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Sample records for plasma-optic mass separators

  1. Introduction of organic/hydro-organic matrices in inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry and mass spectrometry: a tutorial review. Part II. Practical considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leclercq, Amélie; Nonell, Anthony; Todolí Torró, José Luis; Bresson, Carole; Vio, Laurent; Vercouter, Thomas; Chartier, Frédéric

    2015-07-23

    Inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) and mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) are increasingly used to carry out analyses in organic/hydro-organic matrices. The introduction of such matrices into ICP sources is particularly challenging and can be the cause of numerous drawbacks. This tutorial review, divided in two parts, explores the rich literature related to the introduction of organic/hydro-organic matrices in ICP sources. Part I provided theoretical considerations associated with the physico-chemical properties of such matrices, in an attempt to understand the induced phenomena. Part II of this tutorial review is dedicated to more practical considerations on instrumentation, instrumental and operating parameters, as well as analytical strategies for elemental quantification in such matrices. Two important issues are addressed in this part: the first concerns the instrumentation and optimization of instrumental and operating parameters, pointing out (i) the description, benefits and drawbacks of different kinds of nebulization and desolvation devices and the impact of more specific instrumental parameters such as the injector characteristics and the material used for the cone; and, (ii) the optimization of operating parameters, for both ICP-OES and ICP-MS. Even if it is at the margin of this tutorial review, Electrothermal Vaporization and Laser Ablation will also be shortly described. The second issue is devoted to the analytical strategies for elemental quantification in such matrices, with particular insight into the isotope dilution technique, particularly used in speciation analysis by ICP-coupled separation techniques. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Introduction of organic/hydro-organic matrices in inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry and mass spectrometry: A tutorial review. Part II. Practical considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leclercq, Amélie; Nonell, Anthony; Todolí Torró, José Luis; Bresson, Carole; Vio, Laurent; Vercouter, Thomas; Chartier, Frédéric

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: This tutorial review is dedicated to the analysis of organic/hydro-organic matrices by ICP techniques. A state-of-the-art focusing on sample introduction, relevant operating parameters optimization and analytical strategies for elemental quantification is provided. - Highlights: • Practical considerations to perform analyses in organic/hydro-organic matrices. • Description, benefits and drawbacks of recent introduction devices. • Optimization to improve plasma tolerance towards organic/hydro-organic matrices. • Analytical strategies for elemental quantification in organic/hydro-organic matrices. - Abstract: Inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) and mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) are increasingly used to carry out analyses in organic/hydro-organic matrices. The introduction of such matrices into ICP sources is particularly challenging and can be the cause of numerous drawbacks. This tutorial review, divided in two parts, explores the rich literature related to the introduction of organic/hydro-organic matrices in ICP sources. Part I provided theoretical considerations associated with the physico-chemical properties of such matrices, in an attempt to understand the induced phenomena. Part II of this tutorial review is dedicated to more practical considerations on instrumentation, instrumental and operating parameters, as well as analytical strategies for elemental quantification in such matrices. Two important issues are addressed in this part: the first concerns the instrumentation and optimization of instrumental and operating parameters, pointing out (i) the description, benefits and drawbacks of different kinds of nebulization and desolvation devices and the impact of more specific instrumental parameters such as the injector characteristics and the material used for the cone; and, (ii) the optimization of operating parameters, for both ICP-OES and ICP-MS. Even if it is at the margin of this tutorial review

  3. Introduction of organic/hydro-organic matrices in inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry and mass spectrometry: A tutorial review. Part II. Practical considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leclercq, Amélie, E-mail: amelie.leclercq@cea.fr [CEA Saclay, DEN, DANS, DPC, SEARS, Laboratoire de développement Analytique Nucléaire Isotopique et Elémentaire, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Nonell, Anthony, E-mail: anthony.nonell@cea.fr [CEA Saclay, DEN, DANS, DPC, SEARS, Laboratoire de développement Analytique Nucléaire Isotopique et Elémentaire, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Todolí Torró, José Luis, E-mail: jose.todoli@ua.es [Universidad de Alicante, Departamento de Quimica Analitica, Nutricion y Bromatología, Ap. de Correos, 99, 03080 Alicante (Spain); Bresson, Carole, E-mail: carole.bresson@cea.fr [CEA Saclay, DEN, DANS, DPC, SEARS, Laboratoire de développement Analytique Nucléaire Isotopique et Elémentaire, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Vio, Laurent, E-mail: laurent.vio@cea.fr [CEA Saclay, DEN, DANS, DPC, SEARS, Laboratoire de développement Analytique Nucléaire Isotopique et Elémentaire, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Vercouter, Thomas, E-mail: thomas.vercouter@cea.fr [CEA Saclay, DEN, DANS, DPC, SEARS, Laboratoire de développement Analytique Nucléaire Isotopique et Elémentaire, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Chartier, Frédéric, E-mail: frederic.chartier@cea.fr [CEA Saclay, DEN, DANS, DPC, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2015-07-23

    Graphical abstract: This tutorial review is dedicated to the analysis of organic/hydro-organic matrices by ICP techniques. A state-of-the-art focusing on sample introduction, relevant operating parameters optimization and analytical strategies for elemental quantification is provided. - Highlights: • Practical considerations to perform analyses in organic/hydro-organic matrices. • Description, benefits and drawbacks of recent introduction devices. • Optimization to improve plasma tolerance towards organic/hydro-organic matrices. • Analytical strategies for elemental quantification in organic/hydro-organic matrices. - Abstract: Inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) and mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) are increasingly used to carry out analyses in organic/hydro-organic matrices. The introduction of such matrices into ICP sources is particularly challenging and can be the cause of numerous drawbacks. This tutorial review, divided in two parts, explores the rich literature related to the introduction of organic/hydro-organic matrices in ICP sources. Part I provided theoretical considerations associated with the physico-chemical properties of such matrices, in an attempt to understand the induced phenomena. Part II of this tutorial review is dedicated to more practical considerations on instrumentation, instrumental and operating parameters, as well as analytical strategies for elemental quantification in such matrices. Two important issues are addressed in this part: the first concerns the instrumentation and optimization of instrumental and operating parameters, pointing out (i) the description, benefits and drawbacks of different kinds of nebulization and desolvation devices and the impact of more specific instrumental parameters such as the injector characteristics and the material used for the cone; and, (ii) the optimization of operating parameters, for both ICP-OES and ICP-MS. Even if it is at the margin of this tutorial review

  4. Optics of mass separator I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balestrini, S.J.

    1981-07-01

    The ion optics of an existing mass separator are documented. The elctrostatic and magnetic stages are analyzed theoretically, both separately and in combination, by paying particular attention to the ion trajectories, the linear and angular magnifications, and the dispersion. The possibility of converting the magnet into a tunable unit by means of current-carrying elements in the gap is demonstrated. The feasibility of correction coils constructed from printed circuit board is shown

  5. Optics of mass separator I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balestrini, S.J.

    1981-07-01

    The ion optics of an existing mass separator are documented. The elctrostatic and magnetic stages are analyzed theoretically, both separately and in combination, by paying particular attention to the ion trajectories, the linear and angular magnifications, and the dispersion. The possibility of converting the magnet into a tunable unit by means of current-carrying elements in the gap is demonstrated. The feasibility of correction coils constructed from printed circuit board is shown.

  6. Determination of boron content and isotopic composition in gypsum by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy and positive thermal ionization mass spectrometry using phase transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yun-Qi; Peng, Zhang-Kuang; Yang, Jian; Xiao, Ying-Kai; Zhang, Yan-Ling

    2017-12-01

    As a stable isotope, boron plays an important role in hydrogeology, environmental geochemistry, ore deposit geochemistry and marine paleoclimatology. However, there is no report of boron isotopic composition in gypsum. This is mainly confined to complete dissolution of Gypsum by water or acid. In this study, gypsum was converted to calcium carbonate (CaCO 3 ) with ammonium bicarbonate(NH 4 HCO 3 ) by two steps at 50°C. In every step, the mass ratio of NH 4 HCO 3 /CaSO 4 ·2H 2 O was twice, and conversion rate reached more than 98%. Converted CaCO 3 was totally dissolved with hydrochloric acid (the dissolution rate was over 99%). In order to overcome the difficulties of the matrix interference and the detection limit of Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-OES), we use Amberlite IRA 743 resin to purify and enrichment the boron at first, then eluting boron from the resin with 10mL 0.1mol/L hydrochloric acid at 75°C. The boron isotopic composition of natural gypsum samples was determined using positive thermal ionization mass spectrometry (P-TIMS). The boron isotopic composition of gypsum may be an excellent indicator for the formation environment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. High mass isotope separation arrangement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eerkens, J.W.

    1980-01-01

    This invention relates to the isotope separation art and, more particularly, to a selectively photon-induced energy level transition of an isotopic molecule containing the isotope to be separated and a chemical reaction with a chemically reactive agent to provide a chemical compound containing atoms of the isotope desired. In particular a description is given of a method of laser isotope separation applied to the separation of 235 UF 6 from 238 UF 6 . (U.K.)

  8. Laterally and longitudinally dispersive recoil mass separators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wollnik, H.

    1987-01-01

    Principles of laterally dispersive and time-of-flight mass separators are outlined. Special emphasis is given to separators for very energetic recoils for which electrostatic fields would be technologically impossible. The principle of energy isochronous time-of-flight mass separators is shown to be applicable to storage rings. (orig.)

  9. High mass isotope separation arrangement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eerkens, J.W.

    1976-01-01

    An isotope separation arrangement for separating a preselected isotope from a mixture of chemically-identical but isotopically-different molecules by either photon-induced pure revibrational or vibronic selective excitation of the molecules containing the atoms of the isotope to be separated from a lower to a higher energy state, and a chemical reaction of the higher energy state molecules with a chemically-reactive agent to form a chemical compound containing primarily the atoms of the isotope to be separated in a physicochemical state different from the physicochemical state of the mixture of chemically-identical but isotopically-different molecules. The chemical compound containing the atoms of the isotope to be separated may be subsequently processed to obtain the isotope. The laser configuration used to generate the photon beam is fully described

  10. Introduction of organic/hydro-organic matrices in inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry and mass spectrometry: A tutorial review. Part I. Theoretical considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leclercq, Amélie; Nonell, Anthony; Todolí Torró, José Luis; Bresson, Carole; Vio, Laurent; Vercouter, Thomas; Chartier, Frédéric

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Tutorial review addressed to beginners or more experienced analysts. • Theoretical background of effects caused by organic matrices on ICP techniques. • Spatial distribution of carbon species and analytes in plasma. • Carbon spectroscopic and non-spectroscopic interferences in ICP. - Abstract: Due to their outstanding analytical performances, inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) and mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) are widely used for multi-elemental measurements and also for isotopic characterization in the case of ICP-MS. While most studies are carried out in aqueous matrices, applications involving organic/hydro-organic matrices become increasingly widespread. This kind of matrices is introduced in ICP based instruments when classical “matrix removal” approaches such as acid digestion or extraction procedures cannot be implemented. Due to the physico-chemical properties of organic/hydro-organic matrices and their associated effects on instrumentation and analytical performances, their introduction into ICP sources is particularly challenging and has become a full topic. In this framework, numerous theoretical and phenomenological studies of these effects have been performed in the past, mainly by ICP-OES, while recent literature is more focused on applications and associated instrumental developments. This tutorial review, divided in two parts, explores the rich literature related to the introduction of organic/hydro-organic matrices in ICP-OES and ICP-MS. The present Part I, provides theoretical considerations in connection with the physico-chemical properties of organic/hydro-organic matrices, in order to better understand the induced phenomena. This focal point is divided in four chapters highlighting: (i) the impact of organic/hydro-organic matrices from aerosol generation to atomization/excitation/ionization processes; (ii) the production of carbon molecular constituents and their spatial distribution in the

  11. Introduction of organic/hydro-organic matrices in inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry and mass spectrometry: a tutorial review. Part I. Theoretical considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leclercq, Amélie; Nonell, Anthony; Todolí Torró, José Luis; Bresson, Carole; Vio, Laurent; Vercouter, Thomas; Chartier, Frédéric

    2015-07-23

    Due to their outstanding analytical performances, inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) and mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) are widely used for multi-elemental measurements and also for isotopic characterization in the case of ICP-MS. While most studies are carried out in aqueous matrices, applications involving organic/hydro-organic matrices become increasingly widespread. This kind of matrices is introduced in ICP based instruments when classical "matrix removal" approaches such as acid digestion or extraction procedures cannot be implemented. Due to the physico-chemical properties of organic/hydro-organic matrices and their associated effects on instrumentation and analytical performances, their introduction into ICP sources is particularly challenging and has become a full topic. In this framework, numerous theoretical and phenomenological studies of these effects have been performed in the past, mainly by ICP-OES, while recent literature is more focused on applications and associated instrumental developments. This tutorial review, divided in two parts, explores the rich literature related to the introduction of organic/hydro-organic matrices in ICP-OES and ICP-MS. The present Part I, provides theoretical considerations in connection with the physico-chemical properties of organic/hydro-organic matrices, in order to better understand the induced phenomena. This focal point is divided in four chapters highlighting: (i) the impact of organic/hydro-organic matrices from aerosol generation to atomization/excitation/ionization processes; (ii) the production of carbon molecular constituents and their spatial distribution in the plasma with respect to analytes repartition; (iii) the subsequent modifications of plasma fundamental properties; and (iv) the resulting spectroscopic and non spectroscopic interferences. This first part of this tutorial review is addressed either to beginners or to more experienced scientists who are interested in the

  12. Introduction of organic/hydro-organic matrices in inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry and mass spectrometry: A tutorial review. Part I. Theoretical considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leclercq, Amélie, E-mail: amelie.leclercq@cea.fr [CEA Saclay, DEN, DANS, DPC, SEARS, Laboratoire de développement Analytique Nucléaire Isotopique et Elémentaire, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Nonell, Anthony, E-mail: anthony.nonell@cea.fr [CEA Saclay, DEN, DANS, DPC, SEARS, Laboratoire de développement Analytique Nucléaire Isotopique et Elémentaire, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Todolí Torró, José Luis, E-mail: jose.todoli@ua.es [Universidad de Alicante, Departamento de Quimica Analitica, Nutricion y Bromatología, Ap. de Correos, 99, 03080 Alicante (Spain); Bresson, Carole, E-mail: carole.bresson@cea.fr [CEA Saclay, DEN, DANS, DPC, SEARS, Laboratoire de développement Analytique Nucléaire Isotopique et Elémentaire, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Vio, Laurent, E-mail: laurent.vio@cea.fr [CEA Saclay, DEN, DANS, DPC, SEARS, Laboratoire de développement Analytique Nucléaire Isotopique et Elémentaire, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Vercouter, Thomas, E-mail: thomas.vercouter@cea.fr [CEA Saclay, DEN, DANS, DPC, SEARS, Laboratoire de développement Analytique Nucléaire Isotopique et Elémentaire, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Chartier, Frédéric, E-mail: frederic.chartier@cea.fr [CEA Saclay, DEN, DANS, DPC, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2015-07-23

    Highlights: • Tutorial review addressed to beginners or more experienced analysts. • Theoretical background of effects caused by organic matrices on ICP techniques. • Spatial distribution of carbon species and analytes in plasma. • Carbon spectroscopic and non-spectroscopic interferences in ICP. - Abstract: Due to their outstanding analytical performances, inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) and mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) are widely used for multi-elemental measurements and also for isotopic characterization in the case of ICP-MS. While most studies are carried out in aqueous matrices, applications involving organic/hydro-organic matrices become increasingly widespread. This kind of matrices is introduced in ICP based instruments when classical “matrix removal” approaches such as acid digestion or extraction procedures cannot be implemented. Due to the physico-chemical properties of organic/hydro-organic matrices and their associated effects on instrumentation and analytical performances, their introduction into ICP sources is particularly challenging and has become a full topic. In this framework, numerous theoretical and phenomenological studies of these effects have been performed in the past, mainly by ICP-OES, while recent literature is more focused on applications and associated instrumental developments. This tutorial review, divided in two parts, explores the rich literature related to the introduction of organic/hydro-organic matrices in ICP-OES and ICP-MS. The present Part I, provides theoretical considerations in connection with the physico-chemical properties of organic/hydro-organic matrices, in order to better understand the induced phenomena. This focal point is divided in four chapters highlighting: (i) the impact of organic/hydro-organic matrices from aerosol generation to atomization/excitation/ionization processes; (ii) the production of carbon molecular constituents and their spatial distribution in the

  13. Mass separated neutral particle energy analyser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeuchi, Hiroshi; Matsuda, Toshiaki; Miura, Yukitoshi; Shiho, Makoto; Maeda, Hikosuke; Hashimoto, Kiyoshi; Hayashi, Kazuo.

    1983-09-01

    A mass separated neutral particle energy analyser which could simultaneously measure hydrogen and deuterium atoms emitted from tokamak plasma was constructed. The analyser was calibrated for the energy and mass separation in the energy range from 0.4 keV to 9 keV. In order to investigate the behavior of deuteron and proton in the JFT-2 tokamak plasma heated with ion cyclotron wave and neutral beam injection, this analyser was installed in JFT-2 tokamak. It was found that the energy spectrum could be determined with sufficient accuracy. The obtained ion temperature and ratio of deuteron and proton density from the energy spectrum were in good agreement with the value deduced from Doppler broadening of TiXIV line and the line intensities of H sub(α) and D sub(α) respectively. (author)

  14. SPIRAL2/DESIR high resolution mass separator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurtukian-Nieto, T., E-mail: kurtukia@cenbg.in2p3.fr [Centre d’Études Nucléaires de Bordeaux Gradignan, Université Bordeaux 1-CNRS/IN2P3, BP 120, F-33175 Gradignan Cedex (France); Baartman, R. [TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver B.C., V6T 2A3 (Canada); Blank, B.; Chiron, T. [Centre d’Études Nucléaires de Bordeaux Gradignan, Université Bordeaux 1-CNRS/IN2P3, BP 120, F-33175 Gradignan Cedex (France); Davids, C. [Physics Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Delalee, F. [Centre d’Études Nucléaires de Bordeaux Gradignan, Université Bordeaux 1-CNRS/IN2P3, BP 120, F-33175 Gradignan Cedex (France); Duval, M. [GANIL, CEA/DSM-CNRS/IN2P3, Bd Henri Becquerel, BP 55027, F-14076 Caen Cedex 5 (France); El Abbeir, S.; Fournier, A. [Centre d’Études Nucléaires de Bordeaux Gradignan, Université Bordeaux 1-CNRS/IN2P3, BP 120, F-33175 Gradignan Cedex (France); Lunney, D. [CSNSM-IN2P3-CNRS, Université de Paris Sud, F-91405 Orsay (France); Méot, F. [BNL, Upton, Long Island, New York (United States); Serani, L. [Centre d’Études Nucléaires de Bordeaux Gradignan, Université Bordeaux 1-CNRS/IN2P3, BP 120, F-33175 Gradignan Cedex (France); Stodel, M.-H.; Varenne, F. [GANIL, CEA/DSM-CNRS/IN2P3, Bd Henri Becquerel, BP 55027, F-14076 Caen Cedex 5 (France); and others

    2013-12-15

    DESIR is the low-energy part of the SPIRAL2 ISOL facility under construction at GANIL. DESIR includes a high-resolution mass separator (HRS) with a designed resolving power m/Δm of 31,000 for a 1 π-mm-mrad beam emittance, obtained using a high-intensity beam cooling device. The proposed design consists of two 90-degree magnetic dipoles, complemented by electrostatic quadrupoles, sextupoles, and a multipole, arranged in a symmetric configuration to minimize aberrations. A detailed description of the design and results of extensive simulations are given.

  15. High mass isotope separation process and arrangement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eerkens, J.W.

    1978-01-01

    An isotope separation arrangement for separating a preselected isotope from a mixture of chemically identical but isotopically different molecules by either photon-induced pure rovibrational or vibronic selective excitation of the molecules containing the atoms of the isotope to be separated from a lower to a higher energy state, and a chemical reaction of the higher energy state molecules with a chemically reactive agent to form a chemical compound containing primarily the atoms of isotope to be separated in a physicochemical state different from the physicochemical state of the mixture of chemically identical but isotopically different molecules. The chemical compound containing the atoms of the isotope to be separated may be subsequently processed to obtain the isotope

  16. Coupling an optical trap to a mass separator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chamberlin, E.P.; Sandberg, V.D.; Tupa, D.; Vieira, D.J.; Zhao, X.X. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Guckert, R.; Wollnik, H. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)]/[Giessen Univ. (Germany); Preston, D.W. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)]/[California State Univ., Hayward, CA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The efficient coupling of a magneto-optical trap to a mass separator is being developed to undertake high-precision electroweak interaction measurements in a series of radioisotopes. The use of ion implantation and subsequent heated-foil release is being pursued as a suitable way of introducing radioactive samples into the ultrahigh vacuum region of an optical trap without gas loading. This paper discusses the layout of the mass separator,the coupling to a magneto- optical trap, and the implantation and release scheme.

  17. Mass transfer apparatus and method for separation of gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blount, Gerald C.; Gorensek, Maximilian Boris; Hamm, Luther L.

    2018-01-16

    A process and apparatus for separating components of a source gas is provided in which more soluble components of the source gas are dissolved in an aqueous solvent at high pressure. The system can utilize hydrostatic pressure to increase solubility of the components of the source gas. The apparatus includes gas recycle throughout multiple mass transfer stages to improve mass transfer of the targeted components from the liquid to gas phase. Separated components can be recovered for use in a value added application or can be processed for long-term storage, for instance in an underwater reservoir.

  18. Coupling an optical trap to a mass separator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chamberlin, E.P.; Sandberg, V.D.; Tupa, D.; Vieira, D.J.; Zhao, X.X.; Guckert, R.; Wollnik, H.; Preston, D.W.

    1996-01-01

    The efficient coupling of a magneto-optical trap to a mass separator is being developed to undertake high-precision electroweak interaction measurements in a series of radioisotopes. The use of ion implantation and subsequent heated-foil release is being pursued as a suitable way of introducing radioactive samples into the ultrahigh vacuum region of an optical trap without gas loading. This paper discusses the layout of the mass separator,the coupling to a magneto- optical trap, and the implantation and release scheme

  19. On-line mass separator of superheavy atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oganesyan, Yu.Ts.

    2002-01-01

    The concept is presented of an on-line Mass Analyzer of SuperHeavy Atoms (MASHA) dedicated to the separation and determination of the mass and decay properties of new elements and isotopes produced in heavy-ion induced reactions. The new nuclides with half-lives T 1/2 ≥ 1 s are transported to an ECR-source working at a frequency of 2.45 GHz and are separated by mass with a mass resolution of M/ΔM ∼ 1500. In the focal plane of the magnetic analyzer a front strip detector surrounded by side detectors will be placed to determine the mass according to the signals from the detected α-particles or fission fragments with efficiency of about 90 %. In comparison to other existing in-flight recoil separators, the present setup will be characterized by higher efficiency and high selectivity relative to background reaction products. The setup MASHA may be used also in the investigation of nuclear reactions of different type induced by stable and radioactive beams

  20. On-Line Mass Separator of Superheavy Atoms

    CERN Document Server

    Oganessian, Yu T

    2002-01-01

    The concept is presented of an on-line Mass Analyzer of SuperHeavy Atoms (MASHA) dedicated to the separation and determination of the mass and decay properties of new elements and isotopes produced in heavy-ion induced reactions. The new nuclides with half-lives T_{1/2}\\ge 1 s are transported to an ECR-source working at a frequency of 2.45 GHz and are separated by mass with a mass resolution of M/\\Delta M\\sim 1500. In the focal plane of the magnetic analyzer a front strip detector surrounded by side detectors will be placed to determine the mass according to the signals from the detected alpha-particles or fission fragments with efficiency of about 90 %. In comparison to other existing in-flight recoil separators, the present setup will be characterized by higher efficiency and high selectivity relative to background reaction products. The setup MASHA may be used also in the investigation of nuclear reactions of different type induced by stable and radioactive beams.

  1. Modelling of new generation plasma optical devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Litovko Irina V.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents new generation plasma optical devices based on the electrostatic plasma lens configuration that opens a novel attractive possibility for effective high-tech practical applications. Original approaches to use of plasma accelerators with closed electron drift and open walls for the creation of a cost-effective low-maintenance plasma lens with positive space charge and possible application for low-cost, low-energy rocket engine are described. The preliminary experimental, theoretical and simulation results are presented. It is noted that the presented plasma devices are attractive for many different applications in the state-of-the-art vacuum-plasma processing.

  2. Quark mass correction to chiral separation effect and pseudoscalar condensate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Er-dong [State Key Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Institute of Theoretical Physics,Chinese Academy of Sciences,Beijing 100190 (China); Kavli Institute of Theoretical Physics China, Chinese Academy of Sciences,Beijing 100190 (China); Lin, Shu [School of Physics and Astronomy, Sun Yat-Sen University,No 2 University Road, Zhuhai 519082 (China)

    2017-01-25

    We derived an analytic structure of the quark mass correction to chiral separation effect (CSE) in small mass regime. We confirmed this structure by a D3/D7 holographic model study in a finite density, finite magnetic field background. The quark mass correction to CSE can be related to correlators of pseudo-scalar condensate, quark number density and quark condensate in static limit. We found scaling relations of these correlators with spatial momentum in the small momentum regime. They characterize medium responses to electric field, inhomogeneous quark mass and chiral shift. Beyond the small momentum regime, we found existence of normalizable mode, which possibly leads to formation of spiral phase. The normalizable mode exists beyond a critical magnetic field, whose magnitude decreases with quark chemical potential.

  3. Principles of a new type of great acceptance mass separator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chabert, A.; Ricaud, C.; Bru, B.

    1993-01-01

    Principles of a new method for performing selection of given charge/mass ratio ions among a stream of contaminating ions with very close charge/mass ratios, are presented. The mass spectrometer is basically composed of a series of three element sets carrying out the following functions: in a first section, a mass defect is transformed in a phase shift; a HF cavity (de-buncher) then transforms the phase shift in an energy variation; and an energy analysis magnetic system which transforms the energy difference in a radial separation. The transverse movement of the beam is thus controlled all along the course, and an excellent longitudinal capture of the ions is obtained thus ensuring a good global transmission

  4. Effect of nebulizer/spray chamber interfaces on simultaneous, axial view inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry for the direct determination of As and Se species separated by ion exchange high-performance liquid chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gettar, Raquel T.; Smichowski, Patricia; Garavaglia, Ricardo N.; Farias, Silvia; Batistoni, Daniel A.

    2005-01-01

    Different nebulizer/expansion chamber combinations were evaluated to assess their performance for sample introduction in the direct coupling with an axial view inductively coupled plasma multielement spectrometer for on-line determination of As and Se species previously separated by ion exchange-high performance liquid chromatography. The column effluents were injected into the plasma without prior derivatization. The instrument operation software was adapted for data acquisition and processing to allow multi-wavelength recording of the transient chromatographic peaks. After optimization of the chromatographic operating conditions, separation of mixtures of inorganic As and Se species, and of inorganic and two organic As species (monomethylarsonic and dimethylarsinic acids), was achieved with excellent resolution. Species discrimination from mixtures of As and Se oxyanions was further improved by the simultaneous element detection at specific analytical wavelengths. Three nebulizers and three spray chambers, employed in seven combinations, were tested as interfaces. Concentric nebulizers associated to a glass cyclonic chamber appear most suitable regarding sensitivity and signal to noise ratio. Measured element detection limits (3 σ) were around 10 ng ml -1 for all the species considered, making the method a viable alternative to similar procedures that employ volatile hydride generation previous to sample injection into the plasma. Analytical recoveries both for inorganic and organic species ranged between 92 and 107%. The method was demonstrated to be apt for the analysis of surface waters potentially subjected to natural contamination with arsenic

  5. Laser photodissociation and spectroscopy of mass-separated biomolecular ions

    CERN Document Server

    Polfer, Nicolas C

    2014-01-01

    This lecture notes book presents how enhanced structural information of biomolecular ions can be obtained from interaction with photons of specific frequency - laser light. The methods described in the book ""Laser photodissociation and spectroscopy of mass-separated biomolecular ions"" make use of the fact that the discrete energy and fast time scale of photoexcitation can provide more control in ion activation. This activation is the crucial process producing structure-informative product ions that cannot be generated with more conventional heating methods, such as collisional activation. Th

  6. Apparatus and Method for Separation of Ions According to Mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A. Fetterman; N. Fisch

    2008-01-01

    This is a device that uses rotating plasma and radiofrequency waves in order to separate ions within the plasma according to their mass. The device fundamentally consists of a mirror configuration (a primarily axial field) with a radial electric field, producing rotation. Radiofrequency waves are injected to produce diffusion paths allowing select species to exit through the loss cone. The use of these waves within the trap maintains the radial electric field, and allows species to be removed at low energy and with precise control over the location of exit

  7. Kinematic separation and mass analysis of heavy recoiling nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oganesyan, Yu.Ts.; Eremin, A.V.; Belozerov, A.V.

    2002-01-01

    Within the past twelve years, the recoil separator VASSILISSA has been used for investigation of evaporation residues produced in heavy-ion induced complete-fusion reactions. In the course of the experimental work in the region of the elements with 92 ≤ Z ≤ 94, fourteen new isotopes have been identified by the parent-daughter correlations. The study of the decay properties and formation cross sections of the isotopes of elements 110, 112, and 114 was performed with the use of the high intensity 48 Ca beams; 232 Th, 238 U and 242 Pu targets were used in the experiments. At the beam energies corresponding to the calculated cross-section maxima of the 3n evaporation channels, the isotopes 277 110, 283 112, and 287 114 were produced and identified. For further experiments aimed at the synthesis of the superheavy element isotopes (Z ≥ 110) with the intensive 48 Ca extracted beams, the improvements in the ion optical system of the separator and of the focal plane detector system have been made. As a result, for heavy recoiling nuclei with masses A ∼ 250, the mass resolution of about 2.5 % was achieved with a good energy and position resolutions of the focal plane detectors

  8. Procedure and device for separating isotopes of high mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eerkens, J.W.

    1977-01-01

    The invention refers to isotope separation and to selectively photon-induced energy transfer from an isotope molecule containing the isotope to be separated as well as to a chemical reaction with a reactive agent in order to produce a chemical compound containing atoms of the desired isotope. For example, in the most preferable form of the invention, gaseous UF 6 is contained in a mixture of U 235 F 6 and U 238 F 6 molecules in a reaction chamber. A chemically reactive substance, which for U 235 separation may be gaseous HCl according to the invention, is also introduced into the reaction chamber. (HK) [de

  9. Isobar Separation in a Multiple-Reflection Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometer by Mass-Selective Re-Trapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickel, Timo; Plaß, Wolfgang R.; Lippert, Wayne; Lang, Johannes; Yavor, Mikhail I.; Geissel, Hans; Scheidenberger, Christoph

    2017-06-01

    A novel method for (ultra-)high-resolution spatial mass separation in time-of-flight mass spectrometers is presented. Ions are injected into a time-of-flight analyzer from a radio frequency (rf) trap, dispersed in time-of-flight according to their mass-to-charge ratios and then re-trapped dynamically in the same rf trap. This re-trapping technique is highly mass-selective and after sufficiently long flight times can provide even isobaric separation. A theoretical treatment of the method is presented and the conditions for optimum performance of the method are derived. The method has been implemented in a multiple-reflection time-of-flight mass spectrometer and mass separation powers (FWHM) in excess of 70,000, and re-trapping efficiencies of up to 35% have been obtained for the protonated molecular ion of caffeine. The isobars glutamine and lysine (relative mass difference of 1/4000) have been separated after a flight time of 0.2 ms only. Higher mass separation powers can be achieved using longer flight times. The method will have important applications, including isobar separation in nuclear physics and (ultra-)high-resolution precursor ion selection in multiple-stage tandem mass spectrometry. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  10. Radio-frequency ion deflector for mass separation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlösser, Magnus, E-mail: magnus.schloesser@googlemail.com; Rudnev, Vitaly; Ureña, Ángel González, E-mail: laseres@pluri.ucm.es [Unidad de Láseres y Haces Moleculares, Instituto Plurisdisciplinar, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid 28040 (Spain)

    2015-10-15

    Electrostatic cylindrical deflectors act as energy analyzer for ion beams. In this article, we present that by imposing of a radio-frequency modulation on the deflecting electric field, the ion transmission becomes mass dependent. By the choice of the appropriate frequency, amplitude, and phase, the deflector can be used as mass filter. The basic concept of the new instrument as well as simple mathematic relations are described. These calculations and further numerical simulations show that a mass sensitivity is achievable. Furthermore, we demonstrate the proof-of-principle in experimental measurements, compare the results to those of from a 1 m linear time-of-flight spectrometer, and comment on the mass resolution of the method. Finally, some potential applications are indicated.

  11. In-beam separation and mass determination of superheavy nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malyshev, O.N.; Eremin, A.V.; Popeko, A.G.

    2003-01-01

    Within the past fifteen years, the recoil separator VASSILISSA has been used for the investigations of evaporation residues produced in complete fusion reactions induced by heavy ions. The study of decay properties and formation cross sections of the isotopes of elements 110, 112 and 114 was performed using high intensity 48 Ca beams and 232 Th, 238 U, 242 Pu targets. For further experiments aimed at the synthesis of the superheavy element isotopes (Z≥110) with the use of intense 48 Ca extracted beams, improvements in the ion optical system of the separator and the focal plane detector system have been made. The results from the test reactions and new result for the isotope 283 112 are presented

  12. Laser vaporization/ionization interface for coupling microscale separation techniques with mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, E.S.; Chang, Y.C.

    1999-06-29

    The present invention provides a laser-induced vaporization and ionization interface for directly coupling microscale separation processes to a mass spectrometer. Vaporization and ionization of the separated analytes are facilitated by the addition of a light-absorbing component to the separation buffer or solvent. 8 figs.

  13. Ion-optical design of the high-resolution mass separator for the Japanese Hadron Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sunaoshi, Hitoshi; Fujioka, Manabu; Shinozuka, Tsutomu; Wollnik, Hermann; Meuser, Stefan; Nomura, Toru; Kubono, Shigeru.

    1991-12-01

    An ion-optical design of the JHP-ISOL is presented. This separator consists of a beam guidance system, a main magnetic separator stage and an electrostatic energy focusing stage. This separator is to be coupled with a heavy-ion linac for post-acceleration of mass separated ions up to 6.5 MeV/u. The design goal of the separator is to realize a mass resolving power of R M = 20,000 (basal) at a transmission approaching 100 % with the initial phase space of ± 0.2 mm x ± 20 mrad. (author)

  14. Preconcentration of heavy metals on activated carbon and their determination in fruits by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feist, Barbara; Mikula, Barbara

    2014-03-15

    A method of separation and preconcentration of cadmium, cobalt, copper, nickel, lead, and zinc at trace level using activated carbon is proposed. Activated carbon with the adsorbed trace metals was mineralised using a high-pressure microwave mineraliser. The heavy metals were determined after preconcentration by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). The influence of several parameters, such as pH, sorbent mass, shaking time was examined. Moreover, effects of inorganic matrix on recovery of the determined elements were studied. The experiment shows that foreign ions did not influence recovery of the determined elements. The detection limits (DL) of Cd, Co, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn were 0.17, 0.19, 1.60, 2.60, 0.92 and 1.50 μg L(-)(1), respectively. The recovery of the method for the determined elements was better than 95% with relative standard deviation from 1.3% to 3.7%. The preconcentration factor was 80. The proposed method was applied for determination of Cd, Co, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn in fruits materials. Accuracy of the proposed method was verified using certified reference material (NCS ZC85006 Tomato). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. AMS detection of actinides at high mass separation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steier, Peter; Lachner, Johannes; Priller, Alfred; Winkler, Stephan; Golser, Robin [University of Vienna, Faculty of Physics, Vienna (Austria); Eigl, Rosmarie [Hiroshima University, Earth and Planetary Systems Science, Hiroshima (Japan); Quinto, Francesca [Institut fuer Nukleare Entsorgung, KIT, Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Sakaguchi, Aya [University of Tsukuba, Center for Research in Isotopes and Environmental Dynamics, Tsukuba (Japan)

    2015-07-01

    AMS is the mass spectrometric method with the highest abundance sensitivity, which is a prerequisite for measurement of the long-lived radioisotope {sup 236}U (t{sub 1/2}=23.4 million years). The most successful application so far is oceanography, since anthropogenic {sup 236}U is present in the world oceans at {sup 236}U:{sup 238}U from 10{sup -11} to 10{sup -8}. We have explored methods to increase the sensitivity and thus to reduce the water volume required to 1 L or less, which significantly reduces the sampling effort. High sensitivity is also necessary to address the expected typical natural isotopic ratios on the order {sup 236}U:{sup 238}U = 10{sup -13}, with potential applications in geology. With a second 90 analyzer magnet and a new Time-of-Flight beam line, VERA is robust against chemical impurities in the background, which e.g. allows measuring Pu isotopes directly in a uranium matrix. This simplifies chemical sample preparation for actinide detection, and may illustrate why AMS reaches lower detection limits than other mass spectrometric methods with nominally higher detection efficiency.

  16. The project of the mass separator of atomic nuclei produced in heavy ion induced reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oganessian, Yu. Ts.; Shchepunov, V. A.; Dmitriev, S. N.; Itkis, M. G.; Gulbekyan, G. G.; Khabarov, M. V.; Bekhterev, V. V.; Bogomolov, S. L.; Efremov, A. A.; Pashenko, S. V.; Stepantsov, S. V.; Yeremin, A. V.; Yavor, M. I.; Kalimov, A. G.

    2003-05-01

    A new separator and mass analyzer, named MASHA (mass analyzer of super heavy atoms), has been designed at the Flerov Laboratory JINR Dubna to separate and measure masses of nuclei and molecules with precision better than 10 -3. The set up can work in the wide mass range from A≈20 to A≈500, its mass acceptance is as large as ±2.8%. In particular, it allows unambiguous mass identification of super heavy nuclei with a resolution better than 1 amu at the level of 300 amu. Synthesized in nuclear reactions nuclides are emitted from an ECR ion source at energy E=40 kV and charge state Q=+1. Then they pass the following steps of separation and analysis: the first section of rough separation, the second section of separation and mass analysis and the final section of separation with a 90° electrostatic deflector. In the focal plane of the device, a focal plane detector determines positions (masses) of studied nuclei. Ion optics of the analyzer, optimized up to the second order, is considered. Description of its elements and subsystems is given.

  17. The project of the mass separator of atomic nuclei produced in heavy ion induced reactions

    CERN Document Server

    Oganessian, Yu T; Dmitriev, S N; Itkis, M G; Gulbekyan, G G; Khabarov, M V; Bekhterev, V V; Bogomolov, S L; Efremov, A A; Pashenko, S V; Stepantsov, S V; Yeremin, A V; Yavor, M I; Kalimov, A G

    2003-01-01

    A new separator and mass analyzer, named MASHA (mass analyzer of super heavy atoms), has been designed at the Flerov Laboratory JINR Dubna to separate and measure masses of nuclei and molecules with precision better than 10 sup - sup 3. The set up can work in the wide mass range from A approx 20 to A approx 500, its mass acceptance is as large as +-2.8%. In particular, it allows unambiguous mass identification of super heavy nuclei with a resolution better than 1 amu at the level of 300 amu. Synthesized in nuclear reactions nuclides are emitted from an ECR ion source at energy E=40 kV and charge state Q=+1. Then they pass the following steps of separation and analysis: the first section of rough separation, the second section of separation and mass analysis and the final section of separation with a 90 deg. electrostatic deflector. In the focal plane of the device, a focal plane detector determines positions (masses) of studied nuclei. Ion optics of the analyzer, optimized up to the second order, is considere...

  18. The project of the mass separator of atomic nuclei produced in heavy ion induced reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oganessian, Yu.Ts.; Shchepunov, V.A.; Dmitriev, S.N.; Itkis, M.G.; Gulbekyan, G.G.; Khabarov, M.V.; Bekhterev, V.V.; Bogomolov, S.L.; Efremov, A.A.; Pashenko, S.V.; Stepantsov, S.V.; Yeremin, A.V.; Yavor, M.I.; Kalimov, A.G.

    2003-01-01

    A new separator and mass analyzer, named MASHA (mass analyzer of super heavy atoms), has been designed at the Flerov Laboratory JINR Dubna to separate and measure masses of nuclei and molecules with precision better than 10 -3 . The set up can work in the wide mass range from A∼20 to A∼500, its mass acceptance is as large as ±2.8%. In particular, it allows unambiguous mass identification of super heavy nuclei with a resolution better than 1 amu at the level of 300 amu. Synthesized in nuclear reactions nuclides are emitted from an ECR ion source at energy E=40 kV and charge state Q=+1. Then they pass the following steps of separation and analysis: the first section of rough separation, the second section of separation and mass analysis and the final section of separation with a 90 deg. electrostatic deflector. In the focal plane of the device, a focal plane detector determines positions (masses) of studied nuclei. Ion optics of the analyzer, optimized up to the second order, is considered. Description of its elements and subsystems is given

  19. The project of the mass separator of atomic nuclei produced in heavy ion induced reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oganessian, Yu.Ts.; Shchepunov, V.A. E-mail: shchepun@sunhe.jinr.rushchepun@cv.jinr.ru; Dmitriev, S.N.; Itkis, M.G.; Gulbekyan, G.G.; Khabarov, M.V.; Bekhterev, V.V.; Bogomolov, S.L.; Efremov, A.A.; Pashenko, S.V.; Stepantsov, S.V.; Yeremin, A.V.; Yavor, M.I.; Kalimov, A.G

    2003-05-01

    A new separator and mass analyzer, named MASHA (mass analyzer of super heavy atoms), has been designed at the Flerov Laboratory JINR Dubna to separate and measure masses of nuclei and molecules with precision better than 10{sup -3}. The set up can work in the wide mass range from A{approx}20 to A{approx}500, its mass acceptance is as large as {+-}2.8%. In particular, it allows unambiguous mass identification of super heavy nuclei with a resolution better than 1 amu at the level of 300 amu. Synthesized in nuclear reactions nuclides are emitted from an ECR ion source at energy E=40 kV and charge state Q=+1. Then they pass the following steps of separation and analysis: the first section of rough separation, the second section of separation and mass analysis and the final section of separation with a 90 deg. electrostatic deflector. In the focal plane of the device, a focal plane detector determines positions (masses) of studied nuclei. Ion optics of the analyzer, optimized up to the second order, is considered. Description of its elements and subsystems is given.

  20. On the implications of aerosol liquid water and phase separation for organic aerosol mass

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset contains data presented in the figures of the paper "On the implications of aerosol liquid water and phase separation for organic aerosol mass"...

  1. Atmospheric pressure surface sampling/ionization techniques for direct coupling of planar separations with mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasilis, Sofie P; Van Berkel, Gary J

    2010-06-18

    Planar separations, which include thin layer chromatography and gel electrophoresis, are in widespread use as important and powerful tools for conducting separations of complex mixtures. To increase the utility of planar separations, new methods are needed that allow in situ characterization of the individual components of the separated mixtures. A large number of atmospheric pressure surface sampling and ionization techniques for use with mass spectrometry have emerged in the past several years, and several have been investigated as a means for mass spectrometric read-out of planar separations. In this article, we review the atmospheric pressure surface sampling and ionization techniques that have been used for the read-out of planar separation media. For each technique, we briefly explain the operational basics and discuss the analyte type for which it is appropriate and some specific applications from the literature. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Mass and heat transfer on B7 ordered packing in hydrogen isotope separation by distillation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Croitoru, Cornelia; Pop, Floarea; Titescu, Gheorghe; Stefanescu, Ioan; Trancota, Dan; Peculea, Marius

    2002-01-01

    This work presents theoretical and experimental data referring to mass and heat transfer on B7 ordered packing in deuterium isotope separation by distillation. The first part is devoted to the study of mass transfer in hydrogen isotopic distillation while the second one treats the mass and heat transfer in water isotopic distillation. A stationary mathematical model for the mass and heat transfer was developed based on multitubular column model with wet wall. This model allowed the calculation starting from theoretical data of the ordered packing efficiency, expressed by the transfer unit height, TUH. Also, from theoretical data the mass and heat transfer coefficients were determined. A test of the mathematical model was performed with the experimental data obtained from two laboratory installations for hydrogen isotope separation by distillation. From the first installation, experimental data concerning the B7 ordered packing efficiency were obtained for the deuterium separation by cryogenic distillation at the - 250 deg C level. With the second one data referring to the mass and heat transfer on the same packing were obtained for the deuterium separation by water distillation under vacuum at the 60 deg C level. The values of TUH, mass and heat transfer coefficients as theoretically evaluate and experimentally checked are in agreement with the respective values obtained in separation processes in chemical industry. This is the fact which endorses utilization of the model of multitubular column with wet wall for describing the transfer processes in distillation columns equipped with B7 ordered packing

  3. Quantifying the resolution level where the GRACE satellites can separate Greenland's glacial mass balance from surface mass balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonin, J. A.; Chambers, D. P.

    2015-09-01

    Mass change over Greenland can be caused by either changes in the glacial dynamic mass balance (DMB) or the surface mass balance (SMB). The GRACE satellite gravity mission cannot directly separate the two physical causes because it measures the sum of the entire mass column with limited spatial resolution. We demonstrate one theoretical way to indirectly separate cumulative SMB from DMB with GRACE, using a least squares inversion technique with knowledge of the location of the glaciers. However, we find that the limited 60 × 60 spherical harmonic representation of current GRACE data does not provide sufficient resolution to adequately accomplish the task. We determine that at a maximum degree/order of 90 × 90 or above, a noise-free gravity measurement could theoretically separate the SMB from DMB signals. However, current GRACE satellite errors are too large at present to separate the signals. A noise reduction of a factor of 10 at a resolution of 90 × 90 would provide the accuracy needed for the interannual cumulative SMB and DMB to be accurately separated.

  4. Conventional and Advanced Separations in Mass Spectrometry-Based Metabolomics: Methodologies and Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heyman, Heino M.; Zhang, Xing; Tang, Keqi; Baker, Erin Shammel; Metz, Thomas O.

    2016-02-16

    Metabolomics is the quantitative analysis of all metabolites in a given sample. Due to the chemical complexity of the metabolome, optimal separations are required for comprehensive identification and quantification of sample constituents. This chapter provides an overview of both conventional and advanced separations methods in practice for reducing the complexity of metabolite extracts delivered to the mass spectrometer detector, and covers gas chromatography (GC), liquid chromatography (LC), capillary electrophoresis (CE), supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) and ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) separation techniques coupled with mass spectrometry (MS) as both uni-dimensional and as multi-dimensional approaches.

  5. Operation manual for the INEL on-line mass-separator facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderl, R.A.

    1984-06-01

    This report is an operation manual for an on-line mass-separator facility which is located in Building 661 at the Test Reactor Area of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The facility provides mass-separated sources of short-lived fission-product radionuclides whose decay properties can be studied using a variety of nuclear spectroscopic techniques. This facility is unique in that it utilizes the gas-jet technique to transport fission products from a 252 Cf source located in a hot cell to the ion source of the mass separator. This document includes the following: (a) a detailed description of the facility, (b) identification of equipment hazards and safety controls, (c) detailed operating procedures for startup, continuous operation and shutdown, (d) operating procedures for the californium hot cell, and (e) an operator's manual for the automated moving tape collector/data acquisition system. 7 references, 16 figures, 8 tables

  6. A versatile triple radiofrequency quadrupole system for cooling, mass separation and bunching of exotic nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haettner, Emma; Plaß, Wolfgang R.; Czok, Ulrich; Dickel, Timo; Geissel, Hans; Kinsel, Wadim; Petrick, Martin; Schäfer, Thorsten; Scheidenberger, Christoph

    2018-02-01

    The combination of in-flight separation with a gas-filled stopping cell has opened a new field for experiments with exotic nuclei. For instance, at the SHIP/SHIPTRAP facility at GSI in Darmstadt high-precision mass measurements of rare nuclei have been successfully performed. In order to extend the reach of SHIPTRAP to exotic nuclei that are produced together with high rates of unwanted reaction products, a novel compact radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ) system has been developed. It implements ion cooling, identification and separation according to mass numbers and bunching capabilities. The system has a total length of one meter only and consists of an RFQ cooler, an RFQ mass filter and an RFQ buncher. A mass resolving power (FWHM) of 240 at a transmission efficiency of 90% has been achieved. The suppression of contaminants from neighboring masses by more than four orders of magnitude has been demonstrated at rates exceeding 106 ions/s. A longitudinal emittance of 0.45 eV μs has been achieved with the RFQ buncher, which will enable improved time-of-flight mass spectrometry downstream of the device. With this triple RFQ system the measurement of e.g. N= Z nuclides in the region up to tin will become possible at SHIPTRAP. The technology is also well suited for other rare-isotope facilities with experimental setups behind a stopping cell, such as the fragment separator FRS with the FRS Ion Catcher at GSI.

  7. Role of centrifugal and charge effects of the mass separation in a plasma centrifuge with crossed fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhdanov, V.M.; Karchevskii, A.I.; Lukovnikov, A.I.; Potanin, E.P.

    1982-01-01

    The coefficients of mass separation have been calculated for gas mixtures in crossed electric and magnetic fields. The initial kinetic equations have been derived, and the contribution of centrifugal and charge separation mechanisms to mass separation in a weakly ionized plasma has been assessed

  8. Flatland Position-Dependent-Mass: Polar Coordinates, Separability and Exact Solvability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Mustafa

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The kinetic energy operator with position-dependent-mass in plane polar coordinates is obtained. The separability of the corresponding Schrödinger equation is discussed. A hypothetical toy model is reported and two exactly solvable examples are studied.

  9. Total cholesterol in serum determined by isotope dilution/mass spectrometry, with liquid-chromatographic separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takatsu, Akiko; Nishi, Sueo

    1988-01-01

    We describe an accurate, precise method for determination of total serum cholesterol by isotope dilution/mass spectrometry (IDMS) with liquid chromatographic separation. After adding [3,4- 13 C] cholesterol to serum and hydrolyzing the cholesterol esters, we extract the total cholesterol. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) is used to separate the extracted cholesterol for measurement by electron-impact mass spectrometry with use of a direct-insertion device. To evaluate the specificity and the accuracy of this method, we also studied the conventional IDMS method, which involves converting cholesterol to the trimethylsilyl ether and assay by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with use of a capillary column. The coefficient of variation for the HPLC method was a little larger than for the conventional method, but mean values by each method agreed within 1% for all sera tested. (author)

  10. Binary Cepheids: Separations and Mass Ratios in 5 M ⊙ Binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Nancy Evans; Bond, Howard E.; Schaefer, Gail H.; Mason, Brian D.; Karovska, Margarita; Tingle, Evan

    2013-10-01

    Deriving the distribution of binary parameters for a particular class of stars over the full range of orbital separations usually requires the combination of results from many different observing techniques (radial velocities, interferometry, astrometry, photometry, direct imaging), each with selection biases. However, Cepheids—cool, evolved stars of ~5 M ⊙—are a special case because ultraviolet (UV) spectra will immediately reveal any companion star hotter than early type A, regardless of the orbital separation. We have used International Ultraviolet Explorer UV spectra of a complete sample of all 76 Cepheids brighter than V = 8 to create a list of all 18 Cepheids with companions more massive than 2.0 M ⊙. Orbital periods of many of these binaries are available from radial-velocity studies, or can be estimated for longer-period systems from detected velocity variability. In an imaging survey with the Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera 3, we resolved three of the companions (those of η Aql, S Nor, and V659 Cen), allowing us to make estimates of the periods out to the long-period end of the distribution. Combining these separations with orbital data in the literature, we derive an unbiased distribution of binary separations, orbital periods, and mass ratios. The distribution of orbital periods shows that the 5 M ⊙ binaries have systematically shorter periods than do 1 M ⊙ stars. Our data also suggest that the distribution of mass ratios depends on both binary separation and system multiplicity. The distribution of mass ratios as a function of orbital separation, however, does not depend on whether a system is a binary or a triple. Based in part on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained by the Space Telescope Science Institute. STScI is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS5-26555.

  11. BINARY CEPHEIDS: SEPARATIONS AND MASS RATIOS IN 5 M ☉ BINARIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, Nancy Remage; Karovska, Margarita; Tingle, Evan; Bond, Howard E.; Schaefer, Gail H.; Mason, Brian D.

    2013-01-01

    Deriving the distribution of binary parameters for a particular class of stars over the full range of orbital separations usually requires the combination of results from many different observing techniques (radial velocities, interferometry, astrometry, photometry, direct imaging), each with selection biases. However, Cepheids—cool, evolved stars of ∼5 M ☉ —are a special case because ultraviolet (UV) spectra will immediately reveal any companion star hotter than early type A, regardless of the orbital separation. We have used International Ultraviolet Explorer UV spectra of a complete sample of all 76 Cepheids brighter than V = 8 to create a list of all 18 Cepheids with companions more massive than 2.0 M ☉ . Orbital periods of many of these binaries are available from radial-velocity studies, or can be estimated for longer-period systems from detected velocity variability. In an imaging survey with the Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera 3, we resolved three of the companions (those of η Aql, S Nor, and V659 Cen), allowing us to make estimates of the periods out to the long-period end of the distribution. Combining these separations with orbital data in the literature, we derive an unbiased distribution of binary separations, orbital periods, and mass ratios. The distribution of orbital periods shows that the 5 M ☉ binaries have systematically shorter periods than do 1 M ☉ stars. Our data also suggest that the distribution of mass ratios depends on both binary separation and system multiplicity. The distribution of mass ratios as a function of orbital separation, however, does not depend on whether a system is a binary or a triple

  12. BINARY CEPHEIDS: SEPARATIONS AND MASS RATIOS IN 5 M {sub ☉} BINARIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, Nancy Remage; Karovska, Margarita; Tingle, Evan [Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, MS 4, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Bond, Howard E. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Schaefer, Gail H. [The CHARA Array, Georgia State University, P.O. Box 3965, Atlanta, GA 30302-3965 (United States); Mason, Brian D., E-mail: nevans@cfa.harvard.edu, E-mail: heb11@psu.edu, E-mail: schaefer@chara-array.org [US Naval Observatory, 3450 Massachusetts Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20392-5420 (United States)

    2013-10-01

    Deriving the distribution of binary parameters for a particular class of stars over the full range of orbital separations usually requires the combination of results from many different observing techniques (radial velocities, interferometry, astrometry, photometry, direct imaging), each with selection biases. However, Cepheids—cool, evolved stars of ∼5 M {sub ☉}—are a special case because ultraviolet (UV) spectra will immediately reveal any companion star hotter than early type A, regardless of the orbital separation. We have used International Ultraviolet Explorer UV spectra of a complete sample of all 76 Cepheids brighter than V = 8 to create a list of all 18 Cepheids with companions more massive than 2.0 M {sub ☉}. Orbital periods of many of these binaries are available from radial-velocity studies, or can be estimated for longer-period systems from detected velocity variability. In an imaging survey with the Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera 3, we resolved three of the companions (those of η Aql, S Nor, and V659 Cen), allowing us to make estimates of the periods out to the long-period end of the distribution. Combining these separations with orbital data in the literature, we derive an unbiased distribution of binary separations, orbital periods, and mass ratios. The distribution of orbital periods shows that the 5 M {sub ☉} binaries have systematically shorter periods than do 1 M {sub ☉} stars. Our data also suggest that the distribution of mass ratios depends on both binary separation and system multiplicity. The distribution of mass ratios as a function of orbital separation, however, does not depend on whether a system is a binary or a triple.

  13. Mass spectrometer provided with an optical system for separating neutron particles against charged particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reeher, J R; Story, M S; Smith, R D

    1977-03-03

    This invention concerns a mass spectrometer with an ion focusing optical system that efficiently separates the charged and neutral particles. It concerns an apparatus that can be used in ionisation areas operating at relatively high pressure (> 10/sup -2/ Torr). The invention relates more particularly to a mass spectrometer with an inlet device for the samples to be identified, a sample ionisation system for forming charged and neutral particles, a mass analyser and an optical system for focusing the ions formed in the mass analyser. The optics include several conducting components of which at least one has sides formed of grids, in the direction of the axis, towards the analyser the optics forming a potential well along the axis. The selected charged particles are focused in the analyser and the remaining particles can escape by the openings in the conducting grids.

  14. Stable Isotope Quantitative N-Glycan Analysis by Liquid Separation Techniques and Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittermayr, Stefan; Albrecht, Simone; Váradi, Csaba; Millán-Martín, Silvia; Bones, Jonathan

    2017-01-01

    Liquid phase separation analysis and subsequent quantitation remains a challenging task for protein-derived oligosaccharides due to their inherent structural complexity and diversity. Incomplete resolution or co-detection of multiple glycan species complicates peak area-based quantitation and associated statistical analysis when optical detection methods are used. The approach outlined herein describes the utilization of stable isotope variants of commonly used fluorescent tags that allow for mass-based glycan identification and relative quantitation following separation by liquid chromatography (LC) or capillary electrophoresis (CE). Comparability assessment of glycoprotein-derived oligosaccharides is performed by derivatization with commercially available isotope variants of 2-aminobenzoic acid or aniline and analysis by LC- and CE-mass spectrometry. Quantitative information is attained from the extracted ion chromatogram/electropherogram ratios generated from the light and heavy isotope clusters.

  15. Decay of new mass-separated neutron-deficient La and Ce isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genevey, J.; Gizon, A.; Idrissi, N.; Weiss, B.; Beraud, R.; Charvet, A.; Duffait, R.; Emsallem, A.; Meyer, M.; Ollivier, T.; Redon, N.

    1987-01-01

    By use of a He jet system coupled to a Bernas-Nier ion-source, several new mass-separated A = 122 - 127 isotopes reached in heavy ion fusion reactions at SARA have been identified and studied. From experimental decay properties of La isotopes, systematics of low-lying energy levels have been extended for even-even and odd-A barium. New informations on Ce decay schemes are briefly reported

  16. Separation and analysis of lanthanides by isotachophoresis coupled with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vio, Laurent; Cretier, Gerard; Rocca, Jean-Louis; Chartier, Frederic; Geertsen, Valerie; Gourgiotis, Alkiviadis; Isnard, Helene

    2012-01-01

    This study is a large project initiated by the French Nuclear Agency, and concerns the development of a new electrolyte system for the separation of lanthanides by isotachophoresis. This new system is based on a leading electrolyte that incorporates 2-hydroxy-2-methylbutyric acid as complexing agent. The optimization of separation conditions (complexing agent concentration, pH, capillary dimensions, injection conditions, and current intensity) performed by experiments on a commercial capillary instrument with contactless conductivity detection, which allows to improve the separation of 13 lanthanides (La to Lu, except Pm and Ho). We have also directly coupled the isotachophoresis to an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer to visualize the mono-elementary elution bands and demonstrate the potentiality of the method for isotope ratio measurements. The application to a simulated solution representative of a fraction of fission products present in a MOX spent fuel is presented in this paper to demonstrate the possible application in future on nuclear fuel samples. (authors)

  17. Separation Techniques for Uranium and Plutonium at Trace Levels for the Thermal Ionization Mass Spectrometric Determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suh, M. Y.; Han, S. H.; Kim, J. G.; Park, Y. J.; Kim, W. H.

    2005-12-01

    This report describes the state of the art and the progress of the chemical separation and purification techniques required for the thermal ionization mass spectrometric determination of uranium and plutonium in environmental samples at trace or ultratrace levels. Various techniques, such as precipitation, solvent extraction, extraction chromatography, and ion exchange chromatography, for separation of uranium and plutonium were evaluated. Sample preparation methods and dissolution techniques for environmental samples were also discussed. Especially, both extraction chromatographic and anion exchange chromatographic procedures for uranium and plutonium in environmental samples, such as soil, sediment, plant, seawater, urine, and bone ash were reviewed in detail in order to propose some suitable methods for the separation and purification of uranium and plutonium from the safeguards environmental or swipe samples. A survey of the IAEA strengthened safeguards system, the clean room facility of IAEA's NWAL(Network of Analytical Laboratories), and the analytical techniques for safeguards environmental samples was also discussed here

  18. Separation Techniques for Uranium and Plutonium at Trace Levels for the Thermal Ionization Mass Spectrometric Determination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suh, M. Y.; Han, S. H.; Kim, J. G.; Park, Y. J.; Kim, W. H

    2005-12-15

    This report describes the state of the art and the progress of the chemical separation and purification techniques required for the thermal ionization mass spectrometric determination of uranium and plutonium in environmental samples at trace or ultratrace levels. Various techniques, such as precipitation, solvent extraction, extraction chromatography, and ion exchange chromatography, for separation of uranium and plutonium were evaluated. Sample preparation methods and dissolution techniques for environmental samples were also discussed. Especially, both extraction chromatographic and anion exchange chromatographic procedures for uranium and plutonium in environmental samples, such as soil, sediment, plant, seawater, urine, and bone ash were reviewed in detail in order to propose some suitable methods for the separation and purification of uranium and plutonium from the safeguards environmental or swipe samples. A survey of the IAEA strengthened safeguards system, the clean room facility of IAEA's NWAL(Network of Analytical Laboratories), and the analytical techniques for safeguards environmental samples was also discussed here.

  19. Mass Spectrum Analysis of CO2 and N2 Using Ion Beam Separator System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tjipto-Sujitno, BA; Darsono; Agus-Santoso

    2000-01-01

    The main purpose of this research is to study investigate the massspectrum profile of CO 2 and N 2 emitted from Penning ion source using ionbeam separator. Besides that, it is also identified the compositions of CO 2 and N 2 ion gas and their abundances through their mass spectrum profile,because as we know that these ions are consist of ion of atom or molecule aswell as the their abundances. To get these profiles, the ion beam acceleratedin accelerating tube are passed through magnet separator. After passing themagnet separator, the ion current beam was detected using microampere meter.By scanning the strength of magnetic field, it will be found the currentspectrum profile as a function of magnetic field. From this current spectrum,we can make a mass spectrum profile. From experiment done, it was found thatthe mass spectrum peak of CO 2 and N 2 were C + with m/z = (12.00 ± 0.10)amu, O 2 + = (31.96 ± 0.29) amu, CO 2 + = (43.93 ± 0.31) amu, N + (13.97 ± 0.33) amu, and N 2 + = (28.05 ± 0.18) amu. (author)

  20. New Clues to the Mysterious Origin of Wide-Separation Planetary-Mass Companions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, Marta

    2018-01-01

    Over the past decade, direct imaging searches for young gas giant planets have revealed a new population of young planetary-mass companions with extremely wide orbital separations (>50 AU) and masses near or at the deuterium-burning limit. These companions pose significant challenges to standard formation models, including core accretion, disk instability, and turbulent fragmentation. In my talk I will discuss new results from high-contrast imaging and high-resolution infrared spectroscopy of a sample of directly imaged wide-separation companions that can be used to directly test these three competing formation mechanisms. First, I use high-contrast imaging to strongly discount scattering as a hypothesis for the origin of wide-separation companions. Second, I measure rotation rates of a subset of these companions using their near-IR spectra, and place the first constraints on the angular momentum evolution of young planetary-mass objects. Finally, I explore the ability of high-resolution spectroscopy to constrain the atmospheric C/O ratios of these companions, providing a complementary test of competing formation scenarios.

  1. Evaluation of analytical procedures for the determination of cadmium, boron and lithium in UALx samples by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP OES)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guilhen, Sabine Neusatz; Kakazu, Mauricio H.; Cotrim, Marycel Elena Barboza; Pires, Maria Aparecida Faustino; Souza, Alexandre Luiz de

    2013-01-01

    Used in over 80% of the worldwide diagnostic procedures, Technetium-99m ( 99m Tc), which is obtained from the decay of molybdenum-99 ( 99 Mo), is the most important radioisotope in nuclear medicine. IPEN/CNEN-SP has been developing technologies in order to produce Mo-99 by the irradiation of low-enriched uranium (LEU < 20% of 235U) targets in its research reactor IEA-R1 (IPEN, Sao Paulo/Brazil). These targets consist of low enriched uranium dispersed in a matrix of aluminum (UAlx-Al). Several impurities may be incorporated during the target's production process, such as boron, cadmium and lithium, which have a high capture cross section that may reduce the irradiation's efficiency. This study describes a simple and rapid inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometric method for the determination of cadmium, boron and lithium in uranium aluminum (UAlx) dispersion targets. The method involves a previous separation step, in which uranium gets removed from the matrix by chromatographic extraction with the use of a divinylbenzene resin Amberlite XAD - 4 doped with tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP). TBP selectively separates the uranium, leaving behind the impurities in an aqueous medium for a further quantification by ICP OES. Possible spectroscopic interferences are also discussed in this article, because of the high amount of aluminum in the remaining solution. Experimental and instrumental conditions, such as initial mass, acid solution ratio and amount, resin mass, emission lines and interfering concentrations are carefully established. This method is to be applied for the determination of several others impurities in UAlx in the future, providing means to verify the UAlx targets' compliance to the current established specifications through routine laboratory analysis. (author)

  2. Mass, charge, and energy separation by selective acceleration with a traveling potential hill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tung, L. Schwager; Barr, W. L.; Lowder, R. S.; Post, R. F.

    1996-10-01

    A traveling electric potential hill has been used to generate an ion beam with an energy distribution that is mass dependent from a monoenergetic ion beam of mixed masses. This effect can be utilized as a novel method for mass separation applied to identification or enrichment of ions (e.g., of elements, isotopes, or molecules). This theory for mass-selective acceleration is presented here and is shown to be confirmed by experiment and by a time-dependent particle-in-cell computer simulation. Results show that monoenergetic ions with the particular mass of choice are accelerated by controlling the hill potential and the hill velocity. The hill velocity is typically 20%-30% faster than the ions to be accelerated. The ability of the hill to pickup a particular mass uses the fact that small kinetic energy differences in the lab frame appear much larger in the moving hill frame. Ions will gain energy from the approaching hill if their relative energy in the moving hill frame is less than the peak potential of the hill. The final energy of these accelerated ions can be several times the source energy, which facilitates energy filtering for mass purification or identification. If the hill potential is chosen to accelerate multiple masses, the heaviest mass will have the greatest final energy. Hence, choosing the appropriate hill potential and collector retarding voltage will isolate ions with the lightest, heaviest, or intermediate mass. In the experimental device, called a Solitron, purified 20Ne and 22Ne are extracted from a ribbon beam of neon that is originally composed of 20Ne:22Ne in the natural ratio of 91:9. The isotopic content of the processed beam is determined by measuring the energy distribution of the detected current. These results agree with the theory. In addition to mass selectivity, our theory can also be applied to the filtration of an ion beam according to charge state or energy. Because of this variety of properties, the Solitron is envisioned to

  3. Determination of rare earth elements by liquid chromatographic separation using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometric detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braverman, D.S.

    1992-01-01

    High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) is used to separate the rare earth elements (REEs) prior to detection by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The use of HPLC-ICP-MS in series combines the separation power and speed of HPLC with the sensitivity, isotopic selectivity and speed of ICP-MS. The detection limits for the REEs are in the sub-ng ml -1 range and the response is linear over four orders of magnitude. A preliminary comparison of isotope dilution and external standard results for the determination of REEs in National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Standard Reference Material (SRM 1633a) Fly Ash is presented. (author)

  4. The classical centre-of-mass separation for two particles in a homogeneous magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickinson, A.S.; Patterson, J.M.

    1986-01-01

    The authors investigate classically the problem of the centre-of-mass separation for a two-body system with net charge in a homogeneous magnetic field. Particular attention is paid to the case where one particle is much heavier than the other. Alternative momenta involving a suggested near-constant of the motion are investigated for use with a translation-invariant internal potential. These lead to a 'near separation' in terms of two coupled particles characterised by vectors which possess a simple classical interpretation, even in the presence of an interaction potential. However it is found that the coupling is not small and is not reduced when one of the particles is much heavier than the other, although the frequencies of the two motions then differ widely. (author)

  5. Chemical separation of plutonium from air filters and preparation of filaments for resonance ionization mass spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eberhardt, K.; Erdmann, N.; Funk, H.; Herrmann, G.; Naehler, A.; Passler, G.; Trautmann, N.; Urban, F.

    1995-01-01

    Resonance ionization mass spectroscopy (RIMS) is used for the determination of plutonium in environmental samples. A chemical procedure based on an ion-exchange technique for the separation of plutonium from a polycarbonate filter is described. The overall yield is about 60% as determined by α-particle spectroscopy. A technique for the subsequent preparation of samples for RIMS measurements is developed. Plutonium is electrode-posited as hydroxide and covered with a thin metallic layer. While heating such a sandwich filament the plutonium hydroxide is reduced to the metal and an atomic beam is evaporated from the surface, as required for RIMS. copyright American Institute of Physics 1995

  6. Separation and identification of corticosterone metabolites by liquid chromatography--electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miksík, I; Vylitová, M; Pácha, J; Deyl, Z

    1999-04-16

    High-performance liquid chromatography coupled to atmospheric pressure ionization-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (API-ESI-MS) was investigated for the analysis of corticosterone metabolites; their characterization was obtained by combining the separation on Zorbax Eclipse XDB C18 column (eluted with a methanol-water-acetic acid gradient) with identification using positive ion mode API-ESI-MS and selected ion analysis. The applicability of this method was verified by monitoring the activity of steroid converting enzymes (20beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase) in avian intestines.

  7. Advances in the helium-jet coupled on-line mass separator RAMA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moltz, D.M.; Aysto, J.; Cable, M.D.; Parry, R.F.; Haustein, P.E.; Wouters, J.M.; Cerny, J.

    1980-01-01

    General improvements to the on-line mass separator RAMA (Recoil Atom Mass Analyzer) have yielded a greater reliability and efficiency for some elements. A new utilitarian helium-jet chamber has been installed to facilitate quick target and degrader foil changes in addition to a new ion source holder. A higher efficiency hollow-cathode, cathode-extraction ion source, for lower melting point elements ( 0 C) has also been designed. Tests with the beta-delayed proton emitter 37 Ca showed a factor of five increase in yield over the old hollow-cathode, anode-extraction source. A differentially-pumped-tape drive system compatible with both γ-γ and β-γ experiments has been incorporated into the general detection system. All major operating parameters will soon be monitored by a complete stand-alone microprocessor system which will eventually be upgraded to a closed-loop control system

  8. Direct rare earth determination by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marin, Sergio; Cornejo, Silvia; Rojas, Jacqueline

    2003-01-01

    In the present work, the use of the inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES), for the sequential determination of Rare Earth elements in the metallurgical process samples is described. In the first place, the optimum parameters for the determination of the elements in study are established, like instrumental calibration, wavelengths spectral selection and interference of matrix. Next, the methodology for the digestion of solid samples (system of digestion with pressure) and the recovery of the interest elements are presented. Two material rocks as of reference Syenite SY3 are used. In order to assure the validity of the obtained data, the reference materials SY2 and SY3 were analyzed by means of two different techniques, ICP-OES and ICP-Mass, this last one was made by an international laboratory and a fusion with lithium metaborate was used with digestion method. Finally, the obtained results demonstrate that the reproducibility in the recovery of rare earth analyzed by both techniques is comparable, and that the methodology of digestion used for these elements is statistically valid (author)

  9. Computer programmes for high current ion trajectories in a magnetic sector-type mass separator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakai, Akira

    1988-01-01

    According to theoretical calculations previously proposed by the author, a new programme 'MALT' for electronic computers has been developed for numerical calculations of ion trajectories of a high current ion beam traversing a magnetic sector-type mass separator. In the programme, both effects of the fringing field and the space charge are taken into account in an analytical way, so that numerical calculations can be done straightforwardly. Furthermore, it becomes also possible to analyze and cotrol the trajectories of the high current ion beam. The programme MALT contains several subroutine programmes which are separated individually for the convenience of various calculations with respect to the high current ion beam. To demonstrate the calculations by the use of these subroutine programmes, a main programme for the calculation of the trajectories in the whole region of the separator is shown, which also makes it possible to draw the traces of the trajectories. The trajectories calculated by the proposed programme have been compared with the images of the ion beams recorded on novel dry plates developed by the author: the comparison enables us to evaluate the effective space charge and the effective space charge potential, and to analyze the behaviour of the beam of neutral particles accompanying the ion beam. (author)

  10. Fast separation of triterpenoid saponins using supercritical fluid chromatography coupled with single quadrupole mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yang; Zhang, Tingting; Zhou, Haibo; Feng, Ying; Fan, Chunlin; Chen, Weijia; Crommen, Jacques; Jiang, Zhengjin

    2016-03-20

    Triterpenoid saponins (TSs) are the most important components of some traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) and have exhibited valuable pharmacological properties. In this study, a rapid and efficient method was developed for the separation of kudinosides, stauntosides and ginsenosides using supercritical fluid chromatography coupled with single quadrupole mass spectrometry (SFC-MS). The separation conditions for the selected TSs were carefully optimized after the initial screening of eight stationary phases. The best compromise for all compounds in terms of chromatographic performance and MS sensitivity was obtained when water (5-10%) and formic acid (0.05%) were added to the supercritical carbon dioxide/MeOH mobile phase. Beside the composition of the mobile phase, the nature of the make-up solvent for interfacing SFC with MS was also evaluated. Compared to reversed phase liquid chromatography, the SFC approach showed higher resolution and shorter running time. The developed SFC-MS methods were successfully applied to the separation and identification of TSs present in Ilex latifolia Thunb., Panax quinquefolius L. and Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer. These results suggest that this SFC-MS approach could be employed as a useful tool for the quality assessment of natural products containing TSs as active components. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Partial microwave-assisted wet digestion of animal tissue using a baby-bottle sterilizer for analyte determination by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matos, Wladiana O.; Menezes, Eveline A.; Gonzalez, Mario H.; Costa, Leticia M.; Trevizan, Lilian C.; Nogueira, Ana Rita A.

    2009-01-01

    A procedure for partial digestion of bovine tissue is proposed using polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) micro-vessels inside a baby-bottle sterilizer under microwave radiation for multi-element determination by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP OES). Samples were directly weighed in laboratory-made polytetrafluoroethylene vessels. Nitric acid and hydrogen peroxide were added to the uncovered vessels, which were positioned inside the baby-bottle sterilizer, containing 500 mL of water. The hydrogen peroxide volume was fixed at 100 μL. The system was placed in a domestic microwave oven and partial digestion was carried out for the determination of Ca, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn and Zn by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. The single-vessel approach was used in the entire procedure, to minimize contamination in trace analysis. Better recoveries and lower residual carbon content (RCC) levels were obtained under the conditions established through a 2 4-1 fractional factorial design: 650 W microwave power, 7 min digestion time, 50 μL nitric acid and 50 mg sample mass. The digestion efficiency was ascertained according to the residual carbon content determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. The accuracy of the proposed procedure was checked against two certified reference materials.

  12. Electrochemical separation and isotopic determination of thallium at the nanogram level by surface ionisation mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arden, J.W.

    1983-01-01

    A rapid low-blank procedure is described for the co-separation of thallium and lead by sequential cathodic and anodic electrodeposition from natural samples, especially complex natural silicates, for subsequent mass spectrometry. A micro anion-exchange procedure is also described for the separation of thallium and lead. Ion currents of 10 - 10 A can be obtained from 1 ng of thallium. The isotopic composition of 1 ng of thallium can be measured on a Faraday detector with a precision of 0.05-0.1%. The total procedural blank is 3 pg. By using stable isotope dilution, 0.2 ng of thallium can be measured with a precision of 0.6% with only a 2% blank correction. This allows the accurate determination of thallium in natural samples down to concentration levels of about 50 pg g - 1 . The detection limit is 50 fg. This procedure has been applied to meteorites and terrestrial rocks. The stable isotope dilution technique is suitable for geochemical, environmental and toxicological studies requiring a highly sensitive, accurate and precise method for the determination of thallium. (Auth.)

  13. Separation and Analysis of Boron Isotope in High Plant by Thermal Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingcai Xu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of boron and its isotope in plants is useful to better understand the transposition and translocation of boron within plant, the geochemical behavior in the interface between soil and plant, and the biogeochemical cycle of boron. It is critical to develop a useful method to separate boron from the plant for the geochemical application of boron and its isotope. A method was developed for the extraction of boron in plant sample, whose isotope was determined by thermal ionization mass spectrometry. The results indicated that this method of dry ashing coupled with two-step ion-exchange chromatography is powerful for the separation of boron in plant sample with large amounts of organic matters completely. The ratios of boron isotope composition in those plant tissue samples ranged from -19.45‰ to +28.13‰ (total range: 47.58‰ with a mean value of 2.61±11.76‰ SD. The stem and root isotopic compositions were lower than those in flower and leaf. The molecular mechanism of boron isotope may be responsible for the observed variation of boron isotopic composition and are considered as a useful tool for the better understanding of boron cycling process in the environment and for the signature of living systems.

  14. Liquid electrode plasma-optical emission spectrometry combined with solid-phase preconcentration for on-site analysis of lead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barua, Suman; Rahman, Ismail M M; Alam, Iftakharul; Miyaguchi, Maho; Sawai, Hikaru; Maki, Teruya; Hasegawa, Hiroshi

    2017-08-15

    A relatively rapid and precise method is presented for the determination of lead in aqueous matrix. The method consists of analyte quantitation using the liquid electrode plasma-optical emission spectrometry (LEP-OES) coupled with selective separation/preconcentration by solid-phase extraction (SPE). The impact of operating variables on the retention of lead in SPEs such as pH, flow rate of the sample solution; type, volume, flow rate of the eluent; and matrix effects were investigated. Selective SPE-separation/preconcentration minimized the interfering effect due to manganese in solution and limitations in lead-detection in low-concentration samples by LEP-OES. The LEP-OES operating parameters such as the electrical conductivity of sample solution; applied voltage; on-time, off-time, pulse count for applied voltage; number of measurements; and matrix effects have also been optimized to obtain a distinct peak for the lead at λ max =405.8nm. The limit of detection (3σ) and the limit of quantification (10σ) for lead determination using the technique were found as 1.9 and 6.5ng mL -1 , respectively. The precision, as relative standard deviation, was lower than 5% at 0.1μg mL -1 Pb, and the preconcentration factor was found to be 187. The proposed method was applied to the analysis of lead contents in the natural aqueous matrix (recovery rate:>95%). The method accuracy was verified using certified reference material of wastewaters: SPS-WW1 and ERM-CA713. The results from LEP-OES were in good agreement with inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry measurements of the same samples. The application of the method is rapid (≤5min, without preconcentration) with a reliable detection limit at trace levels. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Mass separation and risk assessment of commingled contamination in soil and ground water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dai, Q.L.; Chau, T.S. [Alberta Environment, Red Deer, AB (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    Gasoline service stations in urban areas may be sources of groundwater pollution if petroleum hydrocarbons (PHCs) were to leak from underground storage tanks. Depending on the site-specific hydrogeologic conditions, the PHC could be retained in the soil, float on top of the groundwater table, dissolve in the groundwater or partition into soil vapour. This study focused on risk assessment and and management of soil and groundwater pollution caused by PHC releases from multiple sources which lead to commingling of subsurface plumes that require identification, assessment and control. Risk management decisions are made according to the different protection zones corresponding to different exposure pathways into which the commingled groundwater plume is divided, such as inhalation, ingestion and freshwater aquatic life. In order to effectively evaluate and manage commingled plumes, responsible parties must cooperate in sharing information on contaminated sites and developing joint programs for investigation, monitoring, remediation and risk management. This study proposed methodologies for determining mass contribution to a commingled plume from multiple contaminant sources. It was concluded that the levels of risk to human and environmental health can be determined by considering contaminant sources, migration pathways and potential receptors. Migration of PHCs in the subsurface is influenced by several uncertainties such as pollutant release and remediation histories, preferential pathways and hydrogeologic boundary conditions. Proper site characterization is necessary for reliable mass separation and to delineate contaminant plumes. Mathematical models can be used to simulate subsurface flow and transport processes. 5 refs., 4 figs.

  16. Separation of uranium and plutonium isotopes for measurement by multi collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinelli, R.E.; Hamilton, T.F.; Kehl, S.R.; Williams, R.W.

    2009-01-01

    Uranium (U) and plutonium (Pu) isotopes in coral soils, contaminated by nuclear weapons testing in the northern Marshall Islands, were isolated by ion-exchange chromatography and analyzed by mass spectrometry. The soil samples were spiked with 233 U and 242 Pu tracers, dissolved in minerals acids, and U and Pu isotopes isolated and purified on commercially available ion-exchange columns. The ion-exchange technique employed a TEVA R column coupled to a UTEVA R column. U and Pu isotope fractions were then further isolated using separate elution schemes, and the purified fractions containing U and Pu isotopes analyzed sequentially using multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (MCICP-MS). High precision measurements of 234 U/ 235 U, 238 U/ 235 U, 236 U/ 235 U, and 240 Pu/ 239 Pu in soil samples were attained using the described methodology and instrumentation, and provide a basis for conducting more detailed assessments of the behavior and transfer of uranium and plutonium in the environment. (author)

  17. Separation and characterization of metallosupramolecular libraries by ion mobility mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaopeng; Chan, Yi-Tsu; Casiano-Maldonado, Madalis; Yu, Jing; Carri, Gustavo A; Newkome, George R; Wesdemiotis, Chrys

    2011-09-01

    The self-assembly of Zn(II) ions and bis(terpyridine) (tpy) ligands carrying 120° or 180° angles between their metal binding sites was utilized to prepare metallosupramolecular libraries with the connectivity. These combinatorial libraries were separated and characterized by ion mobility mass spectrometry (IM MS) and tandem mass spectrometry (MS(2)). The 180°-angle building blocks generate exclusively linear complexes, which were used as standards to determine the architectures of the assemblies resulting from the 120°-angle ligands. The latter ligand geometry promotes the formation of macrocyclic hexamers, but other n-mers with smaller (n = 5) or larger ring sizes (n = 7-9) were identified as minor products, indicating that the angles in the bis(terpyridine) ligand and within the coordinative tpy-Zn(II)-tpy bonds are not as rigid, as previously believed. Macrocyclic and linear isomers were detected in penta- and heptameric assemblies; in the larger octa- and nonameric assemblies, ring-opened conformers with compact and folded geometries were observed in addition to linear extended and cyclic architectures. IM MS(2) experiments provided strong evidence that the macrocycles present in the libraries were already formed in solution, during the self-assembly process, not by dissociation of larger complexes in the gas phase. The IM MS/MS(2) methods provide a means to analyze, based on size and shape (architecture), supramolecular libraries that are not amenable to liquid chromatography, LC-MS, NMR, and/or X-ray techniques.

  18. An on-line mass-separator for thermically ionisable fission products: OSTIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wuensch, K.-D.

    1978-01-01

    A mass separator has been designed and built for the installed at an external neutron guide tube (flux approximately 10 9 nsub(th)/s cm 2 ) of the High Flux Reactor of the Institute Laue-Langevin in Grenoble. The ion source consists of a high temperature oven containing fissile target material (approximately 2 g 235 U) embedded in porous carbon. Fission products formed in the target are thermalised in the carbon where only the alkali fission products diffuse quickly to the extraction hole. There only Rb and Cs are thermally ionized. Accelerated to 20 kV, these ions pass through a deflecting magnetic field (rhosub(m) approximately 215 mm, rho=77.5 0 ) for mass analysis and an electrostatic quadrupole to form a 5 mm diameter spot about 1 m outside the concrete shielding. Intensities of some 10 6 atoms per second were reached. The system allows all types of nuclear spectroscopy of Rb, Cs and their β-decay chain daughters as well as the measurement of yields and fission neutrons. It has been in nearly continuous operation for more than two years in Grenoble and first results are reported. (Auth.)

  19. Mass spectrometric analysis of electrophoretically separated allergens and proteases in grass pollen diffusates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geczy Carolyn L

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pollens are important triggers for allergic asthma and seasonal rhinitis, and proteases released by major allergenic pollens can injure airway epithelial cells in vitro. Disruption of mucosal epithelial integrity by proteases released by inhaled pollens could promote allergic sensitisation. Methods Pollen diffusates from Kentucky blue grass (Poa pratensis, rye grass (Lolium perenne and Bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon were assessed for peptidase activity using a fluorogenic substrate, as well as by gelatin zymography. Following one- or two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, Coomassie-stained individual bands/spots were excised, subjected to tryptic digestion and analysed by mass spectrometry, either MALDI reflectron TOF or microcapillary liquid chromatography MS-MS. Database searches were used to identify allergens and other plant proteins in pollen diffusates. Results All pollen diffusates tested exhibited peptidase activity. Gelatin zymography revealed high Mr proteolytic activity at ~ 95,000 in all diffusates and additional proteolytic bands in rye and Bermuda grass diffusates, which appeared to be serine proteases on the basis of inhibition studies. A proteolytic band at Mr ~ 35,000 in Bermuda grass diffusate, which corresponded to an intense band detected by Western blotting using a monoclonal antibody to the timothy grass (Phleum pratense group 1 allergen Phl p 1, was identified by mass spectrometric analysis as the group 1 allergen Cyn d 1. Two-dimensional analysis similarly demonstrated proteolytic activity corresponding to protein spots identified as Cyn d 1. Conclusion One- and two-dimensional electrophoretic separation, combined with analysis by mass spectrometry, is useful for rapid determination of the identities of pollen proteins. A component of the proteolytic activity in Bermuda grass diffusate is likely to be related to the allergen Cyn d 1.

  20. Redox speciation of final repository relevant elements using separation methods in combination with ICP mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graser, Carl-Heinrich

    2015-01-01

    The long-term safety assessment for nuclear waste repositories requires a detailed understanding of the chemistry of actinide elements in the geosphere. The development of advanced analytical tools is required to gain detailed insights into actinide redox speciation in a given system. The mobility of radionuclides is mostly determined by the geochemical conditions which control the redox state of radionuclides. Besides the longlived radionuclides plutonium (Pu) and neptunium (Np), which are key elements in high level nuclear waste, iron (Fe) represents a main component in natural systems controlling redox related geochemical processes. Analytical techniques for determining oxidation state distribution for redox sensitive radionuclides and other metal ions often have a lack of sensitivity. The detection limits of these methods (i.e. UV/vis, TRLFS, XANES) are in general in the range of ≥ 10 -6 mol.L -1 . As a consequence ultrasensitive new analytical techniques are required. Capillary electrophoresis (CE) and ion chromatography (IC) are powerful separation methods for metal ions. In the course of this thesis different speciation method for iron, neptunium and plutonium were optimized. With the optimized setup redox speciation analysis of these elements in different samples were done. Furthermore CE hyphenated to inductively coupled plasma sector field mass spectrometry (CE - ICP - SF - MS) was used to measure the redox speciation of Pu (III, IV, V, VI), Np (IV, V, VI) and Fe (II, III) at concentrations lower than 10 -7 mol.L -1 . CE coupling and separation parameters such as sample gas pressure, make up flow rate, capillary position, auxiliary gas flow, as well as the electrolyte system were optimized to obtain the maximum sensitivity. The methodes detection limits are 10 -12 mol.L -1 for Np and Pu. The various oxidation state species of Pu and Np in different samples were separated by application of an acetate based electrolyte system. The separation of Fe (II

  1. Investigation of gas discharge ion sources for on-line mass separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirchner, R.

    1976-03-01

    The development of efficient gas discharge ion sources with axial beam extraction for on-line mass separation is described. The aim of the investigation was to increase the ion source temperature, the lifetime and the ionisation yield in comparison to present low-pressure are discharge ion sources and to reduce the ion current density from usually 1 to 100 mA/cm 3 . In all ion sources the pressure range below the minimal ignition pressure of the arc discharge was investigated. As a result an ion source was developed which works at small changes in geometry and in electric device of a Nielsen source with high ionization yield (up to 50% for xenon) stabil and without ignition difficulties up to 10 -5 Torr. At a typical pressure of 3 x 10 -5 Torr ion current and ion current density are about 1 μA and 0.1 mA/cm 3 respectively besides high yield and a great emission aperture (diameter 1.2 mm). (orig.) [de

  2. Decay of mass-separated 187Au (8.4 min) to 187Pt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gnade, B.E.; Fink, R.W.; Wood, J.L.

    1983-01-01

    The decay of 187 Au to 187 Pt has been studied with mass-separated sources from the UNISOR facility. Multiscaled spectra of γ-rays, X-rays, and conversion electrons, as well as γγt, Xγt, eγt, and eXt coincidences were obtained. The half-life of the 187 Au ground state was measured to be 8.4 +- 0.3 min. A decay scheme has been constructed incorporating 88% of the decay intensity assigned to 187 Au. The isub(13/2) band in 187 Pt is populated through low-spin band members. The levels at 260 and 288 keV are found to de-excite by EO transitions. From a γ-ray-gated K/β + ratio, the β-decay energy of 8.4 min 187 Au is deduced to be Qsub(EC)=3.90 +- 0.15 MeV. The positive-parity states in 187 Pt are compared with calculations made using the Nilsson model with a triaxial degree of freedom. The possibility that shape coexistence is present at low energy in 187 Pt is discussed. (orig.)

  3. Investigation of A = 152 radioactivities with mass-separated sources: Identification of /sup 152/Lu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toth, K.S.; Sousa, D.C.; Nitschke, J.M.; Wilmarth, P.A.

    1987-01-01

    Nuclides with A = 152 were produced in /sup 58/Ni bombardments of /sup 96/Ru and their decay properties were investigated following on-line mass separation. The isotope /sup 152/Lu (T/sub 1/2/ = 0.7 +- 0.1 s) was identified by γ rays in its β-decay daughter, /sup 152/Yb. Based on its decay characteristics, the parent state has a probable spin and parity assignment of (4,5,6 - ). Several new transitions were observed to follow the β decays of /sup 152/Yb and the /sup 152/Tm low-spin isomer; they established previously unknown levels in both /sup 152/Tm and /sup 152/Er. The additional γ rays in /sup 152/Yb decay reduce from 100% to 88% the direct feeding to the one excited state in /sup 152/Tm that had been known earlier. Nevertheless, the corresponding logft value is calculated to be 3.5, indicating that this is an allowed β transition which connects the 0 + parent with a 1 + excited state in /sup 152/Tm. By comparing the β-decay rates of /sup 148/Dy and /sup 152/Ho, and the α- and β-decay rates of /sup 152/Er, an α branch of 90 +- 4 % was deduced for /sup 152/Er

  4. Mass and heat transfer on B7 structured packing in the separation of hydrogen isotopes by distillation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Croitoru, C.; Pop, F.; Titescu, Gh.; Culcer, M.; Iliescu, M.; Stefanescu, I.; Trancota, D.; Peculea, M.

    2002-01-01

    The paper presents theoretical and experimental data concerning mass and heat transfer on B7 ordered packing, at deuterium separation by distillation. The first section of the paper is dedicated to the mass transfer study of hydrogen distillation, while the second section deals with mass and heat transfer in water distillation. A mathematical model was worked out and compared with experimental data, obtained from two laboratory distillation plants for deuterium separation. From the first plant experimental data concerning B7 ordered packing efficiency of hydrogen cryogenic distillation at 250 deg. C level were obtained. Data concerning mass and heat transfer on the same packing in deuterium separation by water vacuum distillation at 60 deg. C level were obtained in the second plant. HUT values, mass and heat transfer coefficients both theoretically evaluated and experimentally determined were found to be comparable with those obtained from chemical industry separation processes. The fact justifies the use of multi-tubular column model for description of transfer processes in distillation columns equipped with B7 structured packing. (authors)

  5. Liquid separation techniques coupled with mass spectrometry for chiral analysis of pharmaceuticals compounds and their metabolites in biological fluids.

    OpenAIRE

    Erny, Guillaume L.; Cifuentes, Alejandro

    2006-01-01

    Determination of the chiral composition of drugs is nowadays a key step in order to determine purity, activity, bioavailability, biodegradation, etc, of pharmaceuticals. In this manuscript, works published for the last 5 years on the analysis of chiral drugs by liquid separation techniques coupled with mass spectrometry are reviewed. Namely, chiral analysis of pharmaceuticals including e.g., antiinflammatories, antihypertensives, relaxants, etc, by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and ...

  6. First on-line applications of a multi-reflection time-of-flight mass separator at ISOLTRAP and the mass measurement of 82Zn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolf, Robert

    2013-01-01

    This thesis describes the implementation and first on-line application of a multi-reflection time-of-flight (MR-ToF) mass analyzer for high-resolution mass separation at the ISOLTRAP mass spectrometer at ISOLDE/CERN. On the one hand, the major objective was to improve ISOLTRAPs mass-measurement capabilities with respect to the ratio of delivered contaminating ions to ions of interest. On the other hand, the time necessary to purify wanted from unwanted species should be reduced as much as possible to enable access to even more exotic nuclei. The device has been set up, optimized and tested at the University of Greifswald before its move to ISOLTRAP. The achieved performance comprises mass resolving powers of up to 2 x 10 5 reached at observation times of 30 ms and a contamination suppression of about four orders of magnitude by use of a Bradbury-Nielsen gate. With the characteristics, it outperforms clearly the so far state-of-the-art purification method of a gas-filled Penning trap. To improve the utilization of the MR-ToF mass analyzer, the in-trap lift method has been developed. It simplifies the application and optimization of the device, which is a crucial time factor in an on-line experiment. The device was the first of its kind successfully applied to radioactive ion beams for a mass analysis, for a mass separation (in combination with the Bradbury-Nielsen gate) as a preparatory step for a subsequent Penning-trap mass measurement and as a high-precision mass spectrometer of its own. The later was recently used for the first mass measurement of the neutron-rich calcium isotopes 53 Ca and 54 Ca. The so-far achieved mass-resolving power of 2 x 10 5 belongs to the highest reported for time-of-flight mass analyzers at all. The first successful application of the MR-ToF system as the only mass separator at ISOLTRAP resulted in the mass measurement of 82 Zn. The new mass value has been compared to mass extrapolations of the most recent Hartree-Fock-Bogolyubov (HFB

  7. Prediction of mass excess, β-decay energy and neutron separation energy from the atomic mass formula with empirical shell terms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ando, Yoshihira; Uno, Masahiro; Yamada, Masami

    1983-02-01

    Recently we proposed two types of atomic mass formula (constant-shell-term formula, linear-shell-term formula). With use of these formulas, we calculate and tabulate mass excesses, neutron separation energies, and β-decay energies (β-decay and/or electron capture) for about 5000 nuclides. The mass excess values and their errors in the 1977 atomic mass evaluation by A.H. Wapstra and K. Bos which we used in constructing our formulas, are also tabulated for reference. The constant-shell-term formula is fitted to 1468 input mass data with the standard deviation of 626 keV and the linear-shell-term formula with 394 keV

  8. Prediction of mass excess, #betta#-decay energy and neutron separation energy from the atomic mass formula with empirical shell terms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ando, Yoshihira; Uno, Masahiro; Yamada, Masami.

    1983-02-01

    Recently we proposed two types of atomic mass formula (constant-shell-term formula, linear-shell-term formula). With use of these formulas, we calculate and tabulate mass excesses, neutron separation energies, and #betta#-decay energies (#betta# - -decay and/or electron capture) for about 5000 nuclides. The mass excess values and their errors in the 1977 atomic mass evaluation by A.H. Wapstra and K. Bos which we used in constructing our formulas, are also tabulated for reference. The constant-shell-term formula is fitted to 1468 input mass data with the standard deviation of 626 keV and the linear-shell-term formula with 394 keV. (author)

  9. Liquid separation techniques coupled with mass spectrometry for chiral analysis of pharmaceuticals compounds and their metabolites in biological fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erny, G L; Cifuentes, A

    2006-02-24

    Determination of the chiral composition of drugs is nowadays a key step in order to determine purity, activity, bioavailability, biodegradation, etc., of pharmaceuticals. In this article, works published for the last 5 years on the analysis of chiral drugs by liquid separation techniques coupled with mass spectrometry are reviewed. Namely, chiral analysis of pharmaceuticals including, e.g., antiinflammatories, antihypertensives, relaxants, etc., by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry are included. The importance and interest of the analysis of the enantiomers of the active compound and its metabolites in different biological fluids (plasma, urine, cerebrospinal fluid, etc.) are also discussed.

  10. Coupling Front-End Separations, Ion Mobility Spectrometry, and Mass Spectrometry For Enhanced Multidimensional Biological and Environmental Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xueyun; Wojcik, Roza; Zhang, Xing; Ibrahim, Yehia M.; Burnum-Johnson, Kristin E.; Orton, Daniel J.; Monroe, Matthew E.; Moore, Ronald J.; Smith, Richard D.; Baker, Erin S.

    2017-01-01

    Ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) is a widely used analytical technique for rapid molecular separations in the gas phase. Though IMS alone is useful, its coupling with mass spectrometry (MS) and front-end separations is extremely beneficial for increasing measurement sensitivity, peak capacity of complex mixtures, and the scope of molecular information available from biological and environmental sample analyses. In fact, multiple disease screening and environmental evaluations have illustrated that the IMS-based multidimensional separations extract information that cannot be acquired with each technique individually. This review highlights three-dimensional separations using IMS-MS in conjunction with a range of front-end techniques, such as gas chromatography, supercritical fluid chromatography, liquid chromatography, solid-phase extractions, capillary electrophoresis, field asymmetric ion mobility spectrometry, and microfluidic devices. The origination, current state, various applications, and future capabilities of these multidimensional approaches are described in detail to provide insight into their uses and benefits. PMID:28301728

  11. Coupling Front-End Separations, Ion Mobility Spectrometry, and Mass Spectrometry For Enhanced Multidimensional Biological and Environmental Analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Xueyun; Wojcik, Roza; Zhang, Xing; Ibrahim, Yehia M.; Burnum-Johnson, Kristin E.; Orton, Daniel J.; Monroe, Matthew E.; Moore, Ronald J.; Smith, Richard D.; Baker, Erin M.

    2017-06-12

    Ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) is a widely used analytical technique for rapid molecular separations in the gas phase. IMS alone is useful, but its coupling with mass spectrometry (MS) and front-end separations has been extremely beneficial for increasing measurement sensitivity, peak capacity of complex mixtures, and the scope of molecular information in biological and environmental sample analyses. Multiple studies in disease screening and environmental evaluations have even shown these IMS-based multidimensional separations extract information not possible with each technique individually. This review highlights 3-dimensional separations using IMS-MS in conjunction with a range of front-end techniques, such as gas chromatography (GC), supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC), liquid chromatography (LC), solid phase extractions (SPE), capillary electrophoresis (CE), field asymmetric ion mobility spectrometry (FAIMS), and microfluidic devices. The origination, current state, various applications, and future capabilities for these multidimensional approaches are described to provide insight into the utility and potential of each technique.

  12. Hollow fiber apparatus and use thereof for fluids separations and heat and mass transfers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bikson, Benjamin; Etter, Stephen; Ching, Nathaniel

    2017-04-18

    A hollow fiber fluid separation device includes a hollow fiber cartridge, comprising a plurality of hollow fiber membranes arranged around a central tubular core, a first tubesheet and a second tubesheet encapsulating respective distal ends of the hollow fiber bundle. The tubesheets have boreholes in fluid communication with bores of the hollow fiber membrane. In at least one of the tubesheets, the boreholes are formed radially and are in communication with the central tubular core. The hollow fiber fluid separation device can be utilized in liquid separation applications such as ultrafiltration and in gas separation processes such as air separation. The design disclosed herein is light weight and compact and is particularly advantageous at high operating temperatures when the pressure of the feed fluid introduced into the bores of hollow fibers is higher than the pressure on the shell side of the device.

  13. Influence of the Elastic Dilatation of Mining-Induced Unloading Rock Mass on the Development of Bed Separation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weibing Zhu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Understanding how mining-induced strata movement, fractures, bed separation, and ground subsidence evolve is an area of great importance for the underground coal mining industry, particularly for disaster control and sustainable mining. Based on the rules of mining-induced strata movement and stress evolution, accumulative dilatation of mining-induced unloading rock mass is first proposed in this paper. Triaxial unloading tests and theoretical calculation were used to investigate the influence of elastic dilatation of mining-induced unloading rock mass on the development of bed separation in the context of district No. 102 where a layer of super-thick igneous sill exists in the Haizi colliery. It is shown that the elastic dilatation coefficient of mining-induced unloading hard rocks and coal were 0.9~1.0‰ and 2.63‰ respectively under the axial load of 16 MPa, which increased to 1.30~1.59‰ and 4.88‰ when the axial load was 32 MPa. After successively excavating working faces No. 1022 and No. 1024, the elastic dilatation of unloading rock mass was 157.9 mm, which represented approximately 6.3% of the mining height, indicating the elastic dilatation of mining-induced unloading rock mass has a moderate influence on the development of bed separation. Drill hole detection results after grouting, showed that only 0.33 m of the total grouting filling thickness (1.67 m was located in the fracture zone and bending zone, which verified the result from previous drill hole detection that only small bed separation developed beneath the igneous sill. Therefore, it was concluded that the influences of elastic dilatation of mining-induced unloading rock mass and bulking of caved rock mass jointly contributed to the small bed separation space beneath the igneous sill. Since the accurate calculation of the unloading dilatation of rock mass is the fundamental basis for quantitative calculation of bed separation and surface subsidence, this paper is expected

  14. Time-separated oscillatory fields for high-precision mass measurements on short-lived Al and Ca nuclides

    CERN Document Server

    George, Simon; Blank, B.; Blaum, K.; Breitenfeldt, M.; Hager, U.; Herfurth, F.; Herlert, A.; Kellerbauer, A.; Kluge, H.J.; Kretzschmar, M.; Lunney, D.; Savreux, R.; Schwarz, Andreas S.; Schweikhard, L.; Yazidjian, C.

    2008-01-01

    High-precision Penning trap mass measurements on the stable nuclide $^{27}$Al as well as on the short-lived radionuclides $^{26}$Al and $^{38,39}$Ca have been performed by use of radio-frequency excitation with time-separated oscillatory fields, i.e. Ramsey's method, as recently introduced for the excitation of the ion motion in a Penning trap, was applied. A comparison with the conventional method of a single continuous excitation demonstrates its advantage of up to ten times shorter measurements. The new mass values of $^{26,27}$Al clarify conflicting data in this specific mass region. In addition, the resulting mass values of the superallowed $\\beta$-emitter $^{38}$Ca as well as of the groundstate of the $\\beta$-emitter $^{26}$Al$^{m}$ confirm previous measurements and corresponding theoretical corrections of the ft-values.

  15. Initial results with the Berkeley on-line mass separator-RAMA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cerny, J.; Moltz, D.M.; Evans, H.C.; Vieira, D.J.; Parry, R.F.; Wouters, J.M.; Gough, R.A.; Zisman, M.S.

    1977-11-01

    Initial performance is described for a reasonably fast and universal (having little or no chemical selectivity) on-line mass analysis system used to expand capabilities in studying nuclei far from stability. The system is termed RAMA, an acronym for Recoil Atom Mass Analyzer. Basically, this system utilizes the helium-jet method to transport activity to a Sidenius hollow-cathode ion source which is coupled to a mass spectrometer. Initial experiments and planned improvements are discussed. Transport efficiencies of between 10 and 60 percent have routinely been achieved, though the latter is much more typical when conditions are optimized

  16. Separation and identification of Musa acuminate Colla (banana) leaf proteins by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Y; Qi, Y X; Zhang, H; Zhang, H Q; Pu, J J; Xie, Y X

    2013-12-19

    To establish a proteomic reference map of Musa acuminate Colla (banana) leaf, we separated and identified leaf proteins using two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2D-PAGE) and mass spectrometry (MS). Tryptic digests of 44 spots were subjected to peptide mass fingerprinting (PMF) by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) MS. Three spots that were not identified by MALDI-TOF MS analysis were identified by searching against the NCBInr, SwissProt, and expressed sequence tag (EST) databases. We identified 41 unique proteins. The majority of the identified leaf proteins were found to be involved in energy metabolism. The results indicate that 2D-PAGE is a sensitive and powerful technique for the separation and identification of Musa leaf proteins. A summary of the identified proteins and their putative functions is discussed.

  17. Determination of La and Nd by thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS) pre-separated by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaison, P.G.; Raut, N.M.; Parab, A.R.; Khodade, P.S.; Govindan, R.; Aggarwal, S.K.

    2003-01-01

    Determination of La and Nd by TIMS is required for accurate determination of burn-up of nuclear fuels. During their thermal ionization mass spectrometric (TIMS) analysis, 138 Ce and 142 Ce show spectroscopic isobaric interferences at 138 La and 142 Nd, respectively. Hence, it is essential to remove Ce from La and Nd for their accurate isotopic composition determination. Reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) is a promising technique for rapid and effective separation

  18. Analysis of cobalt, tantalum, titanium, vanadium and chromium in tungsten carbide by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Archer, M

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) was used to measure the concentrations of cobalt, tantalum, titanium, vanadium and chromium in solutions of tungsten carbide. The main advantage of the method described here lies...

  19. Ion Mobility Separations of Isomers based upon Long Path Length Structures for Lossless Ion Manipulations Combined with Mass Spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, Liulin [Biological Sciences Division and Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Blvd Richland, WA 99352 USA; Ibrahim, Yehia M. [Biological Sciences Division and Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Blvd Richland, WA 99352 USA; Baker, Erin S. [Biological Sciences Division and Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Blvd Richland, WA 99352 USA; Aly, Noor A. [Biological Sciences Division and Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Blvd Richland, WA 99352 USA; Hamid, Ahmed M. [Biological Sciences Division and Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Blvd Richland, WA 99352 USA; Zhang, Xing [Biological Sciences Division and Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Blvd Richland, WA 99352 USA; Zheng, Xueyun [Biological Sciences Division and Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Blvd Richland, WA 99352 USA; Garimella, Sandilya V. B. [Biological Sciences Division and Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Blvd Richland, WA 99352 USA; Webb, Ian K. [Biological Sciences Division and Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Blvd Richland, WA 99352 USA; Prost, Spencer A. [Biological Sciences Division and Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Blvd Richland, WA 99352 USA; Sandoval, Jeremy A. [Biological Sciences Division and Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Blvd Richland, WA 99352 USA; Norheim, Randolph V. [Biological Sciences Division and Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Blvd Richland, WA 99352 USA; Anderson, Gordon A. [Biological Sciences Division and Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Blvd Richland, WA 99352 USA; Tolmachev, Aleksey V. [Biological Sciences Division and Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Blvd Richland, WA 99352 USA; Smith, Richard D. [Biological Sciences Division and Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Blvd Richland, WA 99352 USA

    2016-07-01

    Mass spectrometry (MS)-based multi-omic measurements, including proteomics, metabolomics, lipidomics, and glycomics, are increasingly transforming our ability to characterize and understand biological systems, but, presently have limitations due to the chemical diversity and range of abundances of biomolecules in complex samples. Advances addressing these challenges increasingly are based upon the ability to quickly separate, react and otherwise manipulate sample components for analysis by MS. Here we report on a new approach using Structures for Lossless Ion Manipulations (SLIM) to enable long serpentine path ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) separations followed by MS analyses. This approach provides previously unachieved mobility biomolecule isomer separations for biomolecular species, in conjunction with more effective ion utilization, and producing a basis for the improved characterization of very small samples.

  20. Heat and mass transfer in porous media phase separation at temperatures below the lambda-point of He-4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, S. W. K.; Frederking, T. H. K.

    1986-01-01

    Newtonian fluid motion, coupled to heat transfer via latent heat of phase transition, is well known from numerous studies of condensation and boiling. Considerably less knowledge is available for vapor-liquid phase separation in the absence of gravity effect on the transport phenomena. The present studies are focused on heat and mass transfer associated with vapor-liquid phase separation required for long-term storage of the cryogen liquid He II in space vessels. Though space conditions are the dominant mode of interest in advanced equipment, e.g. IR telescopes, the systems may be operated in principle during terrestrial conditions. The latter are considered in the present work. It emphasizes the linear regime including an extrapolation based on variable thermophysical properties. Data taken with a phase separation approach show departures from the linear regime prediction. They agree with a transport equation proposed for the nonlinear, turbulent regime.

  1. Coupling between chip based isotachophoresis and multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for separation and measurement of lanthanides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vio, Laurent; Cretier, Gerard; Rocca, Jean-Louis; Chartier, Frederic; Geertsen, Valerie; Gourgiotis, Alkiviadis; Isnard, Helene; Morin, Pierre

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the conception and fabrication of a micro-system for lanthanides separation and its coupling with a multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer for isotope ratio measurements. The lanthanides separation is based on the isotachophoresis technique and the micro-system conception has been adapted in order to fit with glove box limitations in view of future spent nuclear fuels analysis. The micro-device was tested by using a mixture of standard solutions of natural elements and the separation of 13 lanthanides was successfully performed. The micro-device was then coupled to a multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer for the on-line measurements of Nd and Sm isotope ratios. The isotopes of Nd and Sm were acquired online in multi-collection mode after separation of the two elements with an injection amount of 5 ng. Results obtained on the Nd and Sm isotope ratio measurements on transient signals are presented and discussed. (authors)

  2. Argentation chromatography coupled to ultrahigh-resolution mass spectrometry for the separation of a heavy crude oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molnárné Guricza, Lilla; Schrader, Wolfgang

    2017-02-10

    Simplification of highly complex mixtures such as crude oil by using chromatographic methods makes it possible to get more detailed information about the composition of the analyte. Separation by argentation chromatography can be achieved based on the interaction of different strength between the silver ions (Ag + ) immobilized through a spacer on the silica gel surface and the π-bonds of the analytes. Heavy crude oils contain compounds with a high number of heteroatoms (N, O, S) and a high degree of unsaturation thus making them the perfect analyte for argentation chromatography. The direct coupling of argentation chromatography and ultrahigh-resolution mass spectrometry allows to continuously tracking the separation of the many different compounds by retention time and allows sensitive detection on a molecular level. Direct injection of a heavy crude oil into a ultrahigh-resolution mass spectrometer showed components with DBE of up to 25, whereas analytes with DBE of up to 35 could be detected only after separation with argentation chromatography. The reduced complexity achieved by the separation helps increasing the information depth. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Decay properties of short-lived mass-separated fission products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lund, E.

    1977-01-01

    The present work describes determinations of total β-decay energies and studies of delayed neutron emission including the identification and half-life determinations of delayed neutron precursors and the measurement of neutron spectra. It also includes a short review of the OSIRIS on-line isotope separator facility. (Auth.)

  4. Neutron separation energies of Ca, Sn and Pb isotopes using different mass models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panda, R.N.; Patra, S.K.; Abbas, S.A.

    2015-01-01

    In this work we present an investigation of S 2n which is quite a sensitive quantity to test any microscopic model. Two popular models are Relativistic Mean Field (RMF) and Infinite Nuclear Matter (INM) model. The objective of the present study is to undertake a systematic analysis of two neutron separation energy using these models in comparison with experiment

  5. On the minimum core mass for giant planet formation at wide separations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piso, Ana-Maria A.; Youdin, Andrew N.

    2014-01-01

    In the core accretion hypothesis, giant planets form by gas accretion onto solid protoplanetary cores. The minimum (or critical) core mass to form a gas giant is typically quoted as 10 M ⊕ . The actual value depends on several factors: the location in the protoplanetary disk, atmospheric opacity, and the accretion rate of solids. Motivated by ongoing direct imaging searches for giant planets, this study investigates core mass requirements in the outer disk. To determine the fastest allowed rates of gas accretion, we consider solid cores that no longer accrete planetesimals, as this would heat the gaseous envelope. Our spherical, two-layer atmospheric cooling model includes an inner convective region and an outer radiative zone that matches onto the disk. We determine the minimum core mass for a giant planet to form within a typical disk lifetime of 3 Myr. The minimum core mass declines with disk radius, from ∼8.5 M ⊕ at 5 AU to ∼3.5 M ⊕ at 100 AU, with standard interstellar grain opacities. Lower temperatures in the outer disk explain this trend, while variations in disk density are less influential. At all distances, a lower dust opacity or higher mean molecular weight reduces the critical core mass. Our non-self-gravitating, analytic cooling model reveals that self-gravity significantly affects early atmospheric evolution, starting when the atmosphere is only ∼10% as massive as the core.

  6. Multi-Reflection Time-of-Flight Mass Separation and Spectrometry

    CERN Document Server

    Kreim, Susanne; Wolf, R N

    2014-01-01

    The mass of a nucleus is one of its most fundamental ground-state properties and reveals the strength of nuclear binding. Investigating the binding energy of nuclei with respect to the number of protons and neutrons in a nucleus is important for advancing nuclear theory and increases our understanding of nucleosynthesis in supernovae and neutron stars. Precision mass measurements on radioactive nuclides belong to the state-of-the-art techniques [1, 2]. Presently, four complementary techniques are applied: isochronous and Schottky mass spectrometry in storage rings (IMS and SMS, respectively), magnetic-rigidity time-of-flight (TOF-ρ) measurements, and Penning-trap mass spectrometry (PTMS). With measurement cycles in the sub-ms range, IMS and TOF-Bρ MS are well suited for very short-lived species while offering moderate relative precision on the level of 10−6. A higher precision is achieved by SMS but with the need for measurement times on the order of several seconds. As soon as masses with a relative prec...

  7. First on-line applications of multi-reflection time-of-flight mass separator at ISOLTRAP and the mass measurement of $^{82}$Zn

    CERN Document Server

    Wolf, Robert

    This thesis describes the implementation and first on-line application of a multi-reflection time-of-flight (MR-ToF) mass analyzer for high-resolution mass separation at the ISOLTRAP mass spectrometer at ISOLDE/CERN. On the one hand, the major objective was to improve ISOLTRAPs mass-measurement capabilities with respect to the ratio of delivered contaminating ions to ions of interest. On the other hand, the time necessary to purify wanted from unwanted species should be reduced as much as possible to enable access to even more exotic nuclei. The device has been set up, optimized and tested at the University of Greifswald before its move to ISOLTRAP. The achieved performance comprises mass resolving powers of up to 200000 reached at observation times of 30ms and a contamination suppression of about four orders of magnitude by use of a Bradbury-Nielsen gate. With the characteristics, it outperforms clearly the so far state-of-the-art purification method of a gas-filled Penning trap. To improve the utilization o...

  8. Centrifugal mass separation in rotating plasmas produced by a coaxial plasma gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikehata, T.; Suzuki, M.; Tanabe, T.; Mase, H.

    1989-01-01

    Rotating Cu/Zn plasmas produced by a coaxial plasma gun have been applied to plasma centrifuge. A separation factor of up to 10 is measured over a radius of 4 cm when a current of 13 kA and an axial magnetic field of 2.5 kG are applied. Plasma parameters are: rotation frequency ω=1.1x10 6 rad/s, density n∼10 15 cm -3 , and ion temperature T i =10 eV. The separation factor of 2 is attained even in the plasma core where the density is higher than one-half of the peak value. This is attributed to the fact that a strong centrifugal force forms a hollow density profile which gives the density peak at a radius of 2 cm

  9. Separation of VX, RVX and GB Enantiomers Using Liquid ChromatographyTime-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-01

    Infinity series LC system (Agilent Technologies; Santa Clara, CA), and APCI–MS was performed on a Lux Cellulose-1 column (250 × 4.6 mm, 5 µm; Phenomenex...1200 Infinity series fraction collector was configured using the peak- time-based collection protocol, and the separated enantiomers were combined into...Information Center ATTN: DTIC OA G-3 History Office U.S. Army RDECOM ATTN: Smart, J. Office of the Chief Counsel AMSRD-CC ATTN: Upchurch, V.

  10. Applications of liquid-based separation in conjunction with mass spectrometry to the analysis of forensic evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moini, Mehdi

    2018-03-12

    In the past few years, there has been a significant effort by the forensic science community to develop new scientific techniques for the analysis of forensic evidence. Forensic chemists have been spearheaded to develop information-rich confirmatory technologies and techniques and apply them to a broad array of forensic challenges. The purpose of these confirmatory techniques is to provide alternatives to presumptive techniques that rely on data such as color changes, pattern matching, or retention time alone, which are prone to more false positives. To this end, the application of separation techniques in conjunction with mass spectrometry has played an important role in the analysis of forensic evidence. Moreover, in the past few years the role of liquid separation techniques, such as liquid chromatography and capillary electrophoresis in conjunction with mass spectrometry, has gained significant tractions and have been applied to a wide range of chemicals, from small molecules such as drugs and explosives, to large molecules such as proteins. For example, proteomics and peptidomics have been used for identification of humans, organs, and bodily fluids. A wide range of HPLC techniques including reversed phase, hydrophilic interaction, mixed-mode, supercritical fluid, multidimensional chromatography, and nanoLC, as well as several modes of capillary electrophoresis mass spectrometry, including capillary zone electrophoresis, partial filling, full filling, and micellar electrokenetic chromatography have been applied to the analysis drugs, explosives, and questioned documents. In this article, we review recent (2015-2017) applications of liquid separation in conjunction with mass spectrometry to the analysis of forensic evidence. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Quantitative determination of total cesium in highly active liquid waste by using liquid electrode plasma optical emission spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Van-Khoai; Yamamoto, Masahiko; Taguchi, Shigeo; Takamura, Yuzuru; Surugaya, Naoki; Kuno, Takehiko

    2018-06-01

    A sensitive analytical method for determination of total cesium (Cs) in highly active liquid waste (HALW) by using modified liquid electrode plasma optical emission spectrometry (LEP-OES) is developed in this study. The instrument is modified to measure radioactive samples in a glove box. The effects of important factors, including pulsed voltage sequence and nitric acid concentration, on the emission of Cs are investigated. The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) are 0.005 mg/L and 0.02 mg/L, respectively. The achieved LOD is one order lower than that of recently developed spectroscopic methods using liquid discharge plasma. The developed method is validated by subjecting a simulated HALW sample to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The recoveries obtained from a spike-and-recovery test are 96-102%, implying good accuracy. The method is successfully applied to the quantification of Cs in a real HALW sample at the Tokai reprocessing plant in Japan. Apart from dilution and filtration of the HALW sample, no other pre-treatment process is required. The results agree well with the values obtained using gamma spectrometry. The developed method offers a reliable technique for rapid analysis of total Cs in HALW samples. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. First spatial separation of a heavy ion isomeric beam with a multiple-reflection time-of-flight mass spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickel, T.; Plaß, W. R.; Ayet San Andres, S.; Ebert, J.; Geissel, H.; Haettner, E.; Hornung, C.; Miskun, I.; Pietri, S.; Purushothaman, S.; Reiter, M. P.; Rink, A.-K.; Scheidenberger, C.; Weick, H.; Dendooven, P.; Diwisch, M.; Greiner, F.; Heiße, F.; Knöbel, R.; Lippert, W.; Moore, I. D.; Pohjalainen, I.; Prochazka, A.; Ranjan, M.; Takechi, M.; Winfield, J. S.; Xu, X.

    2015-05-01

    211Po ions in the ground and isomeric states were produced via 238U projectile fragmentation at 1000 MeV/u. The 211Po ions were spatially separated in flight from the primary beam and other reaction products by the fragment separator FRS. The ions were energy-bunched, slowed-down and thermalized in a gas-filled cryogenic stopping cell (CSC). They were then extracted from the CSC and injected into a high-resolution multiple-reflection time-of-flight mass spectrometer (MR-TOF-MS). The excitation energy of the isomer and, for the first time, the isomeric-to-ground state ratio were determined from the measured mass spectrum. In the subsequent experimental step, the isomers were spatially separated from the ions in the ground state by an ion deflector and finally collected with a silicon detector for decay spectroscopy. This pioneering experimental result opens up unique perspectives for isomer-resolved studies. With this versatile experimental method new isomers with half-lives longer than a few milliseconds can be discovered and their decay properties can be measured with highest sensitivity and selectivity. These experiments can be extended to studies with isomeric beams in nuclear reactions.

  13. PLANETS AROUND LOW-MASS STARS (PALMS). II. A LOW-MASS COMPANION TO THE YOUNG M DWARF GJ 3629 SEPARATED BY 0.''2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowler, Brendan P.; Liu, Michael C. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawai' i, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Shkolnik, Evgenya L. [Lowell Observatory, 1400 W. Mars Hill Road, Flagstaff, AZ 86001 (United States); Tamura, Motohide, E-mail: bpbowler@ifa.hawaii.edu [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan)

    2012-09-01

    We present the discovery of a 0.''2 companion to the young M dwarf GJ 3629 as part of our high-contrast adaptive optics imaging search for giant planets around low-mass stars with the Keck-II and Subaru telescopes. Two epochs of imaging confirm that the pair is comoving and reveal signs of orbital motion. The primary exhibits saturated X-ray emission which, together with its UV photometry from GALEX, points to an age younger than {approx}300 Myr. At these ages the companion lies below the hydrogen burning limit with a model-dependent mass of 46 {+-} 16 M{sub Jup} based on the system's photometric distance of 22 {+-} 3 pc. Resolved YJHK photometry of the pair indicates a spectral type of M7 {+-} 2 for GJ 3629 B. With a projected separation of 4.4 {+-} 0.6 AU and an estimated orbital period of 21 {+-} 5 yr, GJ 3629 AB is likely to yield a dynamical mass in the next several years, making it one of only a handful of brown dwarfs to have a measured mass and an age constrained from the stellar primary.

  14. Applying a method of chemical separation and mass spectrometry for the determination of radium-226 in surface water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sibello Hernandez, Rita Y; Cozzella, Maria Letizia; Guillen Arruebarrena, Aniel

    2014-01-01

    Radium-226 ( 226 Ra) is a naturally occurring radionuclide, alpha emitter with half-life of 1 622 years originating from uranium-238 ( 238 U). Its presence in drinking water is a major radiological hazards, which requires constant monitoring. The analytical techniques used in the determination of 226 Ra generally require the establishment of secular equilibrium and/or tedious separation of other elements. The main objective of this paper is to demonstrate the efficiency and speed of a method of preconcentration and separation of 226 Ra in natural water samples using coprecipitation with MnO 2 radius and purification by cation exchange resin Dowex 50WX8. Measurement technique was Quadrupole Mass Spectrometry and associated induced plasma ICP-Q-MS. The 226 Ra values obtained are in the range of 0,010-0,219 pg/L in natural waters analyzed

  15. Determination of low specific activity iodine-129 off-gas concentrations by GC separation and negative ionization mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, S.J.; Rankin, R.A.; McManus, G.J.; Nielsen, R.A.; Delmore, J.E.; Hohorst, F.A.; Murphy, L.P.

    1983-09-01

    This document is the final report of the laboratory development of a method for determining the specific activity of the /sup 129/I emitted from a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant. The technique includes cryogenic sample collection, chemical form separation, quantitation by gas chromatography, and specific activity measurement of each chemical species by negative ionization mass spectrometry. The major conclusions were that both organic and elemental iodine can be quantitatively collected without fractionation and that specific activity measurements as low as one atom of /sup 129/I per 10/sup 5/ atoms of /sup 127/I are possible.

  16. Determination of low specific activity iodine-129 off-gas concentrations by GC separation and negative ionization mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, S.J.; Rankin, R.A.; McManus, G.J.; Nielsen, R.A.; Delmore, J.E.; Hohorst, F.A.; Murphy, L.P.

    1983-09-01

    This document is the final report of the laboratory development of a method for determining the specific activity of the 129 I emitted from a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant. The technique includes cryogenic sample collection, chemical form separation, quantitation by gas chromatography, and specific activity measurement of each chemical species by negative ionization mass spectrometry. The major conclusions were that both organic and elemental iodine can be quantitatively collected without fractionation and that specific activity measurements as low as one atom of 129 I per 10 5 atoms of 127 I are possible

  17. Double spike methodology for uranium determination by thermal ionisation mass spectrometry: separation and purification of 234U

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, P.M.; Saxena, M.K.; Sanjai Kumar; Aggarwal, S.K.; Jain, H.C.

    1995-01-01

    With an objective to prepare double spike of 233 U+ 234 U for determination of uranium concentration by Isotopic Dilution Thermal Ionisation Mass Spectrometry (ID-TIMS), 234 U was separated and purified from aged 238 Pu sample (15 years old) using several ion exchange and solvent extraction procedures. Final product containing 95% and 5% alpha activities of 234 and 238 Pu, respectively, which translates into 99.998 atom% of 234 U and 0.002 atom% of 238 Pu was found suitable for double spike. (author). 1 ref

  18. Theoretical studies on membrane-based gas separation using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) of mass transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohrabi, M.R.; Marjani, A.; Davallo, M.; Moradi, S.; Shirazian, S.

    2011-01-01

    A 2D mass transfer model was developed to study carbon dioxide removal by absorption in membrane contactors. The model predicts the steady state absorbent and carbon dioxide concentrations in the membrane by solving the conservation equations. The continuity equations for three sub domains of the membrane contactor involving the tube; membrane and shell were obtained and solved by finite element method (FEM). The model was based on 'non-wetted mode' in which the gas phase filled the membrane pores. Laminar parabolic velocity profile was used for the liquid flow in the tube side; whereas, the gas flow in the shell side was characterized by Happel's free surface model. Axial and radial diffusion transport inside the shell, through the membrane, and within the tube side of the contactor was considered in the mass transfer model. The predictions of percent CO/sub 2/ removal obtained by modeling were compared with the experimental values obtained from literature. They were the experimental results for CO/sub 2/ removal from CO/sub 2//N/sub 2/ gas mixture with amines aqueous solutions as the liquid solvent using polypropylene membrane contactor. The modeling predictions were in good agreement with the experimental values for different values of gas and liquid flow rates. (author)

  19. Repeated Carbon-Cycle Disturbances at the Permian-Triassic Boundary Separate two Mass Extinctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicol, J. A.; Watson, L.; Claire, M.; Buick, R.; Catling, D. C.

    2004-12-01

    Non-marine organic matter in Permian-Triassic sediments from the Blue Mountains, eastern Australia shows seven negative δ13C excursions of up to 7%, terminating with a positive excursion of 4%. Fluctuations start at the late Permian Glossopteris floral extinction and continue until just above the palynological Permian-Triassic boundary, correlated with the peak of marine mass extinction. The isotopic fluctuations are not linked to changes in depositional setting, kerogen composition or plant community, so they evidently resulted from global perturbations in atmospheric δ13C and/or CO2. The pattern was not produced by a single catastrophe such as a meteorite impact, and carbon-cycle calculations indicate that gas release during flood-basalt volcanism was insufficient. Methane-hydrate melting can generate a single -7% shift, but cannot produce rapid multiple excursions without repeated reservoir regeneration and release. However, the data are consistent with repeated overturning of a stratified ocean, expelling toxic gases that promoted sequential mass extinctions in the terrestrial and marine realms.

  20. Enhancement of biological mass spectrometry by using separations based on changes in ion mobility (FAIMS and DMS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purves, Randy W

    2013-01-01

    Analysis of complex biological samples for low-level analytes by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) often requires additional selectivity. Differential mobility techniques (FAIMS and DMS) have been shown to enhance LC-MS/MS analyses by separating ions in the gas-phase on a millisecond timescale by use of a mechanism that is complementary to both liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry. In this overview, a simplified description of the operation of these devices is given and an example presented that illustrates the utility of FAIMS (DMS) for solving a challenging analytical assay. Important recent advances in the field, including work with gas modifiers, are presented, along with an outlook for the technology.

  1. SEARCHING FOR SCATTERERS: HIGH-CONTRAST IMAGING OF YOUNG STARS HOSTING WIDE-SEPARATION PLANETARY-MASS COMPANIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryan, Marta L.; Mawet, Dimitri [Cahill Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, 1200 East California Boulevard, MC 249-17, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Bowler, Brendan P.; Kraus, Adam L. [McDonald Observatory and Department of Astronomy, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Knutson, Heather A. [Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Hinkley, Sasha [University of Exeter, Physics Department, Stocker Road, Exeter EX4 4QL (United Kingdom); Nielsen, Eric L.; Blunt, Sarah C. [SETI Institute, Carl Sagan Center, 189 Bernardo Avenue, Mountain View, CA 94043 (United States)

    2016-08-20

    We have conducted an angular differential imaging survey with NIRC2 at Keck in search of close-in substellar companions to a sample of seven systems with confirmed planetary-mass companions (PMCs) on wide orbits (>50 au). These wide-separation PMCs pose significant challenges to all three possible formation mechanisms: core accretion plus scattering, disk instability, and turbulent fragmentation. We explore the possibility that these companions formed closer in and were scattered out to their present-day locations by searching for other massive bodies at smaller separations. The typical sensitivity for this survey is Δ K ∼ 12.5 at 1″. We identify eight candidate companions, whose masses would reach as low as one Jupiter mass if gravitationally bound. From our multi-epoch astrometry we determine that seven of these are conclusively background objects, while the eighth near DH Tau is ambiguous and requires additional monitoring. We rule out the presence of >7 M {sub Jup} bodies in these systems down to 15–50 au that could be responsible for scattering. This result combined with the totality of evidence suggests that dynamical scattering is unlikely to have produced this population of PMCs. We detect orbital motion from the companions ROXs 42B b and ROXs 12 b, and from this determine 95% upper limits on the companions’ eccentricities of 0.58 and 0.83 respectively. Finally, we find that the 95% upper limit on the occurrence rate of additional planets with masses between 5 and 15 M {sub Jup} outside of 40 au in systems with PMCs is 54%.

  2. SEARCHING FOR SCATTERERS: HIGH-CONTRAST IMAGING OF YOUNG STARS HOSTING WIDE-SEPARATION PLANETARY-MASS COMPANIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryan, Marta L.; Mawet, Dimitri; Bowler, Brendan P.; Kraus, Adam L.; Knutson, Heather A.; Hinkley, Sasha; Nielsen, Eric L.; Blunt, Sarah C.

    2016-01-01

    We have conducted an angular differential imaging survey with NIRC2 at Keck in search of close-in substellar companions to a sample of seven systems with confirmed planetary-mass companions (PMCs) on wide orbits (>50 au). These wide-separation PMCs pose significant challenges to all three possible formation mechanisms: core accretion plus scattering, disk instability, and turbulent fragmentation. We explore the possibility that these companions formed closer in and were scattered out to their present-day locations by searching for other massive bodies at smaller separations. The typical sensitivity for this survey is Δ K ∼ 12.5 at 1″. We identify eight candidate companions, whose masses would reach as low as one Jupiter mass if gravitationally bound. From our multi-epoch astrometry we determine that seven of these are conclusively background objects, while the eighth near DH Tau is ambiguous and requires additional monitoring. We rule out the presence of >7 M Jup bodies in these systems down to 15–50 au that could be responsible for scattering. This result combined with the totality of evidence suggests that dynamical scattering is unlikely to have produced this population of PMCs. We detect orbital motion from the companions ROXs 42B b and ROXs 12 b, and from this determine 95% upper limits on the companions’ eccentricities of 0.58 and 0.83 respectively. Finally, we find that the 95% upper limit on the occurrence rate of additional planets with masses between 5 and 15 M Jup outside of 40 au in systems with PMCs is 54%.

  3. Ricin as a weapon of mass terror--separating fact from fiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schep, Leo J; Temple, Wayne A; Butt, Grant A; Beasley, Michael D

    2009-11-01

    In recent years there has been an increased concern regarding the potential use of chemical and biological weapons for mass urban terror. In particular, there are concerns that ricin could be employed as such an agent. This has been reinforced by recent high profile cases involving ricin, and its use during the cold war to assassinate a high profile communist dissident. Nevertheless, despite these events, does it deserve such a reputation? Ricin is clearly toxic, though its level of risk depends on the route of entry. By ingestion, the pathology of ricin is largely restricted to the gastrointestinal tract where it may cause mucosal injuries; with appropriate treatment, most patients will make a full recovery. As an agent of terror, it could be used to contaminate an urban water supply, with the intent of causing lethality in a large urban population. However, a substantial mass of pure ricin powder would be required. Such an exercise would be impossible to achieve covertly and would not guarantee success due to variables such as reticulation management, chlorination, mixing, bacterial degradation and ultra-violet light. By injection, ricin is lethal; however, while parenteral delivery is an ideal route for assassination, it is not realistic for an urban population. Dermal absorption of ricin has not been demonstrated. Ricin is also lethal by inhalation. Low doses can lead to progressive and diffuse pulmonary oedema with associated inflammation and necrosis of the alveolar pneumocytes. However, the risk of toxicity is dependent on the aerodynamic equivalent diameter (AED) of the ricin particles. The AED, which is an indicator of the aerodynamic behaviour of a particle, must be of sufficiently low micron size as to target the human alveoli and thereby cause major toxic effects. To target a large population would also necessitate a quantity of powder in excess of several metric tons. The technical and logistical skills required to formulate such a mass of powder to

  4. Helical paths, gravitaxis, and separation phenomena for mass-anisotropic self-propelling colloids: Experiment versus theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Andrew I.; Wittkowski, Raphael; ten Hagen, Borge; Löwen, Hartmut; Ebbens, Stephen J.

    2017-08-01

    The self-propulsion mechanism of active colloidal particles often generates not only translational but also rotational motion. For particles with an anisotropic mass density under gravity, the motion is usually influenced by a downwards oriented force and an aligning torque. Here we study the trajectories of self-propelled bottom-heavy Janus particles in three spatial dimensions both in experiments and by theory. For a sufficiently large mass anisotropy, the particles typically move along helical trajectories whose axis is oriented either parallel or antiparallel to the direction of gravity (i.e., they show gravitaxis). In contrast, if the mass anisotropy is small and rotational diffusion is dominant, gravitational alignment of the trajectories is not possible. Furthermore, the trajectories depend on the angular self-propulsion velocity of the particles. If this component of the active motion is strong and rotates the direction of translational self-propulsion of the particles, their trajectories have many loops, whereas elongated swimming paths occur if the angular self-propulsion is weak. We show that the observed gravitational alignment mechanism and the dependence of the trajectory shape on the angular self-propulsion can be used to separate active colloidal particles with respect to their mass anisotropy and angular self-propulsion, respectively.

  5. Electrophoretic separation techniques and their hyphenation to mass spectrometry in biological inorganic chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtkamp, Hannah; Grabmann, Gerlinde; Hartinger, Christian G

    2016-04-01

    Electrophoretic methods have been widely applied in research on the roles of metal complexes in biological systems. In particular, CE, often hyphenated to a sensitive MS detector, has provided valuable information on the modes of action of metal-based pharmaceuticals, and more recently new methods have been added to the electrophoretic toolbox. The range of applications continues to expand as a result of enhanced CE-to-MS interfacing, with sensitivity often at picomolar level, and evolved separation modes allowing for innovative sample analysis. This article is a followup to previous reviews about CE methods in metallodrug research (Electrophoresis, 2003, 24, 2023-2037; Electrophoresis, 2007, 28, 3436-3446; Electrophoresis, 2012, 33, 622-634), also providing a comprehensive overview of metal species studied by electrophoretic methods hyphenated to MS. It highlights the latest CE developments, takes a sneak peek into gel electrophoresis, traces biomolecule labeling, and focuses on the importance of early-stage drug development. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Monoterpene separation by coupling proton transfer reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometry with fastGC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Materić, Dušan; Lanza, Matteo; Sulzer, Philipp; Herbig, Jens; Bruhn, Dan; Turner, Claire; Mason, Nigel; Gauci, Vincent

    2015-10-01

    Proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) is a well-established technique for real-time analysis of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Although it is extremely sensitive (with sensitivities of up to 4500 cps/ppbv, limits of detection monoterpenes, which belong to the most important plant VOCs, still cannot be distinguished so more traditional technologies, such as gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS), have to be utilised. GC-MS is very time consuming (up to 1 h) and cannot be used for real-time analysis. Here, we introduce a sensitive, near-to-real-time method for plant monoterpene research-PTR-MS coupled with fastGC. We successfully separated and identified six of the most abundant monoterpenes in plant studies (α- and β-pinenes, limonene, 3-carene, camphene and myrcene) in less than 80 s, using both standards and conifer branch enclosures (Norway spruce, Scots pine and black pine). Five monoterpenes usually present in Norway spruce samples with a high abundance were separated even when the compound concentrations were diluted to 20 ppbv. Thus, fastGC-PTR-ToF-MS was shown to be an adequate one-instrument solution for plant monoterpene research.

  7. Analytical methods for proteome data obtained from SDS-PAGE multi-dimensional separation and mass spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gun Wook Park

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available For proteome analysis, various experimental protocols using mass spectrometry have been developed over thelast decade. The different protocols have differing performances and degrees of accuracy. Furthermore, the “best”protocol for a proteomic analysis of a sample depends on the purpose of the analysis, especially in connection withdisease proteomics, including biomarker discovery and therapeutics analyses of human serum or plasma. Theprotein complexity and the wide dynamic range of blood samples require high-dimensional separation technology.In this article, we review proteome analysis protocols in which both Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate-Polyacryl Amide GelElectrophoresis(SDS-PAGE and liquid chromatography are used for peptide and protein separations. Multidimensionalseparation technology supplies a high-quality dataset of tandem mass spectra and reveals signals fromlow-abundance proteins, although it can be time-consuming and laborious work. We survey shotgun proteomicsprotocols using SDS-PAGE and liquid chromatography and introduce bioinformatics tools for the analysis ofproteomics data. We also review efforts toward the biological interpretation of the proteome.

  8. The on-line mass separator SIRIUS at the Strasbourg Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zirnheld, J.P.; Schutz, L.

    1979-01-01

    The SIRIUS facility was developed to isolate short-lived neutron-rich nuclides far from the line of β stability. The installation, which consists of a helium-jet fission-product transport system, an ion source, an accelerator and a deviation magnet, is described. The main characteristics of the whole system can be summarized as: (1) the fission-product transmission to the ion source is about 90%: (2) the mass resolving power is of the order of 500: (3) the total transit time between production and detection is less than 1s : (4) the overall efficiency of the system is on the average better than 5x10 -5 . The nuclei available for nuclear spectroscopic studies have been examined. With a neutron flux of 5x10 11 /cm 2 .s and 730 mg for the uranium target, about 50 neutron-rich rare-earth isotopes (many of which had previously been unavailable) are available with sufficient activities for nuclear spectroscopic studies. (Auth.)

  9. Separation and mass spectrometry of nanogram quantities of uranium and thorium from thorium-uranium dioxide fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, L.W.; Elliot, N.L.; Longhurst, T.H.

    1983-01-01

    A microchemical procedure was developed for the separation and isotopic analysis of U and Th from irradiated (Th,U)O 2 fuel. The separation procedure consisted of two stages; in the first a tributyl phosphate impregnated resin bead was equilibrated with the dissolved fuel in 0.08 M HF/6 M HNO 3 solution. The bead sorbed approximately 1.7 μg of U and 4.8μg of Th and provided good separation of these from the fission products. In the second stage, the U and Th were back-extracted into 0.025 M HF/8 M HNO 3 solution, which contained a small anion-exchange membrane disk. The disk adsorbed approximately 14 ng of U and 45 ng of Th, and subsequently was transferred to the ionizing filament of a thermal-ionization mass spectrometer and covered with a starch deposit. Sensitivities were sufficiently high for sequential analysis of these quantities of Th and U from a single disk. Isotopic data obtained for a combined U and Th standard showed excellent agreement with certified values: overall bias and precision were < 0.03% and 0.2% relative standard deviation, respectively, for both elements. The applicability of the procedure to uranium fuels was also demonstrated. 6 figures, 2 tables

  10. Separation and mass spectrometry of nanogram quantities of uranium and thorium from thorium-uranium dioxide fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, L.W.; Elliot, N.L.; Longhurst, T.H

    1983-07-01

    A convenient and sensitive microchemical procedure was developed for the separation and isotopic analysis of U and Th from irradiated (Th,U)O{sub 2} fuel. The separation procedure consisted of two stages; in the first a tributyl phosphate impregnated resin bead was equilibrated with the dissolved fuel in 0.08 M HF/6 M HNO{sub 3} solution. The bead sorbed approximately 1.7 {mu}g of U and 4.8 {mu}g of Th and provided good separation of these from the fission products. In the second stage, the U and Th were back-extracted into 0.025 M HF/8 M HNO{sub 3} solution, which contained a small anion-exchange membrane disk. The disk adsorbed approximately 14 ng of U and 45 ng of Th, and subsequently was transferred to the ionizing filament of a thermal-ionization mass spectrometer and covered with a starch deposit. Sensitivities were sufficiently high for sequential analysis of these quantities of Th and U from a single disk. Isotopic data obtained for a combined U and Th standard showed excellent agreement with certified values: overall bias and precision were < -0.03% and 0.2% relative standard deviation, respectively, for both elements. The applicability of the procedure to uranium fuels was also demonstrated. (author)

  11. Turbulence modeling for mass transfer enhancement by separation and reattachment with two-equation eddy-viscosity models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiong Jinbiao; Koshizuka, Seiichi; Sakai, Mikio

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → We selected and evaluated five two-equation eddy-viscosity turbulence models for modeling the separated and reattaching flow. → The behavior of the models in the simple flow is not consistent with that in the separated and reattaching flow. → The Abe-Kondoh-Nagano model is the best one among the selected model. → Application of the stress limiter and the Kato-Launder modification in the Abe-Kondoh-Nagano model helps to improve prediction of the peak mass transfer coefficient in the orifice flow. → The value of turbulent Schmidt number is investigated. - Abstract: The prediction of mass transfer rate is one of the key elements for estimation of the flow accelerated corrosion (FAC) rate. Three low Reynolds number (LRN) k-ε models (Lam-Bremhorst (LB), Abe-Kondoh-Nagano (AKN) and Hwang-Lin (HL)), one LRN k-ω (Wilcox, WX) model and the k-ω SST model are tested for the computation of the high Schmidt number mass transfer, especially in the flow through an orifice. The models are tested in the computation of three types of flow: (1) the fully developed pipe flow, (2) the flow over a backward facing step, (3) the flow through an orifice. The HL model shows a good performance in predicting mass transfer in the fully developed pipe flow but fails to give reliable prediction in the flow through an orifice. The WX model and the k-ω SST model underpredict the mass transfer rate in the flow types 1 and 3. The LB model underestimates the mass transfer in the flow type 1, but shows abnormal behavior at the reattaching point in type 3. Synthetically evaluating all the models in all the computed case, the AKN model is the best one; however, the prediction is still not satisfactory. In the evaluation in the flow over a backward facing step shows k-ω SST model shows superior performance. This is interpreted as an implication that the combination of the k-ε model and the stress limiter can improve the model behavior in the recirculation bubble. Both the

  12. Matrix separation by chelation to prepare biological materials for isotopic zinc analysis by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durrant, S.F.; Krushevska, A.; Amarasiriwardena, D.; Argentine, M.D.; Romon-Guesnier, S.; Barnes, R.M.

    1994-01-01

    Following an evaluation of three chelating resins [Chelex-100, poly(dithiocarbamate) (PDTC) and carboxymethylated poly(ethyleneimine)-poly(methylenepolyphenylene) isocyanate (CPPI)], a procedure was established with the last of these for the separation of Zn from biological matrix elements prior to 70 Zn: 68 Zn isotopic analysis by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The method was verified by establishing Zn recoveries and by determining its effectiveness in removing Cl and Na from buffered test solutions. Calcium, Na, and Zn concentration data were determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry. Chlorine was measured by electrothermal vaporization ICP-MS. The efficacy of the technique was demonstrated by the determination of zinc isotope ratios in bovine milk and human urine. (Author)

  13. A simple alkali-metal and noble gas ion source for SIMS equipments with mass separation of the primary ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duesterhoeft, H.; Pippig, R.

    1986-01-01

    An alkali-metal ion source working without a store of alkali-metals is described. The alkali-metal ions are produced by evaporation of alkali salts and ionization in a low-voltage arc discharge stabilized with a noble gas plasma or in the case of small alkali-metal ion currents on the base of the well known thermic ionization at a hot tungsten wire. The source is very simple in construction and produces a stable ion current of 0.3 μA for more than 100 h. It is possible to change the ion species in a short time. This source is applicable to all SIMS equipments using mass separation for primary ions. (author)

  14. A study on the separation and extraction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in water sample by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Won; Hong, Jee Eun; Park, Song Ja; Pyo, Hee Soo; Kim, In Hwan

    1998-01-01

    The separation and sample extraction methods of 19 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH S ) in water samples were investigated by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and some ex-traction methods involved liquid-liquid extraction, disk extraction and solid-phase extraction methods. The separation of 19 PAH s was possible by partial variation of oven temperature of GC/MS in temperature range 80∼310.deg.C. Extraction procedures of PAH s in water samples were somewhat modified and com-pared as extraction recoveries and the simplicity of methods. Extraction recoveries of PAH s were 71.3∼109.5% by liquid-liquid extraction method. By using disk extraction, good extraction recoveries (80.7∼94.9%) were obtained in case of C 1 8 disk extraction method by filtration. And extraction recoveries of PAH s by C 1 8 solid-phase were in the range of 51.8∼77.9%. Method detection limits (S/N=5) of 19 PAH s were in the range of 0.25∼6.25 ppb by liquid-liquid extraction and solid-phase extraction and 0.05∼1.25 ppb by disk extraction methods

  15. Quantitative Mass spectrometric Analysis of Ropivacaine and Bupivacaine in Authentic, Pharmaceutical and Spiked Human Plasma without Chromatographic Separation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahla N. Salama

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study employs time of flight mass spectrometry for quantitative analysis of the local anesthetic drugs ropivacaine and bupivacaine in authentic, pharmaceutical and spiked human plasma as well as in the presence of their impurities 2,6-dimethylaniline and alkaline degradation product. The method is based on time of flight electron spray ionization mass spectrometry technique without preliminary chromatographic separation and makes use of bupivacaine as internal standard for ropivacaine, which is used as internal standard for bupivacaine. A linear relationship between drug concentrations and the peak intensity ratio of ions of the analyzed substances is established. The method is linear from 23.8 to 2380.0 ng mL-1 for both drugs. The correlation coefficient was ≥0.996 in authentic and spiked human plasma. The average percentage recoveries in the ranges of 95.39%–102.75% was obtained. The method is accurate (% RE < 5% and reproducible with intra- and inter-assay precision (RSD% < 8.0%. The quantification limit is 23.8 ng mL-1 for both drugs. The method is not only highly sensitive and selective, but also simple and effective for determination or identification of both drugs in authentic and biological fluids. The method can be applied in purity testing, quality control and stability monitoring for the studied drugs.

  16. Quantitative Mass Spectrometric Analysis of Ropivacaine and Bupivacaine in Authentic, Pharmaceutical and Spiked Human Plasma without Chromatographic Separation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahla N. Salama

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study employs time of flight mass spectrometry for quantitative analysis of the local anesthetic drugs ropivacaine and bupivacaine in authentic, pharmaceutical and spiked human plasma as well as in the presence of their impurities 2,6-dimethylaniline and alkaline degradation product. The method is based on time of flight electron spray ionization mass spectrometry technique without preliminary chromatographic separation and makes use of bupivacaine as internal standard for ropivacaine, which is used as internal standard for bupivacaine. A linear relationship between drug concentrations and the peak intensity ratio of ions of the analyzed substances is established. The method is linear from 23.8 to 2380.0 ng mL −1 for both drugs. The correlation coefficient was ≥0.996 in authentic and spiked human plasma. The average percentage recoveries in the ranges of 95.39%-102.75% was obtained. The method is accurate (% RE <; 5% and reproducible with intra- and inter-assay precision (RSD% <; 8.0%. The quantification limit is 23.8 ng mL −1 for both drugs. The method is not only highly sensitive and selective, but also simple and effective for determination or identification of both drugs in authentic and biological fluids. The method can be applied in purity testing, quality control and stability monitoring for the studied drugs.

  17. Comprehensive gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry for the separation of pesticides in a very complex matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondello, Luigi; Casilli, Alessandro; Tranchida, Peter Quinto; Lo Presti, Maria; Dugo, Paola; Dugo, Giovanni

    2007-11-01

    The present research is focused on the development of a comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography-rapid scanning quadrupole mass spectrometric (GC x GC-qMS) methodology for the analysis of trace-amount pesticides contained in a complex real-world sample. Reliable peak assignment was carried out by using a recently developed, dedicated pesticide MS library (for comprehensive GC analysis), characterized by a twin-filter search procedure, the first based on a minimum degree of spectral similarity and the second on the interactive use of linear retention indices (LRI). The library was constructed by subjecting mixtures of commonly used pesticides to GC x GC-qMS analysis and then deriving their pure mass spectra and LRI values. In order to verify the effectiveness of the approach, a pesticide-contaminated red grapefruit extract was analysed. The certainty of peak assignment was attained by exploiting both the enhanced separation power of dual-oven GC x GC and the highly effective search procedure.

  18. Analysis of multiple quaternary ammonium compounds in the brain using tandem capillary column separation and high resolution mass spectrometric detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falasca, Sara; Petruzziello, Filomena; Kretz, Robert; Rainer, Gregor; Zhang, Xiaozhe

    2012-06-08

    Endogenous quaternary ammonium compounds are involved in various physiological processes in the central nervous system. In the present study, eleven quaternary ammonium compounds, including acetylcholine, choline, carnitine, acetylcarnitine and seven other acylcarnitines of low polarity, were analyzed from brain extracts using a two dimension capillary liquid chromatography-Fourier transform mass spectrometry method. To deal with their large difference in hydrophobicities, tandem coupling between reversed phase and hydrophilic interaction chromatography columns was used to separate all the targeted quaternary ammonium compounds. Using high accuracy mass spectrometry in selected ion monitoring mode, all the compounds could be detected from each brain sample with high selectivity. The developed method was applied for the relative quantification of these quaternary ammonium compounds in three different brain regions of tree shrews: prefrontal cortex, striatum, and hippocampus. The comparative analysis showed that quaternary ammonium compounds were differentially distributed across the three brain areas. The analytical method proved to be highly sensitive and reliable for simultaneous determination of all the targeted analytes from brain samples. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Separation of different ion structures in atmospheric pressure photoionization-ion mobility spectrometry-mass spectrometry (APPI-IMS-MS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laakia, Jaakko; Adamov, Alexey; Jussila, Matti; Pedersen, Christian S; Sysoev, Alexey A; Kotiaho, Tapio

    2010-09-01

    This study demonstrates how positive ion atmospheric pressure photoionization-ion mobility spectrometry-mass spectrometry (APPI-IMS-MS) can be used to produce different ionic forms of an analyte and how these can be separated. When hexane:toluene (9:1) is used as a solvent, 2,6-di-tert-butylpyridine (2,6-DtBPyr) and 2,6-di-tert-4-methylpyridine (2,6-DtB-4-MPyr) efficiently produce radical cations [M](+*) and protonated [M + H](+) molecules, whereas, when the sample solvent is hexane, protonated molecules are mainly formed. Interestingly, radical cations drift slower in the drift tube than the protonated molecules. It was observed that an oxygen adduct ion, [M + O(2)](+*), which was clearly seen in the mass spectra for hexane:toluene (9:1) solutions, shares the same mobility with radical cations, [M](+*). Therefore, the observed mobility order is most likely explained by oxygen adduct formation, i.e., the radical cation forming a heavier adduct. For pyridine and 2-tert-butylpyridine, only protonated molecules could be efficiently formed in the conditions used. For 1- and 2-naphthol it was observed that in hexane the protonated molecule typically had a higher intensity than the radical cation, whereas in hexane:toluene (9:1) the radical cation [M](+*) typically had a higher intensity than the protonated molecule [M + H](+). Interestingly, the latter drifts slower than the radical cation [M](+*), which is the opposite of the drift pattern seen for 2,6-DtBPyr and 2,6-DtB-4-MPyr. 2010 American Society for Mass Spectrometry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Multi-elemental analysis of aqueous geological samples by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todorov, Todor I.; Wolf, Ruth E.; Adams, Monique

    2014-01-01

    Typically, 27 major, minor, and trace elements are determined in natural waters, acid mine drainage, extraction fluids, and leachates of geological and environmental samples by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). At the discretion of the analyst, additional elements may be determined after suitable method modifications and performance data are established. Samples are preserved in 1–2 percent nitric acid (HNO3) at sample collection or as soon as possible after collection. The aqueous samples are aspirated into the ICP-OES discharge, where the elemental emission signals are measured simultaneously for 27 elements. Calibration is performed with a series of matrix-matched, multi-element solution standards.

  1. Optimal hydrograph separation using a recursive digital filter constrained by chemical mass balance, with application to selected Chesapeake Bay watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raffensperger, Jeff P.; Baker, Anna C.; Blomquist, Joel D.; Hopple, Jessica A.

    2017-06-26

    Quantitative estimates of base flow are necessary to address questions concerning the vulnerability and response of the Nation’s water supply to natural and human-induced change in environmental conditions. An objective of the U.S. Geological Survey National Water-Quality Assessment Project is to determine how hydrologic systems are affected by watershed characteristics, including land use, land cover, water use, climate, and natural characteristics (geology, soil type, and topography). An important component of any hydrologic system is base flow, generally described as the part of streamflow that is sustained between precipitation events, fed to stream channels by delayed (usually subsurface) pathways, and more specifically as the volumetric discharge of water, estimated at a measurement site or gage at the watershed scale, which represents groundwater that discharges directly or indirectly to stream reaches and is then routed to the measurement point.Hydrograph separation using a recursive digital filter was applied to 225 sites in the Chesapeake Bay watershed. The recursive digital filter was chosen for the following reasons: it is based in part on the assumption that groundwater acts as a linear reservoir, and so has a physical basis; it has only two adjustable parameters (alpha, obtained directly from recession analysis, and beta, the maximum value of the base-flow index that can be modeled by the filter), which can be determined objectively and with the same physical basis of groundwater reservoir linearity, or that can be optimized by applying a chemical-mass-balance constraint. Base-flow estimates from the recursive digital filter were compared with those from five other hydrograph-separation methods with respect to two metrics: the long-term average fraction of streamflow that is base flow, or base-flow index, and the fraction of days where streamflow is entirely base flow. There was generally good correlation between the methods, with some biased

  2. AUTOMATICALLY DETECTING AND TRACKING CORONAL MASS EJECTIONS. I. SEPARATION OF DYNAMIC AND QUIESCENT COMPONENTS IN CORONAGRAPH IMAGES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgan, Huw; Byrne, Jason P.; Habbal, Shadia Rifai

    2012-01-01

    Automated techniques for detecting and tracking coronal mass ejections (CMEs) in coronagraph data are of ever increasing importance for space weather monitoring and forecasting. They serve to remove the biases and tedium of human interpretation, and provide the robust analysis necessary for statistical studies across large numbers of observations. An important requirement in their operation is that they satisfactorily distinguish the CME structure from the background quiescent coronal structure (streamers, coronal holes). Many studies resort to some form of time differencing to achieve this, despite the errors inherent in such an approach—notably spatiotemporal crosstalk. This article describes a new deconvolution technique that separates coronagraph images into quiescent and dynamic components. A set of synthetic observations made from a sophisticated model corona and CME demonstrates the validity and effectiveness of the technique in isolating the CME signal. Applied to observations by the LASCO C2 and C3 coronagraphs, the structure of a faint CME is revealed in detail despite the presence of background streamers that are several times brighter than the CME. The technique is also demonstrated to work on SECCHI/COR2 data, and new possibilities for estimating the three-dimensional structure of CMEs using the multiple viewing angles are discussed. Although quiescent coronal structures and CMEs are intrinsically linked, and although their interaction is an unavoidable source of error in any separation process, we show in a companion paper that the deconvolution approach outlined here is a robust and accurate method for rigorous CME analysis. Such an approach is a prerequisite to the higher-level detection and classification of CME structure and kinematics.

  3. Design and commissioning of a timestamp-based data acquisition system for the DRAGON recoil mass separator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christian, G.; Fallis, J.; Hutcheon, D.; Olchanski, K.; Ruiz, C.; Akers, C.; Connolly, D.

    2014-01-01

    The DRAGON recoil mass separator at TRIUMF exists to study radiative proton and alpha capture reactions, which are important in a variety of astrophysical scenarios. DRAGON experiments require a data acquisition system that can be triggered on either reaction product (γ-ray or heavy ion), with the additional requirement of being able to promptly recognize coincidence events in an online environment. To this end, we have designed and implemented a new data acquisition system for DRAGON, which consists of two independently triggered readouts. Events from both systems are recorded with timestamps from a 20 MHz clock that are used to tag coincidences in the earliest possible stage of the data analysis. Here we report on the design, implementation, and commissioning of the new DRAGON data acquisition system, including the hardware, trigger logic, coincidence reconstruction algorithm, and live time considerations. We also discuss the results of an experiment commissioning the new system, which measured the strength of the E c.m. = 1113 keV resonance in the 20 Ne(p, γ) 21 Na radiative proton capture reaction. (orig.)

  4. Conception of PIPERADE: A high-capacity Penning-trap mass separator for high isobaric contamination at DESIR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minaya Ramirez, E., E-mail: minaya@ipno.in2p3.fr [Max-Planck-Institut für Kernphysik, 69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Alfaurt, P.; Aouadi, M.; Ascher, P.; Blank, B. [Centre d’Etudes Nucléaires de Bordeaux-Gradignan (France); Blaum, K. [Max-Planck-Institut für Kernphysik, 69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Cam, J.-F. [Laboratoire de Physique Corpusculaire, Caen (France); Chauveau, P. [Grand Accélérateur National d’Ions Lourds CEA/DSM-CNRS-IN2P3, Caen (France); Daudin, L. [Centre d’Etudes Nucléaires de Bordeaux-Gradignan (France); Delahaye, P. [Grand Accélérateur National d’Ions Lourds CEA/DSM-CNRS-IN2P3, Caen (France); Delalee, F. [Centre d’Etudes Nucléaires de Bordeaux-Gradignan (France); Dupré, P. [Centre de Sciences Nucléaires et de Sciences de la Matière, Orsay (France); El Abbeir, S.; Gerbaux, M.; Grévy, S.; Guérin, H. [Centre d’Etudes Nucléaires de Bordeaux-Gradignan (France); Lunney, D. [Centre de Sciences Nucléaires et de Sciences de la Matière, Orsay (France); Metz, F. [Max-Planck-Institut für Kernphysik, 69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Naimi, S. [Riken, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Perrot, L. [Institut de Physique Nucléaire, Orsay (France); and others

    2016-06-01

    The DESIR (decay, excitation and storage of radioactive ions) facility at GANIL-SPIRAL2 will receive a large variety of exotic nuclei at low energy (up to 60 keV) with high intensities. However, the production methods of radioactive beams are non selective, limiting the purity of the beams of interest. Moreover, the high precision needed for nuclear structure and astrophysics studies using beta decay spectroscopy, laser spectroscopy and trap-based experiments at DESIR requires highly pure samples of exotic nuclei. The aim of the double-Pennig-trap mass separator PIPERADE is to deliver large and very pure samples of exotic nuclei to the different experiments in DESIR. New excitation schemes and a large inner diameter of the first trap will mitigate space charge effects to attempt trapping of up to 10{sup 5} ions per pulse. The purification cycle will be performed in a few milliseconds so that short-lived nuclei can be purified. To extract the nuclides of interest from the large amount of isobaric contaminants, a resolving power of 10{sup 5} is mandatory. Afterwards the ions of interest will be accumulated in the second trap until they constitute a sufficiently pure sample for the measurements. The status of the project is presented.

  5. Sequential cloud point extraction for the speciation of mercury in seafood by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Yingjie [Department of Chemistry, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Hu Bin [Department of Chemistry, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China)], E-mail: binhu@whu.edu.cn

    2007-10-15

    A novel nonchromatographic speciation technique for the speciation of mercury by sequential cloud point extraction (CPE) combined with inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) was developed. The method based on Hg{sup 2+} was complexed with I{sup -} to form HgI{sub 4}{sup 2-}, and the HgI{sub 4}{sup 2-} reacted with the methyl green (MG) cation to form hydrophobic ion-associated complex, and the ion-associated complex was then extracted into the surfactant-rich phase of the non-ionic surfactant octylphenoxypolyethoxyethanol (Triton X-114), which are subsequently separated from methylmercury (MeHg{sup +}) in the initial solution by centrifugation. The surfactant-rich phase containing Hg(II) was diluted with 0.5 mol L{sup -1} HNO{sub 3} for ICP-OES determination. The supernatant is also subjected to the similar CPE procedure for the preconcentration of MeHg{sup +} by the addition of a chelating agent, ammonium pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (APDC), in order to form water-insolvable complex with MeHg{sup +}. The MeHg{sup +} in the micelles was directly analyzed after disposal as describe above. Under the optimized conditions, the extraction efficiency was 93.5% for Hg(II) and 51.5% for MeHg{sup +} with the enrichment factor of 18.7 for Hg(II) and 10.3 for MeHg{sup +}, respectively. The limits of detection (LODs) were 56.3 ng L{sup -1} for Hg(II) and 94.6 ng L{sup -1} for MeHg{sup +} (as Hg) with the relative standard deviations (RSDs) of 3.6% for Hg(II) and 4.5% for MeHg{sup +} (C = 10 {mu}g L{sup -1}, n = 7), respectively. The developed technique was applied to the speciation of mercury in real seafood samples and the recoveries for spiked samples were found to be in the range of 93.2-108.7%. For validation, a certified reference material of DORM-2 (dogfish muscle) was analyzed and the determined values are in good agreement with the certified values.

  6. Sequential cloud point extraction for the speciation of mercury in seafood by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yingjie; Hu Bin

    2007-01-01

    A novel nonchromatographic speciation technique for the speciation of mercury by sequential cloud point extraction (CPE) combined with inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) was developed. The method based on Hg 2+ was complexed with I - to form HgI 4 2- , and the HgI 4 2- reacted with the methyl green (MG) cation to form hydrophobic ion-associated complex, and the ion-associated complex was then extracted into the surfactant-rich phase of the non-ionic surfactant octylphenoxypolyethoxyethanol (Triton X-114), which are subsequently separated from methylmercury (MeHg + ) in the initial solution by centrifugation. The surfactant-rich phase containing Hg(II) was diluted with 0.5 mol L -1 HNO 3 for ICP-OES determination. The supernatant is also subjected to the similar CPE procedure for the preconcentration of MeHg + by the addition of a chelating agent, ammonium pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (APDC), in order to form water-insolvable complex with MeHg + . The MeHg + in the micelles was directly analyzed after disposal as describe above. Under the optimized conditions, the extraction efficiency was 93.5% for Hg(II) and 51.5% for MeHg + with the enrichment factor of 18.7 for Hg(II) and 10.3 for MeHg + , respectively. The limits of detection (LODs) were 56.3 ng L -1 for Hg(II) and 94.6 ng L -1 for MeHg + (as Hg) with the relative standard deviations (RSDs) of 3.6% for Hg(II) and 4.5% for MeHg + (C = 10 μg L -1 , n = 7), respectively. The developed technique was applied to the speciation of mercury in real seafood samples and the recoveries for spiked samples were found to be in the range of 93.2-108.7%. For validation, a certified reference material of DORM-2 (dogfish muscle) was analyzed and the determined values are in good agreement with the certified values

  7. Environmental samples analysis by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry and Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popescu, I.V.; Iordan, M.; Stihi, C.; Bancuta, A.; Busuioc, G.; Dima, G.; Ciupina, V.; Belc, M.; Vlaicu, Gh.; Marian, R.

    2002-01-01

    Biological samples are interesting from many aspects of environmental monitoring. By analyzing tree leaves conclusions can be drown regarding the metal loading in the growth medium. So that, starting from assumption that the pollution factors from environmental medium can modify the normal concentration of elements, we decided to control the presence of toxic elements and the deviation from normal state of elements in leaves of different trees from areas situated at different distances of pollution source. The aim of this work is to determine the elemental composition of tree leaves using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry (AAS) method and Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-OES) method. Using AAS spectrophotometer SHIMADZU we identified and determined the concentration of: Cd, Co, Cu, Zn, Mn, Cr, Fe, Se, Pb with an instrumental error less than 1% for most of the elements analyzed. The same samples were analyzed by ICP-OES spectrometer, BAIRD ICP2070-Sequential Plasma spectrometer. We identified and determined in leaves of different trees the concentration of Mg, Ca, and Sr with a precision less than 6%. (authors)

  8. Determination of Pt, Pd and Rh in Brassica Napus using solid sampling electrothermal vaporization inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nischkauer, Winfried [Vienna University of Technology, Institute of Chemical Technologies and Analytics, Division of Instrumental Analytical Chemistry, Getreidemarkt 9/164-IAC, A-1060 Vienna (Austria); Herincs, Esther [Vienna University of Technology, Institute of Chemical Technologies and Analytics, Division of Instrumental Analytical Chemistry, Getreidemarkt 9/164-IAC, A-1060 Vienna (Austria); University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Department of Forest and Soil Sciences, Institute of Soil Research, Konrad Lorenz Straße 24, A-3430 Tulln (Austria); Puschenreiter, Markus; Wenzel, Walter [University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Department of Forest and Soil Sciences, Institute of Soil Research, Konrad Lorenz Straße 24, A-3430 Tulln (Austria); Limbeck, Andreas, E-mail: A.Limbeck@tuwien.ac.at [Vienna University of Technology, Institute of Chemical Technologies and Analytics, Division of Instrumental Analytical Chemistry, Getreidemarkt 9/164-IAC, A-1060 Vienna (Austria)

    2013-11-01

    Conventional approaches for the analysis of platinum group elements (PGEs) in plant material suffer from sample digestion which results in sample dilution and therefore requires high sample intakes to maintain the sensitivity. The presented solid-sampling method avoids sample digestion while improving sensitivity when compared to digestion-based inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) methods and allows the analysis of sample masses of 5 mg or less. Detection limits of 0.38 μg g{sup −1}, 0.14 μg g{sup −1} and 0.13 μg g{sup −1} were obtained for Pt, Pd and Rh, respectively using a sample intake of 5 mg. The reproducibility of the procedure ranged between 4.7% (Pd) relative standard deviation (RSD, n = 7) and 7.1% (Rh) RSD for 25 ng analytes. For quantification, aqueous standards were applied on paper filter strips and dried. Only the dried filters were introduced into the electrothermal vaporization unit. This approach successfully removed memory-effects observed during analysis of platinum which occurred only if liquid standards came into contact with the graphite material of the furnace. The presented method for overcoming the Pt-memory-effects may be of further interest for the analysis of other carbide-forming analytes as it does not require any technical modification of the graphite furnace (e.g., metal inlays, pyrolytic coating). Owing to lack of suitable certified reference materials, the proposed method was compared with conventional ICP-OES analysis of digested samples and a good agreement was obtained. As a result of the low sample consumption, it was possible to determine the spatial distribution of PGEs within a single plant. Significant differences in PGE concentrations were observed between the shoots (stem, leaves) and the roots. Pd was mainly found in the roots, whereas Pt and Rh were also found in higher concentrations in the shoots. - Highlights: • The uptake of Pt, Pd and Rh by hydroponically grown plants was

  9. Determination of Pt, Pd and Rh in Brassica Napus using solid sampling electrothermal vaporization inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nischkauer, Winfried; Herincs, Esther; Puschenreiter, Markus; Wenzel, Walter; Limbeck, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Conventional approaches for the analysis of platinum group elements (PGEs) in plant material suffer from sample digestion which results in sample dilution and therefore requires high sample intakes to maintain the sensitivity. The presented solid-sampling method avoids sample digestion while improving sensitivity when compared to digestion-based inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) methods and allows the analysis of sample masses of 5 mg or less. Detection limits of 0.38 μg g −1 , 0.14 μg g −1 and 0.13 μg g −1 were obtained for Pt, Pd and Rh, respectively using a sample intake of 5 mg. The reproducibility of the procedure ranged between 4.7% (Pd) relative standard deviation (RSD, n = 7) and 7.1% (Rh) RSD for 25 ng analytes. For quantification, aqueous standards were applied on paper filter strips and dried. Only the dried filters were introduced into the electrothermal vaporization unit. This approach successfully removed memory-effects observed during analysis of platinum which occurred only if liquid standards came into contact with the graphite material of the furnace. The presented method for overcoming the Pt-memory-effects may be of further interest for the analysis of other carbide-forming analytes as it does not require any technical modification of the graphite furnace (e.g., metal inlays, pyrolytic coating). Owing to lack of suitable certified reference materials, the proposed method was compared with conventional ICP-OES analysis of digested samples and a good agreement was obtained. As a result of the low sample consumption, it was possible to determine the spatial distribution of PGEs within a single plant. Significant differences in PGE concentrations were observed between the shoots (stem, leaves) and the roots. Pd was mainly found in the roots, whereas Pt and Rh were also found in higher concentrations in the shoots. - Highlights: • The uptake of Pt, Pd and Rh by hydroponically grown plants was investigated

  10. Separate and combined associations of body-mass index and abdominal adiposity with cardiovascular disease: collaborative analysis of 58 prospective studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wormser, David; Kaptoge, Stephen; Di Angelantonio, Emanuele

    2011-01-01

    Guidelines differ about the value of assessment of adiposity measures for cardiovascular disease risk prediction when information is available for other risk factors. We studied the separate and combined associations of body-mass index (BMI), waist circumference, and waist-to-hip ratio with risk ...

  11. [Separation and identification of bovine lactoferricin by high performance liquid chromatography-matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight/ time of flight mass spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Meichen; Liu, Ning

    2010-02-01

    A high performance liquid chromatography-matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight/time of flight mass spectrometry (HPLC-MALDI-TOF/TOF MS) method was developed for the separation and identification of bovine lactoferricin (LfcinB). Bovine lactoferrin was hydrolyzed by pepsin and then separated by ion exchange chromatography and reversed-phase liquid chromatography (RP-LC). The antibacterial activities of the fractions from RP-LC separation were determined and the protein concentration of the fraction with the highest activity was measured, whose sequence was indentified by MALDI-TOF/TOF MS. The relative molecular mass of LfcinB was 3 124.89 and the protein concentration was 18.20 microg/mL. The method of producing LfcinB proposed in this study has fast speed, high accuracy and high resolution.

  12. Mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quigg, Chris

    2007-01-01

    In the classical physics we inherited from Isaac Newton, mass does not arise, it simply is. The mass of a classical object is the sum of the masses of its parts. Albert Einstein showed that the mass of a body is a measure of its energy content, inviting us to consider the origins of mass. The protons we accelerate at Fermilab are prime examples of Einsteinian matter: nearly all of their mass arises from stored energy. Missing mass led to the discovery of the noble gases, and a new form of missing mass leads us to the notion of dark matter. Starting with a brief guided tour of the meanings of mass, the colloquium will explore the multiple origins of mass. We will see how far we have come toward understanding mass, and survey the issues that guide our research today.

  13. Comprehensive lipidomic analysis of human plasma using multidimensional liquid- and gas-phase separations: Two-dimensional liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry vs. liquid chromatography-trapped-ion-mobility-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baglai, Anna; Gargano, Andrea F G; Jordens, Jan; Mengerink, Ynze; Honing, Maarten; van der Wal, Sjoerd; Schoenmakers, Peter J

    2017-12-29

    Recent advancements in separation science have resulted in the commercialization of multidimensional separation systems that provide higher peak capacities and, hence, enable a more-detailed characterization of complex mixtures. In particular, two powerful analytical tools are increasingly used by analytical scientists, namely online comprehensive two-dimensional liquid chromatography (LC×LC, having a second-dimension separation in the liquid phase) and liquid chromatography-ion mobility-spectrometry (LC-IMS, second dimension separation in the gas phase). The goal of the current study was a general assessment of the liquid-chromatography-trapped-ion-mobility-mass spectrometry (LC-TIMS-MS) and comprehensive two-dimensional liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC×LC-MS) platforms for untargeted lipid mapping in human plasma. For the first time trapped-ion-mobility spectrometry (TIMS) was employed for the separation of the major lipid classes and ion-mobility-derived collision-cross-section values were determined for a number of lipid standards. The general effects of a number of influencing parameters have been inspected and possible directions for improvements are discussed. We aimed to provide a general indication and practical guidelines for the analyst to choose an efficient multidimensional separation platform according to the particular requirements of the application. Analysis time, orthogonality, peak capacity, and an indicative measure for the resolving power are discussed as main characteristics for multidimensional separation systems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Assessment of high precision, high accuracy Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectroscopy to obtain concentration uncertainties less than 0.2% with variable matrix concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabb, Savelas A.; Olesik, John W.

    2008-01-01

    The ability to obtain high precision, high accuracy measurements in samples with complex matrices using High Performance Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectroscopy (HP-ICP-OES) was investigated. The Common Analyte Internal Standard (CAIS) procedure was incorporated into the High Performance Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectroscopy method to correct for matrix-induced changes in emission intensity ratios. Matrix matching and standard addition approaches to minimize matrix-induced errors when using High Performance Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectroscopy were also assessed. The High Performance Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectroscopy method was tested with synthetic solutions in a variety of matrices, alloy standard reference materials and geological reference materials

  15. PSYM-WIDE: A Survey for Large-separation Planetary-mass Companions to Late Spectral Type Members of Young Moving Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naud, Marie-Eve; Artigau, Étienne; Doyon, René; Malo, Lison; Gagné, Jonathan; Lafrenière, David; Wolf, Christian; Magnier, Eugene A.

    2017-09-01

    We present the results of a direct imaging survey for very large separation (>100 au), low-mass companions around 95 nearby young K5-L5 stars and brown dwarfs. They are high-likelihood candidates or confirmed members of the young (≲150 Myr) β Pictoris and AB Doradus moving groups (ABDMG) and the TW Hya, Tucana-Horologium, Columba, Carina, and Argus associations. Images in I\\prime and z\\prime filters were obtained with the Gemini Multi-Object Spectrograph (GMOS) on Gemini South to search for companions down to an apparent magnitude of z\\prime ˜ 22-24 at separations ≳20″ from the targets and in the remainder of the wide 5.‧5 × 5.‧5 GMOS field of view. This allowed us to probe the most distant region where planetary-mass companions could be gravitationally bound to the targets. This region was left largely unstudied by past high-contrast imaging surveys, which probed much closer-in separations. This survey led to the discovery of a planetary-mass (9-13 {M}{Jup}) companion at 2000 au from the M3V star GU Psc, a highly probable member of ABDMG. No other substellar companions were identified. These results allowed us to constrain the frequency of distant planetary-mass companions (5-13 {M}{Jup}) to {0.84}-0.66+6.73% (95% confidence) at semimajor axes between 500 and 5000 au around young K5-L5 stars and brown dwarfs. This is consistent with other studies suggesting that gravitationally bound planetary-mass companions at wide separations from low-mass stars are relatively rare.

  16. High performance liquid chromatographic separation of beryllium from some transition metals produced in high energy proton irradiations of medium mass elements: measurement of (p,7Be) cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fassbender, M.; Spellerberg, S.; Qaim, S.M.

    1996-01-01

    A high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method was developed for the separation of 7 Be formed in high energy proton irradiation of medium mass elements like Fe, Cu etc. The bulk of the target material was removed in a preseparation step. Thereafter beryllium was obtained in a high purity within a few minutes elution time using a mixture of 5 mM citric acid and 1.0 mM pyridinedicarboxylic acid as eluent and a SYKAM KO2 analytical cation-exchange column. The effect of Be-carrier on the quality of separation was investigated. The quality of separation deteriorated with the increasing Be-carrier column loading. A certain amount of Be-carrier was, however, necessary in order to quantitate the results. By using low Be-carrier amounts (∝100 μg) and determining the elution yield via a conductometric method, it was possible to obtain quantitative separation results. Besides the analytical column, a semi-preparative column was also used, and the Be separation yield determined gravimetrically. The cross sections for the (p, 7 Be) process on Cu obtained using the two separation columns (analytical and semipreparative) and the two separation yield determination methods agreed within 15%. (orig.)

  17. Copper Determination in Gunshot Residue by Cyclic Voltammetric and Inductive Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Hashim Nurul’Afiqah Hashimah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of gunshot residue (GSR is a crucial evidences for a forensic analyst in the fastest way. GSR analysis insists a suitable method provides a relatively simple, rapid and precise information on the spot at the crime scene. Therefore, the analysis of Cu(II in GSR using cyclic voltammetry (CV on screen printed carbon electrode (SPCE is a better choice compared to previous alternative methods such as Inductive Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-OES those required a long time for analysis. SPCE is specially designed to handle with microvolumes of sample such as GSR sample. It gives advantages for identification of copper in GSR on-site preliminary test to prevent the sample loss on the process to be analyzed in the laboratory. SPCE was swabbed directly on the shooter’s arm immediately after firing and acetate buffer was dropped on SPCE before CV analysis. For ICP-OES analysis, cotton that had been soaked in 0.5 M nitric acid was swabbed on the shooter’s arm immediately after firing and kept in a tightly closed sampling tube. Gold coated SPCE that had been through nanoparticles modification exhibits excellent performance on voltammograms. The calibration was linear from 1 to 50 ppm of copper, the limit of detection for copper was 0.3 ppm and a relative standard deviation was 6.1 %. The method was successfully applied to the determination of copper in GSR. The Cu determination on SPCE was compared and validated by ICP-OES method with 94 % accuracy.

  18. A four dimensional separation method based on continuous heart-cutting gas chromatography with ion mobility and high resolution mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipok, Christian; Hippler, Jörg; Schmitz, Oliver J

    2018-02-09

    A two-dimensional GC (2D-GC) method was developed and coupled to an ion mobility-high resolution mass spectrometer, which enables the separation of complex samples in four dimensions (2D-GC, ion mobilility spectrometry and mass spectrometry). This approach works as a continuous multiheart-cutting GC-system (GC+GC), using a long modulation time of 20s, which allows the complete transfer of most of the first dimension peaks to the second dimension column without fractionation, in comparison to comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GCxGC). Hence, each compound delivers only one peak in the second dimension, which simplifies the data handling even when ion mobility spectrometry as a third and mass spectrometry as a fourth dimension are introduced. The analysis of a plant extract from Calendula officinales shows the separation power of this four dimensional separation method. The introduction of ion mobility spectrometry provides an additional separation dimension and allows to determine collision cross sections (CCS) of the analytes as a further physicochemical constant supporting the identification. A CCS database with more than 800 standard substances including drug-like compounds and pesticides was used for CCS data base search in this work. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Determination of Pb in river water samples by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry after ultrasound-assisted co-precipitation with manganese dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sousa Bispo, Marcia; Santos da Boa Morte, Elane; Korn das Gracas Andrade, Maria; Sena Gomes Teixeira, Leonardo; Korn, Mauro; Costa, Antonio Celso Spinola

    2005-01-01

    A simple and efficient procedure for separation and pre-concentration using ultrasound-assisted co-precipitation with manganese dioxide was developed for Pb determination by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP OES). The optimization process was carried out using a two-level factorial design and a Doehlert matrix. Three variables (i.e. concentration of oxidizing solution-KMnO 4 , concentration of MnSO 4 solution and time of ultrasonic irradiation) were used as factors in the optimization. The recoveries, based on the analysis of spiked samples, were between 90% and 105%, and the precision was ≤ 5%. The detection limit and quantification limit for Pb determination were 3.2 and 10.7 μg L -1 , respectively. The proposed method was applied for the determination of Pb in water samples from a river heavily polluted by industrial effluents. The recovery measured by analyte addition technique showed that the proposed pre-concentration method had good accuracy

  20. Quadrature detection for the separation of the signals of positive and negative ions in fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schweikhard, Lutz; Drader, Jared J.; Shi, Stone D.-H.; Hendrickson, Christopher L.; Marshall, Alan G.

    2002-01-01

    Positive and negative ions may be confined simultaneously in a nested open cylindrical Malmberg-Penning trap. However, ion charge sign cannot be distinguished by conventional dipolar (linearly-polarized) detection with a single pair of opposed electrodes. Here, the signals from each of two orthogonal pairs of opposed detection electrodes are acquired simultaneously and stored as real and imaginary parts of mathematically complex data. Complex Fourier transformation yields separate spectra for positive and negative ions. For a fullerene sample, experimental quadrature detection yields C 60 + and C 60 - signals separated by ∼1440 u rather than by the mass of two electrons, ∼0.001 u in conventional dipolar detection

  1. Can the waiting-point nucleus 78Ni be studied at an on-line mass-separator?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wöhr, A.; Andreyev, A.; Bijnens, N.; Breitenbach, J.; Franchoo, S.; Huyse, M.; Kudryavtsev, Y. A.; Piechaczek, A.; Raabe, R. R.; Reusen, I.; Vermeeren, L.; Van Duppen, P.

    1997-02-01

    Short-lived nickel isotopes have been studied using a chemically selective Ion Guide Laser Ion Source (IGLIS) based on resonance ionisation of atoms at the Leuven Isotope Separator On-Line (LISOL) separator. The decay properties of different Ni isotopes have been studied using β-γ-coincidences. Experimental production rates of proton induced fission of 238U are obtained for 69,71Ni. These numbers are in a strong disagreement with Silberg-Tsao calculations.

  2. Development of Exact Matrix-Matching Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectroscopy for the Analysis of Cu and K in Infant Formula

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ye-Ji; Yim, Yong-Hyeon [University of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Heo, Sung Woo; Han, Myung-Sub; Lim, Youngran [Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-08-15

    In the present study, we have developed an exact matrix-matching inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) as a low-cost alternative to the isotope dilution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) method for accurate and precise measurements of nutrient elements K and Cu in infant formula. In spite of its high precision and accuracy, ICP-OES analysis of complex samples was not reliable due to biases originating from various matrix effects. The elaborated exact matrix-matching approach tested here demonstrated its potential to minimize biases due to matrix mismatch. The exact matrix-matching ICP-OES method was successfully validated by comparing the results with those from an isotope dilution ICP-M S method. Because the model provides reliable results without significant loss of precision, it will be an excellent choice for major element analysis in a complex sample, especially when isotope dilution is not applicable due to the l ck of alternative isotopes or the high cost of enriched isotopes.

  3. Solid-state Marx based two-switch voltage modulator for the On-Line Isotope Mass Separator accelerator at the European Organization for Nuclear Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redondo, L M; Silva, J Fernando; Canacsinh, H; Ferrão, N; Mendes, C; Soares, R; Schipper, J; Fowler, A

    2010-07-01

    A new circuit topology is proposed to replace the actual pulse transformer and thyratron based resonant modulator that supplies the 60 kV target potential for the ion acceleration of the On-Line Isotope Mass Separator accelerator, the stability of which is critical for the mass resolution downstream separator, at the European Organization for Nuclear Research. The improved modulator uses two solid-state switches working together, each one based on the Marx generator concept, operating as series and parallel switches, reducing the stress on the series stacked semiconductors, and also as auxiliary pulse generator in order to fulfill the target requirements. Preliminary results of a 10 kV prototype, using 1200 V insulated gate bipolar transistors and capacitors in the solid-state Marx circuits, ten stages each, with an electrical equivalent circuit of the target, are presented, demonstrating both the improved voltage stability and pulse flexibility potential wanted for this new modulator.

  4. Realization of an electromagnetic isotope separator. Application to the isotopes of the mass 93 from the molybdenum and the technetium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernas, R.

    1954-07-01

    Analysis of focusing properties of a homogeneous magnetic field leads the author to use a magnetic sector of 60 deg, for the realization of an electromagnetic separator. The sources of realized ions provide ionic debits of 10 mA. The currents ionic detached isotopes to the collector vary from 1 to 5 mA. The separation efficiency is of 125 for a current collected of 1 mA. A survey of the neutralization of the space charge permitted to specify the role of the negative ions in this phenomenon. A method of neutralization of the space charge is proposed and gave excellent results. A report will be given of the separations of some elements: mercury, bromine, thorium, etc... The application of the separator to the study of the isomeric transfers in the molybdenum and the technetium permitted to assign definitely for 93 Mo and 93 Tc two radiances γ of respective energies 260 and 390 keV. A new process of fast chemical separation Mo/Tc is described. (author) [fr

  5. Separation and simultaneous quantitation of PGF2α and its epimer 8-iso-PGF2α using modifier-assisted differential mobility spectrometry tandem mass spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunsu Liang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Because many therapeutic agents are contaminated by epimeric impurities or form epimers as a result of metabolism, analytical tools capable of determining epimers are increasingly in demand. This article is a proof-of-principle report of a novel DMS–MS/MS method to separate and simultaneously quantify epimers, taking PGF2α and its 8-epimer, 8-iso-PGF2α, as an example. Good accuracy and precision were achieved in the range of 10–500 ng/mL with a run time of only 1.5 min. Isopropanol as organic modifier facilitated a good combination of sensitivity and separation. The method is the first example of the quantitation of epimers without chromatographic separation. KEY WORDS: Differential mobility spectrometry, Mass spectrometry, Epimer, PGF2α, 8-iso-PGF2α

  6. Laser ablation inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry for analysis of pellets of plant materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomes, Marcos S. [Departamento de Química, Universidade Federal de São Carlos, Rod. Washington Luís, km 235, 13565-905 São Carlos, SP (Brazil); Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura, Universidade de São Paulo, Av. Centenário 303, 13416-000 Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Schenk, Emily R. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Florida International University, Miami, FL (United States); International Forensic Research Institute, Florida International University, Miami, FL (United States); Santos, Dário [Departamento de Ciências Exatas e da Terra, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, Rua Professor Arthur Riedel 275, Diadema, SP (Brazil); Krug, Francisco José [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura, Universidade de São Paulo, Av. Centenário 303, 13416-000 Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Almirall, José R., E-mail: almirall@fiu.edu [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Florida International University, Miami, FL (United States); International Forensic Research Institute, Florida International University, Miami, FL (United States)

    2014-04-01

    An evaluation of laser ablation inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (LAICP OES) for the direct analysis of pelleted plant material is reported. Ground leaves of orange citrus, soy and sugarcane were comminuted using a high-speed ball mill, pressed into pellets and sampled directly with laser ablation and analyzed by ICP OES. The limits of detection (LODs) for the method ranged from as low as 0.1 mg kg{sup −1} for Zn to as high as 94 mg kg{sup −1} for K but were generally below 6 mg kg{sup −1} for most of the elements of interest. A certified reference material consisting of a similar matrix (NIST SRM 1547 peach leaves) was used to check the accuracy of the calibration and the reported method resulted in an average bias of ∼ 5% for all the elements of interest. The precision for the reported method ranged from as low as 4% relative standard deviation (RSD) for Mn to as high as 17% RSD for Zn but averaged ∼ 6.5% RSD for all the elements (n = 10). The proposed method was tested for the determination of Ca, Mg, P, K, Fe, Mn, Zn and B, and the results were in good agreement with those obtained for the corresponding acid digests by ICP-OES, no differences being observed by applying a paired t-test at the 95% confidence level. The reported direct solid sampling method provides a fast alternative to acid digestion that results in similar and appropriate analytical figures of merit with regard to sensitivity, accuracy and precision for plant material analysis. - Highlights: • An evaluation of LA-ICP-OES for the direct analysis of pelleted plant material is reported. • Orange citrus, soy and sugarcane plants were pressed into pellets and sampled directly. • The element menu consisted of Ca, Mg, P, K, Fe, Mn, Zn and B. • LODs for the method ranged from 0.1 mg kg{sup −1} for Zn to 94 mg kg{sup −1} for K. • The precision ranged from 4% RSD for Mn to 17% RSD for Zn (∼ 6.5% RSD average)

  7. Effect of bend separation distance on the mass transfer in back-to-back pipe bends arranged in a 180° configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, X.; Le, T.; Ewing, D.; Ching, C. Y.

    2016-12-01

    The mass transfer to turbulent flow through back-to-back pipe bends arranged in a 180° configuration with different lengths of pipe between the bends was measured using a dissolving gypsum test section in water. The measurements were performed for bends with a radius of curvature of 1.5 times the pipe diameter ( D) at a Reynolds numbers of 70,000 and Schmidt number of 1280. The maximum mass transfer in the bends decreased from approximately 1.8 times the mass transfer in the upstream pipe when there was no separation distance between the bends to 1.7 times when there was a 1 D or 5 D length of pipe between the bends. The location of the maximum mass transfer was on the inner sidewall downstream of the second bend when there was no separation distance between the bends. This location changed to the inner wall at the beginning of the second bend when there was a 1 D long pipe between the bends, and to the inner sidewall at the end of the first bend when there was a 5 D long pipe between the bends.

  8. Simultaneous determination of platinum group elements and rhenium in rock samples using isotope dilution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry after cation exchange separation followed by solvent extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinotsuka, Kazunori; Suzuki, Katsuhiko

    2007-01-01

    A simple and precise determination method for platinum group elements (PGEs) and Re in rock samples was developed using isotope dilution coupled with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ID-ICP-MS). Cation exchange separation was employed for simplicity, because it is applicable to group separation and simultaneous isotopic measurement in contrast with the widely used anion exchange separation which entails separate elution. However, its application to ID-ICP-MS has been limited due to spectral interferences from impurities retained in the PGE fraction even after ion chromatography. To overcome this limitation, solvent extraction using N-benzoyl-N-phenylhydroxylamine (BPHA) in chloroform was successfully applied for further purification. After the examination of optimum experimental parameters in cation exchange separation and solvent extraction using synthetic PGE solution, the established procedure was applied to the determination of PGEs and Re in some geochemical reference materials. The obtained results agreed well with the literature data determined using the different digestion methods (NiS fire assay and the use of a high-pressure asher) within the analytical uncertainties of each other. Significant difference in reproducibility between Ru, Ir, Pt and Os group, and Pd and Re group was observed in the results for BHVO-2 and JA-2. By considering the error factors affecting analytical reproducibility, we concluded that the difference is ascribed to the sample heterogeneity of minor minerals enriched in Ru, Ir, Pt and Os

  9. Cull sow knife-separable lean content evaluation at harvest and lean mass content prediction equation development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abell, Caitlyn E; Stalder, Kenneth J; Hendricks, Haven B; Fitzgerald, Robert F

    2012-07-01

    The objectives of this study were to develop a prediction equation for carcass knife-separable lean within and across USDA cull sow market weight classes (MWC) and to determine carcass and individual primal cut knife separable lean content from cull sows. There were significant percent lean and fat differences in the primal cuts across USDA MWC. The two lighter USDA MWC had a greater percent carcass lean and lower percent fat compared to the two heavier MWC. In general, hot carcass weight explained the majority of carcass lean variation. Additionally, backfat was a significant variation source when predicting cull sow carcass lean. The findings support using a single lean prediction equation across MWC to assist processors when making cull sow purchasing decisions and determine the mix of animals from various USDA MWC that will meet their needs when making pork products with defined lean:fat content. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Modeling of mass transfer of Phospholipids in separation process with supercritical CO2 fluid by RBF artificial neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    An artificial Radial Basis Function (RBF) neural network model was developed for the prediction of mass transfer of the phospholipids from canola meal in supercritical CO2 fluid. The RBF kind of artificial neural networks (ANN) with orthogonal least squares (OLS) learning algorithm were used for mod...

  11. A rapid and practical strategy for the determination of platinum, palladium, ruthenium, rhodium, iridium and gold in large amounts of ultrabasic rock by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry combined with ultrasound extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Gai; Tian, Min

    2015-04-01

    This proposed method regulated the determination of platinum, palladium, ruthenium, rhodium, iridium and gold in platinum-group ores by nickel sulfide fire assay—inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) combined with ultrasound extraction for the first time. The quantitative limits were 0.013-0.023μg/g. The samples were fused to separate the platinum-group elements from matrix. The nickel sulfide button was then dissolved with hydrochloric acid and the insoluble platinum-group sulfide residue was dissolved with aqua regia by ultrasound bath and finally determined by ICP-OES. The proposed method has been applied into the determination of platinum-group element and gold in large amounts of ultrabasic rocks from the Great Dyke of Zimbabwe.

  12. Experimental tests of the gravitational inverse-square law for mass separations from 2 to 105 cm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoskins, J.K.; Newman, R.D.; Spero, R.; Schultz, J.

    1985-01-01

    We report two experiments which test the inverse-square distance dependence of the Newtonian gravitational force law. One experiment uses a torsion balance consisting of a 60-cm-long copper bar suspended at its midpoint by a tungsten wire, to compare the torque produced by copper masses 105 cm from the balance axis with the torque produced by a copper mass 5 cm from the side of the balance bar, near its end. Defining R/sub expt/ to be the measured ratio of the torques due to the masses at 105 cm and 5 cm, and R/sub Newton/ to be the corresponding ratio computed assuming an inverse-square force law, we find deltaequivalent(R/sub expt//R/sub Newton/-1) = (1.2 +- 7) x 10 -4 . Assuming a force deviating from an inverse-square distance dependence by a factor [1+epsilon lnr(cm)], this result implies epsilon = (0.5 +- 2.7) x 10 -4 . An earlier experiment, which has been reported previously, is described here in detail. This experiment tested the inverse-square law over a distance range of approximately 2 to 5 cm, by probing the gravitational field inside a steel mass tube using a copper test mass suspended from the end of a torsion balance bar. This experiment yielded a value for the parameter epsilon defined above: epsilon = (1 +- 7) x 10 -5 . The results of both of these experiments are in good agreement with the Newton- ian prediction. Limits on the strength and range of a Yukawa potential term superimposed on the Newtonian gravitational potential are discussed

  13. Use of microextraction by packed sorbent directly coupled to an electron ionization single quadrupole mass spectrometer as an alternative for non-separative determinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas Ferreira, Ana María; Moreno Cordero, Bernardo; Pérez Pavón, José Luis

    2017-02-01

    Sometimes it is not necessary to separate the individual compounds of a sample to resolve an analytical problem, it is enough to obtain a signal profile of the sample formed by all the components integrating it. Within this strategy, electronic noses based on the direct coupling of a headspace sampler with a mass spectrometer (HS-MS) have been proposed. Nevertheless, this coupling is not suitable for the analysis of non-volatile compounds. In order to propose an alternative to HS-MS determinations for non-volatile compounds, here we present the first 'proof of concept' use of the direct coupling of microextraction by packed sorbents (MEPS) to a mass spectrometer device using an electron ionization (EI) and a single quadrupole as ionization source and analyzer, respectively. As target compounds, a set of analytes with different physic-chemical properties were evaluated (2-ethyl-1-hexanol, styrene, 2-heptanone, among others). The use of MEPS extraction present many advantages, such as it is fast, simple, easy to automate and requires small volumes of sample and organic solvents. Moreover, MEPS cartridges are re-usable as samples can be extracted more than 100 times using the same syringe. In order to introduce into the system all the elution volume from the MEPS extraction, a programmable temperature vaporizer (PTV) is proposed as the injector device. Results obtained with the proposed methodology (MEPS-PTV/MS) were compared with the ones obtained based on the separative scheme, i.e. using gas chromatography separation (MEPS-PTV-GC/MS), and both methods provided similar results. Limits of detection were found to be between 3.26 and 146.6μgL -1 in the non-separative scheme and between 0.02 and 1.72μgL -1 when the separative methodology was used. Repeatability and reproducibility were evaluated with values below 17% in all cases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Isotopic separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, C.L.

    1979-01-01

    Isotopic species in an isotopic mixture including a first species having a first isotope and a second species having a second isotope are separated by selectively exciting the first species in preference to the second species and then reacting the selectively excited first species with an additional preselected radiation, an electron or another chemical species so as to form a product having a mass different from the original species and separating the product from the balance of the mixture in a centrifugal separating device such as centrifuge or aerodynamic nozzle. In the centrifuge the isotopic mixture is passed into a rotor where it is irradiated through a window. Heavier and lighter components can be withdrawn. The irradiated mixture experiences a large centrifugal force and is separated in a deflection area into lighter and heavier components. (UK)

  15. The potential of organic (electrospray- and atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation) mass spectrometric techniques coupled to liquid-phase separation for speciation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Erwin

    2003-06-06

    The use of mass spectrometry based on atmospheric pressure ionisation techniques (atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation, APCI, and electrospray ionisation, ESI) for speciation analysis is reviewed with emphasis on the literature published in and after 1999. This report accounts for the increasing interest that atmospheric pressure ionisation techniques, and in particular ESI, have found in the past years for qualitative and quantitative speciation analysis. In contrast to element-selective detectors, organic mass spectrometric techniques provide information on the intact metal species which can be used for the identification of unknown species (particularly with MS-MS detection) or the confirmation of the actual presence of species in a given sample. Due to the complexity of real samples, it is inevitable in all but the simplest cases to couple atmospheric pressure MS detection to a separation technique. Separation in the liquid phase (capillary electrophoresis or liquid chromatography in reversed phase, ion chromatographic or size-exclusion mode) is particularly suitable since the available techniques cover a very wide range of analyte polarities and molecular mass. Moreover, derivatisation can normally be avoided in liquid-phase separation. Particularly in complex environmental or biological samples, separation in one dimension is not sufficient for obtaining adequate resolution for all relevant species. In this case, multi-dimensional separation, based on orthogonal separation techniques, has proven successful. ESI-MS is also often used in parallel with inductively coupled plasma MS detection. This review is structured in two parts. In the first, the fundamentals of atmospheric pressure ionisation techniques are briefly reviewed. The second part of the review discusses recent applications including redox species, use of ESI-MS for structural elucidation of metal complexes, characterisation and quantification of small organometallic species with relevance to

  16. Determination of plutonium isotopes (238Pu, 239Pu, 240Pu, 241Pu) in environmental samples using radiochemical separation combined with radiometric and mass spectrometric measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yihong; Qiao, Jixin; Hou, Xiaolin; Pan, Shaoming; Roos, Per

    2014-02-01

    This paper reports an analytical method for the determination of plutonium isotopes ((238)Pu, (239)Pu, (240)Pu, (241)Pu) in environmental samples using anion exchange chromatography in combination with extraction chromatography for chemical separation of Pu. Both radiometric methods (liquid scintillation counting and alpha spectrometry) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) were applied for the measurement of plutonium isotopes. The decontamination factors for uranium were significantly improved up to 7.5 × 10(5) for 20 g soil compared to the level reported in the literature, this is critical for the measurement of plutonium isotopes using mass spectrometric technique. Although the chemical yield of Pu in the entire procedure is about 55%, the analytical results of IAEA soil 6 and IAEA-367 in this work are in a good agreement with the values reported in the literature or reference values, revealing that the developed method for plutonium determination in environmental samples is reliable. The measurement results of (239+240)Pu by alpha spectrometry agreed very well with the sum of (239)Pu and (240)Pu measured by ICP-MS. ICP-MS can not only measure (239)Pu and (240)Pu separately but also (241)Pu. However, it is impossible to measure (238)Pu using ICP-MS in environmental samples even a decontamination factor as high as 10(6) for uranium was obtained by chemical separation. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Study on decay of 118Xe and 119Xe by means of mass-separator on-line with a synchrocyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berlovich, Eh.E.; Batist, L.Kh.; Blinnikov, Yu.S.

    1976-01-01

    The decay of sup(118, 119)Xe isotopes has been investigated. An experimental device involving a mass-separator operating in line with a synchrocyclotron is briefly outlined. The elements to be investigated were isolated from a proton-irradiated target by the 'on-beam-chemistry' methods and transferred into the mass-separator ion source. The Xe separated ions are transported to detectors in an experimental ha ll. The energies and relative γ ray intensities of 118 Xe → 118 J and of 119 Xe → 119 J decays ar presented. The error of the γ ray energy determination does not exceed 0.6 keV. Obtained are the periods of half-life: for 118 Xe - (3.8+-0.9) min, for 119 Xe - (5.8+-0.3) min. The decay scheme for 119 Xe is made up. The scheme of 119 Xe levels is well inscribed into the general systematics of the J odd isotope levels. On the basis of obtained and known data the spin values are described to the 119 J levels

  18. Separating refractory and non-refractory particulate chloride and estimating chloride depletion by aerosol mass spectrometry in a marine environment

    OpenAIRE

    I. Nuaaman; S.-M. Li; K. L. Hayden; T. B. Onasch; P. Massoli; D. Sueper; D. R. Worsnop; T. S. Bates; P. K. Quinn; R. McLaren

    2015-01-01

    Aerosol composition and concentration measurements along the coast of California were obtained using an Aerodyne high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-AMS) onboard the research vessel Atlantis during the CalNex study in 2010. This paper focuses on the measurement of aerosol chloride using the HR-AMS that can be ambiguous in regions with significant quantities of sea salt aerosols. This ambiguity arises due to large differences in the sensitivity of the HR...

  19. In-depth study of in-trap high-resolution mass separation by transversal ion ejection from a multi-reflection time-of-flight device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Paul; Knauer, Stefan; Marx, Gerrit; Schweikhard, Lutz

    2018-01-01

    The recently introduced method of ion separation by transversal ejection of unwanted species in electrostatic ion-beam traps and multi-reflection time-of-flight devices has been further studied in detail. As this separation is performed during the ion storage itself, there is no need for additional external devices such as ion gates or traps for either pre- or postselection of the ions of interest. The ejection of unwanted contaminant ions is performed by appropriate pulses of the potentials of deflector electrodes. These segmented ring electrodes are located off-center in the trap, i.e., between one of the two ion mirrors and the central drift tube, which also serves as a potential lift for capturing incoming ions and axially ejecting ions of interest after their selection. The various parameters affecting the selection effectivity and resolving power are illustrated with tin-cluster measurements, where isotopologue ion species provide mass differences down to a single atomic mass unit at ion masses of several hundred. Symmetric deflection voltages of only 10 V were found sufficient for the transversal ejection of ion species with as few as three deflection pulses. The duty cycle, i.e., the pulse duration with respect to the period of ion revolution, has been varied, resulting in resolving powers of up to several tens of thousands for this selection technique.

  20. Performance of the multiple target He/PbI sub 2 aerosol jet system for mass separation of neutron-deficient actinide isotopes

    CERN Document Server

    Ichikawa, S; Asai, M; Haba, H; Sakama, M; Kojima, Y; Shibata, M; Nagame, Y; Oura, Y; Kawade, K

    2002-01-01

    A multiple target He/PbI sub 2 aerosol jet system coupled with a thermal ion source was installed in the isotope separator on line (JAERI-ISOL) at the JAERI tandem accelerator facility. The neutron-deficient americium and curium isotopes produced in the sup 2 sup 3 sup 3 sup , sup 2 sup 3 sup 5 U( sup 6 Li, xn) and sup 2 sup 3 sup 7 Np( sup 6 Li, xn) reactions were successfully mass-separated and the overall efficiency including the ionization of Am atoms was evaluated to be 0.3-0.4%. The identification of a new isotope sup 2 sup 3 sup 7 Cm with the present system is reported.

  1. Determination of Ultralow Level 129I/127I in Natural Samples by Separation of Microgram Carrier Free Iodine and Accelerator Mass Spectrometry Detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hou, Xiaolin; Zhou, Weijian; Chen, Ning

    2010-01-01

    of 129I/127I, and a detection limit of this method for 129I is calculated to be 105 atoms. This will allow us to accurately determine 129I in prenuclear geological samples of low iodine concentration with 129I/127I of 10−12, such as loess, soil, coral, rock, sediment, and groundwater. Some samples......Separation of carrier free iodine from low iodine level samples and accurate measurement of ultralow level 129I in micrograms of iodine target are essential but a bottleneck in geological dating of terrestrial system and tracer research using naturally produced 129I. In this work, we present...... a carrier free method using coprecipitation of AgI with AgCl for preparing micrograms of iodine target, associated with combustion using a tube furnace for separating iodine from solid samples and anion exchange chromatography for preconcentrating iodine from a large volume of water. An accelerator mass...

  2. MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry confirms difficulties in separating species of the Avibacterium genus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alispahic, Merima; Christensen, Henrik; Bisgaard, Magne

    2014-01-01

    In the present study a well-characterized strain collection (n = 33) of Avibacterium species was investigated by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). The robustness of the currently available reference database (Bruker Biotyper 3.0) was tested...... to determine the degree of identification of these strains. Reproducible signal patterns were obtained from all strains. However, identification of most strains was only possible at genus level. Furthermore, two strains could not be identified by this method. Based on their protein spectra profiles, a MALDI...

  3. Characterization of gel-separated glycoproteins using two-step proteolytic digestion combined with sequential microcolumns and mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Martin Røssel; Højrup, Peter; Roepstorff, Peter

    2005-01-01

    present a new technique that allows characterization of low amounts of glycoproteins separated by gel electrophoresis. The method takes advantage of sequential specific and nonspecific enzymatic treatment followed by selective purification and characterization of the glycopeptides using graphite powder......Protein glycosylation can be vital for changing the function or physiochemical properties of a protein. Abnormal glycosylation can lead to protein malfunction, resulting in severe diseases. Therefore, it is important to develop techniques for characterization of such modifications in proteins...... at a sensitivity level comparable with state-of-the-art proteomics. Whereas techniques exist for characterization of high abundance glycoproteins, no single method is presently capable of providing information on both site occupancy and glycan structure on a single band excised from an electrophoretic gel. We...

  4. A fast and sensitive method for the separation of carotenoids using ultra-high performance supercritical fluid chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jumaah, Firas; Plaza, Merichel; Abrahamsson, Victor; Turner, Charlotta; Sandahl, Margareta

    2016-08-01

    In this study, a rapid and sensitive ultra-high performance supercritical fluid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UHPSFC-MS) method has been developed and partially validated for the separation of carotenoids within less than 6 min. Six columns of orthogonal selectivity were examined, and the best separation was obtained by using a 1-aminoanthracene (1-AA) column. The length of polyene chain as well as the number of hydroxyl groups in the structure of the studied carotenoids determines their differences in the physiochemical properties and thus the separation that is achieved on this column. All of the investigated carotenoids were baseline separated with resolution values greater than 1.5. The effects of gradient program, back pressure, and column temperature were studied with respect to chromatographic properties such as retention and selectivity. Electrospray ionization (ESI) and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) were compared in both positive and negative mode, using both direct infusion and hyphenated with UHPSFC. The ESI in positive mode provided the highest response. The coefficient of determination (R (2)) for all calibration curves were greater than 0.998. Limit of detection (LOD) was in the range of 2.6 and 25.2 ng/mL for α-carotene and astaxanthin, respectively, whereas limit of quantification (LOQ) was in the range of 7.8 and 58.0 ng/mL for α-carotene and astaxanthin, respectively. Repeatability and intermediate precision of the developed UHPSFC-MS method were determined and found to be RSD supercritical fluid extracts of microalgae and rosehip. Graphical Abstract Ultra-high performance supercritical fluid chromatography-a rapid separation method for the analysis of carotenoids in rosehip and microalgae samples.

  5. Characterization of diesel fuel by chemical separation combined with capillary gas chromatography (GC) isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Scott D; Jarman, Kristin H; Moran, James J; Sorensen, Christina M; Wright, Bob W

    2012-09-15

    The purpose of this study was to perform a preliminary investigation of compound-specific isotope analysis (CSIA) of diesel fuels to evaluate whether the technique could distinguish diesel samples from different sources/locations. The ability to differentiate or correlate diesel samples could be valuable for discovering fuel tax evasion schemes or for environmental forensic studies. Two urea adduction-based techniques were used to isolate the n-alkanes from the fuel. Both carbon isotope ratio (δ(13)C) and hydrogen isotope ratio (δD) values for the n-alkanes were then determined by CSIA in each sample. The samples investigated had δ(13)C values that ranged from -30.1‰ to -26.8‰, whereas δD values ranged from -83‰ to -156‰. Plots of δD versus δ(13)C with sample n-alkane points connected in order of increasing carbon number gave well-separated clusters with characteristic shapes for each sample. Principal components analysis (PCA) with δ(13)C, δD, or combined δ(13)C and δD data was applied to extract the maximum information content. PCA scores plots could clearly differentiate the samples, thereby demonstrating the potential of this approach for distinguishing (e.g., fingerprinting) fuel samples using δ(13)C and δD values. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Screening Natural Content of Water-Soluble B Vitamins in Fish: Enzymatic Extraction, HILIC Separation, and Tandem Mass Spectrometric Determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Niladri Sekhar; Kumar, K Ashok; Ajeeshkumar, K K; Kumari, K R Remya; Vishnu, K V; Anandan, Rangasamy; Mathew, Suseela; Ravishankar, C N

    2017-05-01

    Despite the potential of LC with tandem MS (MS/MS) in improving sensitivity and selectivity, analytical methods are scarce for the determination of protein-bound and phosphorylated forms of B vitamins in food. This prompted us to develop a method for LC-MS/MS determination of naturally occurring nicotinamide, nicotinic acid, thiamine, pyridoxine, riboflavin, pantothenic acid, biotin, folic acid, and cyanocobalamin in fish. Baseline separation of the vitamins was achieved in a hydrophilic interaction LC condition. An ultrasonication-assisted enzymatic extraction protocol for sample preparation was optimized and validated. The time required for extraction was significantly reduced (to 4 h), while maintaining good extraction efficiency. Acetonitrile content (80%, v/v) in the prepared sample was found to be optimum for excellent peak shape and sensitivity. The dynamic linear range of the vitamins ranged from 2.5 to 500 ng/g, and the regression coefficient values were greater than 0.99. LOQ values ranged from 0.4 to 50 ng/g for the different vitamins. The spike recovery values at 50 and 100 ng/g ranged from 87.5 to 97.5%. The intra- and interday precision values were satisfactory. Accuracy of the developed method was determined by analysis of a Certified Reference Material. The method could also be used for unambiguous determination of the natural content of the target vitamins in fish.

  7. Evaluation of slurry preparation procedures for the determination of mercury by axial view inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry using on-line cold vapor generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Eder Jose dos; Herrmann, Amanda Beatriz; Antunes Vieira, Mariana; Azzolin Frescura, Vera Lucia; Curtius, Adilson Jose

    2005-01-01

    Five different slurry preparation procedures were tested, after grinding the solid samples to a particle size ≤53 μm: (1) using aqua regia plus HF, 30 min of sonication, standing time of 24 h followed by another 30 min of sonication; (2) same as the previous one, except that the standing time and the second ultrasound treatment were omitted; (3) same as the previous one, except that HF was not used; (4) same as the previous one, except that the aqua regia was replaced by nitric acid; (5) same as the previous one, except that the acid nitric was replaced by tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH). The Hg vapor was generated on-line, and the emission signal intensity measured at 253.652 nm by axial view inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. Initially, four experimental conditions were optimized using a multivariate factorial analysis: the concentrations of HCl and of the reducing agent, NaBH 4 , used in the cold vapor generation, and two instrumental parameters, the plasma radiofrequency power and the carrier gas flow rate. The radiofrequency power was statistically significant, but limited to 1.2 kW for practical reasons. The procedures were applied to 11 biological and environmental materials. Both, the slurries and the filtrates were analyzed, using calibration solutions in the same medium as in the slurries. The first three procedures produced results in agreement with the certified values. The two last procedures, using nitric acid or TMHA could not be used for quantitative analysis. For practical reasons, Procedure 3, with a detection limit (3s, n=10) of 0.06 μg g -1 for a sample mass of 20 mg in a final volume of 15 mL is recommended. The relative standard deviations for mercury in the investigated materials, using the recommended procedure, were lower than 12.5%, indicating a good precision for slurry sampling. The recommended procedure is simple, rapid and robust

  8. Heat-transfer and pressure distributions for laminar separated flows downstream of rearward-facing steps with and without mass suction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, R. D.; Jakubowski, A. K.

    1974-01-01

    Heat-transfer and pressure distributions were measured for laminar separated flows downstream of rearward-facing steps with and without mass suction. The flow conditions were such that the boundary-layer thickness was comparable to or larger than the step height. For both suction and no-suction cases, an increase in the step height resulted in a sharp decrease in the initial heat-transfer rates behind the step. Downstream, however, the heat transfer gradually recovered back to less than or near attached-flow values. Mass suction from the step base area increased the local heat-transfer rates; however, this effect was relatively weak for the laminar flows considered. Even removal of the entire approaching boundary layer raised the post-step heat-transfer rates only about 10 percent above the flatplate values. Post-step pressure distributions were found to depend on the entrainment conditions at separation. In the case of the solid-faced step, a sharp pressure drop behind the step was followed by a very short plateau and relatively fast recompression. For the slotted-step connected to a large plenum but without suction, the pressure drop at the base was much smaller and the downstream recompression more gradual than that for solid-faced step.

  9. Selective separation, detection of zotepine and mass spectral characterization of degradants by LC–MS/MS/QTOF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.V.N. Kumar Talluri

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A simple, precise, accurate stability-indicating gradient reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic (RP–HPLC method was developed for the quantitative determination of zotepine (ZTP in bulk and pharmaceutical dosage forms in the presence of its degradation products (DPs. The method was developed using Phenomenex C18 column (250 mm×4.6 mm i.d., 5 µm with a mobile phase containing a gradient mixture of solvents, A (0.05% trifluoroacetic acid (TFA, pH=3.0 and B (acetonitrile. The eluted compounds were monitored at 254 nm; the run time was within 20.0 min, in which ZTP and its DPs were well separated, with a resolution of >1.5. The stress testing of ZTP was carried out under acidic, alkaline, neutral hydrolysis, oxidative, photolytic and thermal stress conditions. ZTP was found to degrade significantly in acidic, photolytic, thermal and oxidative stress conditions and remain stable in basic and neutral conditions. The developed method was validated with respect to specificity, linearity, limit of detection, limit of quantification, accuracy, precision and robustness as per ICH guidelines. This method was also suitable for the assay determination of ZTP in pharmaceutical dosage forms. The DPs were characterized by LC–MS/MS and their fragmentation pathways were proposed. Keywords: Zotepine, Stability-indicating RP–HPLC method, Characterization, ESI-Q-TOF-MS, Bulk drugs and formulations

  10. Mass transfer modeling on the separation of tantalum and niobium from dilute hydrofluoric media through a hollow fiber supported liquid membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buachuang, Duenphen; Ramakul, Prakorn; Leepipatpiboon, Natchanun; Pancharoen, Ura

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Simultaneous separation of tantalum and niobium from the mixture solution. → An extraction through a hollow fiber supported liquid membrane (HFSLM). → The effect on tantalum removal found from Aliquat 336. → The mathematical model focusing on the extraction side of the liquid membrane system was presented. → The mass transfer coefficients of the aqueous feed (k i ) and the organic membrane phase (k m ) for the system were estimated as 1.19 x 10 -5 and 1.39 x 10 -7 cm/s, respectively. → Experimental data and theoretical values were found to be in good agreement when the concentration of Aliquat336 in the membrane phase was below 4% (v/v). - Abstract: The separation of a mixture of tantalum and niobium in dilute hydrofluoric media via hollow fiber supported liquid membrane (HFSLM) was examined. Quaternary ammonium salt (Aliquat336) diluted in kerosene was used as a carrier. The various effects on the transport and separation of tantalum and niobium were studied: concentration of hydrofluoric acid in the feed solution, concentration of the carrier (Aliquat336) in the membrane phase, types of stripping solutions (NaClO 4 , thiourea and HCl) and their concentration. The extraction of tantalum in the membrane phase from 0.3 M hydrofluoric acid (HF) by 3% (v/v) Aliquat336 was achieved by leaving niobium in the feed solution. Quantitative recovery of tantalum was achieved by 0.2 M NaClO 4 . Furthermore, a mathematical model focusing on the extraction side of the liquid membrane system was presented in order to predict the concentration of tantalum at different times. The mass transfer coefficients of the aqueous feed (k i ) and the organic membrane phase (k m ) were estimated as 1.19 x 10 -5 and 1.39 x 10 -7 cm/s, respectively. Therefore, the mass transfer limiting step is the diffusion of tantalum-Aliquat336 through the liquid membrane. Moreover, mass transfer modeling was performed and the validity of the developed model evaluated. Experimental

  11. Mass transfer modeling on the separation of tantalum and niobium from dilute hydrofluoric media through a hollow fiber supported liquid membrane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buachuang, Duenphen [Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand); Ramakul, Prakorn [Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Industrial Technology, Silpakorn University, Nakhon Pathom 73000 (Thailand); Leepipatpiboon, Natchanun [Chromatography and Separation Research Unit, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Patumwan, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand); Pancharoen, Ura, E-mail: ura.p.@chula.ac.th [Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand)

    2011-09-29

    Highlights: > Simultaneous separation of tantalum and niobium from the mixture solution. > An extraction through a hollow fiber supported liquid membrane (HFSLM). > The effect on tantalum removal found from Aliquat 336. > The mathematical model focusing on the extraction side of the liquid membrane system was presented. > The mass transfer coefficients of the aqueous feed (k{sub i}) and the organic membrane phase (k{sub m}) for the system were estimated as 1.19 x 10{sup -5} and 1.39 x 10{sup -7} cm/s, respectively. > Experimental data and theoretical values were found to be in good agreement when the concentration of Aliquat336 in the membrane phase was below 4% (v/v). - Abstract: The separation of a mixture of tantalum and niobium in dilute hydrofluoric media via hollow fiber supported liquid membrane (HFSLM) was examined. Quaternary ammonium salt (Aliquat336) diluted in kerosene was used as a carrier. The various effects on the transport and separation of tantalum and niobium were studied: concentration of hydrofluoric acid in the feed solution, concentration of the carrier (Aliquat336) in the membrane phase, types of stripping solutions (NaClO{sub 4}, thiourea and HCl) and their concentration. The extraction of tantalum in the membrane phase from 0.3 M hydrofluoric acid (HF) by 3% (v/v) Aliquat336 was achieved by leaving niobium in the feed solution. Quantitative recovery of tantalum was achieved by 0.2 M NaClO{sub 4}. Furthermore, a mathematical model focusing on the extraction side of the liquid membrane system was presented in order to predict the concentration of tantalum at different times. The mass transfer coefficients of the aqueous feed (k{sub i}) and the organic membrane phase (k{sub m}) were estimated as 1.19 x 10{sup -5} and 1.39 x 10{sup -7} cm/s, respectively. Therefore, the mass transfer limiting step is the diffusion of tantalum-Aliquat336 through the liquid membrane. Moreover, mass transfer modeling was performed and the validity of the

  12. Rapid and Green Separation of Mono- and Diesters of Monochloropropanediols by Ultrahigh Performance Supercritical Fluid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry Using Neat Carbon Dioxide as a Mobile Phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jumaah, Firas; Jędrkiewicz, Renata; Gromadzka, Justyna; Namieśnik, Jacek; Essén, Sofia; Turner, Charlotta; Sandahl, Margareta

    2017-09-20

    This study demonstrates the effect of column selectivity and density of supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO 2 ) on the separation of monochloropropanediol (MCPD) esters, known as food toxicants, using SC-CO 2 without addition of cosolvent in ultrahigh performance supercritical fluid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UHPSFC-MS). This study shows that over 20 2-monochloropropanediol (2-MCPD) and 3-monochloropropanediol (3-MCPD) mono- and diesters are separated on a 2-picolylamine column in less than 12 min. The presence and position of a hydroxyl group in the structure, the number of unsaturated bonds, and the acyl chain length play a significant role in the separation of MCPD esters. The flow rate, backpressure, and column oven temperature, which affect the density of the mobile phase, were shown to have a substantial impact on retention, efficiency, and selectivity. The developed method was successfully applied for the determination of MCPD esters in refined oils and showed a close to excellent green analysis score using the Analytical Eco-Scale.

  13. Capillary Isoelectric Focusing-Mass Spectrometry Method for the Separation and Online Characterization of Intact Monoclonal Antibody Charge Variants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Jun; Lamp, Jared; Xia, Qiangwei; Zhang, Yingru

    2018-02-06

    We report a new online capillary isoelectric focusing-mass spectrometry (CIEF-MS) method for monoclonal antibody (mAb) charge variant analysis using an electrokinetically pumped sheath-flow nanospray ion source and a time-of-flight MS with pressure-assisted chemical mobilization. To develop a successful, reliable CIEF-MS method for mAb, we have selected and optimized many critical, interrelating reagents and parameters that include (1) MS-friendly anolyte and catholyte; (2) a glycerol enhanced sample mixture that reduced non-CIEF electrophoretic mobility and band broadening; (3) ampholyte selected for balancing resolution and MS sensitivity; (4) sheath liquid composition optimized for efficient focusing, mobilization, and electrospray ionization; (5) judiciously selected CIEF running parameters including injection amount, field strength, and applied pressure. The fundamental premise of CIEF was well maintained as verified by the linear correlation (R 2 = 0.99) between pI values and migration time using a mixture of pI markers. In addition, the charge variant profiles of trastuzumab, bevacizumab, infliximab, and cetuximab, obtained using this CIEF-MS method, were corroborated by imaged CIEF-UV (iCIEF-UV) analyses. The relative standard deviations (RSD) of absolute migration time of pI markers were all less than 5% (n = 4). Triplicate analyses of bevacizumab showed RSD less than 1% for relative migration time to an internal standard and RSD of 7% for absolute MS peak area. Moreover, the antibody charge variants were characterized using the online intact MS data. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that direct online MS detection and characterization were achieved for mAb charge variants resolved by CIEF as indicated by a well-established linear pH gradient and correlated CIEF-UV charge variant profiles.

  14. Inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry analysis of lanthanum, samarium and gadolinium oxides for rare earths impurities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reino, L.C.P.; Lordello, A.R.

    1990-09-01

    An inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry method is described for the determination of Sm, Eu, La, Gd, Dy, Pr, Ho, Nd, Tb and Y in purified oxides of lanthanum, samarium and gadolinium. The method enables a simple, precise and readily available determination. Dissolution of the samples is achieved with diluted hydrochloric acid (1:1). The solutions are diluted to volume for a concentration of 1mg/ml. The lowest determination limit is 0,01% for most elements and 0,05 or 0,1% for a few rare earths in samarium and gadolinium matrices. Lanthanum, Samarium and Gadolinium concentrates with purity grade of 99,9%, 99,6% and 99,8%, respectively, can be analysed by this procedure. (author)

  15. Classification of Antarctic algae by applying Kohonen neural network with 14 elements determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balbinot, L. [Departamento de Quimica Analitica-Instituto de Quimica-Unicamp, PO Box 6154, CEP: 13083-971, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Smichowski, P. [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Unidad de Actividad Quimica, Centro Atomico Constituyentes, Av. Gral Paz 1499, B1650KNA, San Martin, Provincia de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Farias, S. [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Unidad de Actividad Quimica, Centro Atomico Constituyentes, Av. Gral Paz 1499, B1650KNA, San Martin, Provincia de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Arruda, M.A.Z. [Departamento de Quimica Analitica-Instituto de Quimica-Unicamp, PO Box 6154, CEP: 13083-971, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Vodopivez, C. [Instituto Antartico Argentino, Cerrito 1010, C1248AAZ, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Poppi, R.J. [Departamento de Quimica Analitica-Instituto de Quimica-Unicamp, PO Box 6154, CEP: 13083-971, Campinas, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: ronei@iqm.unicamp.br

    2005-06-30

    Optical emission spectrometers can generate results, which sometimes are not easy to interpret, mainly when the analyses involve classifications. To make simultaneous data interpretation possible, the Kohonen neural network is used to classify different Antarctic algae according to their taxonomic groups from the determination of 14 analytes. The Kohonen neural network architecture used was 5x5 neurons, thus reducing 14-dimension input data to two-dimensional space. The input data were 14 analytes (As, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Sr, Zn, Cd, Cr, Mo, Ni, Pb, Se, V) with their concentrations, determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry in 11 different species of algae. Three taxonomic groups (Rhodophyta, Phaeophyta and Cholorophyta) can be differentiated and classified through only their Cu content.

  16. Classification of Antarctic algae by applying Kohonen neural network with 14 elements determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balbinot, L.; Smichowski, P.; Farias, S.; Arruda, M.A.Z.; Vodopivez, C.; Poppi, R.J.

    2005-01-01

    Optical emission spectrometers can generate results, which sometimes are not easy to interpret, mainly when the analyses involve classifications. To make simultaneous data interpretation possible, the Kohonen neural network is used to classify different Antarctic algae according to their taxonomic groups from the determination of 14 analytes. The Kohonen neural network architecture used was 5x5 neurons, thus reducing 14-dimension input data to two-dimensional space. The input data were 14 analytes (As, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Sr, Zn, Cd, Cr, Mo, Ni, Pb, Se, V) with their concentrations, determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry in 11 different species of algae. Three taxonomic groups (Rhodophyta, Phaeophyta and Cholorophyta) can be differentiated and classified through only their Cu content

  17. Simultaneous determination of macronutrients, micronutrients and trace elements in mineral fertilizers by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira Souza, Sidnei; da Costa, Silvânio Silvério Lopes; Santos, Dayane Melo; dos Santos Pinto, Jéssica; Garcia, Carlos Alexandre Borges; Alves, José do Patrocínio Hora; Araujo, Rennan Geovanny Oliveira

    2014-06-01

    An analytical method for simultaneous determination of macronutrients (Ca, Mg, Na and P), micronutrients (Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn) and trace elements (Al, As, Cd, Pb and V) in mineral fertilizers was optimized. Two-level full factorial design was applied to evaluate the optimal proportions of reagents used in the sample digestion on hot plate. A Doehlert design for two variables was used to evaluate the operating conditions of the inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer in order to accomplish the simultaneous determination of the analyte concentrations. The limits of quantification (LOQs) ranged from 2.0 mg kg- 1 for Mn to 77.3 mg kg- 1 for P. The accuracy and precision of the proposed method were evaluated by analysis of standard reference materials (SRMs) of Western phosphate rock (NIST 694), Florida phosphate rock (NIST 120C) and Trace elements in multi-nutrient fertilizer (NIST 695), considered to be adequate for simultaneous determination. Twenty-one samples of mineral fertilizers collected in Sergipe State, Brazil, were analyzed. For all samples, the As, Ca, Cd and Pb concentrations were below the LOQ values of the analytical method. For As, Cd and Pb the obtained LOQ values were below the maximum limit allowed by the Brazilian Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Food Supply (Ministério da Agricultura, Pecuária e Abastecimento - MAPA). The optimized method presented good accuracy and was effectively applied to quantitative simultaneous determination of the analytes in mineral fertilizers by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP OES).

  18. Simultaneous determination of macronutrients, micronutrients and trace elements in mineral fertilizers by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira Souza, Sidnei de; Silvério Lopes da Costa, Silvânio; Santos, Dayane Melo; Santos Pinto, Jéssica dos; Garcia, Carlos Alexandre Borges

    2014-01-01

    An analytical method for simultaneous determination of macronutrients (Ca, Mg, Na and P), micronutrients (Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn) and trace elements (Al, As, Cd, Pb and V) in mineral fertilizers was optimized. Two-level full factorial design was applied to evaluate the optimal proportions of reagents used in the sample digestion on hot plate. A Doehlert design for two variables was used to evaluate the operating conditions of the inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer in order to accomplish the simultaneous determination of the analyte concentrations. The limits of quantification (LOQs) ranged from 2.0 mg kg −1 for Mn to 77.3 mg kg −1 for P. The accuracy and precision of the proposed method were evaluated by analysis of standard reference materials (SRMs) of Western phosphate rock (NIST 694), Florida phosphate rock (NIST 120C) and Trace elements in multi-nutrient fertilizer (NIST 695), considered to be adequate for simultaneous determination. Twenty-one samples of mineral fertilizers collected in Sergipe State, Brazil, were analyzed. For all samples, the As, Ca, Cd and Pb concentrations were below the LOQ values of the analytical method. For As, Cd and Pb the obtained LOQ values were below the maximum limit allowed by the Brazilian Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Food Supply (Ministério da Agricultura, Pecuária e Abastecimento — MAPA). The optimized method presented good accuracy and was effectively applied to quantitative simultaneous determination of the analytes in mineral fertilizers by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP OES). - Highlights: • Determination of inorganic constituents in mineral fertilizers was proposed. • Experimental design methodology was used to optimize analytical method. • The sample preparation procedure using diluted reagents (HNO 3 and H 2 O 2 ) was employed. • The analytical method was satisfactorily to the determination of thirteen elements. • The ICP OES technique can be

  19. Optimization of separation and detection conditions for the multiresidue analysis of pesticides in grapes by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Kaushik; Patil, Sangram H; Dasgupta, Soma; Oulkar, Dasharath P; Patil, Shubhangi B; Savant, Rahul; Adsule, Pandurang G

    2008-05-09

    A comprehensive GCxGC-TOFMS method was optimized for multiresidue analysis of pesticides using a combination of a non-polar (RTX-5MS, 10 m x 0.18 mm x 0.2 microm) and a polar capillary column (TR-50MS, 1 m x 0.1 mm x 0.1 microm), connected in series through a dual stage thermal modulator. The method resolved the co-elution problems as observed in full scan one-dimensional GC-MS analysis and allowed chromatographic separation of 51 pesticides within 24 min run time with library-searchable mass spectrometric confirmation. Four pesticides, viz. chlorpyrifos-methyl, vinclozoline, parathion-methyl and heptachlor could be baseline separated on GCxGC, which were otherwise closely eluting and interfering each other's detection in 1D GC-MS run. Similarly, it could be possible to separate myclobutanil, buprofezin, flusilazole and oxyfluorfen on GCxGC. Although in 1D GC-MS, these closely eluting compounds could be identified through deconvolution algorithm and 'peak-find' option of the Chromatof software but the spectral purity significantly improved on GCxGC analysis. Thorough optimization was accomplished for the oven temperature programming, ion source temperature and GCxGC parameters like modulation period, duration of hot pulses, modulation-offset temperature, acquisition rate, etc. to achieve best possible separation of the test compounds. The limit of detection significantly improved by 2-12 times on GCxGC-TOFMS against GC-TOFMS because of sharper and narrower peak shapes. The method was tested for grape matrix after preparing the samples using previously described method and recoveries of the entire test pesticides were within 70-110% at 10 ng/g level of fortification. GCxGC-TOFMS was found to be an excellent technique for library-based screening of pesticides with high accuracy and sensitivity.

  20. Nuclear magnetic resonance and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry combined with an incompleted separation strategy for identifying the natural products in crude extract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dai Dongmei; He Jiuming [Key Laboratory of Bioactive Substances and Resource Utilization of Chinese Herbal Medicine, Ministry of Education, Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, 1 Xian Nong Tan Street, Beijing 100050 (China); Sun Ruixiang [Institute of Computing Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080 (China); Zhang Ruiping [Key Laboratory of Bioactive Substances and Resource Utilization of Chinese Herbal Medicine, Ministry of Education, Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, 1 Xian Nong Tan Street, Beijing 100050 (China); Aisa, Haji Akber [Xinjiang Technological Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Urumqi 830011 (China); Abliz, Zeper [Key Laboratory of Bioactive Substances and Resource Utilization of Chinese Herbal Medicine, Ministry of Education, Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, 1 Xian Nong Tan Street, Beijing 100050 (China)], E-mail: zeper@imm.ac.cn

    2009-01-26

    NMR and LC-MS combined with an incompleted separation strategy were proposed to the simultaneous structure identification of natural products in crude extracts, and a novel method termed as NMR/LC-MS parallel dynamic spectroscopy (NMR/LC-MS PDS) was developed to discover the intrinsic correlation between retention time (Rt), mass/charge (m/z) and chemical shift ({delta}) data of the same constituent from mixture spectra by the co-analysis of parallelly visualized multispectroscopic datasets from LC-MS and {sup 1}H NMR. The extracted ion chromatogram (XIC) and {sup 1}H NMR signals deriving from the same individual constituent were correlated through fraction ranges and intensity changing profiles in NMR/LC-MS PDS spectrum due to the signal amplitude co-variation resulted from the concentration variation of constituents in a series of incompletely separated fractions. NMR/LC-MS PDS was applied to identify 12 constituents in an active herbal extract including flavonol glycosides, which was separated into a series of fractions by flash column chromatography. The complementary spectral information of the same individual constituent in the crude extract was discovered simultaneously from mixture spectra. Especially, two groups of co-eluted isomers were identified successfully. The results demonstrated that NMR/LC-MS PDS combined with the incompleted separation strategy achieved the similar function of on-line LC-NMR-MS analysis in off-line mode and had the potential for simplifying and accelerating the analytical routes for structure identification of constituents in herbs or their active extracts.

  1. Nuclear magnetic resonance and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry combined with an incompleted separation strategy for identifying the natural products in crude extract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai Dongmei; He Jiuming; Sun Ruixiang; Zhang Ruiping; Aisa, Haji Akber; Abliz, Zeper

    2009-01-01

    NMR and LC-MS combined with an incompleted separation strategy were proposed to the simultaneous structure identification of natural products in crude extracts, and a novel method termed as NMR/LC-MS parallel dynamic spectroscopy (NMR/LC-MS PDS) was developed to discover the intrinsic correlation between retention time (Rt), mass/charge (m/z) and chemical shift (δ) data of the same constituent from mixture spectra by the co-analysis of parallelly visualized multispectroscopic datasets from LC-MS and 1 H NMR. The extracted ion chromatogram (XIC) and 1 H NMR signals deriving from the same individual constituent were correlated through fraction ranges and intensity changing profiles in NMR/LC-MS PDS spectrum due to the signal amplitude co-variation resulted from the concentration variation of constituents in a series of incompletely separated fractions. NMR/LC-MS PDS was applied to identify 12 constituents in an active herbal extract including flavonol glycosides, which was separated into a series of fractions by flash column chromatography. The complementary spectral information of the same individual constituent in the crude extract was discovered simultaneously from mixture spectra. Especially, two groups of co-eluted isomers were identified successfully. The results demonstrated that NMR/LC-MS PDS combined with the incompleted separation strategy achieved the similar function of on-line LC-NMR-MS analysis in off-line mode and had the potential for simplifying and accelerating the analytical routes for structure identification of constituents in herbs or their active extracts

  2. Implementation of suitable flow injection/sequential-sample separation/preconcentration schemes for determination of trace metal concentrations using detection by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Elo Harald; Wang, Jianhua

    2002-01-01

    Various preconditioning procedures encomprising appropriate separation/preconcentration schemes in order to obtain optimal sensitivity and selectivity characteristics when using electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS...

  3. A THERMAL INFRARED IMAGING STUDY OF VERY LOW MASS, WIDE-SEPARATION BROWN DWARF COMPANIONS TO UPPER SCORPIUS STARS: CONSTRAINING CIRCUMSTELLAR ENVIRONMENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, Vanessa; Hinz, Philip M.; Su, Kate Y. L.; Hoffmann, William F.; Rieke, George; Rodigas, Timothy; Skemer, Andrew; Vaitheeswaran, Vidhya [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 N. Cherry Ave., Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Currie, Thayne [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 50 St. George Street, Toronto, ON M5S 3H4 (Canada); Esposito, Simone; Pinna, Enrico; Puglisi, Alfio [Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Largo Enrico Fermi 5, I-50125 Firenze (Italy); Hill, John M. [Large Binocular Telescope Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 N. Cherry Ave., Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Jones, Terry [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota, 116 Church St. SE, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Kim, Jihun [College of Optical Sciences, University of Arizona, 1630 E. University Blvd., Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Leisenring, Jarron; Meyer, Michael [Institut fuer Angewandte Physik, Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule-Zuerich, CH-8093 (Switzerland); Murray-Clay, Ruth; Skrutskie, Michael F. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Harvard University, 60 Garden St., Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Nelson, Matthew J., E-mail: vbailey@as.arizona.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); and others

    2013-04-10

    We present a 3-5 {mu}m LBT/MMT adaptive optics imaging study of three Upper Scorpius stars with brown dwarf (BD) companions with very low masses/mass ratios (M{sub BD} <25 M{sub Jup}; M{sub BD}/M{sub *} Almost-Equal-To 1%-2%) and wide separations (300-700 AU): GSC 06214, 1RXS 1609, and HIP 78530. We combine these new thermal IR data with existing 1-4 {mu}m and 24 {mu}m photometry to constrain the properties of the BDs and identify evidence for circumprimary/circumsecondary disks in these unusual systems. We confirm that GSC 06214B is surrounded by a disk, further showing that this disk produces a broadband IR excess due to small dust near the dust sublimation radius. An unresolved 24 {mu}m excess in the system may be explained by the contribution from this disk. 1RXS 1609B exhibits no 3-4 {mu}m excess, nor does its primary; however, the system as a whole has a modest 24 {mu}m excess, which may come from warm dust around the primary and/or BD. Neither object in the HIP 78530 system exhibits near- to mid-IR excesses. We additionally find that the 1-4 {mu}m colors of HIP 78530B match a spectral type of M3 {+-} 2, inconsistent with the M8 spectral type assigned based on its near-IR spectrum, indicating that it may be a low-mass star rather than a BD. We present new upper limits on additional low-mass companions in the system (<5 M{sub Jup} beyond 175 AU). Finally, we examine the utility of circumsecondary disks as probes of the formation histories of wide BD companions, finding that the presence of a disk may disfavor BD formation near the primary with subsequent outward scattering.

  4. Improvements to the on-line mass separator, RAMA, and the beta-delayed charged-particle emission of proton-rich sd shell nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ognibene, T.J.

    1996-03-01

    To overcome the extreme difficulties encountered in the experimental decay studies of proton drip line nuclei, several techniques have been utilized, including a helium-jet transport system, particle identification detectors and mass separation. Improvements to the ion source/extraction region of the He-jet coupled on-line Recoil Atom Mass Analyzer (RAMA) and its target/ion source coupling resulted in significant increases in RAMA efficiencies and its mass resolution, as well as reductions in the overall transit time. At the 88-Inch Cyclotron at LBNL, the decays of 31 Cl, 27 P and 28 P, with half-lives of 150 msec, 260 msec and 270.3 msec, respectively, were examined using a he-jet and low-energy gas ΔE-gas ΔE-silicon E detector telescopes. Total beta-delayed proton branches of 0.3% and 0.07% in 31 Cl and 27 P, respectively, were estimated. Several proton peaks that had been previously assigned to the decay of 31 Cl were shown to be from the decay of 25 Si. In 27 P, two proton groups at 459 ± 14 keV and 610 ± 11 keV, with intensities of 7 ± 3% and 92 ± 4% relative to the main (100%) group were discovered. The Gamow-Teller component of the preceding beta-decay of each observed proton transition was compared to results from shell model calculations. Finally, a new proton transition was identified, following the β-decay of 28 P, at 1,444 ± 12 keV with a 1.7 ± 0.5% relative intensity to the 100% group. Using similar low-energy detector telescopes and the mass separator TISOL at TRIUMF, the 109 msec and 173 msec activities, 17 Ne and 33 Ar, were studied. A new proton group with energy 729 ± 15 keV was observed following the beta-decay of 17 Ne. Several discrepancies between earlier works as to the energies, intensities and assignments of several proton transitions from 17 Ne and 33 Ar were resolved

  5. Study of uranium in soil employing Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, A.; Sharma, P.K.; Bassan, M.K.T.; Avhad, D.K.; Singhal, R.K.; Reddy, A.V.R.

    2015-01-01

    Soil samples were collected from different locations in Punjab and Jharkhand States of India. Their Uranium content was measured using ICP-OES with and without chemical separation. It was observed that 98 percent of the uranium could be adsorbed using chitosan based micro-extractant at pH 5. The concentration of uranium in the studied soil samples was found to be higher than its normal natural abundance. (author)

  6. Separation of silver ions and starch modified silver nanoparticles using high performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet and inductively coupled mass spectrometric detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanley, Traci A.; Saadawi, Ryan; Zhang, Peng; Caruso, Joseph A.; Landero-Figueroa, Julio

    2014-01-01

    The production of commercially available products marketed to contain silver nanoparticles is rapidly increasing. Species-specific toxicity is a phenomenon associated with many elements, including silver, making it imperative to develop a method to identify and quantify the various forms of silver (namely, silver ions vs. silver nanoparticles) possibly present in these products. In this study a method was developed using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with ultraviolet (UV–VIS) and inductively coupled mass spectrometric (ICP-MS) detection to separate starch stabilized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and silver ions (Ag + ) by cation exchange chromatography with 0.5 M nitric acid mobile phase. The silver nanoparticles and ions were baseline resolved with an ICP-MS response linear over four orders of magnitude, 0.04 mg kg −1 detection limit, and 90% chromatographic recovery for silver solutions containing ions and starch stabilized silver nanoparticles smaller than 100 nm

  7. ELGA and TOR installations control device to carry out experiments on-line with a mass-separator by the ASNAPP-2 code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arvai, Z.; Guyash, Ya.; Kuznetsov, V.V.; Fominykh, V.I.

    1984-01-01

    The control device of the tor beta-spectrometer with toroidal magnetic field and the ELGA spectrometer with semiconductor detectors for investigation of conversion electrons, positrons, γ- and α-radiations and lifetime of excited states and periods of isotopes half-decay are described. The block-diagram of the measurement processes, algorithm of the ELGA devce operation, control device circuit, and circuit for connection of analog-to-digital converter with the CAMAC dataway, block-diagram of step motor control, and step motor feeding scheme as well as mechanical and electrical characteristics of the step motor are given. The device is used for spectroscopic investigations of short-lived isotopes on the accelerator proton beam with mass separator

  8. Separation of silver ions and starch modified silver nanoparticles using high performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet and inductively coupled mass spectrometric detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanley, Traci A.; Saadawi, Ryan; Zhang, Peng; Caruso, Joseph A., E-mail: joseph.caruso@uc.edu; Landero-Figueroa, Julio

    2014-10-01

    The production of commercially available products marketed to contain silver nanoparticles is rapidly increasing. Species-specific toxicity is a phenomenon associated with many elements, including silver, making it imperative to develop a method to identify and quantify the various forms of silver (namely, silver ions vs. silver nanoparticles) possibly present in these products. In this study a method was developed using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with ultraviolet (UV–VIS) and inductively coupled mass spectrometric (ICP-MS) detection to separate starch stabilized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and silver ions (Ag{sup +}) by cation exchange chromatography with 0.5 M nitric acid mobile phase. The silver nanoparticles and ions were baseline resolved with an ICP-MS response linear over four orders of magnitude, 0.04 mg kg{sup −1} detection limit, and 90% chromatographic recovery for silver solutions containing ions and starch stabilized silver nanoparticles smaller than 100 nm.

  9. Screening and confirmation of steroids and nitroimidazoles in urine, blood, and food matrices: Sample preparation methods and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometric separations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tölgyesi, Ádám; Barta, Enikő; Simon, Andrea; McDonald, Thomas J; Sharma, Virender K

    2017-10-25

    Veterinary drugs containing synthetic anabolic steroid and nitroimidazole active agents are not allowed for their applications in livestock of the European Union (EU). This paper presents analyses of twelve selected steroids and six nitroimidazole antibiotics at low levels (1.56μg/L-4.95μg/L and 0.17μg/kg-2.14μg/kg, respectively) in body fluids and egg incurred samples. Analyses involved clean-up procedures, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) separation, and tandem mass spectrometric screening and confirmatory methods. Target steroids and nitroimidazoles in samples were cleaned by two independent supported liquid extraction and solid phase extraction procedures. Separation of the selected compounds was conducted on Kinetex XB C-18 HPLC column using gradient elution. The screening methods utilised supported liquid extraction that enabled fast and cost effective clean-up. The confirmatory methods were improved by extending the number of matrices and compounds, and by introducing an isotope dilution mass spectrometry for nitroimidazoles. The new methods were validated according to the recommendation of the European Union Reference Laboratories and the performance characteristics evaluated met fully the criteria. The methods were applied to incurred samples in the proficiency tests. The obtained results of Z-scores demonstrated the applicability of developed protocols of the methods to real samples. The confirmatory methods were applied to the national monitoring program and natural contamination of prednisolone could be detected in urine at low concentration in few samples. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Simultaneous separation and determination of six arsenic species in rice by anion-exchange chromatography with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Li; Yang, Zhaoguang; Tang, Jie; Wang, Lin

    2016-06-01

    The simultaneous separation and determination of arsenite As(III), arsenate As(V), monomethylarsonic acid (MMA), dimethylarsinic acid (DMA), arsenobetaine (AsB), and arsenocholine (AsC) in rice samples have been carried out in one single anion-exchange column run by high-performance liquid chromatography with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. To estimate the effect of variables on arsenic (As) speciation, the chromatographic conditions including type of competing anion, ionic strength, pH of elution buffer, and flow rate of mobile phase have been investigated by a univariate approach. Under the optimum chromatographic conditions, baseline separation of six As species has been achieved within 10 min by gradient elution program using 4 mM NH4 HCO3 at pH 8.6 as mobile phase A and 4 mM NH4 HCO3 , 40 mM NH4 NO3 at pH 8.6 as mobile phase B. The method detection limits for As(III), As(V), MMA, DMA, AsB, and AsC were 0.4, 0.9, 0.2, 0.4, 0.5, and 0.3 μg/kg, respectively. The proposed method has been applied to separation and quantification of As species in real rice samples collected from Hunan Province, China. The main As species detected in all samples were As(III), As(V) and DMA, with inorganic As accounting for over 80% of total As in these samples. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Simultaneous determination of 3-monochloropropane-1,2-diol and acrylamide in food by gas chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry with coupled column separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiao-min; He, Hua-li; Zhu, Yan; Feng, Liang; Ying, Ying; Huang, Bai-fen; Shen, Hai-tao; Han, Jian-long; Ren, Yi-ping

    2013-01-14

    Both 3-monochloropropane-1,2-diol (3-MCPD) and acrylamide are contaminants found in heat-processed foods and their related products. A quantitative method was developed for the simultaneous determination of both contaminants in food by gas chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS). The analytes were purified and extracted by the matrix solid-phase dispersion extraction (MSPDE) technique with Extrelut NT. A coupled column (a 3 m Innowax combined with a 30 m DB-5 ms) was developed to separate both compounds efficiently without derivatization. Triple quadrupole mass spectrometry in multiple reaction monitoring mode (MRM) was applied to suppress matrix interference and obtain good sensitivity in the determination of both analytes. The limit of detection (LOD) in the sample matrix was 5 μg kg(-1) for 3-MCPD or acrylamide. The average recoveries for 3-MCPD and acrylamide in different food matrices were 90.5-107% and 81.9-95.7%, respectively, with the intraday relative standard deviations (RSDs) of 5.6-13.5% and 5.3-13.4%, respectively. The interday RSDs were 6.1-12.6% for 3-MCPD and were 5.0-12.8% for acrylamide. Both contaminants were found in samples of bread, fried chips, fried instant noodles, soy sauce, and instant noodle flavoring. Neither 3-MCPD nor acrylamide was detected in the samples of dairy products (solid or liquid samples) and non-fried instant noodles. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Decay of mass-separated 189mHg (8.7 min) and 189gHg (7.7 min) to 189Au

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, J.L.; Zganjar, E.F.; Semmes, P.B.

    1996-01-01

    The decays of 189 Hg (8.7 min; J π =13/2 + ) and 189 Hg (7.7 min; J π =3/2 - ) have been studied with mass-separated sources from the UNISOR facility. Multiscaled spectra of γ-rays, X-rays, and conversion electrons, as well as γγt, γXt, eγt, and eXt coincidences were obtained. Decay schemes have been constructed incorporating >95% of the decay intensities assigned to the high-spin and low-spin decays. The γ-ray gated conversion-electron spectra permitted the determination of 119 conversion-electron subshell ratios. Portions of the level scheme bear a remarkable resemblance to the heavier and lighter odd-mass Au isotopes. An extensive band of states is observed built upon the h 9/2 intruder state at 325 keV. This band is markedly different from the corresponding bands in 187 Au and 185 Au, indicating a major change in the cores, i.e. between 188 Pt and 186,184 Pt. Evidence for oblate-hole-prolate-particle symmetry in 189 Au is discussed. Completeness of complex decay schemes far from stability is addressed. (orig.)

  13. Impact of solvent conditions on separation and detection of basic drugs by micro liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry under overloading conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, Birthe; Oberacher, Herbert

    2011-06-03

    In this study the impact of solvent conditions on the performance of μLC/MS for the analysis of basic drugs was investigated. Our aim was to find experimental conditions that enable high-performance chromatographic separation particularly at overloading conditions paired with a minimal loss of mass spectrometric detection sensitivity. A focus was put on the evaluation of the usability of different kinds of acidic modifiers (acetic acid (HOAc), formic acid (FA), methansulfonic acid (CH₃SO₃H), trifluoroacetic acid (TFA), pentafluoropropionic acid (PFPA), and heptafluorobutyric acid (HFBA)). The test mixture consisted of eleven compounds (bunitrolol, caffeine, cocaine, codeine, diazepam, doxepin, haloperidol, 3,4-methylendioxyamphetamine, morphine, nicotine, and zolpidem). Best chromatographic performance was obtained with the perfluorinated acids. Particularly, 0.010-0.050% HFBA (v/v) was found to represent a good compromise in terms of chromatographic performance and mass spectrometric detection sensitivity. Compared to HOAc, on average a 50% reduction of the peak widths was observed. The use of HFBA was particularly advantageous for polar compounds such as nicotine; only with such a hydrophobic ion-pairing reagent chromatographic retention of nicotine was observed. Best mass spectrometric performance was obtained with HOAc and FA. Loss of detection sensitivity induced by HFBA, however, was moderate and ranged from 0 to 40%, which clearly demonstrates that improved chromatographic performance is able to compensate to a large extent the negative effect of reduced ionization efficiency on detection sensitivity. Applications of μLC/MS for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of clinical and forensic toxicological samples are presented. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Estimating representative background PM2.5 concentration in heavily polluted areas using baseline separation technique and chemical mass balance model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Shuang; Yang, Wen; Zhang, Hui; Sun, Yanling; Mao, Jian; Ma, Zhenxing; Cong, Zhiyuan; Zhang, Xian; Tian, Shasha; Azzi, Merched; Chen, Li; Bai, Zhipeng

    2018-02-01

    The determination of background concentration of PM2.5 is important to understand the contribution of local emission sources to total PM2.5 concentration. The purpose of this study was to exam the performance of baseline separation techniques to estimate PM2.5 background concentration. Five separation methods, which included recursive digital filters (Lyne-Hollick, one-parameter algorithm, and Boughton two-parameter algorithm), sliding interval and smoothed minima, were applied to one-year PM2.5 time-series data in two heavily polluted cities, Tianjin and Jinan. To obtain the proper filter parameters and recession constants for the separation techniques, we conducted regression analysis at a background site during the emission reduction period enforced by the Government for the 2014 Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) meeting in Beijing. Background concentrations in Tianjin and Jinan were then estimated by applying the determined filter parameters and recession constants. The chemical mass balance (CMB) model was also applied to ascertain the effectiveness of the new approach. Our results showed that the contribution of background PM concentration to ambient pollution was at a comparable level to the contribution obtained from the previous study. The best performance was achieved using the Boughton two-parameter algorithm. The background concentrations were estimated at (27 ± 2) μg/m3 for the whole year, (34 ± 4) μg/m3 for the heating period (winter), (21 ± 2) μg/m3 for the non-heating period (summer), and (25 ± 2) μg/m3 for the sandstorm period in Tianjin. The corresponding values in Jinan were (30 ± 3) μg/m3, (40 ± 4) μg/m3, (24 ± 5) μg/m3, and (26 ± 2) μg/m3, respectively. The study revealed that these baseline separation techniques are valid for estimating levels of PM2.5 air pollution, and that our proposed method has great potential for estimating the background level of other air pollutants.

  15. Simultaneous determination of macronutrients, micronutrients and trace elements in mineral fertilizers by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira Souza, Sidnei de [Laboratório de Química Analítica Ambiental (LQA), Departamento de Química, Centro de Ciências Exatas e Tecnologia, Universidade Federal de Sergipe (UFS), 49100-000, São Cristovão, SE (Brazil); Silvério Lopes da Costa, Silvânio [Laboratório de Química Analítica Ambiental (LQA), Departamento de Química, Centro de Ciências Exatas e Tecnologia, Universidade Federal de Sergipe (UFS), 49100-000, São Cristovão, SE (Brazil); Coordenação de Química, Universidade Federal de Alagoas (UFAL), Campus Arapiraca, 57309-005, Arapiraca, AL (Brazil); Santos, Dayane Melo; Santos Pinto, Jéssica dos; Garcia, Carlos Alexandre Borges [Laboratório de Química Analítica Ambiental (LQA), Departamento de Química, Centro de Ciências Exatas e Tecnologia, Universidade Federal de Sergipe (UFS), 49100-000, São Cristovão, SE (Brazil); and others

    2014-06-01

    An analytical method for simultaneous determination of macronutrients (Ca, Mg, Na and P), micronutrients (Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn) and trace elements (Al, As, Cd, Pb and V) in mineral fertilizers was optimized. Two-level full factorial design was applied to evaluate the optimal proportions of reagents used in the sample digestion on hot plate. A Doehlert design for two variables was used to evaluate the operating conditions of the inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer in order to accomplish the simultaneous determination of the analyte concentrations. The limits of quantification (LOQs) ranged from 2.0 mg kg{sup −1} for Mn to 77.3 mg kg{sup −1} for P. The accuracy and precision of the proposed method were evaluated by analysis of standard reference materials (SRMs) of Western phosphate rock (NIST 694), Florida phosphate rock (NIST 120C) and Trace elements in multi-nutrient fertilizer (NIST 695), considered to be adequate for simultaneous determination. Twenty-one samples of mineral fertilizers collected in Sergipe State, Brazil, were analyzed. For all samples, the As, Ca, Cd and Pb concentrations were below the LOQ values of the analytical method. For As, Cd and Pb the obtained LOQ values were below the maximum limit allowed by the Brazilian Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Food Supply (Ministério da Agricultura, Pecuária e Abastecimento — MAPA). The optimized method presented good accuracy and was effectively applied to quantitative simultaneous determination of the analytes in mineral fertilizers by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP OES). - Highlights: • Determination of inorganic constituents in mineral fertilizers was proposed. • Experimental design methodology was used to optimize analytical method. • The sample preparation procedure using diluted reagents (HNO{sub 3} and H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) was employed. • The analytical method was satisfactorily to the determination of thirteen elements. • The

  16. Application of factorial designs and Doehlert matrix in optimization of experimental variables associated with the preconcentration and determination of vanadium and copper in seawater by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, Sergio L.C.; Queiroz, Adriana S.; Fernandes, Marcelo S.; Santos, Hilda C. dos

    2002-01-01

    In the present paper a procedure for preconcentration and determination of vanadium and copper in seawater using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP OES) is proposed, which is based on solid-phase extraction of vanadium (IV), vanadium (V) and copper (II) ions as 1-(2-pyridylazo)-2-naphthol (PAN) complexes by active carbon. The optimization process was carried out using two-level full factorials and Doehlert matrix designs. Four variables (PAN mass, pH, active carbon mass and shaking time) were regarded as factors in the optimization. Results of the two-level full factorial design 2 4 with 16 runs for vanadium extraction, based on the variance analysis (ANOVA), demonstrated that the factors pH and active carbon mass, besides the interaction (pHxactive carbon mass), are statistically significant. For copper, the ANOVA revealed that the factors PAN mass, pH and active carbon mass and the interactions (PAN massxpH) and (pHxactive carbon mass) are statistically significant. Doehlert designs were applied in order to determine the optimum conditions for extraction. The procedure proposed allowed the determination of vanadium and copper with detection limits (3σ/S) of 73 and 94 ng l -1 , respectively. The precision, calculated as relative standard deviation (R.S.D.), was 1.22 and 1.37% for 12.50 μg l -1 of vanadium and copper, respectively. The preconcentration factor was 80. The recovery achieved for determination of vanadium and copper in the presence of several cations demonstrated that this procedure improved the selectivity required for seawater analysis. The procedure was applied to the determination of vanadium and copper in seawater samples collected in Salvador City, Brazil. Results showed good agreement with other data reported in the literature

  17. Simultaneous preconcentration of copper, zinc, cadmium, and nickel in water samples by cloud point extraction using 4-(2-pyridylazo)-resorcinol and their determination by inductively coupled plasma optic emission spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Edson Luiz; Santos Roldan, Paulo dos; Gine, Maria Fernanda

    2009-01-01

    A procedure for simultaneous separation/preconcentration of copper, zinc, cadmium, and nickel in water samples, based on cloud point extraction (CPE) as a prior step to their determination by inductively coupled plasma optic emission spectrometry (ICP-OES), has been developed. The analytes reacted with 4-(2-pyridylazo)-resorcinol (PAR) at pH 5 to form hydrophobic chelates, which were separated and preconcentrated in a surfactant-rich phase of octylphenoxypolyethoxyethanol (Triton X-114). The parameters affecting the extraction efficiency of the proposed method, such as sample pH, complexing agent concentration, buffer amount, surfactant concentration, temperature, kinetics of complexation reaction, and incubation time were optimized and their respective values were 5, 0.6 mmol L -1 , 0.3 mL, 0.15% (w/v), 50 deg. C, 40 min, and 10 min for 15 mL of preconcentrated solution. The method presented precision (R.S.D.) between 1.3% and 2.6% (n = 9). The concentration factors with and without dilution of the surfactant-rich phase for the analytes ranged from 9.4 to 10.1 and from 94.0 to 100.1, respectively. The limits of detection (L.O.D.) obtained for copper, zinc, cadmium, and nickel were 1.2, 1.1, 1.0, and 6.3 μg L -1 , respectively. The accuracy of the procedure was evaluated through recovery experiments on aqueous samples.

  18. The non-Newtonian heat and mass transport of He 2 in porous media used for vapor-liquid phase separation. Ph.D. Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, S. W. K.

    1985-01-01

    This investigation of vapor-liquid phase separation (VLPS) of He 2 is related to long-term storage of cryogenic liquid. The VLPS system utilizes porous plugs in order to generate thermomechanical (thermo-osmotic) force which in turn prevents liquid from flowing out of the cryo-vessel (e.g., Infrared Astronomical Satellite). An apparatus was built and VLPS data were collected for a 2 and a 10 micrometer sintered stainless steel plug and a 5 to 15 micrometer sintered bronze plug. The VLPS data obtained at high temperature were in the nonlinear turbulent regime. At low temperature, the Stokes regime was approached. A turbulent flow model was developed, which provides a phenomenological description of the VLPS data. According to the model, most of the phase separation data are in the turbulent regime. The model is based on concepts of the Gorter-Mellink transport involving the mutual friction known from the zero net mass flow (ZNMF) studies. The latter had to be modified to obtain agreement with the present experimental VLPS evidence. In contrast to the well-known ZNMF mode, the VLPS results require a geometry dependent constant (Gorter-Mellink constant). A theoretical interpretation of the phenomenological equation for the VLPS data obtained, is based on modelling of the dynamics of quantized vortices proposed by Vinen. In extending Vinen's model to the VLPS transport of He 2 in porous media, a correlation between the K*(GM) and K(p) was obtained which permits an interpretation of the present findings. As K(p) is crucial, various methods were introduced to measure the permeability of the porous media at low temperatures. Good agreement was found between the room temperature and the low temperature K(p)-value of the plugs.

  19. On-line preconcentration and determination of chromium in parenteral solutions by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gil, R.A.; Cerutti, S.; Gasquez, J.A.; Olsina, R.A.; Martinez, L.D.

    2005-01-01

    A method for the preconcentration and speciation of chromium was developed. On-line preconcentration and determination were obtained using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) coupled with flow injection. To determinate the chromium (III) present in parenteral solutions, chromium was retained on activated carbon at pH 5.0. On the other hand, a step of reduction was necessary in order to determine total chromium content. The Cr(VI) concentration was then determined by difference between the total chromium concentration and that of Cr(III). A sensitivity enrichment factor of 70-fold was obtained with respect to the chromium determination by ICP-OES without preconcentration. The detection limit for the preconcentration of 25 ml of sample was 29 ng l -1 . The precision for the 10 replicate determinations at the 5 μg l -1 Cr level was 2.3% relative standard deviation, calculated with the peak heights. The calibration graph using the preconcentration method for chromium species was linear with a correlation coefficient of 0.9995 at levels near the detection limits up to at least 60 μg l -1 . The method can be applied to the determination and speciation of chromium in parenteral solutions

  20. Possibilities of High Resolution Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometry in the Determination of Trace Elements in Environmental Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaya Velitchkova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents new quantitative data for the spectral interferences obtained by high resolution 40.68 MHz radial viewing inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (HR-ICP-OES in the determination of Zn, Cd, Sb, Cu, Mn, Pb, Sn, Cr, U, and Ba in environmental materials in the presence of a complex matrix, containing Al, Ca, Fe, Mg, and Ti. The -concept for quantification of spectral interferences was used. The optimum line selection for trace analysis of a variety of multicomponent matrices requires the choice of prominent lines, which are free or negligibly influenced by line interference problems. The versatility of -concept as basic methodology was experimentally demonstrated in the determination of trace of elements in soil and drinking water. The detection limits are lower in comparison with corresponding threshold concentration levels for soil and drinking water in accordance with environmental regulations. This paper shows the possibilities of present day ICP-OES equipment in the direct determination of trace elements (without preconcentration of impurities in environmental samples.

  1. On-line system for preconcentration and determination of metals in vegetables by Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bezerra, Marcos A.; Santos, Walter N.L. dos; Lemos, Valfredo A.; Korn, Maria das Gracas A.; Ferreira, Sergio L.C.

    2007-01-01

    A procedure has been developed for the simultaneous determination of trace amounts of cadmium, copper, chromium, nickel and lead in digested vegetable samples. The method involves solid-phase extraction of the metals using a minicolumn of Amberlite XAD-4 modified with dihydroxybenzoic acid (DHB) and detection by Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometry (ICP-OES). The elution of the metals from minicolumn was performed with 1.0 mol L -1 hydrochloric acid. Variables associated with flow preconcentration system performance, such as pH, buffer concentration, eluent concentration and sampling flow rate, were optimized. The developed procedure provides enrichment factors of 100, 72, 16, 91 and 53, for cadmium, copper, chromium, nickel and lead, respectively. Detection limits (3σ B ) were 0.02 (Cd), 0.23 (Cu), 0.58 (Cr), 0.060 (Ni) and 0.54 (Pb) μg L -1 . The procedure was applied for determination of metals in samples of guarana and cabbage. The accuracy of the method was checked by the analysis of a certified reference material (NIST 1571, Orchard leaves). Results found were in agreement with certified values

  2. A supersonic jet target for the cross section measurement of the 12C(α, γ)16O reaction with the recoil mass separator ERNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapagnani, D.; Buompane, R.; Di Leva, A.; Gialanella, L.; Busso, M.; De Cesare, M.; De Stefano, G.; Duarte, J. G.; Gasques, L. R.; Morales Gallegos, L.; Palmerini, S.; Romoli, M.; Tufariello, F.

    2017-09-01

    12C(α, γ)16O cross section plays a key-role in the stellar evolution and nucleosynthesis of massive stars. Hence, it must be determined with the precision of about 10% at the relevant Gamow energy of 300 keV. The ERNA (European Recoil mass separator for Nuclear Astrophysics) collaboration measured, for the first time, the total cross section of 12C(α, γ)16O by means of the direct detection of the 16O ions produced in the reaction down to an energy of Ecm = 1.9 MeV. To extend the measurement at lower energy, it is necessary to limit the extension of the He gas target. This can be achieved using a supersonic jet, where the oblique shock waves and expansion fans formed at its boundaries confine the gas, which can be efficiently collected using a catcher. A test version of such a system has been designed, constructed and experimentally characterized as a bench mark for a full numerical simulation using FV (Finite Volume) methods. The results of the commissioning of the jet test version and the design of the new system that will be used in combination with ERNA are presented and discussed.

  3. Reprint of: A supersonic jet target for the cross section measurement of the 12C(α, γ)16O reaction with the recoil mass separator ERNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapagnani, D.; Buompane, R.; Di Leva, A.; Gialanella, L.; Busso, M.; De Cesare, M.; De Stefano, G.; Duarte, J. G.; Gasques, L. R.; Morales Gallegos, L.; Palmerini, S.; Romoli, M.; Tufariello, F.

    2018-01-01

    12C(α, γ)16O cross section plays a key-role in the stellar evolution and nucleosynthesis of massive stars. Hence, it must be determined with the precision of about 10% at the relevant Gamow energy of 300 keV. The ERNA (European Recoil mass separator for Nuclear Astrophysics) collaboration measured, for the first time, the total cross section of 12C(α, γ)16O by means of the direct detection of the 16O ions produced in the reaction down to an energy of Ecm = 1.9 MeV. To extend the measurement at lower energy, it is necessary to limit the extension of the He gas target. This can be achieved using a supersonic jet, where the oblique shock waves and expansion fans formed at its boundaries confine the gas, which can be efficiently collected using a catcher. A test version of such a system has been designed, constructed and experimentally characterized as a bench mark for a full numerical simulation using FV (Finite Volume) methods. The results of the commissioning of the jet test version and the design of the new system that will be used in combination with ERNA are presented and discussed.

  4. Investigation of natural phosphatidylcholine sources: separation and identification by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS2) of molecular species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Grandois, Julie; Marchioni, Eric; Zhao, Minjie; Giuffrida, Francesca; Ennahar, Saïd; Bindler, Françoise

    2009-07-22

    This study is a contribution to the exploration of natural phospholipid (PL) sources rich in long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs) with nutritional interest. Phosphatidylcholines (PCs) were purified from total lipid extracts of different food matrices, and their molecular species were separated and identified by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS(2)). Fragmentation of lithiated adducts allowed for the identification of fatty acids linked to the glycerol backbone. Soy PC was particularly rich in species containing essential fatty acids, such as (18:2-18:2)PC (34.0%), (16:0-18:2)PC (20.8%), and (18:1-18:2)PC (16.3%). PC from animal sources (ox liver and egg yolk) contained major molecular species, such as (16:0-18:2)PC, (16:0-18:1)PC, (18:0-18:2)PC, or (18:0-18:1)PC. Finally, marine source (krill oil), which was particularly rich in (16:0-20:5)PC and (16:0-22:6)PC, appeared to be an interesting potential source for food supplementation with LC-PUFA-PLs, particularly eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA).

  5. Macro- and micro-element analysis in milk samples by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Sanja M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the determination of Ag, Al, B, Ba, Bi, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ga, In, K, Li, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, Pb, Sr, Tl and Zn, as well as total fat content of milk samples, originated from different sources. The analyzed milk samples were: human milk, fresh cow milk, pasteurized cow milk from a local market, and reconstituted powder milk. The milk samples were obtained from Jablanica District (Serbia territory. Preparation of samples for macro- and micro-analyses was done by wet digestion. Concentrations of the elements after digestion were determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES. Total fat content of milk samples was determinate by the Weibull and Stoldt method. The results showed that potassium and calcium concentrations were the highest in all samples: 1840.64 - 2993.26 mg/L and 456.05 - 1318.08 mg/L, respectively. Of all heavy metals from the examined milk samples (copper, zinc, manganese, nickel, cadmium, and lead, the most common were zinc and copper, with approximately similar content in the range of 5 - 12 mg/l, while cadmium nickel and manganese were not detected at all. Samples of fresh cow milk and human milk showed the highest fat content of 3.6 and 4.2 %, respectively. Results for total fat and macro- and micro-analyses showed that fresh cow milk has the highest contents of fat and calcium, making it the most nutritious. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 34012

  6. Development of a direct hydride generation nebulizer for the determination of selenium by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrion, Nereida; Murillo, Miguel; Montiel, Edie; Diaz, Dorfe

    2003-01-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the performance of a new direct hydride generation nebulizer system for determination of hydride forming elements by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy. This system was designed and optimized to obtain the highest sensitivity. Several experimental designs were used for these purposes. To optimize the individual parameters of the system, and to study the interaction between these parameters for both direct hydride generation nebulizers, a central composite orthogonal design with eight factors was set up. Significant behavioral differences were observed in the two direct hydride generation nebulizers studied. Finally, a 70 μm gas orifice nebulizer exhibits a better detection limit than the 120 μm nebulizer. Generally, for determination of selenium, this new direct hydride generation nebulizer system exhibits a linear dynamic range and detection limit (3σb) of 3 orders of magnitude and 0.2 μg l -1 for selenium, respectively. This new hydride generator is much simpler system that conventional hydride generation systems, which does not need to be changed to work in normal mode with the inductively coupled plasma, since this system may be used for hydride forming elements and those that do not form them. It produces a rapid response with low memory effect. It reduces the interference level of Ni, Co and Cu to 600, 500 and 5 mg l -1 , respectively. The accuracy of the system was verified by the determination of selenium in several standard reference materials of ambient, food and clinical sample matrices. No statistically significant differences (95 confidence level) were obtained between our method and the reference values

  7. Direct multielement trace analyses of silicon carbide powders by spark ablation simultaneous inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiera, Arne F.; Schmidt-Lehr, Sebastian; Song, Ming; Bings, Nicolas H.; Broekaert, Jose A.C.

    2008-01-01

    A procedure for the direct analysis of silicon carbide powders (SiC) by simultaneous detection inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry using a Spectro-CIROS TM spectrometer (CCD-ICP-OES) and a novel spark ablation system Spectro-SASSy (SA) as sample introduction technique is described. The sample preparation procedure for SA of non-conducting material is based on mixing the sample powders with a conducting matrix, in this case copper and briquetting pellets. Pressing time, pressure and mixing ratio are shown to be important parameters of the pelleting technique with respect to their mechanical stability for the reliability of the analysis results. A mixing ratio of 0.2 g +0.6 g for SiC and Cu, a pressure of 10 t cm -2 and a pressing time of 8 min have been found optimum. It has also been shown that the spark parameters selected are crucial for uniform volatilization. Electron probe micrographs of the burning spots and the analytical signal magnitude showed that a rather hard spark at 100 Hz was optimum. The determination of trace elements in silicon carbide powders is demonstrated using a calibration based on the addition of standard solutions. For Al, Ti, V, Mn and Fe detection limits in the lower μg g -1 range can be achieved. Internal standardization with Y in combination with the addition of standard solutions allows relative standard deviations in the range of 4 to 24% for concentration levels of the order of 3 to 350 μg g -1

  8. Direct multielement trace analyses of silicon carbide powders by spark ablation simultaneous inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiera, Arne F.; Schmidt-Lehr, Sebastian; Song, Ming [Institute for Inorganic and Applied Chemistry, University of Hamburg, Martin-Luther-King-Platz 6, D-20146 Hamburg (Germany); Bings, Nicolas H. [Institute for Inorganic and Applied Chemistry, University of Hamburg, Martin-Luther-King-Platz 6, D-20146 Hamburg (Germany)], E-mail: bings@chemie.uni-hamburg.de; Broekaert, Jose A.C. [Institute for Inorganic and Applied Chemistry, University of Hamburg, Martin-Luther-King-Platz 6, D-20146 Hamburg (Germany)

    2008-02-15

    A procedure for the direct analysis of silicon carbide powders (SiC) by simultaneous detection inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry using a Spectro-CIROS{sup TM} spectrometer (CCD-ICP-OES) and a novel spark ablation system Spectro-SASSy (SA) as sample introduction technique is described. The sample preparation procedure for SA of non-conducting material is based on mixing the sample powders with a conducting matrix, in this case copper and briquetting pellets. Pressing time, pressure and mixing ratio are shown to be important parameters of the pelleting technique with respect to their mechanical stability for the reliability of the analysis results. A mixing ratio of 0.2 g +0.6 g for SiC and Cu, a pressure of 10 t cm{sup -2} and a pressing time of 8 min have been found optimum. It has also been shown that the spark parameters selected are crucial for uniform volatilization. Electron probe micrographs of the burning spots and the analytical signal magnitude showed that a rather hard spark at 100 Hz was optimum. The determination of trace elements in silicon carbide powders is demonstrated using a calibration based on the addition of standard solutions. For Al, Ti, V, Mn and Fe detection limits in the lower {mu}g g{sup -1} range can be achieved. Internal standardization with Y in combination with the addition of standard solutions allows relative standard deviations in the range of 4 to 24% for concentration levels of the order of 3 to 350 {mu}g g{sup -1}.

  9. A Geochemical Mass-Balance Method for Base-Flow Separation, Upper Hillsborough River Watershed, West-Central Florida, 2003-2005 and 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kish, G.R.; Stringer, C.E.; Stewart, M.T.; Rains, M.C.; Torres, A.E.

    2010-01-01

    Geochemical mass-balance (GMB) and conductivity mass-balance (CMB) methods for hydrograph separation were used to determine the contribution of base flow to total stormflow at two sites in the upper Hillsborough River watershed in west-central Florida from 2003-2005 and at one site in 2009. The chemical and isotopic composition of streamflow and precipitation was measured during selected local and frontal low- and high-intensity storm events and compared to the geochemical and isotopic composition of groundwater. Input for the GMB method included cation, anion, and stable isotope concentrations of surface water and groundwater, whereas input for the CMB method included continuous or point-sample measurement of specific conductance. The surface water is a calcium-bicarbonate type water, which closely resembles groundwater geochemically, indicating that much of the surface water in the upper Hillsborough River basin is derived from local groundwater discharge. This discharge into the Hillsborough River at State Road 39 and at Hillsborough River State Park becomes diluted by precipitation and runoff during the wet season, but retains the calcium-bicarbonate characteristics of Upper Floridan aquifer water. Field conditions limited the application of the GMB method to low-intensity storms but the CMB method was applied to both low-intensity and high-intensity storms. The average contribution of base flow to total discharge for all storms ranged from 31 to 100 percent, whereas the contribution of base flow to total discharge during peak discharge periods ranged from less than 10 percent to 100 percent. Although calcium, magnesium, and silica were consistent markers of Upper Floridan aquifer chemistry, their use in calculating base flow by the GMB method was limited because the frequency of point data collected in this study was not sufficient to capture the complete hydrograph from pre-event base-flow to post-event base-flow concentrations. In this study, pre-event water

  10. A mini-scale mass production and separation system for secretory heterologous proteins by perfusion culture of recombinant Pichia pastoris using a shaken ceramic membrane flask.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohashi, R; Mochizuki, E; Suzuki, T

    1999-01-01

    The perfusion culture technique using a shaken ceramic membrane flask (SCM flask) was applied to the production of a secretory heterologous protein. A recombinant methylotrophic yeast strain, Pichia pastoris, was cultured aerobically on a reciprocal shaker using an SCM flask. High-level production of human serum albumin (HSA) was attempted by increasing both the cell concentration and the expression level of the recombinant gene. In the two-stage culture method, the cell concentration was first raised to 17 g/l by feeding glycerol, after which the expression of HSA was induced by feeding methanol. However, the concentration of HSA in the effluent filtrate was as low as 0.15 g/l, while the cell concentration continued to increase. In contrast, HSA was effectively produced by feeding methanol from an early stage of the culture. In this case, the HSA concentration reached 0.24 and 0.46 g/l, respectively, using the growth-associated production method without and with aeration into the head space of the SCM flask. The results showed that supplying sufficient oxygen together with the growth-associated induction method are effective for obtaining high-level expression of the methanol-inducible recombinant gene of P. pastoris. An HSA concentration in the filtrate of 1.5 g/l was finally achieved when the cell concentration was increased to 53 g/l by supplying oxygen-enriched gas to the SCM flask. The yield and productivity of HSA reached 2.6-fold and 10-fold those obtained in an ordinary fed-batch culture using a shake flask, and these levels were readily achieved by continuous replenishment of the culture supernatant. The achievements made in this study should contribute to the development of a handy bioreactor system for mini-scale mass production of target proteins with separation at high purity.

  11. Laser-ablation electrospray ionization mass spectrometry with ion mobility separation reveals metabolites in the symbiotic interactions of soybean roots and rhizobia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stopka, Sylwia A.; Agtuca, Beverly J.; Koppenaal, David W.; Pasa Tolic, Ljiljana; Stacey, Gary; Vertes, Akos; Anderton, Christopher R.

    2017-05-23

    Technologies enabling in situ metabolic profiling of living plant systems are invaluable for understanding physiological processes and could be used for rapid phenotypic screening (e.g., to produce plants with superior biological nitrogen fixing ability). The symbiotic interaction between legumes and nitrogen-fixing soil bacteria results in a specialized plant organ (i.e., root nodule), where the exchange of nutrients between host and endosymbiont occurs. Laser ablation electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (LAESI-MS) is a method that can be performed under ambient conditions requiring minimal sample preparation. Here, we employed LAESI-MS to explore the well-characterized symbiosis between soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) and its compatible symbiont, Bradyrhizobium japonicum. The utilization of ion mobility separation (IMS) improved the molecular coverage, selectivity, and identification of the detected biomolecules. Specifically, incorporation of IMS resulted in an increase of 153 detected metabolites in the nodule samples. The data presented demonstrates the advantages of using LAESI-IMS-MS for the rapid analysis of intact root nodules, uninfected root segments, and free-living rhizobia. Untargeted pathway analysis revealed several metabolic processes within the nodule (e.g., zeatin, riboflavin, and purine synthesis). Compounds specific to the uninfected root and bacteria were also detected. Lastly, we performed depth-profiling of intact nodules to reveal the location of metabolites to the cortex and inside the infected region, and lateral profiling of sectioned nodules confirmed these molecular distributions. Our results established the feasibility of LAESI-IMS-MS for the analysis and spatial mapping of plant tissues, with its specific demonstration to improve our understanding of the soybean-rhizobial symbiosis.

  12. Decay of mass-separated 3.0min 195gBi to levels in 195Pb and shape coexistence in the neutron-deficient odd-mass Pb isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffin, J.C.; Braga, R.A.; Fink, R.W.; Bingham, C.R.; Coenen, E.; Huyse, M.; Duppen, P. van

    1991-01-01

    The radioactive decay of mass-separated 3.0 m 195g Bi to 195 Pb has been studied with the UNISOR and LISOL facilities. Time-sequenced spectra of γ-rays, X-rays, and conversion electrons have been obtained, together with γγt, γXt, eγt, and eXt coincidence data. From this information, a decay scheme has been constructed consisting of 23 excited states and 34 transitions in 195 Pb. Transitions with E0 multipole admixtures, indicative of shape coexistence, have been found to de-excite positive-parity levels at 1093, 1329, and 1380 keV. The beta-decay energy of the 195 Bi ground state is deduced to be Q EC =4800 +600 -550 keV based on the measurement of γ-ray-gated K/β + ratios. The excitation energy of the i 13/2 isomer in 195 Pb has been determined to be 203±4 keV from the α-decays of 199m,g Po. (orig.)

  13. Determination of As, Cr, Mo, Sb, Se and V in agricultural soil samples by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry after simple and rapid solvent extraction using choline chloride-oxalic acid deep eutectic solvent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matong, Joseph M; Nyaba, Luthando; Nomngongo, Philiswa N

    2017-01-01

    A rapid, simple and green ultrasound-assisted extraction method using deep eutectic solvents (DES) for extraction of As, Cr, Mo, Sb, Se and V in soil samples, has been developed. Choline chloride-oxalic acid based DES was used as a solvent. The target analytes were subsequently quantified using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer (ICP OES). The parameters that affect the extraction of the target analytes was optimized using standard reference material of San Joaquin soil (SRM 2709a). In the optimization step, a two-level full factorial experimental design was used. The factors under investigation include extraction time, sample mass and acid concentration. Under optimized conditions, limits of detection (LOD) and limits of quantification (LOQ) ranged from 0.009 to 0.1 and 0.03-0.3µgg -1 , respectively. The repeatability (n=20) estimated in terms of relative standard deviation (%RSD) ranged from 0.9% to 3.7%. The accuracy of the proposed method was carried out using SRM 2709a. The obtained and certified/ indicative values were statistically in good agreement at 95% confidence level. The proposed method applied for quantification of As, Cr, Mo, Sb, Se and V in real soil samples. For comparison, the analytes of interest were also determined using a conventional acid digestion method. According to the paired t-test, the analytical results were not significant differences at 95% confidence level. The method was found to be accurate, precise and environmentally friendly. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Comprehensive lipidomic analysis of human plasma using multidimensional liquid- and gas-phase separations: Two-dimensional liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry vs. liquid chromatography-trapped-ion-mobility-mass spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baglai, A.; Gargano, A.F.G.; Jordens, J.; Mengerink, Y.; Honing, M.; van der Wal, S.; Schoenmakers, P.J.

    2017-01-01

    Recent advancements in separation science have resulted in the commercialization of multidimensional separation systems that provide higher peak capacities and, hence, enable a more-detailed characterization of complex mixtures. In particular, two powerful analytical tools are increasingly used by

  15. Comprehensive lipidomic analysis of human plasma using multidimensional liquid- and gas-phase separations : Two-dimensional liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry vs. liquid chromatography–trapped-ion-mobility–mass spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baglai, Anna; Gargano, Andrea F.G.; Jordens, Jan; Mengerink, Ynze; Honing, Maarten; van der Wal, Sjoerd; Schoenmakers, Peter J.

    2017-01-01

    Recent advancements in separation science have resulted in the commercialization of multidimensional separation systems that provide higher peak capacities and, hence, enable a more-detailed characterization of complex mixtures. In particular, two powerful analytical tools are increasingly used by

  16. Comprehensive two-dimensional liquid chromatography: Ion chromatography × reversed-phase liquid chromatography for separation of low-molar-mass organic acids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brudin, S.S.; Shellie, R.A.; Haddad, P.R.; Schoenmakers, P.J.

    2010-01-01

    In the work presented here a novel approach to comprehensive two-dimensional liquid chromatography is evaluated. Ion chromatography is chosen for the first-dimension separation and reversed-phase liquid chromatography is chosen for the second-dimension separation mode. The coupling of these modes is

  17. Investigation of spectral interference effects on determination of uranium concentration in phosphate ore by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bachari, Ayoob H.; Jalali, Fatemeh; Alahyarizadeh, Ghasem [Tehran Univ. (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Engineering Dept.

    2017-04-01

    Effects of spectral interferences on determination of the uranium concentration in phosphate ore were investigated by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES). Eleven high intensity emission lines including four lines recommended by ICP-OES apparatus were chosen to determine the uranium concentration. The ore samples were collected from phosphate acid producing industry in the south of Iran. Three different acid combinations [(HNO{sub 3}:HCl:HF-2:6:2), (H{sub 3}PO{sub 4}:H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}:HF-3:3:3), (HNO{sub 3}:H{sub 2}O{sub 2}:HF-4:2:2)] used in microwave digestion method to explore the spectral interference effects in different solvent environments. The results showed that the trusty uranium concentration, obtained in the 367.007 nm, 386.592 nm, 389.036 nm and 409.014 nm by second acid digestion method which were 0.665 ppm, 0.972 ppm, 0.670 ppm and 0.801 ppm, respectively. Although the line of 409.014 nm was reported as the best line for determining of the uranium concentration in several literatures, the results showed that this line has a significant spectral interference with vanadium in some ores which should be considered in determining of the uranium concentration. Spectral interference effects of some elements which have high concentrations in the phosphate ore including Ca, Fe, Mg, Pb, V, Mn, and Ti on the line intensities were also investigated. Results indicated that the chosen elements affect emission intensities of all of 11 lines. They also indicated that the line of 409.014 nm provides a trusty precision in the determination of the uranium concentration in the ore sample with low vanadium concentration (at least, U/V ratio of 1:5). Results show that the line of 409.014 nm provides acceptable precision with some corrections in comparison with other selected lines. For instance in high concentrations of other elements including Fe and Ti in the ore samples, strong influences on the line intensities of the 367.007 nm (by Fe

  18. Determination of Micro minerals in Milk from Farm and Pasture-reared Cow, Goat and Camel; using Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectrometry

    OpenAIRE

    SirelkhatimBalla Elhardallou; Ashraf Yehia El-naggar

    2016-01-01

    This study covers raw fresh milk of cow, goat and camel (farm and pasture-reared),in addition to two brands of commercial milk samples, liquid milk of powder origin and drinking yoghurt samples. Camel milk showed a relatively lower pH range (6.15 - 6.46) compared cow, goat and commercial milk. The pH of drinking yoghurt was found (4.35 - 4.47).Microwave digestion, was selected followed by mineral analysis using Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectrometry. Micro minerals; Cd, Cr...

  19. Study of blood plasma optical properties in mice grafted with Ehrlich carcinoma in the frequency range 0.1-1.0 THz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolyanskaya, O. A.; Kravtsenyuk, O. V.; Panchenko, A. V.; Odlyanitskiy, E. L.; Guillet, J. P.; Cherkasova, O. P.; Khodzitsky, M. K.

    2017-12-01

    In the course of in vitro studies of blood of laboratory animals with progressing Ehrlich carcinoma, we have revealed the change of the blood plasma optical properties in the THz range, which can be used for developing the express diagnostics of the presence of oncological diseases. An applied software package is elaborated that allows the phantoms of biological samples having a complex structure to be numerically simulated and the parameters of the electromagnetic wave reflected from these samples in the THz frequency range to be calculated. Presented at the Fundamentals of Laser Micro- and Nanotechnologies (FLAMN-16) International Symposium (Pushkin, Leningrad oblast, 27 June to 1 July 2016).

  20. Rapid chemical separations

    CERN Document Server

    Trautmann, N

    1976-01-01

    A survey is given on the progress of fast chemical separation procedures during the last few years. Fast, discontinuous separation techniques are illustrated by a procedure for niobium. The use of such techniques for the chemical characterization of the heaviest known elements is described. Other rapid separation methods from aqueous solutions are summarized. The application of the high speed liquid chromatography to the separation of chemically similar elements is outlined. The use of the gas jet recoil transport method for nuclear reaction products and its combination with a continuous solvent extraction technique and with a thermochromatographic separation is presented. Different separation methods in the gas phase are briefly discussed and the attachment of a thermochromatographic technique to an on-line mass separator is shown. (45 refs).

  1. Determination of ultra-low level 129I in vegetation using pyrolysis for iodine separation and accelerator mass spectrometry measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hou, Xiaolin; Wang, Yanyun

    2016-01-01

    Radioactive isotopes of iodine are the most common radiological toxins from nuclear accidents due to their high release and high enrichment in human thyroid. Among the radioactive isotopes, long-lived 129I can not only be used for the estimation of the radioactive risk of short-lived radioactive...... and ultra-low concentration in normal environmental and biological samples, it is important to efficiently separate iodine from the sample matrix and sensitively measure 129I. However, the complicated chemical properties of iodine and high organic content in biological samples make efficient separation...... of iodine very difficult using conventional acid digestion and alkaline ashing methods. By optimizing the key parameters related to the separation of iodine by pyrolysis using a tube furnace, including carbonization temperature, heating protocol, combustion assisting gas, iodine volatilization process...

  2. A method for separating Antarctic postglacial rebound and ice mass balance using future ICESat Geoscience Laser Altimeter System, Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment, and GPS satellite data

    OpenAIRE

    Velicogna, Isabella; Wahr, John

    2002-01-01

    Measurements of ice elevation from the Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) aboard the Ice, Cloud, and Land Elevation Satellite can be combined with time-variable geoid measurements from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite mission to learn about ongoing changes in polar ice mass and viscoelastic rebound of the lithosphere under the ice sheet. We estimate the accuracy in recovering the spatially varying ice mass trend and postglacial rebound signals for Antarctica...

  3. Microfabrication, separations, and detection by mass spectrometry on ultrathin-layer chromatography plates prepared via the low-pressure chemical vapor deposition of silicon nitride onto carbon nanotube templates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanyal, Supriya S; Häbe, Tim T; Cushman, Cody V; Dhunna, Manan; Roychowdhury, Tuhin; Farnsworth, Paul B; Morlock, Gertrud E; Linford, Matthew R

    2015-07-24

    Microfabrication of ultrathin-layer chromatography (UTLC) plates via conformal deposition of silicon nitride by low-pressure chemical vapor deposition onto patterned carbon nanotube (CNT) scaffolds was demonstrated. After removal of the CNTs and hydroxylation, the resulting UTLC phase showed no expansion or distortion of their microfeatures and the absence/reduction of remaining nitrogenic species. Developing time of a mixture of lipophilic dyes on this UTLC plates was 86% shorter than on high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) plates. A water-soluble food dye mixture was also separated resulting in low band broadening and reduced developing time compared to HPTLC. For the latter example, mobile phase optimization on a single UTLC plate consisted of 14 developments with different mobile phases, each preceded by a plate prewashing step. The same plate was again reused for additional 11 separations under varying conditions resulting in a development procedure with a mean separation efficiency of 233,000theoretical plates/m and a reduced mobile phase consumption of only 400μL. This repeated use proved the physical robustness of the ultrathin layer and its resistance to damage. The layer was highly suited for hyphenation to ambient mass spectrometry, including desorption electrospray ionization (DESI) mass spectrometry imaging and direct analysis in real time (DART) mass spectrometry. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Bk and Cf chromatographic separation and 249Bk/248Cm and 249Cf/248Cm elemental ratios determination by inductively coupled plasma quadrupole mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gourgiotis, A.; Isnard, H.; Nonell, A.; Aubert, M.; Stadelmann, G.; Dupont, E.; AlMahamid, I.; Tiang, G.; Rao, L.; Lukens, W.; Cassette, P.; Panebianco, S.; Letourneau, A.; Chartier, F.

    2013-01-01

    The French Atomic Energy Commission has carried out several experiments for the study of minor-actinide transmutation processes in high intensity thermal neutron flux. In this context a Cm sample enriched in 248 Cm (97%) was irradiated in a thermal neutron flux at the High Flux Reactor (HFR) of the Laue-Langevin Institute (ILL). The precise and accurate determination of Cf isotope ratios and of 249 Bk/ 248 Cm and 249 Cf/ 248 Cm elemental ratios in the 248 Cm irradiated sample is crucial for the calculation of actinide neutron capture cross-sections.This work describes an analytical procedure for the separation and the isotope ratio measurement of Bk and Cf in the irradiated sample.The Bk and Cf separation is based on a lanthanides separation protocol previously developed by the laboratory. Well-defined retention times for Bk and Cf were obtained by coupling the Ionic Chromatography (IC) with an ICP-QMS. All conditions of element separation by IC and the different steps of the analytical protocol in order to obtain the isotopic and elemental ratios are presented. Relative uncertainties of Cf isotopic ratios range from 0.3% to 0.5% and the uncertainty of the 249 Bk/ 248 Cm and 249 Cf/ 248 Cm elemental ratios are respectively 6.1% and 3.2%.This level of uncertainty for both isotopic and elemental ratios is in perfect agreement with the requirement for transmutation studies. (authors)

  5. A separator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prokopyuk, S.G.; Dyachenko, A.Ye.; Mukhametov, M.N.; Prokopov, O.I.

    1982-01-01

    A separator is proposed which contains separating slanted plates and baffle plates installed at a distance to them at an acute angle to them. To increase the effectiveness of separating a gas and liquid stream and the throughput through reducing the secondary carry away of the liquid drops and to reduce the hydraulic resistance, as well, openings are made in the plates. The horizontal projections of each opening from the lower and upper surfaces of the plate do not overlap each other.

  6. An evaluation of a single-step extraction chromatography separation method for Sm-Nd isotope analysis of micro-samples of silicate rocks by high-sensitivity thermal ionization mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Chaofeng; Li Xianhua; Li Qiuli; Guo Jinghui; Li Xianghui; Liu Tao

    2011-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Distribution curve of all eluting fractions for a BCR-2 (1-2-3.5-7 mg) on LN column using HCl and HF as eluting reagent. Highlights: → This analytical protocol affords a simple and rapid analysis for Sm and Nd isotope in minor rock samples. → The single-step separation method exhibits satisfactory separation effect for complex silicate samples. → Corrected 143 Nd/ 144 Nd data show excellent accuracy even if the 140 Ce 16 O + / 144 Nd 16 O + ratio reached to 0.03. - Abstract: A single-step separation scheme is presented for Sm-Nd radiogenic isotope system on very small samples (1-3 mg) of silicate rock. This method is based on Eichrom LN Spec chromatographic material and affords a straightforward separation of Sm-Nd from complex matrix with good purity and satisfactory blank levels, suitable for thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS). This technique, characterized by high efficiency (single-step Sm-Nd separation) and high sensitivity (TIMS on NdO + ion beam), is able to process rapidly (3-4 h), with low procedure blanks ( 143 Nd/ 144 Nd ratios and Sm-Nd concentrations are presented for eleven international silicate rock reference materials, spanning a wide range of Sm-Nd contents and bulk compositions. The analytical results show a good agreement with recommended values within ±0.004% for the 143 Nd/ 144 Nd isotopic ratio and ±2% for Sm-Nd quantification at the 95% confidence level. It is noted that the uncertainty of this method is about 3 times larger than typical precision achievable with two-stage full separation followed by state-of-the-art conventional TIMS using Nd + ion beams which require much larger amounts of Nd. Hence, our single-step separation followed by NdO + ion beam technique is preferred to the analysis for microsamples.

  7. Application of a particle separation device to reduce inductively coupled plasma-enhanced elemental fractionation in laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillong, Marcel; Kuhn, Hans-Rudolf; Guenther, Detlef

    2003-01-01

    The particle size distribution of laser ablation aerosols are a function of the wavelength, the energy density and the pulse duration of the laser, as well as the sample matrix and the gas environment. Further the size of the particles affects the vaporization and ionization efficiency in the inductively coupled plasma (ICP). Some matrices produce large particles, which are not completely vaporized and ionized in the ICP. The previous work has shown that analytical results such as matrix-independent calibration, accuracy and precision can be significantly influenced by the particle sizes of the particles. To minimize the particle size related incomplete conversion of the sample to ions in the ICP a particle separation device was developed, which allows effective particle separation using centrifugal forces in a thin coiled tube. In this device, the particle cut-off size is varied by changing the number of turns in the coil, as well as by changing the gas flow and the tube diameter. The interaction of the laser with the different samples leads to varying particle size distributions. When carrying out quantitative analysis with non-matrix matched calibration reference materials, it was shown that different particle cut-off sizes were required depending on the ICP conditions and the instrument used for analysis. Various sample materials were investigated in this study to demonstrate the applicability of the device. For silicate matrices, the capability of the ICP to produce ions was significantly reduced for particles larger than 0.5 μm, and was dependent on the element monitored. To reduce memory effects caused by the separated particles, a washout procedure was developed, which additionally allowed the analysis of the trapped particles. These results clearly demonstrate the very important particle size dependent ICP-MS signal response and the potential of the described particle size based separator for the reduction of ICP induced elemental fractionation

  8. The Use of Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry with High Performance Liquid Chromatography and Other Separation Techniques for Identification of Triacylglycerols

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Řezanka, Tomáš; Sigler, Karel

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 3, - (2007), s. 252-271 ISSN 1573-4110 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/06/0219 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : triacylglycerols * atmospheric presssure chemical ionization * mass spectrometry Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 1.815, year: 2007

  9. Isotope separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eerkens, J.W.

    1979-01-01

    A method of isotope separation is described which involves the use of a laser photon beam to selectively induce energy level transitions of an isotope molecule containing the isotope to be separated. The use of the technique for 235 U enrichment is demonstrated. (UK)

  10. Inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry for elemental analysis and isotope ratio determinations in individual organic compounds separated by gas chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chong, N.S.; Houk, R.S.

    1987-01-01

    A gas chromatograph (GC) with a packed column was interfaced to an inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometer (ICP-MS) to yield atomic mass spectra from volatile organic compounds. Atomization of injected compounds was nearly complete and independent of molecular structure, so that elemental ratios could be determined. Detection limits were in the range 0.001 to 400 ng s -1 , depending on the ionization energy of the element and its abundance in the background spectrum. The relative standard deviation of measured isotope ratios varied from 0.4% for Br (i.e., a ratio close to unity) to 18% for N (a very large ratio). Thus, GC-ICP-MS provides elemental and isotope ratio information that is complementary to the molecular information derived from GC-MS with conventional ionization methods

  11. Separation Method for Oxygen Mass Transport Coefficient in Two Phase Porous Air Electrodes - Transport in Gas and Solid Polymer or Liquid Electrolyte Phases

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-06

    of the problem studied Proton exchange membrane fuel cells ( PEMFCs ) are the most promising candidate systems for alternative electricity...characteristic. The limiting current can be used as a tool to study mass transport phenomena in PEMFC because it can provide experimental data for the...coefficient for PEMFCs under in situ conditions based on the galvanostatic discharge of a cell with an interrupted reactant supply. The results indicated

  12. Coupling immunomagnetic separation on magnetic beads with matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry for detection of Staphylococcal Enterotoxin B

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Schlosser, G.; Kačer, P.; Kuzma, Marek; Szilágyi, Z.; Sorrentino, Z.; Manzo, C.; Pizzano, R.; Malorni, L.; Poscfalvi, G.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 73, č. 21 (2007), s. 6945-6952 ISSN 0099-2240 Grant - others:IT(IT) project SIFORTI (MIUR-CNR, Legge 449/97); XE(XE) 94.05.09.103, ARINCO 94.IT.16.028 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : mass spectrometry * staphylococcal enterotoxin b * bacterial protein toxins Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 4.004, year: 2007

  13. Experimental designs for modeling retention patterns and separation efficiency in analysis of fatty acid methyl esters by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skartland, Liv Kjersti; Mjøs, Svein A; Grung, Bjørn

    2011-09-23

    The retention behavior of components analyzed by chromatography varies with instrumental settings. Being able to predict how changes in these settings alter the elution pattern is useful, both with regards to component identification, as well as with regards to optimization of the chromatographic system. In this work, it is shown how experimental designs can be used for this purpose. Different experimental designs for response surface modeling of the separation of fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) as function of chromatographic conditions in GC have been evaluated. Full factorial, central composite, Doehlert and Box-Behnken designs were applied. A mixture of 38 FAMEs was separated on a polar cyanopropyl substituted polysilphenylene-siloxane phase capillary column. The temperature gradient, the start temperature of the gradient, and the carrier gas velocity were varied in the experiments. The modeled responses, as functions of chromatographic conditions, were retention time, retention indices, peak widths, separation efficiency and resolution between selected peak pairs. The designs that allowed inclusion of quadratic terms among the predictors performed significantly better than factorial design. Box-Behnken design provided the best results for prediction of retention, but the differences between the central composite, Doehlert and Box-Behnken designs were small. Retention indices could be modeled with much better accuracy than retention times. However, because the errors of predicted tR of closely eluting peaks were highly correlated, models of resolution (Rs) that were based on retention time had errors in the same range as corresponding models based on ECL. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Mass separation of rare-earth elements by a high-temperature thermal ion source coupled with a He-jet system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawase, Y.; Okano, K.; Aoki, K.

    1987-01-01

    By using a high-temperature thermal ion source coupled to a He-jet system, neutron-rich isotopes of rare-earth elements such as cerium, praseodymium, neodymium and promethium produced by the thermal-neutron fission of /sup 235/U were ionized and successfully separated. The temperature dependence of the ionization efficiency has been measured and found to be explained qualitatively by the vapour pressure of the relevant elements. The characteristic temperature dependence of the ionization efficiency has been utilized for Z-identification of several isobars of rare-earth elements. The heaviest isotopes of neodymium and promethium, /sup 155/Nd and /sup 156/Pm, have recently been identified

  15. The Separation and Quantitation of Peptides with and without Oxidation of Methionine and Deamidation of Asparagine Using Hydrophilic Interaction Liquid Chromatography with Mass Spectrometry (HILIC-MS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badgett, Majors J.; Boyes, Barry; Orlando, Ron

    2017-05-01

    Peptides with deamidated asparagine residues and oxidized methionine residues are often not resolved sufficiently to allow quantitation of their native and modified forms using reversed phase (RP) chromatography. The accurate quantitation of these modifications is vital in protein biotherapeutic analysis because they can affect a protein's function, activity, and stability. We demonstrate here that hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) adequately and predictably separates peptides with these modifications from their native counterparts. Furthermore, coefficients describing the extent of the hydrophilicity of these modifications have been derived and were incorporated into a previously made peptide retention prediction model that is capable of predicting the retention times of peptides with and without these modifications.

  16. Development of a chromatographic separation method hyphenated to electro-spray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS): application to the lanthanides speciation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beuvier, Ludovic

    2015-01-01

    This work focuses on the development of a chromatographic separation method coupled to both ESI-MS and ICP-MS in order to achieve the comprehensive speciation analysis of lanthanides in aqueous phase representative of back-extraction phases of advanced spent nuclear fuel treatment processes. This analytical method allowed the separation, the characterization and the quantitation of lanthanides complexes holding poly-aminocarboxylic ligands, such as DTPA and EDTA, used as complexing agents in these processes. A HILIC separation method of lanthanides complexes has been developed with an amide bonded stationary phase. A screening of a wide range of mobile phase compositions demonstrated that the adsorption mechanism was predominant. This screening allowed also obtaining optimized separation conditions. Faster analysis conditions with shorter amide column packed with sub 2 μm particles reduced analysis time by 2.5 and 25% solvent consumption. Isotopic and structural characterization by HILIC ESI-MS was performed as well as the development of external calibration quantitation method. Analytical performances of quantitation method were determined. Finally, the development of the HILIC coupling to ESI-MS and ICP-MS was achieved. A simultaneous quantitation method by ESI-MS and ICP-MS was performed to determine the species quantitative distribution in solution. Analytical performances of quantitation method were also determined. (author) [fr

  17. Untargeted saliva metabonomics study of breast cancer based on ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry with HILIC and RPLC separations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Liping; Cheng, Fei; Lu, Xiaoyong; Duan, Yixiang; Wang, Xiaodong

    2016-09-01

    Breast cancer (BC) is not only the most frequently diagnosed cancer, but also the leading cause of cancer death among women worldwide. This study aimed to screen the potential salivary biomarkers for breast cancer diagnosis, staging, and biomarker discovery. For the first time, a UPLC-MS based method along with multivariate data analysis, was proposed for the global saliva metabonomics analysis and diagnosis of BC, which used both hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC) and reversed-phase liquid chromatography (RPLC) separations and operated in both positive (ESI+) and negative (ESI-) ionization modes. On account of different polarities of endogenous metabolites, this method was established to overcome the boundedness of a single chromatographic approach. As a result, 18 potential metabolites for diagnosing BC were identified. A nonparametric Mann-Whitney U test, heat map, and the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) were exploited to analyze the data with the purpose of evaluating the predictive power of the 18 biomarkers. Significant differences (Pmetabonomics analysis in human saliva for identifying potential biomarkers to diagnose and stage BC was successfully eastablished, which was non-invasive, reliable, low-cost, and simple. The HILIC was demonstrated to be essential for a comprehensive saliva metabonomics profiling as well as RPLC separation. This saliva metabonomics technique may provide new insight into the discovery and identification of diagnostic biomarkers for BC. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. CENTRIFUGAL SEPARATORS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skarstrom, C.

    1959-03-10

    A centrifugal separator is described for separating gaseous mixtures where the temperature gradients both longitudinally and radially of the centrifuge may be controlled effectively to produce a maximum separation of the process gases flowing through. Tbe invention provides for the balancing of increases and decreases in temperature in various zones of the centrifuge chamber as the result of compression and expansions respectively, of process gases and may be employed effectively both to neutralize harmful temperature gradients and to utilize beneficial temperaturc gradients within the centrifuge.

  19. Microparticle Separation by Cyclonic Separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karback, Keegan; Leith, Alexander

    2017-11-01

    The ability to separate particles based on their size has wide ranging applications from the industrial to the medical. Currently, cyclonic separators are primarily used in agriculture and manufacturing to syphon out contaminates or products from an air supply. This has led us to believe that cyclonic separation has more applications than the agricultural and industrial. Using the OpenFoam computational package, we were able to determine the flow parameters of a vortex in a cyclonic separator in order to segregate dust particles to a cutoff size of tens of nanometers. To test the model, we constructed an experiment to separate a test dust of various sized particles. We filled a chamber with Arizona test dust and utilized an acoustic suspension technique to segregate particles finer than a coarse cutoff size and introduce them into the cyclonic separation apparatus where they were further separated via a vortex following our computational model. The size of the particles separated from this experiment will be used to further refine our model. Metropolitan State University of Denver, Colorado University of Denver, Dr. Randall Tagg, Dr. Richard Krantz.

  20. The offline combination of thin-layer chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection and micrOTOF-Q mass spectrometry for the separation and identification of spinochromes from sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis) shells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shikov, Alexander N; Ossipov, Vladimir I; Martiskainen, Olli; Pozharitskaya, Olga N; Ivanova, Svetlana A; Makarov, Valery G

    2011-12-16

    Thin-layer chromatography (TLC) with off-line high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to diode array detection and micrOTOF-Q mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-MS) resulted in the successful fractionation, separation and identification of spinochrome pigments from sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis) shells. Two fractions of pigments were separated by TLC and eluted with methanol using a TLC-MS interface. HPLC-DAD-MS analysis of the fractions indicated the presence of six sea urchin pigments: spinochrome monomers B and D, three spinochrome dimers (anhydroethylidene-6,6'-bis(2,3,7-trihydroxynaphthazarin) and its isomer and ethylidene-6,6'-bis(2,3,7-trihydroxynaphthazarin)), and one pigment that was preliminary identified as a spinochrome dimer with the structural formula C(22)H(16)O(16). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Isotopic separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castle, P.M.

    1979-01-01

    This invention relates to molecular and atomic isotope separation and is particularly applicable to the separation of 235 U from other uranium isotopes including 238 U. In the method described a desired isotope is separated mechanically from an atomic or molecular beam formed from an isotope mixture utilising the isotropic recoil momenta resulting from selective excitation of the desired isotope species by radiation, followed by ionization or dissociation by radiation or electron attachment. By forming a matrix of UF 6 molecules in HBr molecules so as to collapse the V 3 vibrational mode of the UF 6 molecule the 235 UF 6 molecules are selectively excited to promote reduction of UF 6 molecules containing 235 U and facilitate separation. (UK)

  2. Isotope separator laoratory development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderl, R.A.

    1977-01-01

    Significant improvements in the capability for collection of mass-separated ions are described. These improvements centered on the fabrication and installation of a more versatile collection-beam viewing system and the design, fabrication, installation and testing of a retardation lens. A summary description of this capability development is presented

  3. Development of an on-line flow injection Sr/matrix separation method for accurate, high-throughput determination of Sr isotope ratios by multiple collector-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galler, Patrick; Limbeck, Andreas; Boulyga, Sergei F; Stingeder, Gerhard; Hirata, Takafumi; Prohaska, Thomas

    2007-07-01

    This work introduces a newly developed on-line flow injection (FI) Sr/Rb separation method as an alternative to the common, manual Sr/matrix batch separation procedure, since total analysis time is often limited by sample preparation despite the fast rate of data acquisition possible by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometers (ICPMS). Separation columns containing approximately 100 muL of Sr-specific resin were used for on-line FI Sr/matrix separation with subsequent determination of (87)Sr/(86)Sr isotope ratios by multiple collector ICPMS. The occurrence of memory effects exhibited by the Sr-specific resin, a major restriction to the repetitive use of this costly material, could successfully be overcome. The method was fully validated by means of certified reference materials. A set of two biological and six geological Sr- and Rb-bearing samples was successfully characterized for its (87)Sr/(86)Sr isotope ratios with precisions of 0.01-0.04% 2 RSD (n = 5-10). Based on our measurements we suggest (87)Sr/(86)Sr isotope ratios of 0.713 15 +/- 0.000 16 (2 SD) and 0.709 31 +/- 0.000 06 (2 SD) for the NIST SRM 1400 bone ash and the NIST SRM 1486 bone meal, respectively. Measured (87)Sr/(86)Sr isotope ratios for five basalt samples are in excellent agreement with published data with deviations from the published value ranging from 0 to 0.03%. A mica sample with a Rb/Sr ratio of approximately 1 was successfully characterized for its (87)Sr/(86)Sr isotope signature to be 0.718 24 +/- 0.000 29 (2 SD) by the proposed method. Synthetic samples with Rb/Sr ratios of up to 10/1 could successfully be measured without significant interferences on mass 87, which would otherwise bias the accuracy and uncertainty of the obtained data.

  4. Separation and analysis of phenolic acids from Salvia miltiorrhiza and its related preparations by off-line two-dimensional hydrophilic interaction chromatography×reversed-phase liquid chromatography coupled with ion trap time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wanyang; Tong, Ling; Miao, Jingzhuo; Huang, Jingyi; Li, Dongxiang; Li, Yunfei; Xiao, Hongting; Sun, Henry; Bi, Kaishun

    2016-01-29

    Salvia miltiorrhiza (SM) is one of the most widely used Traditional Chinese Medicine. Active constituents of SM mainly contain hydrophilic phenolic acids (PAs) and lipophilic tanshinones. However, due to the existing of multiple ester bonds and unsaturated bonds in the structures, PAs have numerous chemical conversion products. Many of them are so low-abundant that hard to be separated using conventional methods. In this study, an off-line two-dimensional liquid chromatography (2D-LC) method was developed to separate PAs in SM and its related preparations. In the first dimension, samples were fractionated by hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC) (Acchrom×Amide, 4.6×250mm, 5μm) mainly based on the hydrogen bonding effects. The fractions were then separated on reversed-phase liquid chromatography (RP-LC) (Acquity HSS T3, 2.1×50mm, 1.7μm) according to hydrophobicity. For the selective identification of PAs, diode array detector (DAD) and electrospray ionization tandem ion trap time-of-flight mass spectrometry (ESI-IT-TOF-MS) were employed. Practical and effective peak capacities of all the samples were greater than 2046 and 1130, respectively, with the orthogonalities ranged from 69.7% to 92.8%, which indicated the high efficiency and versatility of this method. By utilizing the data post-processing techniques, including mass defect filter, neutral loss filter and product ion filter, a total of 265 compounds comprising 196 potentially new PAs were tentatively characterized. Twelve kinds of derivatives, mainly including glycosylated compounds, O-alkylated compounds, condensed compounds and hydrolyzed compounds, constituted the novelty of the newly identified PAs. The HILIC×RP-LC/TOF-MS system expanded our understanding on PAs of S. miltiorrhiza and its related preparations, which could also benefit the separation and characterization of polar constituents in complicated herbal extracts. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Separations chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1976-01-01

    Results of studies on the photochemistry of aqueous Pu solutions and the stability of iodine in liquid and gaseous CO 2 are reported. Progress is reported in studies on: the preparation of macroporous bodies filled with oxides and sulfides to be used as adsorbents; the beneficiation of photographic wastes; the anion exchange adsorption of transition elements from thiosulfate solutions; advanced filtration applications of energy significance; high-resolution separations; and, the examination of the separation agents, octylphenylphosphoric acid (OPPA) and trihexyl phosphate (THP)

  6. Isotopic separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, C.L.

    1982-01-01

    A method is described for separating isotopes in which photo-excitation of selected isotope species is used together with the reaction of the excited species with postive ions of predetermined ionization energy, other excited species, or free electrons to produce ions or ion fragments of the selected species. Ions and electrons are produced by an electrical discharge, and separation is achieved through radial ambipolar diffusion, electrostatic techniques, or magnetohydrodynamic methods

  7. Determination of plutonium isotopes (238Pu, 239Pu, 240Pu, 241Pu) in environmental samples using radiochemical separation combined with radiometric and mass spectrometric measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Yihong; Qiao, Jixin; Hou, Xiaolin

    2014-01-01

    counting and alpha spectrometry) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) were applied for the measurement of plutonium isotopes. The decontamination factors for uranium were significantly improved up to 7.5×105 for 20 g soil compared to the level reported in the literature......, this is critical for the measurement of plutonium isotopes using mass spectrometric technique. Although the chemical yield of Pu in the entire procedure is about 55%, the analytical results of IAEA soil 6 and IAEA-367 in this work are in a good agreement with the values reported in the literature or reference......Pu. However, it is impossible to measure 238Pu using ICP-MS in environmental samples even a decontamination factor as high as 106 for uranium was obtained by chemical separation....

  8. Separation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubin, L.S.

    1986-01-01

    A disposal container is described for use in disposal of radioactive waste materials consisting of: top wall structure, bottom wall structure, and circumferential side wall structure interconnecting the top and bottom wall structures to define an enclosed container, separation structure in the container adjacent the inner surface of the side wall structure for allowing passage of liquid and retention of solids, inlet port structure in the top wall structure, discharge port structure at the periphery of the container in communication with the outer surface of the separation structure for receiving liquid that passes through the separation structure, first centrifugally actuated valve structure having a normal position closing the inlet port structure and a centrifugally actuated position opening the inlet port structure, second centrifugally actuated valve structure having a normal position closing the discharge port structure and a centrifugally actuated position opening the discharge port structure, and coupling structure integral with wall structure of the container for releasable engagement with centrifugal drive structure

  9. Separable algebras

    CERN Document Server

    Ford, Timothy J

    2017-01-01

    This book presents a comprehensive introduction to the theory of separable algebras over commutative rings. After a thorough introduction to the general theory, the fundamental roles played by separable algebras are explored. For example, Azumaya algebras, the henselization of local rings, and Galois theory are rigorously introduced and treated. Interwoven throughout these applications is the important notion of étale algebras. Essential connections are drawn between the theory of separable algebras and Morita theory, the theory of faithfully flat descent, cohomology, derivations, differentials, reflexive lattices, maximal orders, and class groups. The text is accessible to graduate students who have finished a first course in algebra, and it includes necessary foundational material, useful exercises, and many nontrivial examples.

  10. Isotope separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartlett, R.J.; Morrey, J.R.

    1978-01-01

    A method and apparatus is described for separating gas molecules containing one isotope of an element from gas molecules containing other isotopes of the same element in which all of the molecules of the gas are at the same electronic state in their ground state. Gas molecules in a gas stream containing one of the isotopes are selectively excited to a different electronic state while leaving the other gas molecules in their original ground state. Gas molecules containing one of the isotopes are then deflected from the other gas molecules in the stream and thus physically separated

  11. Stability of arsenic peptides in plant extracts: off-line versus on-line parallel elemental and molecular mass spectrometric detection for liquid chromatographic separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bluemlein, Katharina; Raab, Andrea; Feldmann, Jörg

    2009-01-01

    The instability of metal and metalloid complexes during analytical processes has always been an issue of an uncertainty regarding their speciation in plant extracts. Two different speciation protocols were compared regarding the analysis of arsenic phytochelatin (As(III)PC) complexes in fresh plant material. As the final step for separation/detection both methods used RP-HPLC simultaneously coupled to ICP-MS and ES-MS. However, one method was the often used off-line approach using two-dimensional separation, i.e. a pre-cleaning step using size-exclusion chromatography with subsequent fraction collection and freeze-drying prior to the analysis using RP-HPLC-ICP-MS and/or ES-MS. This approach revealed that less than 2% of the total arsenic was bound to peptides such as phytochelatins in the root extract of an arsenate exposed Thunbergia alata, whereas the direct on-line method showed that 83% of arsenic was bound to peptides, mainly as As(III)PC(3) and (GS)As(III)PC(2). Key analytical factors were identified which destabilise the As(III)PCs. The low pH of the mobile phase (0.1% formic acid) using RP-HPLC-ICP-MS/ES-MS stabilises the arsenic peptide complexes in the plant extract as well as the free peptide concentration, as shown by the kinetic disintegration study of the model compound As(III)(GS)(3) at pH 2.2 and 3.8. But only short half-lives of only a few hours were determined for the arsenic glutathione complex. Although As(III)PC(3) showed a ten times higher half-life (23 h) in a plant extract, the pre-cleaning step with subsequent fractionation in a mobile phase of pH 5.6 contributes to the destabilisation of the arsenic peptides in the off-line method. Furthermore, it was found that during a freeze-drying process more than 90% of an As(III)PC(3) complex and smaller free peptides such as PC(2) and PC(3) can be lost. Although the two-dimensional off-line method has been used successfully for other metal complexes, it is concluded here that the fractionation and

  12. The simultaneous separation and determination of chloropropanols in soy sauce and other flavoring with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in negative chemical and electron impact ionization modes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaomin; Ren, Yiping; Wu, Pinggu; Han, Jianlong; Shen, Xianghong

    2006-02-01

    Both gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in electron ionization (GC-MS-EI) and negative chemical ionization (GC-MS-NCI) modes are reported in this paper for the simultaneous determination of 1,3-dichloropropan-2-ol (1,3-DCP), 2,3-dichloropropan-1-ol (2,3-DCP), 3-chloropropane-1,2-diol (3-MCPD) and 2-chloropropane-1,3-diol (2-MCPD) in soy sauce and other flavoring. D(5)-3-MCPD (for 3-MCPD and 2-MCPD) and d(5)-1,3-DCP (for 1,3-DCP and 2,3-DCP) were used as the deuterium isotopic labelled internal standards. The feasibility of using heptafluorobutyric anhydride modified with triethylamine (HFBA-Et(3)N) as a new derivatization reagent to replace heptafluorobutyrylimidazole (HFBI) is proposed. Liquid/liquid extraction with hexane was introduced for high lipid content samples. A small survey was carried out of soy sauces (103 samples) and instant noodles (45 samples) and the applicability of GC-MS-NCI and GC-MS-EI was assessed in these different matrices.

  13. Separate Ways: The Mass-Metallicity Relation Does Not Strongly Correlate with Star Formation Rate in SDSS-IV MaNGA Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrera-Ballesteros, J. K.; Sánchez, S. F.; Heckman, T.; Blanc, G. A.; The MaNGA Team

    2017-07-01

    We present the integrated stellar mass-metallicity relation (MZR) for more than 1700 galaxies included in the integral field area SDSS-IV MaNGA survey. The spatially resolved data allow us to determine the metallicity at the same physical scale (effective radius, R eff) using a heterogeneous set of 10 abundance calibrators. In addition to scale factors, the shape of the MZR is similar for all calibrators, consistent with those reported previously using single-fiber and integral field spectroscopy. We compare the residuals of this relation against the star formation rate (SFR) and specific SFR (sSFR). We do not find a strong secondary relation of the MZR with either SFR or sSFR for any of the calibrators, in contrast with previous single-fiber spectroscopic studies. Our results agree with a scenario in which metal enrichment happens at local scales, with global outflows playing a secondary role in shaping the chemistry of galaxies and cold-gas inflows regulating the stellar formation.

  14. Chiral separation and chemical profile of Dengzhan Shengmai by integrating comprehensive with multiple heart-cutting two-dimensional liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Ning; Zheng, Hao; Xiao, Yao; Wang, Zhe; Li, Menglin; Zhang, Jinlan

    2017-09-29

    Chemical profile for Chinese medicine formulas composed of several herbs is always a challenge due to a big array of small molecules with high chemical diversity so much as isomers. The present paper develops a feasible strategy to characterize and identify complex chemical constituents of a four-herb traditional Chinese medicine formula, Denzhan Shenmai (DZSM) by integrating comprehensive two-dimensional liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC×LC-qTOF-MS) with multiple heart-cutting two-dimensional liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MHC-qTOF-MS). DZSM was separated by C8×C18 HPLC column system for comprehensive two-dimensional liquid chromatography system and 283 compounds most of which belonged to phenolic acid, flavonoid, saponin and lignan families were characterized and identified within 75min. Some isomers and compounds at low level were analyzed on C8×Chiral HPLC column system for multiple heart-cutting two-dimensional liquid chromatography system with 1D and 2D optimized gradient elution program. These 1D cutting fractions were successively separated on 2D chiral chromatographic column under extended the 2D gradient elution time from 30s to 5.0min. 12 pairs of isomer compounds were separated with good resolution. The combination of LC×LC and MHC system provides a powerful technique for global chemical profiling of DZSM and provided feasible strategy for other complex systems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Determination of Dibutyltin in Sediments Using Isotope Dilution Liquid Chromatography-Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yim, Yong Hyeon; Park, Ji Youn; Han, Myung Sub; Park, Mi Kyung; Kim, Byung Joo; Lim, Young Ran; Hwang, Eui Jin; So, Hun Young

    2005-01-01

    A method is described for the determination of dibutyltin (DBT) in sediment by isotope dilution using liquid chromatography inductively-coupled plasma/mass spectrometry (LC-ICP/MS). To achieve the highest accuracy and precision, special attentions are paid in optimization and evaluation of overall processes of the analysis including extraction of analytes, characterization of the standards used for calibration and LC-ICP/MS conditions. An approach for characterization of natural abundance DBT standard has been developed by combining inductively-coupled plasma/optical emission spectrometry (ICP/OES) and LC-ICP/MS for the total Sn assay and the analysis of Sn species present as impurities, respectively. An excellent LC condition for separation of organotin species was found, which is suitable for simultaneous DBT and tributyltin (TBT) analysis as well as impurity analysis of DBT standards. Microwave extraction condition was also optimized for high efficiency while preventing species transformation. The present method determines the amount contents of DBT in sediments with expanded uncertainty of less than 5% and its result shows high degree of equivalence with reference values of an international inter-comparison and a certified reference material (CRM) within stated uncertainties

  16. Determination of Dibutyltin in Sediments Using Isotope Dilution Liquid Chromatography-Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yim, Yong Hyeon; Park, Ji Youn; Han, Myung Sub; Park, Mi Kyung; Kim, Byung Joo; Lim, Young Ran; Hwang, Eui Jin; So, Hun Young [Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-03-15

    A method is described for the determination of dibutyltin (DBT) in sediment by isotope dilution using liquid chromatography inductively-coupled plasma/mass spectrometry (LC-ICP/MS). To achieve the highest accuracy and precision, special attentions are paid in optimization and evaluation of overall processes of the analysis including extraction of analytes, characterization of the standards used for calibration and LC-ICP/MS conditions. An approach for characterization of natural abundance DBT standard has been developed by combining inductively-coupled plasma/optical emission spectrometry (ICP/OES) and LC-ICP/MS for the total Sn assay and the analysis of Sn species present as impurities, respectively. An excellent LC condition for separation of organotin species was found, which is suitable for simultaneous DBT and tributyltin (TBT) analysis as well as impurity analysis of DBT standards. Microwave extraction condition was also optimized for high efficiency while preventing species transformation. The present method determines the amount contents of DBT in sediments with expanded uncertainty of less than 5% and its result shows high degree of equivalence with reference values of an international inter-comparison and a certified reference material (CRM) within stated uncertainties.

  17. Extraction inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). Determination of traces of phosphorus in tungsten

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauer, G.; Wegscheider, W.; Mueller, K.

    1989-01-01

    A method for the separation and preconcentration of traces of phosphorus from tungsten was developed. Solid phase extraction of the phosphovanadomolybdate complex performed on a micro-column was applied. Phosphorus was determined by optical emission spectroscopy (OES) with inductively coupled plasma (ICP) excitation. A limit of detection of 0,4 μg/g P with respect to the solid phase is obtained. By directly coupling the extraction/elution step to the ICP instrument a detection limit of 0,06 μg/g P in W was achieved. Besides, the complexity of spectral evaluation in ICP-OES determinations of traces in spectralline-rich matrices is discussed. (Authors)

  18. Centrifugal separation of mixture gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, M.S.; Chen, W.N.; Yin, Y.T.

    2008-01-01

    An attempt for single centrifugal separation of mixtures with different molecular formula was presented in this paper. The mixtures of SF 6 and CCl 3 F, and SF 6 and CCl 4 were chosen as the processing gases, which were prepared in three mass ratios, 0.5, 0.8 and 0.2, respectively. The separating characteristics such as the overall separation factors and the variation of cuts were studied. (author)

  19. Gas separation with membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulz, G.; Michele, H.; Werner, U.

    1982-01-01

    Gas separation with membranes has already been tested in numerous fields of application, e.g. uranium enrichment of H 2 separation. In many of these processes the mass transfer units, so-called permeators, have to be connected in tandem in order to achieve high concentrations. A most economical operating method provides for each case an optimization of the cascades with regard to the membrane materials, construction and design of module. By utilization of the concentration gradient along the membrane a new process development has been accomplished - the continuously operating membrane rectification unit. Investment and operating costs can be reduced considerably for a number of separating processes by combining a membrane rectification unit with a conventional recycling cascade. However, the new procedure requires that the specifications for the module construction, flow design, and membrane properties be reconsidered. (orig.) [de

  20. Gas separating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gollan, A.

    1988-03-29

    Feed gas is directed tangentially along the non-skin surface of gas separation membrane modules comprising a cylindrical bundle of parallel contiguous hollow fibers supported to allow feed gas to flow from an inlet at one end of a cylindrical housing through the bores of the bundled fibers to an outlet at the other end while a component of the feed gas permeates through the fibers, each having the skin side on the outside, through a permeate outlet in the cylindrical casing. 3 figs.

  1. Isotope separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosevear, A.; Sims, H.E.

    1985-01-01

    sup(195m)Au for medical usage is separated from sup(195m)Hg in a solution containing ions of sup(195m)Hg by contacting the solution with an adsorbing agent to adsorb 195 Hgsup(H) thereon, followed by selective elution of sup(195m)Au generated by radioactive decay of the sup(195m)Hg. The adsorbing agent comprises a composite material in the form of an inert porous inorganic substrate (e.g. Kieselguhr),the pores of which are occupied by a hydrogel of a polysaccharide (e.g. agarose) carrying terminal thiol groups for binding Hgsup(H) ions. (author)

  2. On-line digestion in a focused microwave-assisted oven for elements determination in orange juice by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fili Sabrina P.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A flow injection system coupled to focused microwave-assisted oven was used for on-line orange juice sample digestion for determination of Ca, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, P, and Zn by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. The reactor coil was a PTFE tube (4.0 m long and 1.6 mm i.d. positioned into the commercial glass tube of the focused microwave oven. Aliquots of 500 muL of sample and 1000 muL of reagent (80% v/v HNO3 were mixed in a confluence and carried out to the reactor coil by air carrier. The relative standard deviation for five replicates of sample was lower than 5.0%. Good recoveries varying from 91 to 111% were obtained for added concentrations of the interest elements. The results obtained using the proposed digestion system are in agreement with those obtained for total digestion at the 95% confidence level. With this on-line digestion system was possible to carry out 12 samples h-1, minimizing contamination, saving consumption of samples and reagent and low residue generation.

  3. Multielement analysis of environmental samples by total-reflection X-ray fluorescence sprectrometry, neutron activation analysis and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michaelis, W.

    1986-01-01

    In environmental research and protection trace elements have to be determined over a wide range of atomic number, down to very low concentrations, and in quite different matrices. This challenge requires the availability of complementary analytical methods characterized by a high detection power and few sources of systematic errors. Besides, the capacity of multielement detection is often desired since it facilitates the talking of many problems in which numerous trace elements are of direct concern. Total-reflection X-ray fluorescence, neutron activation analysis and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy, in principle fulfill these requirements quite well. However, each method has its domain, and the application to certain sample species may be less promising. Under this aspect, the paper summarizes some recent developments and investigations, including intercomparisons as far as possible. Various matrices are considered : rainwater and airborne particulates, soil samples, river sediments and suspended particulate matter, river water filtrates, ozean water, and organic matrices. Capabilities and limitations are discussed. Sample preparation techniques are described if they are new or essential for achieving the results given. (orig.) [de

  4. Simultaneous determination of macro and trace elements in biological reference materials by microwave induced plasma optical emission spectrometry with slurry sample introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matusiewicz, Henryk; Golik, Bartosz

    2004-01-01

    A slurry sampling technique (SST) has been utilized for simultaneous multi-element analysis by microwave-induced plasma optical emission spectrometry (MIP-OES). Slurry samples from a spray chamber are fed directly into the microwave cavity-torch assembly (power 300 W) with no desolvation apparatus. The performance of SST-MIP-OES was demonstrated by the determination of macro (Na, K, Ca, Mg, P) and trace (Cd, Cu, Mn, Sr, Zn) elements in three biological certified reference materials using a V-groove, clog-free Babington-type nebulizer. Slurry concentrations up to 1% m/v (particles 3 (pH 1.2) containing 0.01% of Triton X-100, were used with calibration by the standard additions method. The method offers relatively good precision (R.S.D. ranged from 7 to 11%) with measured concentrations being in satisfactory agreement with certified values for NRCC TORT-1 (Lobster hepatopancreas), NRCC LUTS-1 (Lobster hepatopancreas) and IAEA-153 (Milk powder). The concentrations of Na, K, Ca, Mg, P and Cd, Cu, Mn, Sr, Zn were determined in the range 90-22 000 μg/g and 1-420 μg/g, respectively. The method could be useful as a routine procedure

  5. Simultaneous determination of macro and trace elements in biological reference materials by microwave induced plasma optical emission spectrometry with slurry sample introduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matusiewicz, Henryk E-mail: Henryk.Matusiewicz@put.poznan.pl; Golik, Bartosz

    2004-05-21

    A slurry sampling technique (SST) has been utilized for simultaneous multi-element analysis by microwave-induced plasma optical emission spectrometry (MIP-OES). Slurry samples from a spray chamber are fed directly into the microwave cavity-torch assembly (power 300 W) with no desolvation apparatus. The performance of SST-MIP-OES was demonstrated by the determination of macro (Na, K, Ca, Mg, P) and trace (Cd, Cu, Mn, Sr, Zn) elements in three biological certified reference materials using a V-groove, clog-free Babington-type nebulizer. Slurry concentrations up to 1% m/v (particles <20 {mu}m), prepared in 10% HNO{sub 3} (pH 1.2) containing 0.01% of Triton X-100, were used with calibration by the standard additions method. The method offers relatively good precision (R.S.D. ranged from 7 to 11%) with measured concentrations being in satisfactory agreement with certified values for NRCC TORT-1 (Lobster hepatopancreas), NRCC LUTS-1 (Lobster hepatopancreas) and IAEA-153 (Milk powder). The concentrations of Na, K, Ca, Mg, P and Cd, Cu, Mn, Sr, Zn were determined in the range 90-22 000 {mu}g/g and 1-420 {mu}g/g, respectively. The method could be useful as a routine procedure.

  6. Determination of low cadmium concentrations in wine by on-line preconcentration in a knotted reactor coupled to an inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer with ultrasonic nebulization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lara, R.F. [Inst. de Investigaciones Mineras, Universidad Nacional de San Juan (Argentina); Wuilloud, R.G.; Salonia, J.A. [Dept. of Analytical Chemistry, National University of San Luis (Argentina); Olsina, R.A.; Martinez, L.D. [Dept. of Analytical Chemistry, National University of San Luis (Argentina); Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas (CONICET) (Argentina)

    2001-12-01

    An on-line cadmium preconcentration and determination system implemented with inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) associated to flow injection (FI) with ultrasonic nebulization system (USN) was studied. The cadmium was retained as the cadmium-2-(5-bromo-2-pyridylazo)-5-diethylaminophenol, Cd-(5-Br-PADAP), complex, at pH 9.5. The cadmium complex was removed from the knotted reactor (KR) with 3.0 mol/L nitric acid. A total enhancement factor of 216 was obtained with respect to ICP-OES using pneumatic nebulization (12 for USN and 18 for KR) with a preconcentration time of 60 s. The value of the detection limit for the preconcentration of 5 mL of sample solution was 5 ng/L. The precision for 10 replicate determinations at the 5 {mu}g/L Cd level was 2.9% relative standard deviation (RSD), calculated from the peak heights obtained. The calibration graph using the preconcentration system for cadmium was linear with a correlation coefficient of 0.9998 at levels near the detection limits up to at least 1000 {mu}g/L. The method was successfully applied to the determination of cadmium in wine samples. (orig.)

  7. Imaging of elements in leaves of tobacco by solid sampling–electrothermal vaporization–inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masson, Pierre, E-mail: masson@bordeaux.inra.fr

    2014-12-01

    Plants take up and store elements according to the environment in which they are growing. Because plants are at the base of the food chain, the determination of essential elements or toxic elements in plant materials is of importance. However, it is assumed that the element content determined on selected tissues may provide more specific information than that derived from the whole plant analysis. In this work, we assessed the feasibility of solid sampling–electrothermal vaporization–inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry analyses for quantitative imaging of Cd and Mg in plant leaves. Leaves of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) were selected to be used as samples. To produce a two dimensional image, sections cut from leaf samples were analyzed. Cellulose doped with multi-element solution standards was used as calibration samples. Two certified reference materials (NIST SRM 1547 Peach Leaves and NIST SRM 1573a Tomato leaves) were used to verify the accuracy of measurements with good agreement between the measured concentrations and the certified values. Quantitative imaging revealed the inhomogeneous distribution of the selected elements. Excess of Cd and Mg tended to be focused on peripheral regions and the tip of the leaf.

  8. Leaching of heavy metals from contaminated soils using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer (ICP-OES) and atomic absorption spectrometer (AAS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, Z.; Islam, M.

    2010-01-01

    The clean-up of soils contaminated with heavy metals is one of the most difficult tasks for environmental engineering. Heavy metals are highly persistent in soil and a number of techniques have been developed that aim to remove heavy metals from contaminated soil. A method has been adopted to evaluate dynamic leaching of metal contaminants from industrial soil samples obtained from textile industrial sites in Lahore, Pakistan. In the extraction procedures employed five different leaching liquors were used: 0.01 M CaCl/sub 2/, 1 M HNO/sub 3/, a 1:1 mixture of 0.1M HCl and 0.1M NaCl, 0.01 M EDTA and pH controlled 0.5 M acetic acid. The qualitative and quantitative analyses were carried out by Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS) and Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectrometer (ICP-OES). The results indicate that Cu, Zn, Cd, Ni, Pb, Fe and As were extracted in the soil samples in varying concentration when using the different leach liquors. The predominant metals which were leached were As 78.7 ng/ml in 0.01 M EDTA; Zn 1.81 mu g/ml and Fe 898.96 macro g/ml in HNO/sub 3/. (author)

  9. Dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction for simultaneous determination of cadmium, cobalt, lead and nickel in water samples by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dos Santos Silva, E.; Correia, L.O.; Dos Santos, L.O.; Dos Santos Vieira, E.V.; Lemos, V.A.

    2012-01-01

    We report on a new method for the dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction of Cd(II), Co(II), Pb(II) and Ni (II) from water samples prior to their simultaneous determination by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). The procedure is based on the injection of a ternary solvent system composed of appropriate quantities of extraction solvent (trichloroethylene), dispersive solvent (ethanol), and the chelating reagent 2-(2'-benzothiazolylazo)-p-cresol into the sample solution. The solution turns turbid immediately after injection, and the analytes are extracted into the droplets of the organic phase which was dried and dissolved in a mixture of Triton X-114, nitric acid, and ethanol. The metal ions in this mixture were quantified by ICP-OES. The detection limits under optimized conditions are 0.2, 0.3, 0.2 and 0.7 μg L -1 for Cd(II), Co(II), Pb(II) and Ni(II), respectively. The enrichment factors were also calculated for Cd (13), Co (11), Pb (11) and Ni (8). The procedure was applied to the determination of cadmium, cobalt, lead and nickel in certified reference material (waterway sediment) and water samples. (author)

  10. Multielemental Determination of As, Bi, Ge, Sb, and Sn in Agricultural Samples Using Hydride Generation Coupled to Microwave-Induced Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Raquel C; Amaral, Clarice D B; Nóbrega, Joaquim A; Araujo Nogueira, Ana Rita

    2017-06-14

    A microwave-induced plasma optical emission spectrometer with N 2 -based plasma was combined with a multimode sample introduction system (MSIS) for hydride generation (HG) and multielemental determination of As, Bi, Ge, Sb, and Sn in samples of forage, bovine liver, powdered milk, agricultural gypsum, rice, and mineral fertilizer, using a single condition of prereduction and reduction. The accuracy of the developed analytical method was evaluated using certified reference materials of water and mineral fertilizer, and recoveries ranged from 95 to 106%. Addition and recovery experiments were carried out, and the recoveries varied from 85 to 117% for all samples evaluated. The limits of detection for As, Bi, Ge, Sb, and Sn were 0.46, 0.09, 0.19, 0.46, and 5.2 μg/L, respectively, for liquid samples, and 0.18, 0.04, 0.08, 0.19, and 2.1 mg/kg, respectively, for solid samples. The method proposed offers a simple, fast, multielemental, and robust alternative for successful determination of all five analytes in agricultural samples with low operational cost without compromising analytical performance.

  11. Examining Heavy Metals in Acid Mine Drainage Wetlands in Western Pennsylvania through the use of Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectroscopy and Drone Aerial Photography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoro, N.; Mount, G.

    2017-12-01

    Acid mine drainage (AMD) emanating from three abandoned mines feed an estimated 126 pounds of iron per day into the Tanoma remediation wetlands located in Tanoma, Pennsylvania. Along with the iron released into the system, 1500-2800 gallons of AMD per minute is seasonally discharged into the passive system. This high rate of discharge produces areas of high velocity flow that scour the wetland bottom moving precipitants and destroying vegetation roots. Although the discharge into Tanoma is known to be damaging, other discharges to surface waters have shown iron and heavy metal concentrations several times higher, and are left untreated to enter reservoir systems. This draws attention to these remediation sites, the processes used to treat them, and the effectiveness of each site. With most of the research that's been conducted in the AMD remediation field relating to in-lab experiments on iron concentrations, there is very little information in the literature about the effects of these large influxes of heavy metals and the effects it has on the biodiversity and methane production within a AMD remediation site. This research investigates the presence and concentration of heavy metals with the treatment wetland and other surface water sources using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) and drone based aerial photography. Furthermore, our ICP data is compared with biodiversity patterns and methane levels within the Tanoma AMD site to identify relationships and the potential effect they have on the productivity and effectiveness of the remediation site through time.

  12. An ultrasound-assisted digestion method for the determination of toxic element concentrations in ash samples by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilander, Aki; Vaeisaenen, Ari

    2007-01-01

    A method of ultrasound-assisted digestion followed by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) used for the determination of toxic element concentrations (arsenic, barium, cobalt, copper, lead, nickel, strontium, vanadium and zinc) in ash samples was developed. All the measurements were performed in robust plasma conditions which were tested by measuring the Mg(II) 280.270 nm/Mg(I) 285.213 nm line intensity ratios. The highest line intensity ratios were observed when a nebulizer gas flow of 0.6 L min -1 , auxiliary gas flow of 0.2 L min -1 and plasma power of 1400 W were used for radially viewed plasma. The analysis of SRM 1633b showed that the ultrasound-assisted method developed is highly comparable with the microwave digestion method standardized by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA-3052). The ultrasound-assisted digestion with a digestion solution of aqua regia and hydrofluoric acid (HF) resulted in recovery rates of over 81%. One exception is arsenic which resulted in recoveries of about 60% only; however, it could be digested with good recovery (>90%) using a digestion solution of 5 mL of water and 5 mL of aqua regia. The major advantage of the ultrasound-assisted digestion over microwave digestion is the high treatment rate (30 samples simultaneously with a sonication time of 18 min)

  13. Countercurrent chromatography separation of saponins by skeleton type from Ampelozizyphus amazonicus for off-line ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography/high resolution accurate mass spectrometry analysis and characterisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza Figueiredo, Fabiana; Celano, Rita; de Sousa Silva, Danila; das Neves Costa, Fernanda; Hewitson, Peter; Ignatova, Svetlana; Piccinelli, Anna Lisa; Rastrelli, Luca; Guimarães Leitão, Suzana; Guimarães Leitão, Gilda

    2017-01-20

    Ampelozizyphus amazonicus Ducke (Rhamnaceae), a medicinal plant used to prevent malaria, is a climbing shrub, native to the Amazonian region, with jujubogenin glycoside saponins as main compounds. The crude extract of this plant is too complex for any kind of structural identification, and HPLC separation was not sufficient to resolve this issue. Therefore, the aim of this work was to obtain saponin enriched fractions from the bark ethanol extract by countercurrent chromatography (CCC) for further isolation and identification/characterisation of the major saponins by HPLC and MS. The butanol extract was fractionated by CCC with hexane - ethyl acetate - butanol - ethanol - water (1:6:1:1:6; v/v) solvent system yielding 4 group fractions. The collected fractions were analysed by UHPLC-HRMS (ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography/high resolution accurate mass spectrometry) and MS n . Group 1 presented mainly oleane type saponins, and group 3 showed mainly jujubogenin glycosides, keto-dammarane type triterpene saponins and saponins with C 31 skeleton. Thus, CCC separated saponins from the butanol-rich extract by skeleton type. A further purification of group 3 by CCC (ethyl acetate - ethanol - water (1:0.2:1; v/v)) and HPLC-RI was performed in order to obtain these unusual aglycones in pure form. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Detection of monohydroxylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in urine and particulate matter using LC separations coupled with integrated SPE and fluorescence detection or coupled with high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lintelmann, Jutta; Wu, Xiao; Kuhn, Evelyn; Ritter, Sebastian; Schmidt, Claudia; Zimmermann, Ralf

    2018-05-01

    A high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method with integrated solid-phase extraction for the determination of 1-hydroxypyrene and 1-, 2-, 3-, 4- and 9-hydroxyphenanthrene in urine was developed and validated. After enzymatic treatment and centrifugation of 500 μL urine, 100 μL of the sample was directly injected into the HPLC system. Integrated solid-phase extraction was performed on a selective, copper phthalocyanine modified packing material. Subsequent chromatographic separation was achieved on a pentafluorophenyl core-shell column using a methanol gradient. For quantification, time-programmed fluorescence detection was used. Matrix-dependent recoveries were between 94.8 and 102.4%, repeatability and reproducibility ranged from 2.2 to 17.9% and detection limits lay between 2.6 and 13.6 ng/L urine. A set of 16 samples from normally exposed adults was analyzed using this HPLC-fluorescence detection method. Results were comparable with those reported in other studies. The chromatographic separation of the method was transferred to an ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography pentafluorophenyl core-shell column and coupled to a high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometer (HR-TOF-MS). The resulting method was used to demonstrate the applicability of LC-HR-TOF-MS for simultaneous target and suspect screening of monohydroxylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in extracts of urine and particulate matter. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Dust separation on bio mass combustion plants

    OpenAIRE

    Srebrenkoska, Vineta

    2011-01-01

    Biomass is material from vegetation, it can be used as a fuel in various boilers and combustor. The main components: carbon, oxygen and hydrogen but it also contains nitrogen, sulphur, small amounts of chlorides and ash. The main part of the ash comprises: Ca, K, Si, Mg, Mn, Al, Fe, P, Na and Zn. During combustion, various kinds of impurities are generated and some of them we find in the flue gas. Most of these are related to the composition of the biomass: particles from ash, NOx f...

  16. Redox speciation of final repository relevant elements using separation methods in combination with ICP mass spectrometry; Redoxspeziation von endlagerrelevanten Elementen mit Hilfe von Trennmethoden gekoppelt an ein Massenspektrometer mit induktiv gekoppeltem Plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graser, Carl-Heinrich

    2015-12-18

    The long-term safety assessment for nuclear waste repositories requires a detailed understanding of the chemistry of actinide elements in the geosphere. The development of advanced analytical tools is required to gain detailed insights into actinide redox speciation in a given system. The mobility of radionuclides is mostly determined by the geochemical conditions which control the redox state of radionuclides. Besides the longlived radionuclides plutonium (Pu) and neptunium (Np), which are key elements in high level nuclear waste, iron (Fe) represents a main component in natural systems controlling redox related geochemical processes. Analytical techniques for determining oxidation state distribution for redox sensitive radionuclides and other metal ions often have a lack of sensitivity. The detection limits of these methods (i.e. UV/vis, TRLFS, XANES) are in general in the range of ≥ 10{sup -6} mol.L{sup -1}. As a consequence ultrasensitive new analytical techniques are required. Capillary electrophoresis (CE) and ion chromatography (IC) are powerful separation methods for metal ions. In the course of this thesis different speciation method for iron, neptunium and plutonium were optimized. With the optimized setup redox speciation analysis of these elements in different samples were done. Furthermore CE hyphenated to inductively coupled plasma sector field mass spectrometry (CE - ICP - SF - MS) was used to measure the redox speciation of Pu (III, IV, V, VI), Np (IV, V, VI) and Fe (II, III) at concentrations lower than 10{sup -7} mol.L{sup -1}. CE coupling and separation parameters such as sample gas pressure, make up flow rate, capillary position, auxiliary gas flow, as well as the electrolyte system were optimized to obtain the maximum sensitivity. The methodes detection limits are 10{sup -12} mol.L{sup -1} for Np and Pu. The various oxidation state species of Pu and Np in different samples were separated by application of an acetate based electrolyte system

  17. Fractional separation of hydrocarbon vapours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1937-07-10

    A process is described for converting higher boiling hydrocarbons to lower boiling hydrocarbons by subjecting them at elevated temperatures to a conversion operation, then separating the higher and lower boiling fractions. The separation takes place while the reaction products are maintained in the vapor phase by contact with a mass of solid porous material which has little or no catalytic activity but does have a preferential absorption property for higher boiling hydrocarbons so that the lower boiling part of the reaction products pass through the separation zone while the heavier hydrocarbons are retained. The separation is accomplished without substantial loss of heat of these reaction products.

  18. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry peptide mass fingerprints and post source decay: a tool for the identification and analysis of phloem proteins from Cucurbita maxima Duch. separated by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haebel, S; Kehr, J

    2001-08-01

    A combination of gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry was used to analyze the soluble proteins from phloem sap of Cucurbita maxima Duch. Phloem proteins were separated using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Coomassie-stained spots were cut out and subjected to tryptic digestion. To identify proteins, peptide mass fingerprints were determined by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry. In addition, MALDI-TOF post source decay measurements were used to obtain partial sequence information for the proteins. Results from both approaches were used for database searches. In this study, 17 proteins in the mass range 5-50 kDa were analyzed. Of these proteins six could be clearly identified, seven showed significant homologies to known plant proteins, and four were not significantly homologous to database entries. The present study suggests that the applied method is feasible for a large-scale analysis and identification of phloem proteins derived from different organs or from plants kept under various physiological conditions.

  19. Separations chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    Infrared spectra of Pu(IV) polymer show effects of CO 2 adsorption and of aging. Uv light (300 nm) increases the rate of reduction of PuO 2 2+ and Pu 4+ to Pu 3+ and the Pu--U separation factor using TBP. Distribution ratios for Zr and Hf between Dowex 50W--X8 resin and H 2 SO 4 solutions were found to decrease sharply with H 2 SO 4 content. Octylphenyl acid phosphate, a mixture of monooctylphenyl and dioctylphenyl phosphoric acids, is being studied for U recovery from wet-process phosphoric acid. A study of HNO 3 leaching of Ra from U ores was completed. Effects of particle size of the packed bed on the dispersion of the boundary of the miscible phase used in oil recovery are being studied. Effects of sulfonates on toluene--n-butanol--water phase relations were determined, as were the effects of salts and solutes on the max water content of 1:1 toluene--alcohol solutions. A study was begun of hydrocarbon solubility in water--surfactant--alcohol. The mechanism of the formation of hydrous ZrO 2 --polyacrylate membranes and their use for sulfate rejection were studied. Salt rejection through hyperfiltration by clay membranes (bentonite and kaolin) was also investigated. Preliminary results are given for hyperfiltration of wood-pulping wastes by ZrO 2 membranes. 13 figures

  20. Application of a trap-free two-dimensional liquid chromatography combined with ion trap/time-of-flight mass spectrometry for separation and characterization of impurities and isomers in cefpiramide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian; Xu, Yu; Wen, Chunmei; Wang, Zhijian

    2017-11-01

    High-resolution mass spectrometry had been routinely used for structure identification of impurity. However, all LC-MS methods were based on a volatile mobile phase, and a non-volatile system is used in the official analytical method of United States Pharmacopoeia for cefpiramide which limited the use of mass spectrometry for structure characterization of the impurities. Here we presented the utilization of a trap-free two-dimensional liquid chromatography coupled to high resolution ion trap/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (2D LC-IT-TOF MS) with positive and negative modes of electrospray ionization for characterization of eight impurities in cefpiramide. Trap-free two-dimensional liquid chromatography and online desalting technique made it possible to characterize the impurity in cefpiramide in the condition of official standard, and the TIC chromatogram of LC-MS was in conformity with the LC chromatogram of the official analytical method in the peak sequence of impurities, which could further improve the method of official monographs in pharmacopoeias. Each peak separated by the non-volatile mobile phase was trapped by a 20 μL quantitative loop then transferred into a system with a volatile mobile phase connected to a MS detector. In the first dimension, the column was Kromasil C 8 analytical column (250 mm × 4.6 mm, 5 μm) with a non-volatile salt mobile phase at the flow rate of 0.8 mL min -1 . In the second dimension, the column was Shimadzu Shim-pack GISS C 18 (50 mm × 2.1 mm, 1.9 μm) with a volatile salt mobile phase at the flow rate of 0.3 mL min -1 . Through the multiple heart-cutting 2D-LC approach and online desalting technique, the problem of incompatibility between non-volatile salt mobile phase and mass spectrometry was solved completely. The fragmentation behavior of cefpiramide and its eight impurities were studied. The structures of eight impurities in cefpiramide drug substance were deduced based on the HPLC-MS n data, in

  1. Application of cotton as a solid phase extraction sorbent for on-line preconcentration of copper in water samples prior to inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faraji, Mohammad; Yamini, Yadollah; Shariati, Shahab

    2009-07-30

    Copper, as a heavy metal, is toxic for many biological systems. Thus, the determination of trace amounts of copper in environmental samples is of great importance. In the present work, a new method was developed for the determination of trace amounts of copper in water samples. The method is based on the formation of ternary Cu(II)-CAS-CTAB ion-pair and adsorption of it into a mini-column packed with cotton prior applying inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). The experimental parameters that affected the extraction efficiency of the method such as pH, flow rate and volume of the sample solution, concentration of chromazurol S (CAS) and cethyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) as well as type and concentration of eluent were investigated and optimized. The ion-pair (Cu(II)-CAS-CTAB) was quantitatively retained on the cotton under the optimum conditions, then eluted completely using a solution of 25% (v/v) 1-propanol in 0.5 mol L(-1) HNO(3) and directly introduced into the nebulizer of the ICP-OES. The detection limit (DL) of the method for copper was 40 ng L(-1) (V(sample)=100mL) and the relative standard deviation (R.S.D.) for the determination of copper at 10 microg L(-1) level was found to be 1.3%. The method was successfully applied to determine the trace amounts of copper in tap water, deep well water, seawater and two different mineral waters, and suitable recoveries were obtained (92-106%).

  2. An evaluation of microwave-assisted fusion and microwave-assisted acid digestion methods for determining elemental impurities in carbon nanostructures using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry

    KAUST Repository

    Patole, Shashikant P.

    2015-10-21

    It is common for as-prepared carbon nanotube (CNT) and graphene samples to contain remnants of the transition metals used to catalyze their growth; contamination may also leave other trace elemental impurities in the samples. Although a full quantification of impurities in as-prepared samples of carbon nanostructures is difficult, particularly when trace elements are intercalated or encapsulated within a protective layer of graphitic carbon, reliable information is essential for reasons such as quantifying the adulteration of physico-chemical properties of the materials and for evaluating environmental issues. Here, we introduce a microwave-based fusion method to degrade single- and double-walled CNTs and graphene nanoplatelets into a fusion flux thereby thoroughly leaching all metallic impurities. Subsequent dissolution of the fusion product in diluted hydrochloric and nitric acid allowed us to identify their trace elemental impurities using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. Comparisons of the results from the proposed microwave-assisted fusion method against those of a more classical microwave-assisted acid digestion approach suggest complementarity between the two that ultimately could lead to a more reliable and less costly determination of trace elemental impurities in carbon nanostructured materials. Graphical abstract A method for the complete digestion of carbon nanostructures has been demonstrated. Photographs (on the left side) show zirconium crucibles containing SWCNTs with flux of Na2CO3 and K2CO3, before and after microwave fusion; (on the right side) the appearance of the final solutions containing dissolved samples, from microwave-assisted fusion and microwave-assisted acid digestion. These solutions were used for determining the trace elemental impurities by ICP‒OES.

  3. Separation and characterization of chemical constituents in Ginkgo biloba extract by off-line hydrophilic interaction×reversed-phase two-dimensional liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Shuai; He, Dan-Dan; Wang, Tian-Yun; Han, Jie; Li, Zheng; Du, Yan; Zou, Jia-Hui; Guo, Meng-Zhe; Tang, Dao-Quan

    2017-11-30

    Ginkgo biloba extract (GBE), derived from the leaves of Ginkgo biloba L., is one of the most widely used traditional Chinese medicines worldwide. Due to high structural diversity and low abundance of chemical constituents in GBE, conventional reversed-phase liquid chromatography has limited power to meet the needs of its quality control. In this study, an off-line hydrophilic interaction×reversed-phase two-dimensional liquid chromatography (HILIC×RP 2D-LC) system coupled with diode array detection (DAD) and quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (qTOF-MS) was established to comprehensively analyze the chemical constituents of GBE. After optimizing the chromatographic columns and mobile phase of 2D-LC, a Waters XBridge Amide column using acetonitrile/water/formic acid as the mobile phase was selected as the first dimension to fractionate GBE, and the obtained fractions were further separated on an Agilent Zorbax XDB-C18 column with methanol/water/formic acid as the mobile phase. As a result, a total of 125 compounds were detected in GBE. The orthogonality of the 2D-LC system was 69.5%, and the practical peak capacity was 3864 and 2994, respectively, calculated by two different methods. The structures of 104 compounds were tentatively characterized by qTOF-MS analysis, and 21 of them were further confirmed by comparing with reference standards. This established HILIC×RP 2D-LC-qTOF/MS system can greatly improve the separation and characterization of natural products in GBE or other complicated herbal extracts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Determination of biocides as well as some biocide metabolites from facade run-off waters by solid phase extraction and high performance liquid chromatographic separation and tandem mass spectrometry detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bester, K; Lamani, X

    2010-08-06

    Biocides are used to protect buildings, boats, and other materials from microbial infestations. A huge variety of compounds are being used: isothiazolinones, e.g., to prevent bacterial growth in paints, triazines and phenylureas against algal growth on water exposed materials while carbamates are used against fungal investations. However these biocides can be leached from the respective materials. As these are very effective compounds it is important to know the concentrations of these biocides in the leachates as well as their leaching behaviour to assess their risk to the environment. In this study, a method for the determination of biocides from facade material run-off water by means of high performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) was developed. Due to the amphiphilic character and the expected varying pH-values in the samples, the extractions as well as the HPLC-method development proved to be demanding. The water samples (leachates) were buffered with a phosphate buffer to pH 7. As some of the biocides are very hydrophilic, different SPE cartridges were tested to identify the SPE material with the highest recovery rates for all compounds. For gaining a good separation, analyte trapping was performed on the HPLC column. Quantification was performed using a mass spectrometer in multi-reaction monitoring with two transitions per compound. The final recovery rates were conducted using a cartridge with a divenylbenzyl polymer sorbent. A combination of methanol and acetonitrile as eluents was used to reach recovery rates in the range of 70-100%. The limit of quantification for the compounds of interest ranged from 0.01 to 0.1 microg/L. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Isotope dilution inductively coupled plasma quadrupole mass spectrometry in connection with a chromatographic separation for ultra trace determinations of platinum group elements (Pt, Pd, Ru, Ir) in environmental samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, M; Heumann, K G

    2000-09-01

    An isotope dilution inductively coupled plasma quadrupole mass spectrometric (ID-ICP-QMS) method was developed for the simultaneous determination of the platinum group elements Pt, Pd, Ru, and Ir in environmental samples. Spike solutions, enriched with the isotopes 194Pt, 108Pd, 99Ru, and 191Ir, were used for the isotope dilution step. Interfering elements were eliminated by chromatographic separation using an anion-exchange resin. Samples were dissolved with aqua regia in a high pressure asher. Additional dissolution of possible silicate portions by hydrofluoric acid was usually not necessary. Detection limits of 0.15 ng x g(-1), 0.075 ng x g(-1), and 0.015 ng x g(-1) were achieved for Pt, Pd, Ru, and Ir, respectively, using sample weights of only 0.2 g. The reliability of the ID-ICP-QMS method was demonstrated by analyzing a Canadian geological reference material and by participating in an interlaboratory study for the determination of platinum and palladium in a homogenized road dust sample. Surface soil, sampled at different distances from a highway, showed concentrations in the range of 0.1-87 ng x g(-1). An exponential decrease of the platinum and palladium concentration with increasing distance and a small anthropogenic contribution to the natural background concentration of ruthenium and iridium was found in these samples.

  6. MultiSimplex optimization of chromatographic separation and dansyl derivatization conditions in the ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis of risperidone, 9-hydroxyrisperidone, monoamine and amino acid neurotransmitters in human urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Hua-Lin; Zhu, Rong-Hua; Li, Huan-De; Zhang, Jun; Li, Lan-Fang

    2011-07-01

    A pre-column dansylated ultra-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method for simultaneous determination of risperidone (RIP), 9-hydroxyrisperidone (9-OH-RIP), monoamine and amino acid neurotransmitters in human urine was developed with the aim of providing data on how neurotransmitters may influence each other or change simultaneously in response to risperidone treatment. MultiSimplex based on the simplex algorithm and the fuzzy set theory was applied to the optimization of chromatographic separation and dansyl derivatization conditions during method development. This method exhibited excellent linearity for all the analytes with regression coefficients higher than 0.997. The lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) values for 9-OH-RIP and RIP were 0.11 and 0.06 ng/ml, respectively, and for neurotrasmitters ranged from 0.31 to 12.8 nM. The mean accuracy ranged from 94.7% to 108.5%. The mean recovery varied between 81.6% and 97.5%. All the RSD of precision and stability were below 9.7%. Finally, the optimized method was applied to analyze the first morning urine samples of schizophrenic patients treated with risperidone and healthy volunteers. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Atomic lithium vapor laser isotope separation

    CERN Document Server

    Olivares, I E

    2002-01-01

    An atomic vapor laser isotope separation in lithium was performed using tunable diode lasers. The method permits also the separation of the isotopes between the sup 6 LiD sub 2 and the sup 7 LiD sub 1 lines using a self-made mass separator which includes a magnetic sector and an ion beam designed for lithium. (Author)

  8. Atomic lithium vapor laser isotope separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olivares, I.E.; Rojas, C.

    2002-01-01

    An atomic vapor laser isotope separation in lithium was performed using tunable diode lasers. The method permits also the separation of the isotopes between the 6 LiD 2 and the 7 LiD 1 lines using a self-made mass separator which includes a magnetic sector and an ion beam designed for lithium. (Author)

  9. Selective Iron(III ion uptake using CuO-TiO2 nanostructure by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahman Mohammed M

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background CuO-TiO2 nanosheets (NSs, a kind of nanomaterials is one of the most attracting class of transition doped semiconductor materials due to its interesting and important optical, electrical, and structural properties and has many technical applications, such as in metal ions detection, photocatalysis, Chemi-sensors, bio-sensors, solar cells and so on. In this paper the synthesis of CuO-TiO2 nanosheets by the wet-chemically technique is reported. Methods CuO-TiO2 NSs were prepared by a wet-chemical process using reducing agents in alkaline medium and characterized by UV/vis., FT-IR spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, powder X-ray diffraction (XRD, and field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM etc. Results The structural and optical evaluation of synthesized NSs were measured by XRD pattern, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR and UV–vis spectroscopy, respectively which confirmed that the obtained NSs are well-crystalline CuO-TiO2 and possessing good optical properties. The morphological analysis of CuO-TiO2 NSs was executed by FE-SEM, which confirmed that the doped products were sheet-shaped and growth in large quantity. Here, the analytical efficiency of the NSs was applied for a selective adsorption of iron(III ion prior to detection by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES. The selectivity of NSs towards various metal ions, including Au(III, Cd(II, Co(II, Cr(III, Fe(III, Pd(II, and Zn(II was analyzed. Conclusions Based on the selectivity study, it was confirmed that the selectivity of doped NSs phase was the most towards Fe(III ion. The static adsorption capacity for Fe(III was calculated to be 110.06 mgg−1. Results from adsorption isotherm also verified that the adsorption process was mainly monolayer-adsorption onto a surface containing a finite number of CuO-TiO2 NSs adsorption sites.

  10. Total sulfur determination in gasoline, kerosene and diesel fuel using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry after direct sample introduction as detergent emulsions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santelli, Ricardo Erthal; Padua Oliveira, Eliane; Batista de Carvalho, Maria de Fatima; Almeida Bezerra, Marcos; Soares Freire, Aline

    2008-01-01

    Herein, we present the development of a procedure for the determination of total sulfur in petroleum-derived products (gasoline, kerosene and diesel fuel) employing inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP OES). For this procedure, samples were prepared as emulsions that were made using concentrated nitric acid, Triton X-100, sample, and ultra pure water in proportions of 5/10/7/78% (v/v), respectively. Sample volumes were weighed because of the density differences, and oxygen was added to the sheat gas entrance of the ICP OES in order to decrease carbon deposition in the torch and to minimize background effects. A Doehlert design was applied as an experimental matrix to investigate the flow ratios of argon (sheat and plasma gas) and oxygen in relation to the signal-to-background ratio. A comparative study among the slopes of the analytical curves built in aqueous media, surfactant/HNO 3 , and by spike addition for several sample emulsions indicates that a unique solution of surfactant in acidic media can be employed to perform the external calibration for analysis of the emulsions. The developed procedure allows for the determination of the total sulfur content in petroleum derivatives with a limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) of 0.72 and 2.4 μg g -1 , respectively. Precision values, expressed as the relative standard deviations (% RSD, n = 10) for 12 and 400 μg g -1 , were 2.2% and 1.3%, respectively. The proposed procedure was applied toward the determination of total sulfur in samples of gasoline, kerosene, and diesel fuel commercialized in the city of Niteroi/RJ, Brazil. The accuracy of the proposed method was evaluated by the determination of the total sulfur in three different standard reference materials (SRM): NIST 2723a (sulfur in diesel fuel oil), NIST 1616b (sulfur in kerosene), and NIST 2298 (sulfur in gasoline). The data indicate that the methodology can be successfully applied to these types of samples

  11. Separation of gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, C.G.

    1980-01-01

    A process for separating gaseous mixtures of molecules of different mass comprises the steps of: causing a rotational nozzle to eject a contiguous plurality of successive groups of molecules into an evacuated space, the groups mutually overlapping to form a continuous stream of the mixture in the form of an Archimedean spiral, allowing the molecules of each group of molecules to move in accordance with their thermal velocities for a predetermined period of time following ejection, thereby to allow each group of molecules to form a generally spherical configuration the outer portion of which will be enriched, in molecules of lighter mass, relative to the inner portion thereof, using a deflector means co-rotating with the rotating nozzle to deflect molecules, which have been allowed to move for the predetermined period of time in accordance with their thermal velocities, from at least one desired portion of the stream and using a stationary collector means to collect the deflected molecules. The process is described with reference to the separation of isotopes of uranium hexafluoride. (author)

  12. Apparatus for diffusion separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nierenberg, W.A.; Pontius, R.B.

    1976-01-01

    The method of testing the separation efficiency of porous permeable membranes is described which comprises causing a stream of a gaseous mixture to flow into contact with one face of a finely porous permeable membrane under such conditions that a major fraction of the mixture diffuses through the membrane, maintaining a rectangular cross section of the gaseous stream so flowing past said membrane, continuously recirculating the gas that diffuses through said membrane and continuously withdrawing the gas that does not diffuse through said membrane and maintaining the volume of said recirculating gas constant by continuously introducing into said continuously recirculating gas stream a mass of gas equivalent to that which is continuously withdrawn from said gas stream and comparing the concentrations of the light component in the entering gas, the withdrawn gas and the recirculated gas in order to determine the efficiency of said membrane

  13. Steam-water separator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modrak, T.M.; Curtis, R.W.

    1978-01-01

    The steam-water separator connected downstream of a steam generator consists of a vertical centrifugal separator with swirl blades between two concentric pipes and a cyclone separator located above. The water separated in the cyclone separator is collected in the inner tube of the centrifugal separator which is closed at the bottom. This design allows the overall height of the separator to be reduced. (DG) [de

  14. Isotope separation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wexler, Sol; Young, C.E.

    1976-01-01

    Description is given of method for separating a specific isotope from a mixture of isotopes of an actinide element present as MF 6 , wherein M is the actinide element. It comprises: preparing a feed gas mixture of MF 6 in a propellant gas; passing the feed gas mixture under pressure through an expansion nozzle while heating the mixture to about 600 0 C; releasing the heated gas mixture from the nozzle into an exhaust chamber having a reduced pressure, whereby a gas jet of MF 6 molecules, MF 6 molecular clusters and propellant gas molecules is formed, the MF 6 molecules having a translational energy of about 3 eV; converting the MF 6 molecules to MF 6 ions by passing the jet through a cross jet of electron donor atoms so that an electron transfer takes place between the MF 6 - molecules and the electron donor atoms whereby the jet is now quasi-neutral, containing negative MF 6 - ions and positive donor ions; passing the quasi-neutral jet through a radiofrequency mass filter tuned to separate the MF 6 ions containing the specific isotope from the MF 6 - ions of the other isotopes and neutralizing and collecting the MF 6 molecules of the specific isotope [fr

  15. Fictional Separation Logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jonas Buhrkal; Birkedal, Lars

    2012-01-01

    , separation means physical separation. In this paper, we introduce \\emph{fictional separation logic}, which includes more general forms of fictional separating conjunctions P * Q, where "*" does not require physical separation, but may also be used in situations where the memory resources described by P and Q...

  16. Separation Anxiety (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Separation Anxiety KidsHealth / For Parents / Separation Anxiety What's in this ... both of you get through it. About Separation Anxiety Babies adapt pretty well to other caregivers. Parents ...

  17. New separation technique. Catalytically functionated separation membrane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urgami, Tadashi [Kansai Univ., Osaka (Japan)

    1989-02-01

    This report introduces research examples, showing the fundamental principle of the membrane by separating the catalytically functionated separation membrane into enzyme fixing separation membrane, polymerized metal complex separation membrane and polymer catalyst separation membrane. This membrane can achieve both functions of separation and catalytic reaction simultaneously and has sufficient possibility to combine powerful functions. Enzyme fixing separation membrane is prepared by carrier combination method, bridging method or covering method and the enzyme fixing method with polymerized complex in which enzyme is controlled to prevent the activity lowering as much as possible and enzyme is fixed from an aqueous solution into polymer membrane. This membrane is applied to the continuous manufacturing of invert sugar from cane sugar and adsorption and removing of harmful substances from blood by utilizing both micro-capsuled urease and active carbon. Alginic acid-copper (II) complex membrane is used for the polymerized metal complex membrane and polystyrene sulfonate membrane is used for the polymer catalyst separation membrane. 28 refs., 4 figs., 1 tabs.

  18. Separation in 5 Msun Binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Nancy R.; Bond, H. E.; Schaefer, G.; Mason, B. D.; Karovska, M.; Tingle, E.

    2013-01-01

    Cepheids (5 Msun stars) provide an excellent sample for determining the binary properties of fairly massive stars. International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) observations of Cepheids brighter than 8th magnitude resulted in a list of ALL companions more massive than 2.0 Msun uniformly sensitive to all separations. Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) has resolved three of these binaries (Eta Aql, S Nor, and V659 Cen). Combining these separations with orbital data in the literature, we derive an unbiased distribution of binary separations for a sample of 18 Cepheids, and also a distribution of mass ratios. The distribution of orbital periods shows that the 5 Msun binaries prefer shorter periods than 1 Msun stars, reflecting differences in star formation processes.

  19. Controlling Separation in Turbomachines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Simon; Himmel, Christoph; Power, Bronwyn; Wakelam, Christian; Xu, Liping; Hynes, Tom; Hodson, Howard

    2010-01-01

    Four examples of flow control: 1) Passive control of LP turbine blades (Laminar separation control). 2) Aspiration of a conventional axial compressor blade (Turbulent separation control). 3) Compressor blade designed for aspiration (Turbulent separation control). 4.Control of intakes in crosswinds (Turbulent separation control).

  20. Experimental study of stable isotope separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mingsheng Zhou; Chuntong Ying; Yuguang Nie

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents some results of investigation into a gas centrifuge and gas centrifuge cascade. The chemical compounds of osmium - OsO 4 , tungsten - WF 6 and xenon were chosen for centrifugal separation, and the centrifugal technology for the separation of osmium, tungsten and xenon were developed. The separation factors for molar mass differences, γ 0 , were obtained for OsO 4 , Xe, WF 6 in a single gas centrifuge. The separation by gas centrifuge cascade has been done and some results of the investigation are shown. High abundance of 186 W (>90 %), 129 Xe (>65 %) and 192 Os (>99 %) was produced using the short cascade [ru

  1. Magnetic separation of algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nath, Pulak; Twary, Scott N.

    2016-04-26

    Described herein are methods and systems for harvesting, collecting, separating and/or dewatering algae using iron based salts combined with a magnetic field gradient to separate algae from an aqueous solution.

  2. Separation anxiety in children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001542.htm Separation anxiety in children To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Separation anxiety in children is a developmental stage in which ...

  3. Chromatographic separations of stereoisomers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souter, R.W.

    1985-01-01

    This text covers both diastereomers and enantiomers; describes techniques for GC, HPLC, and other chromatographic methods; and tabulates results of various applications by both techniques and compound class. It provides current knowledge about separation mechanisms and interactions of asymmetric molecules, as well as experimental and commercial materials such as columns, instruments, and derivatization reagents. The contents also include stereoisomer separations by gas chromatography. Stereoisomer separations by high-performance liquid chromatography. Stereoisomer separations by other chromatographic techniques.

  4. Wide angle isotope separator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kantrowitz, A.

    1976-01-01

    A method and apparatus is described for particle separation. The method uses a wide angle radially expanding vapor of a particle mixture. In particular, selective ionization of one isotope type in the particle mixture is produced in a multichamber separator and the ionized isotope type is accelerated out of the path of the vapor expansion for separate collection

  5. Steam-water separator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modrak, T.M.; Curtis, R.W.

    1978-01-01

    A two-stage steam-water separating device is introduced, where the second stage is made as a cyclone separator. The water separated here is collected in the first stage of the inner tube and is returned to the steam raising unit. (TK) [de

  6. Meniscus Membranes For Separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dye, Robert C.; Jorgensen, Betty; Pesiri, David R.

    2005-09-20

    Gas separation membranes, especially meniscus-shaped membranes for gas separations are disclosed together with the use of such meniscus-shaped membranes for applications such as thermal gas valves, pre-concentration of a gas stream, and selective pre-screening of a gas stream. In addition, a rapid screening system for simultaneously screening polymer materials for effectiveness in gas separation is provided.

  7. Meniscus membranes for separations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dye, Robert C [Irvine, CA; Jorgensen, Betty [Jemez Springs, NM; Pesiri, David R [Aliso Viejo, CA

    2004-01-27

    Gas separation membranes, especially meniscus-shaped membranes for gas separations are disclosed together with the use of such meniscus-shaped membranes for applications such as thermal gas valves, pre-concentration of a gas stream, and selective pre-screening of a gas stream. In addition, a rapid screening system for simultaneously screening polymer materials for effectiveness in gas separation is provided.

  8. Safety shutdown separators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Steven Allen; Anakor, Ifenna Kingsley; Farrell, Greg Robert

    2015-06-30

    The present invention pertains to electrochemical cells which comprise (a) an anode; (b) a cathode; (c) a solid porous separator, such as a polyolefin, xerogel, or inorganic oxide separator; and (d) a nonaqueous electrolyte, wherein the separator comprises a porous membrane having a microporous coating comprising polymer particles which have not coalesced to form a continuous film. This microporous coating on the separator acts as a safety shutdown layer that rapidly increases the internal resistivity and shuts the cell down upon heating to an elevated temperature, such as 110.degree. C. Also provided are methods for increasing the safety of an electrochemical cell by utilizing such separators with a safety shutdown layer.

  9. Acoustofluidic bacteria separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Sixing; Huang, Tony Jun; Ma, Fen; Zeng, Xiangqun; Bachman, Hunter; Cameron, Craig E

    2017-01-01

    Bacterial separation from human blood samples can help with the identification of pathogenic bacteria for sepsis diagnosis. In this work, we report an acoustofluidic device for label-free bacterial separation from human blood samples. In particular, we exploit the acoustic radiation force generated from a tilted-angle standing surface acoustic wave (taSSAW) field to separate Escherichia coli from human blood cells based on their size difference. Flow cytometry analysis of the E. coli separated from red blood cells shows a purity of more than 96%. Moreover, the label-free electrochemical detection of the separated E. coli displays reduced non-specific signals due to the removal of blood cells. Our acoustofluidic bacterial separation platform has advantages such as label-free separation, high biocompatibility, flexibility, low cost, miniaturization, automation, and ease of in-line integration. The platform can be incorporated with an on-chip sensor to realize a point-of-care sepsis diagnostic device. (paper)

  10. Acoustofluidic bacteria separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Sixing; Ma, Fen; Bachman, Hunter; Cameron, Craig E.; Zeng, Xiangqun; Huang, Tony Jun

    2017-01-01

    Bacterial separation from human blood samples can help with the identification of pathogenic bacteria for sepsis diagnosis. In this work, we report an acoustofluidic device for label-free bacterial separation from human blood samples. In particular, we exploit the acoustic radiation force generated from a tilted-angle standing surface acoustic wave (taSSAW) field to separate Escherichia coli from human blood cells based on their size difference. Flow cytometry analysis of the E. coli separated from red blood cells shows a purity of more than 96%. Moreover, the label-free electrochemical detection of the separated E. coli displays reduced non-specific signals due to the removal of blood cells. Our acoustofluidic bacterial separation platform has advantages such as label-free separation, high biocompatibility, flexibility, low cost, miniaturization, automation, and ease of in-line integration. The platform can be incorporated with an on-chip sensor to realize a point-of-care sepsis diagnostic device.

  11. Separation of short-lived fission products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamai, Tadaharu; Ohyoshi, Emiko; Ohyoshi, Akira; Kiso, Yoshiyuki; Shinagawa, Mutsuaki.

    1976-01-01

    A rbief review is presented on the various methods of separation available for both gaseous and liquid states, for the separation of short-lived fission products formed by binary fission of neutron irradiated uranium. The means available for gaseous state are the hot atom reaction, the hydride method and on-line mass separation. For liquid state, use can be made of precipitation, ionic or atomic exchange, solvent extraction and paper electrophoresis. Particular reference is made to electrophoretic separation of ions produced by fission in aqueous solution of uranium. The principle of electrophoretic separation and the procedures for separating the element of interest from the other fission products are outlined, with reference made to the results obtained with the method by the present authors. The elements in question are alkalines, alkaline earths, rare earths, halogens, selenium and

  12. Isotope separation by ion waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dawson, J.M.

    1978-01-01

    One of the isotopes of an element having several isotopes can be separated from the others in a dense, neutral plasma. Thus initially a neutral plasma is prepared including the element in question. This may consist of positive ions and negative electrons or alternatively of positive and negative ions, or else of a mixture of positive ions, negative ions and electrons. The plasma may then be injected into a magnetic field or may be generated in the field where more energy is imparted to a selected isotope than to the others. Finally, the isotopes are separated from each other on the basis of their differential energies. For example, the selected isotope may be given more energy than the others by stimulating it within the plasma at its resonant frequency which may be close to the cyclotron frequency, either by an electric field or by a magnetic field. In order to excite the other isotope, a different resonant frequency is required which depends on the plasma density, the relative concentration of electrons if the plasma contains electrons, the strength of the magnetic field, the ratio of charge to mass of the isotope, and possibly on the physical parameters of the plasma apparatus itself, such as the ratio of the length of the plasma column to its radius. The more energetic isotope may be separated by energy dependent chemical reactions, it may be collected by a positively biased probe or else the isotopes may be separated from each other by magnetic fields or in various other ways

  13. Isotope separation by magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dawson, J.M.

    1978-01-01

    One of the isotopes of an element having several isotopes can be separated from the others in a dense, neutral plasma. Thus initially a neutral plasma is prepared including the element in question. This may consist of positive ions and negative electrons or alternatively of positive and negative ions, or else of a mixture of positive ions, negative ions and electrons. The plasma may then be injected into a magnetic field or may be generated in the field where more energy is imparted to a selected isotope than to the others. Finally, the isotopes are separated from each other on the basis of their differential energies. For example, the selected isotope may be given more energy than the others by stimulating it within the plasma at its resonant frequency which may be close to the cyclotron frequency, either by an electric field or by a magnetic field. In order to excite the other isotope, a different resonant frequency is required which depends on the plasma density, the relative concentration of electrons if the plasma contains electrons, the strength of the magnetic field, the ratio of charge to mass of the isotope, and possibly on the physical parameters of the plasma apparatus itself, such as the ratio of the length of the plasma column to its radius. The more energetic isotope may be separated by energy dependent chemical reactions, it may be collected by a positively biased probe or else the isotopes may be separated from each other by magnetic fields or in various other ways

  14. Fragment separator momentum compression schemes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bandura, Laura, E-mail: bandura@anl.gov [Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB), 1 Cyclotron, East Lansing, MI 48824-1321 (United States); National Superconducting Cyclotron Lab, Michigan State University, 1 Cyclotron, East Lansing, MI 48824-1321 (United States); Erdelyi, Bela [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Northern Illinois University, DeKalb, IL 60115 (United States); Hausmann, Marc [Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB), 1 Cyclotron, East Lansing, MI 48824-1321 (United States); Kubo, Toshiyuki [RIKEN Nishina Center, RIKEN, Wako (Japan); Nolen, Jerry [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Portillo, Mauricio [Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB), 1 Cyclotron, East Lansing, MI 48824-1321 (United States); Sherrill, Bradley M. [National Superconducting Cyclotron Lab, Michigan State University, 1 Cyclotron, East Lansing, MI 48824-1321 (United States)

    2011-07-21

    We present a scheme to use a fragment separator and profiled energy degraders to transfer longitudinal phase space into transverse phase space while maintaining achromatic beam transport. The first order beam optics theory of the method is presented and the consequent enlargement of the transverse phase space is discussed. An interesting consequence of the technique is that the first order mass resolving power of the system is determined by the first dispersive section up to the energy degrader, independent of whether or not momentum compression is used. The fragment separator at the Facility for Rare Isotope Beams is a specific application of this technique and is described along with simulations by the code COSY INFINITY.

  15. Fragment separator momentum compression schemes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bandura, Laura; Erdelyi, Bela; Hausmann, Marc; Kubo, Toshiyuki; Nolen, Jerry; Portillo, Mauricio; Sherrill, Bradley M.

    2011-01-01

    We present a scheme to use a fragment separator and profiled energy degraders to transfer longitudinal phase space into transverse phase space while maintaining achromatic beam transport. The first order beam optics theory of the method is presented and the consequent enlargement of the transverse phase space is discussed. An interesting consequence of the technique is that the first order mass resolving power of the system is determined by the first dispersive section up to the energy degrader, independent of whether or not momentum compression is used. The fragment separator at the Facility for Rare Isotope Beams is a specific application of this technique and is described along with simulations by the code COSY INFINITY.

  16. The Point Mass Concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lehnert B.

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A point-mass concept has been elaborated from the equations of the gravitational field. One application of these deductions results in a black hole configuration of the Schwarzschild type, having no electric charge and no angular momentum. The critical mass of a gravitational collapse with respect to the nuclear binding energy is found to be in the range of 0.4 to 90 solar masses. A second application is connected with the spec- ulation about an extended symmetric law of gravitation, based on the options of positive and negative mass for a particle at given positive energy. This would make masses of equal polarity attract each other, while masses of opposite polarity repel each other. Matter and antimatter are further proposed to be associated with the states of positive and negative mass. Under fully symmetric conditions this could provide a mechanism for the separation of antimatter from matter at an early stage of the universe.

  17. The Point Mass Concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lehnert B.

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A point-mass concept has been elaborated from the equations of the gravitational field. One application of these deductions results in a black hole configuration of the Schwarzschild type, having no electric charge and no angular momentum. The critical mass of a gravitational collapse with respect to the nuclear binding energy is found to be in the range of 0.4 to 90 solar masses. A second application is connected with the speculation about an extended symmetric law of gravitation, based on the options of positive and negative mass for a particle at given positive energy. This would make masses of equal polarity attract each other, while masses of opposite polarity repel each other. Matter and antimatter are further proposed to be associated with the states of positive and negative mass. Under fully symmetric conditions this could provide a mechanism for the separation of antimatter from matter at an early stage of the universe.

  18. Combined cation-exchange and extraction chromatographic method of pre-concentration and concomitant separation of Cu(II) with high molecular mass liquid cation exchanger after its online detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, B; Roy, U S; Datta, D; Ghosh, N

    2011-08-19

    A selective method has been developed for the extraction chromatographic trace level separation of Cu(II) with Versatic 10 (liquid cation exchanger) coated on silanised silica gel (SSG-V10). Cu(II) has been extracted from 0.1M acetate buffer at the range of pH 4.0-5.5. The effects of foreign ions, pH, flow-rate, stripping agents on extraction and elution have been investigated. Exchange capacity of the prepared exchanger at different temperatures with respect to Cu(II) has been determined. The extraction equilibrium constant (K(ex)) and different standard thermodynamic parameters have also been calculated by temperature variation method. Positive value of ΔH (7.98 kJ mol⁻¹) and ΔS (0.1916 kJ mol⁻¹) and negative value of ΔG (-49.16 kJ mol⁻¹) indicated that the process was endothermic, entropy gaining and spontaneous. Preconcentration factor was optimized at 74.7 ± 0.2 and the desorption constants K(desorption)¹(1.4 × 10⁻²) and K(desorption)²(9.8 × 10⁻²) were determined. The effect of pH on R(f) values in ion exchange paper chromatography has been investigated. In order to investigate the sorption isotherm, two equilibrium models, the Freundlich and Langmuir isotherms, were analyzed. Cu(II) has been separated from synthetic binary and multi-component mixtures containing various metal ions associated with it in ores and alloy samples. The method effectively permits sequential separation of Cu(II) from synthetic quaternary mixture containing its congeners Bi(III), Sn(II), Hg(II) and Cu(II), Cd(II), Pb(II) of same analytical group. The method was found effective for the selective detection, removal and recovery of Cu(II) from industrial waste and standard alloy samples following its preconcentration on the column. A plausible mechanism for the extraction of Cu(II) has been suggested. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Metrics for comparing plasma mass filters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fetterman, Abraham J.; Fisch, Nathaniel J. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08540 (United States)

    2011-10-15

    High-throughput mass separation of nuclear waste may be useful for optimal storage, disposal, or environmental remediation. The most dangerous part of nuclear waste is the fission product, which produces most of the heat and medium-term radiation. Plasmas are well-suited to separating nuclear waste because they can separate many different species in a single step. A number of plasma devices have been designed for such mass separation, but there has been no standardized comparison between these devices. We define a standard metric, the separative power per unit volume, and derive it for three different plasma mass filters: the plasma centrifuge, Ohkawa filter, and the magnetic centrifugal mass filter.

  20. Metrics for comparing plasma mass filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fetterman, Abraham J.; Fisch, Nathaniel J.

    2011-01-01

    High-throughput mass separation of nuclear waste may be useful for optimal storage, disposal, or environmental remediation. The most dangerous part of nuclear waste is the fission product, which produces most of the heat and medium-term radiation. Plasmas are well-suited to separating nuclear waste because they can separate many different species in a single step. A number of plasma devices have been designed for such mass separation, but there has been no standardized comparison between these devices. We define a standard metric, the separative power per unit volume, and derive it for three different plasma mass filters: the plasma centrifuge, Ohkawa filter, and the magnetic centrifugal mass filter.

  1. Development of a coupled diffusion denuder system combined with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry for the separation and quantification of molecular iodine and the activated iodine compounds iodine monochloride and hypoiodous acid in the marine atmosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ru-Jin; Hoffmann, Thorsten

    2009-03-01

    This study concerns the development of a coupled diffusion denuder system capable of separating and quantifying gaseous molecular iodine (I(2)) and two other highly reactive iodine species, ICl and HOI, which are collectively named activated iodine compounds (AIC). Both I(2) and AIC are key species in the atmospheric chemistry of iodine. 1,3,5-Trimethoxybenzene (1,3,5-TMB)- and alpha-cyclodextrin/(129)I(-) (alpha-CD/(129)I(-))-coated denuders proved to be suitable for the collection of gaseous AIC and I(2), respectively. The experimental collection efficiencies for AIC (tested as ICl) and I(2) agreed well with the theoretical values for gas flow rates in the range between 300 and 1800 mL min(-1). The coupled denuder system (1,3,5-TMB-coated denuder as front-denuder coupled upstream of an alpha-CD/(129)I(-)-coated denuder) was applied successfully to separate test gas mixtures of ICl and I(2) at various mixing ratios in the laboratory. The operation of both denuder systems was demonstrated to be independent of relative humidity (0-100%) and storage period (at least 2 weeks prior to and after sampling). Detection limits were achieved at sub-parts-per-trillion-by-volume (sub-pptv) level. The presented method provides a reliable and practical approach for the speciation of gaseous iodine compounds. In addition, we report for the first time ambient air measurements of AIC mixing ratios, carried out at the atmospheric research station in Mace Head, Ireland. A maximum concentration of AIC of 30.2 pptv was observed for nighttime measurements and 6.0 pptv for daytime measurements. A similar diurnal pattern was found for I(2) with an average concentration level of 23.2 pptv during daytime and 85.1 pptv during nighttime, indicating a strong correlation with AIC.

  2. Method for separating isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jepson, B.E.

    1976-01-01

    The invention comprises a method for separating different isotopes of elements from each other by contacting a feed solution containing the different isotopes with a macrocyclic polyether to preferentially form a macrocyclic polyether complex with the lighter of the different isotopes. The macrocyclic polyether complex is then separated from the lighter isotope depleted feed solution. A chemical separation of isotopes is carried out in which a constant refluxing system permits a continuous countercurrent liquid-liquid extraction. (LL)

  3. Exogenous vs. Endogenous Separation

    OpenAIRE

    Ramey, Garey

    2008-01-01

    This paper assesses how various approaches to modelling the separation margin a¤ect the ability of the Mortensen-Pissarides job matching model to explain key facts about the aggregate labor market. Allowing for realistic time variation in the separation rate, whether exogenous or endogenous, greatly in- creases the unemployment variability generated by the model. Speci…cations with exogenous separation rates, whether constant or time-varying, fail to pro- duce realistic volatility and prod...

  4. Method for separating isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlenker, R.F.

    1978-01-01

    A vortex tube for separating isotopes is described. A gas mixture containing the isotopic molecules enters the vortex tube under pressure and is separated into a hot discharge flow stream and a cold discharge flow stream. The hot discharge is enriched in lighter isotopic molecules whereas the cold discharge flow stream is enriched in the heavier isotopic molecules. The vortex tube can be used in a single stage or multistage isotope separation apparatus

  5. Centrifugal gas separator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakurai, M

    1970-03-27

    A centrifugal gas separator of a highly endurable construction and with improved gas sealing qualities utilizes a cylincrical elastic bellows or similar system in cooperation with a system of dynamic pressure operable gas seals as means for removing separated gases from the interior of the rotor drum, collecting the separated gases in their respective separated gas chambers defined by the corresponding bellows and their supporting stationary wall members, gas seals and rotor end caps, and means for discharging to the exterior of the surrounding cylindrical wall member the gaseous components from their respective separated gas chambers. In the vicinity of the rotary drum motor is a mixed gas chamber and means for providing the gas mixture along a co-axial passage into the rotary drum chamber. Orifices are bored into the end caps of the rotary drum to direct the separated gases into the aforementioned separated gas chambers which, through the action of the gas seals, freely slide upon the rotating drum to collect and thereafter discharge the thus separated gases. Therefore, according to the present invention, helium gas used to prevent separated gas remixture is unnecessary and, furthermore, the gas seals and elastic bellows means provide an air-tight seal superior to that of the contact sealing system of the former art.

  6. Entrainment separator performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    First, M.W.; Leith, D.

    1976-01-01

    Clean and dust-loaded ACS entrainment separators mounted upstream of HEPA filters were exposed to a combination of fine water mist and steam at about 70 0 C from one to four hours. In every trial, the ACS entrainment separator prevented measurable deterioration of performance in the following HEPA filter. Droplet size-efficiency evaluation of the ACS entrainment separators showed that, within the accuracy of the measurements, they meet all service requirements and are fully equal to the best separator units available for service on pressurized water reactors

  7. Centrifugal gas separator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakurai, Mitsuo.

    1970-01-01

    A centrifugal gas separator of a highly endurable construction and with improved gas sealing qualities utilizes a cylincrical elastic bellows or similar system in cooperation with a system of dynamic pressure operable gas seals as means for removing separated gases from the interior of the rotor drum, collecting the separated gases in their respective separated gas chambers defined by the corresponding bellows and their supporting stationary wall members, gas seals and rotor end caps, and means for discharging to the exterior of the surrounding cylindrical wall member the gaseous components from their respective separated gas chambers. In the vicinity of the rotary drum motor is a mixed gas chamber and means for providing the gas mixture along a co-axial passage into the rotary drum chamber. Orifices are bored into the end caps of the rotary drum to direct the separated gases into the aforementioned separated gas chambers which, through the action of the gas seals, freely slide upon the rotating drum to collect and thereafter discharge the thus separated gases. Therefore, according to the present invention, helium gas used to prevent separated gas remixture is unnecessary and, furthermore, the gas seals and elastic bellows means provide an air-tight seal superior to that of the contact sealing system of the former art. (K.J. Owens)

  8. Separation of flow

    CERN Document Server

    Chang, Paul K

    2014-01-01

    Interdisciplinary and Advanced Topics in Science and Engineering, Volume 3: Separation of Flow presents the problem of the separation of fluid flow. This book provides information covering the fields of basic physical processes, analyses, and experiments concerning flow separation.Organized into 12 chapters, this volume begins with an overview of the flow separation on the body surface as discusses in various classical examples. This text then examines the analytical and experimental results of the laminar boundary layer of steady, two-dimensional flows in the subsonic speed range. Other chapt

  9. Fermion mass hierarchies in theories of technicolor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peskin, M.E.

    1981-01-01

    Models in which light fermion masses result from dynamical symmetry breaking often produce these masses in a hierarchial pattern. The author exhibits two scenarios for obtaining such hierarchies and illustrates each with a simple model of mass generation. In the first scenario, the light fermion masses are separated by powers of a weak coupling constant; in the second scenario, they are separated by a ratio of large mass scales

  10. Trends in Supersonic Separator design development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Altam Rami Ali

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Supersonic separator is a new technology with applications in hydrocarbon dew pointing and gas dehydration which can be used to condensate and separate water and heavy hydrocarbons from natural gas. Many researchers have studied the design, performance and efficiency, economic viability, and industrial applications of these separators. The purpose of this paper is to succinctly review recent progress in the design and application of supersonic separators and their limitations. This review has found that while several aspects of this study are well studied, considerable gaps within the published literature still exists in the areas such as turndown flexibility which is a critical requirement to cater for variation of mass flow and since almost all the available designs have a fixed geometry and therefore cannot be considered suitable for variable mass flow rate, which is a common situation in actual site. Hence, the focus needs to be more on designing a flexible geometry that can maintain a high separation efficiency regardless of inlet conditions and mass flow variations. This review is focusing only on the design and application of the supersonic separators without going through the experimental facilities, industrial platform, pilot plants as well as theoretical, analytical, and numerical modelling.

  11. Separation of ionic solutes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    The conference proceedings contain 44 papers of which 19 were incorporated in INIS. The subject of these is the use of solvent extraction or emulsion membrane extraction for separation of fission products, rare earth compounds and actinide compunds; the sorption of radionuclides; and the use of adsorbents and chelating agents in separation processes. (J.P.)

  12. Process for isotope separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuster, E.; Kersting, A.; Gebauhr, W.

    1980-01-01

    Isotope separation in UF 6 gas takes place on the principle of selective excitation by laser irradiation and separation by chemical conversion with a partner in a reaction. Atomic H, N or O or the CH 3 or CHO radicals are suitable partners in the reaction. The recombination takes place by catalytic acceleration on leaving the reaction area. (DG) [de

  13. Separation of uranium isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porter, J.T.

    1980-01-01

    Methods and apparatus are disclosed for separation of uranium isotopes by selective isotopic excitation of photochemically reactive uranyl salt source material at cryogenic temperatures, followed by chemical separation of selectively photochemically reduced U+4 thereby produced from remaining uranyl source material

  14. Isotope separation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyon, R.K.

    1979-01-01

    A method is described for the isotopically selective excitation of gas phase molecules by multiple infrared photon absorption after which more of the excited molecules than nonexcited molecules are converted to a chemically different form which may be separated by means known in the art. This invention is useful for, but not limited to, the separation of the principal isotopes of uranium

  15. Separation anxiety disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nauta, M.H.; Emmelkamp, P.M.G.; Sturmey, P.; Hersen, M.

    2012-01-01

    Separation anxiety disorder (SAD) is the only anxiety disorder that is specific to childhood; however, SAD has hardly ever been addressed as a separate disorder in clinical trials investigating treatment outcome. So far, only parent training has been developed specifically for SAD. This particular

  16. Method for separating isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jepson, B.E.

    1975-01-01

    Isotopes are separated by contacting a feed solution containing the isotopes with a cyclic polyether wherein a complex of one isotope is formed with the cyclic polyether, the cyclic polyether complex is extracted from the feed solution, and the isotope is thereafter separated from the cyclic polyether

  17. Neutron separation energies of Zr isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomes, L.C.; Dietzsch, O.

    1976-01-01

    Q values are reported for (d,t) reactions on all the stable isotopes of zirconium. The neutron separation energies of 94 Zr and 96 Zr differ greatly (by 27.5 and 22.1 keV, respectively) from the values in the 1971 Atomic Mass Evaluation. These results combined with those from other authors seem to indicate that the 1971 values for the masses of 93 Zr and 95 Zr are in error. (orig.) [de

  18. On-line complexation/cloud point preconcentration for the sensitive determination of dysprosium in urine by flow injection inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortega, Claudia; Cerutti, Soledad; Silva, Maria F.; Olsina, Roberto A.; Martinez, Luis D.

    2003-01-01

    An on-line dysprosium preconcentration and determination system based on the hyphenation of cloud point extraction (CPE) to flow injection analysis (FIA) associated with ICP-OES was studied. For the preconcentration of dysprosium, a Dy(III)-2-(5-bromo-2-pyridylazo)-5-diethylaminophenol complex was formed on-line at pH 9.22 in the presence of nonionic micelles of PONPE-7.5. The micellar system containing the complex was thermostated at 30 C in order to promote phase separation, and the surfactant-rich phase was retained in a microcolumn packed with cotton at pH 9.2. The surfactant-rich phase was eluted with 4 mol L -1 nitric acid at a flow rate of 1.5 mL min -1 , directly in the nebulizer of the plasma. An enhancement factor of 50 was obtained for the preconcentration of 50 mL of sample solution. The detection limit value for the preconcentration of 50 mL of aqueous solution of Dy was 0.03 μg L -1 . The precision for 10 replicate determinations at the 2.0 μg L -1 Dy level was 2.2% relative standard deviation (RSD), calculated from the peak heights obtained. The calibration graph using the preconcentration system for dysprosium was linear with a correlation coefficient of 0.9994 at levels near the detection limits up to at least 100 μg L -1 . The method was successfully applied to the determination of dysprosium in urine. (orig.)

  19. Realization of an electromagnetic isotope separator. Application to the isotopes of the mass 93 from the molybdenum and the technetium; Realisation d'un separateur electromagnetique d'isotope. Application a l'etude des isotopes de masse 93 du molybdene et du technetium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernas, R [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1954-07-15

    Analysis of focusing properties of a homogeneous magnetic field leads the author to use a magnetic sector of 60 deg, for the realization of an electromagnetic separator. The sources of realized ions provide ionic debits of 10 mA. The currents ionic detached isotopes to the collector vary from 1 to 5 mA. The separation efficiency is of 125 for a current collected of 1 mA. A survey of the neutralization of the space charge permitted to specify the role of the negative ions in this phenomenon. A method of neutralization of the space charge is proposed and gave excellent results. A report will be given of the separations of some elements: mercury, bromine, thorium, etc... The application of the separator to the study of the isomeric transfers in the molybdenum and the technetium permitted to assign definitely for {sup 93}Mo and {sup 93}Tc two radiances {gamma} of respective energies 260 and 390 keV. A new process of fast chemical separation Mo/Tc is described. (author) [French] L'analyse des proprietes de focalisation d'un champ magnetique homogene conduit l'auteur, pour la realisation d'un separateur electromagnetique, a employer un secteur magnetique de 60 deg. Les sources d'ions realisees fournissent des debits ioniques de 10 mA. Les courants ioniques d'isotopes separes au collecteur varient de 1 a 5 mA. Le pouvoir separateur est de 125 pour un courant collecte de 1 mA. Une etude de la neutralisation de la charge d'espace a permis de preciser le role des ions negatifs dans ce phenomene. Une methode de neutralisation de la charge d'espace est proposee et a donne d'excellents resultats. On donne le compte rendu des separations de quelques elements: mercure, brome, thorium, etc... L'application du separateur a l'etude des translations isomeriques dans le molybdene et le technetium a permis d'attribuer definitivement a {sup 93}Mo et a {sup 93}Tc deux rayonnements {gamma} d'energies respectives 260 et 390 keV. Un nouveau procede de separation chimique rapide Mo c est

  20. Realization of an electromagnetic isotope separator. Application to the isotopes of the mass 93 from the molybdenum and the technetium; Realisation d'un separateur electromagnetique d'isotope. Application a l'etude des isotopes de masse 93 du molybdene et du technetium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernas, R. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1954-07-15

    Analysis of focusing properties of a homogeneous magnetic field leads the author to use a magnetic sector of 60 deg, for the realization of an electromagnetic separator. The sources of realized ions provide ionic debits of 10 mA. The currents ionic detached isotopes to the collector vary from 1 to 5 mA. The separation efficiency is of 125 for a current collected of 1 mA. A survey of the neutralization of the space charge permitted to specify the role of the negative ions in this phenomenon. A method of neutralization of the space charge is proposed and gave excellent results. A report will be given of the separations of some elements: mercury, bromine, thorium, etc... The application of the separator to the study of the isomeric transfers in the molybdenum and the technetium permitted to assign definitely for {sup 93}Mo and {sup 93}Tc two radiances {gamma} of respective energies 260 and 390 keV. A new process of fast chemical separation Mo/Tc is described. (author) [French] L'analyse des proprietes de focalisation d'un champ magnetique homogene conduit l'auteur, pour la realisation d'un separateur electromagnetique, a employer un secteur magnetique de 60 deg. Les sources d'ions realisees fournissent des debits ioniques de 10 mA. Les courants ioniques d'isotopes separes au collecteur varient de 1 a 5 mA. Le pouvoir separateur est de 125 pour un courant collecte de 1 mA. Une etude de la neutralisation de la charge d'espace a permis de preciser le role des ions negatifs dans ce phenomene. Une methode de neutralisation de la charge d'espace est proposee et a donne d'excellents resultats. On donne le compte rendu des separations de quelques elements: mercure, brome, thorium, etc... L'application du separateur a l'etude des translations isomeriques dans le molybdene et le technetium a permis d'attribuer definitivement a {sup 93}Mo et a {sup 93}Tc deux rayonnements {gamma} d'energies respectives 260 et 390

  1. Isotope separation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, D.M.; Maas, E.T.

    1982-01-01

    Processes are disclosed for the separation of isotopes of an element comprising vaporizing uranyl compounds having the formula (UO2a2)n, where a is a monovalent anion and n in an integer from 2 to 4, the compounds having an isotopically shifted infrared absorption spectrum associated with uranyl ions containing said element which is to be separated, and then irradiating the uranyl compound with infrared radiation which is preferentially absorbed by a molecular vibration of uranyl ions of the compound containing a predetermined isotope of that element so that excited molecules of the compound are provided which are enriched in the molecules of the compound containing that predetermined isotope, thus enabling separation of these excited molecules. The processes disclosed include separation of the excited molecules by irradiating under conditions such that the excited molecules dissociate, and also separating the excited molecules by a discrete separation step. The latter includes irradiating the excited molecules by a second infrared laser in order to convert the excited molecules into a separable product, or also by chemically converting the excited molecules, preferably by reaction with a gaseous reactant

  2. Deuterium isotope separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benson, S.W.

    1979-01-01

    Deuterium-containing molecules are separated and enriched by exposing commercially available ethylene, vinyl chloride, 1,2-dichloroethane or propylene to the radiation of tuned infrared lasers to selectively decompose these compounds into enriched molecular products containing deuterium atoms. The deuterium containing molecules can be easily separated from the starting material by absorption, distillation or other simple chemical separation techniques and methods. After evaporation such deuterium containing molecules can be burned to form water with an enriched deuterium content or pyrolyzed to form hydrogen gas with an enriched deuterium content. (author)

  3. Chromatographic hydrogen isotope separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aldridge, F.T.

    1983-01-01

    Intermetallic compounds with the CaCu5 type of crystal structure, particularly LaNiCo and CaNi5, exhibit high separation factors and fast equilibrium times and therefore are useful for packing a chromatographic hydrogen isotope separation column. The addition of an inert metal to dilute the hydride improves performance of the column. A large scale multi-stage chromatographic separation process run as a secondary process off a hydrogen feedstream from an industrial plant which uses large volumes of hydrogen can produce large quantities of heavy water at an effective cost for use in heavy water reactors

  4. Chromatographic hydrogen isotope separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aldridge, F.T.

    1981-01-01

    Intermetallic compounds with the CaCu5 type of crystal structure , particularly LaNiCo and CaNi5, exhibit high separation factors and fast equilibrium times and therefore are useful for packing a chromatographic hydrogen isotope separation colum. The addition of an inert metal to dilute the hydride improves performance of the column. A large scale mutli-stage chromatographic separation process run as a secondary process off a hydrogen feedstream from an industrial plant which uses large volumes of hydrogen can produce large quantities of heavy water at an effective cost for use in heavy water reactors

  5. Magnetic separations in biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borlido, L; Azevedo, A M; Roque, A C A; Aires-Barros, M R

    2013-12-01

    Magnetic separations are probably one of the most versatile separation processes in biotechnology as they are able to purify cells, viruses, proteins and nucleic acids directly from crude samples. The fast and gentle process in combination with its easy scale-up and automation provide unique advantages over other separation techniques. In the midst of this process are the magnetic adsorbents tailored for the envisioned target and whose complex synthesis spans over multiple fields of science. In this context, this article reviews both the synthesis and tailoring of magnetic adsorbents for bioseparations as well as their ultimate application. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. A generic approach for expanding homolog-targeted residue screening of sulfonamides using a fast matrix separation and class-specific fragmentation-dependent acquisition with a hybrid quadrupole-linear ion trap mass spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Chunlin; Guo Bin; Wang Xiaoying; Li Jie; Zhu Weitao; Chen Bo; Ouyang Shan; Yao Shouzhuo

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Generic homolog-targeted screening approach for multi-residual sulfonamide analogs. ► Single-tube extraction/partitioning-multifunction adsorption cleanup for direct injection. ► Class-specific fragmentation for expanding coverage of N 4 -acetyl and N-OH metabolites. ► PreS–IDA–EPI in LC–QqLIT for simultaneous screening and confirmation of real samples. - Abstract: A generic and efficient homolog-targeted approach was used to expand screening and detection of target class of sulfonamides and structural analogs, based on a fast single-tube extraction/partitioning-multifunction adsorption cleanup (SEP/MAC) for class-specific fragmentation-dependent acquisition with a liquid chromatography–hybrid triple-quadrupole linear ion trap mass spectrometer (LC–QqLIT). By combining the two-stage process conducted in a single tube as one-pot protocol, the straightforward SEP/MAC procedure was optimized to offer clean extracts with reasonable recovery (71–109% with RSDs 4 -acetyl and hydroxylamine metabolites plus their possible dimers. Moreover, the PreS-triggered automatically enhanced product ion spectral acquisition enabled simultaneous screening, profiling and confirmation of an unlimited number of analytes belonging to the sulfonamide class within a single analysis. The validation and application results of the generic SEP/MAC-based LC–QqLIT strategy consistently demonstrated favorable performances with acceptable accuracy (67–116%), precision (RSDs −1 ) to meet the acceptance criteria for all the sulfonamide–tissue combinations. Thus, the integration of the matrix-independent SEP/MAC procedure and the multiparameter matching algorithm with the unit-resolution LC–QqLIT instrument can serve as a valuable semi-targeted discovery strategy for rapid screening and reliable quantitative/confirmatory analysis of real samples.

  7. Separations by centrifugal phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, H.W.

    1981-01-01

    The technical information presented herein emphasizes the uniqueness of the centrifugal separations methodology and pertinent theory for various kinds of centrifugation. The topics are arranged according to gas, liquid, and solid phases, in the order of increasing densities. Much space is devoted to liquid centrifugation because of the importance of this technique in chemical and biological laboratories. Many separational and characterizational examples are illustrated in detail. The material has been divided into 7 chapters entitled: 1) Introduction, 2) Basic Theory of Centrifugation, 3) Gas Centrifuges, 4) Preparative Liquid Centrifuges, 5) Analytical Liquid Centrifuges, 6) Liquid Centrifuges in Practice, and 7) Mechanical Separations by Centrifuges. Separate abstracts have been prepared for each chapter except the introduction

  8. Partially separable t matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasakawa, T.; Okuno, H.; Ishikawa, S.; Sawada, T.

    1982-01-01

    The off-shell t matrix is expressed as a sum of one nonseparable and one separable terms so that it is useful for applications to more-than-two body problems. All poles are involved in this one separable term. Both the nonseparable and the separable terms of the kernel G 0 t are regular at the origin. The nonseparable term of this kernel vanishes at large distances, while the separable term behaves asymptotically as the spherical Hankel function. These properties make our expression free from defects inherent in the Jost or the K-matrix expressions, and many applications are anticipated. As the application, a compact expression of the many-level formula is presented. Also the application is suggested to the breakup threebody problem based on the Faddeev equation. It is demonstrated that the breakup amplitude is expressed in a simple and physically interesting form and we can calculate it in coordinate space

  9. Separation by solvent extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holt, C.H. Jr.

    1976-01-01

    In a process for separating fission product values from U and Pu values contained in an aqueous solution, an oxidizing agent is added to the solution to secure U and Pu in their hexavalent state. The aqueous solution is contacted with a substantially water-immiscible organic solvent with agitation while the temperature is maintained at from -1 to -2 0 C until the major part of the water present is frozen. The solid ice phase is continuously separated as it is formed and a remaining aqueous liquid phase containing fission product values and a solvent phase containing Pu and U values are separated from each other. The last obtained part of the ice phase is melted and added to the separated liquid phase. The resulting liquid is treated with a new supply of solvent whereby it is practically depleted of U and Pu

  10. CHROMATOGRAPHIC SEPARATION AND SPECTRO ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Four different fractions having colours yellow, grey, orange and ... Two different dyes vis a vis: methylene blue and malachite green dyes have been separated .... hydrogen carbonate of alkaline and alkaline earth metals in the samples.

  11. Electrolytic dissolution of aluminium alloys (chip form) and mullet-element determination by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grigoletto, Tania

    2001-01-01

    Several aluminum alloys with different chip's size were dissolved using aqua regia (HCl:HN0 3 ,3:1). The residues of the dissolution procedure were either rejected or used in silicon volatilization with hydrofluoric acid before determination of Fe, Cu, Mn, Mg, Cr, Ni, Zn, Pb, Sn, Ti and Zr by ICP-OES. The influence caused by crescent amounts of aluminum in the determination of other elements and the probable spectral interference by Cu in determination of Zn (with or without electrolytic separation of Cu) was evaluated. The electrolytic dissolution of aluminum alloys was performed by pressing chips against a platinum electrode for the electrolysis to occur, so that way the chips behaved as the anode. A tube (body of syringe of 2.5 mL) with perforations around the open base was used to contain the sample and Pt electrode. The alloy was placed on synthetic wool (perlon) in this tube. An acrylic dowel with a platinum wire across its interior was fixed in the superior part a tube with Teflon film, with an orifice through which the electrolytic solution flowed (HNO 3 1 mol L -1 ; 4.5 mL min -1 ). A platinum dish was fixed at the inferior extremity of the platinum wire to press the sample. The solution came out through the inferior orifices of the tube to a flask, from where it was again captured (with a peristaltic pump) to go into the superior part of the tube. In this flask, a Pt wire cathode was also placed. A current of 0.6 A and ten minutes of electrolysis provided good results. Due to the partial dissolution, the knowledge of percentages of previous elements analyzed after total dissolution, or using certified reference material are necessary. The results were normalized by knowledge percentages. The calculations were made by the ratio between the concentration of the element determined, with the determined concentration of aluminum; the ratio between concentration of the element and the sum of the concentrations of the elements determined, including Al; the ratio

  12. Separation of lanthanides through hydroxyapatite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia M, F.G.

    2006-01-01

    With the objective of obtaining from an independent way to each one of the lanthanides 151 Pm, 161 Tb, 166 Ho and 177 Lu free of carrier and with high specific activities starting from the indirect irradiation via, it intends in this work to determine the viability of separation of the couples Nd/Pm, Dy/Ho, Gd/Tb and Yb/Lu, by means of ion exchange column chromatography, using hydroxyapatite (HAp) and fluorite like absorbent material in complexing media. It is important to mention that have registered separation studies among lanthanides of the heavy group with those of the slight group, using the same mass and, in comparison with this work, quantities different from the father were used and of the son, also, that the separation studies were carried out among neighboring lanthanides. In this investigation, it was determined the effect that its have the complexing media: KSCN, sodium tartrate, sodium citrate, EDTA and aluminon, their pH and concentration, in the adsorption of the lanthanides in both minerals, in order to determine the chromatographic conditions for separation of the couples Nd/Pm, Dy/Ho, Gd/Tb and Yb/Lu. The work consists of five chapters, in the first one they are presented a theoretical introduction of the characteristics more important of the lanthanides, the hydroxyapatite and the fluorite; in the second, it is deepened in the ion exchange, as well as the two techniques (XRD and High Vacuum Electron Microscopy) to make the characterization of LnCI 3 (Ln = Nd, Gd, Dy or Yb) synthesized. The third chapter, it describes the methodology continued in our experimental work; in the room, its are presented the obtained results of the static and dynamic method to determine the viability of separation of neighboring lanthanides; and finally, the five chapter shows the conclusions. In this study, it is concludes that the separation among neighboring lanthanides cannot be carried out in the minerals and used media; because practically these lanthanides

  13. A generic approach for expanding homolog-targeted residue screening of sulfonamides using a fast matrix separation and class-specific fragmentation-dependent acquisition with a hybrid quadrupole-linear ion trap mass spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang Chunlin [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, School of Pharmacy and Life Science, University of South China, Hengyang 421001 (China); Guo Bin, E-mail: binnguo@126.com [Key Laboratory of Chemical Biology and Traditional Chinese Medicine Research (Ministry of Education of China), Hunan Normal University, Changsha 410081 (China); Wang Xiaoying [Key Laboratory of Chemical Biology and Traditional Chinese Medicine Research (Ministry of Education of China), Hunan Normal University, Changsha 410081 (China); Li Jie [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, School of Pharmacy and Life Science, University of South China, Hengyang 421001 (China); Zhu Weitao; Chen Bo [Key Laboratory of Chemical Biology and Traditional Chinese Medicine Research (Ministry of Education of China), Hunan Normal University, Changsha 410081 (China); Ouyang Shan [Food Inspection and Quarantine Center, Shenzhen Entry-Exit Inspection and Quarantine Bureau of the People' s Republic of China, Shenzhen 518067 (China); Yao Shouzhuo [Key Laboratory of Chemical Biology and Traditional Chinese Medicine Research (Ministry of Education of China), Hunan Normal University, Changsha 410081 (China)

    2012-08-06

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Generic homolog-targeted screening approach for multi-residual sulfonamide analogs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Single-tube extraction/partitioning-multifunction adsorption cleanup for direct injection. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Class-specific fragmentation for expanding coverage of N{sup 4}-acetyl and N-OH metabolites. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PreS-IDA-EPI in LC-QqLIT for simultaneous screening and confirmation of real samples. - Abstract: A generic and efficient homolog-targeted approach was used to expand screening and detection of target class of sulfonamides and structural analogs, based on a fast single-tube extraction/partitioning-multifunction adsorption cleanup (SEP/MAC) for class-specific fragmentation-dependent acquisition with a liquid chromatography-hybrid triple-quadrupole linear ion trap mass spectrometer (LC-QqLIT). By combining the two-stage process conducted in a single tube as one-pot protocol, the straightforward SEP/MAC procedure was optimized to offer clean extracts with reasonable recovery (71-109% with RSDs < 20%) and decreased matrix interferences (-9 to 19%) of multiresidual sulfonamide extraction from different tissue samples. The novel use of neutral loss scan of 66 Da (NLS) or precursor ion scanning of m/z 108 (PreS) in positive ion mode was found to achieve more comprehensive coverage of protonated molecular ions of a wide array of sulfonamides including N{sup 4}-acetyl and hydroxylamine metabolites plus their possible dimers. Moreover, the PreS-triggered automatically enhanced product ion spectral acquisition enabled simultaneous screening, profiling and confirmation of an unlimited number of analytes belonging to the sulfonamide class within a single analysis. The validation and application results of the generic SEP/MAC-based LC-QqLIT strategy consistently demonstrated favorable performances with acceptable accuracy (67-116%), precision (RSDs < 25%), and sensitivity (LOQs {<=} 7.5 ng

  14. Hydrogen separation process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundschau, Michael [Longmont, CO; Xie, Xiaobing [Foster City, CA; Evenson, IV, Carl; Grimmer, Paul [Longmont, CO; Wright, Harold [Longmont, CO

    2011-05-24

    A method for separating a hydrogen-rich product stream from a feed stream comprising hydrogen and at least one carbon-containing gas, comprising feeding the feed stream, at an inlet pressure greater than atmospheric pressure and a temperature greater than 200.degree. C., to a hydrogen separation membrane system comprising a membrane that is selectively permeable to hydrogen, and producing a hydrogen-rich permeate product stream on the permeate side of the membrane and a carbon dioxide-rich product raffinate stream on the raffinate side of the membrane. A method for separating a hydrogen-rich product stream from a feed stream comprising hydrogen and at least one carbon-containing gas, comprising feeding the feed stream, at an inlet pressure greater than atmospheric pressure and a temperature greater than 200.degree. C., to an integrated water gas shift/hydrogen separation membrane system wherein the hydrogen separation membrane system comprises a membrane that is selectively permeable to hydrogen, and producing a hydrogen-rich permeate product stream on the permeate side of the membrane and a carbon dioxide-rich product raffinate stream on the raffinate side of the membrane. A method for pretreating a membrane, comprising: heating the membrane to a desired operating temperature and desired feed pressure in a flow of inert gas for a sufficient time to cause the membrane to mechanically deform; decreasing the feed pressure to approximately ambient pressure; and optionally, flowing an oxidizing agent across the membrane before, during, or after deformation of the membrane. A method of supporting a hydrogen separation membrane system comprising selecting a hydrogen separation membrane system comprising one or more catalyst outer layers deposited on a hydrogen transport membrane layer and sealing the hydrogen separation membrane system to a porous support.

  15. UWIS isotope separator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wojtasiewicz, A. [Warsaw Univ., Inst. of Experimental Physics, Nuclear Physics Div., Warsaw (Poland)

    1997-12-31

    Since 1995 the University of Warsaw Isotope Separator group has participated in the ISOL/IGISOL project at the Heavy Ion Cyclotron. This project consists in installation of an isotope separator (on line with cyclotron heavy ion beam) with a hot plasma ion source (ISOL system) and/or with an ion guide source (IGISOL system). In the report the short description of the present status of the project is presented. 2 figs, 10 refs.

  16. Separating oil from water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webb, C

    1991-04-11

    The technology available to deal with oil spills has assumed many new faces in recent years. Methods of dealing with small-scale pollution in the process industries and vast oil slicks such as that in the Gulf have developed in parallel. The progress being made in finding new means of separating oil from water is reported and the relative merits of bioremediation, hydrocylones, horizontal separators and gas flotation are discussed. (author).

  17. On separable Pauli equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhalij, Alexander

    2002-01-01

    We classify (1+3)-dimensional Pauli equations for a spin-(1/2) particle interacting with the electro-magnetic field, that are solvable by the method of separation of variables. As a result, we obtain the 11 classes of vector-potentials of the electro-magnetic field A(t,x(vector sign))=(A 0 (t,x(vector sign)), A(vector sign)(t,x(vector sign))) providing separability of the corresponding Pauli equations. It is established, in particular, that the necessary condition for the Pauli equation to be separable into second-order matrix ordinary differential equations is its equivalence to the system of two uncoupled Schroedinger equations. In addition, the magnetic field has to be independent of spatial variables. We prove that coordinate systems and the vector-potentials of the electro-magnetic field providing the separability of the corresponding Pauli equations coincide with those for the Schroedinger equations. Furthermore, an efficient algorithm for constructing all coordinate systems providing the separability of Pauli equation with a fixed vector-potential of the electro-magnetic field is developed. Finally, we describe all vector-potentials A(t,x(vector sign)) that (a) provide the separability of Pauli equation, (b) satisfy vacuum Maxwell equations without currents, and (c) describe non-zero magnetic field

  18. Analysis of metals and phosphorus in biodiesel B100 from different feedstock using a Flow Blurring® multinebulizer in inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avila Orozco, Francisco D. [Lab. FIA, Sección Química Analítica, INQUISUR (UNS-CONICET), Universidad Nacional del Sur, Avenida Alem 1253, B8000CPB, Bahía Blanca (Argentina); Kovachev, Nikolay; Aguirre Pastor, Miguel Ángel [Dpto. Química Analítica, Nutrición y Bromatología e Instituto Universitario de Materiales, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Alicante, Apdo. 99, Alicante (Spain); Domini, Claudia E.; Fernández Band, Beatriz S. [Lab. FIA, Sección Química Analítica, INQUISUR (UNS-CONICET), Universidad Nacional del Sur, Avenida Alem 1253, B8000CPB, Bahía Blanca (Argentina); Canals Hernández, Antonio, E-mail: a.canals@ua.es [Dpto. Química Analítica, Nutrición y Bromatología e Instituto Universitario de Materiales, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Alicante, Apdo. 99, Alicante (Spain)

    2014-05-01

    Highlights: • The elemental analysis of biodiesel by the proposed method is simple and fast. • Two-nozzles Flow Blurring® nebulizer allow to reduce the spectral interferences. • Two-nozzles Flow Blurring® nebulizer avoid the formation of carbon deposits. • The analysis may be carried out without any sample pretreatment. Abstract: A simple and fast method for determining the content of Na, K, Ca, Mg, P, and 20 heavy metals in biodiesel samples with inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP OES) using a two-nozzle Flow Blurring® multinebulizer prototype and on-line internal standard calibration, are proposed. The biodiesel samples were produced from different feedstock such as sunflower, corn, soybean and grape seed oils, via a base catalyst transesterification. The analysis was carried out without any sample pretreatment. The standards and samples were introduced through one of the multinebulizer nozzles, while the aqueous solution containing yttrium as an internal standard was introduced through the second nozzle. Thus, the spectral interferences were compensated and the formation of carbon deposits on the ICP torch was prevented. The determination coefficients (R²) were greater than 0.99 for the studied analytes, in the range 0.21–14.75 mg kg⁻¹. Short-term and long-term precisions were estimated as relative standard deviation. These were acceptable, their values being lower than 10%. The LOQ for major components such as Ca, K, Mg, Na, and P, were within a range between 4.9 ng g⁻¹ for Mg (279.553 nm) and 531.1 ng g⁻¹ for Na (588.995 nm), and for the other 20 minor components they were within a range between 1.1 ng g⁻¹ for Ba (455.403 nm) and 2913.9 ng g⁻¹ for Pb (220.353 nm). Recovery values ranged between 95% and 106%.

  19. Investigations on the use of pneumatic cross-flow nebulizers with dual solution loading including the correction of matrix effects in elemental determinations by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauer, Mathieu; Broekaert, Jose A.C.

    2007-01-01

    The use of a so-called trihedral and a T-shaped cross-flow pneumatic nebulizer with dual solution loading for inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry has been studied. By these devices analyte clouds from two solutions can be mixed during the aerosol generation step. For both nebulizers the correction of matrix effects using internal standardization and standard addition calibration in an on-line way was investigated and compared to elemental determinations using a conventional cross-flow nebulizer and calibration with synthetic standard solutions without matrix matching. A significant improvement of accuracy, both for calibration with internal standardization and standard addition, was obtained in the case of four synthetic solutions containing each 40 mmol L -1 Na, K, Rb and Ba as matrix elements and 300 μg L -1 Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni and Pb as analytes. Calibration by standard addition in the case of dual solution loading has been shown to be very useful in the determination of elements at minor and trace levels in steel and alumina reference materials. The results of analysis for minor concentrations of Cr, Cu and Ni in steel as well as for Ca, Fe, Ga, Li, Mg, Mn, Na, Si and Zn in alumina powder certified reference materials subsequent to sample dissolution were found to be in good agreement with the certificates. Limits of detection were found to be only slightly above those for a conventional cross-flow nebulizer and a precision better than 3% was realized with both novel nebulizers

  20. The gas filled separator as a separation method to detect transuranic elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ninov, V.

    1992-08-01

    The mass spectrometer NASE (NAchSEparator) built as a post-separator and located behind the velocity filter SHIP at the GSI in Darmstadt, was taken into operation as a gas-filled separator, and its separation properties for fusion products from heavy ion reactions were studied. Chapter 2 describes the principle of separation in a gas-filled magnet. The technical specifications of the separator, the detectors and the setup of detection electronics are outlined in chapter 3. The studies of separation properties are described in chapter 4, and chapter 5 deals with preliminary applications of the gas-filled separator to detect isotopes poor in neutrons, with an atomic number Z = 92, 93. Chapter 6 is concerned with preliminary tests to detect heavy nuclei with an atomic number Z > = 100 by means of light radiation and actinide targets. The experimental results of comparative measurements between the velocity filter SHIP and the gas-filled separator are pointed out in chapter 7, and future application possibilities of gas-filled separators for synthesis of heaviest nuclei through asymmetric reactions are discussed. (orig./BBR) [de

  1. Isotope separation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyon, R.K.

    1977-01-01

    The instant invention relates to a process for separating a material into two or more parts in each of which the abundances of the isotopes of a given element differ from the abundances of the isotopes of the same material in said material. More particularly, the invention relates to a method for the isotopically selective excitation of gas phase molecules by multiple infrared photon absorption followed by a step wherein more of the excited molecules than nonexcited molecules are converted to a chemically different form which may be separated by means known in the art. This invention is useful for, but not limited to, the separation of the principal isotopes of uranium. 15 claims, 1 figure

  2. Isotope separation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, W.R.L.

    1979-01-01

    The instant invention relates to an improved process for separating a material into two or more parts in each of which the abundances of the isotopes of a given element differ from the abundances of the isotopes of the same element in said material. More particularly, the invention relates to a method for the isotopically selective excitation of gas phase molecules by multiple infrared photon absorption followed by a step wherein more of the excited molecules than non-excited molecules are converted to a chemically different form which may be separated by means known in the art. This invention is useful for, but not limited to, the separation of the principal isotopes of uranium

  3. Separable quadratic stochastic operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozikov, U.A.; Nazir, S.

    2009-04-01

    We consider quadratic stochastic operators, which are separable as a product of two linear operators. Depending on properties of these linear operators we classify the set of the separable quadratic stochastic operators: first class of constant operators, second class of linear and third class of nonlinear (separable) quadratic stochastic operators. Since the properties of operators from the first and second classes are well known, we mainly study the properties of the operators of the third class. We describe some Lyapunov functions of the operators and apply them to study ω-limit sets of the trajectories generated by the operators. We also compare our results with known results of the theory of quadratic operators and give some open problems. (author)

  4. Immunoassay separation technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    A method for effecting the immunoassay of a multiplicity of samples, each possibly containing an antigen or an antibody to be assayed, is discussed. Each sample is incubated with a solution containing a detectable antigen or antibody to form a multiplicity of mixtures, each mixture containing as components antigen-antibody, non-complexed antigen and non-complexed antibody. At least one of the components of the said mixture is separated by adsorption. There after, quantity of detectable antigen or antibody is detected in one of the non-adsorbed portions of the mixture. An improvement, compared to other techniques, is the continuous and sequential separation of at least one component, which is intended to be separated from each said multiplicity of mixtures

  5. Eleventh ISMAS workshop on mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aggarwal, S.K.; Jaison, P.G.

    2004-10-01

    This volume deals with the latest developments in this field, exposing the innumerable applications of mass spectrometry. The topics covered include basic fundamentals of mass spectrometry, qualitative and quantitative aspects and data interpretation, maintenance of mass spectrometers, selection of a mass spectrometer, its applications in various branches of science as well as recent advances in mass spectrometry. Emphasis is also laid on the practical aspects of mass spectrometry. Papers relevant to INIS are indexed separately

  6. Electromagnetic separator of plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gasilin, V.V.; Nezovibatko, Yu.N.; Poklepach, G.S.; Shvets, O.M.; Taran, V.S.; Tereshin, V.I.

    2005-01-01

    The progress in the widespread utilization of the PVD methods is determined in many respects by the plasma quality and, therefore, the necessity of an application of plasma separators, in particular magnetic separators. One needs to note that traditional magnetic separators have a number of problems their using, namely their unwieldiness, the presence of the isolated cameras and so on. We have proposed, manufactured and investigated the simple separator of plasma that doesn't require using additional cameras. As a source of metallic plasma the standard cathode vaporizer in the installation 'BULAT 6' was in use. Plasma stream from the cathode flowed through the not protected by isolation spiral solenoid. The solenoid input (from the cathode side) was under floating potential. The solenoid output was connected to the autonomous power supply system. The solenoid was prepared with stride winding and 90 degree turn. The solenoid current was 20-90 A and the solenoid voltage with respect to the vessel (earth) was +15 V. In this case drifting charged particles could freely fly out from the interior solenoid region to its boundary. The glow of the turned flow of plasma was observed during the supplying of the cathode and the solenoid. Plasma flow was separated from the coils and extended along the axis of solenoid. One can assume that this device ensures radial electric with respect to the bulk of plasma (the diameter of the bulk of plasma is comparable with the cathode diameter), the toroidal magnetic field, produced by solenoid, was of an order of 20 Oe. Magnetic field strength was sufficient for the magnetization of electrons, but it was rather small for magnetizing the ions and charged micro-droplets. The experiments carried out with aluminum cathode on the deposition of coatings at the stainless steel substrate have shown the high effectiveness of this separator operation. Coatings without droplets were obtained also on the glass substrate with HF- displacement

  7. Unity Through Separation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dabelsteen, Hans B.

    This PhD thesis asks how we can conceptualize the current separation doctrine of religion and politics in a country like Denmark, where the structure of the established church and peoplehood overlap. In order to answer this question, Hans Bruun Dabelsteen maps the current discussion of secularism...... into the principle of treating everybody equally (with religious freedom, equality and Danish peoplehood as the most important principles adjacent to secularism). In a study of the historical roots of the separation doctrine and two current policy cases (same-sex marriage and reforms of church governance...

  8. Separation membrane development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, M.W. [Savannah River Technology Center, Aiken, SC (United States)

    1998-08-01

    A ceramic membrane has been developed to separate hydrogen from other gases. The method used is a sol-gel process. A thin layer of dense ceramic material is coated on a coarse ceramic filter substrate. The pore size distribution in the thin layer is controlled by a densification of the coating materials by heat treatment. The membrane has been tested by permeation measurement of the hydrogen and other gases. Selectivity of the membrane has been achieved to separate hydrogen from carbon monoxide. The permeation rate of hydrogen through the ceramic membrane was about 20 times larger than Pd-Ag membrane.

  9. Gas separation membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schell, William J.

    1979-01-01

    A dry, fabric supported, polymeric gas separation membrane, such as cellulose acetate, is prepared by casting a solution of the polymer onto a shrinkable fabric preferably formed of synthetic polymers such as polyester or polyamide filaments before washing, stretching or calendering (so called griege goods). The supported membrane is then subjected to gelling, annealing, and drying by solvent exchange. During the processing steps, both the fabric support and the membrane shrink a preselected, controlled amount which prevents curling, wrinkling or cracking of the membrane in flat form or when spirally wound into a gas separation element.

  10. Separation techniques: Chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coskun, Ozlem

    2016-01-01

    Chromatography is an important biophysical technique that enables the separation, identification, and purification of the components of a mixture for qualitative and quantitative analysis. Proteins can be purified based on characteristics such as size and shape, total charge, hydrophobic groups present on the surface, and binding capacity with the stationary phase. Four separation techniques based on molecular characteristics and interaction type use mechanisms of ion exchange, surface adsorption, partition, and size exclusion. Other chromatography techniques are based on the stationary bed, including column, thin layer, and paper chromatography. Column chromatography is one of the most common methods of protein purification. PMID:28058406

  11. Isotope separation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    The invention relates to a process for separating a given material into two or more parts, in each of which the abundances of the isotopes of a given element differ from the abundances of the isotopes of the same material in the said material. More particularly, the invention relates to a method for the isotopically selective excitation of gas phase UF 6 by infrared photon absorption followed by selective reaction of said excited UF 6 with atomic chlorine, bromine, or iodine to form a product which may be separated by means known in the art

  12. SEPARATION PHENOMENA LOGISTIC REGRESSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikaro Daniel de Carvalho Barreto

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an application of concepts about the maximum likelihood estimation of the binomial logistic regression model to the separation phenomena. It generates bias in the estimation and provides different interpretations of the estimates on the different statistical tests (Wald, Likelihood Ratio and Score and provides different estimates on the different iterative methods (Newton-Raphson and Fisher Score. It also presents an example that demonstrates the direct implications for the validation of the model and validation of variables, the implications for estimates of odds ratios and confidence intervals, generated from the Wald statistics. Furthermore, we present, briefly, the Firth correction to circumvent the phenomena of separation.

  13. Radiation gradient isotope separator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, J.L.

    1980-01-01

    A system is described for transporting, separating and storing charged particles, charged antiparticles and fully or partially ionized isotopes of any element comprising a laser beam generator, laser beam intensity profiler, a laser beam variable intensity attenuator, and means for injecting charged particles, charged antiparticles and ionized isotopes into the beam and extracting them from the system as required. The invention is particularly useful for channelling electrons and ions used for fuel pellet compression in inertial fusion systems, for separating the isotopes of elements and for the confinement of charged antiparticles and particle/antiparticle plasmas

  14. Organic separations with membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Funk, E.W.

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of present and emerging applications of membrane technology for the separation and purification of organic materials. This technology is highly relevant for programs aimed at minimizing waste in processing and in the treatment of gaseous and liquid effluents. Application of membranes for organic separation is growing rapidly in the petrochemical industry to simplify processing and in the treatment of effluents, and it is expected that this technology will be useful in numerous other industries including the processing of nuclear waste materials

  15. Isotope separation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyon, R.K.

    1976-01-01

    The instant invention relates to a process for separating a material into two or more parts in each of which the abundances of the isotopes of a given element differ from the abundances of the isotopes of the same material in said material. In one embodiment, the invention relates to a method for the isotopically selective excitation of gas phase molecules by multiple infrared photon absorption followed by selective dissociation of said excited molecules by the absorption of a single photon of visible or ultraviolet light. This invention is useful for, but not limited to, the separation of the principal isotopes of uranium. 11 Claims, 2 Drawing Figures

  16. Atomic masses 1995. The 1995 atomic mass evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Audi, G.; Wapstra, A.H.

    1995-01-01

    The 1995 atomic mass evaluation by G. Audi and A.H. Wapstra is documented. The resulting data files containing recommended values of atomic masses, obtained by experiment or systematics, and related data such as reaction and separation energies are described. The data files can be obtained through online services from several nuclear data centers or on magnetic tape, free of charge. (author)

  17. Atomic masses 1993. The 1993 atomic mass evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Audi, G.; Wapstra, A.H.

    1993-01-01

    The 1993 atomic mass evaluation by G. Audi and A.H. Wapstra is documented. The resulting data files containing recommended values of atomic masses, obtained by experiment of systematics, and related data such as reaction and separation energies are described. The data files can be obtained through online services from several nuclear data centers or on magnetic tape, free of charge. (author)

  18. Fathering After Marital Separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshet, Harry Finkelstein; Rosenthal, Kristine M.

    1978-01-01

    Deals with experiences of a group of separated or divorced fathers who chose to remain fully involved in the upbringing of their children. As they underwent transition from married parenthood to single fatherhood, these men learned that meeting demands of child care contributed to personal stability and growth. (Author)

  19. Separation of Powers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bill of Rights in Action, 1987

    1987-01-01

    The dimensions of the separation of powers principle are explored through three lessons in the subject areas of U.S. history, U.S. government, and world history. In 1748, a French nobleman, Baron de Montesquieu, wrote a book called "The Spirit of the Laws," in which he argued that there could be no liberty when all government power was…

  20. Polymide gas separation membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yong; Bikson, Benjamin; Nelson, Joyce Katz

    2004-09-14

    Soluble polyamic acid salt (PAAS) precursors comprised of tertiary and quaternary amines, ammonium cations, sulfonium cations, or phosphonium cations, are prepared and fabricated into membranes that are subsequently imidized and converted into rigid-rod polyimide articles, such as membranes with desirable gas separation properties. A method of enhancing solubility of PAAS polymers in alcohols is also disclosed.

  1. Industrial separation processes : fundamentals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haan, de A.B.; Bosch, Hans

    2013-01-01

    Separation processes on an industrial scale comprise well over half of the capital and operating costs. They are basic knowledge in every chemical engineering and process engineering study. This book provides comprehensive and fundamental knowledge of university teaching in this discipline,

  2. diffusive phase separation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuyuki Kenmochi

    1996-01-01

    w is constrained to have double obstacles σ*≤w≤σ* (i.e., σ* and σ* are the threshold values of w. The objective of this paper is to discuss the semigroup {S(t} associated with the phase separation model, and construct its global attractor.

  3. Separation of uranium isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehrfeld, W.; Ehrfeld, U.

    1977-01-01

    In the nuclear fuel cycle, uranium enrichment is not a principal problem of technological feasibility. Several processes exist for producing LWR fuel and the enrichment method can be selected in consideration of economical, environmental, and political aspects. To date, the gaseous diffusion process constitutes the major part of enrichment capacity. This process has been well demonstrated for over 30 years and, as a matter of fact, no major technological and economical progress is to be expected in the future. Because of their comparatively high development potential, the centrifuge and the separation nozzle method may become increasingly favorable in economics. The development of the centrifuge process which is superior by its low specific energy consumption aims at technological improvements. In the separation nozzle process which offers the advantage of a comparatively simple technology a further reduction of the specific energy consumption is to be expected because of the thermodynamically favorable separation mechanism of this process. Laser isotope separation methods are still on the laboratory scale, although large financial funds have been spent. (orig.) [de

  4. Oily Bilgewater Separators

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    11 3.3.4 Flotation ...Flocculation, • Flotation , and • Ultrafiltration . EPA evaluated the effectiveness of bilge separators by their ability to achieve low effluent oil...parameters, suspended solids), metals (arsenic, copper , cadmium, chromium, lead, mercury, selenium and zinc) and organics (benzene, chloroform

  5. Separation problems and forcing

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zapletal, Jindřich

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 1 (2013), s. 1350002 ISSN 0219-0613 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100190902 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : separation * set of uniqueness * forcing Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.364, year: 2012 http://www.worldscientific.com/doi/abs/10.1142/S0219061313500025

  6. Radioactive krypton gas separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, J.R.

    1976-01-01

    Radioactive krypton is separated from a gas mixture comprising nitrogen and traces of carbon dioxide and radioactive krypton by selective adsorption and then cryogenic distillation of the prepurified gas against nitrogen liquid to produce krypton bottoms concentrate liquid, using the nitrogen gas from the distillation for two step purging of the adsorbent. 16 Claims, 8 Drawing Figures

  7. Separation science and technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, B.F.; Sauer, N.; Chamberlin, R.M.; Gottesfeld, S.; Mattes, B.R.; Li, D.Q.; Swanson, B.

    1998-01-01

    The focus of this project is the demonstration and advancement of membrane-based separation and destruction technologies. The authors are exploring development of membrane systems for gas separations, selective metal ion recovery, and for separation or destruction of hazardous organics. They evaluated existing polymers and polymer formulations for recovery of toxic oxyanionic metals such as chromate and arsenate from selected waste streams and developed second-generation water-soluble polymeric systems for highly selective oxyanion removal and recovery. They optimized the simultaneous removal of radioactive strontium and cesium from aqueous solutions using the new nonhazardous separations agents, and developed recyclable, redox-active extractants that permitted recovery of the radioactive ions into a minimal waste volume. They produced hollow fibers and fabricated prototype hollow-fiber membrane modules for applications to gas separations and the liquid-liquid extraction and recovery of actinides and nuclear materials from process streams. They developed and fabricated cyclodextrin-based microporous materials that selectively absorb organic compounds in an aqueous environment; the resultant products gave pure water with organics at less than 0.05 parts per billion. They developed new, more efficient, membrane-based electrochemical reactors for use in organic destruction in process waste treatment. They addressed the need for advanced oxidation technologies based on molecular-level materials designs that selectively remove or destroy target species. They prepared and characterized surface-modified TiO 2 thin films using different linking approaches to attach ruthenium photosensitizers, and they started the measurement of the photo-degradation products generated using surface modified TiO 2 films in reaction with chlorophenol

  8. Novel PEFC Application for Deuterium Isotope Separation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hisayoshi Matsushima

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of a polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC with a Nafion membrane for isotopic separation of deuterium (D was investigated. Mass analysis at the cathode side indicated that D diffused through the membrane and participated in an isotope exchange reaction. The exchange of D with protium (H in H2O was facilitated by a Pt catalyst. The anodic data showed that the separation efficiency was dependent on the D concentration in the source gas, whereby the water produced during the operation of the PEFC was more enriched in D as the D concentration of the source gas was increased.

  9. Advances in microscale separations towards nanoproteomics applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yi, Lian; Piehowski, Paul D.; Shi, Tujin; Smith, Richard D.; Qian, Wei-Jun

    2017-11-01

    Microscale separations (e.g., liquid chromatography or capillary electrophoresis) coupled with mass spectrometry (MS) has become the primary tool for advanced proteomics, an indispensable technology for gaining understanding of complex biological processes. While significant advances have been achieved in MS-based proteomics, the current platforms still face a significant challenge in overall sensitivity towards nanoproteomics (i.e., with less than 1 g total amount of proteins available) applications such as cellular heterogeneity in tissue pathologies. Herein, we review recent advances in microscale separation techniques and integrated sample processing systems that improve the overall sensitivity and coverage of the proteomics workflow, and their contributions towards nanoproteomics applications.

  10. Correcting mass shifts: A lock mass-free recalibration procedure for mass spectrometry imaging data

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kulkarni, P.; Kaftan, F.; Kynast, P.; Svatoš, Aleš; Böcker, S.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 407, č. 25 (2015), s. 7603-7613 ISSN 1618-2642 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : mass spectrometry imaging * recalibration * mass shift correction * data processing Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry , Separation Impact factor: 3.125, year: 2015

  11. Adnexal mass in tubal pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hee Jung; Kim, Jung Sik; Chu, Yang Ku

    1993-01-01

    Off the evaluation of clinical significance and pathologic correlation of echogenic adnexal mass in tubal pregnancy, which is separated from ipsilateral ovary, we performed a retrospective analysis of 15 proved tubal pregnancies. All showed hematosalpinx containing blood coagulum and chorionic villi with intact fallopian tube.The echogenicity of the adnexal mass was considered to represent the nonclotted or clotted blood within the fallopian tube. We conclude that the discrete, echogenic adnexal mass is the suggestive finding of unrupturedtubal pregnancy

  12. The magnetic centrifugal mass filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fetterman, Abraham J.; Fisch, Nathaniel J.

    2011-01-01

    Mass filters using rotating plasmas have been considered for separating nuclear waste and spent nuclear fuel. We propose a new mass filter that utilizes centrifugal and magnetic confinement of ions in a way similar to the asymmetric centrifugal trap. This magnetic centrifugal mass filter is shown to be more proliferation resistant than present technology. This filter is collisional and produces well confined output streams, among other advantages.

  13. The magnetic centrifugal mass filter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fetterman, Abraham J.; Fisch, Nathaniel J. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08540 (United States)

    2011-09-15

    Mass filters using rotating plasmas have been considered for separating nuclear waste and spent nuclear fuel. We propose a new mass filter that utilizes centrifugal and magnetic confinement of ions in a way similar to the asymmetric centrifugal trap. This magnetic centrifugal mass filter is shown to be more proliferation resistant than present technology. This filter is collisional and produces well confined output streams, among other advantages.

  14. Realistic Safe-Separation Distance Determination for Mass Fire Hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-25

    amidships tossed the upper decks back, curled and flattened like a banana peel as indicated in Figure 5. Sections of the Liberte were hurled outward...powders are based on nitrocellulose alone (typically an ether- alcohol colloid of nitrocellulose). Double-based powders have both nitrocellulose and...during the Cold War and details were, and still are, hard to get . For example, several articles mentioned casualties but do not give numbers. http

  15. Separation of UO2 powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ristic, M.M.

    1962-01-01

    This report deals with theoretical approach to separation process and describes the constructed separator with liquid medium. The separator was calibrated and tested with Al 3 O 3 and UO 2 . it has been concluded that it can be used for separation of powders with sufficient accuracy if the separation is performed for a longer period of time. The separated fractions were characterised by microscopic method and the UO 2 fraction additionally by sedimentation method

  16. Isotope separation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaldor, A.; Rabinowitz, P.

    1979-01-01

    A method of separating the isotopes of an element is described, which comprises the steps of (i) subjecting molecules of a gaseous compound of the element simultaneously to two infrared radiations of different wavelengths, the first radiation having a wavelength which corresponds to an absorption band of the compound, which in turn corresponds to a mode of molecular motion in which there is participation by atoms of the element, and the second radiation having a power density greater than 10 6 watts per cm 2 , thereby exciting molecules of the compound in an isotopically selective manner, this step being conducted in such manner that the excited molecules either receive a level of energy sufficient to cause them to undergo conversion by unimolecular decomposition or receive a level of energy sufficient to cause them to undergo conversion by reaction with molecules of another gas present for that purpose; and (ii) separating and recovering converted molecules from unconverted molecules. (author)

  17. Process for isotope separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emile, B.F.M.

    1983-11-01

    A process is claimed for isotopic separation applied to isotopes of elements that can be placed in at least a physicochemical form in which the isotopic atoms or the molecules containing these atoms can be easily displaced and for which there are selective radiations preferentially absorbed by the isotopes of a certain type or by the molecules containing them, said absorption substantially increasing the probability of ionization of said atoms or molecules relative to the atoms or molecules that did not absorb the radiation. The process consists of placing the isotopic mixture in such a form, subjecting it in a separation zone to selective radiations and to an electrical field that produces migration of positive ions toward the negative electrodes and negative ions toward the positive electrodes, and withdrawing from certain such zones the fractions thus enriched in certain isotopes

  18. High gradient magnetic separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prothero, D.H.

    1982-01-01

    In a process in which magnetic material is trapped in a filter disposed in a magnetic field, and is unloaded by passing a fluid through the filter in the absence of the initial magnetic field, the magnetic field is first reduced to an intermediate value to allow unloading of the more weakly magnetic particles, the more strongly magnetic particles being retained and subsequently unloaded by further reduction of the magnetic field. Stage by stage reduction of the magnetic field during unloading allows separation of different species from the mixture. As an example the method can be applied to the separation of uranium compounds from mine ores. The uranium compounds are magnetic, while most of the other constituents of the ore are non-magnetic. The starting material is a suspension of the ore. Water is used for unloading. The filter material in this case is stainless steel balls. (author)

  19. Materials separation and enrichment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    This volume supplies information in 16 individual contributions on projects sponsored by the Federal Ministry for Research and Technology (BMFT) with regard to the above mentioned topic, on the state of the art, on new technologies, and on international cooperation; two of the contributions have been recorded separately for the databases INIS and ENERGY. The contributions are supplemented by a survey of the projects sponsored and by a list of publications which have resulted from the sponsored projects. (EF) [de

  20. Laser isotope separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    The claimed invention is a method of isotope separation based on the unimolecular decomposition of vibrationally excited negative ions which are produced in the reaction of thermal electrons and molecules which have been vibrationally excited in an isotope selective manner. This method is especially applicable to molecules represented by the formula MF 6 wherein M is selected from the group consisting of U, S, W, Se, Te, Mo, Re and Tc

  1. Laser isotope separation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaldor, A.

    1976-01-01

    The claimed invention is a method of isotope separation based on the unimolecular decomposition of vibrationally excited negative ions which are produced in the reaction of thermal electrons and molecules which have been vibrationally excited in an isotope selective manner. This method is especially applicable to molecules represented by the formula MF 6 wherein M is selected from the group consisting of U, S, W, Se, Te, Mo, Re, and Tc. 9 claims, 1 drawing figure

  2. Eddy energy separator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukhutdinov, R.Kh.; Prokopov, O.I.

    1982-01-01

    An eddy energy separator is proposed which contains a chamber with nozzle input of compressed air and sleeves for cold and hot streams. In order to increase productivity, the chamber is cylindrical and the nozzle input is arranged along its axis. Coaxially to the input, there is an adaptor forming an annular channel with its end arranged in an angle to the axis of the chamber. The nozzle input and the adaptor are installed with the possibility of relative movement.

  3. URANIUM SEPARATION PROCESS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyon, W.L.

    1962-04-17

    A method of separating uranium oxides from PuO/sub 2/, ThO/sub 2/, and other actinide oxides is described. The oxide mixture is suspended in a fused salt melt and a chlorinating agent such as chlorine gas or phosgene is sparged through the suspension. Uranium oxides are selectively chlorinated and dissolve in the melt, which may then be filtered to remove the unchlorinated oxides of the other actinides. (AEC)

  4. Innovative Separations Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Tripp; N. Soelberg; R. Wigeland

    2011-05-01

    Reprocessing used nuclear fuel (UNF) is a multi-faceted problem involving chemistry, material properties, and engineering. Technology options are available to meet a variety of processing goals. A decision about which reprocessing method is best depends significantly on the process attributes considered to be a priority. New methods of reprocessing that could provide advantages over the aqueous Plutonium Uranium Reduction Extraction (PUREX) and Uranium Extraction + (UREX+) processes, electrochemical, and other approaches are under investigation in the Fuel Cycle Research and Development (FCR&D) Separations Campaign. In an attempt to develop a revolutionary approach to UNF recycle that may have more favorable characteristics than existing technologies, five innovative separations projects have been initiated. These include: (1) Nitrogen Trifluoride for UNF Processing; (2) Reactive Fluoride Gas (SF6) for UNF Processing; (3) Dry Head-end Nitration Processing; (4) Chlorination Processing of UNF; and (5) Enhanced Oxidation/Chlorination Processing of UNF. This report provides a description of the proposed processes, explores how they fit into the Modified Open Cycle (MOC) and Full Recycle (FR) fuel cycles, and identifies performance differences when compared to 'reference' advanced aqueous and fluoride volatility separations cases. To be able to highlight the key changes to the reference case, general background on advanced aqueous solvent extraction, advanced oxidative processes (e.g., volumetric oxidation, or 'voloxidation,' which is high temperature reaction of oxide UNF with oxygen, or modified using other oxidizing and reducing gases), and fluorination and chlorination processes is provided.

  5. Colour Separation and Aversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah M Haigh

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Aversion to achromatic patterns is well documented but relatively little is known about discomfort from chromatic patterns. Large colour differences are uncommon in the natural environment and deviation from natural statistics makes images uncomfortable (Fernandez and Wilkins 2008, Perception, 37(7, 1098–113; Juricevic et al 2010, Perception, 39(7, 884–899. We report twelve studies documenting a linear increase in aversion to chromatic square-wave gratings as a function of the separation in UCS chromaticity between the component bars, independent of their luminance contrast. Two possible explanations for the aversion were investigated: (1 accommodative response, or (2 cortical metabolic demand. We found no correlation between chromaticity separation and accommodative lag or variance in lag, measured using an open-field autorefractor. However, near infrared spectroscopy of the occipital cortex revealed a larger oxyhaemoglobin response to patterns with large chromaticity separation. The aversion may be cortical in origin and does not appear to be due to accommodation.

  6. Separation of gas mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    Apparatus is described for the separation of a gaseous plasma mixture into components in some of which the original concentration of a specific ion has been greatly increased or decreased, comprising: a source for converting the gaseous mixture into a train of plasma packets; an open-ended vessel with a main section and at least one branch section, adapted to enclose along predetermined tracks the original plasma packets in the main section, and the separated plasma components in the branch sections; drive means for generating travelling magnetic waves along the predetermined tracks with the magnetic flux vector of the waves transverse to each of the tracks; and means for maintaining phase coherence between the plasma packets and the magnetic waves at a value needed for accelerating the components of the packets to different velocities and in such different directions that the plasma of each packet is divided into distinctly separate packets in some of which the original concentration of a specific ion has been greatly increased or decreased, and which plasma packets are collected from the branch sections of the vessels. (author)

  7. Innovative Separations Technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tripp, J.; Soelberg, N.; Wigeland, R.

    2011-01-01

    Reprocessing used nuclear fuel (UNF) is a multi-faceted problem involving chemistry, material properties, and engineering. Technology options are available to meet a variety of processing goals. A decision about which reprocessing method is best depends significantly on the process attributes considered to be a priority. New methods of reprocessing that could provide advantages over the aqueous Plutonium Uranium Reduction Extraction (PUREX) and Uranium Extraction + (UREX+) processes, electrochemical, and other approaches are under investigation in the Fuel Cycle Research and Development (FCR and D) Separations Campaign. In an attempt to develop a revolutionary approach to UNF recycle that may have more favorable characteristics than existing technologies, five innovative separations projects have been initiated. These include: (1) Nitrogen Trifluoride for UNF Processing; (2) Reactive Fluoride Gas (SF6) for UNF Processing; (3) Dry Head-end Nitration Processing; (4) Chlorination Processing of UNF; and (5) Enhanced Oxidation/Chlorination Processing of UNF. This report provides a description of the proposed processes, explores how they fit into the Modified Open Cycle (MOC) and Full Recycle (FR) fuel cycles, and identifies performance differences when compared to 'reference' advanced aqueous and fluoride volatility separations cases. To be able to highlight the key changes to the reference case, general background on advanced aqueous solvent extraction, advanced oxidative processes (e.g., volumetric oxidation, or 'voloxidation,' which is high temperature reaction of oxide UNF with oxygen, or modified using other oxidizing and reducing gases), and fluorination and chlorination processes is provided.

  8. Centrifugal gas separator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanagawa, A; Fujii, O; Nakamoto, H

    1970-03-09

    Counter currents in the rotary drum of a centrifugal gas separator are produced by providing, at either end of the drum in the vicinity of the circumferential and central positions, respectively, outflow and inflow holes with a communicating passage external to the drum there between whereby gaseous counter currents are caused to flow within the drum and travel through the passage which is provided with gas flow adjustment means. Furthermore, the space defined by the stationary portion of the passage and the rotor drum is additionally provided with a screw pump or throttling device at either its stationary side or drum side or both in order to produce a radially directed gas flow therewithin. A gas mixture is axially admitted into the drum while centrifugal force and a cooling element provided therebelow cause an increase in gas pressure along and a gaseous flow toward the wall member, whereupon the comparatively high pressured circumferentially distributed gas is extracted from the outlet holes, flows through the external gas passage and back into the lower pressured drum core through the inlet holes, thus producing the desired counter currents. The gases thus separated are withdrawn along axially provided discharge pipes. Accordingly, this invention permits heating elements which were formerly used to produce thermal convection currents to be disposed of and allows the length of the rotor drum to be more efficiently utilized to enhance separation efficiency.

  9. Radioactive substance separation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, Takuhiko.

    1981-01-01

    Purpose: To enable separation of fission products, radioactive corrosion products and the likes in primary coolants with no requirement for the replacement of separation system during plant service life, by providing protruded magnetic pole plates in a liquid metal flow channel to thereby form slopes magnetic fields. Constitution: A plurality of magnetic pole plates are disposed vertically in a comb-like arrangement so as not to contact with each other along the direction of flow in a rectangular primary coolant pipeway at the exit of the reactor core in an LMFBR type reactor. Large magnetic poles are provided to the upper and lower sides of the pipeway and coils are wound on the side opposed to the pipeway. When electrical current is supplied to the coils, the magnetic pole is magnetized intensely and thus the magnetic pole plates are also magnetized intensely and thus the magnetic pole plates are also magnetized intensely to form large gradient in the magnetic fields between the upper and lower magnetic plates, whereby ferromagnetic and ferrimagnetic fission products and radioactive corrosion products in the coolants are intensely adsorbed and not detached by the flow of the coolants. Accordingly, the fission products and the radioactive corrosion products can surely be removed with no requirement for the exchange of separation system during plant service life. (Horiuchi, T.)

  10. Separation of contaminated concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakiewicz, J.L.; Reymer, A.P.S.

    1990-01-01

    Separating the contaminated parts from the non-contaminated parts from decommissioned nuclear facilities may strongly reduce the amount of contaminated concrete. The reduction in volume of the radioactive contaminated concrete is dependent on how much cementstone is in the concrete. This research program shows that the radioactive contamination is mostly in the cementstone. However the choice that the cementstone parts, (or better said the radioactive parts) are smaller than 1 mm may not always be true. Normally the cementstone takes about 30% of the total concrete volume. A separation procedure composed by a combination of milling and thermal shock has been assessed. Both the cold and hot thermal shock in combination with milling are not able to separate the cementstone from the larger aggregates completely. However, the cementstone from the concrete with a low nominal grain size seems to be almost completely removed by the combination cold thermal shock/milling, while the cementstone from the concrete with a high nominal grain size seems to be almost completely removed by the combination hot thermal shock/milling. After both methods a layer of cementstone was still visible on the aggregates. Washing followed by a nitric acid treatment removed each 2 wt% of cementstone

  11. Method of isotope separation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyon, R K

    1975-05-22

    Isotopes of a gaseous compound can be separated by multi-infrared photoabsorption which follows a selective dissociation of the excited molecules by single photon absorption of photons of visible or UV radiation. The process involves three steps. Firstly, the molecules to be separated are irradiated with a high-energy IR laser, whereby the molecules of the compound containing the lighter isotopes are preferably excited. They are then irradiated by a second laser with UV or visible light whose frequency of radiation brings the excited molecules into a form in which they can be separated from the non-excited molecules. The third step is the reformation of the substances according to known methods. A power density of at least 10/sup 4/ watt/cm/sup 2/ per torr gas pressure with an irradiation time of 10/sup -10/ to 5 x 10/sup -5/ seconds in the presence of a second gas with at least 5 times higher partial pressure is necessary for the IR radiation. The method may be used for UF/sub 6/ for which an example is given here.

  12. Mass discrimination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broeckman, A. [Rijksuniversiteit Utrecht (Netherlands)

    1978-12-15

    In thermal ionization mass spectrometry the phenomenon of mass discrimination has led to the use of a correction factor for isotope ratio-measurements. The correction factor is defined as the measured ratio divided by the true or accepted value of this ratio. In fact this factor corrects for systematic errors of the whole procedure; however mass discrimination is often associated just with the mass spectrometer.

  13. Negative mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammond, Richard T

    2015-01-01

    Some physical aspects of negative mass are examined. Several unusual properties, such as the ability of negative mass to penetrate any armor, are analysed. Other surprising effects include the bizarre system of negative mass chasing positive mass, naked singularities and the violation of cosmic censorship, wormholes, and quantum mechanical results as well. In addition, a brief look into the implications for strings is given. (paper)

  14. Understanding the effects of potassium ferricyanide on lead hydride formation in tetrahydroborate system and its application for determination of lead in milk using hydride generation inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng, Biyang; Xu, Xiangshu; Xiao, Yan; Zhu, Pingchuan; Wang, Yingzi

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Proposed a novel explanation for plumbane generation. • Expounded the role of K 3 Fe(CN) 6 in plumbane generation. • Clarified the controversial aspects in the mechanism of K 3 Fe(CN) 6 enhancement. • Used X-ray diffractometry to analyze the intermediates. • Developed a method to analyze lead in milk using K 3 Fe(CN) 6 and K 4 Fe(CN) 6 as new additives. - Absract: To understand the formation of plumbane in the Pb II -NaBH 4 -K 3 Fe(CN) 6 system, the intermediate products produced in the reaction of lead(II) and NaBH 4 in the presence of K 3 Fe(CN) 6 were studied. The produced plumbane and elemental lead were measured through continuous flow hydride generation (HG)-inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP OES) and X-ray diffraction spectrometry techniques, respectively. Based on the experimental results, the explanations can be depicted in the following steps: (1) plumbane and black lead sediment (black Pb) are formed in the reaction of lead(II) and NaBH 4 ; (2) the black Pb is oxidized by K 3 Fe(CN) 6 to form Pb 2 [Fe(CN) 6 ], which further reacts with NaBH 4 to form more plumbane and black Pb; and (3) another round starts in which the produced black Pb from the step 2 is then oxidized continuously by K 3 Fe(CN) 6 to form more Pb 2 [Fe(CN) 6 ] complex, which would produce more plumbane. In short, the black Pb and Pb 2 [Fe(CN) 6 ] complex are the key intermediate products for the formation of plumbane in the Pb II -NaBH 4 -K 3 Fe(CN) 6 system. Based on the enhancement effect of potassium ferricyanide and potassium ferrocyanide, a method was developed to analyze lead in milk with HG-ICP OES technique. The detection limit of the method was observed as 0.081 μg L −1 . The linearity range of lead was found between 0.3 and 50,000 μg L −1 with correlation coefficient of 0.9993. The recovery of lead was determined as 97.6% (n = 5) for adding 10 μg L −1 lead into the milk sample

  15. Nominal Mass?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attygalle, Athula B; Pavlov, Julius

    2017-08-01

    The current IUPAC-recommended definition of the term "nominal mass," based on the most abundant naturally occurring stable isotope of an element, is flawed. We propose that Nominal mass should be defined as the sum of integer masses of protons and neutrons in any chemical species. In this way, all isotopes and isotopologues can be assigned a definitive identifier. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

  16. Plasma Mass Filters For Nuclear Waste Reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fetterman, Abraham J.; Fisch, Nathaniel J.

    2011-01-01

    Practical disposal of nuclear waste requires high-throughput separation techniques. The most dangerous part of nuclear waste is the fission product, which contains the most active and mobile radioisotopes and produces most of the heat. We suggest that the fission products could be separated as a group from nuclear waste using plasma mass filters. Plasmabased processes are well suited to separating nuclear waste, because mass rather than chemical properties are used for separation. A single plasma stage can replace several stages of chemical separation, producing separate streams of bulk elements, fission products, and actinoids. The plasma mass filters may have lower cost and produce less auxiliary waste than chemical processing plants. Three rotating plasma configurations are considered that act as mass filters: the plasma centrifuge, the Ohkawa filter, and the asymmetric centrifugal trap.

  17. Development of Separation Materials Containing Palladium for Hydrogen Isotopes Separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng Xiaojun; Luo Deli; Qian Xiaojing

    2010-01-01

    Displacement chromatography (DC) is a ascendant technique for hydrogen isotopes separation. The performance of separation materials is a key factor to determine the separation effect of DC. At present,kinds of materials are researched, including palladium materials and non-palladium materials. It is hardly replaceable because of its excellent separation performance, although palladium is expensive. The theory of hydrogen isotopes separation using DC was introduced at a brief manner, while several palladium separation materials were expatiated in detail(Pd/K, Pd-Al 2 O 3 , Pd-Pt alloy). Development direction of separation materials for DC was forecasted elementarily. (authors)

  18. Sulfur and selenium isotope separation by distillation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, T. R.; McInteer, B. B.; Montoya, J. G.

    1988-01-01

    Sulfur and selenium isotopes are used for labeled compounds and as precursors for radioisotope production; however, both limited availability and high costs are problems. A new method is needed for large-scale separation of these isotopes. Experimental distillation columns were used to measure isotopic separations for sulfur and selenium compounds. The maximum total isotope separation of 32 S vs. 34 S were 1.127 for H 2 S, 1.048 for COS, 0.838 for SF 4 , and 1.058 for CH 3 SH. Relative volatilities of 32 S vs. 34 S are 1.0006 for COS and 0.9976 for SF 4 . There is a reverse isotope effect for carbon in COS. No isotopic separation was observed for dimethyl selenide. The lower mass selenium isotopes in H 2 Se are more volatile. Distillation is a promising method for separating sulfur isotopes on a production scale. Existing distillation technology produced separated isotopes with an effect similar to that found for sulfur in SF 4 . 8 refs., 2 tabs

  19. Sulfur and selenium isotope separation by distillation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, T.R.; McInteer, B.B.; Montoya, J.G.

    1989-01-01

    Sulfur and selenium isotopes are used for labeled compounds and as precursors for radioisotope production; however, both limited availability and high costs are problems. A new method is needed for large-scale separation of theses isotopes. Experimental distillation columns were used to measure isotopic separations for sulfur and selenium compounds. The maximum total isotope separations of 32 S vs. 34 S were 1.127 for H 2 S, 1.048 for COS, 0.838 for SF 4 , and 1.058 for CH 3 SH. Relative volatilities of 32 S and 34 S are 1.0006 for COS and 0.9976 for SF 4 . There is a reverse isotope effect for carbon in COS. No isotopic separation was observed for dimethyl selenide. The lower mass selenium isotopes in H 2 Se are more volatile. Distillation is a promising method for separating sulfur isotopes on a production scale. Existing distillation technology produces separated isotopes with an effect similar to that found for sulfur in SF 4 . (author). 8 refs.; 2 tabs

  20. Proposal for implanting a magnetic stable isotope separator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemos, O.F.

    1988-07-01

    The implantation of an electromagnetic isotope separator able to separate elements of mass from 20 to 250 a.m.u., with an enrichment factor from 10 to 200 times the initial concentration, depending on the elements, is proposed. The most suitable separator type for Brazilian CNEN, considering building installations and minimum conditions for the equipment facilities, the retinue chronogram, the infrastructure, and the personnel training for operation is defined. (M.C.K.) [pt

  1. Direct mass measurements of neutron-deficient xenon isotopes with the ISOLTRAP mass spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dilling, J.; Audi, G.; Beck, D.; Bollen, G.; Henry, S.; Herfurth, F.; Kellerbauer, A.; Kluge, H.-J.; Lunney, D.; Moore, R.B.; Scheidenberger, C.; Schwarz, S.; Sikler, G.; Szerypo, J.

    2002-01-01

    The masses of Xe isotopes with 124≥A≥114 have been measured using the ISOLTRAP spectrometer at the on-line mass separator ISOLDE/CERN. A mass resolving power of 500 000 was chosen resulting in an accuracy of δm∼12 keV for all isotopes investigated. Conflicts with existing mass data of several standard deviations were found

  2. ITER isotope separation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busigin, A.; Sood, S.K.; Kveton, O.K.; Sherman, R.H.; Anderson, J.L.

    1990-09-01

    This document presents the results of a study that examined the technical operating and economic viability of an alternative Isotope Separation System (ISS) design based on the distributed design concept. In the distributed design, the ISS is broken up into local independently operable subsystems matched to local processing requirements. The distributed design accepts the same feeds and produces essentially the same products as the reference design. The distributed design consists of two separate, independent subsystems. The first, called ISS-H, receives only protium-dominated streams and waste water from tritium extraction. It has two cryogenic distillation columns and can produce a 50 percent D, 50 percent T product since it lacks D/T separation capability. A final 80 percent T 2 concentration product can be obtained by blending the 50 percent T 2 stream from ISS-H with the more than 99 percent T 2 stream from the second subsystem, ISS-D. The second subsystem receives only deuterium-dominated feeds, which also contain some protium. ISS-D is as complex as the reference design, but smaller. Although each subsystem has some advantages, such as only two cryogenic distillation columns in ISS-H and better than 99 percent steady state T 2 product in ISS-D, the combined subsystems do not offer any real advantage compared to the reference IISS. The entire distributed ISS design has been simulated using Ontario Hydro's FLOSHEET steady state process simulator. Dynamic analysis has not been done for the distributed design. (10 refs., 3 figs., 8 tabs.)

  3. Isotopic separation in a rotating neon plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cairns, J.B.S.

    1976-01-01

    The background to the use of rotating plasma as element and isotope separators is briefly reviewed. The principles of the process are outlined. The rotation in a plasma centrifuge is produced by passing a radial current across an axial magnetic field. The different mass spheres, if under the influence of azimuthal forces, may be separated by crossing the field. Details are given of the Vortex II experiment in which 22 Ne is separated from neon in a fully ionized rotating plasma. It was demonstrated that 22 Ne enrichments of approximately 15% could be achieved with the possibility of higher values when the design and operation of the plasma centrifuge have been optimised. (U.K.)

  4. Method to separate isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coenen, H.; Neuschuetz, D.

    1980-01-01

    An extraction by means of supercritical pure gases (e.g. CD 2 ) or gas mixtures is proposed to separate isotopes, especially H/D, Li-6/Li-7, and U-235/U-238, and water or benzol is used as entrainer. The extraction shall be carried out at pressure rates of about 350 bar above the critical pressure with the temperature being by up to 100 0 C above the critical temperature. A NaCl-solution and the change of the isotopic ratio Cl-35/Cl-37 are investigated for example purpose. (UWI) [de

  5. Why Recruits Separate Early

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    our sample were reportedly unable to adjust to the military environment due to social or emotional immaturity. This problem was especially prevalent...Table 9. Table 9 REASONS FOR EARLY SEPARATION 1. Mental health. Phobias , suicide threats and attempts, emotional immaturity, and personality and...hliurfl’lutf t’ htrtiuug tht .’ plinittol piioL’m.9 evIn’ thfll I b’ r i’lli. vre’.Ilv ifao~ , ýI ll.tv ill it](- rv ’: 111nil tln1 (i~..󈧏 4 P A W4.11

  6. Separation of chemical species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rentzepis, P.M.

    1977-01-01

    Isotopic separation is accomplished by (1) a second photon irradiation step for selective ionization of a first isotopic species and (2) selective precipitation of a generally immiscible liquid from the saturating vapor phase on the ionized species. The first photon corresponds with a sharply defined spectral portion of the irradiation which exclusively excites the first species to a vibrational level. The second photon further excites this species to its ionization level. Selective precipitation is by coulombic attraction between the ionized species and the vapor. The procedure is applicable to any vapor phase ionizable material

  7. SEPARATION OF PLUTONIUM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddock, A.G.; Smith, F.

    1959-08-25

    A method is described for separating plutonium from uranium and fission products by treating a nitrate solution of fission products, uranium, and hexavalent plutonium with a relatively water-insoluble fluoride to adsorb fission products on the fluoride, treating the residual solution with a reducing agent for plutonium to reduce its valence to four and less, treating the reduced plutonium solution with a relatively insoluble fluoride to adsorb the plutonium on the fluoride, removing the solution, and subsequently treating the fluoride with its adsorbed plutonium with a concentrated aqueous solution of at least one of a group consisting of aluminum nitrate, ferric nitrate, and manganous nitrate to remove the plutonium from the fluoride.

  8. Isotope separation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyon, R.K.; Kaldor, A.

    1977-01-01

    In a method for the separation of isotopes of uranium in UF 6 , the UF 6 is subjected to ir radiation at a predetermined wavelength or set of wavelengths for less than 10 -3 sec in such a manner that at least 0.1% of the 235 UF 6 molecules absorb an energy of more than 2000 cm -1 . The excited UF 6 is then reacted with a gaseous reagent, F 2 , Cl 2 , or Br 2 , to produce a product which is then recovered by means known in the art

  9. Advanced Separations at SRS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, M.C.

    1998-03-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) has many waste streams which are contaminated with radionuclides and/or hazardous materials which must be treated to remove the radioactivity (Cs, Sr, tritium, actinides) and hazardous components (polychlorinated biphenyls, cyanide, metal ions). This task provides test beds for ESP-developed separations materials and technologies using actual SRS waste streams. The work includes different SRS waste streams; high level waste solutions presently stored in underground tanks onsite, water recycled from the waste vitrification plant, and reactor basin water in excess facilities

  10. Hydrogen Exchange Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayne, Leland

    2018-01-01

    Hydrogen exchange (HX) methods can reveal much about the structure, energetics, and dynamics of proteins. The addition of mass spectrometry (MS) to an earlier fragmentation-separation HX analysis now extends HX studies to larger proteins at high structural resolution and can provide information not available before. This chapter discusses experimental aspects of HX labeling, especially with respect to the use of MS and the analysis of MS data. PMID:26791986

  11. Printed Spacecraft Separation System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dehoff, Ryan R [ORNL; Holmans, Walter [Planetary Systems Corporation

    2016-10-01

    In this project Planetary Systems Corporation proposed utilizing additive manufacturing (3D printing) to manufacture a titanium spacecraft separation system for commercial and US government customers to realize a 90% reduction in the cost and energy. These savings were demonstrated via “printing-in” many of the parts and sub-assemblies into one part, thus greatly reducing the labor associated with design, procurement, assembly and calibration of mechanisms. Planetary Systems Corporation redesigned several of the components of the separation system based on additive manufacturing principles including geometric flexibility and the ability to fabricate complex designs, ability to combine multiple parts of an assembly into a single component, and the ability to optimize design for specific mechanical property targets. Shock absorption was specifically targeted and requirements were established to attenuate damage to the Lightband system from shock of initiation. Planetary Systems Corporation redesigned components based on these requirements and sent the designs to Oak Ridge National Laboratory to be printed. ORNL printed the parts using the Arcam electron beam melting technology based on the desire for the parts to be fabricated from Ti-6Al-4V based on the weight and mechanical performance of the material. A second set of components was fabricated from stainless steel material on the Renishaw laser powder bed technology due to the improved geometric accuracy, surface finish, and wear resistance of the material. Planetary Systems Corporation evaluated these components and determined that 3D printing is potentially a viable method for achieving significant cost and savings metrics.

  12. Apparatus for diffusion separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nierenberg, W.A.

    1976-01-01

    A diffuser separator apparatus is described which comprises a plurality of flow channels in a single stage. Each of said channels has an inlet port and an outlet port and a constant cross sectional area between said ports. At least a portion of the defining surface of each of said channels is a diffusion separation membrane, and each of said channels is a different cross sectional area. Means are provided for connecting said channels in series so that each successive channel of said series has a smaller cross sectional area than the previous channel of said series. Also provided are a source of gaseous mixture, individual means for flowing said gaseous mixture to the inlet port of each of said channels, gas receiving and analyzing means, individual means for flowing gas passing from each of said outlet ports and means for flowing gas passing through said membranes to said receiving and analyzing means, and individual means for connecting the outlet port of each channel with the inlet port of the channel having the next smaller cross sectional area

  13. The Use of Gas Chromatography and Mass Spectrometry to Introduce General Chemistry Students to Percent Mass and Atomic Mass Calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfennig, Brian W.; Schaefer, Amy K.

    2011-01-01

    A general chemistry laboratory experiment is described that introduces students to instrumental analysis using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), while simultaneously reinforcing the concepts of mass percent and the calculation of atomic mass. Working in small groups, students use the GC to separate and quantify the percent composition…

  14. Assembly of contactors-separators in an extraction unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beaujard, Jean; Menes, J.-C.; Ravoire, Jean.

    1977-01-01

    A description is given of an assembly of contactors-separators of an installation in which a transfer of mass or an isotope exchange occurs between two non miscible phases, characterized in that the contactors-separators are associated in m lines and n columns, one of the phases issuing from a contactor-separator being sent directly to the next contactor-separator of the same line, whilst the other phase, issuing from the same contactor-separator is sent directly to the next contactor-separator of the same column, each of the m lines and n columns being provided with one only pumping facility, the instantaneous flow rate of each phase, at the intake and outlet of each contactor-separator being appreciably identical [fr

  15. NEUTRINO MASS

    OpenAIRE

    Kayser, Boris

    1988-01-01

    This is a review article about the most recent developments on the field of neutrino mass. The first part of the review introduces the idea of neutrino masses and mixing angles, summarizes the most recent experimental data then discusses the experimental prospects and challenges in this area. The second part of the review discusses the implications of these results for particle physics and cosmology, including the origin of neutrino mass, the see-saw mechanism and sequential dominance, and la...

  16. Neutrino mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertson, R.G.H.

    1992-01-01

    Despite intensive experimental work since the neutrino's existence was proposed by Pauli 60 years ago, and its first observation by Reines and Cowan almost 40 years ago, the neutrino's fundamental properties remain elusive. Among those properties are the masses of the three known flavors, properties under charge conjugation, parity and time-reversal, and static and dynamic electromagnetic moments. Mass is perhaps the most fundamental, as it constrains the other properties. The present status of the search for neutrino mass is briefly reviewed

  17. Russian separation program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rea, J.L.

    1993-01-01

    A small contract signed in FY92 with the Khlopin Radium Institute marked the beginning of the Russian Separations program. Under this contract the Khlopin Radium Institute performed laboratory and dynamic hot-cell testing using cobalt dicarbollide technology on simulated radioactive wastes similar to those found at DOE sites in the United States. The current scope of investigation has been extended to identify prospective technologies for application to other United States needs. The Khlopin Radium Institute project served as a model for three other pilot scale technology development projects. The premise of the pilot scale projects is to enable Russian scientists to demonstrate their technology in the context of DOE needs, using Russian technical expertise has proven to be a cost-effective means of screening Russian technologies

  18. Nebulized therapy. SEPAR year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olveira, Casilda; Muñoz, Ana; Domenech, Adolfo

    2014-12-01

    Inhaled drugs are deposited directly in the respiratory tract. They therefore achieve higher concentrations with faster onset of action and fewer side effects than when used systemically. Nebulized drugs are mainly recommended for patients that require high doses of bronchodilators, when they need to inhale drugs that only exist in this form (antibiotics or dornase alfa) or when they are unable to use other inhalation devices. Technological development in recent years has led to new devices that optimize pulmonary deposits and reduce the time needed for treatment. In this review we focus solely on drugs currently used, or under investigation, for nebulization in adult patients; basically bronchodilators, inhaled steroids, antibiotics, antifungals, mucolytics and others such as anticoagulants, prostanoids and lidocaine. Copyright © 2014 SEPAR. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  19. Method of gas separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weltner, W.W.

    1980-01-01

    In order to separate a mixture of gases having widely different partial pressures at a given temperature, a chamber is employed. A batch of gas mixture is passed into the chamber. The walls of the chamber are cooled by a refrigerant which passes through coils in heat exchange relationship with the walls. By this means the temperature of the chamber is cooled to a temperature (and held at such temperature until equilibrium is reached) at which all the components of the gas mixture have changed state, at least one being solidified and at least one liquefied. The liquid constituents are removed first. Then the chamber is warmed to facilitate removal of the previously solidified constituents. In an example, the gas mixture comprises nitrogen, argon, krypton and xenon, and the walls of the chamber are cooled by liquid nitrogen, the argon and nitrogen being liquefied and the xenon and krypton being solidified. (author)

  20. Separations canyon decontamination facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hershey, J.H.

    1975-01-01

    Highly radioactive process equipment is decontaminated at the Savannah River Plant in specially equipped areas of the separations canyon building so that direct mechanical repairs or alterations can be made. Using these facilities it is possible to decontaminate and repair equipment such as 10- x 11-ft storage tanks, 8- x 8-ft batch evaporator pots and columns, 40-in. Bird centrifuges, canyon pumps and agitators, and various canyon piping systems or ''jumpers.'' For example, centrifuge or evaporator pots can be decontaminated and rebuilt for about 60 percent of the 1974 replacement cost. The combined facilities can decontaminate and repair 6 to 10 pieces of major equipment per year. Decontamination time varies with type of equipment and radioactivity levels encountered

  1. Separations canyon decontamination facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hershey, J.H.

    1975-05-01

    Highly radioactive process equipment is decontaminated at the Savannah River Plant in specially equipped areas of the separations canyon buildings so that direct mechanical repairs or alterations can be made. Using these facilities it is possible to decontaminate and repair equipment such as 10- x 11-ft storage tanks, 8- x 8-ft batch evaporator pots and columns, 40-in. Bird centrifuges, canyon pumps and agitators, and various canyon piping systems or ''jumpers.'' For example, centrifuge or evaporator pots can be decontaminated and rebuilt for about 60 percent of the 1974 replacement cost. The combined facilities can decontaminate and repair 6 to 10 pieces of major equipment per year. Decontamination time varies with type of equipment and radioactivity levels encountered. (U.S.)

  2. Block copolymer battery separator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, David; Balsara, Nitash Pervez

    2016-04-26

    The invention herein described is the use of a block copolymer/homopolymer blend for creating nanoporous materials for transport applications. Specifically, this is demonstrated by using the block copolymer poly(styrene-block-ethylene-block-styrene) (SES) and blending it with homopolymer polystyrene (PS). After blending the polymers, a film is cast, and the film is submerged in tetrahydrofuran, which removes the PS. This creates a nanoporous polymer film, whereby the holes are lined with PS. Control of morphology of the system is achieved by manipulating the amount of PS added and the relative size of the PS added. The porous nature of these films was demonstrated by measuring the ionic conductivity in a traditional battery electrolyte, 1M LiPF.sub.6 in EC/DEC (1:1 v/v) using AC impedance spectroscopy and comparing these results to commercially available battery separators.

  3. Actinide separative chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boullis, B.

    2004-01-01

    Actinide separative chemistry has focused very heavy work during the last decades. The main was nuclear spent fuel reprocessing: solvent extraction processes appeared quickly a suitable, an efficient way to recover major actinides (uranium and plutonium), and an extensive research, concerning both process chemistry and chemical engineering technologies, allowed the industrial development in this field. We can observe for about half a century a succession of Purex plants which, if based on the same initial discovery (i.e. the outstanding properties of a molecule, the famous TBP), present huge improvements at each step, for a large part due to an increased mastery of the mechanisms involved. And actinide separation should still focus R and D in the near future: there is a real, an important need for this, even if reprocessing may appear as a mature industry. We can present three main reasons for this. First, actinide recycling appear as a key-issue for future nuclear fuel cycles, both for waste management optimization and for conservation of natural resource; and the need concerns not only major actinide but also so-called minor ones, thus enlarging the scope of the investigation. Second, extraction processes are not well mastered at microscopic scale: there is a real, great lack in fundamental knowledge, useful or even necessary for process optimization (for instance, how to design the best extracting molecule, taken into account the several notifications and constraints, from selectivity to radiolytic resistivity?); and such a need for a real optimization is to be more accurate with the search of always cheaper, cleaner processes. And then, there is room too for exploratory research, on new concepts-perhaps for processing quite new fuels- which could appear attractive and justify further developments to be properly assessed: pyro-processes first, but also others, like chemistry in 'extreme' or 'unusual' conditions (supercritical solvents, sono-chemistry, could be

  4. Advanced isotope separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    The Study Group briefly reviewed the technical status of the three Advanced Isotope Separation (AIS) processes. It also reviewed the evaluation work that has been carried out by DOE's Process Evaluation Board (PEB) and the Union Carbide Corporation-Nuclear Division (UCCND). The Study Group briefly reviewed a recent draft assessment made for DOE staff of the nonproliferation implications of the AIS technologies. The staff also very briefly summarized the status of GCEP and Advanced Centrifuge development. The Study Group concluded that: (1) there has not been sufficient progress to provide a firm scientific, technical or economic basis on which to select one of the three competing AIS processes for full-scale engineering development at this time; and (2) however, should budgetary restraints or other factors force such a selection, we believe that the evaluation process that is being carried out by the PEB provides the best basis available for making a decision. The Study Group recommended that: (1) any decisions on AIS processes should include a comparison with gas centrifuge processes, and should not be made independently from the plutonium isotope program; (2) in evaluating the various enrichment processes, all applicable costs (including R and D and sales overhead) and an appropriate discounting approach should be included in order to make comparisons on a private industry basis; (3) if the three AIS programs continue with limited resources, the work should be reoriented to focus only on the most pressing technical problems; and (4) if a decision is made to develop the Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation process, the solid collector option should be pursued in parallel to alleviate the potential program impact of liquid collector thermal control problems

  5. Isotope separation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehmann, J.-C.

    1975-01-01

    A description is given of an isotope separation device comprising a system for converting into gaseous form a first and second isotope to be separated, a monochromatic excitation light source to excite the gaseous molecules of these two isotopes in a distinct manner, a first and second receiver to collect selectively the molecules of the first and second distinctly excited isotopes. The frequency FL of the excitation light is selected between a lower limit and a higher limit F2 + 1/2 LD, depending on the frequences F1 and F2 of two absorption lines near this first and second isotope. The difference DF between these two frequencies F1 and F2 is less than the Doppler width LD of each one of these lines and greater than the natural width LN of each of these two lines and also the width of line LR of the excitation light source. The probability that the molecules will be excited by this light depends on the direction of their displacement to a major and different extent for both isotopes. An ionising light source LI is set up to irradiate the seat of interaction between the excitation light and the gaseous molecules with an ionisation light able to ionise the excited molecules without ionising the molecules that are not excited. The receivers are able to collect selectively the ionised molecules. A sufficiently low gas pressure is selected for the distance between the place of interaction and the first receiver to be less than double the free mean travel of the molecules in the gas [fr

  6. High performance separation of lanthanides and actinides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sivaraman, N.; Vasudeva Rao, P.R.

    2011-01-01

    The major advantage of High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) is its ability to provide rapid and high performance separations. It is evident from Van Deemter curve for particle size versus resolution that packing materials with particle sizes less than 2 μm provide better resolution for high speed separations and resolving complex mixtures compared to 5 μm based supports. In the recent past, chromatographic support material using monolith has been studied extensively at our laboratory. Monolith column consists of single piece of porous, rigid material containing mesopores and micropores, which provide fast analyte mass transfer. Monolith support provides significantly higher separation efficiency than particle-packed columns. A clear advantage of monolith is that it could be operated at higher flow rates but with lower back pressure. Higher operating flow rate results in higher column permeability, which drastically reduces analysis time and provides high separation efficiency. The above developed fast separation methods were applied to assay the lanthanides and actinides from the dissolver solutions of nuclear reactor fuels

  7. Fundamentals of affinity cell separations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ye; Lyons, Veronica; Pappas, Dimitri

    2018-03-01

    Cell separations using affinity methods continue to be an enabling science for a wide variety of applications. In this review, we discuss the fundamental aspects of affinity separation, including the competing forces for cell capture and elution, cell-surface interactions, and models for cell adhesion. Factors affecting separation performance such as bond affinity, contact area, and temperature are presented. We also discuss and demonstrate the effects of nonspecific binding on separation performance. Metrics for evaluating cell separations are presented, along with methods of comparing separation techniques for cell isolation using affinity capture. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Liquid-phase separation with the rotational particle separator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kemenade, van H.P.; Mondt, E.; Hendriks, A.J.A.M.; Verbeek, P.H.J.

    2003-01-01

    Recently, the rotational particle separator (RPS) was introduced as a new technique for separating solid and/or liquid particles of 0.1 m and larger from gases. In this patented technique the principles of centrifugation are exploited to enhance separation of small-sized phases and particulate

  9. Understanding the effects of potassium ferricyanide on lead hydride formation in tetrahydroborate system and its application for determination of lead in milk using hydride generation inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, Biyang, E-mail: dengby16@163.com; Xu, Xiangshu; Xiao, Yan; Zhu, Pingchuan; Wang, Yingzi

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Proposed a novel explanation for plumbane generation. • Expounded the role of K{sub 3}Fe(CN){sub 6} in plumbane generation. • Clarified the controversial aspects in the mechanism of K{sub 3}Fe(CN){sub 6} enhancement. • Used X-ray diffractometry to analyze the intermediates. • Developed a method to analyze lead in milk using K{sub 3}Fe(CN){sub 6} and K{sub 4}Fe(CN){sub 6} as new additives. - Absract: To understand the formation of plumbane in the Pb{sup II}-NaBH{sub 4}-K{sub 3}Fe(CN){sub 6} system, the intermediate products produced in the reaction of lead(II) and NaBH{sub 4} in the presence of K{sub 3}Fe(CN){sub 6} were studied. The produced plumbane and elemental lead were measured through continuous flow hydride generation (HG)-inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP OES) and X-ray diffraction spectrometry techniques, respectively. Based on the experimental results, the explanations can be depicted in the following steps: (1) plumbane and black lead sediment (black Pb) are formed in the reaction of lead(II) and NaBH{sub 4}; (2) the black Pb is oxidized by K{sub 3}Fe(CN){sub 6} to form Pb{sub 2}[Fe(CN){sub 6}], which further reacts with NaBH{sub 4} to form more plumbane and black Pb; and (3) another round starts in which the produced black Pb from the step 2 is then oxidized continuously by K{sub 3}Fe(CN){sub 6} to form more Pb{sub 2}[Fe(CN){sub 6}] complex, which would produce more plumbane. In short, the black Pb and Pb{sub 2}[Fe(CN){sub 6}] complex are the key intermediate products for the formation of plumbane in the Pb{sup II}-NaBH{sub 4}-K{sub 3}Fe(CN){sub 6} system. Based on the enhancement effect of potassium ferricyanide and potassium ferrocyanide, a method was developed to analyze lead in milk with HG-ICP OES technique. The detection limit of the method was observed as 0.081 μg L{sup −1}. The linearity range of lead was found between 0.3 and 50,000 μg L{sup −1} with correlation coefficient of 0

  10. Simulation of startup period of hydrogen isotope separation distillation column

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sazonov, A.B.; Kagramanov, Z.G.; Magomedbekov, Eh.P.

    2003-01-01

    Kinetic procedure for the mathematical simulation of start-up regime of rectification columns for molecular hydrogen isotope separation was developed. Nonstationary state (start-up period) of separating column for rectification of multi-component mixture was calculated. Full information on equilibrium and kinetic physicochemical properties of components in separating mixtures was used for the calculations. Profile of concentration of components by height of column in task moment of time was calculated by means of differential equilibriums of nonstationary mass transfer. Calculated results of nonstationary state of column by the 2 m height, 30 mm diameter during separation of the mixture: 5 % protium, 70 % deuterium, 25 % tritium were illustrated [ru

  11. Mass Society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borch, Christian

    2017-01-01

    the negative features usually ascribed by late nineteenth-century crowd psychology to spontaneous crowds, and attributes these to the entire social fabric. However, in contrast to crowd psychology, theorists of mass society often place greater emphasis on how capitalism, technological advances, or demographic......Mass society is a societal diagnosis that emphasizes – usually in a pejorative, modernity critical manner – a series of traits allegedly associated with modern society, such as the leveling of individuality, moral decay, alienation, and isolation. As such, the notion of mass society generalizes...... developments condition such negative features, and some theorists argue that mass society produces a propensity to totalitarianism. Discussions of mass society culminated in the early and mid-twentieth century....

  12. Particle separator at Los Alamos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liska, D.J.

    1975-01-01

    The beam separator under development at LAMPF for the EPICS channel (Energetic Pion Channel and Spectrometer) is described. The separator operates on the electrostatic crossed-field principle but has several unusual features. (U.S.)

  13. Zirconium isotope separation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, S.H.; Lahoda, E.J.

    1988-01-01

    A process is described for reducing the amount of zirconium 91 isotope in zirconium comprising: forming a first solution of (a) a first solvent, (b) a scavenger, and (c) a zirconium compound which is soluble in the first solvent and reacts with the scavenger when exposed to light of a wavelength of 220 to 600 nm; irradiating the first solution with light at the wavelength for a time sufficient to photoreact a disproportionate amount of the zirconium compound containing the zirconium 91 isotope with the scavenger to form a reaction product in the first solution; contacting the first solution, while effecting the irradiation, with a second solvent which is immiscible with the first solvent, which the second solvent is a preferential solvent for the reaction product relative to the first solvent, such that at least a portion of the reaction product is transferred to the second solvent to form a second solution; and separating the second solution from the first solution after the contacting

  14. PARAFFIN SEPARATION VACUUM DISTILLATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaid A. Abdulrahman

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Simulated column performance curves were constructed for existing paraffin separation vacuum distillation column in LAB plant (Arab Detergent Company/Baiji-Iraq. The variables considered in this study are the thermodynamic model option, top vacuum pressure, top and bottom temperatures, feed temperature, feed composition & reflux ratio. Also simulated columns profiles for the temperature, vapor & liquid flow rates composition were constructed. Four different thermodynamic model options (SRK, TSRK, PR, and ESSO were used, affecting the results within 1-25% variation for the most cases.The simulated results show that about 2% to 8 % of paraffin (C10, C11, C12, & C13 present at the bottom stream which may cause a problem in the LAB plant. The major variations were noticed for the top temperature & the  paraffin weight fractions at bottom section with top vacuum pressure. The bottom temperature above 240 oC is not recommended because the total bottom flow rate decreases sharply, where as  the weight fraction of paraffins decrease slightly. The study gives evidence about a successful simulation with CHEMCAD

  15. Isotope separation apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyon, R.K.; Eisner, P.N.; Thomas, W.R.I.

    1983-01-01

    This application discloses a method for and an apparatus in which isotopes of an element in a compared are separated from each other while that compound, i.e., including a mixture of such isotopes, flows along a predetermined path. The apparatus includes a flow tube having a beginning and an end. The mixture of isotopes is introduced into the flow tube at a first introduction point between the beginning and the end thereof to flow the mixture toward the end thereof. A laser irradiates the flow tube dissociating compounds of a preselected one of said isotopes thereby converting the mixture in an isotopically selective manner. The dissociation products are removed from the tube at a first removal point between the first introduction point and the end. The dissociation product removed at the the first removal point are reconverted back into the comound thereby providing a first stage enriched compound. This first stage enriched compound is reintroduced into the flow tube at a second introduction point between the beginning thereof and the first introduction point. Further product is removed from the flow tube at a second removal point between the second introduction point and the first introduction point. The second introduction point is chosen so that the isotope composition of the first stage enriched compound is approximately the same as that of the compound in the flow tube

  16. Separation of a light additive gas by separation nozzle cascades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, E.; Bley, P.; Ehrfeld, W.; Fritz, W.; Steinhaus, H.

    1984-01-01

    Double-turn separation nozzles, in comparison with single-turn separation nozzles, offer much greater advantages in the separation of UF6 and H2 than in the separation of the U isotopes, for which the double-turn separation nozzles were conceived. By using a double-turn separation-nozzle stage as a preseparation stage in combination with a low-temperature separator, one can reduce the ratio of the buffer input stream to the product stream, in contrast with the solution used up to this time, with only a slight increase in cost of about an order of magnitude. The control program in the case of return feeding of the UF6 from the buffer and the danger of production losses connected with it are thereby correspondingly diminished. An example is given of the enrichment of 235U using the title facility with UF6. (orig./PW)

  17. Composite separators and redox flow batteries based on porous separators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bin; Wei, Xiaoliang; Luo, Qingtao; Nie, Zimin; Wang, Wei; Sprenkle, Vincent L.

    2016-01-12

    Composite separators having a porous structure and including acid-stable, hydrophilic, inorganic particles enmeshed in a substantially fully fluorinated polyolefin matrix can be utilized in a number of applications. The inorganic particles can provide hydrophilic characteristics. The pores of the separator result in good selectivity and electrical conductivity. The fluorinated polymeric backbone can result in high chemical stability. Accordingly, one application of the composite separators is in redox flow batteries as low cost membranes. In such applications, the composite separator can also enable additional property-enhancing features compared to ion-exchange membranes. For example, simple capacity control can be achieved through hydraulic pressure by balancing the volumes of electrolyte on each side of the separator. While a porous separator can also allow for volume and pressure regulation, in RFBs that utilize corrosive and/or oxidizing compounds, the composite separators described herein are preferable for their robustness in the presence of such compounds.

  18. Dielectrophoretic separation of gaseous isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McConnell, D.B.

    1975-01-01

    Gaseous isotopes are separated from a mixture in a vertically elongated chamber by subjecting the mixture to a nonuniform transverse electric field. Dielectrophoretic separation of the isotopes is effected, producing a transverse temperature gradient in the chamber, thereby enhancing the separation by convective countercurrent flow. In the example given, the process and apparatus are applied to the production of heavy water from steam

  19. Separating Underdetermined Convolutive Speech Mixtures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Michael Syskind; Wang, DeLiang; Larsen, Jan

    2006-01-01

    a method for underdetermined blind source separation of convolutive mixtures. The proposed framework is applicable for separation of instantaneous as well as convolutive speech mixtures. It is possible to iteratively extract each speech signal from the mixture by combining blind source separation...

  20. Mass hysteria

    CERN Document Server

    Hellemans, Alexander

    2004-01-01

    Considerable research is being undertaken to identify the Higgs particle that is believed to give things their mass. According to the standard model, what we call mass is really an indication of how strongly particles interact with an invisible syrupy substance called the Higgs field. Quantum mechanics say that the mass-giving field can also be thought of as a sea of electrically neutral Higgs particles that should be dislodged in collisions between subatomic particles with high enough energies. Particle physicists expect the Higgs to exist only for a fleeting moment before decaying into other particles, which are caught in a detector. (Edited abstract).

  1. Isotope separation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabicar, J.; Stamberg, K.; Katzer, J.

    1983-01-01

    A process for separating isotopes by the method of controlled distribution is claimed. A first phase is either a solution of isotopic components and a ligand (from 10 - 6 M to a saturated solution), or a gaseous mixture of isotopic components, or a gaseous mixture of isotopic components and an inert gas. The isotopes are in the starting mixture in molar ratio from 1:10 5 to 1:10 - 5 . The second phase is a solid sorbent such as styrene-divinylbenzene ion exchangers, or bio-sorbents on the basis of mycelium of lower fungi and sorbents on the basis of cellulose, or an extraction agent such as tributyl phosphate and trioctyl amine, if need be, kept by a carrier such as teflon, silica gel and cellulose. The two-phase system exhibits non-linear equilibrium isotherm for sorption and/or desorption or for extraction and/or re-extraction. After bringing both phases into contact the rate of transport of isotopic components from one phase into another is not equal. Retardation of isotopic exchange takes place by complexation of isotopes with ligands such as cabonate, sulphate, citrate, chloride and ethylenediamine tetraacetate ions, or by using sorbents and extraction agents with chelating functional groups such as carboxyl and hyroxyl groups, groups on the basis of phosphorus, nitrogen and sulphur and/or by operating in darkness, or in the light having wave length between 2.5x10 2 and 10 9 nm. The contact time is between 10 - 2 and 10 6 s, temperature between 10 2 and 10 3 K, the number of stirrer revolutions between 10 - 2 and 10 4 revolutions per s, flow rate at column arrangement between 10 - 6 and 10 - 1 m/s and the size of particles of sorbent between 10 - 6 and 10 - 2 m

  2. The isotope separation by ion exchange chromatography. Application to the lithium isotopes separation; La separation isotopique par chromatographie ionique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albert, M G; Barre, Y; Neige, R

    1994-12-31

    In this work is described the used study step to demonstrate the industrial feasibility of a lithium isotopes separation process by ion exchange chromatography. After having recalled how is carried out the exchange reaction between the lithium isotopes bound on the cations exchanger resin and those which are in solution and gave the ion exchange chromatography principle, the authors establish a model which takes into account the cascade theory already used for enriched uranium production. The size parameters of this model are: the isotopic separation factor (which depends for lithium of the ligands nature and of the coordination factor), the isotopic exchange kinetics and the mass flow (which depends of the temperature, the lithium concentration, the resins diameter and the front advance). The way they have to be optimized and the implementation of the industrial process are given. (O.M.). 5 refs.

  3. Advances in laser isotope separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herman, I.P.; Bernhardt, A.F.

    1988-01-01

    The physical and chemical concepts required to understand laser isotope separation are presented and discussed. The numerous successful demonstrations of separating isotopes using lasers are reviewed to 1983. Emphasis is placed on the separation of 235-U from 238-U by multi-step selective ioniation of uranium atomic vapor, and on the separation of D and H and of T from D, by pulsed infrared laser multiple-photon dissociation of fluoroform and chloroform, respectively, because they are among the most successful and important examples of laser isotope separation to date. 161 refs.; 7 figs

  4. Production and separation of no-carrier-added 73As and 75Se from 7Li irradiated germanium oxide target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandal, A.; Lahiri, S.

    2012-01-01

    This work reports for the first time 7 Li-induced accelerator based production of 71,72,73,74 As, 75,76,77 Br and 73,75 Se radionuclides in their no-carrier-added (nca) state. After the decay of all short-lived radionuclides 75 Se and 73 As were only existing radionuclides in germanium oxide target, which were subsequently separated by liquid-liquid extraction (LLX) using trioctylamine (TOA) dissolved in cyclohexane as liquid ion exchanger. The presence of stable germanium in various fractions was examined by Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Spectrometry (ICP-OES). At 0.1 M TOA and 10 M HCl concentration, 75 Se and stable Ge were extracted into the organic phase leaving 73 As in the aqueous phase. The bulk Ge was stripped back to the aqueous phase by 1 M NaOH, keeping 75 Se in the organic phase. Therefore complete separation between 73 As, 75 Se and bulk Ge was achieved. (orig.)

  5. Physical Separation in the Workplace

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stea, Diego; Foss, Nicolai Juul; Holdt Christensen, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Physical separation is pervasive in organizations, and has powerful effects on employee motivation and organizational behaviors. However, research shows that workplace separation is characterized by a variety of tradeoffs, tensions, and challenges that lead to both positive and negative outcomes....... We develop new theory on the nature, antecedents, and motivational implications of separation awareness - a psychological state in which people are aware of their physical separation from others—and proffer a model of the mechanisms that link separation and motivation. We distinguish between control...... and autonomy affirmation as psychological states that are triggered by physical separation in the workplace, and discuss individual and context specific moderators, as well as motivational implications of separation awareness. In doing so, we reconcile the seemingly contradicting findings that have been...

  6. Mathematical modelling of membrane separation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinther, Frank

    This thesis concerns mathematical modelling of membrane separation. The thesis consists of introductory theory on membrane separation, equations of motion, and properties of dextran, which will be the solute species throughout the thesis. Furthermore, the thesis consist of three separate mathemat......This thesis concerns mathematical modelling of membrane separation. The thesis consists of introductory theory on membrane separation, equations of motion, and properties of dextran, which will be the solute species throughout the thesis. Furthermore, the thesis consist of three separate...... mathematical models, each with a different approach to membrane separation. The first model is a statistical model investigating the interplay between solute shape and the probability of entering the membrane. More specific the transition of solute particles from being spherical to becoming more elongated...

  7. Structural Changes of PVDF Membranes by Phase Separation Control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Semin; Kim, Sung Soo

    2016-01-01

    Thermally induced phase separation (TIPS) and nonsolvent induced phase separation (NIPS) were simultaneously induced for the preparation of flat PVDF membranes. N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) was used as a solvent and dibutyl-phthlate (DBP) was used as a diluent for PVDF. When PVDF was melt blended with NMP and DBP, crystallization temperature was lowered for TIPS and unstable region was expanded for NIPS. Ratio of solvent to diluent changed the phase separation mechanism to obtain the various membrane structures. Contact mode of dope solution with nonsolvent determined the dominant phase separation behavior. Since heat transfer rate was greater than mass transfer rate, surface structure was formed by NIPS and inner structure was by TIPS. Quenching temperature of dope solution also affected the phase separation mechanism and phase separation rate to result in the variation of structure

  8. Comparison of gas membrane separation cascades using conventional separation cell and two-unit separation cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohno, Masayoshi; Morisue, Tetsuo; Ozaki, Osamu; Miyauchi, Terukatsu.

    1978-01-01

    The adoption of two-unit separation cells in radioactive rare gas membrane separation equipment enhances the separation factor, but increases the required membrane area and compressive power. An analytical economic evaluation was undertaken to compare the conventional separation cell with the two-unit separation cells, adopting as parameters the number of cascade stages, the membrane area and the operating power requirements. This paper describes the models used for evaluating the separation performance and the economics of cascade embodying these different concepts of separation cell taken up for study, and the results obtained for the individual concepts are mutually compared. It proved that, in respect of the number required of cascade stages, of operating power requirements and of the annual expenditure, better performance could always be expected of the two-unit separation cells as compared with the conventional separation cell, at least in the range of parameters adopted in this study. As regards the minimum membrane area, the conventional separation cell and the series-type separation cell yielded almost the same values, with the parallel-type separation cell falling somewhat behind. (auth.)

  9. Separation of uranium isotopes by gas centrifugation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jordan, I.

    1980-05-01

    The uranium isotope enrichment is studied by means of the countercurrent gas centrifuge driven by thermal convection. A description is given of (a) the transfer and purification of the uranium hexafluoride used as process gas in the present investigation; (b) the countercurrent centrifuge ZG3; (c) the system designed for the introduction and extraction of the process gas from the centrifuge; (d) the measurement of the process gas flow rate through the centrifuge; (e) the determination of the uranium isotopic abundance by mass spectrometry; (f) the operation and mechanical behavior of the centrifuge and (g) the isotope separation experiments, performed, respectively, at total reflux and with production of enriched material. The results from the separation experiments at total reflux are discussed in terms of the enrichment factor variation with the magnitude and flow profile of the countercurrent given by the temperature difference between the rotor covers. As far as the separation experiments with production are concerned, the discussion of their results is presented through the variation of the enrichment factor as a function of the flow rate, the observed asymmetry of the process and the calculated separative power of the centrifuge. (Author) [pt

  10. Relativistic and separable classical hamiltonian particle dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sazdjian, H.

    1981-01-01

    We show within the Hamiltonian formalism the existence of classical relativistic mechanics of N scalar particles interacting at a distance which satisfies the requirements of Poincare invariance, separability, world-line invariance and Einstein causality. The line of approach which is adopted here uses the methods of the theory of systems with constraints applied to manifestly covariant systems of particles. The study is limited to the case of scalar interactions remaining weak in the whole phase space and vanishing at large space-like separation distances of the particles. Poincare invariance requires the inclusion of many-body, up to N-body, potentials. Separability requires the use of individual or two-body variables and the construction of the total interaction from basic two-body interactions. Position variables of the particles are constructed in terms of the canonical variables of the theory according to the world-line invariance condition and the subsidiary conditions of the non-relativistic limit and separability. Positivity constraints on the interaction masses squared of the particles ensure that the velocities of the latter remain always smaller than the velocity of light

  11. Laser assisted jet nozzle isotope separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    A process for separating fluent particles having different masses comprises the steps of: driving a fluent mixture of such particles around a curved passage toward a septum oriented to divide the mixture thereby accelerating such particles to impart a centrifugal force thereto; inducing type selective heating of a selected particle type in said mixture prior to termination of such acceleration; receiving the fraction of the mixture flowing past an outer surface of said septum in a first output conduit; and receiving the fraction of the mixture flowing past an inner surface of said septum in a second output conduit. The description of the process for isotope separation refers also to the use of infrared laser radiation to produce isotopically selective excitation of the U-235 isotope in UF 6 . (author)

  12. Separation of Hydrogen Isotopes by Palladium Alloy Membranes Separator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiangfeng, S.; Deli, L.; Yifu, X.; Congxian, L.; Zhiyong, H.

    2007-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: Separation of hydrogen isotope with palladium alloy membranes is one of the promising methods for hydrogen isotope separation. It has several advantages, such as high separation efficiency, smaller tritium inventory, simple separation device, ect. Limited by the manufacture of membrane and cost of gas transportation pump, this method is still at the stage of conceptual study. The relationship between separation factors and temperatures, feed gas components, split ratios have not been researched in detail, and the calculated results of cascade separation have not been validated with experimental data. In this thesis, a palladium alloy membrane separator was designed to further study its separation performance between H 2 and D 2 . The separation factor of the single stage was affected by the temperature, the feed gas component, the split ratio and the gas flow rate, etc. The experimental results showed that the H 2 -D 2 separation factor decreased with the increasing of temperature. On the temperature from 573 K to 773 K, when the feed rate was 5 L/min, the separation factor of 66.2%H 2 - 33.8%D 2 decreased from 2.09 to 1.85 when the split ratio was 0.1 and from 1.74 to 1.52 when the split ratio was 0.2.The separation factor also decreased with the increasing of split ratio. At 573 K and the feed rate of 5 L/min, the separation factor of 15.0%H 2 and 85.0%D 2 decreased from 2.43 to 1.35 with the increasing of split ratio from 0.050 to 0.534,and for 66.2%H 2 -33.8%D 2 , the separation factor decreased from 2.87 to 1.30 with the increasing of split ratio from 0.050 to 0.688. When the separation factor was the biggest, the flow rate of feed gas was in a perfect value. To gain a best separation performance, perfect flow rate, lower temperature and reflux ratio should be chosen. (authors)

  13. Acromioclavicular joint separation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devan Pandya, BS

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available History of present illness: A 30-year-old male was brought in by ambulance to the emergency department as a trauma activation after a motorcycle accident. The patient was the helmeted rider of a motorcycle traveling at an unknown speed when he lost control and was thrown off his vehicle. He denied loss of consciousness, nausea, or vomiting. The patient’s vital signs were stable and his only complaint was pain around his left shoulder. On exam, the patient had a prominent left clavicle without skin compromise. He had adequate range of motion in the left shoulder with moderate pain, and his left upper extremity was neurovascularly intact. Significant findings: Plain films of the left shoulder showed elevation of the left clavicle above the acromion. There was an increase in the acromioclavicular (AC and coracoclavicular (CC distances (increased joint distances marked with red and blue arrows, respectively. A normal AC joint measures 1-3 mm whereas a normal CC distance measures 11-13 mm.1 The injury was classified as a Rockwood type III AC joint separation. Discussion: The AC joint is a synovial joint between an oval facet on the acromion and a similar facet on the distal end of the clavicle. Horizontal stability is provided by the AC joint while axial stability is provided by the CC joint.2,3 AC joint injuries account for about 9%-12% of shoulder girdle injuries, and the most common mechanism is direct trauma.4,5 Initial evaluation with imaging includes plain films with three views: the anterior-posterior (AP view with the shoulder in internal and external rotation as well as an axillary, or scapula-Y view (sensitivity 40%, specificity 90% for all films.6,7 AC joint injuries are classified by the Rockwood system.8 Type I involves a sprain or incomplete tear of the AC ligaments with an intact CC ligament. The AC joint appears normal on X-ray, but can become widened with stress, achieved by having the patient hold a 10-15 pound weight from each

  14. Continued treatment and utilization of separable material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neumann, W.; Englmann, E.; Goettle, A.; Hruschka, H.; Resch, H.; Schramm, W.; Wiedmann, U.; Flohrschuetz, R.

    1980-04-01

    The separable material (material retained on trash rack, material collected in the sand, floating substances, fresh sludge) occurring in a biological mechanical sewage treatment plant are described with respect to quantity, provenance, and composition. The most common methods for subsequent treatment of this material are at first aimed at the reduction of volume (dehydration), then at processing it to obtain reusable products (fertilizer, compost, feeding stuff, raw material) or at converting it into a mass that can be deposited. The individual steps of the process and their specific requirement, with respect to temperature, oxygen, and conditioning agents are described in detail.

  15. The separation of quark flavours in e+e- annihilation and its applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, R.

    1984-05-01

    The use of kinematic quantities to separate quark flavours is investigated. Quantitative methods of assessing the degree of separation are developed and used to select the best variable: transverse mass. The properties of transverse mass, derived from all particles in the quark jets are considered in detail. Finally, a few examples where the method can be applied are briefly described. (author)

  16. Negative mass solitons in gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cebeci, Hakan; Sarioglu, Oezguer; Tekin, Bayram

    2006-01-01

    We first reconstruct the conserved (Abbott-Deser) charges in the spin-connection formalism of gravity for asymptotically (Anti)-de Sitter spaces, and then compute the masses of the AdS soliton and the recently found Eguchi-Hanson solitons in generic odd dimensions, unlike the previous result obtained for only five dimensions. These solutions have negative masses compared to the global AdS or AdS/Z p spacetimes. As a separate note, we also compute the masses of the recent even dimensional Taub-NUT-Reissner-Nordstroem metrics

  17. Separators - Technology review: Ceramic based separators for secondary batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nestler, Tina; Schmid, Robert; Münchgesang, Wolfram; Bazhenov, Vasilii; Meyer, Dirk C. [Technische Universität Bergakademie Freiberg, Institut für Experimentelle Physik, Leipziger Str. 23, 09596 Freiberg (Germany); Schilm, Jochen [Fraunhofer-Institut für Keramische Technologien und Systeme IKTS, Winterbergstraße 28, 01277 Dresden (Germany); Leisegang, Tilmann [Fraunhofer-Technologiezentrum Halbleitermaterialien THM, Am St.-Niclas-Schacht 13, 09599 Freiberg (Germany)

    2014-06-16

    Besides a continuous increase of the worldwide use of electricity, the electric energy storage technology market is a growing sector. At the latest since the German energy transition ('Energiewende') was announced, technological solutions for the storage of renewable energy have been intensively studied. Storage technologies in various forms are commercially available. A widespread technology is the electrochemical cell. Here the cost per kWh, e. g. determined by energy density, production process and cycle life, is of main interest. Commonly, an electrochemical cell consists of an anode and a cathode that are separated by an ion permeable or ion conductive membrane - the separator - as one of the main components. Many applications use polymeric separators whose pores are filled with liquid electrolyte, providing high power densities. However, problems arise from different failure mechanisms during cell operation, which can affect the integrity and functionality of these separators. In the case of excessive heating or mechanical damage, the polymeric separators become an incalculable security risk. Furthermore, the growth of metallic dendrites between the electrodes leads to unwanted short circuits. In order to minimize these risks, temperature stable and non-flammable ceramic particles can be added, forming so-called composite separators. Full ceramic separators, in turn, are currently commercially used only for high-temperature operation systems, due to their comparably low ion conductivity at room temperature. However, as security and lifetime demands increase, these materials turn into focus also for future room temperature applications. Hence, growing research effort is being spent on the improvement of the ion conductivity of these ceramic solid electrolyte materials, acting as separator and electrolyte at the same time. Starting with a short overview of available separator technologies and the separator market, this review focuses on ceramic

  18. Separators - Technology review: Ceramic based separators for secondary batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nestler, Tina; Schmid, Robert; Münchgesang, Wolfram; Bazhenov, Vasilii; Schilm, Jochen; Leisegang, Tilmann; Meyer, Dirk C.

    2014-06-01

    Besides a continuous increase of the worldwide use of electricity, the electric energy storage technology market is a growing sector. At the latest since the German energy transition ("Energiewende") was announced, technological solutions for the storage of renewable energy have been intensively studied. Storage technologies in various forms are commercially available. A widespread technology is the electrochemical cell. Here the cost per kWh, e. g. determined by energy density, production process and cycle life, is of main interest. Commonly, an electrochemical cell consists of an anode and a cathode that are separated by an ion permeable or ion conductive membrane - the separator - as one of the main components. Many applications use polymeric separators whose pores are filled with liquid electrolyte, providing high power densities. However, problems arise from different failure mechanisms during cell operation, which can affect the integrity and functionality of these separators. In the case of excessive heating or mechanical damage, the polymeric separators become an incalculable security risk. Furthermore, the growth of metallic dendrites between the electrodes leads to unwanted short circuits. In order to minimize these risks, temperature stable and non-flammable ceramic particles can be added, forming so-called composite separators. Full ceramic separators, in turn, are currently commercially used only for high-temperature operation systems, due to their comparably low ion conductivity at room temperature. However, as security and lifetime demands increase, these materials turn into focus also for future room temperature applications. Hence, growing research effort is being spent on the improvement of the ion conductivity of these ceramic solid electrolyte materials, acting as separator and electrolyte at the same time. Starting with a short overview of available separator technologies and the separator market, this review focuses on ceramic-based separators

  19. Separation process using microchannel technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonkovich, Anna Lee [Dublin, OH; Perry, Steven T [Galloway, OH; Arora, Ravi [Dublin, OH; Qiu, Dongming [Bothell, WA; Lamont, Michael Jay [Hilliard, OH; Burwell, Deanna [Cleveland Heights, OH; Dritz, Terence Andrew [Worthington, OH; McDaniel, Jeffrey S [Columbus, OH; Rogers, Jr; William, A [Marysville, OH; Silva, Laura J [Dublin, OH; Weidert, Daniel J [Lewis Center, OH; Simmons, Wayne W [Dublin, OH; Chadwell, G Bradley [Reynoldsburg, OH

    2009-03-24

    The disclosed invention relates to a process and apparatus for separating a first fluid from a fluid mixture comprising the first fluid. The process comprises: (A) flowing the fluid mixture into a microchannel separator in contact with a sorption medium, the fluid mixture being maintained in the microchannel separator until at least part of the first fluid is sorbed by the sorption medium, removing non-sorbed parts of the fluid mixture from the microchannel separator; and (B) desorbing first fluid from the sorption medium and removing desorbed first fluid from the microchannel separator. The process and apparatus are suitable for separating nitrogen or methane from a fluid mixture comprising nitrogen and methane. The process and apparatus may be used for rejecting nitrogen in the upgrading of sub-quality methane.

  20. Separable programming theory and methods

    CERN Document Server

    Stefanov, Stefan M

    2001-01-01

    In this book, the author considers separable programming and, in particular, one of its important cases - convex separable programming Some general results are presented, techniques of approximating the separable problem by linear programming and dynamic programming are considered Convex separable programs subject to inequality equality constraint(s) and bounds on variables are also studied and iterative algorithms of polynomial complexity are proposed As an application, these algorithms are used in the implementation of stochastic quasigradient methods to some separable stochastic programs Numerical approximation with respect to I1 and I4 norms, as a convex separable nonsmooth unconstrained minimization problem, is considered as well Audience Advanced undergraduate and graduate students, mathematical programming operations research specialists