin and Ras small GTPase and one tumor-associated protein (tumor protein D52. The presence of five selected cellular proteins (i.e., β-actin, tubulin, annexin A2, heat shock protein Hsp90 and ezrin associated with the purified NDV particles was validated by Western blot or immunogold labeling assays. Conclusions The current study presented the first standard proteomic profile of NDV. The results demonstrated the incorporation of cellular proteins in NDV particles, which provides valuable information for elucidating viral infection and pathogenesis.

  20. Proteomic analysis of purified coronavirus infectious bronchitis virus particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu Dingming

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV is the coronavirus of domestic chickens causing major economic losses to the poultry industry. Because of the complexity of the IBV life cycle and the small number of viral structural proteins, important virus-host relationships likely remain to be discovered. Toward this goal, we performed two-dimensional gel electrophoresis fractionation coupled to mass spectrometry identification approaches to perform a comprehensive proteomic analysis of purified IBV particles. Results Apart from the virus-encoded structural proteins, we detected 60 host proteins in the purified virions which can be grouped into several functional categories including intracellular trafficking proteins (20%, molecular chaperone (18%, macromolcular biosynthesis proteins (17%, cytoskeletal proteins (15%, signal transport proteins (15%, protein degradation (8%, chromosome associated proteins (2%, ribosomal proteins (2%, and other function proteins (3%. Interestingly, 21 of the total host proteins have not been reported to be present in virions of other virus families, such as major vault protein, TENP protein, ovalbumin, and scavenger receptor protein. Following identification of the host proteins by proteomic methods, the presence of 4 proteins in the purified IBV preparation was verified by western blotting and immunogold labeling detection. Conclusions The results present the first standard proteomic profile of IBV and may facilitate the understanding of the pathogenic mechanisms.

  1. Effects of Different Plasmapheresis Supplement Timing on Therapeutic Efficacy of Toxic Liver Injury%血浆置换不同补充时机对药物性肝损伤疗效的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦海珍; 陈绪军

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨血浆置换不同补充时机对药物性肝损伤疗效的影响.方法:96例药物性肝损伤患者,按照随机数字表法分为A、B、C组,各32例.所有患者在常规治疗基础上进行血浆置换治疗.其中,A组患者与血浆置换同步进行的替补液为100%新鲜血浆;B组患者与血浆置换同步进行的替补液为:先补充40%生理盐水,再补充60%新鲜血浆;C组患者在血浆置换至离体血液达1个体循环量的12%时,再开始补充替补液,补充顺序为先补充40%生理盐水,再补充60%新鲜血浆.观察各组患者治疗前后的临床症状及体征、肝脏功能和凝血酶原活动度.结果:采用血浆置换治疗药物性肝损伤均可获得较好的疗效,但C组患者临床症状及体征消失的时间显著短于A组和B组,B组又显著短于A组,组间比较差异均具有统计学意义(P0.05).结论:在不同时机进行血浆置换对药物性肝损伤有着不同的疗效,在血浆置换至离体血液达1个体循环量的12%时,先补充40%生理盐水,再补充60%新鲜血浆的效果较为显著.%OBJECTIVE:To explore the effect of different plasmapheresis supplement timing on therapeutic efficacy of toxic liver injury. METHODS:96 patients with toxic liver injury and divided into group A,B ,C and D with 32 cases in each group ac-cording to different plasmapheresis supplement timing. All patients received plasmapheresis supplement based on routine treatment. In group A,synchronized fluid replacement was 100% fresh plasma;in group B,synchronized fluid replacement was 40% normal saline firstly,and then 60%fresh plasma;in group C,substitute liquid was given till the in vitro blood reached 12%of circulation amount,supplement order as 40% normal saline for the first supplement,and then add 60% fresh plasma. The clinical symptoms and signs,liver function,prothrombin activity and blood biochemical indicators were observed in each group before and after treat-ment. RESULTS:Plasmapheresis

  2. Ferromagnetic Levan Composite: An Affinity Matrix to Purify Lectin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Angeli

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple and inexpensive procedure used magnetite and levan to synthesize a composite recovered by a magnetic field. Lectins from Canavalia ensiformis (Con A and Cratylia mollis (Cramoll 1 and Cramoll 1,4 did bind specifically to composite. The magnetic property of derivative favored washing out contaminating proteins and recovery of pure lectins with glucose elution. Cramoll 1 was purified by this affinity binding procedure in two steps instead of a previous three-step protocol with ammonium sulfate fractionation, affinity chromatography on Sephadex G-75, and ion exchange chromatography through a CM-cellulose column.

  3. Creating and purifying an observation instrument using the generalizability theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Rodríguez-Naveiras

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The control of quality of data it is one of the most relevant aspects in observational researches. The Generalizability Theory (GT provides a method of analysis that allows us to isolate the various sources of error measurement. At the same time, it helps us to determine the extent to which various factors can change and analyze the effect on the generalizability coefficient. In the work shown here, there are two studies aimed to creating and purifying an observation instrument, Observation Protocol in the Teaching Functions (Protocolo de Funciones Docentes, PROFUNDO, v1 and v2, for behavioral assessment which has been carried out by instructors in a social-affective out-of-school program. The reliability and homogeneity studies are carried out once the instrument has been created and purified. The reliability study will be done through the GT method taking both codes (c and agents (a as differential facets in. The generalization will be done through observers using a crossed multi-faceted design (A × O × C. In the homogeneity study the generalization facet will be done through codes using the same design that the reliability study.

  4. Synthesis of gold and silver nanoparticles using purified URAK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deepak, Venkataraman; Umamaheshwaran, Paneer Selvam; Guhan, Kandasamy; Nanthini, Raja Amrisa; Krithiga, Bhaskar; Jaithoon, Nagoor Meeran Hasika; Gurunathan, Sangiliyandi

    2011-09-01

    This study aims at developing a new eco-friendly process for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) using purified URAK. URAK is a fibrinolytic enzyme produced by Bacillus cereus NK1. The enzyme was purified and used for the synthesis of AuNPs and AgNPs. The enzyme produced AgNPs when incubated with 1 mM AgNO3 for 24 h and AuNPs when incubated with 1 mM HAuCl4 for 60 h. But when NaOH was added, the synthesis was rapid and occurred within 5 min for AgNPs and 12 h for AuNPs. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by a peak at 440 nm and 550 nm in the UV-visible spectrum. TEM analysis showed that AgNPs of the size 60 nm and AuNPs of size 20 nm were synthesized. XRD confirmed the crystalline nature of the nanoparticles and AFM showed the morphology of the nanoparticle to be spherical. FT-IR showed that protein was responsible for the synthesis of the nanoparticles. This process is highly simple, versatile and produces AgNPs and AuNPs in environmental friendly manner. Moreover, the synthesized nanoparticles were found to contain immobilized enzyme. Also, URAK was tested on RAW 264.7 macrophage cell line and was found to be non-cytotoxic until 100 μg/ml.

  5. A Purified Recombinant Lipopeptide as Adjuvant for Cancer Immunotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-Chyi Song

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Synthetic lipopeptides have been widely used as vaccine adjuvants to enhance immune responses. The present study demonstrated that the tryptic N-terminal fragment of the lipoprotein rlipo-D1E3 (lipo-Nter induces superior antitumor effects compared to a synthetic lipopeptide. The lipo-Nter was purified and formulated with protein or peptide vaccines to determine if lipo-Nter could be used as a novel adjuvant and could induce antitumor immunity in a cervical cancer model. Purified lipo-Nter activated the maturation of bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BM-DCs, leading to the secretion of TNF-α through TLR2/6 but not TLR1/2. A recombinant mutant HPV16 E7 (rE7m protein was mixed with lipo-Nter to immunize the mice; the anti-E7 antibody titers were increased, and the T helper cells were skewed toward the Th1 fate (increased IL-2 and decreased IL-5 secretion. Single-dose injection of rE7m and lipo-Nter inhibited tumor growth, but the injection of rE7m alone did not. Accordingly, lipo-Nter also enhanced the antitumor immunity of the E7-derived peptide but not the synthetic lipopeptide (Pam3CSK4. We demonstrated that the lipo-Nter of a bacterial-derived recombinant lipoprotein is a novel adjuvant that could be used for the development of a new generation of vaccines.

  6. Life cycle assessment comparison of photocatalytic coating and air purifier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tichá, Marie; Žilka, Miroslav; Stieberová, Barbora; Freiberg, František

    2016-07-01

    This article presents a comparison of 2 very different options for removal of undesirable microorganisms and airborne pollutants from the indoor environment of hospitals, schools, homes, and other enclosed spaces using air purifiers and photocatalytic coatings based on nano titanium dioxide (TiO2 ). Both products were assessed by life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology from cradle-to-grave. The assessment also includes comparison of 2 different nano TiO2 production technologies, one by continuous hydrothermal synthesis and the other by a sulfate process. Results of the study showed a relatively large contribution of photocatalytic coatings to reducing the effects of selected indices in comparison with an air purifier, regardless of which nano TiO2 production method is used. Although the impacts of the sulfate process are significantly lower compared to those of hydrothermal synthesis when viewed in terms of production alone, taken in the context of the entire product life cycle, the net difference becomes less significant. The study has been elaborated within the Sustainable Hydrothermal Manufacturing of Nanomaterials (SHYMAN) project, which aims to develop competitive and sustainable continuous nanoparticle (NP) production technology based on supercritical hydrothermal synthesis. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2016;12:478-485. © 2016 SETAC.

  7. Production and Immobilization of Partially Purified Lipase From Penicillium chrysogenum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shafei, M. S.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available An extracellular lipase from Penicillium chrysogenum produced maximal activity 225 U/mL after four days at pH 6.5. It was partially purified 4.1 fold by ammonium sulphate precipitation (70%. The enzyme was immobilized on various carriers viz. alginate, k-carrageenan and polyacrylamide gel. The immobilization yield of enzyme immobilized in kcarrageenan and polyacrylamide gel (63.41% and 48.93% respectively was low in comparison to that immobilized with alginate (81.57%. Different concentrations of alginate were tried to study their effect on lipase production. Maximum immobilization yield was observed with 3% alginate. The optimal pH of the partially purified lipase was 7.5 and the optimum temperature was 35 °C. At 60 °C the immobilized enzyme retained 62.79% of its activity. Broader pH tolerance and higher heat stability could be achieved by this method. Immobilized lipase retained 72.09% relative activity after six hydrolysis cycles.

  8. Tea derived galloylated polyphenols cross-link purified gastrointestinal mucins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pantelis Georgiades

    Full Text Available Polyphenols derived from tea are thought to be important for human health. We show using a combination of particle tracking microrheology and small-angle neutron scattering that polyphenols acts as cross-linkers for purified gastrointestinal mucin, derived from the stomach and the duodenum. Both naturally derived purified polyphenols, and green and black tea extracts are shown to act as cross-linkers. The main active cross-linking component is found to be the galloylated forms of catechins. The viscosity, elasticity and relaxation time of the mucin solutions experience an order of magnitude change in value upon addition of the polyphenol cross-linkers. Similarly small-angle neutron scattering experiments demonstrate a sol-gel transition with the addition of polyphenols, with a large increase in the scattering at low angles, which is attributed to the formation of large scale (>10 nm heterogeneities during gelation. Cross-linking of mucins by polyphenols is thus expected to have an impact on the physicochemical environment of both the stomach and duodenum; polyphenols are expected to modulate the barrier properties of mucus, nutrient absorption through mucus and the viscoelastic microenvironments of intestinal bacteria.

  9. Magnetism for understanding catalyst analysis of purified carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellouard, Christine; Mercier, Guillaume; Cahen, Sébastien; Ghanbaja, Jaafar; Medjahdi, Ghouti; Gleize, Jérôme; Lamura, Gianrico; Hérold, Claire; Vigolo, Brigitte

    2016-08-01

    The precise quantification of catalyst residues in purified carbon nanotubes is often a major issue in view of any fundamental and/or applicative studies. More importantly, since the best CNTs are successfully grown with magnetic catalysts, their quantification becomes strictly necessary to better understand intrinsic properties of CNT. For these reasons, we have deeply analyzed the catalyst content remained in nickel-yttrium arc-discharge single walled carbon nanotubes purified by both a chlorine-gas phase and a standard acid-based treatment. The study focuses on Ni analysis which has been investigated by transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetry analysis, and magnetic measurements. In the case of the acid-based treatment, all quantifications result in a decrease of the nanocrystallized Ni by a factor of two. In the case of the halogen gas treatment, analysis and quantification of Ni content is less straightforward: a huge difference appears between X-ray diffraction and thermogravimetry results. Thanks to magnetic measurements, this disagreement is explained by the presence of Ni2+ ions, belonging to NiCl2 formed during the Cl-based purification process. In particular, NiCl2 compound appears under different magnetic/crystalline phases: paramagnetic or diamagnetic, or well intercalated in between carbon sheets with an ordered magnetic phase at low temperature.

  10. 75 FR 61700 - Purified Carboxymethylcellulose From Finland, the Netherlands, and Sweden: Final Results of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-06

    ... International Trade Administration Purified Carboxymethylcellulose From Finland, the Netherlands, and Sweden... purified carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) from, inter alia, Finland, the Netherlands, and Sweden, pursuant to... (120-day) sunset reviews of the Finland, the Netherlands, and Sweden antidumping duty orders...

  11. 75 FR 39207 - Purified Carboxymethylcellulose From Finland: Extension of Time Limit for Preliminary Results of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Purified Carboxymethylcellulose From Finland: Extension of Time Limit for... 30, 2010. See Purified Carboxymethylcellulose From Finland: Extension of Time Limit for...

  12. 77 FR 14733 - Purified Carboxymethylcellulose From Finland and the Netherlands: Extension of Time Limit for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Purified Carboxymethylcellulose From Finland and the Netherlands: Extension..., inter alia, purified carboxymethylcellulose from Finland and the Netherlands covering the period July...

  13. X-ray diffraction study of highly purified human ceruloplasmin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samygina, V. R.; Sokolov, A. V.; Pulina, M. O.; Bartunik, H. D.; Vasil'Ev, V. B.

    2008-07-01

    The three-dimensional structure of ceruloplasmin (CP) with unoccupied labile metal-binding sites and the structure of CP containing Ni2+ in the labile sites were solved for the first time at 2.6 and 2.95 Å resolution, respectively. Crystallization was performed with the use of storage-stable CP, which was prepared in the presence of proteinase inhibitors and purified from (pre)proteinases. Ceruloplasmin with Ni2+ crystallized in the orthorhombic space group, which had been earlier unknown for CP. Ceruloplasmin with the unoccupied labile sites crystallized in the trigonal crystal form. The differences in intermolecular contacts observed in the trigonal and orthorhombic crystal structures of CP are considered. The conformational changes attendant upon Ni2+ binding are described. It was suggested that the labile sites are multifunctional and can both bind metal ions potentially toxic to organisms and be involved in electron transfer from substrates to the active site.

  14. A method for purifying butyric crude oil fractions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saskovets, V.V.; Gayle, A.A.; Proskuryakov, V.A.; Semenov, L.V.; Zakharov, A.P.

    1983-01-01

    In a method for purification of butyric fractions of oil through extraction by a selective solvent, in order to increase the output and to improve the quality of the purified oil, 2,5-dimethyl-1,3,4-oxadiazole of the cited formula, or its mixture with 80 to 90 percent furfural is used as the selective solvent. The solvent is produced through a reaction between hydrazine and an acetic anhydride. The solvent is a colorless liquid with a weak characteristic smell, and is easily dissolved in water with a boiling point of 178 degrees and density at 4-20/sup 0/ of 1.0963. The solvent is thermally stable: after boiling at 220 degrees, its viscosity is essentially the same.

  15. Using ion exchange chromatography to purify a recombinantly expressed protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duong-Ly, Krisna C; Gabelli, Sandra B

    2014-01-01

    Ion exchange chromatography (IEX) separates molecules by their surface charge, a property that can vary vastly between different proteins. There are two types of IEX, cation exhange and anion exchange chromatography. The protocol that follows was designed by the authors for anion exchange chromatography of a recombinantly expressed protein having a pI of 4.9 and containing two cysteine residues and one tryptophan residue, using an FPLC system. Prior to anion exchange, the protein had been salted out using ammonium sulfate precipitation and partially purified via hydrophobic interaction chromatography (see Salting out of proteins using ammonium sulfate precipitation and Use and Application of Hydrophobic Interaction Chromatography for Protein Purification). Slight modifications to this protocol may be made to accommodate both the protein of interest and the availability of equipment.

  16. Robust sparse image reconstruction of radio interferometric observations with PURIFY

    CERN Document Server

    Pratley, Luke; d'Avezac, Mayeul; Carrillo, Rafael E; Onose, Alexandru; Wiaux, Yves

    2016-01-01

    Next-generation radio interferometers, such as the Square Kilometre Array (SKA), will revolutionise our understanding of the universe through their unprecedented sensitivity and resolution. However, to realise these goals significant challenges in image and data processing need to be overcome. The standard methods in radio interferometry for reconstructing images, such as CLEAN and its variants, have served the community well over the last few decades and have survived largely because they are pragmatic. However, they produce reconstructed interferometric images that are limited in quality and they are not scalable for big data. In this work we apply and evaluate alternative interferometric reconstruction methods that make use of state-of-the-art sparse image reconstruction algorithms motivated by compressive sensing, which have been implemented in the PURIFY software package. In particular, we implement and apply the proximal alternating direction method of multipliers (P-ADMM) algorithm presented in a recen...

  17. Techniques applicable for purifying Chironex fleckeri (box-jellyfish) venom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othman, I; Burnett, J W

    1990-01-01

    A survey of several techniques to isolate a purified lethal factor from the tentacles of Chironex fleckeri was completed. Heterologous band patterns were obtained from specific eluates after gel filtration, ion exchange, immunoaffinity and hydrophobic chromatography. SDS-PAGE revealed a dense band at 24,000 mol. wt in many of these fractions. Isoelectric focusing of the crude venom resulted in considerable loss of activity but indicated significant purification in the fractions having a pI of 5.2-6.8. These fractions were also immunologically active against sera from a convalescing post-evenomation patient. The primary difficulties encountered in jellyfish venom purification are the lack of stability and the tendency of the active toxins to adhere to each other and to various support matrices.

  18. Are whole extracts and purified glucosinolates from cruciferous vegetables antioxidants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plumb, G W; Lambert, N; Chambers, S J; Wanigatunga, S; Heaney, R K; Plumb, J A; Aruoma, O I; Halliwell, B; Miller, N J; Williamson, G

    1996-07-01

    Fruits and vegetables contain several classes of compounds that can potentially contribute to antioxidant activity, including vitamins, simple and complex phenolics, sulphur-containing compounds and glucosinolates. The glucosinolates are found in high concentration in many cruciferous vegetables, and it is well established that their breakdown products induce endogenous antioxidant defences such as quinone reductase and glutathione S-transferase in cells and in vivo. Despite the anticarcinogenic effect of these compounds in animal models, the direct antioxidant properties of this class of compounds have not been systematically studied. We therefore examined the free radical-scavenging properties of representative extracts and of purified glucosinolates from cruciferous vegetables, by measuring their effect on ascorbate- or NADPH/iron-induced peroxidation of human liver microsomes, ascorbate/iron-induced peroxidation on phospholipid liposomes, iron chelation and hydroxyl radical scavenging using the deoxyribose assay, total antioxidant potential using ABTS (2,2'-azinobis(3-ethyl-benzothiazoline-6-sulphonate)) and the bleomycin assay. Most of the extracts from cruciferous vegetables exhibited some antioxidant properties, although extracts from cooked Brussels sprouts increased the rate of microsomal lipid peroxidation. The effects in these assays were dependent upon processing and species of crucifer, and the glucosinolate content appeared to play a minor role in these effects, since purified glucosinolates exhibited only weak antioxidant properties. The total antioxidant activities of extracts from cooked and autolysed Brussels sprouts were identical within experimental error. This is probably due to the content of phenolics which is unaltered by autolysis, despite the differences between these samples in other assays especially NADPH-iron-induced lipid peroxidation of human liver microsomes. The results demonstrate that glucosinolates are unlikely to account for

  19. Neutral semi-purified glycerin in starting pigs feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Gomez Gallego

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Glycerin is a major co-product resulting from biodiesel production, and it has been proposed as a highenergy source for use in swine diets. However, it is necessary to determine the nutritional value of neutral semi-purified glycerin (NSPG. In this study two experiments were carried out to determine the nutritional value, evaluated the performance and economic feasibility of starting piglets fed on neutral semi-purified glycerin. A digestibility trial (Experiment I was conducted using 30 crossbred barrows with an initial average body weight of 42.91±1.58 kg. The glycerin levels used in the digestibility assay were 4, 8, 12 and 16% of the basal diet (corn + soybean meal based. The digestible energy (DE and metabolizable (ME energy values of glycerin were estimated by regression of DE and ME (kcal/kg intake associated with glycerin vs. glycerin intake (kg. The values (as-fed-basis of DE and ME (kcal/ kg obtained were 3,298 and 2,531, respectively. In Experiment II, 100 piglets (50 gilts and 50 barrows with BW = 15.14±0.06 to 30.28±0.65 were allotted in a randomized design using four inclusion levels (3.5, 7.0, 10.5 and 14% of NSPG. There were ten replicates with two piglets per experimental unit. Additionally, a control diet containing no glycerin (0% was formulated. The results show it is feasible to use up to 14% NSPG in piglet feed without impairing performance and plasma chemistry.

  20. Magnetism for understanding catalyst analysis of purified carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellouard, Christine; Mercier, Guillaume; Cahen, Sébastien; Ghanbaja, Jaafar; Medjahdi, Ghouti [Institut Jean Lamour, CNRS-Université de Lorraine, BP 70239, 54506 Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy (France); Gleize, Jérôme [Laboratoire de Chimie Physique-Approche Multi-échelle de Milieux Complexes-Université de Lorraine, 1 Bd Arago, 57078 Metz (France); Lamura, Gianrico [CNR-SPIN – Dipartimento di Fisica, via Dodecaneso 33, 16146 Genova (Italy); Hérold, Claire [Institut Jean Lamour, CNRS-Université de Lorraine, BP 70239, 54506 Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy (France); Vigolo, Brigitte, E-mail: Brigitte.Vigolo@univ-lorraine.fr [Institut Jean Lamour, CNRS-Université de Lorraine, BP 70239, 54506 Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy (France)

    2016-08-01

    The precise quantification of catalyst residues in purified carbon nanotubes is often a major issue in view of any fundamental and/or applicative studies. More importantly, since the best CNTs are successfully grown with magnetic catalysts, their quantification becomes strictly necessary to better understand intrinsic properties of CNT. For these reasons, we have deeply analyzed the catalyst content remained in nickel–yttrium arc-discharge single walled carbon nanotubes purified by both a chlorine-gas phase and a standard acid-based treatment. The study focuses on Ni analysis which has been investigated by transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetry analysis, and magnetic measurements. In the case of the acid-based treatment, all quantifications result in a decrease of the nanocrystallized Ni by a factor of two. In the case of the halogen gas treatment, analysis and quantification of Ni content is less straightforward: a huge difference appears between X-ray diffraction and thermogravimetry results. Thanks to magnetic measurements, this disagreement is explained by the presence of Ni{sup 2+} ions, belonging to NiCl{sub 2} formed during the Cl-based purification process. In particular, NiCl{sub 2} compound appears under different magnetic/crystalline phases: paramagnetic or diamagnetic, or well intercalated in between carbon sheets with an ordered magnetic phase at low temperature. - Highlights: • Cl-gas treatment of Ni catalyst of carbon nanotubes leads to NiCl{sub 2} residue. • Magnetic measurements show the transformation of Ni{sup 0} in Ni{sup 2+}through a purification process. • High temperature Cl treatment removes 75% of metallic impurities. • Cl-purification yields to an amount of metal of 1.5% in arc-discharge CNT samples.

  1. 42 CFR 84.254 - Powered air-purifying respirators; requirements and tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Powered air-purifying respirators; requirements and... DEVICES Special Use Respirators § 84.254 Powered air-purifying respirators; requirements and tests. (a... air-purifying respirators prescribed in subpart L of this part are applicable to vinyl...

  2. 42 CFR 84.179 - Non-powered air-purifying particulate respirators; filter identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Non-powered air-purifying particulate respirators... RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Non-Powered Air-Purifying Particulate Respirators § 84.179 Non-powered air-purifying particulate respirators; filter identification. (a) The respirator manufacturer, as part of...

  3. Measurement of Ozone Emission and Particle Removal Rates from Portable Air Purifiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mang, Stephen A.; Walser, Maggie L.; Nizkorodov, Sergey A.; Laux, John M.

    2009-01-01

    Portable air purifiers are popular consumer items, especially in areas with poor air quality. Unfortunately, most users of these air purifiers have minimal understanding of the factors affecting their efficiency in typical indoor settings. Emission of the air pollutant ozone (O[subscript 3]) by certain air purifiers is of particular concern. In an…

  4. Permeation of Calcium through Purified Connexin 26 Hemichannels*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiori, Mariana C.; Figueroa, Vania; Zoghbi, Maria E.; Saéz, Juan C.; Reuss, Luis; Altenberg, Guillermo A.

    2012-01-01

    Gap junction channels communicate the cytoplasms of two cells and are formed by head to head association of two hemichannels, one from each of the cells. Gap junction channels and hemichannels are permeable to ions and hydrophilic molecules of up to Mr 1,000, including second messengers and metabolites. Intercellular Ca2+ signaling can occur by movement of a number of second messengers, including Ca2+, through gap junction channels, or by a paracrine pathway that involves activation of purinergic receptors in neighboring cells following ATP release through hemichannels. Understanding Ca2+ permeation through Cx26 hemichannels is important to assess the role of gap junction channels and hemichannels in health and disease. In this context, it is possible that increased Ca2+ influx through hemichannels under ischemic conditions contributes to cell damage. Previous studies suggest Ca2+ permeation through hemichannels, based on indirect arguments. Here, we demonstrate for the first time hemichannel permeability to Ca2+ by measuring Ca2+ transport through purified Cx26 hemichannels reconstituted in liposomes. We trapped the low affinity Ca2+-sensitive fluorescent probe Fluo-5N into the liposomes and followed the increases in intraliposomal [Ca2+] in response to an imposed [Ca2+] gradient. We show that Ca2+ does move through Cx26 hemichannels and that the permeability of the hemichannels to Ca2+ is high, similar to that for Na+. We suggest that hemichannels can be a significant pathway for Ca2+ influx into cells under conditions such as ischemia. PMID:23048025

  5. [Activity of purified diosmin in the treatment of hemorrhoids].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diana, G; Catanzaro, M; Ferrara, A; Ferrari, P

    2000-01-01

    Several theories on the etio-pathogenesis and physio-pathology of hemorrhoids have been up to now proposed. From the fisio-pathological viewpoint, particular importance is retained by the vascular factor, which in its turn is influenced by mechanical and sphinceric factors, that impair the venous back-flow. In the evidence of an hemorrhoidal crisis, characterized by local oedema, pain and bleeding, the use of bioflavonoid drugs is deemed to be the first choice. We investigated the use of purified diosmin, given at a dose of two 450 mg tablets bid for the first 7 days, then at 1 tablet bid for up to 2 months, in a group of 66 patients suffering from primitive hemorrhoids of grade 1-4. Our results confirmed diosmin efficacy in decreasing both pain and bleeding: reduction rates of 79% and 67%, respectively, were reached in the first treatment week. In the second week, figures were 98% and 86%, respectively. Diosmin tolerability was excellent: this characteristic makes the drug very easy to handle by the general practitioner and also useful to the proctologist in the preparation of patient to further treatments.

  6. Purified and synthetic Alzheimer's amyloid beta (Aβ) prions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stöhr, Jan; Watts, Joel C; Mensinger, Zachary L; Oehler, Abby; Grillo, Sunny K; DeArmond, Stephen J; Prusiner, Stanley B; Giles, Kurt

    2012-07-03

    The aggregation and deposition of amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides are believed to be central events in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Inoculation of brain homogenates containing Aβ aggregates into susceptible transgenic mice accelerated Aβ deposition, suggesting that Aβ aggregates are capable of self-propagation and hence might be prions. Recently, we demonstrated that Aβ deposition can be monitored in live mice using bioluminescence imaging (BLI). Here, we use BLI to probe the ability of Aβ aggregates to self-propagate following inoculation into bigenic mice. We report compelling evidence that Aβ aggregates are prions by demonstrating widespread cerebral β-amyloidosis induced by inoculation of either purified Aβ aggregates derived from brain or aggregates composed of synthetic Aβ. Although synthetic Aβ aggregates were sufficient to induce Aβ deposition in vivo, they exhibited lower specific biological activity compared with brain-derived Aβ aggregates. Our results create an experimental paradigm that should lead to identification of self-propagating Aβ conformations, which could represent novel targets for interrupting the spread of Aβ deposition in AD patients.

  7. Common Wet Chemical Agents for Purifying Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasel Das

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purification and functionalization of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs are challenging but vital for their effective applications in various fields including water purification technologies, optoelectronics, biosensors, fuel cells, and electrode arrays. The currently available purification techniques, often complicated and time consuming, yielded shortened and curled MWCNTs that are not suitable for applications in certain fields such as membrane technologies, hybrid catalysis, optoelectronics, and sensor developments. Here we described the H2O2 synergy on the actions of HCl and KOH in purifying and functionalizing pristine MWCNTs. The method (HCl/H2O2 showed 100% purification yield as compared to HCl and KOH/H2O2 with purification yields 93.46 and 3.92%, respectively. We probed the findings using transmission electron microscope, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscope, attenuated total reflectance infrared spectroscope, Raman spectroscope, thermal gravimetric analysis, and X-ray powder diffraction. The study is a new avenue for simple, rapid, low cost, and scalable purification of pristine MWCNTs for application in versatile fields.

  8. Widespread purifying selection on RNA structure in mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Martin A; Gesell, Tanja; Stadler, Peter F; Mattick, John S

    2013-09-01

    Evolutionarily conserved RNA secondary structures are a robust indicator of purifying selection and, consequently, molecular function. Evaluating their genome-wide occurrence through comparative genomics has consistently been plagued by high false-positive rates and divergent predictions. We present a novel benchmarking pipeline aimed at calibrating the precision of genome-wide scans for consensus RNA structure prediction. The benchmarking data obtained from two refined structure prediction algorithms, RNAz and SISSIz, were then analyzed to fine-tune the parameters of an optimized workflow for genomic sliding window screens. When applied to consistency-based multiple genome alignments of 35 mammals, our approach confidently identifies >4 million evolutionarily constrained RNA structures using a conservative sensitivity threshold that entails historically low false discovery rates for such analyses (5-22%). These predictions comprise 13.6% of the human genome, 88% of which fall outside any known sequence-constrained element, suggesting that a large proportion of the mammalian genome is functional. As an example, our findings identify both known and novel conserved RNA structure motifs in the long noncoding RNA MALAT1. This study provides an extensive set of functional transcriptomic annotations that will assist researchers in uncovering the precise mechanisms underlying the developmental ontologies of higher eukaryotes.

  9. PURIFIED WASTE FCC CATALYST AS A CEMENT REPLACEMENT MATERIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danute Vaiciukyniene

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Zeolites are commonly used in the fluid catalytic cracking process. Zeolite polluted with oil products and became waste after some time used. The quantity of this waste inevitably rises by expanding rapidly oil industry. The composition of these catalysts depends on the manufacturer and on the process that is going to be used. The main factors retarding hydration process of cement systems and modifying them strength are organic compounds impurities in the waste FCC catalyst. The present paper shows the results of using purified waste FCC catalyst (pFCC from Lithuania oil refinery, as Portland cement replacement material. For this purpose, the purification of waste FCC catalyst (FCC samples was treated with hydrogen peroxide. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 is one of the most powerful oxidizers known. By acting of waste with H2O2 it can eliminate the aforementioned waste deficiency, and the obtained product becomes one of the most promising ingredients, in new advanced building materials. Hardened cement paste samples with FCC or pFCC were formed. It was observed that the pFCC blended cements developed higher strength, after 28 days, compared to the samples with FCC or reference samples. Typical content of Portland cement substituting does not exceed 30 % of mass of Portland cement in samples. Reducing the consumption of Portland cement with utilizing waste materials is preferred for reasons of environmental protection.

  10. Aflatoxin detoxification by manganese peroxidase purified from Pleurotus ostreatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramy Sayed Yehia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Manganese peroxidase (MnP was produced from white rot edible mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus on the culture filtrate. The enzyme was purified to homogeneity using (NH42SO4 precipitation, DEAE-Sepharose and Sephadex G-100 column chromatography. The final enzyme activity achieved 81UmL-1, specific activity 78 U mg-1 with purification fold of 130 and recovery 1.2% of the crude enzyme. SDS-PAGE indicated that the pure enzyme have a molecular mass of approximately 42 kDa. The optimum pH was between 4-5 and the optimum temperature was 25 ºC. The pure MnP activity was enhanced by Mn2+,Cu2+,Ca2+ and K+ and inhibited by Hg+2 and Cd+2.H2O2 at 5 mM enhanced MnP activity while at 10 mM inhibited it significantly. The MnP-cDNA encoding gene was sequenced and determined (GenBank accession no. AB698450.1. The MnP-cDNA was found to consist of 497 bp in an Open Reading Frame (ORF encoding 165 amino acids. MnP from P. ostreatus could detoxify aflatoxin B1 (AFB1 depending on enzyme concentration and incubation period. The highest detoxification power (90% was observed after 48 h incubation at 1.5 U mL-1 enzyme activities.

  11. Aflatoxin detoxification by manganese peroxidase purified from Pleurotus ostreatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yehia, Ramy Sayed

    2014-01-01

    Manganese peroxidase (MnP) was produced from white rot edible mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus on the culture filtrate. The enzyme was purified to homogeneity using (NH4)2SO4 precipitation, DEAE-Sepharose and Sephadex G-100 column chromatography. The final enzyme activity achieved 81 U mL(-1), specific activity 78 U mg(-1) with purification fold of 130 and recovery 1.2% of the crude enzyme. SDS-PAGE indicated that the pure enzyme have a molecular mass of approximately 42 kDa. The optimum pH was between 4-5 and the optimum temperature was 25 °C. The pure MnP activity was enhanced by Mn(2+), Cu(2+), Ca(2+) and K(+) and inhibited by Hg(+2) and Cd(+2). H2O2 at 5 mM enhanced MnP activity while at 10 mM inhibited it significantly. The MnP-cDNA encoding gene was sequenced and determined (GenBank accession no. AB698450.1). The MnP-cDNA was found to consist of 497 bp in an Open Reading Frame (ORF) encoding 165 amino acids. MnP from P. ostreatus could detoxify aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) depending on enzyme concentration and incubation period. The highest detoxification power (90%) was observed after 48 h incubation at 1.5 U mL(-1) enzyme activities.

  12. Synaptosomal protein synthesis in P2 and Ficoll purified fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyman, Maria; Cefaliello, Carolina; Bruno, Anna Paola; Bruno, Annapaola; Crispino, Marianna; Giuditta, Antonio

    2012-01-30

    Cytoplasmic protein synthesis of brain synaptosomes has generally been determined in the Ficoll purified fraction which contains fewer contaminating mitochondria, microsomes and myelin fragments than the parent P2 fraction. Using a highly selective assay of this activity we have compared the total translation activity and the specific activity of the proteins synthesized by either fraction in control rats and in rats trained for a two-way active avoidance task. In control rats the specific activity remained essentially the same in both fractions but in trained rats the value of the Ficoll fraction was markedly lower (38.5%) than in the P2 fraction. Furthermore, the total translation activity of the Ficoll fraction was 30% lower than in the P2 fraction in control rats and 62% lower in trained rats. These decrements indicate that a large proportion of active synaptosomes present in the P2 fraction is not recovered in the Ficoll fraction, notably in rats undergoing plastic brain changes. We conclude that cytoplasmic protein synthesis of brain synaptosomes is better preserved in the P2 fraction.

  13. Purifying effect of new flux on magnesium alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高洪涛; 吴国华; 丁文江; 朱燕萍

    2004-01-01

    A new flux which can remove both Fe and non-metallic inclusions in magnesium alloy was introduced.The Fe content of the magnesium alloy can be decreased greatly from 0. 062% to lower than 0. 005% (degree of AZ91D) after being purified by this new flux. The optimum addition of B2O3 in the flux is 0. 58 % by Gaussian Curve Fitting. Corrosion rate was measured after the specimen being immersed in 5 % NaCl solution for 3 d. The resuits show that the corrosion rate of the magnesium alloy after purification by the new flux is only 0.3 mg · cm-2 ·d-1. On the other hand, non-metallic inclusions in the magnesium alloy decrease with increasing addition of JDMJ in the new flux. Average volume fraction of the non-metallic inclusions in the magnesium alloy decreases from 1.52 % to 1.08%, which leads to improvement in the mechanical properties of the magnesium alloy by 30%. The mechanisms of Fe reduction and non-metallic inclusion-removing in magnesium melt by purification with the new flux were also revealed.

  14. Biological characterization of purified macrophage-derived neutrophil chemotactic factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Dias-Baruffi

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available We have recently described the purification of a 54 kDa acidic protein, identified as macrophage-derived neutrophil chemotactic factor (MNCF. This protein causes in vitro chemotaxis as well as in vivo neutrophil migration even in animals treated with dexamethasone. This in vivo chemotactic activity of MNCF in animals pretreated with dexamethasone is an uncommon characteristic which discriminates MNCF from known chemotactic cytokines. MNCF is released in the supernatant by macrophage monolayers stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS. In the present study, we describe some biological characteristics of homogenous purified MNCF. When assayed in vitro, MNCF gave a bell-shaped dose–response curve. This in vitro activity was shown to be caused by haptotaxis. Unlike N-formyl-methionylleucyl- phenylalanine (FMLP or interleukin 8 (IL-8, the chemotactic activity of MNCF in vivo and in vitro, was inhibited by preincubation with D-galactose but not with D-mannose. In contrast with IL-8, MNCF did not bind to heparin and antiserum against IL-8 was ineffective in inhibiting its chemotactic activity. These data indicate that MNCF induces neutrophil migration through a carbohydrate recognition property, but by a mechanism different from that of the known chemokines. It is suggested that MNCF may be an important mediator in the recruitment of neutrophils via the formation of a substrate bound chemotactic gradient (haptotaxis in the inflamed tissues.

  15. Characterization of fructose 6 phosphate phosphoketolases purified from Bifidobacterium species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grill, J P; Crociani, J; Ballongue, J

    1995-07-01

    Fructose 6 phosphate phosphoketolases (F6PPKs) were purified from Bifidobacterium longum BB536, B. dentium ATCC 27534, B. globosum ATCC 25864, and Bifidobacterium animalis ATCC 25527. Concerning ions (Cu++, Zn++, Ca++, Mg++, Fe++, Co++, Mn++) and common enzyme inhibitors (fructose, ammonium sulfate, iodoacetate, and parachloromercuribenzoic acid), no difference appeared between the enzymes. Cu++, parachloromercuribenzoic acid (pCMB), and mercuric acetate induced high enzymatic inhibition. The study of pCMB demonstrated a noncompetitive inhibition. Additional results showed that the sulfhydryl group was not involved in catalytic reaction. Photooxidation experiments and determination of ionizable group pKas (5.16-7.17) suggested the presence of one or more histidines necessary for the catalytic reaction and explained the inhibition observed with pCMB. In light of the noncompetitive inhibition, this group was not directly involved in substrate binding. Determination of Km demonstrated that the affinities for fructose 6 phosphate in the case of animal and human origin strains were close. In addition, the same enzymatic efficiency (Kcat/Km) was obtained for each strain. The F6PPK activity was regulated by sodium pyrophosphate, ATP, and especially by ADP.

  16. Characterisation of the 1st SSI purified MBL standard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Inga; Højrup, Peter; Houen, Gunnar

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Mannan-binding lectin (MBL) is of importance in innate immunity. MBL-deficiency, the most common immune defect, is significant in several clinical contexts. The request for MBL diagnostic is increasing, hence we developed a high-purity MBL standard assigned with a traceable value. MET...... purified MBL standard has been produced, and assigned the value 192.6 microg MBL/ml, traceable to an accurate realisation of the unit.......BACKGROUND: Mannan-binding lectin (MBL) is of importance in innate immunity. MBL-deficiency, the most common immune defect, is significant in several clinical contexts. The request for MBL diagnostic is increasing, hence we developed a high-purity MBL standard assigned with a traceable value....... METHODS AND RESULTS: The standard material was produced from human plasma; and the protein concentration determined by amino acid analysis after a preceding desalting. The standard value was assessed by two series of sub-sample analyses from nine vials by the grand mean: 235.7 microg protein/ml (range 191...

  17. Analysis of cavitation effect for water purifier using electrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Dong Ho; Ko, Han Seo; Lee, Seung Ho

    2015-11-01

    Water is a limited and vital resource, so it should not be wasted by pollution. A development of new water purification technology is urgent nowadays since the original and biological treatments are not sufficient. The microbubble-aided method was investigated for removal of algal in this study since it overcomes demerits of the existing purification technologies. Thus, the cavitation effect in a venturi-type tube using the electrolysis was analyzed. Ruthenium-coated titanium plates were used as electrodes. Optimum electrode interval and applied power were determined for the electrolysis. Then, the optimized electrodes were installed in the venturi-type tube for generating cavitation. The cavitation effect could be enhanced without any byproduct by the bubbly flow induced by the electrolysis. The optimum mass flow rate and current were determined for the cavitation with the electrolysis. Finally, the visualization techniques were used to count the cell number of algal and microbubbles for the confirmation of the performance. As a result, the energy saving and high efficient water purifier was fabricated in this study. This work was supported by the Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Korean government (MEST) (No. 2013R1A2A2A01068653).

  18. Development of a Microwave Regenerative Sorbent-Based Hydrogen Purifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Richard R., Jr.; Dewberry, Ross H.; McCurry, Bryan D.; Abney, Morgan B.; Greenwood, Zachary W.

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the design and fabrication of a Microwave Regenerative Sorbent-based Hydrogen Purifier (MRSHP). This unique microwave powered technology was developed for the purification of a hydrogen stream produced by the Plasma Pyrolysis Assembly (PPA). The PPA is a hydrogen recovery (from methane) post processor for NASA's Sabatier-based carbon dioxide reduction process. Embodied in the Carbon dioxide Reduction Assembly (CRA), currently aboard the International Space Station (ISS), the Sabatier reaction employs hydrogen to catalytically recover oxygen, in the form of water, from respiratory carbon dioxide produced by the crew. This same approach is base-lined for future service in the Air Revitalization system on extended missions into deep space where resupply is not practical. Accordingly, manned exploration to Mars may only become feasible with further closure of the air loop as afforded by the greater hydrogen recovery permitted by the PPA with subsequent hydrogen purification. By utilizing the well-known high sorbate loading capacity of molecular sieve 13x, coupled with microwave dielectric heating phenomenon, MRSHP technology is employed as a regenerative filter for a contaminated hydrogen gas stream. By design, freshly regenerated molecular sieve 13x contained in the MRSHP will remove contaminants from the effluent of a 1-CM scale PPA for several hours prior to breakthrough. By reversing flow and pulling a relative vacuum the MRSHP prototype then uses 2.45 GHz microwave power, applied through a novel coaxial antenna array, to rapidly heat the sorbent bed and drive off the contaminants in a short duration vacuum/thermal contaminant desorption step. Finally, following rapid cooling via room temperature cold plates, the MRSHP is again ready to serve as a hydrogen filter.

  19. Correcting for purifying selection: an improved human mitochondrial molecular clock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Pedro; Ermini, Luca; Thomson, Noel; Mormina, Maru; Rito, Teresa; Röhl, Arne; Salas, Antonio; Oppenheimer, Stephen; Macaulay, Vincent; Richards, Martin B

    2009-06-01

    There is currently no calibration available for the whole human mtDNA genome, incorporating both coding and control regions. Furthermore, as several authors have pointed out recently, linear molecular clocks that incorporate selectable characters are in any case problematic. We here confirm a modest effect of purifying selection on the mtDNA coding region and propose an improved molecular clock for dating human mtDNA, based on a worldwide phylogeny of > 2000 complete mtDNA genomes and calibrating against recent evidence for the divergence time of humans and chimpanzees. We focus on a time-dependent mutation rate based on the entire mtDNA genome and supported by a neutral clock based on synonymous mutations alone. We show that the corrected rate is further corroborated by archaeological dating for the settlement of the Canary Islands and Remote Oceania and also, given certain phylogeographic assumptions, by the timing of the first modern human settlement of Europe and resettlement after the Last Glacial Maximum. The corrected rate yields an age of modern human expansion in the Americas at approximately 15 kya that-unlike the uncorrected clock-matches the archaeological evidence, but continues to indicate an out-of-Africa dispersal at around 55-70 kya, 5-20 ky before any clear archaeological record, suggesting the need for archaeological research efforts focusing on this time window. We also present improved rates for the mtDNA control region, and the first comprehensive estimates of positional mutation rates for human mtDNA, which are essential for defining mutation models in phylogenetic analyses.

  20. Positive and purifying selection on the Drosophila Y chromosome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Nadia D; Koerich, Leonardo B; Carvalho, Antonio Bernardo; Clark, Andrew G

    2014-10-01

    Y chromosomes, with their reduced effective population size, lack of recombination, and male-limited transmission, present a unique collection of constraints for the operation of natural selection. Male-limited transmission may greatly increase the efficacy of selection for male-beneficial mutations, but the reduced effective size also inflates the role of random genetic drift. Together, these defining features of the Y chromosome are expected to influence rates and patterns of molecular evolution on the Y as compared with X-linked or autosomal loci. Here, we use sequence data from 11 genes in 9 Drosophila species to gain insight into the efficacy of natural selection on the Drosophila Y relative to the rest of the genome. Drosophila is an ideal system for assessing the consequences of Y-linkage for molecular evolution in part because the gene content of Drosophila Y chromosomes is highly dynamic, with orthologous genes being Y-linked in some species whereas autosomal in others. Our results confirm the expectation that the efficacy of natural selection at weakly selected sites is reduced on the Y chromosome. In contrast, purifying selection on the Y chromosome for strongly deleterious mutations does not appear to be compromised. Finally, we find evidence of recurrent positive selection for 4 of the 11 genes studied here. Our results thus highlight the variable nature of the mode and impact of natural selection on the Drosophila Y chromosome. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Fat lowers fat: purified phospholipids as emerging therapies for dyslipidemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahebkar, Amirhossein

    2013-04-01

    Dyslipidemia is a major coronary heart disease (CHD) risk factor. In spite of the proven efficacy of statin drugs in reducing CHD burden, there is still much room for the discovery of novel therapeutic agents to address the considerable residual cardiovascular risk that remains after treatment with currently available medications. In particular, there is an urgent demand for drugs capable of boosting the concentration and/or function of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and apolipoprotein A-I (apo A-I), thereby promoting reverse cholesterol transport. Phospholipids are naturally occurring fats that play indispensible role in human health via their structural, energy storage, signal transduction and metabolic functions. Supplementation with either purified or mixed preparations of bioactive phospholipids has been reported to ameliorate a range of nutritional and cardiovascular disorders. Moreover, several lines of evidence have supported the efficacy of dietary phospholipids in reducing serum and hepatic contents of cholesterol and triglycerides, while increasing HDL-C and apo A-I levels. These beneficial effects of phospholipids could be attributed to their ability in reducing intestinal cholesterol absorption, enhancing biliary cholesterol excretion and modulating the expression and activity of transcriptional factors and enzymes that are involved in lipoprotein metabolism. Given their extreme safety and biocompatibility, dietary supplementation with phospholipid preparations, in particular phosphatidylinositol, appears as a novel and effective strategy that could be used as an alternative or adjunctive therapy to the current medications. The present review outlines the in-vitro, in-vivo and clinical findings on the anti-dyslipidemic effects of three most abundant phospholipids in the human body and diet namely phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylinositol.

  2. Purifier-integrated methanol reformer for fuel cell vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jaesung; Kim, Il-soo; Choi, Keun-Sup

    We developed a compact, 3-kW, purifier-integrated modular reformer which becomes the building block of full-scale 30-kW or 50-kW methanol fuel processors for fuel cell vehicles. Our proprietary technologies regarding hydrogen purification by composite metal membrane and catalytic combustion by washcoated wire-mesh catalyst were combined with the conventional methanol steam-reforming technology, resulting in higher conversion, excellent quality of product hydrogen, and better thermal efficiency than any other systems using preferential oxidation. In this system, steam reforming, hydrogen purification, and catalytic combustion all take place in a single reactor so that the whole system is compact and easy to operate. Hydrogen from the module is ultrahigh pure (99.9999% or better), hence there is no power degradation of PEMFC stack due to contamination by CO. Also, since only pure hydrogen is supplied to the anode of the PEMFC stack, 100% hydrogen utilization is possible in the stack. The module produces 2.3 Nm 3/h of hydrogen, which is equivalent to 3 kW when PEMFC has 43% efficiency. Thermal efficiency (HHV of product H 2/HHV of MeOH in) of the module is 89% and the power density of the module is 0.77 kW/l. This work was conducted in cooperation with Hyundai Motor Company in the form of a Korean national project. Currently the module is under test with an actual fuel cell stack in order to verify its performance. Sooner or later a full-scale 30-kW system will be constructed by connecting these modules in series and parallel and will serve as the fuel processor for the Korean first fuel cell hybrid vehicle.

  3. Optimization of freeze drying conditions for purified pectinase from mango (Mangifera indica cv. Chokanan) peel

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mehrnoush, Amid; Mustafa, Shuhaimi; Yazid, Abdul Manap Mohd

    2012-01-01

    Response surface methodology (RSM) along with central composite design (CCD) was applied to optimize the freeze drying conditions for purified pectinase from mango (Mangifera indica cv. Chokanan) peel...

  4. Hypolipidemic activities of xanthorrhizol purified from centrifugal TLC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oon, Seok Fang; Nallappan, Meenakshii; Kassim, Nur Kartinee; Shohaimi, Shamarina; Sa'ariwijaya, Mohd Shazrul Fazry; Tee, Thiam Tsui; Cheah, Yew Hoong

    2016-09-23

    Hyperlipidemia is defined as the presence of either hypertriglyceridemia or hypercholesterolemia, which could cause atherosclerosis. Although hyperlipidemia can be treated by hypolipidemic drugs, they are limited due to lack of effectiveness and safety. Previous studies demonstrated that xanthorrhizol (XNT) isolated from Curcuma xanthorrhizza Roxb. reduced the levels of free fatty acid and triglyceride in vivo. However, its ability to inhibit cholesterol uptake in HT29 colon cells and adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells are yet to be reported. In this study, XNT purified from centrifugal TLC demonstrated 98.3% purity, indicating it could be an alternative purification method. The IC50 values of XNT were 30.81 ± 0.78 μg/mL in HT29 cells and 35.07 ± 0.24 μg/mL in 3T3-L1 adipocytes, respectively. Cholesterol uptake inhibition study using HT29 colon cells showed that XNT (15 μg/mL) significantly inhibited the fluorescent cholesterol analogue NBD uptake by up to 27 ± 3.1% relative to control. On the other hand, higher concentration of XNT (50 μg/mL) significantly suppressed the growth of 3T3-L1 adipocytes (5.9 ± 0.58%) compared to 3T3-L1 preadipocytes (81.31 ± 0.55%). XNT was found to impede adipogenesis of 3T3-L1 adipocytes in a dose-dependent manner from 3.125 to 12.5 μg/mL, where 12.5 μg/mL significantly suppressed 36.13 ± 2.1% of lipid accumulation. We postulate that inhibition of cholesterol uptake, adipogenesis, preadipocyte and adipocyte number may be utilized as treatment modalities to reduce the prevalence of lipidemia. To conclude, XNT could be a potential hypolipidemic agent to improve cardiovascular health in the future. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Properties of serine: glyoxylate aminotransferase purified from Arabidopsis thaliana leaves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Maria Kendziorek; Andrzej Paszkowski

    2008-01-01

    The photorespiratory enzyme L-serine: glyoxylate aminotransferase (SGAT; EC 2.6.1.45) was purified from Arabidopsis thaliana leaves. The final enzyme was approximately 80% pure as revealed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis with silver staining. The identity of the enzyme was confirmed by LC/MS/MS analysis.The molecular mass estimated by gel filtration chromatography on Sephadex G-150 under non-denaturing conditions, mass spectrometry (matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization/time of flight technique) and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis was 82.4 kDa,42.0 kDa, and 39.8 kDa, respectively, indicating dimer as the active form. The optimum Ph value was 9.2. The enzyme activity was inhibited by aminooxyacetate and β-chloro-L-alanine both compounds reacting with the carbonyl group of pyridoxal phosphate. The enzyme's transaminating activity with L-alanine and glyoxylate as substrates was approximately 55% of that observed with L-serine and glyoxylate, The lower Km value (1.25 Mm) for L-alanine, compared with that of other plant SGATs, and the kcat/Km(Ala) ratio being approximately 2-fold higher than kcat/Km(Ser) suggested that, during photorespiration, Ala and Ser are used by Arabidopsis SGAT with equal efficiency as amino group donors for glyoxylate. The equilibrium constant (Keq), derived from the Haldane relation, for the transamination reaction between L-serine and glyoxylate with the formation of hydroxypyruvate and glycine was 79.1, strongly favoring glycine synthesis. However, it was accompanied by a low Km value of 2.83 Mm for glycine. A comparison of some kinetic properties of the studied enzymes with the recombinant Arabidopsis SGATs previously obtained revealed substantial differences. The ratio of the velocity of the transamination reaction with L-alanine and glyoxylate as substrates versus that with L-serine and glyoxylate was 1:1.8 for the native enzyme, whereas it was 1: 7 for the recombinant SGAT

  6. [Effects of hydroxyl radicals on purified angiotensin I converting enzyme].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, B; Nirina, L B; Grima, M; Ingert, C; Coquard, C; Barthelmebs, M; Imbs, J L

    1998-08-01

    Somatic angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) is a protein which contains two similar domains (N and C), each possessing a functional active site. The relationship between ACE, its natural substrates and oxygen free radicals is starting to be explored. On one hand, superoxide anions production is induced by angiotensin II and on the other hand, activated polynuclear neutrophils, through free radicals generation, alter endothelial ACE activity. In this study, we examined the impact of hydroxyl radicals (.OH) on purified ACE. .OH were produced using a generator: 2,2'-azo-bis 2-amidinopropane (GRH) provided by Lara-Spiral (Fr). GRH (3 mM), in a time-dependent fashion, inhibited ACE activity. When ACE was co-incubated for 4 h with GRH, its activity decreased by 70%. Addition of dimethylthiourea (DMTU: 0.03 to 1 mM) or mannitol + methionine (20/10 mM), two sets of .OH scavengers, produced a dose-dependent protection on ACE activity. To examine whether oxidation of thiol groups in the ACE molecule could be involved in the action of GRH, the effects of thiol reducing agents: mercaptoethanol and dithiotreitol (DTT) were investigated. These compounds produced a dose-dependent and significant protection; with 100% protection at 0.2 and 0.3 mM for mercaptoethanol and at 0.1 mM for DTT. The hydrolysis of two natural and domain-specific substrates were also explored. The hydrolysis of angiotensin I preferentially cleaved by the C domain was significantly (p GRH [in nmol angio II formed/min/nmol of ACE, n = 4; 35.9 +/- 0.6 (control), 15.5 +/- 2.8 (GRH : 0.3 mM), 15.1 +/- 0.5 (1), 10.9 +/- 0.6 (3)]. The hydrolysis of the hemoregulatory peptide (hp), preferential substrate for the N domain was not affected by GRH at 0.3 mM and inhibited by 28% (not significant) by 1 mM GRH [in nmol ph hydrolized/min/nmol ACE, n = 4; 12.6 +/- 1.9 (control), 14.9 (GRH : 0.3 mM), 8.3 +/- 4.0 (1). These results demonstrated that .OH affect ACE activity and could suggest a privileged impact of GRH on the

  7. 连续多次单采血浆者低密度脂蛋白及相关复合物的氧化易感性分析%The Plasma Oxidative Susceptibility of LDL, LDL Level in Long-term Successive Plasmapheresis Donors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牛冬梅; 吴嘉; 于瑞杰; 孙晓君; 汪俊军

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨连续多次单采血浆者氧化低密度脂蛋白(ox-LDL)、β2-糖蛋白Ⅰ/氧化低密度脂蛋白(β2-GPI/ox-LDL)复合物的水平,并分析其体内低密度脂蛋白(LDL)的氧化易感性.方法 分别检测60例连续多次单采血浆者和60例初次血浆单采者的ox-LDL、β2-GPI/ox-LDL复合物的水平,同时分析其LDL氧化易感性的变化.结果 与初次血浆单采者相比,连续多次单采血浆者的血浆ox-LDL、β2-GPI/ox-LDL复合物水平的差异均无统计学意义,其LDL氧化延滞时间延长、氧化速率及总氧化值下降,但差异均无统计学意义.结论 连续多次的血浆单采对体内ox-LDL、β2-GPI/ox-LDL复合物的水平以及LDL氧化易感性均无明显影响,不会增加其心血管疾病的风险.%Objectives To investigate the changes of plasma oxidized LDL (ox-LDL), β2-glycoprotein I with ox-LDL (β2-GPI/ox-LDL) levels and low density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidative susceptibility in long-term intensive plasmapheresis donors. Methods The plasma levels of ox-LDL and β2-GPI/ox-LDL were determined in 60 intensive plasmapheresis donors and 60 first-time donors, and their plasma susceptibility of LDL to in vitro oxidation was also measured. Results No significant differences were found in plasma ox-LDL and β2-GPI/ox-LDL levels between the individuals undergoing long-term intensive plasmapheresis and the first-time donors. The lag time, maximal oxidation rate and total amount of conjugated dienes of LDL oxidizability were lower in intensive plasmapheresis donors, but the changes were not significant statistically. Conclusions Long-term intensive donor plasmapheresis has no statistcal effect on the plasma LDL oxidative susceptibility, ox-LDL and β2-GPI/ox-LDL levels, meanwhile successive plasma demation will not result in increasing of cardiovascular risk.

  8. Studies on Purification of Methamidophos Monoclonal Antibodies and Comoarative Immunoactivity of Purified Antibodies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SU-QING ZHAO; YUAN-MING SUN; CHUN-YAN ZHANG; XIAO-YU HUANG; HOU-RUI ZHANG; ZHEN-YU ZHU

    2003-01-01

    Objective To purify Methamidophos (Met) monoclonal antibodies with two methods andcompare immune activity of purified antibodies. Method Caprylic acid ammonium sulphateprecipition (CAASP) method and Sepharose protein-A (SPA) affinity chromatography method wereused to purify Met monoclonal antibodies, UV spectrum scanning was used to determine proteincontent and recovery of purified antibodies, sodium dodecylsulphate polyacrylamide gelelectrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) was used to analyze the purity of purified antibodies, and enzyme-linkedimmunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to determine immune activity of purified antibodies.Results Antibody protein content and recovery rate with CAASP method were 7.62 mg/mL and8.05% respectively, antibody protein content and recovery rate with SPA method were 6.45 mg/mLand 5.52% respectively. Purity of antibodies purified by SPA method was higher than that by CAASPmethod. The half-maximal inhibition concentration (IC50) of antibodies purified by SPA to Met was181.26 μg/mL, and the linear working range and the limit of quantification (LOD) were 2.43-3896.01μg/mL and 1.03 μg/mL, respectively. The IC50 of antibodies purified by CAASP to Met was 352.82μg/mL, and the linear working range and LOD were 10.91-11412.29 ug/mL and 3.42 μg/mL,respectively. Conclusion Antibodies purified by SPA method are better than those by CAASPmethod, and Met monoclonal antibodies purified by SPA method can be used to prepare gold-labelledtesting paper for analyzing Met residue in vegetable and drink water.

  9. Characterization of crude and purified pumpkin seed oil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsaknis, John

    1997-10-01

    Full Text Available Oil from hulled pumpkin seeds (Cucurbita pepo and Cucurbita Maxima was extracted with hot petroleum ether, and then it was degummed, neutralized and bleached, consecutively Physical and chemical characteristics of crude and purified oils were determined. Density, refractive index, viscosity and peroxide value were not affected by purification, while decreases in acidity, colour, unsaponifiable, E1%1cm 232, and oxidative stability, and increases in smoke point and E1%1cm 270 were observed. Purification did not affect the fatty acid and sterol profiles. GLC analysis for the fatty acid composition of the seed oil showed that the predominant unsaturates were linoleic (42% and oleic (38%, while the major saturates were palmitic (12,7% and stearic (6%. Only α-tocopherol was detected at a level of 126 mg/kg, which reduced to 78 mg/kg after purification. The main sterols of pumpkin seed oil unsaponifiable were Δ7.22,25 -stigmastatrien-3β-ol, α-spinasterol, Δ7,25_stigmastadienol and Δ7-avenasterol, followed by stigmasterol, 24-methylcholest-7-enol and Δ7-stigmastenol, and also trace to minor amounts of cholesterol, brassicasterol, campesterol, sitostanol, Δ5-avenasterol, erythrodiol and uvaol were found.

    Aceite de semillas de calabaza descascarada (Cucurbita pepo YCucurbita maxima fue extraído con éter de petróleo caliente, y luego desgomado, neutralizado y decolorado consecutivamente. Las características físicas y químicas de aceites crudo y purificado fueron determinadas. La densidad, el índice de refracción, la viscosidad y el índice de peróxido no se afectaron por la purificación, mientras que se observó una disminución en la acidez, color, insaponificable, E1%1cm 232, y estabilidad oxidativa, y un aumento en el punto de humo y de E1%1cm270. La purificaci

  10. An experimental study on the anti-Ehrlich ascites carcinoma effect of purified toad venom extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this paper was to study the anti-Ehrlich ascites carcinoma effect of purified toad venom extract and its mechanism. Mouse model of Ehrlich ascites carcinoma was established with cisplatin as the control to observe the inhibitory effect of purified toad venom extract on malignant peritoneal effusion in mice. The results showed that compared with the control group, ascites volume, number of tumour cells and tumour cell viability decreased and ascites inhibition rate reached over 50% in each treatment group, and with the increase of the dose, incidence of ascites showed a downward trend. The number of tumour cells in ascites and tumour cell viability in the purified toad venom high-dose group were lower than those of the cisplatin group. Compared with the model group, survival time was prolonged in varying degrees in the purified toad venom groups and cisplatin group. The study concluded that purified extract of toad venom has an anti-Ehrlich ascites carcinoma effect.

  11. Kinetic analysis of competition between aerosol particle removal and generation by ionization air purifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alshawa, Ahmad; Russell, Ashley R; Nizkorodov, Sergey A

    2007-04-01

    Ionization air purifiers are increasingly used to remove aerosol particles from indoor air. However, certain ionization air purifiers also emit ozone. Reactions between the emitted ozone and unsaturated volatile organic compounds (VOC) commonly found in indoor air produce additional respirable aerosol particles in the ultrafine (air purifiers under conditions of a typical residential building. This model predicts that certain widely used ionization air purifiers may actually increase the mass concentration of fine and ultrafine particulates in the presence of common unsaturated VOC, such as limonene contained in many household cleaning products. This prediction is supported by an explicit observation of ultrafine particle nucleation events caused by the addition of D-limonene to a ventilated office room equipped with a common ionization air purifier.

  12. [Removal of formaldehyde with novel packed air purifier and its computational simulation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yu-hua; Wang, Kun; Zhao, Qing-liang; Zhang, Li-wei; Yuan, Chung-shin

    2008-09-01

    A novel air purifier was designed for the removal of indoor formaldehyde. The air purifier was filled with glass beads (3 mm) coated with TiO2. The removal efficiency of this air purifier was examined in an airtight room. The results showed that 87.0%-93.8% of the formaldehyde was removed for the initial formaldehyde concentration of 0.727-1.815 mg/m3. The reaction rate equation of the air purifier was developed. The simulation of single device of the air purifier suggested the uniformity of the air flow in the device. Besides, a mathematical model to simulate the variation of formaldehyde in a room was constructed, in which there was continuous formaldehyde emission source and the air purifier was operated. The simulation result was also proved by the experimental data. The results revealed that using the air purifier at intervals could steadily keep the formaldehyde concentration below the National Air Quality Standard of China, i.e. 0.1 mg/m3.

  13. Design of the Helium Purifier for IHEP-ADS Helium Purification System

    CERN Document Server

    Jianqin, Zhang; Zhuo, Zhang; Rui, Ge

    2015-01-01

    Helium Purification System is an important sub-system in the Accelerator Driven Subcritical System of the Institute of High Energy Physics(IHEP ADS). The purifier is designed to work at the temperature of 77K. The purifier will work in a flow rate of 5g/s at 20MPa in continuous operation of 12 hours. The oil and moisture are removed by coalescing filters and a dryer, while nitrogen and oxygen are condensed by a phase separator and then adsorbed in several activated carbon adsorption cylinders. After purification, the purified helium has an impurity content of less than 5ppm.

  14. EXTRACTION KINETICS OF YTTRIUM WITH PURIFIED CYANEX 923 FROM NITRATE MEDIUM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    H. Tong; Y.G. Wang; J.H. Lei; D.Q. Li; P. Tang

    2003-01-01

    Mass transfer and extraction kinetics of yttrium with the purified Cyanex 923 in nheptane from nitrate medium have been investigated by using a constant interfacial cell with laminar flow at 298K. The interfacial adsorption properties of purified Cyanex 923-heptane-0. 20mol/L (H, Na)NO3 were studied at 298K. The experimental results show that the mass transfer is controlled by diffusion and the chemical reactions are carried out in the interfacial zone. The extraction rates of yttrium were measured at different chemical compositions by varying ionic strength, pH values and the purified Cyanex 923 concentrations. The initial extraction rate equations were obtained.

  15. Cellufine sulfate column chromatography as a simple, rapid, and effective method to purify dengue virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanlaya, Rattiyaporn; Thongboonkerd, Visith

    2016-08-01

    Conventional method to purify/concentrate dengue virus (DENV) is time-consuming with low virus recovery yield. Herein, we applied cellufine sulfate column chromatography to purify/concentrate DENV based on the mimicry between heparan sulfate and DENV envelope protein. Comparative analysis demonstrated that this new method offered higher purity (as determined by less contamination of bovine serum albumin) and recovery yield (as determined by greater infectivity). Moreover, overall duration used for cellufine sulfate column chromatography to purify/concentrate DENV was approximately 1/20 of that of conventional method. Therefore, cellufine sulfate column chromatography serves as a simple, rapid, and effective alternative method for DENV purification/concentration.

  16. Corrugated waveguide mode purifier for TEM output in a dual-mode operation overmoded coaxial millimeter-wave generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Zhen; Zhang, Jun; Zhong, Huihuang; Zhang, Dian

    2017-01-01

    A coaxial corrugated waveguide mode purifier is designed for a dual-mode operation overmoded coaxial millimeter-wave generator. With the purifier, the mixed TEM and TM01 modes output are purified into a pure TEM mode. Particle-in-cell (PIC) simulation shows that the purifier would not decrease the total output power of the generator, and plays an independent role to the upstream structure. Effects of mode composition ratio and phase difference on the purification ability of the purifier are also researched by both electromagnetism and PIC simulations, which show that the purifier has a certain tolerance for both the mode composition ratio and phase difference.

  17. Novel tubular and crystalline structures in purified preparations of Newcastle disease virus. Brief report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowans, E J; McNulty, M S

    1979-01-01

    Hitherto undescribed tubular and crystalline structures were detected by negative contrast electron microscopy in purified preparations of Newcastle disease virus. It is suggested that these are viral in origin and are composed of aggregates of viral glycoprotein.

  18. Experimental studies on removal of airborne haloanisoles by non-thermal plasma air purifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fang, Lei; Hallam, David; Bermúdez, Raúl

    2016-01-01

    A laboratory study was conducted to test the performance of non-thermal plasma air purifiers on its removal effectiveness of two haloanisoles – 2,4,6-trichloroanisole (TCA) and 2,4,6-Tribromoanisole (TBA). TCA and TBA are the two major compounds found in wine cellars that can contaminate wine...... to produce unpalatable mouldy and musty tastes. The test was first conducted in a climate chamber. The plasma air purifier was installed in a test rig developed for the testing and challenged by airflow with certain concentrations of TCA and TBA. Air samples upstream and downstream of the air purifier...... was collected by Tenax tubes and the concentration of TCA and TBA were analyzed by thermal desorption GC–MS. The results showed that the plasma air purifier was effective on removing TCA and TBA with a single pass efficiency of better than 82%. The effect was further validated in a wine cellar under a realistic...

  19. Lipohypertrophy and lipoatrophy complicating treatment with highly purified bovine and porcine insulins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNally, P G; Jowett, N I; Kurinczuk, J J; Peck, R W; Hearnshaw, J R

    1988-11-01

    Lipoatrophy and lipohypertrophy were the most frequently reported local complications of conventional insulin therapy. Early reports following the introduction of highly purified insulins suggested a reduction in the frequency of lipohypertrophy and lipoatrophy. Since highly purified insulins have been in common usage for 10 years, the present frequency of these complications was assessed in a study of 281 insulin treated diabetics. Lipohypertrophy was recorded in 76 (27.1%) patients including 3 with associated lipoatrophy. Lipoatrophy was found in 7 (2.5%) cases (3 porcine and 4 bovine insulin treated), 4 of which had only ever used highly purified insulins. Despite the introduction of highly purified insulins, lipohypertrophy and lipoatrophy remain prevalent in insulin treated patients. This common complication may be limited by routinely inspecting injection sites.

  20. A novel, inducible, citral lyase purified from spores of Penicillium digitatum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolken, W.A.M.; Loo, W.J.V. van; Tramper, J.; Werf, M.J. van der

    2002-01-01

    A novel lyase, combining hydratase and aldolase activity, that converts citral into methylheptenone and acetaldehyde, was purified from spores of Penicillium digitatum. Remarkably, citral lyase activity was induced 118-fold by incubating nongerminating spores with the substrate, citral. This cofacto

  1. Integrated Microchannel Reformer/Hydrogen Purifier for Fuel Cell Power Systems Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Makel Engineering, Inc. (MEI) and Colorado School of Mines (CSM) propose to develop an integrated hydrogen generator and purifier system for conversion of in-situ...

  2. 76 FR 3159 - Purified Carboxymethylcellulose From Finland, Mexico, Netherlands, and Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Purified Carboxymethylcellulose From Finland, Mexico, Netherlands, and Sweden AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Revised schedule for the subject reviews. DATES:...

  3. A novel, inducible, citral lyase purified from spores of Penicillium digitatum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolken, W.A.M.; Loo, W.J.V. van; Tramper, J.; Werf, M.J. van der

    2002-01-01

    A novel lyase, combining hydratase and aldolase activity, that converts citral into methylheptenone and acetaldehyde, was purified from spores of Penicillium digitatum. Remarkably, citral lyase activity was induced 118-fold by incubating nongerminating spores with the substrate, citral. This

  4. 75 FR 3444 - Purified Carboxymethylcellulose From Finland: Extension of Time Limit for Preliminary Results of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Purified Carboxymethylcellulose From Finland: Extension of Time Limit for Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review AGENCY: Import Administration,...

  5. Integrated Microchannel Reformer/Hydrogen Purifier for Fuel Cell Power Systems Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Makel Engineering, Inc. (MEI) supported by Lockheed Martin and the Colorado School of Mines (CSM) propose to develop an integrated hydrogen generator and purifier...

  6. An Experiment with Air Purifiers in Delhi during Winter 2015-2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyas, Sangita

    2016-01-01

    Particulate pollution has important consequences for human health, and is an issue of global concern. Outdoor air pollution has become a cause for alarm in India in particular because recent data suggest that ambient pollution levels in Indian cities are some of the highest in the world. We study the number of particles between 0.5μm and 2.5μm indoors while using affordable air purifiers in the highly polluted city of Delhi. Though substantial reductions in indoor number concentrations are observed during air purifier use, indoor air quality while using an air purifier is frequently worse than in cities with moderate pollution, and often worse than levels observed even in polluted cities. When outdoor pollution levels are higher, on average, indoor pollution levels while using an air purifier are also higher. Moreover, the ratio of indoor air quality during air purifier use to two comparison measures of air quality without an air purifier are also positively correlated with outdoor pollution levels, suggesting that as ambient air quality worsens there are diminishing returns to improvements in indoor air quality during air purifier use. The findings of this study indicate that although the most affordable air purifiers currently available are associated with significant improvements in the indoor environment, they are not a replacement for public action in regions like Delhi. Although private solutions may serve as a stopgap, reducing ambient air pollution must be a public health and policy priority in any region where air pollution is as high as Delhi’s during the winter. PMID:27978542

  7. Cost and Operational Effectiveness Analysis (COEA) for the Lightweight Water Purifier (LWP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    requirement for a Lightweight Water Purifier (LWP). Data and information from this COEA is intended to support a Milestone Decision Review ( MDR I/I1) planned... MDR ) with suitable information and analysis to enable them to: (1) Select from among the designated Lightweight Water Purifier (LWP) alternatives and...Service field water quality standards contained in Technical Bulletin, Medical ( TB MED 577). The LWP falls within the Combat Service Support (CSS

  8. 血浆置换-血液滤过序贯救治重症毒蘑菇中毒的疗效观察与护理%Observation of the curative effect and nursing of the plasmapheresis-hemofiltration sequential treatment in curing severe poisonous mushroom poisoning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李鑫; 肖向莉; 张欣; 王丽; 佘兴红

    2016-01-01

    目的::了解血浆置换-血液滤过序贯用于救治重症毒蘑菇中毒及肝、肾等多脏器功能损伤的临床疗效与护理措施。方法:2010年1月~2014年10月对我院收治的11例重症毒蘑菇中毒患儿在常规治疗的同时,采取血浆置换-血液滤过序贯治疗并实施护理。结果:1例死亡,2例因经济原因自动出院,其余8例均治愈。结论:使用血浆置换-血液滤过序贯对救治重症毒蘑菇中毒及多系统功能损伤患者疗效显著。%Objective:To know the curative effect and nursing of the plasmapheresis-hemofiltration sequential treatment in curing severe poisonous mush-room poisoning and the functional injuries of the liver,the kidney and other viscera. Methods:Take the plasma exchange we adopted the plasmapheresis-hemofiltration sequential treatment for 11 children patient of severe poisonous mushroom poisoning received in our hospital from January 2010 to October 2014 while applying conventional therapies to them. Results:One child died,two left the hospital automatically for economic reasons; and the other eight children were all cured. Conclusion:There will be significant effect in curing severe poisonous mushroom poisoning and functional injuries of multi-systems with the plasmapheresis-hemofiltration sequential treatment.

  9. [Diurnal variations in purifying-tanks when use Pontederia cordata treating the Malodorous River water].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jian-jun; Lu, Xiao-ming; Lu, Shao-yong; Jin, Xiang-can; Huang, Min-sheng; Zhang, Yong; Zhao, Feng

    2009-12-01

    Aquatic plants (Ponsederie cordaza) were waked in two purifying-tanks to investigate the effects of illumination intensity and aeration on diurnal variations of Chla, SP, POD of Ponsederia cordaza and pH, DO, COD, NH4+ -N, TP of water from purifying-tanks when treating the malodorous river water at seven different times, another blank purifying-tank was set as a control. Comparative studies and correlation analysis of these different indicators were carried out to improve the plants working efficiency and provide scientific basis for optimal operation of plant purifying-tanks. Results showed that all indicators affected by changes of light, TP shows best correlation coefficient Cr = 0.93, p tank;aeration is necessary as diurnal average of DO shows an increase of 0.13 mg/L by treatment of plant meanwhile 1.8 mg/L by plant with aeration,purifying-tanks with aeration got 7.1%, 6.3% higher removing rates of COD, NH4+ -N and 38% less TP removing rate than non-aeration plant purifying-tanks (p tanks.

  10. Effect of Purified Mushroom Tyrosinase on Melanin Content and Melanogenic Protein Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamal Uddin Zaidi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In mammalian melanocytes, melanosome is a highly specialized organelle where melanin is synthesized. Melanin synthesis is controlled by tyrosinase, the vital enzyme in melanogenic pathway. The present investigation is based on an effect of purified mushroom tyrosinase of Agaricus bisporus on B16F10 melanocytes for the melanin production via blocking pigment cell machinery. Using B16F10 melanocytes showed that the stimulation of melanogenesis by purified tyrosinase is due to increased tyrosinase absorption. Cellular tyrosinase activity and melanin content in B16F10 melanocytes were increased by purified tyrosinase in a dose-dependent manner. Western blot analysis revealed that cellular tyrosinase levels were enhanced after treatment with purified tyrosinase for 48 hours. Furthermore, tyrosinase induced phosphorylation of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB in a dose-dependent manner. The purified tyrosinase-mediated increase of tyrosinase activity was significantly attenuated by H89, LY294002, Ro-32-0432, and PD98059, cAMP-dependent protein kinase inhibitors. The results indicate that purified tyrosinase can be used as contestant for the treatment of vitiligous skin conditions.

  11. Effect of Purified Mushroom Tyrosinase on Melanin Content and Melanogenic Protein Expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Ayesha S.

    2016-01-01

    In mammalian melanocytes, melanosome is a highly specialized organelle where melanin is synthesized. Melanin synthesis is controlled by tyrosinase, the vital enzyme in melanogenic pathway. The present investigation is based on an effect of purified mushroom tyrosinase of Agaricus bisporus on B16F10 melanocytes for the melanin production via blocking pigment cell machinery. Using B16F10 melanocytes showed that the stimulation of melanogenesis by purified tyrosinase is due to increased tyrosinase absorption. Cellular tyrosinase activity and melanin content in B16F10 melanocytes were increased by purified tyrosinase in a dose-dependent manner. Western blot analysis revealed that cellular tyrosinase levels were enhanced after treatment with purified tyrosinase for 48 hours. Furthermore, tyrosinase induced phosphorylation of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) response element-binding protein (CREB) in a dose-dependent manner. The purified tyrosinase-mediated increase of tyrosinase activity was significantly attenuated by H89, LY294002, Ro-32-0432, and PD98059, cAMP-dependent protein kinase inhibitors. The results indicate that purified tyrosinase can be used as contestant for the treatment of vitiligous skin conditions. PMID:27699070

  12. Can a photocatalytic air purifier be used to improve the perceived air quality indoors?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolarik, Jakub; Wargocki, Pawel

    2010-01-01

    The effect of a photocatalytic air purifier on perceived air quality(PAQ) was examined in rooms polluted by typical sources of indoor pollution.The rooms were ventilated at three different outdoor air supply rates. The air quality was assessed by a sensory panel when the purifier was in operation...... that the photocatalytic air purifier can supplement ventilation when the indoor air is polluted by building- related sources, but should not be used in spaces where human bioeffluents constitute the main source of pollution.......The effect of a photocatalytic air purifier on perceived air quality(PAQ) was examined in rooms polluted by typical sources of indoor pollution.The rooms were ventilated at three different outdoor air supply rates. The air quality was assessed by a sensory panel when the purifier was in operation...... monitors. The effect cor-responded to approximately doubling the outdoor air supply rate. Operation of the purifier significantly worsened the PAQ in rooms with human bioeffluents, probably due to incomplete oxidation of alcohols which are one of the main pollutants emitted by humans. Present results show...

  13. Dimerization capacities of FGF2 purified with or without heparin-affinity chromatography.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Platonova

    Full Text Available Fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF2 is a pleiotropic growth factor exhibiting a variety of biological activities. In this article, we studied the capacity of FGF2 purified with or without heparin affinity chromatography to self-associate. Analyzing the NMR HSQC spectra for different FGF2 concentrations, heparin-affinity purified FGF2 showed perturbations that indicate dimerization and are a higher-order oligomerization state. HSQC perturbation observed with different FGF2 concentrations revealed a heparin-binding site and two dimer interfaces. Thus, with increasing protein concentrations, FGF2 monomers make contacts with each other and form dimers or higher order oligomers. On the contrary, FGF2 purified with ion-exchange chromatography did not show similar perturbation indicating that self-association of FGF2 is eliminated if purification is done without heparin-affinity chromatography. The HSQC spectra of heparin-affinity purified FGF2 can be reproduced to some extent by adding heparin tetra-saccharide to ion exchange chromatography purified FGF2. Heparin-affinity purified FGF2 bound to acceptor and donor beads in a tagged form using His-tagged or GST-tagged proteins, also dimerized in the AlphaScreen™ assay. This assay was further validated using different experimental conditions and competitors. The assay constitutes an interesting tool to study dimerization of other FGF forms as well.

  14. Caspase inhibitors of the P35 family are more active when purified from yeast than bacteria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingo L Brand

    Full Text Available Many insect viruses express caspase inhibitors of the P35 superfamily, which prevent defensive host apoptosis to enable viral propagation. The prototypical P35 family member, AcP35 from Autographa californica M nucleopolyhedrovirus, has been extensively studied. Bacterially purified AcP35 has been previously shown to inhibit caspases from insect, mammalian and nematode species. This inhibition occurs via a pseudosubstrate mechanism involving caspase-mediated cleavage of a "reactive site loop" within the P35 protein, which ultimately leaves cleaved P35 covalently bound to the caspase's active site. We observed that AcP35 purifed from Saccharomyces cerevisae inhibited caspase activity more efficiently than AcP35 purified from Escherichia coli. This differential potency was more dramatic for another P35 family member, MaviP35, which inhibited human caspase 3 almost 300-fold more potently when purified from yeast than bacteria. Biophysical assays revealed that MaviP35 proteins produced in bacteria and yeast had similar primary and secondary structures. However, bacterially produced MaviP35 possessed greater thermal stability and propensity to form higher order oligomers than its counterpart purified from yeast. Caspase 3 could process yeast-purified MaviP35, but failed to detectably cleave bacterially purified MaviP35. These data suggest that bacterially produced P35 proteins adopt subtly different conformations from their yeast-expressed counterparts, which hinder caspase access to the reactive site loop to reduce the potency of caspase inhibition, and promote aggregation. These data highlight the differential caspase inhibition by recombinant P35 proteins purified from different sources, and caution that analyses of bacterially produced P35 family members (and perhaps other types of proteins may underestimate their activity.

  15. Effectiveness of highly purified human menopausal gonadotropin in intra-uterine insemination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groeneveld, Els; Kouijzer, Ilse J E; Timmermans, Adriana J; Schats, Roel; Hompes, Peter G A

    2011-02-01

    In assisted reproductive techniques it is important to find a balance between high pregnancy and acceptable multiple pregnancy rates. In IVF treatment, stimulation with highly purified human menopausal gonadotropin (hMG) results in comparable or even higher pregnancy rates at lower oocyte yields compared to recombinant FSH. Since highly purified hMG contains LH activity, a number of the advantages of highly purified hMG may be attributed to this LH activity. In IUI treatment the effectiveness of highly purified hMG has been barely investigated. The aim of this study was to examine the effectiveness of highly purified hMG in IUI patients treated with a mild stimulation protocol. In this retrospective study 378 patients were included, receiving 1400 IUI cycles between January 2006 and December 2007. Patients were first treated with three subsequent natural cycles without controlled ovarian hyperstimulation, followed by three subsequent cycles stimulated with highly purified hMG. Primary outcomes were ongoing pregnancy rate and multifollicular growth. Secondary outcomes were multiple pregnancy and miscarriage rates. Primary and secondary outcomes were expressed in percentages with associated 95% confidence intervals (95%CI). Differences in the outcomes between natural and stimulated cycles were calculated using χ(2) tests. Statistical differences were determined at P < 0.05. Ongoing pregnancy rates increased from 6% (95%CI 4.7-7.7) per natural cycle to 7.4% (95%CI 5.2-10.3) per highly purified hMG stimulated cycle (p = 0.34). The highest ongoing pregnancy rate was observed in the fifth treatment cycle (10.8% (95%CI 6.6-17)), which is significantly higher than the ongoing pregnancy rate in the unstimulated group (p = 0.03). In the highly purified hMG group three (9.7% (95%CI 3.3-24.9)) of the ongoing pregnancies were twin pregnancies, in the unstimulated group there was one (1.7% (95%CI 0.3-9.0)) twin pregnancy (p = 0.08). Our results indicate that mild stimulation

  16. Performance Evaluation of Insulating Firebricks Produced from Hydrometallurgically Purified Termite Hill Clay Reinforced with Alumina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.O. Folorunso

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The performance of insulating firebricks produced from hydrometallurgically purified termite hill clay admixed with varying percentages of alumina cement has been qualitatively evaluated. A large quantity of termite hill clay was mined from a location on the campus of The Federal University of Technology, Akure (FUTA, Nigeria. The bulk of clay was washed in water, the deleterious shafts decanted, the slurry dried in sun for three days and later in the oven at 90 °C for eight hours. The dried clay was then crushed and ground to a fine size of 100 µm, being the average particle size upon the sieve size analysis. Sieved clay was purified hydrometallurgically at a predetermined condition; 1.6 mol/dm3 of oxalic acid at 90 °C for 150 min. and 200 rev/min agitation. Raw and purified clays were characterized using X-ray diffraction, Scanning Electron Microscopy and Transmission Electron Microscopy. Purified clay samples containing 5 – 20 % alumina were again fired at varying temperatures of 900 °C, 1100 °C, 1300 °C and 1500 °C and tested for some important refractory properties such as permanent linear change, modulus of rupture and permeability. Sample (purified clay + 10 % alumina fired at 1500 °C that exhibited the best combination of these properties was examined under scanning electron microscope to see the effect of heat and analyzed chemically using the X-ray fluorescence machine to know the precise compositions.

  17. COMPARITIVE STUDY OF RASAMANIKYA (AN AYURVEDIC FORMULATION WITH PURIFIED HARTALA (ORPIMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhamshetty Hariprasad

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Hartala (Orpiment is being in practice widely in Ayurvedic formulations in spite of its toxic nature. Rasamanikya is the drug prepared from only Hartala is proved to be much effective in various disorders like Vata-rakta (Gout, Kushtha (Skin disorders, Shwasa (Bronchial asthma, etc. This study was undertaken to understand the basic difference between these two forms of Arsenic. One is Hartala (As2S3 and Rasamanikya (As2S2. The study includes -1. Purification of Hartala (Orpiment 2. Preparation of Rasamanikya. and 3. Comparison of purified Hartala and Rasamanikya. Hartala purified with help of Juice of Kushmand i.e. Benincasa hispida Linn. by dolayantra (process of steaming Method. Rasamanikya prepared by four different methods and compared to get most standard product.On chemical analysis it was found that Arsenic percentage was highest in Rasamanikya prepared by electric bulb method and least when prepared in Abhraka patra samput. The percentage of Sulphur was found to be high when prepared in Abhrakapatra samput and least in Sharav Samput method. On comparing Purified Hartala and Rasamanikya it was found that there was reduction in bulk density, moisture content and ash value from purified Hartala to Rasamanikya. It shows that preparation of Rasamanikya from purified Hartala is its conversation in to easily absorbable and more potent form. On ESCA analysis it was found that there is no elemental arsenic present in both samples which is toxic in nature, but in the form of sulphide complex form.

  18. Evaluating purifying selection in the mitochondrial DNA of various mammalian species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Soares

    Full Text Available Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA, the circular DNA molecule inside the mitochondria of all eukaryotic cells, has been shown to be under the effect of purifying selection in several species. Traditional testing of purifying selection has been based simply on ratios of nonsynonymous to synonymous mutations, without considering the relative age of each mutation, which can be determined by phylogenetic analysis of this non-recombining molecule. The incorporation of a mutation time-ordering from phylogeny and of predicted pathogenicity scores for nonsynonymous mutations allow a quantitative evaluation of the effects of purifying selection in human mtDNA. Here, by using this additional information, we show that purifying selection undoubtedly acts upon the mtDNA of other mammalian species/genera, namely Bos sp., Canis lupus, Mus musculus, Orcinus orca, Pan sp. and Sus scrofa. The effects of purifying selection were comparable in all species, leading to a significant major proportion of nonsynonymous variants with higher pathogenicity scores in the younger branches of the tree. We also derive recalibrated mutation rates for age estimates of ancestors of these various species and proposed a correction curve in order to take into account the effects of selection. Understanding this selection is fundamental to evolutionary studies and to the identification of deleterious mutations.

  19. Quantification of ozone levels in indoor environments generated by ionization and ozonolysis air purifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britigan, Nicole; Alshawa, Ahmad; Nizkorodov, Sergey A

    2006-05-01

    Indoor air purifiers are advertised as safe household products for health-conscious individuals, especially for those suffering from allergies and asthma. However, certain air purifiers produce ozone (O3) during operation, either intentionally or as a byproduct of air ionization. This is a serious concern, because O3 is a criteria air pollutant regulated by health-related federal and state standards. Several types of air purifiers were tested for their ability to produce ozone in various indoor environments at 40-50% relative humidity, including office rooms, bathrooms, bedrooms, and cars. O3 levels generated by personal wearable air purifiers were also tested. In many cases, O3 concentrations were well in excess of public and/or industrial safety levels established by U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, California Air Resources Board, and Occupational Safety and Health Administration. Simple kinetic equations were obtained that can predict the steady-state level of O3 in a room from the O3 emission rate of the air purifier and the first-order decay rate of O3 in the room. The additivity of O3 levels generated by independent O3 generators was experimentally demonstrated.

  20. [An easy way to purify the inclusion body protein with high purity from prokaryotic expression cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Rong; Zhong, Qin-Ping; Jiang, Ming-Sen; Dong, Hui-Fen

    2011-10-01

    To clone partial ORF of SjBMP and to construct the recombinant SjBMP-pET-28a(+) plasmids, and then to transform them into the competent cells E. coli BL21 (DE3), finally a positive clone was used to be induced by IPTG. The bacterial aggregates with target protein expressed as inclusion bodies were purified by the methods of Ni(2+)-NTA affinity purification under denaturation condition and SDS-PAGE gel extraction. The purified protein was used to immune rabbits and make antiserum against the SjBMP, and the antiserum were then used to identify the rSjBMP by Western blotting. The target protein obtained by Ni(2+)-NTA Agarose affinity purification was not pure with unspecific proteins, but the protein further purified by SDS-PAGE gel extraction and the dialysis bag horizontal electrophoresis was quite pure, and the recovery rate was more than 11.0%. Meanwhile, Western blotting was used to identify the recombinant SjBMP protein by antiserum, only a specific single strip appeared, which suggested the protein purified by this method kept its antigenicity, and could be used for common immunological studies. Therefore, the SDS-PAGE gel extraction combining with electroosmosis and dialysis recycling are good and easy to purify the inclusion body proteins.

  1. The effect of a photocatalytic air purifier on indoor air quality quantified using different measuring methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolarik, Barbara; Wargocki, Pawel; Skorek-Osikowska, A.;

    2010-01-01

    The effect on indoor air quality of an air purifier based on photocatalytic oxidation (PCO) was determined by different measuring techniques: sensory assessments of air quality made by human subjects, Proton-Transfer-Reaction Mass Spectrometry (PTR-MS) and chromatographic methods (Gas...... Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry and High-Pressure Liquid Chromatography with UV detection). The experiment was conducted in a simulated office, ventilated with 0.6 h(-1), 2.5 h(-1) and 6 h(-1), in the presence of additional pollution sources (carpet, chipboard and linoleum). At the lowest air change rate......, additional measurements were made with no pollution sources present in the office. All conditions were tested with the photocatalytic air purifier turned on and off. The results show that operation of the air purifier in the presence of pollutants emitted by building materials and furniture improves indoor...

  2. Electrorefiner system for recovering purified metal from impure nuclear feed material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berger, John F.; Williamson, Mark A.; Wiedmeyer, Stanley G.; Willit, James L.; Barnes, Laurel A.; Blaskovitz, Robert J.

    2015-10-06

    An electrorefiner system according to a non-limiting embodiment of the present invention may include a vessel configured to maintain a molten salt electrolyte and configured to receive a plurality of alternately arranged cathode and anode assemblies. The anode assemblies are configured to hold an impure nuclear feed material. Upon application of the power system, the impure nuclear feed material is anodically dissolved and a purified metal is deposited on the cathode rods of the cathode assemblies. A scraper is configured to dislodge the purified metal deposited on the cathode rods. A conveyor system is disposed at a bottom of the vessel and configured to remove the dislodged purified metal from the vessel.

  3. Immunogenicity of a purified fragment of 17D yellow fever envelope protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandriss, M W; Schlesinger, J J; Walsh, E E

    1990-06-01

    Information on the immunogenic properties of purified flavivirus proteins may be useful in the development of recombinant or synthetic peptide vaccines. Using a monoclonal antibody, an attempt was made to purify the envelope (E) protein of 17D yellow fever virus (17D YF) by affinity chromatography. The purified material could not be identified as intact E protein but it did bear antigenic determinants of E as determined by selective reactivity with anti-E monoclonal antibodies. Rabbits immunized with this material produced antibodies that neutralized 17D YF and dengue-2 viruses in comparable titers, indicating that cross-reactive antigenic determinants were preserved. Immunization of mice resulted in protection against intracerebral challenge with 17D YF.

  4. Purifying selection, drift, and reversible mutation with arbitrarily high mutation rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlesworth, Brian; Jain, Kavita

    2014-12-01

    Some species exhibit very high levels of DNA sequence variability; there is also evidence for the existence of heritable epigenetic variants that experience state changes at a much higher rate than sequence variants. In both cases, the resulting high diversity levels within a population (hyperdiversity) mean that standard population genetics methods are not trustworthy. We analyze a population genetics model that incorporates purifying selection, reversible mutations, and genetic drift, assuming a stationary population size. We derive analytical results for both population parameters and sample statistics and discuss their implications for studies of natural genetic and epigenetic variation. In particular, we find that (1) many more intermediate-frequency variants are expected than under standard models, even with moderately strong purifying selection, and (2) rates of evolution under purifying selection may be close to, or even exceed, neutral rates. These findings are related to empirical studies of sequence and epigenetic variation.

  5. Decolorization of Remazol Brilliant Blue R by a purified laccase of Polyporus brumalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyewon; Lee, Sungsuk; Ryu, Sunhwa; Choi, Hyoung T

    2012-01-01

    A white rot basidiomycete Polyporus brumalis has been reported to induce two laccase genes under degradation conditions of dibutylphthalate. When this fungus was grown in a minimal medium, one laccase enzyme was detected by the native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. A laccase was purified through ammonium sulfate precipitation and ion exchange chromatography, and the estimated molecular weight was 70 kDa. The optimum pH and temperature of the purified laccase was pH 4.0 and 20 °C, respectively. The K (m) value of the enzyme was 685.0 μM, and the V (max) was 0.147 ODmin(-1) unit(-1) for o-tolidine. Purified laccase showed effective decolorization of a dye, Remazol Brilliant Blue R (RBBR), without any laccase mediator. However, this effect was reduced by a laccase inhibitor, kojic acid, which confirmed that the laccase was directly involved in the decolorization of RBBR.

  6. Establishment of water quality index (Na+, Ca2+) for purified water reused to zinc electrolysis process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHAI Li-yuan; XIAO Hai-juan; WANG Yun-yan; PEI Fei; SHU Yu-de; ZHANG Jin-long

    2009-01-01

    The effects of Na+ and Ca2+ in the purified water on the conductivity of zinc electrolyte and the current efficiency of zinc electrolysis were studied by the alternating current bridge method and the simulated electrolysis experiments, and the water quality index of reused water was established. The results show that the conductivity of the solution and the current efficiency decrease as these two kinds of positive ions are added in the electrolyte. The effect of Ca2+ is much more remarkable than that of Na+. ρ(Na+)≤ 8 g/L and ρ(Ca2+)≤20 mg/L are the quality indexes in the zinc electrolysis process and the concentrations of Na+ and Ca2+ in the purified water reused to the process should be less than the limited values, i.e. the water quality index of the purified water should be controlled by its reused amount.

  7. Degradation of volatile organic compounds in a non-thermal plasma air purifier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Stefan; Jecklin, Matthias C; Zenobi, Renato

    2010-03-01

    The degradation of volatile organic compounds in a commercially available non-thermal plasma based air purifying system was investigated. Several studies exist that interrogate the degradation of VOCs in closed air systems using a non-thermal plasma combined with a heterogeneous catalyst. For the first time, however, our study was performed under realistic conditions (normal indoor air, 297.5K and 12.5 g m(-3) water content) on an open system, in the absence of an auxiliary catalyst, and using standard operating air flow rates (up to 320 L min(-1)). Cyclohexene, benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and the xylene isomers were nebulized and guided through the plasma air purifier. The degradation products were trapped by activated charcoal tubes or silica gel tubes, and analyzed using gas chromatography mass spectrometry. Degradation efficiencies of 11+/-1.6% for cyclohexene, air purifier.

  8. Studying the fate of non-volatile organic compounds in a commercial plasma air purifier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmid, Stefan [ETH Zürich, Department of Chemistry and Applied Biosciences, CH-8093 Zürich (Switzerland); Seiler, Cornelia; Gerecke, Andreas C. [Swiss Federal Laboratories for Material Science and Technology (EMPA), CH-8600 Dübendorf (Switzerland); Hächler, Herbert [University of Zürich, Institute for Food Safety and Hygiene, National Centre for Enteropathogenic Bacteria and Listeria (NENT), CH-8057 Zürich (Switzerland); Hilbi, Hubert [Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München Max von Pettenkofer-Institut, D-80336 München (Germany); Frey, Joachim [University of Bern, Institute for Veterinary Bacteriology, CH-3001 Bern (Switzerland); Weidmann, Simon; Meier, Lukas; Berchtold, Christian [ETH Zürich, Department of Chemistry and Applied Biosciences, CH-8093 Zürich (Switzerland); Zenobi, Renato, E-mail: zenobi@org.chem.ethz.ch [ETH Zürich, Department of Chemistry and Applied Biosciences, CH-8093 Zürich (Switzerland)

    2013-07-15

    Highlights: • Degradation of environmental toxins, a protein, and bioparticles were studied. • A commercial air purifier based on a cold plasma was used. • Passage through the device reduced the concentration of the compounds/particles. • Deposition inside the plasma air purifier was the main removal process. -- Abstract: Degradation of non-volatile organic compounds–environmental toxins (methyltriclosane and phenanthrene), bovine serum albumin, as well as bioparticles (Legionella pneumophila, Bacillus subtilis, and Bacillus anthracis)–in a commercially available plasma air purifier based on a cold plasma was studied in detail, focusing on its efficiency and on the resulting degradation products. This system is capable of handling air flow velocities of up to 3.0 m s{sup −1} (3200 L min{sup −1}), much higher than other plasma-based reactors described in the literature, which generally are limited to air flow rates below 10 L min{sup −1}. Mass balance studies consistently indicated a reduction in concentration of the compounds/particles after passage through the plasma air purifier, 31% for phenanthrene, 17% for methyltriclosane, and 80% for bovine serum albumin. L. pneumophila did not survive passage through the plasma air purifier, and cell counts of aerosolized spores of B. subtilis and B. anthracis were reduced by 26- and 15-fold, depending on whether it was run at 10 Hz or 50 Hz, respectively. However rather than chemical degradation, deposition on the inner surfaces of the plasma air purifier occured. Our interpretation is that putative “degradation” efficiencies were largely due to electrostatic precipitation rather than to decomposition into smaller molecules.

  9. Extraction and characterization of highly purified collagen from bovine pericardium for potential bioengineering applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Maria Helena, E-mail: mariahelena.santos@gmail.com [Department of Dentistry, Federal University of Vales do Jequitinhonha e Mucuri-UFVJM, Diamantina/MG 39100-000 (Brazil); Center for Assessment and Development of Biomaterials-BioMat, Federal University of Vales do Jequitinhonha e Mucuri-UFVJM, Diamantina/MG 39100-000 (Brazil); Silva, Rafael M.; Dumont, Vitor C. [Department of Dentistry, Federal University of Vales do Jequitinhonha e Mucuri-UFVJM, Diamantina/MG 39100-000 (Brazil); Center for Assessment and Development of Biomaterials-BioMat, Federal University of Vales do Jequitinhonha e Mucuri-UFVJM, Diamantina/MG 39100-000 (Brazil); Neves, Juliana S. [Center for Assessment and Development of Biomaterials-BioMat, Federal University of Vales do Jequitinhonha e Mucuri-UFVJM, Diamantina/MG 39100-000 (Brazil); Mansur, Herman S. [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Federal University of Minas Gerais-UFMG, Belo Horizonte/MG 31270-901 (Brazil); Heneine, Luiz Guilherme D. [Department of Health Science, Ezequiel Dias Foundation-FUNED, Belo Horizonte/MG 30510-010 (Brazil)

    2013-03-01

    Bovine pericardium is widely used as a raw material in bioengineering as a source of collagen, a fundamental structural molecule. The physical, chemical, and biocompatibility characteristics of these natural fibers enable their broad use in several areas of the health sciences. For these applications, it is important to obtain collagen of the highest possible purity. The lack of a method to produce these pure biocompatible materials using simple and economically feasible techniques presents a major challenge to their production on an industrial scale. This study aimed to extract, purify, and characterize the type I collagen protein originating from bovine pericardium, considered to be an abundant tissue resource. The pericardium tissue was collected from male animals at slaughter age. Pieces of bovine pericardium were enzymatically digested, followed by a novel protocol developed for protein purification using ion-exchange chromatography. The material was extensively characterized by electrophoresis, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and infrared spectroscopy. The results showed a purified material with morphological properties and chemical functionalities compatible with type I collagen and similar to a highly purified commercial collagen. Thus, an innovative and relatively simple processing method was developed to extract and purify type I collagen from bovine tissue with potential applications as a biomaterial for regenerative tissue engineering. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Type I collagen was obtained from bovine pericardium, an abundant tissue resource. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A simple and feasible processing technique was developed to purify bovine collagen. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The appropriate process may be performed on industrial scale. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The pure collagen presented appropriate morphological and molecular characteristics. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The purify

  10. A Con A- purified hydatid glycoprotein fraction effectively diagnoses human hydatidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamel, Manal M; Maher, Kesmat M; Rabia, Ibrahim; Helmy, Ahmed H; El-Adawi, Azza I; Mousa, Mousa A; Mahgoub, Abeer M

    2006-12-01

    Diagnosis and quantification of Echinococcus granulosus infection in man and animal hosts are centralized to feasible control. This study included 93 serum samples, 25 sure positive hydatid cases confirmed surgically, 7 suspected cases diagnosed by indirect haemagglutination IHA and 41 cases other parasitic infections (15 S. mansoni, 8 Fasciola, 7 Ascaris, 5 H. nana & 6 Ancylostoma) diagnosed by microscopic examination and were negative by ELISA and/or IHA for anti-hydatid antibody. Twenty negative serum samples served as healthy controls. Six types of hydatid fluid antigens (crude, host-free & Con-A purified) of human and camel origin were subjected to electrophoretic separation (SDS-PAGE) and immunoblotting (EITB). The anti-hydatid IgG was detected in sera of the different groups for evaluation of sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic efficacy of each type of antigens. Detection of circulating hydatid antigen (CAg) was performed using anti rabbit hyperimmune sera raised against Con-A purified either human or camel hydatid antigen. SDS-PAGE revealed several bands ranging from 55-185 kDa with 10 kDa band shared by all antigens. The specific bands revealed by EITB for Con-A purified camel and human antigens were at 80, 110 & 55, 110 kDa respectively. ELISA highest sensitivity (96.9%) was by using host-free Con-A purified glycoprotein fraction of human hydatid antigen. Highest specificity (98.4%) was recorded upon use of either Con-A purified camel or human antigen with 94.5% & 97.7% diagnostic efficacy respectively. Detection of circulating antigen by polyclonal antibodies against Con-A purified human hydatid antigen revealed 91.8% specificity.

  11. Affinity-purified human interleukin I is cytotoxic to isolated islets of Langerhans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mandrup-Poulsen, T; Bendtzen, K; Nerup, J

    1986-01-01

    . These effects were dose-dependent and reproducible when using three different Interleukin-1 preparations. Highly purified human Interleukin-2, Lymphotoxin, Leucocyte Migration Inhibitory Factor and Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor were ineffective. These findings suggest that Interleukin-1 may play......Addition of highly purified human Interleukin-1 to the culture medium of isolated rat islets of Langerhans for 6 days led to 88% inhibition of glucose-induced insulin-release, reduction of islet contents of insulin and glucagon to 31% and 8% respectively, and disintegration of the islets...

  12. Oxidative Stability of Dispersions Prepared from Purified Marine Phospholipid and the Role of α-Tocopherol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Henna Fung Sieng; Nielsen, Nina Skall; Baron, Caroline P.

    2012-01-01

    the investigation of nonenzymatic browning in purified marine PL dispersions. Dispersions were prepared by high-pressure homogenizer. The oxidative and hydrolytic stabilities of dispersions were investigated by determination of hydroperoxides, secondary volatile oxidation products, and free fatty acids......, respectively, during 32 days of storage at 2 °C. Nonenzymatic browning was investigated through measurement of Strecker aldehydes, color changes, and pyrrole content. Dispersions containing α-tocopherol or higher levels of purified marine PL showed a lower increment of volatiles after 32 days storage...

  13. Extraction Kinetics of Lanthanum with Purified Cyanex 923 from Nitrate Medium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TongHui; LiDe-qian; WangYi-ge; LeiJia-heng

    2003-01-01

    Solvent extraction kinetics of lanthanum with purified Cyanex 923 in heptane from nitrate medium was investigated by using a constant interlacial cell with laminar flow at 303 K. The effects of stirring speed, temperature and specific interlace on the extraction rate were studied. The experimental results showed that the extraction apparent activation energy was 32. 0 kJ· mo1-1 and the extraction process was controlled by both chemical reaction and diffusion. The extraction rates were measured at different chemical compositions by varying ionic strength, pH value and the concentration of purified Cyanex 923. The initial extraction rate equation was obtained.

  14. Extraction Kinetics of Lanthanum with Purified Cyanex 923 from Nitrate Medium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lei Jia-heng

    2003-01-01

    Solvent extraction kinetics of lanthanum with purified Cyanex 923 in heptane from nitrate medium was investigated by using a constant interfacial cell with laminar flow at 303 K. The effects of stirring speed, temperature and specific interface on the extraction rate were studied. The experimental results showed that the extraction apparent activawas controlled by both chemical reaction and diffusion. The extraction rates were measured at different chemical compositions by varying ionic strength, pH value and the concentration of purified Cyanex 923. The initial extraction rate equation was obtained.

  15. Two-dimensional crystallization and preliminary electron crystallographic result of partially purified Fo from porcine mitochondria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    After removal of cytoplasmic sector F1 from submitochondrial particles of FoF1-ATP synthase complex with guanidine hydrochloride, the transmembrane sector Fo was specifically extracted from the stripped membranes in the presence of detergent CHAPS and partially purified.Two-dimensional crystals were produced by the reconstitution of the partially purified Fo into asolectin and microdialysis. The obtained crystals are able to diffract to 2 nm. The projection map of the negatively stained crystal shows that the crystal has p4212 symmetry, lattice constant, a = b = 14.4nm. A unit cell contains four Fo molecules.

  16. Ultrafast carrier dynamics in purified and as-grown single-walled carbon nanotube films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Long Yong-Bing; Song Li; Zhang Chun-Yu; Wang Li; Fu Pan-Ming; Zhang Zhi-Guo; Xie Si-Shen; Wang Guo-Ping

    2005-01-01

    Ultrafast time-resolved optical transmissions in purified and as-grown single-walled carbon nanotube films are measured at a temperature of 200K. The signal of the purified sample shows a crossover from photobleaching to photoabsorption. The former and the latter are interpreted as the state filling and the red shift of the π-plasmon,respectively. The signal of the as-grown sample can be perfectly fitted by a single-exponential with a time constant of 232fs. The disappearance of the negative component in the as-grown sample is attributed to the charge transfer between the semiconducting nanotubes and the impurities.

  17. Design of the Helium Purifier for IHEP-ADS Helium Purification System

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Helium Purification System is an important sub-system in the Accelerator Driven Subcritical System of the Institute of High Energy Physics(IHEP ADS). The purifier is designed to work at the temperature of 77K. The purifier will work in a flow rate of 5g/s at 20MPa in continuous operation of 12 hours. The oil and moisture are removed by coalescing filters and a dryer, while nitrogen and oxygen are condensed by a phase separator and then adsorbed in several activated carbon adsorption cylinders...

  18. Lymphocyte activation by purified HLA-DR molecules fused into autochthonous "stimulating cells".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diu, A; Abikar, K; Rode, H N; Gordon, J

    1985-08-01

    Affinity-purified Ia molecules derived from the Daudi cell line were reconstituted into vesicles with Sendai virus envelope glycoproteins. These vesicles inserted into human peripheral leukocytes could induce stimulation of autologous lymphocytes, as measured by thymidine uptake, 6 days later. It is suggested that this method could provide a means to study allostimulation at the molecular level.

  19. Specific activity and isotope abundances of strontium in purified strontium-82

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fitzsimmons, J. M.; Medvedev, D. G.; Mausner, L. F.

    2015-11-12

    A linear accelerator was used to irradiate a rubidium chloride target with protons to produce strontium-82 (Sr-82), and the Sr-82 was purified by ion exchange chromatography. The amount of strontium associated with the purified Sr-82 was determined by either: ICP-OES or method B which consisted of a summation of strontium quantified by gamma spectroscopy and ICP-MS. The summation method agreed within 10% to the ICP-OES for the total mass of strontium and the subsequent specific activities were determined to be 0.25–0.52 TBq mg-1. Method B was used to determine the isotope abundances by weight% of the purified Sr-82, and the abundances were: Sr-82 (10–20.7%), Sr-83 (0–0.05%), Sr-84 (35–48.5%), Sr-85 (16–25%), Sr-86 (12.5–23%), Sr-87 (0%), and Sr-88 (0–10%). The purified strontium contained mass amounts of Sr-82, Sr-84, Sr-85, Sr-86, and Sr-88 in abundances not associated with natural abundance, and 90% of the strontium was produced by the proton irradiation. A comparison of ICP-OES and method B for the analysis of Sr-82 indicated analysis by ICP-OES would be easier to determine total mass of strontium and comply with regulatory requirements. An ICP-OES analytical method for Sr-82 analysis was established and validated according to regulatory guidelines.

  20. Using Air-Purifying Respirators. Module 9. Vocational Education Training in Environmental Health Sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consumer Dynamics Inc., Rockville, MD.

    This module, one of 25 on vocational education training for careers in environmental health occupations, contains self-instructional materials on using air-purifying respirators. Following guidelines for students and instructors and an introduction that explains what the student will learn are three lessons: (1) describing how air flows through an…

  1. Adsorptive Separation and Recovery of Organic Compounds from Purified Terephthalic Acid Plant Effluent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khachane, P.K.; Heesink, A. Bert M.; Versteeg, G.F.; Pangarkar, V.G.

    2003-01-01

    Several organic impurities formed in the p-xylene oxidation process for manufacture of terephthalic acid are carried into the aqueous effluent from the crystallization section of PTA plant of crystallizers for purified terephthalic acid (PTA). These compounds impose a burden on the effluent treatmen

  2. Characterization of partially purified milk-clotting enzyme from sunflower (Helianthus annuus) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasr, Assia I A M; Mohamed Ahmed, Isam A; Hamid, Omer I A

    2016-09-01

    This study was aimed to extract milk-clotting enzyme from sunflower seeds and to determine its potentiality for manufacturing white soft cheese from cows and goats milk. The seeds were blended and extracted using two types of buffers and milk-clotting and proteolytic activities were evaluated. The enzyme was partially purified using ammonium sulfate fractionation techniques. Results indicated that sunflower seeds extracted with 5% NaCl in 50 mmol/L acetate buffer, pH 5.0, had the highest milk-clotting activity (MCA) and lowest coagulation time compared to that extracted with only acetate buffer (pH 5.0). Ammonium sulfate at 30-50% saturation purified the enzyme to 4.3 folds with MCA of 241.0 U/mL and final enzyme yield of 10.9%. The partially purified enzyme was characterized by SDS-PAGE that showed two bands with molecular weight of 120 and 62 kDa. When compared with other plant enzymes, the partially purified sunflower enzyme was found to have higher milk-clotting activity and lower proteolytic activity. Also, both milk sources and enzyme types significantly affected the cheese yield and curd formation time. The cheese made from cow milk using sunflower enzyme had higher yield compared to that obtained using commercial rennet, whereas the opposite was observed when using goat milk.

  3. 76 FR 27663 - Purified Carboxymethylcellulose From Finland, Mexico, Netherlands and Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-12

    ..., Netherlands and Sweden Determinations On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the subject five-year... purified carboxymethylcellulose from Mexico and Sweden would not be likely to lead to continuation or... subject imports from Finland, Mexico, the Netherlands, and Sweden would not be likely to lead...

  4. Lymphocyte response to purified Plasmodium falciparum antigens during and after malaria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bygbjerg, I C; Jepsen, S; Theander, T G

    1986-01-01

    The peripheral blood lymphocyte response to affinity purified soluble Plasmodium falciparum antigens from in vitro cultures was studied in seven patients with acute falciparum malaria, on eight occasions, and in 15 persons having had malaria, at various times post infection, on 24 occasions. During...

  5. Effect of streamer plasma air purifier on sbs symptoms and performance of office work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, X.J.; Fang, Lei; Wargocki, Pawel;

    2011-01-01

    level of air pollution. Intensity of SBS symptoms were indicated using visual-analogue scales. Subjects’ performance was evaluated with several computer tasks. The results show that operation of the air purifiers improved perceived air quality and reduced the odor intensity of indoor air. Eye dryness...

  6. Extraction and characterization of highly purified collagen from bovine pericardium for potential bioengineering applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Maria Helena; Silva, Rafael M; Dumont, Vitor C; Neves, Juliana S; Mansur, Herman S; Heneine, Luiz Guilherme D

    2013-03-01

    Bovine pericardium is widely used as a raw material in bioengineering as a source of collagen, a fundamental structural molecule. The physical, chemical, and biocompatibility characteristics of these natural fibers enable their broad use in several areas of the health sciences. For these applications, it is important to obtain collagen of the highest possible purity. The lack of a method to produce these pure biocompatible materials using simple and economically feasible techniques presents a major challenge to their production on an industrial scale. This study aimed to extract, purify, and characterize the type I collagen protein originating from bovine pericardium, considered to be an abundant tissue resource. The pericardium tissue was collected from male animals at slaughter age. Pieces of bovine pericardium were enzymatically digested, followed by a novel protocol developed for protein purification using ion-exchange chromatography. The material was extensively characterized by electrophoresis, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and infrared spectroscopy. The results showed a purified material with morphological properties and chemical functionalities compatible with type I collagen and similar to a highly purified commercial collagen. Thus, an innovative and relatively simple processing method was developed to extract and purify type I collagen from bovine tissue with potential applications as a biomaterial for regenerative tissue engineering. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Ni2+-PAA Adsorbent for Purifying 6His-OmpTS Recombinant Protein

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Functional Ni2+-polyacrylic acid (Ni2+-PAA) adsorbent has been prepared for metal chelate affinity chromatography. DNA elements coding for adjacent histidines were fused to the Aeromonas hydrophila ompTS gene. Subsequent expression in E. coli resulted in the production of hybrid protein 6His-OmpTS that could be purified by Ni2+-PAA affinity chromatography.

  8. [Serodiagnosis of schistosomiasis mansoni using an egg extract semi-purified by precipitation with ammonium sulfate].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouattara, S A; Sauneron, M F; Tribouley-Duret, J; Tribouley, J

    1986-01-01

    Fifty one sera from bilharziosis patients and thirty control sera were examined with a Schistosoma mansoni egg antigen purified by precipitation with ammonium sulphate at 50% saturation. Sensitivity and specificity were good and showed a good correlation with results obtained by MSA1 antigen, but antigen tested is far more easier to prepare than MSA1.

  9. Biological properties of purified recombinant HCV particles with an epitope-tagged envelope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Hitoshi; Akazawa, Daisuke [Department of Virology II, National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Tokyo (Japan); Toray Industries, Inc., Kanagawa (Japan); Kato, Takanobu; Date, Tomoko [Department of Virology II, National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Tokyo (Japan); Shirakura, Masayuki [Department of Virology II, National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Tokyo (Japan); Toray Industries, Inc., Kanagawa (Japan); Nakamura, Noriko; Mochizuki, Hidenori [Toray Industries, Inc., Kanagawa (Japan); Tanaka-Kaneko, Keiko; Sata, Tetsutaro [Department of Pathology, National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Tokyo (Japan); Tanaka, Yasuhito [Department of Clinical Molecular Informative Medicine, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya (Japan); Mizokami, Masashi [Research Center for Hepatitis and Immunology, Kohnodai Hospital, International Medical Center of Japan, Chiba (Japan); Suzuki, Tetsuro [Department of Virology II, National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Tokyo (Japan); Wakita, Takaji, E-mail: wakita@nih.go.jp [Department of Virology II, National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Tokyo (Japan)

    2010-05-14

    To establish a simple system for purification of recombinant infectious hepatitis C virus (HCV) particles, we designed a chimeric J6/JFH-1 virus with a FLAG (FL)-epitope-tagged sequence at the N-terminal region of the E2 hypervariable region-1 (HVR1) gene (J6/JFH-1/1FL). We found that introduction of an adaptive mutation at the potential N-glycosylation site (E2N151K) leads to efficient production of the chimeric virus. This finding suggests the involvement of glycosylation at Asn within the envelope protein(s) in HCV morphogenesis. To further analyze the biological properties of the purified recombinant HCV particles, we developed a strategy for large-scale production and purification of recombinant J6/JFH-1/1FL/E2N151K. Infectious particles were purified from the culture medium of J6/JFH-1/1FL/E2N151K-infected Huh-7 cells using anti-FLAG affinity chromatography in combination with ultrafiltration. Electron microscopy of the purified particles using negative staining showed spherical particle structures with a diameter of 40-60 nm and spike-like projections. Purified HCV particle-immunization induced both an anti-E2 and an anti-FLAG antibody response in immunized mice. This strategy may contribute to future detailed analysis of HCV particle structure and to HCV vaccine development.

  10. Adsorptive Separation and Recovery of Organic Compounds from Purified Terephthalic Acid Plant Effluent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khachane, P.K.; Heesink, A. Bert M.; Versteeg, G.F.; Pangarkar, V.G.

    2003-01-01

    Several organic impurities formed in the p-xylene oxidation process for manufacture of terephthalic acid are carried into the aqueous effluent from the crystallization section of PTA plant of crystallizers for purified terephthalic acid (PTA). These compounds impose a burden on the effluent treatmen

  11. A Method for Purifying Obligate Intracellular Coxiella burnetii that Employs Digitonin Lysis of Host Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cockrell, Diane C.; Beare, Paul A.; Fischer, Elizabeth R.; Howe, Dale; Heinzen, Robert. A.

    2008-01-01

    Purification of the obligate intracellular bacterium Coxiella burnetii requires physical disruption of infected cells. Here we describe a gentle and safe digitonin lysis procedure to release C. burnetii from infected cells. The purity, yield, and infectivity of digitonin-prepped organisms are comparable to that of organisms purified using cell lysis by sonication. PMID:18242746

  12. The effect of a photocatalytic air purifier on indoor air quality quantified using different measuring methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolarik, Barbara [Technical University of Denmark, International Centre for Indoor Environment and Energy, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Lyngby (Denmark); Silesian University of Technology, 44-100 Gliwice (Poland); Danish Building Research Institute (SBi), Department of Construction and Health, Dr Neergaards Vej 15, 2970 Hoersholm (Denmark); Wargocki, Pawel [Technical University of Denmark, International Centre for Indoor Environment and Energy, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Lyngby (Denmark); Skorek-Osikowska, Anna [Silesian University of Technology, 44-100 Gliwice (Poland); Wisthaler, Armin [Institute of Ion Physics and Applied Physics, University of Innsbruck, 6020 Innsbruck (Austria)

    2010-06-15

    The effect on indoor air quality of an air purifier based on photocatalytic oxidation (PCO) was determined by different measuring techniques: sensory assessments of air quality made by human subjects, Proton-Transfer-Reaction Mass Spectrometry (PTR-MS) and chromatographic methods (Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry and High-Pressure Liquid Chromatography with UV detection). The experiment was conducted in a simulated office, ventilated with 0.6 h{sup -1}, 2.5 h{sup -1} and 6 h{sup -1}, in the presence of additional pollution sources (carpet, chipboard and linoleum). At the lowest air change rate, additional measurements were made with no pollution sources present in the office. All conditions were tested with the photocatalytic air purifier turned on and off. The results show that operation of the air purifier in the presence of pollutants emitted by building materials and furniture improves indoor air quality, as documented by sensory assessments made by human subjects. It also reduces concentrations of many chemical compounds present in the air as documented by the PTR-MS technique. For the lowest ventilation, results from measurements using the chromatographic methods have similar tendency, however many of the 50 compounds that were targeted for analysis were not detected at all, independent of whether the purifier was on or off. For the two conditions with higher ventilation the results were inconclusive. (author)

  13. Genetic analysis of Mycobacterium avium complex strains used for producing purified protein derivatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Semret, M.; Bakker, D.; Smart, N.; Olsen, I.; Haslov, K.; Behr, M.A.

    2006-01-01

    For over a century, purified protein derivatives (PPD) have been used to detect mycobacterial infections in humans and livestock. Among these, reagents to detect infections by Mycobacterium avium complex organisms have been produced, but the utility of these reagents has not been clearly established

  14. Protease Activities of Semi-purified Pseudomonas fluorescensin Protein Degradation of Pasteurized Milk at Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatik Khusniati

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Protein on stored milks spoiled due to protease activities of Pseudomonas fluorescens. To know protease effect on milks, protease activities of semi-purified P. fluorescens on protein degradation in stored pasteurized milks were detected. Protease was semi-purified by ethanol 70%. Protease activities were detected by modified Lowry method, protein degradation by formol titration, and protein content by Kjeldahl method. Milk storage' times were conducted on 0 day (4 days before expired date up to 12 days (8 days after expired date. The results show that the longer the storage times the higher protease activities and protein degradation of milks. At storage 12 days, protease activities on control were 0.2556 Unit/mL (skim and 0.2116 Unit/mL (whole, and on inoculated milk (crude was 2.2044 Unit/mL (skim and 1.5378 Unit/mL (whole; while on inoculated milk (semi-purified was 3.5355 Unit/mL (skim and 1.6778 Unit/mL (whole, respectively. The decrease of inoculated milk' homogeneous were faster than that of control. Protein degradation on control, inoculated skim milks (crude and semi-purified on 12 days were 4.48%, 7.28% and 7.62%, while that on whole milks were 3.81%, 7.28% and 6.04%, respectively. Based on protease, protein degradation and homogeneous, it can be concluded that skim milk spoiled faster than whole milk.

  15. Antimicrobial activity of crude and semi-purified fractions of Warburgia ugandensis against some pathogens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yibeltal Merawie; Samuel Sahile; Feleke Moges; Azamal Husen

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate in vitro antimicrobial activities of leaves and heartwood crude and semi-purified fractions of Warburgia ugandensis (Canellaceae) (W. ugandensis) on some pathogens.Methods:were prepared. Six bacteria [Klebsiella pneumoniae (K. pneumoniae), Escherichia coli (E. coli),Pseudomonas aeruginosa Crude and semi-purified fractions of the leaves and heartwood of W. ugandensis (P. aeruginosa), Shigella boydii (S. boydii), Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and Streptococcus pneumonia] and one fungus (Candida albicans) were tested by agar well diffusion and broth dilution method to determine minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). Results: S. boydii and S. aureus were found to be the most susceptible bacterial isolated in agar well diffusion and broth dilution method of both the crude and petroleum ether extracts, while K. pneumoniae was the most resistant bacterium isolated under the same condition except in chloroform fraction. K. pneumoniae had shown MIC value of 10 mg/mL in the leaves and heartwood in both the crude and petroleum ether extract. S. boydii and S. aureus had shown the MIC value of 1.0 mg/mL in the crude extract for the both leaves and heartwood; Whereas the petroleum ether semi-purified fraction had shown 0.5 mg/mL in the heartwood. In the crude extract, E. coli and P. aeruginosa exhibits similar MIC value of 1.75 mg/mL. In semi purified petroleum ether extract, E. coli had MIC value of 1.0 mg/mL; Whereas P. aeruginosa had shown no change in crude extract. Candida albicans revealed equal MIC value of 1.0 mg/mL for the both crude and semi-purified fractions of the leaves and heartwood.Conclusions:The crude and semi-purified fractions of W. ugandensis have considerable effect on pathogens. Semi-purified petroleum ether fraction has better antimicrobial activity in both agar well diffusion and broth dilution method. This study further shows the potential of W.ugandensis for further study in order to be use as a modern drug.

  16. Antimicrobial activity of crude and semi-purified fractions of Warburgia ugandensis against some pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yibeltal Merawie

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate in vitro antimicrobial activities of leaves and heartwood crude and semi-purified fractions of Warburgia ugandensis (Canellaceae (W. ugandensis on some pathogens. Methods: Crude and semi-purified fractions of the leaves and heartwood of W. ugandensis were prepared. Six bacteria [Klebsiella pneumoniae (K. pneumoniae, Escherichia coli (E. coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa, Shigella boydii (S. boydii, Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus and Streptococcus pneumonia] and one fungus (Candida albicans were tested by agar well diffusion and broth dilution method to determine minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC. Results: S. boydii and S. aureus were found to be the most susceptible bacterial isolated in agar well diffusion and broth dilution method of both the crude and petroleum ether extracts, while K. pneumoniae was the most resistant bacterium isolated under the same condition except in chloroform fraction. K. pneumoniae had shown MIC value of 10 mg/mL in the leaves and heartwood in both the crude and petroleum ether extract. S. boydii and S. aureus had shown the MIC value of 1.0 mg/mL in the crude extract for the both leaves and heartwood; Whereas the petroleum ether semi-purified fraction had shown 0.5 mg/mL in the heartwood. In the crude extract, E. coli and P. aeruginosa exhibits similar MIC value of 1.75 mg/mL. In semi purified petroleum ether extract, E. coli had MIC value of 1.0 mg/mL; Whereas P. aeruginosa had shown no change in crude extract. Candida albicans revealed equal MIC value of 1.0 mg/mL for the both crude and semi-purified fractions of the leaves and heartwood. Conclusions: The crude and semi-purified fractions of W. ugandensis have considerable effect on pathogens. Semi-purified petroleum ether fraction has better antimicrobial activity in both agar well diffusion and broth dilution method. This study further shows the potential of W. ugandensis for further study in order to be use as a modern

  17. 21 CFR 640.65 - Plasmapheresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... not interfere with or jeopardize the treatment of the syphilitic donor. (3) A donor identification..., blood is removed from a donor, the plasma separated from the formed elements, and at least the red blood cells returned to the donor. This procedure shall be described in detail in the biologics...

  18. Clinical effect of combination of hemoperfusion and plasmapheresis in the treatment of elderly patients with severe organophosphate poisoning%血液灌流与血浆置换联合抢救老年重度有机磷中毒的疗效

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白刃

    2014-01-01

    目的:探究老年有机磷中毒重度型应用血浆置换联合血液灌流疗法的临床效果。方法有机磷中毒老年患者100例,按治疗方式的不同分为对照组和治疗组,每组50例。对照组进行血液灌流疗法,治疗组进行血液灌流联合血浆置换疗法,观察两组患者各项生化指标、临床疗效和并发症的情况。结果两组治疗后各项生化指标均有改善,但治疗组的指标水平明显优于对照组;治疗组的阿托品中毒、中间综合征、病死和反跳等并发症的发生率显著低于对照组,差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论血液灌流联合血浆置换抢救老年重度有机磷中毒,有效的减少了患者并发症的发生,降低了患者各项生化指标的数值,提高了患者预后的生活水平,值得在临床上推广。%ObjectiveTo discuss the clinical effect of combination of hemoperfusion and plasmapheresis in the treatment of elderly patients with severe organophosphate poisoning.MethodsDivided 100 elderly patients with severe organophosphate poisoning into control group and treatment group according to different treatment methods, each with 50 cases. Control group was given hemoperfusion therapy while treatment group was given combined therapy of hemoperfusion and plasmapheresis. Biochemical indicators, clinical effects and complications of two groups were observed.ResultsBiochemical indicators of both groups improved after treatment, but indicator levels of treatment group were obviously higher than control group; occurrence rates of atropinismus, intermediate syndrome, fatality and rebound were obviously lower than control group(P<0.05). ConclusionCombination of hemoperfusion and plasmapheresis for rescue of elderly patients with severe organophosphate poisoning effectively reduces occurrences of complications, decreases values of biochemical indicators and improves prognostic life levels of patients, so it is worthy of clinical

  19. Purifying selection in mitochondria, free-living and obligate intracellular proteobacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popadin Konstantin

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The effectiveness of elimination of slightly deleterious mutations depends mainly on drift and recombination frequency. Here we analyze the influence of these two factors on the strength of the purifying selection in mitochondrial and proteobacterial orthologous genes taking into account the differences in the organism lifestyles. Results (I We found that the probability of fixation of nonsynonymous substitutions (Kn/Ks in mitochondria is significantly lower compared to obligate intracellular bacteria and even marginally significantly lower compared to free-living bacteria. The comparison of bacteria of different lifestyles demonstrates more effective elimination of slightly deleterious mutations in (II free-living bacteria as compared to obligate intracellular species and in (III obligate intracellular parasites as compared to obligate intracellular symbionts. (IV Finally, we observed that the level of the purifying selection (i.e. 1-Kn/Ks increases with the density of mobile elements in bacterial genomes. Conclusion This study shows that the comparison of patterns of molecular evolution of orthologous genes between ecologically different groups of organisms allow to elucidate the genetic consequences of their various lifestyles. Comparing the strength of the purifying selection among proteobacteria with different lifestyles we obtained results, which are in concordance with theoretical expectations: (II low effective population size and level of recombination in obligate intracellular proteobacteria lead to less effective elimination of mutations compared to free-living relatives; (III rare horizontal transmissions, i.e. effectively zero recombination level in symbiotic obligate intracellular bacteria leads to less effective purifying selection than in parasitic obligate intracellular bacteria; (IV the increased frequency of recombination in bacterial genomes with high mobile element density leads to a more effective

  20. Biological and Histological Studies of Purified Product from Streptomyces janthinus M7 Metabolites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tawfik Zahira S.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Fifteen clinical samples were taken out from patients suffering cancer, these patients being under the treatment with radio- and/or chemotherapy. The samples were used for the isolation of bacterial cells surrounding tumor; the samples were collected from Center of Cancer Therapy, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt. The clinical bacterial isolates were purified and identified according to Bergey's manual of determinative bacteriology ninth edition (1994. The bacterial isolates were found to be Klebsiella oxytoca m1; Enterobacter cancerogenus m2; P. aeruginosa m3; Citrobacter diversus m4; Enterobacter agglomerans m5; Klebsiella oxytoca m6; Enterobacter dissolvens m7; Serratia fonticola m8; Escherichia coli m9; Citrobacter freundii m10; Staphylococcus aureus m11; Escherichia coli m12; P. aeruginosa m13; Staphylococcus aureus m14; and Bacillus cereus m15. In the present study both primary and secondary screening methods were used to screen the antibacterial activity of St. janthinus M7 against fifteen clinical bacterial isolates. The St. janthinus M7 showed an increase in antibacterial activity against all the tested human bacterial pathogens. In this study Gamma irradiation at dose levels (0.5 and 1.5 kGy was used for the enhancement of the antibacterial activity of Streptomyces strain against the clinical isolates. Several commercial antibiotic discs (Doxorubicin, Augmentin, Norfloxacin, Ofloxacin, Oxacillin, and Cefazolin were used for comparing their antimicrobial activity with purified product. The results declared a significant increase in the antibacterial activity in most cases. The physiochemical properties of the purified product were carried out for determination of Rf, empirical formula, M.W, and chemical structure of product and then analyzed by thin layer chromatography, elemental analysis, UV, Mass, and NMR. The result exhibited brown color, one spot, Rf (0.76, M.W (473, while it recorded 270 nm in UV region and the calculated

  1. 血浆净化治疗格林-巴利综合征临床疗效分析%The clinical effect of plasmapheresis for Guillain-Barre syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    傅芳婷; 张凌; 卞维静; 焦劲松

    2006-01-01

    目的观察血浆净化(plasmapheresis,PP)在格林-巴利综合征(Guillain-Barre syndrome)(GBS)患者中的临床疗效,初步探讨不同净化方法疗效的比较.方法回顾1998~2004年6年间在中日友好医院神经内科住院的GBS患者38例的临床资料,所有病例均符合GBS诊断标准.PP治疗组23例,男18例,女5例,年龄15~76岁,平均(39.95±16.66)岁;非PP治疗组15例,男11例,女4例,年龄20~70岁,平均(44.07±14.70)岁.两组患者按Hughes分类进行分级.每次处理血浆量为1~2个血浆容量.观察治疗前后临床症状及肌力的改善程度,减少1个Hughes等级为GBS临床改善.结果疗效及转归:PP组患者进步1级的日数平均为(10.83±9.38)天,而非PP组为(32.13±11.30)天,P<0.01.呼吸机辅助呼吸者,PP组持续7天,而非PP组则持续18天.PP组死亡1例,非PP组无死亡.PP组23例中,单重血浆置换(PE)16例,双重血浆置换(DFPP)4例,血浆吸附(PA)3例;16例PE者进步1级的平均日数为11.44天; 4例DFPP者进步1级的平均日数为7.25天;3例PA者进步1级的平均日数为12.33天.并发症:PP治疗84例次,发生不良反应13例次,发生率15.5%.PE治疗57例次,9例次出现不同程度的口周及四肢麻木、荨麻疹、寒战、发热和低血压等;DFPP治疗16例次,4例次发生血压下降;PA治疗11例次,无并发症发生.结论PP治疗能够迅速缓解GBS患者的临床症状,可显著缩短病程以及使用人工呼吸的间期,改善患者预后.不同方法并发症的发生明显不同,PE治疗并发症较多,DFPP和PA治疗并发症少.治疗方法上尽量寻求效果相当、并发症少而且费用较低者.

  2. Hypoglycemic effect of cooked Lupinus mutabilis and its purified alkaloids in subjects with type-2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldeón, M E; Castro, J; Villacrés, E; Narváez, L; Fornasini, M

    2012-01-01

    Developing countries are experiencing an epidemic of chronic non-communicable chronic diseases with high socio-economic costs. Studies of traditional foods with beneficial health properties could contribute to diminish these problems. Legumes rich in proteins like Lupinus mutabilis decreases blood glucose and improves insulin sensitivity in animals and humans. We report the results of a phase II clinical trial conducted to assess the role of cooked L. mutabilis and its purified alkaloids on blood glucose and insulin in volunteers with diabetes. Results indicate that consumption of cooked L. mutabilis or its purified alkaloids decreased blood glucose and insulin levels. The decreases in serum glucose concentrations from base line to 90 minutes were statistically significant within both treatment groups; however, there were not differences between groups. Serum insulin levels were also decreased in both groups however the differences were not statistically significant. None of the volunteers in either group presented side effects.

  3. Determining inhibition effects of some aromatic compounds on peroxidase enzyme purified from white and red cabbage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Öztekin, Aykut, E-mail: aoztekin@agri.edu.tr [Ataturk University, Science Faculty, Department of Chemistry, 25240-Erzurum (Turkey); Agri Ibrahim Cecen University Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Department of Chemistry, 04100-Agri (Turkey); Almaz, Züleyha, E-mail: zturkoglu-2344@hotmail.com [Ataturk University, Science Faculty, Department of Chemistry, 25240-Erzurum (Turkey); Mus Alparslan University Faculty of Sciences, Department of Moleculer Biology, 49250-Mus (Turkey); Özdemir, Hasan, E-mail: hozdemir@atauni.edu.tr [Ataturk University, Science Faculty, Department of Chemistry, 25240-Erzurum (Turkey)

    2016-04-18

    Peroxidases (E.C.1.11.1.7) catalyze the one electron oxidation of wide range of substrates. They are used in synthesis reaction, removal of peroxide from industrial wastes, clinical biochemistry and immunoassays. In this study, the white cabbage (Brassica Oleracea var. capitata f. alba) and red cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata f. rubra) peroxidase enzymes were purified for investigation of inhibitory effect of some aromatic compounds on these enzymes. IC{sub 50} values and Ki constants were calculated for the molecules of 6-Amino nicotinic hydrazide, 6-Amino-5-bromo nicotinic hydrazide, 2-Amino-5-hydroxy benzohydrazide, 4-Amino-3-hydroxy benzohydrazide on purified enzymes and inhibition type of these molecules were determined. (This research was supported by Ataturk University. Project Number: BAP-2015/98).

  4. Studies on Acetone Powder and Purified Rhus Laccase Immobilized on Zirconium Chloride for Oxidation of Phenols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong Lu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Rhus laccase was isolated and purified from acetone powder obtained from the exudates of Chinese lacquer trees (Rhus vernicifera from the Jianshi region, Hubei province of China. There are two blue bands appearing on CM-sephadex C-50 chromatography column, and each band corresponding to Rhus laccase 1 and 2, the former being the major constituent, and each had an average molecular weight of approximately 110 kDa. The purified and crude Rhus laccases were immobilized on zirconium chloride in ammonium chloride solution, and the kinetic properties of free and immobilized Rhus laccase, such as activity, molecular weight, optimum pH, and thermostability, were examined. In addition, the behaviors on catalytic oxidation of phenols also were conducted.

  5. Characterization of purified bacterial cellulose focused on its use on paper restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Sara M; Carbajo, José M; Quintana, Ester; Ibarra, David; Gomez, Nuria; Ladero, Miguel; Eugenio, M Eugenia; Villar, Juan C

    2015-02-13

    Bacterial cellulose (BC) synthesized by Gluconacetobacter sucrofermentans CECT 7291 seems to be a good option for the restoration of degraded paper. In this work BC layers are cultivated and purified by two different methods: an alkaline treatment when the culture media contains ethanol and a thermal treatment if the media is free from ethanol. The main goal of these tests was the characterization of BC layers measured in terms of tear and burst indexes, optical properties, SEM, X-ray diffraction, FTIR, degree of polymerization, static and dynamic contact angles, and mercury intrusion porosimetry. The BC layers were also evaluated in the same terms after an aging treatment. Results showed that BC has got high crystallinity index, low internal porosity, good mechanical properties and high stability over time, especially when purified by the alkaline treatment. These features make BC an adequate candidate for degraded paper reinforcement.

  6. Directed growth of graphene nanomesh in purified argon via chemical vapor deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Haibin; Fu, Can; Shen, Xia; Yang, Wenchao; Guo, Pengfei; Lu, Yang; Luo, Yongsong; Yu, Benhai; Wang, Xiaoge; Wang, Chunlei; Xu, Junqi; Liu, Jiangfeng; Song, Fengqi; Wang, Guanghou; Wan, Jianguo

    2017-06-01

    Graphene nanomeshes (GNMs), new graphene nanostructures with tunable bandgaps, are potential building blocks for future electronic or photonic devices, and energy storage and conversion materials. In previous works, GNMs have been successfully prepared on Cu foils by the H2 etching effect. In this paper, we investigated the effect of Ar on the preparation of GNMs, and how the mean density and shape of them vary with growth time. In addition, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed the typical hexagonal structure of GNM. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) indicated that large copper oxide nanoparticles produced by oxidization in purified Ar can play an essential catalytic role in preparing GNMs. Then, we exhibited the key reaction details for each growth process and proposed a growth mechanism of GNMs in purified Ar.

  7. Development and evaluation of semi-purified diets for fiber related studies in Japanese quails

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vajihe emampour

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was carried out to develop and evaluate a semi-purified diet suitable for fiber related studies without negative impacts on performance, serum biochemistry and intestinal morphology of growing Japanese quails. Total of 144 Japanese quail chicks were used in a factorial arrangement using completely randomized design with 6 treatments, 4 replicates of 6 quails in each replicate. The levels of dietary crude fiber (3.37%, 1.18% and 0.08%, respectively viz. high, medium and low crude fiber diets. The dietary supplementation levels of a commercial feed additive concentrate fiber-Arbocel were considered 0 and 3 %. The medium crude fiber semi-purified diet produced acceptable growth performances comparable to conventional high crude fiber diet. Serum triglyceride concentration was influenced by the levels of dietary crude fiber and the highest level was related to low crude fiber diet which was significantly different from high crude fiber diet (P

  8. Antibacterial Activity of Fistulin: A Protease Inhibitor Purified from the Leaves of Cassia fistula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arulpandi, I; Sangeetha, R

    2012-01-01

    Plant protease inhibitors (PPIs) are one of the important components of a plant's defense machinery. PPIs are active against the insects and microbes which invade the plant. Cassia species possess anti-insecticidal and antimicrobial properties and this study was aimed at investigating the antibacterial efficacy of a PPI present in the leaves of Cassia fistula. A PPI, fistulin, was isolated from the leaves of C. fistula and purified by gel filtration chromatography. The antibacterial activity of the purified fistulin was studied against five bacterial strains, namely, Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli. The PPI was found to be very active against S. aureus, E. coli, B. subtilis, and K. pneumonia, and its efficacy was comparable to the standard drug, streptomycin sulphate.

  9. Determining inhibition effects of some aromatic compounds on peroxidase enzyme purified from white and red cabbage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öztekin, Aykut; Almaz, Züleyha; Özdemir, Hasan

    2016-04-01

    Peroxidases (E.C.1.11.1.7) catalyze the one electron oxidation of wide range of substrates. They are used in synthesis reaction, removal of peroxide from industrial wastes, clinical biochemistry and immunoassays. In this study, the white cabbage (Brassica Oleracea var. capitata f. alba) and red cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata f. rubra) peroxidase enzymes were purified for investigation of inhibitory effect of some aromatic compounds on these enzymes. IC50 values and Ki constants were calculated for the molecules of 6-Amino nicotinic hydrazide, 6-Amino-5-bromo nicotinic hydrazide, 2-Amino-5-hydroxy benzohydrazide, 4-Amino-3-hydroxy benzohydrazide on purified enzymes and inhibition type of these molecules were determined. (This research was supported by Ataturk University. Project Number: BAP-2015/98).

  10. Measuring the effect of photocatalytic purifiers on indoor air hydrocarbons and carbonyl pollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Disdier, Jean; Pichat, Pierre; Mas, Denis

    2005-01-01

    Laboratory tests of photocatalytic air purifiers are usually performed with a single pollutant, in the parts per million by volume domain and at airflow rates air: from 9-15.5 to 12.5-18 for methanal, from 1.5-3 to 8-11.5 for ethanal, and from 4.5-19 to 8-26.5 for propanone with the prototype used; these unprecedented results do not exclude using photocatalysis to treat air, but they illustrate that improvement is needed. Because these tests are time-consuming, preliminary tests are useful; results obtained with a 225-L closed-loop, airtight, photocatalytic reactor with an external turbine enabling the ambient air inside the reactor to be circulated through the purifier device at 15-450 m3/hr flow rates are reported.

  11. In vitro and in vivo antioxidant activities of polysaccharide purified from aloe vera (Aloe barbadensis) gel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Min-Cheol; Kim, Seo Young; Kim, Yoon Taek; Kim, Eun-A; Lee, Seung-Hong; Ko, Seok-Chun; Wijesinghe, W A J P; Samarakoon, Kalpa W; Kim, Young-Sun; Cho, Jin Hun; Jang, Hyeang-Su; Jeon, You-Jin

    2014-01-01

    The in vitro and in vivo antioxidant potentials of a polysaccharide isolated from aloe vera gel were investigated. Enzymatic extracts were prepared from aloe vera gel by using ten digestive enzymes including five carbohydrases and five proteases. Among them, the highest yield was obtained with the Viscozyme extract and the same extract showed the best radical scavenging activity. An active polysaccharide was purified from the Viscozyme extract using ethanol-added separation and anion exchange chromatography. Purified aloe vera polysaccharide (APS) strongly scavenged radicals including DPPH, hydroxyl and alkyl radicals. In addition, APS showed a protective effect against AAPH-induced oxidative stress and cell death in Vero cells as well as in the in vivo zebrafish model. In this study, it is proved that both the in vitro and in vivo antioxidant potentials of APS could be further utilized in relevant industrial applications.

  12. A purified nucleoprotein fragment of the 30 S ribosomal subunit of Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spitnik-Elson, P; Elson, D; Abramowitz, R

    1979-02-27

    A '13 S' nucleoprotein fragment was isolated from a nuclease digest of Escherichia coli 30-S ribosomal subunits and purified to gel electrophoretic homogeneity. It contained two polynucleotides, of about 1.1 . 10(5) and 2.5 . 10(4) daltons, which separated when the fragment was deproteinized. The major protein components were S4, S7 and S9/11, with S15, S16, S18, S19 and S20 present in reduced amount.

  13. Purifying selection, drift and reversible mutation with arbitrarily high mutation rates

    OpenAIRE

    Charlesworth, Brian; Jain, Kavita

    2014-01-01

    Some species exhibit very high levels of DNA sequence variability; there is also evidence for the existence of heritable epigenetic variants that experience state changes at a much higher rate than sequence variants. In both cases, the resulting high diversity levels within a population (hyperdiversity) mean that standard population genetics methods are not trustworthy. We analyze a population genetics model that incorporates purifying selection, reversible mutations, and genetic drift, assum...

  14. The Experience of Implementation of Innovative Technology of Quarry Waste Water Purifying in Kuzbass Open Pit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesin, Yu V.; Hellmer, M. C.

    2016-08-01

    Among all industries in Kuzbass (Western Siberia, Russia) the coal industry provides the most environmental threat. However, the construction of new and maintenance of existing open pit mines do not often correspond to the tasks of improving the environmental safety of surface mining. So the article describes the use of innovative quarry waste water purifying technology implemented in Kuzbass open pit mine «Shestaki». This technology is based on using artificial filter arrays made of overburden rock.

  15. Structure of Escherichia coli tryptophanase purified from an alkaline-stressed bacterial culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rety, Stephane; Deschamps, Patrick; Leulliot, Nicolas

    2015-11-01

    Tryptophanase is a bacterial enzyme involved in the degradation of tryptophan to indole, pyruvate and ammonia, which are compounds that are essential for bacterial survival. Tryptophanase is often overexpressed in stressed cultures. Large amounts of endogenous tryptophanase were purified from Escherichia coli BL21 strain overexpressing another recombinant protein. Tryptophanase was crystallized in space group P6522 in the apo form without pyridoxal 5'-phosphate bound in the active site.

  16. Reconstitution of highly purified saxitoxin-sensitive Na+-channels into planar lipid bilayers.

    OpenAIRE

    Hanke, W.; Boheim, G; Barhanin, J; Pauron, D; Lazdunski, M

    1984-01-01

    Highly purified Na+-channels isolated from rat brain have been reconstituted into virtually solvent-free planar lipid bilayer membranes. Two different types of electrically excitable channels were detected in the absence of any neurotoxins. The activity of both channels was blocked by saxitoxin. The first channel type is highly selective for Na+ over K+ (approximately 10:1), it shows a bursting behavior, a conductance of 25 pS in Na+-Ringer and undergoes continuous opening and closing events ...

  17. Adsorptive Separation and Recovery of Organic Compounds from Purified Terephthalic Acid Plant Effluent

    OpenAIRE

    Khachane, P.K.; Heesink, A. Bert M.; Versteeg, G. F.; Pangarkar, V.G.

    2003-01-01

    Several organic impurities formed in the p-xylene oxidation process for manufacture of terephthalic acid are carried into the aqueous effluent from the crystallization section of PTA plant of crystallizers for purified terephthalic acid (PTA). These compounds impose a burden on the effluent treatment plant. Due to the presence of these impurities the recycle of aqueous effluent from crystallization section of PTA plant to the PTA crystallizer is not possible. The aim of this study is to check...

  18. Biological and Histological Studies of Purified Product from Streptomyces janthinus M7 Metabolites

    OpenAIRE

    Tawfik Zahira S.; El Shikh Hussein H.; Haroun Bakry M.; Yassin Mohamed M.; El Sonbty Sawsan M.; Aman Gaber Zaki; Mahmoud Abd Alwahab M.

    2015-01-01

    Fifteen clinical samples were taken out from patients suffering cancer, these patients being under the treatment with radio- and/or chemotherapy. The samples were used for the isolation of bacterial cells surrounding tumor; the samples were collected from Center of Cancer Therapy, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt. The clinical bacterial isolates were purified and identified according to Bergey's manual of determinative bacteriology ninth edition (1994). The bacterial isolates were found to ...

  19. Taxol differentially modulates the dynamics of microtubules assembled from unfractionated and purified beta-tubulin isotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derry, W B; Wilson, L; Khan, I A; Luduena, R F; Jordan, M A

    1997-03-25

    Substoichiometric binding of taxol to tubulin in microtubules potently suppresses microtubule dynamics, which appears to be the most sensitive antiproliferative mechanism of taxol. To determine whether the beta-tubulin isotype composition of a microtubule can modulate sensitivity to taxol, we measured the effects of substoichiometric ratios of taxol bound to tubulin in microtubules on the dynamics of microtubules composed of purified alphabeta(II)-, alphabeta(III)-, or alphabeta(IV)-tubulin isotypes and compared the results with the effects of taxol on microtubules assembled from unfractionated tubulin. Substoichiometric ratios of bound taxol in microtubules assembled from purified beta-tubulin isotypes or unfractionated tubulin potently suppressed the shortening rates and the lengths shortened per shortening event. Correlation of the suppression of the shortening rate with the stoichiometry of bound taxol revealed that microtubules composed of purified alphabeta(II)-, alphabeta(III)-, and alphabeta(IV)-tubulin were, respectively, 1.6-, 7.4-, and 7.2-fold less sensitive to the effects of bound taxol than microtubules assembled from unfractionated tubulin. These results indicate that taxol differentially modulates microtubule dynamics depending upon the beta-tubulin isotype composition. The results are consistent with recent studies correlating taxol resistance in tumor cells with increased levels of beta(III0- and beta(IV)-tubulin expression and suggest that altered cellular expression of beta-tubulin isotypes can be an important mechanism by which tumor cells develop resistance to taxol.

  20. Purified and unpurified sodium channels from eel electroplax in planar lipid bilayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    Highly purified sodium channel protein from the electric eel, Electrophorus electricus, was reconstituted into liposomes and incorporated into planar bilayers made from neutral phospholipids dissolved in decane. The purest sodium channel preparations consisted of only the large, 260-kD tetrodotoxin (TTX)-binding polypeptide. For all preparations, batrachotoxin (BTX) induced long-lived single-channel currents (25 pS at 500 mM NaCl) that showed voltage-dependent activation and were blocked by TTX. This block was also voltage dependent, with negative potentials increasing block. The permeability ratios were 4.7 for Na+:K+ and 1.6 for Na+:Li+. The midpoint for steady state activation occurred around -70 mV and did not shift significantly when the NaCl concentration was increased from 50 to 1,000 mM. Veratridine-induced single-channel currents were about half the size of those activated by BTX. Unpurified, nonsolubilized sodium channels from E. electricus membrane fragments were also incorporated into planar bilayers. There were no detectable differences in the characteristics of unpurified and purified sodium channels, although membrane stability was considerably higher when purified material was used. Thus, in the eel, the large, 260-kD polypeptide alone is sufficient to demonstrate single-channel activity like that observed for mammalian sodium channel preparations in which smaller subunits have been found. PMID:2443607

  1. Microbial production of succinic acid using crude and purified glycerol from a Crotalaria juncea based biorefinery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suvra Sadhukhan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Microbial conversion of crude and purified glycerol obtained in the process of biorefining Crotalaria juncea is carried out to produce succinic acid using Escherichia coli. Batch tests are performed for nine different substrate concentrations of commercial, purified and crude glycerol, in order to observe cell growth and substrate utilization rate. Inhibitory (Halden-Andrew, Aiba-Edward, Tessier type and Andrews as well as non-inhibitory (Monod, Moser and Tessier models are fitted to the relationship between specific growth rate and substrate concentration obtained from the growth curves. Considering the inhibition effect, Aiba-Edward model ranked 1 out of 7 in case of two samples and Haldane-Andrew model ranked 1 in case of one sample. Aiba-Edward model gave the best fitment for a large range of concentrations of all the three types of glycerol, crude, purified and laboratory grade. Maximum production of succinic acid is obtained from commercial glycerol at pH 7 and 37.5 °C.

  2. The antileukaemic cell cycle regulatory activities of swainsonine purified from Metarhizium anisopliae fermentation broth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Digar; Kaur, Gurvinder

    2014-01-01

    Swainsonine is a Metarhizium secondary metabolite known differentially for its specific mannosidase inhibitory, toxic and therapeutic activities. Here, the standard and purified swainsonine from Metarhizium anisopliae fermentation broth were comparatively evaluated for their in situ antileukaemic activities in human promyelocytic cell line, HL-60. Both the standard (IC50 = 6.96 μM) and purified (IC50 = 9.50 μM) compounds inhibited the leukaemic cell proliferation without inflicting cell membrane disruption at 48 h of post-treatment incubation. The DNA cell cycle analysis showed approximately 48.81% and 60.72% of the treated cells arrested in the synthetic phase (S-phase) at 36 and 48 h, respectively, upon treatment with IC50 concentration of the purified swainsonine. However, only 29.62% of cells were arrested in S-phase with standard swainsonine at 48 h, suggesting the comprehensive action of certain other metabolites sharing the similar paradigm of antiproliferative properties in Metarhizium broth extract.

  3. Microbial production of succinic acid using crude and purified glycerol from a Crotalaria juncea based biorefinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadhukhan, Suvra; Villa, Raffaella; Sarkar, Ujjaini

    2016-06-01

    Microbial conversion of crude and purified glycerol obtained in the process of biorefining Crotalaria juncea is carried out to produce succinic acid using Escherichia coli. Batch tests are performed for nine different substrate concentrations of commercial, purified and crude glycerol, in order to observe cell growth and substrate utilization rate. Inhibitory (Halden-Andrew, Aiba-Edward, Tessier type and Andrews) as well as non-inhibitory (Monod, Moser and Tessier) models are fitted to the relationship between specific growth rate and substrate concentration obtained from the growth curves. Considering the inhibition effect, Aiba-Edward model ranked 1 out of 7 in case of two samples and Haldane-Andrew model ranked 1 in case of one sample. Aiba-Edward model gave the best fitment for a large range of concentrations of all the three types of glycerol, crude, purified and laboratory grade. Maximum production of succinic acid is obtained from commercial glycerol at pH 7 and 37.5 °C.

  4. Long-term study of optimal gas purifiers for the RPC systems at LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Altuntas, E; Glushkov, I; Guida, R; Hahn, F; Haider, S; Mandelli, B; Rouwette, S

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the impurities produced in the gas of heavily irradiated RPC chambers and the properties of possible purifiers for the closed-loop gas systems used in the LHC experiments. The goal is finding the operational conditions that will keep the RPC gas purity near the level of the fresh gas quality to ensure proper operation of the large RPC systems at high luminosity. The properties and performance of a large number of purifiers have been understood. On that basis, an optimal combination of different filters consisting of MS (MS) 5Å and 4Å, and a CuO catalyst R11 has been chosen and validated irradiating a set of RPCs at the CERN Gamma Irradiation Facility (GIF) for several years. An important feature of this new filters configuration is the increase of the cycle duration for each purifier, which results in better stability and reduced downtime of the gas systems. If needed, it permits to comfortably increase the gas flow in the detectors during the high luminosity running at LHC.

  5. Use of Nitrogen Trifluoride To Purify Molten Salt Reactor Coolant and Heat Transfer Fluoride Salts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheele, Randall D.; Casella, Andrew M.; McNamara, Bruce K.

    2017-05-02

    Abstract: The molten salt cooled nuclear reactor is included as one of the Generation IV reactor types. One of the challenges with the implementation of this reactor is purifying and maintaining the purity of the various molten fluoride salts that will be used as coolants. The method used for Oak Ridge National Laboratory’s molten salt experimental test reactor was to treat the coolant with a mixture of H2 and HF at 600°C. In this article we evaluate thermal NF3 treatment for purifying molten fluoride salt coolant candidates based on NF3’s 1) past use to purify fluoride salts, 2) other industrial uses, 3) commercial availability, 4) operational, chemical, and health hazards, 5) environmental effects and environmental risk management methods, 6) corrosive properties, and 7) thermodynamic potential to eliminate impurities that could arise due to exposure to water and oxygen. Our evaluation indicates that nitrogen trifluoride is a viable and safer alternative to the previous method.

  6. Synthesis and characterization of nano-sized CaCO3 in purified diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulyaningsih, N. N.; Tresnasari, D. R.; Ramahwati, M. R.; Juwono, A. L.; Soejoko, D. S.; Astuti, D. A.

    2017-07-01

    The growth and development of animals depend strongly on the balanced nutrition in the diet. This research aims is to characterize the weight variations of nano-sized calcium carbonate (CaCO3) in purified diet that to be fed to animal model of rat. The nano-sized CaCO3 was prepared by milling the calcium carbonate particles for 20 hours at a rotation speed of 1000 rpm and resulting particle size in a range of 2-50 nm. Nano-sized CaCO3 added to purified diet to the four formulas that were identified as normal diet (N), deficiency calcium (DC), rich in calcium (RC), and poor calcium (PC) with containing in nano-sized CaCO3 much as 0.50 %, 0.00 %, 0.75 % and 0.25 % respectively. The nutritional content of the purified diet was proximate analyzed, it resulted as followed moisture, ash, fat, protein, crude fiber. The quantities of chemical element were analyzed by atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS), it resulted iron, magnesium, potassium and calcium. The results showed that N diet (Ca: 16,914.29 ppm) were suggested for healthy rats and RC diet (Ca: 33,696.13 ppm) for conditioned osteoporosis rats. The crystalline phases of the samples that were examined by X-ray diffraction showed that crystalline phase increased with the increasing concentration of CaCO3.

  7. Isolation, purifi cation and characterisation of transglutaminase from rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L. leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud El-Hofi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available   Background. Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L. is a spice and medicinal herb widely used around the world of the natural antioxidants, and it has been widely accepted as one of the spices with the highest antioxidant activity. Transglutaminase (EC 2.3.2.13: TGase is an enzyme capable of catalysing acyl transfer reactions by introducing covalent cross-links between proteins, as well as peptides and various primary amines. TGase activity in plants was first observed in pea seedlings, and subsequently found in organs of both lower and higher plants. Recently. TGase has captured researchers' interest due to its attractive potential application in food industries. Therefore, the objectives of this study are isolation and purification of TGase from new plant source rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L. leaves at the laboratory scale. Moreover, investigation of the biochemical properties of the purified TGase to provide a suitable TGase enzyme for food industry applications are in focus. Material and methods. Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L. leaves was used as a new plant source to TGase. The biochemical characteristics of the crude and purified enzyme were determined. Results. Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L. TGase was purified to homogeneity by successive three purification steps including ammonium sulfate precipitatation, ion exchange chromatography on DEAE-Sephadex A-50 column and Size exclusion column chromatography on Sephadex G-100 column. Under experimental conditions. 20-30% of ammonium sulfate saturation in the enzyme solution had a high yield of enzyme activity could be obtained. The purified enzyme from the Sephadex G-100 column had 21.35% yield with increased about 7.31 in purification fold. Rosemary TGase exhibited optimum activity at pH 7.0 and 55°C for the catalytic reaction of hydroxylarnine and Z-Gln-Gly. The purified TGase almost maintained full activity after incubation for 15 ruin up to 60°C and it was completely

  8. Pseudomonas aeruginosa arylsulfatase: a purified enzyme for the mild hydrolysis of steroid sulfates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Bradley J; Waller, Christopher C; Ma, Paul; Li, Kunkun; Cawley, Adam T; Ollis, David L; McLeod, Malcolm D

    2015-10-01

    The hydrolysis of sulfate ester conjugates is frequently required prior to analysis for a range of analytical techniques including gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Sulfate hydrolysis may be achieved with commercial crude arylsulfatase enzyme preparations such as that derived from Helix pomatia but these contain additional enzyme activities such as glucuronidase, oxidase, and reductase that make them unsuitable for many analytical applications. Strong acid can also be used to hydrolyze sulfate esters but this can lead to analyte degradation or increased matrix interference. In this work, the heterologously expressed and purified arylsulfatase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa is shown to promote the mild enzyme-catalyzed hydrolysis of a range of steroid sulfates. The substrate scope of this P. aeruginosa arylsulfatase hydrolysis is compared with commercial crude enzyme preparations such as that derived from H. pomatia. A detailed kinetic comparison is reported for selected examples. Hydrolysis in a urine matrix is demonstrated for dehydroepiandrosterone 3-sulfate and epiandrosterone 3-sulfate. The purified P. aeruginosa arylsulfatase contains only sulfatase activity allowing for the selective hydrolysis of sulfate esters in the presence of glucuronide conjugates as demonstrated in the short three-step chemoenzymatic synthesis of 5α-androstane-3β,17β-diol 17-glucuronide (ADG, 1) from epiandrosterone 3-sulfate. The P. aeruginosa arylsulfatase is readily expressed and purified (0.9 g per L of culture) and thus provides a new and selective method for the hydrolysis of steroid sulfate esters in analytical sample preparation. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Speech intelligibility while wearing full-facepiece air-purifying respirators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyne, Karen M; Barker, Daniel J

    2014-01-01

    Intelligible speech communication while wearing air-purifying respirators is critical for law enforcement officers, particularly when they are communicating with each other or the public. The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) requires a 70% overall performance rating to pass speech intelligibility certification for commercial chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear air-purifying respirators. However, the speech intelligibility of certified respirators is not reported and the impact on operational performance is unknown. The objective of this effort was to assess the speech intelligibility of 12 certified air-purifying respirators and to predict their impact on operational performance. The NIOSH respirator certification standard testing procedures were followed. Regression equations were fit to data from studies that examined the impact of degraded speech intelligibility on operational performance of simple and complex missions. The impact of the tested respirators on operational performance was estimated from these equations. Performance ratings observed for each respirator were: MSA Millennium (90%), 3M FR-M40 (88%), MSA Ultra Elite (87%), Scott M110 (86%), North 5400 (85%), Scott M120 (85%), Avon C50 (84%), Avon FM12 (84%), Survivair Optifit (81%), Drager CDR 4500 (81%), Peltor-AOSafety M-TAC (79%), and 3M FR-7800B (78%). The Millennium and FR-M40 had statistically significantly higher scores than the FR-7800B. The Millennium also scored significantly higher than the M-TAC. All of the tested respirators were predicted to have little impact on simple and complex mission performance times and on simple mission success rate. However, the regression equations showed that 75% of missions that require complex communications would be completed while wearing the Millennium, FR-M40, or Ultra Elite but that only 60% would be completed successfully while wearing the FR-7800B. These results suggest that some certified respirators may have

  10. Functional reconstitution of the voltage-regulated sodium channel purified from electroplax of Electrophorus electricus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenberg, R.L.

    1985-01-01

    The voltage-regulated NA channel is responsible for the depolarization of the excitable cell membrane during the normal action potential. This research has focused on the functional properties of the Na channel, purified from detergent extracts of electroplax membranes of the electric eel, and reconstituted into vesicles of defined phospholipid. These properties were assessed by measuring neurotoxin-modulated ion flux into the reconstituted membrane vesicles and by recording the single-channel currents of the purified channel by the patch-clamp method. The binding of tritiated tetrodotoxin (TTX) was employed as a marker for the purification of the channel. Two high-resolution fractionation steps, based on molecular charge and protein size, were used to obtain a preparation that is 80% homogeneous for a large peptide of 270,000 daltons. Radiotracer /sup 22/Na/sup +/ influx into the vesicles was stimulated by veratridine and by batrachotoxin (BTX) at concentrations of 100 ..mu..M and 5 ..mu..M, respectively. The stimulation by BTX was greater than that by veratridine, and can be as much as 16-fold over control influx levels. The stimulated influx is blocked by TTX with a K/sub i/ of 35 nM, and by local anesthetics in the normal pharmacological range. Large multilamellar vesicles prepared with a freeze-thaw step are suitable for single-channel recording techniques. When excised patches of the reconstituted membranes were voltage-clamped in the absence of activating neurotoxins, voltage-dependent single-channel currents were recorded. These displayed properties similar to those from native membranes of nerve and muscle. These results indicate that the protein purified on the basis of TTX binding is a functional Na channel possessing these functional domains: the ion-selective channel, the voltage sensors controlling activation and inactivation, and the sites of action of TTX, alkaloid neurotoxins, and local anesthetics.

  11. Biochemical properties of gastrokine-1 purified from chicken gizzard smooth muscle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karim Hnia

    Full Text Available UNLABELLED: The potential role and function of gastrokine-1 (GNK1 in smooth muscle cells is investigated in this work by first establishing a preparative protocol to obtain this native protein from freshly dissected chicken gizzard. Some unexpected biochemical properties of gastrokine-1 were deduced by producing specific polyclonal antibody against the purified protein. We focused on the F-actin interaction with gastrokine-1 and the potential role and function in smooth muscle contractile properties. BACKGROUND: GNK1 is thought to provide mucosal protection in the superficial gastric epithelium. However, the actual role of gastrokine-1 with regards to its known decreased expression in gastric cancer is still unknown. Recently, trefoil factors (TFF were reported to have important roles in gastric epithelial regeneration and cell turnover, and could be involved in GNK1 interactions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role and function of GNK1 in smooth muscle cells. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: From fresh chicken gizzard smooth muscle, an original purification procedure was used to purify a heat soluble 20 kDa protein that was sequenced and found to correspond to the gastrokine-1 protein sequence containing one BRICHOS domain and at least two or possibly three transmembrane regions. The purified protein was used to produce polyclonal antibody and highlighted the smooth muscle cell distribution and F-actin association of GNK1 through a few different methods. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Altogether our data illustrate a broader distribution of gastrokine-1 in smooth muscle than only in the gastrointestinal epithelium, and the specific interaction with F-actin highlights and suggests a new role and function of GNK1 within smooth muscle cells. A potential role via TFF interaction in cell-cell adhesion and assembly of actin stress fibres is discussed.

  12. The respiratory burst oxidase of human neutrophils. Further studies of the purified enzyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, G A; DeLisle, D M; DeTogni, P; Gabig, T G; Magee, B H; Markert, M; Babior, B M

    1986-10-05

    A superoxide-forming oxidase from activated human neutrophil membranes was solubilized by two slightly different methods, then purified by "dye-affinity" chromatography. Kinetic studies of the purified preparations gave Vmax values of 5-10 mumol of O-2/min/mg of protein, and Km values for NADH and NADPH that were in reasonable agreement with values determined previously using particulate and crude solubilized preparations of the respiratory burst oxidase. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis showed prominent bands at 67, 48, and 32 kDa, together with some minor contaminants, whereas gel electrophoresis under non-denaturing conditions gave a single major band that when eluted and re-electrophoresed in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate showed bands at 67, 48, 32 kDa. We believe that all three bands represent oxidase components. The flavin content of the purified enzyme was 20.4 +/- 2.0 S.E. pmol of FAD/microgram of protein, whereas heme averaged 0.1 +/- 0.02 pmol/microgram and ubiquinone could not be detected. Assuming that the enzyme is composed of one 67-kDa subunit, one 48-kDa subunit, and one 32-kDa subunit (i.e. that its molecular mass is approximately 150 kDa), it can be calculated to have a turnover number of 700-1500 min-1, in agreement with a value reported previously for oxidase in a particulate O-2-forming system (Cross, A. R., Parkinson, J. F., and Jones, O. T. G. (1985) Biochem. J. 226, 881-884), and to contain the following quantities of redox carriers (mol/mol): FAD, 3.0; heme, 0.015; ubiquinone, less than 0.06. It remains to be determined whether this preparation represents the complete respiratory burst oxidase or is only the pyridine nucleotide dehydrogenating component of a more complex enzyme.

  13. Toxicity and immunogenicity of purified Haemophilus ducreyi cytolethal distending toxin in a rabbit model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wising, Catharina; Svensson, Liselott A; Ahmed, Hinda J; Sundaeus, Vivianne; Ahlman, Karin; Jonsson, Ing-Marie; Mölne, Lena; Lagergård, Teresa

    2002-08-01

    The cytolethal distending toxin of Haemophilus ducreyi (HdCDT) is a three-component toxin that induces the arrest of the mammalian cell cycle in the G2 phase. All of the individual gene products, CdtA, CdtB and CdtC, are required for toxic activity on cultured mammalian cells. The CdtB component alone exerts nuclease activity. The individual HdCDT components were purified by affinity chromatography or ion-exchange chromatography followed by gel-filtration. HdCDT was reconstituted and purified by the immobilization of a GST-CdtB fusion on a GSTrap column and the subsequent addition of cell sonicates from Escherichia coli recombinants that produced CdtA and CdtC. The purified HdCDT preparation contained all three CDT proteins, as detected by immuno-blotting, and had high cytotoxic activity (10(6)CPU/ml). Immunization of rabbits with the HdCDT complex and with the individual CdtA, CdtB and CdtC proteins elicited high titres of antibodies, as detected by ELISA. All of the immune sera had toxin-neutralizing activities. The pathological effects of the HdCDT complex were investigated in rabbits, since the proliferation of two rabbit cell lines, SIRC and RK-13, was inhibited by HdCDT. Intradermal injection of HdCDT (1, 10, 50 and 100microg protein) into naive rabbits resulted in dose-dependent skin reactions (erythema) about 24h after injection. Similar effects were not observed when the individual HdCDT proteins were injected. HdCDT injection into immune rabbits resulted in dose-dependent skin responses that were characterized by both erythema and oedema. Histological evaluation of the 24-h lesions in naive rabbits that were injected with HdCDT, revealed moderate levels of inflammatory cells, which were mainly granulocytes and macrophages, and dilatation of blood vessels. The skin reactions in HdCDT-injected immunized rabbits showed pronounced vascular changes and extensive infiltration of inflammatory cells, including eosinophils. All of the pathological changes healed

  14. Hydrodynamic and Membrane Binding Properties of Purified Rous Sarcoma Virus Gag Protein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dick, Robert A.; Datta, Siddhartha A.K.; Nanda, Hirsh; Fang, Xianyang; Wen, Yi; Barros, Marilia; Wang, Yun-Xing; Rein, Alan; Vogt, Volker M. (NCI); (Cornell); (CM); (NIST)

    2016-05-06

    Previously, no retroviral Gag protein has been highly purified in milligram quantities and in a biologically relevant and active form. We have purified Rous sarcoma virus (RSV) Gag protein and in parallel several truncation mutants of Gag and have studied their biophysical properties and membrane interactionsin vitro. RSV Gag is unusual in that it is not naturally myristoylated. From its ability to assemble into virus-like particlesin vitro, we infer that RSV Gag is biologically active. By size exclusion chromatography and small-angle X-ray scattering, Gag in solution appears extended and flexible, in contrast to previous reports on unmyristoylated HIV-1 Gag, which is compact. However, by neutron reflectometry measurements of RSV Gag bound to a supported bilayer, the protein appears to adopt a more compact, folded-over conformation. At physiological ionic strength, purified Gag binds strongly to liposomes containing acidic lipids. This interaction is stimulated by physiological levels of phosphatidylinositol-(4,5)-bisphosphate [PI(4,5)P2] and by cholesterol. However, unlike HIV-1 Gag, RSV Gag shows no sensitivity to acyl chain saturation. In contrast with full-length RSV Gag, the purified MA domain of Gag binds to liposomes only weakly. Similarly, both an N-terminally truncated version of Gag that is missing the MA domain and a C-terminally truncated version that is missing the NC domain bind only weakly. These results imply that NC contributes to membrane interactionin vitro, either by directly contacting acidic lipids or by promoting Gag multimerization.

    Retroviruses like HIV assemble at and bud from the plasma membrane of cells. Assembly requires the interaction between thousands of Gag molecules to form a lattice. Previous work indicated that lattice formation at the plasma membrane is influenced by the conformation of monomeric HIV. We have extended this work to the more tractable RSV Gag. Our

  15. Structure of single-wall carbon nanotubes purified and cut using polymer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, M.; Yudasaka, M.; Koshio, A.; Jabs, C.; Ichihashi, T.; Iijima, S.

    2002-01-01

    Following on from our previous report that a monochlorobenzene solution of polymethylmethacrylate is useful for purifying and cutting single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) and thinning SWNT bundles, we show in this report that polymer and residual amorphous carbon can be removed by burning in oxygen gas. The SWNTs thus obtained had many holes (giving them a worm-eaten look) and were thermally unstable. Such severe damage caused by oxidation is unusual for SWNTs; we think that they were chemically damaged during ultrasonication in the monochlorobenzene solution of polymethylmethacrylate.

  16. Specific IgE response to purified and recombinant allergens in latex allergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arif Siti AM

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In recent years, allergy to natural rubber latex has emerged as a major allergy among certain occupational groups and patients with underlying diseases. The sensitization and development of latex allergy has been attributed to exposure to products containing residual latex proteins. Although improved manufacturing procedures resulted in a considerable reduction of new cases, the potential risk for some patient groups is still great. In addition the prevalent cross-reactivity of latex proteins with other food allergens poses a major concern. A number of purified allergens and a few commercial kits are currently available, but no concerted effort was undertaken to evaluate them. Methods We studied 11 purified latex allergens, Hev b 1 to Hev b 10, and Hev b 13 along with several crude allergen extracts and two commercial ImmunoCAP assays to evaluate specific IgE antibody in the sera from latex allergic patients and controls. Health care workers and spina bifida patients with clinical symptoms of latex allergy, spina bifida patients without latex allergy, and non-atopic health care workers have been studied. Results The results suggest that Hev b 2, 5, 6, and 13 together identified over 80 percent health care workers with latex allergy, while Hev b 6 along with Hev b 1 or 3 detected specific IgE antibody in all sera studied from patients with spina bifida and latex allergy. The ImmunoCAP results using both Hev b 5 amplified and non-amplified closely agreed with the clinical diagnosis of latex allergy in health care workers and in spina bifida. Conclusion Although the purified allergens and crude extracts reacted diversely with IgE from different patient groups, the results indicated that use of certain combinations of purified recombinant antigens will be useful in commercial kits or in in-house assays for detecting specific IgE antibody in the sera. The results suggest that a combination of Hev b 2, 3, 5, 6, and 13 together

  17. Purified umbilical cord derived mesenchymal stem cell treatment in a case of systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Christopher D; Wongsaisri, Pornpatcharin; Htut, Thein; Grossman, Terry

    2017-12-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a multiple organ system autoimmune disorder for which there is no known cure. We report a case of a young adult lady with SLE and Sjogren's with diagnostic and clinical resolution following purified umbilical cord derived mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) and globulin component protein macrophage activating factor (GcMAF) therapy in a combined multidisciplinary integrative medicine protocol. Our patient had complete reversal of all clinical and laboratory markers. We recommend a prospective randomized double blind study to assess the sustained efficacy of MSC and GcMAF in the treatment of autoimmune connective tissue diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus.

  18. New Method Developed To Purify Single Wall Carbon Nanotubes for Aerospace Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebron, Marisabel; Meador, Michael A.

    2003-01-01

    Single wall carbon nanotubes have attracted considerable attention because of their remarkable mechanical properties and electrical and thermal conductivities. Use of these materials as primary or secondary reinforcements in polymers or ceramics could lead to new materials with significantly enhanced mechanical strength and electrical and thermal conductivity. Use of carbon-nanotube-reinforced materials in aerospace components will enable substantial reductions in component weight and improvements in durability and safety. Potential applications for single wall carbon nanotubes include lightweight components for vehicle structures and propulsion systems, fuel cell components (bipolar plates and electrodes) and battery electrodes, and ultra-lightweight materials for use in solar sails. A major barrier to the successful use of carbon nanotubes in these components is the need for methods to economically produce pure carbon nanotubes in large enough quantities to not only evaluate their suitability for certain applications but also produce actual components. Most carbon nanotube synthesis methods, including the HiPCO (high pressure carbon monoxide) method developed by Smalley and others, employ metal catalysts that remain trapped in the final product. These catalyst impurities can affect nanotube properties and accelerate their decomposition. The development of techniques to remove most, if not all, of these impurities is essential to their successful use in practical applications. A new method has been developed at the NASA Glenn Research Center to purify gram-scale quantities of single wall carbon nanotubes. This method, a modification of a gas phase purification technique previously reported by Smalley and others, uses a combination of high-temperature oxidations and repeated extractions with nitric and hydrochloric acid. This improved procedure significantly reduces the amount of impurities (catalyst and nonnanotube forms of carbon) within the nanotubes, increasing

  19. Induction of ovulation in rabbit does using purified nerve growth factor and camel seminal plasma

    OpenAIRE

    Masdeu, M.; García García, R. M.; Cardinali, R.; Millán, P.; Arias Álvarez, M.; C. Castellini; LORENZO, P. L.; Garcia Rebollar, Pilar

    2015-01-01

    The presence of an ovulation-inducing factor (OIF) in the seminal plasma (SP) of several species with spontaneous and induced ovulation, including the rabbit, has been documented. Recent studies have demonstrated that the OIF in the SP of camels (SPCAM) is a nerve growth factor (β-NGF). The aim of this study was to determine if purified β-NGF from mouse submandibular glands or SPCAM could provoke ovulation induction in the rabbit doe. A total of 35 females were synchronized with 25 IU of equi...

  20. Ligand interaction with the purified serotonin transporter in solution and at the air/water interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faivre, V.; Manivet, P.; Callaway, J.C.; Morimoto, H.; Airaksinen, M.M.; Baszkin, A.; Launay, J.M.; Rosilio, V.

    2000-06-01

    The purified serotonin transporter (SERT) was spread at the air/water interface and the effects both of its surface density and of the temperature on its interfacial behavior were studied. The recorded isotherms evidenced the existence of a stable monolayer undergoing a lengthy rearrangement. SERT/ligand interactions appeared to be dependent on the nature of the studied molecules. Whereas an unrelated drug (chlorcyclizine) did not bind to the spread SERT, it interacted with its specific ligands. Compared to heterocyclic drugs, for which binding appeared to be concentration-dependent, a 'two-site' mechanism was evidenced for pinoline and imipramine.

  1. Scheme for purifying a general mixed entangled state and its linear optical implementation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董冬; 张延磊; 邹长铃; 邹旭波; 郭光灿

    2015-01-01

    We propose a scheme for purification of a general mixed entangled state. In this scheme, we start from a large number of general mixed entangled states and end up, after local operation and classical communication, with a smaller number of Bell diagonal states with higher entanglement. In particular, the scheme can purify one maximally entangled state from two entangled pairs prepared in a class of mixed entangled state. Furthermore we propose a linear optical implementation of the present scheme with polarization beam splitters and photon detectors.

  2. Data on the identity and myristoylation state of recombinant, purified hippocalcin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anuradha Krishnan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this data article we report on the purity and post translation modification of bacterially expressed and purified recombinant hippocalcin (HPCA: a member of the neuronal calcium sensor protein family, whose functions are regulated by calcium. MALDI-TOF in source decay (ISD analysis was used to identify both the myristoylated or non-myristoylated forms of the protein. MALDI-TOF ISD data on the identity of the protein, amino acid sequence and myristoylation efficiency are provided. This data relates to the article “Single-Column Purification of the Tag-free, Recombinant Form of the Neuronal Calcium Sensor Protein, Hippocalcin Expressed in Eschericia coli” [1].

  3. Induction of apoptosis in purified animal and plant nuclei by Xenopus egg extracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANGZHENGFAN; SHANZHU; 等

    1999-01-01

    We have developed a cell-free system that can trigger the nuclei purified from mouse liver and suspensioncultured carrot cells to undergo apoptosis as defined by the formation of apoptotic bodies and nucleosomal DNA fragments.The effects of different divalent cations and cycloheximide on DNA cleavage in this system were assessed.The fact that nuclei of plant cells can be induced to undergo apoptosis in a cell-free animal system suggests that animals and plants share a common signal transduction pathway triggering in the initiation stage of apoptosis.

  4. Envelope glycoproteins of HIV-1, HIV-2, and SIV purified with Galanthus nivalis agglutinin induce strong immune responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilljam, G

    1993-05-01

    Lectin affinity chromatography was used to purify in a single step the envelope glycoproteins of HIV-1, HIV-2, and SIV. Envelope glycoproteins carry the major determinants essential for protection by the humoral immune response. The purification of these proteins has previously been a laborious procedure. The glycoproteins were purified by a one-step procedure to a high level of purity by using Galanthus nivalis agglutinin (GNA). The purified glycoprotein had CD4-binding and antigenic reactivities. Strong immune responses to envelope proteins and peptides were seen in mice and primates after immunization with these preparations.

  5. Quantum filtering of a thermal master equation with a purified reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genoni, Marco G.; Mancini, Stefano; Wiseman, Howard M.; Serafini, Alessio

    2014-12-01

    We consider a system subject to a quantum optical master equation at finite temperature and study a class of conditional dynamics obtained by monitoring its totally or partially purified environment. More specifically, drawing from the notion that the thermal state of the environment may be regarded as the local state of a lossy and noisy two-mode squeezed state, we consider conditional dynamics ("unravellings") resulting from the homodyne detection of the two modes of such a state. Thus, we identify a class of unravellings parametrized by the loss rate suffered by the environmental two-mode state, which interpolate between direct detection of the environmental mode alone (occurring for total loss, whereby no correlation between the two environmental modes is left) and full access to the purification of the bath (occurring when no loss is acting and the two-mode state of the environment is pure). We hence show that, while direct detection of the bath is not able to reach the maximal steady-state squeezing allowed by general-dyne unravellings, such optimal values can be obtained when a fully purified bath is accessible. More generally we show that, within our framework, any degree of access to the bath purification improves the performance of filtering protocols in terms of achievable squeezing and entanglement.

  6. Decolorization of the textile dyes using purified banana pulp polyphenol oxidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadhav, Umesh U; Dawkar, Vishal V; Jadhav, Mital U; Govindwar, Sanjay P

    2011-04-01

    Polyphenol oxidase (PPO) purified using DEAE-cellulose and Biogel P-100 column chromatography from banana pulp showed 12.72-fold activity and 2.49% yield. The optimum temperature and pH were found to be 30 degrees C and 7.0, respectively for its activity. Catechol was found to be a suitable substrate for banana pulp PPO that showed V(max), 0.041 mM min(-1) and K(m), 1.6 mM. The enzyme activity was inhibited by sodium metabisulfite, citric acid, cysteine, and beta-mercaptoethanol at 10 mM concentration. The purified enzyme could decolorize (90%) Direct Red 5B (160 microg mL(-1)) dye within 48 h and Direct Blue GLL (400 microg mL(-1)) dye up to 85% within 90 h. The GC-MS analysis indicated the presence of 4-hydroxy-benzenesulfonic acid and Naphthalene-1,2,3,6-tetraol in the degradation products of Direct Red 5B, and 5-(4-Diazenyl-naphthalene-1-ylazo)-8-hydroxy-naphthalene-2-sulfonic acid and 2-(4-Diazenyl-naphthalene-1-ylazo)-benzenesulfonic acid in the degradation products of Direct Blue GLL.

  7. In vitro DNA binding of purified CcpA protein from Lactococcus lactis IL1403.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalczyk, Magdalena; Borcz, Barbara; Płochocka, Danuta; Bardowski, Jacek

    2007-01-01

    During this study His-tagged CcpA protein purified under native conditions to obtain a biologically active protein was used for molecular analysis of CcpA-dependent regulation. Using electrophoretic mobility shift assays it was demonstrated that CcpA of L. lactis can bind DNA in the absence of the HPr-Ser-P corepressor and exhibits DNA-binding affinity for nucleotide sequences lacking cre sites. However, purified HPr-Ser-P protein from Bacillus subtilis was shown to slightly increase the DNA-binding capacity of the CcpA protein. It was also observed that CcpA bound to the cre box forms an apparently more stable complex than that resulting from unspecific binding. Competition gel retardation assay performed on DNA sequences from two PEP:PTS regions demonstrated that the ybhE, bglS, rheB, yebE, ptcB and yecA genes situated in these regions are most probably directly regulated by CcpA.

  8. An improved method to extract and purify cystatin from hen egg white.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiapei; Wu, Jianping

    2014-07-15

    Hen egg white cystatin, an inhibitor of cysteine proteinase, may have wide applications for improving human health. However, its pricy cost associated with extraction and preparation has hurdled its further utilization. The objective was to develop an improved method to extract and purify cystatin from egg white. After removal of ovomucin, a fraction containing cystatin was obtained by cation exchange chromatography, and further purified by affinity chromatography using a cm-papain-Sepharose column. The prepared cystatin was then characterized by SDS-PAGE, Western-Blot, and LC-MS/MS, and its purity was determined by HPLC method instead of the conventional immunodiffusion method. The protein content of cystatin extract was 66.4 ± 2.3%. In comparison with the conventional method, the purity of cystatin was improved from 56.6 ± 1.7% to 93.3 ± 4.0%, and its yield was improved from 21.3 ± 1.2% to 33.6 ± 1.5%. Relative activities of cystatin to inhibit papain prepared by our method and the conventional method were determined to be 88 ± 7% and 91 ± 4% respectively, against a cystatin standard from Sigma. This suggested no significant loss of activity during the separation process.

  9. Characterization of Affinity-Purified Isoforms of Acinetobacter calcoaceticus Y1 Glutathione Transferases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin-Soon Chee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Glutathione transferases (GST were purified from locally isolated bacteria, Acinetobacter calcoaceticus Y1, by glutathione-affinity chromatography and anion exchange, and their substrate specificities were investigated. SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed that the purified GST resolved into a single band with a molecular weight (MW of 23 kDa. 2-dimensional (2-D gel electrophoresis showed the presence of two isoforms, GST1 (pI 4.5 and GST2 (pI 6.2 with identical MW. GST1 was reactive towards ethacrynic acid, hydrogen peroxide, 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene, and trans,trans-hepta-2,4-dienal while GST2 was active towards all substrates except hydrogen peroxide. This demonstrated that GST1 possessed peroxidase activity which was absent in GST2. This study also showed that only GST2 was able to conjugate GSH to isoproturon, a herbicide. GST1 and GST2 were suggested to be similar to F0KLY9 (putative glutathione S-transferase and F0KKB0 (glutathione S-transferase III of Acinetobacter calcoaceticus strain PHEA-2, respectively.

  10. Characterization of affinity-purified isoforms of Acinetobacter calcoaceticus Y1 glutathione transferases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chee, Chin-Soon; Tan, Irene Kit-Ping; Alias, Zazali

    2014-01-01

    Glutathione transferases (GST) were purified from locally isolated bacteria, Acinetobacter calcoaceticus Y1, by glutathione-affinity chromatography and anion exchange, and their substrate specificities were investigated. SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed that the purified GST resolved into a single band with a molecular weight (MW) of 23 kDa. 2-dimensional (2-D) gel electrophoresis showed the presence of two isoforms, GST1 (pI 4.5) and GST2 (pI 6.2) with identical MW. GST1 was reactive towards ethacrynic acid, hydrogen peroxide, 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene, and trans,trans-hepta-2,4-dienal while GST2 was active towards all substrates except hydrogen peroxide. This demonstrated that GST1 possessed peroxidase activity which was absent in GST2. This study also showed that only GST2 was able to conjugate GSH to isoproturon, a herbicide. GST1 and GST2 were suggested to be similar to F0KLY9 (putative glutathione S-transferase) and F0KKB0 (glutathione S-transferase III) of Acinetobacter calcoaceticus strain PHEA-2, respectively.

  11. Impact of residual contamination on the biofunctional properties of purified alginates used for cell encapsulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Susan K; Dusseault, Julie; Polizu, Stefania; Ménard, Martin; Hallé, Jean-Pierre; Yahia, L'Hocine

    2006-03-01

    Alginate is frequently used for cell encapsulation, but its biocompatibility is neither optimal nor reproducible. Purifying the alginate is critical for achieving a suitable biocompatibility. However, published purification methods vary in efficiency and may induce changes in polymer biofunctionality. Applying X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, we showed that commercial alginates, purified by in-house and industrial methods, contained elemental impurities that contributed 0.41-1.73% of their atomic composition. Residual contaminants were identified to be proteins (nitrogen/COOH), endotoxins (phosphorus), and fucoidans (sulphur). Studies using attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy suggested that trace contamination did not alter the alginate molecular structure. Alginate hydrophilicity increased by 19-40% after purification, in correlation with a reduction in protein and polyphenol content. Solution viscosity of the alginate increased by 28-108% after purification, in correlation with a reduction in protein content. These results demonstrate that commercial alginates contain potentially immunogenic contaminants that are not completely eliminated by current purification methods. Moreover, these contaminants alter the functional properties of the alginate in a manner that may compromise biocompatibility: Hydrophilicity may affect protein adsorption and solution viscosity influences the morphology of alginate-based microcapsules. These findings highlight the need to improve and better control alginate purity to ensure a reproducible biofunctionality and optimal biocompatibility of alginate and microcapsules.

  12. Reconstitution of Purified Acetylcholine Receptors with Functional Ion Channels in Planar Lipid Bilayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, N.; Anholt, R.; Lindstrom, J.; Montal, M.

    1980-05-01

    Acetylcholine receptor, solubilized and purified from Torpedo californica electric organ under conditions that preserve the activity of its ion channel, was reconstituted into vesicles of soybean lipid by the cholate-dialysis technique. The reconstituted vesicles were then spread into monolayers at an air-water interface and planar bilayers were subsequently formed by apposition of two monolayers. Addition of carbamoylcholine caused an increase in membrane conductance that was transient and relaxed spontaneously to the base level (i.e., became desensitized). The response to carbamoylcholine was dose dependent and competitively inhibited by curare. Fluctuations of membrane conductance corresponding to the opening and closing of receptor channels were observed. Fluctuation analysis indicated a single-channel conductance of 16± 3 pS (in 0.1 M NaCl) with a mean channel open time estimated to be 35± 5 ms. Thus, purified acetylcholine receptor reconstituted into lipid bilayers exhibited the pharmacological specificity, activation, and desensitization properties expected of this receptor in native membranes.

  13. Reconstitution of highly purified saxitoxin-sensitive Na+-channels into planar lipid bilayers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanke, W; Boheim, G; Barhanin, J; Pauron, D; Lazdunski, M

    1984-03-01

    Highly purified Na+-channels isolated from rat brain have been reconstituted into virtually solvent-free planar lipid bilayer membranes. Two different types of electrically excitable channels were detected in the absence of any neurotoxins. The activity of both channels was blocked by saxitoxin. The first channel type is highly selective for Na+ over K+ (approximately 10:1), it shows a bursting behavior, a conductance of 25 pS in Na+-Ringer and undergoes continuous opening and closing events for periods of minutes within a defined range of negative membranes voltages. The second channel type has a conductance of 150 pS and a lower selectivity for Na+ and K+ (2.2:1); only a few opening and closing events are observed with this channel after one voltage jump. The latter type of channel is also found with highly purified Na+-channel from Electrophorus electricus electroplax. A qualitative analysis of the physicochemical and pharmacological properties of the high conductance channel has been carried out. Channel properties are affected not only by saxitoxin but also by a scorpion (Centruroides suffusus suffusus) toxin and a sea anemone (Anemonia sulcata) toxin both known to be selective for the Na+-channel. The spontaneous transformation of the large conductance channel type into the small one has been considered; the two channel types may represent the expression of activity of different conformational states of the same protein.

  14. Absence of TGF-β Receptor Activation by Highly Purified hCG Preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koistinen, Hannu; Hautala, Laura; Koli, Katri; Stenman, Ulf-Håkan

    2015-12-01

    Recently, several LH/human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) receptor-independent activities for hCG have been described, including activation of the TGF-β receptor (TGFβR) by hyperglycosylated hCG and stimulation of trophoblast invasion. Because the hCG concentrations used in these studies have been rather high, reflecting physiological hCG levels in pregnancy, even a minor contamination with growth factors, which act at very low concentrations, may be significant. Several commercial hCG preparations have been found to contain significant amounts of epidermal growth factor (EGF), which we also confirmed here. Furthermore, we found that some hCG preparations also contain significant amounts of TGF-β1. These hCG preparations were able to activate ERK1/2 in JEG-3 choriocarcinoma cells or TGFβR in mink lung epithelial cells transfected with a reporter gene for TGFβR activation. No such activation was found with highly purified hCG or its free β-subunit (hCGβ), irrespective of whether they were hyperglycosylated or not. Taken together, our results suggest that the growth factor contaminations in the hCG preparations can cause activation of TGFβR and, at least in JEG-3 cells, MAPK signaling. This highlights the importance to carefully control for potential contaminations and that highly purified hCG preparations have to be used for biological studies.

  15. In vivo behavior of detergent-solubilized purified rabbit thrombomodulin on intravenous injection into rabbits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehrlich, H.J.; Esmon, N.L.; Bang, N.U. (Eli Lilly and Company, Indianapolis, IN (USA))

    1990-02-01

    Thrombomodulin is a thrombin endothelial cell membrane receptor. The thrombomodulin-thrombin complex rapidly activates protein C resulting in anticoagulant activity. We investigated the anticoagulant effects and pharmacokinetic behavior of detergent-solubilized purified rabbit thrombomodulin labeled with iodine 125 when intravenously injected into rabbits. Thrombomodulin half-life (t1/2) was determined by tracking the 125I-radiolabeled protein and the biologic activity as determined by the prolongation of the activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) and thrombin clotting time (TCT). When 200 micrograms/kg 125I-thrombomodulin was injected into rabbits, the APTT and TCT were immediately prolonged, whereas no effect on the prothrombin time was seen. In vitro calibration curves enabled us to convert the prolongations of the clotting times into micrograms per milliliter thrombomodulin equivalents. The best fit (r greater than 0.99) for the disappearance curves was provided by a two-compartment model with mean t1/2 alpha (distribution phase) of 18 minutes for 125I, 12 minutes for APTT, and 20 minutes for TCT, and mean t1/2 beta (elimination phase) of 385 minutes for 125I, 460 for APTT, and 179 for TCT. The administration of two doses of endotoxin (50 micrograms/kg) 24 hours apart did not accelerate the turnover rate of 125I-thrombomodulin as measured by the disappearance of 125I from the circulation. Thus, detergent-solubilized purified thrombomodulin administered intravenously circulates in a biologically active form for appreciable time periods.

  16. Production of L-phenylacetylcarbinol (L-PAC) from benzaldehyde using partially purified pyruvate decarboxylase (PDC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, H S; Rogers, P L

    1996-01-05

    Biotransformation of benzaldehyde to L-phenylacetylcarbinol (L-PAC) as a key intermediate for L-ephedrine synthesis has been evaluated using pyruvate decarboxylase (PDC) partially purified from Candida utilis. PDC activity was enhanced by controlled fermentative metabolism and pulse feeding of glucose prior to the enzyme purification. With partially purified PDC, several enzymatic reactions occurred simultaneously and gave rise to by-products (acetaldehyde and acetoin) as well as L-PAC production. Optimal reaction conditions were determined for temperature, pH, addition of ethanol, PDC activity, benzaldehyde, and pyruvate:benzaldehyde ratio to maximize L-PAC, and minimize by-products. The highest L-PAC concentration of 28.6 g/L (190.6 mM) was achieved at 7 U/mL PDC activity and 200 mM benzaldehyde with 2.0 molar ratio of pyruvate to benzaldehyde in 40 mM potassium phosphate buffer (pH 7.0) containing 2.0 M ethanol at 4 degrees C.

  17. Antifungal activity of gallic acid purified from Terminalia nigrovenulosa bark against Fusarium solani.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Dang-Minh-Chanh; Seo, Dong-Jun; Lee, Hyang-Burm; Kim, In-Seon; Kim, Kil-Yong; Park, Ro-Dong; Jung, Woo-Jin

    2013-03-01

    The antifungal activities of methanolic extracts from Terminalia nigrovenulosa bark (TNB) was investigated for effects on the initial growth of mycelia against Fusarium solani. The ethyl acetate fraction separated from TNB demonstrated the highest antifungal activity against F. solani. The antifungal compound was isolated from TNB using silica gel column and Sephadex LH-20 chromatography combined with thin-layer chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography. Structural identification of the antifungal compound was conducted using (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The purified antifungal compound was gallic acid (GA) or 3,4,5-trihydroxy benzoic acid. Purified-GA possesses the high antifungal activity against F. solani, and that antifungal activity was dosage-dependent. The hyphae became collapsed and shrunken after 24 h incubation with GA (500 ppm). In pot experiments, the application of TNB crude extract was found to be effective in controlling the cucumber Fusarium root rot disease by enhancing activities of chitinase, peroxidase thereby promoting the growth of plants. The applied TNB extract significantly suppressed root rot disease compared to control. It resulted in 33, 75 and 81% disease suppression with 100, 500 and 1000 ppm of TNB crude extract, respectively. The study effectively demonstrated biological activities of the TNB extract, therefore suggesting the application of TNB for the control of soil-borne diseases of cucumber plants. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Measuring riboswitch activity in vitro and in artificial cells with purified transcription-translation machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, Laura; Mansy, Sheref S

    2014-01-01

    We present a simple method to measure the real-time activity of riboswitches with purified components in vitro and inside of artificial cells. Typically, riboswitch activity is measured in vivo by exploiting β-galactosidase encoding constructs with a putative riboswitch sequence in the untranslated region. Additional in vitro characterization often makes use of in-line probing to explore conformational changes induced by ligand binding to the mRNA or analyses of transcript lengths in the presence and absence of ligand. However, riboswitches ultimately control protein levels and often times require accessory factors. Therefore, an in vitro system capable of monitoring protein production with fully defined components that can be supplemented with accessory factors would greatly aid riboswitch studies. Herein we present a system that is amenable to such analyses. Further, since the described system can be easily reconstituted within compartments to build artificial, cellular mimics with sensing capability, protocols are provided for building sense-response systems within water-in-oil emulsion compartments and lipid vesicles. Only standard laboratory equipment and commercially available material are exploited for the described assays, including DNA, purified transcription-translation machinery, i.e., the PURE system, and a spectrofluorometer.

  19. Purified graphene oxide dispersions lack in vitro cytotoxicity and in vivo pathogenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali-Boucetta, Hanene; Bitounis, Dimitrios; Raveendran-Nair, Rahul; Servant, Ania; Van den Bossche, Jeroen; Kostarelos, Kostas

    2013-03-01

    Prompted by the excitement from the description of single layer graphene, increased attention for potential applications in the biomedical field has been recently placed on graphene oxide (GO). Determination of the opportunities and limitations that GO offers in biomedicine are particularly prone to inaccuracies due to wide variability in the preparation methodologies of GO material in different laboratories, that results in significant variation in the purity of the material and the yield of the oxidation reactions, primarily the Hummers method used. Herein, the fabrication of highly pure, colloidally stable, and evenly dispersed GO in physiologically-relevant aqueous buffers in comparison to conventional GO is investigated. The purified GO material is thoroughly characterized by a battery of techniques, and is shown to consist of single layer GO sheets of lateral dimensions below 500 nm. The cytotoxic impact of the GO in vitro and its inflammation profile in vivo is investigated. The purified GO prepared and characterized here does not induce significant cytotoxic responses in vitro, or inflammation and granuloma formation in vivo following intraperitoneal injection. This is one of the initial steps towards determination of the safety risks associated with GO material that may be interacting with living tissue.

  20. Use of recombinant purified protein derivative (PPD) antigens as specific skin test for tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavri, Henriette; Bucurenci, Nadia; Ulea, Irina; Costache, Adriana; Popa, Loredana; Popa, Mircea Ioan

    2012-11-01

    Purified protein derivative (PPD) is currently the only available skin test reagent used worldwide for the diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB). The aim of this study was to develop a Mycobacterium tuberculosis specific skin test reagent, without false positive results due to Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccination using recombinant antigens. Proteins in PPD IC-65 were analyzed by tandem mass spectrometry and compared to proteins in M. tuberculosis culture filtrate; 54 proteins were found in common. Top candidates MPT64, ESAT 6, and CFP 10 were overexpressed in Escherichia coli expression strains and purified as recombinant proteins. To formulate optimal immunodiagnostic PPD cocktails, the antigens were evaluated by skin testing guinea pigs sensitized with M. tuberculosis H37Rv and BCG. For single antigens and a cocktail mixture of these antigens, best results were obtained using 3 μg/0.1 ml, equivalent to 105 TU (tuberculin units). Each animal was simultaneously tested with PPD IC-65, 2 TU/0.1 ml, as reference. Reactivity of the multi-antigen cocktail was greater than that of any single antigen. The skin test results were between 34.3 and 76.6 per cent the level of reactivity compared to that of the reference when single antigens were tested and 124 per cent the level of reactivity compared to the reference for the multi-antigen cocktail. Our results showed that this specific cocktail could represent a potential candidate for a new skin diagnostic test for TB.

  1. The method of purifying bioengineered spider silk determines the silk sphere properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jastrzebska, Katarzyna; Felcyn, Edyta; Kozak, Maciej; Szybowicz, Miroslaw; Buchwald, Tomasz; Pietralik, Zuzanna; Jesionowski, Teofil; Mackiewicz, Andrzej; Dams-Kozlowska, Hanna

    2016-01-01

    Bioengineered spider silks are a biomaterial with great potential for applications in biomedicine. They are biocompatible,biodegradable and can self-assemble into films, hydrogels, scaffolds, fibers, capsules and spheres. A novel, tag-free, bioengineered spider silk named MS2(9x) was constructed. It is a 9-mer of the consensus motif derived from MaSp2–the spidroin of Nephila clavipes dragline silk. Thermal and acidic extraction methods were used to purify MS2(9x). Both purification protocols gave a similar quantity and quality of soluble silk; however, they differed in the secondary structure and zeta potential value. Spheres made of these purified variants differed with regard to critical features such as particle size, morphology, zeta potential and drug loading. Independent of the purification method, neither variant of the MS2(9x) spheres was cytotoxic, which confirmed that both methods can be used for biomedical applications. However, this study highlights the impact that the applied purification method has on the further biomaterial properties. PMID:27312998

  2. Daphnia magna negatively affected by chronic exposure to purified Cry-toxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bøhn, Thomas; Rover, Carina Macagnan; Semenchuk, Philipp Robert

    2016-05-01

    Cry-toxin genes originating from Bacillus thuringiensis are inserted into genetically modified (GM) plants, often called Bt-plants, to provide insect resistance to pests. Significant amounts of Bt-plant residues, and thus Cry-toxins, will be shed to soil and aquatic environments. We exposed Daphnia magna to purified Cry1Ab and Cry2Aa toxins for the full life-span of the animals. We used single toxins in different doses and combinations of toxins and Roundup(®), another potential stressor on the rise in agricultural ecosystems. Animals exposed to 4.5 mg/L (ppm) of Cry1Ab, Cry2Aa and the combination of both showed markedly higher mortality, smaller body size and very low juvenile production compared to controls. Animals exposed to 0.75 mg/L also showed a tendency towards increased mortality but with increased early fecundity compared to the controls. Roundup(®) stimulated animals to strong early reproductive output at the cost of later rapid mortality. We conclude that i) purified Cry-toxins in high concentrations are toxic to D. magna, indicating alternative modes-of-action for these Cry-toxins; ii) Cry-toxins act in combination, indicating that 'stacked events' may have stronger effects on non-target organisms; iii) further studies need to be done on combinatorial effects of multiple Cry-toxins and herbicides that co-occur in the environment.

  3. A method of batch-purifying microalgae with multiple antibiotics at extremely high concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jichang; Wang, Song; Zhang, Lin; Yang, Guanpin; Zhao, Lu; Pan, Kehou

    2016-01-01

    Axenic microalgal strains are highly valued in diverse microalgal studies and applications. Antibiotics, alone or in combination, are often used to avoid bacterial contamination during microalgal isolation and culture. In our preliminary trials, we found that many microalgae ceased growing in antibiotics at extremely high concentrations but could resume growth quickly when returned to an antibiotics-free liquid medium and formed colonies when spread on a solid medium. We developed a simple and highly efficient method of obtaining axenic microalgal cultures based on this observation. First, microalgal strains of different species or strains were treated with a mixture of ampicillin, gentamycin sulfate, kanamycin, neomycin and streptomycin (each at a concentration of 600 mg/L) for 3 days; they were then transferred to antibiotics-free medium for 5 days; and finally they were spread on solid f/2 media to allow algal colonies to form. With this method, five strains of Nannochloropsis sp. (Eustigmatophyceae), two strains of Cylindrotheca sp. (Bacillariophyceae), two strains of Tetraselmis sp. (Chlorodendrophyceae) and one strain of Amphikrikos sp. (Trebouxiophyceae) were purified successfully. The method shows promise for batch-purifying microalgal cultures.

  4. The use of solvents for purifying industrial naphthalene from coal tar distilled oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azpiroz, Gonzalez; Blanco, C. Gutierrez; Banciella, Casal [Instituto Nacional del Carbon, CSIC c/Francisco Pintado Fe, 26, 33011 Oviedo (Spain)

    2008-02-15

    The organic chemistry industry is based on organic compounds derived from coal, petroleum and gas. Coal tars derived from the carbonisation process are complex mixtures, of which the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH's) are the main component. One of the most important PAH's is naphthalene, which represents between 10 to 12% of the sample. In recent years, new applications for industrial naphthalene have been developed. However, the naphthalene required for high level industry must be extremely pure. New routes in the purification process are being studied to reduce the economic cost and environmental impact resulting from the increase in demand for pure naphthalene. Any alternative method to that of sublimation for purification in the distillation process and/or catalytic hydrogenation must improve the quality of industrial naphthalene, to make it suitable for the new applications. In the present work, an alternative method for purifying industrial naphthalene has been investigated. A new process based on extraction with solvents such as phosphoric acid and acetic acid is reported and discussed. Industrial naphthalene was purified by means of a new technique and the stability and good properties of the product were verified. (author)

  5. Application of decolourized and partially purified polygalacturonase and α-amylase in apple juice clarification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Tapati Bhanja; Banerjee, Rintu

    2014-01-01

    Polygalacturonase and α-amylase play vital role in fruit juice industry. In the present study, polygalacturonase was produced by Aspergillus awamori Nakazawa MTCC 6652 utilizing apple pomace and mosambi orange (Citrus sinensis var mosambi) peels as solid substrate whereas, α-amylase was produced from A. oryzae (IFO-30103) using wheat bran by solid state fermentation (SSF) process. These carbohydrases were decolourized and purified 8.6-fold, 34.8-fold and 3.5-fold, respectively by activated charcoal powder in a single step with 65.1%, 69.8% and 60% recoveries, respectively. Apple juice was clarified by these decolourized and partially purified enzymes. In presence of 1% polygalacturonase from mosambi peels (9.87 U/mL) and 0.4% α-amylase (899 U/mL), maximum clarity (%T660nm = 97.0%) of juice was attained after 2 h of incubation at 50 °C in presence of 10 mM CaCl2. Total phenolic content of juice was reduced by 19.8% after clarification, yet with slightly higher %DPPH radical scavenging property. PMID:24948919

  6. Isolation of functionally active and highly purified neuronal mitochondria from human cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khattar, Nicolas K; Yablonska, Svitlana; Baranov, Sergei V; Baranova, Oxana V; Kretz, Eric S; Larkin, Timothy M; Carlisle, Diane L; Richardson, R Mark; Friedlander, Robert M

    2016-04-01

    Functional and structural properties of mitochondria are highly tissue and cell dependent, but isolation of highly purified human neuronal mitochondria is not currently available. We developed and validated a procedure to isolate purified neuronal mitochondria from brain tissue. The method combines Percoll gradient centrifugation to obtain synaptosomal fraction with nitrogen cavitation mediated synaptosome disruption and extraction of mitochondria using anti mitochondrial outer membrane protein antibodies conjugated to magnetic beads. The final products of isolation are non-synaptosomal mitochondria, which are a mixture of mitochondria isolated from different brain cells (i.e. neurons, astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, microglia) and synaptic mitochondria, which are of neuronal origin. This method is well suited for preparing functional mitochondria from human cortex tissue that is surgically extracted. The procedure produces mitochondria with minimal cytoplasmic contaminations that are functionally active based on measurements of mitochondrial respiration as well as mitochondrial protein import. The procedure requires approximately four hours for the isolation of human neuronal mitochondria and can also be used to isolate mitochondria from mouse/rat/monkey brains. This method will allow researchers to study highly enriched neuronal mitochondria without the confounding effect of cellular and organelle contaminants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Dataset of the proteome of purified outer membrane vesicles from the human pathogen Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomintans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Kieselbach

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The Gram-negative bacterium Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans is an oral and systemic pathogen, which is linked to aggressive forms of periodontitis and can be associated with endocarditis. The outer membrane vesicles (OMVs of this species contain effector proteins such as cytolethal distending toxin (CDT and leukotoxin (LtxA, which they can deliver into human host cells. The OMVs can also activate innate immunity through NOD1- and NOD2-active pathogen-associated molecular patterns. This dataset provides a proteome of highly purified OMVs from A. actinomycetemcomitans serotype e strain 173. The experimental data do not only include the raw data of the LC-MS/MS analysis of four independent preparations of purified OMVs but also the mass lists of the processed data and the Mascot.dat files from the database searches. In total 501 proteins are identified, of which 151 are detected in at least three of four independent preparations. In addition, this dataset contains the COG definitions and the predicted subcellular locations (PSORTb 3.0 for the entire genome of A. actinomycetemcomitans serotype e strain SC1083, which is used for the evaluation of the LC-MS/MS data. These data are deposited in ProteomeXchange in the public dataset PXD002509. In addition, a scientific interpretation of this dataset by Kieselbach et al. (2015 [2] is available at http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0138591.

  8. Steviol glycoside safety: are highly purified steviol glycoside sweeteners food allergens?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban, Jonathan D; Carakostas, Michael C; Taylor, Steve L

    2015-01-01

    Steviol glycoside sweeteners are extracted from the plant Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni), a member of the Asteraceae (Compositae) family. Many plants from this family can induce hypersensitivity reactions via multiple routes of exposure (e.g., ragweed, goldenrod, chrysanthemum, echinacea, chamomile, lettuce, sunflower and chicory). Based on this common taxonomy, some popular media reports and resources have issued food warnings alleging the potential for stevia allergy. To determine if such allergy warnings are warranted on stevia-based sweeteners, a comprehensive literature search was conducted to identify all available data related to allergic responses following the consumption of stevia extracts or highly purified steviol glycosides. Hypersensitivity reactions to stevia in any form are rare. The few cases documented in the peer-reviewed literature were reported prior to the introduction of high-purity products to the market in 2008 when many global regulatory authorities began to affirm the safety of steviol glycosides. Neither stevia manufacturers nor food allergy networks have reported significant numbers of any adverse events related to ingestion of stevia-based sweeteners, and there have been no reports of stevia-related allergy in the literature since 2008. Therefore, there is little substantiated scientific evidence to support warning statements to consumers about allergy to highly purified stevia extracts.

  9. 76 FR 4865 - Purified Carboxymethylcellulose From Mexico: Final Results of the First Five-Year (“Sunset...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Purified Carboxymethylcellulose From Mexico: Final Results of the First Five... Administration, Department of Commerce. SUMMARY: On September 29, 2010, the Department of Commerce...

  10. Evaluating the Effectiveness of a Commercial Portable Air Purifier in Homes with Wood Burning Stoves: A Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie F. Hart

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Wood burning for residential heating is prevalent in the Rocky Mountain regions of the United States. Studies have shown that wood stoves can be a significant source of PM2.5 within homes. In this study, the effectiveness of an electrostatic filter portable air purifier was evaluated (1 in a home where a wood stove was the sole heat source and (2 in a home where a wood stove was used as a supplemental heat source. Particle count concentrations in six particle sizes and particle mass concentrations in two particle sizes were measured for ten 12-hour purifier on and ten purifier off trials in each home. Particle count concentrations were reduced by 61–85 percent. Similar reductions were observed in particle mass concentrations. These findings, although limited to one season, suggest that a portable air purifier may effectively reduce indoor particulate matter concentrations associated with wood combustion during home heating.

  11. Evaluating the effectiveness of a commercial portable air purifier in homes with wood burning stoves: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Julie F; Ward, Tony J; Spear, Terry M; Rossi, Richard J; Holland, Nicholas N; Loushin, Brodie G

    2011-01-01

    Wood burning for residential heating is prevalent in the Rocky Mountain regions of the United States. Studies have shown that wood stoves can be a significant source of PM(2.5) within homes. In this study, the effectiveness of an electrostatic filter portable air purifier was evaluated (1) in a home where a wood stove was the sole heat source and (2) in a home where a wood stove was used as a supplemental heat source. Particle count concentrations in six particle sizes and particle mass concentrations in two particle sizes were measured for ten 12-hour purifier on and ten purifier off trials in each home. Particle count concentrations were reduced by 61-85 percent. Similar reductions were observed in particle mass concentrations. These findings, although limited to one season, suggest that a portable air purifier may effectively reduce indoor particulate matter concentrations associated with wood combustion during home heating.

  12. Use of a Monoclonal Antibody to Purify the Tetrodotoxin Binding Component from the Electroplax of Electrophorus electricus

    OpenAIRE

    Nakayama, H; Withy, R M; Raftery, M A

    1982-01-01

    The tetrodotoxin binding component of the voltage-sensitive sodium channel from Electrophorus electricus electroplax was purified by using a monoclonal antibody. An impure preparation of tetrodotoxin binding component was mixed with the pure monoclonal antibody, and the immune complex so formed was isolated by affinity chromatography on a protein A-Sepharose column. Excess antibody was removed by ion-exchange chromatography. The purified material has a specific activity of over 1,800 pmol of ...

  13. A novel method for purifying bluetongue virus with high purity by co-immunoprecipitation with agarose protein A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Dai

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bluetongue virus (BTV is an icosahedral non-enveloped virus within the genus Orbivirus of Reoviridae and exists as 24 distinct serotypes. BTV can infect all ruminant species and causes severe sickness in sheep. Recently, it was reported that BTV can infect some human cancer cells selectively. Because of the important oncolysis of this virus, we developed a novel purifying method for large-scale production. The purifying logic is simple, which is picking out all the components unwanted and the left is what we want. The process can be summarized in 4 steps: centrifugation, pulling down cell debrises and soluble proteins by co-immunoprecipitation with agarose Protein A, dialysis and filtration sterilization after concentration. Results The result of transmission electron microscope (TEM observation showed that the sample of purified virus has a very clear background and the virions still kept intact. The result of 50% tissue culture infective dose (TCID50 assay showed that the bioactivity of purified virus is relatively high. Conclusions This method can purify BTV-10 with high quality and high biological activity on large-scale production. It also can be used for purifying other BTV serotypes.

  14. The 73 kilodalton heat shock cognate protein purified from rat brain contains nonesterified palmitic and stearic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidon, P T; Hightower, L E

    1986-08-01

    A protein related to the 71 kilodalton inducible rat heat shock protein was purified to electrophoretic homogeneity in milligram amounts from brain tissue of nonheat-stressed rats. The protein has been designated as a stress cognate protein based on previous studies and data presented herein that this protein cross-reacted with a monoclonal antibody originally raised against the Drosophila 70 kilodalton heat shock protein. The purified protein had an apparent molecular mass of 73 kilodaltons when analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and an apparent mass of 150 kilodaltons as determined by nondissociative gel chromatography, suggesting that the purified protein is a homodimer. The purified protein had isoelectric points of 5.0 under nondissociative conditions and 5.6 when exposed to protein denaturants, suggesting loss of bound anionic molecules and/or net exposure of basic residues upon denaturation. Chloroform/methanol extraction of the purified protein and subsequent analyses by thin layer and gas-liquid chromatography resulted in the identification of palmitic and stearic acids noncovalently bound to the protein. Approximately four molecules of fatty acids were bound per dimer with palmitic and stearic acids present in a one-to-one ratio. The purified protein did not bind exogenously added radioactive palmitate, indicating that the fatty acid-binding sites of the cognate protein were fully occupied and that the associated fatty acids were too tightly bound to exchange readily. The possible significance of the fatty acids associated with the 73 kilodalton stress cognate protein is discussed.

  15. Combination therapy of double filtration plasmapheresis and glucocorticoid in severe lupus nephritis%双重血浆置换联合激素治疗重症狼疮性肾炎的临床观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    章海涛; 刘正钊; 胡伟新; 陈樱花; 龚德华; 季大玺; 刘志红

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the clinical efficacy and safety of double filtration plasmapheresis (DFPP)accompanied with corticosteroid in patients with severe lupus nephritis (LN).Methodology:Thirty one patients (19 females and 12 males,average age of 24.4 ± 10.9 y) with severe LN including class Ⅳ (n =19) 、Ⅲ(n =1) 、Ⅴ + Ⅳ(n =8) 、Ⅴ + Ⅲ(n =2) and Ⅴ (n =1) were enrolled in this study.Among them,22 cases showed rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis(RPGN) with elevated serum creatinine(SCr) (300.6 ± 185.6 mmol/L),and 11 of them needed renal replacement therapy.DFPP was performed with two-fold plasma volume on each session using membrane type plasma component separator (EC50W and EC20W,Asahi Kasei Kuraray,Japan).Results:(1)Clinical efficacy:After DFPP treating 2.6 times(1 ~3)for each patient,their SLE-DAI was reduced significantly from (16.0 ± 3.5) to (9.7 ± 1.5) (P < 0.01) and SCr was decreased from (300.6 ± 185.6) mmol/L to (247.5 ±168.0) mmol/L (P <0.05).Six patients got off dialysis respectively.Gross hematuria disappeared in 4 patients and there was no change in proteinuria.(2) Immunologic parameters:After DFPP,the levels of serum IgG were decreased from (10.9 ±5.2) g/L to (4.6 2.0) g/L (P <0.01),and the titers of anti-dsDNA antibody were significantly declined,while the levels of complements and lymphcytes had no change.(3)Follow up:31 patients were followed up for 1 ~ 29 months (10.1 ±6.4).6 patients achieved complete remission,18 had partial remission and 6 developed to ESRD with maintenance hemodialysis.(4)Adverse effect:one had catheter infection and one had hypotension episodes during DFPP treatment.Conclusion:DFPP could decrease activity of SLE and improve renal function through rapidly and effectively clearance of antibodies in severe LN.So DFPP accompanied with corticosteroid is an effective therapeutic method for severe LN.However,the right indication,suitable course and dosage of DFPP will need to deeply investigate.%

  16. Evaluation of cross-linked aggregates from purified Bacillus subtilis levansucrase mutants for transfructosylation reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munguia Agustin

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increasing attention has been focused on inulin and levan-type oligosaccharides, including fructosyl-xylosides and other fructosides due to their nutraceutical properties. Bacillus subtilis levansucrase (LS catalyzes the synthesis of levan from sucrose, but it may also transfer the fructosyl moiety from sucrose to acceptor molecules included in the reaction medium. To study transfructosylation reactions with highly active and robust derivatives, cross-linked enzyme aggregates (CLEAs were prepared from wild LS and two mutants. CLEAs combine the catalytic features of pure protein preparations in terms of specific activity with the mechanical behavior of industrial biocatalysts. Results Two types of procedures were used for the preparation of biocatalysts from purified wild type LS (WT LS B. subtilis and the R360K and Y429N LS mutants: purified enzymes aggregated with glutaraldehyde (cross-linked enzyme aggregates: CLEAs, and covalently immobilized enzymes in Eupergit C®. The biocatalysts were characterized and used for fructoside synthesis using xylose as an acceptor model. CLEAs were able to catalyze the synthesis of fructosides as efficiently as soluble enzymes. The specific activity of CLEAs prepared from wild type LS (44.9 U/mg of CLEA, R360K (56.5 U/mg of CLEA and Y429N (1.2 U/mg of CLEA mutants were approximately 70, 40 and 200-fold higher, respectively, than equivalent Eupergit C® immobilized enzyme preparations (U/mg of Eupergit, where units refer to global LS activity. In contrast, the specific activity of the free enzymes was 160, 171.2 and 1.5 U/mg of protein, respectively. Moreover, all CLEAs had higher thermal stability than corresponding soluble enzymes. In the long term, the operational stability was affected by levan synthesis. Conclusion This is the first report of cross-linked transglycosidases aggregates. CLEAs prepared from purified LS and mutants have the highest specific activity for immobilized

  17. Monitoring time-dependent maturation changes in purified phagosomes from Dictyostelium discoideum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieckmann, Régis; Gopaldass, Navin; Escalera, Caroline; Soldati, Thierry

    2008-01-01

    The amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum is an established model to study phagocytosis. The sequence of events leading to the internalization and degradation of a particle is conserved in D. discoideum compared to metazoan cells. As its small haploid genome has been sequenced, it is now amenable to genome-wide analysis including organelle proteomics. Therefore, we adapted to Dictyostelium the classical protocol to purify phagosomes formed by ingestion of latex beads particles. The pulse-chase protocol detailed here gives easy access to pure, intact, and synchronized phagosomes from representative stages of the entire process of phagosome maturation. Recently, this protocol was used to generate individual temporal profiles of proteins and lipids during phagosome maturation generating a proteomic fingerprint of six maturation stages (1). In addition, immunolabeling of phagosomes on a coverslip was developed to visualize and quantitate antigen distribution at the level of individual phagosomes.

  18. A Method of Effective Quarry Water Purifying Using Artificial Filtering Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyulenev, M.; Garina, E.; Khoreshok, A.; Litvin, O.; Litvin, Y.; Maliukhina, E.

    2017-01-01

    The development of open pit mining in the large coal basins of Russia and other countries increases their negative impact on the environment. Along with the damage of land and air pollution by dust and combustion gases of blasting, coal pits have a significant negative impact on water resources. Polluted quarry water worsens the ecological situation on a much larger area than covered by air pollution and land damage. This significantly worsens the conditions of people living in cities and towns located near the coal pits, and complicates the subsequent restoration of the environment, irreversibly destroying the nature. Therefore, the research of quarry wastewater purifying is becoming an important mater for scholars of technical colleges and universities in the regions with developing open-pit mining. This paper describes the method of determining the basic parameters of the artificial filtering arrays formed on coal pits of Kuzbass (Western Siberia, Russia), and gives recommendations on its application.

  19. Finned tubes in purified gas heat exchangers of flue gas desulfurization plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Donnell, J. Jr.; Meyer, T.H.

    1985-01-01

    The use of helical rolled, corrosion resistant finned tubes in the purified gas heat exchangers of flue gas desulfurization plant has considerable economic advantages over conventional heat exchangers with smooth tubes. As a result of a threefold larger external surface and hence improved heat transfer properties, heat exchangers with finned tubes can be made considerably smaller. The weight and space requirements are reduced and the pressure drop also falls owing to the smaller diameter. Thus piping, pumps, and fittings can all be made smaller. Moreover, deposition on the finned tubes is considerably lower. It is found that finned tubes can be recommended in all cases where the difference in heat transfer coefficients between the inside and the outside of the tube is considerable. (orig.).

  20. Dynamics of spherical metallic particles in cylinder electrostatic separators/purifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Hong-Zhou; Li, Jia; Guo, Jie; Xu, Zhen-Ming

    2008-08-15

    This paper presents a theoretical analysis of the dynamics of spherical metallic particles in electrostatic separators/purifiers (ESPs). The particle equations of motion are numerically solved in two dimensions using a computational algorithm. The ESPs consist of a pair of conductor cylinder electrodes. The upper cylinder is energized by HVdc, while the lower one is grounded and fixed horizontally on a revolvable axis. Some phenomena and aspects of separation process are explained and depicted including lifting off, impact, "motion collapse" and "sudden bouncing". The results reveal that the several phenomena depend on initial position, radius and density of the particle, curvature of the cylinder electrodes, distance between the electrodes and amplitude of the applied voltage. Optimization of the parameters is presented in order to get better separation/purification processes.

  1. In vitro inhibition effect of some coumarin compounds on purified human serum paraoxonase 1 (PON1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokce, Basak; Gencer, Nahit; Arslan, Oktay; Karatas, Mert Olgun; Alici, Bulent

    2016-08-01

    Human serum paraoxonase 1 (PON1; EC 3.1.8.1) is a high-density lipoprotein associated, calcium-dependent enzyme that hydrolyses aromatic esters, organophosphates and lactones and can protect the low-density lipoprotein against oxidation. In this study, in vitro effect of some hydroxy and dihydroxy ionic coumarin derivatives (1-20) on purified PON1 activity was investigated. Among these compounds, derivatives 11-20 are water soluble. In investigated compounds, compounds 6 and 13 were found the most active (IC50 = 35 and 34 µM) for PON1, respectively. The present study has demonstrated that PON1 activity is very highly sensitive to studied coumarin derivatives.

  2. Enriched surface acidity for surfactant-free suspensions of carboxylated carbon nanotubes purified by centrifugation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth I. Braun

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that surfactant-suspended carbon nanotube (CNT samples can be purified by centrifugation to decrease agglomerates and increase individually-dispersed CNTs. However, centrifugation is not always part of protocols to prepare CNT samples used in biomedical applications. Herein, using carboxylated multi-walled CNTs (cMWCNTs suspended in water without a surfactant, we developed a Boehm titrimetric method for the analysis of centrifuged cMWCNT suspensions and used it to show that the surface acidity of oxidized carbon materials in aqueous cMWCNT suspensions was enriched by ∼40% by a single low-speed centrifugation step. This significant difference in surface acidity between un-centrifuged and centrifuged cMWCNT suspensions has not been previously appreciated and is important because the degree of surface acidity is known to affect the interactions of cMWCNTs with biological systems.

  3. Characterization of Helicobacter pylori adhesin thiol peroxidase (HP0390) purified from Escherichia coli

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Huyen Thi Minh Nguyen; Kwang-Ho Nam; Yasar Saleem; Key-Sun Kim

    2010-06-01

    The antioxidant protein, adhesin thiol peroxidase (HpTpx or HP0390), plays an important role in enabling Helicobacter pylori to survive gastric oxidative stress. The bacterium colonizes the host stomach and produces gastric cancer. However, little information is available about the biochemical characteristics of HpTpx. We expressed recombinant HpTpx in Escherichia coli, purified to homogeneity, and characterized it. The results showed that HpTpx existed in a monomeric hydrodynamic form and the enzyme fully retained its peroxidase and antioxidant activities. The catalytic reaction of the enzyme was similar to an atypical 2-cysteine peroxiredoxin (Prx). The conformation of the enzyme was observed in the presence and absence of dithiothreitol (DTT); similar to other known thiol peroxidases, conformational change was observed in HpTpx by the addition of DTT.

  4. Profiling the Hydrolysis of Isolated Grape Berry Skin Cell Walls by Purified Enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zietsman, Anscha J J; Moore, John P; Fangel, Jonatan U; Willats, William G T; Vivier, Melané A

    2015-09-23

    The unraveling of crushed grapes by maceration enzymes during winemaking is difficult to study because of the complex and rather undefined nature of both the substrate and the enzyme preparations. In this study we simplified both the substrate, by using isolated grape skin cell walls, and the enzyme preparations, by using purified enzymes in buffered conditions, to carefully follow the impact of the individual and combined enzymes on the grape skin cell walls. By using cell wall profiling techniques we could monitor the compositional changes in the grape cell wall polymers due to enzyme activity. Extensive enzymatic hydrolysis, achieved with a preparation of pectinases or pectinases combined with cellulase or hemicellulase enzymes, completely removed or drastically reduced levels of pectin polymers, whereas less extensive hydrolysis only opened up the cell wall structure and allowed extraction of polymers from within the cell wall layers. Synergistic enzyme activity was detectable as well as indications of specific cell wall polymer associations.

  5. Polysaccharides purified from Cordyceps cicadae protects PC12 cells against glutamate-induced oxidative damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olatunji, Opeyemi J; Feng, Yan; Olatunji, Oyenike O; Tang, Jian; Wei, Yuan; Ouyang, Zhen; Su, Zhaoliang

    2016-11-20

    Two polysaccharides CPA-1 and CPB-2 were isolated purified from Cordyceps cicadae by hot water extraction, ethanol precipitation and purification using anion exchange and gel filtration chromatography. Preliminary structural characterization of CPA-1 and CPB-2 were performed. The protective effect of CPA-1 and CPB-2 against glutamate-induced oxidative toxicity in PC12 cells was analyzed. The results indicated that pretreatment of PC12 cells with CPA-1 and CPB-2 significantly increased cell survival, Ca(2+) overload and ROS generation. CPA-1 and CPB-2 also markedly up-regulated the antioxidant status of pretreated PC12 cells. Our results suggested that Cordyceps cicadae polysaccharides can protect PC12 cells against glutamate excitotoxicity and might serve as therapeutic agents for neuronal disorders. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Structure characteristics of a water-soluble polysaccharide purified from dragon fruit (Hylocereus undatus) pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lishan; Zhang, Yaojie; Wang, Lizhi

    2016-08-01

    Dragon fruit is a tropical fruit with good taste. It can bring health benefits to human body. As one of the major bioactive components in this fruit, the polysaccharides might contribute to the health benefits. However, the precise structure information remains unknown. A leading polysaccharide of dragon fruit pulp, DFPP, was purified and identified by NMR and GC-MS. →4-β-d-GlcpA-1→, →6-β-d-Galp-1→ and →4-α-l-Rhap-1→ constituted the backbone and α-l-Araf-1→5-α-l-Araf-1→ formed the branch chain. The precise structure was putatively identified as below. The molecular weight was 2.2×10(3)kDa. The structure information of polysaccharides will be helpful to understand this fruit. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. A simple filtration technique for obtaining purified human chromosomes in suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusuf, Mohammed; Parmar, Neha; Bhella, Gurdeep K; Robinson, Ian K

    2014-05-01

    Here we present a simple method for cleaning polyamine human mitotic chromosomes in solution. This was achieved by filtering intact (unburst) nuclei along with both large and small cytoplasmic debris through a series of different pore sized filters. Pure human chromosomes were recovered using a simple reverse filtration step. Fluorescence microscopy was used to validate the chromosome suspension after each filtration step. This reverse filtration technique is an improvement in both procedure time and chromosome recovery compared to currently used post-purification methods. Chromosomes purified by our method could be used for many applications, such as structural studies using microfluidics and high resolution imaging or generation of chromosome paints and sequencing after flow cytometry.

  8. Multi-objective Optimization of Industrial Purified Terephthalic Acid Oxidation Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牟盛静; 苏宏业; 古勇; 褚健

    2003-01-01

    Multi-objective optimization of a purified terephthalic acid (PTA) oxidation unit is carried out in this paper by using a process model that has been proved to describe industrial process quite well. The model is a semiempirical structured into two series ideal continuously stirred tank reactor (CSTR) models. The optimal objectives include maximizing the yield or inlet rate and minimizing the concentration of 4-carboxy-benzaldhyde, which is the main undesirable intermediate product in the reaction process. The multi-objective optimization algorithm applied in this study is non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm Ⅱ(NSGA-Ⅱ). The performance of NSGA-II is further illustrated by application to the title process.

  9. Characterization and genomic analysis of a plaque purified strain of cyanophage PP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yiran; Lin, Juan; Li, Na; Hu, Zhihong; Deng, Fei

    2013-10-01

    Cyanophages are ubiquitous and essential components of the aquatic environment and play an important role in the termination of algal blooms. As such, they have attracted widespread interest. PP was the first isolated cyanophage in China, which infects Plectonema boryanum and Phormidium foveolarum. In this study, this cyanophage was purified three times by a double-agar overlay plaque assay and characterized. Its genome was extracted, totally sequenced and analyzed. Electron microscopy revealed a particle with an icosahedral head connected to a short stubby tail. Bioassays showed that PP was quite virulent. The genome of PP is a 42,480 base pair (bp), linear, double-stranded DNA molecule with 222 bp terminal repeats. It has high similarity with the known Pf-WMP3 sequence. It contains 41 open reading frames (ORFs), 17 of which were annotated. Intriguingly, the genome can be divided into two completely different parts, which differ both in orientation and function.

  10. Photocatalytic degradation of pesticides by titanium dioxide and titanium pillared purified clays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Abdennouri

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Titanium dioxide was synthesized by the sol–gel method and titanium pillared purified clay was prepared with two titanium contents: 1.15 and 10.5 mmol of Ti per gram of clay. The composites were synthesized by immobilizing TiO2 onto surfactant-pillared clay via ion exchange reaction between clay with cation surfactant, cetyl-trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTMABr. The composition and texture of the prepared photocatalysts were characterized with X-ray powder diffraction (XRD, FT-IR spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM and energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDX. The adsorption performance and photocatalytic activities of the prepared samples were investigated using 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D and 2,4-dichlorophenoxypropionic acid (2,4-DP as models of organic pollutants. The results were obtained that these photocatalysts can effectively degrade selected pesticides. The removal efficiency increases with the Ti content in the pillared clay.

  11. Highly purified HMG versus recombinant FSH for ovarian stimulation in IVF cycles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Platteau, P.; Nyboe, Andersen A.; Loft, A.;

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the live birth rates resulting from ovarian stimulation with highly purified human menopausal gonadotrophin (HP-HMG), which combines FSH and human chorionic gonadotrophin-driven LH activities, or recombinant FSH (rFSH) alone in women undergoing IVF cycles....... An integrated analysis was performed of the raw data from two randomized controlled trials that were highly comparable in terms of eligibility criteria and post-randomization treatment regimens with either HP-HMG or rFSH for ovarian stimulation in IVF, following a long down-regulation protocol. All randomized...... subjects who received at least one dose of gonadotrophin in an IVF cycle (HP-HMG, n = 491; rFSH, n = 495) were included in the analysis. Subjects who underwent intracytoplasmic sperm injection cycles were excluded. The superiority of one gonadotrophin preparation over the other was tested using...

  12. Inter-comparison in {sup 10}Be analysis starting from pre-purified quartz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schnabel, C. [Scottish Universities Environmental Research Centre (SUERC), Rankine Avenue, East Kilbride G75 0QF (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: c.schnabel@suerc.gla.ac.uk; Reinhardt, L. [Department of Geographical and Earth Sciences, University of Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Department of Nuclear Physics, Research School of Physical Sciences and Engineering, Australian National University, ACT 0200 (Australia); Barrows, T.T. [Department of Nuclear Physics, Research School of Physical Sciences and Engineering, Australian National University, ACT 0200 (Australia); Bishop, P. [Department of Geographical and Earth Sciences, University of Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Davidson, A. [Scottish Universities Environmental Research Centre (SUERC), Rankine Avenue, East Kilbride G75 0QF (United Kingdom); Fifield, L.K. [Department of Nuclear Physics, Research School of Physical Sciences and Engineering, Australian National University, ACT 0200 (Australia); Freeman, S. [Scottish Universities Environmental Research Centre (SUERC), Rankine Avenue, East Kilbride G75 0QF (United Kingdom); Kim, J.Y. [Department of Geographical and Earth Sciences, University of Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Maden, C. [Scottish Universities Environmental Research Centre (SUERC), Rankine Avenue, East Kilbride G75 0QF (United Kingdom); Xu, S. [Scottish Universities Environmental Research Centre (SUERC), Rankine Avenue, East Kilbride G75 0QF (United Kingdom)

    2007-06-15

    The results of the first international inter-comparison of {sup 10}Be analysis from quartz are presented. This inter-comparison includes the sample preparation starting from pre-purified quartz and AMS measurements at SUERC and ANU. Measured {sup 10}Be concentrations agree within their uncertainties for six out of seven samples with {sup 10}Be concentrations greater than 1 x 10{sup 4} at/g quartz. This agreement and also the agreement of {sup 10}Be concentrations analysed from two aliquots of the same sample at SUERC indicate that addition of {sup 9}Be carrier before (used at ANU) or after quartz dissolution (used at SUERC apart from one aliquot of one sample) should not result in substantially different results.

  13. Biochemical characteristics and antioxidant activity of crude and purified sulfated polysaccharides from Gracilaria fisheri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imjongjairak, Siriluck; Ratanakhanokchai, Khanok; Laohakunjit, Natta; Tachaapaikoon, Chakrit; Pason, Patthra; Waeonukul, Rattiya

    2016-01-01

    Sulfated polysaccharides (SPs) from Gracilaria fisheri of Thailand, which were extracted in low-temperature (25 °C) water showed the highest content of phenolic compounds compared with those extracted at high temperature (55 °C). Crude SP antioxidant activity was evaluated by measuring the DPPH free radical scavenging effect which is directly related to the level of phenolic compounds. The sulfate content, total sugar, and SPs yield were also directly related to the extraction temperature. All extracts contained galactose as a major monosaccharide. High antioxidant activity of crude SP, positively correlated with the phenolic compound contents (R(2) = 0.996) contributed by the existence of sulfate groups and phenolic compounds. In purified SP, F1 fraction exhibited strong radical scavenging ability, but it was not significantly different compared to crude SP extracted at 25 °C. This indicated that the appropriate density and distribution of sulfate groups in the SP extract showed the best antioxidant activity.

  14. Effects of highly purified anthraquinoid compounds from Aloe vera on sensitive and multidrug resistant leukemia cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimaudo, S; Tolomeo, M; Gancitano, R; Dalessandro, N; Aiello, E

    1997-01-01

    Folk medicine has attributed antitumor properties to preparations from Aloe vera. We have studied the effects of five purified compounds from the plant on human K562 leukemia and on its multidrug resistant (MDR) variant, K562/R. The glycosides aloin A and B, aloesin and aloeresin were devoid of antitumor activity up to 200 mu M concentrations. Only the aglycone aloe emodin produced reproducible antitumor effects, which, interestingly, were more pronounced in the MDR, P-glycoprotein overexpressing, cell line. Its IC50 was in fact 29 mu M in K562 and 10.5 mu M in K562/R. Aloe emodine caused mainly cytostasis and accumulation of the cells in the S and G(2)-M phases of the cell cycle during the first 48 h of treatment. Thereafter, massive cell death ensued. Research on the antitumor activity of compounds extracted from Aloe vera probably deserves continuation.

  15. PURIFY: a new algorithmic framework for next-generation radio-interferometric imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Carrillo, Rafael E; Wiaux, Yves

    2014-01-01

    In recent works, compressed sensing (CS) and convex optimization techniques have been applied to radio-interferometric imaging showing the potential to outperform state-of-the-art imaging algorithms in the field. We review our latest contributions, which leverage the versatility of convex optimization to both handle realistic continuous visibilities and offer a highly parallelizable structure paving the way to significant acceleration of the reconstruction and high-dimensional data scalability. The new algorithmic structure promoted in a new software PURIFY (beta version) relies on the simultaneous-direction method of multipliers (SDMM). The performance of various sparsity priors is evaluated through simulations in the continuous visibility setting, confirming the superiority of our recent average sparsity approach SARA.

  16. Prevalence of purified protein derivative positivity in human immunodeficiency virus infected individuals in Hong Kong

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈志伟; 邓伟祺; 黄加庆

    2002-01-01

    Objective To study the prevalence of skin positivity to purified protein derivative (PPD) in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients in Hong Kong.Methods Consecutive clients of an HIV clinic were administered the PPD test and 2 units of PPD-RT23 were used. The area of induration was then measured in 48 to 72 h. Results were related to patient characteristics and HIV-related parameters.Results Eight (17.0%) out of 47 clients tested positive to the administration of 2 units of PPD-RT23. If the cutoff were raised to 10 mm according to current practice, only two (4.3%) would test positive.Conclusion The prevalence of PPD positivity in HIV-infected patients in Hong Kong is 17%, when a cutoff of 5 mm is used. This figure may form the basis for further studies on the utility of isoniazid preventive therapy in this group of patients.

  17. Fuzzy Neural Network Model of 4-CBA Concentration for Industrial Purified Terephthalic Acid Oxidation Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘瑞兰; 苏宏业; 牟盛静; 贾涛; 陈渭泉; 褚健

    2004-01-01

    A fuzzy neural network (FNN) model is developed to predict the 4-CBA concentration of the oxidation unit in purified terephthalic acid process. Several technologies are used to deal with the process data before modeling.First,a set of preliminary input variables is selected according to prior knowledge and experience. Secondly,a method based on the maximum correlation coefficient is proposed to detect the dead time between the process variables and response variables. Finally, the fuzzy curve method is used to reduce the unimportant input variables.The simulation results based on industrial data show that the relative error range of the FNN model is narrower than that of the American Oil Company (AMOCO) model. Furthermore, the FNN model can predict the trend of the 4-CBA concentration more accurately.

  18. Evaluation of anti-acne property of purified bee venom serum in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Sang Mi; Pak, Sok Cheon; Nicholls, Young Mee; Macfarlane, Nicola

    2016-12-01

    Acne vulgaris is a chronic dermatologic disease with four factors involved in the development of lesions. Treatments need to address as many of these underlying factors as possible in order to reduce acne lesions. As such, purified bee venom (PBV(™) ) serum is an attractive therapeutic option for acne, but little data exist on the efficacy of this treatment strategy. In this prospective, noncomparative study, 30 subjects having mild-to-moderate acne vulgaris were enrolled and treated with PBV(™) serum twice daily for a period of 6 weeks. Clinical evaluation of lesions by expert visual grading and image analysis were made at weeks 0 (baseline), 3, and 6. The average visual acne grade of all volunteers significantly improved with the PBV(™) serum treatment at weeks 3 (P Dermatology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Retinoblastoma protein co-purifies with proteasomal insulin-degrading enzyme: Implications for cell proliferation control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radulescu, Razvan T., E-mail: ratura@gmx.net [Molecular Concepts Research (MCR), Muenster (Germany); Duckworth, William C. [Department of Medicine, Phoenix VA Health Care System, Phoenix, AZ (United States); Levy, Jennifer L. [Research Service, Phoenix VA Health Care System, Phoenix, AZ (United States); Fawcett, Janet, E-mail: janet.fawcett@va.gov [Research Service, Phoenix VA Health Care System, Phoenix, AZ (United States)

    2010-04-30

    Previous investigations on proteasomal preparations containing insulin-degrading enzyme (IDE; EC 3.4.24.56) have invariably yielded a co-purifying protein with a molecular weight of about 110 kDa. We have now found both in MCF-7 breast cancer and HepG2 hepatoma cells that this associated molecule is the retinoblastoma tumor suppressor protein (RB). Interestingly, the amount of RB in this protein complex seemed to be lower in HepG2 vs. MCF-7 cells, indicating a higher (cytoplasmic) protein turnover in the former vs. the latter cells. Moreover, immunofluorescence showed increased nuclear localization of RB in HepG2 vs. MCF-7 cells. Beyond these subtle differences between these distinct tumor cell types, our present study more generally suggests an interplay between RB and IDE within the proteasome that may have important growth-regulatory consequences.

  20. Several properties of the partially purified proteinase inhibitor in eggplant exocarp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanamori, M; Ibuki, F; Yamada, M; Tashiro, M; Miyoshi, M

    1975-01-01

    A proteinase inhibitor was isolated and partially purified from the exocarp of eggplant, Solanum melongena L., by means of acetate buffer extraction, heat treatment, salting-out and column chromatography on DEAE-cellulose. This preparation showed inhibitory activities on various proteinases; trypsin [EC 3.4.4.4] and Pronase were strongly inhibited while alpha-chymotrypsin [EC 3.4.4.5] and Nagarse were weakly inhibited. The inhibitor was a protein substance, and, therefore, it was gradually inactivated by the long-time incubation with Pronase. The inhibition mode was non-competitive on trypsin and competitive on Pronase on the basis of Lineweaver-Burk plots. The investigations on the inhibition behavior in the co-existence of two kinds of proteinases suggested that the inhibitor was not of multi-headed type.

  1. Antimalarial drug discovery: screening of Brazilian medicinal plants and purified compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krettli, Antoniana Ursine

    2009-02-01

    Malaria is the most important parasitic disease and its control depends on specific chemotherapy, now complicated by Plasmodium falciparum that has become resistant to most commonly available antimalarials. Treatment of the disease requires quinine or drug combinations of artemisinin derivatives and other antimalarials. Further drug resistance is expected. New active compounds need to be discovered. To find new antimalarials from medicinal and randomly collected plants, crude extracts are screened against P. falciparum in cultures and in malaria animal models, following bioassays of purified fractions, and cytotoxicity tests. For antimalarial research, screening medicinal plants is more efficient than screening randomly chosen plants. Biomonitored fractionation allows selection of new active molecules identified as potential antimalarials in multidisciplinary projects in Brazil; no new molecule is available for human testing. The advantages of projects based on ethnopharmacology are discussed.

  2. Instantaneous Purified Orbit: A New Tool for Analysis of Nonstationary Vibration of Rotor System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi Dongfeng

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available In some circumstances, vibration signals of large rotating machinery possess time-varying characteristics to some extent. Traditional diagnosis methods, such as FFT spectrum and orbit diagram, are confronted with a huge challenge to deal with this problem. This work aims at studying the four intrinsic drawbacks of conventional vibration signal processing method and instantaneous purified orbit (IPO on the basis of improved Fourier spectrum (IFS to analyze nonstationary vibration. On account of integration, the benefits of short period Fourier transform (SPFT and regular holospectrum, this method can intuitively reflect vibration characteristics of’a rotor system by means of parameter analysis for corresponding frequency ellipses. Practical examples, such as transient vibration in run-up stages and bistable condition of rotor show that IPO is a powerful tool for diagnosis and analysis of the vibration behavior of rotor systems.

  3. Efficient derivation of purified lung and thyroid progenitors from embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longmire, Tyler A; Ikonomou, Laertis; Hawkins, Finn; Christodoulou, Constantina; Cao, Yuxia; Jean, J C; Kwok, Letty W; Mou, Hongmei; Rajagopal, Jayaraj; Shen, Steven S; Dowton, Anne A; Serra, Maria; Weiss, Daniel J; Green, Michael D; Snoeck, Hans-Willem; Ramirez, Maria I; Kotton, Darrell N

    2012-04-06

    Two populations of Nkx2-1(+) progenitors in the developing foregut endoderm give rise to the entire postnatal lung and thyroid epithelium, but little is known about these cells because they are difficult to isolate in a pure form. We demonstrate here the purification and directed differentiation of primordial lung and thyroid progenitors derived from mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs). Inhibition of TGFβ and BMP signaling, followed by combinatorial stimulation of BMP and FGF signaling, can specify these cells efficiently from definitive endodermal precursors. When derived using Nkx2-1(GFP) knockin reporter ESCs, these progenitors can be purified for expansion in culture and have a transcriptome that overlaps with developing lung epithelium. Upon induction, they can express a broad repertoire of markers indicative of lung and thyroid lineages and can recellularize a 3D lung tissue scaffold. Thus, we have derived a pure population of progenitors able to recapitulate the developmental milestones of lung/thyroid development.

  4. Regenerated silica gel as stationary phase on vacuum column chromatography to purify temulawak’s extracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cahyono, Bambang; Maduwu, Ratna Dewi; Widayat,; Suzery, Meiny [Organic Chemistry Laboratory, Departement of Chemistry, Diponegoro University Jln Prof. Soedharto SH, Tembalang, Semarang 50275, Indonesia Tel / Fax: (024) 7460058 (Indonesia)

    2015-12-29

    Commercial silica gel only used once by many researchers and affected high cost for purification process, also less support the green chemistry program. This research focused in regeneration silica gel that used purification of temulawak’s extracts (Curcuma xanthorrhiza Roxb) by vacuum column chromatography. Sample extracts (contains 10.1195±0.5971% of curcuminoids) was purified by vacuum column chromatography (pressure: 45 kPa, column: 100mm on length and 16mm on diameter). Ethanol 96% and acetone were compared as eluent. The amount of solvent and yield of curcuminoids used as indicator purification. The silica gel was regenerated with heating in 600°C for 8 hours The silica gels were analyzed by IR spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. Furthermore, regenerated silica gel was used as the stationary phase in vacuum column chromatography under the same conditions with the previous purification. All the purification experiments were performed in three repetitions. Based on regression equation, y=0.132x+0.0011 (r{sup 2}=0.9997) the yield of curcuminoids on purified products using ethanol as the eluent was improved 4.26% (to 14.3724±0.5749%) and by acetone was improved 3,03% (to 13.1450 ±0.6318%). The IR spectrum of both silica gel showed the same vibration profile and also there were three crystallinity peaks missing on its X-ray diffraction. Regenerated silica gel has the same performance with new silica gel in purification of temulawak’s extract: by ethanol has increased 4.08% (14.1947±0.7415%) and 2.93% (13.0447±0.4822) by acetone. In addition, all purification products showed similar TLC profiles. Purification using regenerated silica gel as the adsorbent on vacuum column chromatography has exactly same potential with the new silica gel.

  5. Physicochemical and Biological Characterization of Fucoidan from Fucus vesiculosus Purified by Dye Affinity Chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zayed, Ahmed; Muffler, Kai; Hahn, Thomas; Rupp, Steffen; Finkelmeier, Doris; Burger-Kentischer, Anke; Ulber, Roland

    2016-04-15

    A comparative study concerning the physicochemical, monomeric composition and biological characters among different fucoidan fractions is presented. Common purification techniques for fucoidan usually involve many steps. During these steps, the important structural features might be affected and consequently alter its biological activities. Three purified fractions were derived from Fucus vesiculosus water extract which, afterwards, were purified by a recently-developed dye affinity chromatography protocol. This protocol is based on dye-sulfated polysaccharide interactions. The first two fractions were obtained from crude precipitated fucoidan at different pH values of the adsorption phase: pH 1 and 6. This procedure resulted in fucoidan_1 and 6 fractions. The other, third, fraction: fucoidan_M, however, was obtained from a buffered crude extract at pH 1, eliminating the ethanol precipitation step. All of the three fractions were then further evaluated. Results revealed that fucoidan_M showed the highest sulfur content (S%), 12.11%, with the lowest average molecular weight, 48 kDa. Fucose, galactose, and uronic acid/glucose dimers were detected in all fractions, although, xylose was only detected in fucoidan_1 and 6. In a concentration of 10 µg·mL(-1), Fucoidan_6 showed the highest heparin-like anticoagulant activity and could prolong the APTT and TT significantly to 66.03 ± 2.93 and 75.36 ± 1.37 s, respectively. In addition, fucoidan_M demonstrated the highest potency against HSV-1 with an IC50 of 2.41 µg·mL(-1). The technique proved to be a candidate for fucoidan purifaction from its crude extract removing the precipitation step from common purification protocols and produced different fucoidan qualities resulted from the different incubation conditions with the immobilized thiazine toluidine blue O dye.

  6. Transfection Studies with Colloidal Systems Containing Highly Purified Bipolar Tetraether Lipids from Sulfolobus acidocaldarius

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinnapireddy, Shashank Reddy; Baghdan, Elias; Jedelská, Jarmila

    2017-01-01

    Lipid vectors are commonly used to facilitate the transfer of nucleic acids into mammalian cells. In this study, two fractions of tetraether lipids from the archaea Sulfolobus acidocaldarius were extracted and purified using different methods. The purified lipid fractions polar lipid fraction E (PLFE) and hydrolysed glycerol-dialkyl-nonitol tetraether (hGDNT) differ in their structures, charge, size, and miscibility from conventional lipids. Liposomes were prepared by mixing tetraether lipids with cholesterol (CH) and 1,2-dioleoyl-3-trimethylammonium-propane (DOTAP) resulting in stable vectors for gene delivery. Lipoplexes were prepared by complexation of liposomes with a luciferase expressing plasmid (pCMV-luc) at certain nitrogen-to-phosphorus (N/P) ratios and optimised for the transient transfection of ovarian adenocarcinoma cells (SK-OV-3). Complexation efficacy was investigated by gel-red fluorescence assay. Biophysical properties, like size, surface charge, and morphology, were investigated by differential light scattering (DLS), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and scanning electron microscopy (Cryo-SEM), respectively, revealing structural differences between liposomes and lipoplexes. A range of stable transfecting agents containing tetraether lipids were obtained by incorporating 5 mol% of tetraether lipids. Lipoplexes showed a decrease in free gel-red with increasing N/P ratios indicating efficient incorporation of plasmid DNA (pDNA) and remarkable stability. Transfection experiments of the lipoplexes revealed successful and superior transfection of SK-OV-3 cell line compared to the commercially available DOTAP and branched polyethyleneimine (25 kDa bPEI).

  7. Anti-HCV Activity from Semi-purified Methanolic Root Extracts of Valeriana wallichii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganta, Krishna Kumar; Mandal, Anirban; Debnath, Sukalyani; Hazra, Banasri; Chaubey, Binay

    2017-03-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a serious global health problem affecting approximately 130-150 million individuals. Presently available direct-acting anti-HCV drugs have higher barriers to resistance and also improved success rate; however, cost concerns limit their utilization, especially in developing countries like India. Therefore, development of additional agents to combat HCV infection is needed. In the present study, we have evaluated anti-HCV potential of water, chloroform, and methanol extracts from roots of Valeriana wallichii, a traditional Indian medicinal plant. Huh-7.5 cells infected with J6/JFH chimeric HCV strain were treated with water, chloroform, and methanol extracts at different concentrations. Semi-quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction result demonstrated that methanolic extract showed reduction in HCV replication. The methanolic extract was fractionated by thin layer chromatography, and the purified fractions (F1, F2, F3, and F4) were checked for anti-HCV activity. Significant viral inhibition was noted only in F4 fraction. Further, intrinsic fluorescence assay of purified HCV RNA-dependent RNA polymerase NS5B in the presence of F4 resulted in sharp quenching of intrinsic fluorescence with increasing amount of plant extract. Our results indicated that methanolic extract of V. wallichii and its fraction (F4) inhibited HCV by binding with HCV NS5B protein. The findings would be further investigated to identify the active principle/lead molecule towards development of complementary and alternative therapeutics against HCV. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Antioxidant and ACE Inhibitory Bioactive Peptides Purified from Egg Yolk Proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marwa Yousr

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Protein by-products from the extraction of lecithin from egg yolk can be converted into value-added products, such as bioactive hydrolysates and peptides that have potential health enhancing antioxidant, and antihypertensive properties. In this study, the antioxidant and angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE inhibitory activities of peptides isolated and purified from egg yolk protein were investigated. Defatted egg yolk was hydrolyzed using pepsin and pancreatin and sequentially fractionated by ultrafiltration, followed by gel filtration to produce egg yolk gel filtration fractions (EYGF. Of these, two fractions, EYGF-23 and EYGF-33, effectively inhibited the peroxides and thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS in an oxidizing linoleic acid model system. The antioxidant mechanism involved superoxide anion and hydroxyl radicals scavenging and ferrous chelation. The presence of hydrophobic amino acids such as tyrosine (Y and tryptophan (W, in sequences identified by LC-MS as WYGPD (EYGF-23 and KLSDW (EYGF-33, contributed to the antioxidant activity and were not significantly different from the synthetic BHA antioxidant. A third fraction (EYGF-56 was also purified from egg yolk protein by gel filtration and exhibited high ACE inhibitory activity (69% and IC50 value (3.35 mg/mL. The SDNRNQGY peptide (10 mg/mL had ACE inhibitory activity, which was not significantly different from that of the positive control captopril (0.5 mg/mL. In addition, YPSPV in (EYGF-33 (10 mg/mL had higher ACE inhibitory activity compared with captopril. These findings indicated a substantial potential for producing valuable peptides with antioxidant and ACE inhibitory activity from egg yolk.

  9. The solubility and properties of a purified ichthyocol in salt solutions of neutral pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    GALLOP, P M; SEIFTER, S; MEILMAN, E

    1957-07-25

    1. Purified citrate-extracted ichthyocol obtained from carp swim bladders has been further characterized with respect to its content of certain amino acids and carbohydrate substances. 2. The degree of solubilization or dispersion of ichthyocol by solutions of certain salts maintained in the range of neutral pH and at a temperature of 0-2 degrees C. has been determined. 3. While a number of salts of monovalent cations had no significant solubilizing effects on ichthyocol, ammonium chloride in a concentration of 1 M did cause solution of the protein. 4. Sodium thiosulfate in a range of concentrations caused the solubilization of ichthyocol but was most effective in an intermediate concentration of 0.25 M. 5. Several salts of divalent cations, in particular the chlorides of calcium, magnesium, and barium, and magnesium thiosulfate in concentrations ranging from 0.3 to 1 M caused the immediate and complete solubilization of the ichthyocol. 6. Solutions of ichthyocol in calcium chloride, magnesium chloride, and sodium thiosulfate buffered or adjusted to pH 7.0, were studied with respect to intrinsic viscosity of the protein, optical rotation, ultracentrifugal sedimentation, and reconstitution into fibers. It was found in each case that the original characteristics of the collagen, as determined previously in acid solution, were maintained when the protein was dissolved in salt solutions of neutral pH. No evidence of denaturation or gelatinization could be found when ichthyocol was solubilized under the stated conditions. 7. Collagen in neutral solution with sodium thiosulfate, calcium chloride, or magnesium chloride was not attacked by trypsin as determined viscometrically at 20.0 degrees C., but was rapidly degraded by a purified bacterial collagenase.

  10. Pirenzepine binding to membrane-bound, solubilized and purified muscarinic receptor subtypes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baumgold, J.

    1986-05-01

    Muscarinic receptors were purified to near-homogeneity from bovine cortex, an area rich in the putative M1 subtype, and from bovine pons/medulla, an area rich in the putative M2 subtype. In both cases, the receptors were solubilized in digitonin and purified over an affinity column. Both the cortical and pons/medulla preparations yielded receptor proteins of 70,000 daltons. Pirenzepine binding was deduced from its competition with /sup 3/H-N-methyl scopolamine. The binding of pirenzepine to membrane-bound receptors from cortex was best described by a two site model, with approximately half the sites having a Ki of 6.4 x 10/sup -9/ M and the remaining sites having a Ki of 3.5 x 10/sup -7/ M. Membrane-bound receptors from pons/medulla bound pirenzepine according to a one-site model with a Ki of 1.1 x 10/sup -7/ M. After solubilization the two-site binding of cortical receptors became a one-site binding, Ki = 1.1 x 10/sup -7/M. This value was still five-fold lower than that of soluble receptors from pons/medulla. After purification however the affinity of pirenzepine for the pons/medulla receptor increased so that the two putative subtypes bound pirenzepine with approximately the same affinity. These findings suggest that the different pirenzepine binding characteristics used to define muscarinic receptor subtypes are not inherent in the receptor protein itself but may be due to coupling factors associated with the receptor.

  11. Physicochemical and Biological Characterization of Fucoidan from Fucus vesiculosus Purified by Dye Affinity Chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Zayed

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A comparative study concerning the physicochemical, monomeric composition and biological characters among different fucoidan fractions is presented. Common purification techniques for fucoidan usually involve many steps. During these steps, the important structural features might be affected and consequently alter its biological activities. Three purified fractions were derived from Fucus vesiculosus water extract which, afterwards, were purified by a recently-developed dye affinity chromatography protocol. This protocol is based on dye-sulfated polysaccharide interactions. The first two fractions were obtained from crude precipitated fucoidan at different pH values of the adsorption phase: pH 1 and 6. This procedure resulted in fucoidan_1 and 6 fractions. The other, third, fraction: fucoidan_M, however, was obtained from a buffered crude extract at pH 1, eliminating the ethanol precipitation step. All of the three fractions were then further evaluated. Results revealed that fucoidan_M showed the highest sulfur content (S%, 12.11%, with the lowest average molecular weight, 48 kDa. Fucose, galactose, and uronic acid/glucose dimers were detected in all fractions, although, xylose was only detected in fucoidan_1 and 6. In a concentration of 10 µg·mL−1, Fucoidan_6 showed the highest heparin-like anticoagulant activity and could prolong the APTT and TT significantly to 66.03 ± 2.93 and 75.36 ± 1.37 s, respectively. In addition, fucoidan_M demonstrated the highest potency against HSV-1 with an IC50 of 2.41 µg·mL−1. The technique proved to be a candidate for fucoidan purifaction from its crude extract removing the precipitation step from common purification protocols and produced different fucoidan qualities resulted from the different incubation conditions with the immobilized thiazine toluidine blue O dye.

  12. Recombinant Passenger Proteins Can Be Conveniently Purified by One-Step Affinity Chromatography.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua-zhen Wang

    Full Text Available Fusion tag is one of the best available tools to date for enhancement of the solubility or improvement of the expression level of recombinant proteins in Escherichia coli. Typically, two consecutive affinity purification steps are often necessitated for the purification of passenger proteins. As a fusion tag, acyl carrier protein (ACP could greatly increase the soluble expression level of Glucokinase (GlcK, α-Amylase (Amy and GFP. When fusion protein ACP-G2-GlcK-Histag and ACP-G2-Amy-Histag, in which a protease TEV recognition site was inserted between the fusion tag and passenger protein, were coexpressed with protease TEV respectively in E. coli, the efficient intracellular processing of fusion proteins was achieved. The resulting passenger protein GlcK-Histag and Amy-Histag accumulated predominantly in a soluble form, and could be conveniently purified by one-step Ni-chelating chromatography. However, the fusion protein ACP-GFP-Histag was processed incompletely by the protease TEV coexpressed in vivo, and a large portion of the resulting target protein GFP-Histag aggregated in insoluble form, indicating that the intracellular processing may affect the solubility of cleaved passenger protein. In this context, the soluble fusion protein ACP-GFP-Histag, contained in the supernatant of E. coli cell lysate, was directly subjected to cleavage in vitro by mixing it with the clarified cell lysate of E. coli overexpressing protease TEV. Consequently, the resulting target protein GFP-Histag could accumulate predominantly in a soluble form, and be purified conveniently by one-step Ni-chelating chromatography. The approaches presented here greatly simplify the purification process of passenger proteins, and eliminate the use of large amounts of pure site-specific proteases.

  13. Superovulation of goats with purified pFSH supplemented with defined amounts of pLH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowshari, M A; Backers, J F; Holtz, W

    1995-03-01

    The superovulatory response of goats treated with purified pFSH supplemented with 30, 40 or 50% pLH was compared. Sixty-four Boer goat does were synchronized by progestagen-containing ear implant, randomly allotted to 3 groups and, beginning 2 d before implant removal, treated with purified pFSH supplemented with 30, 40 or 50% pLH. Each animal received 16 Armour Units of pFSH administered in 6 descending doses at 12-h intervals. Along with the last 2 injections, the does received 5 mg PGF(2alpha). Embryos were flushed either surgically or after slaughter on Day 5 or 6 after the last day of standing estrus. The percentage of animals responding to treatment was not different among groups treated with pFSH supplemented with 30, 40 or 50% pLH (76, 71 and 63%, respectively). The corresponding data for number of ovulations was 11.3 +/- 1.6, 16.3 +/- 1.8 and 16.4 +/- 2.6, for number of ova and embryos recovered 8.1 +/- 1.9, 12.0 +/- 1.5 and 13.5 +/- 2.9 and for number of transferable embryos 6.6 +/- 1.9, 9.1 +/- 1.5 and 7.1 +/- 2.1 (x +/- SEM). Results confirm the earlier finding of a good response of goats to pFSH preparations with a high FSH:LH ratio, and, although group differences were statistically nonsignificant (P > 0.05), they suggest that supplementation with approximately 40% pLH may be close to the optimum.

  14. Recombinant Passenger Proteins Can Be Conveniently Purified by One-Step Affinity Chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hua-zhen; Chu, Zhi-zhan; Chen, Chang-chao; Cao, Ao-cheng; Tong, Xin; Ouyang, Can-bin; Yuan, Qi-hang; Wang, Mi-nan; Wu, Zhong-kun; Wang, Hai-hong; Wang, Sheng-bin

    2015-01-01

    Fusion tag is one of the best available tools to date for enhancement of the solubility or improvement of the expression level of recombinant proteins in Escherichia coli. Typically, two consecutive affinity purification steps are often necessitated for the purification of passenger proteins. As a fusion tag, acyl carrier protein (ACP) could greatly increase the soluble expression level of Glucokinase (GlcK), α-Amylase (Amy) and GFP. When fusion protein ACP-G2-GlcK-Histag and ACP-G2-Amy-Histag, in which a protease TEV recognition site was inserted between the fusion tag and passenger protein, were coexpressed with protease TEV respectively in E. coli, the efficient intracellular processing of fusion proteins was achieved. The resulting passenger protein GlcK-Histag and Amy-Histag accumulated predominantly in a soluble form, and could be conveniently purified by one-step Ni-chelating chromatography. However, the fusion protein ACP-GFP-Histag was processed incompletely by the protease TEV coexpressed in vivo, and a large portion of the resulting target protein GFP-Histag aggregated in insoluble form, indicating that the intracellular processing may affect the solubility of cleaved passenger protein. In this context, the soluble fusion protein ACP-GFP-Histag, contained in the supernatant of E. coli cell lysate, was directly subjected to cleavage in vitro by mixing it with the clarified cell lysate of E. coli overexpressing protease TEV. Consequently, the resulting target protein GFP-Histag could accumulate predominantly in a soluble form, and be purified conveniently by one-step Ni-chelating chromatography. The approaches presented here greatly simplify the purification process of passenger proteins, and eliminate the use of large amounts of pure site-specific proteases.

  15. Transfection Studies with Colloidal Systems Containing Highly Purified Bipolar Tetraether Lipids from Sulfolobus acidocaldarius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelhardt, Konrad H; Pinnapireddy, Shashank Reddy; Baghdan, Elias; Jedelská, Jarmila; Bakowsky, Udo

    2017-01-01

    Lipid vectors are commonly used to facilitate the transfer of nucleic acids into mammalian cells. In this study, two fractions of tetraether lipids from the archaea Sulfolobus acidocaldarius were extracted and purified using different methods. The purified lipid fractions polar lipid fraction E (PLFE) and hydrolysed glycerol-dialkyl-nonitol tetraether (hGDNT) differ in their structures, charge, size, and miscibility from conventional lipids. Liposomes were prepared by mixing tetraether lipids with cholesterol (CH) and 1,2-dioleoyl-3-trimethylammonium-propane (DOTAP) resulting in stable vectors for gene delivery. Lipoplexes were prepared by complexation of liposomes with a luciferase expressing plasmid (pCMV-luc) at certain nitrogen-to-phosphorus (N/P) ratios and optimised for the transient transfection of ovarian adenocarcinoma cells (SK-OV-3). Complexation efficacy was investigated by gel-red fluorescence assay. Biophysical properties, like size, surface charge, and morphology, were investigated by differential light scattering (DLS), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and scanning electron microscopy (Cryo-SEM), respectively, revealing structural differences between liposomes and lipoplexes. A range of stable transfecting agents containing tetraether lipids were obtained by incorporating 5 mol% of tetraether lipids. Lipoplexes showed a decrease in free gel-red with increasing N/P ratios indicating efficient incorporation of plasmid DNA (pDNA) and remarkable stability. Transfection experiments of the lipoplexes revealed successful and superior transfection of SK-OV-3 cell line compared to the commercially available DOTAP and branched polyethyleneimine (25 kDa bPEI).

  16. Transfection Studies with Colloidal Systems Containing Highly Purified Bipolar Tetraether Lipids from Sulfolobus acidocaldarius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konrad H. Engelhardt

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Lipid vectors are commonly used to facilitate the transfer of nucleic acids into mammalian cells. In this study, two fractions of tetraether lipids from the archaea Sulfolobus acidocaldarius were extracted and purified using different methods. The purified lipid fractions polar lipid fraction E (PLFE and hydrolysed glycerol-dialkyl-nonitol tetraether (hGDNT differ in their structures, charge, size, and miscibility from conventional lipids. Liposomes were prepared by mixing tetraether lipids with cholesterol (CH and 1,2-dioleoyl-3-trimethylammonium-propane (DOTAP resulting in stable vectors for gene delivery. Lipoplexes were prepared by complexation of liposomes with a luciferase expressing plasmid (pCMV-luc at certain nitrogen-to-phosphorus (N/P ratios and optimised for the transient transfection of ovarian adenocarcinoma cells (SK-OV-3. Complexation efficacy was investigated by gel-red fluorescence assay. Biophysical properties, like size, surface charge, and morphology, were investigated by differential light scattering (DLS, atomic force microscopy (AFM, and scanning electron microscopy (Cryo-SEM, respectively, revealing structural differences between liposomes and lipoplexes. A range of stable transfecting agents containing tetraether lipids were obtained by incorporating 5 mol% of tetraether lipids. Lipoplexes showed a decrease in free gel-red with increasing N/P ratios indicating efficient incorporation of plasmid DNA (pDNA and remarkable stability. Transfection experiments of the lipoplexes revealed successful and superior transfection of SK-OV-3 cell line compared to the commercially available DOTAP and branched polyethyleneimine (25 kDa bPEI.

  17. In vitro fermentation by human faecal bacteria of total and purified dietary fibres from brown seaweeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, C; Lahaye, M; Bonnet, C; Mabeau, S; Barry, J L

    1996-02-01

    The in vitro degradation of dietary fibre from three brown seaweeds (Himanthalia elongata, Laminaria digitata and Undaria pinnatifida) was studied, using human faecal flora. Two sets of fibre were tested: (1) total algal fibres extracted from the whole algae, mainly composed of alginates, and (2) purified fibres (sulphated fucans, Na-alginates and laminarans) representative of those contained in the whole brown algae. Mannuronate, one algal component, was also investigated. Substrate disappearance and short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) production were monitored after 6, 12 and 24 h fermentation. Gas production was followed hourly during the first 9 h and then at 12 and 24 h. Sugarbeet fibre was used as a fermentation reference substrate. According to the fermentative indices used, most of each of the total algal fibres disappeared after 24 h (range 60-76%) but, unlike the reference substrate, they were not completely metabolized to SCFA (range 47-62%). Among the purified algal fibres, disappearance of laminarans was approximately 90% and metabolism to SCFA was approximately 85% in close agreement with the fermentation pattern of reference fibres. Sulphated fucans were not degraded. Na-alginates exhibited a fermentation pattern quite similar to those of the whole algal fibres with a more pronounced discrepancy between disappearance and production of SCFA: disappearance was approximately 83% but metabolism was only approximately 57%. Mannuronate was slowly fermented but its metabolism corresponded to its disappearance from the fermentative medium. Thus, the characteristic fermentation pattern of the total fibres from the three brown algae investigated was attributed to the peculiar fermentation of alginates, and mannuronate was shown not to be directly involved.

  18. Purified cellulose, soybean hulls and citrus pulp as a source of fiber for weaned piglets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Augusto Fonseca Pascoal

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Dietary fiber is an important component, which has a direct effect on intake, digestion, and absorption of nutrients; and also alters intestinal microbiota and morphology according to solubility. One digestibility trial and one performance experiment were performed to evaluate the effects of sources of fiber in diets for 21 day weaned piglets. The experimental diets used in both trials consisted of a control diet and diets with purified cellulose, soybean hulls or citrus pulp as a main source of dietary fiber. To evaluate the digestibility of nutrients (Assay 1, the total feces and urine collection method was used. The fiber sources did not affect nutrient digestibility, except for soluble fiber, which increased with the inclusion of citrus (Citrus sinensisL. pulp. To evaluate performance, morphophysiology and microbiology of the digestive tract of weaned piglets, a total of 32 castrated male piglets was used. Slaughter of animals was implemented at 35 and 50 days of age. The use of soybean (Glycine max L. hulls and citrus pulp in diets increased the number of goblet cells and the density of villi in the jejunum. The viscosities of stomach and cecum contents increased due to the addition of citrus pulp. Soybean hulls and the citrus pulp included in diets reduced the occurrence of E. coli in the small intestines of piglets slaughtered at 35 days of age. Among the fiber sources, purified cellulose in piglet diets promotes better performance of animals, due to the modulation of the small intestine microbiota, with lower E. coli occurrence resulting in higher villus density.

  19. Hemizygosity Enhances Purifying Selection: Lack of Fast-Z Evolution in Two Satyrine Butterflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousselle, Marjolaine; Faivre, Nicolas; Ballenghien, Marion; Galtier, Nicolas; Nabholz, Benoit

    2016-10-23

    The fixation probability of a recessive beneficial mutation is increased on the X or Z chromosome, relative to autosomes, because recessive alleles carried by X or Z are exposed to selection in the heterogametic sex. This leads to an increased dN/dS ratio on sex chromosomes relative to autosomes, a pattern called the "fast-X" or "fast-Z" effect. Besides positive selection, the strength of genetic drift and the efficacy of purifying selection, which affect the rate of molecular evolution, might differ between sex chromosomes and autosomes. Disentangling the complex effects of these distinct forces requires the genome-wide analysis of polymorphism, divergence and gene expression data in a variety of taxa. Here we study the influence of hemizygosity of the Z chromosome in Maniola jurtina and Pyronia tithonus, two species of butterflies (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Satyrinae). Using transcriptome data, we compare the strength of positive and negative selection between Z and autosomes accounting for sex-specific gene expression. We show that M. jurtina and P. tithonus do not experience a faster, but rather a slightly slower evolutionary rate on the Z than on autosomes. Our analysis failed to detect a significant difference in adaptive evolutionary rate between Z and autosomes, but comparison of male-biased, unbiased and female-biased Z-linked genes revealed an increased efficacy of purifying selection against recessive deleterious mutations in female-biased Z-linked genes. This probably contributes to the lack of fast-Z evolution of satyrines. We suggest that the effect of hemizygosity on the fate of recessive deleterious mutations should be taken into account when interpreting patterns of molecular evolution in sex chromosomes vs. autosomes. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  20. Regenerated silica gel as stationary phase on vacuum column chromatography to purify temulawak's extracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahyono, Bambang; Maduwu, Ratna Dewi; Widayat, Suzery, Meiny

    2015-12-01

    Commercial silica gel only used once by many researchers and affected high cost for purification process, also less support the green chemistry program. This research focused in regeneration silica gel that used purification of temulawak's extracts (Curcuma xanthorrhiza Roxb) by vacuum column chromatography. Sample extracts (contains 10.1195±0.5971% of curcuminoids) was purified by vacuum column chromatography (pressure: 45 kPa, column: 100mm on length and 16mm on diameter). Ethanol 96% and acetone were compared as eluent. The amount of solvent and yield of curcuminoids used as indicator purification. The silica gel was regenerated with heating in 600°C for 8 hours The silica gels were analyzed by IR spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. Furthermore, regenerated silica gel was used as the stationary phase in vacuum column chromatography under the same conditions with the previous purification. All the purification experiments were performed in three repetitions. Based on regression equation, y=0.132x+0.0011 (r2=0.9997) the yield of curcuminoids on purified products using ethanol as the eluent was improved 4.26% (to 14.3724±0.5749%) and by acetone was improved 3,03% (to 13.1450 ±0.6318%). The IR spectrum of both silica gel showed the same vibration profile and also there were three crystallinity peaks missing on its X-ray diffraction. Regenerated silica gel has the same performance with new silica gel in purification of temulawak's extract: by ethanol has increased 4.08% (14.1947±0.7415%) and 2.93% (13.0447±0.4822) by acetone. In addition, all purification products showed similar TLC profiles. Purification using regenerated silica gel as the adsorbent on vacuum column chromatography has exactly same potential with the new silica gel.

  1. "In-gel" purified ditags direct synthesis of highly efficient SAGE Libraries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sloan Andrew E

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background SAGE (serial analysis of gene expression is a recently developed technique for systematic analysis of eukaryotic transcriptomes. The most critical step in the SAGE method is large scale amplification of ditags which are then are concatemerized for the construction of representative SAGE libraries. Here, we report a protocol for purifying these ditags via an 'in situ' PAGE purification method. This generates ditags free of linker contaminations, making library construction simpler and more efficient. Results Ditags used to generate SAGE libraries were demarcated 'in situ' on preparative polyacrylamide gels using XC and BPB dyes, which precisely straddle the ditag band when a 16% PAGE gel (19:1 acrylamide:bis, 5% cross linker is used to resolve the DNA bands. Here, the ditag DNA was directly excised from gel without visualization via EtBr or fluorescent dye staining, resulting in highly purified ditag DNA free of contaminating linkers. These ditags could be rapidly self ligated even at 4°C to generate concatemers in a controlled manner, which in turn enabled us to generate highly efficient SAGE libraries. This reduced the labor and time necessary, as well as the cost. Conclusions This approach greatly simplified the ditag purification procedure for constructing SAGE libraries. Since the traditional post-run staining with EtBr or fluorescent dyes routinely results in cross contamination of a DNA band of interest by other DNA in the gel, the dry gel DNA excision method described here may also be amenable to other molecular biology techniques in which DNA purity is critically important.

  2. Physicochemical and Biological Characterization of Fucoidan from Fucus vesiculosus Purified by Dye Affinity Chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zayed, Ahmed; Muffler, Kai; Hahn, Thomas; Rupp, Steffen; Finkelmeier, Doris; Burger-Kentischer, Anke; Ulber, Roland

    2016-01-01

    A comparative study concerning the physicochemical, monomeric composition and biological characters among different fucoidan fractions is presented. Common purification techniques for fucoidan usually involve many steps. During these steps, the important structural features might be affected and consequently alter its biological activities. Three purified fractions were derived from Fucus vesiculosus water extract which, afterwards, were purified by a recently-developed dye affinity chromatography protocol. This protocol is based on dye-sulfated polysaccharide interactions. The first two fractions were obtained from crude precipitated fucoidan at different pH values of the adsorption phase: pH 1 and 6. This procedure resulted in fucoidan_1 and 6 fractions. The other, third, fraction: fucoidan_M, however, was obtained from a buffered crude extract at pH 1, eliminating the ethanol precipitation step. All of the three fractions were then further evaluated. Results revealed that fucoidan_M showed the highest sulfur content (S%), 12.11%, with the lowest average molecular weight, 48 kDa. Fucose, galactose, and uronic acid/glucose dimers were detected in all fractions, although, xylose was only detected in fucoidan_1 and 6. In a concentration of 10 µg·mL−1, Fucoidan_6 showed the highest heparin-like anticoagulant activity and could prolong the APTT and TT significantly to 66.03 ± 2.93 and 75.36 ± 1.37 s, respectively. In addition, fucoidan_M demonstrated the highest potency against HSV-1 with an IC50 of 2.41 µg·mL−1. The technique proved to be a candidate for fucoidan purifaction from its crude extract removing the precipitation step from common purification protocols and produced different fucoidan qualities resulted from the different incubation conditions with the immobilized thiazine toluidine blue O dye. PMID:27092514

  3. Workplace performance of a loose-fitting powered air purifying respirator during nanoparticle synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koivisto, Antti J., E-mail: jok@nrcwe.dk [National Research Centre for the Working Environment (Denmark); Aromaa, Mikko [Tampere University of Technology, Department of Physics (Finland); Koponen, Ismo K. [National Research Centre for the Working Environment (Denmark); Fransman, Wouter [TNO (Netherlands); Jensen, Keld A. [National Research Centre for the Working Environment (Denmark); Mäkelä, Jyrki M. [Tampere University of Technology, Department of Physics (Finland); Hämeri, Kaarle J. [University of Helsinki, Department of Physics (Finland)

    2015-04-15

    Nanoparticle (particles with diameter ≤100 nm) exposure is recognized as a potentially harmful size fraction for pulmonary particle exposure. During nanoparticle synthesis, the number concentrations in the process room may exceed 10 × 10{sup 6} cm{sup −3}. During such conditions, it is essential that the occupants in the room wear highly reliable high-performance respirators to prevent inhalation exposure. Here we have studied the in-use program protection factor (PPF) of loose-fitting powered air purifying respirators, while workers were coating components with TiO{sub 2} or Cu{sub x}O{sub y} nanoparticles under a hood using a liquid flame spray process. The PPF was measured using condensation particle counters, an electrical low pressure impactor, and diffusion chargers. The room particle concentrations varied from 4 × 10{sup 6} to 40 × 10{sup 6} cm{sup −3}, and the count median aerodynamic diameter ranged from 32 to 180 nm. Concentrations inside the respirator varied from 0.7 to 7.2 cm{sup −3}. However, on average, tidal breathing was assumed to increase the respirator concentration by 2.3 cm{sup −3}. The derived PPF exceeded 1.1 × 10{sup 6}, which is more than 40 × 10{sup 3} times the respirator assigned protection factor. We were unable to measure clear differences in the PPF of respirators with old and new filters, among two male and one female user, or assess most penetrating particle size. This study shows that the loose-fitting powered air purifying respirator provides very efficient protection against nanoparticle inhalation exposure if used properly.

  4. Detection of D-amino acids in purified proteins synthesized in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, Tetsuya; Sekine, Masae; Ogawa, Tetsuhiro; Hidaka, Makoto; Homma, Hiroshi; Masaki, Haruhiko

    2010-05-01

    It has long been believed that amino acids comprising proteins of all living organisms are only of the L-configuration, except for Gly. However, peptidyl D-amino acids were observed in hydrolysates of soluble high molecular weight fractions extracted from cells or tissues of various organisms. This strongly suggests that significant amounts of D-amino acids are naturally present in usual proteins. Thus we analyzed the D-amino acid contents of His-tag-purified beta-galactosidase and human urocortin, which were synthesized by Escherichia coli grown in controlled synthetic media. After acidic hydrolysis for various times at 110 degrees C, samples were derivatized with 4-fluoro-7-nitro-2, 1, 3-benzoxadiazole (NBD-F) and separated on a reverse-phase column followed by a chiral column into D- and L-enantiomers. The contents of D-enantiomers of Ala, Leu, Phe, Val, Asp, and Glu were determined by plotting index D/(D + L) against the incubation time for hydrolysis and extrapolating the linear regression line to 0 h to eliminate the effect of racemization of amino acids during the incubation. Significant contents of D-amino acids were reproducibly detected, the D-amino acid profile being specific to an individual protein. This finding indicated the likelihood that D-amino acids are in fact present in the purified proteins. On the other hand, the D-amino acid contents of proteins were hardly influenced by the addition of D- or L-amino acids to the cultivation medium, whereas intracellular free D-amino acids sensitively varied according to the extracellular conditions. The origin of these D-amino acids detected in proteins was discussed.

  5. The effect of purified sewage discharge from a sewage treatment plant on the physicochemical state of water in the receiver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanownik Włodzimierz

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents changes in the contents of physicochemical indices of the Sudół stream water caused by a discharge of purified municipal sewage from a small mechanical-biological treatment plant with throughput of 300 m3·d−1 and a population equivalent (p.e. – 1,250 people. The discharge of purified sewage caused a worsening of the stream water quality. Most of the studied indices values increased in water below the treatment plant. Almost a 100-fold increase in ammonium nitrogen, 17-fold increase in phosphate concentrations and 12-fold raise in BOD5 concentrations were registered. Due to high values of these indices, the water physicochemical state was below good. Statistical analysis revealed a considerable effect of the purified sewage discharge on the stream water physicochemical state. A statistically significant increase in 10 indices values (BOD5, COD-Mn, EC, TDS, Cl−, Na+, K+, PO43−, N-NH4+ and N-NO2 as well as significant decline in the degree of water saturation with oxygen were noted below the sewage treatment plant. On the other hand, no statistically significant differences between the water indices values were registered between the measurement points localised 150 and 1,000 m below the purified sewage discharge. It evidences a slow process of the stream water self-purification caused by an excessive loading with pollutants originating from the purified sewage discharge.

  6. Biological Activities of Purified HarpinXoo and HarpinXoo Detection in Transgenic Plants Using Its Polyclonal Antibody

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming LI; Min SHAO; Xu-Zhong LU; Jin-Sheng WANG

    2005-01-01

    Many harpins have been found in plant pathogen bacteria that can elicit disease and insect resistance in plants, and promote plant growth. In this work, we overexpressed and purified Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae harpin, harpinXoo, in Escherichia coli BL21/pGEX-hpa1. HarpinXoo was fused to the Cterminus of glutathione S-transferase (GST) and purified using the Bulk GST purification module and thrombin cleavage capture kit. Purified harpinXoo protein was sensitive to protease K and stable to heat treatment, and could not induce a hypersensitive response after treatment with various plant metabolic inhibitors; these characteristics were similar to harpinEa of Erwinia amylovora. The purified harpinXoo showed a similar ability to induce tobacco mosaic virus resistance in tobacco as harpinEa. Its antibody worked well in detecting the purified harpinXoo, harpinXoo in the total protein of E. coli BL21/pGEX-hpa1 and an hpal transgenic rice.

  7. Low cost thermoformed solar still water purifier for D&E countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flendrig, L. M.; Shah, B.; Subrahmaniam, N.; Ramakrishnan, V.

    IntroductionSolar distillation mimics nature’s hydrologic water cycle by purifying water through evaporation (using solar energy) and condensation (rain). It is one of the most basic purification systems available today to obtain high quality drinking water and can remove non-volatile contamination from almost any water source. This low-tech technology should therefore be ideally suited for developing and emerging countries where sun shines in abundance. In the past century numerous designs have been realised with footprints ranging from 0.5 m 2 to thousands of square meters. Despite all efforts, this intriguing technology has not been applied widely yet. Among the challenges that remain are: (1) its low yield, (2) obtaining local commitment to operate/maintain large scale systems properly, and (3) relatively high initial investment costs. The objective of this study has been to address challenges 1 and 3 by using standard plastic thermoforming technology to realize a small scale single slope solar still for personal use (2-4 l per day) with adequate efficiency and at low production costs. Materials and methodsThe solar still consists of two parts: a basin that holds the dirty water and a transparent tilted cover onto which the clean water vapour can condense. The basin has a footprint of 1.34 m 2 and is made of a 3 mm thick sheet of black high-density polyethylene (HDPE) which is thermoformed using standard equipment for making fish-ponds. This allows for the incorporation of detailed features, like reinforcements and a clean-water collection gutter, at no extra cost. The transparent cover is made of UV stabilised low-density PE-foil which is under a slope of 10° to transport condensed water droplets to the lower located collection gutter. Throughput and purification performance were evaluated in duplicate at our Bangalore R&D facilities in India, over a short term (5 day) period. Solar radiation was measured using a Pyranometer. The system was loaded with 40 l

  8. The effects of hitchhiker antigens co-eluting with affinity-purified research antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mechetner, Lilly; Sood, Radhika; Nguyen, Van; Gagnon, Pete; Parseghian, Missag H

    2011-09-01

    every 10-20 CDRs occupied by a histone antigen. The more stringent approach, using the salt wash prior to elution with the pH gradient, has an average of 1 out of every 75 CDRs contaminated with a histone while the majority of the residual DNA is captured by the quaternary amine column placed in front of the Protein G. The consequences of these contaminants is illustrated by showing how they manifest themselves in unusual antibody potency values ranging from 558% for antibody bound to histone hitchhikers down to 15% for antibody contaminated with DNA hitchhikers. Those samples purified by the recommended stringent approach show potency values between 90 and 101%. Most importantly, we repeatedly demonstrate in a simulated chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay the ability to precipitate clean plasmid DNA with histone contaminated antibody that had been purified using the traditional one-step, low pH elution approach. Expectedly, those antibodies stringently purified and showing 100% binding potency were unable to precipitate DNA in the absence of histone hitchhikers. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Effects of purified lignin on rumen metabolism and growth performance of feedlot cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuxi Wang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective The objectives were to assess the effects of purified lignin from wheat straw (sodium hydroxide dehydrated lignin; SHDL on in vitro ruminal fermentation and on the growth performance of feedlot cattle. Methods In vitro experiments were conducted by incubating a timothy-alfalfa (50:50 forage mixture (48 h and barley grain (24 h with 0, 0.25, 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 mg/mL of rumen fluid (equivalent to 0, 2, 4, 8, and 16 g SHDL/kg diet. Productions of CH4 and total gas, volatile fatty acids, ammonia, dry matter (DM disappearance (DMD and digestion of neutral detergent fiber (NDF or starch were measured. Sixty Hereford-Angus cross weaned steer calves were individually fed a typical barley silage-barley grain based total mixed ration and supplemented with SHDL at 0, 4, 8, and 16 g/kg DM for 70 (growing, 28 (transition, and 121 d (finishing period. Cattle were slaughtered at the end of the experiment and carcass traits were assessed. Results With forage, SHDL linearly (p<0.001 reduced 48-h in vitro DMD from 54.9% to 39.2%, NDF disappearance from 34.1% to 18.6% and the acetate: propionate ratio from 2.56 to 2.41, but linearly (p<0.001 increased CH4 production from 9.5 to 12.4 mL/100 mg DMD. With barley grain, SHDL linearly increased (p<0.001 24-h DMD from74.6% to 84.5%, but linearly (p<0.001 reduced CH4 production from 5.6 to 4.2 mL/100 mg DMD and NH3 accumulation from 9.15 to 4.49 μmol/mL. Supplementation of SHDL did not affect growth, but tended (p = 0.10 to linearly reduce feed intake, and quadratically increased (p = 0.059 feed efficiency during the finishing period. Addition of SHDL also tended (p = 0.098 to linearly increase the saleable meat yield of the carcass from 52.5% to 55.7%. Conclusion Purified lignin used as feed additive has potential to improve feed efficiency for finishing feedlot cattle and carcass quality.

  10. Powered, air-purifying particulate respirator filter penetration by a DOP aerosol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Stephen; Moyer, Ernest; Jensen, Paul

    2006-11-01

    In 1995, new certification requirements for all nonpowered, air-purifying particulate filter respirators were put in place when 42 CFR 84 replaced 30 CFR 11. However, the certification requirements for all other classes of respirators, including powered air-purifying respirators (PAPRs), were transferred to 42 CFR 84 from 30 CFR 11 without major changes. Since the inception of 42 CFR 84, researchers have learned that the efficiency of electrostatic filter media, in contrast with mechanical filter media, can be rapidly degraded by oil aerosols. Further, confusion may exist among respirator users, since electrostatic PAPR filters have the same magenta color assigned to high-efficiency filters for nonpowered particulate respirators that have been tested and certified for use against oil aerosols (i.e., P100 filters). Users may expect that the magenta color of certified PAPR filters indicates suitability for use against oil aerosols. This may not be the case. To illustrate the potential degradation of electrostatic PAPR filters, new filters certified under 42 CFR 84 were tested using a TSI model 8122 Automated Respirator Tester against charged and neutralized DOP aerosols with intermittent loading schedules. The performance of a magenta-colored electrostatic PAPR filter--one for which the manufacturer's user instructions appropriately indicates is not suitable for use in oily environments--was compared with the performance of several mechanical PAPR filters. In tests against both DOP aerosols, the electrostatic PAPR filter showed a significant decrease in performance at DOP loadings exceeding 400 mg, whereas mechanical filters showed no significant change in the performance except at extremely high loadings. The decreased performance of the electrostatic PAPR filter was found to be significantly greater when tested against a neutralized DOP aerosol when compared with a charged DOP aerosol. While laboratory tests show that the filtration efficiency of this electrostatic

  11. Kinetic characters and resistance to inhibition of crude and purified brain acetylcholinesterase of three freshwater fishes by organophosphates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaonan, Li; Xianchuan, Xie; Guonian, Zhu; Yajun, Tan

    2004-07-14

    Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) was purified from the brain of three fresh-water fishes, topmouth gudgeon (Pseudorasbora parva), goldfish (Carassius auratus auratus) and rainbow trout (Oncorrhychus mykiss, formerly named Salmo gairdneri) by PEG2000/phosphate-salt two phases extraction, DEAE-Sephadex A-50 and Sephadex G-200 chromatography. Kinetic characters and resistance to inhibition of crude and purified enzymes by organophosphates were then studied. Although the crude enzyme from the trout displayed a different specific activity, kinetic curve, Vmax, and sensitivity to inhibition by oxidized malathion and triazopos compared with the two cyprinoids (i.e. topmouth gudgeon and goldfish), the purified enzymes of all the three species showed no significant difference in all aspects. The result suggested a negligible intrinsic difference of brain AChEs among the tested species.

  12. The development trend of indoor air purifier%室内空气净化器的发展趋势

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乔鑫; 罗卫东; 刘晶茹; 杨晓涵; 黄嘉诚

    2015-01-01

    In view of current indoor air pollution problems,this paper elaborated the development process of indoor air purifier,introduced its production and sales situation,summed up the characteristics of several common indoor air purifier technology,in order to improve the air purifi-cation technology level,to improve indoor air quality.%针对现今室内空气污染的问题,阐述了室内空气净化器的发展历史,并对其产销量现状进行了介绍,归纳总结了几种常见的室内净化器技术的特点,以提高空气净化技术水平,从而改善室内空气质量。

  13. Development of Portable Indoor Air Purifier%便携式室内空气净化器的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈慧红; 刘科麟; 李娜; 刘沙琴; 许皓帆

    2015-01-01

    采用活性炭、HEPA、光触媒、UV -C等多种空气净化技术,研制了一种新型便携式室内空气净化器。通过实验测定:该净化器可以净化PM2.5、细菌及有害气体,净化效果明显,效率较高,并且移动方便。%Through the adoption of several air purification technologies , including activated carbon , HEPA , photocatalyst and UV -C ,the article develops a new type of portable indoor air purifier .Through experiment ,this purifier can purify PM2 .5 ,bacteria and harmful gas .It has the advantages of obvious effect ,higher efficiency and easy mobility .

  14. Molecular and functional characteristics of purified gum from Australian chia seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timilsena, Yakindra Prasad; Adhikari, Raju; Kasapis, Stefan; Adhikari, Benu

    2016-01-20

    Chia seed gum (CSG) was extracted from the seed coat of Salvia hispanica, purified in the laboratory and its chemical composition and functional properties were investigated. CSG was found to comprise 93.8% carbohydrate consisting of xylose, glucose, arabinose, galactose, glucuronic acid and galacturonic acid as monosaccharide units. The presence of uronic acids was reflected in the anionic behavior of the CSG solution over a wide range of pH (≥ 1.8). The solubility of CSG increased slightly with temperature and pH of the aqueous medium. CSG was able to resist pyrolytic decomposition at temperatures well in excess of 250 °C, and exhibited a high water holding capacity (23 times of its own weight). The surface activity and emulsifying properties of CSG were found to be either superior or comparable to other common gums and industrial polysaccharides indicating the potential of CSG as an effective thickener and stabilizer of processed foods. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. An evaluation of purified Salmonella Typhi protein antigens for the serological diagnosis of acute typhoid fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran Vu Thieu, Nga; Trinh Van, Tan; Tran Tuan, Anh; Klemm, Elizabeth J; Nguyen Ngoc Minh, Chau; Voong Vinh, Phat; Pham Thanh, Duy; Ho Ngoc Dan, Thanh; Pham Duc, Trung; Langat, Pinky; Martin, Laura B; Galan, Jorge; Liang, Li; Felgner, Philip L; Davies, D Huw; de Jong, Hanna K; Maude, Rapeephan R; Fukushima, Masako; Wijedoru, Lalith; Ghose, Aniruddha; Samad, Rasheda; Dondorp, Arjen M; Faiz, Abul; Darton, Thomas C; Pollard, Andrew J; Thwaites, Guy E; Dougan, Gordon; Parry, Christopher M; Baker, Stephen

    2017-08-01

    The diagnosis of typhoid fever is a challenge. Aiming to develop a typhoid diagnostic we measured antibody responses against Salmonella Typhi (S. Typhi) protein antigens and the Vi polysaccharide in a cohort of Bangladeshi febrile patients. IgM against 12 purified antigens and the Vi polysaccharide was measured by ELISA in plasma from patients with confirmed typhoid fever (n = 32), other confirmed infections (n = 17), and healthy controls (n = 40). ELISAs with the most specific antigens were performed on plasma from 243 patients with undiagnosed febrile disease. IgM against the S. Typhi protein antigens correlated with each other (rho > 0.8), but not against Vi (rho Typhoid patients exhibited higher IgM against 11/12 protein antigens and Vi than healthy controls and those with other infections. Vi, PilL, and CdtB exhibited the greatest sensitivity and specificity. Specificity and sensitivity was improved when Vi was combined with a protein antigen, generating sensitivities and specificities of 0.80 and >0.85, respectively. Applying a dynamic cut-off to patients with undiagnosed febrile disease suggested that 34-58% had an IgM response indicative of typhoid. We evaluated the diagnostic potential of several S. Typhi antigens; our assays give good sensitivity and specificity, but require further assessment in differing patient populations. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. Steviol glycosides in purified stevia leaf extract sharing the same metabolic fate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purkayastha, Sidd; Markosyan, Avetik; Prakash, Indra; Bhusari, Sachin; Pugh, George; Lynch, Barry; Roberts, Ashley

    2016-06-01

    The safety of steviol glycosides is based on data available on several individual steviol glycosides and on the terminal absorbed metabolite, steviol. Many more steviol glycosides have been identified, but are not yet included in regulatory assessments. Demonstration that these glycosides share the same metabolic fate would indicate applicability of the same regulatory paradigm. In vitro incubation assays with pooled human fecal homogenates, using rebaudiosides A, B, C, D, E, F and M, as well as steviolbioside and dulcoside A, at two concentrations over 24-48 h, were conducted to assess the metabolic fate of various steviol glycoside classes and to demonstrate that likely all steviol glycosides are metabolized to steviol. The data show that glycosidic side chains containing glucose, rhamnose, xylose, fructose and deoxy-glucose, including combinations of α(1-2), β-1, β(1-2), β(1-3), and β(1-6) linkages, were degraded to steviol mostly within 24 h. Given a common metabolite structure and a shared metabolic fate, safety data available for individual steviol glycosides can be used to support safety of purified steviol glycosides in general. Therefore, steviol glycosides specifications adopted by the regulatory authorities should include all steviol glycosides belonging to the five groups of steviol glycosides and a group acceptable daily intake established.

  17. All-Optical dc Nanotesla Magnetometry Using Silicon Vacancy Fine Structure in Isotopically Purified Silicon Carbide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Simin

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available We uncover the fine structure of a silicon vacancy in isotopically purified silicon carbide (4H-^{28}SiC and reveal not yet considered terms in the spin Hamiltonian, originated from the trigonal pyramidal symmetry of this spin-3/2 color center. These terms give rise to additional spin transitions, which would be otherwise forbidden, and lead to a level anticrossing in an external magnetic field. We observe a sharp variation of the photoluminescence intensity in the vicinity of this level anticrossing, which can be used for a purely all-optical sensing of the magnetic field. We achieve dc magnetic field sensitivity better than 100  nT/sqrt[Hz] within a volume of 3×10^{-7}mm^{3} at room temperature and demonstrate that this contactless method is robust at high temperatures up to at least 500 K. As our approach does not require application of radio-frequency fields, it is scalable to much larger volumes. For an optimized light-trapping waveguide of 3  mm^{3}, the projection noise limit is below 100  fT/sqrt[Hz].

  18. Altered gene expression in highly purified enterocytes from patients with active coeliac disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jackson John

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Coeliac disease is a multifactorial inflammatory disorder of the intestine caused by ingestion of gluten in genetically susceptible individuals. Genes within the HLA-DQ locus are considered to contribute some 40% of the genetic influence on this disease. However, information on other disease causing genes is sparse. Since enterocytes are considered to play a central role in coeliac pathology, the aim of this study was to examine gene expression in a highly purified isolate of these cells taken from patients with active disease. Epithelial cells were isolated from duodenal biopsies taken from five coeliac patients with active disease and five non-coeliac control subjects. Contaminating T cells were removed by magnetic sorting. The gene expression profile of the cells was examined using microarray analysis. Validation of significantly altered genes was performed by real-time RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. Results Enterocyte suspensions of high purity (98–99% were isolated from intestinal biopsies. Of the 3,800 genes investigated, 102 genes were found to have significantly altered expression between coeliac disease patients and controls (p Conclusion This study provides a profile of the molecular changes that occur in the intestinal epithelium of coeliac patients with active disease. Novel candidate genes were revealed which highlight the contribution of the epithelial cell to the pathogenesis of coeliac disease.

  19. Antifungal properties of wheat histones (H1-H4) and purified wheat histone H1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Lucca, Anthony J; Heden, Lars-Olof; Ingber, Bruce; Bhatnagar, Deepak

    2011-07-13

    Wheat ( Triticum spp.) histones H1, H2, H3, and H4 were extracted, and H1 was further purified. The effect of these histones on specific fungi that may or may not be pathogenic to wheat was determined. These fungi included Aspergillus flavus , Aspergillus fumigatus , Aspergillus niger , Fusarium oxysporum , Fusarium verticillioides , Fusarium solani , Fusarium graminearum , Penicillium digitatum , Penicillium italicum , and Greeneria uvicola . Non-germinated and germinating conidia of these fungi were bioassayed separately. The non-germinated and germinating conidia of all Fusarium species were highly susceptible to the mixture (H1-H4) as well as pure H1, with viability losses of 99-100% found to be significant (p histone mixture and pure H1. F. graminearum was the most sensitive to histone activity. The histones were inactive against all of the non-germinated Penicillium spp. conidia. However, they significantly reduced the viability of the germinating conidia of the Penicillium spp. conidia, with 95% loss at 2.5 μM. Non-germinated and germinating conidia viability of the Aspergillus spp. and G. uvicola were unaffected when exposed to histones up to 10 μM. Results indicate that Fusarium spp. pathogenic to wheat are susceptible to wheat histones, indicating that these proteins may be a resistance mechanism in wheat against fungal infection.

  20. How Long, Narrowly Constructed Wetlands Purify Irrigation Return Water: A Case Study of Ulansuhai Lake, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xufeng Mao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of constructed wetlands (CWs in the treatment of raw wastewater in China has proved to be very successful in recent decades. However, it is not known whether surface-flow constructed wetlands can effectively purify irrigation return water. To investigate the performance of a constructed wetland in terms of meeting the goals of pollutant purification, the 8th drainage of Ulansuhai Lake was used for this study. Pollutant removal performances, as well as hydrological characteristic variations in relation to specific characteristics of plants, were investigated utilizing two years of monthly average data. The results indicated that surface-flow constructed wetlands can effectively change the physical characteristics of return water and lead to a sharp decrease in pollutant concentrations. The 1200 m long, narrowly constructed wetland resulted in the average reduction rates of total nitrogen (TN and total phosphorus (TP of up to 22.1% and 21.5%, respectively. The overall purification efficient of the constructed wetland presented seasonal variations in four different monitoring periods (May, July, September, and November. Constructed wetlands with multiple types of plants exhibited higher efficiencies in pollutants removal than those with a single type of plant. The current study can provide meaningful information for the treatment of agricultural wastewater.

  1. Cutin-derived CuO reaction products from purified cuticles and tree leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goñi, Miguel A.; Hedges, John I.

    1990-11-01

    Long chain (C 16-C 18) hydroxy fatty acids are obtained among the nonlignin-derived reaction products from the CuO oxidation of a variety of geochemical samples. In order to investigate the origin of these acids, the CuO reaction products of isolated cuticles and whole leaves were investigated. The reaction products from the CuO oxidation of purified apple ( Malus pumila) cuticle include 16-hydroxy-hexadecanoic acid, 10,16-dihydroxyhexadecanoic acid, 9,10,18-trihydroxyoctadec-12-enoic acid, and 9,10,18-trihydroxyoctadecanoic acid as major components. The distribution of these cutin-derived CuO reaction products is similar to the monomer compositions deduced from traditional methods of cutin analysis. Oxidation of whole English Holly ( Ilex aquifolium) leaves yields cutin-derived acidic reaction products (in addition to lignin-derived phenols) similar to those obtained from oxidation of the corresponding isolated cuticles, indicating that CuO oxidation of bulk plant tissue is a viable procedure of cutin analysis in geochemical applications.

  2. Analysis of impurities in crude and highly-purified terephthalic acid by capillary electrophoresis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moraes Maria de Lourdes L.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a simple and fast capillary electrophoresis method for the simultaneous analysis of 4-carboxybenzaldehyde (4-CBA, p-toluic acid (pTOL and benzoic acid (BZ in industrial batches of crude (CTA and highly-purified (PTA terephthalic acid was developed. The electrophoretic conditions comprise: 20 mmol L-1 tetraborate buffer at pH 9, hydrodynamic injection (5 s/17 kPa, applied voltage of +30 kV and direct UV detection at 200 nm. The concentrations of 4-CBA and pTOL in five batches of CTA and four batches of PTA as determined by the proposed CE methodology were in agreement with the results from gas chromatography and polarography methods in current use in Tereftalatos Mexicanos S.A. (TEMEX. Levels of BZ were determined only by the CE methodology and ranged from 60 - 300 ppm in CTA and 5 - 7 ppm in PTA. Several impurities deriving from the incomplete oxidation of p-xylene were investigated. So far the positive identification of 4-hydroxymethylbenzoic acid was accomplished by comparison with pure standards.

  3. Biodegradability enhancement of purified terephthalic acid wastewater by coagulation-flocculation process as pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthik, Manikavasagam; Dafale, Nishant; Pathe, Pradyumna; Nandy, Tapas

    2008-06-15

    In this work, the coagulation-flocculation process was used as pretreatment for purified terephthalic acid (PTA) wastewater with the objective of improving its overall biodegradability. PTA production generates wastewaters with toxicants p-xylene [1,4-dimethyl-benzene (C8H10)], a major raw material used in the production process, along with some of the intermediates, viz., p-toluic acid, benzoic acid, 4-carboxybenzaldehyde, phthalic acid and terephthalic acid. These compounds affect the bio-oxidation process of wastewater treatment; hence removal of these constituents is necessary, prior to conventional aerobic treatment. This paper addresses the application of coagulation-flocculation process using chemical coagulants, viz., aluminium sulphate (alum), polyaluminium chloride (PAC), ferrous sulphate and ferric chloride in combination with anionic polyelectrolyte. Polyaluminium chloride (PAC) in conjunction with lime and polyelectrolyte removed about 63.1% chemical oxygen demand (COD) and 45.2% biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) from PTA wastewater. Coagulation-flocculation process coupled with aerobic bio-oxidation treatment of PTA wastewater achieved, COD & BOD removals of 97.4% and 99.4%, respectively. The biodegradability enhancement evaluated in terms of the BOD5/COD ratio, increased from 0.45 to 0.67 at the optimum conditions. The results obtained from these studies indicate that the coagulation-flocculation process could be a suitable pretreatment method in reducing toxicity of PTA wastewater whilst enhancing biodegradability for aerobic biological treatment scheme.

  4. Optimization of freeze drying conditions for purified pectinase from mango (Mangifera indica cv. Chokanan) peel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrnoush, Amid; Mustafa, Shuhaimi; Yazid, Abdul Manap Mohd

    2012-01-01

    Response surface methodology (RSM) along with central composite design (CCD) was applied to optimize the freeze drying conditions for purified pectinase from mango (Mangifera indica cv. Chokanan) peel. The effect of pectinase content (-2.66, 62.66 mg/mL), Arabic gum (-1.21, 10.21%, w/v), and maltodextrin (0.73, 7.26%, w/v) as independent variables on activity, yield, and storage stability of freeze-dried enzyme was evaluated. Storage stability of pectinase was investigated after one week at 4 °C and yield percentage of the enzyme after encapsulation was also determined. The independent variables had the most significant (p mango peel were obtained using 30 mg/mL of pectinase content, 4.5 (%, w/v) of Arabic gum, and 4 (%, w/v) of maltodextrin. Under these conditions, the maximum activity (11.12 U/mL), yield (86.4%) and storage stability (84.2%) of encapsulated pectinase were achieved.

  5. The ID93 tuberculosis vaccine candidate does not induce sensitivity to purified protein derivative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Susan L; Reese, Valerie; Granger, Brian; Orr, Mark T; Ireton, Gregory C; Coler, Rhea N; Reed, Steven G

    2014-09-01

    The tuberculin skin test (TST) is a simple and inexpensive test to determine whether individuals have been exposed to Mycobacterium tuberculosis. This test is not always reliable, however, in people previously immunized with BCG and/or who have been exposed to environmental mycobacterial species due to a reaction to purified protein derivative (PPD) used in the skin test. An issue with BCG, therefore, is that the resulting sensitization to PPD in some individuals compromises the diagnostic use of the skin test. The ability to induce protective immune responses without sensitizing to the tuberculin skin test will be important properties of next-generation tuberculosis (TB) vaccine candidates. We show here that guinea pigs immunized with the candidate TB vaccine ID93/GLA-SE, currently in clinical trials, do not react to intradermal PPD administration. In contrast, positive DTH responses to both ID93 and components thereof were induced in ID93/GLA-SE-immunized animals, indicating robust but specific cellular responses were present in the immunized animals. Noninterference with the TST is an important factor for consideration in the development of a vaccine against M. tuberculosis. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  6. Oxidation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons using partially purified laccase from residual compost of agaricus bisporus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayolo-Deloisa, K. [Center for Biotechnology Research, Autonomous University of Morelos State, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Center for Biotechnology-FEMSA, Monterrey Institute of Technology, Campus Monterrey, Monterrey (Mexico); Machin-Ramirez, C. [Center for Biotechnology Research, Autonomous University of Morelos State, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Faculty of Chemical Sciences and Engineering, Autonomous University of Morelos State, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Rito-Palomares, M. [Center for Biotechnology-FEMSA, Monterrey Institute of Technology, Campus Monterrey, Monterrey (Mexico); Trejo-Hernandez, M.R. [Center for Biotechnology Research, Autonomous University of Morelos State, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2011-08-15

    Laccase partially purified from residual compost of Agaricus bisporus by an aqueous two-phase system (Lac ATPS) was used in degrading polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: fluorene (Flu), phenanthrene (Phe), anthracene (Ant), benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), and benzo[a]anthracene (BaA). The capacity of the enzyme to oxidize polyaromatic compounds was compared to that of the crude laccase extract (CE). After treatment of 72 h, Lac ATPS and CE were not capable of oxidizing Flu and Phe, while Ant, BaP, and BaA were oxidized, resulting in percentages of oxidation of 11.2 {+-} 1, 26 {+-} 2, and 11.7 {+-} 4 % with CE, respectively. When Lac ATPS was used, the following percentages of oxidation were obtained: 11.4 {+-} 3 % for Ant, 34 {+-} 0.1 % for BaP, and 13.6 {+-} 2 % for BaA. The results reported here demonstrate the potential application of Lac ATPS for the oxidation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  7. Cofactor molecules maintain infectious conformation and restrict strain properties in purified prions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deleault, Nathan R; Walsh, Daniel J; Piro, Justin R; Wang, Fei; Wang, Xinhe; Ma, Jiyan; Rees, Judy R; Supattapone, Surachai

    2012-07-10

    Prions containing misfolded prion protein (PrP(Sc)) can be formed with cofactor molecules using the technique of serial protein misfolding cyclic amplification. However, it remains unknown whether cofactors materially participate in maintaining prion conformation and infectious properties. Here we show that withdrawal of cofactor molecules during serial propagation of purified recombinant prions caused adaptation of PrP(Sc) structure accompanied by a reduction in specific infectivity of >10(5)-fold, to undetectable levels, despite the ability of adapted "protein-only" PrP(Sc) molecules to self-propagate in vitro. We also report that changing only the cofactor component of a minimal reaction substrate mixture during serial propagation induced major changes in the strain properties of an infectious recombinant prion. Moreover, propagation with only one functional cofactor (phosphatidylethanolamine) induced the conversion of three distinct strains into a single strain with unique infectious properties and PrP(Sc) structure. Taken together, these results indicate that cofactor molecules can regulate the defining features of mammalian prions: PrP(Sc) conformation, infectivity, and strain properties. These findings suggest that cofactor molecules likely are integral components of infectious prions.

  8. Effect of honey on oxidation, chlorination and nitration by purified equine myeloperoxidase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saad Aissat

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the antioxidant effect of honey using two classical methods generally used, and for the first time to test the effect of honey on the oxidation, chlorination and nitration by purified equine myeloperoxidase (MPO. Methods: The antioxidant activity of three Algerian honey samples (nectar honey, mixed honey and honeydew honey was evaluated by two classical methods, the ferric- reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP assay and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical-scavenging capacity. Results: Honeydew honey had the highest reducing power and DPPH radical-scavenging activity, whereas nectar honey showed the lowest reducing power and DPPH radical-scavenging activity. All honey samples showed a significant inhibitory effect on the chlorination activity of equine MPO, but honeydew honey was the weakest inhibitor. The three samples were poorly inhibitor on the MPO oxidation and nitration activities, except for nectar honey that exerted an inhibitory effect at the highest tested concentration of 10%. These later results seem to contradict those obtained with DPPH and FRAP. Conclusions: The antioxidant capacity of honey is mainly due to the phenolic compounds and flavonoids it contained. It has been suggested that MPO might be involved in the antioxidant, not pro-oxidant, activity of phenolic compounds.

  9. Optoacoustic tomography in preclinical research: in vivo distribution of highly purified PEG-coated gold nanorods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Richard; Liopo, Anton; Brecht, Hans-Peter; Ermilov, Sergey; Larin, Kirill; Oraevsky, Alexander A.

    2011-07-01

    We report on the optoacoustic (OA) imaging of the whole mouse body using a biocompatible contrast agent - highly purified, pegylated gold nanorods (GNR) - which has strong optical absorption in the near-infrared region and low level of toxicity. In vitro toxicity studies showed no significant change in survival rates of the cultured normal epithelium IEC-6 cells when incubated for 24 hours with up to 1 nM of GNR. In vivo toxicity studies in nude mice showed no pathological changes in liver 1 month after the IV injection of GNR with intra-body concentration around 0.25-0.50 nM. In order to study the enhancement of the OA contrast and accumulation of GNR in different tissues, we performed 3D OA imaging of live nude mice with IV-injected GNR. The enhancement of the OA contrast in comparison with the images of the untreated mice was visible starting 1 hour after the GNR injection. The OA contrast of kidneys, liver, and spleen peaked at about 2-3 days after the administration of the GNR, and then was gradually reducing.

  10. Functional reconstitution and channel activity measurements of purified wildtype and mutant CFTR protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckford, Paul D W; Li, Canhui; Bear, Christine E

    2015-03-09

    The Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR) is a unique channel-forming member of the ATP Binding Cassette (ABC) superfamily of transporters. The phosphorylation and nucleotide dependent chloride channel activity of CFTR has been frequently studied in whole cell systems and as single channels in excised membrane patches. Many Cystic Fibrosis-causing mutations have been shown to alter this activity. While a small number of purification protocols have been published, a fast reconstitution method that retains channel activity and a suitable method for studying population channel activity in a purified system have been lacking. Here rapid methods are described for purification and functional reconstitution of the full-length CFTR protein into proteoliposomes of defined lipid composition that retains activity as a regulated halide channel. This reconstitution method together with a novel flux-based assay of channel activity is a suitable system for studying the population channel properties of wild type CFTR and the disease-causing mutants F508del- and G551D-CFTR. Specifically, the method has utility in studying the direct effects of phosphorylation, nucleotides and small molecules such as potentiators and inhibitors on CFTR channel activity. The methods are also amenable to the study of other membrane channels/transporters for anionic substrates.

  11. Chemometric analysis of cow dung ash as an adsorbent for purifying biodiesel from waste cooking oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avinash, A; Murugesan, A

    2017-08-25

    Taraditionally, the water-soluble contaminants of biodiesel are treated by water wash method. However, water wash method ends up in an aqueous effluent, which might then cause a harmful environmental impact. As a consequence, waterless purification of biodiesel has triggered primary interest in biodiesel manufacturing process. To address this issue, an endeavour has been made in this work to investigate the waterless purification of biodiesel from waste cooking oil using cow dung ash at different concentration of 1, 2, 3 and 4 wt/wt %. The optimum concentration of cow dung ash for biodiesel purification was found through chemometric analysis by comparing the Fourier transform infrared transmission (FTIR) spectral characteristics of cow dung ash with the water treated FTIR. It was observed from the experimental study that 1 wt/wt % of cow dung ash exhibited similar structural characteristics as that of traditional water treated method of biodiesel purification. Therefore, bio-waste cow dung ash is an effective adsorbent in purifying biodiesel analogous to traditional water washing technology.

  12. Properties of Folate Binding Protein Purified from Cow’s Milk

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    SUBANDRATE

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Folic acid played an important role in the metabolism of the body. To measure the serum folic acid levels could use the folate binding protein (FBP from cow’s milk with a technique analogous to ELISA. The aims of this study were to identify characteristics of FBP from cow’s milk and binding capacity of FBP to folic acid and to purify FBP from other whey protein passed through DEAE-cellulose chromatography column. Each of DEAE-cellulose peaks was passed in affinity chromatography column. FBP was released from affinity column with sodium acetate buffer pH 3.5. The purity of obtained FBP was demonstrated by a single spot in SDS-PAGE analysis and the estimated molecular weight of FBP was around 31 kDa. Our study indicated that 1 mol FBP bound 1 mol folic acid. Alkylation with iodoacetic acid decreased the binding capacity of FBP which suggested the presence of a–SH or imidazol group in its active site. The importance of disulfide bridge was proven by decreasing of folate binding capacity of FBP after -mercaptoethanol treatment. In contrary, the folate binding didn need Ca2+ ion, as indicated by EDTA test which gave the same result as control.

  13. Use of catalytic anodes for zinc electrowinning at high current densities from purified electrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bestetti, M.; Ducati, U. [Polytechnic of Milan, Dept. of Applied Physical Chemistry, Milan (Italy); Kelsall, G.H. [T.H. Huxley School, Imperial College, London (United Kingdom); Li, G. [Cominco Research, Cominco Limited, Trail, British Columbia (Canada); Guerra, E. [Univ. of British Columbia, Dept. of Metals and Materials Engineering, Victoria, British Columbia (Canada)

    2001-07-01

    Substantial energy savings are possible in zinc electrowinning by substituting catalytic oxygen evolution anodes for conventional lead-silver anodes. However, it is well known that the harmful effects of impurities usually present in zinc electrolyte solutions limit the service life of catalytic anodes, though their purification by solvent extraction could obviate such problems. Laboratory-scale zinc deposition experiments, with synthetic electrolytes have been performed to determine the effects of current density, temperature, and electrolyte composition on cell voltages and current efficiencies. These data sets were used in an assessment of the optimum design parameters of the tank house. Zinc electrowinning at high current densities (higher than 2000 A/m{sup 2}) using catalytic anodes and purified solutions (e.g., by solvent extraction), is proposed as an alternative to the conventional process, which is based on lead-silver anodes working at relatively low current densities (ca. 500 A/m{sup 2}). Finally, a system for continuous deposition and stripping of the metal is discussed. (author)

  14. Immunotherapy using purified protein derivative in the treatment of warts: An open uncontrolled trial

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    Vikrant Saoji

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Warts are known to clear spontaneously with the development of cell-mediated immunity (CMI to the virus. Purified protein derivative (PPD of tuberculin bacilli has been used as a non-specific stimulant of CMI to achieve this outcome. Aim: To study the effect of PPD in the treatment of warts. Methods: Patients with difficult-to-treat warts were selected for immunotherapy. Each patient received 2.5 TU of PPD intralesionally in a few warts. A total of four sessions were given at 2 weekly intervals and patients were followed up for 6 months after the last dose. Results: Sixty-one patients were recruited of which 55 completed 6 months follow up and were available for analysis. Of these, 25 had verruca vulgaris, 18 had verruca plana and 12 had plantar warts. Forty two (76% patients showed complete clearance after four sessions while the remaining 13 (24% patients were non-responders. One patient developed a recurrence after total clearance during the follow-up period. Adverse effects were erythema, edema and pain at the site of injections. Limitations: As this was an uncontrolled trial, there is no comparison with a non-intervention group. Also, a Mantoux test was not done due to practical difficulties. Conclusion: Immunotherapy with PPD is helpful in the treatment of cutaneous warts.

  15. Effects of purified herbal extract of Salvia miltiorrhiza on lipid profile in hyperlipidemic patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zuchang Li; Ling Zhu; Bin Huang

    2009-01-01

    Background and Objective Hyperlipidemia is one of the most potent and best substantiated risk factors for coronary heart disease (CHD). Purified Salvia miltiorrhiza extract (PSME) had been shown to have hypolipidemic effect in animal experiments. This study aimed to evaluate its iipids modulating effects in hyperlipidemic patients. Methods In this single-blind, placebo controlled study, lipid profiles of 80 hyperlipidemic patients were checked at same conditions. They were divided into two equal groups randomly (each composing of 40 patients). They were given PSME tablet (800 mg) three times per day, or placebo tablet. All patients were put on NCEP type Ⅱ diet and six weeks later, lipid profiles were checked. Results In PSME group, total cholesterol decreased by 27.32 mg/dl (12.3% reduction), LDL-cholesterol decreased by 23.13 mg/dl (16.8% reduction) and HDL-cholesterol increased by 9.06 mg/dl (11.1%), all were statistically significant. Although triglyceride dropped by 12.12 mg/dl (5.1%) but this was not significant statistically (P=-0.34). There were no significant changes oflipids levels in the placebo group. Conclusions PSME has significant favorable effect on total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, and HDL-cholesterol and may be a potential agent for the treatment ofatherogenic dyslipidemia.

  16. Reproduction of bovine keratoconjunctivitis with a purified haemolytic and cytotoxic fraction of Moraxella bovis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beard, M K; Moore, L J

    1994-09-01

    Evidence that the beta-haemolysin produced in vitro by Moraxella bovis is an important virulence determinant in vivo was strengthened by studies using a haemolytic preparation of greater purity than previously available. A concentrated haemolytic fraction containing outer-membrane bound vesicles was separated from the cell-free filtrate of a bacterial culture using a process comprising tangential flow ultrafiltration, ion-exchange and gel-filtration high-performance liquid chromatography and centrifugal-driven filtration. The cytotoxicity of haemolytic fractions for calf-corneal epithelial cells in vitro was investigated at progressive stages of this attempted haemolysin purification procedure and the results demonstrated a positive correlation for the levels of haemolytic and cytotoxic activity throughout. Further support for the role of the haemolysin was obtained in vivo following the intra-corneal injection of calves with a crude or a purified haemolytic fraction. The ocular damage caused by both preparations, together with the healing processes and microscopic pathology of the experimentally induced damage closely resembled published descriptions of naturally occurring infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis. No effect was obtained in vitro or in vivo from equivalent fractions prepared from a non-haemolytic strain of M. bovis.

  17. Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Alginate to Produce Oligosaccharides by a New Purified Endo-Type Alginate Lyase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Benwei; Chen, Meijuan; Yin, Heng; Du, Yuguang; Ning, Limin

    2016-01-01

    Enzymatic hydrolysis of sodium alginate to produce alginate oligosaccharides has drawn increasing attention due to its advantages of containing a wild reaction condition, excellent gel properties and specific products easy for purification. However, the efficient commercial enzyme tools are rarely available. A new alginate lyase with high activity (24,038 U/mg) has been purified from a newly isolated marine strain, Cellulophaga sp. NJ-1. The enzyme was most active at 50 °C and pH 8.0 and maintained stability at a broad pH range (6.0–10.0) and temperature below 40 °C. It had broad substrate specificity toward sodium alginate, heteropolymeric MG blocks (polyMG), homopolymeric M blocks (polyM) and homopolymeric G blocks (polyG), and possessed higher affinity toward polyG (15.63 mM) as well as polyMG (23.90 mM) than polyM (53.61 mM) and sodium alginate (27.21 mM). The TLC and MS spectroscopy analysis of degradation products suggested that it completely hydrolyzed sodium alginate into oligosaccharides of low degrees of polymerization (DPs). The excellent properties would make it a promising tool for full use of sodium alginate to produce oligosaccharides. PMID:27275826

  18. Isolation and Purifi cation of Chitinase Bacillus sp. D2 Isolated from Potato Rhizosfer

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    Sebastian Margino

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Potato Cyst Nematodes (Globodera rostochiensis is one of the important potato’s pests and caused economic looses up to 70% in the several centrals of potato plantations in Indonesia. Potato Cyst Nematodes (PCN shell component of egg shell containing chitin (inner layer and vitelline/protein (outer layer, so the purpose of research was to fi nd out of chitin degrading bacteria for controlling of egg’s PCN by cutting of their life cycle. The results showed that Bacillus sp. D2 isolated from potato rhizosphere could produce extra cellular chitinase in the medium containing of 0.20% colloidal chitin and fermented for 72 hours. Result of chitinase purifi cation using ammonium sulphate precipitation and DEAE-Cellulose ion-exchange chromatography showed a specifi c activity 2691,052 U/mg and analyzing using SDS-PAGE 12.5% resulted in molecular weight 30 kDa. The apparent Km and Vmax of chitinase towards colloidal chitin were 2 mg/ml and 2.2 μg/h, respectively.  

  19. Biobleaching of industrial important dyes with peroxidase partially purified from garlic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osuji, Akudo Chigozirim; Eze, Sabinus Oscar O; Osayi, Emmanuel Emeka; Chilaka, Ferdinand Chiemeka

    2014-01-01

    An acidic peroxidase was extracted from garlic (Allium sativum) and was partially purified threefold by ammonium sulphate precipitation, dialysis, and gel filtration chromatography using sephadex G-200. The specific activity of the enzyme increased from 4.89 U/mg after ammonium sulphate precipitation to 25.26 U/mg after gel filtration chromatography. The optimum temperature and pH of the enzyme were 50°C and 5.0, respectively. The Km and V max for H2O2 and o-dianisidine were 0.026 mM and 0.8 U/min, and 25 mM and 0.75 U/min, respectively. Peroxidase from garlic was effective in decolourizing Vat Yellow 2, Vat Orange 11, and Vat Black 27 better than Vat Green 9 dye. For all the parameters monitored, the decolourization was more effective at a pH range, temperature, H2O2 concentration, and enzyme concentration of 4.5-5.0, 50°C, 0.6 mM, and 0.20 U/mL, respectively. The observed properties of the enzyme together with its low cost of extraction (from local sources) show the potential of this enzyme for practical application in industrial wastewater treatment especially with hydrogen peroxide. These Vat dyes also exhibited potentials of acting as peroxidase inhibitors at alkaline pH range.

  20. Strychnos pseudoquina and Its Purified Compounds Present an Effective In Vitro Antileishmanial Activity

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    Paula Sousa Lage

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of new and cost-effective alternative therapeutic strategies to treat leishmaniasis has become a high priority. In the present study, the antileishmanial activity of Strychnos pseudoquina St. Hil. was investigated and pure compounds that presented this biological effect were isolated. An ethyl acetate extract was prepared, and it proved to be effective against Leishmania amazonensis. A bioactivity-guided fractionation was performed, and two flavonoids were identified, quercetin 3-O-methyl ether and strychnobiflavone, which presented an effective antileishmanial activity against L. amazonensis, and studies were extended to establish their minimum inhibitory concentrations (IC50, their leishmanicidal effects on the intra-macrophage Leishmania stage, as well as their cytotoxic effects on murine macrophages (CC50, and in O+ human red blood cells. The data presented in this study showed the potential of an ethyl acetate extract of S. pseudoquina, as well as two flavonoids purified from it, which can be used as a therapeutic alternative on its own, or in association with other drugs, to treat disease evoked by L. amazonensis.

  1. Structural stability of transparent conducting films assembled from length purified single-wall carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. M. Harris; G. R. S. Iyer; D. O. Simien; J. A. Fagan; J. Y. Huh; J. Y. Chung; S. D. Hudson; J. Obrzut; J. F. Douglas; C. M. Stafford; E. K. Hobbie

    2011-01-01

    Single-wall carbon nanotube (SWCNT) films show significant promise for transparent electronics applications that demand mechanical flexibility, but durability remains an outstanding issue. In this work, thin membranes of length purified single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) are uniaxially and isotropically compressed by depositing them on prestrained polymer substrates. Upon release of the strain, the topography, microstructure, and conductivity of the films are characterized using a combination of optical/fluorescence microscopy, light scattering, force microscopy, electron microscopy, and impedance spectroscopy. Above a critical surface mass density, films assembled from nanotubes of well-defined length exhibit a strongly nonlinear mechanical response. The measured strain dependence reveals a dramatic softening that occurs through an alignment of the SWCNTs normal to the direction of prestrain, which at small strains is also apparent as an anisotropic increase in sheet resistance along the same direction. At higher strains, the membrane conductivities increase due to a compression-induced restoration of conductive pathways. Our measurements reveal the fundamental mode of elasto-plastic deformation in these films and suggest how it might be suppressed.

  2. Characterization of a purified decolorizing detergent-stable peroxidase from Streptomyces griseosporeus SN9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rekik, Hatem; Nadia, Zaraî Jaouadi; Bejar, Wacim; Kourdali, Sidali; Belhoul, Mouna; Hmidi, Maher; Benkiar, Amina; Badis, Abdelmalek; Sallem, Naim; Bejar, Samir; Jaouadi, Bassem

    2015-02-01

    A novel extracellular lignin peroxidase (called LiP-SN) was produced and purified from a newly isolated Streptomyces griseosporeus strain SN9. The findings revealed that the pure enzyme was a monomeric protein with an estimated molecular mass of 43 kDa and a Reinheitzahl value of 1.63. The 19 N-terminal residue sequence of LiP-SN showed high homology with those of Streptomyces peroxidases. Its optimum pH and temperature were pH 8.5 and 65 °C, respectively. The enzyme was inhibited by sodium azide and potassium cyanide, suggesting the presence of heme components in its tertiary structure. Its catalytic efficiency was higher than that of the peroxidase from Streptomyces albidoflavus strain TN644. Interestingly, LiP-SN showed marked dye-decolorization efficiency and stability toward denaturing, oxidizing, and bleaching agents, and compatibility with EcoVax and Dipex as laundry detergents for 48 h at 40 °C. These properties make LiP-SN a potential candidate for future applications in distaining synthetic dyes and detergent formulations.

  3. Acute and Chronic Oral Toxicity of a Partially Purified Plaunotol Extract from Croton stellatopilosus Ohba

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    Chatchai Chaotham

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Plaunotol, an acyclic diterpenoid with highly effective antigastric ulcer properties, has been commercially isolated from leaves of Croton stellatopilosus Ohba. This Thai medicinal plant was traditionally used in the form of crude extracts, suggesting that it is possible to administer these plaunotol-containing extracts without toxicity. To confirm its safety, the oral toxicity of a partially purified plaunotol extract (PPE was evaluated in vivo. The PPE was simply prepared by 95% ethanol reflux extraction followed by hexane partition. The obtained extract was analyzed and found to contain 43% w/w of plaunotol and another compound, likely a fatty acid-plaunotol conjugate that is considered a major impurity. Oral administration of PPE to ICR mice and Wistar rats was conducted to evaluate acute and chronic toxicity of the plaunotol extract, respectively. The acute toxicity study demonstrated that PPE was practically nontoxic based on its high median lethal dose value (LD50=10.25 g/kg. The chronic toxicity studies also showed the absence of mortality and clinical symptoms in all rats treated with 11–1,100 mg/kg/day of PPE during a 6-month period. Histopathological and hematological analyses revealed that altered liver and kidney function and increased blood platelet number, but only at the high doses (550–1,100 mg/kg/day. These results suggest that PPE is potentially safe for further development as a therapeutic agent in humans.

  4. Kinetic studies on 2',2'-difluorodeoxycytidine (Gemcitabine) with purified human deoxycytidine kinase and cytidine deaminase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouffard, D Y; Laliberté, J; Momparler, R L

    1993-05-05

    Phosphorylation of cytosine analogs by deoxycytidine kinase (dCK) and deamination by cytidine deaminase (CDA) are two important processes in the activation and elimination of these drugs. We have investigated the kinetic parameters of 2',2'-difluorodeoxycytidine (dFdC) using purified enzymes from human cells. Deoxycytidine (CdR) and dFdC had Km values of 1.5 and 4.6 microM for dCK, respectively. Feedback inhibition of dCK by deoxycytidine 5'-triphosphate (dCTP) was also studied. Our results show that dCTP produced a greater inhibition of the phosphorylation of dFdC than CdR with concentrations of dCTP ranging from 1 to 25 microM. dFdC was a good substrate for CDA. Kinetic studies with this enzyme gave Km values for CdR and dFdC of 46.3 and 95.7 microM, respectively. The effect of competitive inhibitors of CDA on the deamination of dFdC was also investigated. Diazepinone riboside was a more potent inhibitor than tetrahydrouridine using either CdR or dFdC as the substrate. Inhibitors of CDA could be useful in clinical trials in patients with cancer to increase the chemotherapeutic effectiveness of dFdC.

  5. Photoconversion of purified fluorescent proteins and dual-probe optical highlighting in live cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremers, Gert-Jan; Piston, David

    2010-06-26

    Photoconvertible fluorescent proteins (pc-FPs) are a class of fluorescent proteins with "optical highlighter" capability, meaning that the color of fluorescence can be changed by exposure to light of a specific wavelength. Optical highlighting allows noninvasive marking of a subpopulation of fluorescent molecules, and is therefore ideal for tracking single cells or organelles. Critical parameters for efficient photoconversion are the intensity and the exposure time of the photoconversion light. If the intensity is too low, photoconversion will be slow or not occur at all. On the other hand, too much intensity or too long exposure can photobleach the protein and thereby reduce the efficiency of photoconversion. This protocol describes a general approach how to set up a confocal laser scanning microscope for pc-FP photoconversion applications. First, we describe a procedure for preparing purified protein droplet samples. This sample format is very convenient for studying the photophysical behavior of fluorescent proteins under the microscope. Second, we will use the protein droplet sample to show how to configure the microscope for photoconversion. And finally, we will show how to perform optical highlighting in live cells, including dual-probe optical highlighting with mOrange2 and Dronpa.

  6. Experiment Research on Purifying Domestic Sewage by Duplex Subsurface Flow Constructed Wetlands

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    SHANG Ping

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The purification effect on domestic sewage were researched in the new-type of duplex subsurface flow constructed wetlands, of which pollutants were analyzed through the small scale test on the purification effect under different conditions of hydraulic loading, season,aeration pattern. The results showed that water quality of the system was stabilized, which could reach the 1 class A criteria specified in the Discharge Standard of Pollutants for Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plant ( GB 18918-2002.The removal rate of COD,NH3-N could reach up to 87.2%, 68.9% under the conditions of the hydraulic load being 184 mm·d-1.And there were still more than 20% removal efficien-cy of various pollutants on the conditions of low temperature in winter. Orthogonal test showed that the optimum operating conditions was 28.6℃for the temperature, 0.184 m3·m-2·d-1 for hydraulic loading, and 2.4 d for hydraulic retention time. The experimental research showed that pre-aeration was significantly better than the anaerobic treatment on purifying effect.

  7. Qualitative variability in microbial community of constructed wetlands used for purifying wastewater contaminated with pharmaceutical substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowrotek, Monika; Ziembińska-Buczyńska, Aleksandra; Miksch, Korneliusz

    2015-01-01

    Pharmaceutical substances and their residues are increasingly present in the environment. Therefore, attempts at their removal are made by using different processes. Increasingly important among these processes are those modeled on natural phenomena which occur in wetland ecosystems, called technical scale constructed wetlands. Microbial degradation is an important process in these constructed wetlands. The biodegradation of chemicals often involves a complex series of biochemical reactions and usually varies with the microorganisms involved. The objectives of this study were to determine the impact of sulfamethoxazole and diclofenac on ammonia oxidizing bacteria and other parameters of wastewater in the microcosm of down-flow constructed wetlands. The Spearman correlation coefficient attained negative values in the case of comparison of the Shannon biodiversity index and the parameters of purified wastewater. This dependence was pronounced. In the case of pharmaceutical substances dosed with wastewater, the Spearman correlation coefficient assumed positive values. The highest value assumed by the Spearman correlation coefficient (0.9) was for the removal of diclofenac and Shannon index values for the planted columns, with a very high relationship. For unplanted columns, this value equaled 0.6. For sulfamethoxazole, the value for planted columns was 0.7, and for unplanted -0.7. The presence of plants did not have an impact on the Shannon biodiversity index.

  8. Antioxidant activity of glycoprotein purified from Undaria pinnatifida measured by an in vitro digestion model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafiquzzaman, S M; Kim, Eun-Young; Kim, Yu-Ri; Nam, Taek-Jeong; Kong, In-Soo

    2013-11-01

    The present study was performed to investigate the chemical composition and antioxidant activity of glycoprotein purified from Undaria pinnatifida Harvey (UPGP). On SDS-PAGE, UPGP migrated as a single band with a molecular weight of approximately 10 kDa and confirmed by staining with Schiff's reagent as glycoprotein. It consists of a carbohydrate component (42.53%) and protein component (57.47%). Amino acid profile, FT-IR spectrum and enzymatic glycosylation analysis suggested that protein is linked with carbohydrate by O-glycosylation. UPGP showed dose-dependent antioxidant activities as detected by different assays before and after in vitro digestion. The IC50 values of undigested UPGP were 0.25 ± 0.03, 0.08 ± 0.005, 0.69 ± 0.12, and 0.25 ± 0.08 mg/mL for DPPH, ABTS, FRAP, and NO, respectively. Following in vitro digestion, the antioxidant activities of UPGP were decreased during the gastric phase compared to those of undigested UPGP, with an increase occurring during the duodenal phase in all assays. However, the reducing power was unchanged after in vitro digestion. Furthermore, UPGP showed protective activity against oxidative DNA damage both undigested, after saliva and duodenal phase of digestion. These results indicate that the antioxidant and DNA protection activities of UPGP may be pH-dependent and assay specific.

  9. Optimization of Freeze Drying Conditions for Purified Pectinase from Mango (Mangifera indica cv. Chokanan Peel

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    Abdul Manap Mohd Yazid

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Response surface methodology (RSM along with central composite design (CCD was applied to optimize the freeze drying conditions for purified pectinase from mango (Mangifera indica cv. Chokanan peel. The effect of pectinase content (−2.66, 62.66 mg/mL, Arabic gum (−1.21, 10.21%, w/v, and maltodextrin (0.73, 7.26%, w/v as independent variables on activity, yield, and storage stability of freeze-dried enzyme was evaluated. Storage stability of pectinase was investigated after one week at 4 °C and yield percentage of the enzyme after encapsulation was also determined. The independent variables had the most significant (p < 0.05 effect on pectinase activity and yield of the enzyme. It was observed that the interaction effect of Arabic gum and maltodextrin improved the enzymatic properties of freeze-dried pectinase. The optimal conditions for freeze-dried pectinase from mango peel were obtained using 30 mg/mL of pectinase content, 4.5 (%, w/v of Arabic gum, and 4 (%, w/v of maltodextrin. Under these conditions, the maximum activity (11.12 U/mL, yield (86.4% and storage stability (84.2% of encapsulated pectinase were achieved.

  10. Optimization of transfection efficiency of small interfering RNA in purified human prolactinoma cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MENG Qing-hu; SONG Yong-mei; ZHAO Jiang; YU Chun-jiang; ZHAN Qi-min

    2011-01-01

    Background Control of hypersecretion of certain hormones is one of the key targets in the treatment of pituitary adenomas. RNA interference has been shown to inhibit protein expression, and thus it may represent a promising method for the treatment of pituitary adenomas. In the present study, transfection efficiency of small interfering RNA (siRNA) was optimized in human prolactinoma cells.Methods First, a method was optimized to extract highly purified human prolactinoma cells in vitro. The extracted cells were verified to retain the physiological features of prolactin (PRL) secretion. Second, three conditions for siRNA transfection were tested by the evaluation of transfection efficiency and cell viability. The proper transfection condition was verified for human prolactinoma cells. Third, the siRNA for prolactin was transfected into the human prolactinoma cells, and the suppression of PRL mRNA was evaluated by quantitative real-time reverse transcription-PCR.Conclusion It is possible to inhibit hormone hypersecretion by RNA interference, that may eventually enable therapeutic siRNA drugs developed.

  11. Use of sequential chemical extractions to purify nuclear membrane proteins for proteomics identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korfali, Nadia; Fairley, Elizabeth A L; Swanson, Selene K; Florens, Laurence; Schirmer, Eric C

    2009-01-01

    The nuclear envelope (NE) is a double membrane system that is both a part of the endoplasmic reticulum and part of the nucleus. As its constituent proteins tend to be highly complexed with nuclear and cytoplasmic components, it is notoriously difficult to purify. Two methods can reduce this difficulty for the identification of nuclear membrane proteins: comparison to contaminating membranes and chemical extractions to enrich for certain groups of proteins. The purification of nuclear envelopes and contaminating microsomal membranes is described here along with procedures for chemical extraction using salt and detergent, chaotropes, or alkaline solutions. Each extraction method enriches for different combinations of nuclear envelope proteins. Finally, we describe the analysis of these fractions with MudPIT, a proteomics methodology that avoids gel extraction of bands to facilitate identification of minor proteins and membrane proteins that do not resolve well on gels. Together these three approaches can significantly increase the output of proteomics studies aimed at identifying the protein complement of subcellular membrane systems.

  12. Production of High Viscosity Chitosan from Biologically Purified Chitin Isolated by Microbial Fermentation and Deproteinization

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    Ekkalak Ploydee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to produce high viscosity chitosan from shrimp chitin prepared by using a two-step biological treatment process: decalcification and deproteinization. Glucose was fermented with Lactobacillus pentosus L7 to lactic acid. At a pH of 3.9±0.1, the calcium carbonate of the shells was solubilized in 48 hours. The amounts of residual calcium in the form of ash (1.4±0.5% and crude protein (23.2±2.5% were further eliminated by the activity of proteolytic Bacillus thuringiensis SA. After decalcification and deproteinization of the shrimp shells, residual calcium and crude protein of shrimp chitin flakes were 1.7±0.4% and 3.8±1.3%, respectively. Chitin was deacetylated with 50% NaOH at 121°C for 5 hours. After deacetylation, the chitosan had residual calcium, crude protein content, and degree of acetylation of 1.6±0.6%, 0.4±0.3%, and 83.2±1.5%, respectively. The viscosity of chitosan prepared from chitin extracted by this two-step biological process was 1,007±14.7 mPa·s, whereas chitosan prepared from chemically processed chitin had a viscosity of 323±15.6   mPa·s, indicating that biologically purified chitin gave chitosan with a high quality.

  13. All-Optical dc Nanotesla Magnetometry Using Silicon Vacancy Fine Structure in Isotopically Purified Silicon Carbide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simin, D.; Soltamov, V. A.; Poshakinskiy, A. V.; Anisimov, A. N.; Babunts, R. A.; Tolmachev, D. O.; Mokhov, E. N.; Trupke, M.; Tarasenko, S. A.; Sperlich, A.; Baranov, P. G.; Dyakonov, V.; Astakhov, G. V.

    2016-07-01

    We uncover the fine structure of a silicon vacancy in isotopically purified silicon carbide (4H-28SiC) and reveal not yet considered terms in the spin Hamiltonian, originated from the trigonal pyramidal symmetry of this spin-3 /2 color center. These terms give rise to additional spin transitions, which would be otherwise forbidden, and lead to a level anticrossing in an external magnetic field. We observe a sharp variation of the photoluminescence intensity in the vicinity of this level anticrossing, which can be used for a purely all-optical sensing of the magnetic field. We achieve dc magnetic field sensitivity better than 100 nT /√{Hz } within a volume of 3 ×10-7m m3 at room temperature and demonstrate that this contactless method is robust at high temperatures up to at least 500 K. As our approach does not require application of radio-frequency fields, it is scalable to much larger volumes. For an optimized light-trapping waveguide of 3 mm3 , the projection noise limit is below 100 fT /√{Hz } .

  14. Comparison of two methods used to culture and purify rat retinal Müller cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Wei-Tao; Zhang, Xue-Yong; Xiong, Si-Qi; Wen, Dan; Jiang, Jian; Xia, Xiao-Bo

    2013-01-01

    To study two methods for culturing and purifying Sprague-Dawley (SD) rat retinal Müller cells and determine which one is better. The passage culture method of Müller cells was respectively carried out by complete pancreatic enzyme digestion method and repeated incomplete pancreatic enzyme digestion method. After culturing retinal cells for one month through these two methods, fluorescence-activated cell sorter (FACS), RT-PCR, and immunohistochemistry technology were performed to examine the enrichment and purity of Müller glial cells, and carried out two-sample approximate t test using SSPS 13.0 to further compare the Müller cell positive rate in both methods. The statistical results showed that the purity of Müller cells was 83.2%±5.16% in group A, and the purity was 98.5%±1.08% in group B. The two-sample approximate t test analysis demonstrated that the difference between group A and group B was statistically significant (t=-9.178, Pcells cultured by the complete pancreatic enzyme digestion method (group A) and the repeated incomplete pancreatic enzyme digestion method (group B). Compared with the complete pancreatic enzyme digestion method, this novel method was more efficient and a higher purity of Müller cells could be obtained using this approach.

  15. Screening of lectins from South American plants used as affinity ligands to purify rhEPO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.I. Amadeo

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Two groups of isoforms of rhEPO, at a concentration of 300 µg/ml, were tested as putative inhibitors of the lectinic hemagglutination reaction in order to obtain affinity ligand(s for hormone purification: groups I (pI: 3.80; 3.89; 3.95; 4.07, 4.15 and 4.26 and groups II (pI: 4.15, 4.26; 4.38; 4.51; 4.72 and 4.93 Crude extracts from the vegetable materials Abrus precatorious (Abrin, Artocarpus incisa (Frutalin, Artocarpus integrifolia (Jacalin, Canavalia ensiformes (ConA, Canavalia brasiliensis (Conbr, Cratylia floribunda, Dioclea altissima (DAL, Dioclea grandiflora (DGL, Erythrina vellutina (EVL, Erythrina cristagalli, Lutaelburgia auriculata (lectin not fully characterized yet, Lycopersicum esculentum (LEA, Phaseolus vulgaris (PHA, Ricinus communis (Ricin and Triticum vulgaris (WGA were used. Only some of the galactose-specific lectins and the GlcNAc-specific lectins showed rapid full inhibition of the hemagglutination reaction for the less acidic isoforms and the total isoforms of rhEPO, respectively. On this basis, the selected lectins were purified by affinity chromatoghraphy and covalently coupled to cyanogen bromide activated Sepharose® (Amersham-Pharmacia. CHO.K1 cell culture supernatant containing rhEPO was loaded onto the lectin resins and the recoveries were calculated by using specific elutions.

  16. Concentration and Purifi cation of Yacon (Smallanthus sonchifolius Root Fructooligosaccharides Using Membrane Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Cristina Tessaro

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Yacon is a perennial plant originating from the Andean region whose roots have been receiving increased att ention due to their high content of prebiotic fructooligosaccharides (FOS. Apart from many health benefi ts, FOS have interesting characteristics as food ingredients, so are used as sugar substitute, and their extraction from yacon roots may be an alternative to commercially available FOS. This work evaluates membrane technology for concentration and purifi cation of FOS from yacon root extract, combining ultrafiltration (UF with nanofi ltration (NF, with and without the use of discontinuous diafi ltration (DF. After UF, 63.75 % of the saccharides from the initial feed were recovered in total permeate. DF did not largely infl uence FOS retention during NF (it increased from 68.78 % without DF to 70.48 % with DF, but decreased glucose and fructose retentions, from 40.63 to 31.61 % and 25.64 to 18.69 %, respectively, which was desirable, allowing greater purification of FOS in the retentate. The yield of total saccharides in the final retentate after combined UF and NF processes was 50.89 % and of FOS was 51.85 %, with 19.75 % purity. The results indicate that the combined UF and NF is a promising technique for concentrating yacon saccharides, but more diafi ltration steps are required for the improvement of FOS purity.

  17. Biobleaching of Industrial Important Dyes with Peroxidase Partially Purified from Garlic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akudo Chigozirim Osuji

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An acidic peroxidase was extracted from garlic (Allium sativum and was partially purified threefold by ammonium sulphate precipitation, dialysis, and gel filtration chromatography using sephadex G-200. The specific activity of the enzyme increased from 4.89 U/mg after ammonium sulphate precipitation to 25.26 U/mg after gel filtration chromatography. The optimum temperature and pH of the enzyme were 50°C and 5.0, respectively. The Km and Vmax for H2O2 and o-dianisidine were 0.026 mM and 0.8 U/min, and 25 mM and 0.75 U/min, respectively. Peroxidase from garlic was effective in decolourizing Vat Yellow 2, Vat Orange 11, and Vat Black 27 better than Vat Green 9 dye. For all the parameters monitored, the decolourization was more effective at a pH range, temperature, H2O2 concentration, and enzyme concentration of 4.5–5.0, 50°C, 0.6 mM, and 0.20 U/mL, respectively. The observed properties of the enzyme together with its low cost of extraction (from local sources show the potential of this enzyme for practical application in industrial wastewater treatment especially with hydrogen peroxide. These Vat dyes also exhibited potentials of acting as peroxidase inhibitors at alkaline pH range.

  18. Heavy metals in water bodies purified by suspended substrate of rivers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The equations, which are used to describe the relationships of adsorption quantity(s), adsorption percent(Pa),aqueous equilibrium concentration(c) of heavy metal on river suspended substrates and the ratio of adsorbent to water(j), are developed when heavy metal adsorption on river suspended substrate satisfies with linear adsorption equation. The results, according to the simulation from heavy metal adsorption on suspended substrates of several main Chinese rivers from a previous research report, indicated that these developed equations could describe the linear adsorption processes in practice very well, meanwhile, the adsorption equilibrium constant of adsorbent for heavy metal was an intensity factor regardless of ratio of suspended substrates to water but strongly depended on media's pH. Furthermore, the suspended substrates of Yellow River gave stronger purification ability for Pb than for Cd and Cu. When Cd was purified by different river suspended substrates, it exhibited that the order of their purification ability for Cd was that of Songhuajiang> Zhujiang>Yellow River, which was consistent with their contents of cation exchange capacity(CEC). In addition, we estimated and compared the purification ability of river suspended substrates for cadmium, and the resulting purification percent was 37.64%, 64.58% and 50.98% for Songhuajiang River, Yangtze River and Zhujiang River, respectively.

  19. A Comparative Analysis of Four Kinds of Polysaccharides Purified from Furcellaria lumbricalis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Guangli; YANG Bo; REN Weina; ZHAO Xia; ZHANG Junzeng; BARROW Colin

    2007-01-01

    Four kinds of polysaccharides (FA, FB, FC and FD) were extracted and purified from a red alga Furcellaria lumbricalis. Their monosaccharide composition, average molecular mass ((M)w) and structural feature were determined by gas chromatography (GC), high performance gel permeation chromatography (HPGPC) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR),respectively. The results showed that FA and FB were composed of galactose (Gal), 3,6-anhydro-galactose (AnG) and 4-sulfated-galactose (G4S), which were structurally similar to β-carrageenan and κ-carrageenan. FC was composed of sulfated galactose and small amount of AnG, indicating that it was a hybrid-sulfated galactan. FD was composed of α -1,4-glucose and belonged to floridean starch. The respective yields of FA, FB, FC and FD were 4.84%, 33.74%, 8.76% and 13.5%, and the corresponding (M)w were 537 kD, 432 kD, 513 kD and 51 kD respectively. Owning to its high content (>60%) of polysaccharide, F.lumbricalis will be a good source of marine sulfated polysaccharide and shows its potential utilization in food and medicine.

  20. Crystallization and Characterization of an Inflammatory Lectin Purified from the Seeds of Dioclea wilsonii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Sampaio Assreuy

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available DwL, a lectin extracted from the seeds of Dioclea wilsonii, is a metalloprotein with strong agglutinating activity against rabbit and ABO erythrocytes, inhibited by glucose and mannose. DwL was purified by affinity chromatography on a Sephadex G-50 column and ion exchange chromatography on a HiTrap SP XL column. SDS-PAGE revealed three electrophoretic bands corresponding to the α (25,634 ± 2 Da, β (12,873 ± 2 Da and γ (12,779 ± 2 Da chains. Protein sequencing was done by Tandem Mass Spectrometry. The primary sequence featured 237 amino acids and was highly homologous to other reported Diocleinae lectins. A complete X-ray dataset was collected at 2.0 Å for X-Man-complexed DWL crystals produced by the vapor diffusion method. The crystals were orthorhombic and belonged to the space group I222, with the unit-cell parameters a = 59.6, b = 67.9 and c = 109.0 Å. DWL differed in potency from other ConA-like lectins and was found to induce neutrophil migration in rats, making it particularly useful in structural/functional studies of this class of proteins.

  1. [Biomaterials for bone filling: comparisons between autograft, hydroxyapatite and one highly purified bovine xenograft].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chappard, D; Zhioua, A; Grizon, F; Basle, M F; Rebel, A

    1993-12-01

    Bone grafts are becoming increasingly common in orthopaedics, neurosurgery and periodontology. Twenty one New Zealand rabbits were used in the present study comparing several materials usable as bone substitutes. A 4.5 mm hole was drilled in the inner femoral condyles. Holes were filled with either an autograft (from the opposite condyle), an hydroxylapatite (Bioapatite), or a highly purified bovine xenograft (T650 Lubboc). Animals were sacrificed at 1, 3 and 6 months post implantation and a quantitative analysis of newly-formed bone volume (BNF/IV) and remaining biomaterials (BMAT/IV) was done. In addition, some holes were left unfilled and served as controls. At 6 months, there was no tendency for spontaneous repair in the control animals. The autografted animals have repaired their trabecular mass and architecture within the first month. Hydroxylapatite appeared unresorbed at six months and only thin and scanty new trabeculae were observed. The xenograft induced woven bone trabeculae formation on the first month. This was associated with resorption of the material by two multinucleated cell populations. At six months, the epiphyseal architecture was restored and the biomaterial has disappeared in most cases. Xenografts appear a promising alternative to autografts and allografts, whose infectious risks and ethical problems should always be borne in mind.

  2. Optimization and characterization of purified polysaccharide from Musa sapientum L. as a pharmaceutical excipient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suvakanta, Dash; Narsimha, Murthy Padala; Pulak, Deb; Joshabir, Chakraborty; Biswajit, Das

    2014-04-15

    Polysaccharides from Musa sapientum (MSP) were isolated and purified by gel filtration chromatography. Elemental analysis, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction crystallography (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and NMR techniques were used to characterize the polysaccharide. Elemental analysis of the polysaccharide indicated that the contents of carbon, hydrogen and nitrogen to be 27.31, 5.07 and 0.62 (w/w%) respectively. SEM analysis suggested that the polysaccharide had irregular particle size, mostly seen as aggregates, and fibrous in nature. The samples had peaks at approximately 25°, 32°, 40° and 43° 2θ degrees in the XRD pattern, which indicated both crystalline and amorphous structure. The major functional groups identified from FT-IR spectrum includes 1631.38 cm⁻¹ (-COO-), 1377 cm⁻¹ (-COO-) and 3193.93 cm⁻¹ (-OH). Analytical data on MSP indicated that the major neutral sugars were α-D-glucose, β-D-glucose, rhamnose and D-glucuronic acid. The experimental work provides enough evidence to exploit this neutral biopolymer in food and pharmaceutical industry.

  3. Cultured rat and purified human Pneumocystis carinii stimulate intra- but not extracellular free radical production in human neutrophils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, T; Aliouat, E M; Lundgren, B

    1998-01-01

    The production of free radicals in human neutrophils was studied in both Pneumocystis carinii derived from cultures of L2 rat lung epithelial-like cells and Pneumocystis carinii purified from human lung. Using the cytochrome C technique, which selectively measured extracellular superoxide....... It was established that 1) P. carinii stimulated intra- but not extracellular free radical production in human neutrophils, 2) opsonized cultured rat-derived P. carinii stimulated human neutrophils to a strong intracellular response of superoxide production, and 3) opsonized P. carinii, purified from human lung also...

  4. Characterization of purified α-amylase produced by Aspergillus terreus NCFT 4269.10 using pearl millet as substrate

    OpenAIRE

    Bijay Kumar Sethi; Prativa Kumari Nanda; Santilata Sahoo; Sangeeta Sena

    2016-01-01

    α-amylase was produced by Aspergillus terreus NCFT 4269.10 using both liquid static surface (LSSF) and solid-state fermentation using pearl millet residues as substrate. The maximum production of α-amylase was noticed at 30°C incubated for 96h. The crude α-amylase was purified to electrophoretic homogeneity and characterized. Characterization of amylase confirmed that the purified α-amylase was found to be most stable at pH 5.0, 60°C temperature, and a substrate concentration of 1.25%. The en...

  5. Purifying, Separating, and Concentrating Cells From a Sample Low in Biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benardini, James N.; LaDuc, Myron T.; Diamond, Rochelle

    2012-01-01

    Frequently there is an inability to process and analyze samples of low biomass due to limiting amounts of relevant biomaterial in the sample. Furthermore, molecular biological protocols geared towards increasing the density of recovered cells and biomolecules of interest, by their very nature, also concentrate unwanted inhibitory humic acids and other particulates that have an adversarial effect on downstream analysis. A novel and robust fluorescence-activated cell-sorting (FACS)-based technology has been developed for purifying (removing cells from sampling matrices), separating (based on size, density, morphology), and concentrating cells (spores, prokaryotic, eukaryotic) from a sample low in biomass. The technology capitalizes on fluorescent cell-sorting technologies to purify and concentrate bacterial cells from a low-biomass, high-volume sample. Over the past decade, cell-sorting detection systems have undergone enhancements and increased sensitivity, making bacterial cell sorting a feasible concept. Although there are many unknown limitations with regard to the applicability of this technology to environmental samples (smaller cells, few cells, mixed populations), dogmatic principles support the theoretical effectiveness of this technique upon thorough testing and proper optimization. Furthermore, the pilot study from which this report is based proved effective and demonstrated this technology capable of sorting and concentrating bacterial endospore and bacterial cells of varying size and morphology. Two commercial off-the-shelf bacterial counting kits were used to optimize a bacterial stain/dye FACS protocol. A LIVE/DEAD BacLight Viability and Counting Kit was used to distinguish between the live and dead cells. A Bacterial Counting Kit comprising SYTO BC (mixture of SYTO dyes) was employed as a broad-spectrum bacterial counting agent. Optimization using epifluorescence microscopy was performed with these two dye/stains. This refined protocol was further

  6. 78 FR 69361 - Development of Inward Leakage Standards for Half-Mask Air-Purifying Particulate Respirators

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-19

    ... Particulate Respirators AGENCY: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, HHS. ACTION: Reopening of comment... class of NIOSH-certified non-powered air-purifying particulate respirators approved as half-facepiece respirators for protection from particulate-only hazards. The purpose of this meeting was to share...

  7. Effect of highly purified capsaicin on articular cartilage and rotator cuff tendon healing: An in vivo rabbit study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friel, Nicole A; McNickle, Allison G; DeFranco, Michael J; Wang, FanChia; Shewman, Elizabeth F; Verma, Nikhil N; Cole, Brian J; Bach, Bernard R; Chubinskaya, Susan; Kramer, Susan M; Wang, Vincent M

    2015-12-01

    Highly purified capsaicin has emerged as a promising injectable compound capable of providing sustained pain relief following a single localized treatment during orthopedic surgical procedures. To further assess its reliability for clinical use, the potential effect of highly purified capsaicin on articular cartilage metabolism as well as tendon structure and function warrants clarification. In the current study, rabbits received unilateral supraspinatus transection and repair with a single 1 ml injection of capsaicin (R+C), PEG-only placebo (R+P), or saline (R+S) into the glenohumeral joint (GHJ). An additional group received 1 ml capsaicin onto an intact rotator cuff (I+C). At 18 weeks post-op, cartilage proteoglycan (PG) synthesis and content as well as cell viability were similar (p>0.05) across treatment groups. Biomechanical testing revealed no differences (p>0.05) among tendon repair treatment groups. Similarly, histologic features of both cartilage and repaired tendons showed minimal differences across groups. Hence, in this rabbit model, a single injection of highly purified capsaicin into the GHJ does not induce a deleterious response with regard to cartilage matrix metabolism and cell viability, or rotator cuff healing. These data provide further evidence supporting the use of injectable, highly purified capsaicin as a safe alternative for management of postoperative pain following GHJ surgery.

  8. Ultrastructural, protein composition, and antigenic comparison of psittacine beak and feather disease virus purified from four genera of psittacine birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchie, B W; Niagro, F D; Latimer, K S; Lukert, P D; Steffens, W L; Rakich, P M; Pritchard, N

    1990-04-01

    Psittacine beak and feather disease (PBFD) virus, was purified from diseased tissues of a lesser sulphur-crested cockatoo (Cacatua sulphurea), a black palm cockatoo (Probosiger aterrimus), a red-lored Amazon parrot (Amazona autumnalis), and a peach-faced lovebird (Agapornis roseicollis). The histopathology of diseased feathers and follicular epithelium from the different species was compared; basophilic intranuclear inclusion bodies were identified in the follicular epithelium and intracytoplasmic globular inclusions were observed within macrophages located in the feather pulp from the four species. Psittacine beak and feather disease virus antigen was specifically detected by colloidal gold immunoelectron microscopy. The different preparations of purified virions displayed an icosahedral symmetry, were non-enveloped, and had a mean diameter that varied from 12 to 15 nm when negatively stained. Two major viral-associated proteins with approximate molecular weights of 26 and 23 kilodaltons (kd) were consistently demonstrated from the four viral preparations. Purified virions from the four genera were antigenically related. These findings suggest that the PBFD virus purified from numerous genera of diseased birds is similar based on ultrastructural characteristics, protein composition and antigenic reactivity.

  9. CHARACTERIZATION OF PURIFIED, RECONSTITUTED SITE-DIRECTED CYSTEINE MUTANTS OF THE LACTOSE PERMEASE OF ESCHERICHIA-COLI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANIWAARDEN, PR; DRIESSEN, AJM; MENICK, DR; KABACK, HR; KONINGS, WN

    1991-01-01

    lac Permease mutated at each of the 8 cysteinyl residues in the molecule was solubilized from the membrane, purified, and reconstituted into proteoliposomes. The transport activity of proteoliposomes reconstituted with each mutant permease relative to the wild-type is virtually identical with that r

  10. Recommendations for the medical management of chronic venous disease: The role of Micronized Purified Flavanoid Fraction (MPFF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, Ronald; Comerota, Anthony; Meissner, Mark; Raffetto, Joseph D; Hahn, Steven R; Freeman, Katherine

    2017-04-01

    Scope A systematic review of the clinical literature concerning medical management of chronic venous disease with the venoactive therapy Micronized Purified Flavonoid Fraction was conducted in addition to an investigation of the hemodynamics and mechanism of chronic venous disease. Methods The systematic review of the literature focused on the use of Micronized Purified Flavonoid Fraction (diosmin) which has recently become available in the US, in the management of chronic venous disease. The primary goal was to assess the level of evidence of the role of Micronized Purified Flavonoid Fraction in the healing of ulcers, and secondarily on the improvement of the symptoms of chronic venous disease such as edema. An initial search of Medline, Cochrane Database for Systematic Reviews and Google Scholar databases was conducted. The references of articles obtained in the primary search, including a Cochrane review of phlebotonics for venous insufficiency, were reviewed for additional studies. Studies were included if patients had a diagnosis of chronic venous disease documented with Doppler and Impedance Plethysmography. Studies excluded were those that had patients with arterial insufficiency (Ankle Brachial Index chronic venous disease patients because of its favorable safety profile. The Working Group for chronic venous disease concurs with previous guidance by the International European Society for Vascular Surgery in 2015 which recommended the use of Micronized Purified Flavonoid Fraction for the healing of venous ulcers, alone and adjunctive to compression therapy, and for the reduction in symptoms of chronic venous disease such as edema.

  11. 芝麻素纯化物的GC-MS分析%Analysis on Purified Sesamin by GC-MS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘立业

    2011-01-01

    [目的]对芝麻素纯化物进行定性分析,并确定其中杂质成分.[方法]利用气相色谱-质谱联用仪,对芝麻素纯化物进行定性分析.[结果]得到芝麻素纯化物气相色谱及质谱图,从而确定了芝麻素纯化物的主要成分及杂质.[结论]通过GC-MS分析,确定芝麻素纯化物主要成分为芝麻素,此外还含有少量的芝麻酚林及油脂.%[Objective]To qualitatively analyze the purified sesamin and identify the content of its impurities.[Methods] The purified sesamin was qualitatively analyzed by GG-MC.[Result]The gas chromatogram and mass spectrogram of purified sesamin were obtained,and its basic composition and impurities were determined.[Conclusion] By GG-MC,the basic compositions of purified sesamin were identified,which were pure sesamin and few sesamolin and oil.

  12. Direct anthelmintic effects of a purified chicory extract against free-living stages of Cooperia oncophora: preliminary results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pena-Espinoza, Miguel Angel; Williams, A.; Enemark, Heidi L.;

    2013-01-01

    Direct anthelmintic effects of a purified extract from chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) were assessed on eggs and first-stage larvae (L1) of C. oncophora. Chicory leaves (cv. Spadona) were collected from an organic dairy farm in Denmark. Dried leaf tissue was extracted in a Soxhlet apparatus with m...

  13. Structure-retrogradation relationship of rice starch in purified starches and cooked rice grains: a statistical investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yuan; Zhang, Jingmin; Ding, Xiaolin

    2002-12-04

    Amylose content and amylopectin chain length distribution, the two most commonly used structural parameters of starch, have significant effects on starch retrogradation. In the present work, starches were separated and purified from 18 rice cultivars. The amylopectin was purified from each starch. Amylopectin chain length distribution was analyzed by high-performance size-exclusion chromatography after debranched using isoamylase. The blue value was used to measure the amylose content before and after the defatting of starch. The amount of amylose associated with lipid was calculated. Pulsed nuclear magnetic resonance was used to follow the retrogradation of starch both in cooked rice grains and in the purified form. The Avrami equation was employed to describe the retrogradation kinetics of rice starch. To look into the relationship between the starch structure and retrogradation behavior, the structural parameters were correlated with retrogradation kinetics parameters using both Pearson and partial correlations. The results indicated the following: first, the retrogradation behavior of rice starch remains similar in both the purified form and cooked rice grains; second, the peak value of amylopectin short-chain length has a significant positive relationship with the amylopectin crystallization rate constant k; third, the amylose content after defatting has a significant positive relationship with the parameter k and a negative relationship with the Avrami exponent n; and fourth, the amount of amylose associated with lipid has a negative relationship with the parameter k.

  14. Fatty acid and drug binding to a low-affinity component of human serum albumin, purified by affinity chromatography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vorum, H; Pedersen, A O; Honoré, B

    1992-01-01

    of two albumin components about 40% of the albumin having high affinity and about 60% having low affinity. By affinity chromatography we succeeded in purifying the low-affinity component from the mixture. The high-affinity component, however, could not be isolated. We further analyzed the fatty acid...

  15. Purified glycosaminoglycans from cooked haddock may enhance Fe uptake via endocytosis in a Caco-2 cell culture model

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study aims to understand the enhancing effect of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), such as chondroitin/dermatan structures, on Fe uptake to Caco-2 cells. High sulfated GAGs were selectively purified from cooked haddock. An in vitro digestion/Caco-2 cell culture model was used to evaluate Fe uptake (ce...

  16. Understanding ForteBio's Sensors for High-Throughput Kinetic and Epitope Screening for Purified Antibodies and Yeast Culture Supernatant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yao; Mitchell, Scott; Lynaugh, Heather; Brown, Michael; Nobrega, R Paul; Zhi, Xiaoyong; Sun, Tingwan; Caffry, Isabelle; Cao, Yuan; Yang, Rong; Burnina, Irina; Xu, Yingda; Estep, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    Real-time and label-free antibody screening systems are becoming more popular because of the increasing output of purified antibodies and antibody supernatant from many antibody discovery platforms. However, the properties of the biosensor can greatly affect the kinetic and epitope binning results generated by these label-free screening systems. ForteBio human-specific ProA, anti-human IgG quantitation (AHQ), anti-human Fc capture (AHC) sensors, and custom biotinylated-anti-human Fc capture (b-AHFc) sensors were evaluated in terms of loading ability, regeneration, kinetic characterization, and epitope binning with both purified IgG and IgG supernatant. AHC sensors proved unreliable for kinetic or binning assays at times, whereas AHQ sensors showed poor loading and regeneration abilities. ProA sensors worked well with both purified IgG and IgG supernatant. However, the interaction between ProA sensors and the Fab region of the IgG with VH3 germline limited the application of ProA sensors, especially in the epitope binning experiment. In an attempt to generate a biosensor type that would be compatible with a variety of germlines and sample types, we found that the custom b-AHFc sensors appeared to be robust working with both purified IgG and IgG supernatant, with little evidence of sensor-related artifacts.

  17. A highly purified vegetal fraction able to modulate HMGB1 and to attenuate septic shock in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apetrei, Natalia Simona; Călugăru, Ana; Kerek, F; Panteli, Minerva; Rasit, I; Cremer, Lidia; Szegli, G; Lupu, Andreea-Roxana

    2011-01-01

    High-mobility group box protein 1 (HMGB1) is an intracellular protein that may be released actively from monocytes and macrophages or passively from necrotic or damaged cells. Its inhibition in animal experiments, even in the late phase of septic shock, significantly enhanced the survival rate of rodents. The aim of our study was to investigate the effect of a vegetal fraction isolated and highly purified from Helleborus purpurascens regarding the modulation of HMGB1 release either from tumor cells or human blood mononuclear cells. Our results showed that the vegetal fraction was able to down-regulate the release of HMGB1 from activated human blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and tumor cells. By combining the purified fraction with Cyclophosphamide the release of HMGB1 from tumor cells was strongly decreased. This synergism was not noticed when the ve getal product was associated with Doxorubicin. We also studied the effect of the purified fraction in mice with septic shock induced by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) method. The tested vegetal product increased significantly the survival rate of animals compared to the mice not treated with it. Our data suggest that the purified vegetal fraction may modulate inflammation by down-regulating the HMGB1, which can also explain its efficacy in septic shock in mice.

  18. Optimization of a filter-lysis protocol to purify rat testicular homogenates for automated spermatid counting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco, Sara E; Anderson, Linnea M; Boekelheide, Kim

    2012-01-01

    Quantifying testicular homogenization-resistant spermatid heads (HRSH) is a powerful indicator of spermatogenesis. These counts have traditionally been performed manually using a hemocytometer, but this method can be time consuming and biased. We aimed to develop a protocol to reduce debris for the application of automated counting, which would allow for efficient and unbiased quantification of rat HRSH. We developed a filter-lysis protocol that effectively removes debris from rat testicular homogenates. After filtering and lysing the homogenates, we found no statistical differences between manual (classic and filter-lysis) and automated (filter-lysis) counts using 1-way analysis of variance with Bonferroni's multiple comparison test. In addition, Pearson's correlation coefficients were calculated to compare the counting methods, and there was a strong correlation between the classic manual counts and the filter-lysis manual (r = 0.85, P = .002) and the filter-lysis automated (r = 0.89, P = .0005) counts. We also tested the utility of the automated method in a low-dose exposure model known to decrease HRSH. Adult Fischer 344 rats exposed to 0.33% 2,5-hexanedione in the drinking water for 12 weeks demonstrated decreased body (P = .02) and testes (P = .002) weights. In addition, there was a significant reduction in the number of HRSH per testis (P = .002) when compared to controls. A filterlysis protocol was optimized to purify rat testicular homogenates for automated HRSH counts. Automated counting systems yield unbiased data and can be applied to detect changes in the testis after low-dose toxicant exposure.

  19. Anti-HBV Activities of Three Compounds Extracted and Purified from Herpetospermum Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pu-Yang Gong

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this research was to evaluate the anti-hepatitis B virus (HBV activities of three compounds extracted and purified from Herpetospermum seeds (HS on HepG2.2.15 cells. Herpetin (HPT, herpetone (HPO, and herpetfluorenone (HPF were isolated from HS and identified using HR-ESI-MS and NMR. Different concentrations of the drugs were added to the HepG2.2.15 cells. Cell toxicity was observed with an MTT assay, cell culture supernatants were collected, and HBsAg and HBeAg were detected by ELISA. The content of HBV DNA was determined via quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR with fluorescent probes. The 50% toxicity concentration (TC50 of HPF was 531.48 μg/mL, suggesting that this species is less toxic than HPT and HPO. HPT and HPF showed more potent antiviral activities than HPO. The 50% inhibition concentration (IC50 values of HPF on HBsAg and HBeAg were 176.99 and 134.53 μg/mL, respectively, and the corresponding therapeutic index (TI values were 2.66 and 3.49, respectively. HPT and HPF were shown to significantly reduce the level of HBV DNA in the HepG2.2.15 culture medium compared to the negative control. This initial investigation of the anti-HBV constituents of HS yielded three compounds that revealed a synergistic effect of multiple components in the ethnopharmacological use of HS.

  20. Signatures of purifying and local positive selection in human miRNAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quach, Hélène; Barreiro, Luis B; Laval, Guillaume; Zidane, Nora; Patin, Etienne; Kidd, Kenneth K; Kidd, Judith R; Bouchier, Christiane; Veuille, Michel; Antoniewski, Christophe; Quintana-Murci, Lluís

    2009-03-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are noncoding RNAs involved in posttranscriptional gene repression, and their role in diverse physiological processes is increasingly recognized. Yet, few efforts have been devoted to evolutionary studies of human miRNAs. Knowledge about the way in which natural selection has targeted miRNAs should provide insight into their functional relevance as well as their mechanisms of action. Here we used miRNAs as a model system for investigating the influence of natural selection on gene regulation by characterizing the full spectrum of naturally occurring sequence variation of 117 human miRNAs from different populations worldwide. We found that purifying selection has globally constrained the diversity of miRNA-containing regions and has strongly targeted the mature miRNA. This observation emphasizes that mutations in these molecules are likely to be deleterious, and therefore they can have severe phenotypic consequences on human health. More importantly, we obtained evidence of population-specific events of positive selection acting on a number of miRNA-containing regions. Notably, our analysis revealed that positive selection has targeted a "small-RNA-rich island" on chromosome 14, harboring both miRNAs and small nucleolar RNAs, in Europeans and East Asians. These observations support the notion that the tuning of gene expression contributes to the processes by which populations adapt to specific environments. These findings will fuel future investigations exploring how genetic and functional variation of miRNAs under selection affects the repression of their mRNA targets, increasing our understanding of the role of gene regulation in population adaptation and human disease.

  1. Further biochemical characterization of an Na+ pump inhibitor purified from human urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crabos, M; Grichois, M L; Guicheney, P; Wainer, I W; Cloix, J F

    1987-01-02

    An increase in endogenous Na+,K+-ATPase inhibitor(s) with digitalis-like properties has been reported in chronic renal insufficiency, in Na+-dependent experimental hypertension and in some essential hypertensive patients. The present study specifies some properties and some biochemical characteristics of a semipurified compound from human urine having digitalis-like properties. The urine-derived inhibitor (endalin) inhibits Na+,K+-ATPase activity and [3H]-ouabain binding, and cross-reacts with anti-digoxin antibodies. The inhibitory effect on ATPases of endalin is higher on Na+,K+-ATPase than on Mg2+-ATPase and Ca2+-ATPase. The mechanism of endalin action on highly purified Na+,K+-ATPase was compared to that of ouabain and was similar in that it reversibly inhibited Na+,K+-ATPase activity; it inhibited Na+,K+-ATPase non-competitively with ATP; its inhibitory effect was facilitated by Na+; K+ decreased its inhibitory effect on Na+,K+-ATPase; it competitively inhibited ouabain binding to the enzyme; its binding was maximal in the presence of Mg2+ and Pi; it decreased the Na+ pump activity in human erythrocytes; it reduced serotonin uptake by human platelets; and it was diuretic and natriuretic in rat bioassay. The endalin differed from ouabain in only three aspects: its inhibitory effect was not really specific for Na+,K+-ATPase; its binding to the enzyme was undetectable in the presence of Mg2+ and ATP; it was not kaliuretic in rat bioassay. Endalin is a reversible and partial specific inhibitor of Na+,K+-ATPase, its Na+,K+-ATPase inhibition closely resembles that of ouabain and it could be considered as one of the natriuretic hormones.

  2. Partially purified bitter gourd (Momordica charantia) peroxidase catalyzed decolorization of textile and other industrially important dyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhtar, Suhail; Ali Khan, Amjad; Husain, Qayyum

    2005-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the enzymatic action of partially purified bitter gourd peroxidase for the degradation/decolorization of complex aromatic structures. Twenty-one dyes, with a wide spectrum of chemical groups, currently being used by the textile and other important industries have been selected for the study. Here, for the first time we have shown peroxidases from Momordica charantia (300 EU/gm of vegetable) to be highly effective in decolorizing industrially important dyes. Dye solutions, containing 50-200 mg dye/l, were used for the treatment with bitter gourd peroxidase (specific activity of 99.0 EU/mg protein). M. charantia peroxidases were able to decolorize most of the textile dyes by forming insoluble precipitate. When the textile dyes were treated with increasing concentration of enzyme, it was observed that greater fraction of the color was removed but four out of eight reactive dyes were recalcitrant to decolorization by bitter gourd peroxidase. Step-wise addition of enzyme to the decolorizing reaction mixture at the interval of 1h further enhanced the dye decolorization. The rate of decolorization was enhanced when the dyes were incubated with fixed quantity of enzyme for increasing times. Decolorization of non-textile dyes resulted in the degradation and removal of dyes from the solution without any precipitate formation. Decolorization rate was drastically increased when the textile and other industrially important non-textile dyes were treated with bitter gourd peroxidase in presence of 1.0 mM 1-hydroxybenzotriazole. Complex mixtures of dyes were prepared by taking three to four reactive textile and non-textile dyes in equal proportions. Each mixture was decolorized by more than 80% when treated with the enzyme in presence of 1.0 mM 1-hydroxybenzotriazole. Our data suggest that the peroxidase/mediator system is an effective biocatalyst for the treatment of effluents containing recalcitrant dyes from textile, dye manufacturing

  3. Pyrolytic acrylamide formation from purified wheat gluten and gluten-supplemented wheat bread rolls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claus, Achim; Weisz, Georg M; Schieber, Andreas; Carle, Reinhold

    2006-01-01

    Recent studies have revealed different acrylamide formation mechanisms, e. g. from carnosine (N-beta-alanyl-L-histidine) and aminopropionamide as additional precursors. The occurrence of acrylamide in food matrices devoid of common precursors such as meat supports an additional formation pathway. Gluten was recovered from wheat flour by water extraction. Starch, reducing sugars and amino acids were removed using alpha-amylase and NaCl solution and were completely absent in the purified gluten fraction. The gluten was dry heated at temperatures ranging from 160 to 240 degrees C for 8 to 12 min and analyzed for acrylamide and cinnamic amide using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Acrylamide could be detected up to 3997 microg/kg gluten dry weight. Cinnamic amide was detected and unambiguously identified in the gluten samples, thus confirming the proposed formation of acrylamide from proteins. After gluten addition to bread roll dough, protein pyrolysis to form acrylamide in the complex food matrix was assessed. Contents of asparagine and reducing sugars were diminished due to the addition of the gluten. In contrast to the expectation with respect to the well-established common formation mechanism of acrylamide, it increased from 53.4 to 63.9 microg/kg (+20%), which was in good correlation with the higher proportion of gluten. As demonstrated by the t-test, the increase in acrylamide was significant when comparing 0 and 15% gluten addition. Additionally, cinnamic amide could be found in crusts of bread rolls. Thus, evidence for pyrolytic formation of acrylamide from wheat gluten was provided.

  4. Positive and purifying selection influence the evolution of doublesex in the Anastrepha fraterculus species group.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iderval S Sobrinho

    Full Text Available The gene doublesex (dsx is considered to be under strong selective constraint along its evolutionary history because of its central role in somatic sex differentiation in insects. However, previous studies of dsx used global estimates of evolutionary rates to investigate its molecular evolution, which potentially miss signals of adaptive changes in generally conserved genes. In this work, we investigated the molecular evolution of dsx in the Anastrepha fraterculus species group (Diptera, Tephritidae, and test the hypothesis that this gene evolved solely by purifying selection using divergence-based and population-based methods. In the first approach, we compared sequences from Anastrepha and other Tephritidae with other Muscomorpha species, analyzed variation in nonsynonymous to synonymous rate ratios (dN/dS in the Tephritidae, and investigated radical and conservative changes in amino acid physicochemical properties. We show a general selective constraint on dsx, but with signs of positive selection mainly in the common region. Such changes were localized in alpha-helices previously reported to be involved in dimer formation in the OD2 domain and near the C-terminal of the OD1 domain. In the population-based approach, we amplified a region of 540 bp that spanned almost all of the region common to both sexes from 32 different sites in Brazil. We investigated patterns of selection using neutrality tests based on the frequency spectrum and locations of synonymous and nonsynonymous mutations in a haplotype network. As in the divergence-based approach, these analyses showed that dsx has evolved under an overall selective constraint, but with some events of positive selection. In contrast to previous studies, our analyses indicate that even though dsx has indeed evolved as a conserved gene, the common region of dsx has also experienced bouts of positive selection, perhaps driven by sexual selection, during its evolution.

  5. Positive and Purifying Selection Influence the Evolution of Doublesex in the Anastrepha fraterculus Species Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobrinho, Iderval S.; de Brito, Reinaldo A.

    2012-01-01

    The gene doublesex (dsx) is considered to be under strong selective constraint along its evolutionary history because of its central role in somatic sex differentiation in insects. However, previous studies of dsx used global estimates of evolutionary rates to investigate its molecular evolution, which potentially miss signals of adaptive changes in generally conserved genes. In this work, we investigated the molecular evolution of dsx in the Anastrepha fraterculus species group (Diptera, Tephritidae), and test the hypothesis that this gene evolved solely by purifying selection using divergence-based and population-based methods. In the first approach, we compared sequences from Anastrepha and other Tephritidae with other Muscomorpha species, analyzed variation in nonsynonymous to synonymous rate ratios (dN/dS) in the Tephritidae, and investigated radical and conservative changes in amino acid physicochemical properties. We show a general selective constraint on dsx, but with signs of positive selection mainly in the common region. Such changes were localized in alpha-helices previously reported to be involved in dimer formation in the OD2 domain and near the C-terminal of the OD1 domain. In the population-based approach, we amplified a region of 540 bp that spanned almost all of the region common to both sexes from 32 different sites in Brazil. We investigated patterns of selection using neutrality tests based on the frequency spectrum and locations of synonymous and nonsynonymous mutations in a haplotype network. As in the divergence-based approach, these analyses showed that dsx has evolved under an overall selective constraint, but with some events of positive selection. In contrast to previous studies, our analyses indicate that even though dsx has indeed evolved as a conserved gene, the common region of dsx has also experienced bouts of positive selection, perhaps driven by sexual selection, during its evolution. PMID:22428050

  6. Prolastin, a pharmaceutical preparation of purified human α1-antitrypsin, blocks endotoxin-mediated cytokine release

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Westin Ulla

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background α1-antitrypsin (AAT serves primarily as an inhibitor of the elastin degrading proteases, neutrophil elastase and proteinase 3. There is ample clinical evidence that inherited severe AAT deficiency predisposes to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Augmentation therapy for AAT deficiency has been available for many years, but to date no sufficient data exist to demonstrate its efficacy. There is increasing evidence that AAT is able to exert effects other than protease inhibition. We investigated whether Prolastin, a preparation of purified pooled human AAT used for augmentation therapy, exhibits anti-bacterial effects. Methods Human monocytes and neutrophils were isolated from buffy coats or whole peripheral blood by the Ficoll-Hypaque procedure. Cells were stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS or zymosan, either alone or in combination with Prolastin, native AAT or polymerised AAT for 18 h, and analysed to determine the release of TNFα, IL-1β and IL-8. At 2-week intervals, seven subjects were submitted to a nasal challenge with sterile saline, LPS (25 μg and LPS-Prolastin combination. The concentration of IL-8 was analysed in nasal lavages performed before, and 2, 6 and 24 h after the challenge. Results In vitro, Prolastin showed a concentration-dependent (0.5 to 16 mg/ml inhibition of endotoxin-stimulated TNFα and IL-1β release from monocytes and IL-8 release from neutrophils. At 8 and 16 mg/ml the inhibitory effects of Prolastin appeared to be maximal for neutrophil IL-8 release (5.3-fold, p Conclusion Our data demonstrate for the first time that Prolastin inhibits bacterial endotoxin-induced pro-inflammatory responses in vitro and in vivo, and provide scientific bases to explore new Prolastin-based therapies for individuals with inherited AAT deficiency, but also for other clinical conditions.

  7. Treatment of purified terephthalic acid wastewater using a bio-waste-adsorbent bagasse fly ash (BFA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Shilpi; Prasad, Basheshwar; Mishra, Indra Mani

    2017-01-01

    Purified terephthalic acid (PTA) plant of a petrochemical unit generates wastewater having high pollution load. Acid treatment of this wastewater reduces the chemical oxygen demand (COD) load by more than 50%, still leaving substantial COD load (>1500 mg/L) which should be removed. The present study reports on the use of a bio-waste-adsorbent bagasse fly ash (BFA) for the reduction of COD and other recalcitrant acids from this wastewater. The BFA showed basic character and was mesoporous with a BET specific surface area of 82.4 m(2)/g. Optimum conditions for the adsorptive treatment of acid-pretreated PTA wastewater were found to be as follows: initial pH (pHi) = 4, BFA dosage = 15 g/L, and contact time = 3 h. Adsorption treatment resulted in 58.2% removal of COD, 96.3% removal of terephthalic acid (TA), and 99.9% removal of benzoic acid (BA). TA and BA were removed from the pretreated PTA wastewater through precipitation and sedimentation of un-dissociated acid molecules inside the mesopores of the BFA. The results showed that the COD removed by the BFA followed pseudo-second-order kinetics. Equilibrium sorption data were best correlated by the Freundlich isotherm. The process of adsorptive removal of COD was found to be exothermic. The change in the Gibbs free energy was found to be negative, suggesting that the adsorption process is spontaneous and feasible for the treatment of PTA wastewater.

  8. Nicotinamide riboside, an unusual, non-typical, substrate of purified purine-nucleoside phosphorylases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wielgus-Kutrowska, B; Kulikowska, E; Wierzchowski, J; Bzowska, A; Shugar, D

    1997-01-15

    Nicotinamide 1-beta-D-riboside (Nir), the cationic, reducible moiety of the coenzyme NAD+, has been confirmed as an unusual substrate for purified purine-nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP) from a mammalian source (calf spleen). It is also a substrate of the enzyme from Escherichia coli. The Km values at pH 7, 1.48 mM and 0.62 mM, respectively, were 1-2 orders of magnitude higher than for the natural substrate inosine, but the Vmax values were comparable, 96% and 35% that for Ino. The pseudo first-order rate constants, Vmax/Km, were 1.1% and 2.5% for the calf spleen and E. coli enzymes. The aglycon, nicotinamide, was neither a substrate nor an inhibitor of PNP. Nir was a weak inhibitor of inosine phosphorolysis catalyzed by both enzymes, with Ki values close to the Km for its phosphorolysis, consistent with simple competitive inhibition; this was further confirmed by Dixon plots. Phosphorolysis of the fluorescent positively charged substrate 7-methylguanosine was also inhibited in a competitive manner by both Ino and Nir. Phosphorolysis of Nir by both enzymes was inhibited competitively by several specific inhibitors of calf spleen and E. coli PNP, with Ki values similar to those for inhibition of other natural substrates. The pH dependence of the kinetic constants for the phosphorolysis of Nir and of a variety of other substrates, was extensively investigated, particularly in the alkaline pH range, where Nir exhibited abnormally high substrate activity relative to the reduced reaction rates of both enzymes towards other anionic or neutral substrates. The overall results are discussed in relation to present concepts regarding binding and phosphorolysis of substrates by PNP based on crystallographic data of enzyme-inhibitor complexes, and current studies on enzymatic and nonenzymatic mechanisms of the cleavage of the Nir glycosidic bond.

  9. Titanium dioxide coated cementitious materials for air purifying purposes: Preparation, characterization and toluene removal potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez, Anibal Maury; De Belie, Nele [Magnel Laboratory for Concrete Research, Department of Structural Engineering, Engineering Faculty, Ghent University, Technologiepark Zwijnaarde 904, B-9052 Ghent (Belgium); Demeestere, Kristof [Research Group EnVOC, Department of Organic Chemistry, Faculty of Bioscience Engineering, Ghent University, Coupure Links 653. B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); Maentylae, Tapio; Levaenen, Erkki [Department of Materials Science, Tampere University of Technology, Korkeakoulunkatu 6, FIN-33720 Tampere (Finland)

    2010-04-15

    This work presents promising results for air purification by heterogeneous photocatalysis on new titanium dioxide loaded cementitious materials. A set of eight concretes and plasters is enriched with TiO{sub 2} photocatalyst by dip-coating and/or sol-gel methods. First, the macro-structural features of the cementitious materials have been studied in terms of porosity and roughness. The first parameter has been determined using mercury intrusion porosimetry or by vacuum saturation, and ranged between 9 and 75%, with the highest values obtained for autoclaved aerated white concrete. Surface roughness, determined by laser profilometry, has been characterized by the R{sub a} factor. This expresses the mean deviation of the profile from the centre line and ranged between 0.7 and 252 {mu}m, with the highest value obtained for conventional grey concrete finished with surface brush. Secondly, the weathering resistance of the TiO{sub 2} coatings has been determined by exposing them to different abrasive conditions and by performing SEM-Edax analyses to measure quantitatively the coating's titanium content. Hereby, it is shown that high porosity and roughness are favourable for TiO{sub 2} particles retention. Finally, the preliminary air purification potential of both dip-coated and sol-gel coated TiO{sub 2} enriched concrete samples has been investigated on lab-scale using toluene as a model pollutant. High removal efficiencies (up to 86%) were obtained with the dip-coated samples, indicating their attractive photocatalytic properties for future application as air purifying building materials. (author)

  10. Neutralized semi-purified glycerin in pre-starting piglet feeding (6 To 15 kg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Marcela Diaz-Huepa

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Two experiments were carried out to determine the nutritional value of neutralized semi-purified glycerin (NSPG and to evaluate the performance of pre-starting piglets (6-15 kg fed on diets containing increasing levels of NSPG. In Experiment I, a digestibility trial with 30 barrows (11.80 ± 5.12 kg live weight was conducted, in which they were allotted in a randomized block design. Replacement levels of the basal diet by NSPG were 3, 6, 9, and 12%. The values (as-fed-base of digestible energy (DE and metabolizable energy (ME of NSPG were 3535 and 3279 kcal/kg, respectively. In Experiment II, 135 piglets, weaned at 21 days of age (6.85 ± 1.28 to 15.04 ± 2.06 kg, were allotted in a randomized-block design. Treatments consisted of five diets (3, 6, 9, and 12% NSPG as well as a control diet with 0% of NSPG, with nine replications, and three piglets per experimental unit. The results show that, in the pre-starting I (6-10 kg phase, adding NSPG promoted a linear improvement in the average daily gain (ADG and the feed-to-gain ratio (F:G. For the total period (6-15 kg, only linear improvements (P ? 0.05 to ADG were observed. The plasma variables were not influenced (P ? 0.05 by the inclusion of NSPG, as it remained within the biological range of the species. The results suggest that up to 12% NSPG can be included in the diets of piglets (6-15 kg without impairing the plasmatic variables, performance, and economic feasibility.

  11. Protective role of purified cysteine proteinases against Fasciola gigantica infection in experimental animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Ahwany, Eman; Rabia, Ibrahim; Nagy, Faten; Zoheiry, Mona; Diab, Tarek; Zada, Suher

    2012-03-01

    Fascioliasis is one of the public health problems in the world. Cysteine proteinases (CP) released by Fasciola gigantica play a key role in parasite feeding, migration through host tissues, and in immune evasion. There has been some evidence from several parasite systems that proteinases might have potential as protective antigens against parasitic infections. Cysteine proteinases were purified and tested in vaccine trials of sheep infected with the liver fluke. Multiple doses (2 mg of CP in Freund's adjuvant followed by 3 booster doses 1 mg each at 4 week intervals) were injected intramuscularly into sheep 1 week prior to infect orally with 300 F. gigantica metacercariae. All the sheep were humanely slaughtered 12 weeks after the first immunization. Changes in the worm burden, ova count, and humoral and cellular responses were evaluated. Significant reduction was observed in the worm burden (56.9%), bile egg count (70.7%), and fecel egg count (75.2%). Immunization with CP was also found to be associated with increases of total IgG, IgG(1), and IgG(2) (P<0.05). Data showed that the serum cytokine levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, IL-12, IFN-γ, and TNF-α, revealed significant decreases (P<0.05). However, the anti-inflammatory cytokine levels, IL-10, TGF-β, and IL-6, showed significant increases (P<0.05). In conclusion, it has been found that CP released by F. gigantica are highly important candidates for a vaccine antigen because of their role in the fluke biology and host-parasite relationships.

  12. Biohydrogen production from purified terephthalic acid (PTA) processing wastewater by anaerobic fermentation using mixed microbial communities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Ge-Fu; Wu, Peng; Wei, Qun-Shan; Lin, Jian-yi; Liu, Hai-Ning [Key Lab of Urban Environment and Health, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen 361021 (China); Gao, Yan-Li [China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074 (China)

    2010-08-15

    Purified terephthalic acid (PTA) processing wastewater was evaluated as a fermentable substrate for hydrogen (H{sub 2}) production with simultaneous wastewater treatment by dark-fermentation process in a continuous stirred-tank reactor (CSTR) with selectively enriched acidogenic mixed consortia under continuous flow condition in this paper. The inoculated sludge used in the reactor was excess sludge taken from a second settling tank in a local wastewater treatment plant. Under the conditions of the inoculants not less than 6.3 gVSS/L, the organic loading rate (OLR) of 16 kgCOD/m{sup 3} d, hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 6 h and temperature of (35 {+-} 1) C, when the pH value, alkalinity and oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) of the effluent ranged from 4.2 to 4.4, 280 to 350 mg CaCO{sub 3}/L, and -220 to -250 mV respectively, soluble metabolites were predominated by acetate and ethanol, with smaller quantities of propionate, butyrate and valerate. Stable ethanol-type fermentation was formed with the sum of ethanol and acetate concentration ratio of 70.31% to the total liquid products after 25 days operation. The H{sub 2} volume content was estimated to be 48-53% of the total biogas and the biogas was free of methane throughout the study. The average biomass concentration was estimated to be 10.82 gVSS/L, which favored H{sub 2} production efficiently. The rate of chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal reached at about 45% and a specific H{sub 2} production rate achieved 0.073 L/gMLVSS d in the study. This CSTR system showed a promising high-efficient bioprocess for H{sub 2} production from high-strength chemical wastewater. (author)

  13. Powered air-purifying respirator use in healthcare: effects on thermal sensations and comfort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Jeffrey B; Kim, Jung-Hyun; Roberge, Raymond J

    2017-08-01

    Twelve subjects wore an N95 filtering facepiece respirator (N95 FFR), one tight-fitting full facepiece powered air-purifying respirator (PAPR), two loose-fitting PAPRs, and one elastomeric/PAPR hybrid for 1 hr each during treadmill walking at 5.6 km/h while undergoing physiological and subjective response monitoring. No significant interaction (p≥.05) was noted between the five respirators in heart rate, respiratory rate, oxygen saturation, transcutaneous carbon dioxide, and perceptions of breathing effort or discomfort, exertion, facial heat, and overall body heat. Respirator deadspace heat/humidity were significantly greater for the N95 FFR, whereas tympanic forehead skin temperatures were significantly greater for the hybrid PAPR. Temperature of the facial skin covered by the respirator was equivalent for the N95 FFR and hybrid PAPR, and both were significantly higher than for the other three PAPRs. Perception of eye dryness was significantly greater for a tight-fitting full facepiece PAPR than the N95 FFR and hybrid PAPR. At a low-moderate work rate over 1 hr, effects on cardiopulmonary variables, breathing perceptions, and facial and overall body heat perceptions did not differ significantly between the four PAPRs and a N95 FFR, but the tight-fitting, full facepiece PAPR increased perceptions of eye dryness. The two loose-fitting PAPRs and the full facepiece tight-fitting PAPR ameliorated exercise-induced increases in facial temperature, but this did not translate to improved perception of facial heat and overall body heat.

  14. Sequential Versus Continual Purified Urinary FSH/hCG in Men With Idiopathic Hypogonadotropic Hypogonadism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Manna; Tong, Guoyu; Liu, Yanling; Mu, Yiming; Weng, Jianping; Xue, Yaoming; Luo, Zuojie; Xue, Yuanming; Shi, Lixin; Wu, Xueyan; Sun, Shouyue; Zhu, Yanhua; Cao, Ying; Zhang, Jie; Huang, Hong; Niu, Ben; Li, Hong; Guo, Qinghua; Gao, Yan; Li, Zhibin; Ning, Guang; Zhu, Dalong; Li, Xiaoying

    2015-06-01

    Gonadotropin therapy using a human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) and FSH preparation is an effective regimen in inducing masculinization and spermatogenesis in men with idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (IHH). However, the high cost of medication and frequent injections affect compliance. The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy of sequential use of highly purified urinary FSH (uFSH)/hCG in men with IHH. A randomized, open-label, prospective, controlled noninferiority trial with an 18-month follow-up was conducted in 9 tertiary hospitals. A total of 67 Chinese men with IHH were randomly allocated into group A receiving continual uFSH (75 U, 3 times a week) and hCG (2000 U, twice a week) injection and group B receiving sequential uFSH (75 U, 3 times a week every other 3 months) and hCG (2000 U, twice a week) injection. The primary outcome was the proportion of subjects with a sperm concentration of ≥ 1.0 × 10(6)/mL during the 18 months. The efficacy between groups A and B was compared for noninferiority. Of the patients, 17/33 (51.5%) receiving continual uFSH/hCG and 19/34 (55.9%) receiving sequential uFSH/hCG achieved sperm concentrations of ≥ 1.0 × 10(6)/mL. The efficacy in the sequential uFSH/hCG group was not inferior to that in the continual uFSH/hCG group (noninferiority, P = .008) by intention-to-treat analysis. The efficacy of the sequential uFSH/hCG regimen is not inferior to that of the continual uFSH/hCG regimen in inducing spermatogenesis and masculinization of patients with IHH.

  15. Characterization of Clostridium thermocellum (B8) secretome and purified cellulosomes for lignocellulosic biomass degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osiro, Karen O; de Camargo, Brenda R; Satomi, Rachel; Hamann, Pedro Ricardo V; Silva, Jéssica Pinheiro; de Sousa, Marcelo Valle; Quirino, Betania F; Aquino, Elaine N; Felix, Carlos R; Murad, André Melro; Noronha, Eliane F

    2017-02-01

    The main goal of the present study was a complete proteomic characterization of total proteins eluted from residual substrate-bound proteins (RSBP), and cellulosomes secreted by Clostridium thermocellum B8 during growth in the presence of microcrystalline cellulose as a carbon source. The second goal was to evaluate their potential use as enzymatic blends for hydrolyzing agro-industrial residues to produce fermentable sugars. Protein identification through LC-MS/MS mass spectrometry showed that the RSBP sample, in addition to cellulosomal proteins, contains a wide variety of proteins, including those without a well-characterized role in plant cell wall degradation. The RSBP subsample defined as purified cellulosomes (PC) consists mainly of glycoside hydrolases grouped in families 5, 8, 9, 10 and 48. Dynamic light scattering, DLS, analysis of PC resulted in two protein peaks (pi1 and pi2) presenting molecular masses in agreement with those previously described for cellulosomes and polycellulosomes. These peaks weren't detected after PC treatment with 1.0% Tween. PC and RSBP presented maximal activities at temperatures ranging from 60° to 70°C and at pH 5.0. RSBP retained almost all of its activity after incubation at 50, 60 and 70°C and PC showed remarkable thermostability at 50 and 60°C. RSBP holocellullolytic activities were inhibited by phenolic compounds, while PC showed either increasing activity or a lesser degree of inhibition. RSBP and PC hydrolyze sugar cane straw, cotton waste and microcrystalline cellulose, liberating a diversity of saccharides; however, the highest concentration of released sugar was obtained for assays carried out using PC as an enzymatic blend and after ten days at 50°C. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Reduced purifying selection prevails over positive selection in human copy number variant evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Duc-Quang; Webber, Caleb; Hehir-Kwa, Jayne; Pfundt, Rolph; Veltman, Joris; Ponting, Chris P

    2008-11-01

    Copy number variation is a dominant contributor to genomic variation and may frequently underlie an individual's variable susceptibilities to disease. Here we question our previous proposition that copy number variants (CNVs) are often retained in the human population because of their adaptive benefit. We show that genic biases of CNVs are best explained, not by positive selection, but by reduced efficiency of selection in eliminating deleterious changes from the human population. Of four CNV data sets examined, three exhibit significant increases in protein evolutionary rates. These increases appear to be attributable to the frequent coincidence of CNVs with segmental duplications (SDs) that recombine infrequently. Furthermore, human orthologs of mouse genes, which, when disrupted, result in pre- or postnatal lethality, are unusually depleted in CNVs. Together, these findings support a model of reduced purifying selection (Hill-Robertson interference) within copy number variable regions that are enriched in nonessential genes, allowing both the fixation of slightly deleterious substitutions and increased drift of CNV alleles. Additionally, all four CNV sets exhibited increased rates of interspecies chromosomal rearrangement and nucleotide substitution and an increased gene density. We observe that sequences with high G+C contents are most prone to copy number variation. In particular, frequently duplicated human SD sequence, or CNVs that are large and/or observed frequently, tend to be elevated in G+C content. In contrast, SD sequences that appear fixed in the human population lie more frequently within low G+C sequence. These findings provide an overarching view of how CNVs arise and segregate in the human population.

  17. Morphology and Molecular Composition of Purified Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus Envelope.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie Callens

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The family Flaviviridae includes viruses that have different virion structures and morphogenesis mechanisms. Most cellular and molecular studies have been so far performed with viruses of the Hepacivirus and Flavivirus genera. Here, we studied bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV, a member of the Pestivirus genus. We set up a method to purify BVDV virions and analyzed their morphology by electron microscopy and their protein and lipid composition by mass spectrometry. Cryo-electron microscopy showed near spherical viral particles displaying an electron-dense capsid surrounded by a phospholipid bilayer with no visible spikes. Most particles had a diameter of 50 nm and about 2% were larger with a diameter of up to 65 nm, suggesting some size flexibility during BVDV morphogenesis. Morphological and biochemical data suggested a low envelope glycoprotein content of BVDV particles, E1 and E2 being apparently less abundant than Erns. Lipid content of BVDV particles displayed a ~2.3 to 3.5-fold enrichment in cholesterol, sphingomyelin and hexosyl-ceramide, concomitant with a 1.5 to 5-fold reduction of all glycerophospholipid classes, as compared to lipid content of MDBK cells. Although BVDV buds in the endoplasmic reticulum, its lipid content differs from a typical endoplasmic reticulum membrane composition. This suggests that BVDV morphogenesis includes a mechanism of lipid sorting. Functional analyses confirmed the importance of cholesterol and sphingomyelin for BVDV entry. Surprisingly, despite a high cholesterol and sphingolipid content of BVDV envelope, E2 was not found in detergent-resistant membranes. Our results indicate that there are differences between the structure and molecular composition of viral particles of Flaviviruses, Pestiviruses and Hepaciviruses within the Flaviviridae family.

  18. Strategies for purifying variants of human rhinovirus 14 2C protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sára, Tomáš; Konrat, Robert; Skern, Tim

    2014-03-01

    The positive strand RNA genome of picornaviruses, including human rhinovirus (HRV), poliovirus (PV) and foot-and-mouth disease virus, is translated immediately into a polyprotein that is cleaved by virally encoded proteinases into 10-13 mature proteins. These include the four proteins required to assemble the viral particle as well as 3D(pol) (the viral RNA polymerase) and 2C, an ATPase and putative helicase. 2C is a protein which is responsible, together with 2B and 3A, for anchoring the replication complexes to membranous structures in the infected cell on which RNA replication takes place. Additionally, expression of 2C and its precursor 2BC in mammalian cells leads to vesicle formation observed in infected cells. 2C is encoded by all picornaviruses; nevertheless, its exact role in viral replication remains unclear. A contributing factor is the absence of structural data for this hydrophobic protein the generation of which has been hampered by an inability to produce soluble and stable material. Here, we compare 2C from several genera and show that the 2C protein has considerable heterogeneity. Using protein structure meta-analysis, we developed models of HRV14 2C that should be useful for mutational analysis. Based on these analyses, we expressed and purified two domains of HRV14 2C using three different protocols and examined the folding by thermal denaturation or (1)H NMR. Both domains were concentrated sufficiently to allow crystal screens or NMR pilot experiments to be performed. This work provides a platform to explore 2C proteins from all picornaviral genera to generate candidates for structural analysis.

  19. Speech intelligibility assessment of protective facemasks and air-purifying respirators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmiero, Andrew J; Symons, Daniel; Morgan, Judge W; Shaffer, Ronald E

    2016-12-01

    Speech Intelligibility (SI) is the perceived quality of sound transmission. In healthcare settings, the ability to communicate clearly with coworkers, patients, etc., is crucial to quality patient care and safety. The objectives of this study were to: (1) assess the suitability of the Speech Transmission Index (STI) methods for testing reusable and disposable facial and respiratory personal protective equipment (protective facemasks [PF], N95 filtering facepiece respirators [N95 FFR], and elastomeric half-mask air-purifying respirators [EAPR]) commonly worn by healthcare workers; (2) quantify STI levels of these devices; and (3) contribute to the scientific body of knowledge in the area of SI. SI was assessed using the STI under two experimental conditions: (1) a modified version of the National Fire Protection Association 1981 Supplementary Voice Communications System Performance Test at a Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) of -15 (66 dBA) and (2) STI measurements utilizing a range of modified pink noise levels (52.5 dBA (-2 SNR) - 72.5 dBA (+7 SNR)) in 5.0 dBA increments. The PF models (Kimberly Clark 49214 and 3 M 1818) had the least effect on SI interference, typically deviating from the STI baseline (no-mask condition) by 3% and 4% STI, respectively. The N95FFR (3 M 1870, 3 M 1860) had more effect on SI interference, typically differing from baseline by 13% and 17%, respectively, for models tested. The EAPR models (Scott Xcel and North 5500) had the most significant impact on SI, differing from baseline by 42% for models tested. This data offers insight into the performance of these apparatus with respect to STI and may serve as a reference point for future respirator design considerations, standards development, testing and certification activities.

  20. Metabolism of phenol and hydroquinone to reactive products by macrophage peroxidase or purified prostaglandin H synthase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlosser, M.J.; Shurina, R.D.; Kalf, G.F. (Thomas Jefferson Univ., Philadelphia, PA (USA))

    1989-07-01

    Macrophages, an important cell-type of the bone marrow stroma, are possible targets of benzene toxicity because they contain relatively large amounts of prostaglandin H synthase (PHS), which is capable of metabolizing phenolic compounds to reactive species. PHS also catalyzes the production of prostaglandins, negative regulators of myelopoiesis. Studies indicate that the phenolic metabolites of benzene are oxidized in bone marrow to reactive products via peroxidases. With respect to macrophages, PHS peroxidase is implicated, as in vivo benzene-induced myelotoxicity is prevented by low doses of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents, drugs that inhibit PHS. Incubations of either 14C-phenol or 14C-hydroquinone with a lysate of macrophages collected from mouse peritoneum (greater than 95% macrophages), resulted in an irreversible binding to protein that was dependent upon H2O2, incubation time, and concentration of radiolabel. Production of protein-bound metabolites from phenol or hydroquinone was inhibited by the peroxidase inhibitor aminotriazole. Protein binding from 14C-phenol also was inhibited by 8 microM hydroquinone, whereas binding from 14C-hydroquinone was stimulated by 5 mM phenol. The nucleophile cysteine inhibited protein binding of both phenol and hydroquinone and increased the formation of radiolabeled water-soluble metabolites. Similar to the macrophage lysate, purified PHS also catalyzed the conversion of phenol to metabolites that bound to protein and DNA; this activation was both H2O2- and arachidonic acid-dependent. These results indicate a role for macrophage peroxidase, possibly PHS peroxidase, in the conversion of phenol and hydroquinone to reactive metabolites and suggest that the macrophage should be considered when assessing the hematopoietic toxicity of benzene.

  1. Physical behavior of purified and crude wax obtained from sunflower (Helianthus annuus) seed oil refineries and seed hulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanya, T C Sindhu; Sankar, K Udaya; Sastry, M C Shamnathaka

    2003-01-01

    The sunflower seed waxes obtained from two sources (i) seed hull as a standard and (ii) crude wax from oil refineries were studied for their crystallization, melting characteristics and morphology of crystals. The results of differential scanning calorimetry of wax obtained from seed hulls showed the melting temperature range of 13.18 degrees C with the onset at 62.32 degrees C, for purified wax, compared to the melting range of 24.73 degrees C with the onset at 42.3 degrees C. for crude wax. The enthalpy of fusion for both waxes were 57.55 mcal/mg and 7.63 mcal/mg, respectively. The DSC melt crystallization temperature range was 15.79 degrees C with the onset of 64.58 degrees C for purified wax and temperature range of 31.45 degrees C with an onset of 57.76 degrees C for crude wax. A similar pattern was observed of wax obtained from the crude wax of oil refineries. The enthalpy of crystallization was -64.27 mcal/mg and -7.67 mcal/mg, respectively. The purified wax obtained from the two sources (i) and (ii) were comparable with completion temperatures of 75.5 degrees C and 75.1 degrees C, respectively. The effect of inhibitor (lecithin) on crystallization of purified wax under light microscope and surface structure by scanning electron microscope were observed. Lecithin at 0.2% inhibited the crystallization but nucleation was unaltered. The wax crystal was inhibited to around 60% of the original size with 0.2% lecithin. It is concluded that the sunflower waxes studied were not comparable in their crystal properties of crude and purified states. Lecithin inhibited the crystallization of sunflower seed wax.

  2. Production and proteomic characterisation of purified protein derivative from Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wynne James W

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Effective diagnosis of Johne's disease (JD, particularly at the stage of early subclinical infection, remains one of the greatest challenges for the control of JD worldwide. The IFN-γ test of cell mediated immunity is currently one of the most suitable diagnostics for subclinical infections, however a major limitation of this test is the lack of a standardised purified protein derivative (PPD antigen (also referred to as Johnin PPD or PPDj. While attempting to replace PPDj with more specific individual antigens is an attractive proposition, bacterial culture derived PPDj remains the most effective antigen preparation for the diagnosis of subclinical JD. It may be possible to increase the reproducibility and specificity of PPDj preparations by further characterising and standardising the PPDj production. Results Using a standardised protocol, five in-house preparations of PPDj were prepared from cultures of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP. Compared to PPDs obtained from other institutes/laboratories, these preparations appeared to perform similarly well in the IFN-γ test. Although the broad proteomic composition of all PPDj preparations was remarkably similar, the absolute abundance of individual proteins varied markedly between preparations. All PPDj preparations contained common immunogenic proteins which were also observed in PPD preparations from Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium (PPDa and Mycobacterium bovis (PPDb. Temporal difference in protein secretion of in vitro cultured MAP was observed between 20 and 34 weeks suggesting that the age of MAP culture used for PPDj preparations may markedly influence PPDj composition. Conclusions This study describes a protocol for the production of PPDj and its subsequent proteomic characterisation. The broad proteomic composition of different preparations of PPDj was, for the most part, highly similar. Compositional differences between PPDj preparations were found

  3. Studies on the Catalytic Properties of Partially Purified Alkaline Proteases from Some Selected Microorganisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Titilayo Olufunke Femi-Ola

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The research was done to study the conditions enhancing catalytic activities of alkaline proteases from Vibro sp., Lactobacillus brevis, Zymomonas sp., Athrobacter sp., Corynebacterium sp. and Bacillus subtilis.Methodology and Results: The proteolytic enzymes were purified in 2-step procedures involving ammonium sulphate precipitation and sephadex G-150 gel permeation chromatography. The upper and lower limits for the specific activities of proteases from the selected microorganisms were estimated at 20.63 and 47.51 units/mg protein with Zymomonas protease having the highest specific activity towards casein as its substrate and purification fold of 3.46, while that ofLactobacillus brevis protease was 8.06. The native molecular weights of these active proteins ranged from 30.4 to 45.7 kDa with Athrobacter sp. protease having the highest weight for its subunits. The proteolytic enzymes had optimum pH range of 8 to 10 and temperature range of 50 to 62 ºC accounting for the percentage relative activity range of 75 to 94% and 71 to 84 % respectively. The activities of Lactobacillus brevis and Bacillus subtilis proteases were maximum at pH 9 and 10 respectively. Lactobacillus brevis protease activity was maximum at temperature of 62 ºC, while beyond this value, a general thermal instability of these active proteins was observed. At above 70 ºC, the catalytic activities of Corynebacterium sp., Vibrio sp., Zymomonas sp. and Arthrobacter sp. proteases were progressively reduced over a period of 120 min of incubation, while Bacillus subtlis and Lactobacillus brevis proteases were relatively stable. Effect of metal ions was investigated on the catalytic activity of protease from the microorganisms. Lactobacillus brevis,Zymomonas sp., Arthrobacter sp., Corynebacterium sp. and Bacillus subtilis protease activities were strongly activated by metal ions such as Ca+2 and Mg+2. Enzyme activities were inhibited strongly by Cu2+ and Hg2+ but were not

  4. Characterization of Partially Purified Bacteriocin Like Substance (BLIS Produced by Probiotic Lactobacillus Strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Ismail Khanian

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is an increasing interest in search for antimicrobial peptides (bacteriocins and bacteriocin-like compounds produced by lactic acid bacteria (LAB because of their potential to be used as antimicrobial agents for improving the safety of food products. Objectives: The main objective of study was to evaluate the antibacterial potential of locally isolated Lactic Acid bacteria (LAB and determine their bacteriocin producing ability in in-vitro conditions. Materials and Methods: The antibacterial activity of 77 isolated LAB strains was tested against a number of pathogens by well-diffusion method. The isolates demonstrating antimicrobial potential were selected and tested for the production of bacteriocin or bacteriocin like substance. The bacteriocin produced by two of the isolates were partially purified and characterized. Results: The results indicated the neutralized supernatant fluid of two of the isolates identified as L. brevis LB32 and L. pentosus LP05, were active against the growth of Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella enteritidis, Shigella dysenteriae, Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pneumoniae. Additionally, L. brevis LB32 was able to inhibit the growth of Salmonella typhi and Klebsiella pneumoniae, while, S. pnuemoniae and L. monocytogenes appeared to be the most sensitive strain as apparent by highest zone of inhibition against these pathogens, respectively. The antimicrobial activity in the supernatant fluids of the mentioned strains remained unaffected after treating with enzymes catalase, lipase and lysozyme, while were strongly sensitive to the action of proteolytic enzymes, suggesting the presence of bacteriocin like inhibitory substance (BLIS in the two isolates. The inhibitory substance produced by the two isolates appeared heat resistant and tolerated 100˚C and 121˚C for 55 minutes and 20 minutes, respectively. Partial purification of the concentrated culture supernatant fluids of L. brevis LB32 and L

  5. Effects of cosmetics containing purified honeybee (Apis mellifera L.) venom on acne vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Sang Mi; Lee, Kwang Gill; Pak, Sok Cheon

    2013-09-01

    Acne vulgaris is a chronic dermatologic problem with multiple factors involved in its pathogenesis. Alternative solutions to acne treatment were instigated by antibiotic resistance despite of its extensive use. Purified bee venom (PBV) has been proposed as a promising candidate for that purpose. The present study was designed to confirm the antibacterial effect of PBV and access the efficacy of cosmetics containing PBV in subjects with acne vulgaris. The skin bacterium Propionibacterium acnes was incubated with PBV at various concentrations and bacterial growth was evaluated using the colony forming unit (CFU) assay. The mechanism of PBV employed in killing P. acnes was examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). In addition, a total of 12 subjects were randomized in a double-blind, controlled trial to receive either cosmetics containing PBV or cosmetics without PBV for two weeks. Evaluations included lesion counts and skin microorganism. PBV exhibited antimicrobial activity in a concentration-dependent manner, reducing the number of P. acnes CFU by approximately 6 logs at a concentration of 0.5 mg. When PBV concentration was higher than 1.0 mg, no P. acnes colonies were spotted on an agar. TEM and SEM of untreated P. acnes illustrated the normal pleomorphic structure, whereas the PBV-treated bacterium lost the integrity of surface architecture. Significant difference (P=0.027) in the grading levels based on numbers of lesion counts for inflammatory and noninflammatory was observed in favour of the PBV group compared with the control group. In terms of average decrement of skin microorganism, subjects receiving cosmetics containing PBV experienced a significant 57.5% decrease of adenosine triphosphate levels, whereas participants receiving cosmetics without PBV experienced a nonsignificant decrease of 4.7%. These results show that the in vitro actions of antimicrobial activity of PBV were translated in vivo. Cosmetics

  6. Identification of Bacterial Surface Antigens by Screening Peptide Phage Libraries Using Whole Bacteria Cell-Purified Antisera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yun-Fei; Zhao, Dun; Yu, Xing-Long; Hu, Yu-Li; Li, Run-Cheng; Ge, Meng; Xu, Tian-Qi; Liu, Xiao-Bo; Liao, Hua-Yuan

    2017-01-01

    Bacterial surface proteins can be good vaccine candidates. In the present study, we used polyclonal antibodies purified with intact Erysipelothrix rhusiopthiae to screen phage-displayed random dodecapeptide and loop-constrained heptapeptide libraries, which led to the identification of mimotopes. Homology search of the mimotope sequences against E. rhusiopthiae-encoded ORF sequences revealed 14 new antigens that may localize on the surface of E. rhusiopthiae. When these putative surface proteins were used to immunize mice, 9/11 antigens induced protective immunity. Thus, we have demonstrated that a combination of using the whole bacterial cells to purify antibodies and using the phage-displayed peptide libraries to determine the antigen specificities of the antibodies can lead to the discovery of novel bacterial surface antigens. This can be a general approach for identifying surface antigens for other bacterial species. PMID:28184219

  7. Effects of in vitro ozone treatment on proteolysis of purified rubisco from two hybrid poplar clones. [Populus maximowizii x trichocarpa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landry, L.G.; Pell, E.J. (Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park (USA))

    1989-04-01

    Plants exposed to ozone (O{sub 3}) exhibited symptoms of premature senescence, including early decline in quantity of rubisco. O{sub 3}-induced oxidation may cause changes in protein conformation of rubisco, resulting in enhanced proteolysis. To test this hypothesis, rubisco was purified from two hybrid clones of Populus maximowizii x trichocarpa, clones 388 and 245, and treated in vitro with O{sub 3} or air. Rubisco was then challenged with bromelain, papain, chymotrypsin, carboxypeptidase A, or endoproteinase Glu-C and percent degradation measured by SDS-PAGE and densitometric scanning of the gels. Degree of rubisco sensitivity to oxidation may be related to available sulfhydryl (SH) groups on the protein. The number of SH groups in native and denatured rubisco was measured for purified rubisco of both clones by DTNB titration method. The relationship between sensitivity to proteolysis and number and availability of SH groups is discussed.

  8. The meta-epigenomic structure of purified human stem cell populations is defined at cis-regulatory sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yong Mei; Golden, Aaron; Mar, Jessica C.; Einstein, Francine H.; Greally, John M.

    2014-01-01

    The mechanism and significance of epigenetic variability in the same cell type between healthy individuals are not clear. Here, we purify human CD34+ hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) from different individuals and find that there is increased variability of DNA methylation at loci with properties of promoters and enhancers. The variability is especially enriched at candidate enhancers near genes transitioning between silent and expressed states, and encoding proteins with leukocyte differentiation properties. Our findings of increased variability at loci with intermediate DNA methylation values, at candidate “poised” enhancers, and at genes involved in HSPC lineage commitment suggest that CD34+ cell subtype heterogeneity between individuals is a major mechanism for the variability observed. Epigenomic studies performed on cell populations, even when purified, are testing collections of epigenomes, or meta-epigenomes. Our findings show that meta-epigenomic approaches to data analysis can provide insights into cell subpopulation structure. PMID:25327398

  9. Soybean plant growth study conducted using purified protein hydrolysate-based fertilizer made from chrome-tanned leather waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pati, Anupama; Chaudhary, Rubina

    2015-12-01

    Leather processing discharges enormous amount of chrome containing leather solid waste which creates a major disposal problem. Chrome-tanned leather solid waste is a complex of collagen and chromium. The presence of chromium limits protein application in fertilizer industry. The purified protein hydrolysate with zero chromium could be used as a nitrogen source for fertilizer formulation. In this study, an attempt has been made to employ purified protein hydrolysate derived from chrome-tanned leather shavings (CTLS) in formulation of fertilizer. The formulated fertilizer (1–3 t ha(-1)) is employed as nitrogen source in production of soybean. Plant growth study demonstrates that formulated fertilizer dosage 3 t ha(-1) produced similar effects of commercial fertilizer-treated plants. Application of formulated fertilizer yielded higher seed in plant than commercial fertilizer.

  10. Experimental investigation of integrated air purifying technology for bioaerosol removal and inactivation in central air-conditioning system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Xiaohong; LIU Hongmin; YE Xiaojiang; LI Kejun; WANG Ruzhu; ZHAO Liping; Lisa. X. Xu; CHEN Yazhu; JIN Xinqiao; GU Bo; BAI Jingfeng

    2004-01-01

    In this research, high voltage static electricity and ultraviolet technologies were integrated to an air purifying device which can be used to trap and kill airborne bacteria and viruses in central air-conditioning systems. An experimental platform was built to mimic the central air system, in which the efficacy of the newly built device was examined. In addition to the standard physical and chemical tests, bacteriophages were used to simulate airborne viruses in the experimental system. The bacteriophage suspension was aerosolized into the air with ultrasonic wave atomization. The result showed that more than 86% removal efficiency of micro-particles (<10 micron in diameter) were removed after the device was in operation in a building and more than 95% of bacteriophages in the experimental system. It is concluded that the integrated air purifier is suitable for controlling air quality and preventing virus transmission through the central air system.

  11. Binding of spermine and ifenprodil to a purified, soluble regulatory domain of the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Xia; Tomitori, Hideyuki; Mizuno, Satomi; Higashi, Kyohei; Füll, Christine; Fukiwake, Tomohide; Terui, Yusuke; Leewanich, Pathama; Nishimura, Kazuhiro; Toida, Toshihiko; Williams, Keith; Kashiwagi, Keiko; Igarashi, Kazuei

    2008-01-01

    The binding of spermine and ifenprodil to the amino terminal regulatory (R) domain of the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor was studied using purified regulatory domains of the NR1, NR2A and NR2B subunits, termed NR1-R, NR2A-R and NR2B-R. The R domains were overexpressed in Escherichia coli and purified to near homogeneity. The Kd values for binding of [14C]spermine to NR1-R, NR2A-R and NR2B-R were 19, 140 and 33 µM, respectively. [3H]Ifenprodil bound to NR1-R (Kd, 0.18 µM) and NR2B-R (Kd, 0.21 µ...

  12. Therapeutic effects of highly purified de-glycosylated GcMAF in the immunotherapy of patients with chronic diseases.

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    The de-Glycosylated vitamin D binding protein is a powerful Macrophage Activating Factor (GcMAF) that shows multiple biological effects that could be exploited in the immunotherapy of tumours, viral infections and autism. Here we report the observation of a series of clinical cases describing the results obtained administering highly purified GcMAF to patients with diverse types of chronic diseases. These are heterogeneous and refer to patients with different types of diseases at different s...

  13. Release of Elastase from Purified Human Lung Mast Cells and Basophils. Identification as a Hageman Factor Cleaving Enzyme

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    then radiolabeled using the chloramine T method (17). Preparation of LHFCF. LHFCF was isolated free of other known proteases as previously reported...gel electrophoresis of the reduced purified protein dem- onstrated three polypeptides of M, 31,000, 28,000 and 27,500. However, analysis of the leading...52,000- mol wt fragment to one of 40,000 mol wt. LHFCF, fractionated on Sephacryl S-200, eluted as a globular protein of approximately 12,000-13,000

  14. Use of a purified outer membrane protein F (porin) preparation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa as a protective vaccine in mice.

    OpenAIRE

    Gilleland, H. E.; Parker, M G; Matthews, J.M.; Berg, R D

    1984-01-01

    The outer membrane protein F (porin) from the PAO1 strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa was purified by two different methods. One procedure involved separation by column chromatography of proteins extracted from isolated outer membranes, whereas the other involved extraction from gels after slab polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of proteins extracted from cell envelopes. Both procedures yielded protein F preparations which successfully immunized mice from subsequent challenge with the PAO1 stra...

  15. In vitro inhibition effect of some dihydroxy coumarin compounds on purified human serum paraoxonase 1 (PON1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erzengin, Mahmut; Basaran, Ismet; Cakir, Umit; Aybey, Aynur; Sinan, Selma

    2012-11-01

    Human serum paraoxonase 1 (PON1; EC 3.1.8.1) is a high-density lipoprotein associated, calcium-dependent enzyme that hydrolyses aromatic esters, organophosphates and lactones and can protect the low-density lipoprotein against oxidation. In this study, in vitro inhibition effect of some dihydroxy coumarin compounds namely 6,7-dihydroxy-3-(2-methylphenyl)-2H-chromen-2-one (A), 6,7-dihydroxy-3-(3-methylphenyl)-2H-chromen-2-one (B) and 6,7-dihydroxy-3-(4-methylphenyl)-2H-chromen-2-one (C) on purified PON1 were investigated by using paraoxon as a substrate. PON1 was purified using two-step procedures, namely ammonium sulphate precipitation and Sepharose-4B-L-tyrosine-1-naphthylamine hydrophobic interaction chromatography. The purified enzyme had a specific activity of 11.76 U/mg. The dihydroxy coumarin derivatives of A and B compounds inhibited PON1 enzyme activity in a noncompetitive inhibition manner with K(i) of 0.0080±0.256 and 0.0003±0.018 mM values, respectively. C compound exerted an uncompetitive inhibition of PON1 enzyme activity with K(i) of 0.0010±0.173 mM. Moreover, dihydroxy coumarin derivatives of A, B and C compounds were effective inhibitors on purified human serum PON1 activity with IC(50) of 0.012, 0.022 and 0.003 mM values, respectively. IC(50) value of unsubstituted 6,7 dihydroxy coumarin was found as 0.178 mM. The present study has demonstrated that PON1 activity is very highly sensitive to studied coumarin derivatives.

  16. Demonstration of Antigenic Identity Between Purified Equine Infectious Anemia Virus and an Antigen Extracted from Infected Horse Spleen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Hideo; Norcross, Neil L.; Coggins, Leroy

    1972-01-01

    Antigenic relationship between purified equine infectious anemia (EIA) virus and spleen-derived antigen from EIA-infected horses was examined by immunodiffusion. Identical antigenicity of these two antigens has been proven because precipitation lines formed between the two antigens and EIA antiserum connected with each other. The results indicate that the antigenic substance derived from infected spleen is a component of EIA virus. Images PMID:4629262

  17. The addition of medium-chain triglycerides to a purified fish oil-based diet alters inflammatory profiles in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Sarah J; Nandivada, Prathima; Chang, Melissa I; Mitchell, Paul D; O'Loughlin, Alison; Cowan, Eileen; Gura, Kathleen M; Nose, Vania; Bistrian, Bruce R; Puder, Mark

    2015-02-01

    Parenteral nutrition associated liver disease (PNALD) is a deadly complication of long term parenteral nutrition (PN) use in infants. Fish oil-based lipid emulsion has been shown in recent years to effectively treat PNALD. Alternative fat sources free of essential fatty acids have recently been investigated for health benefits related to decreased inflammatory response. We hypothesized that the addition of medium-chain triglycerides (MCT) to a purified fish oil-based diet would decrease the response to inflammatory challenge in mice, while allowing for sufficient growth and development. Six groups of ten adult male C57/Bl6 mice were pair-fed different dietary treatments for a period of twelve weeks, varying only in fat source (percent calories by weight): 10.84% soybean oil (SOY), 10% coconut oil (HCO), 10% medium-chain triglycerides (MCT), 3% purified fish oil (PFO), 3% purified fish oil with 3% medium-chain triglycerides (50:50 MCT:PFO) and 3% purified fish oil with 7.59% medium-chain triglycerides (70:30 MCT:PFO). An endotoxin challenge was administered to half of the animals in each group at the completion of dietary treatment. All groups demonstrated normal growth throughout the study period. Groups fed MCT and HCO diets demonstrated biochemical essential fatty acid deficiency and decreased IL-6 and TNF-α response to endotoxin challenge. Groups containing PFO had increased inflammatory response to endotoxin challenge, and the addition of MCT to PFO mitigated this inflammatory response. These results suggest that the addition of MCT to PFO formulations may decrease the host response to inflammatory challenge, which may pose potential for optimized PN formulations. Inclusion of MCT in lipid emulsions given with PN formulations may be of use in therapeutic interventions for disease states resulting from chronic inflammation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Pharmacological evaluation of the semi-purified fractions from the soft coral Eunicella singularis and isolation of pure compounds

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Background Gorgonians of the genus Eunicella are known for possessing a wide range of pharmacological activities such as antiproliferative and antibacterial effect. The aim of this study was to evaluate the anti-inflammatory and gastroprotective effect of the organic extract and its semi-purified fractions from the white gorgonian Eunicella singularis and the isolation and identification of pure compound(s) from the more effective fraction. Methods Anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated, us...

  19. Purification of a derepressible arylsulfatase from Chlamydomonas reinhardti. Properties of the enzyme in intact cells and in purified state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lien, T; Schreiner, O; Steine, M

    1975-03-28

    Arylsulfatase (aryl-sulfate sulfohdydrolase, EC 3.1.6.1) has been purified from SO4-2-minus-starved cells of Chlamydomonas reinhardti. The enzyme was isolated from acetone-powder extract by (NH4)2SO4 precipitation, Sephadex G-200 filtration and ion-exchange chromatography. Only one fraction of aryl-sulfatase was found. The final preparation was homogenous by the criteria of sedimentation, diffusion and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The purified enzyme had a molecular weight of about 150 000, estimated by ultracentrifugation and gel filtration, and an isoelectric point of 9.0. The properties of the enzyme as investigated in intact cells and in the purified state were found to be very similar except for the temperature optimum. Imidazole strongly increased the enzyme by increasing the V, but reduced the affinity for the substrate. The enzyme activity was competitively inhibited by borate with a greater affinity for borate than for the substrate. The Chlamydomonas enzyme is a Type I arylsulfatase since it was inhibited by CN-minus, but not SO4-2-minus and phosphate.

  20. Use of a monoclonal antibody to purify the tetrodotoxin binding component from the electroplax of Electrophorus electricus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, H; Withy, R M; Raftery, M A

    1982-01-01

    The tetrodotoxin binding component of the voltage-sensitive sodium channel from Electrophorus electricus electroplax was purified by using a monoclonal antibody. An impure preparation of tetrodotoxin binding component was mixed with the pure monoclonal antibody, and the immune complex so formed was isolated by affinity chromatography on a protein A-Sepharose column. Excess antibody was removed by ion-exchange chromatography. The purified material has a specific activity of over 1,800 pmol of [3H]tetrodotoxin bound per mg of protein. By assuming that the immune complex has a stoichiometry of 1:1, this specific activity then represents an actual specific activity of 3,000 pmol of [3H]tetrodotoxin bound per mg of eel electroplax protein, or 75% of the theoretical specific activity expected for a pure toxin binding component of Mr 250,000. The peptide composition of the purified material was simple with the predominant species present being of Mr approximately equal to 250,000. Minor components were also present with Mrs of approximately equal to 95,000, approximately equal to 44,000, and approximately equal to 23,000. Images PMID:6296840

  1. Removal efficiency of water purifier and adsorbent for iodine, cesium, strontium, barium and zirconium in drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Itaru; Kudo, Hiroaki; Tsuda, Shuji

    2011-01-01

    The severe incident of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station has caused radioactive contamination of environment including drinking water. Radioactive iodine, cesium, strontium, barium and zirconium are hazardous fission products because of the high yield and/or relatively long half-life. In the present study, 4 pot-type water purifiers and several adsorbents were examined for the removal effects on these elements from drinking water. Iodide, iodate, cesium and barium were removed by all water purifiers with efficiencies about 85%, 40%, 75-90% and higher than 85%, respectively. These efficiencies lasted for 200 l, which is near the recommended limits for use of filter cartridges, without decay. Strontium was removed with initial efficiencies from 70% to 100%, but the efficiencies were slightly decreased by use. Zirconium was removed by two models, but hardly removed by the other models. Synthetic zeolite A4 efficiently removed cesium, strontium and barium, but had no effect on iodine and zirconium. Natural zeolite, mordenite, removed cesium with an efficiency as high as zeolite A4, but the removal efficiencies for strontium and barium were far less than those of zeolite A4. Activated carbon had little removal effects on these elements. In case of radioactive contamination of tap water, water purifiers may be available for convenient decontamination of drinking water in the home.

  2. A study of the process of two staged anaerobic fermentation as a possible method for purifying sewage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inoue, Y.; Kouama, K.; Matsuo, T.

    1983-01-01

    Great attention has recently been given to the study of the processes of anaerobic fermentation, which may become alternatives to the existing methods for purifying waste waters which use aerobic microorganisms. A series of experimentswere conducted with the use of an artificially prepared liquid (fermented milk and starch) which imitates the waste to be purified, in order to explain the capabilities of the process of two staged anaerobic fermentation (DAS) as a method for purifying waste waters. The industrial system of the process includes: a fermentation vat for acetic fermentation with recirculation of the sediment, a primary settler, a fermentation tank for methane fermentation and a secondary settler. The process was conducted at a loading speed (based on Carbon) from 0.15 to 0.4 kilograms per cubic meter per day at a temperature of 38C. The degree of conversion of the fermented organic substances into volatile organic acids was not a function of the loading speed and was 54 to 57 percent in the acetic fermentation tank, where 95 to 97 percent of the organic material was broken down with the production of methane and carbon dioxide.

  3. Increased sensitivity in PCR detection of tdh-positive Vibrio parahaemolyticus in seafood with purified template DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara-Kudo, Y; Kasuga, Y; Kiuchi, A; Horisaka, T; Kawasumi, T; Kumagai, S

    2003-09-01

    PCR is an important method for the detection of thermostable direct hemolysin gene (tdh)-positive (pathogenic hemolysin-producing) strains of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in seafood because tdh-negative (nonpathogenic) V. parahaemolyticus strains often contaminate seafood and interfere with the direct isolation of tdh-positive V. parahaemolyticus. In this study, the use of PCR to detect the tdh gene of V. parahaemolyticus in various seafoods artificially contaminated with tdh-positive V. parahaemolyticus was examined. PCR was inhibited by substances in oysters, squid, mackerel, and yellowtail but not by cod, sea bream, scallop, short-necked clam, and shrimp. To improve detection, DNA was purified by either the silica membrane method, the glass fiber method, or the magnetic separation method, and the purified DNA was used as the PCR primer template. For all samples, the use of the silica membrane method and the glass fiber method increased detection sensitivity. The results of this study demonstrate that the use of properly purified template DNA for PCR markedly increases the effectiveness of the method in detecting pathogenic tdh-positive V. parahaemolyticus in contaminated seafood.

  4. Walker mutations reveal loose relationship between catalytic and channel-gating activities of purified CFTR (cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramjeesingh, M; Li, C; Garami, E; Huan, L J; Galley, K; Wang, Y; Bear, C E

    1999-02-02

    The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) functions as an ATPase and as a chloride channel. It has been hypothesized, on the basis of electrophysiological findings, that the catalytic activity of CFTR is tightly coupled to the opening and closing of the channel gate. In the present study, to determine the structural basis for the ATPase activity of CFTR, we assessed the effect of mutations within the "Walker A" consensus motifs on ATP hydrolysis by the purified, intact protein. Mutation of the lysine residue in the "Walker A" motif of either the first nucleotide binding fold (CFTRK464A) or the second nucleotide binding fold (CFTRK1250A) inhibited the ATPase activity of the purified intact CFTR protein significantly, by greater than 50%. This finding suggests that the two nucleotide binding folds of CFTR are functioning cooperatively in catalysis. However, the rate of channel gating was only significantly inhibited in one of these purified mutants, CFTRK1250A, suggesting that ATPase activity may not be tightly coupled to channel gating as previously hypothesized.

  5. Effect of preparation conditions on the characteristics and photocatalytic activity of TiO{sub 2}/purified diatomite composite photocatalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Zhiming, E-mail: szmcumtb@hotmail.com; Hu, Zhibo; Yan, Yang; Zheng, Shuilin, E-mail: shuilinzh@sina.com

    2014-09-30

    Highlights: • TiO{sub 2}/purified diatomite composites were synthesized under different conditions. • The optimum preparation conditions of composites were obtained. • The obtained photocatalyst showed good photocatalytic activity. • The dispersity and grain size of loaded TiO{sub 2} NPs are the critical factors. - Abstract: TiO{sub 2}/purified diatomite composite materials were prepared through a modified hydrolysis-deposition method under low temperature using titanium tetrachloride as precursor combined with a calcination crystallization process. The microstructure and crystalline phases of the obtained composites prepared under different preparation conditions were characterized by high resolution scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD), respectively. The photocatalytic performance of TiO{sub 2}/purified diatomite composites was evaluated by Rhodamine B as the target pollutant under UV irradiation, and the optimum preparation conditions of composites were obtained. The TiO{sub 2} crystal form in composites prepared under optimum conditions was anatase, the grain size of which was 34.12 nm. The relationships between structure and property of composite materials were analyzed and discussed. It is indicated that the TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles uniformly dispersed on the surface of diatoms, and the photocatalytic performance of the composite materials was mainly determined by the dispersity and grain size of loaded TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles.

  6. Purification of NADPH-cytochrome c reductase from swine testis microsomes by chromatofocusing and characterization of the purified reductase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwada, M; Ohsawa, Y; Horie, S

    1985-07-18

    A purified NADPH-cytochrome c reductase (NADPH: ferricytochrome oxidoreductase, EC 1.6.2.4) was prepared from swine testis microsomes by detergent solubilization followed by a procedure including chromatofocusing. The reductase was eluted at an isoelectric point of 4.8 from the chromatofocusing column. 730-fold purification was achieved with an overall yield of 1.2%. The preparation was found to be homogeneous upon polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in the absence of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). Upon SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, however, the purified preparation resolved into one major band (Mr 78 000) and two minor bands (Mr 60 000 and 15 000). The enzyme contained about 1 mol each of FMN and FAD, which were both extractable with trichloroacetic acid and also boiling water. The oxidized form of the enzyme showed the absorption spectrum of a typical flavoprotein. Aerobic reduction with NADPH resulted in conversion of the spectrum into one of an air-stable semiquinone form. The activity of the purified preparation was 26 mumol cytochrome c reduced/min per mg protein under the standard assay conditions at 22 degrees C. The enzyme catalyzed the reaction through a ping-pong mechanism.

  7. Reduction of reactive red 241 by oxygen insensitive azoreductase purified from a novel strain Staphylococcus KU898286.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisar, Numrah; Aleem, Amber; Saleem, Faiza; Aslam, Fakhra; Shahid, Ammara; Chaudhry, Hina; Malik, Kausar; Albaser, Abdulhadi; Iqbal, Amjad; Qadri, Rashad; Yang, Yaodong

    2017-01-01

    An oxygen insensitive azoreductase was purified from a novel bacterial strain (Staphylococcus sp. KU898286) that was isolated from an abandoned site of the textile waste discharge unit. The isolated enzyme had efficiently cleaved the azo-bonds through reductive transformation under aerobic conditions. Initial phenotypic characterization and final construction of phylogenetic tree on the basis of 16s rDNA demonstrated 99% resemblance of the isolate to Staphylococcus aureus. The purified azoreductase was found to have a broad spectrum activity that reduced RR241 at a concentration of 50mg/L with pH between 6-8 and 30°C temperature). Besides, the reactive red 241 (RR241) was reduced at extracellular level as well as NADH dependent intracellular level. Complete reduction/ decolourization of RR241 were achieved after 18 hrs of exposure. The final degradation product observed to be 2-nephthol was purified by High Pressure Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) and the molecular mass was computed by Gas Chromatography-Mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). The study revealed a cost effective and eco-friendly approach to degrade the toxic dyes into less toxic products by Staphylococcus sp. KU898286.

  8. Evolution of CCL11: genetic characterization in lagomorphs and evidence of positive and purifying selection in mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves, Fabiana; Abrantes, Joana; Esteves, Pedro J

    2016-07-01

    The interactions between chemokines and their receptors are crucial for differentiation and activation of inflammatory cells. CC chemokine ligand 11 (CCL11) binds to CCR3 and to CCR5 that in leporids underwent gene conversion with CCR2. Here, we genetically characterized CCL11 in lagomorphs (leporids and pikas). All lagomorphs have a potentially functional CCL11, and the Pygmy rabbit has a mutation in the stop codon that leads to a longer protein. Other mammals also have mutations at the stop codon that result in proteins with different lengths. By employing maximum likelihood methods, we observed that, in mammals, CCL11 exhibits both signatures of purifying and positive selection. Signatures of purifying selection were detected in sites important for receptor binding and activation. Of the three sites detected as under positive selection, two were located close to the stop codon. Our results suggest that CCL11 is functional in all lagomorphs, and that the signatures of purifying and positive selection in mammalian CCL11 probably reflect the protein's biological roles. © The Author(s) 2016.

  9. Fatty acid biosynthesis. VIII. The fate of malonyl-CoA in fatty acid biosynthesis by purified enzymes from lactating-rabbit mammary gland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Heinz Johs. Max; Carey, E.M.; Dils, R.

    1971-01-01

    - 1. We have investigated the formation and utilization of malonyl-CoA in fatty acid synthesis catalysed by preparations of partially purified acetyl-CoA carboxylase and purified fatty acid synthetase from lactating-rabbit mammary gland. - 2. Carboxylation of [1-14C]acetyl-CoA was linked to fatty...

  10. Structure/activity Relationship of Thapsigargin Inhibition on the Purified Golgi/secretory Pathway Ca2+/Mn2+ Transport ATPase (SPCA1a)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jialin, Chen; de Raeymaecker, Joren; Hovgaard, Jannik Brøndsted

    2017-01-01

    The Golgi/secretory pathway Ca2+/Mn2+ transport ATPase (SPCA1a) is implicated in breast cancer and Hailey-Hailey disease. Here, we purified recombinant human SPCA1a from Saccharomyces cerevisiae and measured Ca2+ dependent ATPase activity following reconstitution in proteoliposomes. The purified...

  11. The role of crude saliva and purified salivary mucins in the inhibition of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus type 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peacocke Julia

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sub-Saharan Africa is the world’s worst HIV-AIDS affected region. More interventions to manage this pandemic are urgently required. Transmission of the virus through an exchange of saliva is rarely known to occur. This project sought to verify statistically previous findings in our laboratory, that crude saliva from uninfected individuals together with its purified mucin components inhibited HIV-1, whilst mucins from infected saliva did not show this inhibition, in an in vitro assay. Methods Saliva was extracted in 4 M guanidinium hydrochloride and proteolytic inhibitors at pH 6.5, followed by the isolation of MUC5B and MUC7 by Sepharose 4B gel filtration and further purification of these mucins by density-gradient ultra-centrifugation in caesium chloride. Agarose gel electrophoresis, Western blotting and amino acid compositional analysis determined the size, purity and identity of the mucins. The inhibitory activity of crude saliva and purified MUC5B and MUC7, from HIV negative (n=20 and HIV positive (n=20 donors, was tested by their incubation with subtype C HIV-1 and subsequent infection of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs. PCR was done on tandem repeat regions of MUC5B and MUC7 DNA to investigate whether any association existed between gene polymorphism and susceptibility to infection. Results There was an inter-individual variation in the amounts of MUC5B and MUC7 in saliva. In contrast to previous studies, crude saliva and purified mucins from both HIV negative and HIV positive individuals inhibited the infection of HIV-1 in an in vitro assay. DNA analysis of the tandem repeat regions of MUC5B and MUC7 revealed no difference between groups. Conclusions Crude saliva and its mucins, MUC5B and MUC7, from both uninfected controls and HIV positive individuals inhibited HIV-1 in an in vitro assay.

  12. Neutralisation of the anti-coagulant effects of heparin by histones in blood plasma and purified systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longstaff, Colin; Hogwood, John; Gray, Elaine; Komorowicz, Erzsebet; Varjú, Imre; Varga, Zoltán; Kolev, Krasimir

    2016-03-01

    Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) composed primarily of DNA and histones are a link between infection, inflammation and coagulation. NETs promote coagulation and approaches to destabilise NETs have been explored to reduce thrombosis and treat sepsis. Heparinoids bind histones and we report quantitative studies in plasma and purified systems to better understand physiological consequences. Unfractionated heparin (UFH) was investigated by activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) and alongside low-molecular-weight heparins (LMWH) in purified systems with thrombin or factor Xa (FXa) and antithrombin (AT) to measure the sensitivity of UFH or LMWH to histones. A method was developed to assess the effectiveness of DNA and non-anticoagulant heparinoids as anti-histones. Histones effectively neutralised UFH, the IC50 value for neutralisation of 0.2 IU/ml UFH was 1.8 µg/ml histones in APTT and 4.6 µg/ml against 0.6 IU/ml UFH in a purified system. Histones also inhibited the activities of LMWHs with thrombin (IC50 6.1 and 11.0 µg/ml histones, for different LMWHs) or FXa (IC50 7.8 and 7.0 µg/ml histones). Direct interactions of UFH and LMWH with DNA and histones were explored by surface plasmon resonance, while rheology studies showed complex effects of histones, UFH and LMWH on clot resilience. A conclusion from these studies is that anticoagulation by UFH and LMWH will be compromised by high affinity binding to circulating histones even in the presence of DNA. A complete understanding of the effects of histones, DNA and heparins on the haemostatic system must include an appreciation of direct effects on fibrin and clot structure.

  13. A Bowman-Birk protease inhibitor purified, cloned, sequenced and characterized from the seeds of Maclura pomifera (Raf.) Schneid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indarte, Martín; Lazza, Cristian M; Assis, Diego; Caffini, Néstor O; Juliano, María A; Avilés, Francesc X; Daura, Xavier; López, Laura M I; Trejo, Sebastián A

    2017-02-01

    A new BBI-type protease inhibitor with remarkable structural characteristics was purified, cloned, and sequenced from seeds of Maclura pomifera , a dicotyledonous plant belonging to the Moraceae family. In this work, we report a Bowman-Birk inhibitor (BBI) isolated, purified, cloned, and characterized from Maclura pomifera seeds (MpBBI), the first of this type from a species belonging to Moraceae family. MpBBI was purified to homogeneity by RP-HPLC, total RNA was extracted from seeds of M. pomifera, and the 3'RACE-PCR method was applied to obtain the cDNA, which was cloned and sequenced. Peptide mass fingerprinting (PMF) analysis showed correspondence between the in silico-translated protein and MpBBI, confirming that it corresponds to a new plant protease inhibitor. The obtained cDNA encoded a polypeptide of 65 residues and possesses 10 cysteine residues, with molecular mass of 7379.27, pI 6.10, and extinction molar coefficient of 9105 M(-1) cm(-1). MpBBI inhibits strongly trypsin with K i in the 10(-10) M range and was stable in a wide array of pH and extreme temperatures. MpBBI comparative modeling was applied to gain insight into its 3D structure and highlighted some distinguishing features: (1) two non-identical loops, (2) loop 1 (CEEESRC) is completely different from any known BBI, and (3) the amount of disulphide bonds is also different from any reported BBI from dicot plants.

  14. Disproportional plastome-wide increase of substitution rates and relaxed purifying selection in genes of carnivorous Lentibulariaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicke, Susann; Schäferhoff, Bastian; dePamphilis, Claude W; Müller, Kai F

    2014-03-01

    Carnivorous Lentibulariaceae exhibit the most sophisticated implementation of the carnivorous syndrome in plants. Their unusual lifestyle coincides with distinct genomic peculiarities such as the smallest angiosperm nuclear genomes and extremely high nucleotide substitution rates across all genomic compartments. Here, we report the complete plastid genomes from each of the three genera Pinguicula, Utricularia, and Genlisea, and investigate plastome-wide changes in their molecular evolution as the carnivorous syndrome unfolds. We observe a size reduction by up to 9% mostly due to the independent loss of genes for the plastid NAD(P)H dehydrogenase and altered proportions of plastid repeat DNA, as well as a significant plastome-wide increase of substitution rates and microstructural changes. Protein-coding genes across all gene classes show a disproportional elevation of nonsynonymous substitutions, particularly in Utricularia and Genlisea. Significant relaxation of purifying selection relative to noncarnivores occurs in the plastid-encoded fraction of the photosynthesis ATP synthase complex, the photosystem I, and in several other photosynthesis and metabolic genes. Shifts in selective regimes also affect housekeeping genes including the plastid-encoded polymerase, for which evidence for relaxed purifying selection was found once during the transition to carnivory, and a second time during the diversification of the family. Lentibulariaceae significantly exhibit enhanced rates of nucleotide substitution in most of the 130 noncoding regions. Various factors may underlie the observed patterns of relaxation of purifying selection and substitution rate increases, such as reduced net photosynthesis rates, alternative paths of nutrient uptake (including organic carbon), and impaired DNA repair mechanisms.

  15. No effect of 5-fluorouracil on the properties of purified. cap alpha. -amylase from barley half-seeds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodaway, S.J.; Kende, H.

    1978-01-01

    Amylase has been purified from de-embryonated seeds of barley (Horedeum vulgare L. cv. Betzes) which have been incubated on 10/sup 6/M gibberellic acid (GA/sub 3/) following 3 days of imbibition in buffer. Incubation of the half-seeds in up to 10/sup -2/ M 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) during the entire incubation period, including imbibition, had no effect on any of the following characteristics of purified ..cap alpha..-amylase: thermal stability in the absence of calcium, molecular weight of the enzyme, isozyme composition, specific activity, or the amount of ..cap alpha..-amylase synthesized by the aleurone tissue. The synthesis of rRNA and tRNA was strongly inhibited by 5-FU, indicating that the analog had entered the aleurone cells. These results are not in agreement with those of Carlson (Nature New Biology 237: 39-41 (1972)) who found that treatment of barley aleurone with 10/sup -4/ M 5-FU to the addition of GA/sub 3/ resulted in decreased thermal stability of GA/sub 3/-induced ..cap alpha..-amylase and who interpreted this as evidence that the mRNA for ..cap alpha..-amylase was synthesized during the imbibition of the aleurone tissue and independently of gibberellin action. Results of the present experiments indicate that the thermal stability of highly purified ..cap alpha..-amylase is not altered by treatment of barley half-seeds with 5-FU, and that 5-FU cannot be used as a probe to examine the timing of ..cap alpha..-amylase mRNA synthesis.

  16. Anestesia em paciente obstétrica portadora de anemia falciforme e traço talassêmico após plasmaféresis: relato de caso Anesthesia in obstetric patient with sickle cell anemia and thalassemic trait after plasmapheresis: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Barbosa Leão

    2005-06-01

    encaminada a la UTI, bajo intubación orotraqueal, y en uso de drogas vasoactivas, habiendo sido extubada después de 3 horas. CONCLUSIONES: Este caso se mostró un desafío para el equipo, ya que la paciente presentaba inestabilidad hemodinámica y alteración del coagulograma, condiciones que contraindican la anestesia regional, además de esto, la plasmaféresis potencialmente depleta las existencias de colinesterasas plasmáticas, lo que interfiere en la anestesia. Mientras, el arsenal medicamentoso disponible, permitió el manoseo seguro de esta situación.BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Plasmapheresis is the technique of choice for severe hemolytic anemia patients. A consequence is plasma cholinesterase depletion, which interferes with metabolism of some neuromuscular blockers currently used in anesthesiology. CASE REPORT: Pregnant patient, 26 years old, physical status ASA IV, 30 weeks and 3 days gestational age, with sickle cell anemia, thalassemic trait and allo-immunization for high frequency antigens. Patient presented sickling crisis being transfused with incompatible blood. Patient evolved with massive hemolysis being admitted with 3 g/dL hemoglobin and 10% hematocrit, severe jaundice, tachycardia, apathic and pale. Hematological evaluation has concluded for the inexistence of compatible blood for transfusion. Patient was treated with steroids, immunoglobulins and plasmapheresis. In the second admission day patient evolved with acute renal failure and pulmonary edema, general state worsening and hemodynamic instability. Gestation resolution was indicated due to patient's clinical conditions and consequent acute fetal suffering. Patient was admitted to the operating room conscious, pale, with dyspnea, jaundice, 91% SpO2 in room air, heart rate of 110 bpm and blood pressure of 110 x 70 mmHg, under dopamine (1 µg.kg-1.min-1 and dobutamine (10 µg.kg-1.min-1. We decided for balanced general anesthesia with alfentanil (2.5 mg, etomidate (14 mg, atracurium (35 mg and

  17. A preliminary study of double filtration plasmapheresis in ANCA associated vasculitis with severe renal involvement%双重血浆置换治疗抗中性粒细胞胞质抗体相关血管炎严重肾损害的临床疗效

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈樱花; 龚德华; 刘正钊; 章海涛; 刘志红; 胡伟新

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the clinical efficacy of double filtration plasmapheresis ( DFPP) in antineutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibody ( ANCA) associated vasculitis ( AAV) with severe renal involvement. Methodology: Twelve patients ( female 5, male 7, age 43 ~ 72 years ) with new onset and active AAV were included this study. BVAS scores were (14. 7 ±3. 2). 10 patients had serum positive P/MPO-ANCA,the others had serum positive C/ PR3-ANCA,and the average levels of ANCA were (275 ± 33. 9) RU/ml. On admission, they had a mean SCr of (549 ± 197)μmol/L and all of them needed renal replacement therapy. Every case had renal biopsy,and histological patterns were classified into focal ( ≥50% normal glomeruli, n = 1),crescentic (≥50% glomeruli with cellular crescents,n =5),mixed ( <50% crescentic and < 50% globally sclerotic glomeruli,n = 3 ) and sclerotic (≥50% globally sclerotic glomeruli,n = 3 ). All of them were received DFPP treatment as well as methylprednisolone pulse therapy followed by oral prednisone and mycophenloate mofetil ( MMF) or intravenous cyclophosphamide pulse therapy. Double volumes of plasma were processedduring each DFPP session every other day. EC50W and EC20W ( Asahi Kasei Corporation, Japan) were used as first filter for plasma separation and second filter for plasma fractionation, respectively. The changes of ANCA and renal function were investigated. Results; All patients were treated with DFPP for 3 ~5 times. At the end of DFPP,the serum level of MPO-ANCA from [ (275 ±33. 9) to (1 112 ±55. 1) RU/ml,P <0. 01 ] was lower significantly, with a decrement of (60. 0 ± 18. 1)%. Ten patients (83. 3% ) were free from dialysis, while one patient (the pathologic classification was crescentic) was followed only one month have not been free from dialysis, the other one without improvement of renal function received maintenance hemodialysis. Ten patients who free from dialysis after DFPP were followed 6. 20 ± 4. 80 (1 ~ 15 months ). Among

  18. On the purifying chamber which makes organic substance into the bio gasification; Yukibutsu wo baiogasuka suru jokaso ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanba, Fumio [Nagoya University, Aichi (Japan); Oseki, Hiroaki; Sakurai, Yoshimasa

    1999-03-31

    The total energy which the mankind uses is taken in as an energy for being effective by eating agricultural products got through the photosynthesis called 1/15000 of solar energy which falls on the earth, and the process must be to use this solar energy which produces excretory substance by collecting. It will be important that this process does not put on the failure in the earth either and that it closes it as possible keeping system. Various excreted organic substances are contained in the source excreted, and it can be simply made bio gasification they all and the maintenance also describe the easy purifying chamber. (NEDO)

  19. Bioactivation of cysteine conjugates of 1-nitropyrene oxides by cysteine conjugate beta-lyase purified from Peptostreptococcus magnus.

    OpenAIRE

    Kataoka, K; Kinouchi, T; Akimoto, S; Ohnishi, Y

    1995-01-01

    To determine the role of cysteine conjugate beta-lyase (beta-lyase) in the metabolism of mutagenic nitropolycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, we determined the effect of beta-lyase on the mutagenicities and DNA binding of cysteine conjugates of 4,5-epoxy-4,5-dihydro-1-nitropyrene (1-NP 4,5-oxide) and 9,10-epoxy-9,10-dihydro-1-nitropyrene (1-NP 9,10-oxide), which are detoxified metabolites of the mutagenic compound 1-nitropyrene. We purified beta-lyase from Peptostreptococcus magnus GAI0663, since...

  20. Synergy effects of Cu and Sn on pitting corrosion resistance of ultra-purified medium chromium ferritic stainless steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, XiangJun; Liu, ZhenYu

    2017-03-01

    The influence of combination of Cu and Sn on pitting resistance of ultra-purified medium chromium ferritic stainless steel in 3.5 wt.% NaCl at 25°C was investigated by using electrochemical method. The results show that there is synergy effect between Cu and Sn, and the strong interaction between Cu and Sn in ferritic stainless steels clearly affects their pitting corrosion behaviour in 3.5% NaCl. A mechanism of the synergy of Cu and Sn was discussed.