WorldWideScience

Sample records for plasma-wall interaction processes

  1. Intense Magnetized Plasma-Wall Interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, Bruno S. [UNR; Fuelling, Stephan [UNR

    2013-11-30

    This research project studied wall-plasma interactions relevant to fusion science. Such interactions are a critical aspect of Magneto-Inertial Fusion (MIF) because flux compression by a pusher material, in particular the metal for the liner approach to MIF, involves strong eddy current heating on the surface of the pusher, and probably interactions and mixing of the pusher with the interior fuel during the time when fusion fuel is being burned. When the pusher material is a metal liner, high-energy-density conditions result in fascinating behavior. For example, "warm dense matter" is produced, for which material properties such as resistivity and opacity are not well known. In this project, the transformation into plasma of metal walls subjected to pulsed megagauss magnetic fields was studied with an experiment driven by the UNR 1 MA Zebra generator. The experiment was numerically simulated with using the MHRDR code. This simple, fundamental high-energy-density physics experiment, in a regime appropriate to MIF, has stimulated an important and fascinating comparison of numerical modeling codes and tables with experiment. In addition, we participated in developing the FRCHX experiment to compress a field-reversed-configuration (FRC) plasma with a liner, in collaboration with researchers from Air Force Research Laboratory and Los Alamos National Lab, and we helped develop diagnostics for the Plasma Liner Experiment (PLX) at LANL. Last, but not least, this project served to train students in high-energy-density physics.

  2. Level crossings, excess times and transient plasma-wall interactions in fusion plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Theodorsen, Audun

    2016-01-01

    Based on a stochastic model for intermittent fluctuations in the boundary region of magnetically confined plasmas, an expression for the level crossing rate is derived from the joint distribution of the process and its derivative. From this the average time spent by the process above a certain threshold level is obtained. This provides novel predictions of plasma-wall interactions due to transient transport events associated with radial motion of blob-like structures in the scrape-off layer.

  3. Materials Analysis of Transient Plasma-Wall Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-13

    model showing the importance sputter and re-deposition. plasma, pulsed plasma, directed energy, transient wall interaction, high energy density...each equipped with a 25kV copper- vapor thyratron start switch capable of sub-microsecond triggering resolution. Each start switch is paired with a...sample exposure positions within the plasma jet. The probe utilizes a PCB Piezotronics model 113B21 pressure sensor modified to work in the plasma jet

  4. Edge and Plasma -Wall Interaction Diagnostics in the TJ-II Stellarator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tabares, F. L.; Tafalla, D.; Branas, B.; Hidalgo, A.; Garcia-Cortes, I.; Lopez-Fraguas, A.; Ortiz, P.

    2003-07-01

    The operation of the TJ-II stellarator, carried out under ECR heating conditions until now, the plasma edge parameters and those processes has been identified. Therefore, an important , has implieda careful control of partied e sources and the associated plasma-wall interaction processes. A clear coupling between the plasma edge parameters and those processes has been identified. Therefore, an important effort has been devoted to the development of dedicated diagnostics in both fields. Remarkable success has been attained in the development of atomic-beam based edge diagnostics, namely, thermal Li and supersonic He beams. In particular, fast (up to 200 Hz) sampling of temperature and density profiles has been made possible thorough an upgraded version of the pulsed, supersonic He beam diagnostic. In this paper, whorl devoted to the upgrading of these techniques is described. Also, preliminary experiments oriented to the validation of the collisional radiative models use din the beam-based diagnostic interpretaron as well as simulations of Laser Induced Fluorescence (LIF) studies of level populations of electronically excited He atoms are shown. (Author) 17 refs.

  5. X-ray spectroscopic study of charge exchange phenomena in plasma-wall interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renner O.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Jets of energetic ions launched at laser-burnt-through foils represent an efficient tool for investigation of plasma interaction with solid surfaces (plasma-wall interaction, PWI and for description of transient phenomena occurring close to the walls. Highly charged ions approaching the secondary target interpenetrate the near surface layer, collide with the counter-propagating matter and capture a large number of electrons. This results in a creation of atoms in highly excited Rydberg states or hollow ions with multiple inner vacancies; plasma jet and target ions may also undergo charge exchange (CE processes. We report PWI experiments with Al/Si(PMMA and Al/C targets irradiated at normal or oblique laser incidence. The distinct dip structures observed in red wings of Al Lyγ self-emission is interpreted in terms of CE between C6+ and Al12+ in the near-wall zone. The spectroscopic identification of CE phenomena is supported by results of analytical and numerical calculations.

  6. The plasma focus as a tool for plasma-wall-interaction studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, G.; Martinez, M.; Herrera, J. J. E.; Castillo, F.

    2015-03-01

    The study of the interaction of magnetized plasmas with candidate materials for fusion reactors, as for example tungsten, is a main topic in fusion research. Many studies simulate the plasma wall interaction using ion beams, while only a few use plasma simulators. Plasma foci can produce dense magnetized plasmas of deuterium and helium among other species. We used the plasma focus Fuego-Nuevo II, to expose tungsten samples to deuterium and helium plasmas. The samples were analysed by means of SEM, RBS and NRA, evidencing surface erosion, surface melting and retention of deuterium in a shallow surface layer of 250 nm amounting 6.5·1016 D/cm2. The plasma temperature has been measured at the position of the samples using a triple Langmuir probe and compared to calculations of a snowplow model. The modelling of the electrode to reach desired plasma parameters is discussed.

  7. Plasma-wall interaction data needs critical to a Burning Core Experiment (BCX)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-11-01

    The Division of Development and Technology has sponsored a four day US-Japan workshop ''Plasma-Wall Interaction Data Needs Critical to a Burning Core Experiment (BCX)'', held at Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, California on June 24 to 27, 1985. The workshop, which brought together fifty scientists and engineers from the United States, Japan, Germany, and Canada, considered the plasma-material interaction and high heat flux (PMI/HHF) issues for the next generation of magnetic fusion energy devices, the Burning Core Experiment (BCX). Materials options were ranked, and a strategy for future PMI/HHF research was formulated. The foundation for international collaboration and coordination of this research was also established. This volume contains the last three of the five technical sessions. The first of the three is on plasma materials interaction issues, the second is on research facilities and the third is from smaller working group meetings on graphite, beryllium, advanced materials and future collaborations.

  8. NATO Advanced Study Institute entitled Physics of Plasma-Wall Interactions in Controlled Fusion

    CERN Document Server

    Behrisch, R; Physics of plasma-wall interactions in controlled fusion

    1986-01-01

    Controlled thermonuclear fusion is one of the possible candidates for long term energy sources which will be indispensable for our highly technological society. However, the physics and technology of controlled fusion are extremely complex and still require a great deal of research and development before fusion can be a practical energy source. For producing energy via controlled fusion a deuterium-tritium gas has to be heated to temperatures of a few 100 Million °c corres­ ponding to about 10 keV. For net energy gain, this hot plasma has to be confined at a certain density for a certain time One pro­ mising scheme to confine such a plasma is the use of i~tense mag­ netic fields. However, the plasma diffuses out of the confining magnetic surfaces and impinges on the surrounding vessel walls which isolate the plasma from the surrounding air. Because of this plasma wall interaction, particles from the plasma are lost to the walls by implantation and are partially reemitted into the plasma. In addition, wall...

  9. Plasma-Wall Interaction and Electron Temperature Saturation in Hall Thrusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnov, Artem

    2005-10-01

    Existing Hall thruster models predict that secondary electron emission from the channel walls is significant and that the near-wall sheaths are space charge saturated. The plasma-wall interaction and its dependence on the discharge voltage and channel width were studied through the measurements of the electron temperature, plasma potential, and plasma density in a 2 kW Hall thruster [1,2]. The experimental electron-wall collision frequency is computed using the measured plasma parameters. For high discharge voltages, the deduced electron-wall collision frequency is much lower than the theoretical value obtained for the space charge saturated sheath regime, but larger than the wall recombination frequency. The observed electron temperature saturation appears to be directly associated with a decrease of the Joule heating, rather than with the enhancement of the electron energy loss at the walls due to a strong secondary electron emission. The channel width is shown to have a more significant effect on the axial distribution of the plasma potential than the discharge voltage. 1. Y. Raitses, D. Staack, M. Keidar, and N.J. Fisch, Phys. Plasmas 12, 057104 (2005). 2. Y. Raitses, D. Staack, A. Smirnov, and N.J. Fisch, Phys. Plasmas 12, 073507 (2005).

  10. Theory and Numerical Simulation of Plasma-wall Interactions in Electric Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikellides, Ioannis

    2016-10-01

    Electric propulsion (EP) can be an enabling technology for many science missions considered by NASA because it can produce high exhaust velocities, which allow for less propellant mass compared to typical chemical systems. Over the last decade two EP technologies have emerged as primary candidates for several proposed science missions, mainly due to their superior performance and proven record in space flight: the Ion and Hall thrusters. As NASA looks ahead to increasingly ambitious science goals, missions demand higher endurance from the propulsion system. So, by contrast to the early years of development of these thrusters, when the focus was on performance, considerable focus today is shifting towards extending their service life. Considering all potentially life-limiting mechanisms in Ion and Hall thrusters two are of primary concern: (a) the erosion of the acceleration channel in Hall thrusters and (b) the erosion of the hollow cathode. The plasma physics leading to material wear in these devices are uniquely challenging. For example, soon after the propellant is introduced into the hollow cathode it becomes partially ionized as it traverses a region of electron emission. Electron emission involves highly non-linear boundary conditions. Also, the sheath size is typically many times smaller than the characteristic physical scale of the device, yet energy gained by ions through the sheath must be accounted for in the erosion calculations. The plasma-material interactions in Hall thruster channels pose similar challenges that are further exacerbated by the presence of a strong applied magnetic field. In this presentation several complexities associated with plasma-wall interactions in EP will be discussed and numerical simulation results of key plasma properties in two examples, Hall thrusters and hollow cathodes, will be presented.

  11. The in-situ diagnosis of plasma-wall interactions on magnetic fusion devices with accelerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartwig, Zachary

    2013-10-01

    We present the first in-situ, time-resolved measurements of low-Z isotope composition and deuterium retention over a large plasma-facing component (PFC) surface area in a magnetic fusion device. These critical measurements were made using a novel diagnostic technique based on the analysis of induced nuclear reactions from PFC surfaces on the Alcator C-Mod tokamak. Achieving an integrated understanding of plasma physics and materials science in magnetic fusion devices is severely hindered by a dearth of in-situ PFC surface diagnosis. Plasma-wall interactions, such as the erosion/redeposition of PFC material, the evolution of PFC surface isotope composition, and fusion fuel retention present significant plasma physics and materials science challenges for long pulse or steady-state devices. Our diagnostic uses a compact (~1 meter), high-current (~1 milliamp) radio-frequency quadrupole accelerator to inject ~1 MeV deuterons into the vacuum vessel. We control the tokamak's magnetic fields - in between plasma shots - to steer the deuterons to PFC surfaces, where they induce high-Q nuclear reactions with low-Z isotopes in the first ~10 microns of material. Analysis of the induced gamma and neutron energy spectra provides quantitative reconstruction of PFC surface conditions. This nondestructive, in-situ technique achieves PFC surface composition measurements with plasma shot-to-shot time resolution and 1 centimeter spatial resolution over large PFC areas. Work supported by U.S. DOE Grant DE-FG02-94ER54235 and Cooperative Agreement DE-FC02-99ER54512.

  12. Plasma Wall Interaction Phenomena on Tungsten Armour Materials for Fusion Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uytdenhouwen, I. [SCK.CEN - The Belgian Nuclear Research Centre, Institute for Nuclear Materials Science, Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium); Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH, EURATOM-association, D-52425 Juelich (Germany); Department of Applied Physics, Ghent University, Rozier 44, 9000 Ghent (Belgium); Massaut, V. [Department of Applied Physics, Ghent University, Rozier 44, 9000 Ghent (Belgium); Linke, J. [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH, EURATOM-association, D-52425 Juelich (Germany); Van Oost, G. [Department of Applied Physics, Ghent University, Rozier 44, 9000 Ghent (Belgium)

    2008-07-01

    One of the most attractive future complements to present energy sources is nuclear fusion. A large progress was made throughout the last decade from both the physical as the technological area leading to the construction of the ITER machine. One of the key issues that recently received a large interest at international level is focused on the Plasma Wall Interaction (PWI). One of the promising Plasma Facing Materials (PFM) are Tungsten (W) and Tungsten alloys. However, despite the worldwide use and industrial availability of W, the database of physical and mechanical properties is very limited. Especially after fusion relevant neutron irradiation and PWI phenomena, most of the properties are still unknown. The plasma fuel consists out of deuterium (D) and tritium (T). Tritium is radio-active and therefore an issue from the safety point of view. During steady-state plasma operation of future fusion power plants, the PFM need to extract a power density of {approx}10-20 MW/m{sup 2}. On top of this heat, transient events will deposit an additional non-negligible amount of energy (Disruptions, Vertical Displacement Events, Edge Localized Modes) during short durations. These severe heat loads cause cracking and even melting of the surface resulting in a reduced lifetime and the creation of dust. A contribution to the understanding of cracking phenomena under the severe thermal loads is described as well as the properties degradation under neutron irradiation. Several W grades were irradiated in the BR2 reactor (SCK.CEN) and the thermal loads were simulated with the electron-beam facility JUDITH (FZJ). Since knowledge should be gained about the Tritium retention in the PFM for safety and licensing reasons, a unique test facility at SCK.CEN is being set-up. The plasmatron VISION-I will simulate steady state plasmas for Tritium retention studies. The formation of surface cracks and dust, the initial porosity, neutron induced traps, re-deposited material - change the Tritium

  13. Global modelling of plasma-wall interaction in reversed field pinches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagatin, M.; Costa, S.; Ortolani, S.

    1989-04-01

    The impurity production and deuterium recycling mechanisms in ETA—BETA II and RFX are firstly discussed by means of a simple model applicable to a stationary plasma interacting with the wall. This gives the time constant and the saturation values of the impurity concentration as a function of the boundary temperature and density. If the latter is sufficiently high, the impurity buildup in the main plasma becomes to some extent stabilized by the shielding effect of the edge. A self-consistent global model of the time evolution of an RFP plasma interacting with the wall is then described. The bulk and edge parameters are derived by solving the energy and particle balance equations incorporating some of the basic plasma-surface processes, such as sputtering, backscattering and desorption. The application of the model to ETA-BETA II confirms the impurity concentrations of the light and metal impurities as well as the time evolution of the average electron density found experimentally under different conditions. The model is then applied to RFX, a larger RFP experiment under construction, whose wall will be protected by a full graphite armour. The time evolution of the discharge shows that carbon sputtering could increase Zeff to ~ 4, but without affecting significantly the plasma performance.

  14. Present status of plasma-wall interactions research and materials development activities in the US

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirooka, Y.; Conn, R.W.

    1989-08-01

    It is well known in the fusion engineering community that the plasma confinement performance in magnetic fusion devices is strongly affected by edge-plasma interactions with surface components. These plasma-material interactions (PMI) include fuel particle recycling and impurity generation both during normal and off-normal operation. To understand and then to control PMI effects, considerable effort has been made, particularly over the last decade in US, supported by Department of Energy, Division of Development and Technology. Also, because plasma-facing components are generally expected to receive significant amount of heat due to plasma bombardment and run-away electrons, materials must tolerate high-heat fluxes (HHF). The HHF-component research has been conducted in parallel with PMI research. One strong motivation for these research activities is that DT-burning experiments are currently planned in the Tokamak Test Fusion Reactor (TFTR) in early 1990s. Several different but mutually complementary approaches have been taken in the PMI+HHF research. The first approach is to conduct PMI experiments using toroidal fusion devices such as TFTR. The second one is to simulate elemental processes involved in PMI using ion beams and electron beams, etc. The last one but not least is to use non-tokamak plasma facilities. Along with these laboratory activities, new materials have been developed and evaluated from the PMI+HHF point of view. In this paper, several major PMI+HHF research facilities in US and their activities are briefly reviewed. 21 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Spectral and spatial structure of extreme ultraviolet radiation in laser plasma-wall interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuznetsov, A. S.; Stuik, R.; F. Bijkerk,; Shevelko, A. P.

    2012-01-01

    Intense extreme ultraviolet (XUV) radiation was observed during the interaction of low-temperature laser plasmas and wall materials. Laser plasmas with electron temperature T-e similar to 40 eV were created on massive solid targets (CF2 and Al) by an excimer KrF laser (248 nm/0.5 J/13 ns/1 Hz). The

  16. Issues Arising from Plasma-Wall Interactions in Inner-Class Tokamaks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wampler, William R.

    1999-06-23

    This section reviews physical processes involved in the implantation of energetic hydrogen into plasma facing materials and its subsequent diffusion, release, or immobilization by trapping or precipitation within the material. These topics have also been discussed in previous reviews. The term hydrogen or H is used here generically to refer to protium, deuterium or tritium.

  17. Edge and divertor plasma: detachment, stability, and plasma-wall interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasheninnikov, S. I.; Kukushkin, A. S.; Lee, Wonjae; Phsenov, A. A.; Smirnov, R. D.; Smolyakov, A. I.; Stepanenko, A. A.; Zhang, Yanzeng

    2017-10-01

    The paper presents an overview of the results of studies on a wide range of the edge plasma related issues. The rollover of the plasma flux to the target during progressing detachment process is shown to be caused by the increase of the impurity radiation loss and volumetric plasma recombination, whereas the ion-neutral friction, although important for establishing the necessary edge plasma conditions, does not contribute per se to the rollover of the plasma flux to the target. The processes limiting the power loss by impurity radiation are discussed and a simple estimate of this limit is obtained. Different mechanisms of meso-scale thermal instabilities driven by impurity radiation and resulting in self-sustained oscillations in the edge plasma are identified. An impact of sheared magnetic field on the dynamics of the blobs and ELM filaments playing an important role in the edge and SOL plasma transport is discussed. Trapping of He, which is an intrinsic impurity for the fusion plasmas, in the plasma-facing tungsten material is considered. A newly developed model, accounting for the generation of additional He traps caused by He bubble growth, fits all the available experimental data on the layer of nano-bubbles observed in W under irradiation by low energy He plasma.

  18. Report on the joint meeting of the Division of Development and Technology Plasma/Wall Interaction and High Heat Flux Materials and Components Task Groups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, K.L. (ed.)

    1985-10-01

    This report of the Joint Meeting of the Division of Development and Technology Plasma/Wall Interaction and High Heat Flux Materials and Components Task Groups contains contributing papers in the following areas: Plasma/Materials Interaction Program and Technical Assessment, High Heat Flux Materials and Components Program and Technical Assessment, Pumped Limiters, Ignition Devices, Program Planning Activities, Compact High Power Density Reactor Requirements, Steady State Tokamaks, and Tritium Plasma Experiments. All these areas involve the consideration of High Heat Flux on Materials and the Interaction of the Plasma with the First Wall. Many of the Test Facilities are described as well. (LSP)

  19. Plasma-wall interactions data compendium-1. ''Hydrogen retention property, diffusion and recombination coefficients database for selected plasma-facing materials''

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwakiri, Hirotomo [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Research Inst. for Applied Mechanics; Matsuhiro, Kenjirou [Osaka Univ., Osaka (Japan); Hirooka, Yoshi [National Inst. for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu (Japan); Yamamura, Yasunori [Okayama Univ. of Scinece, Okayama (Japan)

    2002-05-01

    A summary on the recent activities of the plasma-wall interactions database task group at the National Institute for Fusion Science is presented in this report. These activities are focused on the compilation of literature data on the key parameters related to wall recycling characteristics that affect dynamic particle balance during plasma discharges and also on-site tritium inventory. More specifically, in this task group a universal fitting formula has been proposed and successfully applied to help compile hydrogen implantation-induced retention data. Also, presented here are the data on hydrogen diffusion and surface recombination coefficients, both critical in modeling dynamic wall recycling behavior. Data compilation has been conducted on beryllium, carbon, tungsten and molybdenum, all currently used for plasma-facing components in magnetic fusion experiments. (author)

  20. Modelling of impurity transport and plasma-wall interaction in fusion devices with the ERO code: basics of the code and examples of application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirschner, A.; Borodin, D.; Brezinsek, S.; Linsmeier, C.; Romazanov, J. [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH, Institut fuer Energie- und Klimaforschung - Plasmaphysik, Juelich (Germany); Tskhakaya, D. [Fusion rate at OeAW, Institute of Applied Physics, TU Wien (Austria); Institute of Theoretical Physics, University of Innsbruck (Austria); Kawamura, G. [National Institute for Fusion Science, Gifu (Japan); Ding, R. [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui (China)

    2016-08-15

    The 3D ERO code, which simulates plasma-wall interaction and impurity transport in magnetically confined fusion-relevant devices is described. As application, prompt deposition of eroded tungsten has been simulated at surfaces with shallow magnetic field of 3 T. Dedicated PIC simulations have been performed to calculate the characteristics of the sheath in front of plasma-exposed surfaces to use as input for these ERO simulations. Prompt deposition of tungsten reaches 100% at the highest electron temperature and density. In comparison to more simplified assumptions for the sheath the amount of prompt deposition is in general smaller if the PIC-calculated sheath is used. Due to friction with the background plasma the impact energy of deposited tungsten can be significantly larger than the energy gained in the sheath potential. (copyright 2016 The Authors. Contributions to Plasma Physics published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA Weinheim. This)

  1. Study of plasma-wall interactions in Tore-supra; Etude des phenomenes d'interaction plasma/paroi dans Tore Supra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruggieri, R

    2000-01-01

    In tokamaks the interaction between wall and plasma generates impurities that affect the thermonuclear fusion. This thesis is divided into 2 parts. The first part describes the physico-chemical processes that are involved in chemical erosion, the second part deals with the study of the wear of Tore-supra's walls due to chemical erosion. Chapter 1 presents the wall-plasma interaction and reviews the different processes between plasma and carbon that occur in Tore-supra. Chapter 2 considers the various crystallographic and electronic structures of the carbon that interferes with Tore-supra plasma, the evolution of these structures during irradiation and their temperature dependence are studied. Chapter 3 presents a crystallo-chemical study of graphite samples that have undergone different surface treatments: ionic bombardment, annealing and air exposure. This experimental study has been performed by using energy-loss spectroscopy. It is shown that air exposure modifies the crystallo-chemical structure of surfaces, so it is necessary to prevent air from contaminating wall samples from Tore-supra. Chapter 4 presents a parametric study of chemical erosion rate of plasma facing components (LPM) of Tore-supra. A relation such as Y{sub cd4}{alpha}{gamma}{sup -0.1} gives a good agreement for chemical erosion rate between measurements and the numerical values of the simulation. (A.C.)

  2. Suprathermal electron energy spectrum and nonlocally affected plasma-wall interaction in helium/air micro-plasma at atmospheric pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demidov, V. I.; Adams, S. F.; Miles, J. A.; Koepke, M. E.; Kurlyandskaya, I. P.

    2016-10-01

    Details of ground-state and excited-state neutral atoms and molecules in an atmospheric-pressure micro-discharge plasma may be obtained by plasma electron spectroscopy (PLES), based on a wall probe. The presence and transport of energetic (suprathermal) electrons, having a nonlocal origin, are responsible for electrostatic charging of the plasma boundary surfaces to potentials many times that associated with the ambient electron kinetic energy. The energy-flux distribution function is shown to be controllable for applications involving analysis of composition and processes taking place in a multiphase (plasma-gas-solid), chemically reactive, interaction region.

  3. Development and application of a tree-code in simulation scenarios of the plasma-wall interaction; Entwicklung und Anwendung eines Tree-Codes in Simulationsszenarios der Plasma-Wand-Wechselwirkung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berberich, Benjamin

    2012-03-15

    Processes in the plasma edge layer of magnetic fusion devices occur on widely disparate length- and time-scales. Also recently developed features in this particular region, such as stochastic magnetic fields, underline the necessity for three dimensional, full-kinetic simulation tools. Contemporary programs often deploy ad hoc assumptions and approximations for microscopic phenomena for which self-consistent ab initio models in principle exist, but are still computationally too expensive or complex to implement. Recently, mesh-free methods have matured into a new class of tools for such first-principles computations which thanks to their geometric flexibility are highly promising for tackling complicated TOKAMAK regions. In this work we have develop the massively parallel Tree-Code PEPC-B (Pretty Efficient Parallel Coulomb solver) into a new tool for plasma material interaction studies. After a brief overview of the working principles of Tree-Codes two main topic groups are addressed: First the leap-frog Boris integration scheme is discussed and its numerical limitations are pointed out. To overcome these limitations the method is enhanced to a guiding-center integrator. As a proof of principal, numerical experiments are conducted reproducing the anticipated drift kinetic aspects of particle orbits. It turns out that this new technique is much less sensitive to large time steps than the original concept was. One major drawback of mesh-free methods which hinders their direct use for plasma-edge simulations is the difficulty in representing solid structures and associated boundary conditions. Therefore, an alternative concept is proposed using charge carrying Wall-Particles, which fits naturally in the mesh-free doctrine. These developments incorporate the second main topic group of this report. To prove the physical correctness of this new idea, a quasi one dimensional plasma-wall interface scenario is chosen. By studying the system with great detail, good agreement

  4. Plasma-wall-interaction in ECRIS II

    CERN Document Server

    Mannel, C; Wiesemann, K

    1999-01-01

    In an ECR-discharge, where the plasma is confined inside a copper-resonator by a simple magnetic mirror, it could be shown that sputtering of wall material has an important influence upon the plasma [1]. Spectroscopic measurements in ECRIS II with a copper vessel confirmed this model. Evidence for the presence of copper atoms and ions in the plasma could be found by ion extraction as well as with VUV-spectrometry. In a nitrogen discharge by adding helium as a mixing-gas we found that the extracted current of Cu-ions decreased and measured line intensities of copper emission lines dropped down. [1] D. Meyer, "Einfluss der Plasmainstabilitaet auf die Produktion hochgeladener Ionen in einer ECR-Entladung", Dissertation, Bochum, 1997

  5. Interactive Parallel and Distributed Processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik Hautop; Pagliarini, Luigi

    2010-01-01

    We present the concept of interactive parallel and distributed processing, and the challenges that programmers face in designing interactive parallel and distributed systems. Specifically, we introduce the challenges that are met and the decisions that need to be taken with respect...... to distributedness, master dependency, software behavioural models, adaptive interactivity, feedback, connectivity, topology, island modeling, and user interaction. We introduce the system of modular interactive tiles as a tool for easy, fast, and flexible exploration of these issues, and through examples show how...... to implement interactive parallel and distributed processing with different software behavioural models such as open loop, randomness based, rule based, user interaction based, AI and ALife based software....

  6. Bibliotherapy--The Interactive Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hynes, Arleen McCarty

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the similarities between what librarians call activity bibliotherapy and psychotherapists call poetry therapy, and the need for cooperation between these professions. The interactive aspects of bibliotherapy and the need for professional training in this process are emphasized. (CLB)

  7. An Interactive Assembly Process Planner

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖华飞; 张林鍹; 肖田元; 曾理; 古月

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the implementation and performance of the virtual assembly support system (VASS), a new system that can provide designers and assembly process engineers with a simulation and visualization environment where they can evaluate the assemblability/disassemblability of products, and thereby use a computer to intuitively create assembly plans and interactively generate assembly process charts. Subassembly planning and assembly priority reasoning techniques were utilized to find heuristic information to improve the efficiency of assembly process planning. Tool planning was implemented to consider tool requirements in the product design stage. New methods were developed to reduce the computation amount involved in interference checking. As an important feature of the VASS, human interaction was integrated into the whole process of assembly process planning, extending the power of computer reasoning by including human expertise, resulting in better assembly plans and better designs.

  8. Construction of the plasma-wall experiment Magnum-PSI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rapp, J.; Koppers, W. R.; van Eck, H. J. N.; van Rooij, G. J.; W. J. Goedheer,; de Groot, B.; Al, R.; Graswinckel, M. F.; van den Berg, M. A.; Kruyt, O.; Smeets, P.; van der Meiden, H. J.; Vijvers, W.; Scholten, J.; van de Pol, M.; Brons, S.; Melissen, W.; Van der Grift, T.; Koch, R.; Schweer, B.; Samm, U.; Philipps, V.; Engeln, R. A. H.; D.C. Schram,; Cardozo, N. J. L.; Kleyn, A. W.

    2010-01-01

    The FOM-Institute for Plasma Physics Rijnhuizen is constructing Magnum-PSI: a magnetized (3 T), steady-state, large area (80 cm(2)) high-flux (up to 10(24) H+ ions m(-2) s(-1)) plasma generator. Magnum-PSI will be a highly accessible laboratory experiment in which the interaction of magnetized plasm

  9. Construction of the plasma-wall experiment Magnum-PSI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rapp, J.; Koppers, W.R.; van Eck, H.J.N.; van Rooij, G.J.; Goedheer, W.J.; de Groot, B.; Al, R.; Graswinckel, M.F.; van den Berg, M.A.; Kruyt, O.; Smeets, P.; van der Meiden, H.J.; Vijvers, W.; Scholten, J.; van de Pol, M.; Brons, S.; Melissen, W.; van der Grift, T.; Koch, R.; Schweer, B.; Samm, U.; Philipps, V.; Engeln, R.A.H.; Schram, D.C.; Lopes Cardozo, N.J.; Kleyn, A.W.

    2010-01-01

    The FOM-Institute for Plasma Physics Rijnhuizen is constructing Magnum-PSI; a magnetized (3 T), steady-state, large area (80 cm2) high-flux (up to 1024 H+ ions m−2 s−1) plasma generator. Magnum-PSI will be a highly accessible laboratory experiment in which the interaction of magnetized plasma with d

  10. Epigenetics & chromatin: Interactions and processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Henikoff (Steven); F.G. Grosveld (Frank)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractOn 11 to 13 March 2013, BioMed Central will be hosting its inaugural conference, Epigenetics & Chromatin: Interactions and Processes, at Harvard Medical School, Cambridge, MA, USA. Epigenetics & Chromatin has now launched a special article series based on the general themes of the

  11. Epigenetics & chromatin: Interactions and processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Henikoff (Steven); F.G. Grosveld (Frank)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractOn 11 to 13 March 2013, BioMed Central will be hosting its inaugural conference, Epigenetics & Chromatin: Interactions and Processes, at Harvard Medical School, Cambridge, MA, USA. Epigenetics & Chromatin has now launched a special article series based on the general themes of the confer

  12. Interactive Control of Prototyping Process

    OpenAIRE

    Luqi; Lee, Yuh-jeng

    1989-01-01

    We present the use of CAPS (Computer-aided Prototyping System) for the interactive construction, execution, debugging, modification, and controlling of software prototypes. We discuss the current version of CAPS, explicate its user interface for monitoring and coordinating the prototype development process, and depict the functioning of each of the integrated software tools.

  13. Hard processes in hadronic interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Satz, H. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland)]|[Universitat Bielefeld (Germany); Wang, X.N. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

    1995-07-01

    Quantum chromodynamics is today accepted as the fundamental theory of strong interactions, even though most hadronic collisions lead to final states for which quantitative QCD predictions are still lacking. It therefore seems worthwhile to take stock of where we stand today and to what extent the presently available data on hard processes in hadronic collisions can be accounted for in terms of QCD. This is one reason for this work. The second reason - and in fact its original trigger - is the search for the quark-gluon plasma in high energy nuclear collisions. The hard processes to be considered here are the production of prompt photons, Drell-Yan dileptons, open charm, quarkonium states, and hard jets. For each of these, we discuss the present theoretical understanding, compare the resulting predictions to available data, and then show what behaviour it leads to at RHIC and LHC energies. All of these processes have the structure mentioned above: they contain a hard partonic interaction, calculable perturbatively, but also the non-perturbative parton distribution within a hadron. These parton distributions, however, can be studied theoretically in terms of counting rule arguments, and they can be checked independently by measurements of the parton structure functions in deep inelastic lepton-hadron scattering. The present volume is the work of Hard Probe Collaboration, a group of theorists who are interested in the problem and were willing to dedicate a considerable amount of their time and work on it. The necessary preparation, planning and coordination of the project were carried out in two workshops of two weeks` duration each, in February 1994 at CERn in Geneva andin July 1994 at LBL in Berkeley.

  14. Scientific report. Plasma-wall interaction studies related to fusion reactor materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Temmerman, G. De

    2006-07-01

    This scientific report summarises research done on erosion and deposition mechanisms affecting the optical reflectivity of potential materials for use in the mirrors used in fusion reactors. Work done in Juelich, Germany, at the Federal Institute of Technology in Lausanne, Switzerland, the JET laboratory in England and in Basle is discussed. Various tests made with the mirrors are described. Results obtained are presented in graphical and tabular form and commented on. The influence of various material choices on erosion and deposition mechanisms is discussed.

  15. Causal categories: relativistically interacting processes

    CERN Document Server

    Coecke, Bob

    2011-01-01

    A symmetric monoidal category naturally arises as the mathematical structure that organizes physical systems, processes, and composition thereof, both sequentially and in parallel. This structure admits a purely graphical calculus. This paper is concerned with the encoding of a fixed causal structure within a symmetric monoidal category: causal dependencies will correspond to topological connectedness in the graphical language. We show that correlations, either classical or quantum, force terminality of the tensor unit. We also show that well-definedness of the concept of a global state forces the monoidal product to be only partially defined, which in turn results in a relativistic covariance theorem. Except for these assumptions, at no stage do we assume anything more than purely compositional symmetric-monoidal categorical structure. We cast these two structural results in terms of a mathematical entity, which we call a `causal category'. We provide methods of constructing causal categories, and we study t...

  16. Causal Categories: Relativistically Interacting Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coecke, Bob; Lal, Raymond

    2013-04-01

    A symmetric monoidal category naturally arises as the mathematical structure that organizes physical systems, processes, and composition thereof, both sequentially and in parallel. This structure admits a purely graphical calculus. This paper is concerned with the encoding of a fixed causal structure within a symmetric monoidal category: causal dependencies will correspond to topological connectedness in the graphical language. We show that correlations, either classical or quantum, force terminality of the tensor unit. We also show that well-definedness of the concept of a global state forces the monoidal product to be only partially defined, which in turn results in a relativistic covariance theorem. Except for these assumptions, at no stage do we assume anything more than purely compositional symmetric-monoidal categorical structure. We cast these two structural results in terms of a mathematical entity, which we call a causal category. We provide methods of constructing causal categories, and we study the consequences of these methods for the general framework of categorical quantum mechanics.

  17. Are there interactive processes in speech perception?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClelland, James L.; Mirman, Daniel; Holt, Lori L.

    2012-01-01

    Lexical information facilitates speech perception, especially when sounds are ambiguous or degraded. The interactive approach to understanding this effect posits that this facilitation is accomplished through bi-directional flow of information, allowing lexical knowledge to influence pre-lexical processes. Alternative autonomous theories posit feed-forward processing with lexical influence restricted to post-perceptual decision processes. We review evidence supporting the prediction of interactive models that lexical influences can affect pre-lexical mechanisms, triggering compensation, adaptation and retuning of phonological processes generally taken to be pre-lexical. We argue that these and other findings point to interactive processing as a fundamental principle for perception of speech and other modalities. PMID:16843037

  18. Revealed Quantum Information in Weak Interaction Processes

    CERN Document Server

    Hiesmayr, B C

    2014-01-01

    We analyze the achievable limits of the quantum information processing of the weak interaction revealed by hyperons with spin. We find that the weak decay process corresponds to an interferometric device with a fixed visibility and fixed phase difference for each hyperon. Nature chooses rather low visibilities expressing a preference to parity conserving or violating processes (except for the decay $\\Sigma^+\\longrightarrow p \\pi^0$). The decay process can be considered as an open quantum channel that carries the information of the hyperon spin to the angular distribution of the momentum of the daughter particles. We find a simple geometrical information theoretic interpretation of this process: two quantization axes are chosen spontaneously with probabilities $\\frac{1\\pm\\alpha}{2}$ where $\\alpha$ is proportional to the visibility times the real part of the phase shift. Differently stated the weak interaction process corresponds to spin measurements with an imperfect Stern-Gerlach apparatus. Equipped with this...

  19. Components, processes and interactions in the biosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-12-15

    This report describes the processes and interactions between components in the biosphere that may be important in a safety assessment for radioactive waste disposal. The processes are general, i.e. they can be used in all safety analyses for underground repositories and are not specific to a particular method or location. Processes related to the geosphere and specific repository types (e.g. the KBS-3 method) can be found in /Skagius et al. 1995, SKB 2001, 2006, 2010a/. This report describes a biosphere interaction matrix that has been used in support of SR-Site and that can be used in future safety assessments. The work of defining and characterising processes in the biosphere is ongoing and many persons from different disciplines have been involved in the identification and characterisation of processes

  20. Final-state interactions in the process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röder, M.; Borodina, E.; Clement, H.; Doroshkevich, E.; Dzhygadlo, R.; Ehrhardt, K.; Erhardt, A.; Eyrich, W.; Gast, W.; Gillitzer, A.; Grzonka, D.; Haidenbauer, J.; Hanhart, C.; Hauenstein, F.; Klaja, P.; Kober, L.; Kilian, K.; Krapp, M.; Mertens, M.; Ritman, J.; Roderburg, E.; Schroeder, W.; Sefzick, T.; Sibirtsev, A.; Wintz, P.; Wüstner, P.

    2013-12-01

    The possibility to determine the pΛ scattering length from the final-state interaction in the reaction is investigated experimentally. From a transversely polarized measurement, the K + analyzing power ( A N ) which, in principle, allows one to extract the spin triplet scattering length is studied. An unexpected energy dependence of the forward/backward symmetric part of A N is found. The influence of N * resonances on the pΛ invariant mass spectrum is investigated by exploiting the large acceptance for the process and is found to be the main source of uncertainty for determining the pΛ scattering length.

  1. PRESENTATION POTENTIAL USING IN PEDAGOGICAL INTERACTION PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga V. Ershova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The given article is aimed at considering multimedia presentation potential and its influence on strengthening classroom teacher-student interaction. In the article the importance of using this kind of activity in the study process is pointed in connection with educational state policy on the one hand. On the other hand, gained students’ skills as a final result of work with presentations met employers’ demand for both parent and world labour-markets and bring competitive benefit to the candidates. Scientific novelty and results. Multimedia presentation is considered as a specific complex of classroom activities. The students are oriented on the self analysis and presentation assessment. It is shown that well-organized process of peer students’ assessment allows to simultaneously helping in solving the didactic and methodical problems. To this purpose the system of assessment criteria should be developed. It has to be clear for students for making assessment feasible and time-saving. The example of a possible variant of criteria system is described; quality of the presentations prepared by students can be defined based on such system criteria. The author also analyzed software products of the three main platforms (Windows, Linux, MacOs which have different tools and allow to follow users’ needs for creating presentations. In the article there is a comparative table of the two most popular software development: the program Microsoft PowerPoint and the web-service Prezi for realizing the relevance of their use in the study process. Practical significance of the present article concludes in author’s suggestions of some recommendations for presentation potential use as a tool of improving pedagogical interaction process with contemporary students. 

  2. Competing dynamical processes on two interacting networks

    CERN Document Server

    Alvarez-Zuzek, L G; Braunstein, L A; Vazquez, F

    2016-01-01

    We propose and study a model for the competition between two different dynamical processes, one for opinion formation and the other for decision making, on two interconnected networks. The networks represent two interacting social groups, the society and the Congress. An opinion formation process takes place on the society, where the opinion S of each individual can take one of four possible values (S=-2,-1,1,2), describing its level of agreement on a given issue, from totally against (S=-2) to totally in favor (S=2). The dynamics is controlled by a reinforcement parameter r, which measures the ratio between the likelihood to become an extremist or a moderate. The dynamics of the Congress is akin to that of the Abrams-Strogatz model, where congressmen can adopt one of two possible positions, to be either in favor (+) or against (-) the issue. The probability that a congressman changes his decision is proportional to the fraction of interacting neighbors that hold the opposite opinion raised to a power $\\beta$...

  3. Impacts of Species Interactions on Atmospheric Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerdau, M.; Wang, B.; Cook, B.; Neu, J. L.; Schimel, D.

    2016-12-01

    The current fascination with interactions between air quality and ecosystems began over 60 years ago with the discovery by Arie Haagen-Smit and colleagues that organic carbon emissions from plants play a role in ozone formation. In the seven decades since, thanks to biochemical and physiological studies of these emissions, their biosynthetic pathways and short-term flux-regulation mechanisms are now well understood. This `metabolic' approach has been invaluable for developing models of VOC emissions and atmospheric oxidant dynamics that function on local spatial scales over time intervals of minutes to days, but it has been of limited value for predicting emissions across larger spatial and temporal scales. This limited success arises in large part from the species-specific nature of volatile organic carbon production by plants. Each plant species produces certain volatile compounds but not others, so predicting emissions through time requires consideration of plant species composition. As the plant species composition of an ecosystem changes through time, so too do its VOC emissions. When VOC impacts on the atmosphere influence species composition by altering inter-specific interactions, there exists the possibility for feedbacks among emissions, atmospheric chemistry, higher order ecological processes such as competition & pollination, and species composition. For example, previous work has demonstrated that VOC emissions may affect ozone, which, in turn, alters competition among trees species, and current efforts suggest that plant reproductive success may be mediated by ozone impacts on floral signals. These changes in ecological processes alter the species composition and future VOC emissions from ecosystems. We present empirical and simulated data demonstrating that biological diversity may be affected by VOC impacts on the atmosphere and that these diversity changes may, in turn, alter the emissions of VOC's and other photochemically active compounds to the

  4. interaction randomly perturbed by wiener processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatoli V. Skorokhod

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Infinite systems of stochastic differential equations for randomly perturbed particle systems in Rd with pairwise interacting are considered. For gradient systems these equations are of the form dxk(t=Fk(ttd+σdwk(t and for Hamiltonian systems these equations are of the form dx˙k(t=Fk(ttd+σdwk(t. Here xk(t is the position of the kth particle, x˙k(t is its velocity, Fk=−∑j≠kUx(xk(t−xj(t, where the function U:Rd→R is the potential of the system, σ>0 is a constant, {wk(t,k=1,2,…} is a sequence of independent standard Wiener processes.

  5. Anthropogenic features and hillslope processes interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarolli, Paolo; Sofia, Giulia

    2016-04-01

    Topography emerges as a result of natural driving forces, but some human activities (such as mining, agricultural practices and the construction of road networks) directly or indirectly move large quantities of soil, which leave clear topographic signatures embedded on the Earth's morphology. These signatures can cause drastic changes to the geomorphological organization of the landscape, with direct consequences on Earth surface processes (Tarolli and Sofia, 2016). To this point, the present research investigates few case studies highlighting the influences of anthropogenic topographic signatures on hillslope processes, and it shows the effectiveness of High-Resolution Topography (HRT) derived from the recent remote sensing technologies (e.g. lidar, satellite, structure from motion photogrammetry), to better understand this interaction. The first example is related to agricultural terraces. In recent times, terraced areas acquired a new relevance to modern concerns about erosion and land instability, being the agricultural land mostly threatened by abandonment or intensification and specialization of agriculture, resulting in more landslide-prone bench terraces, or heavy land levelling with increased erosion. The second case study discusses about the role of agricultural and forest roads on surface erosion and landslides. The third case study investigates geomorphic processes in an open pit mine. In all case studies, HRT served as the basis for the development of new methodologies able to recognize and analyze changes on Earth surface processes along hillslopes. The results show how anthropogenic elements have crucial effects on sediment production and sediment delivery, also influencing the landscape connectivity. The availability of HRT can improve our ability to actually model anthropogenic morphologies, quantify them, and analyse the links between anthropogenic elements and geomorphic processes. The results presented here, and the creation and dissemination of

  6. Crossmodal interactions during affective picture processing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Ferrari

    Full Text Available "Natural" crossmodal correspondences, such as the spontaneous tendency to associate high pitches with high spatial locations, are often hypothesized to occur preattentively and independently of task instructions (top-down attention. Here, we investigate bottom-up attentional engagement by using emotional scenes that are known to naturally and reflexively engage attentional resources. We presented emotional (pleasant and unpleasant or neutral pictures either below or above a fixation cross, while participants were required to discriminate between a high or a low pitch tone (experiment 1. Results showed that despite a robust crossmodal attentional capture of task-irrelevant emotional pictures, the general advantage in classifying the tones for congruent over incongruent visual-auditory stimuli was similar for emotional and neutral pictures. On the other hand, when picture position was task-relevant (experiment 2, task-irrelevant tones did not interact with pictures with regard to their combination of pitch and visual vertical spatial position, but instead they were effective in minimizing the interference effect of emotional picture processing on the ongoing task. These results provide constraints on our current understanding of natural crossmodal correspondences.

  7. A Process Calculus for Molecular Interaction Maps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Barbuti

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available We present the MIM calculus, a modeling formalism with a strong biological basis, which provides biologically-meaningful operators for representing the interaction capabilities of molecular species. The operators of the calculus are inspired by the reaction symbols used in Molecular Interaction Maps (MIMs, a diagrammatic notation used by biologists. Models of the calculus can be easily derived from MIM diagrams, for which an unambiguous and executable interpretation is thus obtained. We give a formal definition of the syntax and semantics of the MIM calculus, and we study properties of the formalism. A case study is also presented to show the use of the calculus for modeling biomolecular networks.

  8. A Process Calculus for Molecular Interaction Maps

    CERN Document Server

    Barbuti, Roberto; Milazzo, Paolo; Pardini, Giovanni; Rama, Aureliano; 10.4204/EPTCS.11.3

    2009-01-01

    We present the MIM calculus, a modeling formalism with a strong biological basis, which provides biologically-meaningful operators for representing the interaction capabilities of molecular species. The operators of the calculus are inspired by the reaction symbols used in Molecular Interaction Maps (MIMs), a diagrammatic notation used by biologists. Models of the calculus can be easily derived from MIM diagrams, for which an unambiguous and executable interpretation is thus obtained. We give a formal definition of the syntax and semantics of the MIM calculus, and we study properties of the formalism. A case study is also presented to show the use of the calculus for modeling biomolecular networks.

  9. Argumentation as an Interactional Process in Conversation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liddicoat, Anthony

    1995-01-01

    Analyzes argumentation and the ways in which idealized models of argumentation relate to the linguistic behavior of participants in argument as talk. Sequencing patterns of arguments are interactionally accomplished. Speakers produce turns which are related to their purpose in talking and that include speech act complexes appropriate for the…

  10. Interactive Image Processing demonstrations for the web

    OpenAIRE

    Tella Amo, Marcel

    2011-01-01

    The main goal in this project is to improve the way how image processing developers can test their algorithms, and show them to other people to demonstrate their performance. This diploma thesis aims to provide a framework for developing web applications for ImagePlus, the software develpment platform in C++ of the Image Processing Group of the Technical University of Catalonia (UPC). These web applications are to demonstrate the functionality of the image processing algorithms to any ...

  11. Understanding and Managing Process Interaction in IS Development Projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bygstad, Bendik; Nielsen, Peter Axel

    2005-01-01

    -technical innovation in a situation where the organisational change process and the IS development process are parallel but incongruent. We also argue that iterative software engineering frameworks are well structured to support process interaction. Finally, we advocate that the IS project manager needs to manage...... the relationship between these two kinds of processes. To understand the interaction between information systems development and planned organisational change we introduce the concept of process interaction. We draw on a longitudinal case study of an IS development project that used an iterative and incremental...... development approach. The concept of process interaction enabled us to understand critical events in the case, in particular those that were important for the mutual adaptation between the information system and the organisation. We conclude that process interaction is needed to facilitate socio...

  12. Interactive data-processing system for metallurgy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathz, T. J.

    1978-01-01

    Equipment indicates that system can rapidly and accurately process metallurgical and materials-processing data for wide range of applications. Advantages include increase in contract between areas on image, ability to analyze images via operator-written programs, and space available for storing images.

  13. Point Process Modeling for Directed Interaction Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-01

    Enron corporation between 1998 and 2002. These e-mail interaction data give rise to the following questions: Homophily To what extent are traits shared...methods Our example analysis uses publicly available data from the Enron e-mail corpus (Cohen, 2009), a large subset of the e-mail messages sent within...the Enron corporation between 1998 and 2002, and made public as the result of a subpoena by the U.S. Federal Energy Regulatory Commission during an

  14. The target for the new plasma/wall experiment Magnum-PSI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berg, M.A. van den, E-mail: m.a.vandenberg@rijnhuizen.nl [FOM-Institute for Plasma Physics Rijnhuizen, Association EURATOM-FOM, Trilateral Euregio Cluster, P.O. Box 1207, 3430 BE, Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Brons, S.; Kruijt, O.G.; Scholten, J.; Pasquet, R.; Smeets, P.H.M. [FOM-Institute for Plasma Physics Rijnhuizen, Association EURATOM-FOM, Trilateral Euregio Cluster, P.O. Box 1207, 3430 BE, Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Schweer, B. [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH, IEF-4, Euratom association, Trilateral Euregio Cluster, 52425 Juelich (Germany); De Temmerman, G. [FOM-Institute for Plasma Physics Rijnhuizen, Association EURATOM-FOM, Trilateral Euregio Cluster, P.O. Box 1207, 3430 BE, Nieuwegein (Netherlands)

    2011-10-15

    The construction of Magnum-PSI is in its final stage. The aim is to provide a controlled and highly accessible linear plasma device to perform the basic plasma-surface interaction research needed for the design of the plasma facing components of future fusion devices. This contribution will focus on the thermal challenges imposed by those extreme conditions on the design of the target holder of Magnum-PSI. The target holder is designed to allow the exposure of large size targets with variable inclination angles with respect to the magnetic field. A test set up was made to test different interlayers (grafoil, soft metal sheets) and improve the thermal contact between the target and the heat sink. In addition, a modular target holder for sequential exposure of smaller size targets has been designed. Finite element modeling using the ANSYS code was used to optimize the cooling geometry and to predict the temperature profiles due to the heat load of the plasma. Experiments were done on the Pilot-PSI linear device to validate the thermal calculations. Calorimetry and infrared thermography were used to experimentally measure the temperature profile on the target and the heat deposition.

  15. Interactivity, Information Processing, and Learning on the World Wide Web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremayne, Mark; Dunwoody, Sharon

    2001-01-01

    Examines the role of interactivity in the presentation of science news on the World Wide Web. Proposes and tests a model of interactive information processing that suggests that characteristics of users and Web sites influence interactivity, which influences knowledge acquisition. Describes use of a think-aloud method to study participants' mental…

  16. An Educational Tool for Interactive Parallel and Distributed Processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pagliarini, Luigi; Lund, Henrik Hautop

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we try to describe how the Modular Interactive Tiles System (MITS) can be a valuable tool for introducing students to interactive parallel and distributed processing programming. This is done by providing an educational hands-on tool that allows a change of representation...... of the abstract problems related to designing interactive parallel and distributed systems. Indeed, MITS seems to bring a series of goals into the education, such as parallel programming, distributedness, communication protocols, master dependency, software behavioral models, adaptive interactivity, feedback...... parallel and distributed processing with different software behavioural models such as open loop, randomness based, rule based, user interaction based, AI and ALife based software....

  17. Ecosystem process interactions between central Chilean habitats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meredith Root-Bernstein

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Understanding ecosystem processes is vital for developing dynamic adaptive management of human-dominated landscapes. We focus on conservation and management of the central Chilean silvopastoral savanna habitat called “espinal”, which often occurs near matorral, a shrub habitat. Although matorral, espinal and native sclerophyllous forest are linked successionally, they are not jointly managed and conserved. Management goals in “espinal” include increasing woody cover, particularly of the dominant tree Acacia caven, improving herbaceous forage quality, and increasing soil fertility. We asked whether adjacent matorral areas contribute to espinal ecosystem processes related to the three main espinal management goals. We examined input and outcome ecosystem processes related to these goals in matorral and espinal with and without shrub understory. We found that matorral had the largest sets of inputs to ecosystem processes, and espinal with shrub understory had the largest sets of outcomes. Moreover, we found that these outcomes were broadly in the directions preferred by management goals. This supports our prediction that matorral acts as an ecosystem process bank for espinal. We recommend that management plans for landscape resilience consider espinal and matorral as a single landscape cover class that should be maintained as a dynamic mosaic. Joint management of espinal and matorral could create new management and policy opportunities.

  18. Asia's Peaceful Rise: A Multiple Interactive Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cui Liru

    2005-01-01

    @@ As the author sees it, "Asia's peaceful rise" seems to be a more appropriate expression to highlight the 21st century than the current buzzwords of "Asian century" or "the century of Asian resurgence" justifiably associated with the surging growth of regional economies and tighter ties among them since the end of the Cold War. It is of crucial significance to identify this as a process replete with complexities-an identification necessary for gauging its impact on the international community.

  19. The role of chemical interactions in ion-solid processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dodson, B.W.

    1990-01-01

    Computer simulation of low-energy ion-solid processes has greatly broadened in scope in recent years. In particular, realistic descriptions of the ion-solid and solid-solid interactions can now be utilized. The molecular dynamics technique, in which the equations of motion of the interacting atoms are numerically integrated, can now be used to characterize ion-solid interactions in a range of model material systems. Despite practical limitations of this procedure, a number of substantial results have appeared. The available results are examined to investigate the qualitative influence that chemical interactions have on low-energy ion-solid processes. 26 refs., 4 figs.

  20. Small Interactive Image Processing System (SMIPS) system description

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moik, J. G.

    1973-01-01

    The Small Interactive Image Processing System (SMIPS) operates under control of the IBM-OS/MVT operating system and uses an IBM-2250 model 1 display unit as interactive graphic device. The input language in the form of character strings or attentions from keys and light pen is interpreted and causes processing of built-in image processing functions as well as execution of a variable number of application programs kept on a private disk file. A description of design considerations is given and characteristics, structure and logic flow of SMIPS are summarized. Data management and graphic programming techniques used for the interactive manipulation and display of digital pictures are also discussed.

  1. Interacting Social Processes on Interconnected Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Zuzek, Lucila G.; La Rocca, Cristian E.; Vazquez, Federico; Braunstein, Lidia A.

    2016-01-01

    We propose and study a model for the interplay between two different dynamical processes –one for opinion formation and the other for decision making– on two interconnected networks A and B. The opinion dynamics on network A corresponds to that of the M-model, where the state of each agent can take one of four possible values (S = −2,−1, 1, 2), describing its level of agreement on a given issue. The likelihood to become an extremist (S = ±2) or a moderate (S = ±1) is controlled by a reinforcement parameter r ≥ 0. The decision making dynamics on network B is akin to that of the Abrams-Strogatz model, where agents can be either in favor (S = +1) or against (S = −1) the issue. The probability that an agent changes its state is proportional to the fraction of neighbors that hold the opposite state raised to a power β. Starting from a polarized case scenario in which all agents of network A hold positive orientations while all agents of network B have a negative orientation, we explore the conditions under which one of the dynamics prevails over the other, imposing its initial orientation. We find that, for a given value of β, the two-network system reaches a consensus in the positive state (initial state of network A) when the reinforcement overcomes a crossover value r*(β), while a negative consensus happens for r βc. We develop an analytical mean-field approach that gives an insight into these regimes and shows that both dynamics are equivalent along the crossover line (r*, β*). PMID:27689698

  2. Robust collaborative process interactions under system crash and network failures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Lei; Wombacher, Andreas; Ferreira Pires, Luis; van Sinderen, Marten J.; Chi, Chihung

    2013-01-01

    With the possibility of system crashes and network failures, the design of robust client/server interactions for collaborative process execution is a challenge. If a business process changes its state, it sends messages to the relevant processes to inform about this change. However, server crashes

  3. An educational tool for interactive parallel and distributed processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pagliarini, Luigi; Lund, Henrik Hautop

    2012-01-01

    In this article we try to describe how the modular interactive tiles system (MITS) can be a valuable tool for introducing students to interactive parallel and distributed processing programming. This is done by providing a handson educational tool that allows a change in the representation...... of abstract problems related to designing interactive parallel and distributed systems. Indeed, the MITS seems to bring a series of goals into education, such as parallel programming, distributedness, communication protocols, master dependency, software behavioral models, adaptive interactivity, feedback...... interactive parallel and distributed processing with different behavioral software models such as open loop, randomness-based, rule-based, user interaction-based, and AI- and ALife-based software....

  4. Understanding and Managing Process Interaction in IS Development Projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bygstad, Bendik; Nielsen, Peter Axel

    2005-01-01

    -technical innovation in a situation where the organisational change process and the IS development process are parallel but incongruent. We also argue that iterative software engineering frameworks are well structured to support process interaction. Finally, we advocate that the IS project manager needs to manage......Increasingly, information systems must be developed and implemented as a part of business change. This is a challenge for the IS project manager, since business change and information systems development usually are performed as separate processes. Thus, there is a need to understand and manage...... development approach. The concept of process interaction enabled us to understand critical events in the case, in particular those that were important for the mutual adaptation between the information system and the organisation. We conclude that process interaction is needed to facilitate socio...

  5. Integrating conceptualizations of experience into the interaction design process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Peter

    2010-01-01

    From a design perspective, the increasing awareness of experiential aspects of interactive systems prompts the question of how conceptualizations of experience can inform and potentially be integrated into the interaction design process. This paper presents one approach to integrating theoretical...... perspectives on experience in design by formulating conceptual constructs that can guide design decisions....

  6. An Interactive Graphics Program for Investigating Digital Signal Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Billy K.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Describes development of an interactive computer graphics program for use in teaching digital signal processing. The program allows students to interactively configure digital systems on a monitor display and observe their system's performance by means of digital plots on the system's outputs. A sample program run is included. (JN)

  7. Increasing process understanding by analyzing complex interactions in experimental data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naelapaa, Kaisa; Allesø, Morten; Kristensen, Henning Gjelstrup;

    2009-01-01

    There is a recognized need for new approaches to understand unit operations with pharmaceutical relevance. A method for analyzing complex interactions in experimental data is introduced. Higher-order interactions do exist between process parameters, which complicate the interpretation...... understanding of a coating process. It was possible to model the response, that is, the amount of drug released, using both mentioned techniques. However, the ANOVAmodel was difficult to interpret as several interactions between process parameters existed. In contrast to ANOVA, GEMANOVA is especially suited...... for modeling complex interactions and making easily understandable models of these. GEMANOVA modeling allowed a simple visualization of the entire experimental space. Furthermore, information was obtained on how relative changes in the settings of process parameters influence the film quality and thereby drug...

  8. Theoretical Analysis of Dynamic Processes for Interacting Molecular Motors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teimouri, Hamid; Kolomeisky, Anatoly B; Mehrabiani, Kareem

    2015-02-13

    Biological transport is supported by collective dynamics of enzymatic molecules that are called motor proteins or molecular motors. Experiments suggest that motor proteins interact locally via short-range potentials. We investigate the fundamental role of these interactions by analyzing a new class of totally asymmetric exclusion processes where interactions are accounted for in a thermodynamically consistent fashion. It allows us to connect explicitly microscopic features of motor proteins with their collective dynamic properties. Theoretical analysis that combines various mean-field calculations and computer simulations suggests that dynamic properties of molecular motors strongly depend on interactions, and correlations are stronger for interacting motor proteins. Surprisingly, it is found that there is an optimal strength of interactions (weak repulsion) that leads to a maximal particle flux. It is also argued that molecular motors transport is more sensitive to attractive interactions. Applications of these results for kinesin motor proteins are discussed.

  9. An Agent Interaction Based Method for Nonlinear Process Plan Scheduling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Qinglu; WU Bo; GUO Guang

    2006-01-01

    This article puts forward a scheduling method for nonlinear process plan shop floor. Task allocation and load balance are realized by bidding mechanism. Though the agent interaction process, the execution of tasks is determined and the coherence of manufacturing decision is verified. The employment of heuristic index can help to optimize the system performance.

  10. Dialogue Theory as a Tool for Understanding Interactive Learning Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dysthe, Olga

    1999-01-01

    Explicates aspects of dialogue theory that may enhance understanding of educational processes in general and interactive learning processes in particular. Bakhtin's extended theory of dialogue, the concept of multivoicedness and Lotman's dual functions of texts are explained and used to analyze a Web-mediated discussion among university students.…

  11. The Interaction between Central and Peripheral Processes in Handwriting Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roux, Sebastien; McKeeff, Thomas J.; Grosjacques, Geraldine; Afonso, Olivia; Kandel, Sonia

    2013-01-01

    Written production studies investigating central processing have ignored research on the peripheral components of movement execution, and vice versa. This study attempts to integrate both approaches and provide evidence that central and peripheral processes interact during word production. French participants wrote regular words (e.g. FORME),…

  12. CASES ON COLLABORATION IN VIRTUAL LEARNIONG ENVIRONMENTS: Processes and Interactions

    OpenAIRE

    OZARSLAN, Reviewed By Yasin

    2010-01-01

    Collaboration in Virtual Learning Environment brings meaningful learning interactions between learners in virtual environments. This book collects case studies of collaborative virtual learning environments focusing on the nature of human interactions in virtual spaces and defining the types and qualities of learning processes in these spaces from the perspectives of learners, teachers, designers, and professional and academic developers in various disciplines, learning communities and univer...

  13. Physicochemical interaction and its influence on deep bed filtration process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jin-long; Meng, Jun; Li, Gui-ping; Luan, Zhao-kun; Tang, Hong-xiao

    2004-01-01

    The capillary model was used to analyze the hydraulic conditions in the deep bed filtration process. The physicochemical interaction forces between the filter media and suspended particles and their influence on deep bed filtration process were also studied theoretically. Through the comparison of the hydraulic and physicochemical forces, the key influencing factors on the filtration process were proposed and investigated. Pilot study of the microflocculation deep bed filtration was carried out in the No. 9 Potable Water Treatment Plant of Beijing, and the experimental results of hydraulic head loss, particle distribution and entrapment were presented. The theoretical prediction was reasonably consistent with the experimental results under different conditions, which indicated that the regulation and control of micro-flocculation and deep bed filtration could be realized by the evaluation of the physicochemical interactions. Further theoretical and experimental research should be carried out to investigate the interaction mechanism and its application in the deep bed filtration and other cases.

  14. Increasing process understanding by analyzing complex interactions in experimental data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naelapää, Kaisa; Allesø, Morten; Kristensen, Henning G; Bro, Rasmus; Rantanen, Jukka; Bertelsen, Poul

    2009-05-01

    There is a recognized need for new approaches to understand unit operations with pharmaceutical relevance. A method for analyzing complex interactions in experimental data is introduced. Higher-order interactions do exist between process parameters, which complicate the interpretation of experimental results. In this study, experiments based on mixed factorial design of coating process were performed. Drug release was analyzed by traditional analysis of variance (ANOVA) and generalized multiplicative ANOVA (GEMANOVA). GEMANOVA modeling is introduced in this study as a new tool for increased understanding of a coating process. It was possible to model the response, that is, the amount of drug released, using both mentioned techniques. However, the ANOVA model was difficult to interpret as several interactions between process parameters existed. In contrast to ANOVA, GEMANOVA is especially suited for modeling complex interactions and making easily understandable models of these. GEMANOVA modeling allowed a simple visualization of the entire experimental space. Furthermore, information was obtained on how relative changes in the settings of process parameters influence the film quality and thereby drug release.

  15. Power diagrams and interaction processes for unions of discs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Jesper; Helisova, Katarina

    We study a flexible class of finite disc process models with interaction between the discs. We let U denote the random set given by the union of discs, and use for the disc process an exponential family density with the canonical sufficient statistic only depending on geometric properties of U...... such as the area, perimeter, Euler-Poincar´e characteristic, and number of holes. This includes the quarmass-interaction process and the continuum random cluster model as special cases. Viewing our model as a connected component Markov point process, and thereby establish local and spatial Markov properties......, becomes useful for handling the problem of edge effects when only U is observed within a bounded observation window. The power tessellation and its dual graph become major tools when establishing inclusion-exclusion formulae, formulae for computing geometric characteristics of U, and stability properties...

  16. Power diagrams and interaction processes for unions of discs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Jesper; Helisova, Katerina

    2008-01-01

     We study a flexible class of finite-disc process models with interaction between the discs. We let U denote the random set given by the union of discs, and use for the disc process an exponential family density with the canonical sufficient statistic depending only on geometric properties of U...... such as the area, perimeter, Euler-Poincaré characteristic, and the number of holes. This includes the quermass-interaction process and the continuum random-cluster model as special cases. Viewing our model as a connected component Markov point process, and thereby establishing local and spatial Markov properties......, becomes useful for handling the problem of edge effects when only U is observed within a bounded observation window. The power tessellation and its dual graph become major tools when establishing inclusion-exclusion formulae, formulae for computing geometric characteristics of U, and stability properties...

  17. Cerebro-cerebellar interactions underlying temporal information processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aso, Kenji; Hanakawa, Takashi; Aso, Toshihiko; Fukuyama, Hidenao

    2010-12-01

    The neural basis of temporal information processing remains unclear, but it is proposed that the cerebellum plays an important role through its internal clock or feed-forward computation functions. In this study, fMRI was used to investigate the brain networks engaged in perceptual and motor aspects of subsecond temporal processing without accompanying coprocessing of spatial information. Direct comparison between perceptual and motor aspects of time processing was made with a categorical-design analysis. The right lateral cerebellum (lobule VI) was active during a time discrimination task, whereas the left cerebellar lobule VI was activated during a timed movement generation task. These findings were consistent with the idea that the cerebellum contributed to subsecond time processing in both perceptual and motor aspects. The feed-forward computational theory of the cerebellum predicted increased cerebro-cerebellar interactions during time information processing. In fact, a psychophysiological interaction analysis identified the supplementary motor and dorsal premotor areas, which had a significant functional connectivity with the right cerebellar region during a time discrimination task and with the left lateral cerebellum during a timed movement generation task. The involvement of cerebro-cerebellar interactions may provide supportive evidence that temporal information processing relies on the simulation of timing information through feed-forward computation in the cerebellum.

  18. Visualizing the process of interaction in a 3D environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaidya, Vivek; Suryanarayanan, Srikanth; Krishnan, Kajoli; Mullick, Rakesh

    2007-03-01

    As the imaging modalities used in medicine transition to increasingly three-dimensional data the question of how best to interact with and analyze this data becomes ever more pressing. Immersive virtual reality systems seem to hold promise in tackling this, but how individuals learn and interact in these environments is not fully understood. Here we will attempt to show some methods in which user interaction in a virtual reality environment can be visualized and how this can allow us to gain greater insight into the process of interaction/learning in these systems. Also explored is the possibility of using this method to improve understanding and management of ergonomic issues within an interface.

  19. Helical mode interactions and spectral transfer processes in magnetohydrodynamic turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Linkmann, Moritz F; McKay, Mairi E; Jäger, Julia

    2015-01-01

    Spectral transfer processes in magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence are investigated analytically by decomposition of the velocity and magnetic fields in Fourier space into helical modes. Steady solutions of the dynamical system which governs the evolution of the helical modes are determined, and a stability analysis of these solutions is carried out. The interpretation of the analysis is that unstable solutions lead to energy transfer between the interacting modes while stable solutions do not. From this, a dependence of possible interscale energy and helicity transfers on the helicities of the interacting modes is derived. As expected from the inverse cascade of magnetic helicity in 3D MHD turbulence, mode interactions with like helicities lead to transfer of energy and magnetic helicity to smaller wavenumbers. However, some interactions of modes with unlike helicities also contribute to an inverse energy transfer. As such, an inverse energy cascade for nonhelical magnetic fields is shown to be possible. Fu...

  20. Modeling supercritical fluid extraction process involving solute-solid interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goto, M.; Roy, B. Kodama, A.; Hirose, T. [Kumamoto Univ., Kumamoto (Japan)

    1998-04-01

    Extraction or leaching of solute from natural solid material is a mass transfer process involving dissolution or release of solutes from a solid matrix. Interaction between the solute and solid matrix often influences the supercritical fluid extraction process. A model accounting for the solute-solid interaction as well as mass transfer is developed. The BET equation is used to incorporate the interaction and the solubility of solutes into the local equilibrium in the model. Experimental data for the supercritical extraction of essential oil and cuticular wax from peppermint leaves are successfully analyzed by the model. The effects of parameters on the extraction behavior are demonstrated to illustrate the concept of the model. 18 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Corticostriatal interactions during learning, memory processing, and decision making

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.M.A. Pennartz; J.D. Berke; A.M. Graybiel; R. Ito; C.S. Lansink; M. van der Meer; A.D. Redish; K.S. Smith; P. Voorn

    2009-01-01

    This mini-symposium aims to integrate recent insights from anatomy, behavior, and neurophysiology, highlighting the anatomical organization, behavioral significance, and information-processing mechanisms of corticostriatal interactions. In this summary of topics, which is not meant to provide a comp

  2. Interaction and Collective Movement Processing : Report from Dagstuhl Seminar 14132

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2014-01-01

    This report documents the program and the outcomes of Dagstuhl Seminar 14132 “Interaction and Collective Movement Processing”. This seminar brought together a group of 30 scientists with varied backgrounds, but with a shared interest in computations involved in the processing of moving entity data,

  3. CASES ON COLLABORATION IN VIRTUAL LEARNIONG ENVIRONMENTS: Processes and Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reviewed by Yasin OZARSLAN

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Collaboration in Virtual Learning Environment brings meaningful learning interactions between learners in virtual environments. This book collects case studies of collaborative virtual learning environments focusing on the nature of human interactions in virtual spaces and defining the types and qualities of learning processes in these spaces from the perspectives of learners, teachers, designers, and professional and academic developers in various disciplines, learning communities and universities from around the world. This book addresses the research cases on experiences, implementations, and applications of virtual learning environments.The book's broader audience is anyone who is interested in areas such as collaborative virtual learning environments, interactive technologies and virtual communities, social interaction and social competence, distance education and collaborative learning. The book is edited by Donna Russell who is an Assistant Professor at the University of Missouri-Kansas City and co-owner of Arete‘ Consulting, LLC. It is consisted of 358 pages covering 19 articles and provides information about context for characteristics and implications of the varied virtual learning environments. Topics covered in this book are argumentative interactions and learning, collaborative learning and work in digital libraries, collaborative virtual learning environments , digital communities to enhance retention, distance education ,interactive technologies and virtual communities, massively multi-user virtual environments, online graduate community, online training programs, social interaction and social competence and virtual story-worlds.

  4. Ecosystem management via interacting models of political and ecological processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haas, T. C.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The decision to implement environmental protection options is a political one. Political realities may cause a country to not heed the most persuasive scientific analysis of an ecosystem's future health. A predictive understanding of the political processes that result in ecosystem management decisions may help guide ecosystem management policymaking. To this end, this article develops a stochastic, temporal model of how political processes influence and are influenced by ecosystem processes. This model is realized in a system of interacting influence diagrams that model the decision making of a country's political bodies. These decisions interact with a model of the ecosystem enclosed by the country. As an example, a model for Cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus management in Kenya is constructed and fitted to decision and ecological data.

  5. Physicochemical interaction and its influence on deep bed filtration process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Jin-long; MENG Jun; LI GUI-ping; LUAN Zhao-kun; TANG Hong-xiao

    2004-01-01

    The capillary model was used to analyze the hydraulic conditions in the deep bed filtration process. Thephysicochemical interaction forces between the filter media and suspended particles and their influence on deep bedfiltration process were also studied theoretically. Through the comparison of the hydraulic and physicochemicalforces, the key influencing factors on the filtration process were proposed and investigated. Pilot study of the micro-flocculation deep bed filtration was carried out in the No. 9 Potable Water Treatment Plant of Beijing, and theexperimental results of hydraulic head loss, particle distribution and entrapment were presented. The theoreticalprediction was reasonably consistent with the experimental results under different conditions, which indicated that theregulation and control of micro-flocculation and deep bed filtration could be realized by the evaluation of thephysicochemical interactions. Further theoretical and experimental research should be carried out to investigate theinteraction mechanism and its application in the deep bed filtration and other cases.

  6. Interactive, process-oriented climate modeling with CLIMLAB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, B. E. J.

    2016-12-01

    Global climate is a complex emergent property of the rich interactions between simpler components of the climate system. We build scientific understanding of this system by breaking it down into component process models (e.g. radiation, large-scale dynamics, boundary layer turbulence), understanding each components, and putting them back together. Hands-on experience and freedom to tinker with climate models (whether simple or complex) is invaluable for building physical understanding. CLIMLAB is an open-ended software engine for interactive, process-oriented climate modeling. With CLIMLAB you can interactively mix and match model components, or combine simpler process models together into a more comprehensive model. It was created primarily to support classroom activities, using hands-on modeling to teach fundamentals of climate science at both undergraduate and graduate levels. CLIMLAB is written in Python and ties in with the rich ecosystem of open-source scientific Python tools for numerics and graphics. The Jupyter Notebook format provides an elegant medium for distributing interactive example code. I will give an overview of the current capabilities of CLIMLAB, the curriculum we have developed thus far, and plans for the future. Using CLIMLAB requires some basic Python coding skills. We consider this an educational asset, as we are targeting upper-level undergraduates and Python is an increasingly important language in STEM fields.

  7. Temperature regulates deterministic processes and the succession of microbial interactions in anaerobic digestion process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Qiang; De Vrieze, Jo; Li, Chaonan; Li, Jiaying; Li, Jiabao; Yao, Minjie; Hedenec, Petr; Li, Huan; Li, Tongtong; Rui, Junpeng; Frouz, Jan; Li, Xiangzhen

    2017-10-15

    Temperature plays crucial roles in microbial interactions that affect the stability and performance of anaerobic digestion. In this study, the microbial interactions and their succession in the anaerobic digestion process were investigated at three levels, represented by (1) present and (2) active micro-organisms, and (3) gene expressions under a temperature gradient from 25 to 55 °C. Network topological features indicated a global variation in microbial interactions at different temperatures. The variations of microbial interactions in terms of network modularity and deterministic processes based on topological features, corresponded well with the variations of methane productions, but not with temperatures. A common successional pattern of microbial interactions was observed at different temperatures, which showed that both deterministic processes and network modularity increased over time during the digestion process. It was concluded that the increase in temperature-mediated network modularity and deterministic processes on shaping the microbial interactions improved the stability and efficiency of anaerobic digestion process. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Social signal processing for studying parent–infant interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avril, Marie; Leclère, Chloë; Viaux, Sylvie; Michelet, Stéphane; Achard, Catherine; Missonnier, Sylvain; Keren, Miri; Cohen, David; Chetouani, Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    Studying early interactions is a core issue of infant development and psychopathology. Automatic social signal processing theoretically offers the possibility to extract and analyze communication by taking an integrative perspective, considering the multimodal nature and dynamics of behaviors (including synchrony). This paper proposes an explorative method to acquire and extract relevant social signals from a naturalistic early parent–infant interaction. An experimental setup is proposed based on both clinical and technical requirements. We extracted various cues from body postures and speech productions of partners using the IMI2S (Interaction, Multimodal Integration, and Social Signal) Framework. Preliminary clinical and computational results are reported for two dyads (one pathological in a situation of severe emotional neglect and one normal control) as an illustration of our cross-disciplinary protocol. The results from both clinical and computational analyzes highlight similar differences: the pathological dyad shows dyssynchronic interaction led by the infant whereas the control dyad shows synchronic interaction and a smooth interactive dialog. The results suggest that the current method might be promising for future studies. PMID:25540633

  9. Social signal processing for studying parent-infant interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avril, Marie; Leclère, Chloë; Viaux, Sylvie; Michelet, Stéphane; Achard, Catherine; Missonnier, Sylvain; Keren, Miri; Cohen, David; Chetouani, Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    Studying early interactions is a core issue of infant development and psychopathology. Automatic social signal processing theoretically offers the possibility to extract and analyze communication by taking an integrative perspective, considering the multimodal nature and dynamics of behaviors (including synchrony). This paper proposes an explorative method to acquire and extract relevant social signals from a naturalistic early parent-infant interaction. An experimental setup is proposed based on both clinical and technical requirements. We extracted various cues from body postures and speech productions of partners using the IMI2S (Interaction, Multimodal Integration, and Social Signal) Framework. Preliminary clinical and computational results are reported for two dyads (one pathological in a situation of severe emotional neglect and one normal control) as an illustration of our cross-disciplinary protocol. The results from both clinical and computational analyzes highlight similar differences: the pathological dyad shows dyssynchronic interaction led by the infant whereas the control dyad shows synchronic interaction and a smooth interactive dialog. The results suggest that the current method might be promising for future studies.

  10. Small Interactive Image Processing System (SMIPS) users manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moik, J. G.

    1973-01-01

    The Small Interactive Image Processing System (SMIP) is designed to facilitate the acquisition, digital processing and recording of image data as well as pattern recognition in an interactive mode. Objectives of the system are ease of communication with the computer by personnel who are not expert programmers, fast response to requests for information on pictures, complete error recovery as well as simplification of future programming efforts for extension of the system. The SMIP system is intended for operation under OS/MVT on an IBM 360/75 or 91 computer equipped with the IBM-2250 Model 1 display unit. This terminal is used as an interface between user and main computer. It has an alphanumeric keyboard, a programmed function keyboard and a light pen which are used for specification of input to the system. Output from the system is displayed on the screen as messages and pictures.

  11. Interactive Digital Image Processing for Terrain Data Extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-09-01

    28 are illustrations of the subscenes as displayed on the cathode ray tube (CRT). The data are shown inverted to a negative. Geographic scene...LINE SEGEMENTS INTO THIS AREA (THEME PROCESSOR) Figure 52. Categorizing a Dry Gap By Width 78 OONOO. IP. *31O1101 II TS)O H NInit I IN . 4110V 1I| 0...minor change the program is recommended for general interactive use. e To date, processing of imagery data has been restricted to small geographical areas

  12. Asymptotic behaviour of extinction probability of interacting branching collision processes

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Anyue; Li, Junping; Chen, Yiqing; Zhou, Dingxuan

    2014-01-01

    Although the exact expressions for the extinction probabilities of the Interacting Branching Collision Processes (IBCP) were very recently given by Chen et al. [4], some of these expressions are very complicated; hence, useful information regarding asymptotic behaviour, for example, is harder to obtain. Also, these exact expressions take very different forms for different cases and thus seem lacking in homogeneity. In this paper, we show that the asymptotic behaviour of these extr...

  13. Nordic hydrogen energy foresight - challenges of managing the interactive process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eerola, A.; Loikkanen, T.; Koljonen, T.

    2005-01-01

    features of the project. The foresight process included a series of interactive workshops, supported by systems analysis and assessment of technical developments. The project partners and others interestedin the topic were linked by an informative project website. The aim of the project was to provide...... of the project in the light of a dynamic model ofshared knowledge creation. In particular, the ways in which the design and the methodological tools facilitated the process and its management are discussed. Some suggestions for forthcoming foresight exercises are also presented....

  14. On the concentration properties of Interacting particle processes

    CERN Document Server

    Del Moral, Pierre; Wu, Liming

    2011-01-01

    These lecture notes present some new concentration inequalities for Feynman-Kac particle processes. We analyze different types of stochastic particle models, including particle profile occupation measures, genealogical tree based evolution models, particle free energies, as well as backward Markov chain particle models. We illustrate these results with a series of topics related to computational physics and biology, stochastic optimization, signal processing and bayesian statistics, and many other probabilistic machine learning algorithms. Special emphasis is given to the stochastic modeling and the quantitative performance analysis of a series of advanced Monte Carlo methods, including particle filters, genetic type island models, Markov bridge models, interacting particle Markov chain Monte Carlo methodologies.

  15. Student nurses' learning processes in interaction with psychiatric patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragelund, Linda

    2011-01-01

    . A fuller understanding of how student nurses function and learn during clinical training is vital. This article presents the findings of a qualitative investigation of student nurses’ learning processes during their clinical placement in psychiatric nursing practice. An explorative and qualitative...... to understanding and analysing the content of student nurses’ learning processes. Data was generated from qualitative, semi-structured interviews with, observations of, and obser-views with, eleven students. The obser-view process is my development. It is a common reflection between researcher and research...... participant which takes place just after the researcher’s observation of the participant in interaction with a patient. The role of the researcher is to be a catalyst for the reflection. Using qualitative content analysis, a model of student nurses learning processes, termed the ‘Windmill of Learning...

  16. Understanding and Managing Process Interaction in IS Development Projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bygstad, Bendik; Nielsen, Peter Axel

    2012-01-01

    critical events in the case, what led to the events, and what the consequences are. We discuss the implications for information systems research and in particular we discuss the contribution to project management of iterative and incremental software development.......Software-based information systems must be developed and implemented as a part of business change. This is a major challenge, since business change and the development of software-based information systems usually are performed in separate processes. Thus, there is a need to understand and manage...... the relationship between these two kinds of processes. In this paper we draw on a longitudinal case study. We suggest a framework to analyze the case as interaction between software development processes and organizational change processes. In the analysis we find that the framework enables us to understand...

  17. Interacting sources of interference during sensorimotor integration processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mückschel, Moritz; Stock, Ann-Kathrin; Dippel, Gabriel; Chmielewski, Witold; Beste, Christian

    2016-01-15

    Every day, a multitude of interfering sensory inputs needs to be integrated and adequately processed using response selection processes. Interference effects are typically investigated using classical paradigms like the Flanker and Simon task. The sources of interference for Flanker and Simon effect are known to be different and according to dual process accounts, two distinct functional pathways are involved in resolving these types of interference. It is an open question how far these sources of interference are related to each other and interact. We investigated this question in a system neurophysiological study utilizing a hybrid paradigm combining both Flanker effect-like and Simon effect-like features. We focus on event-related theta oscillations and use beamforming methods to examine functional neuroanatomical networks. The results show that Simon and Flanker interference interacted in a non-additive fashion by modulating theta band activity, probably reflecting the recruitment of cognitive control processes. Beamforming source reconstruction revealed that theta band activity was related to a broad neuronal network comprising prefrontal and cerebellar regions, including the MFG, SFG, IFG, and SMA. These regions were connected to interference processing and conflict resolution, but differed in the amount of specificity for different sources of interference. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Fluid-Solid Interaction and Multiscale Dynamic Processes: Experimental Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arciniega-Ceballos, Alejandra; Spina, Laura; Mendo-Pérez, Gerardo M.; Guzmán-Vázquez, Enrique; Scheu, Bettina; Sánchez-Sesma, Francisco J.; Dingwell, Donald B.

    2017-04-01

    The speed and the style of a pressure drop in fluid-filled conduits determines the dynamics of multiscale processes and the elastic interaction between the fluid and the confining solid. To observe this dynamics we performed experiments using fluid-filled transparent tubes (15-50 cm long, 2-4 cm diameter and 0.3-1 cm thickness) instrumented with high-dynamic piezoelectric sensors and filmed the evolution of these processes with a high speed camera. We analyzed the response of Newtonian fluids to slow and sudden pressure drops from 3 bar-10 MPa to ambient pressure. We used fluids with viscosities of mafic to intermediate silicate melts of 1 to 1000 Pa s and water. The processes observed are fluid mass expansion, fluid flow, jets, bubbles nucleation, growth, coalescence and collapse, degassing, foam building at the surface and vertical wagging. All these processes (in fine and coarse scales) are triggered by the pressure drop and are sequentially coupled in time while interacting with the solid. During slow decompression, the multiscale processes are recognized occurring within specific pressure intervals, and exhibit a localized distribution along the conduit. In this, degassing predominates near the surface and may present piston-like oscillations. In contrast, during sudden decompression the fluid-flow reaches higher velocities, the dynamics is dominated by a sequence of gas-packet pulses driving jets of the gas-fluid mixture. The evolution of this multiscale phenomenon generates complex non-stationary microseismic signals recorded along the conduit. We discuss distinctive characteristics of these signals depending on the decompression style and compare them with synthetics. These synthetics are obtained numerically under an averaging modeling scheme, that accounted for the stress-strain of the cyclic dynamic interaction between the fluid and the solid wall, assuming an incompressible and viscous fluid that flows while the elastic solid responds oscillating

  19. Dynamics Models of Interacting Torques of Hydrodynamic Retarder Braking Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenhao Shen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrodynamic retarder is a kind of assist braking device, which can transfer the vehicle kinetic energy into the heat energy of working medium. There are complicated three-dimensional viscous incompressible turbulent flows in hydrodynamic retarder, so that it is difficult to represent the parameters changing phenomenon and investigate the interactional law. In order to develop a kind of reliable theoretical model for internal flow field, in this study, the dynamics models of interacting torques between impellers and working fluid were constructed based on braking energy transfer principle by using Euler theory to describe the flow state in view of time scale. The model can truly represent the dynamic braking process.

  20. A host-parasite multilevel interacting process and continuous approximations

    CERN Document Server

    Méléard, Sylvie

    2011-01-01

    We are interested in modeling some two-level population dynamics, resulting from the interplay of ecological interactions and phenotypic variation of individuals (or hosts) and the evolution of cells (or parasites) of two types living in these individuals. The ecological parameters of the individual dynamics depend on the number of cells of each type contained by the individual and the cell dynamics depends on the trait of the invaded individual. Our models are rooted in the microscopic description of a random (discrete) population of individuals characterized by one or several adaptive traits and cells characterized by their type. The population is modeled as a stochastic point process whose generator captures the probabilistic dynamics over continuous time of birth, mutation and death for individuals and birth and death for cells. The interaction between individuals (resp. between cells) is described by a competition between individual traits (resp. between cell types). We look for tractable large populatio...

  1. Interactive Processes Between University Students: Structures of Interactions and Related Cognitive Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aufschnaiter, Claudia V.

    2003-06-01

    Interactions between peers as well as between students and teachers play an important role in social learning. Although much research investigates the structure of (peer) discourse and its relation to learning outcomes, only a few studies try to describe in detail how individuals create meaning for content developed within the dialogues. Thus, it often remains unclear which contents and structures of the discourse contributed to the development of individual knowledge and which did not. This paper describes a study that investigated in great detail peer discourse and its relation to the cognitive development of every participating learner. In total, 27 university students were followed with video while working in pairs during physics laboratory exercises on electrodynamics. Students'' cognitive processes developed during their interactions were reconstructed from the video by a small step analysis and students'' meaning-making of other participants'' contributions was investigated. Results show that students only interact about topics they already know whereas they develop new meaning outside of interactive processes.

  2. Interactions between visceral afferent signaling and stimulus processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo D Critchley

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Visceral afferent signals to the brain influence thoughts, feelings and behaviour. Here we highlight the findings of a set of empirical investigations in humans concerning body-mind interaction that focus on how feedback from states of autonomic arousal shapes cognition and emotion. There is a longstanding debate regarding the contribution of the body, to mental processes. Recent theoretical models broadly acknowledge the role of (autonomically-mediated physiological arousal to emotional, social and motivational behaviours, yet the underlying mechanisms are only partially characterized. Neuroimaging is overcoming this shortfall; first, by demonstrating correlations between autonomic change and discrete patterns of evoked, and task-independent, neural activity; second, by mapping the central consequences of clinical perturbations in autonomic response and; third, by probing how dynamic fluctuations in peripheral autonomic state are integrated with perceptual, cognitive and emotional processes. Building on the notion that an important source of the brain’s representation of physiological arousal is derived from afferent information from arterial baroreceptors, we have exploited the phasic nature of these signals to show their differential contribution to the processing of emotionally-salient stimuli. This recent work highlights the facilitation at neural and behavioral levels of fear and threat processing that contrasts with the more established observations of the inhibition of central pain processing during baroreceptors activation. The implications of this body-brain-mind axis are discussed.

  3. Temporal factors affecting somatosensory-auditory interactions in speech processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takayuki eIto

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Speech perception is known to rely on both auditory and visual information. However, sound specific somatosensory input has been shown also to influence speech perceptual processing (Ito et al., 2009. In the present study we addressed further the relationship between somatosensory information and speech perceptual processing by addressing the hypothesis that the temporal relationship between orofacial movement and sound processing contributes to somatosensory-auditory interaction in speech perception. We examined the changes in event-related potentials in response to multisensory synchronous (simultaneous and asynchronous (90 ms lag and lead somatosensory and auditory stimulation compared to individual unisensory auditory and somatosensory stimulation alone. We used a robotic device to apply facial skin somatosensory deformations that were similar in timing and duration to those experienced in speech production. Following synchronous multisensory stimulation the amplitude of the event-related potential was reliably different from the two unisensory potentials. More importantly, the magnitude of the event-related potential difference varied as a function of the relative timing of the somatosensory-auditory stimulation. Event-related activity change due to stimulus timing was seen between 160-220 ms following somatosensory onset, mostly around the parietal area. The results demonstrate a dynamic modulation of somatosensory-auditory convergence and suggest the contribution of somatosensory information for speech processing process is dependent on the specific temporal order of sensory inputs in speech production.

  4. Religious processes as intercultural interaction: Contours of a sociological discourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lebedev Sergej

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available During 'cyclic' historical periods it would be correct to interpret religious processes in terms of interaction of two essentially different, but substantially, structurally and functionally comparative types of integrating cultural complexes that, in historical perspective, compete with each other on the effect on individuals and society in general. Such complexes represent secular and religious culture. Contemporary socio-cultural situation can be defined as an asymmetric representativeness of both secular and religious cultures. In a modern secular society, dominance of a secular culture over a religious one can be manifested in three basic dimensions: substantial, regulative and subjective ones. Secular culture is adopted during the primary socialization process. However, religious culture is still adopted through conscious, voluntary selection in younger or more mature age. It may be possible to determine two basic attitudes of the contemporary ('secularized' man towards religion. The first attitude may be called 'reversive' and the other one 'conversive'.

  5. Supply Chain Management: from Linear Interactions to Networked Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doina FOTACHE

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Supply Chain Management is a distinctive product, with a tremendous impact on the software applications market. SCM applications are back-end solutions intended to link suppliers, manufacturers, distributors and resellers in a production and distribution network, which allows the enterprise to track and consolidate the flows of materials and data trough the process of manufacturing and distribution of goods/services. The advent of the Web as a major means of conducting business transactions and business-tobusiness communications, coupled with evolving web-based supply chain management (SCM technology, has resulted in a transition period from “linear” supply chain models to "networked" supply chain models. The technologies to enable dynamic process changes and real time interactions between extended supply chain partners are emerging and being deployed at an accelerated pace.

  6. Interactive Social Media and (de-reformation processes of citizenships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángel GARCÍA DEL DUJO

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Are new technologies encouraging a (reconstruction of the concept and phenomenon of citizenship? This work gives a reading of the ways on how these technologies can contribute to some shaping processes and citizen empowerment that our time requires. The article proposes the concept of relationship as a bridge to transit between the two pillars of reflection, new technologies and (de-reconstruction processes of citizenship, then describing the context of international research which the results belong to –the project Interactive Media for Social Integration. Skilss Bartering, Empowerment and Informal Learning– as well as the methodology used –Community Reporting. The results are finally submitted to theoretical and pedagogical discussion from technologically emerging civic values.

  7. Effects of interactions on the relaxation processes in magnetic nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Lewis J.; Ostler, Thomas A.; Hovorka, O.; Wang, K. K.; Lu, B.; Ju, G. P.; Hohlfeld, J.; Bergman, B.; Koopmans, B.; Chantrell, Roy W.

    2016-10-01

    Controlling the relaxation of magnetization in magnetic nanostructures is key to optimizing magnetic storage device performance. This relaxation is governed by both intrinsic and extrinsic relaxation mechanisms and with the latter strongly dependent on the interactions between the nanostructures. In the present work we investigate laser induced magnetization dynamics in a broadband optical resonance type experiment revealing the role of interactions between nanostructures on the relaxation processes of granular magnetic structures. The results are corroborated by constructing a temperature dependent numerical micromagnetic model of magnetization dynamics based on the Landau-Lifshitz-Bloch equation. The model predicts a strong dependence of damping on the key material properties of coupled granular nanostructures in good agreement with the experimental data. We show that the intergranular, magnetostatic and exchange interactions provide a large extrinsic contribution to the damping. Finally we show that the mechanism can be attributed to an increase in spin-wave degeneracy with the ferromagnetic resonance mode as revealed by semianalytical spin-wave calculations.

  8. Understanding metallic bonding: Structure, process and interaction by Rasch analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Maurice M. W.; Oon, Pey-Tee

    2016-08-01

    This paper reports the results of a survey of 3006 Year 10-12 students on their understandings of metallic bonding. The instrument was developed based on Chi's ontological categories of scientific concepts and students' understanding of metallic bonding as reported in the literature. The instrument has two parts. Part one probed into students' understanding of metallic bonding as (a) a submicro structure of metals, (b) a process in which individual metal atoms lose their outermost shell electrons to form a 'sea of electrons' and octet metal cations or (c) an all-directional electrostatic force between delocalized electrons and metal cations, that is, an interaction. Part two assessed students' explanation of malleability of metals, for example (a) as a submicro structural rearrangement of metal atoms/cations or (b) based on all-directional electrostatic force. The instrument was validated by the Rasch Model. Psychometric assessment showed that the instrument possessed reasonably good properties of measurement. Results revealed that it was reliable and valid for measuring students' understanding of metallic bonding. Analysis revealed that the structure, process and interaction understandings were unidimensional and in an increasing order of difficulty. Implications for the teaching of metallic bonding, particular through the use of diagrams, critiques and model-based learning, are discussed.

  9. Interacting Stochastic Processes: From Viciousness to Caging to Force Chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Shiliyang

    This thesis documents a quest to develop and study several novel interacting stochastic processes. As for the first example, we generalize a system of vicious random walkers in which the only interaction between any two random walkers is that when they intersect, both walkers are annihilated. We define a system of N vicious accelerating walkers with each walker undergoing random acceleration and compute the survival probability distribution for this system. We also define and study a system of N vicious Levy flights in which any two Levy flights crossing one another annihilate each other. The average mean-squared displacement of a Levy flight is not proportional to time, but scales with what is known as the Levy index divided by two. In both cases, vicious accelerating walkers and vicious Levy flights, we are motivated by ultimately generalizing our understanding of Gaussian random matrices via non-Markovian and non-Gaussian extensions respectively. Moreover, inspired by recent experiments on periodically sheared colloids at low densities, we define and investigate several new contact processes, or interacting stochastic processes, with conserved particle number and three-or-more-body interactions. We do so to characterize the periodically sheared colloidal system at higher densities. We find two new dynamical phase transitions between an active phase, where some fraction of the colloids are always being displaced from their position at the beginning and end of each shear cycle, and an inactive phase in which all colloids return to their initial positions at the end of each shear cycle. One of the transitions is discontinuous, while the second, which is due to a caging, or crowding, effect at high densities, appears to be continuous and in a new universality from what is known as conserved directed percolation. The latter transition may have implications for the onset of glassiness in dense, particulate systems. In addition, this thesis also includes analysis of

  10. Signals, processes, and systems an interactive multimedia introduction to signal processing

    CERN Document Server

    Karrenberg, Ulrich

    2013-01-01

    This is a very new concept for learning Signal Processing, not only from the physically-based scientific fundamentals, but also from the didactic perspective, based on modern results of brain research. The textbook together with the DVD form a learning system that provides investigative studies and enables the reader to interactively visualize even complex processes. The unique didactic concept is built on visualizing signals and processes on the one hand, and on graphical programming of signal processing systems on the other. The concept has been designed especially for microelectronics, computer technology and communication. The book allows to develop, modify, and optimize useful applications using DasyLab - a professional and globally supported software for metrology and control engineering. With the 3rd edition, the software is also suitable for 64 bit systems running on Windows 7. Real signals can be acquired, processed and played on the sound card of your computer. The book provides more than 200 pre-pr...

  11. Emotional Processing, Interaction Process, and Outcome in Clarification-Oriented Psychotherapy for Personality Disorders: A Process-Outcome Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Ueli; Pascual-Leone, Antonio; Rohde, Kristina B; Sachse, Rainer

    2016-06-01

    It is important to understand the change processes involved in psychotherapies for patients with personality disorders (PDs). One patient process that promises to be useful in relation to the outcome of psychotherapy is emotional processing. In the present process-outcome analysis, we examine this question by using a sequential model of emotional processing and by additionally taking into account a therapist's appropriate responsiveness to a patient's presentation in clarification-oriented psychotherapy (COP), a humanistic-experiential form of therapy. The present study involved 39 patients with a range of PDs undergoing COP. Session 25 was assessed as part of the working phase of each therapy by external raters in terms of emotional processing using the Classification of Affective-Meaning States (CAMS) and in terms of the overall quality of therapist-patient interaction using the Process-Content-Relationship Scale (BIBS). Treatment outcome was assessed pre- and post-therapy using the Global Severity Index (GSI) of the SCL-90-R and the BDI. Results indicate that the good outcome cases showed more self-compassion, more rejecting anger, and a higher quality of therapist-patient interaction compared to poorer outcome cases. For good outcome cases, emotional processing predicted 18% of symptom change at the end of treatment, which was not found for poor outcome cases. These results are discussed within the framework of an integrative understanding of emotional processing as an underlying mechanism of change in COP, and perhaps in other effective therapy approaches for PDs.

  12. Nonlinear processes in the strong wave-plasma interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pegoraro, Francesco; Califano, Francesco; Attico, Nicola; Bulanov, Sergei

    2000-10-01

    Nonlinear interactions in hot laboratory and/or astrophysical plasmas are a very efficient mechanism able to transfer the energy from the large to the small spatial scales of the system. As a result, kinetic processes are excited and play a key role in the plasma dynamics since the typical fluid dissipative length scales (where the nonlinear cascade is stopped) are (much) smaller then the kinetic length scales. Then, the key point is the role of the kinetic effects in the global plasma dynamics, i.e. whether the kinetic effects remains confined to the small scales of the system or whether there is a significant feedback on the large scales. Here we will address this problem by discussing the nonlinear kinetic evolution of the electromagnetic beam plasma instability where phase space vortices, as well as large scale vortex like magnetic structures in the physical space, are generated by wave - particle interactions. The role and influence of kinetic effects on the large scale plasma dynamics will be also discussed by addressing the problem of collisionless magnetic reconection.

  13. Anvil Forecast Tool in the Advanced Weather Interactive Processing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Joe H., III; Hood, Doris

    2009-01-01

    Meteorologists from the 45th Weather Squadron (45 WS) and National Weather Service Spaceflight Meteorology Group (SMG) have identified anvil forecasting as one of their most challenging tasks when predicting the probability of violations of the Lightning Launch Commit Criteria and Space Shuttle Flight Rules. As a result, the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) was tasked to create a graphical overlay tool for the Meteorological Interactive Data Display System (MIDDS) that indicates the threat of thunderstorm anvil clouds, using either observed or model forecast winds as input. The tool creates a graphic depicting the potential location of thunderstorm anvils one, two, and three hours into the future. The locations are based on the average of the upper level observed or forecasted winds. The graphic includes 10 and 20 n mi standoff circles centered at the location of interest, as well as one-, two-, and three-hour arcs in the upwind direction. The arcs extend outward across a 30 sector width based on a previous AMU study that determined thunderstorm anvils move in a direction plus or minus 15 of the upper-level wind direction. The AMU was then tasked to transition the tool to the Advanced Weather Interactive Processing System (AWIPS). SMG later requested the tool be updated to provide more flexibility and quicker access to model data. This presentation describes the work performed by the AMU to transition the tool into AWIPS, as well as the subsequent improvements made to the tool.

  14. Interacting discrete Markov processes with power-law probability distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridley, Kevin D.; Jakeman, Eric

    2017-09-01

    During recent years there has been growing interest in the occurrence of long-tailed distributions, also known as heavy-tailed or fat-tailed distributions, which can exhibit power-law behaviour and often characterise physical systems that undergo very large fluctuations. In this paper we show that the interaction between two discrete Markov processes naturally generates a time-series characterised by such a distribution. This possibility is first demonstrated by numerical simulation and then confirmed by a mathematical analysis that enables the parameter range over which the power-law occurs to be quantified. The results are supported by comparison of numerical results with theoretical predictions and general conclusions are drawn regarding mechanisms that can cause this behaviour.

  15. Quantitative sociodynamics stochastic methods and models of social interaction processes

    CERN Document Server

    Helbing, Dirk

    1995-01-01

    Quantitative Sociodynamics presents a general strategy for interdisciplinary model building and its application to a quantitative description of behavioural changes based on social interaction processes. Originally, the crucial methods for the modeling of complex systems (stochastic methods and nonlinear dynamics) were developed in physics but they have very often proved their explanatory power in chemistry, biology, economics and the social sciences. Quantitative Sociodynamics provides a unified and comprehensive overview of the different stochastic methods, their interrelations and properties. In addition, it introduces the most important concepts from nonlinear dynamics (synergetics, chaos theory). The applicability of these fascinating concepts to social phenomena is carefully discussed. By incorporating decision-theoretical approaches a very fundamental dynamic model is obtained which seems to open new perspectives in the social sciences. It includes many established models as special cases, e.g. the log...

  16. Quantitative Sociodynamics Stochastic Methods and Models of Social Interaction Processes

    CERN Document Server

    Helbing, Dirk

    2010-01-01

    This new edition of Quantitative Sociodynamics presents a general strategy for interdisciplinary model building and its application to a quantitative description of behavioral changes based on social interaction processes. Originally, the crucial methods for the modeling of complex systems (stochastic methods and nonlinear dynamics) were developed in physics and mathematics, but they have very often proven their explanatory power in chemistry, biology, economics and the social sciences as well. Quantitative Sociodynamics provides a unified and comprehensive overview of the different stochastic methods, their interrelations and properties. In addition, it introduces important concepts from nonlinear dynamics (e.g. synergetics, chaos theory). The applicability of these fascinating concepts to social phenomena is carefully discussed. By incorporating decision-theoretical approaches, a fundamental dynamic model is obtained, which opens new perspectives in the social sciences. It includes many established models a...

  17. [HPV diagnosis: woman's process of interaction with her partner].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargens, Octavio Muniz da Costa; Silva, Carla Marins; Azevedo E Silva, Gulnar; Girianelli, Vânia Reis

    2013-01-01

    This is a descriptive research, with qualitative approach, which aimed at analyze the interaction process between woman and her partner starting from the diagnosis of infection by the human papilomavirus (HPV). It was accomplished in 13 communities in the cities of Duque de Caxias and Nova Iguaçu, Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil, from October/2006 to September/2008. Twenty women, diagnosed with HPV infection related to oncogenic high risk, were interviewed. The Symbolic Interactionism and Grounded Theory perspectives guided data collection and analysis. The results revealed that the HPV diagnosis means serious challenges in the women's relationship with her partner mainly regarding to the adoption of preventive initiatives. It is concluded that these issues lead to the need of a humanized care in order to favor the women's empowerment.

  18. Mathematical model for hit phenomena as stochastic process of interactions of human interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Ishii, Akira; Matsuda, Naoya; Umemura, Sanae; Urushidani, Tamiko; Yamagata, Naoya; Yoshda, Narihiko

    2011-01-01

    Mathematical model for hit phenomena in entertainments in the society is presented as stochastic process of interactions of human dynamics. The model use only the time distribution of advertisement budget as input and the words of mouth (WOM) as posting in the social network system is used as the data to compare with the calculated results. The unit of time is daily. The WOM distribution in time is found to be very close to the residue distribution in time. The calculations for Japanese motion picture market due to the mathematical model agree very well with the actual residue distribution in time.

  19. Multiresolution approach to processing images for different applications interaction of lower processing with higher vision

    CERN Document Server

    Vujović, Igor

    2015-01-01

    This book presents theoretical and practical aspects of the interaction between low and high level image processing. Multiresolution analysis owes its popularity mostly to wavelets and is widely used in a variety of applications. Low level image processing is important for the performance of many high level applications. The book includes examples from different research fields, i.e. video surveillance; biomedical applications (EMG and X-ray); improved communication, namely teleoperation, telemedicine, animation, augmented/virtual reality and robot vision; monitoring of the condition of ship systems and image quality control.

  20. Modelling social interaction as perceptual crossing: an investigation into the dynamics of the interaction process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froese, Tom; Di Paolo, Ezequiel A.

    2010-03-01

    This paper continues efforts to establish a mutually informative dialogue between psychology and evolutionary robotics in order to investigate the dynamics of social interaction. We replicate a recent simulation model of a minimalist experiment in perceptual crossing and confirm the results with significantly simpler artificial agents. A series of psycho-physical tests of their behaviour informs a hypothetical circuit model of their internal operation. However, a detailed study of the actual internal dynamics reveals this circuit model to be unfounded, thereby offering a tale of caution for those hypothesising about sub-personal processes in terms of behavioural observations. In particular, it is shown that the behaviour of the agents largely emerges out of the interaction process itself rather than being an individual achievement alone. We also extend the original simulation model in two novel directions in order to test further the extent to which perceptual crossing between agents can self-organise in a robust manner. These modelling results suggest new hypotheses that can become the basis for further psychological experiments.

  1. Interactions in New Product Development: how the nature of the NPD process influences interaction between teams and management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Felekoglu, Burcu; Maier, Anja; Moultrie, James

    2013-01-01

    Effective interaction across organisational boundaries is a critical success factor in new product development (NPD). However, few studies have investigated how different mechanisms enable effective interaction across organisational and particularly hierarchical boundaries. This study explores how...... the formality of the NPD process influences the nature of interactions across different organisational boundaries and specifically identifies interaction mechanisms used across hierarchical boundaries. Cross-sectional interviews were conducted in nine firms. Findings highlight that in firms with a formalised...

  2. An Educational Tool for Interactive Parallel and Distributed Processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pagliarini, Luigi; Lund, Henrik Hautop

    2011-01-01

    , connectivity, topology, island modeling, user and multiuser interaction, which can hardly be found in other tools. Finally, we introduce the system of modular interactive tiles as a tool for easy, fast, and flexible hands-on exploration of these issues, and through examples show how to implement interactive...

  3. Selective imitation impairments differentially interact with language processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mengotti, Paola; Corradi-Dell'Acqua, Corrado; Negri, Gioia A L; Ukmar, Maja; Pesavento, Valentina; Rumiati, Raffaella I

    2013-08-01

    Whether motor and linguistic representations of actions share common neural structures has recently been the focus of an animated debate in cognitive neuroscience. Group studies with brain-damaged patients reported association patterns of praxic and linguistic deficits whereas single case studies documented double dissociations between the correct execution of gestures and their comprehension in verbal contexts. When the relationship between language and imitation was investigated, each ability was analysed as a unique process without distinguishing between possible subprocesses. However, recent cognitive models can be successfully used to account for these inconsistencies in the extant literature. In the present study, in 57 patients with left brain damage, we tested whether a deficit at imitating either meaningful or meaningless gestures differentially impinges on three distinct linguistic abilities (comprehension, naming and repetition). Based on the dual-pathway models, we predicted that praxic and linguistic performance would be associated when meaningful gestures are processed, and would dissociate for meaningless gestures. We used partial correlations to assess the association between patients' scores while accounting for potential confounding effects of aspecific factors such age, education and lesion size. We found that imitation of meaningful gestures significantly correlated with patients' performance on naming and repetition (but not on comprehension). This was not the case for the imitation of meaningless gestures. Moreover, voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping analysis revealed that damage to the angular gyrus specifically affected imitation of meaningless gestures, independent of patients' performance on linguistic tests. Instead, damage to the supramarginal gyrus affected not only imitation of meaningful gestures, but also patients' performance on naming and repetition. Our findings clarify the apparent conflict between associations and dissociations

  4. Microbiology and atmospheric processes: chemical interactions of primary biological aerosols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Deguillaume

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the influence of primary biological aerosols (PBA on atmospheric chemistry and vice versa through microbiological and chemical properties and processes. Several studies have shown that PBA represent a significant fraction of air particulate matter and hence affect the microstructure and water uptake of aerosol particles. Moreover, airborne micro-organisms, namely fungal spores and bacteria, can transform chemical constituents of the atmosphere by metabolic activity. Recent studies have emphasized the viability of bacteria and metabolic degradation of organic substances in cloud water. On the other hand, the viability and metabolic activity of airborne micro-organisms depend strongly on physical and chemical atmospheric parameters such as temperature, pressure, radiation, pH value and nutrient concentrations. In spite of recent advances, however, our knowledge of the microbiological and chemical interactions of PBA in the atmosphere is rather limited. Further targeted investigations combining laboratory experiments, field measurements, and modelling studies will be required to characterize the chemical feedbacks, microbiological activities at the air/snow/water interface supplied to the atmosphere.

  5. Microbiology and atmospheric processes: chemical interactions of Primary Biological Aerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deguillaume, L.; Leriche, M.; Amato, P.; Ariya, P. A.; Delort, A.-M.; Pöschl, U.; Chaumerliac, N.; Bauer, H.; Flossmann, A. I.; Morris, C. E.

    2008-02-01

    This paper discusses the influence of bioaerosols on atmospheric chemistry and vice versa through microbiological and chemical properties and processes. Several studies have shown that biological matter represents a significant fraction of air particulate matter and hence affects the microstructure and water uptake of aerosol particles. Moreover, airborne micro-organisms can transform chemical constituents of the atmosphere by metabolic activity. Recent studies have emphasized the viability of bacteria and metabolic degradation of organic substances in cloud water. On the other hand, the viability and metabolic activity of airborne micro-organisms depend strongly on physical and chemical atmospheric parameters such as temperature, pressure, radiation, pH value and nutrient concentrations. In spite of recent advances, however, our knowledge of the microbiological and chemical interactions of primary biological particles in the atmosphere is rather limited. Further targeted investigations combining laboratory experiments, field measurements, and modelling studies will be required to characterize the chemical feedbacks, microbiological activities at the air/snow/water interface supplied to the atmosphere.

  6. Atomic data for controlled fusion research. Volume III. Particle interactions with surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, E.W.

    1985-02-01

    This report provides a handbook of data concerning particle solid interactions that are relevant to plasma-wall interactions in fusion devices. Published data have been collected, assessed, and represented by a single functional relationship which is presented in both tabular and graphical form. Mechanisms reviewed here include sputtering, secondary electron emission, particle reflection, and trapping.

  7. Anvil Tool in the Advanced Weather Interactive Processing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Joe, III; Bauman, William, III; Keen, Jeremy

    2007-01-01

    Meteorologists from the 45th Weather Squadron (45 WS) and Spaceflight Meteorology Group (SMG) have identified anvil forecasting as one of their most challenging tasks when predicting the probability of violations of the lightning Launch Commit Criteria and Space Shuttle Flight Rules. As a result, the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) created a graphical overlay tool for the Meteorological Interactive Data Display Systems (MIDDS) to indicate the threat of thunderstorm anvil clouds, using either observed or model forecast winds as input. In order for the Anvil Tool to remain available to the meteorologists, the AMU was tasked to transition the tool to the Advanced Weather interactive Processing System (AWIPS). This report describes the work done by the AMU to develop the Anvil Tool for AWIPS to create a graphical overlay depicting the threat from thunderstorm anvil clouds. The AWIPS Anvil Tool is based on the previously deployed AMU MIDDS Anvil Tool. SMG and 45 WS forecasters have used the MIDDS Anvil Tool during launch and landing operations. SMG's primary weather analysis and display system is now AWIPS and the 45 WS has plans to replace MIDDS with AWIPS. The Anvil Tool creates a graphic that users can overlay on satellite or radar imagery to depict the potential location of thunderstorm anvils one, two, and three hours into the future. The locations are based on an average of the upper-level observed or forecasted winds. The graphic includes 10 and 20 nm standoff circles centered at the location of interest, in addition to one-, two-, and three-hour arcs in the upwind direction. The arcs extend outward across a 30 degree sector width based on a previous AMU study which determined thunderstorm anvils move in a direction plus or minus 15 degrees of the upper-level (300- to 150-mb) wind direction. This report briefly describes the history of the MIDDS Anvil Tool and then explains how the initial development of the AWIPS Anvil Tool was carried out. After testing was

  8. Plasma-wall interactions data compendium-2. ''Hydrogen retention property, diffusion and recombination coefficients database for selected plasma-facing materials''

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuhiro, Kenjirou [Osaka Univ., Osaka (Japan); Iwakiri, Hirotomo [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Research Inst. for Applied Mechanics; Hirooka, Yoshi [National Inst. for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu (Japan); Yamamura, Yasunori [Okayama Univ. of Scinece, Okayama (Japan); Morita, Kenji [Nagoya Univ. (Japan)

    2002-08-01

    This report will present additional data to those included in the previous report of this series. These new data are on the hydrogen (deuterium) trapping properties of graphite materials. The units on the data on hydrogen (deuterium) diffusion and surface recombination coefficients have been updated to adopt the SI unit system. Also, the graphic representations of previously compiled data on hydrogen (deuterium) retention have been improved for better understanding. For the sake of completeness, this report will present all these data in the improved format. (author)

  9. A Dual Aspect Process Model of Intensive Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firth, Graham

    2009-01-01

    Intensive Interaction is an empirically researched approach to developing fundamental communication and sociability for people with severe and profound learning disabilities and/or autism. However, it is the author's contention that certain aspects of Intensive Interaction are not universally conceptualised in a uniform manner, and that there are…

  10. Prediction of plasma simulation data with the Gaussian process method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Preuss, R.; Toussaint, U. von, E-mail: udo.v.toussaint@ipp.mpg.de [Max-Planck-Institute for Plasma Physics, EURATOM Association, 85748 Garching (Germany)

    2014-12-05

    The simulation of plasma-wall interactions of fusion plasmas is extremely costly in computer power and time - the running time for a single parameter setting is easily in the order of weeks or months. We propose to exploit the already gathered results in order to predict the outcome for parametric studies within the high dimensional parameter space. For this we utilize Gaussian processes within the Bayesian framework and perform validation with one and two dimensional test cases from which we learn how to assess the outcome. Finally, the newly implemented method is applied to simulated data from the scrape-off layer of a fusion plasma. Uncertainties of the predictions are provided which point the way to parameter settings of further (expensive) simulations.

  11. Population death sequences and Cox processes driven by interacting Feller diffusions

    CERN Document Server

    Wei Gang; Feng Jian Feng

    2002-01-01

    We carry out a complete study on the relationship between Cox processes driven by interacting Feller diffusions and death sequences of immigration-emigration linked population networks. It is first proved that the Cox process driven by a Feller diffusion is equivalent to the death sequence of a birth and death process. The conclusion is then generalized to the case of Cox processes driven by interacting Feller diffusions and death sequences of interacting populations.

  12. Induced gravity with Higgs potential. Elementary interactions and quantum processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bezares Roder, Nils Manuel

    2010-07-01

    This work is intended to first serve as introduction in fundamental subjects of physics in order to be then able to review the mechanism of symmetry breakdown and its essential character in physics. It introduces the concept of scalar-tensor theories of gravity based on Bergmann-Wagoner models with a Higgs potential. The main physical context aimed is the problem of Dark Matter and Dark Energy. On the one hand, there is gravitation. Within this context, we have Dark Matter as an especially relevant concept. This work entails the following main contributions: - General features of Einstein's theory are introduced together with generalities of the different elementary interactions of physics from which the concepts of dark sectors and Higgs Mechanism are derived. - The concept of symmetry breaking and especially the Higgs Mechanism of mass generation are discussed in their relevance for the most different subjects of physics, especially in relation to the Standard Model of elementary particle physics with elementary Higgs fields. - Scalar-Tensor Theories are introduced in order to build in them the process of Higgs Mechanism. This is then fulfilled with a theory of induced gravity with a Higgs potential which seems renormalizable according to deWitt's power counting criterion, and with mass-generating Higgs fields which only couple gravitationally as well as with Higgs fields which act analogously to cosmon fields. - Further, the energy density of the gravitational field is derived for the specific model of induced gravity from an analogy to electrodynamics. It is shown that a nonvanishing value of pressure related to the scalar field is necessary in order to reproduce standard linear solar-relativistic dynamics. Within astrophysical considerations for flat rotation curves of galaxies, a possible dark-matter behavior is concluded within spherical symmetry. The scalar field and the dark-matter profile of total energy density are derived. An analogous

  13. Initial-state interactions, factorization, and the Drell-Yan process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bodwin, G.T.; Brodsky, S.J.; Lepage, G.P.

    1981-12-01

    It is shown that initial state interactions violate the factorization conjecture for the Drell-Yan process order by order in perturbation theory. Also, the effects of elastic and inelastic initial state interactions on the observed cross sections are discussed.

  14. Creating Interactive Graphical Overlays in the Advanced Weather Interactive Processing System Using Shapefiles and DGM Files

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Joe H., III; Lafosse, Richard; Hood, Doris; Hoeth, Brian

    2007-01-01

    Graphical overlays can be created in real-time in the Advanced Weather Interactive Processing System (AWIPS) using shapefiles or Denver AWIPS Risk Reduction and Requirements Evaluation (DARE) Graphics Metafile (DGM) files. This presentation describes how to create graphical overlays on-the-fly for AWIPS, by using two examples of AWIPS applications that were created by the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) located at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS), Florida. The first example is the Anvil Threat Corridor Forecast Tool, which produces a shapefile that depicts a graphical threat corridor of the forecast movement of thunderstorm anvil clouds, based on the observed or forecast upper-level winds. This tool is used by the Spaceflight Meteorology Group (SMG) at Johnson Space Center, Texas and 45th Weather Squadron (45 WS) at CCAFS to analyze the threat of natural or space vehicle-triggered lightning over a location. The second example is a launch and landing trajectory tool that produces a DGM file that plots the ground track of space vehicles during launch or landing. The trajectory tool can be used by SMG and the 45 WS forecasters to analyze weather radar imagery along a launch or landing trajectory. The presentation will list the advantages and disadvantages of both file types for creating interactive graphical overlays in future AWIPS applications. Shapefiles are a popular format used extensively in Geographical Information Systems. They are usually used in AWIPS to depict static map backgrounds. A shapefile stores the geometry and attribute information of spatial features in a dataset (ESRI 1998). Shapefiles can contain point, line, and polygon features. Each shapefile contains a main file, index file, and a dBASE table. The main file contains a record for each spatial feature, which describes the feature with a list of its vertices. The index file contains the offset of each record from the beginning of the main file. The dBASE table contains records for each

  15. Computerised Image Processing and Interactive Morphometry in Cytology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. V. Ramesh

    1996-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction of computers and image analysis systems to quantify the assessment of living cells for prognosis and diagnosis is gaining momentum. It also aims at relieving the operator from the tedium of microscopic observation and reducing operator bias and human error. This paper discusses the design and configuration of an interactive image analysis system built indigenounsly for cell analysis and classification. It also discusses the progress made in the diagnosis of cervical cancer and in the prognosis of breast cancer using computerised interactive morphometry

  16. Stochastic Process Analysis of Interactive Discourse in Early Counseling Interviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedlander, Myrna L.; Phillips, Susan D.

    1984-01-01

    Examined patterns of interactive discourse to suggest how client and counselor establish a working alliance in their early interviews. Based on classification of 312 conversational turns from 14 dyads, a stochastic analysis was conducted. Results showed the sequences of talk were highly stable and predictable. (JAC)

  17. Interactive methods to involve users into workspace design process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Souza da Conceição, Carolina; Broberg, Ole; Banke, Palle

    2013-01-01

    This paper addresses the question of whether the use of a combination of interactive methods involving workers can lead to a useful input to the (re)design of their workspace. The workbook and the layout design game methods were tested, and a comparison between their use and the ergonomic analysis...

  18. Competing particle systems evolving by interacting Levy processes

    CERN Document Server

    Shkolnikov, Mykhaylo

    2010-01-01

    We consider finite and infinite systems of particles on the real line and half-line evolving in continuous time. Hereby, the particles are driven by i.i.d. Levy processes endowed with rank-dependent drift and diffusion coefficients. In the finite systems we show that the processes of gaps in the respective particle configurations possess unique invariant distributions and prove the convergence of the gap processes to the latter in the total variation distance, assuming a bound on the jumps of the Levy processes. In the infinite case we show that the gap process of the particle system on the half-line is tight for appropriate initial conditions and same drift and diffusion coefficients for all particles. Applications of such processes include the modelling of capital distributions among the ranked participants in a financial market, the stability of certain stochastic queueing and storage networks and the study of the Sherrington-Kirkpatrick model of spin glasses.

  19. Modeling and Simulation of Process-Machine Interaction in Grinding of Cemented Carbide Indexable Inserts

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Feng, Wei; Yao, Bin; Chen, BinQiang; Zhang, DongSheng; Zhang, XiangLei; Shen, ZhiHuang

    2015-01-01

      Interaction of process and machine in grinding of hard and brittle materials such as cemented carbide may cause dynamic instability of the machining process resulting in machining errors and a decrease in productivity...

  20. Modeling and Simulation of Process-Machine Interaction in Grinding of Cemented Carbide Indexable Inserts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Feng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Interaction of process and machine in grinding of hard and brittle materials such as cemented carbide may cause dynamic instability of the machining process resulting in machining errors and a decrease in productivity. Commonly, the process and machine tools were dealt with separately, which does not take into consideration the mutual interaction between the two subsystems and thus cannot represent the real cutting operations. This paper proposes a method of modeling and simulation to understand well the process-machine interaction in grinding process of cemented carbide indexable inserts. First, a virtual grinding wheel model is built by considering the random nature of abrasive grains and a kinematic-geometrical simulation is adopted to describe the grinding process. Then, a wheel-spindle model is simulated by means of the finite element method to represent the machine structure. The characteristic equation of the closed-loop dynamic grinding system is derived to provide a mathematic description of the process-machine interaction. Furthermore, a coupling simulation of grinding wheel-spindle deformations and grinding process force by combining both the process and machine model is developed to investigate the interaction between process and machine. This paper provides an integrated grinding model combining the machine and process models, which can be used to predict process-machine interactions in grinding process.

  1. Microbe-surface interactions in biofouling and biocorrosion processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beech, Iwona B; Sunner, Jan A; Hiraoka, Kenzo

    2005-09-01

    The presence of microorganisms on material surfaces can have a profound effect on materials performance. Surface-associated microbial growth, i.e. a biofilm, is known to instigate biofouling. The presence of biofilms may promote interfacial physico-chemical reactions that are not favored under abiotic conditions. In the case of metallic materials, undesirable changes in material properties due to a biofilm (or a biofouling layer) are referred to as biocorrosion or microbially influenced corrosion (MIC). Biofouling and biocorrosion occur in aquatic and terrestrial habitats varying in nutrient content, temperature, pressure and pH. Interfacial chemistry in such systems reflects a wide variety of physiological activities carried out by diverse microbial populations thriving within biofilms. Biocorrosion can be viewed as a consequence of coupled biological and abiotic electron-transfer reactions, i.e. redox reactions of metals, enabled by microbial ecology. Microbially produced extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), which comprise different macromolecules, mediate initial cell adhesion to the material surface and constitute a biofilm matrix. Despite their unquestionable importance in biofilm development, the extent to which EPS contribute to biocorrosion is not well-understood. This review offers a current perspective on material/microbe interactions pertinent to biocorrosion and biofouling, with EPS as a focal point, while emphasizing the role atomic force spectroscopy and mass spectrometry techniques can play in elucidating such interactions.

  2. The human core exosome interacts with differentially localized processive RNases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tomecki, Rafal; Kristiansen, Maiken Søndergaard; Lykke-Andersen, Søren

    2010-01-01

    from the associated subunits Dis3p (Rrp44p) and Rrp6p. The former is a nuclear and cytoplasmic RNase II/R-like enzyme, which possesses both processive exo- and endonuclease activities, whereas the latter is a distributive RNase D-like nuclear exonuclease. Although the exosome core is highly conserved...

  3. Bibliotherapy: An Interactive Process in Counseling Older Persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hynes, Arleen M.; Wedl, Lois C.

    1990-01-01

    Describes bibliotherapeutic process and techniques that mental health counselors can use to effect intellectual, emotional, social, and spiritual growth in older persons. Envisions new opportunities for work with older persons who are chemically dependent, victims of abuse, or Alzheimer patients. Proposes research tool that observes participant's…

  4. The Expert Group Work Supervision Process: Apperception, Actions, and Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubel, Deborah; Atieno Okech, Jane E.

    2009-01-01

    The researchers conducted a systematic exploration of the experiences of expert group work supervisors during the supervision process. This article's purpose is to report results that inform intentional practice and illustrate supervision interventions for group work supervisors. Results indicated that participants experienced an interactive…

  5. Mother-Infant Interaction: a Process of Discoveries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorian Mônica Arpini

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Considering the importance of the first experiences to the psychological constitution and that such constitution is based on parental relationships, this study aimed to comprehend the aspects that indicate health and well-being in the mother-baby relationship, focusing on the moments of breastfeeding, cry, communication and interaction of the dyad. The study was grounded on observation and an interview with the mothers. Results emerged from content analysis and highlight the presence of indicators of the Child Development Risks Index (IRDIs in the relationship of the dyad, evidencing mothers hold knowledge about their babies. Final considerations emphasize the importance of the mother-baby relationship and suggest the inclusion of Clinical Indicators of Risk regarding Child Development in services of primary health care.

  6. Experimental analysis of droplet-gas interaction during GMAW process

    OpenAIRE

    Chapuis, Julien; Roméro, Edward; Soulié, Fabien; Bordreuil, Cyril

    2012-01-01

    International audience; Quality of GMAW is closely related to the behavior of the droplet from its detachment from the wire to its impingement to the weld pool. In the present research, an experimental methodology based on high speed imaging and contour detection was developed. The images are synchronized with the current and arc voltage process. The automatic detection of contour allows to track the shape for each image and to appreciate the evolution of the liquid metal for each droplet. Th...

  7. The proximate memory mechanism underlying the survival-processing effect: richness of encoding or interactive imagery?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroneisen, Meike; Erdfelder, Edgar; Buchner, Axel

    2013-01-01

    Nairne and collaborators showed that assessing the relevance of words in the context of an imagined survival scenario boosts memory for these words. Although this survival-processing advantage has attracted a considerable amount of research, little is known about the proximate memory mechanism mediating this effect. Recently, Kroneisen and Erdfelder (2011) argued that it is not survival processing itself that facilitates recall but rather the richness and distinctiveness of encoding that is triggered by the survival-processing task. Alternatively, however, it is also conceivable that survival processing fosters interactive imagery, a process known to improve associative learning. To test these explanations we compared relevance-rating and interactive imagery tasks for survival and control scenarios. Results show that the survival advantage replicates in the relevance-rating condition but vanishes in the interactive imagery condition. This refutes the interactive imagery explanation and corroborates the richness-of-encoding hypothesis of the survival-processing effect.

  8. Intersection of participation and environmental factors: a complex interactive process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noreau, Luc; Boschen, Kathryn

    2010-09-01

    The objective was to review contemporary and historical rehabilitation-focused literature on conceptualizations of the environment, broadly defined, and environmental measures. Data sources included historical nonempirical American-based literature from 1935 to the present and descriptive and empirical rehabilitation articles worldwide, retrieved from computerized databases predominantly from past 10 years depicting a participation-environment association. Literature selection required relevance to 3 combined topics: physical disability rehabilitation, participation/community integration, and impact of environmental barriers and facilitators. The ultimate focus was on spinal cord injury for recent literature and measures reviewed. Data extraction was based on author-assessed relevance to both participation and environmental considerations. Nonempirical literature from last three quarters of a century suggests an environmental impact on participation, focusing on "person-environment fit." Recent empirical evidence supports environmental contributions to participation, but the magnitude of the contribution is low. Despite the obvious theoretic impact of the environment, scientific demonstration of environmental contribution to participation restriction or facilitation has yet to be achieved. Participation-environment interaction could be illustrated better by (1) taking into account critical elements in environmental measures (eg, comprehensiveness of approach to environment, scales describing spectrum of environmental influence, subjective vs objective perspectives), (2) addressing the concept of participation in a dimension-specific approach, and (3) avoiding environmental features in construction of participation measures.

  9. Metastability for the Exclusion Process with Mean-Field Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asselah, Amine; Giacomin, Giambattista

    1998-12-01

    We consider an exclusion particle system with long-range, mean-field-type interactions at temperature 1/β. The hydrodynamic limit of such a system is given by an integrodifferential equation with one conservation law on the circle C: it is the gradient flux of the Kac free energy functional F β. For β≤1, any constant function with value m ∈ [-1, +1] is the global minimizer of F β in the space \\{ u:int_C {u(x)} dx = m\\} . For β>1, F β restricted to \\{ u:int_C {u(x)} dx = m\\} may have several local minima: in particular, the constant solution may not be the absolute minimizer of F β. We therefore study the long-time behavior of the particle system when the initial condition is close to a homogeneous stable state, giving results on the time of exit from (suitable) subsets of its domain of attraction. We follow the Freidlin-Wentzell approach: first, we study in detail F β together with the time asymptotics of the solution of the hydrodynamic equation; then we study the probability of rare events for the particle system, i.e., large deviations from the hydrodynamic limit.

  10. Interaction of Microphysical Aerosol Processes with Hydrodynamics Mixing

    KAUST Repository

    Alshaarawi, Amjad

    2015-12-15

    This work is concerned with the interaction between condensing aerosol dynamics and hydrodynamic mixing within ow configurations in which aerosol particles form (nucleate) from a supersaturated vapor and supersaturation is induced by the mixing of two streams (a saturated stream and a cold one). Two canonical hydrodynamic configurations are proposed for the investigation. The First is the steady one-dimensional opposed-ow configuration. The setup consists of the two (saturated and cold) streams owing from opposite nozzles. A mixing layer is established across a stagnation plane in the center where nucleation and other aerosol dynamics are triggered. The second is homogeneous isotropic turbulence in a three-dimensional periodic domain. Patches of a hot saturated gas mix with patches of a cold one. A mixing layer forms across the growing interface where the aerosol dynamics of interest occur. In both configurations, a unique analogy is observed. The results reveal a complex response to variations in the mixing rates. Depending on the mixing rate, the response of the number density falls into one of two regimes. For fast mixing rates, the maximum reached number density of the condensing droplets increases with the hydrodynamic time. We refer to this as the nucleation regime. On the contrary, for low mixing rates, the maximum reached number density decreases with the hydrodynamic time. We refer to this as the consumption regime. It is shown that vapor scavenging by the aerosol phase is key to explaining the transition between these two regimes.

  11. Dynamical analysis of yeast protein interaction network during the sake brewing process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzarezaee, Mitra; Sadeghi, Mehdi; Araabi, Babak N

    2011-12-01

    Proteins interact with each other for performing essential functions of an organism. They change partners to get involved in various processes at different times or locations. Studying variations of protein interactions within a specific process would help better understand the dynamic features of the protein interactions and their functions. We studied the protein interaction network of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (yeast) during the brewing of Japanese sake. In this process, yeast cells are exposed to several stresses. Analysis of protein interaction networks of yeast during this process helps to understand how protein interactions of yeast change during the sake brewing process. We used gene expression profiles of yeast cells for this purpose. Results of our experiments revealed some characteristics and behaviors of yeast hubs and non-hubs and their dynamical changes during the brewing process. We found that just a small portion of the proteins (12.8 to 21.6%) is responsible for the functional changes of the proteins in the sake brewing process. The changes in the number of edges and hubs of the yeast protein interaction networks increase in the first stages of the process and it then decreases at the final stages.

  12. Framework to study dynamic dependencies in networks of interacting processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chicharro, Daniel; Ledberg, Anders

    2012-10-01

    The analysis of dynamic dependencies in complex systems such as the brain helps to understand how emerging properties arise from interactions. Here we propose an information-theoretic framework to analyze the dynamic dependencies in multivariate time-evolving systems. This framework constitutes a fully multivariate extension and unification of previous approaches based on bivariate or conditional mutual information and Granger causality or transfer entropy. We define multi-information measures that allow us to study the global statistical structure of the system as a whole, the total dependence between subsystems, and the temporal statistical structure of each subsystem. We develop a stationary and a nonstationary formulation of the framework. We then examine different decompositions of these multi-information measures. The transfer entropy naturally appears as a term in some of these decompositions. This allows us to examine its properties not as an isolated measure of interdependence but in the context of the complete framework. More generally we use causal graphs to study the specificity and sensitivity of all the measures appearing in these decompositions to different sources of statistical dependence arising from the causal connections between the subsystems. We illustrate that there is no straightforward relation between the strength of specific connections and specific terms in the decompositions. Furthermore, causal and noncausal statistical dependencies are not separable. In particular, the transfer entropy can be nonmonotonic in dependence on the connectivity strength between subsystems and is also sensitive to internal changes of the subsystems, so it should not be interpreted as a measure of connectivity strength. Altogether, in comparison to an analysis based on single isolated measures of interdependence, this framework is more powerful to analyze emergent properties in multivariate systems and to characterize functionally relevant changes in the

  13. a Gaussian Process Based Multi-Person Interaction Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinger, T.; Rottensteiner, F.; Heipke, C.

    2016-06-01

    Online multi-person tracking in image sequences is commonly guided by recursive filters, whose predictive models define the expected positions of future states. When a predictive model deviates too much from the true motion of a pedestrian, which is often the case in crowded scenes due to unpredicted accelerations, the data association is prone to fail. In this paper we propose a novel predictive model on the basis of Gaussian Process Regression. The model takes into account the motion of every tracked pedestrian in the scene and the prediction is executed with respect to the velocities of all interrelated persons. As shown by the experiments, the model is capable of yielding more plausible predictions even in the presence of mutual occlusions or missing measurements. The approach is evaluated on a publicly available benchmark and outperforms other state-of-the-art trackers.

  14. Nordic hydrogen energy foresight - challenges of managing the interactive process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eerola, A.; Loikkanen, T.; Koljonen, T.

    2005-01-01

    of the project in the light of a dynamic model ofshared knowledge creation. In particular, the ways in which the design and the methodological tools facilitated the process and its management are discussed. Some suggestions for forthcoming foresight exercises are also presented....... decision support for companies and research institutes in defining their R&D priorities and to assist governmental decisionmakers in making effectiveframework policies for successful introduction of hydrogen energy. Development of Nordic networks to gain the required critical mass in wider international...... contexts was considered equally important. The overall intention was to contribute to the strategicintelligence of the Nordic knowledge region in issues related to wellbeing and sustainable developments. The paper examines the rationale behind the project design and the contribution of the various steps...

  15. Infants' understanding of everyday social interactions: a dual process account.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gredebäck, Gustaf; Melinder, Annika

    2010-02-01

    Six- and 12-month-old infant's eye movements were recorded as they observed feeding actions being performed in a rational or non-rational manner. Twelve-month-olds fixated the goal of these actions before the food arrived (anticipation); the latency of these gaze shifts being dependent (r=.69) on infants life experience being feed. In addition, 6- and 12-month-olds dilated their pupil during observation of non-rational feeding actions. This effect could not be attributed to light differences or differences in familiarity, but was interpreted to reflect sympathetic-like activity and arousal caused by a violation of infant's expectations about rationality. We argue that evaluation of rationality requires less experience than anticipations of action goals, suggesting a dual process account of preverbal infants' everyday action understanding.

  16. Crystallization processes derived from the interaction of urine and dolostone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cámara, Beatriz; Alvarez de Buergo, Monica; Fort, Rafael

    2015-04-01

    The increase in the number of pets (mostly dogs), homeless people and the more recent open-air drinking sessions organized by young people in historical centers of European cities, derive on the augmentation of urinations on stone façades of the built cultural heritage. Up to now this process has been considered only under an undesirable aesthetical point of view and the insalubrious conditions it creates, together with the cleaning costs that the local governments have to assume. This study aims to confirm urine as a real source of soluble salts that can trigger the decay of building materials, especially of those of built cultural heritage of the historical centers of the cities, which are suffering the new social scenario described above. For this purpose, an experimental setup was designed and performed in the laboratory to simulate this process. 5 cm side cubic specimens of dolostone were subjected to 100 testing cycles of urine absorption by capillarity. The necessary amount of urine was collected by donors and stored following clinical protocol conditions. Each cycle consisted of imbibitions of the specimens in 3 mm high urine sheet for 3 hours, drying at 40°C in an oven for 20 hours and 1 hour cooling in a dessicator. At the end of the 100 cycles, small pieces of the specimens were cut, observed and analyzed with the aid of an environmental scanning electron microscope, which presents the advantage of no sample preparation. The sampled pieces were selected considering there were different sections in height in the specimens: a) a bottom section that corresponds to the section that has been immersed in the urine solution (3 mm); b) an interface section, immediately above the immersed area, which is the area most affected by the urine capillarity process, characterized by a strong yellowish color; c) the section that we have named as section of influence, which is subjected to the capillary absorption, although not so strongly than the interface section

  17. Spatial interaction in the run-off process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrice Langlois

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available The level of risk is defined by two standards  : uncertainty and vulnerability. The latter is commonly estimated by an overlay of the different information layers, in order to obtain a local quantitative measure of the exposed properties. This approach is convenient for hazardous events clearly delimited and without any spatial diffusion, such as landslides or soil pollution. This approach is however soon bounded in the case of a dynamic process, such as the hydrological hazard. The overlay of different data gives a valuable appreciation of the streaming surfaces, but this remains insufficient to express the spatial dynamics of the flow. The global sensibility of a basin is not merely the sum of the local sensibilities. The global hazard is defined by the spatial organisation of the production or infiltration areas, and by their mutual relations, which validates the cellular automata approach to measure the level of organisation of the sensitive areas and to model the diffusion of the flows between these areas.

  18. Interactive Computer Assisted Instruction in Teaching of Process Analysis and Simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuttall, Herbert E., Jr.; Himmelblau, David M.

    To improve the instructional process, time shared computer-assisted instructional methods were developed to teach upper division undergraduate chemical engineering students the concepts of process simulation and analysis. The interactive computer simulation aimed at enabling the student to learn the difficult concepts of process dynamics by…

  19. Robust client/server shared state interactions of collaborative process with system crash and network failures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Lei; Wombacher, Andreas; Ferreira Pires, Luis; van Sinderen, Marten J.; Chi, Chihung

    With the possibility of system crashes and network failures, the design of robust client/server interactions for collaborative process execution is a challenge. If a business process changes state, it sends messages to relevant processes to inform about this change. However, server crashes and

  20. The Benefits of Sensorimotor Knowledge: Body-Object Interaction Facilitates Semantic Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siakaluk, Paul D.; Pexman, Penny M.; Sears, Christopher R.; Wilson, Kim; Locheed, Keri; Owen, William J.

    2008-01-01

    This article examined the effects of body-object interaction (BOI) on semantic processing. BOI measures perceptions of the ease with which a human body can physically interact with a word's referent. In Experiment 1, BOI effects were examined in 2 semantic categorization tasks (SCT) in which participants decided if words are easily imageable.…

  1. Interaction of electromagnetic energy with biological material - relation to food processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ponne, C.T.; Bartels, P.V.

    1995-01-01

    For food scientists and technologists, the interaction of electromagnetic energy with enzymes, microorganisms and other food compounds is important in optimizing process efficiency and/or product quality. To be able to implement research findings on interaction of electromagnetic energy with matter;

  2. Interaction between Syntactic Structure and Information Structure in the Processing of a Head-Final Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koizumi, Masatoshi; Imamura, Satoshi

    2017-01-01

    The effects of syntactic and information structures on sentence processing load were investigated using two reading comprehension experiments in Japanese, a head-final SOV language. In the first experiment, we discovered the main effects of syntactic and information structures, as well as their interaction, showing that interaction of these two…

  3. Joking Culture: The Role of Repeated Humorous Interactions on Group Processes during Challenge Course Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothwell, Erin; Siharath, Kassidy; Bell, Steven; Nguyen, Kim; Baker, Carla

    2011-01-01

    When groups form, they develop their own culture from the shared meaning created from their interactions. Humor is part of every social group, and when repeatedly referenced, it forms a joking culture. The joking culture of small groups influences group processes by smoothing group interaction, forming a collective identity, separating the group…

  4. Interactions between DNA and histones- a dynamic process of nucleosome formation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李伟; 王鹏业; 窦硕星; 童培庆

    2003-01-01

    We have studied the dynamic process of interactions between a DNA chain and a histone octamer by numerical simulations. It is found that DNA indeed may wrap around the histone octaner about two turns as in the actual situations. The simulation shows that the interaction potential between DNA and histone is a key factor for the wrapping of DNA, and the temperature is also an important parameter in the process.

  5. MIMO model of an interacting series process for Robust MPC via System Identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wibowo, Tri Chandra S; Saad, Nordin

    2010-07-01

    This paper discusses the empirical modeling using system identification technique with a focus on an interacting series process. The study is carried out experimentally using a gaseous pilot plant as the process, in which the dynamic of such a plant exhibits the typical dynamic of an interacting series process. Three practical approaches are investigated and their performances are evaluated. The models developed are also examined in real-time implementation of a linear model predictive control. The selected model is able to reproduce the main dynamic characteristics of the plant in open-loop and produces zero steady-state errors in closed-loop control system. Several issues concerning the identification process and the construction of a MIMO state space model for a series interacting process are deliberated.

  6. Magnetization reversal processes of isotropic permanent magnets with various inter-grain exchange interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Tsukahara

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available We performed a large-scale micromagnetics simulation on a supercomputing system to investigate the properties of isotropic nanocrystalline permanent magnets consisting of cubic grains. In the simulation, we solved the Landau–Lifshitz–Gilbert equation under a periodic boundary condition for accurate calculation of the magnetization dynamics inside the nanocrystalline isotropic magnet. We reduced the inter-grain exchange interaction perpendicular and parallel to the external field independently. Propagation of the magnetization reversal process is inhibited by reducing the inter-grain exchange interaction perpendicular to the external field, and the coercivity is enhanced by this restraint. In contrast, when we reduce the inter-grain exchange interaction parallel to the external field, the coercivity decreases because the magnetization reversal process propagates owing to dipole interaction. These behaviors show that the coercivity of an isotropic permanent magnet depends on the direction of the inter-grain exchange interaction.

  7. Neural interactions in unilateral colliculus and between bilateral colliculi modulate auditory signal processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Hui-Xian; Cheng, Liang; Chen, Qi-Cai

    2013-01-01

    In the auditory pathway, the inferior colliculus (IC) is a major center for temporal and spectral integration of auditory information. There are widespread neural interactions in unilateral (one) IC and between bilateral (two) ICs that could modulate auditory signal processing such as the amplitude and frequency selectivity of IC neurons. These neural interactions are either inhibitory or excitatory, and are mostly mediated by γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and glutamate, respectively. However, the majority of interactions are inhibitory while excitatory interactions are in the minority. Such unbalanced properties between excitatory and inhibitory projections have an important role in the formation of unilateral auditory dominance and sound location, and the neural interaction in one IC and between two ICs provide an adjustable and plastic modulation pattern for auditory signal processing. PMID:23626523

  8. Neural interactions in unilateral colliculus and between bilateral colliculi modulate auditory signal processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Hui-Xian; Cheng, Liang; Chen, Qi-Cai

    2013-01-01

    In the auditory pathway, the inferior colliculus (IC) is a major center for temporal and spectral integration of auditory information. There are widespread neural interactions in unilateral (one) IC and between bilateral (two) ICs that could modulate auditory signal processing such as the amplitude and frequency selectivity of IC neurons. These neural interactions are either inhibitory or excitatory, and are mostly mediated by γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and glutamate, respectively. However, the majority of interactions are inhibitory while excitatory interactions are in the minority. Such unbalanced properties between excitatory and inhibitory projections have an important role in the formation of unilateral auditory dominance and sound location, and the neural interaction in one IC and between two ICs provide an adjustable and plastic modulation pattern for auditory signal processing.

  9. Reconstructing interaction between dark energy and dark matter using Gaussian Processes

    CERN Document Server

    Cai, Rong-Gen; Yang, Tao

    2015-01-01

    We present a non-parametric approach to reconstruct the interaction between dark energy and dark matter directly from SNIa Union 2.1 data using Gaussian Processes, which is a fully Bayesian approach for smoothing data. In this method, once the equation of state ($w$) of dark energy is specified, the interaction can be reconstructed with respect to redshift. For the decaying vacuum energy case with $w=-1$, the reconstructed interaction is consistent with the $\\Lambda$CDM model, namely, there is no evidence for the interaction. This also holds for the constant $w$ cases from $-0.9$ to $-1.1$ and for the CPL parameterization case. If the equation of state deviates obviously from $-1$, the reconstructed interaction exits at $95\\%$ confidence level. This shows the degeneracy between the interaction and the equation of state of dark energy when they get constraints from the observational data.

  10. Process Modeling In Cold Forging Considering The Process-Tool-Machine Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroiss, Thomas; Engel, Ulf; Merklein, Marion

    2010-06-01

    In this paper, a methodic approach is presented for the determination and modeling of the axial deflection characteristic for the whole system of stroke-controlled press and tooling system. This is realized by a combination of experiment and FE simulation. The press characteristic is uniquely measured in experiment. The tooling system characteristic is determined in FE simulation to avoid experimental investigations on various tooling systems. The stiffnesses of press and tooling system are combined to a substitute stiffness that is integrated into the FE process simulation as a spring element. Non-linear initial effects of the press are modeled with a constant shift factor. The approach was applied to a full forward extrusion process on a press with C-frame. A comparison between experiments and results of the integrated FE simulation model showed a high accuracy of the FE model. The simulation model with integrated deflection characteristic represents the entire process behavior and can be used for the calculation of a mathematical process model based on variant simulations and response surfaces. In a subsequent optimization step, an adjusted process and tool design can be determined, that compensates the influence of the deflections on the workpiece dimensions leading to high workpiece accuracy. Using knowledge on the process behavior, the required number of variant simulations was reduced.

  11. Interactions between rate processes with different timescales explain counterintuitive foraging patterns of arctic wintering eiders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heath, J.P.; Gilchrist, H.G.; Ydenberg, R.C.

    2010-01-01

    To maximize fitness, animals must respond to a variety of processes that operate at different rates or timescales. Appropriate decisions could therefore involve complex interactions among these processes. For example, eiders wintering in the arctic sea ice must consider locomotion and physiology of

  12. Interactions between rate processes with different timescales explain counterintuitive foraging patterns of arctic wintering eiders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heath, J.P.; Gilchrist, H.G.; Ydenberg, R.C.

    2010-01-01

    To maximize fitness, animals must respond to a variety of processes that operate at different rates or timescales. Appropriate decisions could therefore involve complex interactions among these processes. For example, eiders wintering in the arctic sea ice must consider locomotion and physiology of

  13. Pathways between Parent-Child Interactions and Peer Acceptance: The Role of Children's Social Information Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rah, Yumee; Parke, Ross D.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the links among parents' interaction styles, their children's social information processing, and peer acceptance. Fourth-grade children (N = 159) and their parents were observed during family discussions. One year later peer acceptance and children's information processing choices (goals, strategies, and attributions) in…

  14. Extending pathways and processes using molecular interaction networks to analyse cancer genome data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krasnogor Natalio

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cellular processes and pathways, whose deregulation may contribute to the development of cancers, are often represented as cascades of proteins transmitting a signal from the cell surface to the nucleus. However, recent functional genomic experiments have identified thousands of interactions for the signalling canonical proteins, challenging the traditional view of pathways as independent functional entities. Combining information from pathway databases and interaction networks obtained from functional genomic experiments is therefore a promising strategy to obtain more robust pathway and process representations, facilitating the study of cancer-related pathways. Results We present a methodology for extending pre-defined protein sets representing cellular pathways and processes by mapping them onto a protein-protein interaction network, and extending them to include densely interconnected interaction partners. The added proteins display distinctive network topological features and molecular function annotations, and can be proposed as putative new components, and/or as regulators of the communication between the different cellular processes. Finally, these extended pathways and processes are used to analyse their enrichment in pancreatic mutated genes. Significant associations between mutated genes and certain processes are identified, enabling an analysis of the influence of previously non-annotated cancer mutated genes. Conclusions The proposed method for extending cellular pathways helps to explain the functions of cancer mutated genes by exploiting the synergies of canonical knowledge and large-scale interaction data.

  15. Biotic Interactions in Microbial Communities as Modulators of Biogeochemical Processes: Methanotrophy as a Model System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Adrian; Angel, Roey; Veraart, Annelies J; Daebeler, Anne; Jia, Zhongjun; Kim, Sang Yoon; Kerckhof, Frederiek-Maarten; Boon, Nico; Bodelier, Paul L E

    2016-01-01

    Microbial interaction is an integral component of microbial ecology studies, yet the role, extent, and relevance of microbial interaction in community functioning remains unclear, particularly in the context of global biogeochemical cycles. While many studies have shed light on the physico-chemical cues affecting specific processes, (micro)biotic controls and interactions potentially steering microbial communities leading to altered functioning are less known. Yet, recent accumulating evidence suggests that the concerted actions of a community can be significantly different from the combined effects of individual microorganisms, giving rise to emergent properties. Here, we exemplify the importance of microbial interaction for ecosystem processes by analysis of a reasonably well-understood microbial guild, namely, aerobic methane-oxidizing bacteria (MOB). We reviewed the literature which provided compelling evidence for the relevance of microbial interaction in modulating methane oxidation. Support for microbial associations within methane-fed communities is sought by a re-analysis of literature data derived from stable isotope probing studies of various complex environmental settings. Putative positive interactions between active MOB and other microbes were assessed by a correlation network-based analysis with datasets covering diverse environments where closely interacting members of a consortium can potentially alter the methane oxidation activity. Although, methanotrophy is used as a model system, the fundamentals of our postulations may be applicable to other microbial guilds mediating other biogeochemical processes.

  16. Study of high-speed interaction processes between fluoropolymer projectiles and aluminum-based targets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Evgeny A. KHMELNIKOV; Alexey V. STYROV; Konstantin V. SMAGIN; Natalia S. KRAVCHENKO; Valery L. RUDENKO; Vladimir I. FALALEEV; Sergey S. SOKOLOV; Artem V. SVIDINSKY; Natalia F. SVIDINSKAYA

    2015-01-01

    The experimental results and numerical modeling of penetration process of fluoropolymer projectiles in aluminum-based targets are pre-sented. Analysis of mathematical models for interaction of elastoplastic projectile and target without taking additional energy released during interaction of fluoropolymer and aluminum into consideration is carried out. Energy fraction which is spent effectively on the increase in cavity volume is determined. The experimental and calculated results of penetration by combined and inert projectiles are compared.

  17. REVIEW: Cases on Collaboration In Virtual Learning Environments:
Processes and Interactions

    OpenAIRE

    OZARSLAN, Reviewed By Yasin

    2010-01-01

    Collaboration in Virtual Learning Environment brings meaningful learning interactions between learners in virtual environments. This book collects case studies of collaborative virtual learning environments focusing on the nature of human interactions in virtual spaces and defining the types and qualities of learning processes in these spaces from the perspectives of learners, teachers, designers, and professional and academic developers in various disciplines, learning communities and univer...

  18. Cascading processes and interactions in torrent catchments and their influence on the damage pattern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keiler, Margreth; Gebbers, David

    2014-05-01

    Research on single geomorphological processes during damaging events has a long history; however, comprehensive documentations and analyses of the events have been conducted not until the late 1980s. Thus, for highly damaging events insights about triggering, the evolution and the impacts of processes during an event and the resulting damage were produced. Though, in the majority of cases the processes were studied in a well-defined procedure of one disciplinary focus. These focused studies neglect mutable influences which may alter the sequence of the process or the event. During damaging events multiple geomorphological processes are active which leads to the assumption that they have a certain impact on each other and the course of damaging effect. Consequently, for a comprehensive hazard and risk analysis all processes of a catchment have to be analysed and evaluated quantitatively and qualitatively (MARZOCCHI, 2007). Although the demand for a sophisticated risk management is increasing, the research on interactions as well as on physical vulnerability to multiple hazards, including the different processes impact effects, is still very limited (KAPPES et al., 2010, 2011). The challenges in this field are the quantity of data needed, and furthermore to conduct this kind of analysis is very complex and complicated (KAPPES et al. 2012). Yet, knowledge about possible interactions and resulting impact effects could significantly contribute to the reduction of risk in a region. The objective of this study is to analyse, i) how geomorphological processes interact with each other and with other factors of the surrounding during a damaging event, ii) what influences those interactions have on the resulting damage of the event and iii) whether or not different events are comparable in terms of those interactions and their impacts. To meet these objectives, 15 damaging torrent events, which occurred between 2000 and 2011 in the Bernese Oberland and the Pennine Alps

  19. Transient processes in the parametric interaction of counter-propagating waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slabko, V V; Rasskazova, E V; Tkachenko, V A; Moskalev, A K [Siberian Federal University, Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation); Popov, A K [Purdue University, 1205 W State St, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Myslivets, S A [L.V.Kirensky Institute of Physics, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Academgorodok, Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation)

    2015-12-31

    We present a comparative analysis of transient processes in media with a negative refractive index for the parametric interaction of co- and counter-propagating waves. The transient time for the interaction of counter-propagating waves is shown to considerably exceed that for the interaction of co-propagating waves. In the case of counter-propagating waves, we present fitting results for the generated wave amplitude as a function of time and for the transient time vs. the amplitude of the pump wave and the length of the medium. (optical metamaterials)

  20. Making sense of intercultural interaction processes in international joint venture settings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dao, Li

    the role of individuals and contextual elements as well as process elements which together characterize intercultural interaction. Considering this context, two research questions are set out to guide the research: 1) How do intercultural interaction processes unfold within a Danish-Vietnamese joint...... collection, to develop a pre-understanding framework that serves as a frame of reference for the subsequent field research. The major bodies of literature that the pre-understanding builds on refer to 1) the intercultural interaction stream of research with notable contributions from the negotiated culture...... perspective (Salk, 1997; Brannen, 1998; Brannen and Salk, 2000) and the sensemaking approach to intercultural management (e.g. Osland & Bird, 2000; Kuada & Sørensen, 2010); and 2) process-oriented alliance and IJV research (e.g. Doz 1996, Ring and Van de Ven 1994). The second part (Chapters 7 to 12...

  1. The effect on river discharge estimation by considering an interaction between land surface process and river routing process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yorozu, K.; Tachikawa, Y.

    2015-06-01

    There is much research assessing the impact of climate change on the hydrologic cycle. However, it has often focused on a specific hydrologic process, without considering the interaction among hydrologic processes. In this study, a distributed hydrologic model considering the interaction between flow routing and land surface processes was developed, and its effect on river discharge estimation was investigated. The model enables consideration of flow routing, irrigation withdrawal from rivers at paddy fields, crop growth depending on water and energy status, and evapotranspiration based on meteorological, soil water and vegetation status. To examine the effects of hydrologic process interaction on river discharge estimation, a developed model was applied to the Chao Phraya river basin using near surface meteorological data collected by the Japanese Meteorological Research Institute's Atmospheric General Circulation Model (MRI-AGCM3.2S) with TL959 spatial resolution as forcing data. Also, a flow routing model, which was part of the developed model, was applied independently, using surface and subsurface runoff data from the same GCM. In the results, the developed model tended to estimate a smaller river discharge than was estimated by the river routing model, because of the irrigation effect. In contrast, the annual maximum daily discharge calculated by the developed model was 24% greater than that by the flow routing model. It is assumed that surface runoff in the developed model was greater than that in the flow routing model because the soil water content was maintained at a high level through irrigation withdrawal. As for drought discharge, which is defined as the 355th largest daily discharge, the developed model gave a discharge 2.7-fold greater than the flow routing model. It seems that subsurface runoff in the developed model was greater than that in the flow routing model. The results of this study suggest that considering hydrologic interaction in a

  2. Processing interactions between segmental and suprasegmental information in native speakers of English and Mandarin Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, L; Nusbaum, H C

    1993-02-01

    The processing interactions between segmental and suprasegmental information in native speakers of English and Mandarin Chinese were investigated in a speeded classification task. Since in Chinese, unlike in English, tones convey lexically meaningful information, native speakers of these languages may process combinations of segmental and suprasegmental information differently. Subjects heard consonant-vowel syllables varying on a consonantal (segmental) dimension and either a Mandarin Chinese or constant-pitch (non-Mandarin) suprasegmental dimension. The English listeners showed mutual integrality with the Mandarin Chinese stimuli, but not the constant-pitch stimuli. The native Chinese listeners processed these dimensions with mutual integrality for both the Mandarin Chinese and the constant-pitch stimuli. These results were interpreted in terms of the linguistic function and the structure of suprasegmental information in Chinese and English. The results suggest that the way listeners perceive speech depends on the interaction between the structure of the signal and the processing strategies of the listener.

  3. Parallel Processing Based on Ship Maneuvering in Identification of Interaction Force Coefficients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xiao-jian; HUANG Guo-liang; DENG De-heng

    2008-01-01

    The parallel processing based on the free running model test was adopted to predict the interac-tion force coefficients (flow straightening coefficient and wake fraction) of ship maneuvering. And the multi-population genetic algorithm (MPGA) based on real coding that can contemporarily process the data of freerunning model and simulation of ship maneuvering was applied to solve the problem. Accordingly the optimalindividual was obtained using the method of genetic algorithm. The parallel processing of multi-populationsolved the prematurity in the identification for single population, meanwhile, the parallel processing of the dataof ship maneuvering (turning motion and zigzag motion) is an attempt to solve the coefficient drift problem.In order to validate the method, the interaction force coefficients were verified by the procedure and thesecoefficients measured were compared with those ones identified. The maximum error is less than 5%, and theidentification is an effective method.

  4. Interactions between the Lateral Habenula and the Hippocampus: Implication for Spatial Memory Processes

    OpenAIRE

    Goutagny, Romain; Loureiro, Michael; Jackson, Jesse; Chaumont, Joseph; Williams, Sylvain; Isope, Philippe; Kelche, Christian; Cassel, Jean-Christophe; Lecourtier, Lucas

    2013-01-01

    The lateral habenula (LHb) is an epithalamic structure connected with both the basal ganglia and the limbic system and that exerts a major influence on midbrain monoaminergic nuclei. The current view is that LHb receives and processes cortical information in order to select proper strategies in a variety of behavior. Recent evidence indicates that LHb might also be implicated in hippocampus-dependent memory processes. However, if and how LHb functionally interacts with the dorsal hippocampus ...

  5. Interactions between the Lateral Habenula and the Hippocampus: Implication for Spatial Memory Processes

    OpenAIRE

    Goutagny, Romain; Loureiro, Michael; Jackson, Jesse; Chaumont, Joseph; Williams, Sylvain; Isope, Philippe; Kelche, Christian; Cassel, Jean-Christophe; Lecourtier, Lucas

    2013-01-01

    The lateral habenula (LHb) is an epithalamic structure connected with both the basal ganglia and the limbic system and that exerts a major influence on midbrain monoaminergic nuclei. The current view is that LHb receives and processes cortical information in order to select proper strategies in a variety of behavior. Recent evidence indicates that LHb might also be implicated in hippocampus-dependent memory processes. However, if and how LHb functionally interacts with the dorsal hippocampus ...

  6. Neural correlates of suspiciousness and interactions with anxiety during emotional and neutral word processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Joscelyn E; Miller, Gregory A; Sass, Sarah M; Silton, Rebecca Levin; Edgar, J Christopher; Stewart, Jennifer L; Zhou, Jing; Heller, Wendy

    2014-01-01

    Suspiciousness is usually classified as a symptom of psychosis, but it also occurs in depression and anxiety disorders. Though how suspiciousness overlaps with depression is not obvious, suspiciousness does seem to overlap with anxious apprehension and anxious arousal (e.g., verbal iterative processes and vigilance about environmental threat). However, suspiciousness also has unique characteristics (e.g., concern about harm from others and vigilance about social threat). Given that both anxiety and suspiciousness have been associated with abnormalities in emotion processing, it is unclear whether it is the unique characteristics of suspiciousness or the overlap with anxiety that drive abnormalities in emotion processing. Event-related brain potentials were obtained during an emotion-word Stroop task. Results indicated that suspiciousness interacts with anxious apprehension to modulate initial stimulus perception processes. Suspiciousness is associated with attention to all stimuli regardless of emotion content. In contrast, anxious arousal is associated with a later response to emotion stimuli only. These results suggest that suspiciousness and anxious apprehension share overlapping processes, but suspiciousness alone is associated with a hyperactive early vigilance response. Depression did not interact with suspiciousness to predict response to emotion stimuli. These findings suggest that it may be informative to assess suspiciousness in conjunction with anxiety in order to better understand how these symptoms interact and contribute to dysfunctional emotion processing.

  7. Neural Correlates of Suspiciousness and Interactions with Anxiety during Emotional and Neutral Word Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joscelyn E Fisher

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Suspiciousness is usually classified as a symptom of psychosis, but it also occurs in depression and anxiety disorders. Though how suspiciousness overlaps with depression is not obvious, suspiciousness does seem to overlap with anxious apprehension and anxious arousal (e.g., verbal iterative processes and vigilance about environmental threat. However, suspiciousness also has unique characteristics (e.g., concern about harm from others and vigilance about social threat. Given that both anxiety and suspiciousness have been associated with abnormalities in emotion processing, it is unclear whether it is the unique characteristics of suspiciousness or the overlap with anxiety that drive abnormalities in emotion processing.. Event-related brain potentials were obtained during an emotion-word Stroop task. Results indicated that suspiciousness interacts with anxious apprehension to modulate initial stimulus perception processes. Suspiciousness is associated with attention to all stimuli regardless of emotion content. In contrast, anxious arousal is associated with a later response to emotion stimuli only. These results suggest that suspiciousness and anxious apprehension share overlapping processes, but suspiciousness alone is associated with a hyperactive early vigilance response. Depression did not interact with suspiciousness to predict response to emotion stimuli. These findings suggest that it may be informative to assess suspiciousness in conjunction with anxiety in order to better understand how these symptoms interact and contribute to dysfunctional emotion processing.

  8. Nonlinear mechanisms to Rogue events in the process of interaction between optical filaments

    CERN Document Server

    Kovachev, L M

    2015-01-01

    We investigate two types of nonlinear interaction between collinear femtosecond laser pulses with power slightly above the critical for self-focusing $P_{cr}$. In the first case we study energy exchange between filaments. The model describes this process through degenerate four-photon parametric mixing (FPPM) scheme and requests initial phase difference between the waves. When there are no initial phase difference between the pulses, the FPPM process does not work. In this case it is obtained the second type of interaction as merging between two, three or four filaments in a single filament with higher power. It is found that in the second case the interflow between the filaments has potential of interaction due to cross-phase modulation (CPM).

  9. Interaction matters: A perceived social partner alters the neural processing of human speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Katherine; Redcay, Elizabeth

    2016-04-01

    Mounting evidence suggests that social interaction changes how communicative behaviors (e.g., spoken language, gaze) are processed, but the precise neural bases by which social-interactive context may alter communication remain unknown. Various perspectives suggest that live interactions are more rewarding, more attention-grabbing, or require increased mentalizing-thinking about the thoughts of others. Dissociating between these possibilities is difficult because most extant neuroimaging paradigms examining social interaction have not directly compared live paradigms to conventional "offline" (or recorded) paradigms. We developed a novel fMRI paradigm to assess whether and how an interactive context changes the processing of speech matched in content and vocal characteristics. Participants listened to short vignettes--which contained no reference to people or mental states--believing that some vignettes were prerecorded and that others were presented over a real-time audio-feed by a live social partner. In actuality, all speech was prerecorded. Simply believing that speech was live increased activation in each participant's own mentalizing regions, defined using a functional localizer. Contrasting live to recorded speech did not reveal significant differences in attention or reward regions. Further, higher levels of autistic-like traits were associated with altered neural specialization for live interaction. These results suggest that humans engage in ongoing mentalizing about social partners, even when such mentalizing is not explicitly required, illustrating how social context shapes social cognition. Understanding communication in social context has important implications for typical and atypical social processing, especially for disorders like autism where social difficulties are more acute in live interaction. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Interaction between Task Oriented and Affective Information Processing in Cognitive Robotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haazebroek, Pascal; van Dantzig, Saskia; Hommel, Bernhard

    There is an increasing interest in endowing robots with emotions. Robot control however is still often very task oriented. We present a cognitive architecture that allows the combination of and interaction between task representations and affective information processing. Our model is validated by comparing simulation results with empirical data from experimental psychology.

  11. AOIPS/2 - An interactive system to process, analyze, and display meteorological data sets for nowcasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasler, A. F.; Desjardins, M. L.

    1987-01-01

    A description of AOIPS/2, an interactive hardware and software system to process, integrate, and display meteorological data is presented. The AOIPS/2 objectives and functional specifications are given. The hardware system architecture and work stations and the software architecture and special features are described. A summary is given of the software system and its main menu.

  12. STREAMING INTERACTION OF AGRICUL-TURAL AND PROCESSING ENTERPRISES OF AGROINDUSTRIAL COMPLEX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loyko V. I.

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the results of research of stream-ing scheme of interaction between agricultural (AGC and processing (PP agricultural enterprises which were developed by the authors of the mathematical model for calculation of economic efficiency of AGC circuits and PP, as well as for the calculation of economic efficiency of the companies in case of their association

  13. Social and emotional relevance in face processing: Happy faces of future interaction partners enhance the LPP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian eBublatzky

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Human face perception is modulated by both emotional valence and social relevance, but their interaction has rarely been examined. Event-related brain potentials (ERP to happy, neutral, and angry facial expressions with different degrees of social relevance were recorded. Social relevance was manipulated by presenting pictures of two specific face actors as future interaction partners (meet condition, whereas two other face actors remained non-relevant. As a further control condition all stimuli were presented without specific task instructions (passive viewing condition. A within-subject design (Facial Expression x Relevance x Task was implemented, where randomly ordered face stimuli of four actors (2 women, from the KDEF were presented for 1s to 26 participants (16 female. Results showed an augmented N170, early posterior negativity (EPN, and late positive potential (LPP for emotional in contrast to neutral facial expressions. Of particular interest, face processing varied as a function of instructed social relevance. Whereas the meet condition was accompanied with unspecific effects regardless of relevance (P1, EPN, viewing potential interaction partners was associated with increased LPP amplitudes. The LPP was specifically enhanced for happy facial expressions of the future interaction partners. This underscores that social relevance can impact face processing already at an early stage of visual processing. These findings are discussed within the framework of motivated attention and face processing theories.

  14. Emergent Readers' Social Interaction Styles and Their Comprehension Processes during Buddy Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christ, Tanya; Wang, X. Christine; Chiu, Ming Ming

    2015-01-01

    To examine the relations between emergent readers' social interaction styles and their comprehension processes, we adapted sociocultural and transactional views of learning and reading, and conducted statistical discourse analysis of 1,359 conversation turns transcribed from 14 preschoolers' 40 buddy reading events. Results show that…

  15. Emergent Readers' Social Interaction Styles and Their Comprehension Processes during Buddy Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christ, Tanya; Wang, X. Christine; Chiu, Ming Ming

    2015-01-01

    To examine the relations between emergent readers' social interaction styles and their comprehension processes, we adapted sociocultural and transactional views of learning and reading, and conducted statistical discourse analysis of 1,359 conversation turns transcribed from 14 preschoolers' 40 buddy reading events. Results show that interaction…

  16. Designing Progressive and Interactive Analytics Processes for High-Dimensional Data Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turkay, Cagatay; Kaya, Erdem; Balcisoy, Selim; Hauser, Helwig

    2017-01-01

    In interactive data analysis processes, the dialogue between the human and the computer is the enabling mechanism that can lead to actionable observations about the phenomena being investigated. It is of paramount importance that this dialogue is not interrupted by slow computational mechanisms that do not consider any known temporal human-computer interaction characteristics that prioritize the perceptual and cognitive capabilities of the users. In cases where the analysis involves an integrated computational method, for instance to reduce the dimensionality of the data or to perform clustering, such non-optimal processes are often likely. To remedy this, progressive computations, where results are iteratively improved, are getting increasing interest in visual analytics. In this paper, we present techniques and design considerations to incorporate progressive methods within interactive analysis processes that involve high-dimensional data. We define methodologies to facilitate processes that adhere to the perceptual characteristics of users and describe how online algorithms can be incorporated within these. A set of design recommendations and according methods to support analysts in accomplishing high-dimensional data analysis tasks are then presented. Our arguments and decisions here are informed by observations gathered over a series of analysis sessions with analysts from finance. We document observations and recommendations from this study and present evidence on how our approach contribute to the efficiency and productivity of interactive visual analysis sessions involving high-dimensional data.

  17. Photon-magnon interaction process: a mechanism of resonance linewidths of ferromagnet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李粮生; 史庆藩

    2005-01-01

    We consider the relaxation processes of parametric excitation of magnons in a microwave resonator. Using the approach of unitary transformation, we calculate the effective amplitude of three-boson terms of Hamiltonian, especially for photon-magnon interaction which is expected to contribute to the resonance linewidth of ferromagnets.

  18. Mathematical Models of Mass Transfer Processes in Soils with Account for Their Interaction with Rainfall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galiullina, N. E.; Khramchenkov, M. G.

    2017-07-01

    Equations of physicochemical mechanics for swelling soils interacting with rainfall in the course of the process of surface discharge are obtained. The behavior of unsaturated swelling soils in anomalous conditions of surface discharge has been analyzed. A comparison with the data of normal conditions of the surface discharge regime has been carried out.

  19. Levels of participation and interactional issue framing in a water area planning process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Francois, G.; Dewulf, A.; Taillieu, T.

    2008-01-01

    Session 1-2 Levels of participation and their impact on interactional issue framing in a water area planning process Greet François 1, Art Dewulf 2, Tharsi Taillieu 1 1 K.U.Leuven - Research group for Work, Organisational and Personnel Psychology 2 Wageningen University - Public Administration and P

  20. Emerging Interaction of Political Processes: The Effect on a Study Abroad Program in Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Ruth

    2007-01-01

    The emerging interaction of political processes sets the stage for the level of macro uncertainty and specific risk events that may occur in an international relationship. Strongly defined social control in Cuba, formal and informal, dominates the dynamics of the relationship, while simultaneously government, formal, action in the U.S. dominates…

  1. The Interaction of Complexity and Grammatical Processability: The Case of Swedish as a Foreign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norrby, Catrin; Hakansson, Gisela

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study is to discuss the interaction of linguistic complexity and morpho-syntactic development in foreign language learners. The analysis of morpho-syntactic structures was carried out within the framework of Processability Theory (Pienemann 1998). To capture the level of complexity we investigate the following: sentence length,…

  2. PEDAGOGICAL INTERACTION OF PARTICIPANTS OF EDUCATIONAL PROCESS AS CONDITION OF EFFICIENCY OF INCLUSIVE EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Khazova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In article problems of pedagogical interaction and forming of psychologically comfortable educational environment within implementation of tasks of inclusive education are considered. In article the leading principles of the inclusive educational environment are allocated.  Authors  determine  a  row  competence-based tasks of specialists of education among which: organization of pedagogical interaction, ensuring readiness (administration, teachers, other to creation of system of this interaction, application of managerial and psychology and pedagogical approaches and forms of organizational and pedagogical and teaching and educational activities, forming in the educational organization  of  psychologically comfortable  environment,  the organization in educational institution of independent activity, aim-oriented on ensuring effective pedagogical interaction between all subjects of educational process administrative and managerial, motivational, methodical, etc. Besides, in work the main areas of work with teachers, parents and pupils are established. And also, experience of implementation is provided to practice of work of the educational organization of the special psychology and pedagogical complex "School of Interaction" uniting administration of school, pedagogical, student's  and  parent  collectives  on  the  solution  of tasks of the organization of effective pedagogical interaction between all subjects of education. Experimental approbation of PPK "School of Interaction" was performed based on comprehensive and correctional schools of Maikop and Krasnodar.

  3. Straining and wrinkling processes during turbulence-premixed flame interaction measured using temporally-resolved diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinberg, Adam M.; Driscoll, James F. [Department of Aerospace Engineering, The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States)

    2009-12-15

    The dynamical processes of flame surface straining and wrinkling that occur as turbulence interacts with a premixed flame were measured using cinema-stereoscopic PIV (CS-PIV) and orthogonal-plane cinema-stereoscopic PIV (OPCS-PIV). These diagnostics provided temporally resolved measurements of turbulence-flame interaction at frame rates of up to 3 kHz and spatial resolutions as small as 280{mu} m. Previous descriptions of flame straining and wrinkling have typically been derived based on a canonical interaction between a pair of counter-rotating vortices and a planar flame surface. However, it was found that this configuration did not properly represent real turbulence-flame interaction. Interactions resembling the canonical configuration were observed in less than 10% of the recorded frames. Instead, straining and wrinkling were generally caused more geometrically complex turbulence, consisting of large groups of structures that could be multiply curved and intertwined. The effect of the interaction was highly dependent on the interaction geometry. Furthermore, even when the turbulence did exist in the canonical geometry, the straining and wrinkling of the flame surface were not well characterized by the vortical structures. A new mechanistic description of the turbulence-flame interaction was therefore identified and confirmed by the measurements. In this description, flame surface straining is caused by coherent structures of fluid-dynamic strain-rate (strain-rate structures). The role of vortical structures is to curve existing flame surface, creating wrinkles. By simultaneously considering both forms of turbulent structure, turbulence-flame interactions in both the canonical configuration and more complex geometries could be understood. (author)

  4. Improving the Efficiency of the Educational Process Using Interactive Teaching Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaenko Valentin S.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article provides a solution to the problem of comprehensibility of educational material in the process of training participants in the educational process in higher educational institutions. This problem is solved by analyzing the various forms of education and communication, such as passive, active and interactive. The article also provides a classification of interactive methods. It also presents an example of interactive teaching methods in the educational process, the author’s board game «Master Risk», which is designed to enhance the practical training in the course «Management». The game simulates two procedures of risk management «Risk Identification» and «Risk Analysis». The game «Master Risk» allows participants of the educational process to enhance theoretical knowledge and practical skills in areas of project management and risk management. Introduction of the game to the educational process should improve the cognitive activity of the participants of training and help obtaining new knowledge using modern educational technologies, skills to work in a team (group and develop professional skills as well as general cultural competences.

  5. An Interactive System Based on Kansei Engineering to Support Clothing Design Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Lu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Kansei Engineering was regarded as a technology to "translate a customer's feeling of the product to the design elements." In this study an interactive system was constructed on the base of Kansei Engineering to support clothing design process. As a core content and foundation, knowledge base is developed by varied methods such as Kansei engineering method and analytic hierarchy process. When the Kansei word is input, the image can be characterized and formalized by requirement process. The clothing in the proper fuzzy set can be selected and recommended. The designer can make evaluation and ranking and then input the results into the clothing recommendation model. In the end, an interactive system for men's suit was used as a case study to show the application.

  6. Interactive Processing and Visualization of Image Data forBiomedical and Life Science Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staadt, Oliver G.; Natarjan, Vijay; Weber, Gunther H.; Wiley,David F.; Hamann, Bernd

    2007-02-01

    Background: Applications in biomedical science and life science produce large data sets using increasingly powerful imaging devices and computer simulations. It is becoming increasingly difficult for scientists to explore and analyze these data using traditional tools. Interactive data processing and visualization tools can support scientists to overcome these limitations. Results: We show that new data processing tools and visualization systems can be used successfully in biomedical and life science applications. We present an adaptive high-resolution display system suitable for biomedical image data, algorithms for analyzing and visualization protein surfaces and retinal optical coherence tomography data, and visualization tools for 3D gene expression data. Conclusion: We demonstrated that interactive processing and visualization methods and systems can support scientists in a variety of biomedical and life science application areas concerned with massive data analysis.

  7. Relaxation Process of Interacting Two-mode System Influenced by Markovian Thermal Reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ban, Masashi

    2016-11-01

    Two different models of a relaxation process are considered for a linearly interacting two-mode system under the influence of independent Markovian thermal reservoirs. One is to describe the relaxation process of bare particles and the other is to describe the one of quasi particles which are derived from bare particles by the Bogoliubov transformation. The difference is that the former does not includes the effect of the inter-mode interaction on the damping operator while the latter does. The equations of motion are solved algebraically by making use of non-equilibrium thermo field dynamics. The relaxation processes in the two models are investigated in detail. The results are applied for investigating a non-ideal beam splitter with photon loss and noise addition.

  8. Glutathione--hydroxyl radical interaction: a theoretical study on radical recognition process.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Béla Fiser

    Full Text Available Non-reactive, comparative (2 × 1.2 μs molecular dynamics simulations were carried out to characterize the interactions between glutathione (GSH, host molecule and hydroxyl radical (OH(•, guest molecule. From this analysis, two distinct steps were identified in the recognition process of hydroxyl radical by glutathione: catching and steering, based on the interactions between the host-guest molecules. Over 78% of all interactions are related to the catching mechanism via complex formation between anionic carboxyl groups and the OH radical, hence both terminal residues of GSH serve as recognition sites. The glycine residue has an additional role in the recognition of OH radical, namely the steering. The flexibility of the Gly residue enables the formation of further interactions of other parts of glutathione (e.g. thiol, α- and β-carbons with the lone electron pair of the hydroxyl radical. Moreover, quantum chemical calculations were carried out on selected GSH/OH(• complexes and on appropriate GSH conformers to describe the energy profile of the recognition process. The relative enthalpy and the free energy changes of the radical recognition of the strongest complexes varied from -42.4 to -27.8 kJ/mol and from -21.3 to 9.8 kJ/mol, respectively. These complexes, containing two or more intermolecular interactions, would be the starting configurations for the hydrogen atom migration to quench the hydroxyl radical via different reaction channels.

  9. CLIMLAB: a Python-based software toolkit for interactive, process-oriented climate modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, B. E. J.

    2015-12-01

    Global climate is a complex emergent property of the rich interactions between simpler components of the climate system. We build scientific understanding of this system by breaking it down into component process models (e.g. radiation, large-scale dynamics, boundary layer turbulence), understanding each components, and putting them back together. Hands-on experience and freedom to tinker with climate models (whether simple or complex) is invaluable for building physical understanding. CLIMLAB is an open-ended software engine for interactive, process-oriented climate modeling. With CLIMLAB you can interactively mix and match model components, or combine simpler process models together into a more comprehensive model. It was created primarily to support classroom activities, using hands-on modeling to teach fundamentals of climate science at both undergraduate and graduate levels. CLIMLAB is written in Python and ties in with the rich ecosystem of open-source scientific Python tools for numerics and graphics. The IPython notebook format provides an elegant medium for distributing interactive example code. I will give an overview of the current capabilities of CLIMLAB, the curriculum we have developed thus far, and plans for the future. Using CLIMLAB requires some basic Python coding skills. We consider this an educational asset, as we are targeting upper-level undergraduates and Python is an increasingly important language in STEM fields. However CLIMLAB is well suited to be deployed as a computational back-end for a graphical gaming environment based on earth-system modeling.

  10. Bilateral collicular interaction: modulation of auditory signal processing in frequency domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, L; Mei, H-X; Tang, J; Fu, Z-Y; Jen, P H-S; Chen, Q-C

    2013-04-01

    In the ascending auditory pathway, the inferior colliculus (IC) receives and integrates excitatory and inhibitory inputs from a variety of lower auditory nuclei, intrinsic projections within the IC, contralateral IC through the commissure of the IC and the auditory cortex. All these connections make the IC a major center for subcortical temporal and spectral integration of auditory information. In this study, we examine bilateral collicular interaction in the modulation of frequency-domain signal processing of mice using electrophysiological recording and focal electrical stimulation. Focal electrical stimulation of neurons in one IC produces widespread inhibition and focused facilitation of responses of neurons in the other IC. This bilateral collicular interaction decreases the response magnitude and lengthens the response latency of inhibited IC neurons but produces an opposite effect on the response of facilitated IC neurons. In the frequency domain, the focal electrical stimulation of one IC sharpens or expands the frequency tuning curves (FTCs) of neurons in the other IC to improve frequency sensitivity and the frequency response range. The focal electrical stimulation also produces a shift in the best frequency (BF) of modulated IC (ICMdu) neurons toward that of electrically stimulated IC (ICES) neurons. The degree of bilateral collicular interaction is dependent upon the difference in the BF between the ICES neurons and ICMdu neurons. These data suggest that bilateral collicular interaction is a part of dynamic acoustic signal processing that adjusts and improves signal processing as well as reorganizes collicular representation of signal parameters according to the acoustic experience.

  11. PHASE INTERACTION BETWEEN EEG RHYTHMS IN THE STUDY OF PROCESSES OF TIME PERCEPTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. V. Bushov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study pursued to investigate the role of phase interactions between EEG rhythms in the process of the perception of time. The purpose of the study was to analyse the dependence of these interactions on the type and stage of the activity being performed, as well as on the individual characteristics of a human. For this purpose, 27 boys and 29 girls, all university students, were asked to reproduce and measure short intervals of time (200 and 800 ms, during which their EEG was recorded in frontal, central, parietal, temporal, and occipital lobes, according to the system 10–20%. While studying phase interactions between EEG rhythms, we used wavelet bispectral analysis and calculated the bicoherence function. As it follows from the conducted research, most often close phase interactions are observed between the gamma-rhythm and other rhythms of EEG or between different frequencies of the gamma-rhythm. It was established that the phase interactions under study were influenced by the factors of “sex”, “activity type”, and “activity stage”. The study showed correlations of phase interactions with the levels of intellect, extraversion, neuroticism, with the particularities of the lateral organisation of brain, and the accuracy of time perception.

  12. Multi-view interaction modelling of human collaboration processes : A business process study of head and neck cancer care in a Dutch academic hospital

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stuit, M.; Wortmann, J.C.; Szirbik, N.; Roodenburg, J.

    2011-01-01

    In the healthcare domain, human collaboration processes (HCPs), which consist of interactions between healthcare workers from different (para)medical disciplines and departments, are of growing importance as healthcare delivery becomes increasingly integrated. Existing workflow-based process modelli

  13. Multi-view interaction modelling of human collaboration processes : A business process study of head and neck cancer care in a Dutch academic hospital

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stuit, M.; Wortmann, J.C.; Szirbik, N.; Roodenburg, J.

    2011-01-01

    In the healthcare domain, human collaboration processes (HCPs), which consist of interactions between healthcare workers from different (para)medical disciplines and departments, are of growing importance as healthcare delivery becomes increasingly integrated. Existing workflow-based process

  14. Contact and voter processes on the infinite percolation cluster as models of host-symbiont interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Bertacchi, Daniela; Zucca, Fabio

    2009-01-01

    We introduce spatially explicit stochastic processes to model multispecies hostsymbiont interactions. The host environment is static, modeled by the infinite percolation cluster of site percolation. Symbionts evolve on the infinite cluster through contact or voter type interactions, where each host may be infected by a colony of symbionts. In the presence of a single symbiont species, the condition for invasion as a function of the density of the habitat of hosts and the maximal size of the colonies is investigated in details. In the presence of multiple symbiont species, it is proved that the community of symbionts clusters in two dimensions whereas symbiont species may coexist in higher dimensions.

  15. Theoretical and methodological foundations of pedagogical interaction of the educational process participants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonchar O.V.

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Theoretical and methodological foundations of pedagogical interaction of the educational process participants at the system of higher school in the XX century are investigated. At the modern stage of pedagogical theory and humanization of higher education development it becomes aware of the burning necessity of reconsideration of historical inheritance of pedagogical knowledge about pedagogical interaction of a teacher and students. But research of any phenomenon couldn't be perfect and qualitative without understanding of philosophy and logic of its formation.

  16. Macroscopic properties and dynamical large deviations of the boundary driven Kawasaki process with long range interaction

    CERN Document Server

    Mourragui, Mustapha

    2011-01-01

    We consider a boundary driven exclusion process associated to particles evolving under Kawasaki (conservative) dynamics and long range interaction in a regime in which at equilibrium phase separation might occur. We show that the empirical density under the diffusive scaling solves a non linear integro differential evolution equation with Dirichlet boundary conditions and we prove the associated dynamical large deviations principle. Further, tuning suitable the intensity of the interaction, in the uniqueness phase regime, we show that under the stationary measure the empirical density solves a non local, stationary, transport equation.

  17. Gestalt Processing in Human-Robot Interaction: A Novel Account for Autism Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maya Dimitrova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a novel analysis focused on showing that education is possible through robotic enhancement of the Gestalt processing in children with autism, which is not comparable to alternative educational methods such as demonstration and instruction provided solely by human tutors. The paper underlines the conceptualization of cognitive processing of holistic representations traditionally named in psychology as Gestalt structures, emerging in the process of human-robot interaction in educational settings. Two cognitive processes are proposed in the present study - bounding and unfolding - and their role in Gestalt emergence is outlined. The proposed theoretical approach explains novel findings of autistic perception and gives guidelines for design of robot-assistants to the rehabilitation process.

  18. Gestalt Processing in Human-Robot Interaction: A Novel Account for Autism Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maya Dimitrova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a novel analysis focused on showing that education is possible through robotic enhancement of the Gestalt processing in children with autism, which is not comparable to alternative educational methods such as demonstration and instruction provided solely by human tutors. The paper underlines the conceptualization of cognitive processing of holistic representations traditionally named in psychology as Gestalt structures, emerging in the process of human-robot interaction in educational settings. Two cognitive processes are proposed in the present study - bounding and unfolding - and their role in Gestalt emergence is outlined. The proposed theoretical approach explains novel findings of autistic perception and gives guidelines for design of robot-assistants to the rehabilitation process.

  19. Testing interactive effects of automatic and conflict control processes during response inhibition - A system neurophysiological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chmielewski, Witold X; Beste, Christian

    2017-02-01

    In everyday life successful acting often requires to inhibit automatic responses that might not be appropriate in the current situation. These response inhibition processes have been shown to become aggravated with increasing automaticity of pre-potent response tendencies. Likewise, it has been shown that inhibitory processes are complicated by a concurrent engagement in additional cognitive control processes (e.g. conflicting monitoring). Therefore, opposing processes (i.e. automaticity and cognitive control) seem to strongly impact response inhibition. However, possible interactive effects of automaticity and cognitive control for the modulation of response inhibition processes have yet not been examined. In the current study we examine this question using a novel experimental paradigm combining a Go/NoGo with a Simon task in a system neurophysiological approach combining EEG recordings with source localization analyses. The results show that response inhibition is less accurate in non-conflicting than in conflicting stimulus-response mappings. Thus it seems that conflicts and the resulting engagement in conflict monitoring processes, as reflected in the N2 amplitude, may foster response inhibition processes. This engagement in conflict monitoring processes leads to an increase in cognitive control, as reflected by an increased activity in the anterior and posterior cingulate areas, while simultaneously the automaticity of response tendencies is decreased. Most importantly, this study suggests that the quality of conflict processes in anterior cingulate areas and especially the resulting interaction of cognitive control and automaticity of pre-potent response tendencies are important factors to consider, when it comes to the modulation of response inhibition processes.

  20. How does the interaction between spelling and motor processes build up during writing acquisition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandel, Sonia; Perret, Cyril

    2015-03-01

    How do we recall a word's spelling? How do we produce the movements to form the letters of a word? Writing involves several processing levels. Surprisingly, researchers have focused either on spelling or motor production. However, these processes interact and cannot be studied separately. Spelling processes cascade into movement production. For example, in French, producing letters PAR in the orthographically irregular word PARFUM (perfume) delays motor production with respect to the same letters in the regular word PARDON (pardon). Orthographic regularity refers to the possibility of spelling a word correctly by applying the most frequent sound-letter conversion rules. The present study examined how the interaction between spelling and motor processing builds up during writing acquisition. French 8-10 year old children participated in the experiment. This is the age handwriting skills start to become automatic. The children wrote regular and irregular words that could be frequent or infrequent. They wrote on a digitizer so we could collect data on latency, movement duration and fluency. The results revealed that the interaction between spelling and motor processing was present already at age 8. It became more adult-like at ages 9 and 10. Before starting to write, processing irregular words took longer than regular words. This processing load spread into movement production. It increased writing duration and rendered the movements more dysfluent. Word frequency affected latencies and cascaded into production. It modulated writing duration but not movement fluency. Writing infrequent words took longer than frequent words. The data suggests that orthographic regularity has a stronger impact on writing than word frequency. They do not cascade in the same extent. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Interactions between ingredients in IMX-101: Reactive Chemical Processes Control Insensitive Munitions Properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maharrey, Sean P.; Wiese-Smith, Deneille; Highley, Aaron M.; Behrens, Richard,; Kay, Jeffrey J

    2014-03-01

    Simultaneous Thermogravimetric Modulated Beam Mass Spectrometry (STMBMS) measurements have been conducted on a new Insensitive Munitions (IM) formulation. IMX-101 is the first explosive to be fully IM qualified under new NATO STANAG guidelines for fielded munitions. The formulation uses dinitroanisole (DNAN) as a new melt cast material to replace TNT, and shows excellent IM performance when formulated with other energetic ingredients. The scope of this work is to explain this superior IM performance by investigating the reactive processes occurring in the material when subjected to a well-controlled thermal environment. The dominant reactive processes observed were a series of complex chemical interactions between the three main ingredients (DNAN, NQ, and NTO) that occurs well below the onset of the normal decomposition process of any of the individual ingredients. This process shifts the thermal response of the formulations to a much lower temperature, where the kinetically controlled reaction processes are much slower. This low temperature shift has the effect of allowing the reactions to consume the reactive solids (NQ, NTO) well before the reaction rates increase and reach thermal runaway, resulting in a relatively benign response to the external stimuli. The main findings on the interaction processes are presented.

  2. Revealing complex function, process and pathway interactions with high-throughput expression and biological annotation data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Nitesh Kumar; Ernst, Mathias; Liebscher, Volkmar; Fuellen, Georg; Taher, Leila

    2016-10-20

    The biological relationships both between and within the functions, processes and pathways that operate within complex biological systems are only poorly characterized, making the interpretation of large scale gene expression datasets extremely challenging. Here, we present an approach that integrates gene expression and biological annotation data to identify and describe the interactions between biological functions, processes and pathways that govern a phenotype of interest. The product is a global, interconnected network, not of genes but of functions, processes and pathways, that represents the biological relationships within the system. We validated our approach on two high-throughput expression datasets describing organismal and organ development. Our findings are well supported by the available literature, confirming that developmental processes and apoptosis play key roles in cell differentiation. Furthermore, our results suggest that processes related to pluripotency and lineage commitment, which are known to be critical for development, interact mainly indirectly, through genes implicated in more general biological processes. Moreover, we provide evidence that supports the relevance of cell spatial organization in the developing liver for proper liver function. Our strategy can be viewed as an abstraction that is useful to interpret high-throughput data and devise further experiments.

  3. Analytical considerations and dimensionless analysis for a description of particle interactions in high pressure processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauh, Cornelia; Delgado, Antonio

    2010-12-01

    High pressures of up to several hundreds of MPa are utilized in a wide range of applications in chemical, bio-, and food engineering, aiming at selective control of (bio-)chemical reactions. Non-uniformity of process conditions may threaten the safety and quality of the resulting products because processing conditions such as pressure, temperature, and treatment history are crucial for the course of (bio-)chemical reactions. Therefore, thermofluid-dynamical phenomena during the high pressure process have to be examined, and numerical tools to predict process uniformity and to optimize the processes have to be developed. Recently applied mathematical models and numerical simulations of laboratory and industrial scale high pressure processes investigating the mentioned crucial phenomena are based on continuum balancing models of thermofluid dynamics. Nevertheless, biological systems are complex fluids containing the relevant (bio-)chemical compounds (enzymes and microorganisms). These compounds are particles that interact with the surrounding medium and between each other. This contribution deals with thermofluid-dynamical interactions of the relevant particulate (bio-)chemical compounds (enzymes and microorganisms) with the surrounding fluid. By consideration of characteristic time and length scales and particle forces, the motion of the (bio-)chemical compounds is characterized.

  4. Quantum information processing using quasiclassical electromagnetic interactions between qubits and electrical resonators

    CERN Document Server

    Kerman, Andrew J

    2012-01-01

    Electrical resonators are widely used in quantum information processing with any qubits that are manipulated via electromagnetic interactions. In nearly all examples to date they are engineered to interact with qubits via real or virtual exchange of (typically microwave) photons, and the resonator must therefore have both a high quality factor and strong quantum fluctuations, corresponding to the strong-coupling limit of cavity QED. Although great strides in the control of quantum information have been made using this so-called "circuit QED" architecture, it also comes with some important disadvantages. In this paper, we discuss a new paradigm for coupling qubits electromagnetically via resonators, in which the qubits do not exchange photons with the resonator, but instead where the qubits exert quasi-classical, effective "forces" on it. We show how this type of interaction is similar to that induced between the internal state of a trapped atomic ion and its center-of-mass motion by the photon recoil momentum...

  5. Bilateral Collicular Interaction: Modulation of Auditory Signal Processing in Amplitude Domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Zi-Ying; Wang, Xin; Jen, Philip H.-S.; Chen, Qi-Cai

    2012-01-01

    In the ascending auditory pathway, the inferior colliculus (IC) receives and integrates excitatory and inhibitory inputs from many lower auditory nuclei, intrinsic projections within the IC, contralateral IC through the commissure of the IC and from the auditory cortex. All these connections make the IC a major center for subcortical temporal and spectral integration of auditory information. In this study, we examine bilateral collicular interaction in modulating amplitude-domain signal processing using electrophysiological recording, acoustic and focal electrical stimulation. Focal electrical stimulation of one (ipsilateral) IC produces widespread inhibition (61.6%) and focused facilitation (9.1%) of responses of neurons in the other (contralateral) IC, while 29.3% of the neurons were not affected. Bilateral collicular interaction produces a decrease in the response magnitude and an increase in the response latency of inhibited IC neurons but produces opposite effects on the response of facilitated IC neurons. These two groups of neurons are not separately located and are tonotopically organized within the IC. The modulation effect is most effective at low sound level and is dependent upon the interval between the acoustic and electric stimuli. The focal electrical stimulation of the ipsilateral IC compresses or expands the rate-level functions of contralateral IC neurons. The focal electrical stimulation also produces a shift in the minimum threshold and dynamic range of contralateral IC neurons for as long as 150 minutes. The degree of bilateral collicular interaction is dependent upon the difference in the best frequency between the electrically stimulated IC neurons and modulated IC neurons. These data suggest that bilateral collicular interaction mainly changes the ratio between excitation and inhibition during signal processing so as to sharpen the amplitude sensitivity of IC neurons. Bilateral interaction may be also involved in acoustic

  6. Detecting community structure in complex networks using an interaction optimization process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Paul; Kim, Sangwook

    2017-01-01

    Most complex networks contain community structures. Detecting these community structures is important for understanding and controlling the networks. Most community detection methods use network topology and edge density to identify optimal communities; however, these methods have a high computational complexity and are sensitive to network forms and types. To address these problems, in this paper, we propose an algorithm that uses an interaction optimization process to detect community structures in complex networks. This algorithm efficiently searches the candidates of optimal communities by optimizing the interactions of the members within each community based on the concept of greedy optimization. During this process, each candidate is evaluated using an interaction-based community model. This model quickly and accurately measures the difference between the quantity and quality of intra- and inter-community interactions. We test our algorithm on several benchmark networks with known community structures that include diverse communities detected by other methods. Additionally, after applying our algorithm to several real-world complex networks, we compare our algorithm with other methods. We find that the structure quality and coverage results achieved by our algorithm surpass those of the other methods.

  7. Experimental Study of the Interaction between Recrystallization and Precipitation Processes of an AA8011 Commercial Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ney José Luiggi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Phase changes in a commercial AA8011 alloy from different initial microstructure conditions were studied using thermoelectric power (ΔS, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM techniques with the purpose of obtaining evidence of the interaction between recovery-precipitation and recrystallization-precipitation processes occurring during nonisothermal heating at different rates. Thermoelectric power and its thermal derivative reflect this evidence by a displacement of the characteristic precipitation peaks, the recovery and recrystallization contributions remaining masked by the strong incidence of the iron precipitation on that property, while DSC measurements detect the emergence of new peaks not observed on thermograms of homogenized samples. An exhaustive study of these peaks permits direct differentiation between precipitation and recovery-recrystallization contributions. TEM confirms the interaction between both processes by means of local observations.

  8. An introduction to relativistic processes and the standard model of electroweak interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Becchi, Carlo Maria

    2014-01-01

    These lectures are meant to be a reference and handbook for an introductory course in Theoretical Particle Physics, suitable for advanced undergraduates or beginning graduate students. Their purpose is to reconcile theoretical rigour and completeness with a careful analysis of more phenomenological aspects of the physics. They aim at filling the gap between quantum field theory textbooks and purely phenomenological treatments of fundamental interactions. The first part provides an introduction to scattering in relativistic quantum field theory. Thanks to an original approach to relativistic processes, the relevant computational techniques are derived cleanly and simply in the semi-classical approximation. The second part contains a detailed presentation of the gauge theory of electroweak interactions with particular focus to the processes of greatest phenomenological interest. The main novelties of the present second edition are a more complete discussion of relativistic scattering theory and an expansion of ...

  9. Dissociating sentential prosody from sentence processing: activation interacts with task demands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plante, Elena; Creusere, Marlena; Sabin, Cynthia

    2002-09-01

    Sentence processing was contrasted with processing of syntactic prosody under two task conditions in order to examine the representation of these components of language and their interaction with working memory load. Twelve adults received fMDI scans while they listened to low-pass filtered and unfiltered sentences either passively, or during tasks that required subjects to remember and recognize information contained in the stimuli. Results indicated that temporal activation for prosodic stimuli differed compared to activation for sentence stimuli only during passive listening tasks. The inclusion of memory demands was associated with frontal activation, which was differentially lateralized for sentence and prosodic stimuli. The results demonstrate differential brain activation for prosodic vs sentential stimuli which interacts with the memory demands placed on the subjects.

  10. Processes of water rock interaction in the Turonian aquifer of Oum Er-Rabia Basin, Morocco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ettazarini, Said

    2005-12-01

    Possible water rock interaction processes, in the Moroccan basin of Oum Er-Rabia, were discussed by a geochemical study of groundwater from the Turonian limestone aquifer, the most important water resource in the region. Different types of water according to the classification of Piper were defined. Waters have shown an evolution from dominant CHO3 Ca Mg type through mixed to SO4 Cl Ca Mg type. The use of geochemical diagrams and chemical speciation modeling method has shown that water rock interaction is mainly controlled by carbonate and anhydrite dissolution, ion exchange and reverse ion exchange processes. Water rock equilibrium conditions are favorable for the precipitation of calcite, dolomite, kaolinite and magnesian smectite.

  11. Statistical mechanics of neocortical interactions: Large-scale EEG influences on molecular processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingber, Lester

    2016-04-21

    Calculations further support the premise that large-scale synchronous firings of neurons may affect molecular processes. The context is scalp electroencephalography (EEG) during short-term memory (STM) tasks. The mechanism considered is Π=p+qA (SI units) coupling, where p is the momenta of free Ca(2+) waves, q the charge of Ca(2+) in units of the electron charge, and A the magnetic vector potential of current I from neuronal minicolumnar firings considered as wires, giving rise to EEG. Data has processed using multiple graphs to identify sections of data to which spline-Laplacian transformations are applied, to fit the statistical mechanics of neocortical interactions (SMNI) model to EEG data, sensitive to synaptic interactions subject to modification by Ca(2+) waves.

  12. How spatial is hyperspace? Interacting with hypertext documents: cognitive processes and concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boechler, P M

    2001-02-01

    The World Wide Web provides us with a widely accessible technology, fast access to massive amounts of information and services, and the opportunity for personal interaction with numerous individuals simultaneously. Underlying and influencing all of these activities is our basic conceptualization of this new environment; an environment we can view as having a cognitive component (hyperspace) and a social component (cyberspace). This review argues that cognitive psychologists have a key role to play in the identification and analysis of how the processes of the mind interact with the Web. The body of literature on cognitive processes provides us with knowledge about spatial perceptions, strategies for navigation in space, memory functions and limitations, and the formation of mental representations of environments. Researchers of human cognition can offer established methodologies and conceptual frameworks toward investigation of the cognitions involved in the use of electronic environments like the Web.

  13. Experiencing new Learning, Interaction and Visualization Process using Augmented Reality Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manjit Singh Sidhu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Many learning methods have changed the way students learn. One method that is achieving much attention is augmented reality (AR. AR is a technology that blends simulated and real environment during the learning, interaction and visualization process. This study explores how far AR technology has come to support students in their learning and interest in using this technology. The objective of this paper was to determine the usefulness of multiple markers interaction user interface for an AR application. A hands on practical lab was conducted with first year engineering students at UNITEN. Two AR applications were tested by the students using single marker and multiple markers for interaction. The opinions and preferences regarding the two user interfaces (also known as tangible user interface that can be used for problem solving activities was obtained. The first AR application using single marker comprises two markers to interact with the problem presented. The second AR application using multiple markers on a single paper was used for the same purpose. These two operationally equivalent user interfaces were given to selected students to interact with the AR applications. During the hands on practical, data were collected regarding the student’s preference, effectiveness (attractive and easy-to-use. The quantitative and qualitative analysis which followed, indicated that the multiple markers user interface was more preferred, effective and easy to use.

  14. Identification of Combat Unit Leader Skills and Leader-Group Interaction Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    David L. Hannaraan, Peter B. Wylie, and Edgar L. Shriver Kinton, Inc. I !• and Bruce W. Hamill and Robert H. Sulzen Army Research Institute...LEADER SKILLS AND LEADER-GROUP INTERACTION PROCESSES Kermit F. Henriksen, Donald R. Jones, Jr., David L. Hannaman, Peter B. Wylie, and Edgar 1. Shrlver...depends upon how well group members reuspond to cues and other sources of information regarding the enemy’s movement. Berlo (1974) [ ~has shown that

  15. Study of parachute inflation process using fluid–structure interaction method

    OpenAIRE

    Yu Li; Cheng Han; Zhan Ya’nan; Li Shaoteng

    2014-01-01

    A direct numerical modeling method for parachute is proposed firstly, and a model for the star-shaped folded parachute with detailed structures is established. The simplified arbitrary Lagrangian–Eulerian fluid–structure interaction (SALE/FSI) method is used to simulate the inflation process of a folded parachute, and the flow field calculation is mainly based on operator splitting technique. By using this method, the dynamic variations of related parameters such as flow field and structure a...

  16. Experimental studies and modeling of processes of hydrogen isotopes interaction with beryllium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tazhibaeva, I.L.; Chikhray, Y.V.; Romanenko, O.G.; Klepikov, A.Kh.; Shestakov, V.P.; Kulsartov, T.V. [Science Research Inst. of Experimental and Theoretical Physics of Kazakh State Univ., Almaty (Kazakhstan); Kenzhin, E.A.

    1998-01-01

    The objective of this work was to clarify the surface beryllium oxide influence on hydrogen-beryllium interaction characteristics. Analysis of experimental data and modeling of processes of hydrogen isotopes accumulation, diffusion and release from neutron irradiated beryllium was used to achieve this purpose as well as the investigations of the changes of beryllium surface element composition being treated by H{sup +} and Ar{sup +} plasma glowing discharge. (author)

  17. Cursive word recognition based on interactive activation and early visual processing models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Pinales, Jose; Jaime-Rivas, Rene; Lecolinet, Eric; Castro-Bleda, Maria Jose

    2008-10-01

    We present an off-line cursive word recognition system based completely on neural networks: reading models and models of early visual processing. The first stage (normalization) preprocesses the input image in order to reduce letter position uncertainty; the second stage (feature extraction) is based on the feedforward model of orientation selectivity; the third stage (letter pre-recognition) is based on a convolutional neural network, and the last stage (word recognition) is based on the interactive activation model.

  18. Parameters of social existence and social functioning of lesbians: Lesbian body in processes of social interactions

    OpenAIRE

    Mršević Zorica Ž.

    2004-01-01

    Analysis of characteristics of a lesbian body in processes of social interaction is a method of analysis social relations of lesbians, their relationships with the heterosexual world and revealing specific lesbian practices, outlooks, habits and customs, behavior and general characteristics of lesbian sub culture. Making somebody different than a "normal human", meaning less human, is the main way of making the whole group target of justified discrimination, violence and hate crime. Therefore...

  19. Exact Eigenstates for a Class of Model Describing Interactions Among Five Bosonic Modes with Multiphoton Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANGWen-Xing; LIJia-Hua; LIWei-Bin; LUOJin-Ming; XIEXiao-Tao; WEIHua

    2004-01-01

    We present an efficient approach to studying the spectra and eigenstates for the model describing interactions among five bosonic modes without using the assumption of the Bethe ansatz. The exact analytical results of all the eigenstates and eigenvalues are in terms of a parameter A for a class of models describing five-mode multiphoton process. The parameter is determined by the roots of a polynomial and is solvable analytically or numerically.

  20. The selfish to egalitarian transition in young children: developmental processes versus cooperative interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolis, H; Nicolis, S C

    2010-07-01

    There is evidence that a tendency to share resources equitably among members of a social group emerges in middle childhood. It is regarded by many investigators as a central and unique feature of human social life. In this work the relative roles of developmental processes and collective effects generated by interindividual interactions on the selfish to egalitarian transition observed in middle childhood are analyzed. Using mathematical modeling, conditions are identified under which the transition becomes sharp and gives rise to hysteretic behavior.

  1. Environmental controls, morphodynamic processes, and ecogeomorphic interactions of barchan to parabolic dune transformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Na; Baas, Andreas C. W.

    2017-02-01

    The transformation of barchans into parabolic dunes has been observed in various dune systems around the world. Precise details of how environmental controls influence the dune transformation and stabilisation mechanism, however, remain poorly understood. A 'horns-anchoring' mechanism and a 'nebkhas-initiation' mechanism have previously been proposed and selected environmental controls on the transformation have been explored by some modelling efforts, but the morphodynamic processes and eco-geomorphic interactions involved are unclear and comparison between different dune systems is challenging. This study extends a cellular automaton model, informed by empirical data from fieldwork and remote sensing, to fully explore how vegetation characteristics, boundary conditions, and wind regime influence the transformation process and the resulting dune morphologies. A 'dynamic growth function' is introduced for clump-like perennials to differentiate between growing and non-growing seasons and to simulate the development of young plants into mature plants over multiple years. Modelling results show that environmental parameters interact with each other in a complex manner to impact the transformation process. The study finds a fundamental power-law relation between a non-dimensional parameter group, so-called the 'dune stabilising index' (S*), and the normalised migration distance of the transforming dune, which can be used to reconstruct paleo-environmental conditions and monitor the impacts of changes in climate or land-use on a dune system. Four basic eco-geomorphic interaction zones are identified which bear different functionality in the barchan to parabolic dune transformation. The roles of different environmental controls in changing the eco-geomorphic interaction zones, transforming processes, and resulting dune morphologies are also clarified.

  2. Weak interaction rates for Kr and Sr waiting-point nuclei under rp-process conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarriguren, P., E-mail: sarriguren@iem.cfmac.csic.e [Instituto de Estructura de la Materia, CSIC, Serrano 123, E-28006 Madrid (Spain)

    2009-10-12

    Weak interaction rates are studied in neutron deficient Kr and Sr waiting-point isotopes in ranges of densities and temperatures relevant for the rp process. The nuclear structure is described within a microscopic model (deformed QRPA) that reproduces not only the half-lives but also the Gamow-Teller strength distributions recently measured. The various sensitivities of the decay rates to both density and temperature are discussed. Continuum electron capture is shown to contribute significantly to the weak rates at rp-process conditions.

  3. On asymptotic normality of pseudo likelihood estimates for pairwise interaction processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jens Ledet; Künsch, Hans R.

    1994-01-01

    We consider point processes defined through a pairwise interaction potential and admitting a two-dimensional sufficient statistic. It is shown that the pseudo maximum likelihood estimate can be stochastically normed so that the limiting distribution is a standard normal distribution. This result...... is true irrespectively of the possible existence of phase transitions. The work here is an extension of the work Guyon and Künsch (1992, Lecture Notes in Statist., 74, Springer, New York) and is based on viewing a point process interchangeably as a lattice field. © 1994 The Institute of Statistical...

  4. Network-simulation modeling of interactions between maintenance and process systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, S.C.; Haire, M.J.; Schryver, J.C.

    1991-01-01

    Network simulation modeling is used to evaluate the adequacy of the maintenance system of a nuclear fuel processing plant. Network simulation modeling is believed to be an important new tool for reliability and maintainability (R M) assessments so the technique is described in some detail. As an example application, the interaction, between the maintenance and chemical process systems is modeled using a Monte-Carlo sampling procedure for treating failure and repair events. It is concluded in the example problem that at least two mobile manipulators (MM) and one through-the-wall manipulator (TTWM) equipment are needed to maintain a facility of this particular design. 4 refs., 1 tab.

  5. Photosynthesis: an interactive didactic model’s use to the learning and teaching process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Liesenfeld

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Photosynthesis is a complex process that involves the implementation of several reactions which, many times, makes this content difficult for students to understand. The objective of this study was to investigate if an interactive didactic model, crafted with simple materials, could facilitate the understanding and learning of students on photosynthesis. Initially students of first year high school class from a public school Western of Paraná were asked to diagram what they knew about photosynthesis and respond to a questionnaire. It was concluded that many of the students’ prior concepts were general or inaccurate, such as the idea of photosynthesis being the process of respiration in plants, and O2 coming from the CO2, not from the photo-oxidation of water. These prior conceptions were important for planning the approach to the subject. The process of photosynthesis was then covered in lecture and dialogued, using the interactive didactic model to highlight the explanations. A new questionnaire was completed by the students, and concluded that the use of the interactive didactic model was efficient, since it helped to consolidate correct concepts and simultaneously, introduced new ones as well it shook the equivocal relations.

  6. Multi-scale interactions of geological processes during mineralization: cascade dynamics model and multifractal simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Yao

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Relations between mineralization and certain geological processes are established mostly by geologist's knowledge of field observations. However, these relations are descriptive and a quantitative model of how certain geological processes strengthen or hinder mineralization is not clear, that is to say, the mechanism of the interactions between mineralization and the geological framework has not been thoroughly studied. The dynamics behind these interactions are key in the understanding of fractal or multifractal formations caused by mineralization, among which singularities arise due to anomalous concentration of metals in narrow space. From a statistical point of view, we think that cascade dynamics play an important role in mineralization and studying them can reveal the nature of the various interactions throughout the process. We have constructed a multiplicative cascade model to simulate these dynamics. The probabilities of mineral deposit occurrences are used to represent direct results of mineralization. Multifractal simulation of probabilities of mineral potential based on our model is exemplified by a case study dealing with hydrothermal gold deposits in southern Nova Scotia, Canada. The extent of the impacts of certain geological processes on gold mineralization is related to the scale of the cascade process, especially to the maximum cascade division number nmax. Our research helps to understand how the singularity occurs during mineralization, which remains unanswered up to now, and the simulation may provide a more accurate distribution of mineral deposit occurrences that can be used to improve the results of the weights of evidence model in mapping mineral potential.

  7. Creating Interactive Graphical Overlays in the Advanced Weather Interactive Processing System (AWIPS) Using Shapefiles and DGM Files

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Joe H., III; Lafosse, Richard; Hood, Doris; Hoeth, Brian

    2007-01-01

    Graphical overlays can be created in real-time in the Advanced Weather Interactive Processing System (AWIPS) using shapefiles or DARE Graphics Metafile (DGM) files. This presentation describes how to create graphical overlays on-the-fly for AWIPS, by using two examples of AWIPS applications that were created by the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU). The first example is the Anvil Threat Corridor Forecast Tool, which produces a shapefile that depicts a graphical threat corridor of the forecast movement of thunderstorm anvil clouds, based on the observed or forecast upper-level winds. This tool is used by the Spaceflight Meteorology Group (SMG) and 45th Weather Squadron (45 WS) to analyze the threat of natural or space vehicle-triggered lightning over a location. The second example is a launch and landing trajectory tool that produces a DGM file that plots the ground track of space vehicles during launch or landing. The trajectory tool can be used by SMG and the 45 WS forecasters to analyze weather radar imagery along a launch or landing trajectory. Advantages of both file types will be listed.

  8. The role of specific interactions on dynamical processes in a room temperature ionic liquid

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K S Mali

    2009-01-01

    This article describes our ongoing efforts to comprehend the role of specific interactions on the dynamical processes such as rotational diffusion and photoisomerization in a typical room temperature ionic liquid. Rotational diffusion studies carried out with a pair of structurally similar non-dipolar solutes indicate that organic solutes do experience strong specific interactions even with the highly associative ionic liquids such that their rotation is hindered. Similar measurements carried out with a nonpolar and a dipolar solute in an ionic liquid and a conventional solvent reveal that even in ionic liquids, apart from the viscosity of the medium, the important parameters, which govern the solute rotation are the solvent-size and free volume in case of non-polar solutes, whereas for charged and dipolar solutes, it is the solute-solvent interaction strength. Photoisomerization studies dealing with a pair of carbocyanine derivatives have shed light on the influence of solvent viscosity and specific interactions on the rates of photoisomerization. Our results point to the fact that the positively charged as well as the negatively charged cyanine derivatives do not experience specific interactions with the ionic liquid such that the isomerization rates are affected. However, when the isomerization rates are compared with a conventional isoviscous solvent, it has been noticed that the rates of isomerization are solely governed by viscosity of the medium in case of the positively charged cyanine derivative. In contrast, photoisomerization rates of the negatively charged cyanine derivative are significantly faster in a conventional isoviscous solvent compared to the ionic liquid due to the specific interactions between the solute and the former, which lower the barrier height for isomerization.

  9. Transport Induced by Mean-Eddy Interaction: II. Analysis of Transport Processes

    CERN Document Server

    Ide, Kayo

    2011-01-01

    We present a framework for the analysis of transport processes resulting from the mean-eddy interaction in a flow. The framework is based on the {\\bf T}ransport {\\bf I}nduced by the {\\bf M}ean-{\\bf E}ddy {\\bf I}nteraction (TIME) method presented in a companion paper \\cite{ide_wiggins_pd06a}. The TIME method estimates the (Lagrangian) transport across stationary (Eulerian) boundaries defined by chosen streamlines of the mean flow. Our framework proceeds after first carrying out a sequence of preparatory steps that link the flow dynamics to the transport processes. This includes the construction of the so-called "instantaneous flux" as the Hovm\\"{o}ller diagram. Transport processes are studied by linking the signals of the instantaneous flux field to the dynamical variability of the flow. This linkage also reveals how the variability of the flow contributes to the transport. The spatio-temporal analysis of the flux diagram can be used to assess the efficiency of the variability in transport processes. We apply ...

  10. Development of Integrated Programs for Aerospace-vehicle Design (IPAD): Product manufacture interactions with the design process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowell, H. A.

    1979-01-01

    The product manufacturing interactions with the design process and the IPAD requirements to support the interactions are described. The data requirements supplied to manufacturing by design are identified and quantified. Trends in computer-aided manufacturing are discussed and the manufacturing process of the 1980's is anticipated.

  11. The interaction of anticipatory anxiety and emotional picture processing: an event-related brain potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bublatzky, Florian; Flaisch, Tobias; Stockburger, Jessica; Schmälzle, Ralf; Schupp, Harald T

    2010-07-01

    The present study examined the interaction of anticipatory anxiety and selective emotion processing. Toward this end, a rapid stream of pleasant, neutral, and unpleasant pictures was presented in alternating blocks of threat-of-shock or safety, which were signaled by colored picture frames. The main finding is that pleasant pictures elicited a sustained negative difference potential over occipital regions during threat as compared to safety periods. In contrast, unpleasant and neutral picture processing did not vary as a function of threat-of-shock. Furthermore, in both the safety and threat-of-shock conditions, emotional pictures elicited an enlarged early posterior negativity and late positive potential. These data show that the activation of the fear/anxiety network exerts valence-specific effects on affective picture processing. Pleasant stimuli mismatching the current state of anticipatory anxiety apparently draw more attentional resources.

  12. On the Limiting Markov Process of Energy Exchanges in a Rarely Interacting Ball-Piston Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bálint, Péter; Gilbert, Thomas; Nándori, Péter; Szász, Domokos; Tóth, Imre Péter

    2017-02-01

    We analyse the process of energy exchanges generated by the elastic collisions between a point-particle, confined to a two-dimensional cell with convex boundaries, and a `piston', i.e. a line-segment, which moves back and forth along a one-dimensional interval partially intersecting the cell. This model can be considered as the elementary building block of a spatially extended high-dimensional billiard modeling heat transport in a class of hybrid materials exhibiting the kinetics of gases and spatial structure of solids. Using heuristic arguments and numerical analysis, we argue that, in a regime of rare interactions, the billiard process converges to a Markov jump process for the energy exchanges and obtain the expression of its generator.

  13. Aerosol-stratocumulus Interactions over the Southeast Pacific: A Process Study Using WRF-Chem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Y.; Chen, G.; Wang, W. C.; Liao, H.; Chen, J. P.; Xue, H.

    2015-12-01

    The recent WRF study by Chen et al. (2015) showed that the shortwave radiative forcing by the stratocumulus over the southeast Pacific (SEP) is much enhanced by anthropogenic aerosols from South America. Here we further investigate the aerosol-stratocumulus interactions on the process level using the WRF-Chem model which explicitly simulates the aerosol emissions and formations. Two cloud microphysics schemes are used: the widely-applied Lin scheme and the physics-based two-moment scheme used in Chen et al. (2015). The simulations with the Lin scheme captured some observed features of aerosols (e.g., aerosol mass and optical depth decreases westward along 20°S) and key aerosol-cloud microphysics interactions (e.g., more cloud droplet numbers near the coast). However, biases were also noticed, such as the overestimation of cloud droplet number near the coast, and the underestimation of aerosol concentration over the remote ocean. These could be caused by the inadequacy in cloud process parameterization, such as a lack of aerosol recycling from rain droplets in coupling with chemistry and microphysical modules (Saide et al, 2012). The two-moment scheme that explicitly addresses these processes is expected to minimize the biases. Detailed investigations of the cloud microphysics processes using the two schemes, and, to the extent possible, comparisons with observations will be presented and discussed. Chen, G.-X., W.-C. Wang, and J.-P. Chen, 2015: Aerosol-stratocumulus-radiation interactions over Southeast Pacific. J. Atmos. Sci., 72, 2612-2621. Saide, P. E. (and 16 co-authors), 2012: Evaluating WRF-Chem aerosol indirect effects in Southeast Pacific marine stratocumulus during VOCALS-REx, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 12, 3045-3064.

  14. Integrating natural language processing and web GIS for interactive knowledge domain visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Fangming

    Recent years have seen a powerful shift towards data-rich environments throughout society. This has extended to a change in how the artifacts and products of scientific knowledge production can be analyzed and understood. Bottom-up approaches are on the rise that combine access to huge amounts of academic publications with advanced computer graphics and data processing tools, including natural language processing. Knowledge domain visualization is one of those multi-technology approaches, with its aim of turning domain-specific human knowledge into highly visual representations in order to better understand the structure and evolution of domain knowledge. For example, network visualizations built from co-author relations contained in academic publications can provide insight on how scholars collaborate with each other in one or multiple domains, and visualizations built from the text content of articles can help us understand the topical structure of knowledge domains. These knowledge domain visualizations need to support interactive viewing and exploration by users. Such spatialization efforts are increasingly looking to geography and GIS as a source of metaphors and practical technology solutions, even when non-georeferenced information is managed, analyzed, and visualized. When it comes to deploying spatialized representations online, web mapping and web GIS can provide practical technology solutions for interactive viewing of knowledge domain visualizations, from panning and zooming to the overlay of additional information. This thesis presents a novel combination of advanced natural language processing - in the form of topic modeling - with dimensionality reduction through self-organizing maps and the deployment of web mapping/GIS technology towards intuitive, GIS-like, exploration of a knowledge domain visualization. A complete workflow is proposed and implemented that processes any corpus of input text documents into a map form and leverages a web

  15. Investigation of TNB/NNAP cocrystal synthesis, molecular interaction and formation process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Peng-Yuan; Zhang, Lin; Zhu, Shun-Guan; Cheng, Guang-Bin; Li, Ning-Rui

    2017-01-01

    A novel cocrystal of 1,3,5-trinitrobenzene (TNB) and 1-nitronaphthalene (NNAP) was synthesized by solution and mechanochemical method, respectively. The crystal structure was characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction (SXRD). Then the intermolecular interaction was illustrated quantitatively by Hirshfeld surface analysis accordingly. Two other isostructural cocrystals, TNT (2,4,6-trinitrotoluene)/NNAP and TNP (2,4,6-trinitrophenol)/NNAP were also calculated for comparison. Among the three cocrystals, TNB/NNAP cocrystal has the largest proportion of π-π stacking interaction (12.7%). While TNP/NNAP cocrystal has a greater percentage of hydrogen bonding than the other two cocrystals, which is 43.2% of the total interactions. These results indicate electronic effect has an influence on the intermolecular interaction in the cocrystal. The IR spectra of the intermediate products provide more information about the formation process of hydrogen bonding and π-π stacking. We can tell from the differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) thermograms that a eutectic mixture was generated first after TNB and NNAP were physically mixed without grinding, and then turned into the cocrystal and finally transformed completely.

  16. Analysis of Feedback processes in Online Group Interaction: a methodological model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Espasa

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to present a methodological model to analyze students' group interaction to improve their essays in online learning environments, based on asynchronous and written communication. In these environments teacher and student scaffolds for discussion are essential to promote interaction. One of these scaffolds can be the feedback. Research on feedback processes has predominantly focused on feedback design rather than on how students utilize feedback to improve learning. This methodological model fills this gap contributing to analyse the implementation of the feedback processes while students discuss collaboratively in a specific case of writing assignments. A review of different methodological models was carried out to define a framework adjusted to the analysis of the relationship of written and asynchronous group interaction, and students' activity and changes incorporated into the final text. The model proposed includes the following dimensions: 1 student participation 2 nature of student learning and 3 quality of student learning. The main contribution of this article is to present the methodological model and also to ascertain the model's operativity regarding how students incorporate such feedback into their essays.

  17. Numerical Simulation on Faulting: Microscopic evolution, macroscopic interaction and rupture process of earthquakes

    CERN Document Server

    Aochi, Hideo

    2010-01-01

    We review the recent researches of numerical simulations on faulting, which are interpreted in this paper as the evolution of the state of the fault plane and the evolution of fault structure. The theme includes the fault constitutive (friction) law, the properties of the gauge particles, the initial phase of the rupture, the dynamic rupture process, the interaction of the fault segments, the fault zone dynamics, and so on. Many numerical methods have been developed: boundary integral equation methods (BIEM), finite difference methods (FDM), finite or spectral element methods (FEM, SEM) as well as distinct element methods (DEM), discrete element methods (again DEM) or lattice solid models (LSM). The fault dynamics should be solved as a complex non-linear system, which shows multiple hierarchical structures on its property and behavior. The researches have progressively advanced since the 1990's both numerically and physically thanks to high performance computing environments. The interaction at small scales i...

  18. Interaction between semantic and phonological processes in stuttering Evidence from the dual-task paradigm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Luping Song; Danling Peng; Ning Ning

    2010-01-01

    Stuttering is a common neurological deficit and its underlying cognitive mechanisms are a matter of debate,with evidence suggesting abnormal modulation between speech encoding and other cognitive components.Previous studies have mainly used single task experiments to investigate the disturbance of language production.It is unclear whether there is abnormal interaction between the three language tasks(orthographic,phonological and semantic judgment)in stuttering patients.This study used dual tasks and manipulated the stimulus onset asynchrony(SOA)between tasks 1and 2 and the nature of the second task,including orthographic,phonological,and semantic judgments.The results showed that the performance records of orthographic judgment,phonological judgment,and semantic judgment were significantly reduced between the patient and control groups with short SOA(P 0.05).These results indicated that the interaction mechanism between semantic processing and phonological encoding might be an underlying cause for stuttering.

  19. Herschel Interactive Processing Environment (HIPE): Open to the World and the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balm, P.

    2012-09-01

    Herschel is ESA's space-based infrared observatory. It was launched on May 14, 2009 and is in routine science operations. The Herschel Interactive Processing Environment, HIPE, is Herschel's interactive analysis package. HIPE has a user-base of approximately 1,000 users and a major new version is released twice a year. HIPE is the first open-source astronomy data analysis package written entirely in Java and Jython, which allows it to provide a modern GUI with command echoing, sophisticated interoperability and extensibility, with access to the vast amounts of Java libraries. HIPE includes the official data reduction scripts and allows executing and modifying them as needed. These aspects may make HIPE the seed for the astronomy working environment of the future.

  20. [The interaction between nerve cells and carbon nanotube networks made by CVD process investigation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobrinetskiĭ, I I; Seleznev, A S; Gaĭduchenko, I A; Fedorov, G E; Domantovskiĭ, A G; Presniakov, M Iu; Podcherniaeva, R Ia; Mikhaĭlova, G R; Suetina, I A

    2013-01-01

    In this research we investigate neuroblastoma cells cultivated on single-walled carbon nanotubes networks made by CVD method on silicon substrates. The complex analysis of grown cells made by atomic force, electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy was carried out and the effect of nanotube growth process on proliferation factor was investigated. It is shown that despite of a weak decrease in proliferation, cell morphology remains unchanged and no physical or chemical interaction between carbon nanotubes and cells is observed. The results of the research can be used to investigate the interaction between conductive nanomaterials and cells for the development of neural replacement implants. Also they can be useful in bio-electronic interface investigation of signal propagation in neurons.

  1. Interactions between glia, the immune system and pain processes during early development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Gordon A; Hunter, Deirtra A

    2014-12-01

    Pain is a serious problem for infants and children and treatment options are limited. Moreover, infants born prematurely or hospitalized for illness likely have concurrent infection that activates the immune system. It is now recognized that the immune system in general and glia in particular influence neurotransmission and that the neural bases of pain are intimately connected to immune function. We know that injuries that induce pain activate immune function and suppressing the immune system alleviates pain. Despite this advance in our understanding, virtually nothing is known of the role that the immune system plays in pain processing in infants and children, even though pain is a serious clinical issue in pediatric medicine. This brief review summarizes the existing data on immune-neural interactions in infants, providing evidence for the immaturity of these interactions.

  2. EDITORIAL: Plasma Surface Interactions for Fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-05-01

    Because plasma-boundary physics encompasses some of the most important unresolved issues for both the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) project and future fusion power reactors, there is a strong interest in the fusion community for better understanding and characterization of plasma wall interactions. Chemical and physical sputtering cause the erosion of the limiters/divertor plates and vacuum vessel walls (made of C, Be and W, for example) and degrade fusion performance by diluting the fusion fuel and excessively cooling the core, while carbon redeposition could produce long-term in-vessel tritium retention, degrading the superior thermo-mechanical properties of the carbon materials. Mixed plasma-facing materials are proposed, requiring optimization for different power and particle flux characteristics. Knowledge of material properties as well as characteristics of the plasma material interaction are prerequisites for such optimizations. Computational power will soon reach hundreds of teraflops, so that theoretical and plasma science expertise can be matched with new experimental capabilities in order to mount a strong response to these challenges. To begin to address such questions, a Workshop on New Directions for Advanced Computer Simulations and Experiments in Fusion-Related Plasma Surface Interactions for Fusion (PSIF) was held at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory from 21 to 23 March, 2005. The purpose of the workshop was to bring together researchers in fusion related plasma wall interactions in order to address these topics and to identify the most needed and promising directions for study, to exchange opinions on the present depth of knowledge of surface properties for the main fusion-related materials, e.g., C, Be and W, especially for sputtering, reflection, and deuterium (tritium) retention properties. The goal was to suggest the most important next steps needed for such basic computational and experimental work to be facilitated

  3. Using Bayesian Nonparametric Hidden Semi-Markov Models to Disentangle Affect Processes during Marital Interaction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William A Griffin

    Full Text Available Sequential affect dynamics generated during the interaction of intimate dyads, such as married couples, are associated with a cascade of effects-some good and some bad-on each partner, close family members, and other social contacts. Although the effects are well documented, the probabilistic structures associated with micro-social processes connected to the varied outcomes remain enigmatic. Using extant data we developed a method of classifying and subsequently generating couple dynamics using a Hierarchical Dirichlet Process Hidden semi-Markov Model (HDP-HSMM. Our findings indicate that several key aspects of existing models of marital interaction are inadequate: affect state emissions and their durations, along with the expected variability differences between distressed and nondistressed couples are present but highly nuanced; and most surprisingly, heterogeneity among highly satisfied couples necessitate that they be divided into subgroups. We review how this unsupervised learning technique generates plausible dyadic sequences that are sensitive to relationship quality and provide a natural mechanism for computational models of behavioral and affective micro-social processes.

  4. Achieving atomistic control in materials processing by plasma-surface interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jeffrey; Chang, Jane P.

    2017-06-01

    The continuous down-scaling of electronic devices and the introduction of functionally improved novel materials require a greater atomic level controllability in the synthesis and patterning of thin film materials, especially with regards to deposition uniformity and conformality as well as etching selectivity and anisotropy. The richness of plasma chemistry and the corresponding plasma-surface interactions provide the much needed processing flexibility and efficacy. To achieve the integration of the novel materials into devices, plasma-enhanced atomic layer processing techniques are emerging as the enabling factors to obtain atomic scale control of complex materials and nanostructures. This review focuses on an overview of the role of respective plasma species involved in plasma-surface interactions, addressing their respective and synergistic effects, which is followed by two distinct applications: plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition (ALD) and atomic layer etching (ALE). For plasma-enhanced ALD, this review emphasizes the use of plasma chemistry to enable alternative pathways to synthesize complex materials at low temperatures and the challenges associated with deposition conformality. For plasma enabled ALE processes, the review focuses on the surface-specific chemical reactions needed to achieve desirable selectivity and anisotropy.

  5. Part process analysis: a qualitative method for studying provider-patient interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steihaug, Sissel; Malterud, Kirsti

    2003-01-01

    Communication between patients and healthcare providers is vital for quality care. Complaints about doctors often arise from unfortunate communication. Research methods suited for the study of relationship and interaction are essential to understand how communication can be improved. The principles and procedures of a qualitative research method with the capacity to explore details and foundations of interaction between patients and doctors is presented. Anne-Lise Løvlie Schibbye's Part Process Analysis Method is a qualitative approach for studying communication at the microlevel. Attention is drawn both to verbal dialogue and to body communication, and the method is particularly suited for studying relationships and change. The application of the Part Process Analysis Method is described, exemplified by material from a group discussion between participants and leaders in a group-based treatment programme for women with chronic muscle pain. How the method can be used to explore reciprocity, relationships, and development is demonstrated in this context. The Part Process Analysis Method is proposed as a useful tool for studying communication between doctor and patient, providing knowledge about relationships and reciprocity, aspects that are important both in doctors' medical work and for patients' feeling of being understood.

  6. Signal processing by T-type calcium channel interactions in the cerebellum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordan D.T. Engbers

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available T-type calcium channels of the Cav3 family are unique among voltage-gated calcium channels due to their low activation voltage, rapid inactivation, and small single channel conductance. These special properties allow Cav3 calcium channels to regulate neuronal processing in the subthreshold voltage range. Here, we review two different subthreshold ion channel interactions involving Cav3 channels and explore the ability of these interactions to expand the functional roles of Cav3 channels. In cerebellar Purkinje cells, Cav3 and intermediate conductance calcium-activated potassium (IKCa channels form a novel complex which creates a low voltage-activated, transient outward current capable of suppressing temporal summation of excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs. In large diameter neurons of the deep cerebellar nuclei, Cav3-mediated calcium current (IT and hyperpolarization-activated cation current (IH are activated during trains of IPSPs. These currents have distinct, and yet synergistic, roles in the subthreshold domain with IT generating a rebound burst and IH controlling first spike latency and rebound spike precision. However, by shortening the membrane time constant the membrane returns towards resting value at a faster rate, allowing IH to increase the efficacy of IT, and increase the range of burst frequencies that can be generated. The net effect of Cav3 channels thus depends on the channels with which they are paired. When expressed in a complex with a KCa channel, Cav3 channels reduce excitability when processing excitatory inputs. If functionally coupled with an HCN channel, the depolarizing effect of Cav3 channels is accentuated, allowing for efficient inversion of inhibitory inputs to generate a rebound burst output. Therefore, signal processing relies not only on the activity of individual subtypes of channels but also on complex interactions between ion channels whether based on a physical complex or by indirect effects on

  7. Signal processing by T-type calcium channel interactions in the cerebellum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engbers, Jordan D T; Anderson, Dustin; Zamponi, Gerald W; Turner, Ray W

    2013-11-27

    T-type calcium channels of the Cav3 family are unique among voltage-gated calcium channels due to their low activation voltage, rapid inactivation, and small single channel conductance. These special properties allow Cav3 calcium channels to regulate neuronal processing in the subthreshold voltage range. Here, we review two different subthreshold ion channel interactions involving Cav3 channels and explore the ability of these interactions to expand the functional roles of Cav3 channels. In cerebellar Purkinje cells, Cav3 and intermediate conductance calcium-activated potassium (IKCa) channels form a novel complex which creates a low voltage-activated, transient outward current capable of suppressing temporal summation of excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs). In large diameter neurons of the deep cerebellar nuclei, Cav3-mediated calcium current (I T) and hyperpolarization-activated cation current (I H) are activated during trains of inhibitory postsynaptic potentials. These currents have distinct, and yet synergistic, roles in the subthreshold domain with I T generating a rebound burst and I H controlling first spike latency and rebound spike precision. However, by shortening the membrane time constant the membrane returns towards resting value at a faster rate, allowing I H to increase the efficacy of I T and increase the range of burst frequencies that can be generated. The net effect of Cav3 channels thus depends on the channels with which they are paired. When expressed in a complex with a KCa channel, Cav3 channels reduce excitability when processing excitatory inputs. If functionally coupled with an HCN channel, the depolarizing effect of Cav3 channels is accentuated, allowing for efficient inversion of inhibitory inputs to generate a rebound burst output. Therefore, signal processing relies not only on the activity of individual subtypes of channels but also on complex interactions between ion channels whether based on a physical complex or by indirect

  8. Signal processing by T-type calcium channel interactions in the cerebellum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engbers, Jordan D. T.; Anderson, Dustin; Zamponi, Gerald W.; Turner, Ray W.

    2013-01-01

    T-type calcium channels of the Cav3 family are unique among voltage-gated calcium channels due to their low activation voltage, rapid inactivation, and small single channel conductance. These special properties allow Cav3 calcium channels to regulate neuronal processing in the subthreshold voltage range. Here, we review two different subthreshold ion channel interactions involving Cav3 channels and explore the ability of these interactions to expand the functional roles of Cav3 channels. In cerebellar Purkinje cells, Cav3 and intermediate conductance calcium-activated potassium (IKCa) channels form a novel complex which creates a low voltage-activated, transient outward current capable of suppressing temporal summation of excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs). In large diameter neurons of the deep cerebellar nuclei, Cav3-mediated calcium current (IT) and hyperpolarization-activated cation current (IH) are activated during trains of inhibitory postsynaptic potentials. These currents have distinct, and yet synergistic, roles in the subthreshold domain with IT generating a rebound burst and IH controlling first spike latency and rebound spike precision. However, by shortening the membrane time constant the membrane returns towards resting value at a faster rate, allowing IH to increase the efficacy of IT and increase the range of burst frequencies that can be generated. The net effect of Cav3 channels thus depends on the channels with which they are paired. When expressed in a complex with a KCa channel, Cav3 channels reduce excitability when processing excitatory inputs. If functionally coupled with an HCN channel, the depolarizing effect of Cav3 channels is accentuated, allowing for efficient inversion of inhibitory inputs to generate a rebound burst output. Therefore, signal processing relies not only on the activity of individual subtypes of channels but also on complex interactions between ion channels whether based on a physical complex or by indirect

  9. A STUDY ON INTERACTION OF Cd(II) AND DIATOMACEOUS EARTH IN ADSORPTION PROCESS

    OpenAIRE

    Nuryono, Nuryono; Suyanta, Suyanta

    2010-01-01

    In this research, interaction occurring in adsorption process between Cd(II) and active site of diatomaceous earth has been studied. The study was carried out by evaluating Cd(II) adsorption on diatomaceous earth at various pHs, either for the earths without treatment, those after being heated or those treated with sulfuric acid and hydrogen chloride. Adsorption was performed by mixing diatomaceous earth, without and with treatments, and Cd(II) solution for one hour at various pHs (2 - 7), an...

  10. The ‘hit’ phenomenon: a mathematical model of human dynamics interactions as a stochastic process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Akira; Arakaki, Hisashi; Matsuda, Naoya; Umemura, Sanae; Urushidani, Tamiko; Yamagata, Naoya; Yoshida, Narihiko

    2012-06-01

    A mathematical model for the ‘hit’ phenomenon in entertainment within a society is presented as a stochastic process of human dynamics interactions. The model uses only the advertisement budget time distribution as an input, and word-of-mouth (WOM), represented by posts on social network systems, is used as data to make a comparison with the calculated results. The unit of time is days. The WOM distribution in time is found to be very close to the revenue distribution in time. Calculations for the Japanese motion picture market based on the mathematical model agree well with the actual revenue distribution in time.

  11. Parameters of social existence and social functioning of lesbians: Lesbian body in processes of social interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mršević Zorica Ž.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of characteristics of a lesbian body in processes of social interaction is a method of analysis social relations of lesbians, their relationships with the heterosexual world and revealing specific lesbian practices, outlooks, habits and customs, behavior and general characteristics of lesbian sub culture. Making somebody different than a "normal human", meaning less human, is the main way of making the whole group target of justified discrimination, violence and hate crime. Therefore, providing understanding of differences provides a ground for personal, political and legal sensitivity, understanding and tolerance towards both the "otherness" and the "others".

  12. Molecular dynamics for long-range interacting systems on Graphic Processing Units

    CERN Document Server

    Filho, Tarcísio M Rocha

    2012-01-01

    We present implementations of a fourth-order symplectic integrator on graphic processing units for three $N$-body models with long-range interactions of general interest: the Hamiltonian Mean Field, Ring and two-dimensional self-gravitating models. We discuss the algorithms, speedups and errors using one and two GPU units. Speedups can be as high as 140 compared to a serial code, and the overall relative error in the total energy is of the same order of magnitude as for the CPU code. The number of particles used in the tests range from 10,000 to 50,000,000 depending on the model.

  13. CLE Peptides in Plants: Proteolytic Processing,Structure-Activity Relationship, and Ligand-Receptor Interaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaoming Gao; Yongfeng Guo

    2012-01-01

    Ligand-receptor signaling initiated by the CLAVATA3/ENDOSPERM SURROUNDING REGION (CLE) family peptides is critical in regulating cell division and differentiation in meristematic tissues in plants.Biologically active CLE peptides are released from precursor proteins via proteolytic processing.The mature form of CLE ligands consists of 12-13 amino acids with several post-translational modifications.This review summarizes recent progress toward understanding the proteolytic activities that cleave precursor proteins to release CLE peptides,the molecular structure and function of mature CLE ligands,and interactions between CLE ligands and corresponding leucine-rich repeat (LRR) receptor-like kinases (RLKs).

  14. Modelling phosphorus (P), sulphur (S) and iron (Fe) interactions during the simulation of anaerobic digestion processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flores-Alsina, Xavier; Solon, Kimberly; Kazadi-Mbamba, Christian

    2015-01-01

    production of sulfide (SH2S) by means of Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria (XSRB). This approach also considers potential SH2S inhibition effect on biomass and mass transfer phenomena (aqueous-gas). The third evaluated model (A3) considers chemical iron (III) (SFe+3) reduction to iron (II) (SFe+2) using hydrogen (SH......This paper examines the effects of different model formulations when describing sludge stabilization processes in wastewater treatment plants by the Anaerobic Digestion Model No. 1 (ADM1). The proposed model extensions describe the interactions amongst phosphorus (P), sulfur (S), iron (Fe...

  15. The Evolving Physical Processes In Interacting Galaxies Traced By Their Spectral Energy Distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Howard

    Mergers and interactions have profound effects on the evolution of galaxies and on the various physical processes associated with star formation and the fueling of active nuclei (AGN). There remains, however, an incomplete understanding of how interactions affect such processes or how important they are in controlling the appearance of today's universe. We propose to study 180 interacting galaxies in 101 systems spanning early to late stage mergers for which newly archived NASA data enable detailed analyses of their ultraviolet-to-far infrared (UV-FIR) spectral energy distributions (SEDs). Our goal is an improved understanding of how a wide range of key galaxy parameters vary across the interaction sequence. Our derived physical parameters will include the total optical- infrared luminosity, star formation rate, specific star formation rate, stellar mass, dust temperatures and dust masses, compactness, photo-dissociation region (PDR) fractions, and AGN contributions to the FIR SED. Our sample is taken from the Keel-Kennicutt catalog of merging galaxies (based only on apparent galaxy separations and hence free of morphological bias) and the Surace IRAS sample of bright mergers. Our sample contains virtually all bright mergers with UV-FIR data in the archives, including (but not limited to) data from missions GALEX, Swift, Spitzer, WISE, and Herschel. We will re-reduce, recalibrate, and extract the photometry in up to 23 wavelength bands from the UV to the FIR. Our analysis plan emphasizes three new SED modeling tools, one of which we have recently developed. Nearly all of the sources also have Spitzer IRS spectral data (primarily of the circumnuclear regions), and we will use the IRS data to supplement the SED conclusions via our own algorithm which also infers metallicity, interstellar medium (ISM) ambient pressure, and embedded young star fractions. Finally, we will compare each merger to the simulated photometry/ morphology of a suite of simulations based on

  16. Artificial Intelligence Mechanisms on Interactive Modified Simplex Method with Desirability Function for Optimising Surface Lapping Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pongchanun Luangpaiboon

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A study has been made to optimise the influential parameters of surface lapping process. Lapping time, lapping speed, downward pressure, and charging pressure were chosen from the preliminary studies as parameters to determine process performances in terms of material removal, lap width, and clamp force. The desirability functions of the-nominal-the-best were used to compromise multiple responses into the overall desirability function level or D response. The conventional modified simplex or Nelder-Mead simplex method and the interactive desirability function are performed to optimise online the parameter levels in order to maximise the D response. In order to determine the lapping process parameters effectively, this research then applies two powerful artificial intelligence optimisation mechanisms from harmony search and firefly algorithms. The recommended condition of (lapping time, lapping speed, downward pressure, and charging pressure at (33, 35, 6.0, and 5.0 has been verified by performing confirmation experiments. It showed that the D response level increased to 0.96. When compared with the current operating condition, there is a decrease of the material removal and lap width with the improved process performance indices of 2.01 and 1.14, respectively. Similarly, there is an increase of the clamp force with the improved process performance index of 1.58.

  17. Duality for spatially interacting Fleming-Viot processes with mutation and selection

    CERN Document Server

    Dawson, Donald A

    2011-01-01

    Consider a system $X = ((x_\\xi(t)), \\xi \\in \\Omega_N)_{t \\geq 0}$ of interacting Fleming-Viot diffusions with mutation and selection which is a strong Markov process with continuous paths and state space $(\\CP(\\I))^{\\Omega_N}$, where $\\I$ is the type space, ${\\Omega_N}$ the geographic space is assumed to be a countable group and $\\CP$ denotes the probability measures. We establish various duality relations for this process. These dualities are function-valued processes which are driven by a coalescing-branching random walk, that is, an evolving particle system which in addition exhibits certain changes in the function-valued part at jump times driven by mutation. In the case of a finite type space $\\I$ we construct a set-valued dual process, which is a Markov jump process, which is very suitable to prove ergodic theorems which we do here. The set-valued duality contains as special case a duality relation for any finite state Markov chain. In the finitely many types case there is also a further tableau-valued ...

  18. Interactions between rate processes with different timescales explain counterintuitive foraging patterns of arctic wintering eiders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, Joel P; Gilchrist, H Grant; Ydenberg, Ronald C

    2010-10-22

    To maximize fitness, animals must respond to a variety of processes that operate at different rates or timescales. Appropriate decisions could therefore involve complex interactions among these processes. For example, eiders wintering in the arctic sea ice must consider locomotion and physiology of diving for benthic invertebrates, digestive processing rate and a nonlinear decrease in profitability of diving as currents increase over the tidal cycle. Using a multi-scale dynamic modelling approach and continuous field observations of individuals, we demonstrate that the strategy that maximizes long-term energy gain involves resting during the most profitable foraging period (slack currents). These counterintuitive foraging patterns are an adaptive trade-off between multiple overlapping rate processes and cannot be explained by classical rate-maximizing optimization theory, which only considers a single timescale and predicts a constant rate of foraging. By reducing foraging and instead digesting during slack currents, eiders structure their activity in order to maximize long-term energetic gain over an entire tide cycle. This study reveals how counterintuitive patterns and a complex functional response can result from a simple trade-off among several overlapping rate processes, emphasizing the necessity of a multi-scale approach for understanding adaptive routines in the wild and evaluating mechanisms in ecological time series.

  19. Interacting adaptive processes with different timescales underlie short-term motor learning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurice A Smith

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Multiple processes may contribute to motor skill acquisition, but it is thought that many of these processes require sleep or the passage of long periods of time ranging from several hours to many days or weeks. Here we demonstrate that within a timescale of minutes, two distinct fast-acting processes drive motor adaptation. One process responds weakly to error but retains information well, whereas the other responds strongly but has poor retention. This two-state learning system makes the surprising prediction of spontaneous recovery (or adaptation rebound if error feedback is clamped at zero following an adaptation-extinction training episode. We used a novel paradigm to experimentally confirm this prediction in human motor learning of reaching, and we show that the interaction between the learning processes in this simple two-state system provides a unifying explanation for several different, apparently unrelated, phenomena in motor adaptation including savings, anterograde interference, spontaneous recovery, and rapid unlearning. Our results suggest that motor adaptation depends on at least two distinct neural systems that have different sensitivity to error and retain information at different rates.

  20. Understanding geodesy and geoscience processes through interactive demonstrations for the general public

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olds, S. E.; Bartel, B. A.

    2016-12-01

    Hands-on demonstrations are an effective way for novice learners, whether they are students, public, or museum visitors, to experience geoscience processes. UNAVCO and community members have developed hands-on demonstrations of a variety of geophysical processes highlighting the geodetic techniques used to measure these processes. These demonstrations illustrate how observations of changes at the earth's surface can be quantified and inform us about forces within the earth that we can't see. They also emphasize the societal impact of research related to each earth process. In this presentation, we will provide descriptions of a suite of these demonstrations, major concepts covered, materials needed, instructions for assembly and how to lead the demonstration, sample questions to ask participants, weaknesses inherent in the model, and a list of supporting handouts that augment the demonstration. Some of the demonstrations to be highlighted include: volcanic deformation using flour or an augmented-reality sandbox; isostatic rebound from glacial melt using flubber; compression of the Pacific Northwest using springs; and tsunami early warning using a tub of water and foam buoys. We will also discuss the process of developing interactive demonstrations and provide initial feedback from classroom and science festival events. Write-ups of the demonstrations are freely available on the UNAVCO Education website (search terms: UNAVCO geodetic demonstrations).

  1. Interacting Photons in Waveguide-QED and Applications in Quantum Information Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Huaixiu

    Strong coupling between light and matter has been demonstrated both in classical cavity quantum electrodynamics (QED) systems and in more recent circuit-QED experiments. This enables the generation of strong nonlinear photon-photon interactions at the single-photon level, which is of great interest for the observation of quantum nonlinear optical phenomena, the control of light quanta in quantum information protocols such as quantum networking, as well as the study of strongly correlated quantum many-body systems using light. Recently, strong coupling has also been realized in a variety of one-dimensional (1D) waveguide- QED experimental systems, which in turn makes them promising candidates for quantum information processing. Compared to cavity-QED systems, there are two new features in waveguide-QED: the existence of a continuum of states and the restricted 1D phase space, which together bring in new physical effects, such as the bound-state effects. This thesis consists of two parts: 1) understanding the fundamental interaction between local quantum objects, such as two-level systems and four-level systems, and photons confined in the waveguide; 2) exploring its implications in quantum information processing, in particular photonic quantum computation and quantum key distribution. First, we demonstrate that by coupling a two-level system (TLS) or three/four-level system to a 1D continuum, strongly-correlated photons can be generated inside the waveguide. Photon-photon bound states, which decay exponentially as a function of the relative coordinates of photons, appear in multiphoton scattering processes. As a result, photon bunching and antibunching can be observed in the photon-photon correlation function, and nonclassical light source can be generated on demand. In the case of an N-type four-level system, we show that the effective photon-photon interaction mediated by the four-level system, gives rise to a variety of nonlinear optical phenomena, including

  2. Withholding inputs in team contexts: member composition, interaction processes, evaluation structure, and social loafing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Kenneth H; Harrison, David A; Gavin, Joanne H

    2006-11-01

    Social loafing was observed as a naturally occurring process in project teams of students working together for 3-4 months. The authors assessed the contributions that member composition (i.e., relational dissimilarity and knowledge, skills, and abilities; KSAs), perceptions of the team's interaction processes (i.e., dispensability and the fairness of the decision-making procedures), and the team's evaluation structure (i.e., identifiability) make toward understanding loafing behavior. Identifiability moderated the impact of dispensability on loafing but not the impact of fairness on loafing. Perceptions of fairness were negatively related to the extent that participants loafed within their team. Specific aspects of relational dissimilarity were positively associated with perceptions of dispensability and negatively associated with perceptions of fairness, whereas KSAs were negatively associated with perceptions of dispensability. (c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved

  3. An Invariance Principle for the Tagged Particle Process in Continuum with Singular Interaction Potential

    CERN Document Server

    Conrad, Florian; Grothaus, Martin

    2011-01-01

    We consider the dynamics of a tagged particle in an infinite particle environment moving according to a stochastic gradient dynamics. For singular interaction potentials this tagged particle dynamics was constructed first in [FG11], using closures of pre-Dirichlet forms which were already proposed in [GP87] and [Osa98]. The environment dynamics and the coupled dynamics of the tagged particle and the environment were constructed separately. Here we continue the analysis of these processes: Proving an essential m-dissipativity result for the generator of the coupled dynamics from [FG11], we show that this dynamics does not only contain the environment dynamics (as one component), but is, given the latter, the only possible choice for being the coupled process. Moreover, we identify the uniform motion of the environment as the reversed motion of the tagged particle. (Since the dynamics are constructed as martingale solutions on configuration space, this is not immediate.) Furthermore, we prove ergodicity of the ...

  4. Mechanical interaction between concrete and structural reinforcement in the tension stiffening process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lárusson, Lárus Helgi; Fischer, Gregor; Jönsson, Jeppe

    2011-01-01

    investigated using an image-based deformation measurement and analysis system. This allowed for detailed view of surface deformations and the implications on the resulting response of the member in tension. In this study, conventional concrete and a ductile, strain hardening cement composite, known......The interaction between structural reinforcement and the surrounding concrete matrix in tension is a governing mechanism in the structural response of reinforced concrete members. The tension stiffening process, defined as the concrete ´s contribution to tensile response of the composite, has been...... as Engineered Cementitious Composite (ECC), have been combined with steel and glass fiber reinforced polymer (GFRP) reinforcement to contrast the effects of brittle and ductile cement matrices as well as elastic/plastic and elastic reinforcement on the tension stiffening process. Particular focus...

  5. The organization of interaction of subjects of educational process when using platforms of distance learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. S. Mukhametzyanova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Within research in article the special attention is paid to the organization of distance training by means of the specialized local tool information systems oriented to provision of a certain set of educational services on the Internet. On the basis of the carried-out analysis advantages of platforms of distance training are noted: availability, a personifitsirovannost, a modularity on structure, usability, etc. Characteristics «the subject - subject» interactions are described in case of remote form of education: an active position trained in the course of activities, equality of persons training and trained, the joint problem resolution, game, dialogue, work in microgroups, admissibility of coexistence and acceptance of the opposite points of view. Specifics of process of interaction of subjects of educational process in higher education institution of physical culture on the basis of use of the Moodle platform, performed with participation of students athletes, teachers, the trainer, the staff of department of information technologies, managerial control are considered. Feature of such interaction is caused by need students athletes to combine sport and training in the conditions of long sports trainings and participation in competitions in the cities remote from educational institution. The accurate list of functions of each of subjects in the scheme of interaction is provided. In tabular option the example of a matrix of elements of the training remote rate for students of different forms of education (internal, correspondence and full-time according to the individual training plan which implementation is impossible without harmonious work of all subjects involved in educational process is given. The schemes «the subject-subject» of interaction in case of distance training in higher education institution of physical culture with use of the Moodle platform are described. So for example, for students athletes of full-time courses

  6. Correlation between safety assessments in the driver-car interaction design process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broström, Robert; Bengtsson, Peter; Axelsson, Jakob

    2011-05-01

    With the functional revolution in modern cars, evaluation methods to be used in all phases of driver-car interaction design have gained importance. It is crucial for car manufacturers to discover and solve safety issues early in the interaction design process. A current problem is thus to find a correlation between the formative methods that are used during development and the summative methods that are used when the product has reached the customer. This paper investigates the correlation between efficiency metrics from summative and formative evaluations, where the results of two studies on sound and navigation system tasks are compared. The first, an analysis of the J.D. Power and Associates APEAL survey, consists of answers given by about two thousand customers. The second, an expert evaluation study, was done by six evaluators who assessed the layouts by task completion time, TLX and Nielsen heuristics. The results show a high degree of correlation between the studies in terms of task efficiency, i.e. between customer ratings and task completion time, and customer ratings and TLX. However, no correlation was observed between Nielsen heuristics and customer ratings, task completion time or TLX. The results of the studies introduce a possibility to develop a usability evaluation framework that includes both formative and summative approaches, as the results show a high degree of consistency between the different methodologies. Hence, combining a quantitative approach with the expert evaluation method, such as task completion time, should be more useful for driver-car interaction design.

  7. Approaches to Affective Computing and Learning towards Interactive Decision Making in Process Control Engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SU Chong; LI Hong-Guang

    2013-01-01

    Numerous multi-objective decision-making problems related to industrial process control engineering such as control and operation performance evaluation are being resolved through human-computer interactions.With regard to the problems that traditional interactive evolutionary computing approaches suffer i.e.,limited searching ability and human's strong subjectivity in multi-objective-attribute decision-making,a novel affective computing and learning solution adapted to human-computer interaction mechanism is explicitly proposed.Therein,a kind of stimulating response based affective computing model (STAM) is constructed,along with quantitative relations between affective space and human's subjective preferences.Thereafter,affective learning strategies based on genetic algorithms are introduced which are responsible for gradually grasping essentials in human's subjective judgments in decision-making,reducing human's subjective fatigue as well as making the decisions more objective and scientific.Affective learning algorithm's complexity and convergence analysis are shown in Appendices A and B.To exemplify applications of the proposed methods,ad-hoc test functions and PID parameter tuning are suggested as case studies,giving rise to satisfying results and showing validity of the contributions.

  8. Interactive, Online, Adsorption Lab to Support Discovery of the Scientific Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, K. C.; Ulery, A. L.; Chamberlin, B.; Dettmer, A.

    2014-12-01

    Science students require more than methods practice in lab activities; they must gain an understanding of the application of the scientific process through lab work. Large classes, time constraints, and funding may limit student access to science labs, denying students access to the types of experiential learning needed to motivate and develop new scientists. Interactive, discovery-based computer simulations and virtual labs provide an alternative, low-risk opportunity for learners to engage in lab processes and activities. Students can conduct experiments, collect data, draw conclusions, and even abort a session. We have developed an online virtual lab, through which students can interactively develop as scientists as they learn about scientific concepts, lab equipment, and proper lab techniques. Our first lab topic is adsorption of chemicals to soil, but the methodology is transferrable to other topics. In addition to learning the specific procedures involved in each lab, the online activities will prompt exploration and practice in key scientific and mathematical concepts, such as unit conversion, significant digits, assessing risks, evaluating bias, and assessing quantity and quality of data. These labs are not designed to replace traditional lab instruction, but to supplement instruction on challenging or particularly time-consuming concepts. To complement classroom instruction, students can engage in a lab experience outside the lab and over a shorter time period than often required with real-world adsorption studies. More importantly, students can reflect, discuss, review, and even fail at their lab experience as part of the process to see why natural processes and scientific approaches work the way they do. Our Media Productions team has completed a series of online digital labs available at virtuallabs.nmsu.edu and scienceofsoil.com, and these virtual labs are being integrated into coursework to evaluate changes in student learning.

  9. CONCH: A Visual Basic program for interactive processing of ion-microprobe analytical data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, David R.

    2006-11-01

    A Visual Basic program for flexible, interactive processing of ion-microprobe data acquired for quantitative trace element, 26Al- 26Mg, 53Mn- 53Cr, 60Fe- 60Ni and U-Th-Pb geochronology applications is described. Default but editable run-tables enable software identification of secondary ion species analyzed and for characterization of the standard used. Counts obtained for each species may be displayed in plots against analysis time and edited interactively. Count outliers can be automatically identified via a set of editable count-rejection criteria and displayed for assessment. Standard analyses are distinguished from Unknowns by matching of the analysis label with a string specified in the Set-up dialog, and processed separately. A generalized routine writes background-corrected count rates, ratios and uncertainties, plus weighted means and uncertainties for Standards and Unknowns, to a spreadsheet that may be saved as a text-delimited file. Specialized routines process trace-element concentration, 26Al- 26Mg, 53Mn- 53Cr, 60Fe- 60Ni, and Th-U disequilibrium analysis types, and U-Th-Pb isotopic data obtained for zircon, titanite, perovskite, monazite, xenotime and baddeleyite. Correction to measured Pb-isotopic, Pb/U and Pb/Th ratios for the presence of common Pb may be made using measured 204Pb counts, or the 207Pb or 208Pb counts following subtraction from these of the radiogenic component. Common-Pb corrections may be made automatically, using a (user-specified) common-Pb isotopic composition appropriate for that on the sample surface, or for that incorporated within the mineral at the time of its crystallization, depending on whether the 204Pb count rate determined for the Unknown is substantially higher than the average 204Pb count rate for all session standards. Pb/U inter-element fractionation corrections are determined using an interactive log e-log e plot of common-Pb corrected 206Pb/ 238U ratios against any nominated fractionation-sensitive species pair

  10. BigDebug: Debugging Primitives for Interactive Big Data Processing in Spark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulzar, Muhammad Ali; Interlandi, Matteo; Yoo, Seunghyun; Tetali, Sai Deep; Condie, Tyson; Millstein, Todd; Kim, Miryung

    2016-05-01

    Developers use cloud computing platforms to process a large quantity of data in parallel when developing big data analytics. Debugging the massive parallel computations that run in today's data-centers is time consuming and error-prone. To address this challenge, we design a set of interactive, real-time debugging primitives for big data processing in Apache Spark, the next generation data-intensive scalable cloud computing platform. This requires re-thinking the notion of step-through debugging in a traditional debugger such as gdb, because pausing the entire computation across distributed worker nodes causes significant delay and naively inspecting millions of records using a watchpoint is too time consuming for an end user. First, BIGDEBUG's simulated breakpoints and on-demand watchpoints allow users to selectively examine distributed, intermediate data on the cloud with little overhead. Second, a user can also pinpoint a crash-inducing record and selectively resume relevant sub-computations after a quick fix. Third, a user can determine the root causes of errors (or delays) at the level of individual records through a fine-grained data provenance capability. Our evaluation shows that BIGDEBUG scales to terabytes and its record-level tracing incurs less than 25% overhead on average. It determines crash culprits orders of magnitude more accurately and provides up to 100% time saving compared to the baseline replay debugger. The results show that BIGDEBUG supports debugging at interactive speeds with minimal performance impact.

  11. The Neural Correlates of the Body-Object Interaction Effect in Semantic Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Scott Hargreaves

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The semantic richness dimension referred to as body-object interaction (BOI measures perceptions of the ease with which people can physically interact with words’ referents. Previous studies have shown facilitated lexical and semantic processing for words rated high in BOI (e.g., belt than for words rated low in BOI (e.g., sun (e.g., Siakaluk, Pexman, Sears, Wilson, Locheed, & Owen, 2008b. These BOI effects have been taken as evidence that embodied information is relevant to word recognition. However, to date there is no evidence linking BOI manipulations to differences in the utilization of perceptual or sensorimotor areas of the brain. The current study used event-related fMRI to examine the neural correlates of BOI in a semantic categorization task (SCT. Sixteen healthy adults participated. Results showed that high BOI words were associated with activation in the left inferior parietal lobule (supramarginal gyrus, BA 40, a sensory association area involved in kinesthetic memory. These results provide evidence that the BOI dimension captures sensorimotor information, and that this contributes to semantic processing.

  12. Brain process for perception of the "out of the body" tactile illusion for virtual object interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hye Jin; Lee, Jaedong; Kim, Chi Jung; Kim, Gerard J; Kim, Eun-Soo; Whang, Mincheol

    2015-04-01

    "Out of the body" tactile illusion refers to the phenomenon in which one can perceive tactility as if emanating from a location external to the body without any stimulator present there. Taking advantage of such a tactile illusion is one way to provide and realize richer interaction feedback without employing and placing actuators directly at all stimulation target points. However, to further explore its potential, it is important to better understand the underlying physiological and neural mechanism. As such, we measured the brain wave patterns during such tactile illusion and mapped out the corresponding brain activation areas. Participants were given stimulations at different levels with the intention to create veridical (i.e., non-illusory) and phantom sensations at different locations along an external hand-held virtual ruler. The experimental data and analysis indicate that both veridical and illusory sensations involve, among others, the parietal lobe, one of the most important components in the tactile information pathway. In addition, we found that as for the illusory sensation, there is an additional processing resulting in the delay for the ERP (event-related potential) and involvement by the limbic lobe. These point to regarding illusion as a memory and recognition task as a possible explanation. The present study demonstrated some basic understanding; how humans process "virtual" objects and the way associated tactile illusion is generated will be valuable for HCI (Human-Computer Interaction).

  13. BigDebug: Debugging Primitives for Interactive Big Data Processing in Spark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulzar, Muhammad Ali; Interlandi, Matteo; Yoo, Seunghyun; Tetali, Sai Deep; Condie, Tyson; Millstein, Todd; Kim, Miryung

    2016-01-01

    Developers use cloud computing platforms to process a large quantity of data in parallel when developing big data analytics. Debugging the massive parallel computations that run in today’s data-centers is time consuming and error-prone. To address this challenge, we design a set of interactive, real-time debugging primitives for big data processing in Apache Spark, the next generation data-intensive scalable cloud computing platform. This requires re-thinking the notion of step-through debugging in a traditional debugger such as gdb, because pausing the entire computation across distributed worker nodes causes significant delay and naively inspecting millions of records using a watchpoint is too time consuming for an end user. First, BIGDEBUG’s simulated breakpoints and on-demand watchpoints allow users to selectively examine distributed, intermediate data on the cloud with little overhead. Second, a user can also pinpoint a crash-inducing record and selectively resume relevant sub-computations after a quick fix. Third, a user can determine the root causes of errors (or delays) at the level of individual records through a fine-grained data provenance capability. Our evaluation shows that BIGDEBUG scales to terabytes and its record-level tracing incurs less than 25% overhead on average. It determines crash culprits orders of magnitude more accurately and provides up to 100% time saving compared to the baseline replay debugger. The results show that BIGDEBUG supports debugging at interactive speeds with minimal performance impact. PMID:27390389

  14. Adaptation to real motion reveals direction-selective interactions between real and implied motion processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorteije, Jeannette A M; Kenemans, J Leon; Jellema, Tjeerd; van der Lubbe, Rob H J; Lommers, Marjolein W; van Wezel, Richard J A

    2007-08-01

    Viewing static pictures of running humans evokes neural activity in the dorsal motion-sensitive cortex. To establish whether this response arises from direction-selective neurons that are also involved in real motion processing, we measured the visually evoked potential to implied motion following adaptation to static or moving random dot patterns. The implied motion response was defined as the difference between evoked potentials to pictures with and without implied motion. Interaction between real and implied motion was found as a modulation of this difference response by the preceding motion adaptation. The amplitude of the implied motion response was significantly reduced after adaptation to motion in the same direction as the implied motion, compared to motion in the opposite direction. At 280 msec after stimulus onset, the average difference in amplitude reduction between opposite and same adapted direction was 0.5 muV on an average implied motion amplitude of 2.0 muV. These results indicate that the response to implied motion arises from direction-selective motion-sensitive neurons. This is consistent with interactions between real and implied motion processing at a neuronal level.

  15. Multi-View Interaction Modelling of human collaboration processes: a business process study of head and neck cancer care in a Dutch academic hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuit, Marco; Wortmann, Hans; Szirbik, Nick; Roodenburg, Jan

    2011-12-01

    In the healthcare domain, human collaboration processes (HCPs), which consist of interactions between healthcare workers from different (para)medical disciplines and departments, are of growing importance as healthcare delivery becomes increasingly integrated. Existing workflow-based process modelling tools for healthcare process management, which are the most commonly applied, are not suited for healthcare HCPs mainly due to their focus on the definition of task sequences instead of the graphical description of human interactions. This paper uses a case study of a healthcare HCP at a Dutch academic hospital to evaluate a novel interaction-centric process modelling method. The HCP under study is the care pathway performed by the head and neck oncology team. The evaluation results show that the method brings innovative, effective, and useful features. First, it collects and formalizes the tacit domain knowledge of the interviewed healthcare workers in individual interaction diagrams. Second, the method automatically integrates these local diagrams into a single global interaction diagram that reflects the consolidated domain knowledge. Third, the case study illustrates how the method utilizes a graphical modelling language for effective tree-based description of interactions, their composition and routing relations, and their roles. A process analysis of the global interaction diagram is shown to identify HCP improvement opportunities. The proposed interaction-centric method has wider applicability since interactions are the core of most multidisciplinary patient-care processes. A discussion argues that, although (multidisciplinary) collaboration is in many cases not optimal in the healthcare domain, it is increasingly considered a necessity to improve integration, continuity, and quality of care. The proposed method is helpful to describe, analyze, and improve the functioning of healthcare collaboration. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The role of paraffin oil on the interaction between denitrifying anaerobic methane oxidation and Anammox processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Liang; Ding, Zhao-Wei; Ding, Jing; Zhang, Fang; Zeng, Raymond J

    2015-10-01

    Methane is sparingly soluble in water, resulting in a slow reaction rate in the denitrifying anaerobic methane oxidation (DAMO) process. The slow rate limits the feasibility of research to examine the interaction between the DAMO and the anaerobic ammonium oxidation (Anammox) process. In this study, optimized 5 % (v/v) paraffin oil was added as a second liquid phase to improve methane solubility in a reactor containing DAMO and Anammox microbes. After just addition, methane solubility was found to increase by 25 % and DAMO activity was enhanced. After a 100-day cultivation, the paraffin reactor showed almost two times higher consumption rates of NO3 (-) (0.2268 mmol/day) and NH4 (+) (0.1403 mmol/day), compared to the control reactor without paraffin oil. The microbes tended to distribute in the oil-water interface. The quantitative (q) PCR result showed the abundance of gene copies of DAMO archaea, DAMO bacteria, and Anammox bacteria in the paraffin reactor were higher than those in the control reactor after 1 month. Fluorescence in situ hybridization revealed that the percentages of the three microbes were 55.5 and 77.6 % in the control and paraffin reactors after 100 days, respectively. A simple model of mass balance was developed to describe the interactions between DAMO and Anammox microbes and validate the activity results. A mechanism was proposed to describe the possible way that paraffin oil enhanced DAMO activity. It is quite clear that paraffin oil enhances not only DAMO activity but also Anammox activity via the interaction between them; both NO3 (-) and NH4 (+) consumption rates were about two times those of the control.

  17. Nutrient cycling for biomass: Interactive proteomic/transcriptomic networks for global carbon management processes within poplar-mycorrhizal interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cseke, Leland [Univ. of Alabama, Huntsville, AL (United States)

    2016-08-30

    This project addresses the need to develop system-scale models at the symbiotic interface between ectomycorrhizal fungi (Laccaria bicolor) and tree species (Populus tremuloides) in response to environmental nutrient availability / biochemistry. Using our now well-established laboratory Laccaria x poplar system, we address the hypothesis that essential regulatory and metabolic mechanisms can be inferred from genomic, transcriptomic and proteomic-level changes that occur in response to environmental nutrient availability. The project addresses this hypothesis by applying state-of-the-art protein-level analytic approaches to fill the gap in our understanding of how mycorrhizal regulatory and metabolic processes at the transcript-level translate to nutrient uptake, carbon management and ultimate net primary productivity of plants. In most cases, these techniques were not previously optimized for poplar trees or Laccaria. Thus, one of the major contributions of this project has been to provide avenues for new research in these species by overcoming the pitfalls that had previously prevented the use of techniques such as ChIP-Seq and SWATH-proteomics. Since it is the proteins that sense and interact with the environment, participate in signal cascades, activate and regulate gene expression, perform the activities of metabolism and ultimately sequester carbon and generate biomass, an understanding of protein activities during symbiosis-linked nutrient uptake is critical to any systems-level approach that links metabolic processes to the environment. This project uses a team of experts at The University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAH), The University of Alabama at Birmingham (UAB) and Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) to address the above hypothesis using a multiple "omics" approach that combines gene and protein expression as well as protein modifications, and biochemical analyses (performed at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL)) in poplar trees under mycorrhizal and

  18. INVESTIGATION OF PROCESS PERTAINING TO INTERACTION OF TRACTOR DRIVING WHEELS WITH GROUND SURFACE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Guskov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results of investigations on the process pertaining to interaction of a driving wheel with ground surface and describes methodology for optimization of backbone parameters. The mentioned process has some specific differences in comparison with the process of wheel rolling along hard surface. Ground surface is represented by mixture of sandy and clay particles with plant residues and it has a number of physical and mechanical properties. The main of these properties is resistance of soil against compression and displacement. Compression process determines a track depth and resistance to motion and displacement process determines wheel gripping property and its tangential traction force. While executing the investigations laws of compression and displacement proposed by Prof.V. V. Katsygin as the most adequate reflection of actual processes have been used in the paper. Motion of the driving wheel along ground surface is accompanied by its slipping. It has been determined that the maximum wheel traction force is formed not with 100% slipping as it was supposed until present but the value has been obtained at 45–60 % slipping according to soil category. The developed integral equations with due account of the aspect make it possible to calculate road hold characteristics of driving wheels of the designed wheel tractor and evaluate its traction, speed and economic characteristics. Methodology has been developed for optimization of backbone parameters of wheeled running gear in the designed tractor such as design mass and adhesion weight, width, diameter and air pressure in a tire. The proposed methodology has been introduced in designing practice of wheeled tractors at OJSC “Minsk Tractor Works”.

  19. INTERACT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jochum, Elizabeth; Borggreen, Gunhild; Murphey, TD

    This paper considers the impact of visual art and performance on robotics and human-computer interaction and outlines a research project that combines puppetry and live performance with robotics. Kinesics—communication through movement—is the foundation of many theatre and performance traditions...... interaction between a human operator and an artificial actor or agent. We can apply insights from puppetry to develop culturally-aware robots. Here we describe the development of a robotic marionette theatre wherein robotic controllers assume the role of human puppeteers. The system has been built, tested...

  20. Interaction between COMT Val(158)Met polymorphism and childhood adversity affects reward processing in adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boecker-Schlier, Regina; Holz, Nathalie E; Buchmann, Arlette F; Blomeyer, Dorothea; Plichta, Michael M; Jennen-Steinmetz, Christine; Wolf, Isabella; Baumeister, Sarah; Treutlein, Jens; Rietschel, Marcella; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Banaschewski, Tobias; Brandeis, Daniel; Laucht, Manfred

    2016-05-15

    Accumulating evidence suggests that altered dopamine transmission may increase the risk of mental disorders such as ADHD, schizophrenia or depression, possibly mediated by reward system dysfunction. This study aimed to clarify the impact of the COMT Val(158)Met polymorphism in interaction with environmental variation (G×E) on neuronal activity during reward processing. 168 healthy young adults from a prospective study conducted over 25years participated in a monetary incentive delay task measured with simultaneous EEG-fMRI. DNA was genotyped for COMT, and childhood family adversity (CFA) up to age 11 was assessed by a standardized parent interview. At reward delivery, a G×E revealed that fMRI activation for win vs. no-win trials in reward-related regions increased with the level of CFA in Met homozygotes as compared to Val/Met heterozygotes and Val homozygotes, who showed no significant effect. During the anticipation of monetary vs. verbal rewards, activation decreased with the level of CFA, which was also observed for EEG, in which the CNV declined with the level of CFA. These results identify convergent genetic and environmental effects on reward processing in a prospective study. Moreover, G×E effects during reward delivery suggest that stress during childhood is associated with higher reward sensitivity and reduced efficiency in processing rewarding stimuli in genetically at-risk individuals. Together with previous evidence, these results begin to define a specific system mediating interacting effects of early environmental and genetic risk factors, which may be targeted by early intervention and prevention. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Contribution to the beam plasma material interactions during material processing with TEA CO2 laser radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaschek, Rainer; Konrad, Peter E.; Mayerhofer, Roland; Bergmann, Hans W.; Bickel, Peter G.; Kowalewicz, Roland; Kuttenberger, Alfred; Christiansen, Jens

    1995-03-01

    The TEA-CO2-laser (transversely excited atmospheric pressure) is a tool for the pulsed processing of materials with peak power densities up to 1010 W/cm2 and a FWHM of 70 ns. The interaction between the laser beam, the surface of the work piece and the surrounding atmosphere as well as gas pressure and the formation of an induced plasma influences the response of the target. It was found that depending on the power density and the atmosphere the response can take two forms. (1) No target modification due to optical break through of the atmosphere and therefore shielding of the target (air pressure above 10 mbar, depending on the material). (2) Processing of materials (air pressure below 10 mbar, depending on the material) with melting of metallic surfaces (power density above 0.5 109 W/cm2), hole formation (power density of 5 109 W/cm2) and shock hardening (power density of 3.5 1010 W/cm2). All those phenomena are usually linked with the occurrence of laser supported combustion waves and laser supported detonation waves, respectively for which the mechanism is still not completely understood. The present paper shows how short time photography and spatial and temporal resolved spectroscopy can be used to better understand the various processes that occur during laser beam interaction. The spectra of titanium and aluminum are observed and correlated with the modification of the target. If the power density is high enough and the gas pressure above a material and gas composition specific threshold, the plasma radiation shows only spectral lines of the background atmosphere. If the gas pressure is below this threshold, a modification of the target surface (melting, evaporation and solid state transformation) with TEA-CO2- laser pulses is possible and the material specific spectra is observed. In some cases spatial and temporal resolved spectroscopy of a plasma allows the calculation of electron temperatures by comparison of two spectral lines.

  2. PROFESSIONAL TRAINING IN THE TERMS OF MICROENTERPRISES: PROCESS MODELLING OF EDUCATIONAL AND PROFESSIONAL INTERACTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Fedorov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The aim of this article is to understand the current issues of pedagogical training situation of a potential employee an experienced professional when using the internal resources of micro-enterprises. The relevance of the research problem dues to the needs of the labour market, terms of developing economy situation of micro-entrepreneurship and the demands of the subject of labour activity to vocational training without discontinuing work.Methodology and research methods. A leading approach to the study of this problem is a system-activity one, which allows us to represent the process of professional training in terms of the micro-enterprise as a system activity of subjects for the development of professional competence of the employee. The following research methods are used to solve the set tasks: theoretical study and analysis of psychological, pedagogical, sociological, scientific-methodical and special literature on the problem under study; a systematic approach to the disclosure of the nature of the problem and the formation of conceptual-terminological apparatus of the research; study and analysis of legislative and normative-legal acts; empirical – pedagogical observation, generalization and study of teaching experience, pedagogical design, questionnaire, interview, interviews, analysis of results, method of expert evaluations and their generalization.Results. The results of the research showed that the process of training and professional interaction of the micro-enterprise employees will be effective if training and professional interaction of the micro-enterprise employees to be considered as a productive mutual agreed actions of subjects of labour, aimed at solving the educational and professional problems in the process of joint labour activity. Developed structural-functional model of training and professional interaction of employees of micro-enterprises allows us to introduce the process of professional training as a

  3. Investigating the interactions between data assimilation and post-processing in hydrological ensemble forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourgin, François; Ramos, Maria-Helena; Thirel, Guillaume; Andreassian, Vazken

    2015-04-01

    consequence, the use of both techniques is recommended in hydrological ensemble forecasting. Bourgin, F., Ramos, M.H., Thirel, G., Andreassian, V. (2014). Investigating the interactions between data assimilation and post-processing in hydrological ensemble forecasting, Journal of Hydrology, 519, Part D, 2775-2784.

  4. The role of electrostatic interactions in the process of diffusional encounter and docking of electron transport proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalenko, I B; Khrushchev, S S; Fedorov, V A; Riznichenko, G Yu; Rubin, A B

    2016-05-01

    Electrostatic interaction of plastocyanin and cytochrome f in the process of protein-protein complex formation was investigated by computer simulation methods. It was shown that long-range electrostatic interaction promotes energetically favorable mutual orientation of protein molecules at distances between their cofactors shorter than 5 nm. At distances shorter than 3 nm, these electrostatic interactions lead to a significantly detectable increase in the rate of convergence of the cofactors.

  5. Educational and interactive informed consent process for treatment of unruptured intracranial aneurysms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jaechan; Son, Wonsoo; Park, Ki-Su; Kang, Dong-Hun; Lee, Joomi; Oh, Chang Wan; Kwon, O-Ki; Kim, Taesun; Kim, Chang-Hyun

    2017-03-01

    OBJECTIVE For patients with unruptured intracranial aneurysms (UIAs), the information transfer that precedes informed consent needs to be in-depth and detailed, as most patients with a UIA have no symptoms, yet the risks related to treatment are relatively high. Thus, in this study an educational and interactive program was proposed for patients with UIAs to improve the informed consent process and assess the level of comprehension. METHODS A total of 110 patients with UIAs underwent the proposed educational and interactive informed consent (EIIC) process and were enrolled in this study. The EIIC process combines patient education using information booklets, a cartoon book, a video, an initial physician-patient interview, answering a questionnaire, a second physician-patient interview based on the questionnaire results, and finally consent. After the first physician-patient interview that provides the patient with specific information, including his or her angiographic characteristics, medical condition, and recommended treatment, the patient is requested to answer a questionnaire composed of 3 parts: demographic information, including the patient's age, sex, and years of education; 13 medical questions to assess the patient's knowledge about his or her UIA; and an evaluation of the usefulness of the educational resources. The control group consisted of 65 patients from 3 other tertiary university hospitals where the EIIC process was not used. RESULTS The questionnaire scores of the EIIC group ranged from 7 to 13 (mean ± SD: 11.9 ± 1.3) and were significantly higher than those for the controls (10.2 ± 1.9, p education and the questionnaire score (p = 0.015 for the EIIC group, p educational method, while the most effective reinforcement of this verbal communication was the video (n = 86; 78.2%), information booklets (n = 16; 14.5%), the Internet (n = 7; 6.4%), and the cartoon book (n = 1; 0.9%). CONCLUSIONS The proposed standardized EIIC process resulted in good

  6. Future challenges of representing land-processes in studies on land-atmosphere interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Arneth

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Over recent years, it has become increasingly apparent that climate change and air pollution need to be considered jointly for improved attribution and projections of human-caused changes in the Earth system. Exchange processes at the land surface come into play in this context, because many compounds that either act as greenhouse gases, as pollutant precursors, or both, have not only anthropogenic but also terrestrial sources and sinks. And since the fluxes of multiple gases and particulate matter between the terrestrial biota and the atmosphere are directly or indirectly coupled to vegetation and soil carbon, nutrient and water balances, quantification of their geographic patterns or changes over time requires due consideration of the underlying biological processes. In this review we highlight a number of critical aspects and recent progress in this respect, identifying in particular a number of areas where studies have shown that accounting for ecological process understanding can alter global model projections of land-atmosphere interactions substantially. Specifically, this concerns the improved quantification of uncertainties and dynamic system responses, including acclimation, and the incorporation of exchange processes that so far have been missing from global models even though they are proposed to be of relevance for our understanding of terrestrial biota-climate feedbacks. Progress has also been made regarding studies on the impacts of land use/land cover change on climate change, but the absence of a mechanistically based representation of human response-processes in ecosystem models that are coupled to climate models limits our ability to analyse how climate change or air pollution in turn might affect human land use. A more integrated perspective is necessary and should become an active area of research that bridges the socio-economic and biophysical communities.

  7. Future challenges of representing land-processes in studies on land-atmosphere interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Arneth

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Over recent years, it has become increasingly apparent that climate change and air pollution need to be considered jointly for improved attribution and projections of human-caused changes in the earth system. Exchange processes at the land surface come into play in this context because many compounds that either act as greenhouse gases, as pollutant precursors, or both, have not only anthropogenic but also terrestrial sources and sinks. And since the fluxes of multiple gases and particulate matter between the terrestrial biota and the atmosphere are directly or indirectly coupled to vegetation and soil carbon, nutrient and water balances, quantification of their geographic patterns or changes over time requires due consideration of the underlying biological processes. In this review we highlight a number of critical aspects and recent progress in this respect, identifying in particular a number of areas where studies have shown that accounting for biological and ecological process understanding can alter global model projections of land-atmosphere interactions substantially. Specifically, this concerns the improved quantification of uncertainties and dynamic system responses, including acclimation, and the incorporation of exchange processes that so far have been missing from global models even though they are proposed to be of relevance for our understanding of terrestrial biota-climate feedbacks. Progress has also been made regarding studies on the impacts of land use/land cover change on climate change but the absence of a mechanistically-based representation of human response-processes limits our ability to analyse how climate change or air pollution in turn might affect human land use. A more integrated perspective is necessary and should become an active area of research that bridges the socio-economic and biophysical communities.

  8. Interactive Computing and Graphics in Undergraduate Digital Signal Processing. Microcomputing Working Paper Series F 84-9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onaral, Banu; And Others

    This report describes the development of a Drexel University electrical and computer engineering course on digital filter design that used interactive computing and graphics, and was one of three courses in a senior-level sequence on digital signal processing (DSP). Interactive and digital analysis/design routines and the interconnection of these…

  9. A Theory of Interactive Parallel Processing: New Capacity Measures and Predictions for a Response Time Inequality Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, James T.; Wenger, Michael J.

    2004-01-01

    The authors present a theory of stochastic interactive parallel processing with special emphasis on channel interactions and their relation to system capacity. The approach is based both on linear systems theory augmented with stochastic elements and decisional operators and on a metatheory of parallel channels' dependencies that incorporates…

  10. Functional analysis of the verbal interaction between psychologist and client during the therapeutic process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Sancho, Elena M; Froján-Parga, María Xesús; Calero-Elvira, Ana

    2013-07-01

    The goal of this study is to analyze the verbal interaction that takes place between client and therapist over the course of a clinical intervention so as to analyze the potential learning processes that may be responsible for changes in the client's behavior. A total of 92 sessions were analyzed, corresponding to 19 clinical cases treated by 9 therapists specializing in behavioral therapy. The variables considered were therapist and client verbal behaviors, and these were categorized according to their possible functions and/or morphologies. The Observer XT software was used as a tool for the observational analysis. The results led to the conclusion that the therapist responds differentially to client verbalizations, modifying the verbal contingencies as his or her client content approaches or becomes more distant from therapeutic objectives. These results suggest the possible existence of verbal "shaping" processes through which the therapist guides the client's verbal behavior toward more adaptive forms. In addition, this study proposes an alternative to the traditional controversy regarding the relevance of the therapeutic relationship versus the treatment techniques used to explain clinical change. This article suggests that such differentiation is unnecessary because the therapeutic relationship and the treatment techniques should act in the same manner, this is, in providing the context for the occurrence of what is truly therapeutic, namely, the learning processes.

  11. A New User Model based Interactive Product Retrieval Process for improved eBuying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oshadi Alahakoon

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available When searching for items online there are three common problems that e-buyers may encounter; null retrieval, retrieving unmanageable number of items, and retrieving unsatisfactory items. In the past information retrieval systems or recommender systems were used as solutions. With information retrieval systems, too rigorous filtering based on the user query to reduce unmanageable number of items result in either null retrieval or filtering out the items users prefer. Recommender systems on the other hand do not provide sufficient opportunity for users to communicate their needs. As a solution, this paper introduces a novel method combining a user model with an interactive product retrieval process. The new layered user model has the potential of being applied across multiple product and service domains and is able to adapt to changing user preferences. The new product retrieval algorithm is integrated with the user model and is able to successfully address null retrieval, retrieving unmanageable number of items, and retrieving unsatisfactory items. The process is demonstrated using a bench mark dataset and a case study. Finally the Product retrieval process is evaluated using a set of guidelines to illustrate its suitability to current eBuying environments.

  12. FACET: A simulation software framework for modeling complex societal processes and interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christiansen, J. H.

    2000-06-02

    FACET, the Framework for Addressing Cooperative Extended Transactions, was developed at Argonne National Laboratory to address the need for a simulation software architecture in the style of an agent-based approach, but with sufficient robustness, expressiveness, and flexibility to be able to deal with the levels of complexity seen in real-world social situations. FACET is an object-oriented software framework for building models of complex, cooperative behaviors of agents. It can be used to implement simulation models of societal processes such as the complex interplay of participating individuals and organizations engaged in multiple concurrent transactions in pursuit of their various goals. These transactions can be patterned on, for example, clinical guidelines and procedures, business practices, government and corporate policies, etc. FACET can also address other complex behaviors such as biological life cycles or manufacturing processes. To date, for example, FACET has been applied to such areas as land management, health care delivery, avian social behavior, and interactions between natural and social processes in ancient Mesopotamia.

  13. Time course of early audiovisual interactions during speech and nonspeech central auditory processing: a magnetoencephalography study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertrich, Ingo; Mathiak, Klaus; Lutzenberger, Werner; Ackermann, Hermann

    2009-02-01

    Cross-modal fusion phenomena suggest specific interactions of auditory and visual sensory information both within the speech and nonspeech domains. Using whole-head magnetoencephalography, this study recorded M50 and M100 fields evoked by ambiguous acoustic stimuli that were visually disambiguated to perceived /ta/ or /pa/ syllables. As in natural speech, visual motion onset preceded the acoustic signal by 150 msec. Control conditions included visual and acoustic nonspeech signals as well as visual-only and acoustic-only stimuli. (a) Both speech and nonspeech motion yielded a consistent attenuation of the auditory M50 field, suggesting a visually induced "preparatory baseline shift" at the level of the auditory cortex. (b) Within the temporal domain of the auditory M100 field, visual speech and nonspeech motion gave rise to different response patterns (nonspeech: M100 attenuation; visual /pa/: left-hemisphere M100 enhancement; /ta/: no effect). (c) These interactions could be further decomposed using a six-dipole model. One of these three pairs of dipoles (V270) was fitted to motion-induced activity at a latency of 270 msec after motion onset, that is, the time domain of the auditory M100 field, and could be attributed to the posterior insula. This dipole source responded to nonspeech motion and visual /pa/, but was found suppressed in the case of visual /ta/. Such a nonlinear interaction might reflect the operation of a binary distinction between the marked phonological feature "labial" versus its underspecified competitor "coronal." Thus, visual processing seems to be shaped by linguistic data structures even prior to its fusion with auditory information channel.

  14. An Interactive Website to Reduce Sexual Risk Behavior: Process Evaluation of TeensTalkHealth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieving, Renee E; Terveen, Loren G; Rosser, BR Simon; Kodet, Amy J; Rothberg, Vienna D

    2015-01-01

    Background Different theoretical frameworks support the use of interactive websites to promote sexual health. Although several Web-based interventions have been developed to address sexual risk taking among young people, no evaluated interventions have attempted to foster behavior change through moderated interaction among a virtual network of adolescents (who remain anonymous to one another) and health professionals. Objective The objective was to conduct a summative process evaluation of TeensTalkHealth, an interactive sexual health website designed to promote condom use and other healthy decision making in the context of romantic and sexual relationships. Methods Evaluation data were obtained from 147 adolescents who participated in a feasibility and acceptability study. Video vignettes, teen-friendly articles, and other content served as conversation catalysts between adolescents and health educators on message boards. Results Adolescents’ perceptions that the website encouraged condom use across a variety of relationship situations were very high. Almost 60% (54/92, 59%) of intervention participants completed two-thirds or more of requested tasks across the 4-month intervention. Adolescents reported high levels of comfort, perceived privacy, ease of website access and use, and perceived credibility of health educators. Potential strategies to enhance engagement and completion of intervention tasks during future implementations of TeensTalkHealth are discussed, including tailoring of content, periodic website chats with health educators and anonymous peers, and greater incorporation of features from popular social networking websites. Conclusions TeensTalkHealth is a feasible, acceptable, and promising approach to complement and enhance existing services for youth. PMID:26336157

  15. A triangular prism solid and shell interactive mapping element for electromagnetic sheet metal forming process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Xiangyang; Li, She; Feng, Hui; Li, Guangyao

    2017-05-01

    In this paper, a novel triangular prism solid and shell interactive mapping element is proposed to solve the coupled magnetic-mechanical formulation in electromagnetic sheet metal forming process. A linear six-node ;Triprism; element is firstly proposed for transient eddy current analysis in electromagnetic field. In present ;Triprism; element, shape functions are given explicitly, and a cell-wise gradient smoothing operation is used to obtain the gradient matrices without evaluating derivatives of shape functions. In mechanical field analysis, a shear locking free triangular shell element is employed in internal force computation, and a data mapping method is developed to transfer the Lorentz force on solid into the external forces suffered by shell structure for dynamic elasto-plasticity deformation analysis. Based on the deformed triangular shell structure, a ;Triprism; element generation rule is established for updated electromagnetic analysis, which means inter-transformation of meshes between the coupled fields can be performed automatically. In addition, the dynamic moving mesh is adopted for air mesh updating based on the deformation of sheet metal. A benchmark problem is carried out for confirming the accuracy of the proposed ;Triprism; element in predicting flux density in electromagnetic field. Solutions of several EMF problems obtained by present work are compared with experiment results and those of traditional method, which are showing excellent performances of present interactive mapping element.

  16. INTERACTIVE CHANGE DETECTION USING HIGH RESOLUTION REMOTE SENSING IMAGES BASED ON ACTIVE LEARNING WITH GAUSSIAN PROCESSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Ru

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Although there have been many studies for change detection, the effective and efficient use of high resolution remote sensing images is still a problem. Conventional supervised methods need lots of annotations to classify the land cover categories and detect their changes. Besides, the training set in supervised methods often has lots of redundant samples without any essential information. In this study, we present a method for interactive change detection using high resolution remote sensing images with active learning to overcome the shortages of existing remote sensing image change detection techniques. In our method, there is no annotation of actual land cover category at the beginning. First, we find a certain number of the most representative objects in unsupervised way. Then, we can detect the change areas from multi-temporal high resolution remote sensing images by active learning with Gaussian processes in an interactive way gradually until the detection results do not change notably. The artificial labelling can be reduced substantially, and a desirable detection result can be obtained in a few iterations. The experiments on Geo-Eye1 and WorldView2 remote sensing images demonstrate the effectiveness and efficiency of our proposed method.

  17. Extraction of CYP chemical interactions from biomedical literature using natural language processing methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Dazhi; Wild, David J

    2009-02-01

    This paper proposes a system that automatically extracts CYP protein and chemical interactions from journal article abstracts, using natural language processing (NLP) and text mining methods. In our system, we employ a maximum entropy based learning method, using results from syntactic, semantic, and lexical analysis of texts. We first present our system architecture and then discuss the data set for training our machine learning based models and the methods in building components in our system, such as part of speech (POS) tagging, Named Entity Recognition (NER), dependency parsing, and relation extraction. An evaluation of the system is conducted at the end, yielding very promising results: The POS, dependency parsing, and NER components in our system have achieved a very high level of accuracy as measured by precision, ranging from 85.9% to 98.5%, and the precision and the recall of the interaction extraction component are 76.0% and 82.6%, and for the overall system are 68.4% and 72.2%, respectively.

  18. Biodiversity and interactions of acidophiles: Key to understanding and optimizing microbial processing of ores and concentrates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    D.B.JOHNSON

    2008-01-01

    Mining companies have become increasingly aware of the potential of microbiological approaches for recovering base and precious metals from low-grade ores,and for remediating acidic,metal-rich wastewaters that drain from both operating and abandoned mine sites.Biological systems offer a number of environmental and (sometimes) economical advantages over conventional approaches,such as pyrometallurgy,though their application is not appropriate in every situation.Mineral processing using micro-organisms has been exploited for extracting gold,copper,uranium and cobalt,and current developments are targeting other base metals.Recently,there has been a great increase in our knowledge and understanding of both the diversity of the microbiology of biomining environments,and of how the microorganisms interact with each other.The results from laboratory experiments which have simulated both stirred tank and heap bioreactor systems have shown that microbial consortia are more robust than pure cultures of mineral-oxidizing acidophiles,and also tend to be more effective at bioleaching and bio-oxidizing ores and concentrates.The paper presented a concise review of the nature and interactions of microbial consortia that are involved in the oxidation of sulfide minerals,and how these might be adapted to meet future challenges in biomining operations.

  19. Biological Processes that Prepare Mammalian Spermatozoa to Interact with an Egg and Fertilize It

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daulat R. P. Tulsiani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the mouse and other mammals studied, including man, ejaculated spermatozoa cannot immediately fertilize an egg. They require a certain period of residence in the female genital tract to become functionally competent cells. As spermatozoa traverse through the female genital tract, they undergo multiple biochemical and physiological changes collectively referred to as capacitation. Only capacitated spermatozoa interact with the extracellular egg coat, the zona pellucida. The tight irreversible binding of the opposite gametes triggers a Ca2+-dependent signal transduction cascade. The net result is the fusion of the sperm plasma membrane and the underlying outer acrosomal membrane at multiple sites that causes the release of acrosomal contents at the site of sperm-egg adhesion. The hydrolytic action of the acrosomal enzymes released, along with the hyperactivated beat pattern of the bound spermatozoon, is important factor that directs the sperm to penetrate the egg coat and fertilize the egg. The sperm capacitation and the induction of the acrosomal reaction are Ca2+-dependent signaling events that have been of wide interest to reproductive biologists for over half a century. In this paper, we intend to discuss data from this and other laboratories that highlight the biological processes which prepare spermatozoa to interact with an egg and fertilize it.

  20. Altering FAK-paxillin interactions reduces adhesion, migration and invasion processes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thérèse B Deramaudt

    Full Text Available Focal adhesion kinase (FAK plays an important role in signal transduction pathways initiated at sites of integrin-mediated cell adhesion to the extracellular matrix. Thus, FAK is involved in many aspects of the metastatic process including adhesion, migration and invasion. Recently, several small molecule inhibitors which target FAK catalytic activity have been developed by pharmaceutical companies. The current study was aimed at addressing whether inhibiting FAK targeting to focal adhesions (FA represents an efficient alternative strategy to inhibit FAK downstream pathways. Using a mutagenesis approach to alter the targeting domain of FAK, we constructed a FAK mutant that fails to bind paxillin. Inhibiting FAK-paxillin interactions led to a complete loss of FAK localization at FAs together with reduced phosphorylation of FAK and FAK targets such as paxillin and p130Cas. This in turn resulted in altered FA dynamics and inhibition of cell adhesion, migration and invasion. Moreover, the migration properties of cells expressing the FAK mutant were reduced as compared to FAK-/- cells. This was correlated with a decrease in both phospho-Src and phospho-p130Cas levels at FAs. We conclude that targeting FAK-paxillin interactions is an efficient strategy to reduce FAK signalling and thus may represent a target for the development of new FAK inhibitors.

  1. Altering FAK-paxillin interactions reduces adhesion, migration and invasion processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deramaudt, Thérèse B; Dujardin, Denis; Noulet, Fanny; Martin, Sophie; Vauchelles, Romain; Takeda, Ken; Rondé, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) plays an important role in signal transduction pathways initiated at sites of integrin-mediated cell adhesion to the extracellular matrix. Thus, FAK is involved in many aspects of the metastatic process including adhesion, migration and invasion. Recently, several small molecule inhibitors which target FAK catalytic activity have been developed by pharmaceutical companies. The current study was aimed at addressing whether inhibiting FAK targeting to focal adhesions (FA) represents an efficient alternative strategy to inhibit FAK downstream pathways. Using a mutagenesis approach to alter the targeting domain of FAK, we constructed a FAK mutant that fails to bind paxillin. Inhibiting FAK-paxillin interactions led to a complete loss of FAK localization at FAs together with reduced phosphorylation of FAK and FAK targets such as paxillin and p130Cas. This in turn resulted in altered FA dynamics and inhibition of cell adhesion, migration and invasion. Moreover, the migration properties of cells expressing the FAK mutant were reduced as compared to FAK-/- cells. This was correlated with a decrease in both phospho-Src and phospho-p130Cas levels at FAs. We conclude that targeting FAK-paxillin interactions is an efficient strategy to reduce FAK signalling and thus may represent a target for the development of new FAK inhibitors.

  2. Defects interaction processes in deformed high purity polycrystalline molybdenum at elevated temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambri, O.A., E-mail: olambri@fceia.unr.edu.ar [Laboratorio de Materiales, Escuela de Ingeniería Eléctrica, Centro de Tecnología e Investigación Eléctrica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Ingeniería y Agrimensura, Universidad Nacional de Rosario – CONICET, Avda. Pellegrini 250, (2000) Rosario (Argentina); Bonifacich, F.G. [Laboratorio de Materiales, Escuela de Ingeniería Eléctrica, Centro de Tecnología e Investigación Eléctrica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Ingeniería y Agrimensura, Universidad Nacional de Rosario – CONICET, Avda. Pellegrini 250, (2000) Rosario (Argentina); Bozzano, P.B. [Laboratorio de Microscopía Electrónica, Unidad de Actividad Materiales, Centro Atómico Constituyentes, Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica e Instituto Sábato – Universidad Nacional de San Martín, Avda. Gral. Paz 1499, (1650) San Martín (Argentina); Zelada, G.I. [Laboratorio de Materiales, Escuela de Ingeniería Eléctrica, Centro de Tecnología e Investigación Eléctrica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Ingeniería y Agrimensura, Universidad Nacional de Rosario – CONICET, Avda. Pellegrini 250, (2000) Rosario (Argentina); and others

    2014-10-15

    Mechanical spectroscopy (damping and elastic modulus as a function of temperature) and transmission electron microscopy studies have been performed in high purity polycrystalline molybdenum plastically deformed to different values of tensile and torsion strain. Mechanical spectroscopy measurements were performed from room temperature up to 1285 K. A relaxation peak in polycrystalline molybdenum related to the movement of dislocations into lower energy configurations near grain boundaries has been discovered to appear around 1170 K. The activation energy of the peak is 4.2 eV ± 0.5 eV. This relaxation phenomenon involves the interaction between vacancies and mobile dislocations near the grain boundaries. It should be highlighted that this relaxation process is controlled by the arrangement of vacancies and dislocations which occur at temperature below 1070 K.

  3. SpreaD3: Interactive Visualization of Spatiotemporal History and Trait Evolutionary Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielejec, Filip; Baele, Guy; Vrancken, Bram; Suchard, Marc A; Rambaut, Andrew; Lemey, Philippe

    2016-08-01

    Model-based phylogenetic reconstructions increasingly consider spatial or phenotypic traits in conjunction with sequence data to study evolutionary processes. Alongside parameter estimation, visualization of ancestral reconstructions represents an integral part of these analyses. Here, we present a complete overhaul of the spatial phylogenetic reconstruction of evolutionary dynamics software, now called SpreaD3 to emphasize the use of data-driven documents, as an analysis and visualization package that primarily complements Bayesian inference in BEAST (http://beast.bio.ed.ac.uk, last accessed 9 May 2016). The integration of JavaScript D3 libraries (www.d3.org, last accessed 9 May 2016) offers novel interactive web-based visualization capacities that are not restricted to spatial traits and extend to any discrete or continuously valued trait for any organism of interest.

  4. Hybrid Genetic Algorithm Based Optimization of Coupled HMM for Complex Interacting Processes Recognition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Jianghua(刘江华); Chen Jiapin; Cheng Junshi

    2004-01-01

    Coupled Hidden Markov Model (CHMM) is the extension of traditional HMM, which is mainly used for complex interactive process modeling such as two-hand gestures. However, the problems of finding optimal model parameter are still of great interest to the researches in this area. This paper proposes a hybrid genetic algorithm (HGA) for the CHMM training. Chaos is used to initialize GA and used as mutation operator. Experiments on Chinese TaiChi gestures show that standard GA (SGA) based CHMM training is superior to Maximum Likelihood (ML) HMM training. HGA approach has the highest recognition rate of 98.0769%, then 96.1538% for SGA. The last one is ML method, only with a recognition rate of 69.2308%.

  5. Modeling Electronic-Nuclear Interactions for Excitation Energy Transfer Processes in Light-Harvesting Complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Mi Kyung; Coker, David F

    2016-08-18

    An accurate approach for computing intermolecular and intrachromophore contributions to spectral densities to describe the electronic-nuclear interactions relevant for modeling excitation energy transfer processes in light harvesting systems is presented. The approach is based on molecular dynamics (MD) calculations of classical correlation functions of long-range contributions to excitation energy fluctuations and a separate harmonic analysis and single-point gradient quantum calculations for electron-intrachromophore vibrational couplings. A simple model is also presented that enables detailed analysis of the shortcomings of standard MD-based excitation energy fluctuation correlation function approaches. The method introduced here avoids these problems, and its reliability is demonstrated in accurate predictions for bacteriochlorophyll molecules in the Fenna-Matthews-Olson pigment-protein complex, where excellent agreement with experimental spectral densities is found. This efficient approach can provide instantaneous spectral densities for treating the influence of fluctuations in environmental dissipation on fast electronic relaxation.

  6. Interactive Image Processing As An Aid To Designing Robot Vision Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batchelor, B. G.; Cotter, S. M.; Page, G. J.; Hopkins, S. H.

    1983-10-01

    Interactive image processing has proved to be a valuable aid to prototype development for industrial inspection systems. This paper advocates extending its use to exploratory analysis of robot vision applications. Preliminary studies have shown that it is equally effective in this role, although it is not usually possible to achieve the computational speeds needed for real-time control of the robot using a software-based image processor. Its use, as in inspection research, is likely to be limited to algorithm design/selection. The Autoview image processor (British Robotic Systems Ltd.) has recently been interfaced to a Placemate 5 robot (Pendar Robotics Ltd.) and further programmable manipulation devices, including an xy-coordinate table and a stepping turntable are currently being connected. Using these and similar devices, research will be conducted into such tasks as assembly, Dalletisinq and robot-assisted inspection.

  7. Strong field effects on physics processes at the Interaction Point of future linear colliders

    CERN Document Server

    Hartin, A; Porto, S

    2013-01-01

    Future lepton colliders will be precision machines whose physics program includes close study of the Higgs sector and searches for new physics via polarised beams. The luminosity requirements of such machines entail very intense lepton bunches at the interaction point with associated strong electromagnetic fields. These strong fields not only lead to obvious phenomena such as beamstrahlung, but also potentially affect every particle physics process via virtual exchange with the bunch fields. For precision studies, strong field effects have to be understood to the sub-percent level. Strong external field effects can be taken into account exactly via the Furry Picture or, in certain limits, via the Quasi-classical Operator method . Significant theoretical development is in progress and here we outline the current state of play.

  8. Strategies in the information search process: interaction among task structure, knowledge, and source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacchi, Simona; Burigo, Michele

    2008-07-01

    The authors explored the information search strategies of 145 individuals in the predecisional stage. Decision-making participants selected pieces of information from a list including relevant and irrelevant data. The authors investigated the influence of the individual's knowledge and information source. In Experiment 1, the authors experimentally manipulated the information source reliability. The results revealed that participants tended to use a sequential strategy when the authors presented information as supplied by a reliable source. In Experiment 2, the authors analyzed the interaction between information source and the individuals' knowledge. When participants believed the source to be reliable, even knowledgeable participants adopted a strategy as sequential as that chosen by naive individuals. In Experiment 3, a mediational model corroborated the hypothesis that the search strategy affects the final judgment. The results were consistent with the constructivist framework, which emphasizes the role of individual, task, and context in the decision-making process.

  9. Energy transfer process in gas models of Lennard-Jones interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Jinghua; Wang, Jiao; Zhao, Hong

    2011-01-01

    We perform simulations to investigate how the energy carried by a molecule transfers to others in an equilibrium gas model. For this purpose we consider a microcanonical ensemble of equilibrium gas systems, each of them contains a tagged molecule located at the same position initially. The ensuing transfer process of the energy initially carried by the tagged molecule is then exposed in terms of the ensemble-averaged energy density distribution. In both a 2D and a 3D gas model with Lennard-Jones interactions at room temperature, it is found that the energy carried by a molecule propagates in the gas ballistically, in clear contrast with the Gaussian diffusion widely assumed in previous studies. A possible scheme of experimental study of this issue is also proposed

  10. Final-state interactions in the process anti pp {yields} pK{sup +} {Lambda}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roeder, M.; Borodina, E.; Dzhygadlo, R.; Gast, W.; Gillitzer, A.; Grzonka, D.; Kilian, K.; Mertens, M.; Ritman, J.; Roderburg, E.; Sefzick, T.; Wintz, P. [Forschungszentrum Juelich, Institut fuer Kernphysik, Juelich (Germany); Forschungszentrum Juelich, Juelich Center for Hadron Physics, Juelich (Germany); Clement, H.; Doroshkevich, E.; Ehrhardt, K.; Erhardt, A. [Physikalisches Institut der Universitaet Tuebingen, Tuebingen (Germany); University of Tuebingen, Kepler Center for Astro and Particle Physics, Tuebingen (Germany); Eyrich, W.; Kober, L.; Krapp, M. [Friedrich-Alexander-Universitaet Erlangen-Nuernberg, Erlangen (Germany); Haidenbauer, J.; Hanhart, C. [Forschungszentrum Juelich, Institut fuer Kernphysik, Juelich (Germany); Forschungszentrum Juelich, Juelich Center for Hadron Physics, Juelich (Germany); Forschungszentrum Juelich, Institute for Advanced Simulation, Juelich (Germany); Hauenstein, F.; Klaja, P. [Forschungszentrum Juelich, Institut fuer Kernphysik, Juelich (Germany); Forschungszentrum Juelich, Juelich Center for Hadron Physics, Juelich (Germany); Friedrich-Alexander-Universitaet Erlangen-Nuernberg, Erlangen (Germany); Schroeder, W. [Forschungszentrum Juelich, Juelich Center for Hadron Physics, Juelich (Germany); Sibirtsev, A. [Helmholtz-Institut fuer Strahlen- und Kernphysik, Bonn (Germany); Wuestner, P. [Forschungszentrum Juelich, Juelich Center for Hadron Physics, Juelich (Germany); Forschungszentrum Juelich, Zentralinstitut fuer Elektronik, Juelich (Germany); Collaboration: The COSY-TOF Collaboration

    2013-12-15

    The possibility to determine the p{Lambda} scattering length from the final-state interaction in the reaction anti pp {yields} pK{sup +} {Lambda} is investigated experimentally. From a transversely polarized measurement, the K{sup +} analyzing power (A{sub N}) which, in principle, allows one to extract the spin triplet scattering length is studied. An unexpected energy dependence of the forward/backward symmetric part of A{sub N} is found. The influence of N {sup *} resonances on the p {Lambda} invariant mass spectrum is investigated by exploiting the large acceptance for the process anti pp {yields} pK{sup +} {Lambda} {yields} pK{sup +} p{pi}{sup -} and is found to be the main source of uncertainty for determining the p{Lambda} scattering length. (orig.)

  11. Final-State Interactions in the Process pp -> pKLambda

    CERN Document Server

    Röder, M; Clement, H; Doroshkevich, E; Dzhygadlo, R; Ehrhardt, K; Erhardt, A; Eyrich, W; Gast, W; Gillitzer, A; Grzonka, D; Haidenbauer, J; Hanhart, C; Hauenstein, F; Klaja, P; Kober, L; Kilian, K; Krapp, M; Mertens, M; Ritman, J; Roderburg, E; Schroeder, W; Sefzick, T; Sibirtsev, A; Wintz, P; Wüstner, P

    2013-01-01

    The possibility to determine the pLambda scattering length from the final-state interaction in the reaction pp->pKLambda is investigated experimentally. From a transversely polarized measurement, the K analyzing power (A_N) which, in principle, allows one to extract the spin triplet scattering length is studied. An unexpected energy dependence of the forward/backward symmetric part of A_N is found. The influence of N*-resonances on the pLambda invariant mass spectrum is investigated by exploiting the large acceptance for the process pp->pKLambda->pKppi and is found to be the main source of uncertainty for determining the pLambda scattering length.

  12. A 'user friendly' geographic information system in a color interactive digital image processing system environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, W. J.; Goldberg, M.

    1982-01-01

    NASA's Eastern Regional Remote Sensing Applications Center (ERRSAC) has recognized the need to accommodate spatial analysis techniques in its remote sensing technology transfer program. A computerized Geographic Information System to incorporate remotely sensed data, specifically Landsat, with other relevant data was considered a realistic approach to address a given resource problem. Questions arose concerning the selection of a suitable available software system to demonstrate, train, and undertake demonstration projects with ERRSAC's user community. The very specific requirements for such a system are discussed. The solution found involved the addition of geographic information processing functions to the Interactive Digital Image Manipulation System (IDIMS). Details regarding the functions of the new integrated system are examined along with the characteristics of the software.

  13. Neural interaction between logical reasoning and pragmatic processing in narrative discourse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prado, Jérôme; Spotorno, Nicola; Koun, Eric; Hewitt, Emily; Van der Henst, Jean-Baptiste; Sperber, Dan; Noveck, Ira A

    2015-04-01

    Logical connectives (e.g., or, if, and not) are central to everyday conversation, and the inferences they generate are made with little effort in pragmatically sound situations. In contrast, the neural substrates of logical inference-making have been studied exclusively in abstract tasks where pragmatic concerns are minimal. Here, we used fMRI in an innovative design that employed narratives to investigate the interaction between logical reasoning and pragmatic processing in natural discourse. Each narrative contained three premises followed by a statement. In Fully-deductive stories, the statement confirmed a conclusion that followed from two steps of disjunction-elimination (e.g., Xavier considers Thursday, Friday, or Saturday for inviting his girlfriend out; he removes Thursday before he rejects Saturday and declares "I will invite her out for Friday"). In Implicated-premise stories, an otherwise identical narrative included three premises that twice removed a single option from consideration (i.e., Xavier rejects Thursday for two different reasons). The conclusion therefore necessarily prompts an implication (i.e., Xavier must have removed Saturday from consideration as well). We report two main findings. First, conclusions of Implicated-premise stories are associated with more activity than conclusions of Fully-deductive stories in a bilateral frontoparietal system, suggesting that these regions play a role in inferring an implicated premise. Second, brain connectivity between these regions increases with pragmatic abilities when reading conclusions in Implicated-premise stories. These findings suggest that pragmatic processing interacts with logical inference-making when understanding arguments in narrative discourse.

  14. Interaction of processes may explain induced seismicity after shut-in in Enhanced Geothermal Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Simone, Silvia; Carrera, Jesus; Vilarrasa, Victor

    2015-04-01

    Deep fluid injection is a necessary operation in several engineering sectors, like geothermal energy production, natural gas storage, CO2 storage, etc. The seismicity associated to these activities has, in some occasions, reached unexpected magnitude, raising public concern. Moreover, the occurrence of such seismicity after the injection shut-in pointed out the incompleteness of the knowledge and the inability of fully managing these processes. On the other hand, the growing attention toward clean energy makes it clear that we cannot abandon these procedures, which have a huge potential. Therefore, deeply understanding the mechanisms that induce seismicity is crucial. In this study we consider hydraulic stimulation of deep geothermal systems and analyze the mechanisms that may induce or trigger seismicity. Given that the basic mechanism is fluid pressure increase, secondary triggering processes have been studied. In detail, we attempt to identify the potential mechanisms that may trigger seismicity in the post-injection phase, when the overpressure decreases. These mechanisms have been investigated with a coupled and uncoupled approach, in order to understand the individual effects of each one and the effects of the interactions between them on the reservoir stability. Besides fluid overpressure, another relevant process is the temperature variation. Indeed, in the case of enhanced geothermal systems, the temperature contrast between the injected cold fluid and the deep hot reservoir is great and induces thermal stress, which sensibly affects the in-situ stress field. Therefore, we have studied overpressure and temperature effects by means of analytic solutions and by means of hydro-mechanical and thermo-hydro-mechanical numerical simulations. Results show that in fractured rocks the spatial variability of hydraulic and mechanic parameters provokes no isotropic variation of the tensional field, in response to pressure and temperature perturbations. Another

  15. Seasonal shoreline behaviours along the arcuate Niger Delta coast: Complex interaction between fluvial and marine processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dada, Olusegun A.; Li, Guangxue; Qiao, Lulu; Ding, Dong; Ma, Yanyan; Xu, Jishang

    2016-07-01

    Deltaic coasts are dynamic geomorphic systems where continuous changes occur on diverse spatial and temporal scales, and these changes constitute an important aspect of their evolution. Based on three-year satellite-derived shoreline data coupled with re-analyzed wave data and hydro-meteorological data, a comprehensive analysis of the dominant processes governing the seasonal shoreline changes along the oil-rich arcuate section of the Niger Delta, in the Nigerian Shelf of the North Atlantic Ocean has been undertaken. Shoreline analysis results show that the delta coast is characterized by predominant summer erosion and maximum winter accretion. Between 2010 and 2012, erosion dominated over accretion and a total of 9.1 km2 deltaic land was lost to coastline erosion at an annual average erosion rate of 4.55±1.21 km2/yr. A greater understanding of the dominant factors responsible for the change is presented. Shoreline change interactions with cross-shore sediment exchange processes are prominent at seasonal timescale (Summer R2=-0.85 and Winter R2=0.7), and interannual timescale (R2=-0.93) with longshore sediment transport processes. Correlation analysis reveals a gradual degeneration of relationship between the suspended sediment flux and coastal hydrodynamics beginning from 2010 to 2012 (cross-shore transport, R=0.68, 0.36 and 0.2 for 2010, 2011 and 2012, respectively; longshore transport R=0.63, 0.44 and 0.2 for 2010, 2011 and 2012, respectively). The study concludes that the effect of fluvial sediment reduction to the delta coast due to capital dredging of the Lower Niger River channels between 2009 and 2012, and periodic fluctuations in the nearshore hydrodynamics processes caused the observed annual shoreline erosion that eventually forced the deltaic coastline toward a state of landward migration during the study period.

  16. Neurophysiological Processing of Emotion and Parenting Interact to Predict Inhibited Behavior: An Affective-Motivational Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen M Kessel

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Although inhibited behavior problems are prevalent in childhood, relatively little is known about the intrinsic and extrinsic factors that predict a child’s ability to regulate inhibited behavior during fear- and anxiety-provoking tasks. Inhibited behavior may be linked to both disruptions in avoidance-related processing of aversive stimuli and in approach-related processing of appetitive stimuli, but previous findings are contradictory and rarely integrate consideration of the socialization context. The current exploratory study used a novel combination of neurophysiological and observation-based methods to examine whether a neurophysiological measure sensitive to approach- and avoidance-oriented emotional processing, the late positive potential (LPP, interacted with observed approach- (promotion and avoidance- (prevention oriented parenting practices to predict children’s observed inhibited behavior. Participants were 5- to 7-year-old (N = 32 typically-developing children (M = 75.72 months, SD = 6.01. Electroencephalography was continuously recorded while children viewed aversive, appetitive, or neutral images, and the LPP was generated to each picture type separately. Promotion and prevention parenting were observed during an emotional challenge with the child. Child inhibited behavior was observed during a fear and a social evaluation task. As predicted, larger LPPs to aversive images predicted more inhibited behavior during both tasks, but only when parents demonstrated low promotion. In contrast, larger LPPs to appetitive images predicted less inhibited behavior during the social evaluative task, but only when parents demonstrated high promotion; children of high promotion parents showing smaller LPPs to appetitive images showed the greatest inhibition. Parent-child goodness-of-fit and the LPP as a neural biomarker for emotional processes related to inhibited behavior are discussed.

  17. Anodized titania: Processing and characterization to improve cell-materials interactions for load bearing implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Kakoli

    The objective of this study is to investigate in vitro cell-materials interactions using human osteoblast cells on anodized titanium. Titanium is a bioinert material and, therefore, gets encapsulated after implantation into the living body by a fibrous tissue that isolates them from the surrounding tissues. In this work, bioactive nonporous and nanoporous TiO2 layers were grown on commercially pure titanium substrate by anodization process using different electrolyte solutions namely (1) H3PO 4, (2) HF and (3) H2SO4, (4) aqueous solution of citric acid, sodium fluoride and sulfuric acid. The first three electrolytes produced bioactive TiO2 films with a nonporous structure showing three distinctive surface morphologies. Nanoporous morphology was obtained on Ti-surfaces from the fourth electrolyte at 20V for 4h. Cross-sectional view of the nanoporous surface reveals titania nanotubes of length 600 nm. It was found that increasing anodization time initially increased the height of the nanotubes while maintaining the tubular array structure, but beyond 4h, growth of nanotubes decreased with a collapsed array structure. Human osteoblast (HOB) cell attachment and growth behavior were studied using an osteoprecursor cell line (OPC 1) for 3, 7 and 11 days. Colonization of the cells was noticed with distinctive cell-to-cell attachment on HF anodized surfaces. TiO2 layer grown in H2SO4 electrolyte did not show significant cell growth on the surface, and some cell death was also noticed. Good cellular adherence with extracellular matrix extensions in between the cells was noticed for samples anodized with H3PO 4 electrolyte and nanotube surface. Cell proliferation was excellent on anodized nanotube surfaces. An abundant amount of extracellular matrix (ECM) between the neighboring cells was also noticed on nanotube surfaces with filopodia extensions coming out from cells to grasp the nanoporous surface for anchorage. To better understand and compare cell-materials interactions

  18. Interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The main theme of this anthology is the unique interaction between mathematics, physics and philosophy during the beginning of the 20th century. Seminal theories of modern physics and new fundamental mathematical structures were discovered or formed in this period. Significant physicists...... such as Lorentz and Einstein as well as mathematicians such as Poincare, Minkowski, Hilbert and Weyl contributed to this development. They created the new physical theories and the mathematical disciplines that play such paramount roles in their mathematical formulations. These physicists and mathematicians were...

  19. Dominance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in alcoholic fermentation processes: role of physiological fitness and microbial interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albergaria, Helena; Arneborg, Nils

    2016-03-01

    Winemaking, brewing and baking are some of the oldest biotechnological processes. In all of them, alcoholic fermentation is the main biotransformation and Saccharomyces cerevisiae the primary microorganism. Although a wide variety of microbial species may participate in alcoholic fermentation and contribute to the sensory properties of end-products, the yeast S. cerevisiae invariably dominates the final stages of fermentation. The ability of S. cerevisiae to outcompete other microbial species during alcoholic fermentation processes, such as winemaking, has traditionally been ascribed to its high fermentative power and capacity to withstand the harsh environmental conditions, i.e. high levels of ethanol and organic acids, low pH values, scarce oxygen availability and depletion of certain nutrients. However, in recent years, several studies have raised evidence that S. cerevisiae, beyond its remarkable fitness for alcoholic fermentation, also uses defensive strategies mediated by different mechanisms, such as cell-to-cell contact and secretion of antimicrobial peptides, to combat other microorganisms. In this paper, we review the main physiological features underlying the special aptitude of S. cerevisiae for alcoholic fermentation and discuss the role of microbial interactions in its dominance during alcoholic fermentation, as well as its relevance for winemaking.

  20. Interactions between Identity and Emotional Expression in Face Processing across the Lifespan: Evidence from Redundancy Gains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alla Yankouskaya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We tested how aging affects the integration of visual information from faces. Three groups of participants aged 20–30, 40–50, and 60–70 performed a divided attention task in which they had to detect the presence of a target facial identity or a target facial expression. Three target stimuli were used: (1 with the target identity but not the target expression, (2 with the target expression but not the target identity, and (3 with both the target identity and target expression (the redundant target condition. On nontarget trials the faces contained neither the target identity nor expression. All groups were faster in responding to a face containing both the target identity and emotion compared to faces containing either single target. Furthermore the redundancy gains for combined targets exceeded performance limits predicted by the independent processing of facial identity and emotion. These results are held across the age range. The results suggest that there is interactive processing of facial identity and emotion which is independent of the effects of cognitive aging. Older participants demonstrated reliably larger size of the redundancy gains compared to the young group that reflect a greater experience with faces. Alternative explanations are discussed.

  1. Interaction between phosphate and acid-activated neutralized red mud during adsorption process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Jie; Cong, Xiangna; Zhang, Panyue; Hoffmann, Erhard; Zeng, Guangming; Liu, Yang; Fang, Wei; Wu, Yan; Zhang, Haibo

    2015-11-01

    Acid-activated neutralized red mud (AaN-RM) has become a promising adsorbent for phosphate adsorption. The maximum phosphate adsorption capacity of AaN-RM reached 492.46 mg g-1 in this study, which was much higher than that of many other adsorbents. However, no study has specifically investigated how the phosphate reacted with AaN-RM. For the first time the interaction between phosphate and AaN-RM during adsorption process was investigated in this research. Kinetic models and isotherms were used to analyze the possible reaction pathways between AaN-RM and phosphate. Particularly, the phosphate complexes on AaN-RM surface, and the exact role of different adsorption mechanisms were systemically identified. The phosphate adsorption was well described by pseudo second-order kinetic model and Langmuir-Freundlich isotherm, which suggested that chemisorption occurred between the phosphate and AaN-RM, and the phosphate adsorption was governed by heterogeneous processes. Furthermore, the phosphate complexes of Fe-P, Al-P, Fe-P-H3PO4 and Al-P-H3PO4 were formed on AaN-RM surface through ion exchange, precipitation and surface deposition mechanisms. XPS analysis of P 2p peak showed that 59.78% of the phosphate was adsorbed through the ion exchange and precipitation with strong chemical bonds, and 40.22% was adsorbed through the surface deposition with weak chemical bonds.

  2. Fluid-Structure Interaction Analysis on Turbulent Annular Seals of Centrifugal Pumps during Transient Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinglei Jiang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The current paper studies the influence of annular seal flow on the transient response of centrifugal pump rotors during the start-up period. A single rotor system and three states of annular seal flow were modeled. These models were solved using numerical integration and finite difference methods. A fluid-structure interaction method was developed. In each time step one of the three annular seal models was chosen to simulate the annular seal flow according to the state of rotor systems. The objective was to obtain a transient response of rotor systems under the influence of fluid-induced forces generated by annular seal flow. This method overcomes some shortcomings of the traditional FSI method by improving the data transfer process between two domains. Calculated results were in good agreement with the experimental results. The annular seal was shown to have a supportive effect on rotor systems. Furthermore, decreasing the seal clearance would enhance this supportive effect. In the transient process, vibration amplitude and critical speed largely changed when the acceleration of the rotor system increased.

  3. Uncovering the Layers of Design Processes of a Global Undergraduate Engineering Course: An Interactional Ethnographic Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, Jenna (Ji Eun)

    This dissertation presents an ethnographic study of an instructor's design logic and thinking underlying a global, multi-country undergraduate engineering design course. The study analyzed how, in what ways, and for what purposes, he continually defined and reformulated what counted as (Heap, 1991) "new" learning opportunities and outcomes for engineering design thinking in the 21st century, through his interactions with globally distributed groups of students and teaching teams (i.e., US, India, Israel, China and South Korea). By examining what was discursively made present to students in moment-by-moment and over-time, I identified the processes and practices that members of the class needed to know, understand, produce and engage in (Heath & Street, 2008) to develop their capacities to work in intercultural contexts on local design problems. Discourse analysis guided by an Interactional Ethnographic logic-in-use (Birdwhistell, 1977), grounded in a social construction of knowledge perspective (i.e., Green, Skukauskaite, and Baker, 2012; Castanheira, Crawford, Dixon and Green, 2001), framed the ways in which I examined the work of participants, what they oriented to and were held accountable for, and how what counted as this "new" instructional approach was socially constructed (Heap, 1991; Bloome & Egan-Robertson, 1993, Castanheira et al, 2001). This inquiry process required consideration of multimodal texts available to students in different technology-enabled educational contexts, public (re)presentations of this developing program as well as the construction of transcripts. From this perspective, texts were spoken, written and/or published works (Bakhtin, 1986) constructed by key actors (the designer, the support team, a teaching assistant and students). The analyses made visible how the instructor's discourse focused students on taking a problem-oriented approach to resolving challenges in working interculturally on a common task (e.g., the design thinking

  4. Interactive Cohort Identification of Sleep Disorder Patients Using Natural Language Processing and i2b2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, W; Kowatch, R; Lin, S; Splaingard, M; Huang, Y

    2015-01-01

    Nationwide Children's Hospital established an i2b2 (Informatics for Integrating Biology & the Bedside) application for sleep disorder cohort identification. Discrete data were gleaned from semistructured sleep study reports. The system showed to work more efficiently than the traditional manual chart review method, and it also enabled searching capabilities that were previously not possible. We report on the development and implementation of the sleep disorder i2b2 cohort identification system using natural language processing of semi-structured documents. We developed a natural language processing approach to automatically parse concepts and their values from semi-structured sleep study documents. Two parsers were developed: a regular expression parser for extracting numeric concepts and a NLP based tree parser for extracting textual concepts. Concepts were further organized into i2b2 ontologies based on document structures and in-domain knowledge. 26,550 concepts were extracted with 99% being textual concepts. 1.01 million facts were extracted from sleep study documents such as demographic information, sleep study lab results, medications, procedures, diagnoses, among others. The average accuracy of terminology parsing was over 83% when comparing against those by experts. The system is capable of capturing both standard and non-standard terminologies. The time for cohort identification has been reduced significantly from a few weeks to a few seconds. Natural language processing was shown to be powerful for quickly converting large amount of semi-structured or unstructured clinical data into discrete concepts, which in combination of intuitive domain specific ontologies, allows fast and effective interactive cohort identification through the i2b2 platform for research and clinical use.

  5. The entanglement of two dipole-dipole coupled atoms interacting with a thermal field via a two-photon process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liao Xiang-Ping; Fang Mao-Fa; Cai Jian-Wu; Zheng Xiao-Juan

    2008-01-01

    This paper studies entanglement between two dipole-dipole coupled atoms interacting with a thermal field via a two-photon process. It shows that the entanglement is dependent on the mean photon number of the thermal field and the dipole-dipole interaction. The results also show that the atom-atom entanglement through the two-photon process is larger than that through the one-photon process and a remarkable amount of entanglement between the atoms still remains at certain times even for a very highly noisy thermal field.

  6. Anvil Forecast Tool in the Advanced Weather Interactive Processing System (AWIPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Joe H., III; Hood, Doris

    2009-01-01

    Launch Weather Officers (LWOs) from the 45th Weather Squadron (45 WS) and forecasters from the National Weather Service (NWS) Spaceflight Meteorology Group (SMG) have identified anvil forecasting as one of their most challenging tasks when predicting the probability of violating the Lightning Launch Commit Criteria (LLCC) (Krider et al. 2006; Space Shuttle Flight Rules (FR), NASA/JSC 2004)). As a result, the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) developed a tool that creates an anvil threat corridor graphic that can be overlaid on satellite imagery using the Meteorological Interactive Data Display System (MIDDS, Short and Wheeler, 2002). The tool helps forecasters estimate the locations of thunderstorm anvils at one, two, and three hours into the future. It has been used extensively in launch and landing operations by both the 45 WS and SMG. The Advanced Weather Interactive Processing System (AWIPS) is now used along with MIDDS for weather analysis and display at SMG. In Phase I of this task, SMG tasked the AMU to transition the tool from MIDDS to AWIPS (Barrett et aI., 2007). For Phase II, SMG requested the AMU make the Anvil Forecast Tool in AWIPS more configurable by creating the capability to read model gridded data from user-defined model files instead of hard-coded files. An NWS local AWIPS application called AGRID was used to accomplish this. In addition, SMG needed to be able to define the pressure levels for the model data, instead of hard-coding the bottom level as 300 mb and the top level as 150 mb. This paper describes the initial development of the Anvil Forecast Tool for MIDDS, followed by the migration of the tool to AWIPS in Phase I. It then gives a detailed presentation of the Phase II improvements to the AWIPS tool.

  7. Processes and features affecting the near field hydrochemistry. Groundwater-bentonite interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruno, J.; Arcos, D.; Duro, L. [QuantiSci SL, Barcelona (Spain)

    1999-12-01

    This report discusses in a quantitative manner the evolution of the near field aqueous chemistry as a result of the interactions between three different intruding groundwaters (Aespoe, Gideaa and Finnsjoen) with the MX-80 bentonite buffer material. The main emphasis has been placed on studying the evolution of the main chemical buffers of the system (alkalinity and redox capacities) and the resulting master variables (pH and pe). The calculations have been done by using a set of thermodynamic and kinetic parameters previously calibrated against experimental data on bentonite/granitic groundwater interactions, in combination with the PHREEQC geochemical code. The results of the calculations indicate that the alkalinity buffercapacity is mainly exerted by the accessory content of carbonate minerals (calcite) in the bentonite system, while the ion exchange process plays a secondary (but not negligible) role. The Ca(II) content of the intruding groundwater has an impact on the resulting pH. For Ca(II) rich waters, like Aespoe, the resulting pH remains in the range of granitic groundwaters (7.5-9.5) during the overall repository lifetime (1 million years). For Ca(II) poor groundwaters, the systems evolves to high alkalinity (pH : 10.5 - 10.8) due to the depletion of calcite and the release of carbonate in to the near field aqueous chemistry. Concerning the reducing capacity of the system, this is mainly controlled by the accessory pyrite content, although the Fe(II) content in montmorillonite and in the carbonates cannot be disregarded. Reducing conditions in the bentonite/groundwater system are ensured throughout the lifetime of the repository system unless this is placed in direct and lifetime contact with the atmosphere (surface storage)

  8. Chip-scale Photonic Devices for Light-matter Interactions and Quantum Information Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jie

    Chip-scale photonic devices such as microdisks, photonic crystal cavities and slow-light photonic crystal waveguides possess strong light localization and long photon lifetime, which will significantly enhance the light-matter interactions and can be used to implement new functionalities for both classical and quantum information processing, optical computation and optical communication in integrated nanophotonic circuits. This thesis will focus on three topics about light matter interactions and quantum information processing with chip-scale photonic devices, including 1) Design and characterization of asymmetric resonate cavity with radiation directionality and air-slot photonic crystal cavity with ultrasmall effective mode volume, 2) Exciton-photon interactions between quantum dots and photonic crystal devices and non-classical photon source from a single quantum dot, and 3) Quantum controlled phase gate and phase switching based on quantum dots and photonic crystal waveguide. The first topic is engineered control of radiation directionality and effective mode volume for optical mode in chip-scale silicon micro-/nano-cavities. High quality factor (Q), subwavelength mode volume ( V) and controllable radiation directionality are the major properties for optical cavities designs. In Chapter 2, asymmetric resonant cavities with rational caustics are proposed and interior whispering gallery modes in monolithic silicon mesoscopic microcavities are experimentally demonstrated. These microcavities possess unique robustness of cavity quality factor against roughness Rayleigh scattering. In Chapter 3, air-slot mode-gap photonic crystal cavities with quality factor of 104 and effective mode volume ˜ 0.02 cubic wavelengths are experimentally demonstrated. The origin of the high Q air-slot cavity mode is the mode-gap effect from the slotted photonic crystal waveguide mode with negative dispersion. The second topic is exciton-photon coupling between quantum dots and

  9. Control On Fluid Flow Properties In Sandstone: Interactions Between Diagenesis Processes And Fracture Corridors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossennec, Claire; Géraud, Yves; Moretti, Isabelle; Mattioni, Luca

    2016-04-01

    During the development of a fault zone, processes occur at different scales: secondary faults and fractures development in the damage zone while "diagenetic" processes, i.e: fluid rock interaction at the grains size scale, contribute to modify the matrix features. Spatial distribution of these processes is clearly controlled by microstructural transformations induced by fractured corridors and their location. Understanding flowing properties in the associated damage zone contributes to the better modeling of the fluid flow in faulted and fractured reservoirs which could be oil, gas or water bearing. The Lower Triassic Buntsandstein sandstones outcrop of Cleebourg is located in the Hochwald Horst affected by a major NNE-SSW striking fault, and the structure globally dips with 30° toward Rhenish Fault (Upper Rhine Graben main western border fault). The study of the outcrop aims to decipher the fluid-flow scheme and interactions between fracture network and diagenetic features distribution in the damage zone of a fault, located close to major faulted areas, through field and laboratories petrophysical measurements (permeability, thermic conductivity), and samples microstructural and diagenetical descriptions. The outcrop is structurally divided into a 14 meters thick fault core, surrounded by 5 meters thick transition zones, and damage zone of minimum thickness of 40 meters (total thickness unknown, due to the limits of the outcrop). Damage zone includes three fractured corridors, perpendicular to bedding and from 2 to 5 meters thick. Results presented here were acquired in 2 different layers with similar lithology but only on damage zone samples. In entire damage zone, porosity results and thin section description allow to distinguish two different facies: • Fa1 Intermediate porous (porosity of 12%) sandstone with major illite cement and clay content up to 20% (detrital and diagenetic); • Fa2 High porous (porosity >15%) sandstone with quartz feeding

  10. Physicochemical processes in the indirect interaction between surface air plasma and deionized water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Z. C.; Liu, D. X.; Chen, C.; Li, D.; Yang, A. J.; Rong, M. Z.; Chen, H. L.; Kong, M. G.

    2015-12-01

    One of the most central scientific questions for plasma applications in healthcare and environmental remediation is the chemical identity and the dose profile of plasma-induced reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS/RNS) that can act on an object inside a liquid. A logical focus is on aqueous physicochemical processes near a sample with a direct link to their upstream gaseous processes in the plasma region and a separation gap from the liquid bulk. Here, a system-level modeling framework is developed for indirect interactions of surface air plasma and a deionized water bulk and its predictions are found to be in good agreement with the measurement of gas-phase ozone and aqueous long-living ROS/RNS concentrations. The plasma region is described with a global model, whereas the air gap and the liquid region are simulated with a 1D fluid model. All three regions are treated as one integrated entity and computed simultaneously. With experimental validation, the system-level modeling shows that the dominant aqueous ROS/RNS are long-living species (e.g. H2O2 aq, O3 aq, nitrite/nitrate, H+ aq). While most short-living gaseous species could hardly survive their passage to the liquid, aqueous short-living ROS/RNS are generated in situ through reactions among long-living plasma species and with water molecules. This plasma-mediated remote production of aqueous ROS/RNS is important for the abundance of aqueous HO2 aq, HO3 aq, OHaq and \\text{O}2- aq as well as NO2 aq and NO3 aq. Aqueous plasma chemistry offers a novel and significant pathway to activate a given biological outcome, as exemplified here for bacterial deactivation in plasma-activated water. Additional factors that may synergistically broaden the usefulness of aqueous plasma chemistry include an electric field by aqueous ions and liquid acidification. The system-modeling framework will be useful in assisting designs and analyses of future investigations of plasma-liquid and plasma-cell interactions.

  11. Solute transport processes in flow-event-driven stream-aquifer interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yueqing; Cook, Peter G.; Simmons, Craig T.

    2016-07-01

    The interaction between streams and groundwater controls key features of the stream hydrograph and chemograph. Since surface runoff is usually less saline than groundwater, flow events are usually accompanied by declines in stream salinity. In this paper, we use numerical modelling to show that, at any particular monitoring location: (i) the increase in stream stage associated with a flow event will precede the decrease in solute concentration (arrival time lag for solutes); and (ii) the decrease in stream stage following the flow peak will usually precede the subsequent return (increase) in solute concentration (return time lag). Both arrival time lag and return time lag increase with increasing wave duration. However, arrival time lag decreases with increasing wave amplitude, whereas return time lag increases. Furthermore, while arrival time lag is most sensitive to parameters that control river velocity (channel roughness and stream slope), return time lag is most sensitive to groundwater parameters (aquifer hydraulic conductivity, recharge rate, and dispersitivity). Additionally, the absolute magnitude of the decrease in river concentration is sensitive to both river and groundwater parameters. Our simulations also show that in-stream mixing is dominated by wave propagation and bank storage processes, and in-stream dispersion has a relatively minor effect on solute concentrations. This has important implications for spreading of contaminants released to streams. Our work also demonstrates that a high contribution of pre-event water (or groundwater) within the flow hydrograph can be caused by the combination of in-stream and bank storage exchange processes, and does not require transport of pre-event water through the catchment.

  12. CATALYTIC INTERACTIONS OF RHODIUM, RUTHENIUM, AND MERCURY DURING SIMULATED DWPF CPC PROCESSING WITH HYDROGEN GENERATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koopman, D

    2008-10-09

    Simulations of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) Chemical Processing Cell (CPC) vessels were performed as part of the ongoing investigation into catalytic hydrogen generation. Rhodium, ruthenium, and mercury have been identified as the principal elemental factors affecting the peak hydrogen generation rate in the DWPF Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) for a given acid addition. The primary goal of this study is to identify any significant interactions between the three factors. Noble metal concentrations were similar to recent sludge batches. Rh ranged from 0.0026-0.013% and Ru ranged from 0.010-0.050% in the dried sludge solids, while initial Hg ranged from 0.5-2.5 wt%. An experimental matrix was developed to ensure that the existence of statistically significant two-way interactions could be determined without confounding of the main effects with the two-way interaction effects. The nominal matrix design consisted of twelve SRAT cycles. Testing included: a three factor (Rh, Ru, and Hg) study at two levels per factor (eight runs), two duplicate midpoint runs, and two additional replicate runs to assess reproducibility away from the midpoint. Midpoint testing can identify potential quadratic effects from the three factors. A single sludge simulant was used for all tests. Acid addition was kept effectively constant except to compensate for variations in the starting mercury concentration. Six Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) cycles were performed to supplement the SME hydrogen generation database. Some of the preliminary findings from this study include: (1) Rh was linked to the maximum SRAT hydrogen generation rate in the first two hours after acid addition in preliminary statistical modeling. (2) Ru was linked conclusively to the maximum SRAT hydrogen generation rate in the last four hours of reflux in preliminary statistical modeling. (3) Increasing the ratio of Hg/Rh shifted the noble metal controlling the maximum SRAT hydrogen generation rate from

  13. Displaying Composite and Archived Soundings in the Advanced Weather Interactive Processing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Joe H., III; Volkmer, Matthew R.; Blottman, Peter F.; Sharp, David W.

    2008-01-01

    This presentation describes work done by the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) to add composite soundings to the Advanced Weather Interactive Processing System (AWIPS). This allows National Weather Service (NWS) forecasters to compare the current atmospheric state with climatology. In a previous task, the AMU created composite soundings for four rawinsonde observation stations in Florida, for each of eight flow regimes. The composite soundings were delivered to the NWS Melbourne (MLB) office for display using the NSHARP software program. NWS MLB requested that the AMU make the composite soundings available for display in AWIPS. The AMU first created a procedure to customize AWIPS so composite soundings could be displayed. A unique four-character identifier was created for each of the 32 composite soundings. The AMIU wrote a Tool Command Language/Tool Kit (TclITk) software program to convert the composite soundings from NSHARP to Network Common Data Form (NetCDF) format. The NetCDF files were then displayable by AWIPS.

  14. Study of parachute inflation process using fluid–structure interaction method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Li

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A direct numerical modeling method for parachute is proposed firstly, and a model for the star-shaped folded parachute with detailed structures is established. The simplified arbitrary Lagrangian–Eulerian fluid–structure interaction (SALE/FSI method is used to simulate the inflation process of a folded parachute, and the flow field calculation is mainly based on operator splitting technique. By using this method, the dynamic variations of related parameters such as flow field and structure are obtained, and the load jump appearing at the end of initial inflation stage is captured. Numerical results including opening load, drag characteristics, swinging angle, etc. are well consistent with wind tunnel tests. In addition, this coupled method can get more space–time detailed information such as geometry shape, structure, motion, and flow field. Compared with previous inflation time method, this method is a completely theoretical analysis approach without relying on empirical coefficients, which can provide a reference for material selection, performance optimization during parachute design.

  15. Cellulosic ethanol: interactions between cultivar and enzyme loading in wheat straw processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felby Claus

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Variations in sugar yield due to genotypic qualities of feedstock are largely undescribed for pilot-scale ethanol processing. Our objectives were to compare glucose and xylose yield (conversion and total sugar yield from straw of five winter wheat cultivars at three enzyme loadings (2.5, 5 and 10 FPU g-1 dm pretreated straw and to compare particle size distribution of cultivars after pilot-scale hydrothermal pretreatment. Results Significant interactions between enzyme loading and cultivars show that breeding for cultivars with high sugar yields under modest enzyme loading could be warranted. At an enzyme loading of 5 FPU g-1 dm pretreated straw, a significant difference in sugar yields of 17% was found between the highest and lowest yielding cultivars. Sugar yield from separately hydrolyzed particle-size fractions of each cultivar showed that finer particles had 11% to 21% higher yields than coarse particles. The amount of coarse particles from the cultivar with lowest sugar yield was negatively correlated with sugar conversion. Conclusions We conclude that genetic differences in sugar yield and response to enzyme loading exist for wheat straw at pilot scale, depending on differences in removal of hemicellulose, accumulation of ash and particle-size distribution introduced by the pretreatment.

  16. Study of surface interactions of ionic liquids with aluminium alloys in corrosion and erosion corrosion processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermúdez, María-Dolores; Jiménez, Ana-Eva; Martínez-Nicolás, Ginés

    2007-06-01

    Surface interactions of alkylimidazolium ionic liquids (ILs) with aluminium alloy Al 2011 have been studied by immersion tests in seven neat ILs [1- n-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium X - (X = BF 4; n = 2 (IL1), 6 (IL2), 8 (IL3). X = CF 3SO 3; n = 2 (IL4). X = (4-CH 3C 6H 4SO 3); n = 2 (IL5). X = PF 6; n = 6 (IL6)] and 1-butyl-3-methylpyridinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide (IL7)]. Immersion tests for Al 2011 have also been carried out in 1 wt.% and 5 wt.% solutions of 1-ethyl,3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate (IL1) in water. No corrosion of Al 2011 by neat ILs is observed. The highest corrosion rate for Al 2011 in water is observed in the presence of a 5 wt.% IL1 due to hydrolysis of the anion with hydrogen evolution and formation of aluminium fluoride. Erosion-corrosion processes have been studied for three aluminium alloys (Al 2011, Al 6061 and Al 7075) in a 90 wt.% IL1 solution in water in the presence of α-alumina particles. The erosion-corrosion rates are around 0.2 mm/year or lower, and increase with increasing copper content to give a corrosion resistance order of Al 6061 > Al 7075 > Al 2011. Results are discussed on the basis of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observations, energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) analysis, X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) determinations.

  17. Conversational Interaction in the Scanner: Mentalizing during Language Processing as Revealed by MEG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bögels, Sara; Barr, Dale J; Garrod, Simon; Kessler, Klaus

    2015-09-01

    Humans are especially good at taking another's perspective-representing what others might be thinking or experiencing. This "mentalizing" capacity is apparent in everyday human interactions and conversations. We investigated its neural basis using magnetoencephalography. We focused on whether mentalizing was engaged spontaneously and routinely to understand an utterance's meaning or largely on-demand, to restore "common ground" when expectations were violated. Participants conversed with 1 of 2 confederate speakers and established tacit agreements about objects' names. In a subsequent "test" phase, some of these agreements were violated by either the same or a different speaker. Our analysis of the neural processing of test phase utterances revealed recruitment of neural circuits associated with language (temporal cortex), episodic memory (e.g., medial temporal lobe), and mentalizing (temporo-parietal junction and ventromedial prefrontal cortex). Theta oscillations (3-7 Hz) were modulated most prominently, and we observed phase coupling between functionally distinct neural circuits. The episodic memory and language circuits were recruited in anticipation of upcoming referring expressions, suggesting that context-sensitive predictions were spontaneously generated. In contrast, the mentalizing areas were recruited on-demand, as a means for detecting and resolving perceived pragmatic anomalies, with little evidence they were activated to make partner-specific predictions about upcoming linguistic utterances.

  18. Dynamics of gas-surface interactions atomic-level understanding of scattering processes at surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Díez Muniño, Ricardo

    2013-01-01

    This book gives a representative survey of the state of the art of research on gas-surface interactions. It provides an overview of the current understanding of gas surface dynamics and, in particular, of the reactive and non-reactive processes of atoms and small molecules at surfaces. Leading scientists in the field, both from the theoretical and the experimental sides, write in this book about their most recent advances. Surface science grew as an interdisciplinary research area over the last decades, mostly because of new experimental technologies (ultra-high vacuum, for instance), as well as because of a novel paradigm, the ‘surface science’ approach. The book describes the second transformation which is now taking place pushed by the availability of powerful quantum-mechanical theoretical methods implemented numerically. In the book, experiment and theory progress hand in hand with an unprecedented degree of accuracy and control. The book presents how modern surface science targets the atomic-level u...

  19. Face Processing in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Independent or Interactive Processing of Facial Identity and Facial Expression?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krebs, Julia F.; Biswas, Ajanta; Pascalis, Olivier; Kamp-Becker, Inge; Remschmidt, Helmuth; Schwarzer, Gudrun

    2011-01-01

    The current study investigated if deficits in processing emotional expression affect facial identity processing and vice versa in children with autism spectrum disorder. Children with autism and IQ and age matched typically developing children classified faces either by emotional expression, thereby ignoring facial identity or by facial identity…

  20. Interaction of ecological and angler processes: experimental stocking in an open access, spatially structured fishery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mee, Jonathan A; Post, John R; Ward, Hillary; Wilson, Kyle L; Newton, Eric; Cantin, Ariane

    2016-09-01

    Effective management of socioecological systems requires an understanding of the complex interactions between people and the environment. In recreational fisheries, which are prime examples of socioecological systems, anglers are analogous to mobile predators in natural predator-prey systems, and individual fisheries in lakes across a region are analogous to a spatially structured landscape of prey patches. Hence, effective management of recreational fisheries across large spatial scales requires an understanding of the dynamic interactions among ecological density dependent processes, landscape-level characteristics, and angler behaviors. We focused on the stocked component of the open access rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fishery in British Columbia (BC), and we used an experimental approach wherein we manipulated stocking densities in a subset of 34 lakes in which we monitored angler effort, fish abundance, and fish size for up to seven consecutive years. We used an empirically derived relationship between fish abundance and fish size across rainbow trout populations in BC to provide a measure of catch-based fishing quality that accounts for the size-abundance trade off in this system. We replicated our experimental manipulation in two regions known to have different angler populations and broad-scale access costs. We hypothesized that angler effort would respond to variation in stocking density, resulting in spatial heterogeneity in angler effort but homogeneity in catch-based fishing quality within regions. We found that there is an intermediate stocking density for a given lake or region at which angler effort is maximized (i.e., an optimal stocking density), and that this stocking density depends on latent effort and lake accessibility. Furthermore, we found no clear effect of stocking density on our measure of catch-based fishing quality, suggesting that angler effort homogenizes catch-related attributes leading to an eroded relationship between

  1. Modeling complex spatial dynamics of two-population interaction in urbanization process

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Yanguang

    2013-01-01

    This paper is mainly devoted to lay an empirical foundation for further research on complex spatial dynamics of two-population interaction. Based on the US population census data, a rural and urban population interaction model is developed. Subsequently a logistic equation on percentage urban is derived from the urbanization model so that spatial interaction can be connected mathematically with logistic growth. The numerical experiment by using the discretized urban-rural population interaction model of urbanization shows a period-doubling bifurcation and chaotic behavior, which is identical in patterns to those from the simple mathematical models of logistic growth in ecology. This suggests that the complicated dynamics of logistic growth may come from some kind of the nonlinear interaction. The results from this study help to understand urbanization, urban-rural population interaction, chaotic dynamics, and spatial complexity of geographical systems.

  2. Community Interactive Processes and Rural Adolescents’ Educational Achievement: Investigating the Mediating Effects of Delinquency and Self-Esteem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omolola A. Adedokun

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The study reported in this paper examines the effects of community interactive processes on rural adolescents’ educational achievement. Specifically, the paper explored the direct effects of community interactive processes on rural adolescents’ educational achievement and the indirect effects via self-esteem and delinquency. The method of structural equation modeling was used to analyze data from a nationally representative panel study of rural adolescent boys and girls in 10th grade through 12th grade. The results make a compelling case that communities are conduits for boosting self-esteem, facilitating normative behaviors and academic performance in rural adolescents.

  3. Integrating Interactive Visualizations in the Search Process of Digital Libraries and IR Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Hienert, Daniel; Schaer, Philipp; Mayr, Philipp

    2012-01-01

    Interactive visualizations for exploring and retrieval have not yet become an integral part of digital libraries and information retrieval systems. We have integrated a set of interactive graphics in a real world social science digital library. These visualizations support the exploration of search queries, results and authors, can filter search results, show trends in the database and can support the creation of new search queries. The use of weighted brushing supports the identification of related metadata for search facets. We discuss some use cases of the combination of IR systems and interactive graphics. In a user study we verify that users can gain insights from statistical graphics intuitively and can adopt interaction techniques.

  4. Interactive processes link the multiple symptoms of fatigue in sport competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knicker, Axel J; Renshaw, Ian; Oldham, Anthony R H; Cairns, Simeon P

    2011-04-01

    kinematic components. Longer sport events involve pacing strategies, central and peripheral fatigue contributions and elevated RPE. During match play, the work rate can decline late in a match (or tournament) and/or transiently after intense exercise bursts. Repeated sprint ability, agility and leg strength become slightly impaired. Technique outcomes, such as velocity and accuracy for throwing, passing, hitting and kicking, can deteriorate. Physical and subjective changes are both less severe in real rather than simulated sport activities. Little objective evidence exists to support exercise-induced mental lapses during sport. A model depicting mind-body interactions during sport competition shows that the RPE centre-motor cortex-working muscle sequence drives overall performance levels and, hence, fatigue symptoms. The sporting outputs from this sequence can be modulated by interactions with muscle afferent and circulatory feedback, psychological and decision-making inputs. Importantly, compensatory processes exist at many levels to protect against performance decrements. Small changes of putative fatigue factors can also be protective. We show that individual fatigue factors including diminished carbohydrate availability, elevated serotonin, hypoxia, acidosis, hyperkalaemia, hyperthermia, dehydration and reactive oxygen species, each contribute to several fatigue symptoms. Thus, multiple symptoms of fatigue can occur simultaneously and the underlying mechanisms overlap and interact. Based on this understanding, we reinforce the proposal that fatigue is best described globally as an exercise-induced decline of performance as this is inclusive of all viewpoints.

  5. Retention and interference of learned dexterous manipulation: interaction between multiple sensorimotor processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Qiushi; Santello, Marco

    2015-01-01

    An object can be used in multiple contexts, each requiring different hand actions. How the central nervous system builds and maintains memory of such dexterous manipulations remains unclear. We conducted experiments in which human subjects had to learn and recall manipulations performed in two contexts, A and B. Both contexts involved lifting the same L-shaped object whose geometry cued its asymmetrical mass distribution. Correct performance required producing a torque on the vertical handle at object lift onset to prevent it from tilting. The torque direction depended on the context, i.e., object orientation, which was changed by 180° object rotation about a vertical axis. With an A1B1A2 context switching paradigm, subjects learned A1 in the first block of eight trials as indicated by a torque approaching the required one. However, subjects made large errors in anticipating the required torque when switching to B1 immediately after A1 (negative transfer), as well as when they had to recall A1 when switching to A2 after learning B through another block of eight lifts (retrieval interference). Classic sensorimotor learning theories attribute such interferences to multi-rate, multi-state error-driven updates of internal models. However, by systematically changing the interblock break duration and within-block number of trials, our results suggest an alternative explanation underlying interference and retention of dexterous manipulation. Specifically, we identified and quantified through a novel computational model the nonlinear interaction between two sensorimotor mechanisms: a short-lived, context-independent, use-dependent sensorimotor memory and a context-sensitive, error-based learning process.

  6. An interactive modelling tool for understanding hydrological processes in lowland catchments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brauer, Claudia; Torfs, Paul; Uijlenhoet, Remko

    2016-04-01

    Recently, we developed the Wageningen Lowland Runoff Simulator (WALRUS), a rainfall-runoff model for catchments with shallow groundwater (Brauer et al., 2014ab). WALRUS explicitly simulates processes which are important in lowland catchments, such as feedbacks between saturated and unsaturated zone and between groundwater and surface water. WALRUS has a simple model structure and few parameters with physical connotations. Some default functions (which can be changed easily for research purposes) are implemented to facilitate application by practitioners and students. The effect of water management on hydrological variables can be simulated explicitly. The model description and applications are published in open access journals (Brauer et al, 2014). The open source code (provided as R package) and manual can be downloaded freely (www.github.com/ClaudiaBrauer/WALRUS). We organised a short course for Dutch water managers and consultants to become acquainted with WALRUS. We are now adapting this course as a stand-alone tutorial suitable for a varied, international audience. In addition, simple models can aid teachers to explain hydrological principles effectively. We used WALRUS to generate examples for simple interactive tools, which we will present at the EGU General Assembly. C.C. Brauer, A.J. Teuling, P.J.J.F. Torfs, R. Uijlenhoet (2014a): The Wageningen Lowland Runoff Simulator (WALRUS): a lumped rainfall-runoff model for catchments with shallow groundwater, Geosci. Model Dev., 7, 2313-2332. C.C. Brauer, P.J.J.F. Torfs, A.J. Teuling, R. Uijlenhoet (2014b): The Wageningen Lowland Runoff Simulator (WALRUS): application to the Hupsel Brook catchment and Cabauw polder, Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 18, 4007-4028.

  7. How Accumulated Real Life Stress Experience and Cognitive Speed Interact on Decision-Making Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedel, Eva; Sebold, Miriam; Kuitunen-Paul, Sören; Nebe, Stephan; Veer, Ilya M; Zimmermann, Ulrich S; Schlagenhauf, Florian; Smolka, Michael N; Rapp, Michael; Walter, Henrik; Heinz, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    Rationale: Advances in neurocomputational modeling suggest that valuation systems for goal-directed (deliberative) on one side, and habitual (automatic) decision-making on the other side may rely on distinct computational strategies for reinforcement learning, namely model-free vs. model-based learning. As a key theoretical difference, the model-based system strongly demands cognitive functions to plan actions prospectively based on an internal cognitive model of the environment, whereas valuation in the model-free system relies on rather simple learning rules from operant conditioning to retrospectively associate actions with their outcomes and is thus cognitively less demanding. Acute stress reactivity is known to impair model-based but not model-free choice behavior, with higher working memory capacity protecting the model-based system from acute stress. However, it is not clear which impact accumulated real life stress has on model-free and model-based decision systems and how this influence interacts with cognitive abilities. Methods: We used a sequential decision-making task distinguishing relative contributions of both learning strategies to choice behavior, the Social Readjustment Rating Scale questionnaire to assess accumulated real life stress, and the Digit Symbol Substitution Test to test cognitive speed in 95 healthy subjects. Results: Individuals reporting high stress exposure who had low cognitive speed showed reduced model-based but increased model-free behavioral control. In contrast, subjects exposed to accumulated real life stress with high cognitive speed displayed increased model-based performance but reduced model-free control. Conclusion: These findings suggest that accumulated real life stress exposure can enhance reliance on cognitive speed for model-based computations, which may ultimately protect the model-based system from the detrimental influences of accumulated real life stress. The combination of accumulated real life stress exposure

  8. The particle interaction effects in the field-cooled and zero-field-cooled magnetization processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Papusoi Jr, C.

    1999-01-01

    The present theories explaining the mechanism of particle interaction within a fine particle system driven by the thermal agitation assign the increase of the interaction strength either to an increase of the particle anisotropy due to the environment reaction to its dipole moment, or to the occurre

  9. An illustrative recovery approach for stateful interaction failures of orchestrated processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Lei; Wombacher, Andreas; Ferreira Pires, Luis; van Sinderen, Marten J.; Chi, Chihung; Chi, CH.; Grossmann, G.

    During a stateful interaction, a partner service may become unavailable because of a server crash or a temporary network failure. Once the failed service becomes available again, the interaction partners do not have any knowledge about each other’s state, possibly resulting in errors or deadlocks.

  10. Developing the Second Language Writing Process through Social Media-Based Interaction Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Julian Esteban Zapata

    2015-01-01

    This paper depicts the results from a qualitative research study focused on finding out the effect of interaction through social media on the development of second language learners' written production from a private school in Medellín, Antioquia, Colombia. The study was framed within concepts such as "social interaction," "digital…

  11. The Nonlinear Interaction Process in the Wave Assimilation Model and Its Experiments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨永增; 纪永刚; 袁业立

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a composite interaction formula based on the discrete-interactionoperator of wave-wave nonlinear interaction for deriving its adjoint source function in the wave assimilation model. Assimilation experiments were performed using the significant wave heights observed by the TOPES/POSEIDON satellite, and the gradient distribution in the physical space wasalso analyzed preliminarily.

  12. Analysis of Feedback Processes in Online Group Interaction: A Methodological Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espasa, Anna; Guasch, Teresa; Alvarez, Ibis M.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this article is to present a methodological model to analyze students' group interaction to improve their essays in online learning environments, based on asynchronous and written communication. In these environments teacher and student scaffolds for discussion are essential to promote interaction. One of these scaffolds can be the…

  13. Predicting clinical relevance of grapefruit-drug interactions: a complicated process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, D G

    2017-04-01

    Grapefruit juice interacts with a number of drugs. This commentary provides feedback on a previously proposed approach for predicting clinically relevant interactions with grapefruit juice based on the average inherent oral bioavailability (F) and magnitude of increase in bioavailability with other CYP3A inhibitors of the drug. Additional factors such as variability of the magnitude of the pharmacokinetic interaction among individuals, product monograph cautionary statements and vulnerability of the patient population should be considered. A flow diagram is provided that should improve prediction of the pharmacokinetic interaction and clinical relevance for affected drugs and that recommends different courses of action for patient management. Forecasting the clinical importance of a particular drug interaction with grapefruit can be improved through consideration of additional readily available drug regulatory information. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Interactions between milk protein ingredients and other milk components during processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Guanchen

    covalent and non-covalent interactions. NWP could self-associate above pH 5.5 and then further interactions between caseins, NWP or casein/whey protein complexes took place at lower pH. Not only decline of electrostatic repulsion but other interactions, such as hydrophobic interaction, play an important...... these interactions affect final acidified milk products. By detecting the properties of the whey protein aggregates, MWP and NWP showed low native whey protein content, low free thiol content and high surface hydrophobicity and were relatively stable at high temperature in the 5 % pure dispersions. When MWP and NWP......Microparticulated whey protein (MWP) are colloidal particles usually formed by combined heating and shearing of whey protein concentrates (WPC), and typically have particle sizes ranging from 1.0 to 10 μm. Nanoparticulated whey protein (NWP) have a smaller particle size (100 to 990 nm). Previous...

  15. APPLEPIPS /Apple Personal Image Processing System/ - An interactive digital image processing system for the Apple II microcomputer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuoka, E.; Rose, J.; Quattromani, M.

    1981-01-01

    Recent developments related to microprocessor-based personal computers have made low-cost digital image processing systems a reality. Image analysis systems built around these microcomputers provide color image displays for images as large as 256 by 240 pixels in sixteen colors. Descriptive statistics can be computed for portions of an image, and supervised image classification can be obtained. The systems support Basic, Fortran, Pascal, and assembler language. A description is provided of a system which is representative of the new microprocessor-based image processing systems currently on the market. While small systems may never be truly independent of larger mainframes, because they lack 9-track tape drives, the independent processing power of the microcomputers will help alleviate some of the turn-around time problems associated with image analysis and display on the larger multiuser systems.

  16. The Process of Interactional Sensitivity Coding in Health Care: Conceptually and Operationally Defining Patient-Centered Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabee, Christina M; Koenig, Christopher J; Wingard, Leah; Foster, Jamie; Chivers, Nick; Olsher, David; Vandergriff, Ilona

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to develop a process for measuring sensitivity in provider-patient interactions to better understand patient-centered communication. The authors developed the Process of Interactional Sensitivity Coding in Healthcare (PISCH) by incorporating a multimethod investigation into conversations between physicians and their patients with type 2 diabetes. The PISCH was then applied and assessed for its reliability across the unitization of interactions, the activities that were reflected, and the characteristics of patient-centered interactional sensitivity that were observed within each unit. In most cases, the PISCH resulted in reliable analysis of the interactions, but a few key areas (shared decision making, enabling self-management, and responding to emotion) were not reliably assessed. Implications of the test of this coding scheme include the expansion of the theoretical notion of interactional sensitivity to the health care context, rigorous implementation of a multimethod measurement development that relied on qualitative and quantitative assessments, and important future questions about the role of communication concepts in future interpersonal research.

  17. Interaction between the premotor processes of eye and hand movements: possible mechanism underlying eye-hand coordination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiraoka, Koichi; Kurata, Naoatsu; Sakaguchi, Masato; Nonaka, Kengo; Matsumoto, Naoto

    2014-03-01

    Interaction between the execution process of eye movement and that of hand movement must be indispensable for eye-hand coordination. The present study investigated corticospinal excitability in the hand muscles during the premotor processes of eye and/or hand movement to elucidate interaction between these processes. Healthy humans performed a precued reaction task of eye and/or finger movement and motor-evoked potentials in the hand muscles were evoked in the reaction time. Leftward eye movement suppressed corticospinal excitability in the right abductor digiti minimi muscle only when little finger abduction was simultaneously executed. Corticospinal excitability in the first dorsal interosseous muscle was not suppressed by eye movement regardless of whether or not it was accompanied by finger movement. Suppression of corticospinal excitability in the hand muscles induced by eye movement in the premotor period depends on the direction of eye movement, the muscle tested, and the premotor process of the tested muscle. The suppression may reflect interaction between the motor process of eye movement and that of hand movement particularly active during eye-hand coordination tasks during which both processes proceed.

  18. The Stark interaction of identical particles with vacuum electromagnetic field as quantum Poisson process suppressing collective spontaneous emission

    CERN Document Server

    Basharov, A M

    2011-01-01

    The effective Hamiltonian describing resonant interaction of an ensemble of identical quantum particles with a photon-free vacuum electromagnetic field has been obtained with allowance for the second-order terms over the coupling constant (the Stark interaction) by means of the perturbation theory on the basis of the unitary transformation of the system quantum state. It has been shown that in the Markov approximation the effective Hamiltonian terms of the first-order coupling constant are represented as the quantum Wiener process, whereas the second-order terms are expressed by the quantum Poisson process. In the course of investigation it was established that the Stark interaction played a significant role in the ensemble dynamics, thus influencing the collective spontaneous decay of the ensemble of an appreciably high number of identical particles. New fundamental effects have been discovered, i.e., the excitation conservation in a sufficiently dense ensemble of identical particles and superradiance suppre...

  19. Process-based species pools reveal the hidden signature of biotic interactions amid the influence of temperature filtering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lessard, Jean-Philippe; Weinstein, Ben G.; Borregaard, Michael Krabbe

    2016-01-01

    A persistent challenge in ecology is to tease apart the in-fluence of multiple processes acting simultaneously and interacting in complex ways to shape the structure of species assemblages. We implement a heuristic approach that relies on explicitly defining spe-cies pools and permits assessment ...

  20. Quantum fields and Poisson processes: interaction of a cut-off boson field with a quantum particle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertrand, J.; Rideau, G.; Gaveau, B.

    1985-01-01

    The solution of the Schroedinger equation for a boson field interacting with a quantum particle is written as an expectation on a Poisson process counting the variations of the boson-occupation numbers for each momentum. An energy cut-off is needed for the expectation to be meaningful.

  1. Quantum fields and poisson processes: Interaction of a cut-off boson field with a quantum particle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertrand, Jacqueline; Gaveau, Bernard; Rideau, Guy

    1985-01-01

    The solution of the Schrödinger equation for a boson field interacting with a quantum particle is written as an expectation on a Poisson process counting the variations of the boson-occupation numbers for each momentum. An energy cut-off is needed for the expectation to be meaningful.

  2. Visual Field x Response Hand Interactions and Level Priming in the Processing of Laterally Presented Hierarchical Stimuli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendt, Mike; Vietze, Ina; Kluwe, Rainer H.

    2007-01-01

    Hemisphere-specific processing of laterally presented global and local stimulus levels was investigated by (a) examining interactions between the visual field of stimulus presentation and the response hand and (b) comparing intra- with inter-hemispheric effects of level priming (i.e. faster and more accurate performance when the target level…

  3. Identifying thresholds in pattern-process relationships: a new cross-scale interactions experiment at the Jornada Basin LTER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Interactions among ecological patterns and processes at multiple scales play a significant role in threshold behaviors in arid systems. Black grama grasslands and mesquite shrublands are hypothesized to operate under unique sets of feedbacks: grasslands are maintained by fine-scale biotic feedbacks ...

  4. Acoustic-wave generation in the process of CO2-TEA-laser-radiation interaction with metal targets in air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apostol, Ileana; Teodorescu, G.; Serbanescu-Oasa, Anca; Dragulinescu, Dumitru; Chis, Ioan; Stoian, Razvan

    1995-03-01

    Laser radiation interaction with materials is a complex process in which creation of acoustic waves or stress waves is a part of it. As a function of the laser radiation energy and intensity incident on steel target surface ultrasound signals were registered and studied. Thermoelastic, ablation and breakdown mechanisms of generation of acoustic waves were analyzed.

  5. Plasma-material Interactions in Current Tokamaks and their Implications for Next-step Fusion Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Federici, G.; Skinner, C.H.; Brooks, J.N.; Coad, J.P.; Grisolia, C. [and others

    2001-01-10

    The major increase in discharge duration and plasma energy in a next-step DT [deuterium-tritium] fusion reactor will give rise to important plasma-material effects that will critically influence its operation, safety, and performance. Erosion will increase to a scale of several centimeters from being barely measurable at a micron scale in today's tokamaks. Tritium co-deposited with carbon will strongly affect the operation of machines with carbon plasma-facing components. Controlling plasma wall interactions is critical to achieving high performance in present-day tokamaks and this is likely to continue to be the case in the approach to practical fusion reactors. Recognition of the important consequences of these phenomena has stimulated an internationally coordinated effort in the field of plasma-surface interactions supporting the Engineering Design Activities of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) project and significant progress has been made in better under standing these issues. This paper reviews the underlying physical processes and the existing experimental database of plasma-material interactions both in tokamaks and laboratory simulation facilities for conditions of direct relevance to next-step fusion reactors. Two main topical groups of interactions are considered: (i) erosion/redeposition from plasma sputtering and disruptions, including dust and flake generation, (ii) tritium retention and removal. The use of modeling tools to interpret the experimental results and make projections for conditions expected in future devices is explained. Outstanding technical issues and specific recommendations on potential R and D [Research and Development] avenues for their resolution are presented.

  6. High-intensity X-rays interaction with matter processes in plasmas, clusters, molecules and solids

    CERN Document Server

    Hau-Riege, Stefan P

    2012-01-01

    Filling the need for a book bridging the effect of matter on X-ray radiation and the interaction of x-rays with plasmas, this monograph provides comprehensive coverage of the topic. As such, it presents and explains such powerful new X-ray sources as X-ray free-electron lasers, as well as short pulse interactions with solids, clusters, molecules, and plasmas, and X-ray matter interactions as a diagnostic tool. Equally useful for researchers and practitioners working in the field.

  7. Assessing Technology in the Absence of Proof: Trust Based on the Interplay of Others' Opinions and the Interaction Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Peter W; van den Berg, Stéphanie M; Midden, Cees

    2015-12-01

    The present research addresses the question of how trust in systems is formed when unequivocal information about system accuracy and reliability is absent, and focuses on the interaction of indirect information (others' evaluations) and direct (experiential) information stemming from the interaction process. Trust in decision-supporting technology, such as route planners, is important for satisfactory user interactions. Little is known, however, about trust formation in the absence of outcome feedback, that is, when users have not yet had opportunity to verify actual outcomes. Three experiments manipulated others' evaluations ("endorsement cues") and various forms of experience-based information ("process feedback") in interactions with a route planner and measured resulting trust using rating scales and credits staked on the outcome. Subsequently, an overall analysis was conducted. Study 1 showed that effectiveness of endorsement cues on trust is moderated by mere process feedback. In Study 2, consistent (i.e., nonrandom) process feedback overruled the effect of endorsement cues on trust, whereas inconsistent process feedback did not. Study 3 showed that although the effects of consistent and inconsistent process feedback largely remained regardless of face validity, high face validity in process feedback caused higher trust than those with low face validity. An overall analysis confirmed these findings. Experiential information impacts trust even if outcome feedback is not available, and, moreover, overrules indirect trust cues-depending on the nature of the former. Designing systems so that they allow novice users to make inferences about their inner workings may foster initial trust. © 2015, Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.

  8. How interactions between animal movement and landscape processes modify range dynamics and extinction risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Range dynamics models now incorporate many of the mechanisms and interactions that drive species distributions. However, connectivity continues to be studied using overly simple distance-based dispersal models with little consideration of how the individual behavior of dispersin...

  9. Haptic and visual information speed up the neural processing of auditory speech in live dyadic interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treille, Avril; Cordeboeuf, Camille; Vilain, Coriandre; Sato, Marc

    2014-05-01

    Speech can be perceived not only by the ear and by the eye but also by the hand, with speech gestures felt from manual tactile contact with the speaker׳s face. In the present electro-encephalographic study, early cross-modal interactions were investigated by comparing auditory evoked potentials during auditory, audio-visual and audio-haptic speech perception in dyadic interactions between a listener and a speaker. In line with previous studies, early auditory evoked responses were attenuated and speeded up during audio-visual compared to auditory speech perception. Crucially, shortened latencies of early auditory evoked potentials were also observed during audio-haptic speech perception. Altogether, these results suggest early bimodal interactions during live face-to-face and hand-to-face speech perception in dyadic interactions. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Hydroponical estimation of interactions among selected heavy metals accumulated by Salix viminalis in phytoremediation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mleczek, Mirosław; Magdziak, Zuzanna; Kaczmarek, Zygmunt; Golinski, Piotr

    2010-09-01

    Determination of interactions between selected heavy metals (Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn) in their phytoremediation by one-year-old cuttings of Salix viminalis 'Cannabina' was the purpose of this work. The achieved results indicate that Salix cuttings may successfully be used in phytoremediation of polluted soil and/or sewage not only with one metal at high concentrations but also in different combinations with the other metals. Under controlled conditions (the hydroponic experiment) new interactions were found as well as known data concerning interactions between-presented in the matrix-heavy metals, depending on whether their concentration and composition were confirmed. The results showed that the ratio of metal concentration can change the interaction intensity. The achieved results enable one to indirectly estimate the accumulation efficiency of dominating metals as well as accompanying ones at lower concentrations.

  11. How Accumulated Real Life Stress Experience and Cognitive Speed Interact on Decision-Making Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Friedel

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Rationale: Advances in neurocomputational modeling suggest that valuation systems for goal-directed (deliberative on one side, and habitual (automatic decision-making on the other side may rely on distinct computational strategies for reinforcement learning, namely model-free vs. model-based learning. As a key theoretical difference, the model-based system strongly demands cognitive functions to plan actions prospectively based on an internal cognitive model of the environment, whereas valuation in the model-free system relies on rather simple learning rules from operant conditioning to retrospectively associate actions with their outcomes and is thus cognitively less demanding. Acute stress reactivity is known to impair model-based but not model-free choice behavior, with higher working memory capacity protecting the model-based system from acute stress. However, it is not clear which impact accumulated real life stress has on model-free and model-based decision systems and how this influence interacts with cognitive abilities.Methods: We used a sequential decision-making task distinguishing relative contributions of both learning strategies to choice behavior, the Social Readjustment Rating Scale questionnaire to assess accumulated real life stress, and the Digit Symbol Substitution Test to test cognitive speed in 95 healthy subjects.Results: Individuals reporting high stress exposure who had low cognitive speed showed reduced model-based but increased model-free behavioral control. In contrast, subjects exposed to accumulated real life stress with high cognitive speed displayed increased model-based performance but reduced model-free control.Conclusion: These findings suggest that accumulated real life stress exposure can enhance reliance on cognitive speed for model-based computations, which may ultimately protect the model-based system from the detrimental influences of accumulated real life stress. The combination of accumulated real life

  12. Displaying Composite and Archived Soundings in the Advanced Weather Interactive Processing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Joe H., III; Volkmer, Matthew R.; Blottman, Peter F.; Sharp, David W.

    2008-01-01

    In a previous task, the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) developed spatial and temporal climatologies of lightning occurrence based on eight atmospheric flow regimes. The AMU created climatological, or composite, soundings of wind speed and direction, temperature, and dew point temperature at four rawinsonde observation stations at Jacksonville, Tampa, Miami, and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, for each of the eight flow regimes. The composite soundings were delivered to the National Weather Service (NWS) Melbourne (MLB) office for display using the National version of the Skew-T Hodograph analysis and Research Program (NSHARP) software program. The NWS MLB requested the AMU make the composite soundings available for display in the Advanced Weather Interactive Processing System (AWIPS), so they could be overlaid on current observed soundings. This will allow the forecasters to compare the current state of the atmosphere with climatology. This presentation describes how the AMU converted the composite soundings from NSHARP Archive format to Network Common Data Form (NetCDF) format, so that the soundings could be displayed in AWl PS. The NetCDF is a set of data formats, programming interfaces, and software libraries used to read and write scientific data files. In AWIPS, each meteorological data type, such as soundings or surface observations, has a unique NetCDF format. Each format is described by a NetCDF template file. Although NetCDF files are in binary format, they can be converted to a text format called network Common data form Description Language (CDL). A software utility called ncgen is used to create a NetCDF file from a CDL file, while the ncdump utility is used to create a CDL file from a NetCDF file. An AWIPS receives soundings in Binary Universal Form for the Representation of Meteorological data (BUFR) format (http://dss.ucar.edu/docs/formats/bufr/), and then decodes them into NetCDF format. Only two sounding files are generated in AWIPS per day. One

  13. Modelling of Gas Flow in the Underground Coal Gasification Process and its Interactions with the Rock Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Janoszek

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this study was the analysis of gas flow in the underground coal gasification process and interactions with the surrounding rock mass. The article is a discussion of the assumptions for the geometric model and for the numerical method for its solution as well as assumptions for modelling the geochemical model of the interaction between gas-rock-water, in terms of equilibrium calculations, chemical and gas flow modelling in porous mediums. Ansys-Fluent software was used to describe the underground coal gasification process (UCG. The numerical solution was compared with experimental data. The PHREEQC program was used to describe the chemical reaction between the gaseous products of the UCG process and the rock strata in the presence of reservoir waters.

  14. The Interaction between Personality, Social Network Position and Involvement in Innovation Process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Dolgova; W. van Olffen (Woody); F.A.J. van den Bosch (Frans); H.W. Volberda (Henk)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractAbstract This dissertation proposal investigates how personality and individuals’ social network position affect individuals’ involvement into the innovation process. It posits that people would feel inclined to become involved into the different phases of the innovation process dependin

  15. Human machine interaction: The special role for human unconscious emotional information processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noort, M.W.M.L. van den; Hugdahl, K.; Bosch, M.P.C.

    2005-01-01

    The nature of (un)conscious human emotional information processing remains a great mystery. On the one hand, classical models view human conscious emotional information processing as computation among the brain's neurons but fail to address its enigmatic features. On the other hand, quantum processe

  16. Human machine interaction: The special role for human unconscious emotional information processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noort, M.W.M.L. van den; Hugdahl, K.; Bosch, M.P.C.

    2005-01-01

    The nature of (un)conscious human emotional information processing remains a great mystery. On the one hand, classical models view human conscious emotional information processing as computation among the brain's neurons but fail to address its enigmatic features. On the other hand, quantum processe

  17. Competing growth processes induced by next-nearest-neighbor interactions: Effects on meandering wavelength and stiffness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blel, Sonia; Hamouda, Ajmi BH.; Mahjoub, B.; Einstein, T. L.

    2017-02-01

    In this paper we explore the meandering instability of vicinal steps with a kinetic Monte Carlo simulations (kMC) model including the attractive next-nearest-neighbor (NNN) interactions. kMC simulations show that increase of the NNN interaction strength leads to considerable reduction of the meandering wavelength and to weaker dependence of the wavelength on the deposition rate F. The dependences of the meandering wavelength on the temperature and the deposition rate obtained with simulations are in good quantitative agreement with the experimental result on the meandering instability of Cu(0 2 24) [T. Maroutian et al., Phys. Rev. B 64, 165401 (2001), 10.1103/PhysRevB.64.165401]. The effective step stiffness is found to depend not only on the strength of NNN interactions and the Ehrlich-Schwoebel barrier, but also on F. We argue that attractive NNN interactions intensify the incorporation of adatoms at step edges and enhance step roughening. Competition between NNN and nearest-neighbor interactions results in an alternative form of meandering instability which we call "roughening-limited" growth, rather than attachment-detachment-limited growth that governs the Bales-Zangwill instability. The computed effective wavelength and the effective stiffness behave as λeff˜F-q and β˜eff˜F-p , respectively, with q ≈p /2 .

  18. Dimerization process and elementary excitations in spin-Peierls chains coupled by frustrated interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mastrogiuseppe, D; Gazza, C; Dobry, A [Facultad de Ciencias Exactas IngenierIa y Agrimensura, Universidad Nacional de Rosario and Instituto de Fisica Rosario, Boulevard 27 de Febrero 210 bis, 2000 Rosario (Argentina)], E-mail: dmastro@ifir.edu.ar

    2008-04-02

    We consider the ground state and the elementary excitations of an array of spin-Peierls chains coupled by elastic and magnetic interactions. It is expected that the effect of the magnetic interchain coupling will be to reduce the dimerization amplitude and that of the elastic coupling will be to confine the spin one-half solitons corresponding to each isolated chain. We show that this is the case when these interactions are not frustrated. On the other hand, in the frustrated case we show that the amplitude of dimerization in the ground state is independent of the strength of the interchain magnetic interaction in a broad range of values of this parameter. We also show that free solitons could be the elementary excitations when only nearest neighbour interactions are considered. The case of an elastic interchain coupling is analysed on a general energetic consideration. To study the effect of the magnetic interchain interaction the problem is simplified to a two-leg ladder, which is solved using density matrix renormalization group (DMRG) calculations. We show that the deconfinement mechanism is effective even with a significantly strong antiferromagnetic interchain coupling.

  19. Eph/ephrins mediated thymocyte-thymic epithelial cell interactions control numerous processes of thymus biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier eGarcia-Ceca

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Numerous studies emphasize the relevance of thymocyte-thymic epithelial cell (TECs interactions for the functional maturation of intrathymic T lymphocytes. The tyrosine kinase receptors Ephs (Erythropoietin-producing hepatocyte kinases and their ligands, ephrins (Eph receptor interaction proteins, are molecules known to be involved in the regulation of numerous biological systems in which cell-to-cell interactions are particularly relevant. In the last years, we and other authors have demonstrated the importance of these molecules in the thymic functions and the T-cell development. In the present report, we review data on the effects of Ephs and ephrins, in the functional maturation of both thymic epithelial microenvironment and thymocyte maturation as well as on their role in the lymphoid progenitor recruitment into the thymus.

  20. Radiative processes of a static atom interacting with a quantum scalar field in global monopole spacetime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Huabing; Ren, Zhongzhou

    2017-09-01

    We investigate the rate of change of energy for a static two-level atom interacting with a massless quantum scalar field in global monopole spacetime and separately calculate the contributions of thermal fluctuations and radiation reaction. We discuss two different kinds of atom-field interactions separately. The behaviors of the atomic transition rates are analyzed in different circumstances such as near distance and big solid angle deficit. Moreover, we compare the results with those in Minkowski spacetime so as to reveal the effects of the global monopole. In general, as the atom-monopole distance increases, the transition rates oscillate around the results in Minkowski spacetime and the amplitude of oscillation gradually decreases. The oscillation is more severe for larger solid angle deficit. Our works suggest that the transition rates can profoundly change with different atom-field interactions and different types of scalar field.

  1. Towards a New Understanding of the e-Business Strategic Process: The Rise of a Dynamic Interaction-Based Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ivang, Reimer

    2013-01-01

    to explain how companies could strategize in the field of ICT and e-business. Strategic information systems planning (SISP) is an example of this application of strategic planning in the field of e-business. The prominence of SISP within the corporate IS strategy literature has been dramatic, but today......-business strategic process adapt to changes in the planning environment and internal changes within the organization? E-business strategy, because of increased uncertainty and environmental complexity, must encourage interaction between key stakeholders that implement and use the e-business technology...... on group-learning processes where the strategy emerges though the processes of action and reflection. These experience-based group-learning processes help organize the process of business strategizing so that improvisational and dynamic competences can emerge....

  2. Virus host protein interaction network analysis reveals that the HEV ORF3 protein may interrupt the blood coagulation process.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yansheng Geng

    Full Text Available Hepatitis E virus (HEV is endemic worldwide and a major cause of acute liver disease in developing countries. However, the molecular mechanisms of liver pathology and clinical disease are not well understood for HEV infection. Open reading frame 3 (ORF3 of HEV encodes a small phosphoprotein, which is assumed to be involved in liver pathology and clinical disease. In this study, the interactions between the HEV ORF3 protein and human proteins were investigated using a stringent, high-throughput yeast two-hybrid (Y2H analysis. Thirty two proteins were shown to interact with genotype 1 ORF3, 28 of which have not been reported previously. These novel interactions were evaluated by coimmunoprecipitation of protein complexes from transfected cells. We found also that the ORF3 proteins of genotype 4 and rabbit HEV interacted with all of the human proteins identified by the genotype 1 ORF3 protein. However, the putative ORF3 protein derived from avian HEV did not interact with the majority of these human proteins. The identified proteins were used to infer an overall interaction map linking the ORF3 protein with components of the host cellular networks. Analysis of this interaction map, based on functional annotation with the Gene Ontology features and KEGG pathways, revealed an enrichment of host proteins involved in complement coagulation, cellular iron ion homeostasis and oxidative stress. Additional canonical pathway analysis highlighted the enriched biological pathways relevant to blood coagulation and hemostasis. Consideration of the clinical manifestations of hepatitis E reported previously and the results of biological analysis from this study suggests that the ORF3 protein is likely to lead to an imbalance of coagulation and fibrinolysis by interacting with host proteins and triggering the corresponding pathological processes. These results suggest critical approaches to further study of the pathogenesis of the HEV ORF3 protein.

  3. Social and emotional relevance in face processing: happy faces of future interaction partners enhance the late positive potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bublatzky, Florian; Gerdes, Antje B M; White, Andrew J; Riemer, Martin; Alpers, Georg W

    2014-01-01

    Human face perception is modulated by both emotional valence and social relevance, but their interaction has rarely been examined. Event-related brain potentials (ERP) to happy, neutral, and angry facial expressions with different degrees of social relevance were recorded. To implement a social anticipation task, relevance was manipulated by presenting faces of two specific actors as future interaction partners (socially relevant), whereas two other face actors remained non-relevant. In a further control task all stimuli were presented without specific relevance instructions (passive viewing). Face stimuli of four actors (2 women, from the KDEF) were randomly presented for 1s to 26 participants (16 female). Results showed an augmented N170, early posterior negativity (EPN), and late positive potential (LPP) for emotional in contrast to neutral facial expressions. Of particular interest, face processing varied as a function of experimental tasks. Whereas task effects were observed for P1 and EPN regardless of instructed relevance, LPP amplitudes were modulated by emotional facial expression and relevance manipulation. The LPP was specifically enhanced for happy facial expressions of the anticipated future interaction partners. This underscores that social relevance can impact face processing already at an early stage of visual processing. These findings are discussed within the framework of motivated attention and face processing theories.

  4. Neural evidence for moral intuition and the temporal dynamics of interactions between emotional processes and moral cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gui, Dan-Yang; Gan, Tian; Liu, Chao

    2016-01-01

    Behavioral and neurological studies have revealed that emotions influence moral cognition. Although moral stimuli are emotionally charged, the time course of interactions between emotions and moral judgments remains unknown. In the present study, we investigated the temporal dynamics of the interaction between emotional processes and moral cognition. The results revealed that when making moral judgments, the time course of the event-related potential (ERP) waveform was significantly different between high emotional arousal and low emotional arousal contexts. Different stages of processing were distinguished, showing distinctive interactions between emotional processes and moral reasoning. The precise time course of moral intuition and moral reasoning sheds new light on theoretical models of moral psychology. Specifically, the N1 component (interpreted as representing moral intuition) did not appear to be influenced by emotional arousal. However, the N2 component and late positive potential were strongly affected by emotional arousal; the slow wave was influenced by both emotional arousal and morality, suggesting distinct moral processing at different emotional arousal levels.

  5. Modeling land-surface processes and land-atmosphere interactions in the community weather and regional climate WRF model (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, F.; Barlage, M. J.

    2013-12-01

    The Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model has been widely used with high-resolution configuration in the weather and regional climate communities, and hence demands its land-surface models to treat not only fast-response processes, such as plant evapotranspiration that are important for numerical weather prediction but also slow-evolving processes such as snow hydrology and interactions between surface soil water and deep aquifer. Correctly representing urbanization, which has been traditionally ignored in coarse-resolution modeling, is critical for applying WRF to air quality and public health research. To meet these demands, numerous efforts have been undertaken to improve land-surface models (LSM) in WRF, including the recent implementation of the Noah-MP (Noah Multiple-Physics). Noah-MP uses multiple options for key sub-grid land-atmosphere interaction processes (Niu et al., 2011; Yang et al., 2011), and contains a separate vegetation canopy representing within- and under-canopy radiation and turbulent processes, a multilayer physically-based snow model, and a photosynthesis canopy resistance parameterization with a dynamic vegetation model. This paper will focus on the interactions between fast and slow land processes through: 1) a benchmarking of the Noah-MP performance, in comparison to five widely-used land-surface models, in simulating and diagnosing snow evolution for complex terrain forested regions, and 2) the effects of interactions between shallow and deep aquifers on regional weather and climate. Moreover, we will provide an overview of recent improvements of the integrated WRF-Urban modeling system, especially its hydrological enhancements that takes into account the effects of lawn irrigation, urban oasis, evaporation from pavements, anthropogenic moisture sources, and a green-roof parameterization.

  6. Language of the Legal Process: An Analysis of Interactions in the "Syariah" Court

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashim, Azirah; Hassan, Norizah

    2011-01-01

    This study examines interactions from trials in the Syariah court in Malaysia. It focuses on the types of questioning, the choice of language and the linguistic resources employed in this particular context. In the discourse of law, questioning has been a prominent concern particularly in cross-examination and can be considered one of the key…

  7. Elg1, the major subunit of an alternative RFC complex, interacts with SUMO-processing proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parnas, Oren; Amishay, Rona; Liefshitz, Batia; Zipin-Roitman, Adi; Kupiec, Martin

    2011-09-01

    PCNA is a homotrimeric ring with important roles in DNA replication and repair. PCNA is loaded and unloaded by the RFC complex, which is composed of five subunits (Rfc1-5). Three additional complexes that share with RFC the small subunits (Rfc2-5) and contain alternative large subunits were found in yeast and other eukaryotes. We have recently reported that one of these, the Elg1-RFC complex, interacts with SUMOylated PCNA and may play a role in its unloading during DNA repair. Here we report that a yeast-two-hybrid screen with the N terminus of Elg1(which interacts with SUMOylated PCNA) uncovered interactions with proteins that belong to the SUMO pathway, including Slx5 and Slx8, which form an E3 ubiquitin ligase that ubiquitinates SUMOylated proteins. Mutations in SLX5 result in a genomic instability phenotype similar to that of elg1 mutants. The physical interaction between the N terminus of Elg1 and Slx5 is mediated by poly-SUMO chains but not by PCNA modifications, and requires Siz2, but not Siz1, activity. Thus our results highlight the many important roles played by Elg1, some of which are PCNA-dependent and some PCNA-independent.

  8. Performing a Course Material Enhancement Process with Asynchronous Interactive Online System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hei-Chia

    2007-01-01

    Online systems have come to be heavily used in education, particularly for online learning and collecting information not otherwise readily available. Most e-learning systems, including interactive learning systems, have been designed to "push" course materials to students but rarely to "collect" or "pull" ideas from them. The interactive…

  9. Interactions between salt marsh plants and Cu nanoparticles - Effects on metal uptake and phytoremediation processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreotti, Federico; Mucha, Ana Paula; Caetano, Cátia; Rodrigues, Paula; Rocha Gomes, Carlos; Almeida, C Marisa R

    2015-10-01

    The increased use of metallic nanoparticles (NPs) raises the probability of finding NPs in the environment. A lot of information exists already regarding interactions between plants and metals, but information regarding interactions between metallic NPs and plants, including salt marsh plants, is still lacking. This work aimed to study interactions between CuO NPs and the salt marsh plants Halimione portulacoides and Phragmites australis. In addition, the potential of these plants for phytoremediation of Cu NPs was evaluated. Plants were exposed for 8 days to sediment elutriate solution doped either with CuO or with ionic Cu. Afterwards, total metal concentrations were determined in plant tissues. Both plants accumulated Cu in their roots, but this accumulation was 4 to 10 times lower when the metal was added in NP form. For P. australis, metal translocation occurred when the metal was added either in ionic or in NP form, but for H. portulacoides no metal translocation was observed when NPs were added to the medium. Therefore, interactions between plants and NPs differ with the plant species. These facts should be taken in consideration when applying these plants for phytoremediation of contaminated sediments in estuaries, as the environmental management of these very important ecological areas can be affected.

  10. Physical Attractiveness: Interactive Effects of Counselor and Client on Counseling Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Alice M.; Borkowski, John G.

    1983-01-01

    Assessed how the physical attractiveness of counselors and clients interacted to build rapport in two experiments involving college students (N=128 and N=64). Results showed the counselor's physical attractiveness had a major impact on her perceived effectiveness and the client's expectation of success irrespective of the client's attractiveness…

  11. Interaction Processes as a Mediating Factor between Children's Externalized Behaviour Difficulties and Engagement in Preschool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjöman, Madeleine; Granlund, Mats; Almqvist, Lena

    2016-01-01

    This study examined social interaction as a mediator between externalized behaviour difficulties and children's engagement in preschool. Data from 663 children (340 boys), aged 18-71 months, were collected at 81 Swedish preschool units in six municipalities to test a path model that included child, teacher, and child groups. The results indicated…

  12. Physical Attractiveness: Interactive Effects of Counselor and Client on Counseling Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Alice M.; Borkowski, John G.

    1983-01-01

    Assessed how the physical attractiveness of counselors and clients interacted to build rapport in two experiments involving college students (N=128 and N=64). Results showed the counselor's physical attractiveness had a major impact on her perceived effectiveness and the client's expectation of success irrespective of the client's attractiveness…

  13. Basics of quantum field theory of electromagnetic interaction processes in single-layer graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hieu Nguyen, Van

    2016-09-01

    The content of this work is the study of electromagnetic interaction in single-layer graphene by means of the perturbation theory. The interaction of electromagnetic field with Dirac fermions in single-layer graphene has a peculiarity: Dirac fermions in graphene interact not only with the electromagnetic wave propagating within the graphene sheet, but also with electromagnetic field propagating from a location outside the graphene sheet and illuminating this sheet. The interaction Hamiltonian of the system comprising electromagnetic field and Dirac fermions fields contains the limits at graphene plane of electromagnetic field vector and scalar potentials which can be shortly called boundary electromagnetic field. The study of S-matrix requires knowing the limits at graphene plane of 2-point Green functions of electromagnetic field which also can be shortly called boundary 2-point Green functions of electromagnetic field. As the first example of the application of perturbation theory, the second order terms in the perturbative expansions of boundary 2-point Green functions of electromagnetic field as well as of 2-point Green functions of Dirac fermion fields are explicitly derived. Further extension of the application of perturbation theory is also discussed.

  14. Interactive Computer Based Assessment Tasks: How Problem-Solving Process Data Can Inform Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoanetti, Nathan

    2010-01-01

    This article presents key steps in the design and analysis of a computer based problem-solving assessment featuring interactive tasks. The purpose of the assessment is to support targeted instruction for students by diagnosing strengths and weaknesses at different stages of problem-solving. The first focus of this article is the task piloting…

  15. Interaction of bisphenol A with dissolved organic matter in extractive and adsorptive removal processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Fei-Die; Choo, Kwang-Ho; Chang, Hyun-Shik; Lee, Byunghwan

    2012-05-01

    The fate of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) in natural and engineered systems is complicated due to their interactions with various water constituents. This study investigated the interaction of bisphenol A (BPA) with dissolved organic matter (DOM) and colloids present in surface water and secondary effluent as well as its adsorptive removal by powdered activated carbons. The solid phase micro-extraction (SPME) method followed by thermal desorption and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was utilized for determining the distribution of BPA molecules in water. The BPA removal by SPME decreased with the increased DOM content, where the formation of BPA-DOM complexes in an aqueous matrix was responsible for the reduced extraction of BPA. Colloidal particles in water samples sorbed BPA leading to the marked reduction of liquid phase BPA. BPA-DOM complexes had a negative impact on the adsorptive removal of BPA by powered activated carbons. The complex formation was characterized based on Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy, along with the calculation of molecular interactions between BPA and functional groups in DOM. It was found that the hydrogen bonding between DOM and BPA would be preferred over aromatic interactions. A pseudo-equilibrium molecular coordination model for the complexation between a BPA molecule and a hydroxyl group of the DOM was developed, which enabled estimation of the maximum sorption site and complex formation constant as well as prediction of organic complexes at various DOM levels. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Fundamental aspects of metallic impurities and impurity interactions in silicon during device processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graff, K. [TEMIC, TELEFUNKEN, Heilbronn (Germany)

    1995-08-01

    A review on the behavior of metallic impurities in silicon can be considerably simplified by a restriction on pure, dislocation-free, monocrystalline silicon. In this case interactions between different impurities and between impurities and grown-in lattice defects can be reduced. This restriction is observed in Chapter 1 for discussing the general behavior of metallic impurities in silicon.

  17. Interaction Processes as a Mediating Factor between Children's Externalized Behaviour Difficulties and Engagement in Preschool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjöman, Madeleine; Granlund, Mats; Almqvist, Lena

    2016-01-01

    This study examined social interaction as a mediator between externalized behaviour difficulties and children's engagement in preschool. Data from 663 children (340 boys), aged 18-71 months, were collected at 81 Swedish preschool units in six municipalities to test a path model that included child, teacher, and child groups. The results indicated…

  18. Gene expression profiles of the NCI-60 human tumor cell lines define molecular interaction networks governing cell migration processes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurt W Kohn

    Full Text Available Although there is extensive information on gene expression and molecular interactions in various cell types, integrating those data in a functionally coherent manner remains challenging. This study explores the premise that genes whose expression at the mRNA level is correlated over diverse cell lines are likely to function together in a network of molecular interactions. We previously derived expression-correlated gene clusters from the database of the NCI-60 human tumor cell lines and associated each cluster with function categories of the Gene Ontology (GO database. From a cluster rich in genes associated with GO categories related to cell migration, we extracted 15 genes that were highly cross-correlated; prominent among them were RRAS, AXL, ADAM9, FN14, and integrin-beta1. We then used those 15 genes as bait to identify other correlated genes in the NCI-60 database. A survey of current literature disclosed, not only that many of the expression-correlated genes engaged in molecular interactions related to migration, invasion, and metastasis, but that highly cross-correlated subsets of those genes engaged in specific cell migration processes. We assembled this information in molecular interaction maps (MIMs that depict networks governing 3 cell migration processes: degradation of extracellular matrix, production of transient focal complexes at the leading edge of the cell, and retraction of the rear part of the cell. Also depicted are interactions controlling the release and effects of calcium ions, which may regulate migration in a spaciotemporal manner in the cell. The MIMs and associated text comprise a detailed and integrated summary of what is currently known or surmised about the role of the expression cross-correlated genes in molecular networks governing those processes.

  19. Aquatic flower-inspired cell culture platform with simplified medium exchange process for facilitating cell-surface interaction studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Hyeonjun; Park, Sung Jea; Han, Seon Jin; Lim, Jiwon; Kim, Dong Sung

    2016-02-01

    Establishing fundamentals for regulating cell behavior with engineered physical environments, such as topography and stiffness, requires a large number of cell culture experiments. However, cell culture experiments in cell-surface interaction studies are generally labor-intensive and time-consuming due to many experimental tasks, such as multiple fabrication processes in sample preparation and repetitive medium exchange in cell culture. In this work, a novel aquatic flower-inspired cell culture platform (AFIP) is presented. AFIP aims to facilitate the experiments on the cell-surface interaction studies, especially the medium exchange process. AFIP was devised to capture and dispense cell culture medium based on interactions between an elastic polymer substrate and a liquid medium. Thus, the medium exchange can be performed easily and without the need of other instruments, such as a vacuum suction and pipette. An appropriate design window of AFIP, based on scaling analysis, was identified to provide a criterion for achieving stability in medium exchange as well as various surface characteristics of the petal substrates. The developed AFIP, with physically engineered petal substrates, was also verified to exchange medium reliably and repeatedly. A closed structure capturing the medium was sustained stably during cell culture experiments. NIH3T3 proliferation results also demonstrated that AFIP can be applied to the cell-surface interaction studies as an alternative to the conventional method.

  20. Happy facial expression processing with different social interaction cues: an fMRI study of individuals with schizotypal personality traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jia; Wang, Yi; Jin, Zhen; Di, Xin; Yang, Tao; Gur, Ruben C; Gur, Raquel E; Shum, David H K; Cheung, Eric F C; Chan, Raymond C K

    2013-07-01

    In daily life facial expressions change rapidly and the direction of change provides important clues about social interaction. The aim of conducting this study was to elucidate the dynamic happy facial expression processing with different social interaction cues in individuals with (n=14) and without (n=14) schizotypal personality disorder (SPD) traits. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), dynamic happy facial expression processing was examined by presenting video clips depicting happiness appearing and disappearing under happiness inducing ('praise') or reducing ('blame') interaction cues. The happiness appearing condition consistently elicited more brain activations than the happiness disappearing condition in the posterior cingulate bilaterally in all participants. Further analyses showed that the SPD group was less deactivated than the non-SPD group in the right anterior cingulate cortex in the happiness appearing-disappearing contrast. The SPD group deactivated more than the non-SPD group in the left posterior cingulate and right superior temporal gyrus in the praise-blame contrast. Moreover, the incongruence of cues and facial expression activated the frontal-thalamus-caudate-parietal network, which is involved in emotion recognition and conflict resolution. These results shed light on the neural basis of social interaction deficits in individuals with schizotypal personality traits.

  1. Linking Findings in Microfluidics to Membrane Emulsification Process Design: The Importance of Wettability and Component Interactions with Interfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Schroën

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In microfluidics and other microstructured devices, wettability changes, as a result of component interactions with the solid wall, can have dramatic effects. In emulsion separation and emulsification applications, the desired behavior can even be completely lost. Wettability changes also occur in one phase systems, but the effect is much more far-reaching when using two-phase systems. For microfluidic emulsification devices, this can be elegantly demonstrated and quantified for EDGE (Edge-base Droplet GEneration devices that have a specific behavior that allows us to distinguish between surfactant and liquid interactions with the solid surface. Based on these findings, design rules can be defined for emulsification with any micro-structured emulsification device, such as direct and premix membrane emulsification. In general, it can be concluded that mostly surface interactions increase the contact angle toward 90°, either through the surfactant, or the oil that is used. This leads to poor process stability, and very limited pressure ranges at which small droplets can be made in microfluidic systems, and cross-flow membrane emulsification. In a limited number of cases, surface interactions can also lead to lower contact angles, thereby increasing the operational stability. This paper concludes with a guideline that can be used to come to the appropriate combination of membrane construction material (or any micro-structured device, surfactants and liquids, in combination with process conditions.

  2. Study on interaction between macrocell and microcell in the early corrosion process of reinforcing steel in concrete

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    An array electrode technique was developed as a novel electrochemical method for studying the interaction between macrocell and microcell in the early corrosion process of reinforcing steel in cement mortar.The corrosion potential and galvanic current of macrocell corrosion of the reinforcing steel in cement mortar were imaged by the array electrode technique during the corrosion initiation and propagation.It was certified that the corrosion macrocell current is closely related with the difference of corrosion potential between the anodic and cathodic areas.The corrosion macrocell and microcell always exist during the corrosion process.The interaction of corrosion macrocell and corrosion microcell of steel in concrete was directly sensed by the array electrode for the first time,and was discussed in terms of corrosion electrochemistry.

  3. Investigating salt and naphthenic acids interactions in the toxicity of oil sands process water to freshwater invertebrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turcotte, D.; Kautzman, M.; Wojnarowicz, P.; Cutter, J.; Bird, E.; Liber, K. [Saskatchewan Univ., Regina, SK (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    The hot water extraction process used to produce bitumens from oil sands produces a large volume of oil sands process water (OSPW) that contain elevated concentrations of naphthenic acids (NA) and salts. Many oil sands reclamation projects are proposing the use of OSPW as part of reconstructed wetlands projects. This study investigated the toxicity of OSPW to freshwater invertebrates. The toxic interactions between NA and salinity on freshwater invertebrates were assessed. Bioassays with laboratory-cultured Ceriodaphnia dubia were conducted to determine the toxicity of OSPW from selected water bodies. The study showed that while the concentrations of NAs and salinity were elevated in OSPW waters that caused toxic responses, the concentrations of salinity ions varied greatly among the OSPW samples. Results of the study suggested that ion composition may be a factor in toxicity. Interactions between NAs and salinity were then assessed by performing bioassays with mixtures representing major ion combinations in OSPW.

  4. Separating business process from user interaction in web-based information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aberer, Karl; Datta, Anwitaman; Despotovic, Zoran; Wombacher, Andreas

    2003-01-01

    In Web-based information commerce it is diffcult to disentangle presentation from process logic, and sometimes even data is not separate from the presentation. Consequently, it becomes crucial to define an abstract model for business processes and their mapping into an active user interface presenta

  5. Streamlining cross departmental interactions of back office processes in financial services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutte, C.R.

    2011-01-01

    Due to the increased competitive environment in the retail banking industry, customer satisfaction and efficient back office processes have become more important. Lean Six Sigma (LSS) is a management style that is focused on improving processes and increasing customer satisfaction. Discrete-Event

  6. A quantitative framework for understanding complex interactions between competing interfacial processes and in situ biodegradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Mark A.; Song, Xin; Seagren, Eric A.

    2013-03-01

    In situ bioremediation of contaminated groundwater is made technologically challenging by the physically, chemically, and biologically heterogeneous subsurface environment. Subsurface heterogeneities are important because of influences on interfacial mass transfer processes that impact the availability of substrates to microorganisms. The goal of this study was to perform a "proof-of-concept" evaluation of the utility of a quantitative framework based on a set of dimensionless coefficients for evaluating the effects of competing physicochemical interfacial and biokinetic processes at the field scale. First, three numerical modeling experiments were completed, demonstrating how the framework can be used to identify the rate-limiting process for the overall bioremediation rate, and to predict what engineered enhancements will alleviate the rate-limiting process. Baseline conditions for each scenario were established to examine intrinsic biodegradation with a given rate-limiting process (either dispersion, biokinetics, or sorption). Then different engineering treatments were examined. In each case, the treatment predicted to be appropriate for addressing the overall rate-limiting process based on the quantitative framework alleviated the limitation more successfully, and enhanced the in situ biodegradation rate more than the alternative enhancements. Second, the quantitative framework was applied to a series of large-scale laboratory and field-scale experiments, using reported parameter estimates to calculate the relevant dimensionless coefficients and predict the rate-limiting process(es). Observations from the studies were then used to evaluate those predictions.

  7. Toward a Dynamic Interactive Model of Non-Native Chinese Character Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Xiuli; Kwan, Joyce Lok Yin; Wong, Denise Wai Man; Lee, Stephen Man Kit; Yip, Joanna Hew Yan

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that word processing in English as a second language (L2) is affected by first language (L1) orthographic features. However, little is known about what affects L2 Chinese character processing in adult Chinese learners with different L1 orthographies such as Japanese, Korean, and English. With a picture-character…

  8. Separating business process from user interaction in web-based information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aberer, Karl; Datta, Anwitaman; Despotovic, Zoran; Wombacher, Andreas

    2003-01-01

    In Web-based information commerce it is diffcult to disentangle presentation from process logic, and sometimes even data is not separate from the presentation. Consequently, it becomes crucial to define an abstract model for business processes and their mapping into an active user interface presenta

  9. Baseliner: an open source, interactive tool for processing sap flux data from thermal dissipation probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew C. Oishi; David Hawthorne; Ram Oren

    2016-01-01

    Estimating transpiration from woody plants using thermal dissipation sap flux sensors requires careful data processing. Currently, researchers accomplish this using spreadsheets, or by personally writing scripts for statistical software programs (e.g., R, SAS). We developed the Baseliner software to help establish a standardized protocol for processing sap...

  10. Interactions between motion and form processing in the human visual system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George eMather

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The predominant view of motion and form processing in the human visual system assumes that these two attributes are handled by separate and independent modules. Motion processing involves filtering by direction-selective sensors, followed by integration to solve the aperture problem. Form processing involves filtering by orientation-selective and size-selective receptive fields, followed by integration to encode object shape. It has long been known that motion signals can influence form processing in the well-known Gestalt principle of common fate; texture elements which share a common motion property are grouped into a single contour or texture region. However recent research in psychophysics and neuroscience indicates that the influence of form signals on motion processing is more extensive than previously thought. First, the salience and apparent direction of moving lines depends on how the local orientation and direction of motion combine to match the receptive field properties of motion-selective neurons. Second, orientation signals generated by ‘motion-streaks’ influence motion processing; motion sensitivity, apparent direction and adaptation are affected by simultaneously present orientation signals. Third, form signals generated by human body shape influence biological motion processing, as revealed by studies using point-light motion stimuli. Thus form-motion integration seems to occur at several different levels of cortical processing, from V1 to STS.

  11. Streamlining cross departmental interactions of back office processes in financial services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutte, C.R.

    2011-01-01

    Due to the increased competitive environment in the retail banking industry, customer satisfaction and efficient back office processes have become more important. Lean Six Sigma (LSS) is a management style that is focused on improving processes and increasing customer satisfaction. Discrete-Event Si

  12. Semantic Structure in Vocabulary Knowledge Interacts With Lexical and Sentence Processing in Infancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borovsky, Arielle; Ellis, Erica M; Evans, Julia L; Elman, Jeffrey L

    2016-11-01

    Although the size of a child's vocabulary associates with language-processing skills, little is understood regarding how this relation emerges. This investigation asks whether and how the structure of vocabulary knowledge affects language processing in English-learning 24-month-old children (N = 32; 18 F, 14 M). Parental vocabulary report was used to calculate semantic density in several early-acquired semantic categories. Performance on two language-processing tasks (lexical recognition and sentence processing) was compared as a function of semantic density. In both tasks, real-time comprehension was facilitated for higher density items, whereas lower density items experienced more interference. The findings indicate that language-processing skills develop heterogeneously and are influenced by the semantic network surrounding a known word. © 2016 The Authors. Child Development © 2016 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  13. Having Your Cake and Eating It Too Autonomy and Interaction in a Model of Sentence Processing

    CERN Document Server

    Eiselt, K P; Holbrook, J K; Eiselt, Kurt P.; Mahesh, Kavi; Holbrook, Jennifer K.

    1994-01-01

    Is the human language understander a collection of modular processes operating with relative autonomy, or is it a single integrated process? This ongoing debate has polarized the language processing community, with two fundamentally different types of model posited, and with each camp concluding that the other is wrong. One camp puts forth a model with separate processors and distinct knowledge sources to explain one body of data, and the other proposes a model with a single processor and a homogeneous, monolithic knowledge source to explain the other body of data. In this paper we argue that a hybrid approach which combines a unified processor with separate knowledge sources provides an explanation of both bodies of data, and we demonstrate the feasibility of this approach with the computational model called COMPERE. We believe that this approach brings the language processing community significantly closer to offering human-like language processing systems.

  14. Modeling of Air-Sea Interaction and Ocean Processes for the Northern Arabian Sea Circulation Autonomous Research Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    understand and quantify the upper ocean physical processes that determine the air-sea interaction, mixed layer dynamics, ocean circulation dynamics...mature phases of the monsoon is a key to the circulation in the northwestern Indian Ocean and Arabian Sea NASCar will make use of autonomous... circulation of the Arabian Sea, the equatorial wave guide and the boundary currents in southern Indian Ocean . Better understanding of the short term

  15. Fractal and stochastic geometry inference for breast cancer: a case study with random fractal models and Quermass-interaction process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermann, Philipp; Mrkvička, Tomáš; Mattfeldt, Torsten; Minárová, Mária; Helisová, Kateřina; Nicolis, Orietta; Wartner, Fabian; Stehlík, Milan

    2015-08-15

    Fractals are models of natural processes with many applications in medicine. The recent studies in medicine show that fractals can be applied for cancer detection and the description of pathological architecture of tumors. This fact is not surprising, as due to the irregular structure, cancerous cells can be interpreted as fractals. Inspired by Sierpinski carpet, we introduce a flexible parametric model of random carpets. Randomization is introduced by usage of binomial random variables. We provide an algorithm for estimation of parameters of the model and illustrate theoretical and practical issues in generation of Sierpinski gaskets and Hausdorff measure calculations. Stochastic geometry models can also serve as models for binary cancer images. Recently, a Boolean model was applied on the 200 images of mammary cancer tissue and 200 images of mastopathic tissue. Here, we describe the Quermass-interaction process, which can handle much more variations in the cancer data, and we apply it to the images. It was found out that mastopathic tissue deviates significantly stronger from Quermass-interaction process, which describes interactions among particles, than mammary cancer tissue does. The Quermass-interaction process serves as a model describing the tissue, which structure is broken to a certain level. However, random fractal model fits well for mastopathic tissue. We provide a novel discrimination method between mastopathic and mammary cancer tissue on the basis of complex wavelet-based self-similarity measure with classification rates more than 80%. Such similarity measure relates to Hurst exponent and fractional Brownian motions. The R package FractalParameterEstimation is developed and introduced in the paper.

  16. Mathematical modelling of the the processes of radiating formation of defects at interaction of carbon with graphite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kupchishin

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Processes of radiation formation of defects in the carbon irradiated by graphite are considered in work. The regularities arising at selection of approximation expressions, a finding of result area at calculation of cascadely - probabilistic functions depending on number of interactions and depth of penetration of particles are revealed. The regularities formed at calculations of concentration of radiating defects in graphite, irradiated by carbon are received. Results of calculations are presented in the form of tables and schedules.

  17. Development of a prototype multi-processing interactive software invocation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, W. J.

    1983-01-01

    The Interactive Software Invocation System (NASA-ISIS) was first transported to the M68000 microcomputer, and then rewritten in the programming language Path Pascal. Path Pascal is a significantly enhanced derivative of Pascal, allowing concurrent algorithms to be expressed using the simple and elegant concept of Path Expressions. The primary results of this contract was to verify the viability of Path Pascal as a system's development language. The NASA-ISIS implementation using Path Pascal is a prototype of a large, interactive system in Path Pascal. As such, it is an excellent demonstration of the feasibility of using Path Pascal to write even more extensive systems. It is hoped that future efforts will build upon this research and, ultimately, that a full Path Pascal/ISIS Operating System (PPIOS) might be developed.

  18. Proteomic dissection of biological pathways/processes through profiling protein-protein interaction networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Cellular functions, either under the normal or pathological conditions or under different stresses, are the results of the coordinated action of multiple proteins interacting in macromolecular complexes or assemblies. The precise determination of the specific composition of protein complexes, especially using scalable and high-throughput methods, represents a systematic approach toward revealing particular cellular biological functions. In this regard, the direct profiling protein-protein interactions (PPIs) represent an efficient way to dissect functional pathways for revealing novel protein functions. In this review, we illustrate the technological evolution for the large-scale and precise identification of PPIs toward higher physiologically relevant accuracy. These techniques aim at improving the efficiency of complex pull-down, the signal specificity and accuracy in distinguishing specific PPIs, and the accuracy of identifying physiological relevant PPIs. A newly developed streamline proteomic approach for mapping the binary relationship of PPIs in a protein complex is introduced.

  19. Making sense of intercultural interaction processes in international joint venture settings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dao, Li

    culture in the form of cultural distance as a problem area faced by IJVs. Meanwhile, a non-mainstream perspective grounded in the social constructivist school of thought has increasingly argued for the relevance of a concept of culture as socially constructed through interaction in cross-border inter......-firm settings such as IJVs. Drawing on recent calls for further conceptual development in the non-mainstream perspective, the dissertation argues that an in-depth study of cultural dynamics through social interaction in an IJV setting will shed light on a number of under-explored aspects. Such aspects include...... of culture as socially constructed meanings and practices. This concept is in contrast to a concept of culture as essence, i.e. identified by its relatively stable characters, as highlighted in mainstream literature. However, the dissertation argues that in a holistic social constructivist view, culture also...

  20. Interactions between milk protein ingredients and other milk components during processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Guanchen

    research in our group shown that, both MWP and NWP can give a higher viscosity and denser microstructure compared to WPC when used as fat replacer in low-fat yoghurt. In the thesis, we investigated how these two types of commercial whey protein particles interact with other milk components and how...... these interactions affect final acidified milk products. By detecting the properties of the whey protein aggregates, MWP and NWP showed low native whey protein content, low free thiol content and high surface hydrophobicity and were relatively stable at high temperature in the 5 % pure dispersions. When MWP and NWP...... with other proteins present and resulted in a protein network with low connectivity in the resulting gels. Increasing the casein/whey protein ratio did not decrease the gel strength in the acidified milk model systems with added whey protein aggregates. The results of this study highlighted the influences...

  1. Electrical-thermal interaction simulation for resistance spot welding nugget process of mild steel and stainless steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王春生; 韩凤武; 陆培德; 赵熹华; 陈勇; 邱冬生

    2002-01-01

    A three-dimensional finite difference electrical-thermal model for resistance spot welding nugget process of mild steel and stainless steel is introduced. A simulation method of the interaction of electrical and thermal factors is presented. Meanwhile, calculation method of contact resistance and treatment method of heater structure is provided. The influence of the temperature dependent material properties and various cooling boundary conditions on welding process was also taken into account in the model. A method for improving the mild steel and stainless steel joint was analyzed in numerical simulation process. Experimental verification shows that the model prediction agrees well with the practice. The model provides a useful theoretic tool for the analysis of the process of resistance spot welding of mild steel and stainless steel.

  2. Anvil Forecast Tool in the Advanced Weather Interactive Processing System, Phase II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Joe H., III

    2008-01-01

    Meteorologists from the 45th Weather Squadron (45 WS) and Spaceflight Meteorology Group have identified anvil forecasting as one of their most challenging tasks when predicting the probability of violations of the Lightning Launch Commit Criteria and Space Light Rules. As a result, the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) created a graphical overlay tool for the Meteorological Interactive Data Display Systems (MIDDS) to indicate the threat of thunderstorm anvil clouds, using either observed or model forecast winds as input.

  3. Influence of the Chemical Interactions on the Removal Rate of Different Salts in Electrokinetic Desalination Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paz-Garcia, Juan Manuel; Johannesson, Björn; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    2011-01-01

    Electrokinetic desalination techniques have been successfully applied for the prevention of salt-induced deterioration problems of masonry and other construction materials. A mathematical model for electrochemical desalination treatments is described, based on the Poisson-Nernst-Planck system...... and sculptures. Simulations of the desalination treatment of brick samples contaminated with these target contaminants are shown. The influence of the chemical interactions on the efficiency is highlighted in the results....

  4. Microbial interactions with chromium: basic biological processes and applications in environmental biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Corona, J F; Romo-Rodríguez, P; Santos-Escobar, F; Espino-Saldaña, A E; Hernández-Escoto, H

    2016-12-01

    Chromium (Cr) is a highly toxic metal for microorganisms as well as plants and animal cells. Due to its widespread industrial use, Cr has become a serious pollutant in diverse environmental settings. The hexavalent form of the metal, Cr(VI), is considered a more toxic species than the relatively innocuous and less mobile Cr(III) form. The study of the interactions between microorganisms and Cr has been helpful to unravel the mechanisms allowing organisms to survive in the presence of high concentrations of Cr(VI) and to detoxify and remove the oxyanion. Various mechanisms of interactions with Cr have been identified in diverse species of bacteria and fungi, including biosorption, bioaccumulation, reduction of Cr(VI) to Cr(III), and chromate efflux. Some of these systems have been proposed as potential biotechnological tools for the bioremediation of Cr pollution using bioreactors or by in situ treatments. In this review, the interactions of microorganisms with Cr are summarised, emphasising the importance of new research avenues using advanced methodologies, including proteomic, transcriptomic, and metabolomic analyses, as well as the use of techniques based on X-ray absorption spectroscopy and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy.

  5. An Updated Coupled Model for Land-Atmosphere Interaction. Part Ⅰ: Simulations of Physical Processes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZENG Hongling; WANG Zaizhi; JI Jinjun; WU Guoxiong

    2008-01-01

    A new two-way land-atmosphere interaction model (R42_AVIM) is fulfilled by coupling the spectral at- mospheric model (SAMIL_R42L9) developed at the State Key Laboratory of Numerical Modeling for Atmo- spheric Sciences and Geophysical Fluid Dynamics, Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Chinese Academy of Sci- ences (LASG/IAP/CAS) with the land surface model, Atmosphere-Vegetation-Interaction-Model (AVIM). In this coupled model, physical and biological components of AVIM are both included. Climate base state and land surface physical fluxes simulated by R42_AVIM are analyzed and compared with the results of R42_SSIB [which is coupled by SAMIL_R42L9 and Simplified Simple Biosphere (SSIB) models]. The results show the performance of the new model is closer to the observations. It can basically guarantee that the land surface energy budget is balanced, and can simulate June-July-August (JJA) and December-January- February (DJF) land surface air temperature, sensible heat flux, latent heat flux, precipitation, sea level pressure and other variables reasonably well. Compared with R42_SSIB, there are obvious improvements in the JJA simulations of surface air temperature and surface fluxes. Thus, this land-atmosphere coupled model will offer a good experiment platform for land-atmosphere interaction research.

  6. The Neural Correlates of the Interaction between Semantic and Phonological Processing for Chinese Character Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaojuan; Zhao, Rong; Zevin, Jason D.; Yang, Jianfeng

    2016-01-01

    Visual word recognition involves mappings among orthographic, phonological, and semantic codes. In alphabetic languages, it is hard to disentangle the effects of these codes, because orthographically well-formed words are typically pronounceable, confounding orthographic and phonological processes, and orthographic cues to meaning are rare, and where they occur are morphological, confounding orthographic and semantic processes. In Chinese character recognition, it is possible to explore orthography to phonology (O-P) and orthography to semantics (O-S) processes independently by taking advantage of the distinct phonetic and semantic components in Chinese phonograms. We analyzed data from an fMRI experiment using lexical decision for Chinese characters to explore the sensitivity of areas associated with character recognition to orthographic, phonological, and semantic processing. First, a correlation approach was used to identify regions associated with reaction time, frequency, consistency and visual complexity. Then, these ROIs were examined for their responses to stimuli with different types of information available. These results revealed two neural pathways, one for O-S processing relying on left middle temporal gyrus and angular gyrus, and the other for O-P processing relying on inferior frontal gyrus and insula. The two neural routes form a shared neural network both for real and pseudo-characters, and their cooperative division of labor reflects the neural basis for processing different types of characters. Results are broadly consistent with findings from alphabetic languages, as predicted by reading models that assume the same general architecture for logographic and alphabetic scripts. PMID:27445914

  7. Thermal Diffusion Processes in Metal-Tip-Surface Interactions: Contact Formation and Adatom Mobility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Mads Reinholdt; Jacobsen, Karsten Wedel; Jonsson, Hannes

    1996-01-01

    We have carried out computer simulations to identify and characterize various thermally activated atomic scale processes that can play an important role in room temperature experiments where a metal tip is brought close to a metal surface. We find that contact formation between the tip...... and the surface can occur by a sequence of atomic hop and exchange processes which become active on a millisecond time scale when the tip is about 3-5 Angstrom from the surface. Adatoms on the surface are stabilized by the presence of the tip and energy barriers for diffusion processes in the region under the tip...

  8. Interatomic interaction of additive elements and their influence on the processes in the double metal solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Марина Анатоліівна Рябікіна

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Modern industry uses a lot of elements as additives to improve the service characteristics of metal products that are to be used for various purposes. These elements can be divided into two groups: the first group includes the elements interacting with iron and improving its characteristics (alloying elements, and the second group includes the elements, that modify the characteristics of the structure and properties in an undesirable direction. These are trace elements: S, P, O, As, and others in steel. The negative impact of these elements shows itself as banding, the formation of non-metallic inclusions, flakes, grain boundary segregations et al. The influence of the elements of the both groups on the properties of steel depends on the nature and level of interatomic interaction in the alloy. Computational and analytical study of the major impurity elements in steel impact on the interatomic bond strength and the probability of forming complexes, clusters, and chemical compounds with the basic alloying elements in the steel has been carried out in the work. The theoretical parameter which defines the strength of the ion-covalent bond of two atoms: non-metallic – metallic is the electronegativity of elements. The electronegativity difference of the metal and non-metallic elements increasing, the ionic bonding and thermodynamic stability of these compounds  increase. On the other hand, concentration of valent electrons is a universal characteristic of an atomic element which determines many of its properties, and especially the energy of interatomic interaction. Energy calculations of pairwise interatomic impurity elements: H, C, N, S, P, As interaction with Fe and major alloying elements in steel: Mn, Cr, Si, V, Al, Ti, W, Cu, Mo, Nb were made. It has been stated that all the impurity elements except phosphorus, hydrogen and arsenic have sufficient high adhesion with the majority of the metal elements in the modern steels. Phosphorus does

  9. Metals Processing Laboratory User Facility: Facilities capabilities; Interactive programs; Recent experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mackiewicz-Ludtka, G.; Raschke, R.A. [eds.] [comps.

    1998-02-12

    MPLUS is a DOE designated User Facility providing extensive Technical Expertise and Specialized Facilities to assist Industrial and Academic Partners in becoming more Energy Efficient and enhancing US Competitiveness in the World market. MPLUS focusing on 7 major vision industries (aluminum, chemical, forest products, glass, metals castings, refineries, and steel) identified by DOE as being energy intensive, as well as cross-cutting industries such as welding and heat treating. MPLUS consists of four primary facilities: (1) Materials Processing, (2) Materials Joining, (3) Materials Characterization and Properties, and (4) Materials Process Modeling. Each facility provides rapid access to unique, state-of-the-art equipment, capabilities, and technical expertise necessary for solving materials processing issues that limit the development and implementation of emerging technologies. These capabilities include: (1) materials synthesis; (2) deformation processing; (3) materials characterization; (4) joining and mathematical modeling.

  10. Point-Process Models of Social Network Interactions: Parameter Estimation and Missing Data Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    valid OMB control number. 1. REPORT DATE AUG 2014 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2014 to 00-00-2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Point-process...the remainder, emphasising the need for robust access controls . Future work should address how network structure impacts the ability to fill in missing...25] Ogata , Y. 1981 On Lewis’ simulation method for point processes. IEEE Transactions on Information Theory 27, 23–31. [26] — 1998 Space-time point

  11. Interactive Computing and Processing of NASA Land Surface Observations Using Google Earth Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molthan, Andrew; Burks, Jason; Bell, Jordan

    2016-01-01

    Google's Earth Engine offers a "big data" approach to processing large volumes of NASA and other remote sensing products. h\\ps://earthengine.google.com/ Interfaces include a Javascript or Python-based API, useful for accessing and processing over large periods of record for Landsat and MODIS observations. Other data sets are frequently added, including weather and climate model data sets, etc. Demonstrations here focus on exploratory efforts to perform land surface change detection related to severe weather, and other disaster events.

  12. Baseliner: An open-source, interactive tool for processing sap flux data from thermal dissipation probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oishi, A. Christopher; Hawthorne, David A.; Oren, Ram

    Estimating transpiration from woody plants using thermal dissipation sap flux sensors requires careful data processing. Currently, researchers accomplish this using spreadsheets, or by personally writing scripts for statistical software programs (e.g., R, SAS). We developed the Baseliner software to help establish a standardized protocol for processing sap flux data. Baseliner enables users to QA/QC data and process data using a combination of automated steps, visualization, and manual editing. Data processing requires establishing a zero-flow reference value, or "baseline", which varies among sensors and with time. Since no set of algorithms currently exists to reliably QA/QC and estimate the zero-flow baseline, Baseliner provides a graphical user interface to allow visual inspection and manipulation of data. Data are first automatically processed using a set of user defined parameters. The user can then view the data for additional, manual QA/QC and baseline identification using mouse and keyboard commands. The open-source software allows for user customization of data processing algorithms as improved methods are developed.

  13. Contextual interaction between novelty and reward processing within the mesolimbic system

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Medial temporal lobe (MTL) dependent long-term memory for novel events is modulated by a circuitry that also responds to reward and includes the ventral striatum, dopaminergic midbrain, and medial orbitofrontal cortex (mOFC). This common neural network may reflect a functional link between novelty and reward whereby novelty motivates exploration in the search for rewards; a link also termed novelty “exploration bonus.” We used fMRI in a scene encoding paradigm to investigate the interaction b...

  14. EPR statistical mixture of correlated states with fractional brownian process induced by third party interaction

    CERN Document Server

    Tamburini, F; Bianchini, A

    1999-01-01

    A time-correlated EPR pairs protocol is analized, based on detection of fractal correlated signals into a statistical mixture of EPR correlated pairs: an approximated alpha-Fractional Brownian Motion (FBM) is induced on the group of EPR pairs (e.g. by sender-third party eavesdropper-like interactions as in Ekert quantum cryptography), to be detected by the receiver using a non - orthogonal wavelet filter, able to characterize the FBM from a noisy enviroment by formalizing a nonlinear optimization problem for the FBM alpha-characteristic parameter extimation.

  15. Interaction of density flow and geochemical processes on islands in the Okavanga Delta, Botswana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bauer-Gottwein, Peter; Langer, T.; Prommer, H.

    2006-01-01

    This paper analyses the interactions of density driven flow and geochemical reactions under evapo-concentration. A multi-species hydrodynamic flow and transport simulation model (SEAWAT) is coupled to a batch reaction model (PHREEQC) to analyze densitydriven flow on islands in the Okavango Delta......, Botswana. Evapo-concentration on the islands leads to steadily increasing concentrations until the onset of density-driven flow against the evaporation-induced upward gradient. Lag times to the onset of density-driven flow are strongly influenced by geochemical reactions. Mineral precipitation and carbon...

  16. The phosphorus interaction on the process forming of primary structure of hypereutectic silumins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Piątkowski

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available In this work the results of investigations concerning the hypereutectic silumins to be used as engine ports have been show. New idea on the interaction mechanism of phosphorus during modification of hypereutectic silumins has been shown. According to this hypothesis the influence of phosphorus is the result of local supercooling caused by evaporation and decompression of phosphorus steam. On the base to propose schematic diagram of the origin of local supercooling as a result of evaporation of phosphorus un microareas with a diversified concentration of silicon of the investigated Al-Si alloys.

  17. Observation of hard processes in rapidity gap events in {gamma}p interactions at HERA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, T.; Aid, S.; Andreev, V.; Andrieu, B.; Appuhn, R.D.; Arpagaus, M.; Babaev, A.; Baehr, J.; Ban, J.; Baranov, P.; Barrelet, E.; Bartel, W.; Barth, M.; Bassler, U.; Beck, H.P.; Behrend, H.J.; Belousov, A.; Berger, C.; Bergstein, H.; Bernardi, G.; Bernet, R.; Bertrand-Coremans, G.; Besancon, M.; Beyer, R.; Biddulph, P.; Bizot, J.C.; Blobel, V.; Borras, K.; Botterweck, F.; Boudry, V.; Braemer, A.; Brasse, F.; Braunschweig, W.; Brisson, V.; Bruncko, D.; Brune, C.; Buchholz, R.; Buengener, L.; Buerger, J.; Buesser, F.W.; Buniatian, A.; Burke, S.; Buschhorn, G.; Campbell, A.J.; Carli, T.; Charles, F.; Clarke, D.; Clegg, A.B.; Clerbaux, B.; Colombo, M.; Contreras, J.G.; Coughlan, J.A.; Courau, A.; Coutures, C.; Cozzika, G.; Criegee, L.; Cussans, D.G.; Cvach, J.; Dagoret, S.; Dainton, J.B.; Danilov, M.; Dau, W.D.; Daum, K.; David, M.; Deffur, E.; Delcourt, B.; Del Buono, L.; De Roeck, A.; De Wolf, E.A.; Di Nezza, P.; Dollfus, C.; Dowell, J.D.; Dreis, H.B.; Droutskoi, V.; Duboc, J.; Duellmann, D.; Duenger, O.; Duhm, H.; Ebert, J.; Ebert, T.R.; Eckerlin, G.; Efremenko, V.; Egli, S.; Ehrlichmann, H.; Eichenberger, S.; Eichler, R.; Eisele, F.; Eisenhandler, E.; Ellison, R.J.; Elsen, E.; Erdmann, M.; Erdmann, W.; Evrard, E.; Favart, L.; Fedotov, A.; Feeken, D.; Felst, R.; Feltesse, J.; Ferencei, J.; Ferrarotto, F.; Flamm, K.; Fleischer, M.; Flieser, M.; Fluegge, G.; Fomenko, A.; Fominykh, B.; Forbush, M.; Formanek, J.; Foster, J.M.; Franke, G.; Fretwurst, E.; Gabathuler, E.; Gabathuler, K.; Gamerdinger, K.; Garvey, J.; Gayler, J.; Gebauer, M.; Gellrich, A.; Genzel, H.; Gerhards, R.; Goerlach, U.; Goerlich, L.; Gogitidze, N.; Goldberg, M.; Goldner, D.; Gonzalez-Pineiro, B.; Goodall, A.M.; Gorelov, I.; Goritchev, P.; Grab, C.; Graessler, H.; Graessler, R.; Greenshaw, T.; Grindhammer, G.; Gruber, A.; Gruber, C.; Haack, J.; Haidt, D.; Hajduk, L.; Hamon, O.; Hampel, M.; Hanlon, E.M.; Hapke, M.; Haynes, W.J.; Heatherington, J.; Heinzelmann, G.; Henderson, R.C.W.; H1 Collaboration

    1995-02-06

    Events with no hadronic energy flow in a large interval of pseudo-rapidity in the proton direction are observed in photon-proton interactions at an average centre of mass energy left angle {radical}(s{sub {gamma}p}) right angle of 200 GeV. These events are interpreted as photon diffractive dissociation. Evidence for hard scattering in photon diffractive dissociation is demonstrated using inclusive single particle spectra, thrust as a function of transverse energy, and the observation of jet production. The data can be described by a Monte Carlo calculation including hard photon-pomeron scattering. ((orig.))

  18. Interactive dynamics among therapist interventions, therapeutic alliance and metacognition in the early stages of the psychotherapeutic process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locati, Francesca; Rossi, Germano; Parolin, Laura

    2017-04-19

    Several authors have identified a bidirectional link between patient metacognitive functioning and the therapeutic alliance. Specifically, metacognition might be enhanced by a positive alliance with the clinician, whereas metacognitive deficits might impede the alliance. Interestingly, the therapist's technical interventions might influence both therapeutic alliance and metacognitive functioning. However, little is known about the interactions between these dimensions. The aim of the present study is to explore these interactions more fully in the earliest phase of the therapeutic process. Participants included 24 patients and 12 therapists in training. The Metacognition Assessment Scale-Revised, Collaborative Interaction Scale, and Psychodynamic Intervention Rating Scale were employed in the first three sessions of psychotherapy. Sequential analyses revealed that different therapist interventions co-occurred with three different levels of the therapeutic alliance: A first level characterized by a positive collaboration, a second characterized by a neutral collaboration, and a third characterized by ruptures. Importantly, the patient's metacognitive functioning was found to mediate the relationship between the therapeutic intervention and the therapeutic alliance in the positive and neutral levels of collaboration but not in the ruptures one. These findings suggest that a specific interdependence exists among the therapeutic alliance, technical intervention, and metacognitive functioning. Clinical or methodological significance of this article: From a methodological standpoint, the originality of the present study lies in the combination of an interactionist approach, which conceives process factors as interrelated dimensions interacting in non-additive and often nonlinear ways, with analyses at both micro- and macro-analytic levels (i.e., sequential and mediation analyses). From a theoretical standpoint, findings of the present study indicate that specific

  19. Thermodynamic and Thermo-graphic Research of the Interaction Process of the Lisakovsky Gravitymagnetic Concentrate with Hydrocarbons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Мuhtar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The relevance of this work consists in treatment of complex brown iron ores. Large volumes of off-balance ores are an additional source of production raw materials, however, there is still a problem of their treatment by effective complex methods.This work shows a possibility of using liquid hydrocarbons as the reducers during thermochemical preparation of brown iron concentrates of the Lisakovsky field to metallurgical conversion and studies the features and main regularities of a roasting process of Lisakovsky gravitymagnetic concentrate in the presence of liquid hydrocarbons.The initial concentrate was treated by solution of a liquid hydrocarbon reducer (oil: phenyl hydride: water, which was subjected to heat treatment with the subsequent magnetic dressing.Research by the X-ray phase analysis of reducing products has shown that the main phases of magnetic fraction of a roasted product are presented by magnetite in a small amount hematite and quartz. Generally, only relative intensity of peaks is changed.The thermodynamic analysis of interaction between the hydrocarbons, which are a part of oil, and iron oxides was carried out. This analysis allowed us to suppose a reducing mechanism for the brown iron ores by liquid reducers.The data obtained by the thermodynamic analysis are confirmed by experimental results. It is proved that with increasing hydrogen-to-carbon ratio the probability of proceeding reactions of interaction between oxide of iron (III and liquid hydrocarbon increases.The differential and thermal analysis allowed us to study a heat treatment process of the Lisakovsky gravity-magnetic concentrate, which is pre-treated by oil solutions, as well as to show a possibility for proceeding the process of interaction between liquid hydrocarbon and ferriferous products of Lisakovsky gravity-magnetic concentrate.It is found that with increasing temperature in the treated samples of LGMK the hydrogoethite dehydration product interacts with

  20. Effect of Mercury-Noble Metal Interactions on SRAT Processing of SB3 Simulants (U)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koopman, D. C.; Baich, M. A.

    2004-12-31

    Controlling hydrogen generation below the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) safety basis constrains the range of allowable acid additions in the DWPF Chemical Processing Cell. This range is evaluated in simulant tests at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). A minimum range of allowable acid additions is needed to provide operational flexibility and to handle typical uncertainties in process and analytical measurements used to set acid additions during processing. The range of allowable acid additions is a function of the composition of the feed to DWPF. Feed changes that lead to a smaller range of allowable acid additions have the potential to impact decisions related to wash endpoint control of DWPF feed composition and to the introduction of secondary waste streams into DWPF. A limited program was initiated in SRNL in 2001 to study the issue of hydrogen generation. The program was reinitiated at the end of fiscal year 2004. The primary motivation for the study is that a real potential exists to reduce the conservatism in the range of allowable acid additions in DWPF. Increasing the allowable range of acid additions can allow decisions on the sludge wash endpoint or the introduction of secondary waste streams to DWPF to be based on other constraints such as glass properties, organic carbon in the melter off-gas, etc. The initial phase of the study consisted of a review of site reports and off-site literature related to catalytic hydrogen generation from formic acid and/or formate salts by noble metals. Many things are already known about hydrogen generation during waste processing. This phase also included the development of an experimental program to improve the understanding of hydrogen generation. This phase is being documented in WSRC-TR-2002-00034. A number of areas were identified where an improved understanding would be beneficial. A phased approach was developed for new experimental studies related to hydrogen generation. The first phase

  1. On the incompatibilities of interaction scales and processes with focus on the work of adhesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenholm, Jarl B

    2016-08-01

    The mutual compatibility of Hamaker constants, solubility parameters or cohesive energy densities (CED) and surface/interface tensions are evaluated. It is shown that the partial contributions (dispersive, Lifshitz-van der Waals, dipolar induction, dipolar orientation, polar, acid, base and hydrogen bond) to Hamaker constants, solubility parameters or cohesive energy densities and surface/interface tensions are mutually inconsistent. The published reference data for a single set of liquids is moreover shown to be exceedingly scattered; making the parallel use of these scales challenging. Reference processes designed for bringing two and three phases into mutual contact are conflicting. The two-phase processes within Hamaker and exchange energy density (EED) frameworks agree, but the three-phase models differ. As a free-standing parameter the EED is however comparable. The two-phase adhesion process is shown to be incompatible with the other contact processes and the three-phase adhesion process is opposite to them. One reason for this controversy is the different averaging of interfacial properties. While interfacial Hamaker constants and solubility parameters or cohesive energy densities are geometric averages of corresponding intervening phase properties, this practice is replaced by the work of adhesion being geometrically averaged as works of cohesion. As a result, there exist three conflicting models for the adhesion process: the Dupré work of adhesion, the Girifalco-Good geometric averaged works of cohesion and Fowkes reduced interfacial or interphasial tension process. None of these agree with the commonly accepted standard Hamaker contact processes and they should be replaced with the compatible extended work of adhesion process originally suggested by Dupré. The models offered for the conversion of Hamaker constants and solubility parameters or cohesive energy densities to surface tensions involve conversion factors and equilibrium distances between

  2. Further evidence for the interaction of central and peripheral processes: the impact of double letters in writing English words

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandel, Sonia; Peereman, Ronald; Ghimenton, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Most studies on spelling processes suppose that the activation of orthographic representations is over before we start to write. The goal of the present study was to provide evidence indicating that the orthographic representations activated during spelling production interact continuously with the motor processes during movement production. We manipulated gemination to assess the influence of the orthographic properties of words on the kinematic parameters of production. Native English-speaking participants wrote words containing double letters and control words on a digitizer [e.g., DISSIPATE (Geminate) and DISGRACE (Control)]. The word pairs shared the initial letters and differed on the presence of a doublet at the same position. The results revealed that latencies were shorter for Geminates than Controls, indicating that spelling processes were facilitated by the presence of a doublet in the word. Critically, the impact of letter doubling was also observed during production, with shorter letter durations (e.g., D, I, S) and intervals (DI, IS) for Geminates than Controls. Letter doubling therefore affected the whole process of word writing: from spelling recall to movement preparation and production. The spelling processes that were involved before movement initiation cascaded into processes that regulate movement execution. The activation spread onto peripheral processing until the production of the doublet was completely programmed (e.g., letter S). PMID:24133473

  3. Stress as a mnemonic filter: Interactions between medial temporal lobe encoding processes and post-encoding stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchey, Maureen; McCullough, Andrew M; Ranganath, Charan; Yonelinas, Andrew P

    2017-01-01

    Acute stress has been shown to modulate memory for recently learned information, an effect attributed to the influence of stress hormones on medial temporal lobe (MTL) consolidation processes. However, little is known about which memories will be affected when stress follows encoding. One possibility is that stress interacts with encoding processes to selectively protect memories that had elicited responses in the hippocampus and amygdala, two MTL structures important for memory formation. There is limited evidence for interactions between encoding processes and consolidation effects in humans, but recent studies of consolidation in rodents have emphasized the importance of encoding "tags" for determining the impact of consolidation manipulations on memory. Here, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging in humans to test the hypothesis that the effects of post-encoding stress depend on MTL processes observed during encoding. We found that changes in stress hormone levels were associated with an increase in the contingency of memory outcomes on hippocampal and amygdala encoding responses. That is, for participants showing high cortisol reactivity, memories became more dependent on MTL activity observed during encoding, thereby shifting the distribution of recollected events toward those that had elicited relatively high activation. Surprisingly, this effect was generally larger for neutral, compared to emotionally negative, memories. The results suggest that stress does not uniformly enhance memory, but instead selectively preserves memories tagged during encoding, effectively acting as mnemonic filter. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Auger and carrier-surface phonon interaction processes in graphene on a substrate made of polar materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahdouani, M.; Bourguiga, R.

    2017-02-01

    We present a theoretical study of two specific dynamical optical properties, namely Auger and surface electron-phonon interaction processes in monolayer graphene on polar substrates such as SiO2 , HfO2 , SiC and hexagonal BN. Thus the eigenenergies have been derived from the tight-binding Hamiltonian in monolayer graphene. Our results indicate that both Auger and electron-surface phonon interaction processes depend on the polar substrate. Such polar substrates allow for the presence of polar optical phonons localized near the graphene-substrate interface which could be a significant scattering source for graphene carriers across the long-range Fröhlich coupling. Furthermore, the linear, gapless band structure of graphene provides ideal conditions for Auger processes which are Auger recombination (AR) and impact ionization (IMI). These processes are of fundamental interest because they strongly influence the relaxation dynamics of carriers. Likewise, we have investigated the effect of various dielectrics on both Auger and electron-surface phonon scattering rates in single layer graphene by varying the temperature, the charge carrier density and the physical separation between the interface of the dielectric substrate and graphene.

  5. Representing virus-host interactions and other multi-organism processes in the Gene Ontology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foulger, R E; Osumi-Sutherland, D; McIntosh, B K; Hulo, C; Masson, P; Poux, S; Le Mercier, P; Lomax, J

    2015-07-28

    The Gene Ontology project is a collaborative effort to provide descriptions of gene products in a consistent and computable language, and in a species-independent manner. The Gene Ontology is designed to be applicable to all organisms but up to now has been largely under-utilized for prokaryotes and viruses, in part because of a lack of appropriate ontology terms. To address this issue, we have developed a set of Gene Ontology classes that are applicable to microbes and their hosts, improving both coverage and quality in this area of the Gene Ontology. Describing microbial and viral gene products brings with it the additional challenge of capturing both the host and the microbe. Recognising this, we have worked closely with annotation groups to test and optimize the GO classes, and we describe here a set of annotation guidelines that allow the controlled description of two interacting organisms. Building on the microbial resources already in existence such as ViralZone, UniProtKB keywords and MeGO, this project provides an integrated ontology to describe interactions between microbial species and their hosts, with mappings to the external resources above. Housing this information within the freely-accessible Gene Ontology project allows the classes and annotation structure to be utilized by a large community of biologists and users.

  6. Contextual interaction between novelty and reward processing within the mesolimbic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunzeck, Nico; Doeller, Christian F; Dolan, Ray J; Duzel, Emrah

    2012-06-01

    Medial temporal lobe (MTL) dependent long-term memory for novel events is modulated by a circuitry that also responds to reward and includes the ventral striatum, dopaminergic midbrain, and medial orbitofrontal cortex (mOFC). This common neural network may reflect a functional link between novelty and reward whereby novelty motivates exploration in the search for rewards; a link also termed novelty "exploration bonus." We used fMRI in a scene encoding paradigm to investigate the interaction between novelty and reward with a focus on neural signals akin to an exploration bonus. As expected, reward related long-term memory for the scenes (after 24 hours) strongly correlated with activity of MTL, ventral striatum, and substantia nigra/ventral tegmental area (SN/VTA). Furthermore, the hippocampus showed a main effect of novelty, the striatum showed a main effect of reward, and the mOFC signalled both novelty and reward. An interaction between novelty and reward akin to an exploration bonus was found in the hippocampus. These data suggest that MTL novelty signals are interpreted in terms of their reward-predicting properties in the mOFC, which biases striatal reward responses. The striatum together with the SN/VTA then regulates MTL-dependent long-term memory formation and contextual exploration bonus signals in the hippocampus.

  7. Interaction Based on Drawing Gestures to Complement the Teaching-Learning Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariosto Vicuña

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Interaction based on hand gestures has experienced a great progress in recent years. Its utility has been verified in several areas, particularly in the educational field, where it can contribute to enhance the quality of education. However, there are still some topics that have received little attention, such as the use of drawing gestures executed in the air with the hand. For this reason, this article analyzes the feasibility of using this type of gestures with educational purposes. With this aim, we conducted a study in which the participants interacted with the developed application by means of several drawing gestures. The obtained quantitative and qualitative results confirm the validity of our proposal. Specifically, the participants’ performance was acceptable according to the values of the used metrics. Moreover, the participants indicated the proposal is interesting and enjoyable. As a consequence, the use of applications of this type, in the classroom or at home, could contribute to increase the students’ interest in the corresponding subject, which should lead to obtain better marks.

  8. Harmonically-Interacting Step Approach to the Relaxation Process of Vicinal Surface. II. The Relaxation Process Induced by the Step-Edge Diffusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Takao

    1999-09-01

    The relaxation processes of vicinal surface induced by the diffusion of adatoms along the step edge are analyzed by the Ginzburg-Landau-Langevin equation based on the harmonically-interacting step (HIS) picture.By the equation, the time evolutions of the step deformation width and the step fluctuation width are analyzed.For the relaxation process induced by the infinite-length step-edge diffusion, these quantities show the “universal” scaling behaviors.However, both of the universality and the scaling behavior disappear for the finite-length diffusion.To verify the results quantitatively, we performed the Monte-Carlo calculations for the solid-on-solid step terrace-step-kink model.The results from the Monte-Carlo calculations agree with the analytic results from the HIS picture very well.

  9. A method to assess how interactive water simulation tools influence transdisciplinary decision-making processes in water management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leskens, Johannes

    2015-04-01

    In modern water management, often transdisciplinary work sessions are organized in which various stakeholders participate to jointly define problems, choose measures and divide responsibilities to take actions. Involved stakeholders are for example policy analysts or decision-makers from municipalities, water boards or provinces, representatives of pressure groups and researchers from knowledge institutes. Parallel to this increasing attention for transdisciplinary work sessions, we see a growing availability of interactive IT-tools that can be applied during these sessions. For example, dynamic flood risk maps have become recently available that allow users during a work sessions to instantaneously assess the impact of storm surges or dam breaches, displayed on digital maps. Other examples are serious games, realistic visualizations and participatory simulations. However, the question is if and how these interactive IT-tools contribute to better decision-making. To assess this, we take the process of knowledge construction during a work session as a measure for the quality of decision-making. Knowledge construction can be defined as the process in which ideas, perspectives and opinions of different stakeholders, all having their own expertise and experience, are confronted with each other and new shared meanings towards water management issues are created. We present an assessment method to monitor the process of knowledge construction during work sessions in water management in which interactive IT tools are being used. The assessment method is based on a literature review, focusing on studies in which knowledge construction was monitored in other contexts that water management. To test the applicability of the assessment method, we applied it during a multi-stakeholder work session in Westland, located in the southwest of the Netherlands. The discussions during the work session were observed by camera. All statements, expressed by the various members of a

  10. Preliminary Study on the Performance and Interaction of Recycling Hydrolytic-Aerobic Combined Process of High Concentration Starch Wastewater

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李清彪; 廖鑫凯; 吴志旺; 邓旭; 黄益丽; 卢英华; 孙道华; 洪铭媛; 王琳

    2004-01-01

    A new recycling hydrolytic-aerobic combined process was developed to treat the high concentration organic wastewater. Simulated wastewater containing 10 g·L-1 starch with a CODcr value of 10000 mg·L-1 wasused. At first, the hydrolytic degradation and aerobic degradation process were examined in two batch reactors, respectively. In the stand-alone hydrolytic process, starch in the wastewater almost disappeared after 11 h treatment, but CODCr remained as high as 5803mg·L-1 after two days. In the aerobic process, the biodegradation rate of starch was much slower during the first 11 h than that in the hydrolytic process, although the CODCr removal efficiency reached 89.6% and more than 90% starch could be degraded after 37.5 h. To determine the interaction effects of the two processes, a series of hydrolytic-aerobic combinations were examined in details. Hydrolytic process played an important role in the whole recycle combination process as it could improve the biodegradability of the high concentration starch wastewater. However, from the other experiments, the negative effect of hydrolytic acidification was found in the hydrolytic-aerobic combination, which suggested that the aerobic microorganisms needed time to adapt themselves to the acidic environment. The effect of the degrading time, which was spent in the hydrolytic and aerobic unit, and the number of circulations, with which the wastewater went through the two units were investigated. It was found that a recycle combination of 6 h hydrolytic process with 12 h aerobic process was highly effective and potentially economical, in which the final removal efficiency of CODcr and efficiency of starch degradation reached 94.1% and 98.8%, respectively.

  11. Ab Initio Density Functional Theory Investigation of the Interaction between Carbon Nanotubes and Water Molecules during Water Desalination Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loay A. Elalfy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Density functional theory calculations using B3LYP/3-21G level of theory have been implemented on 6 carbon nanotubes (CNTs structures (3 zigzag and 3 armchair CNTs to study the energetics of the reverse osmosis during water desalination process. Calculations of the band gap, interaction energy, highest occupied molecular orbital, lowest unoccupied molecular orbital, electronegativity, hardness, and pressure of the system are discussed. The calculations showed that the water molecule that exists inside the CNT is about 2-3 Å away from its wall. The calculations have proven that the zigzag CNTs are more efficient for reverse osmosis water desalination process than armchair CNTs as the reverse osmosis process requires pressure of approximately 200 MPa for armchair CNTs, which is consistent with the values used in molecular dynamics simulations, while that needed when using zigzag CNTs was in the order of 60 MPa.

  12. Impact of weak interactions of free nucleons on the r-process in dynamical ejecta from neutron-star mergers

    CERN Document Server

    Goriely, Stephane; Just, Oliver; Pllumbi, Else; Janka, Hans-Thomas

    2015-01-01

    We investigate beta-interactions of free nucleons and their impact on the electron fraction (Y_e) and r-process nucleosynthesis in ejecta characteristic of binary neutron star mergers (BNSMs). For that we employ trajectories from a relativistic BNSM model to represent the density-temperature evolutions in our parametric study. In the high-density environment, positron captures decrease the neutron richness at the high temperatures predicted by the hydrodynamic simulation. Circumventing the complexities of modelling three-dimensional neutrino transport, (anti)neutrino captures are parameterized in terms of prescribed neutrino luminosities and mean energies, guided by published results and assumed as constant in time. Depending sensitively on the adopted neutrino-antineutrino luminosity ratio, neutrino processes increase Y_e to values between 0.25 and 0.40, still allowing for a successful r-process compatible with the observed solar abundance distribution and a significant fraction of the ejecta consisting of r...

  13. Study of interaction of ethylene glycol/PVP phase on noble metal powders prepared by polyol process

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    F Bonet; K Tekaia-Elhsissen; K Vijaya Sarathy

    2000-06-01

    Noble metal powders (Au, Ag, Pt, Pd and Ru) have been synthesized by the polyol process in both the nanometer and submicron scales (sans Pd, Pt and Ru). They have been characterized by both microscopic (TEM and SEM) as well as spectroscopic techniques (FT-IR and XPS). Infrared spectroscopy was employed to study the colloid particles in the presence of ethylene glycol and PVP and the results show that the interaction between the organic phase and the metal particles vary according to the particle size. The role of the solvent, ethylene glycol, during the reduction process was also investigated and we observe formation of >C=O vibration band after the reduction process implying that the solvent reduces the metal ions thereby getting oxidized. XPS measurements carried out on the colloidal sols have shown the presence of the organic phase adsorbed onto the metal particles.

  14. In our own image? Emotional and neural processing differences when observing human-human vs human-robot interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yin; Quadflieg, Susanne

    2015-11-01

    Notwithstanding the significant role that human-robot interactions (HRI) will play in the near future, limited research has explored the neural correlates of feeling eerie in response to social robots. To address this empirical lacuna, the current investigation examined brain activity using functional magnetic resonance imaging while a group of participants (n = 26) viewed a series of human-human interactions (HHI) and HRI. Although brain sites constituting the mentalizing network were found to respond to both types of interactions, systematic neural variation across sites signaled diverging social-cognitive strategies during HHI and HRI processing. Specifically, HHI elicited increased activity in the left temporal-parietal junction indicative of situation-specific mental state attributions, whereas HRI recruited the precuneus and the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPFC) suggestive of script-based social reasoning. Activity in the VMPFC also tracked feelings of eeriness towards HRI in a parametric manner, revealing a potential neural correlate for a phenomenon known as the uncanny valley. By demonstrating how understanding social interactions depends on the kind of agents involved, this study highlights pivotal sub-routes of impression formation and identifies prominent challenges in the use of humanoid robots. © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press.

  15. Interaction processes of ciprofloxacin with graphene oxide and reduced graphene oxide in the presence of montmorillonite in simulated gastrointestinal fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Shuai; Si, Yang; Wang, Fei; Su, Lei; Xia, CongCong; Yao, Jun; Chen, Huilun; Liu, Xingyu

    2017-05-31

    This study investigated the interaction processes of ciprofloxacin (CIP) with graphene oxide (GO) and reduced GO (rGO) in presence of montmorillonite (Mont) in simulated gastrointestinal fluids. The order of CIP adsorption affinity was rGO+Mont > GO+Mont > rGO+Mont+pepsin > rGO > GO+Mont+pepsin > Mont > Mont+pepsin > GO > rGO+pepsin > GO+pepsin in simulated gastric fluid. Mont enhanced the adsorption of CIP on GO and rGO due to hydrated Si species coating on GO and rGO in the simulated gastric fluid. Meanwhile, π-π interaction between CIP and graphene caused the great shift of two cyclopropyl CH2 and one cyclopropyl in CIP molecules. And GO, rGO, and Mont interacted mainly with CIP by COOH groups. CIP and pepsin molecules could intercalate and increase the basal spacing of Mont as well. After the various interaction systems of adsorbent-adsorbate transferring to the simulated intestinal fluid, CIP was continuously adsorbed by GO and rGO. In addition, adsorbed CIP was released from Mont into the solution through electrostatic repulsion. The decrease ratio of CIP was the lowest in the GO/rGO+Mont+pepsin systems. Therefore, the mixture of Mont and GO/rGO decreased the CIP concentration in gastrointestinal fluid to weaken further antibiotic activity of CIP.

  16. Embedded Formative Assessment and Classroom Process Quality: How Do They Interact in Promoting Science Understanding?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decristan, Jasmin; Klieme, Eckhard; Kunter, Mareike; Hochweber, Jan; Büttner, Gerhard; Fauth, Benjamin; Hondrich, A. Lena; Rieser, Svenja; Hertel, Silke; Hardy, Ilonca

    2015-01-01

    In this study we examine the interplay between curriculum-embedded formative assessment--a well-known teaching practice--and general features of classroom process quality (i.e., cognitive activation, supportive climate, classroom management) and their combined effect on elementary school students' understanding of the scientific concepts of…

  17. Cost-Benefit Analysis in Planning Processes: An Interactive Instrument in an Integrated Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reinhard, A.J.; Gaaff, A.

    2006-01-01

    Increasing pressure on space demands careful assessment between competing functions in a planning process. Especially, in metropolitan landscapes, space is in short supply and hence expensive. Housing, industrial sites and office parks, and infrastructure are strong drivers of landscape change, ofte

  18. Interactions Between Pre-Processing and Classification Methods for Event-Related-Potential Classification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Farquhar, J.D.R.; Hill, N.J.

    2013-01-01

    Detecting event related potentials (ERPs) from single trials is critical to the operation of many stimulus-driven brain computer interface (BCI) systems. The low strength of the ERP signal compared to the noise (due to artifacts and BCI irrelevant brain processes) makes this a challenging signal det

  19. Attuning: A Communication Process between People with Severe and Profound Intellectual Disability and Their Interaction Partners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Colin; Smith, Martine

    2016-01-01

    Background: People with severe and profound intellectual disability typically demonstrate a limited ability to communicate effectively. Most of their communications are non-verbal, often idiosyncratic and ambiguous. This article aims to identify the process that regulates communications of this group of people with others and to describe the…

  20. Embedded Formative Assessment and Classroom Process Quality: How Do They Interact in Promoting Science Understanding?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decristan, Jasmin; Klieme, Eckhard; Kunter, Mareike; Hochweber, Jan; Büttner, Gerhard; Fauth, Benjamin; Hondrich, A. Lena; Rieser, Svenja; Hertel, Silke; Hardy, Ilonca

    2015-01-01

    In this study we examine the interplay between curriculum-embedded formative assessment--a well-known teaching practice--and general features of classroom process quality (i.e., cognitive activation, supportive climate, classroom management) and their combined effect on elementary school students' understanding of the scientific concepts of…

  1. Attuning: A Communication Process between People with Severe and Profound Intellectual Disability and Their Interaction Partners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Colin; Smith, Martine

    2016-01-01

    Background: People with severe and profound intellectual disability typically demonstrate a limited ability to communicate effectively. Most of their communications are non-verbal, often idiosyncratic and ambiguous. This article aims to identify the process that regulates communications of this group of people with others and to describe the…

  2. The interaction of process and domain in prefrontal cortex during inductive reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babcock, Laura; Vallesi, Antonino

    2015-01-01

    Inductive reasoning is an everyday process that allows us to make sense of the world by creating rules from a series of instances. Consistent with accounts of process-based fractionations of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) along the left-right axis, inductive reasoning has been reliably localized to left PFC. However, these results may be confounded by the task domain, which is typically verbal. Indeed, some studies show that right PFC activation is seen with spatial tasks. This study used fMRI to examine the effects of process and domain on the brain regions recruited during a novel pattern discovery task. Twenty healthy young adult participants were asked to discover the rule underlying the presentation of a series of letters in varied spatial locations. The rules were either verbal (pertaining to a single semantic category) or spatial (geometric figures). Bilateral ventrolateral PFC activations were seen for the spatial domain, while the verbal domain showed only left ventrolateral PFC. A conjunction analysis revealed that the two domains recruited a common region of left ventrolateral PFC. The data support a central role of left PFC in inductive reasoning. Importantly, they also suggest that both process and domain shape the localization of reasoning in the brain.

  3. Interactions Between Pre-Processing and Classification Methods for Event-Related-Potential Classification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Farquhar, J.D.R.; Hill, N.J.

    2013-01-01

    Detecting event related potentials (ERPs) from single trials is critical to the operation of many stimulus-driven brain computer interface (BCI) systems. The low strength of the ERP signal compared to the noise (due to artifacts and BCI irrelevant brain processes) makes this a challenging signal

  4. New contexts, new processes, new strategies: the co-construction of meaning in plurilingual interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filomena Capucho

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, we will present the analysis of an extract from the Bucharest-Cinco corpus that will allow us to identify the strategies developed in the process of co-construction of meaning in multilingual contexts through a close examination of verbal and non-verbal features.

  5. Cost-Benefit Analysis in Planning Processes: An Interactive Instrument in an Integrated Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reinhard, A.J.; Gaaff, A.

    2006-01-01

    Increasing pressure on space demands careful assessment between competing functions in a planning process. Especially, in metropolitan landscapes, space is in short supply and hence expensive. Housing, industrial sites and office parks, and infrastructure are strong drivers of landscape change, ofte

  6. Adaptation to real motion reveals direction-selective interactions between real and implied motion processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lorteije, J.A.M.; Kenemans, J.L.; Jellema, T.; Lubbe, R.H.J. van der; Lommers, M.W.; Wezel, R.J.A. van

    2007-01-01

    Viewing static pictures of running humans evokes neural activity in the dorsal motion-sensitive cortex. To establish whether this response arises from direction-selective neurons that are also involved in real motion processing, we measured the visually evoked potential to implied motion following a

  7. Adaptation to Real Motion Reveals Direction-selective Interactions between Real and Implied Motion Processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lorteije, Jeannette A.M.; Kenemans, Leon; Jellema, Tjeerd; Lubbe, van der Rob H.J.; Lommers, Marjolein W.; Wezel, van Richard J.A.

    2007-01-01

    Viewing static pictures of running humans evokes neural activity in the dorsal motion-sensitive cortex. To establish whether this response arises from direction-selective neurons that are also involved in real motion processing, we measured the visually evoked potential to implied motion following a

  8. PragmatiX: An Interactive Tool for Visualizing the Creation Process Behind Collaboratively Engineered Ontologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walk, Simon; Pöschko, Jan; Strohmaier, Markus; Andrews, Keith; Tudorache, Tania; Noy, Natalya F; Nyulas, Csongor; Musen, Mark A

    2013-01-01

    With the emergence of tools for collaborative ontology engineering, more and more data about the creation process behind collaborative construction of ontologies is becoming available. Today, collaborative ontology engineering tools such as Collaborative Protégé offer rich and structured logs of changes, thereby opening up new challenges and opportunities to study and analyze the creation of collaboratively constructed ontologies. While there exists a plethora of visualization tools for ontologies, they have primarily been built to visualize aspects of the final product (the ontology) and not the collaborative processes behind construction (e.g. the changes made by contributors over time). To the best of our knowledge, there exists no ontology visualization tool today that focuses primarily on visualizing the history behind collaboratively constructed ontologies. Since the ontology engineering processes can influence the quality of the final ontology, we believe that visualizing process data represents an important stepping-stone towards better understanding of managing the collaborative construction of ontologies in the future. In this application paper, we present a tool - PragmatiX - which taps into structured change logs provided by tools such as Collaborative Protégé to visualize various pragmatic aspects of collaborative ontology engineering. The tool is aimed at managers and leaders of collaborative ontology engineering projects to help them in monitoring progress, in exploring issues and problems, and in tracking quality-related issues such as overrides and coordination among contributors. The paper makes the following contributions: (i) we present PragmatiX, a tool for visualizing the creation process behind collaboratively constructed ontologies (ii) we illustrate the functionality and generality of the tool by applying it to structured logs of changes of two large collaborative ontology-engineering projects and (iii) we conduct a heuristic evaluation

  9. Boundary driven Kawasaki process with long-range interaction: dynamical large deviations and steady states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourragui, Mustapha; Orlandi, Enza

    2013-01-01

    A particle system with a single locally-conserved field (density) in a bounded interval with different densities maintained at the two endpoints of the interval is under study here. The particles interact in the bulk through a long-range potential parametrized by β⩾0 and evolve according to an exclusion rule. It is shown that the empirical particle density under the diffusive scaling solves a quasilinear integro-differential evolution equation with Dirichlet boundary conditions. The associated dynamical large deviation principle is proved. Furthermore, when β is small enough, it is also demonstrated that the empirical particle density obeys a law of large numbers with respect to the stationary measures (hydrostatic). The macroscopic particle density solves a non-local, stationary, transport equation.

  10. Nonlinear PI Control with Adaptive Interaction Algorithm for Multivariable Wastewater Treatment Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. I. Samsudin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The wastewater treatment plant (WWTP is highly known with the nonlinearity of the control parameters, thus it is difficult to be controlled. In this paper, the enhancement of nonlinear PI controller (ENon-PI to compensate the nonlinearity of the activated sludge WWTP is proposed. The ENon-PI controller is designed by cascading a sector-bounded nonlinear gain to linear PI controller. The rate variation of the nonlinear gain kn is automatically updated based on adaptive interaction algorithm. Initiative to simplify the ENon-PI control structure by adapting kn has been proved by significant improvement under various dynamic influents. More than 30% of integral square error and 14% of integral absolute error are reduced compared to benchmark PI for DO control and nitrate in nitrogen removal control. Better average effluent qualities, less number of effluent violations, and lower aeration energy consumption resulted.

  11. Microbial interactions with organic contaminants in soil: definitions, processes and measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semple, Kirk T; Doick, Kieron J; Wick, Lukas Y; Harms, Hauke

    2007-11-01

    There has been and continues to be considerable scientific interest in predicting bioremediation rates and endpoints. This requires the development of chemical techniques capable of reliably predicting the bioavailability of organic compounds to catabolically active soil microbes. A major issue in understanding the link between chemical extraction and bioavailability is the problem of definition; there are numerous definitions, of varying degrees of complexity and relevance, to the interaction between organic contaminants and microorganisms in soil. The aim of this review is to consider the bioavailability as a descriptor for the rate and extent of biodegradation and, in an applied sense, bioremediation of organic contaminants in soil. To address this, the review will (i) consider and clarify the numerous definitions of bioavailability and discuss the usefulness of the term 'bioaccessibility'; (ii) relate definition to the microbiological and chemical measurement of organic contaminants' bioavailability in soil, and (iii) explore the mechanisms employed by soil microorganisms to attack organic contaminants in soil.

  12. The interaction of mineral nutrition and water supply in the process of winter wheat production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Šhivra

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In pot experiments performed in 1972-1976 with winter wheat variety 'Ilyichovka' grown at three levels of increasing mineral nutrition and at different levels of water supply (70% and 40% of maximal water capacity an interaction was observed between mineral nutrition and water availability on the yield and some physiological characteristics of the plants. Water stress during heading stage reduced nearly by one half the grain yield per plant, mostly by decreasing the number of completely filled grains. The quicker leaf senescence and grain number reduction as well as the total grain yield due to water stress differed between the nutritional levels. The relations between leaf surface area and grain yields were nearly linear in treatments with optimal water supply, but were markedly changed by water stress.

  13. Presenas do sensvel nos processos interacionais Sensitive presences on interactional processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kati Eliane Caetano

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available O acionamento de componentes sensveis nas relaes comunicacionais, seja sob a ao de estratgias miditicas ou como decorrncia da estrutura interacional inerente s trocas em redes, reanima o debate sobre o papel da experincia esttica na comunicao, assim como, paradoxalmente, seu desdobramento na afirmao de uma crise da experincia esttica. Visando a superar uma oposio simplista entre sensao e cognio, o presente artigo retoma dois conceitos fundamentais de definio do esttico na comunicao, para redimension-los no mbito daquela polmica, quais sejam, o de estesia e, o de excepcionalidade, que passam a ser tratados nos termos de uma inteligibilidade do sensvel. Desse ponto de vista, a questo do sentido no se traduz em leituras de carter hermenutico; compreende, sim, formas de presena no mundo de que derivam regimes de significao que se manifestam sobre um modo musical e necessariamente interacional.The activation of sensitive components in communication relations, either under the action of mediatic strategies or as a result of the interactional structure inherent to network exchanges, reinvigorates the discussion about the role of aesthetic experience in Communication, as well as, paradoxically, its unfolding in the assertion of a crisis of the aesthetic experience. Aiming to overcome a simplistic opposition between sensation and cognition, the present study recaptures two fundamental concepts of the aesthetic definition in communication, in order to re-dimension them in the ambit of that polemic, may it the one of aesthesia or the one of exceptionality, which are then treated in terms of an intelligibility of the sensitive. From this point of view, the question of sense is not translated into hermeneutical character readings; it comprehends indeed forms of presence in the world from which regimes of signification derive, and which is manifested over a musical and necessarily interactional way.

  14. Water-magma interaction and plume processes in the 2008 Okmok eruption, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unema, Joel; Ort, Michael H.; Larsen, Jessica D; Neal, Christina; Schaefer, Janet R.

    2016-01-01

    Eruptions of similar explosivity can have divergent effects on the surroundings due to differences in the behavior of the tephra in the eruption column and atmosphere. Okmok volcano, located on Umnak Island in the eastern Aleutian Islands, erupted explosively between 12 July and 19 August 2008. The basaltic andesitic eruption ejected ∼0.24 km3dense rock equivalent (DRE) of tephra, primarily directed to the northeast of the vent area. The first 4 h of the eruption produced dominantly coarse-grained tephra, but the following 5 wk of the eruption deposited almost exclusively ash, much of it very fine and deposited as ash pellets and ashy rain and mist. Meteorological storms combined with abundant plume water to efficiently scrub ash from the eruption column, with a rapid decrease in deposit thickness with distance from the vent. Grain-size analysis shows that the modes (although not their relative proportions) are very constant throughout the deposit, implying that the fragmentation mechanisms did not vary much. Grain-shape features consistent with molten fuel-coolant interaction are common. Surface and groundwater drainage into the vents provided the water for phreatomagmatic fragmentation. The available water (water that could reach the vent area during the eruption) was ∼2.8 × 1010 kg, and the erupted magma totaled ∼7 × 1011 kg, which yield an overall water:magma mass ratio of ∼0.04, but much of the water was not interactive. Although magma flux dropped from 1 × 107 kg/s during the initial 4 h to 1.8 × 105 kg/s for the remainder of the eruption, most of the erupted material was ejected during the lower-mass-flux period due to its much greater length, and this tephra was dominantly deposited within 10 km downwind of the vent. This highlights the importance of ash scrubbing in the evaluation of hazards from explosive eruptions.

  15. Laser Shock Processing of Metallic Materials: Coupling of Laser-Plasma Interaction and Material Behaviour Models for the Assessment of Key Process Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocaña, J. L.; Morales, M.; Molpeceres, C.; Porro, J. A.

    2010-10-01

    Profiting by the increasing availability of laser sources delivering intensities above 109 W/cm2 with pulse energies in the range of several Joules and pulse widths in the range of nanoseconds, laser shock processing (LSP) is consolidating as an effective technology for the improvement of surface mechanical and corrosion resistance properties of metals. The main advantage of the laser shock processing technique consists on its capability of inducing a relatively deep compression residual stresses field into metallic alloy pieces allowing an improved mechanical behaviour, explicitly, the life improvement of the treated specimens against wear, crack growth and stress corrosion cracking. Although significant work from the experimental side has been contributed to explore the optimum conditions of application of the treatments and to assess their ultimate capability to provide enhanced mechanical behaviour to work-pieces of typical materials, only limited attempts have been developed in the way of full comprehension and predictive assessment of the characteristic physical processes and material transformations with a specific consideration of real material properties. In the present paper, a review on the physical issues dominating the development of LSP processes from a high intensity laser-matter interaction point of view is presented along with the theoretical and computational methods developed by the authors for their predictive assessment and practical results at laboratory scale on the application of the technique to different materials.

  16. The materials production and processing facility at the Spanish National Centre for fusion technologies (TechnoFusion)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munoz, A., E-mail: rpp@fis.uc3m.es [Departamento de Fisica, UC3M, Avda de la Universidad 30, 28911 Leganes, Madrid (Spain); Monge, M.A.; Pareja, R. [Departamento de Fisica, UC3M, Avda de la Universidad 30, 28911 Leganes, Madrid (Spain); Hernandez, M.T. [LNF-CIEMAT, Avda, Complutense, 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Jimenez-Rey, D. [CMAM, UAM, C/Faraday 3, 28049, Madrid (Spain); Roman, R.; Gonzalez, M.; Garcia-Cortes, I. [LNF-CIEMAT, Avda, Complutense, 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Perlado, M. [IFN, ETSII, UPM, C/Jose Gutierrez Abascal, 2, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Ibarra, A. [LNF-CIEMAT, Avda, Complutense, 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2011-10-15

    In response to the urgent request from the EU Fusion Program, a new facility (TechnoFusion) for research and development of fusion materials has been planned with support from the Regional Government of Madrid and the Ministry of Science and Innovation of Spain. TechnoFusion, the National Centre for Fusion Technologies, aims screening different technologies relevant for ITER and DEMO environments while promoting the contribution of international companies and research groups into the Fusion Programme. For this purpose, the centre will be provided with a large number of unique facilities for the manufacture, testing (a triple-beam multi-ion irradiation, a plasma-wall interaction device, a remote handling for under ionizing radiation testing) and analysis of critical fusion materials. Particularly, the objectives, semi-industrial scale capabilities and present status of the TechnoFusion Materials Production and Processing (MPP) facility are presented. Previous studies revealed that the MPP facility will be a very promising infrastructure for the development of new materials and prototypes demanded by the fusion technology and therefore some of them will be here briefly summarized.

  17. Modelling the interaction of aeolian and fluvial processes with a combined cellular model of sand dunes and river systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Baoli; Coulthard, Tom J.

    2017-09-01

    Aeolian and fluvial processes are important agents for shaping the surface of the Earth, but are largely studied in isolation despite there being many locations where both processes are acting together and influencing each other. Using field data to investigate fluvial-aeolian interactions is, however, hampered by our short length of record and low temporal resolution of observations. Here we use numerical modelling to investigate, for the first time, the interplay between aeolian (sand dunes) and fluvial (river channel) processes. This modelling is carried out by combining two existing cellular models of aeolian and fluvial processes that requires considerable consideration of the different process representation and time stepping used. The result is a fully coupled (in time and space) sand dune - river model. Over a thousand-year simulation the model shows how the migration of sand dunes is readily blocked by rivers, yet aeolian processes can push the channel downwind. Over time cyclic channel avulsions develop indicating that aeolian action on fluvial systems may play an important part in governing avulsion frequency, and thus alluvial architecture.

  18. Beyond feedback control: the interactive use of performance management systems. Implications for process innovation in Italian healthcare organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demartini, Chiara; Mella, Piero

    2014-01-01

    This paper shows how the use of performance management systems affects managers' perception of satisfaction, the effectiveness of the control system and the performance related to process innovation. An exploratory empirical research has been conducted on 85 managers operating in Italian healthcare organizations. Empirical findings put forward that the interactive--as opposed to diagnostic--use of performance management systems enhances managerial satisfaction with the control system and managerial perception of effectiveness. The present study then showed that it is not the control itself that is an obstacle to innovation in organizations in general (and in health organizations in particular) but the diagnostic use of the control mechanisms, which impedes the interaction between the control personnel and those subject to the control. Finally, this paper addresses managerial implications and further research avenues.

  19. Environmental changes and human work in the region of the Upper Paraná River floodplain: processes and interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EA. Tomanik

    Full Text Available The environment and society constitute a complex of elements and interactions. Thus, an understanding of the processes in which the environment and psychosocial elements are involved may not be gained from knowledge of just one isolated variable. Based on such premises, the present paper, which summarizes the results of a series of studies, adopts work relationships as its main focus, but in addition, it has two complementary objectives. One is to present some analyses on the interaction between human actions and the environmental changes that have been taking place in the region of the Upper Paraná River floodplain and in its boundaries. A secondary aim is to show how those two factors have been changing people's working and living conditions and the identity configuration of some of the human groups that live at that site.

  20. Totally asymmetric simple exclusion process with a time-dependent boundary: interaction between vehicles and pedestrians at intersections

    CERN Document Server

    Ito, Hidetaka

    2014-01-01

    Interaction between vehicles and pedestrians is seen in many areas such as crosswalks and intersections. In this paper, we study a totally asymmetric simple exclusion process with a bottleneck at a boundary caused by an interaction. Due to the time-dependent effect originating from the speed of pedestrians, the flow of the model varies even if the average hopping probability at the last site is the same. We analyze the phenomenon by using two types of approximations: (2+1)-cluster approximation and isolated rarefaction wave approximation. The approximate results capture intriguing features of the model. Moreover, we discuss the situation where vehicles turn right at the intersection by adding a traffic light at the boundary condition. The result suggests that pedestrian scrambles are valid to eliminate traffic congestion in the right turn lane.