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Sample records for plasma x-ray emission

  1. X-ray emission from hot plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayakawa, Satio; Kato, Takako.

    1979-01-01

    X-ray emission from hot plasmas is discussed with a critical review of different theories. The results given in the present paper are complementary to those given by Kato in the sense that the present paper is introductory to the paper by Kato. The contents of the present paper are; 1. Introduction 2. Ionization and Recombination Rate Coefficients 3. Relative Abundances of Ions 4. Intensity and Spectra of Radiation 5. Comparison with Earlier Results 6. Emission and Absorption Lines (author)

  2. Characterization of X-ray emission from laser generated plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannavò, Antonino; Torrisi, Lorenzo; Ceccio, Giovanni; Cutroneo, Mariapompea; Calcagno, Lucia; Sciuto, Antonella; Mazzillo, Massimo

    2018-01-01

    X-ray emission from laser generated plasma was studied at low (1010 W/cm2) and high (1018 W/cm2) intensity using ns and fs laser, respectively. Plasma characteristics were controlled trough the laser parameters, the irradiation conditions and the target properties. The X-ray spectra were acquired using fast detection technique based on SiC diodes with different active regions. The X-ray yield increases with the atomic number of the target, both at low and high intensity, and a similar empirical law has been obtained. The X-ray emission mechanisms from plasma are correlated to the plasma temperature and density and to the Coulomb charge particle acceleration, due to the charge separation effects produced in the non-equilibrium plasma. Functional dependences, theoretical approaches and interpretation of possible mechanism will be presented and discussed.

  3. Characterization of X-ray emission from laser generated plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cannavò Antonino

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available X-ray emission from laser generated plasma was studied at low (1010 W/cm2 and high (1018 W/cm2 intensity using ns and fs laser, respectively. Plasma characteristics were controlled trough the laser parameters, the irradiation conditions and the target properties. The X-ray spectra were acquired using fast detection technique based on SiC diodes with different active regions. The X-ray yield increases with the atomic number of the target, both at low and high intensity, and a similar empirical law has been obtained. The X-ray emission mechanisms from plasma are correlated to the plasma temperature and density and to the Coulomb charge particle acceleration, due to the charge separation effects produced in the non-equilibrium plasma. Functional dependences, theoretical approaches and interpretation of possible mechanism will be presented and discussed.

  4. X-ray emission characteristics of foam target plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fronya, A.A.; Borisenko, N.G.; Chernodub, M.L.; Merkuliev, Yu.A.; Osipov, M.V.; Puzyrev, V.N.; Sahakyan, A.T.; Starodub, A.N.; Vasin, B.L.; Yakushev, O.F.

    2010-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Experimental results of laser radiation interaction with a foam targets are presented. The spatial, temporal and energy characteristics of x-ray plasma radiation have been investigated. The pinhole-camera and Schwarzschild objective have been used for the plasma image formation in different spectral ranges. The plasma image is registered by the Schwarzschild objective in a narrow spectral range 180 - 200 A. Spectral characteristics of x-ray radiation registered by pinhole-camera have been defined by means outer filters. The use of the filters with different transmission curves allowed one the determine the localization of x-ray radiation with fixed wavelength. Spatial resolution accounts 16 μm in the pinhole-camera diagnostic channel and 2.5 μm in the Schwarzschild objective diagnostic channel. The plasma images in the intrinsic x-ray radiation show that the emission area in the transverse direction with respect to the direction of the propagating heating radiation exceeds the focal spot size. This fact indicates that the target heating in the transverse direction is due to internal energy of the created plasma. The average value of plasma electron temperature is ∼ 0.4 - 1.4 keV. Acknowledgements. The work is partly supported by the Russian Foundation for Basic Researches, grant no. 10-02-00113 and by Federal Target Program 'Research and scientific-pedagogical cadres of Innovative Russia' (grant 2009-1.1-122-052-025).

  5. X-ray emission lines from photoionized plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liedahl, D.A.

    1992-11-01

    Plasma emission codes have become a standard tool for the analysis of spectroscopic data from cosmic X-ray sources. However, the assumption of collisional equilibrium, typically invoked in these codes, renders them inapplicable to many important astrophysical situations, particularly those involving X-ray photoionized nebulae, which are likely to exist in the circumsource environments of compact X-ray sources. X-ray line production in a photoionized plasma is primarily the result of radiative cascades following recombination. Through the development of atomic models of several highly-charged ions, this work extends the range of applicability of discrete spectral models to plasmas dominated by recombination. Assuming that ambient plasma conditions lie in the temperature range 10 5 --10 6 K and the density range 10 11 --10 16 cm -3 , X-ray line spectra are calculated over the wavelength range 5--45 angstrom using the HULLAC atomic physics package. Most of the work focuses on the Fe L-shell ions. Line ratios of the form (3s-2p)/(3d-2p) are shown to characterize the principal mode of line excitation, thereby providing a simple signature of photoionization. At electron densities exceeding 10 12 cm -3 , metastable state populations in the ground configurations approach their LTE value, resulting in the enrichment of the Fe L-shell recombination spectrum and a set of density-sensitive X-ray line ratios. Radiative recombination continua and emission lines produced selectively by Δn = 0 dielectronic recombination are shown to provide two classes of temperature diagnostics. Because of the extreme overionization, the recombination continua are expected to be narrow (ΔE/E much-lt 1), with ΔE = kT. Dielectronic recombination selectively drives radiative transitions that originate on states with vacancies in the 2s subshell, states that are inaccessible under pure RR population kinetics

  6. Plasma Emission Profile Recreation using Soft X-Ray Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, J. W.; Mauel, M. E.; Levesque, J. P.

    2015-11-01

    With sufficient views from multiple diode arrays, soft X-ray tomography is an invaluable plasma diagnostic because it is a non-perturbing method to reconstruct the emission within the interior of the plasma. In preparation for the installation of new SXR arrays in HBT-EP, we compute high-resolution tomographic reconstructions of discharges having kink-like structures that rotate nearly rigidly. By assuming a uniform angular mapping from the kink mode rotation, Δϕ ~ ωΔ t, a temporal sequence from a single 16-diode fan array represents as many as 16 x 100 independent views. We follow the procedure described by Wang and Granetz and use Bessel basis functions to take the inverse Radon transform. This transform is fit to our data using a least-squares method to estimate the internal SXR emissivity as a sum of polar functions. By varying different parameters of the transformation, we optimize the quality of our recreation of the emission profile and quantify how the reconstruction changes with the azimuthal order of the transform. Supported by U.S. DOE Grant DE-FG02-86ER53222.

  7. Time correlation between plasma behaviour and soft x-ray emission in a plasma focus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirano, Katsumi; Tagaya, Yutaka; Shimoda, Katsuji; Okabe, Yushiro; Yamamoto, Toshikazu

    1986-01-01

    Soft X-rays emitted from a plasma focus are investigated experimentally. In contrast to single-pulsive burst of neutron, hard X-rays, ion- and electron beams, the soft X-rays are observed from the collapse phase to the decay phase of the plasma column, and have typically three successive peaks in its signal. Each peak corresponds to the maximum compression, the disruption and the decay phase of plasma column. It is revealed that the first and the second peaks are radiated by plasma itself, whereas the third peak is caused by emission from the inner electrode face. (author)

  8. Spectral analysis of K-shell X-ray emission of magnesium plasma

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-02-06

    Feb 6, 2014 ... Spectral analysis of K-shell X-ray emission of magnesium plasma, produced by laser pulses of 45 fs duration, focussed up to an intensity of ∼1018 W cm-2, is carried out. The plasma conditions prevalent during the emission of X-ray spectrum were identified by comparing the experimental spectra with the ...

  9. Neutron and X-ray emission studies in a low energy plasma focus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zakaullah, M. [Quaid-i-Azam Univ., Islamabad (Pakistan). Dept. of Physics; Murtaza, G. [Quaid-i-Azam Univ., Islamabad (Pakistan). Dept. of Physics; Qamar, S. [Quaid-i-Azam Univ., Islamabad (Pakistan). Dept. of Physics; Ahmad, I. [Quaid-i-Azam Univ., Islamabad (Pakistan). Dept. of Physics; Beg, M.M. [Quaid-i-Azam Univ., Islamabad (Pakistan). Dept. of Physics

    1996-03-01

    In a low energy Mather-type plasma focus energized by a single 32 {mu}F capacitor, the X-ray and neutron emission is investigated using time-integrated and time-resolved detectors. The X-ray emission profile has a width (FWHM) of 40-50 ns. The neutron emission profile is broader compared to the X-ray emission profile and also delayed by 30-40 ns. To identify different regimes of X-ray emission, an X-ray pin-hole camera along with different absorption filters is employed. While the X-ray emission is high within a narrow pressure range of 2.0-2.5 mbar, the neutron emission is intense for a wider range of 1.0-4.5 mbar. The intense X-ray emission seems to originate from the axially moving shock wave. These results also indicate rather different production mechanisms for X-ray and neutron emission. Also on comparing the X-ray images with Al(2 {mu}m), Al(5 {mu}m), Al(9 {mu}m) filters, we find that the bulk of X-rays from the focus filament have energies less than 2 keV. (orig.).

  10. Space- and time-resolved diagnostics of soft x-ray emission from laser plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richardson, M.C.; Jaanimagi, P.A.; Chen, H.

    1988-01-01

    The analysis of soft x-ray emission from plasmas created by intense short-wavelength laser radiation can provide much useful information on the density, temperature and ionization distribution of the plasma. Until recently, limitations of sensitivity and the availability of suitable x-ray optical elements have restricted studies of soft x-ray emission from laser plasmas. In this paper, the authors describe novel instrumentation which provides high sensitivity in the soft x-ray spectrum with spatial and temporal resolution in the micron and picosecond ranges respectively. These systems exploit advances made in soft x-ray optic and electro-optic technology. Their application in current studies of laser fusion, x-ray lasers, and high density atomic physics are discussed

  11. Working gas effects on the X-ray emission of a plasma focus device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cengher, M; Presura, R; Zoita, V [Inst. of Physics and Technology of Radiation Devices, Bucharest (Romania)

    1997-12-31

    Experiments on the plasma focus device IPF-2/20 operating with argon, neon and mixtures of argon with deuterium were performed and some X-ray emission parameters measured. The time evolution of the X-ray emission and dependence of the X-ray yield on the working gas composition was analyzed. The softer X radiation was measured with time resolution in the energy bands from 4 to 40 keV, and the hard X-rays for energies above 200 keV. In deuterium-argon mixtures the soft X-ray yield increases both with pressure (for the same ratio of argon) and with the quantity of argon added to deuterium at the same total pressure. For argon or neon the hard X-ray yield is lower than for deuterium-heavy gas mixtures. The softer X-ray yield decreases with pressure both for neon and for argon. (author). 4 figs., 5 refs.

  12. Exotic x-ray emission from dense plasmas

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rosmej, F.B.; Dachicourt, R.; Deschaud, B.; Khaghani, D.; Dozières, M.; Šmíd, Michal; Renner, Oldřich

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 48, č. 22 (2015), s. 224005 ISSN 0953-4075 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ED1.1.00/02.0061 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 284464 - LASERLAB-EUROPE Grant - others:ELI Beamlines(XE) CZ.1.05/1.1.00/02.0061; AVČR(CZ) M100101208 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : hollow ions * x-ray spectroscopy * atomic physics Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 1.833, year: 2015

  13. X-ray absorption spectra and emission spectra of plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng Yonglun; Yang Li; Wang Minsheng; Li Jiaming

    2002-01-01

    The author reports a theoretical method to calculate the resolved absorption spectra and emission spectra (optically thin) of hot dense plasmas. Due to its fully relativistic treatment incorporated with the quantum defect theory, it calculates the absorption spectra and emission spectra for single element or multi-element plasmas with little computational efforts. The calculated absorption spectra of LTE gold plasmas agree well with the experimental ones. It also calculates the optical thin emission spectra of LTE gold plasmas, which is helpful to diagnose the plasmas of relevant ICF plasmas. It can also provide the relevant parameters such as population density of various ionic stages, precise radiative properties for ICF studies

  14. X-ray hot plasma diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cojocaru, E.

    1984-11-01

    X-ray plasma emission study is powerful diagnostic tool of hot plasmas. In this review article the main techniques of X-ray plasma emission measurement are shortly presented: X-ray spectrometry using absorbent filters, crystal and grating spectrometers, imaging techniques using pinhole cameras, X-ray microscopes and Fresnel zone plate cameras, X-ray plasma emission calorimetry. Advances in these techniques with examples for different hot plasma devices are also presentes. (author)

  15. X-ray Imaging and preliminary studies of the X-ray self-emission from an innovative plasma-trap based on the Bernstein waves heating mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caliri, C.; Romano, F. P.; Mascali, D.; Gammino, S.; Musumarra, A.; Castro, G.; Celona, L.; Neri, L.; Altana, C.

    2013-10-01

    Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Sources (ECRIS) are based on ECR heated plasmas emitting high fluxes of X-rays. Here we illustrate a pilot study of the X-ray emission from a compact plasma-trap in which an off-resonance microwave-plasma interaction has been attempted, highlighting a possible Bernstein-Waves based heating mechanism. EBWs-heating is obtained via the inner plasma EM-to-ES wave conversion and enables to reach densities much larger than the cut-off ones. At LNS-INFN, an innovative diagnostic technique based on the design of a Pinhole Camera (PHC) coupled to a CCD device for X-ray Imaging of the plasma (XRI) has been developed, in order to integrate X-ray traditional diagnostics (XRS). The complementary use of electrostatic probes measurements and X-ray diagnostics enabled us to gain knowledge about the high energy electrons density and temperature and about the spatial structure of the source. The combination of the experimental data with appropriate modeling of the plasma-source allowed to estimate the X-ray emission intensity in different energy domains (ranging from EUV up to Hard X-rays). The use of ECRIS as X-ray source for multidisciplinary applications, is now a concrete perspective due to the intense fluxes produced by the new plasma heating mechanism.

  16. Specific features of thermocouple calorimeter application for measurements of pulsed X-ray emission from plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavrilov, V. V.; Fasakhov, I. K.

    2012-01-01

    It is shown that the accuracy of time-integrated measurements of pulsed X-ray emission from hot plasma with calibrated thermocouple calorimeters is mainly determined by two factors. The first and the most important factor is heating of the filter by the absorbed X-rays; as a result, the calorimeter measures the thermal radiation of the filter, which causes appreciable distortion of the temporal profile and amplitude of the recorded signal. The second factor is the dependence of the effective depth of X-ray absorption in the dielectric that covers the entrance window of the calorimeter on the energy of X-ray photons, i.e., on the recorded radiation spectrum. The results of model calculations of the calorimeter signal are compared with the experimental data.

  17. Current sheath curvature correlation with the neon soft x-ray emission from plasma focus device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, T; Lin, X; Chandra, K A; Tan, T L; Springham, S V; Patran, A; Lee, P; Lee, S; Rawat, R S

    2005-01-01

    The insulator sleeve length is one of the major parameters that can severely affect the neon soft x-ray yield from a plasma focus. The effect of the insulation sleeve length on various characteristic timings of plasma focus discharges and hence the soft x-ray emission characteristics has been investigated using a resistive divider. The pinhole images and laser shadowgraphy are used to explain the observed variation in the average soft x-ray yield (measured using a diode x-ray spectrometer) with variation of the insulator sleeve length. We have found that for a neon filled plasma focus device the change in insulator sleeve length changes the current sheath curvature angle and thus the length of the focused plasma column. The optimized current sheath curvature angle is found to be between 39 0 and 41 0 , at the specific axial position of 6.2-9.3 cm from the cathode support plate, for our 3.3 kJ plasma focus device. A strong dependence of the neon soft x-ray yield on the current sheath curvature angle has thus been reported

  18. A study of x-ray emission from the anode region in a plasma focus device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia Wang; Tsinchi Yang

    1988-01-01

    The physical process of x-ray emission from the anode region in a plasma focus device due to the interaction of a powerful electron beam with the metal anode and with ionised metallic vapour from the anode is investigated. The influence of the magnetic field of the beam is taken into consideration. A MC-PIC model (Monte Carlo-particle in cell) is proposed for the process, in which an electron-photon collision cascade is simulated by the MC approach and the time-dependent state of metallic vapour is determined by PIC computation. The time-resolved energy spectra and angular distributions of x-ray emission from the extending anode region are calculated. The time-integrated characteristics of the x-ray emission can be compared with the results of experiments as far as they are available. (author)

  19. Highly ionized copper contribution to the soft X-ray emission in a plasma focus device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zoita, V; Patran, A [Inst. of Physics and Technology of Radiation Devices, Bucharest (Romania); Larour, J [Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau (France). Lab. de Physique des Milieux Ionises

    1997-12-31

    In order to discriminate between the contributions of the gas plasma and of the anode (solid or plasma) to the soft X-ray emission in a plasma focus device, a series of experiments was carried out using the following combinations of experimental conditions: various gases, different absorption filters and viewing different regions in front of the centre electrode. The experiments were performed on the IPF-2/20 plasma focus device using the following working gases: helium, neon and helium-argon mixtures. The diagnostics used: magnetic probe for current derivative, PIN diode for the minimum pinch radius detection, PIN diodes for the soft X-ray emission, scintillator-photomultiplier detector for the hard X-ray emission. From the analysis of the various diagnostics data recorded with very good time correlation, it followed that the soft K-ray signals had a strong contribution from optical transitions of the highly ionised Cu (Cu XX to XXII) emitting in the range 0.8-1.3 nm. (author). 7 figs., 9 refs.

  20. X-ray emission spectroscopy of well-characterised non-LTE plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourgaux, A C; Bastiani-Ceccotti, S; Audebert, P; Marquès, J R; Vassura, L; Vinci, T; Jacquemot, S; Dorchies, F; Leguay, P M; Chung, H K; Bowen, C; Dervieux, V; Renaudin, P; Silvert, V

    2016-01-01

    This paper will present an experimental platform developed on LULI2000 to measure x-ray emission of non-LTE plasmas in well-defined hydrodynamic conditions thanks to implementation of a whole set of diagnostics, including time-resolved electronic and ionic Thomson scattering and self-optical pyrometry. K-, L- and M-shell spectra will be presented and the methodology, that has been developed to analyze them, discussed. (paper)

  1. X-ray emission from plasmas created by smoothed KrF laser irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aglitskiy, Y.; Lehecka, T.; Deniz, A.; Hardgrove, J.; Seely, J.; Brown, C.; Feldman, U.; Pawley, C.; Gerber, K.; Bodner, S.; Obenschain, S.; Lehmberg, R.; McLean, E.; Pronko, M.; Sethian, J.; Stamper, J.; Schmitt, A.; Sullivan, C.; Holland, G.; Laming, M.

    1996-01-01

    The x-ray emission from plasmas created by the Naval Research Laboratory Nike KrF laser [Phys. Plasmas 3, 2098 (1996) ] was characterized using imaging and spectroscopic instruments. The laser wavelength was 1/4 μm, and the beams were smoothed by induced spatial incoherence (ISI). The targets were thin foils of CH, aluminum, titanium, and cobalt and were irradiated by laser energies in the range 100 endash 1500 J. A multilayer mirror microscope operating at an energy of 95 eV recorded images of the plasma with a spatial resolution of 2 μm. The variation of the 95 eV emission across the 800 μm focal spot was 1.3% rms. Using a curved crystal imager operating in the 1 endash 2 keV x-ray region, the density, temperature, and opacity of aluminum plasmas were determined with a spatial resolution of 10 μm perpendicular to the target surface. The spectral line ratios indicated that the aluminum plasmas were relatively dense, cool, and optically thick near the target surface. The absolute radiation flux was determined at 95 eV and in x-ray bandpasses covering the 1 endash 8 keV region. The electron temperature inferred from the slope of the x-ray flux versus energy data in the 5 endash 8 keV region was 900 eV for an incident laser energy of 200 J and an intensity of ≅10 13 W/cm 2

  2. Measurements of fast electron beams and soft X-ray emission from plasma-focus experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surała Władysław

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper reports results of the recent experimental studies of pulsed electron beams and soft X-rays in plasma-focus (PF experiments carried out within a modified PF-360U facility at the NCBJ, Poland. Particular attention was focused on time-resolved measurements of the fast electron beams by means of two different magnetic analyzers, which could record electrons of energy ranging from about 41 keV to about 715 keV in several (6 or 8 measuring channels. For discharges performed with the pure deuterium filling, many strong electron signals were recorded in all the measuring channels. Those signals were well correlated with the first hard X-ray pulse detected by an external scintillation neutron-counter. In some of the analyzer channels, electron spikes (lasting about dozens of nanoseconds and appearing in different instants after the current peculiarity (so-called current dip were also recorded. For several discharges, fast ion beams, which were emitted along the z-axis and recorded with nuclear track detectors, were also investigated. Those measurements confirmed a multibeam character of the ion emission. The time-integrated soft X-ray images, which were taken side-on by means of a pinhole camera and sensitive X-ray films, showed the appearance of some filamentary structures and so-called hot spots. The application of small amounts of admixtures of different heavy noble gases, i.e. of argon (4.8% volumetric, krypton (1.6% volumetric, or xenon (0.8% volumetric, decreased intensity of the recorded electron beams, but increased intensity of the soft X-ray emission and showed more distinct and numerous hot spots. The recorded electron spikes have been explained as signals produced by quasi-mono-energetic microbeams emitted from tiny sources (probably plasma diodes, which can be formed near the observed hot spots.

  3. Optimization of neon soft X-ray emission from 200 J plasma focus device for application in soft X-ray lithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalaiselvi, S.M. P.; Tan, T.L.; Talebitaher, A.; Lee, Paul; Rawat, R.S.

    2014-01-01

    The Fast Miniature Plasma Focus (FMPF) device is basically made up of coaxial electrodes with centrally placed anode and six cathode rods surrounding them concentrically. They are enclosed in a vacuum chamber, filled with low pressure operating gas. However, in our experiments, these cathode rods were removed to investigate the influence of them on neon soft X-ray (SXR) and hard X-ray (HXR) emission from the device. On removal of cathode rods, the cathode base plate serves as cathode and the plasma sheath is formed between the anode and the base plate of cathode. Neon was used as the operating gas for our experiments and the FMPF device used is of 235 J energy capacities. The experimental results showed that the FMPF device was able to focus better and the SXR emission efficiency was five times higher without cathode rods than with cathode rods. On the contrary, HXR emission did not vary with and without cathode rods. This observed phenomenon was further cross-checked through imaging of plasma dynamics, with and without cathode rods. FMPF device consists of 4 Pseudo Spark Gap (PSG) switches, which need to operate synchronously to deliver high voltage from capacitors to the anode. It was also seen that, the presence or absence of cathode rods also influence the synchronous operation of PSG switches. It also implies that this is one definite way to optimize the SXR emission from the FMPF device. This study reveals an important finding that, cathode rods play a vital role in the formation of plasma sheath with consequential influence on the radiation emission from plasma focus devices. Enhancement of the X-ray emission from this device is definitely a stepping stone in the realization of this device for industrial applications such as X-ray lithography for semiconductor industries. (author)

  4. Temporal feature of X-ray laser plasma observed from 3ω0/2, 2ω0 harmonic emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Wenhong; Mei Qiyong; Zhao Xuewei; Chen Yuting; Chunyu Shutai

    1995-01-01

    Temporal feature of X-ray laser plasma density was observed from 3ω 0 /2, 2ω 0 harmonic emission in the experiments. The temporal feature of 3ω 0 /2 harmonic emission of the germanium film is much different from that of the slab germanium target. The production of x-ray laser is closely related to 3ω 0 /2 harmonic emission in the slab germanium targets

  5. X-ray and neutron emission studies in a new Filippov type plasma focus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babazadeh, A.R.; Banoushi, A. [Technical University of Amirkabir, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Dept. of Physics; Roshan, M.V.; Habibi, H.; Nasiry, A.; Memarzadeh, M.; Lamehi, M.; Kiai, S.M. Sadat [Atomic Energy Organization of Iran (AEOI), Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Nuclear Fusion Research Center

    2002-03-01

    We have performed experimental comparative studies of the X-ray and neutron emission generated by the new Filippov-type plasma focus 'Dena', (90 kJ, 25 kV, 288{mu}F) in the pressure range of 0.6-1 torr. Time-integrated and time-resolved detectors, together with an X-ray pin-hole camera, along with a Be filter of 10{mu}m thickness have been used. For a working gas of neon and a at insert anode, the maximum soft and hard X-rays (SXR-HXR) yield obtained was 16 V and 1.5 V/shot over a 4{pi} solid angle, respectively, for a charging voltage range of 16-20 kV. As for the argon gas, the similar results such as 3.5 and 2 V/shot have been found, leading to a total conversion efficiency of X-ray emission of 0.09 % (for neon) and 0.03 % (for argon) of the stored energy. These efficiencies have been improved by the employment of a conic insert anode up to 0.4% and 0.1%. With deuterium puffing gas and a at insert anode, the maximum emission yield has been found to be 2.5 V for SXR and 1 V for HXR/shot which produce an ultimate emission profile width (FWHM) of 70-90 ns for X-rays and neutrons, giving rise to a maximum neutron yield of 1.2 x 10{sup 9}. Nevertheless, the maximum yield has been increased up to 5.5 times with the conic insert anode. In order to increase the neutron yield, we have introduced a krypton admixture to the deuterium filling gas and found that, for a krypton pressure of about 0.1 torr, the neutron yield increases by a factor of 3.5 for the flat insert and 1.5 for the conic insert anodes. (author)

  6. Spectral evolution of soft x-ray emission from optically thin, high electron temperature platinum plasmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroyuki Hara

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The soft x-ray spectra of heavy element plasmas are frequently dominated by unresolved transition array (UTA emission. We describe the spectral evolution of an intense UTA under optically thin conditions in platinum plasmas. The UTA was observed to have a peak wavelength around 4.6 nm at line-of-sight averaged electron temperatures less than 1.4 keV at electron densities of (2.5–7.5 × 1013 cm−3. The UTA spectral structure was due to emission from 4d–4f transitions in highly charged ions with average charge states of q = 20–40. A numerical simulation successfully reproduced the observed spectral behavior.

  7. Probing electron acceleration and x-ray emission in laser-plasma accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thaury, C.; Ta Phuoc, K.; Corde, S.; Brijesh, P.; Lambert, G.; Malka, V.; Mangles, S. P. D.; Bloom, M. S.; Kneip, S.

    2013-01-01

    While laser-plasma accelerators have demonstrated a strong potential in the acceleration of electrons up to giga-electronvolt energies, few experimental tools for studying the acceleration physics have been developed. In this paper, we demonstrate a method for probing the acceleration process. A second laser beam, propagating perpendicular to the main beam, is focused on the gas jet few nanosecond before the main beam creates the accelerating plasma wave. This second beam is intense enough to ionize the gas and form a density depletion, which will locally inhibit the acceleration. The position of the density depletion is scanned along the interaction length to probe the electron injection and acceleration, and the betatron X-ray emission. To illustrate the potential of the method, the variation of the injection position with the plasma density is studied

  8. Studies of the Hard X-ray Emission from the Filippov Type Plasma Focus Device, Dena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tafreshi, M. A.; Saeedzadeh, E.

    2006-12-01

    This article is about the characteristics of the hard X-ray (HXR) emission from the Filippov type plasma focus (PF) device, Dena. The article begins with a brief presentation of Dena, and the mechanism of the HXR production in PF devices. Then using the differential absorption spectrometry, the energy resolved spectrum of the HXR emission from a 37 kJ discharge in Dena, is estimated. The energy flux density and the energy fluence of this emission have also been calculated to be 1.9 kJ cm-2 s-1 and 9.4 × 10-5 J cm-2. In the end, after presentation of radiography of sheep bones and calf ribs, the medical application of the PF devices has been discussed.

  9. Plasma heating in solar flares and their soft and hard X-ray emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falewicz, R.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the energy budgets of two single-loop-like flares observed in X-ray are analyzed under the assumption that nonthermal electrons (NTEs) are the only source of plasma heating during all phases of both events. The flares were observed by RHESSI and GOES on 2002 February 20 and June 2, respectively. Using a one-dimensional (1D) hydrodynamic code for both flares, the energy deposited in the chromosphere was derived applying RHESSI observational data. The use of the Fokker-Planck formalism permits the calculation of distributions of the NTEs in flaring loops and thus spatial distributions of the X-ray nonthermal emissions and integral fluxes for the selected energy ranges that were compared with the observed ones. Additionally, a comparative analysis of the spatial distributions of the signals in the RHESSI images was conducted for the footpoints and for all the flare loops in selected energy ranges with these quantities' fluxes obtained from the models. The best compatibility of the model and observations was obtained for the 2002 June 2 event in the 0.5-4 Å GOES range and total fluxes in the 6-12 keV, 12-25 keV, 20-25 keV, and 50-100 keV energy bands. Results of photometry of the individual flaring structures in a high energy range show that the best compliance occurred for the 2002 June 2 flare, where the synthesized emissions were at least 30% higher than the observed emissions. For the 2002 February 20 flare, synthesized emission is about four times lower than the observed one. However, in the low energy range the best conformity was obtained for the 2002 February 20 flare, where emission from the model is about 11% lower than the observed one. The larger inconsistency occurs for the 2002 June 2 solar flare, where synthesized emission is about 12 times greater or even more than the observed emission. Some part of these differences may be caused by inevitable flaws of the applied methodology, like by an assumption that the model of the flare is

  10. Plasma Heating in Solar Flares and their Soft and Hard X-Ray Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falewicz, R.

    2014-07-01

    In this paper, the energy budgets of two single-loop-like flares observed in X-ray are analyzed under the assumption that nonthermal electrons (NTEs) are the only source of plasma heating during all phases of both events. The flares were observed by RHESSI and GOES on 2002 February 20 and June 2, respectively. Using a one-dimensional (1D) hydrodynamic code for both flares, the energy deposited in the chromosphere was derived applying RHESSI observational data. The use of the Fokker-Planck formalism permits the calculation of distributions of the NTEs in flaring loops and thus spatial distributions of the X-ray nonthermal emissions and integral fluxes for the selected energy ranges that were compared with the observed ones. Additionally, a comparative analysis of the spatial distributions of the signals in the RHESSI images was conducted for the footpoints and for all the flare loops in selected energy ranges with these quantities' fluxes obtained from the models. The best compatibility of the model and observations was obtained for the 2002 June 2 event in the 0.5-4 Å GOES range and total fluxes in the 6-12 keV, 12-25 keV, 20-25 keV, and 50-100 keV energy bands. Results of photometry of the individual flaring structures in a high energy range show that the best compliance occurred for the 2002 June 2 flare, where the synthesized emissions were at least 30% higher than the observed emissions. For the 2002 February 20 flare, synthesized emission is about four times lower than the observed one. However, in the low energy range the best conformity was obtained for the 2002 February 20 flare, where emission from the model is about 11% lower than the observed one. The larger inconsistency occurs for the 2002 June 2 solar flare, where synthesized emission is about 12 times greater or even more than the observed emission. Some part of these differences may be caused by inevitable flaws of the applied methodology, like by an assumption that the model of the flare is

  11. Investigation of plasma dynamics and x-ray emission in'ATON'plasma focus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soliman, H.M.; Masoud, M.M.

    1995-01-01

    The experimental studies on 20 kJ 'Aton' plasma focus device are presented in this paper. The plasma sheath structure has been investigated by means of the measurements of the axial and azimuthal magnetic fields along the coaxial electrodes. The operating gas was hydrogen with pressures in the range of 0.62 torr to 6 torr. The intensity of visible radiation emitted by the plasma sheath was measured as a function of axial distances along the coaxial electrodes. The results showed that the visible radiation intensity is increased with axial distances until a position near the muzzle, then it decreased and has a minimum value at the coaxial electrode muzzle. The main parameters contributing to the behavior of the distribution are the plasma sheath density and the impurities from the eroded materials of the discharge electrodes. An x-ray pulse has been detected along the coaxial electrodes and extended up to the expansion chamber. At a distance near the muzzle two x-ray pulses have been detected, the second one has intensity relative to the first one with time lag of 11μs. 8 fig

  12. Spectral analysis of K-shell X-ray emission of magnesium plasma ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-02-06

    Feb 6, 2014 ... the experimental spectra with the synthetic spectra generated using .... user to specify the time duration over which the ionic populations ... ied the dependence of X-ray emission spectrum as a function of laser intensity in the.

  13. Soft x-ray emission from postpulse expanding laser-produced plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weaver, J.L.; Feldman, U.; Mostovych, A.N.; Seely, J.F.; Colombant, D.; Holland, G.

    2003-01-01

    A diagnostic spectrometer has been developed at the Naval Research Laboratory to measure the time resolved absolute intensity of radiation emitted from targets irradiated by the Nike laser. The spectrometer consists of a dispersive transmission grating of 2500 lines/mm or 5000 lines/mm and a detection system consisting of an absolutely calibrated Si photodiode array and a charge coupled device camera. In this article, this spectrometer was used to study the spatial distribution of soft x-ray radiation from low Z elements (primarily carbon) that lasted tens of nanoseconds after the main laser illumination was over. We recorded soft x-ray emission as a function of the target material and target orientation with respect to the incoming laser beam and the spectrometer line of sight. While a number of spectral features have been identified in the data, the instrument's combined temporal and spatial resolution allowed observation of the plasma expansion from CH targets for up to ∼25 ns after the cessation of the main laser pulse. The inferred plasma expansion velocities are slightly higher than those previously reported

  14. Soft x-ray emission from postpulse expanding laser-produced plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, J. L.; Feldman, U.; Mostovych, A. N.; Seely, J. F.; Colombant, D.; Holland, G.

    2003-12-01

    A diagnostic spectrometer has been developed at the Naval Research Laboratory to measure the time resolved absolute intensity of radiation emitted from targets irradiated by the Nike laser. The spectrometer consists of a dispersive transmission grating of 2500 lines/mm or 5000 lines/mm and a detection system consisting of an absolutely calibrated Si photodiode array and a charge coupled device camera. In this article, this spectrometer was used to study the spatial distribution of soft x-ray radiation from low Z elements (primarily carbon) that lasted tens of nanoseconds after the main laser illumination was over. We recorded soft x-ray emission as a function of the target material and target orientation with respect to the incoming laser beam and the spectrometer line of sight. While a number of spectral features have been identified in the data, the instrument's combined temporal and spatial resolution allowed observation of the plasma expansion from CH targets for up to ˜25 ns after the cessation of the main laser pulse. The inferred plasma expansion velocities are slightly higher than those previously reported.

  15. Metrology and X-rays emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chancel, C.; Schirmann, D.

    1993-01-01

    This scientific journal explains different technologies used to study X-rays emissions hot dense plasmas created by laser at the Dam center of Limeil-Valenton (CEL-V) or created by nuclear fire in the Pacific

  16. X-Ray Emission Properties of Supernova Remnants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vink, J.; Alsabti, A.W.; Murdin, P.

    2016-01-01

    X-ray emission from supernova remnants can be broadly divided into thermal X-ray emission from the shock-heated plasmas and in nonthermal (synchrotron) emission caused by very high-energy (10–100 TeV) electrons moving in the magnetic fields of the hot plasmas. The thermal X-ray emission of young

  17. X-ray emission from a high-atomic-number z-pinch plasma created from compact wire arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanford, T.W.L.; Mosher, D.; De Groot, J.S.

    1996-01-01

    Thermal and nonthermal x-ray emission from the implosion of compact tungsten wire arrays in 5-MA Saturn discharges is reported. The timing of multiple implosions and the thermal x-ray spectra (1 to 10 keV) agree with 2D radiation-hydrocode simulations. Nonthermal x-ray emission (10 to 100 keV) correlates with pinch spots distributed along the z-axis. The similarities of the measured nonthermal spectrum, yield, and pinch-spot emission with those of 0.8-MA, single-exploded-wire discharges on Gamble-II suggest a common nonthermal-production mechanism. Nonthermal x-ray yields are lower than expected from current scaling of Gamble II results, suggesting that implosion geometries are not as efficient as single-wire geometries for nonthermal x-ray production. The instabilities, azimuthal asymmetries, and inferred multiple implosions that accompany the implosion geometry lead to larger, more irregular pinch spots, a likely reason for reduced nonthermal efficiency. A model for nonthermal-electron acceleration across magnetic fields in highly-collisional, high-atomic-number plasmas combined with 1D hydrocode simulations of Saturn compact loads predicts weak nonthermal x-ray emission. (author). 3 figs., 10 refs

  18. X-ray emission from a high-atomic-number z-pinch plasma created from compact wire arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanford, T.W.L.; Mosher, D.; De Groot, J.S.

    1996-01-01

    Thermal and nonthermal x-ray emission from the implosion of compact tungsten wire arrays in 5-MA Saturn discharges is reported. The timing of multiple implosions and the thermal x-ray spectra (1 to 10 keV) agree with 2D radiation-hydrocode simulations. Nonthermal x-ray emission (10 to 100 keV) correlates with pinch spots distributed along the z-axis. The similarities of the measured nonthermal spectrum, yield, and pinch-spot emission with those of 0.8-MA, single- exploded-wire discharges on Gamble-II suggest a common nonthermal- production mechanism. Nonthermal x-ray yields are lower than expected from current scaling of Gamble II results, suggesting that implosion geometries are not as efficient as single-wire geometries for nonthermal x-ray production. The instabilities, azimuthal asymmetries, and inferred multiple implosions that accompany the implosion geometry lead to larger, more irregular pinch spots, a likely reason for reduced nonthermal efficiency. A model for nonthermal-electron acceleration across magnetic fields in highly- collisional, high-atomic-number plasmas combined with 1D hydrocode simulations of Saturn compact loads predicts weak nonthermal x-ray emission

  19. Charge exchange signatures in x-ray line emission accompanying plasma-wall interaction

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Renner, Oldřich; Dalimier, E.; Liska, R.; Oks, E.; Šmíd, Michal

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 397, č. 1 (2012), s. 1-6 ISSN 1742-6588 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP205/10/0814; GA ČR GAP208/10/2302; GA AV ČR IAAX00100903 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100523 Keywords : laser-produced plasma * particle jets generation * plasma-wall interaction * x-ray spectroscopy * charge exchange Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics

  20. Velocity gradient induced line splitting in x-ray emission accompanying plasma-wall interaction

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šmíd, Michal; Renner, Oldřich; Liska, R.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 125, Aug (2013), s. 38-44 ISSN 0022-4073 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP205/10/0814; GA ČR GAP205/11/0571 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : laser-produced plasmas * x-ray spectroscopy * plasma-wall interaction * spectral line profiles * Doppler shift * ion velocity gradients Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 2.288, year: 2013

  1. Masked-backlighter technique used to simultaneously image x-ray absorption and x-ray emission from an inertial confinement fusion plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marshall, F. J., E-mail: fredm@lle.rochester.edu; Radha, P. B. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14623 (United States)

    2014-11-15

    A method to simultaneously image both the absorption and the self-emission of an imploding inertial confinement fusion plasma has been demonstrated on the OMEGA Laser System. The technique involves the use of a high-Z backlighter, half of which is covered with a low-Z material, and a high-speed x-ray framing camera aligned to capture images backlit by this masked backlighter. Two strips of the four-strip framing camera record images backlit by the high-Z portion of the backlighter, while the other two strips record images aligned with the low-Z portion of the backlighter. The emission from the low-Z material is effectively eliminated by a high-Z filter positioned in front of the framing camera, limiting the detected backlighter emission to that of the principal emission line of the high-Z material. As a result, half of the images are of self-emission from the plasma and the other half are of self-emission plus the backlighter. The advantage of this technique is that the self-emission simultaneous with backlighter absorption is independently measured from a nearby direction. The absorption occurs only in the high-Z backlit frames and is either spatially separated from the emission or the self-emission is suppressed by filtering, or by using a backlighter much brighter than the self-emission, or by subtraction. The masked-backlighter technique has been used on the OMEGA Laser System to simultaneously measure the emission profiles and the absorption profiles of polar-driven implosions.

  2. Masked-backlighter technique used to simultaneously image x-ray absorption and x-ray emission from an inertial confinement fusion plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, F J; Radha, P B

    2014-11-01

    A method to simultaneously image both the absorption and the self-emission of an imploding inertial confinement fusion plasma has been demonstrated on the OMEGA Laser System. The technique involves the use of a high-Z backlighter, half of which is covered with a low-Z material, and a high-speed x-ray framing camera aligned to capture images backlit by this masked backlighter. Two strips of the four-strip framing camera record images backlit by the high-Z portion of the backlighter, while the other two strips record images aligned with the low-Z portion of the backlighter. The emission from the low-Z material is effectively eliminated by a high-Z filter positioned in front of the framing camera, limiting the detected backlighter emission to that of the principal emission line of the high-Z material. As a result, half of the images are of self-emission from the plasma and the other half are of self-emission plus the backlighter. The advantage of this technique is that the self-emission simultaneous with backlighter absorption is independently measured from a nearby direction. The absorption occurs only in the high-Z backlit frames and is either spatially separated from the emission or the self-emission is suppressed by filtering, or by using a backlighter much brighter than the self-emission, or by subtraction. The masked-backlighter technique has been used on the OMEGA Laser System to simultaneously measure the emission profiles and the absorption profiles of polar-driven implosions.

  3. Fast plasma discharge capillary design as a high power throughput soft x-ray emission source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyndham, E S; Favre, M; Valdivia, M P; Valenzuela, J C; Chuaqui, H; Bhuyan, H

    2010-09-01

    We present the experimental details and results from a low energy but high repetition rate compact plasma capillary source for extreme ultraviolet and soft x-ray research and applications. Two lengths of capillary are mounted in two versions of a closely related design. The discharge operates in 1.6 and 3.2 mm inner diameter alumina capillaries of lengths 21 and 36 mm. The use of water both as dielectric and as coolant simplifies the compact low inductance design with nanosecond discharge periods. The stored electrical energy of the discharge is approximately 0.5 J and is provided by directly charging the capacitor plates from an inexpensive insulated-gate bipolar transistor in 1 μs or less. We present characteristic argon spectra from plasma between 30 and 300 Å as well as temporally resolved x-ray energy fluence in discrete bands on axis. The spectra also allow the level of ablated wall material to be gauged and associated with useful capillary lifetime according to the chosen configuration and energy storage. The connection between the electron beams associated with the transient hollow cathode mechanism, soft x-ray output, capillary geometry, and capillary lifetime is reported. The role of these e-beams and the plasma as measured on-axis is discussed. The relation of the electron temperature and the ionization stages observed is discussed in the context of some model results of ionization in a non-Maxwellian plasma.

  4. Research on pinches driven by Speed-2 generator: Hard X-ray and neutron emission in plasma focus configuration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soto, L.; Moreno, J.; Silva, P.; Sylvester, G.; Zambra, M.; Pavez, C. [Comision Chilena de Energia Nuclear, Santiago (Chile); Pavez, C. [Universidad de Concepcion (Chile); Raspa, V. [Buenos Aires Univ., PLADEMA, CONICET and INFIP (Argentina); Castillo, F. [Insitituto de Ciencias Nucleares, UNAM (Mexico); Kies, W. [Heinrich-Heine-Univ., Dusseldorf (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    Speed-2 is a generator based on Marx technology and was designed in the University of Dusseldorf. Speed-2 consists on 40 +/- Marx modules connected in parallel (4.1 {mu}F equivalent Marx generator capacity, 300 kV, 4 MA in short circuit, 187 kJ, 400 ns rise time, dI/dt {approx} 10{sup 13} A/s). Currently Speed-2 is operating at CCHEN (Chilean nuclear energy commission), being the most powerful and energetic device for dense transient plasma in the Southern Hemisphere. Most of the previous works developed in Speed-2 at Dusseldorf were done in a plasma focus configuration for soft X-ray emission and the neutron emission from Speed-2 was not completely studied. The research program at CCHEN considers experiments in different pinch configurations (plasma focus, gas puffed plasma focus, gas embedded Z-pinch, wire arrays) at current of hundred of kilo- to mega-amperes, using the Speed-2 generator. The Chilean operation has begun implementing and developing diagnostics in a conventional plasma focus configuration operating in deuterium in order to characterize the neutron emission and the hard X-ray production. Silver activation counters, plastics CR39 and scintillator-photomultiplier detectors are used to characterize the neutron emission. Images of metallic plates with different thickness are obtained on commercial radiographic film, Agfa Curix ST-G2, in order to characterize an effective energy of the hard X-ray outside of the discharge. (authors)

  5. X-ray emission from a high-atomic-number z-pinch plasma created from compact wire arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanford, T.W.L.; Nash, T.J.; Marder, B.M.

    1996-03-01

    Thermal and nonthermal x-ray emission from the implosion of compact tungsten wire arrays, driven by 5 MA from the Saturn accelerator, are measured and compared with LLNL Radiation-Hydro-Code (RHC) and SNL Hydro-Code (HC) numerical models. Multiple implosions, due to sequential compressions and expansions of the plasma, are inferred from the measured multiple x-radiation bursts. Timing of the multiple implosions and the thermal x-ray spectra measured between 1 and 10 keV are consistent with the RHC simulations. The magnitude of the nonthermal x-ray emission measured from 10 to 100 keV ranges from 0.02 to 0.08% of the total energy radiated and is correlated with bright-spot emission along the z-axis, as observed in earlier Gamble-11 single exploding-wire experiments. The similarities of the measured nonthermal spectrum and bright-spot emission with those measured at 0.8 MA on Gamble-II suggest a common production mechanism for this process. A model of electron acceleration across magnetic fields in highly-collisional, high-atomic-number plasmas is developed, which shows the existence of a critical electric field, E c , below which strong nonthermal electron creation (and the associated nonthermal x rays) do not occur. HC simulations show that significant nonthermal electrons are not expected in this experiment (as observed) because the calculated electric fields are at least one to two orders-of-magnitude below E c . These negative nonthermal results are confirmed by RHC simulations using a nonthermal model based on a Fokker-Plank analysis. Lastly, the lower production efficiency and the larger, more irregular pinch spots formed in this experiment relative to those measured on Gamble II suggest that implosion geometries are not as efficient as single exploding-wire geometries for warm x-ray production

  6. X-ray emission spectroscopy. X-ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despujols, J.

    1992-01-01

    Principles of X-ray emission spectrometry are first recalled, then wave-length dispersive and energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometer are described. They are essentially designed for qualitative and quantitative analysis of elements (Z>10). Sample preparation, calibration, corrections, interferences, accuracy are reviewed. Examples of use in different industries are given. (71 refs.)

  7. Detailed analysis of hollow ions spectra from dense matter pumped by X-ray emission of relativistic laser plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, S. B.; Colgan, J.; Abdallah, J.; Faenov, A. Ya.; Pikuz, S. A.; Skobelev, I. Yu.; Wagenaars, E.; Culfa, O.; Dance, R. J.; Tallents, G. J.; Rossall, A. K.; Woolsey, N. C.; Booth, N.; Lancaster, K. L.; Evans, R. G.; Gray, R. J.; McKenna, P.; Kaempfer, T.; Schulze, K. S.; Uschmann, I.

    2014-01-01

    X-ray emission from hollow ions offers new diagnostic opportunities for dense, strongly coupled plasma. We present extended modeling of the x-ray emission spectrum reported by Colgan et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 125001 (2013)] based on two collisional-radiative codes: the hybrid-structure Spectroscopic Collisional-Radiative Atomic Model (SCRAM) and the mixed-unresolved transition arrays (MUTA) ATOMIC model. We show that both accuracy and completeness in the modeled energy level structure are critical for reliable diagnostics, investigate how emission changes with different treatments of ionization potential depression, and discuss two approaches to handling the extensive structure required for hollow-ion models with many multiply excited configurations

  8. X-ray Emission from Solar Flares

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-01-27

    Jan 27, 2016 ... Solar flares; X-ray detectors; X-ray line emission and continuum; break energy; microflares. Abstract. Solar X-ray Spectrometer (SOXS), the first space-borne solar astronomy experiment of India was designed to improve our current understanding of X-ray emission from the Sun in general and solar flares in ...

  9. Development of multilayer optics for X-ray broadband spectrometry of plasma emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emprin, Benoit

    2014-01-01

    Within the framework of the research on inertial confinement fusion, the 'Commissariat a l'energie atomique et aux energies alternatives' has studied and implemented an absolute calibrated time-Resolved broadband soft x-Ray spectrometer, called 'Diagnostic de Mesure du rayonnement X'. This diagnostic, composed of 20 measurement channels, measures the emitted radiant power from a laser created plasma in the range from 50 eV to 20 keV. We have developed additional measurement channels to obtain redundancy and an improvement in measurement accuracy. The principle of these new channels is based on an original concept to obtain spectral bounded flat-Responses. Two channels have been developed for the 2 - 4 keV and 4 - 6 keV spectral ranges, using aperiodic multilayer mirrors made at the 'Laboratoire Charles Fabry' with Cr/Sc and Ni/W/SiC/W layers respectively. These mirrors were characterized at synchrotron radiation facilities and integrated into the spectrometer. The two new channels were used during laser-Plasma experimental campaigns at the OMEGA laser facility in Rochester (USA). This allowed us to determine directly the radiant power with only one measurement within a certain spectral band, and with a better precision when compared with using standard channels. The results, in good agreement with the standard measurement channels, allowed us to validate the use of aperiodic multilayer mirrors for X-Ray broadband spectrometry. (author) [fr

  10. Analysis of the X-ray emission spectra of copper, germanium and rubidium plasmas produced at the Phelix laser facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comet, M.; Pain, J.-C.; Gilleron, F.; Piron, R.; Denis-Petit, D.; Méot, V.; Gosselin, G.; Morel, P.; Hannachi, F.; Gobet, F.; Tarisien, M.; Versteegen, M.

    2017-03-01

    We present the analysis of X-ray emission spectra of copper, germanium and rubidium plasmas measured at the Phelix laser facility. The laser intensity was around 6×1014 W.cm-2. The analysis is based on the hypothesis of an homogeneous plasma in local thermodynamic equilibrium using an effective temperature. This temperature is deduced from hydrodynamic simulations and collisional-radiative computations. Spectra are then calculated using the LTE opacity codes OPAMCDF and SCO-RCG and compared to experimental data.

  11. X-Ray, EUV, UV and Optical Emissivities of Astrophysical Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, John C.; West, Donald (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    This grant primarily covered the development of the thermal X-ray emission model code called APEC, which is meant to replace the Raymond and Smith (1977) code. The new code contains far more spectral lines and a great deal of updated atomic data. The code is now available (http://hea-www.harvard.edu/APEC), though new atomic data is still being added, particularly at longer wavelengths. While initial development of the code was funded by this grant, current work is carried on by N. Brickhouse, R. Smith and D. Liedahl under separate funding. Over the last five years, the grant has provided salary support for N. Brickhouse, R. Smith, a summer student (L. McAllister), an SAO predoctoral fellow (A. Vasquez), and visits by T. Kallman, D. Liedahl, P. Ghavamian, J.M. Laming, J. Li, P. Okeke, and M. Martos. In addition to the code development, the grant supported investigations into X-ray and UV spectral diagnostics as applied to shock waves in the ISM, accreting black holes and white dwarfs, and stellar coronae. Many of these efforts are continuing. Closely related work on the shock waves and coronal mass ejections in the solar corona has grown out of the efforts supported by the grant.

  12. Dynamics of hot spots in the DPF-78 plasma focus from x-ray spectra and REB emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, H.; Wang, X.X.

    1995-01-01

    The X-ray emission from hot spots in the plasma focus DPF-78 was investigated with the help of two X-ray quartz crystal spectrometers of the Johann type and a 4 fold magnifying X-ray pinhole camera. In the experiments the working gas was chosen to be 300 Pa deuterium with 20 Pa argon admixture. X-ray spectra in the wavelength range from 3.55 angstrom to 4.0 angstrom, including H-like and He-like Argon lines, were recorded on Kodak DEF-2 film. From the spatially resolved spectra recorded side-on, a relative spectral shift between different hot spots of the same shot was often observed. The shift could be attributed to the Doppler shift. From spectral characteristics such as intensities and FWHM of Ar resonant and intercombination lines electron densities of up to 3 x 10 27 m -3 were determined. Radial dimensions of the hot spots ranging from about 140 microm to 300 microm were found from pinhole pictures applying the penumbra method. Usually two pulses of relativistic electron beams were observed using Cherenkov detectors in a magnetic spectrometer. The energy of the first pulse, which was emitted at the time of maximum compression, was higher than that of the second pulse. The measured FWHM of the REB pulses ranges from 3 ns to about 10 ns. The characteristics of the time-integrated X-ray spectra and the time resolved REB spectra and their dependence on the composition of the filling gas are discussed

  13. Volume effect of laser produced plasma on X-ray emissions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A polished copper tip attached to a simple BNC connector was used as Langmuir probes. The probe is kept at a ... 300 ps duration. Two sets of x-ray data taken with 15 J and 11 J constant energy shots clearly shows that two lateral maxima appear in the x-ray signal plotted against the target position relative to the best focus ...

  14. X-ray emission spectra of the plasma produced by an ultrashort laser pulse in cluster targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stenz, C; Bagnoud, V; Blasco, F; Roche, J R; Salin, F; Faenov, A Ya; Skobelev, I Yu; Magunov, A I; Pikuz, T A

    2000-01-01

    The first observation of x-ray emission spectra of multiply charged ions in the plasma produced by a 35-fs laser pulse with an intensity up to 10 17 W cm -2 in CO 2 and Kr gas jet targets is reported. The emission in the wavelength ranges of the 1snp-1s 2 (n=3-6) transitions of O VII ions and the Ly α line of O VIII ions, as well as of the (2s 1/2 2p 6 3p 3/2 ) 1 -2s 2 2p 6 1 S 0 and (2s 1/2 2p 6 3p 1/2 ) 1 -2s 2 2p 6 1 S 0 lines of Ne-like KrXXVII ions testifies that the highly ionised plasma is formed by collision processes in clusters. Modelling the shape of the spectral lines of oxygen ions by including the principal mechanisms of broadening and absorption in optically dense plasmas reveals that the main contribution to the time-integrated intensity is made by the plasma with the parameters N e =(2-20)x10 20 cm -3 and T e =100 - 115 eV. (interaction of laser radiation with matter. laser plasma)

  15. High-Resolution X-ray Emission and X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, F.M.F. de

    2000-01-01

    In this review, high-resolution X-ray emission and X-ray absorption spectroscopy will be discussed. The focus is on the 3d transition-metal systems. To understand high-resolution X-ray emission and reso-nant X-ray emission, it is first necessary to spend some time discussing the X-ray absorption

  16. Major constituent quantitative determination in uranium alloys by coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry and X ray fluorescence wavelength dispersive spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Luis Claudio de; Silva, Adriana Mascarenhas Martins da; Gomide, Ricardo Goncalves; Silva, Ieda de Souza

    2013-01-01

    A wavelength-dispersive X-ray fluorescence (WD-XRF) spectrometric method for determination of major constituents elements (Zr, Nb, Mo) in Uranium/Zirconium/Niobium and Uranium/Molybdenum alloy samples were developed. The methods use samples taken in the form of chips that were dissolved in hot nitric acid and precipitate particles melted with lithium tetraborate and dissolved in hot nitric acid and finally analyzed as a solution. Studies on the determination by inductively coupled plasma optic emission spectrometry (ICP OES) using matched matrix in calibration curve were developed. The same samples solution were analyzed in both methods. The limits of detection (LOD), linearity of the calibrations curves, recovery study, accuracy and precision of the both techniques were carried out. The results were compared. (author)

  17. Proton induced X-ray emission analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, Rashiduzzman

    1976-09-01

    The developments in proton induced X-ray emission analysis are reviewed. Techniques for analyzing thick and thin samples of different origin are described. Discussions on the application of proton induced X-ray emission analysis in different fields, comparison of the sensitivity of this method with other analytical techniques, its limitations and possible improvements are presented

  18. Imploding process and x-ray emission of shotgun z-pinch plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muto, Ryusuke; Takasugi, Keiichi; Miyamoto, Tetsu

    2001-01-01

    Rayleigh-Taylor instability was observed on the surface of a contracting z-pinch plasma. Wavelength of the instability was analyzed from the envelope of the profile, and it increased with implosion. Analysis with finite Larmor radius effect shows that there is some acceleration of ions during the contraction process. A suggestion to obtain macroscopically uniform plasma is to increase plasma current without heating the plasma. (author)

  19. Imploding process and x-ray emission of shotgun z-pinch plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muto, Ryusuke [Nihon University, College of Science and Technology, Tokyo (Japan); Takasugi, Keiichi; Miyamoto, Tetsu [Nihon University, Atomic Energy Research Institute, Tokyo (Japan)

    2001-09-01

    Rayleigh-Taylor instability was observed on the surface of a contracting z-pinch plasma. Wavelength of the instability was analyzed from the envelope of the profile, and it increased with implosion. Analysis with finite Larmor radius effect shows that there is some acceleration of ions during the contraction process. A suggestion to obtain macroscopically uniform plasma is to increase plasma current without heating the plasma. (author)

  20. X-ray line emission and plasma conditions in exploded Fe wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burkhalter, P.G.; Dozier, C.M.; Stallings, C.; Cowan, R.D.

    1978-01-01

    Single-wire Fe spectra collected from two different exploded-wire generators (Gamble II and Owl II) were analyzed to determined the ionization stages produced in the plasmas. The temperature for the hot-plasma pinches for both generators was 1.4 +- 0.2 keV at which an abundance of Fe XXIV transitions is produced. The Fe K spectra from exploded wires are basically similar to those produced in the pinched plasma generated randomly in the vacuum spark; however, the exploded wires have lower plasma temperatures than the hottest pinches produced in the vacuum spark. A detailed interpretation of the Fe L spectra formed in the exploded wires permitted line and ionization stage identifications in the 7-12-A region. Such spectroscopic data is useful for analysis of complex Fe spectra generated in multitemperature plasma devices like Tokamaks

  1. Conceptual design of the tomographic system for simultaneous studying of soft and hard X-ray emission from dense magnetized plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bielecki, J., E-mail: jakub.bielecki@ifj.edu.edu; Wójcik-Gargula, A.; Scholz, M.

    2016-11-15

    The article presents a new approach for investigation of spatial distributions of soft and hard X-rays emitted from dense magnetized plasma. The approach is based on the application of tomographic methods to the X-ray emission reconstruction in a plasma focus (PF) device. Quantitative investigation of the anisotropy of the reconstructed X–ray plasma emissivity may help to explain the nature of fusion reaction mechanisms in a PF device. The aim of this work is to present a conceptual design of a novel dual-energy X-ray emission tomographic system dedicated to the PF-24 plasma focus device. The system, which enables the simultaneous registration of soft and hard X-rays, is composed of three X‐ray pinhole cameras. Each camera is equipped with a pair of 16-element Si photodiode arrays arranged in two layers separated by an aluminum attenuator. The Geant4 code was used to optimize the layout and parameters of the applied detectors. In addition, a method of tomographic reconstruction from a sparse data set provided by the experimental setup has been presented.

  2. Fast transient transport phenomena measured by soft X-ray emission in TCV tokamak plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furno, I. [Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, Centre de Recherches en Physique des Plasmas (CRPP), CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2001-08-01

    Energy and particle transport during sawtooth activity in TCV plasmas has been studied in this thesis with high temporal resolution many chord diagnostics. We indicated the influence of sawteeth on plasma profiles in ohmic conditions and in the presence of auxiliary electron cyclotron resonance heating and current drive. A 2-dimensional model for heat transport, including localised heat source and a magnetic island, has been used to interpret the experimental observations. These results provided a new interpretation of a coupled heat and transport phenomenon which is potentially important for plasma confinement. The observations validate the applicability and show the possibility of improvement of a 2-dimensional theoretic a1 model for the study of heat transport in the presence of localised heat source and a magnetic island. Furthermore, the TCV results showed a new possibility for the interpretation of a coupled heat and particle transport phenomenon previously understood only in stellarators. (author)

  3. Scaling of x-ray emission and ion velocity in laser produced Cu ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Laser plasma; x-ray emission; conversion efficiency; ion velocities. ... fits from this kind of optimization studies are in the fields of x-ray lithography, x-ray lasers etc. .... formula between the x-ray conversion rate versus different parameters of the ...

  4. X-ray emission from comets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dennerl, Konrad

    1999-01-01

    When comet Hyakutake (C/1996 B2) encountered Earth in March 1996 at a minimum distance of only 15 million kilometers (40 times the distance of the moon), x-ray and extreme ultraviolet emission was discovered for the first time from a comet. The observations were performed with the astronomy satellites ROSAT and EUVE. A systematic search for x-rays from comets in archival data, obtained during the ROSAT all-sky survey in 1990/91, resulted in the discovery of x-ray emission from four additional comets. They were detected at seven occasions in total, when they were optically 300 to 30 000 times fainter than Hyakutake. These findings indicated that comets represent a new class of celestial x-ray sources. Subsequent detections of x-ray emission from additional comets with the satellites ROSAT, EUVE, and BeppoSAX confirmed this conclusion. The x-ray observations have obviously revealed the presence of a process in comets which had escaped attention until recently. This process is most likely charge exchange between highly charged heavy ions in the solar wind and cometary neutrals. The solar wind, a stream of particles continuously emitted from the sun with ≅ 400 km s -1 , consists predominantly of protons, electrons, and alpha particles, but contains also a small fraction (≅0.1%) of highly charged heavier ions, such as C 6+ ,O 6+ ,Ne 8+ ,Si 9+ ,Fe 11+ . When these ions capture electrons from the cometary gas, they attain highly excited states and radiate a large fraction of their excitation energy in the extreme ultraviolet and x-ray part of the spectrum. Charge exchange reproduces the intensity, the morphology and the spectrum of the observed x-ray emission from comets very well

  5. Extracting ion emission lines from femtosecond-laser plasma x-ray spectra heavily contaminated by spikes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gasilov, S. V.; Faenov, A. Ya.; Pikuz, T. A.; Villoresi, P.; Poletto, L.; Stagira, S.; Calegari, F.; Vozzi, C.; Nisoli, M.

    2007-01-01

    Nowadays charged-coupled device (CCD) detectors are widely used for the registration of multicharged ions x-ray spectra. These spectra are generated in a plasma during interaction of ultrashort, ultraintense laser pulses with solid targets. Strong parasitic radiation from the plasma affects CCD detectors and contaminates resulting spectra, so that spectral features can be completely covered by noise even during measurements with a very short accumulation time. In this work we propose a ''mean to median'' (M2M) algorithm for noise suppression in femtosecond laser plasma x-ray spectra. Series of spectra is necessary for the identification of corrupted data points by the developed method. The algorithm was tested with model spectra which reflect main features of experimental data. In practice we used it for extracting information about spectral lines of Ne-like Fe ions and He-like Al ions which allowed us to calculate plasma parameters. It is demonstrated that M2M method is able to clean spectra with more than 10% of corrupted pixels. Fluctuations in intensity of spectral lines induced by laser instability do not affect validity of the proposed method

  6. Spectroscopic investigations of hard x-ray emission from 120 ps laser-produced plasmas at intensities near 1017 W cm-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunn, J.; Young, B.K.F.; Osterheld, A.L.; Foord, M.E.; Walling, R.S.; Stewart, R.E.; Faenov, A.Y.

    1995-11-01

    Spectroscopic investigations of the x-ray emission of plasmas heated by 120 ps, frequency doubled pulses from the JANUS Nd: glass laser are presented. High Z K-shell spectra emitted from slab targets heated to near 10 17 W cm -2 intensity are investigated. High resolution (γ/Δγ>5000) x-ray spectra of multicharged ions of H-like Ti, Co, Ni, Cu, and also H-like Sc in the spectral range 1.5--3.0 angstrom are obtained in single laser shots using a spherically bent Mica crystal spectrograph with a 186 mm radius of curvature. The spectra- have one dimensional spatial resolution of about 25μm and indicate that the size of the emission zone of the resonance, transitions is 2 keV and density∼10 22 cm -3 . These experiments demonstrate that with modest laser energy, plasmas heated by high-intensity 120 ps lasers provide a very bright source of hard ∼8 keV x-ray emission

  7. Ion induced x-ray emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, D.D.; Clayton, E.

    1989-01-01

    This paper discusses particle induced x-ray emission (PIXE). Its use as a tool for multi-element non-destructive trace element analysis of small samples is addressed. Concepts and details needed for the construction of a PIXE system are offered

  8. X-ray Emission Line Spectroscopy of Nearby Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Daniel

    What are the origins of the diffuse soft X-ray emission from non-AGN galaxies? Preliminary analysis of XMM-Newton RGS spectra shows that a substantial fraction of the emission cannot arise from optically-thin thermal plasma, as commonly assumed, and may originate in charge exchange at the interface with neutral gas. We request the support for a comprehensive observing, data analysis, and modeling program to spectroscopically determine the origins of the emission. First, we will use our scheduled XMM-Newton AO-10 368 ks observations of the nearest compact elliptical galaxy M32 to obtain the first spectroscopic calibration of the cumulative soft X-ray emission from the old stellar population and will develop a spectral model for the charge exchange, as well as analysis tools to measure the spatial and kinematic properties of the X-ray line- emitting plasma. Second, we will characterize the truly diffuse emission from the hot plasma and/or its interplay with the neutral gas in a sample of galactic spheroids and active star forming/starburst regions in nearby galaxies observed by XMM-Newton. In particular, we will map out the spatial distributions of key emission lines and measure (or tightly constrain) the kinematics of hot plasma outflows for a few X-ray-emitting regions with high-quality RGS data. For galaxies with insufficient counting statistics in individual emission lines, we will conduct a spectral stacking analysis to constrain the average properties of the X-ray-emitting plasma. We will use the results of these X-ray spectroscopic analyses, together with complementary X-ray CCD imaging/spectral data and observations in other wavelength bands, to test the models of the emission. In addition to the charge exchange, alternative scenarios such as resonance scattering and relic AGN photo-ionization will also be examined for suitable regions. These studies are important to the understanding of the relationship between the diffuse soft X-ray emission and various

  9. Comparison of simulation to absolute X-ray emission of CH plasma created with the Nike laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busquet, M.; Feldman, U.; Klapisch, M. [ARTEP, Inc., Ellicott City, Maryland (contractor to NRL) (United States); Weaver, J.L.; Colombant, D.G.; Mostovych, A.N. [Naval Research Laboratory, Plasma Physics Division, Washington, DC (United States); Seely, J.F. [Naval Research Laboratory, Space Science Division, Washington, DC (United States); Holland, G. [SFA, Inc., Landover, Maryland (contractor to NRL) (United States)

    2006-06-15

    The Nike laser group at the Naval Research Laboratory has an ongoing effort to improve and benchmark the radiation hydrodynamic simulations used to develop pellet designs for inertial confinement fusion. A new post-processor, Virtual Spectro, has been added to the FAST code suite for detailed simulation of non-local thermodynamical equilibrium (non-LTE) spectra, including radiation transport effects and Stark line profile. This new combination enhances our ability to predict the absolute emission of soft X-rays. An absolutely calibrated transmission grating spectrometer and a high resolution grazing incidence spectrometer have been used to collect time integrated and time resolved spectra emitted by CH targets irradiated at laser intensities of about 10 TW/cm{sup 2}. Comparison between these observations and simulations using Virtual Spectro demonstrates excellent agreement (within factor of about 1.5) for the absolute emission. (authors)

  10. Comparison of simulation to absolute X-ray emission of CH plasma created with the Nike laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busquet, M.; Feldman, U.; Klapisch, M.; Weaver, J.L.; Colombant, D.G.; Mostovych, A.N.; Seely, J.F.; Holland, G.

    2006-01-01

    The Nike laser group at the Naval Research Laboratory has an ongoing effort to improve and benchmark the radiation hydrodynamic simulations used to develop pellet designs for inertial confinement fusion. A new post-processor, Virtual Spectro, has been added to the FAST code suite for detailed simulation of non-local thermodynamical equilibrium (non-LTE) spectra, including radiation transport effects and Stark line profile. This new combination enhances our ability to predict the absolute emission of soft X-rays. An absolutely calibrated transmission grating spectrometer and a high resolution grazing incidence spectrometer have been used to collect time integrated and time resolved spectra emitted by CH targets irradiated at laser intensities of about 10 TW/cm 2 . Comparison between these observations and simulations using Virtual Spectro demonstrates excellent agreement (within factor of about 1.5) for the absolute emission. (authors)

  11. Nondispersive x-ray diagnostics of short lived plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Day, R.H.

    1983-01-01

    In this NATO Advanced Study Institute, we have discussed in detail the diagnosis of many pulse power machine properties, including their electrical behavior, grounding and shielding, and related data acquisition techniques. The purpose for many of these machines is to create high temperature/high density plasmas and, therefore, the subsequent behavior of these plasmas is of critical concern. The energy density of these plasmas is such that they will naturally radiate in the x-ray regime and thus the diagnosis of their x-ray emission is a crucial measurement of the entire system performance. In this lecture, I describe the general techniques used to perform nondispersive x-ray diagnostics of these short lived plasmas

  12. Dynamics of 120 and 20 kV plasma focus devices with respect to density and current distribution, and neutron and X-ray emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decker, G.; Nahrath, B.; Oppenlaender, T.; Pross, G.; Rueckle, B.; Schmidt, H.; Shakhatre, M.; Trunk, M.

    1977-01-01

    The experiments had two goals: (1) Better understanding of the dynamics and neutron production of the focus phase and (2) improved scaling of the neutron yield by operating a high-voltage focus. For the first goal, experiments with a 30-kJ/16-kV plasma focus of the Mather type (NESSI) were performed. The simultaneously applied diagnostics include interferometry, X-ray photography with channel plates, magnetic probes and scintillator/photomultiplier detectors for measuring hard X-ray and neutron emission. In the established chronology one can distinguish five phases in the development of the plasma focus: A compression phase is followed by a short (8 ns) very dense phase, where the density peaks at a minimum radius (t=0, authors' chronology). The plasma cylinder expands to a relatively long-lasting (30 to 70 ns) quiescent phase before instabilities occur. This short unstable phase is followed by a decay phase during which the neutron emission peaks. Important correlations between the plasma parameters and the neutron emission are discussed. Secondly, on the assumption that the neutron yield scales with a high power of the current, it was concluded that a high-voltage focus could result in higher neutron yield as compared with a lower voltage device of the same energy. The proper adjustments of the discharge parameters necessary due to the very short current risetime were investigated. (author)

  13. Is X-ray emissivity constant on magnetic flux surfaces?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granetz, R.S.; Borras, M.C.

    1997-01-01

    Knowledge of the elongations and shifts of internal magnetic flux surfaces can be used to determine the q profile in elongated tokamak plasmas. X-ray tomography is thought to be a reasonable technique for independently measuring internal flux surface shapes, because it is widely believed that X-ray emissivity should be constant on a magnetic flux surface. In the Alcator C-Mod tokamak, the X-ray tomography diagnostic system consists of four arrays of 38 chords each. A comparison of reconstructed X-ray contours with magnetic flux surfaces shows a small but consistent discrepancy in the radial profile of elongation. Numerous computational tests have been performed to verify these findings, including tests of the sensitivity to calibration and viewing geometry errors, the accuracy of the tomography reconstruction algorithms, and other subtler effects. We conclude that the discrepancy between the X-ray contours and the magnetic flux surfaces is real, leading to the conclusion that X-ray emissivity is not exactly constant on a flux surface. (orig.)

  14. The x-ray emission spectra of multicharged xenon ions in a gas puff laser-produced plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skobelev, I.Yu.; Dyakin, V.M.; Faenov, A.Ya. [Multicharged Ion Spectra Data Center, VNIIFTRI, Mendeleevo (Russian Federation); Bartnik, A.; Fiedorowicz, H.; Jarocki, R.; Kostecki, J.; Szczurek, M. [Institute of Optoelectronics, Military University of Technology, Warsaw (Poland); Biemont, E. [Institut de Physique Nucleaire Experimentale, Universite de Liege, Liege (Belgium); Astrophysique et Spectroscopie, Universite de Mons-Hainaut, Mons (Belgium); Quinet, P. [Astrophysique et Spectroscopie, Universite de Mons-Hainaut, Mons (Belgium); Nilsen, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA (United States); Behar, E.; Doron, R.; Mandelbaum, P.; Schwob, J.L. [Racah Institute of Physics, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem (Israel)

    1999-01-14

    Emission spectra of multicharged xenon ions produced by a laser gas puff are observed with high spectral resolution in the 8.5-9.5 and 17-19 A wavelength ranges. Three different theoretical methods are employed to obtain 3l-n'l'(n' = 4 to 10) wavelengths and Einstein coefficients for Ni-like Xe{sup 26+}. For the 3d-4p transitions, very good agreement is found between the experimental wavelengths and the various theoretical wavelengths. These accurate energy level measurements can be useful for studying the Ni-like xenon x-ray laser scheme. On the other hand, several intense spectral lines could not be identified as 3l-n'l' lines of Ni-like xenon, despite the very good agreement between the wavelengths and Einstein coefficients calculated for these transitions using the three different methods. (author)

  15. Particle induced X-ray emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, D.D.

    1991-08-01

    The accelerator based ion beam technique of Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) is discussed in some detail. This report pulls together all major reviews and references over the last ten years and reports on PIXE in vacuum and using external beams. The advantages, limitations, costs and types of studies that may be undertaken using an accelerator based ion beam technique such as PIXE, are also discussed. 25 refs., 7 tabs., 40 figs

  16. Plasma x-ray radiation source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popkov, N F; Kargin, V I; Ryaslov, E A; Pikar', A S

    1995-01-01

    This paper gives the results of studies on a plasma x-ray source, which enables one to obtain a 2.5-krad radiation dose per pulse over an area of 100 cm2 in the quantum energy range from 20 to 500 keV. Pulse duration is 100 ns. Spectral radiation distributions from a diode under various operation conditions of a plasma are obtained. A Marx generator served as an initial energy source of 120 kJ with a discharge time of T/4 = 10-6 s. A short electromagnetic pulse (10-7 s) was shaped using plasma erosion opening switches.

  17. Laser plasma x-ray source for ultrafast time-resolved x-ray absorption spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Miaja-Avila

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We describe a laser-driven x-ray plasma source designed for ultrafast x-ray absorption spectroscopy. The source is comprised of a 1 kHz, 20 W, femtosecond pulsed infrared laser and a water target. We present the x-ray spectra as a function of laser energy and pulse duration. Additionally, we investigate the plasma temperature and photon flux as we vary the laser energy. We obtain a 75 μm FWHM x-ray spot size, containing ∼106 photons/s, by focusing the produced x-rays with a polycapillary optic. Since the acquisition of x-ray absorption spectra requires the averaging of measurements from >107 laser pulses, we also present data on the source stability, including single pulse measurements of the x-ray yield and the x-ray spectral shape. In single pulse measurements, the x-ray flux has a measured standard deviation of 8%, where the laser pointing is the main cause of variability. Further, we show that the variability in x-ray spectral shape from single pulses is low, thus justifying the combining of x-rays obtained from different laser pulses into a single spectrum. Finally, we show a static x-ray absorption spectrum of a ferrioxalate solution as detected by a microcalorimeter array. Altogether, our results demonstrate that this water-jet based plasma source is a suitable candidate for laboratory-based time-resolved x-ray absorption spectroscopy experiments.

  18. Neural network-based preprocessing to estimate the parameters of the X-ray emission of a single-temperature thermal plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichinohe, Y.; Yamada, S.; Miyazaki, N.; Saito, S.

    2018-04-01

    We present data preprocessing based on an artificial neural network to estimate the parameters of the X-ray emission spectra of a single-temperature thermal plasma. The method finds appropriate parameters close to the global optimum. The neural network is designed to learn the parameters of the thermal plasma (temperature, abundance, normalization and redshift) of the input spectra. After training using 9000 simulated X-ray spectra, the network has grown to predict all the unknown parameters with uncertainties of about a few per cent. The performance dependence on the network structure has been studied. We applied the neural network to an actual high-resolution spectrum obtained with Hitomi. The predicted plasma parameters agree with the known best-fitting parameters of the Perseus cluster within uncertainties of ≲10 per cent. The result shows that neural networks trained by simulated data might possibly be used to extract a feature built in the data. This would reduce human-intensive preprocessing costs before detailed spectral analysis, and would help us make the best use of the large quantities of spectral data that will be available in the coming decades.

  19. Experimental study of X-ray emission yield in a Filippov-type Plasma Focus operating in neon and neon-krypton mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babazadeh, A.R.; Kiai, S.M.S.; Roshan, M.V.; Emami, M.

    2002-01-01

    Since the installation of PF-DENA at AEOI about one year ago, we performed quantitative studies of variation of X-ray radiations from a new Filippov-type plasma focus device: Dena (90 kJ, 25 kV, 288 μF). The operating gas was neon at a constant pressure of 1 torr and different pressures of krypton admixture (up to 0.3 torr), with the discharge voltage up to 18 kV. For charging voltage of 17 kV with 41 kJ stored energy and spark gap pressure of 1.2x 10 -2 torr, the maximum soft and little hard X-ray (SXR-HXR) emission is found for the neon, resulting in a total SXR yield of 2 V/shot measured by silicon semiconductor diode detectors. Concerning the effect of krypton admixture, a maximum intensity of SXR radiation has been observed at low krypton pressure that is about 1 V/shot. At higher pressure, the quality of SXR emission decreases down to zero. However, the maximum intensity of the HXR radiation yield in the same pressure range was found to be 2.5 V/shot. By increasing the pressure of krypton up tp 0.3 torr, the results show that the krypton admixture gas generally causes, a decrease of the SXR radiation yield down to zero, whereas, the HXR emission yield carries a maximum value at the optimum pressure of krypton that is about 0.1 torr. Nevertheless, the pressure increments of krypton lead to decreasing in the discharge voltage for the maximum X-ray production. (author)

  20. X-ray lasing in colliding plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, R.W.; Davis, J.; Velikovich, A.L.; Whitney, K.G.

    1997-01-01

    Conditions favorable for the achievement of population inversion and large gains in short-pulse laser-heated selenium have been reported on previously [K. G. Whitney et al., Phys. Rev. E 50, 468 (1994)]. However, the required density profiles to minimize refraction and amplification losses can be difficult to achieve in conventional laser heated blowoff plasmas. The feasibility of accelerating plasma with a laser, and letting it collide with a solid density wall plasma has been explored. The density of the resulting shocked plasma can be controlled and refraction can be reduced in this design. A radiation hydrodynamics model is used to simulate the collision of the laser produced selenium plasma with the wall plasma. The heating of the stagnated plasma with a short-pulse laser is then simulated, providing the hydrodynamic response of the selenium plasma and detailed configuration nonequilibrium atomic populations. From the results of these calculations, it appears feasible to create an x-ray lasing selenium plasma with gains in the J=0 endash 1 line at 182 Angstrom in excess of 100cm -1 . copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  1. Study of X-ray emission in aluminium z-pinches; Etude de l'emission X dans les plasmas d'aluminium de type Z-pinch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosch, R [CEA/DAM-Ile de France, Dept. de Conception et Realisation des Experimentations (DCRE), 91 - Bruyeres-le-Chatel (France); [Paris-11 Univ., 91 - Orsay (France)

    1999-07-01

    Previous experiments, at 0.1. TX level, have shown that stability and x-ray emission of fast Z-pinches, could be strongly increased by imploding an aluminium vapor jet onto a very thin coaxial wire. We present here first results of an aluminium Z-pinch, using a similar liner, but at mega-ampere level. The pinch is driven by AMBIORIX high-power facility, a 2 TW,0.5 {omega}, 2 MA, 50 ns pulse-line generator. We study the effect of an aluminium wire and its diameter (20-50 {mu}m) on the implosion dynamics, on x-ray yield on MHD stability of the column at stagnation. Analysis of A1 jet on A1 wire shots demonstrates that x-ray yield due to emission processes in the H- and He- like ionization stages (i.e. the K-shell) is significantly enhanced, relative to that of A1 jet only ones. The wire also leads to better symmetry of the implosion, and to better reproducibility of shots. X-ray signals exhibit two similar pulses, 10 ns in width, 15 ns spaced. To discern spectral origin of both pulses, experiments are realized with stainless steel wire (25 {mu}m in diameter). Results show that liner and wire radial simultaneously and contribute to both pulses. Analysis of a typical A1 jet on A1 wire shot, using detailed collisional-radiative equilibrium (CRE) model is also given in this thesis. View o the pinch at stagnation as a cola-dense core surrounded by a hot-low density corona reproduces all features of the X-ray data. (author)

  2. X-Ray-Driven Gamma Emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carroll, J. J.; Karamian, S. A.; Rivlin, L. A.; Zadernovsky, A. A.

    2001-01-01

    X-ray-driven gamma emission describes processes that may release nuclear energy in a 'clean' way, as bursts of incoherent or coherent gamma rays without the production of radioactive by-products. Over the past decade, studies in this area, as a part of the larger field of quantum nucleonics, have gained tremendous momentum. Since 1987 it has been established that photons could trigger gamma emission from a long-lived metastable nuclear excited state of one nuclide and it appears likely that triggering in other isotopes will be demonstrated conclusively in the near future. With these experimental results have come new proposals for the creation of collective and avalanche-like incoherent gamma-ray bursts and even for the ultimate light source, a gamma-ray laser. Obviously, many applications would benefit from controlled bursts of gamma radiation, whether coherent or not. This paper reviews the experimental results and concepts for the production of gamma rays, driven by externally produced X-rays

  3. Measurement of x-ray emission and thermal transport in near-solid-density plasmas heated by 130 fs laser pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, B.K.; Wilson, B.G.; Price, D.F.; Stewart, R.E.

    1998-01-01

    Near-solid-density plasmas with peak temperatures of 370±50 eV have been generated using a high-contrast (∼10 -7 ), 400 nm, 130 fs laser pulse of intensity 3x10 17 Wcm -2 at the Ultrashort Pulse Laser at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The x-ray-emission spectra from thin tracer layers of germanium, tamped by layers of plastic, were measured as a function of target depth. The results qualitatively agree with calculations based on detailed local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) and modified non-LTE spectroscopic opacity models using plasma conditions determined using LASNEX hydrodynamic simulations. No evidence of thermal flux inhibition into the bulk target material was observed. The experiments and detailed simulations are presented. copyright 1998 The American Physical Society

  4. Observing Solvation Dynamics with Simultaneous Femtosecond X-ray Emission Spectroscopy and X-ray Scattering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haldrup, Kristoffer; Gawelda, Wojciech; Abela, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    and structural changes, and local solvent structural changes are desired. We have studied the intra- and intermolecular dynamics of a model chromophore, aqueous [Fe(bpy)3]2+, with complementary X-ray tools in a single experiment exploiting intense XFEL radiation as a probe. We monitored the ultrafast structural...... rearrangement of the solute with X-ray emission spectroscopy, thus establishing time zero for the ensuing X-ray diffuse scattering analysis. The simultaneously recorded X-ray diffuse scattering atterns reveal slower subpicosecond dynamics triggered by the intramolecular structural dynamics of the photoexcited...

  5. X-ray spectroscopy from fusion plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glenzer, S H.

    1998-01-01

    Our understanding of laser energy coupling into laser-driven inertial confinement fusion targets largely depends on our ability to accurately measure and simulate the plasma conditions in the underdense corona and in high density capsule implosions. X-ray spectroscopy is an important technique which has been applied to measure the total absorption of laser energy into the fusion target, the fraction of laser energy absorbed by hot electrons, and the conditions in the fusion capsule in terms of density and temperature. These parameters provide critical benchmarking data for performance studies of the fusion target and for radiation-hydrodynamic and laser-plasma interaction simulations. Using x-ray spectroscopic techniques for these tasks has required its application to non-standard conditions where kinetics models have not been extensively tested. In particular, for the conditions in high density implosions, where electron temperatures achieve 1 - 2 keV and electron densities reach 10 24 cm -3 evolving on time scales of 21 cm -3 and which am independently diagnosed with Thomson scattering and stimulated Raman scattering. We find that kinetics modeling is in good agreement with measured intensities of the dielectronic satellites of the He-β line (n= l-3) of Ar XVII. Applying these findings to the experimental results of capsule implosions provides additional evidence of temperature gradients at peak compression

  6. Dynamics of 120 and 20 kV plasma focus devices with respect to density and current distribution, neutron and X-ray emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decker, G.; Nahrath, B.; Oppenlaender, T.; Pross, G.; Rueckle, B.; Schmidt, H.; Shakhatre, M.; Trunk, M.

    1976-01-01

    Our experiments have aimed at two goals: 1) better understanding of the dynamics and neutron production of the focus phase and 2) improved scaling of the neutron yield by operating a high voltage focus. 1) For the first goal, experiments with a 30 kJ/ 16 kV plasma focus of the Mather type (NESSI) were performed. The simultaneously applied diagnostics include interferometry, X-ray photography with channel plates, magnetic probes and neutron emission. In the established chronology we can distinguish 5 phases in the development of the plasma focus: a compression phase is followed by a short (8 ns) very dense phase, where the density peaks at a minimum radius (t = 0 in our chronology). The plasma cylinder expands to a relatively long lasting (30 to 70 ns) quiescent phase before instabilities occur. This short unstable phase is followed by a decay phase during which the neutron emission peaks. Important correlations between the plasma parameters and the neutron emission are discussed. 2) Under the assumption that the neutron yield scales with a high power of the current, we concluded that a high voltage focus could result in higher neutron yield as compared with a lower voltage device of the same energy. The proper adjustments of the discharge parameters necessary due to the very short current risetime have been investigated. (orig.) [de

  7. X-ray Synchrotron Radiation in a Plasma Wiggler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Shuoquin; /UCLA /SLAC, SSRL

    2005-09-27

    A relativistic electron beam can radiate due to its betatron motion inside an ion channel. The ion channel is induced by the electron bunch as it propagates through an underdense plasma. In the theory section of this thesis the formation of the ion channel, the trajectories of beam electrons inside the ion channel, the radiation power and the radiation spectrum of the spontaneous emission are studied. The comparison between different plasma wiggler schemes is made. The difficulties in realizing stimulated emission as the beam traverses the ion channel are investigated, with particular emphasis on the bunching mechanism, which is important for the ion channel free electron laser. This thesis reports an experiment conducted at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) to measure the betatron X-ray radiations for the first time. They first describe the construction and characterization of the lithium plasma source. In the experiment, the transverse oscillations of the SLAC 28.5 GeV electron beam traversing through a 1.4 meter long lithium plasma source are clearly seen. These oscillations lead to a quadratic density dependence of the spontaneously emitted betatron X-ray radiation. The divergence angle of the X-ray radiation is measured. The absolute photon yield and the spectral brightness at 14.2 KeV photon energy are estimated and seen to be in reasonable agreement with theory.

  8. Electron cyclotron resonance ion source plasma characterization by X-ray spectroscopy and X-ray imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mascali, David, E-mail: davidmascali@lns.infn.it; Castro, Giuseppe; Celona, Luigi; Neri, Lorenzo; Gammino, Santo [INFN–Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via S. Sofia 62, 95125 Catania (Italy); Biri, Sándor; Rácz, Richárd; Pálinkás, József [Institute for Nuclear Research (Atomki), Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Bem tér 18/c, H-4026 Debrecen (Hungary); Caliri, Claudia [INFN–Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via S. Sofia 62, 95125 Catania (Italy); Università degli Studi di Catania, Dip.to di Fisica e Astronomia, via Santa Sofia 64, 95123 Catania (Italy); Romano, Francesco Paolo [INFN–Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via S. Sofia 62, 95125 Catania (Italy); CNR, Istituto per i Beni Archeologici e Monumentali, Via Biblioteca 4, 95124 Catania (Italy); Torrisi, Giuseppe [INFN–Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via S. Sofia 62, 95125 Catania (Italy); Università Mediterranea di Reggio Calabria, DIIES, Via Graziella, I-89100 Reggio Calabria (Italy)

    2016-02-15

    An experimental campaign aiming to investigate electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma X-ray emission has been recently carried out at the ECRISs—Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Sources laboratory of Atomki based on a collaboration between the Debrecen and Catania ECR teams. In a first series, the X-ray spectroscopy was performed through silicon drift detectors and high purity germanium detectors, characterizing the volumetric plasma emission. The on-purpose developed collimation system was suitable for direct plasma density evaluation, performed “on-line” during beam extraction and charge state distribution characterization. A campaign for correlating the plasma density and temperature with the output charge states and the beam intensity for different pumping wave frequencies, different magnetic field profiles, and single-gas/gas-mixing configurations was carried out. The results reveal a surprisingly very good agreement between warm-electron density fluctuations, output beam currents, and the calculated electromagnetic modal density of the plasma chamber. A charge-coupled device camera coupled to a small pin-hole allowing X-ray imaging was installed and numerous X-ray photos were taken in order to study the peculiarities of the ECRIS plasma structure.

  9. Laser plasma X-ray for non-destructive inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yagi, T.; Kusama, H.

    1995-01-01

    External electric field is applied to the laser produced plasma, and its found that plasma shape in soft X-ray region is changed due to the penetrating electric field. The plasma emits strong hard X-ray, which can be used as a compact light source for non-destructive inspection. (author)

  10. High resolution X-ray spectroscopy of laser generated plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faenov, A.Ya.; Skobelev, I.Yu.; Rosmej, F.B.

    1999-01-01

    The application of recently developed spectroscopic instruments in laser produced plasmas with simultaneous high spectral and spatial resolution combined with high luminosity discovered new types of X-ray spectra. These new types are characterised by the disappearance of the resonance lines and the strong emission of dielectronic satellite spectra. Several types of transitions of highly charged ions are discovered which are unknown from usual sources employed in atomic physics. New theoretical models are developed and successfully applied for the interpretation and for plasma diagnostics. (orig.)

  11. High resolution X-ray spectroscopy of laser generated plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faenov, A.Ya.; Skobelev, I.Yu. [Multicharged Ions Spectra Data Center of VNIIFTRI, Mendeleevo (Russian Federation); Rosmej, F.B. [Technische Hochschule Darmstadt (Germany). Inst. fuer Kernphysik

    1999-11-01

    The application of recently developed spectroscopic instruments in laser produced plasmas with simultaneous high spectral and spatial resolution combined with high luminosity discovered new types of X-ray spectra. These new types are characterised by the disappearance of the resonance lines and the strong emission of dielectronic satellite spectra. Several types of transitions of highly charged ions are discovered which are unknown from usual sources employed in atomic physics. New theoretical models are developed and successfully applied for the interpretation and for plasma diagnostics. (orig.) 28 refs.

  12. Temperature and impurity transport studies of heated tokamak plasmas by means of a collisional-radiative model of x-ray emission from Mo30+ to Mo39+

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacella, D.; Fournier, K. B.; Zerbini, M.; Finkenthal, M.; Mattioli, M.; May, M. J.; Goldstein, W. H.

    2000-01-01

    This work presents and interprets, by means of detailed atomic calculations, observations of L-shell (n=3→n=2) transitions in highly ionized molybdenum, the main intrinsic heavy impurity in the Frascati tokamak upgrade plasmas. These hot plasmas were obtained by additional electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH), at the frequency of 140 Ghz, during the current ramp-up phase of the discharge. Injecting 400 kW on axis and 800 kW slightly off axis, the peak central electron temperature reached 8.0 and 7.0 keV, respectively, for a time much longer than the ionization equilibrium time of the molybdenum ions. X-ray emissions from rarely observed high charge states, Mo 30+ to Mo 39+ , have been studied with moderate spectral resolution (λ/Δλ∼150) and a time resolution of 5 ms. A sophisticated collisional-radiative model for the study of molybdenum ions in plasmas with electron temperature in the range 4-20 keV is presented. The sensitivity of the x-ray emission to the temperature and to impurity transport processes is discussed. This model has been then used to investigate two different plasma scenarios. In the first regime the ECRH heating occurs on axis during the current ramp up phase, when the magnetic shear is evolving from negative to zero up to the half radius. The spectrum is well reproduced with the molybdenum ions in coronal equilibrium and with a central impurity peaking. In the second regime, at the beginning of the current flat top when magnetic shear is monotonic and sawtoothing activity is appearing, the lowest charge states (Mo 33+ to Mo 30+ ), populated off axis, are affected by anomalous transport and the total molybdenum profile is found to be flat up to the half radius. We conclude with the presentation of ''synthetic spectra'' computed for even higher temperature plasmas that are expected in future experiments with higher ECRH power input. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society

  13. Theory of X-ray absorption and emission spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukoyama, Takeshi

    2004-01-01

    Theoretical studies on X-ray absorption and emission spectroscopy are discussed. Simple expressions for X-ray emission rate and X-ray absorption cross section are presented in the dipole approximation. Various atomic models to obtain realistic wave functions and theoretical calculations for X-ray absorption cross sections and X-ray emission rates are described. In the case of molecules and solids, molecular orbital methods for electronic structures and molecular wave functions are discussed. The emphasis is on the procedures to obtain the excited-state and continuum wave functions for molecules and to calculate the multi-center dipole matrix elements. The examples of the calculated X-ray absorption and emission spectra are shown and compared with the experimental results

  14. Repeated pulsed x-ray emission equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terauchi, Hikaru; Iida, Satoshi

    1982-01-01

    X-ray diffraction technique has been applied to determine the spatial positions of atoms which compose a material, and it is needless to say that the technique is a fundamental means regardless of the fields of research. However, the application of X-ray diffraction to the research on physical properties has been so far limited to know the spatial positions of atoms or molecules under thermal equilibrium condition. The addition of time element to the conventional technique, that is, the analysis of material structure including the time-varying processes under non-equilibrium conditions, is considered to approach the elucidation of the essence of materials. The authors call this dynamic structural analysis. The authors have planned to analyze X-ray diffraction intensity which has the resolution of about 10 -8 s in the real time which is conjugate with energy. However, present pulsed X-ray sources are not suitable for diffraction experiment because the pulse width is too long or X-ray wavelength is too short. Accordingly, the authors have made for trial a pulsed X-ray source for diffraction experiment. Its specifications are: diode voltage (X-ray tube voltage) from 200 to 300 kV, diode current from 2 to 5 kA, pulse width of about 30ns, maximum repetition frequency 10 pps, and X-ray focus size of 2 mm diameter. One of the features of this source is the repeated generation of pulsed X-ray. This is the first trial in the world, and is indispensable to the dynamic structural analysis described above. The quality of the emitted X-ray is also written. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  15. Soft X-ray Emission from Large-Scale Galactic Outflows in Seyfert Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colbert, E. J. M.; Baum, S.; O'Dea, C.; Veilleux, S.

    1998-01-01

    Kiloparsec-scale soft X-ray nebulae extend along the galaxy minor axes in several Seyfert galaxies, including NGC 2992, NGC 4388 and NGC 5506. In these three galaxies, the extended X-ray emission observed in ROSAT HRI images has 0.2-2.4 keV X-ray luminosities of 0.4-3.5 x 10(40) erg s(-1) . The X-ray nebulae are roughly co-spatial with the large-scale radio emission, suggesting that both are produced by large-scale galactic outflows. Assuming pressure balance between the radio and X-ray plasmas, the X-ray filling factor is >~ 10(4) times as large as the radio plasma filling factor, suggesting that large-scale outflows in Seyfert galaxies are predominantly winds of thermal X-ray emitting gas. We favor an interpretation in which large-scale outflows originate as AGN-driven jets that entrain and heat gas on kpc scales as they make their way out of the galaxy. AGN- and starburst-driven winds are also possible explanations if the winds are oriented along the rotation axis of the galaxy disk. Since large-scale outflows are present in at least 50 percent of Seyfert galaxies, the soft X-ray emission from the outflowing gas may, in many cases, explain the ``soft excess" X-ray feature observed below 2 keV in X-ray spectra of many Seyfert 2 galaxies.

  16. Pulsed x-ray generation from a plasma focus device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zambra, M; Bruzzone, H; Sidelnikov, Y; Kies, W; Moreno, C; Sylvester, G; Silva, P; Moreno, J; Soto, L

    2003-01-01

    Dynamical pinches coupled to electrodes like the dense Z-pinch or the dense plasma focus have been intensively studied in the last four decades for their high fusion efficiency and their application potential. Though the expectations of the eighties of the last century, scaling these pinches up to fusion reactors, did not come true, the development of fast and powerful experiments resulted in new insights in pinch physics and paved the way for developing compact dynamical pinches as pulsed neutron and X-radiation sources for many applications. There is a permanent and growing interest in the research community for understanding and determining the generation properties of X-rays, neutrons and charged particles emitted from a high-temperature high-density plasmas, especially in the plasma focus configuration. The Plasma Physics and Plasma Technology Group of the CCHEN has developed the SPEED4 fast-plasma focus device, in collaboration with the Plasma Physics Group of the Dusseldorf University, in order to perform experimental studies such as X-ray and neutron emission, and electron and ion beam characterization (author)

  17. X-ray emission from stainless steel foils irradiated by femtosecond petawatt laser pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkhimova, M. A.; Faenov, A. Ya; Pikuz, T. A.; Skobelev, I. Yu; Pikuz, S. A.; Nishiuchi, M.; Sakaki, H.; Pirozhkov, A. S.; Sagisaka, S.; Dover, N. P.; Kondo, Ko; Ogura, K.; Fukuda, Y.; Kiriyama, H.; Esirkepov, T.; Bulanov, S. V.; Andreev, A.; Kando, M.; Zhidkov, A.; Nishitani, K.; Miyahara, T.; Watanabe, Y.; Kodama, R.; Kondo, K.

    2018-01-01

    We report about nonlinear growth of x-ray emission intensity emitted from plasma generated by femtosecond petawatt laser pulses irradiating stainless steel foils. X-ray emission intensity increases as ˜ I 4.5 with laser intensity I on a target. High spectrally resolved x-ray emission from front and rear surfaces of 5 μm thickness stainless steel targets were obtained at the wavelength range 1.7-2.1 Å, for the first time in experiments at femtosecond petawatt laser facility J-KAREN-P. Total intensity of front x-ray spectra three times dominates to rear side spectra for maximum laser intensity I ≈ 3.2×1021 W/cm2. Growth of x-ray emission is mostly determined by contribution of bremsstrahlung radiation that allowed estimating bulk electron plasma temperature for various magnitude of laser intensity on target.

  18. Chemical effects in x-ray emission spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandes, N.G.

    1982-01-01

    The chemical bond influence in X-ray emission spectra of hafnium, iodine, iron, sulphur, aluminium and magnesium is detected. The position of one X-ray emission line is determined by three methods: parabolic profile; Gaussian distribution and extra-heavy maximum. (author)

  19. X-Ray Emission from Compact Sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cominsky, L

    2004-03-23

    This paper presents a review of the physical parameters of neutron stars and black holes that have been derived from X-ray observations. I then explain how these physical parameters can be used to learn about the extreme conditions occurring in regions of strong gravity, and present some recent evidence for relativistic effects seen in these systems. A glossary of commonly used terms and a short tutorial on the names of X-ray sources are also included.

  20. Polarization of X rays of multiply charged ions in dense high-temperature plasma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baronova, EO; Dolgov, AN; Yakubovskii, LK

    2004-01-01

    The development of a method for studying the features of X-ray emission by multiply charged ions in a dense hot plasma is considered. These features are determined by the radiation polarization phenomenon.

  1. Dynamics of a multiple-pulse-driven x-ray laser plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan, A.S.; Da Silva, L.B.; Moreno, J.C.; Cauble, R.; Celliers, P.; Dalhed, H.E. Jr.; Koch, J.A.; Nilsen, J.

    1996-01-01

    In this paper we describe experimental and computational studies of multiple-pulse-driven laser plasma, which is the gain medium for a neon-like yttrium x-ray laser. Near-field emission profiles have been measured both with and without reinjection of the x-ray laser photons to couple with the amplifying medium created by later pulses using an external multilayer mirror. From the temporal and spatial evolution of the near-field emission profiles we can examine the pulse-to-pulse variation of the x-ray laser plasma due to changes in the hydrodynamics, laser deposition, and the injecting of x-ray laser photons back into an amplifying x-ray laser plasma. Using a combination of radiation hydrodynamics, atomic kinetics, and ray propagation codes, reasonable agreement has been obtained between simulations and the experimental results. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  2. Time resolved x-ray photography of a dense plasma focus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burnett, J.C.; Meyer, J.; Rankin, G.

    1977-01-01

    The temporal development of the hot plasma in a dense plasma focus is studied by x-ray streak photography of approximately 2 ns resolution time. It is shown that initially a uniform x-ray emitting pinch plasma is formed which subsequently cools down until x-ray emission stops after approximately 50 ns. At a time of around 100 ns after initial x-ray emission coinciding with the break-up time of the pinch a second burst of x-rays is observed coming from small localized regions. The observations are compared with results obtained from time-resolved shadow and schlieren photography of a similar dense focus discharge. (author)

  3. Radio and X-ray emission from supernova remnants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asvarova, A.I.; Novruzova, H.I.; Ahmedova, S.I.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper it was studied the statistical correlation between radio and X-ray emissions from shell-type supernova remnants (SNR). The primary aim of this study is to test the model of radio emission of shell-type SNRs presented by one of the authors. Based on this model of radio emission, by using the Monte Carlo techniques we have simulated statistical relations radio - X-ray luminosities (not surface brightnesses) which then were compared with the observations. X-ray emission is assumed to be thermal. To have a uniform statistical material it was used observational data on the SNRs in Magellanic Clouds

  4. Analyais of solar X-ray emission line profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burek, A.J.; Marrus, D.M.; Blake, R.L.; Fenimore, E.E.

    1981-01-01

    We report results of the analysis of the X-ray emission line profiles for the Ne X La and Fe XVII 4d 1 P 1 lines produced in an active region that was undergoing a radio and X-ray gradual rise and fall (GRF) in intensity. The spectra were obtained with collimated Bragg spectrometers launched on a rocket from White Sands Missile Range on 1976 March 26. Using a crystal of ammonium acid phthalate, we have fully resolved the Ne X La and Fe XVII 4d 1 P 1 lines, permitting an accurate determinination of the Ne X La intensity and allowing Doppler broadened profiles for lines formed from ions having greatly different atomic mass and charge to be measured. An isothermal model derived from the Ne IX/Ne X resonance line intensity ratio gives an electron temperature of 3.4 x 10 6 K. An isothermal model, however, fails to account for the intensities of all lines and continuum observed. All multitemperature models that do reproduce the observed relative line intensities require the presence of a hot plasma component with an electron temperature in excess of 5 x 10 6 K. The presence of a high temperature component is also suggested by the measured line to continuum ratio of 3.6 in the 12--15 A wavelength interval. Interpretation of the line profiles in terms of a multitemperature model requires an rms turbulence velocity of 48 +- 15 km s -1 for Fe XVII 1 P 1 and 74 +- 54 km s - 2exclamation for Ne X La at the 95% confidence level. Collimated scans across the active region show the presence of a compact source of intense X-ray emission close to the magnetic neutral line, which is very probably the GRF plasma

  5. Multielement analysis of environmental samples by total-reflection X-ray fluorescence sprectrometry, neutron activation analysis and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michaelis, W.

    1986-01-01

    In environmental research and protection trace elements have to be determined over a wide range of atomic number, down to very low concentrations, and in quite different matrices. This challenge requires the availability of complementary analytical methods characterized by a high detection power and few sources of systematic errors. Besides, the capacity of multielement detection is often desired since it facilitates the talking of many problems in which numerous trace elements are of direct concern. Total-reflection X-ray fluorescence, neutron activation analysis and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy, in principle fulfill these requirements quite well. However, each method has its domain, and the application to certain sample species may be less promising. Under this aspect, the paper summarizes some recent developments and investigations, including intercomparisons as far as possible. Various matrices are considered : rainwater and airborne particulates, soil samples, river sediments and suspended particulate matter, river water filtrates, ozean water, and organic matrices. Capabilities and limitations are discussed. Sample preparation techniques are described if they are new or essential for achieving the results given. (orig.) [de

  6. X-ray and extreme ultraviolet emission from comets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisse, C. M.; Cravens, T. E.; Dennerl, K.

    The discovery of high energy X-ray emission in 1996 from C/1996 B2 (Hyakutake) has created a surprising new class of X-ray emitting objects. The original discovery (Lisse et al., 1996) and subsequent detection of X-rays from 17 other comets (Table 1) have shown that the very soft (E < 1 keV) emission is due to an interaction between the solar wind and the comet's atmosphere, and that X-ray emission is a fundamental property of comets. Theoretical and observational work has demonstrated that charge exchange collisions of highly charged solar wind ions with cometary neutral species is the best explanation for the emission. Now a rapidly changing and expanding field, the study of cometary X-ray emission appears to be able to lead us to a better understanding of a number of physical phenomena: the nature of the cometary coma, other sources of X-ray emission in the solar system, the structure of the solar wind in the heliosphere, and the source of the local soft X-ray background.

  7. Soft x-ray source by laser produced Xe plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amano, Sho; Masuda, Kazuya; Miyamoto, Shuji; Mochizuki, Takayasu

    2010-01-01

    The laser plasma soft X-ray source in the wavelength rage of 5-17 nm was developed, which consisted of the rotating drum system supplying cryogenic Xe target and the high repetition rate pulse Nd:YAG slab laser. We found the maximum conversion efficiency of 30% and it demonstrated the soft X-ray generation with the high repetition rate pulse of 320 pps and the high average power of 20 W. The soft X-ray cylindrical mirror was developed and successfully focused the soft X-ray with an energy intensity of 1.3 mJ/cm 2 . We also succeeded in the plasma debris mitigation with Ar gas. This will allow a long lifetime of the mirror and a focusing power intensity of 400 mW/cm 2 with 320 pps. The high power soft X-ray is useful for various applications. (author)

  8. X-ray emission from Centaurus A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terrell, J.

    1984-01-01

    The X-ray strength of Cen A (NGC 5128) was monitored for 10 years by Vela 5B, beginning in 1979. The 1973 to 1975 period of exceptional activity and strength was especially well covered, and was characterized by numerous rapid changes in intensity, in agreement with other data, indicating that the nucleus of Cen A is small but massive. 16 references, 3 figures

  9. X-ray Emission from the Guitar Nebula

    OpenAIRE

    Romani, Roger W.; Cordes, James M.; Yadigaroglu, I. -A.

    1997-01-01

    We have detected weak soft X-ray emission from the Pulsar Wind Nebula trailing the high velocity star PSR 2224+65 (the `Guitar Nebula'). This X-ray flux gives evidence of \\gamma~10^7 eV particles in the pulsar wind and constrains the properties of the post-shock flow. The X-ray emission is most easily understood if the shocked pulsar wind is partly confined in the nebula and if magnetic fields in this zone can grow to near equipartition values.

  10. X-Ray Emission from the Guitar Nebula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romani, Roger W.; Cordes, James M.; Yadigaroglu, I.-A.

    1997-01-01

    We have detected weak soft X-ray emission from the pulsar wind nebula trailing the high-velocity star PSR 2224+65 (the "Guitar Nebula"). This X-ray flux gives evidence of gamma approximately 10(exp 7) eV particles in the pulsar wind and constrains the properties of the postshock flow. The X-ray emission is most easily understood if the shocked pulsar wind is partly confined in the nebula and if magnetic fields in this zone can grow to near-equipartition values.

  11. Soft X-Ray amplification in laser plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Louis-Jacquet, M.

    1988-01-01

    The principles, experiments and theoretical models of soft x-ray, amplification, produced in laser plasmas, are studied. In the discussion of the principles, the laser plasma medium, the definition of the gain, the population inversions, saturation and superradiance are described. The results concerning recombination and collisional excitation experiments, as well as experimental devices are shown. A complete physical simulation to design and interpret x-ray laser experiments is given. Applications of x-ray lasers in grating production techniques, in contact microscopy and holography are considered

  12. A PILOT DEEP SURVEY FOR X-RAY EMISSION FROM fuvAGB STARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahai, R. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, MS 183-900, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Sanz-Forcada, J.; Sánchez Contreras, C. [Astrobiology Center (CSIC-INTA), ESAC campus, E-28691 Villanueva de la Canada, Madrid (Spain); Stute, M. [Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Eberhard Karls Universität Tübingen, Auf der Morgenstelle 10, D-72076, Tübingen (Germany)

    2015-09-01

    We report the results of a pilot survey for X-ray emission from a newly discovered class of AGB stars with far-ultraviolet excesses (fuvAGB stars) using XMM-Newton and Chandra. We detected X-ray emission in three of six fuvAGB stars observed—the X-ray fluxes are found to vary in a stochastic or quasi-periodic manner on roughly hour-long timescales, and simultaneous UV observations using the Optical Monitor on XMM for these sources show similar variations in the UV flux. These data, together with previous studies, show that X-ray emission is found only in fuvAGB stars. From modeling the spectra, we find that the observed X-ray luminosities are ∼(0.002–0.2) L{sub ⊙} and the X-ray-emitting plasma temperatures are ∼(35–160) × 10{sup 6} K. The high X-ray temperatures argue against the emission arising in stellar coronae, or directly in an accretion shock, unless it occurs on a WD companion. However, none of the detected objects is a known WD-symbiotic star, suggesting that if WD companions are present, they are relatively cool (<20,000 K). In addition, the high X-ray luminosities specifically argue against emission originating in the coronae of main-sequence companions. We discuss several models for the X-ray emission and its variability and find that the most likely scenario for the origin of the X-ray (and FUV) emission involves accretion activity around a companion star, with confinement by strong magnetic fields associated with the companion and/or an accretion disk around it.

  13. Simulation of a dense plasma focus x-ray source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stark, R.A.

    1994-01-01

    The authors are performing simulations of the magnetohydrodynamics of a Dense Plasma Focus (DPF) x-ray source located at Science Research Laboratory (SRL), Alameda, CA, in order to optimize its performance. The SRL DPF, which was developed as a compact source for x-ray lithography, operates at 20 Hz, giving x-ray power (9--14 Angstroms) of 500 W using neon gas. The simulations are performed with the two dimensional MHD code MACH2, developed by Mission Research Corporation, with a steady state corona model as the equation of state. The results of studies of the sensitivity of x-ray output to charging voltage and current, and to initial gas density will be presented. These studies should indicate ways to optimize x-ray production efficiency. Simulations of various inner electrode configurations will also be presented

  14. Comparison of a portable micro-X-ray fluorescence spectrometry with inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry for the ancient ceramics analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papadopoulou, D.N.; Zachariadis, G.A.; Anthemidis, A.N.; Tsirliganis, N.C.; Stratis, J.A.

    2004-01-01

    Two multielement instrumental methods of analysis, micro X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (micro-XRF) and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) were applied for the analysis of 7th and 5th century B.C. ancient ceramic sherds in order to evaluate the above two methods and to assess the potential to use the current compact and portable micro-XRF instrument for the in situ analysis of ancient ceramics. The distinguishing factor of interest is that micro-XRF spectrometry offers the possibility of a nondestructive analysis, an aspect of primary importance in the compositional analysis of cultural objects. Micro-XRF measurements were performed firstly directly on the ceramic sherds with no special pretreatment apart from surface cleaning (micro-XRF on sherds) and secondly on pressed pellet disks which were prepared for each ceramic sherd (micro-XRF on pellet). For the ICP-AES determination of elements, test solutions were prepared by the application of a microwave-assisted decomposition procedure in closed high-pressure PFA vessels. Also, the standard reference material SARM 69 was used for the efficiency calibration of the micro-XRF instrument and was analysed by both methods. In order to verify the calibration, the standard reference materials NCS DC 73332 and SRM620 as well as the reference materials AWI-1 and PRI-1 were analysed by micro-XRF. Elemental concentrations determined by the three analytical procedures (ICP-AES, micro-XRF on sherds and micro-XRF on pellets) were statistically treated by correlation analysis and Student's t-test (at the 95% confidence level)

  15. Comparison of a portable micro-X-ray fluorescence spectrometry with inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry for the ancient ceramics analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papadopoulou, D.N. [Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Aristotle University, GR-54124, Thessaloniki (Greece); Zachariadis, G.A. [Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Aristotle University, GR-54124, Thessaloniki (Greece); Anthemidis, A.N. [Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Aristotle University, GR-54124, Thessaloniki (Greece); Tsirliganis, N.C. [Archaeometry Laboratory, Cultural and Educational Technology Institute, Tsimiski 58, GR-67100, Xanthi (Greece); Stratis, J.A. [Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Aristotle University, GR-54124, Thessaloniki (Greece)]. E-mail: jstratis@chem.auth.gr

    2004-12-01

    Two multielement instrumental methods of analysis, micro X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (micro-XRF) and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) were applied for the analysis of 7th and 5th century B.C. ancient ceramic sherds in order to evaluate the above two methods and to assess the potential to use the current compact and portable micro-XRF instrument for the in situ analysis of ancient ceramics. The distinguishing factor of interest is that micro-XRF spectrometry offers the possibility of a nondestructive analysis, an aspect of primary importance in the compositional analysis of cultural objects. Micro-XRF measurements were performed firstly directly on the ceramic sherds with no special pretreatment apart from surface cleaning (micro-XRF on sherds) and secondly on pressed pellet disks which were prepared for each ceramic sherd (micro-XRF on pellet). For the ICP-AES determination of elements, test solutions were prepared by the application of a microwave-assisted decomposition procedure in closed high-pressure PFA vessels. Also, the standard reference material SARM 69 was used for the efficiency calibration of the micro-XRF instrument and was analysed by both methods. In order to verify the calibration, the standard reference materials NCS DC 73332 and SRM620 as well as the reference materials AWI-1 and PRI-1 were analysed by micro-XRF. Elemental concentrations determined by the three analytical procedures (ICP-AES, micro-XRF on sherds and micro-XRF on pellets) were statistically treated by correlation analysis and Student's t-test (at the 95% confidence level)

  16. A comparative study of the ionic keV X-ray line emission from ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    resolved X-ray diffraction [15] etc. High conversion efficiency of the laser ... picosecond ionic X-ray pulses are produced when both the plasma density and the tem- ..... X-ray spectrum of magnesium plasma produced using femtosecond laser.

  17. Stimulated X-Ray Emission Spectroscopy in Transition Metal Complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroll, Thomas; Weninger, Clemens; Alonso-Mori, Roberto; Sokaras, Dimosthenis; Zhu, Diling; Mercadier, Laurent; Majety, Vinay P.; Marinelli, Agostino; Lutman, Alberto; Guetg, Marc W.; Decker, Franz-Josef; Boutet, Sébastien; Aquila, Andy; Koglin, Jason; Koralek, Jake; DePonte, Daniel P.; Kern, Jan; Fuller, Franklin D.; Pastor, Ernest; Fransson, Thomas; Zhang, Yu; Yano, Junko; Yachandra, Vittal K.; Rohringer, Nina; Bergmann, Uwe

    2018-03-01

    We report the observation and analysis of the gain curve of amplified K α x-ray emission from solutions of Mn(II) and Mn(VII) complexes using an x-ray free electron laser to create the 1 s core-hole population inversion. We find spectra at amplification levels extending over 4 orders of magnitude until saturation. We observe bandwidths below the Mn 1 s core-hole lifetime broadening in the onset of the stimulated emission. In the exponential amplification regime the resolution corrected spectral width of ˜1.7 eV FWHM is constant over 3 orders of magnitude, pointing to the buildup of transform limited pulses of ˜1 fs duration. Driving the amplification into saturation leads to broadening and a shift of the line. Importantly, the chemical sensitivity of the stimulated x-ray emission to the Mn oxidation state is preserved at power densities of ˜1020 W /cm2 for the incoming x-ray pulses. Differences in signal sensitivity and spectral information compared to conventional (spontaneous) x-ray emission spectroscopy are discussed. Our findings build a baseline for nonlinear x-ray spectroscopy for a wide range of transition metal complexes in inorganic chemistry, catalysis, and materials science.

  18. Circumstellar X-ray Emission from SN1978K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlegel, Eric M.; Colbert, E.; Petre, R.

    1995-02-01

    We present the X-ray light curve in the 0.2 2.4 keV band based on fiveROSAT observations of SN1978K in NGC 1313. The X-ray emission is believed to arise from the interaction of the reverse shock and the expanding debris from the supernova. The reverse shock becomes established after the outgoing shock runs into circumstellar matter.

  19. Soft x-ray laser gain measurements in a recombining plasma column

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suckewer, S.; Skinner, C.H.; Milchberg, H.; Keane, C.; Voorhees, D.

    1985-03-01

    An enhancement of approx. 100 of stimulated emission over spontaneous emission of the CVI 182 A line (one-pass gain approx. = 6.5) was measured in a recombining, magnetically confined plasma column by two independent techniques using intensity calibrated XUV monochromators. Additional confirmation that the enhancement was due to stimulated emission has been obtained with a soft x-ray mirror

  20. Spectroscopy of X-ray Photoionized Plasmas in the Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liedahl, Duane A.; Loisel, Guillaume; Bailey, James E.; Nagayama, Taisuke; Hansen, Stephanie B.; Rochau, Gregory; Fontes, Christopher J.; Mancini, Roberto; Kallman, Timothy R.

    2018-06-01

    The physical processes operating in astrophysical plasmas --- heating, cooling, ionization, recombination, level population kinetics, and radiation transport --- are all accessible to observation in the laboratory. What distinguishes X-ray photoionized plasmas from the more common case of high-temperature collisionally-ionized plasmas is the elevated level of importance of the radiation/matter interaction. The advent of laboratory facilities with the capability to generate high-powered X-ray sources has provided the means by which to study this interaction, which is also fundamental to active galactic nuclei and other accretion-powered objects. We discuss recent and ongoing experiments, with an emphasis on X-ray spectroscopic measurements of silicon plasmas obtained at the Sandia Z Pulsed Power Facility.

  1. Ultrafast secondary emission x-ray imaging detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akkerman, A.; Gibrekhterman, A.; Majewski, S.

    1991-07-01

    Fast high accuracy, x-ray imaging at high photon flux can be achieved when coupling thin solid convertors to gaseous electron multipliers, operating at low gas pressures. Secondary electron emitted from the convertor foil are multiplied in several successive amplification elements. The obvious advantage of solid x-ray detectors, as compared to gaseous conversion, are the production of parallax-free images and the fast (subnanoseconds) response. These x-ray detectors have many potential applications in basic and applied research. Of particular interest is the possibility of an efficient and ultrafast high resolution imaging of transition radiation,with a reduced dE/dx background. We present experimental results on the operation of the secondary emission x-ray (SEX) detectors, their detection efficiency, localization and time resolution. The experimental work is accompanied by mathematical modelling and computer simulation of transition radiation detectors based on CsI transition radiation convertors. (author)

  2. Synchrotron-Radiation Induced X-Ray Emission (SRIXE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Keith W.

    1999-09-01

    Elemental analysis using emission of characteristic x rays is a well-established scientific method. The success of this analytical method is highly dependent on the properties of the source used to produce the x rays. X-ray tubes have long existed as a principal excitation source, but electron and proton beams have also been employed extensively. The development of the synchrotron radiation x-ray source that has taken place during the past 40 years has had a major impact on the general field of x-ray analysis. Even tier 40 years, science of x-ray analysis with synchrotron x-ray beams is by no means mature. Improvements being made to existing synchrotron facilities and the design and construction of new facilities promise to accelerate the development of the general scientific use of synchrotron x-ray sources for at least the next ten years. The effective use of the synchrotron source technology depends heavily on the use of high-performance computers for analysis and theoretical interpretation of the experimental data. Fortunately, computer technology has advanced at least as rapidly as the x-ray technology during the past 40 years and should continue to do so during the next decade. The combination of these technologies should bring about dramatic advances in many fields where synchrotron x-ray science is applied. It is interesting also to compare the growth and rate of acceptance of this particular research endeavor to the rates for other technological endeavors. Griibler [1997] cataloged the time required for introduction, diffusion,and acceptance of technological, economic, and social change and found mean values of 40 to 50 years. The introduction of the synchrotron source depends on both technical and non-technical factors, and the time scale at which this seems to be occurring is quite compatible with what is seen for other major innovations such as the railroad or the telegraph. It will be interesting to see how long the present rate of technological change

  3. Synchrotron-Radiation Induced X-Ray Emission (SRIXE)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, Keith W.

    1999-01-01

    Elemental analysis using emission of characteristic x rays is a well-established scientific method. The success of this analytical method is highly dependent on the properties of the source used to produce the x rays. X-ray tubes have long existed as a principal excitation source, but electron and proton beams have also been employed extensively. The development of the synchrotron radiation x-ray source that has taken place during the past 40 years has had a major impact on the general field of x-ray analysis. Even tier 40 years, science of x-ray analysis with synchrotron x-ray beams is by no means mature. Improvements being made to existing synchrotron facilities and the design and construction of new facilities promise to accelerate the development of the general scientific use of synchrotron x-ray sources for at least the next ten years. The effective use of the synchrotron source technology depends heavily on the use of high-performance computers for analysis and theoretical interpretation of the experimental data. Fortunately, computer technology has advanced at least as rapidly as the x-ray technology during the past 40 years and should continue to do so during the next decade. The combination of these technologies should bring about dramatic advances in many fields where synchrotron x-ray science is applied. It is interesting also to compare the growth and rate of acceptance of this particular research endeavor to the rates for other technological endeavors. Griibler [1997] cataloged the time required for introduction, diffusion,and acceptance of technological, economic, and social change and found mean values of 40 to 50 years. The introduction of the synchrotron source depends on both technical and non-technical factors, and the time scale at which this seems to be occurring is quite compatible with what is seen for other major innovations such as the railroad or the telegraph. It will be interesting to see how long the present rate of technological change

  4. Observations of EUV and X-ray Emission from Comets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisse, C.

    The unexpected discovery of x-ray emission from Comet Hyakutake in March 1996 (Lisse et al. 1996) produced a number of questions about the physical mechanism producing the radiation. The original detection and subsequent observations have shown that the very soft (best fit thermal bremsstrahlung model kT0.2 keV) emission is due to an interaction between the solar wind and the comet's atmosphere. Using the results from the more than 15 comets detected to date in x-rays, I report here on the latest results on cometary x-ray emission, including new results from Chandra, and show that charge exchange between highly ionized minor ions in the solar wind and neutral gases in the cometary coma is the most likely operative mechanism. I then use this result to study a number of problems of astrophysical interest: the nature of the cometary coma, other possible sources of x-ray emission in the solar system, the structure of the solar wind in the heliosphere, and the source of the local x-ray background.

  5. X-ray optical diagnostic of laser produced plasmas for nuclear fusion and X-ray lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butzbach, R.

    2001-07-01

    In the present work, the conception, design and appliance of toroidally bent crystals for the X-ray optical diagnostics of laser produced plasmas is discussed. The first part of this work deals with the development, design and characterization of an X-Ray microscope for the observation of Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities, which act against the confinement and ignition of the fuel in the inertial confinement fusion process. The aim of the second part of the present work was the diagnostic of the lasing medium for amplified spontaneous emission close to the water window. For this purpose, an one-dimensionally (1-D) imaging X-ray spectrometer based on toroidally bent quartz crystals was developed for the observation of the Ni-like 4f-3d transition of Yb, Hf, Ta, and W ions, which should be related to the amplified 4d-4p emission, since the 4f niveau is very close to the 4d niveau. Thus, the 4f-3d transition can serve as an indicator for the population of the 4d niveau. (orig.)

  6. Anomalous x-ray radiation of beam plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimitrov, S.K.; Zavyalov, M.A.; Mikhin, S.G.; Tarasenkov, V.A.; Telkovskij, V.G.; Khrabrov, V.A.

    1985-01-01

    The properties of non-equilibrium stationary plasma under the conditions of the planned plasma-chemical reactors based on beam-plasma discharge were investigated. The x-ray spectrum of the beam-plasma was measured and anomalous spectral properties were analyzed. Starting with some critical pressure the anomalous radiation was added to the classical bremsstrahlung spectrum. The occurrence of anomalous radiation can be used to diagnose the condition of beam transportation in such systems. (D.Gy.)

  7. L X-ray emission induced by heavy ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pajek, M. [Institute of Physics, Jan Kochanowski University, 25-406 Kielce (Poland); Banaś, D., E-mail: d.banas@ujk.edu.pl [Institute of Physics, Jan Kochanowski University, 25-406 Kielce (Poland); Braziewicz, J.; Majewska, U.; Semaniak, J. [Institute of Physics, Jan Kochanowski University, 25-406 Kielce (Poland); Fijał-Kirejczyk, I. [The Institute of Atomic Energy, 05-400 Otwock-Świerk (Poland); Jaskóła, M.; Czarnacki, W.; Korman, A. [The National Centre for Nuclear Research, 05-400 Otwock-Świerk (Poland); Kretschmer, W. [Physikalisches Institut, Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, D-91058 Erlangen (Germany); Mukoyama, T. [Institute for Nuclear Research, Hungarian Academy of Sciences (ATOMKI), H-4026 Debrecen (Hungary); Trautmann, D. [Institut für Physik, Universität Basel, Basel (Switzerland)

    2015-11-15

    Particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) technique is usually applied using typically 1 MeV to 3 MeV protons or helium ions, for which the ion-atom interaction is dominated by the single ionization process. For heavier ions the multiple ionization plays an increasingly important role and this process can influence substantially both the X-ray spectra and atomic decay rates. Additionally, the subshell coupling effects are important for the L- and M-shells ionized by heavy ions. Here we discuss the main features of the X-ray emission induced by heavy ions which are important for PIXE applications, namely, the effects of X-ray line shifts and broadening, vacancy rearrangement and change of the fluorescence and Coster–Kronig yields in multiple ionized atoms. These effects are illustrated here by the results of the measurements of L X-ray emission from heavy atoms bombarded by 6 MeV to 36 MeV Si ions, which were reported earlier. The strong L-subshell coupling effects are observed, in particular L{sub 2}-subshell, which can be accounted for within the coupling subshell model (CSM) developed within the semiclassical approximation. Finally, the prospects to use heavy ions in PIXE analysis are discussed.

  8. Exploring the Diffuse X-ray Emission of Supernova Remnant Kesteven 69 with XMM-Newton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyoung-Ae Seo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available We have investigated the X-ray emission from the shock-heated plasma of the Galactic supernova remnant Kesteven 69 with XMM-Newton. Assuming the plasma is at collisional ionization equilibrium, a plasma temperature and a column absorption are found to be kT ~ 0.62 keV and NH ~ 2.85 ×1022 cm-2 respectively by imaging spectroscopy. Together with the deduced emission measure, we place constraints on its Sedov parameters.

  9. X-RAY EMISSION FROM MAGNETIC MASSIVE STARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazé, Yaël; Petit, Véronique; Rinbrand, Melanie; Owocki, Stan; Cohen, David; Ud-Doula, Asif; Wade, Gregg A.

    2014-01-01

    Magnetically confined winds of early-type stars are expected to be sources of bright and hard X-rays. To clarify the systematics of the observed X-ray properties, we have analyzed a large series of Chandra and XMM-Newton observations, corresponding to all available exposures of known massive magnetic stars (over 100 exposures covering ∼60% of stars compiled in the catalog of Petit et al.). We show that the X-ray luminosity is strongly correlated with the stellar wind mass-loss rate, with a power-law form that is slightly steeper than linear for the majority of the less luminous, lower- M-dot B stars and flattens for the more luminous, higher- M-dot O stars. As the winds are radiatively driven, these scalings can be equivalently written as relations with the bolometric luminosity. The observed X-ray luminosities, and their trend with mass-loss rates, are well reproduced by new MHD models, although a few overluminous stars (mostly rapidly rotating objects) exist. No relation is found between other X-ray properties (plasma temperature, absorption) and stellar or magnetic parameters, contrary to expectations (e.g., higher temperature for stronger mass-loss rate). This suggests that the main driver for the plasma properties is different from the main determinant of the X-ray luminosity. Finally, variations of the X-ray hardnesses and luminosities, in phase with the stellar rotation period, are detected for some objects and they suggest that some temperature stratification exists in massive stars' magnetospheres

  10. X-Ray and Near-Infrared Spectroscopy of Dim X-Ray Point Sources Constituting the Galactic Ridge X-Ray Emission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumiko Morihana

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We present the results of X-ray and Near-Infrared observations of the Galactic Ridge X-ray Emission (GRXE. We extracted 2,002 X-ray point sources in the Chandra Bulge Field (l =0°.113, b = 1°.424 down to ~10-14.8 ergscm-2s-1 in 2-8 keV band with the longest observation (900 ks of the GRXE. Based on X-ray brightness and hardness, we classied the X-ray point sources into three groups: A (hard, B (soft and broad spectrum, and C (soft and peaked spectrum. In order to know populations of the X-ray point sources, we carried out NIR imaging and spectroscopy observation. We identied 11% of X-ray point sources with NIR and extracted NIR spectra for some of them. Based on X-ray and NIR properties, we concluded that non-thermal sources in the group A are mostly active galactic nuclei and the thermal sources are mostly white dwarf binaries such as cataclysmic variables (CVs and Pre-CVs. We concluded that the group B and C sources are X-ray active stars in flare and quiescence, respectively.

  11. Resonant X-ray emission spectroscopy in Dy compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Satoshi; Okada, Kozo; Kotani, Akio.

    1994-01-01

    The excitation spectrum of the L 3 -M 5 X-ray emission of Dy compounds in the pre-edge region of Dy L 3 X-ray absorption near edge structure (L 3 -XANES) is theoretically investigated based upon the coherent second order optical formula with multiplet coupling effects. The spectral broadening of the excitation spectrum is determined by the M 5 core hole lifetime, being free from the L 3 core hole lifetime. The fine pre-edge structure of the L 3 edge due to the 2p→4f quadrupole transition can be seen in the excitation spectrum, while this structure is invisible in the conventional XANES, in agreement with the recent experimental results. We clarify the conditions for the excitation spectrum to be regarded as the absorption spectrum with a smaller width. The resonant X-ray emission spectra for various incident photon energies around the L 3 edge are also calculated. (author)

  12. Characteristics of x-rays from a plasma focus operated with neon gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zakaullah, M [Department of Physics, Quaid-i-Azam University, 45320 Islamabad (Pakistan); Alamgir, K [Department of Physics, Quaid-i-Azam University, 45320 Islamabad (Pakistan); Shafiq, M [Department of Physics, Quaid-i-Azam University, 45320 Islamabad (Pakistan); Hassan, S M [Department of Physics, Quaid-i-Azam University, 45320 Islamabad (Pakistan); Sharif, M [Department of Physics, Quaid-i-Azam University, 45320 Islamabad (Pakistan); Hussain, S [Department of Physics, Quaid-i-Azam University, 45320 Islamabad (Pakistan); Waheed, A [PINSTECH, PO Box 2151, 44000 Islamabad (Pakistan)

    2002-11-01

    The x-ray emission from a low-energy (2.3 kJ) plasma focus is investigated with neon as the filling gas. Two anode configurations are used in the experiment: the conventional cylindrical anode, and tapered anode slightly toward the open end. The latter geometry enhances soft x-ray emission by an order of magnitude. The emission is pressure dependent and, in both cases, the highest emission is observed at 3-3.5 mbar. For the cylindrical anode, the soft x-ray emission is up to 7 J per shot, which is from a pinched plasma column, 5-6 mm long. For the tapered anode, up to 80 J per shot soft x-ray yield in 4{pi} geometry is recorded, which corresponds to 4% wall plug efficiency. The diameter of the x-ray emission filament is much larger compared with the cylindrical anode. The bulk of emitted radiation is of energy 1.2-1.3 keV, which is thought to arise from recombination of hydrogen-like (Ne x) ions with the low-energy electrons.

  13. Characteristics of x-rays from a plasma focus operated with neon gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakaullah, M; Alamgir, K; Shafiq, M; Hassan, S M; Sharif, M; Hussain, S; Waheed, A

    2002-01-01

    The x-ray emission from a low-energy (2.3 kJ) plasma focus is investigated with neon as the filling gas. Two anode configurations are used in the experiment: the conventional cylindrical anode, and tapered anode slightly toward the open end. The latter geometry enhances soft x-ray emission by an order of magnitude. The emission is pressure dependent and, in both cases, the highest emission is observed at 3-3.5 mbar. For the cylindrical anode, the soft x-ray emission is up to 7 J per shot, which is from a pinched plasma column, 5-6 mm long. For the tapered anode, up to 80 J per shot soft x-ray yield in 4π geometry is recorded, which corresponds to 4% wall plug efficiency. The diameter of the x-ray emission filament is much larger compared with the cylindrical anode. The bulk of emitted radiation is of energy 1.2-1.3 keV, which is thought to arise from recombination of hydrogen-like (Ne x) ions with the low-energy electrons

  14. X-ray absorption and emission studies of diamond nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Buuren, T.; Willey, T.; Raty, J.Y.; Galli, G.; Terminello, L.J.; Bostedt, C.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: A new family of carbon nanopaticles produced in detonations, are found to have a core of diamond with a coating fullerene- like carbon. X-ray diffraction and TEM show that the nanodiamond powder is crystalline and approximately 4 nm in diameter. These nano-sized diamonds do not display the characteristic property of other group IV nanoparticles: a strong widening of the energy gap between the conduction and valence bands owing to quantum-confinement effects. For nano-sized diamond with a size distribution of 4 nm, there is no shift of the band energies relative to bulk diamond. Although the C1s core exciton feature clearly observed in the K-edge absorption edge of bulk diamond is shifted and broadening due to increased overlap of the excited electron with the core holein the small particle. Also the depth of the second gap in the nanodiamond spectra is shallower than that of bulk diamond. A feature at lower energy in the X-ray absorption spectra that is not present in the bulk samples is consistent with a fullerene like surface reconstruction. By exposing the diamond nanoparticles to an Argon /Oxygen plasma then annealing in a UHV environment we have obtained a hydrogen free surface. The nanodiamonds processed in this manner show an increase fullerene type contribution in the carbon x-ray absorption pre-edge. High spatial resolution EELS measurements of the empty states of a single nanodiamond particle acquired with a ld emission TEM also show the core of the particle is bulk diamond like where as the surface has a fullerene like structure. Standard density-functional calculations on clusters in which the diamond surface bonds are terminated with hydrogen atoms, show that the bandgap begins to increase above the bulk value only for clusters smaller than 1 nm. Surface hydrogen atoms are found to be about as close as they do in molecular hydrogen and can escape as H 2 , forcing the respective carbon atoms to rearrange. A series of such rearrangements can

  15. X-ray diodes for laser fusion plasma diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Day, R.H.; Lee, P.; Saloman, E.B.; Nagel, D.J.

    1981-02-01

    Photodiodes with x-ray sensitive photocathodes are commonly used as broadband x-ray detectors in fusion plasma diagnostics. We have measured the risetime of the detector system and have measured the quantum efficiency between 1 to 500 A of numerous photocathode materials of practical interest. The materials studied include aluminum, copper, nickel, gold, three forms of carbon, chromium, and cesium iodide. The results of the measurements are compared with Henke's semiempirical model of photoyield. We have studied the effects of long-term cathode aging and use as a plasma diagnostic on cathode quantum efficiency. In addition, we have measured the x-ray mass-absorption coefficient of several ultrasoft x-ray windows in energy regions where data were unavailable. Windows studied were made of aluminum, Formvar, polypropylene, and Kimfoil. Measurements between 1 to 50 A were performed with the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory's low-energy x-ray calibration facility, and the measurements between 50 to 550 A were performed at the National Bureau of Standard's synchrotron ultraviolet radiation facility

  16. X-ray pinhole camera setups used in the Atomki ECR Laboratory for plasma diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rácz, R., E-mail: rracz@atomki.hu; Biri, S.; Pálinkás, J. [Institute for Nuclear Research (Atomki), Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Bem tér 18/C, H-4026 Debrecen (Hungary); Mascali, D.; Castro, G.; Caliri, C.; Gammino, S. [Instituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare—Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, via S. Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy); Romano, F. P. [Instituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare—Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, via S. Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy); CNR, Istituto per i Beni Archeologici e Monumentali, Via Biblioteca 4, 95124 Catania (Italy)

    2016-02-15

    Imaging of the electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasmas by using CCD camera in combination with a pinhole is a non-destructive diagnostics method to record the strongly inhomogeneous spatial density distribution of the X-ray emitted by the plasma and by the chamber walls. This method can provide information on the location of the collisions between warm electrons and multiple charged ions/atoms, opening the possibility to investigate the direct effect of the ion source tuning parameters to the plasma structure. The first successful experiment with a pinhole X-ray camera was carried out in the Atomki ECR Laboratory more than 10 years ago. The goal of that experiment was to make the first ECR X-ray photos and to carry out simple studies on the effect of some setting parameters (magnetic field, extraction, disc voltage, gas mixing, etc.). Recently, intensive efforts were taken to investigate now the effect of different RF resonant modes to the plasma structure. Comparing to the 2002 experiment, this campaign used wider instrumental stock: CCD camera with a lead pinhole was placed at the injection side allowing X-ray imaging and beam extraction simultaneously. Additionally, Silicon Drift Detector (SDD) and High Purity Germanium (HPGe) detectors were installed to characterize the volumetric X-ray emission rate caused by the warm and hot electron domains. In this paper, detailed comparison study on the two X-ray camera and detector setups and also on the technical and scientific goals of the experiments is presented.

  17. X-ray pinhole camera setups used in the Atomki ECR Laboratory for plasma diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rácz, R; Biri, S; Pálinkás, J; Mascali, D; Castro, G; Caliri, C; Romano, F P; Gammino, S

    2016-02-01

    Imaging of the electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasmas by using CCD camera in combination with a pinhole is a non-destructive diagnostics method to record the strongly inhomogeneous spatial density distribution of the X-ray emitted by the plasma and by the chamber walls. This method can provide information on the location of the collisions between warm electrons and multiple charged ions/atoms, opening the possibility to investigate the direct effect of the ion source tuning parameters to the plasma structure. The first successful experiment with a pinhole X-ray camera was carried out in the Atomki ECR Laboratory more than 10 years ago. The goal of that experiment was to make the first ECR X-ray photos and to carry out simple studies on the effect of some setting parameters (magnetic field, extraction, disc voltage, gas mixing, etc.). Recently, intensive efforts were taken to investigate now the effect of different RF resonant modes to the plasma structure. Comparing to the 2002 experiment, this campaign used wider instrumental stock: CCD camera with a lead pinhole was placed at the injection side allowing X-ray imaging and beam extraction simultaneously. Additionally, Silicon Drift Detector (SDD) and High Purity Germanium (HPGe) detectors were installed to characterize the volumetric X-ray emission rate caused by the warm and hot electron domains. In this paper, detailed comparison study on the two X-ray camera and detector setups and also on the technical and scientific goals of the experiments is presented.

  18. X-ray spectroscopy of plasmas created by the Nike KrF laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aglitskiy, Y.; Lehecka, T.; Deniz, A.; Hardgrove, J.; Seely, J.; Brown, C.; Feldman, U.; Pawley, C.; Gerber, K.; Bodner, S.; Obenschain, S.; Lehmberg, R.; McLean, E.; Pronko, M.; Sethian, J.; Stamper, J.; Schmitt, A.; Sullivan, C.; Holland, G.; Laming, M.

    1997-01-01

    The x-ray emission from plasmas created by the Naval Research Laboratory Nike KrF laser was characterized using spectroscopic instruments. The targets were thin foils of aluminum and titanium and were irradiated by laser energies in the range 100 endash 1500 J. Using a spherical-crystal imaging spectrometer operating in the 1 endash 2 keV x-ray region, the density, temperature, and opacity of aluminum plasmas were determined with a spatial resolution of 10 μm in the direction perpendicular to the target surface. The spectral line ratios indicated that the aluminum plasmas were relatively dense, cool, and optically thick near the target surface

  19. Observational Trends of Cometary X-ray Emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisse, C. M.

    2001-05-01

    The unexpected discovery of x-ray emission from Comet Hyakutake in March 1996 (Lisse et al. 1996) has produced a number of questions about the physical mechanism producing the radiation. The original detection and subsequent observations (Dennerl et al. 1997, Mumma et al. 1997, Krasnopolsky et al. 1998, Owens et al. 1998, Lisse et al. 1999, Lisse et a. 2001, Dennerl et al. 2001) have shown that the very soft (best fit thermal bremsstrahlung model kT = 0.23 keV) emission is due to an interaction between the solar wind and the comet's atmosphere. Using the results from the more than 15 comets detected to date in x-rays, we report on the latest results on cometary x-ray emission. Our emphasis will be on understanding the physical mechanism producing the emission, and using this to determine the nature of the cometary coma and solar wind flux. As-observed morphologies, spectra, and light curves will be discussed. We also report on the status of current cometary observations using the new powerful x-ray observatories Chandra and XMM. This work has been graciously supported by grants from the NASA Planetary Astronomy and Astrophysical Data Programs.

  20. Radio search for pulsed emission from X-ray pulsars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    delli Santi, F S; Delpino, F [Bologna Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Astronomia; Inzani, P; Sironi, G [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Milan (Italy). Lab. di Fisica Cosmica e Tecnologie Relative; Mandolesi, N; Morigi, G [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Bologna (Italy). Lab. TESRE

    1981-05-01

    An experiment has been performed at 325 MHz, with a 10 m tracking dish, for the search of pulsed radio emission associated with X-ray pulsars. No evidence of radio pulses has been found in the four sources investigated, although the radio pulsar PSR 0329 + 54, used a testing object, has been detected successfully.

  1. X-ray heating of laboratory photoionized plasmas at Z

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancini, R.; Lockard, T.; Mayes, D.; Loisel, G.; Bailey, J.; Rochau, G.; Abdallah, J.; Fontes, C.; Liedahl, D.; Golovkin, I.

    2017-10-01

    In separate experiments performed at the Z facility of Sandia National Laboratories two different samples were employed to produce and characterize photoionized plasmas. One was a gas cell filled with neon, and the other was a thin silicon layer coated with plastic. Both samples were driven by the broadband x-ray flux produced at the collapse of a wire array z-pinch implosion. Transmission spectroscopy of a narrowband portion of the x-ray flux was used to diagnose the charge state distribution, and the electron temperature was extracted from a Li-like ion level population ratio. To interpret the temperature measurement, we performed Boltzmann kinetics and radiation-hydrodynamic simulations. We found that non-equilibrium atomic physics and the coupling of the radiation flux to the level population kinetics play a critical role in modeling the x-ray heating of photoionized plasmas. In spite of being driven by similar x-ray drives, differences of ionization and charged state distributions in the neon and silicon plasmas are reflected in the plasma heating and observed temperatures. DOE OFES Grant DE-SC0014451 and ZFSP.

  2. Coaxial gun parameters and X-ray emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soliman, H.M.; El-Aragi, G.M.; Saudy, A.H.; Masoud, M.M.

    1994-01-01

    The paper presents the results of investigation with 3 kJ coaxial plasma gun, which operated with argon gas at pressure 0.8 torr. The coaxial plasma gun parameters are investigated by pick up coils, double electric probe, and x-ray probe. The mean electron temperature and density of the ejected plasma are 25 eV and 10 15 cm -3 respectively. The maximum kinetic pressure of the ejected plasma in the expansion chamber appears after 10 μs from the start of the discharge current. The energetic electrons is detected by an x-ray probe which showed a single pulse of electrons with energy ≅ 3 Kev. (orig.)

  3. X-ray emission from hot subdwarfs with compact companions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esposito P.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available We review the X-ray observations of hot subdwarf stars. While no X-ray emission has been detected yet from binaries containing B-type subdwarfs, interesting results have been obtained in the case of the two luminous O-type subdwarfs HD 49798 and BD + 37° 442. Both of them are members of binary systems in which the X-ray luminosity is powered by accretion onto a compact object: a rapidly spinning (13.2 s and massive (1.28  M⊙ white dwarf in the case of HD 49798 and most likely a neutron star, spinning at 19.2 s, in the case of BD + 37° 442. Their study can shed light on the poorly known processes taking place during common envelope evolutionary phases and on the properties of wind mass loss from hot subdwarfs.

  4. Applications of particle induced X-ray emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akselsson, K. R.

    1978-01-01

    In Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) analysis samples are bombarded by protons or α-particles of a few MeV/u. The induced characteristic x-rays are detected with a x-ray detector e.g. a Si(Li)-detector. The energies of the x-ray peaks are characteristic for the elements in the samples and the intensities of the x-ray transitions are proportional to the abundances of the elements. The research area which first attracted those of us working with PIXE was the study of sources, transport and deposition of airborne particulates. Sources, transport, wet deposition, other applications where PIXE is already known to be competitive are trace elemental analysis of water below the ppb-level and analyses requiring a space resolution of 1-10μ. However, there is still much to do for physicists in developing the full potential of low-energy accelerators as analytical tools in multidisciplinary teams. (JIW)

  5. X-ray emission from the Pleiades cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, P. C.; Singh, K. P.; Riegler, G. R.

    1983-01-01

    The detection and identification of H0344+24, a new X-ray source located in the Pleiades cluster, is reported, based on observations made with HEAO A-2 low-energy detector 1 in the 0.15-3.0-keV energy band in August, 1977. The 90-percent-confidence error box for the new source is centered at 03 h 44.1 min right ascension (1950), near the center star of the 500-star Pleiades cluster, 25-eta-Tau. Since no likely galactic or extragalactic source of X-rays was found in a catalog search of the error-box region, identification of the source with the Pleiades cluster is considered secure. X-ray luminosity of the source is calculated to be about 10 to the 32nd ergs/sec, based on a distance of 125 pc. The X-ray characteristics of the Pleiades stars are discussed, and it is concluded that H0344+24 can best be explained as the integrated X-ray emission of all the B and F stars in the cluster.

  6. Microwave and X-Ray emission during a isentropic expansion and its application to solar bursts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piazza, L.R.

    1983-01-01

    The gyro-synchrotron emission in microwaves and the free-free emission in X-rays of a plasma enclosed in a cylinder coincident with a magnetic force tube were calculated for an isentropic self-similar expansion, with plane and cylindrical symmetries. This expansion model was applied to a region of the low solar corona, and the results were compared to the emission observed in some simple solar events of low intensity. The calculations show satisfactory coincidence with the events in X-rays for energies around 10 29 ergs. The solar events analyzed in microwaves, which are not the same that were studied in X-rays, in general do not fit the theoretical results. The origin of the discrepancy is probably the formulation of the processes of emission applied to the expansion. (Author) [pt

  7. A laboratory-based hard x-ray monochromator for high-resolution x-ray emission spectroscopy and x-ray absorption near edge structure measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seidler, G. T., E-mail: seidler@uw.edu; Mortensen, D. R.; Remesnik, A. J.; Pacold, J. I.; Ball, N. A.; Barry, N.; Styczinski, M.; Hoidn, O. R. [Physics Department, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195-1560 (United States)

    2014-11-15

    We report the development of a laboratory-based Rowland-circle monochromator that incorporates a low power x-ray (bremsstrahlung) tube source, a spherically bent crystal analyzer, and an energy-resolving solid-state detector. This relatively inexpensive, introductory level instrument achieves 1-eV energy resolution for photon energies of ∼5 keV to ∼10 keV while also demonstrating a net efficiency previously seen only in laboratory monochromators having much coarser energy resolution. Despite the use of only a compact, air-cooled 10 W x-ray tube, we find count rates for nonresonant x-ray emission spectroscopy comparable to those achieved at monochromatized spectroscopy beamlines at synchrotron light sources. For x-ray absorption near edge structure, the monochromatized flux is small (due to the use of a low-powered x-ray generator) but still useful for routine transmission-mode studies of concentrated samples. These results indicate that upgrading to a standard commercial high-power line-focused x-ray tube or rotating anode x-ray generator would result in monochromatized fluxes of order 10{sup 6}–10{sup 7} photons/s with no loss in energy resolution. This work establishes core technical capabilities for a rejuvenation of laboratory-based hard x-ray spectroscopies that could have special relevance for contemporary research on catalytic or electrical energy storage systems using transition-metal, lanthanide, or noble-metal active species.

  8. Quantitative X-ray spectroscopy of sodium Z-pinch plasmas for Na/ne photopumping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burkhalter, P.G.; Mehlman, G.; Apruzese, J.P.; Newman, D.A.; Scherrer, V.E.; Young, F.C.; Stephanakis, S.J.; Hinshelwood, D.D.

    1990-01-01

    Spectra of sodium K-shell x-ray emission were measured for implosions of sodium-bearing plasmas produced on the Naval Research Laboratory Gamble II pulsed-power generator. Sodium fluoride from a capillary discharge provided the initial plasma for these fast Z-pinch implosions. Spatially-resolved images, corresponding to sodium K-shell x-rays from a 3 to 4 cm long plasma column, were recorded with a curved-crystal spectrograph. Non-uniform emission was observed along this column. The diameter of the plasma along the column (1-5 mm) was determined from time-integrated pinhole-camera images, and the duration of the x-ray emission (15-23 ns FWHM) was measured with a vacuum x-ray diode. Absolute emissivities were determined for X-rays from the n=2-1 and n=3-1 transitions in Na X and Na XI. Emissivities calculated using a collisional-radiative equilibrium model were fitted to these measurements to determine plasma temperatures of 230 to 550 eV and electron densities of 0.2 to 4.0 x 10 20 cm -3 at several locations along the plasma column. The slope of the recombination continuum was also used to determine temperatures of 200 to 300 eV and 200 to 400 eV for Na X and Na XI ions, respectively. Absolute intensity measurements of the n=2-1 line emissions from Na X and Na XI, averaged over the entire plasma length, indicated shot-to-shot variations of more than a factor of two in these implosions. (author)

  9. Magnetar-like X-Ray Bursts Suppress Pulsar Radio Emission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Archibald, R. F.; Lyutikov, M.; Kaspi, V. M.; Tendulkar, S. P. [Department of Physics and McGill Space Institute, McGill University, 3600 University Street, Montreal, QC H3A 2T8 (Canada); Burgay, M.; Possenti, A. [INAF–Osservatorio Astronomico di Cagliari, Via della Scienza 5, I-09047 Selargius (Italy); Esposito, P.; Rea, N. [Anton Pannekoek Institute for Astronomy, University of Amsterdam, Postbus 94249, 1090 GE Amsterdam (Netherlands); Israel, G. [INAF–Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma, via Frascati 33, I-00040 Monteporzio Catone, Roma (Italy); Kerr, M. [Space Science Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375-5352 (United States); Sarkissian, J. [CSIRO Astronomy and Space Science, Parkes Observatory, P.O. Box 276, Parkes, NSW 2870 (Australia); Scholz, P., E-mail: archibald@astro.utoronto.ca [National Research Council of Canada, Herzberg Astronomy and Astrophysics, Dominion Radio Astrophysical Observatory, P.O. Box 248, Penticton, BC V2A 6J9 (Canada)

    2017-11-10

    Rotation-powered pulsars and magnetars are two different observational manifestations of neutron stars: rotation-powered pulsars are rapidly spinning objects that are mostly observed as pulsating radio sources, while magnetars, neutron stars with the highest known magnetic fields, often emit short-duration X-ray bursts. Here, we report simultaneous observations of the high-magnetic-field radio pulsar PSR J1119−6127 at X-ray, with XMM-Newton and NuSTAR , and at radio energies with the Parkes radio telescope, during a period of magnetar-like bursts. The rotationally powered radio emission shuts off coincident with the occurrence of multiple X-ray bursts and recovers on a timescale of ∼70 s. These observations of related radio and X-ray phenomena further solidify the connection between radio pulsars and magnetars and suggest that the pair plasma produced in bursts can disrupt the acceleration mechanism of radio-emitting particles.

  10. A Non-thermal Pulsed X-Ray Emission of AR Scorpii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takata, J.; Hu, C.-P.; Lin, L. C. C.; Tam, P. H. T.; Pal, P. S.; Hui, C. Y.; Kong, A. K. H.; Cheng, K. S.

    2018-02-01

    We report the analysis result of UV/X-ray emission from AR Scorpii, which is an intermediate polar (IP) composed of a magnetic white dwarf and an M-type star, with the XMM-Newton data. The X-ray/UV emission clearly shows a large variation over the orbit, and their intensity maximum (or minimum) is located at the superior conjunction (or inferior conjunction) of the M star orbit. The hardness ratio of the X-ray emission shows a small variation over the orbital phase and shows no indication of the absorption by an accretion column. These properties are naturally explained by the emission from the M star surface rather than that from the accretion column on the white dwarf’s (WD) star, which is similar to usual IPs. Additionally, the observed X-ray emission also modulates with the WD’s spin with a pulse fraction of ∼14%. The peak position is aligned in the optical/UV/X-ray band. This supports the hypothesis that the electrons in AR Scorpii are accelerated to a relativistic speed and emit non-thermal photons via the synchrotron radiation. In the X-ray bands, evidence of the power-law spectrum is found in the pulsed component, although the observed emission is dominated by the optically thin thermal plasma emissions with several different temperatures. It is considered that the magnetic dissipation/reconnection process on the M star surface heats up the plasma to a temperature of several keV and also accelerates the electrons to the relativistic speed. The relativistic electrons are trapped in the WD’s closed magnetic field lines by the magnetic mirror effect. In this model, the observed pulsed component is explained by the emissions from the first magnetic mirror point.

  11. Dense X-pinch plasmas for x-ray microlithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalantar, D.H.; Hammer, D.A.; Qi, N.; Mittal, K.C.

    1990-01-01

    The authors report experimental results from a study of the radiation emission from aluminum and magnesium x-pinch experiments. The single cross x-pinch, driven by the 0.5 TW, 40ns pulse width Lion accelerator, consists of 2-8 fine wires stretched between the output electrodes of Lion so as to touch at a single point. The wires were twisted up to 360 degrees at the crossing point. The number and size of Al and Mg wires were varied in order to optimize the K-shell line radiation. Diagnostics used for the experiments included pinhole photography, streak imaging, filtered photoconducting diodes and x-ray crystal spectroscopy. The source size and distribution are determined through x-ray pinhole photographs. The radiation energy spectrum is determined by x-ray spectroscopy and attenuation through filters. Energy intensities were obtained from the filtered photoconducting diodes

  12. The X-ray emission spectrum of gaseous acetylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brammer, R.; Rubensson, J.E.; Wassdahl, N.; Nordgren, J.

    1987-01-01

    The X-ray emission spectrum of acetylene in the gas phase has been recorded using a 10 m grazing incidence spectrometer. Analysis of the spectrum is made based on calculations of total energies, potential curves and Franck-Condon vibrational intensities. Four emission bands are seen with the 1 π u band exhibiting vibrational structure. Analysis of the vibrations gives the CIs ionization energy. High energy satellite structure is observed and interpreted. (orig.)

  13. Plasma X-ray sources powered by megajoule magnetocumulative generators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popkov, N F; Averchenkov, V Ya; Pikar` , A S; Ryaslov, E A; Kargin, V I; Lazarev, S A; Borodkov, V V; Nazarenko, S T; Makartsev, G F [All-Russian Research Inst. of Experimental Physics, Sarov (Russian Federation). Russian Federal Nuclear Center

    1997-12-31

    Experiments using magnetocumulative generators (MCGs) were performed to power three different types of high-energy-density plasma discharges suitable for intense x-ray generation. These included the H-pressed discharge, the capillary z-pinch, and the {theta}-pinch. The MCGs were operated both with and without plasma opening switches. The characteristic currents were approximately 10 MA and characteristic time scales approximately 1 {mu}s. (author). 7 figs., 3 refs.

  14. X-Rays from NGC 3256: High-Energy Emission in Starburst Galaxies and Their Contribution to the Cosmic X-Ray Background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moran, Edward C.; Lehnert, Matthew D.; Helfand, David J.

    1999-01-01

    The infrared-luminous galaxy NGC 3256 is a classic example of a merger-induced nuclear starburst system. We find here that it is the most X-ray-luminous star-forming galaxy yet detected (L 0.5-10keV =1.6x10 42 ergs s-1). Long-slit optical spectroscopy and a deep, high-resolution ROSAT X-ray image show that the starburst is driving a ''superwind'' which accounts for ∼20% of the observed soft X-ray emission. Analysis of X-ray spectral data from ASCA indicates this gas has a characteristic temperature of kT≅0.3 keV. Our model for the broadband X-ray emission of NGC 3256 contains two additional components: a warm thermal plasma (kT≅0.8 keV) associated with the central starburst, and a hard power-law component with an energy index of α X ≅0.7. We discuss the energy budget for the two thermal plasmas and find that the input of mechanical energy from the starburst is more than sufficient to sustain the observed level of emission. We also examine possible origins for the power-law component, concluding that neither a buried AGN nor the expected population of high-mass X-ray binaries can account for this emission. Inverse Compton scattering, involving the galaxy's copious flux of infrared photons and the relativistic electrons produced by supernovae, is likely to make a substantial contribution to the hard X-ray flux. Such a model is consistent with the observed radio and IR fluxes and the radio and X-ray spectral indices. We explore the role of X-ray-luminous starbursts in the production of the cosmic X-ray background radiation. The number counts and spectral index distribution of the faint radio source population, thought to be dominated by star-forming galaxies, suggest that a significant fraction of the hard X-ray background could arise from starbursts at moderate redshift. (c) (c) 1999. The American Astronomical Society

  15. Laser plasmas as x-ray sources for lithographic imaging of submicron structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bijkerk, F.; van Dorssen, G.E.; van der Wiel, M.J.

    1988-01-01

    Laser radiation can be used efficiently to generate x-rays for lithographic imaging of submicron patterns, e.g., for VLSI device fabrication. Due to their short wavelength and high average power, excimer lasers show much potential for this application. Results are presented of scaling studies for high repetition rate excimer laser application, using the frequency doubled output of a low repetition rate Nd:YAG/Glass laser. Spectral and spatial characteristics of x-ray emission of the laser plasma are shown. The power density in the laser focus was 3 x 10 12 W/cm 2 . With this source Si x-ray masks with submicron Au absorber profiles are imaged into high sensitivity x-ray photoresist. For the exposures 80 laser shots sufficed to yield high quality submicron structures. Extrapolation of the results to a high power excimer laser reduces the exposure time of the photoresists to several seconds, enabling a wafer throughput at an industrial level

  16. Role of the Chandra X-Ray Observatory Observations for the Study of Ionized Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisskopf, Martin C.

    2010-01-01

    The Chandra X-Ray Observatory, launched in 1999, is now beginning its 12-th year of operation. Chandra, the X-ray component of NASA s Great Observatory program, continues to operate efficiently, somewhat remarkable considering that the Observatory was designed for three years of operation with a goal of five. The Observatory features X-ray optics with sub-arcsecond angular resolution and a small suite of instruments, including transmission gratings, which allow for high-resolution spectroscopy of point sources. We will detail the capabilities of the Observatory for making such spectroscopic measurements and discuss a number of examples of what has been learned about the astrophysical plasmas capable of producing bright X-ray emission.

  17. Neon soft x-ray emission studies from the UNU-ICTP plasma focus operated with longer than optimal anode length

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammadi, M A; Verma, R; Sobhanian, S; Wong, C S; Lee, S; Springham, S V; Tan, T L; Lee, P; Rawat, R S

    2007-01-01

    The UNU-ICTP plasma focus with a significantly longer than conventional anode can still be a reasonably good neon soft x-ray (SXR) source. The highest average neon SXR yield of 3.3 J was achieved at 3 mbar. The time difference between the two first peaks of the voltage probe signal at the radial collapse phase was found to be inversely related to the SXR yield, i.e. the smaller the time difference, the higher the yield and vice versa. The estimation of average current sheath speeds using the shadowgraphic method coupled with laser and focus peak timing signals showed that the average axial rundown speed is similar to the one obtained for the optimal anode length but the average radial compression speed is decreased significantly. The range of pressure for a good neon SXR yield, however, has become much narrower, making efficient plasma focus operation a very sensitive function of the filling gas pressure for longer than the optimal anode length

  18. X-ray emission and the winds of cataclysmic variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cordova, F.A.

    1985-01-01

    X-ray and ultraviolet observations of cataclysmic variable stars reveal a variety of exotic behavior - pulsations, winds, and episodic outbursts - are these related, what do they tell us about the nature of the outburst, about the environment of the accreting white dwarf. The author summarizes the observed changes in the x-ray and uv continuum and spectral features through the outbursts of the dwarf novae. The author then discusses how the modeling of these data have refined our ideas about the location and nature of the emissions, and the source of the outbursts. The author shows how comparisons of the x-ray and uv properties of cataclysmic variables with similar phenomena in other astronomical systems - the solar corona, OB stars, and Be stars - suggest ways in which the x-ray and uv emissions in CVs may be related, and point to further, specific observations that would elucidate our understanding of the behavior and role of the white dwarf in the outburst. 26 references

  19. Calculation of X-ray emission produced by a quasi-monoenergetic electron distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fanaei, M.; Sadighi-Bonabi, R.

    2010-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. By using an intense ultrafast laser interaction with plasma, generation of accelerated relativistic electrons with quasi monoenergetic spectrum has been possible. Analytic expressions for spectra and emission efficiencies of x-rays bremsstrahlung and characteristic line emission produced by a quasi-monoenergetic electron distribution from several targets are investigated. In this work, a Gaussian profile is assumed for the quasi-monoenergetic electron spectrum. The produced x-ray radiations are compared with the previous achieved results for a Maxwellian electron profile. These results and achievements are discussed in detail. Also, the outcomes can be evaluated with the experimental and simulated results.

  20. Optimization of soft x-ray line emission from laser-produced carbon ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Intense XUV soft x-ray emission from laser-produced plasma sources is currently ... absorption edges of oxygen and carbon respectively) is particularly attractive as it permits ... ability of the target element producing intense discrete lines in the water .... ficient due to Pert [17] and dielectronic recombination coefficient due to ...

  1. Hard x ray imaging and the relative contribution of thermal and nonthermal emission in flares

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holman, G.D.

    1986-01-01

    The question of whether the impulsive 25 to 100 keV x ray emission from solar flares is thermal or nonthermal has been a long-standing controversy. Both thermal and nonthermal (beam) models have been developed and applied to the hard x ray data. It now seems likely that both thermal and nonthermal emission have been observed at hard x ray energies. The Hinotori classification scheme, for example, is an attempt to associate the thermal-nonthermal characteristics of flare hard x ray emission with other flare properties. From a theoretical point of view, it is difficult to generate energetic, nonthermal electrons without dumping an equal or greater amount of energy into plasma heating. On the other hand, any impulsive heating process will invariably generate at least some nonthermal particles. Hence, strictly speaking, although thermal or nonthermal emission may dominate the hard x ray emission in a given energy range for a given flare, there is no such thing as a purely thermal or nonthermal flare mechanism

  2. High resolution krypton M/sub 4,5/ x-ray emission spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perera, R.C.C.; Hettrick, M.C.; Lindle, D.W.

    1987-10-01

    High resolution M/sub 4,5/ (3d → 4p) x-ray emission spectra from a krypton plasma were measured using a recently developed grazing-incidence reflection-grating monochromator/spectrometer with very high flux rates at extreme ultraviolet and soft x-ray wave lengths. The nominal resolving power of the instrument, E/ΔE, is about 300 in this energy range (∼80 eV). Three dipole-allowed 3d → 4p emission lines were observed at 80.98 eV, 80.35 eV and 79.73 eV. A broad peak at about 82.3 eV is tentatively assigned to transitions resulting from Kr 2+ , and effects of excitation energy on M/sub 4,5/ x-ray emission were observed. 9 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  3. From laser-plasma accelerators to femtosecond X-ray sources: study, development and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corde, S.

    2012-01-01

    During the relativistic interaction between a short and intense laser pulse and an underdense plasma, electrons can be injected and accelerated up to hundreds of MeV in an accelerating structure formed in the wake of the pulse: this is the so-called laser-plasma accelerator. One of the major perspectives for laser-plasma accelerators resides in the realization of compact sources of femtosecond x-ray beams. In this thesis, two x-ray sources was studied and developed. The betatron radiation, intrinsic to laser-plasma accelerators, comes from the transverse oscillations of electrons during their acceleration. Its characterization by photon counting revealed an x-ray beam containing 10"9 photons, with energies extending above 10 keV. We also developed an all-optical Compton source producing photons with energies up to hundreds of keV, based on the collision between a photon beam and an electron beam. The potential of these x-ray sources was highlighted by the realization of single shot phase contrast imaging of a biological sample. Then, we showed that the betatron x-ray radiation can be a powerful tool to study the physics of laser-plasma acceleration. We demonstrated the possibility to map the x-ray emission region, which gives a unique insight into the interaction, permitting us for example to locate the region where electrons are injected. The x-ray angular and spectral properties allow us to gain information on the transverse dynamics of electrons during their acceleration. (author)

  4. Electron emission regulator for an x-ray tube filament

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daniels, H.E.; Randall, H.G.

    1982-01-01

    An x-ray tube ma regulator has an scr phase shift voltage regulator supplying the primary winding of a transformer whose secondary is coupled to the x-ray tube filament. Prior to initiation of an x-ray exposure, the filament is preheated to a temperature corresponding substantially to the electron emissivity needed for obtaining the desired tube ma during an exposure. During the preexposure interval, the phase shift regulator is controlled by a signal corresponding to the sum of signals representative of the voltage applied to the filament transformer, the desired filament voltage and the space charge compensation needed for the selected x-ray tube anode to cathode voltage. When an exposure is initiated, control of the voltage regulator is switched to a circuit that responds to the tube current by controlling the amount of phase shift and, hence, the voltage supplied to the transformer. Transformer leakage current compensation is provided during the exposure interval with a circuit that includes an element whose impedance is varied in accordance with the anode-to-cathode voltage setting so the element drains off tube current as required to cancel the effect of leakage current variations

  5. Hard X-ray emission spectroscopy with pink beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kvashnina, Kristina O.; Rossberg, Andre; Exner, Joerg; Scheinost, Andreas C. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V., Dresden (Germany). Molecular Structures

    2017-06-01

    Valence-band X-ray emission spectroscopy (XES) with a ''pink beam'', i.e. a beam with large energy bandwidth produced by a double-multilayer monochromator, is introduced here to overcome the weak count rate of monochromatic beams produced by conventional double-crystal monochromators. Our results demonstrate that - in spite of the large bandwidth in the order of 100 eV - the high spectral resolution of the Johann-type spectrometer is maintained, while the two orders of magnitude higher flux greatly reduces the required counting time. The short working distance Johann-type X-ray emission spectrometer and multilayer monochromator is available at ROBL.

  6. Quantifying the Exospheric Component of Soft X-ray Emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuntz, Kip; Collier, Michael R.; Snowden, Steven L.; Robertson, Ina; Hansen, Kenneth; Cravens, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    High charge state heavy ions in the solar wind exchange charge with ambient neutral gas. This process creates a product ion in an excited state. During the radiative cascade process, EUV and X-ray photons are emitted with energies in the range of about 100 eV to 1 keV. Because the terrestrial exospheric density at the nominal magnetopause location is relatively high, approx. 10 cu cm, solar wind charge exchange, or SWCX, can be observed by Earth-orbiting soft X-ray instruments such as the ROSAT Position Sensitive Proportional Counters (PSPC). In this presentation, we will compare simulated and observed soft Xray emission during an event on August 18-19, 1991 and discuss the role of exospheric SWCX emission for this and other events.

  7. Penetration by artificial electron acceptors of the plasma membrane-bound redox system into intact Zea mays L. roots investigated by proton-induced X-ray emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luthje, S.; Doring, O.; Grossmann, D.; Niecke, M.; Bottger, M.

    1993-01-01

    Proton-induced X-ray emission was used to investigate the penetration of compounds of the membrane-impermeant electron acceptors hexabromoiridate IV, hexachloroiridate IV, and hexacyanoferrate III into corn (Zea mays L.) roots. Maps of the heavy element distribution in cross-sections of fixed, epoxy-embedded roots showed for hexabromoiridate IV small amounts of Br in samples treated for 24 h with concentrations normally used in physiological experiments (0.02 mM). After treatment with high concentrations (0.8 mM) of these complexes, Fe and Ir as well as Br were found in root cross-sections. In samples taken at a distance of 5 mm behind the root tip, we found an even distribution of Fe, Ir, and Br over the whole cross-section. In samples taken 15 mm behind the root tip, about 99% of both Br and Ir was confined to the rhizodermal cell layer. The distribution did not change with the complex used. These data are consistent with the view that apoplastic diffusion of the electron acceptors was blocked by the hypodermal Casparian band

  8. Monochromatic X-ray probing of a superdense plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pikuz, S.A.; Shelkovenko, T.A.; Romanova, V.M.; Faenov, A.Ya.; Dyakin, V.A.; Pikuz, T.A.

    1995-01-01

    Investigation results are presented of the superdense plasma of an exploding wire by means of a new scheme of X-ray monochromatic probing. The scheme permits not only to obtain the shadow images of bright plasma objects in separate spectral lines with a high spatial resolution but and to lower requirements to a radiation source. Experimental results confirm existence of a small-dense plasma coronae, appeared during the initial stage of a discharge through a wire, and a dense core, existing at the pinch axis in the discharge process. 13 refs.; 3 figs

  9. Discovery of Diffuse Hard X-ray Emission associated with Jupiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezoe, Y.; Miyoshi, Y.; Ishikawa, K.; Ohashi, T.; Terada, N.; Uchiyama, Y.; Negoro, H.

    2009-12-01

    Our discovery of diffuse hard (1-5 keV) X-ray emission around Jupiter is reported. Recent Chandra and XMM-Newton observations revealed several types of X-rays in the vicinity of Jupiter such as auroral and disk emission from Jupiter and faint diffuse X-rays from the Io Plasma Torus (see Bhardwaj et al. 2007 for review). To investigate possible diffuse hard X-ray emission around Jupiter with the highest sensitivity, we conducted data analysis of Suzaku XIS observations of Jupiter on Feb 2006. After removing satellite and planetary orbital motions, we detected a significant diffuse X-ray emission extending to ~6 x 3 arcmin with the 1-5 keV X-ray luminosity of ~3e15 erg/s. The emitting region very well coincided with the Jupiter's radiation belts. The 1-5 keV X-ray spectrum was represented by a simple power law model with a photon index of 1.4. Such a flat continuum strongly suggests non-thermal origin. Although such an emission can be originated from multiple background point sources, its possibility is quite low. We hence examined three mechanisms, assuming that the emission is truly diffuse: bremsstrahlung by keV electrons, synchrotron emission by TeV electrons, and inverse Compton scattering of solar photons by MeV electrons. The former two can be rejected because of the X-ray spectral shape and implausible existence of TeV electrons around Jupiter, respectively. The last possibility was found to be possible because tens MeV electrons, which have been confirmed in inner radiation belts (Bolton et al. 2002), can kick solar photons to the keV energy range and provide a simple power-law continuum. We estimated an average electron density from the X-ray luminosity assuming the oblate spheroid shaped emitting region with 8 x 8 x 4 Jovian radii. The necessary density was 0.02 1/cm3 for 50 MeV electrons. Hence, our results may suggest a new particle acceleration phenomenon around Jupiter.

  10. Time-resolved soft x-ray spectra from laser-produced Cu plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cone, K.V.; Dunn, J.; Baldis, H.A.; May, M.J.; Purvis, M.A.; Scott, H.A.; Schneider, M.B.

    2012-01-01

    The volumetric heating of a thin copper target has been studied with time resolved x-ray spectroscopy. The copper target was heated from a plasma produced using the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's Compact Multipulse Terrawatt (COMET) laser. A variable spaced grating spectrometer coupled to an x-ray streak camera measured soft x-ray emission (800-1550 eV) from the back of the copper target to characterize the bulk heating of the target. Radiation hydrodynamic simulations were modeled in 2-dimensions using the HYDRA code. The target conditions calculated by HYDRA were post-processed with the atomic kinetics code CRETIN to generate synthetic emission spectra. A comparison between the experimental and simulated spectra indicates the presence of specific ionization states of copper and the corresponding electron temperatures and ion densities throughout the laser-heated copper target.

  11. Target surface structure effects on x-ray generation from laser produced plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishikawa, Tadashi; Nakano, Hidetoshi; Uesugi, Naoshi [NTT Basic Research Laboratories, Atsugi, Kanagawa (Japan)

    2000-03-01

    We demonstrated two different methods to increase the x-ray conversion efficiency of laser-produced plasma by modifying the target surface structure. One way is making a rectangular groove on a target surface and confining a laser-produced plasma in it. By the plasma collision process, a time and wavelength (4-10 nm) integrated soft x-ray fluence enhancement of 35 times was obtained at a groove width of 20 {mu}m and a groove depth of 100 {mu}m on a Nd-doped glass target. The other way is making an array of nanoholes on an alumina target and increasing the laser interaction depth with it. The x-ray fluence enhancement increases as the ionization level of Al becomes higher and the x-ray wavelength becomes shorter. Over 50-fold enhancement was obtained at a soft x-ray wavelength around 6 nm, which corresponds to the emission from Al{sup 8+,9+} ions. (author)

  12. Target surface structure effects on x-ray generation from laser produced plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishikawa, Tadashi; Nakano, Hidetoshi; Uesugi, Naoshi

    2000-01-01

    We demonstrated two different methods to increase the x-ray conversion efficiency of laser-produced plasma by modifying the target surface structure. One way is making a rectangular groove on a target surface and confining a laser-produced plasma in it. By the plasma collision process, a time and wavelength (4-10 nm) integrated soft x-ray fluence enhancement of 35 times was obtained at a groove width of 20 μm and a groove depth of 100 μm on a Nd-doped glass target. The other way is making an array of nanoholes on an alumina target and increasing the laser interaction depth with it. The x-ray fluence enhancement increases as the ionization level of Al becomes higher and the x-ray wavelength becomes shorter. Over 50-fold enhancement was obtained at a soft x-ray wavelength around 6 nm, which corresponds to the emission from Al 8+,9+ ions. (author)

  13. Relative probabilities of the uranium isotopes for thorium x-ray emission and fluorescence of uranium x-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, J.L.

    1991-01-01

    Both thorium x-rays from decaying uranium isotopes and self-fluoresced uranium x-rays are prominent in high-resolution gamma-ray spectra of uranium-bearing materials. Useful application of the information carried by those x-rays has been curtailed because the probabilities of the uranium isotopes for thorium x-ray emission and for uranium x-ray fluorescence have not been known. By analyzing enrichment-meter geometry spectra from uranium oxide standards whose enrichments ranged from 0.7% to 91%, relative values, primarily, have been obtained for the probabilities of both processes. Thorium x-ray emission is very heavily dominated by 235 U. In all ordinarily occurring uranium isotopic distributions, thorium x-rays may be used as a valid 235 U signature. The probability for a thorium K α1 x-ray to be emitted in the decay of a 235 U atom is 0.048 ±0.002. In infinitely thick uranium oxide materials, the relative ratios of effectiveness for self-fluorescence, on a per unit mass basis, are approximately 234 U : 235 U : 236 U : 238 U = 1.13 : 1.00 : 0.52 : 0.028. on a per decay basis, the approximate ratios are 0.00039 : 1.00 : 0.017 : 0.18. These results imply that, contrary to what has often been stated, gamma rays are far more important than alpha particles in the self-fluorescence of uranium. Because of the importance of gamma-ray self-fluorescence, the uranium x-ray yield will be somewhat influenced by the size, shape, and composition of the materials. 4 refs., 1 fig

  14. Polarized X-Ray Emission from Magnetized Neutron Stars: Signature of Strong-Field Vacuum Polarization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Dong; Ho, Wynn C.

    2003-08-01

    In the atmospheric plasma of a strongly magnetized neutron star, vacuum polarization can induce a Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein type resonance across which an x-ray photon may (depending on its energy) convert from one mode into the other, with significant changes in opacities and polarizations. We show that this vacuum resonance effect gives rise to a unique energy-dependent polarization signature in the surface emission from neutron stars. The detection of polarized x rays from neutron stars can provide a direct probe of strong-field quantum electrodynamics and constrain the neutron star magnetic field and geometry.

  15. Polarized x-ray emission from magnetized neutron stars: signature of strong-field vacuum polarization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Dong; Ho, Wynn C G

    2003-08-15

    In the atmospheric plasma of a strongly magnetized neutron star, vacuum polarization can induce a Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein type resonance across which an x-ray photon may (depending on its energy) convert from one mode into the other, with significant changes in opacities and polarizations. We show that this vacuum resonance effect gives rise to a unique energy-dependent polarization signature in the surface emission from neutron stars. The detection of polarized x rays from neutron stars can provide a direct probe of strong-field quantum electrodynamics and constrain the neutron star magnetic field and geometry.

  16. Plasma instability control toward high fluence, high energy x-ray continuum source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, Patrick; Kirkwood, Robert; Wilks, Scott; Blue, Brent

    2017-10-01

    X-ray source development at Omega and NIF seeks to produce powerful radiation with high conversion efficiency for material effects studies in extreme fluence environments. While current K-shell emission sources can achieve tens of kJ on NIF up to 22 keV, the conversion efficiency drops rapidly for higher Z K-alpha energies. Pulsed power devices are efficient generators of MeV bremsstrahlung x-rays but are unable to produce lower energy photons in isolation, and so a capability gap exists for high fluence x-rays in the 30 - 100 keV range. A continuum source under development utilizes instabilities like Stimulated Raman Scattering (SRS) to generate plasma waves that accelerate electrons into high-Z converter walls. Optimizing instabilities using existing knowledge on their elimination will allow sufficiently hot and high yield electron distributions to create a superior bremsstrahlung x-ray source. An Omega experiment has been performed to investigate the optimization of SRS and high energy x-rays using Au hohlraums with parylene inner lining and foam fills, producing 10× greater x-ray yield at 50 keV than conventional direct drive experiments on the facility. Experiment and simulation details on this campaign will be presented. This work was performed under the auspices of the US DoE by LLNL under Contract No. DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  17. Soft X-ray spectroscopic investigation of a plasma focus operated in pure neon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Presura, R.; Zoita, V.; Paraschiv, I.

    1996-01-01

    The soft X-ray emission of the medium-energy plasma focus device IPF-2/20 operated in pure neon was studied with spectral resolution. The spectra of H- and He-like Ne ions were recorded by means of a de Broglie spectrograph for initial filling pressures in the range 1.3 to 7 torr. Both the soft X-ray emission characteristics and the plasma parameters are strongly dependent on the working gas pressure. The intensity of the He-like neon ions lines increases when the working gas pressure is raised, while for the H-like ions it has a maximum for about 5 torr filling. The electron density has values of the order of 10 20 cm -3 . The electron temperature ranges between 300 and 350 eV. Both the plasma density and the plasma temperature decrease when the initial gas pressure is increased. (author). 2 figs., 9 refs

  18. Soft X-ray spectroscopic investigation of a plasma focus operated in pure neon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Presura, R; Zoita, V; Paraschiv, I [Inst. of Physics and Technology of Radiation Devices, Bucharest (Romania)

    1997-12-31

    The soft X-ray emission of the medium-energy plasma focus device IPF-2/20 operated in pure neon was studied with spectral resolution. The spectra of H- and He-like Ne ions were recorded by means of a de Broglie spectrograph for initial filling pressures in the range 1.3 to 7 torr. Both the soft X-ray emission characteristics and the plasma parameters are strongly dependent on the working gas pressure. The intensity of the He-like neon ions lines increases when the working gas pressure is raised, while for the H-like ions it has a maximum for about 5 torr filling. The electron density has values of the order of 10{sup 20} cm{sup -3}. The electron temperature ranges between 300 and 350 eV. Both the plasma density and the plasma temperature decrease when the initial gas pressure is increased. (author). 2 figs., 9 refs.

  19. Soft x-ray imaging system for measurement of noncircular tokamak plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fonck, R.J.; Reusch, M.; Jaehnig, K.P.; Hulse, R.; Roney, P.

    1986-08-01

    A soft x-ray camera and image processing system has been constructed to provide measurements of the internal shape of high temperature tokamak plasmas. The camera consists of a metallic-foil-filtered pinhole aperture and a microchannel plate image intensifier/convertor which produces a visible image for detection by a CCD TV camera. A wide-angle tangential view of the toroidal plasma allows a single compact camera to view the entire plasma cross section. With Be filters 12 to 50 μm thick, the signal from the microchannel plate is produced mostly by nickel L-line emissions which orignate in the hot plasma core. The measured toroidal image is numerically inverted to produce a cross-sectional soft x-ray image of the plasma. Since the internal magnetic flux surfaces are usually isothermal and the nickel emissivity depends strongly on the local electron temperature, the x-ray emission contours reflect the shape of the magnetic surfaces in the plasma interior. Initial results from the PBX tokamak experiment show clear differences in internal plasma shapes for circular and bean-shaped discharges

  20. Colliding Stellar Winds Structure and X-ray Emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittard, J. M.; Dawson, B.

    2018-04-01

    We investigate the structure and X-ray emission from the colliding stellar winds in massive star binaries. We find that the opening angle of the contact discontinuity (CD) is overestimated by several formulae in the literature at very small values of the wind momentum ratio, η. We find also that the shocks in the primary (dominant) and secondary winds flare by ≈20° compared to the CD, and that the entire secondary wind is shocked when η ≲ 0.02. Analytical expressions for the opening angles of the shocks, and the fraction of each wind that is shocked, are provided. We find that the X-ray luminosity Lx∝η, and that the spectrum softens slightly as η decreases.

  1. Progress in the applicability of plasma X-ray lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuehl, T., E-mail: T.Kuehl@gsi.de; Aurand, B.; Bagnoud, V.; Ecker, B.; Eisenbarth, U. [GSI (Germany); Guilbaud, O. [Universite Paris Sud (France); Fils, J.; Goette, S. [GSI (Germany); Habib, J. [Universite Paris Sud (France); Hochhaus, D.; Javorkova, D. [GSI (Germany); Neumayer, P. [Extreme Matter Institute, EMMI (Germany); Kazamias, S.; Pittman, M.; Ros, D. [Universite Paris Sud (France); Seres, J.; Spielmann, Ch. [Friedrich Schiller-University (Germany); Zielbauer, B.; Zimmer, D. [GSI (Germany)

    2010-02-15

    Proposed as satellite-based weapons during the 1980s, X-ray lasing was for a long time only achieved with enormous amounts of pump energy in either nuclear explosions or at kilojoule-class laser installations. During the last few years a tremendous development was achieved, most visible in the realisation of the FEL lasers at DESY and SLAC. As important for a wider applicability is the enormous reduction in pump energy for laser pumped plasma X-ray lasers, which now brings such devices into the range of applications for diagnostics and spectroscopy even in smaller laboratories. Main developments were the transient excitation scheme and the optimized pumping concepts. This paper concentrates on developments at the GSI Helmholtzcenter at Darmstadt aiming towards reliable X-ray laser sources in the range from 50 to several 100 eV. The main driving forces for the laser development at GSI are the possible application for the spectroscopy of Li-like ions in the storage ring ESR and the future storage ring NESR at FAIR, and the interest in novel plasma diagnostics.

  2. Progress in the applicability of plasma X-ray lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuehl, T.; Aurand, B.; Bagnoud, V.; Ecker, B.; Eisenbarth, U.; Guilbaud, O.; Fils, J.; Goette, S.; Habib, J.; Hochhaus, D.; Javorkova, D.; Neumayer, P.; Kazamias, S.; Pittman, M.; Ros, D.; Seres, J.; Spielmann, Ch.; Zielbauer, B.; Zimmer, D.

    2010-01-01

    Proposed as satellite-based weapons during the 1980s, X-ray lasing was for a long time only achieved with enormous amounts of pump energy in either nuclear explosions or at kilojoule-class laser installations. During the last few years a tremendous development was achieved, most visible in the realisation of the FEL lasers at DESY and SLAC. As important for a wider applicability is the enormous reduction in pump energy for laser pumped plasma X-ray lasers, which now brings such devices into the range of applications for diagnostics and spectroscopy even in smaller laboratories. Main developments were the transient excitation scheme and the optimized pumping concepts. This paper concentrates on developments at the GSI Helmholtzcenter at Darmstadt aiming towards reliable X-ray laser sources in the range from 50 to several 100 eV. The main driving forces for the laser development at GSI are the possible application for the spectroscopy of Li-like ions in the storage ring ESR and the future storage ring NESR at FAIR, and the interest in novel plasma diagnostics.

  3. X-ray calibration facility for plasma diagnostics of the MegaJoule laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubert, S.; Prevot, V.

    2013-01-01

    The Laser MegaJoule (LMJ) located at CEA-CESTA will be equipped with x-ray plasma diagnostics using different kinds of x-ray components such as filters, mirrors, crystals, detectors and cameras. To guarantee LMJ measurements, detectors such as x-ray cameras need to be regularly calibrated. An x-ray laboratory is devoted to this task and performs absolute x-ray calibrations for similar x-ray cameras running on Laser Integration Line (LIL). This paper presents the x-ray calibration bench with its x-ray tube based High Energy x-ray Source (HEXS) and some calibration results. By mean of an ingenious transposition system under vacuum absolute x-ray calibration of x-ray cameras, like streak and stripline ones, can be carried out. Coupled to a new collimation system with micrometric accuracy on aperture sensitivity quantum efficiency measurements can be achieved with reduced uncertainties. (authors)

  4. Anatomy of the AGN in NGC 5548. IX. Photoionized emission features in the soft X-ray spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Junjie; Kaastra, J. S.; Mehdipour, M.; Gu, Liyi; Costantini, E.; Kriss, G. A.; Bianchi, S.; Branduardi-Raymont, G.; Behar, E.; Di Gesu, L.; Ponti, G.; Petrucci, P.-O.; Ebrero, J.

    2018-04-01

    The X-ray narrow emission line region (NELR) of the archetypal Seyfert 1 galaxy NGC 5548 has been interpreted as a single-phase photoionized plasma that is absorbed by some of the warm absorber components. This scenario requires those overlaying warm absorber components to have larger distance (to the central engine) than the X-ray NELR, which is not fully consistent with the distance estimates found in the literature. Therefore, we reanalyze the high-resolution spectra obtained in 2013-2014 with the Reflection Grating Spectrometer (RGS) aboard XMM-Newton to provide an alternative interpretation of the X-ray narrow emission features. We find that the X-ray narrow emission features in NGC 5548 can be described by a two-phase photoionized plasma with different ionization parameters (logξ = 1.3 and 0.1) and kinematics (vout = -50 and -400 km s-1), and no further absorption by the warm absorber components. The X-ray and optical NELR might be the same multi-phase photoionized plasma. Both X-ray and optical NELR have comparable distances, asymmetric line profiles, and the underlying photoionized plasma is turbulent and compact in size. The X-ray NELR is not the counterpart of the UV/X-ray absorber outside the line of sight because their distances and kinematics are not consistent. In addition, X-ray broad emission features that we find in the spectrum can be accounted for by a third photoionized emission component. The RGS spectrum obtained in 2016 is analyzed as well, where the luminosity of most prominent emission lines (the O VII forbidden line and O VIII Lyα line) are the same (at a 1σ confidence level) as in 2013-2014.

  5. Parametric study of x-ray pre-ionizer with plasma cathode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bollanti, S.; Di Lazzaro, P.; Flora, F.; Giordano, G.; Letardi, T.; Schina, G.; Zheng, C.

    1993-01-01

    The construction characteristics and the performance of an x-ray diode working at 200 Hz are described. The temporal behavior of both the plasma cathode emission and the diode discharge was studied, including the measurements of vacuum effects on the repetition rate and lifetime capability, pre-ionization versus electrical features, and ionization density versus dosage. This simple and low-cost x-ray diode was used to uniformly pre-ionize a half-liter XeCl laser, delivering an output laser energy of 800 mJ/shot at a 100-Hz repetition rate

  6. Plasma focus as an x-ray source for tailoring of radiation in different energy windows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakaullah, M.; Alamgir, K.; Shafiq, M.; Sharif, M.

    2001-01-01

    A low energy (2.3 kj) plasma focus energized by a single 32 micro f capacitor charged at 12 kv with filling gases hydrogen, neon and argon is investigated as an X-ray source. Experiments are conducted with a copper and an aluminum anode. Specifically, attention in given to tailoring the radiation in different windows, e. g. 1.2-1.3 keV, 1.3-1.5 keV, 2.5-5 keV and Cu-Ka line radiation. The highest X-ray emission is observed with neon filling and the copper anode in the 1.2-1.3 keV window, which speculated to be generated due to recombination of hydrogen like neon ions with a few eV to a few 10s of eV electrons. The wall-plug efficiency of the device is found to be 4%. The other significant emission occurs with Hydrogen filling, which exhibits wall plug efficiency of 1.7% for over all x-ray emission and 0.35% for Cu- Ka line radiation. The emission is dominated by the interaction of electrons in the current sheath with the anode tip. The emission with the aluminum anode and hydrogen filling is up to 10 j, which corresponds to wall-plug efficiency of 0.4%. The X-ray emission with argon filling is less significant. (author)

  7. Analysis of neon soft x-ray spectra from short-pulse laser-produced plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abare, A.C.; Keane, C.J.; Crane, J.K.; DaSilva, L.B.; Lee, R.W.; Perry, M.D.; Falcone, R.W.

    1993-04-01

    We report preliminary results from the analysis of streaked soft x-ray neon spectra a gas jet target. In obtained from the interaction of a picosecond Nd:glass laser with these experiments streaked spectra show prompt harmonic emission followed by longer time duration soft x-ray line emission. The majority of the line emission observed was found to originate from Li- and Be-like Ne and the major transitions in the observed spectra have been identified. Li-like emission lines were observed to decay faster in time than Be-like transitions, suggesting that recombination is taking place. Line ratios of n=4-2 and n=3-2 transitions supported the view that these lines were optically thin and thick, respectively. The time history of Li-like Ne 2p-4d and 2p-3d lines is in good agreement with a simple adiabatic expansion model coupled to a time dependent collisional-radiative code. Further x-ray spectroscopic analysis is underway which is aimed at diagnosing plasma conditions and assessing the potential of this recombining neon plasma as a quasi-steady-state recombination x-ray laser medium

  8. Dissecting Diffuse X-ray Emission in 30 Doradus with T-ReX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsley, Leisa K.; Broos, Patrick

    2017-08-01

    30 Doradus (the Tarantula Nebula) offers us a microscope on starburst astrophysics, having endured 25 Myrs of the birth and death of the most massive stars known. Across 30 Dor's 250-pc extent, stellar winds and supernovae have carved its ISM into an amazing display of arcs, pillars, and bubbles. For over 40 years, we have also known that 30 Dor is a bright X-ray emitter, so its familiar stars and cold ISM structures suffer irradiation by multi-million-degree plasmas. The 2-Ms Chandra X-ray Visionary Project ``The Tarantula -- Revealed by X-rays'' (T-ReX) exploits Chandra's fine spatial resolution and the ACIS-I field of view to study ISM interfaces on 1--10 pc scales across the entire 30 Dor complex. Here we give preliminary results from ongoing analyses of these data, focusing on the diffuse X-ray emission. Massive star winds and cavity supernovae over the millenia have contributed to a broad mix of X-ray-emitting plasmas and absorbing columns, showing that 30 Dor's hot ISM is just as complex and confusing as that seen at colder temperatures.

  9. X-ray/UV variability and the origin of soft X-ray excess emission from II Zw 177

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Main

    We study a detailed broad-band X-ray/UV emission from the narrow line Seyfert 1 galaxy II Zw 177 based on two XMM-Newton and single Swift/XRT observations. Both XMM-Newton observations show the soft X-ray excess emission below 2 keV when the best-fit 2 - 10 keV power law is extrapolated down to 0.3 keV. We find the blurred reflection from an ionized accretion disc and Comptonized disc emission both describe the observed soft excess well. We find a remarkable trend of decreasing UV flux with increasing soft X-ray excess and power law emission. We suggest that this could be due to that the external edge of corona hide a fraction of accretion disk. Co-Author: Prof. Gulab C. Dewangan (IUCAA), Prof. Ranjeev Misra (IUCAA), Pramod Kumar (Nanded university)

  10. High resolution X-ray spectromicroscopy of laser produced plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faenov, A.Ya. [Multi-charged Ions Spectra Data Center of VNIIFTRI (MISDC), Mendeleevo, Moscow region, (Russian Federation)

    2000-01-01

    In recent years new classes of X-ray spectroscopic instruments possessing both dispersive and focusing properties have been manufactured. Their principal advantage over more traditional instruments is that they combine very high luminosity with high spatial resolution, while preserving the highest possible spectral resolution of their dispersive elements. These instruments opened up the registration of plasmas in new regimes and surroundings. The measurements delivered new information about the properties of even previously studied traditional plasma objects (e.g. ns-laser produced plasmas). Also the detailed investigation of relatively new plasma laboratory sources with very small dimensions and low energy content (e.g. mJ fs-laser pulses) became possible. The purpose of this report is to give a short review of the experimental and theoretical results obtained in the past few years by MISDC (Multi-charged Ions Spectra Data Center) research team in the field of X-ray spectroscopy of a laser-produced plasma. Experimental spectra have been obtained at various laser installations with nanosecond, sub-nanosecond, picosecond and sub-picosecond pulses interacting with solid, gaseous or cluster targets in collaborations with research teams from Russia, USA, Germany, France, Poland, Belgium, Italy, China and Israel. Practically all results have been obtained with the help of spectrographs with spherically bent mica crystals operating in FSSR-1D, 2D schemes. (author)

  11. Plasma spectroscopy diagnostics in pulsed-power X-ray radiography diode research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maron, Yitzhak; Oliver, Bryan Velten; Portillo, Salvador; Johnston, Mark D.; Rose, David Vincent; Hahn, Kelly Denise; Schamiloglu, Edl; Welch, Dale R.; Droemer, Darryl W.; Rovang, Dean Curtis; Maenchen, John Eric

    2005-01-01

    Spectroscopic investigations in the visible and near UV are underway to study plasmas present in X-ray radiography diodes during the time of the electron beam propagation. These studies are being performed on the RITS-3 accelerator (5.25 MV and 120 kA) at Sandia National Laboratories using several diode configurations. The proper characterization of the plasmas occurring during the time of the X-ray pulse can lead to a greater understanding of diode behavior and X-ray spot size evolution. By studying these plasmas along with the use of selective dopants, insights into such phenomena as impedance collapse, thermal and non-thermal species behavior, charge and current neutralization, anode and cathode plasma formation and propagation, and beam/foil interactions, can be obtained. Information from line and continuum emission and absorption can give key plasma parameters such as temperatures, densities, charge states, and expansion velocities. This information is important for proper modeling and future predictive capabilities for the design and improvement of flash X-ray radiography diodes. Diagnostics include a gated, intensified multichannel plate camera combined with a 1 meter Czerny-Turner monochromator with a multi-fiber spectral input, allowing for both temporal and spatial resolution. Recent results are presented.

  12. Quality assurance challenges in x-ray emission based analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papp, T.

    2005-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. There is a large scatter in the results of X-ray analysis with solid-state detectors suggesting methodological origin. Although the PIXE (proton induced X-ray emission) analytical technique can work without relation to any physics, as was commented at the recent PIXE conference, one could argue that if the same technique is used for measuring physical quantities reveals problems, then perhaps potential methodological issues can not apriory be excluded. We present a simple example which could be interpreted as indications for methodological considerations. Recently an inter-comparison was made of analysis of the spectra measured at the laboratory of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). Four participating analytical software packages were used to evaluate the X-ray spectra. There are several thin metal samples spectra, for which common energy scale could not be established. The quality of the spectrum can be judged from the line shape. The line shape is parametrized by the full widths at half maximum (FWHM) of a peak and the so-called low energy tailing. Fitting the spectra individually we obtained FWHM squared values at different energies and determined the linear regression parameters. The parameters suggest a rather poor detector performance. It is generally assumed that the (FWHM) 2 values have a first order polynomial form as a function of X-ray energy. Having done a linear regression analysis, we can plot the standard residual, presented in Fig. 1, which clearly shows a three-sigma deviation. The probability to having a three-sigma deviation is 1%. In other words, the probability that these spectra are in accordance with the expected FWHM functional form is less than 1%. The main problem is that, although the composite spectra were analyzed using four different programs, the difficulty in interpreting the spectra was not commented upon by any of the participants in the inter-comparison. (author)

  13. Hard X-ray sources from miniature plasma focus devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raspa, V.; Silva, P.; Moreno, J.; Zambra, M.; Soto, L.

    2004-01-01

    As first stage of a program to design a repetitive pulsed radiation generator for industrial applications, two miniature plasma foci have been designed and constructed at the Chilean commission of nuclear energy. The devices operate at an energy level of the order of tens of joules (PF-50 J, 160 nF capacitor bank, 20-35 kV, 32-100 J, ∼ 150 ns time to peak current) and hundred of joules (PF-400 J, 880 nF, 20-35 kV, 176-539 J, ∼ 300 ns time to peak current). Hard X-rays are being studied in these devices operating with hydrogen. Images of metallic plates with different thickness were obtained on commercial radiographic film, Agfa Curix ST-G2, in order to characterize the energy of the hard X-ray outside of the discharge chamber of PF-400 J. An effective energy of the order of 90 keV was measured under those conditions. X ray images of different metallic objects also have been obtained. (authors)

  14. Hard X-ray sources from miniature plasma focus devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raspa, V. [Buenos Aires Univ., PLADEMA, CONICET and INFIP (Argentina); Silva, P.; Moreno, J.; Zambra, M.; Soto, L. [Comision Chilena de Energia Nuclear, Santiago (Chile)

    2004-07-01

    As first stage of a program to design a repetitive pulsed radiation generator for industrial applications, two miniature plasma foci have been designed and constructed at the Chilean commission of nuclear energy. The devices operate at an energy level of the order of tens of joules (PF-50 J, 160 nF capacitor bank, 20-35 kV, 32-100 J, {approx} 150 ns time to peak current) and hundred of joules (PF-400 J, 880 nF, 20-35 kV, 176-539 J, {approx} 300 ns time to peak current). Hard X-rays are being studied in these devices operating with hydrogen. Images of metallic plates with different thickness were obtained on commercial radiographic film, Agfa Curix ST-G2, in order to characterize the energy of the hard X-ray outside of the discharge chamber of PF-400 J. An effective energy of the order of 90 keV was measured under those conditions. X ray images of different metallic objects also have been obtained. (authors)

  15. Development of X-ray and ion diagnostic methods for plasma focus research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadowski, M.

    1986-12-01

    A review of experimental methods used for investigation of X-rays and ion-beams emmited from plasma focus facilities is presented. The research program has been realized at the Institute for Nuclear Studies in Swierk and at the Institut fuer Plasmaforschung in Stuttgart, within the frames of an international co-operation. The studies on ion emission from different PF facilities are reviewed. The application of CN-films with Al-filters and of different ion-pinhole cameras is described. The use of a Thomson mass-spectrometer adopted for plasma studies is presented. The time-resolved measurements combined with a simultaneous mass- and energy-analysis of the ion beams are also described. The most important results of these studies are summarized. Particular attention is also paid to the studies of the X-ray emission. The use of stereoscopic sets of vacuum pinhole cameras with thin Be-filters is described. The application of X-ray pinhole cameras equipped with miniature scintillators for time-resolved measurements is also presented. The most important results of the X-ray emission studies are summarized. 35 refs., 12 figs. (author)

  16. Utilization of synchrotron radiation in analytical chemistry. Soft X-ray emission and absorption spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muramatsu, Yasuji

    2015-01-01

    Synchrotron soft X-ray spectroscopy includes three major types of spectroscopy such as X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), X-ray emission spectroscopy (XES), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). This paper takes up XAS and XES of soft X-rays, and briefly describes the principle. XAS is roughly classified into XANES (X-ray absorption near-edge structure) and EXAFS (extended X-ray absorption fine structure), and XANES is mainly used in the analysis based on XAS of soft X-rays. As the examples of the latest soft X-ray analyses, the following are introduced: (1) bandgap of boron implantation diamond and the local structure of boron, (2) catalytic sites in solid fuel cell carbon electrode, and (3) soft X-ray analysis under atmospheric pressure. (A.O.)

  17. Analysis of sludge using Proton induced X-ray emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aspiazu, J.; Moreno, E.; Andrade, E.; Miranda, J.; Citalan, S.; Moeller, G.; Soler, F.

    1996-01-01

    Regulations to control the huge amounts of sludge produced by wastewater are needed. Sludge generated in conventional sedimentators or anaerobic digesters were characterized by Proton Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE). It was possible to determine the presence of macro nutrient elements, such as P and K, and secondary nutrients like Ca, S, and Mg. Moreover, heavy elements like Cu, Zn, and Pb were also found. The sludge treatment in anaerobic digesters increased the amount of certain elements Al, Si, S, Cl, and K; decrease in Ca, Ti, and Cu, and no change in V, Cr, and Zn. Possible uses of this sludge are also suggested

  18. X-ray spectroscopic diagnostics of high-temperature dense plasmas created in different gaseous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skobelev, I.Y.; Dyakin, V.M.; Faenov, A.Y.

    1997-01-01

    The investigations of emission x-ray spectra of multicharged ions of some chemical elements (S, F, Ar, Fr, O) have been carried out. These atoms are contained in gases and consequently can be used as diagnostic elements in a dense plasma focus experiments. The investigations were done in the dense high-temperature plasma (N e ∼ 10 21 cm -3 , T e ∼ 500 eV) created by laser heating of high-pressure gas puff targets, and X-ray spectrographs with a spherically bent mica crystals were used for spectra observations. Some new spectroscopic results (line identifications, high-precision wavelength measurements) have been obtained and have been applied to determine a spatial distribution of plasma parameters. It is shown that spectroscopic techniques used is a very suitable tool for studies of a plasma with complicated spatial structure

  19. The application of photoconductive detectors to the measurement of x-ray production in laser produced plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kania, D.R.; Bell, P.; Trebes, J.

    1987-08-01

    Photoconductive detectors (PCDs) offer an attractive alternative for the measurement of pulsed x-rays from laser produced plasmas. These devices are fast (FWHM ∼100 ps), sensitive and simple to use. We have used InP, GaAs, and Type IIa diamond as PCDs to measure x-rays emission from 100 eV to 100 keV. Specifically, we have used these detectors to measure total radiation yields, corona temperatures, and hot electron generated x-rays from laser produced plasmas. 5 refs., 4 figs

  20. The Relationship Between Solar Radio and Hard X-Ray Emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, S. M.; Benz, A. O.; Christe, S.; Farnik, F.; Kundu, M. R.; Mann, G.; Ning, Z.; Raulin, J.-P.; Silva-Valio, A. V. R.; Saint-Hilaire, P.; hide

    2011-01-01

    This review discusses the complementary relationship between radio and hard Xray observations of the Sun using primarily results from the era of the Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager satellite. A primary focus of joint radio and hard X-ray studies of solar flares uses observations of nonthermal gyrosynchrotron emission at radio wavelengths and bremsstrahlung hard X-rays to study the properties of electrons accelerated in the main flare site, since it is well established that these two emissions show very similar temporal behavior. A quantitative prescription is given for comparing the electron energy distributions derived separately from the two wavelength ranges: this is an important application with the potential for measuring the magnetic field strength in the flaring region, and reveals significant differences between the electrons in different energy ranges. Examples of the use of simultaneous data from the two wavelength ranges to derive physical conditions are then discussed, including the case of microflares, and the comparison of images at radio and hard X-ray wavelengths is presented. There have been puzzling results obtained from observations of solar flares at millimeter and submillimeter wavelengths, and the comparison of these results with corresponding hard X-ray data is presented. Finally, the review discusses the association of hard X-ray releases with radio emission at decimeter and meter wavelengths, which is dominated by plasma emission (at lower frequencies) and electron cyclotron maser emission (at higher frequencies), both coherent emission mechanisms that require small numbers of energetic electrons. These comparisons show broad general associations but detailed correspondence remains more elusive.

  1. Experimental device for the X-ray energetic distribution measurement in a tokamak plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez-Navarro, A.

    1977-01-01

    An experimental system to measure the X-ray spectrum in a tokamak plasma is described, emphasizing its characteristics: resolution, dead time and the pulse pile-up distortion effects on the X-ray spectra. (author) [es

  2. Studies of soft x-ray emission during solar flares

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anandaram, M.N.

    1973-01-01

    Solar flare soft x-ray emission from 0.5 A to 8.5 A was observed during 1967-68 by Bragg crystal (LiF and EDDT) spectrometers aboard the OSO-4 satellite and also by NRL broad-band ionization detectors aboard the OGO-4 satellite. In this work, instrumental parameters for the LiF crystal spectrometer based on experimental values have been determined and used in the data analysis. The total continuum emission in the 0.5 to 3 A and the 1 to 8 A broad band segments has been determined from OGO-4 data for 21 flares. In doing this, a simple and approximate method of converting the total emission based on the gray body approximation (in which the OGO-4 data are reported) to one based on the thermal continuum spectrum has been developed. (author)

  3. Soft X-ray Tangential Imaging of the NSTX Core Plasma by Means of a MPGD Pin-hole Camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacella, D.; Leigheb, M.; Bellazzini, R.; Brez, A.; Finkenthal, M.; Stutman, D.; Kaita, R.; Sabbagh, S.A.

    2003-01-01

    A fast X-ray system based on a Micro Pattern Gas Detector has been used, for the first time, to investigate emission from the plasma core of the National Spherical Tokamak eXperiment (NSTX) at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory. The results presented in this work demonstrate the capability of such a device to measure with a time resolution of the order of 1 ms the curvature and the elongation of the X-ray iso-emissivity contours, under various plasma conditions. Also, comparisons with the magnetic surface structure calculated by the EFIT code show good agreement between reconstructed flux surface and the soft X-ray emissions (SXR) for poloidal beta values up to 0.6. For greater values of beta, X-ray iso-emissivity contours become circular, while magnetic flux surface reconstructions yield elongation 1.5 < k < 2.2. The X-ray images have been acquired with a (statistical) signal to noise ratio (SNR) per pixel of about 30. Thanks to the direct and efficient X-ray conversion and its operation in a photon counting mode, this new diagnostic tool allows the routine investigation of the plasma core with a sampling rate of 1 kHz and extremely high SNR under all experimental conditions in NSTX

  4. Nuclear Malaysia Plasma Focus Device as a X-ray Source For Radiography Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rokiah Mohd Sabri; Abdul Halim Baijan; Siti Aiasah Hashim; Mohd Rizal Mohd Chulan; Wah, L.K.; Mukhlis Mokhtar; Azaman Ahmad; Rosli Che Ros

    2013-01-01

    A 3.375 kJ plasma focus is designed to operate at 13.5 kV for the purpose of studying x-ray source for radiography in Argon discharge. X-rays is detected by using x-ray film from the mammography radiographic plate. The feasibility of the plasma focus as a high intensity flash x-ray source for good contrast in radiography image is presented. (author)

  5. Discovery of the double Doppler-shifted emission-line systems in the X-ray spectrum of SS 433

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotani, Taro; Kawai, Nobuyuki; Aoki, Takashi; Doty, John; Matsuoka, Masaru; Mitsuda, Kazuhisa; Nagase, Fumiaki; Ricker, George; White, Nick E.

    1994-01-01

    We have used the CCD X-ray spectrometers on ASCA and resolved the X-ray emission line from the jet of SS 433 both into Doppler-shifted components with two distinct velocities, and into emission from different ionization states of iron, i.e., Fe XXV and Fe XXVI. This is the first direct detection of the two Doppler shifted beams in the X-ray spectra of SS 433 and allows the radial velocity of the jet along the line of sight to be determined with an accuracy comparable to the optical spectroscopy. We also found pairs of emission lines from other atomic species, such as ionized silicon and sulfur, with the Doppler shifts consistent with each other. This confirms the origin of the X-ray emission in the high temperature plasma in the jets.

  6. X-RAY EMISSION FROM THE WOLF-RAYET BUBBLE S 308

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toala, J. A.; Guerrero, M. A. [Instituto de Astrofisica de Andalucia, IAA-CSIC, Glorieta de la Astronomia s/n, 18008 Granada (Spain); Chu, Y.-H.; Gruendl, R. A. [Department of Astronomy, University of Illinois, 1002 West Green Street, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Arthur, S. J. [Centro de Radioastronomia y Astrofisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Campus Morelia, Apartado Postal 3-72, 58090, Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico); Smith, R. C. [NOAO/CTIO, 950 N. Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Snowden, S. L., E-mail: toala@iaa.es [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 662, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2012-08-10

    The Wolf-Rayet (WR) bubble S 308 around the WR star HD 50896 is one of the only two WR bubbles known to possess X-ray emission. We present XMM-Newton observations of three fields of this WR bubble that, in conjunction with an existing observation of its northwest quadrant, map most of the nebula. The X-ray emission from S 308 displays a limb-brightened morphology, with a central cavity {approx}22' in size and a shell thickness of {approx}8'. This X-ray shell is confined by the optical shell of ionized material. The spectrum is dominated by the He-like triplets of N VI at 0.43 keV and O VII at 0.57 keV, and declines toward high energies, with a faint tail up to 1 keV. This spectrum can be described by a two-temperature optically thin plasma emission model (T{sub 1} {approx} 1.1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 6} K, T{sub 2} {approx} 13 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 6} K), with a total X-ray luminosity {approx}2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 33} erg s{sup -1} at the assumed distance of 1.5 kpc.

  7. X-RAY EMISSION FROM THE WOLF-RAYET BUBBLE S 308

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toalá, J. A.; Guerrero, M. A.; Chu, Y.-H.; Gruendl, R. A.; Arthur, S. J.; Smith, R. C.; Snowden, S. L.

    2012-01-01

    The Wolf-Rayet (WR) bubble S 308 around the WR star HD 50896 is one of the only two WR bubbles known to possess X-ray emission. We present XMM-Newton observations of three fields of this WR bubble that, in conjunction with an existing observation of its northwest quadrant, map most of the nebula. The X-ray emission from S 308 displays a limb-brightened morphology, with a central cavity ∼22' in size and a shell thickness of ∼8'. This X-ray shell is confined by the optical shell of ionized material. The spectrum is dominated by the He-like triplets of N VI at 0.43 keV and O VII at 0.57 keV, and declines toward high energies, with a faint tail up to 1 keV. This spectrum can be described by a two-temperature optically thin plasma emission model (T 1 ∼ 1.1 × 10 6 K, T 2 ∼ 13 × 10 6 K), with a total X-ray luminosity ∼2 × 10 33 erg s –1 at the assumed distance of 1.5 kpc.

  8. Bright ultrashort x-rays from intense subpicosecond laser-plasma interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umstadter, D.

    1995-01-01

    Short-pulse, high-intensity lasers interacting with solid targets make possible the study of a new class of laser-plasma interactions. They are unique because during the ultrashort laser pulse relatively little expansion occurs, and the density scale length remains much less than the laser wavelength. This makes possible the direct deposition of a significant amount of the laser energy at close to solid density. Steep plasma temperature and density gradients subsequently cause rapid cooling, resulting in highly non-equilibrium conditions and the concurrent emission of extremely bright ultrashort x-ray pulses. In this study, the latter are investigated experimentally with temporally and spectrally resolved soft x-ray diagnostics. The emitted x-ray spectra from solid targets with various atomic numbers are characterized for a laser pulse width τ l ∼ 400 fs. These ultrashort x rays may be used as (1) a diagnostic of solid-density plasma conditions, (2) a tool for the study of radiation hydrodynamics in a parameter regime that is otherwise inaccessible, and (3) a source for time-resolved diffraction, spectroscopy, or microscopy studies of transient chemical, biological or physical phenomena

  9. Weak hard X-ray emission from broad absorption line quasars: evidence for intrinsic X-ray weakness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, B.; Brandt, W. N.; Scott, A. E.; Alexander, D. M.; Gandhi, P.; Stern, D.; Teng, S. H.; Arévalo, P.; Bauer, F. E.; Boggs, S. E.; Craig, W. W.; Christensen, F. E.; Comastri, A.; Farrah, D.; Hailey, C. J.; Harrison, F. A.; Koss, M.; Ogle, P.; Puccetti, S.; Saez, C.

    2014-01-01

    We report NuSTAR observations of a sample of six X-ray weak broad absorption line (BAL) quasars. These targets, at z = 0.148-1.223, are among the optically brightest and most luminous BAL quasars known at z < 1.3. However, their rest-frame ≈2 keV luminosities are 14 to >330 times weaker than expected for typical quasars. Our results from a pilot NuSTAR study of two low-redshift BAL quasars, a Chandra stacking analysis of a sample of high-redshift BAL quasars, and a NuSTAR spectral analysis of the local BAL quasar Mrk 231 have already suggested the existence of intrinsically X-ray weak BAL quasars, i.e., quasars not emitting X-rays at the level expected from their optical/UV emission. The aim of the current program is to extend the search for such extraordinary objects. Three of the six new targets are weakly detected by NuSTAR with ≲ 45 counts in the 3-24 keV band, and the other three are not detected. The hard X-ray (8-24 keV) weakness observed by NuSTAR requires Compton-thick absorption if these objects have nominal underlying X-ray emission. However, a soft stacked effective photon index (Γ eff ≈ 1.8) for this sample disfavors Compton-thick absorption in general. The uniform hard X-ray weakness observed by NuSTAR for this and the pilot samples selected with <10 keV weakness also suggests that the X-ray weakness is intrinsic in at least some of the targets. We conclude that the NuSTAR observations have likely discovered a significant population (≳ 33%) of intrinsically X-ray weak objects among the BAL quasars with significantly weak <10 keV emission. We suggest that intrinsically X-ray weak quasars might be preferentially observed as BAL quasars.

  10. Modeling X-ray Spectra of Astrophysical Plasmas: Current Status and Future Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Randall

    Existing high-resolution astrophysical X-ray spectra has exposed the need for high-quality atomic data of all stripes: wavelengths, collisional and absorption cross sections, and radiative rates. The Astro-H soft X-ray spectrometer (2015 launch) will vastly increase the number and type of high-resolution X-ray spectra available and likely expose a number of shortcomings in our models. I will describe recent advances in theoretical calculations and laboratory measurements, as well as a number of existing needs in the field. These include accurate soft X-ray wavelengths for L-shell ions, diagnostic emission line ratios with estimated error bars, and high-resolution absorption cross sections for abundant ions and molecules. Finally, new models of emission from non-equilibrium ionization plasmas and astrophysical charge exchange will be discussed. This latter emission arises due to the interaction of highly charged ions with neutral atoms, forming a diffuse background in the case of solar wind ions and possibly also arising in more distant environments.

  11. Development of laser plasma x-ray microscope for living hydrated biological specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kado, Masataka; Daido, Hiroyuki

    2005-01-01

    Investigating the structure and the function of life object performing advanced life activity becomes important. In order to investigate the life object, it is necessary to observe living specimens with high spatial resolution and high temporal resolution. Since laser plasma x-ray source has high brightness and short pulse duration, x-ray microscope with the laser plasma x-ray source makes possible to observe living specimens. Such as chromosomes, macrophages, bacterium, and so on have been observed by contact x-ray microscopy. The x-ray images obtained by indirect measurements such as the contact x-ray microscopy have difficulty to avoid artificial effect such as irregular due to developing process. Development of an x-ray microscope with laser plasma x-ray source is necessary to avoid such defects. (author)

  12. Revising the Local Bubble Model due to Solar Wind Charge Exchange X-ray Emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, Robin L.

    2009-03-01

    The hot Local Bubble surrounding the solar neighborhood has been primarily studied through observations of its soft X-ray emission. The measurements were obtained by attributing all of the observed local soft X-rays to the bubble. However, mounting evidence shows that the heliosphere also produces diffuse X-rays. The source is solar wind ions that have received an electron from another atom. The presence of this alternate explanation for locally produced diffuse X-rays calls into question the existence and character of the Local Bubble. This article addresses these questions. It reviews the literature on solar wind charge exchange (SWCX) X-ray production, finding that SWCX accounts for roughly half of the observed local 1/4 keV X-rays found at low latitudes. This article also makes predictions for the heliospheric O VI column density and intensity, finding them to be smaller than the observational error bars. Evidence for the continued belief that the Local Bubble contains hot gas includes the remaining local 1/4 keV intensity, the observed local O VI column density, and the need to fill the local region with some sort of plasma. If the true Local Bubble is half as bright as previously thought, then its electron density and thermal pressure are 1/sqrt{2} as great as previously thought, and its energy requirements and emission measure are 1/2 as great as previously thought. These adjustments can be accommodated easily, and, in fact, bring the Local Bubble’s pressure more in line with that of the adjacent material. Suggestions for future work are made.

  13. Correlation of highly charged ion and x-ray emissions from the laser-produced plasma in the presence of non-linear phenomena

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Láska, Leoš; Ryc, L.; Badziak, J.; Boody, F. P.; Gammino, S.; Jungwirth, Karel; Krása, Josef; Krouský, Eduard; Mezzasalma, A.; Parys, P.; Pfeifer, Miroslav; Rohlena, Karel; Torrisi, L.; Ullschmied, Jiří; Wolowski, J.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 160, 10-12 (2005), s. 557-566 ISSN 1042-0150. [Workshop PIBHI 2005 /2./. Giardini Naxos, 08.06.06-11.06.06] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC528; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA1010405 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100523 Keywords : laser beam interactions * non-linear processes * self-focusing * highly charged ions * soft and hard x-rays Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 0.353, year: 2005

  14. Application of X-ray emission techniques for monitoring environmental pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernasconi, G.; Danesi, P.R.; Dargie, M.; Haselberger, N.; Markowicz, A.; Tajani, A.

    1997-01-01

    X-ray emission techniques are versatile and powerful methods used for multielement non-destructive analysis. They include X-ray fluorescence (XRF), particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE), scanning electron microscopy combined with X-ray spectrometry and electron probe microanalysis (EPMA). Since many years the IAEA has utilised and promoted these techniques for the analysis of environmental, biological and geological samples. In this paper recent progress at our laboratory in selected aspects related to the application of X-ray emission techniques is briefly overviewed. (authors)

  15. Streaked spectrometry using multilayer x-ray-interference mirrors to investigate energy transport in laser-plasma applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stradling, G.L.; Barbee, T.W. Jr.; Henke, B.L.; Campbell, E.M.; Mead, W.C.

    1981-08-01

    Transport of energy in laser-produced plasmas is scrutinized by devising spectrally and temporally identifiable characteristics in the x-ray emission history which identify the heat-front position at various times in the heating process. Measurements of the relative turn-on times of these characteristics show the rate of energy transport between various points. These measurements can in turn constrain models of energy transport phenomena. We are time-resolving spectrally distinguishable subkilovolt x-ray emissions from different layers of a disk target to examine the transport rate of energy into the target. A similar technique is used to measure the lateral expansion rate of the plasma spot. A soft x-ray streak camera with 15-psec temporal resolution is used to make the temporal measurements. Spectral discrimination of the incident signal is provided by multilayer x-ray interference mirrors

  16. Efficient 'water window' soft x-ray high-Z plasma source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higashiguchi, T; Otsuka, T; Jiang, W; Endo, A; Li, B; Dunne, P; O'Sullivan, G

    2013-01-01

    Unresolved transition array (UTA) is scalable to shorter wavelengths, and we demonstrate a table-top broadband emission 'water window' soft x-ray source based on laser-produced plasmas. Resonance emission from multiply charged ions merges to produce intense UTAs in the 2 to 4 nm region, extending below the carbon K edge (4.37 nm). An outline of a microscope design for single-shot live cell imaging is proposed based on a bismuth (Bi) plasma UTA source, coupled to multilayer mirror optics

  17. Characteristics of x-ray radiation from a gas-puff z-pinch plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akiyama, N.; Takasugi, K.

    2002-01-01

    Characteristics of x-ray radiation from Ar gas-puff z-pinch plasma have been investigated by changing delay time of discharge from gas puffing. Intense cloud structure of x-ray image was observed at small delay time region, but the total x-ray signal was not so intense. The x-ray signal increased with increasing the delay time, and hot spots of x-ray image also became intense. Electron temperature was evaluated from x-ray spectroscopic data, and no significant difference in temperature was observed. (author)

  18. Characterizing the X-ray Emission in Small Magellanic Cloud Supernova Remnants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Man, Nicole; Auchettl, Katie; Lopez, Laura

    2018-01-01

    The Small Magellanic Cloud is a close, metal-poor galaxy with active star formation, and it has a diverse population of 24 supernova remnants (SNRs) that have been identified at several wavelengths. Past work has characterized the X-ray emission in these sources separately and aimed to constrain their explosive origins from observations with Chandra and XMM-Newton. Three SNRs have possible evidence for Type Ia explosions based on strong Fe-L emission in their X-ray spectra, although the environments and intermediate-mass element abundances are more consistent with those of core-collapse SNe. In this poster, we analyze the archival Chandra and XMM-Newton observations of the SMC SNR sample, and we model the sources' X-ray spectra in a systematic way to derive the plasma properties and to constrain the nature of the explosions. In one SNR, we note the presence of an X-ray binary near the source's geometric center, suggesting the compact object was produced in the SN explosion. As one of only three SNRs known in the Local Group to host a binary system, this source is worthy of follow-up investigations to probe explosions of massive stars in binary systems.

  19. Numerical experiments on plasma focus for soft x-ray yield scaling laws derivation using Lee model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akel, M.

    2015-01-01

    The required plasma parameters of krypton and xenon at different temperatures were calculated, the x-ray emission properties of plasmas were studied, and based on the corona model the suitable temperature range for generating H-like and He-like ions (therefore soft x-ray emissions) of different gases plasma were found. The code is applied to characterize the plasma focus in different plasma focus devices, and for optimizing the nitrogen, oxygen, neon, argon, krypton and xenon soft x-ray yields based on bank, tubes and operating parameters. It is found that t he soft x-ray yield increases with changing pressure until it reaches the maximum value for each plasma focus device. Keeping the bank parameters, operational voltage unchanged but systematically changing other parameters, numerical experiments were performed finding the optimum combination of Po, z0 and 'a' for the maximum soft x-ray yield. Thus we expect to increase the soft x-ray yield of plasma focus device several-fold from its present typical operation; without changing the capacitor bank, merely by changing the electrode configuration and the operating pressure. The Lee model code was also used to run numerical experiments on plasma focus devices for optimizing soft x-ray yield with reducing Lo, varying z0 and 'a' to get engineering designs with maximum soft x-ray yield for these devices at different experimental conditions and gases. Numerical experiments showed the influence of the gas used in plasma focus and its propor ties on soft x-ray emission and its propor ties and then on its applications. Scaling laws for soft x-ray of nitrogen, oxygen, neon, argon, krypton and xenon plasma focus in terms of energy, peak discharge current and focus pinch current were found. Radiative cooling effects are studied indicating that radiative collapse may be observed for heavy noble gases (Ar, Kr, Xe) for pinch currents even below 100 k A. The results show that the line radiation emission and

  20. Numerical experiments on plasma focus for soft x-ray yield scaling laws derivation using Lee model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akel, M.

    2012-09-01

    The required plasma parameters of krypton and xenon at different temperatures were calculated, the x-ray emission properties of plasmas were studied, and based on the corona model the suitable temperature range for generating H-like and He-like ions (therefore soft x-ray emissions) of different gases plasma were found. The code is applied to characterize the plasma focus in different plasma focus devices, and for optimizing the nitrogen, oxygen, neon, argon, krypton and xenon soft x-ray yields based on bank, tubes and operating parameters. It is found that the soft x-ray yield increases with changing pressure until it reaches the maximum value for each plasma focus device. Keeping the bank parameters, operational voltage unchanged but systematically changing other parameters, numerical experiments were performed finding the optimum combination of P o , Z o and 'a' for the maximum soft x-ray yield. Thus we expect to increase the soft x-ray yield of plasma focus device several-fold from its present typical operation; without changing the capacitor bank, merely by changing the electrode configuration and the operating pressure. The Lee model code was also used to run numerical experiments on plasma focus devices for optimizing soft x-ray yield with reducing L o , varying L o and 'a' to get engineering designs with maximum soft x-ray yield for these devices at different experimental conditions and gases. Numerical experiments showed the influence of the gas used in plasma focus and its properties on soft x-ray emission and its properties and then on its applications. Scaling laws for soft x-ray of nitrogen, oxygen, neon, argon, krypton and xenon plasma focus, in terms of energy, peak discharge current and focus pinch current were found. Radiative cooling effects are studied indicating that radiative collapse may be observed for heavy noble gases (Ar, Kr, Xe) for pinch currents even below 100 kA. The results show that the line radiation emission and tube voltages have

  1. Characterizing X-Ray and Radio Emission in the Black Hole X-Ray Binary V404 Cygni During Quiescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rana, Vikram; Loh, Alan; Corbel, Stephane; Tomsick, John A.; Chakrabarty, Deepto; Walton, Dominic J.; Barret, Didier; Boggs, Steven E.; Christensen, Finn E.; Craig, William; hide

    2016-01-01

    We present results from multi-wavelength simultaneous X-ray and radio observations of the black hole X-ray binary V404 Cyg in quiescence. Our coverage with NuSTAR provides the very first opportunity to study the X-ray spectrum of V404 Cyg at energies above 10 keV. The unabsorbed broadband (0.3-30 keV) quiescent luminosity of the source is 8.9 x 10(exp 32) erg per sec for a distance of 2.4 kpc. The source shows clear variability on short timescales (an hour to a couple of hours) in the radio, soft X-ray, and hard X-ray bands in the form of multiple flares. The broadband X-ray spectra obtained from XMM-Newton and NuSTAR can be characterized with a power-law model having a photon index of gamma = 2.12 +/- 0.07 (90% confidence errors); however, residuals at high energies indicate spectral curvature significant at a 3 sigma confidence level with the e-folding energy of the cutoff as 20(sub -7)(sup +20) keV. Such curvature can be explained using synchrotron emission from the base of a jet outflow. Radio observations using the VLA reveal that the spectral index evolves on very fast timescales (as short as 10 minutes), switching between optically thick and thin synchrotron emission, possibly due to instabilities in the compact jet or stochastic instabilities in the accretion rate. We explore different scenarios to explain this very fast variability.

  2. X-ray emission as a diagnostic from pseudospark-sourced electron beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowes, D., E-mail: david.bowes@strath.ac.uk [Department of Physics, SUPA, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow G4 0NG (United Kingdom); Yin, H.; He, W.; Zhang, L.; Cross, A.W.; Ronald, K.; Phelps, A.D.R. [Department of Physics, SUPA, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow G4 0NG (United Kingdom); Chen, D.; Zhang, P. [Computed Tomography Lab, School of Mathematical Sciences, Capital Normal University, Beijing 100048 (China); Chen, X.; Li, D. [Department of Electronic Engineering, Queen Mary University of London, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom)

    2014-09-15

    X-ray emission has been achieved using an electron beam generated by a pseudospark low-pressure discharge and utilised as a diagnostic for beam detection. A 300 A, 34 kV PS-sourced electron beam pulse of 3 mm diameter impacting on a 0.1 mm-thick molybdenum target generated X-rays which were detected via the use of a small, portable X-ray detector. Clear X-ray images of a micro-sized object were captured using an X-ray photodetector. This demonstrates the inducement of proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) not only as an indicator of beam presence but also as a future X-ray source for small-spot X-ray imaging of materials.

  3. Bent crystal X-ray optics for the diagnosis and applications of laser-produced plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loetzsch, Robert

    2012-01-01

    method for measurement of rocking curves with high angular and spatial resolution. This technique allows to map lateral strain variations that are smaller than 10 -5 . A spatial resolution of <20 μm can be reached. In an application of this scheme, small real structure variations in strontium titanate that are connected with the material's low temperature structural phase transition, were investigated. The last part of the thesis presented an experiment in the field of spectroscopic investigations of laser-plasmas. X-ray line shape analysis of emission from ions exposed to high electric fields was carried out. An instrument was presented, that is used to record X-ray spectra with high dynamics of emission coming from laser-matter interactions at high laser intensities of up to 10 20 W/cm 2 . Such measurements are complicated by the small signal to background ratio of these experiments and is only possible by the combination of an efficient bent crystal optic with a single-photon sensitive two dimensional detector. The spectrometer allows to record the K-shell emission of silicon with a dynamics of better than 1000 and makes it possible to detect small changes in the spectrum caused by the strong electric fields of TV/m occuring in these plasmas. This unique technique allows for an probe of the highly transient atomic states of ions in these strong fields.

  4. Hard X-ray dosimetry of a plasma focus suitable for industrial radiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoblauch, P.; Raspa, V.; Di Lorenzo, F.; Clausse, A.; Moreno, C.

    2018-04-01

    Dosimetric measurements of the hard X-ray emission by a small-chamber 4.7 kJ Mather-type plasma focus device capable of producing neat radiographs of metallic objects, were carried out with a set of thermoluminescent detectors TLD 700 (LiF:Mg,Ti). Measurements of the hard X-ray dose dependence with the angular position relative to the electrodes axis, are presented. The source-detector distance was changed in the range from 50 to 100 cm, and the angular positions were explored between ± 70°, relative to the symmetry axis of the electrodes. On-axis measurements show that the X-ray intensity is uniform within a half aperture angle of 6°, in which the source delivers an average dose of (1.5 ± 0.1) mGy/sr per shot. Monte Carlo calculations suggest that the energy of the electron beam responsible for the X-ray emission ranges 100-600 keV.

  5. Chandra Observations of Extended X-Ray Emission in ARP 220

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowell, J. C.; Clements, D. L.; Lamb, S. A.; Shaked, S.; Hearn, N. C.; Colina, L.; Mundell, C.; Borne, K.; Baker, A. C.; Arribas, S.

    2003-01-01

    We resolve the extended X-ray emission from the prototypical ultraluminous infrared galaxy Arp 220. Extended, faint, edge-brightened, soft X-ray lobes outside the optical galaxy are observed to a distance of 1CL 15 kpc on each side of the nuclear region. Bright plumes inside the optical isophotes coincide with the optical line emission and extend 1 1 kpc from end to end across the nucleus. The data for the plumes cannot be fitted by a single-temperature plasma and display a range of temperatures from 0.2 to 1 keV. The plumes emerge from bright, diffuse circumnuclear emission in the inner 3 kpc centered on the Ha peak, which is displaced from the radio nuclei. There is a close morphological correspondence between the Ha and soft X-ray emission on all spatial scales. We interpret the plumes as a starburst-driven superwind and discuss two interpretations of the emission from the lobes in the context of simulations of the merger dynamics of Arp 220.

  6. Recent measurements of soft X-ray emission from the DPF-1000U facility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surała Władysław

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Soft X-ray imaging is a very useful diagnostic technique in plasma-focus (PF experiments. This paper reports results of four experimental sessions which were carried out at the DPF-1000U plasma-focus facility in 2013 and 2014. Over 200 discharges were performed at various experimental conditions. Measurements were taken using two X-ray pinhole cameras with a line of sight perpendicular to the z-axis, at different azimuthal angles (about 20° and 200°, and looking towards the centre of the PF-pinch column. They were equipped with diaphragms 1000 μm or 200–300 μm in diameter and coated with filters of 500 μm Al foil and 10 μm Be foil, respectively. Data on the neutron emission were collected with silver activation counters. For time-resolved measurements the use was made of four PIN diodes equipped with various filters and oriented towards the centre of the PF-column, in the direction perpendicular to the electrode axis. The recorded X-ray images revealed that when the additional gas-puff system is activated during the discharge, the stability of the discharge is improved. The data collected in these experiments confirmed the appearance of a filamentary fine structure in the PF discharges. In the past years the formation of such filaments was observed in many Z-pinch type experiments. Some of the recorded X-ray images have also revealed the appearance of the so-called hot-spots, i.e. small plasma regions of a very intense X-ray emission. Such a phenomenon was observed before in many PF experiments, e.g. in the MAJA-PF device, but it has not been investigated so far in a large facility such as the DPF-1000U. The time-resolved measurements provided the evidence of a time lapse between the X-ray emission from plasma regions located at different distance from the anode surface. The formation of distinct ‘hot-spots’ in different instants of the DPF-1000U discharge was also observed.

  7. NuSTAR Hard X-ray Survey of the Galactic Center Region. I. Hard X-ray Morphology and Spectroscopy of the Diffuse Emission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mori, Kaya; Hailey, Charles J.; Krivonos, Roman

    2015-01-01

    We present the first sub-arcminute images of the Galactic Center above 10 keV, obtained with NuSTAR. NuSTAR resolves the hard X-ray source IGR J17456-2901 into non-thermal X-ray filaments, molecular clouds, point sources, and a previously unknown central component of hard X-ray emission (CHXE). Nu...

  8. Soft x-ray measurements in the FN-II dense plasma focus device for different anode configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rojo-Blanco, C; Castillo-Mejía, F; Rangel-Gutiérrez, J; Herrera-Velázquez, J J E

    2012-01-01

    A study of the soft x-ray emission is presented, for a low energy (4.8 kJ) dense plasma focus device. Three Quantrad Si PIN-diodes with differential filter combinations of Be, Al, Ti, Ni, and Mo are employed as time-resolved x-ray detectors. The x-ray flux in different energy windows is measured as function of the deuterium filling pressure. A comparison is made for three anode configurations: (a) hollow, (b) flat, and (c) 2mm diameter W needle.

  9. Potpourri of proton induced x-ray emission analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mangelson, N.F.; Nielson, K.K.; Eatough, D.J.; Hansen, L.D.

    1974-01-01

    A proton-induced x-ray emission analysis (PIXE) system using 2-MeV protons was developed. Measurements are being made in connection with several research projects. A study is being conducted to provide ecological baseline information in the region of the Navajo and the proposed Kaiparowits coal-fired electric generating stations. Trace-element measurements in this study are reported on air-particulate samples, small rodent tissues, soils, and plants. In another study air particulates collected near a source of SO 2 are extracted from the collection filter with an HCl solution and sulfate and sulfite ions are determined by calorimetric methods. The extraction solution is also analyzed by PIXE to determine the elemental composition. The latter information is necessary for an understanding of possible interferences with the calorimetric method and also indicates the heavy metals emitted by the source. Studies on human autopsy tissues, archeological artifacts, and in regular graduate and undergraduate laboratory classes are mentioned briefly

  10. Soft X-ray emission studies of biomaterials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurmaev, E.Z. E-mail: kurmaev@ifmlrs.uran.ru; Werner, J.P.; Moewes, A.; Chiuzbaian, S.; Bach, M.; Ching, W.-Y.; Motozaki, W.; Otsuka, T.; Matsuya, S.; Endo, K.; Neumann, M

    2004-07-01

    Soft X-ray fluorescence measurements are used to characterize three groups of biomaterials: Vitamin B{sub 12} and derivatives, antioxidants (aspirin and paracetamol), and human teeth. We show that the chemical bonding in Vitamin B{sub 12} is characterized by the strong Co-C bond and the relatively weak Co-N bond. The Co-C bond in cyanocobalamin is found to be stronger than that of methylcobalamin leading to their different biological activity. The chemical bonding of paracetamol and aspirin is characterized by the formation of oxygen lone-pair {pi}-orbitals, which can neutralize free radicals and therefore be related to antioxidant activity of these compounds. Carbon K{alpha} emission spectra of a caries lesion suggest that the CaCO{sub 3} like phase exists in sound enamel and that a selective loss of carbonate occurs during the early stages of a caries attack.

  11. Sawtooth-like X-ray emission observed in EBIT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radtke, R.; Biedermann, C.; Bachmann, P.

    2003-01-01

    The evolution of a mixture of highly charged Ar and Ba ions was measured in an electron beam ion trap (EBIT) by recording the characteristic X-ray emission from trapped ions. A special feature in the spectra are sawtooth-like intensity variations caused by a periodic collapse of the ion inventory in the trap. The effect requires favorable conditions to become present and is very sensitive to the trapping conditions. Analysis of the measurements is based on a time-dependent calculation of the trapping process. Simulations show that sawtooth activity results from the feedback between the low-Z Ar and high-Z Ba ions (Hopf bifurcation). Sawtooth spectra open up a spectroscopic method to test theoretical EBIT models and probe the dynamics in ion traps and sources

  12. Soft X-ray emission studies of biomaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurmaev, E.Z.; Werner, J.P.; Moewes, A.; Chiuzbaian, S.; Bach, M.; Ching, W.-Y.; Motozaki, W.; Otsuka, T.; Matsuya, S.; Endo, K.; Neumann, M.

    2004-01-01

    Soft X-ray fluorescence measurements are used to characterize three groups of biomaterials: Vitamin B 12 and derivatives, antioxidants (aspirin and paracetamol), and human teeth. We show that the chemical bonding in Vitamin B 12 is characterized by the strong Co-C bond and the relatively weak Co-N bond. The Co-C bond in cyanocobalamin is found to be stronger than that of methylcobalamin leading to their different biological activity. The chemical bonding of paracetamol and aspirin is characterized by the formation of oxygen lone-pair π-orbitals, which can neutralize free radicals and therefore be related to antioxidant activity of these compounds. Carbon Kα emission spectra of a caries lesion suggest that the CaCO 3 like phase exists in sound enamel and that a selective loss of carbonate occurs during the early stages of a caries attack

  13. X-ray emission in heavy ion collisions. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, R.L.

    1984-01-01

    A detailed accounting of the yearly activities of the research program entitled X-ray Emission in Heavy Ion Collisions may be found in the annual progress reports submitted in accordance with the terms of the contract. The principal goals of the program to be summarized herein were (a) to delineate the mechanisms whereby highly ionized atoms in the condensed phase deexcite and return to charge neutrality, (b) to investigate the charge quenching processes acting to reduce the charge states of highly ionized projectiles, and (c) to attain a better understanding of the interactions occurring between highly charged ions and solid surfaces. These projects all relate to problems associated with the ultimate application of controlled thermonuclear reactions as a practical energy source

  14. Measurement of soft X-ray power from high-power Z-pinch plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Wensheng; Qiu Aici; Sun Fengrong; Luo Jianhui; Zhou Haisheng; He Duohui

    2003-01-01

    A Ni-film bolometer driven by the pulsed constant-voltage supply was developed for measuring soft X-ray energy under 1 keV generated from the Qiang-Guang-I, while the measuring system of the soft X-ray power was established with an X-ray diode detector. Results of the soft X-ray energy and power measurements were obtained at the experiment of Kr gas-puff high-power Z-pinch plasma

  15. Behavior of hard X-ray emission in discharges with current disruptions in the DAMAVAND and TVD tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farshi, E.; Amrollahy, R.; Bortnikov, A.V.; Brevnov, N.N.; Gott, Yu.V.; Shurygin, V.A.

    2001-01-01

    Results are presented from studies of the behavior of hard X-ray emission in discharges with current disruptions in the DAMAVAND and TVD tokamaks. The current disruptions are caused by either an MHD instability or the instability related to the vertical displacement of the plasma column. Experiments were conducted at a fixed value of the safety factor at the plasma boundary (q a ≅ 2.3). Experimental data show that, during a disruption caused by an MHD instability, hard X-ray emission is suppressed by this instability if the amplitude of the magnetic field fluctuations exceeds a certain level. If the disruption is caused by the instability related to the vertical displacement of the plasma column, then hard X-ray emission is observed at the instant of disruption. The experimental results show that the physical processes resulting in the generation and suppression of runaway electron beams are almost identical in large and small tokamaks

  16. Discovery of Hard Nonthermal Pulsed X-Ray Emission from the Anomalous X-Ray Pulsar 1E 1841-045

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuiper, L.; Hermsen, W.; Méndez, R.M.

    2004-01-01

    We report the discovery of nonthermal pulsed X-ray/soft gamma-ray emission up to ~150 keV from the anomalous 11.8 s X-ray pulsar AXP 1E 1841-045 located near the center of supernova remnant Kes 73 using Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) Proportional Counter Array and High Energy X-Ray Timing

  17. Signatures of Synchrotron: Low-cutoff X-ray emission and the hard X-ray spectrum of Cas A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stage, Michael D.; Fedor, Emily Elizabeth; Martina-Hood, Hyourin

    2018-06-01

    In soft X-rays, bright, young Galactic remnants (Cas A, Kepler, Tycho, etc.) present thermal line emission and bremsstrahlung from ejecta, and synchrotron radiation from the shocks. Their hard X-ray spectra tend to be dominated by power-law sources. However, it can be non-trivial to discriminate between contributions from processes such as synchrotron and bremsstrahlung from nonthermally accelerated electrons, even though the energies of the electrons producing this radiation may be very different. Spatially-resolved spectroscopic analysis of 0.5-10 keV observations with, e.g., Chandracan provide leverage in identifying the processes and their locations. Previously, Stage & Allen (2006), Allen & Stage (2007) and Stage & Allen (2011) identified regions characterized by high-cutoff synchrotron radiation. Extrapolating synchrotron model fits to the emission in the Chandra band, they estimated the synchrotron contribution to the hard X-ray spectrum at about one-third the observed flux, fitting the balance with nonthermal bremsstrahlung emission produced by nonthermal electrons in the ejecta. Although it is unlikely this analysis missed regions of the highest-cutoff synchrotron emission, which supplies the bulk of the synchrotron above 15 keV, it may have missed regions of lower-cutoff emission, especially if they are near bright ejecta and the reverse shock. These regions cannot explain the emission at the highest energies (~50 keV), but may make significant contributions to the hard spectrum at lower energies (~10 keV). Using the technique described in Fedor, Martina-Hood & Stage (this meeting), we revisit the analysis to include regions that may be dominated by low-cutoff synchrotron, located in the interior of the remnant, and/or correlated with the reverse shock. Identifying X-ray emission from accelerated electrons associated with the reverse-shock would have important implications for synchrotron and non-thermal bremsstrahlung radiation above the 10 keV.

  18. High-intensity X-rays interaction with matter processes in plasmas, clusters, molecules and solids

    CERN Document Server

    Hau-Riege, Stefan P

    2012-01-01

    Filling the need for a book bridging the effect of matter on X-ray radiation and the interaction of x-rays with plasmas, this monograph provides comprehensive coverage of the topic. As such, it presents and explains such powerful new X-ray sources as X-ray free-electron lasers, as well as short pulse interactions with solids, clusters, molecules, and plasmas, and X-ray matter interactions as a diagnostic tool. Equally useful for researchers and practitioners working in the field.

  19. X-ray Spectroscopic Characterization of Shock-Ignition-Relevant plasmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Šmíd

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Experiments with multilayer plastic/Cu targets performed at a PALS laser system aimed at the study of matter at conditions relevant to a shock ignition ICF scheme, and, in particular, at the investigation of hot electrons generation. Plasma temperature and density were obtained using high-resolution X-ray spectroscopy. 2D-spatially resolved quasi–monochromatic imaging was observing the hot electrons via fluorescence K emission in the copper tracer layer. Found values of plasma temperature 690 ± 10 eV, electron density 3 × 1022 cm-3 and the effective energy of hot electrons 45 ± 20 keV demonstrate the potential of X-ray methods in the characterization of the shock ignition environmental conditions.

  20. X-ray structural analysis of plasma sprayed europium oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorshkov, B.N.; Loskutov, V.S.; Gavrish, A.A.; Shakh, G.E.

    1981-12-01

    An X-ray structure microanalysis is made for europium oxide powder produced by sintering and plasmic spheroidization for plasma spraying. The technique of concern is shown not to alter chemical composition of the powder. It is stated that a rise in the plasma jet enthalpy while spraying does not result in dissociation of europium oxide and its interaction with the plasma flux. The coating (to 15.2 kWxs/g) is found to have only a high-temperature (monoclinic) europium oxide phase and there appears a low-temperature (cubic) phase with a subsequent increase in the enthalpy. The plasma jet enthalpy increasing the grain size and the crystal lattice c parameter of the sprayed europium oxide are shown to decrease; the a parameter reduces with an enthalpy growth to 16.2 kW s/g and then smoothly increases with the enthalpy further growth. It is noticed that the europium oxide coating does not interact with an aluminium D16 alloy substrate.

  1. Polarization of X-ray lines emitted from plasma-focus discharges; Problems of interpretation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jakubowski, L.

    2002-01-01

    In high current pulse discharges of the Plasma Focus (PF) type, inside the collapsing pinch column, there are formed local micro-regions of high-density and high-temperature plasma, so-called hot spots. Individual hot spots are separated in space and time. Each hot spot is characterized by its specific electron concentration and temperature, as well as by the emission of X-ray lines with different polarization. When numerous hot spots are produced it is impossible to determine local plasma parameters and to interpret the polarization effects. To eliminate this problem this study was devoted to the realization of PF-type discharges with single hot spot only. It has been achieved by a choice of the electrode configuration, which facilitated the formation of a single hot spot emitting intense X-ray lines. At the chosen experimental conditions it was possible to determine local plasma parameters and to demonstrate evident differences in the polarization of the observed X-ray lines. (author)

  2. X-ray polarization studies of plasma focus experiments with a single hot spots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jakubowski, L.; Sadowski, M.J.; Baronova, E.O.

    2004-01-01

    In high current pulse discharges of the plasma focus (PF) type, inside the collapsing pinch column, there are formed local micro-regions of high-density and high-temperature plasma, so-called hot spots. Individual hot spots are separated in space and time. Each hot spot is characterized by its specific electron concentration and temperature, as well as by the emission of x-ray lines with different polarization. When numerous hot spots are produced it is impossible to determine local plasma parameters and to interpret the polarization effects. To eliminate this problem this study was devoted to the realization of PF-type discharges with single hot spot only. It has been achieved by a choice of the electrode configuration, which facilitated the formation of a single hot spot emitting intense x-ray lines. At the chosen experimental conditions it was possible to determine local plasma parameters and to demonstrate evident differences in the polarization of the observed x-ray lines. (author)

  3. Polarization of x-ray lines emitted from plasma-focus discharges; Problems of interpretation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jakubowski, L.; Sadowski, M.J.; Baronova, E.O.

    2003-01-01

    In high current pulse discharges of the Plasma Focus (PF) type, inside the collapsing pinch column, there are formed local micro-regions of high-density and high-temperature plasma, so-called hot spots. Individual hot spots are separated in space and time. Each hot spot is characterized by its specific electron concentration and temperature, as well as by the emission of X-ray lines with different polarization. When numerous hot spots are produced it is impossible to determine local plasma parameters and to interpretate the polarization effects. To eliminate this problem this study was devoted to the realization of PF-type discharges with single hot spot only. It has been achieved by a choice of the electrode configuration, which facilitated the formation of a single hot spot emitting intense X-ray lines. At the chosen experimental conditions it was possible to determine local plasma parameters and to demonstrate evident differences in the polarization of the observed X-ray lines. (author)

  4. Optically-ionized plasma recombination x-ray lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amendt, P.; Eder, D.C.; Wilks, S.C.; Dunning, M.J.; Keane, C.J.

    1991-01-01

    Design studies for recombination x-ray lasers based on plasmas ionized by high intensity, short pulse optical lasers are presented. Transient lasing on n = 3 to n = 2 transitions in Lithium-like Neon allows for moderately short wavelengths (≤ 100 angstrom) without requiring ionizing intensities associated with relativistic electron quiver energies. The electron energy distribution following the ionizing pulse affects directly the predicted gains for this resonance transition. Efficiencies of 10 -6 or greater are found for plasma temperatures in the vicinity of 40 eV. Simulation studies of parametric heating phenomena relating to stimulated Raman and Compton scattering are presented. For electron densities less than about 2.5 x 10 20 cm -3 and peak driver intensity of 2 x 10 17 W/cm 2 at 0.25 μm with pulse length of 100 fsec, the amount of electron heating is found to be marginally significant. For Lithium-like Aluminum, the required relativistic ionizing intensity gives excessive electron heating and reduced efficiency, thereby rendering this scheme impractical for generating shorter wavelength lasing (≤ 50 angstrom) in the transient case. Following the transient lasing phase, a slow hydrodynamic expansion into the surrounding cool plasma is accompanied by quasi-static gain on the n = 4 to n = 3 transition in Lithium-like Neon. Parametric heating effects on gain optimization in this regime are also discussed. 18 refs., 6 figs

  5. Dosimetry of x-rays from high-temperature plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Takayoshi; Abe, Nobuyuki; Kawanishi, Masaharu

    1980-01-01

    Study on the dosimetry of ionizing radiations, especially of X-rays, emitted from high-temperature plasms has been made. As to the unpolarized Bremsstrahlung, a brief method to estimate electron temperatures with TLD is described and evaluation of average energy and current of the run-away electrons in the turbulent heating Tokamak is made by observing the half-value layer of the emitted X-rays and the total exposure per one shot of the Tokamak discharge. As to the polarized one, it is shown that the anisotropic electron temperature is related to the degree of polarization of the X-rays. Furthermore, reference is made to the possibility of developing such X-ray generators as can emit nearly monochromatic X-rays (characteristic X-rays) or polarized ones arbitrarily. (author)

  6. The Ultraviolet Surprise. Efficient Soft X-Ray High Harmonic Generation in Multiply-Ionized Plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popmintchev, Dimitar; Hernandez-Garcia, Carlos; Dollar, Franklin; Mancuso, Christopher; Perez-Hernandez, Jose A.; Chen, Ming-Chang; Hankla, Amelia; Gao, Xiaohui; Shim, Bonggu; Gaeta, Alexander L.; Tarazkar, Maryam; Romanov, Dmitri A.; Levis, Robert J.; Gaffney, Jim A.; Foord, Mark; Libby, Stephen B.; Jaron-Becker, Agnieskzka; Becker, Andreas; Plaja, Luis; Muranane, Margaret M.; Kapteyn, Henry C.; Popmintchev, Tenio

    2015-01-01

    High-harmonic generation is a universal response of matter to strong femtosecond laser fields, coherently upconverting light to much shorter wavelengths. Optimizing the conversion of laser light into soft x-rays typically demands a trade-off between two competing factors. Reduced quantum diffusion of the radiating electron wave function results in emission from each species which is highest when a short-wavelength ultraviolet driving laser is used. But, phase matching - the constructive addition of x-ray waves from a large number of atoms - favors longer-wavelength mid-infrared lasers. We identified a regime of high-harmonic generation driven by 40-cycle ultraviolet lasers in waveguides that can generate bright beams in the soft x-ray region of the spectrum, up to photon energies of 280 electron volts. Surprisingly, the high ultraviolet refractive indices of both neutral atoms and ions enabled effective phase matching, even in a multiply ionized plasma. We observed harmonics with very narrow linewidths, while calculations show that the x-rays emerge as nearly time-bandwidt-limited pulse trains of ~100 attoseconds

  7. Electroform/Plasma-Spray Laminates for X-Ray Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulmer, Melville P.; Graham, Michael; Vaynman, Semyon

    2007-01-01

    Electroform/plasma-spray laminates have shown promise as lightweight, strong, low-thermal-expansion components for xray optics. The basic idea is to exploit both (1) the well-established art of fabrication of optical components by replication and (2) plasma spraying as a means of reinforcing a thin replica optic with one or more backing layer(s) having tailorable thermomechanical properties. In x-ray optics as in other applications, replication reduces the time and cost of fabrication because grinding and polishing can be limited to a few thick masters, from which many lightweight replicas can thereafter be made. The first step in the fabrication of a component of the type in question is to make a replica optic by electroforming a thin layer of nickel on a master. Through proper control of the electroforming process conditions, it is possible to minimize residual stress and, hence, to minimize distortion in the replica. Next, a powder comprising ceramic particles coated with a metal compatible with the electroformed nickel is plasma-sprayed onto the backside of the nickel replica. Then through several repetitions and variations of the preceding steps or perhaps a small compressive stress, alternating layers of electroformed nickel and plasma-sprayed metal-coated ceramic powder are deposited. The thicknesses of the layers and the composition of the metal-coated ceramic powder are chosen to optimize the strength, areal mass density, and toughness of the finished component. An important benefit of using both electroforming and plasma spraying is the possibility of balancing stresses to a minimum level, which could be zero or perhaps a small net compressive stress designed to enhance the function of the component in its intended application.

  8. Variability of X-ray emission from OB stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collura, A.; Sciortino, S.; Serio, S.; Vaiana, G. S.; Harnden, F.R. JR.; Osservatorio Astronomico, Palermo, Italy; Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA)

    1989-01-01

    The variability in soft X-ray emission of 12 OB stars is studied. Two different methods of analysis, one more suitable for detecting short-term variations, the other aimed at detecting long time-scale variations, are applied to all stars in the sample. The long-term variability analysis shows that Cyg-OB2 8A Zeta Pup and Delta Ori exhibit significant count rate variations between different data sections. Similar variations are marginally detected in 15 Mon; the count rate variations for the other eight stars are consistent with statistical fluctuations. The light curve of Cyg-OB2 8A suggests the existence of two different emission levels. The short-term variability analysis detects marginal variability in Tau Sco with an effective amplitude of about 30 percent and a time scale of about 50 s. The upper limits to the effective short-term variability amplitude for all other sample stars are in the 10-30 percent range. 30 refs

  9. Chemical Analysis of Impurity Boron Atoms in Diamond Using Soft X-ray Emission Spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muramatsu, Yasuji; Iihara, Junji; Takebe, Toshihiko; Denlinger, Jonathan D.

    2008-03-29

    To analyze the local structure and/or chemical states of boron atoms in boron-doped diamond, which can be synthesized by the microwave plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition method (CVD-B-diamond) and the temperature gradient method at high pressure and high temperature (HPT-B-diamond), we measured the soft X-ray emission spectra in the CK and BK regions of B-diamonds using synchrotron radiation at the Advanced Light Source (ALS). X-ray spectral analyses using the fingerprint method and molecular orbital calculations confirm that boron atoms in CVD-B-diamond substitute for carbon atoms in the diamond lattice to form covalent B-C bonds, while boron atoms in HPT-B-diamond react with the impurity nitrogen atoms to form hexagonal boron nitride. This suggests that the high purity diamond without nitrogen impurities is necessary to synthesize p-type B-diamond semiconductors.

  10. SphinX MEASUREMENTS OF THE 2009 SOLAR MINIMUM X-RAY EMISSION

    OpenAIRE

    Sylwester, J.; Kowalinski, M.; Gburek, S.; Siarkowski, M.; Kuzin, S.; Farnik, F.; Reale, F.; Phillips, K. J. H.; Bakala, J.; Gryciuk, M.; Podgorski, P.; Sylwester, B.

    2012-01-01

    The SphinX X-ray spectrophotometer on the CORONAS-PHOTON spacecraft measured soft X-ray emission in the 1-15 keV energy range during the deep solar minimum of 2009 with a sensitivity much greater than GOES. Several intervals are identified when the X-ray flux was exceptionally low, and the flux and solar X-ray luminosity are estimated. Spectral fits to the emission at these times give temperatures of 1.7-1.9 MK and emission measures between 4 x 10^47 cm^-3 and 1.1 x 10^48 cm^-3. Comparing Sph...

  11. X-ray emission from National Ignition Facility indirect drive targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, A.T.; Managan, R.A.; Tobin, M.T.; Peterson, P.F.

    1996-01-01

    We have performed a series of 1-D numerical simulations of the x-ray emission from National Ignition Facility (NIF) targets. Results are presented in terms of total x-ray energy, pulse length, and spectrum. Scaling of x-ray emissions is presented for variations in both target yield and hohlraum thickness. Experiments conducted on the Nova facility provide some validation of the computational tools and methods

  12. kHz femtosecond laser-plasma hard X-ray and fast ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thoss, A.; Korn, G.; Stiel, H.; Voigt, U.; Elsaesser, T.; Richardson, M.C.; Siders, C.W.; Faubel, M.

    2002-01-01

    We describe the first demonstration of a new stable, kHz femtosecond laser-plasma source of hard x-ray continuum and K α emission using a thin liquid metallic jet target. kHz femtosecond x-ray sources will find many applications in time-resolved x-ray diffraction and microscopy studies. As high intensity lasers become more compact and operate at increasingly high repetition-rates, they require a target configuration that is both repeatable from shot-to-shot and is debris-free. We have solved this requirement with the use of a fine (10-30 μm diameter) liquid metal jet target that provides a pristine, unperturbed filament surface at rates >100 kHz. A number of liquid metal targets are considered. We will show hard x-ray spectra recorded from liquid Ga targets that show the generation of the 9.3 keV and 10.3 keV, K α and K β lines superimposed on a multi-keV Bremsstrahlung continuum. This source was generated by a 50fs duration, 1 kHz, 2W, high intensity Ti:Sapphire laser. We will discuss the extension of this source to higher powers and higher repetition rates, providing harder x-ray emission, with the incorporation of pulse-shaping and other techniques to enhance the x-ray conversion efficiency. Using the same liquid target technology, we have also demonstrated the generation of forward-going sub-MeV protons from a 10 μm liquid water target at 1 kHz repetition rates. kHz sources of high energy ions will find many applications in time-resolved particle interaction studies, as well as lead to the efficient generation of short-lived isotopes for use in nuclear medicine and other applications. The protons were detected with CR-39 track detectors both in the forward and backward directions up to energies of ∼500 keV. As the intensity of compact high repetition-rate lasers sources increase, we can expect improvements in the energy, conversion efficiency and directionality to occur. The impact of these developments on a number of fields will be discussed. As compact

  13. Characterizing Hohlraum Plasma Conditions at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) Using X-ray Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrios, Maria Alejandra

    2015-11-01

    Improved hohlraums will have a significant impact on increasing the likelihood of indirect drive ignition at the NIF. In indirect-drive Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF), a high-Z hohlraum converts laser power into a tailored x-ray flux that drives the implosion of a spherical capsule filled with D-T fuel. The x-radiation drive to capsule coupling sets the velocity, adiabat, and symmetry of the implosion. Previous experiments in gas-filled hohlraums determined that the laser-hohlraum energy coupling is 20-25% less than modeled, therefore identifying energy loss mechanisms that reduce the efficacy of the hohlraum drive is central to improving implosion performance. Characterizing the plasma conditions, particularly the plasma electron temperature (Te) , is critical to understanding mechanism that affect the energy coupling such as the laser plasma interactions (LPI), hohlraum x-ray conversion efficiency, and dynamic drive symmetry. The first Te measurements inside a NIF hohlraum, presented here, were achieved using K-shell X-ray spectroscopy of an Mn-Co tracer dot. The dot is deposited on a thin-walled CH capsule, centered on the hohlraum symmetry axis below the laser entrance hole (LEH) of a bottom-truncated hohlraum. The hohlraum x-ray drive ablates the dot and causes it to flow upward, towards the LEH, entering the hot laser deposition region. An absolutely calibrated streaked spectrometer with a line of sight into the LEH records the temporal history of the Mn and Co X-ray emission. The measured (interstage) Lyα/ Heα line ratios for Co and Mn and the Mn-Heα/Co-Heα isoelectronic line ratio are used to infer the local plasma Te from the atomic physics code SCRAM. Time resovled x-ray images perpendicular to the hohlraum axis record the dot expansion and trajectory into the LEH region. The temporal evolution of the measured Te and dot trajectory are compared with simulations from radiation-hydrodynamic codes. This work was performed under the auspices of the U

  14. High average power, highly brilliant laser-produced plasma source for soft X-ray spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantouvalou, Ioanna; Witte, Katharina; Grötzsch, Daniel; Neitzel, Michael; Günther, Sabrina; Baumann, Jonas; Jung, Robert; Stiel, Holger; Kanngiesser, Birgit; Sandner, Wolfgang

    2015-03-01

    In this work, a novel laser-produced plasma source is presented which delivers pulsed broadband soft X-radiation in the range between 100 and 1200 eV. The source was designed in view of long operating hours, high stability, and cost effectiveness. It relies on a rotating and translating metal target and achieves high stability through an on-line monitoring device using a four quadrant extreme ultraviolet diode in a pinhole camera arrangement. The source can be operated with three different laser pulse durations and various target materials and is equipped with two beamlines for simultaneous experiments. Characterization measurements are presented with special emphasis on the source position and emission stability of the source. As a first application, a near edge X-ray absorption fine structure measurement on a thin polyimide foil shows the potential of the source for soft X-ray spectroscopy.

  15. Luminosity dependence in the ratio of X-ray to infrared emission of QSOs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Worrall, D.M.

    1987-01-01

    The correlation of X-ray and near-infrared luminosity is studied for a sample of radio-quiet QSOs. The X-ray to infrared ratio is found to decrease as the infrared luminosity increases. No preference is found between the correlations of X-ray luminosity with optical or infrared luminosity. This implies that optical and infrared emission are equally good predictors of X-ray emission. Source models which directly link infrared and X-ray emission are discussed, and a preference is found for a specific synchrotron self-Compton model. This model predicts the correct luminosity dependence of the X-ray to infrared ratio if certain conditions apply. 55 references

  16. Charge Exchange of Ne^9+ for X-ray Emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, David

    2016-01-01

    Using the molecular-orbital close-coupling (MOCC) method, single electron capture (SEC) cross sections were computed for Ne^9+ colliding with H.Potential energies and nonadiabatic couplings were calculated and used to obtain the MOCC cross sections which are final-quantum-state-resolved including a separation of singlet and triplet states. Atomic-orbital close-coupling, classical trajectory Monte Carlo, and multichannel Landau-Zener (MCLZ) calculations are also performed. Cross sections for more complicated targets including He, H2, N2, H2O, CO, and CO2, were obtained with the MCLZ method. The SEC results are compared with experimental and other theoretical data, where available. The SEC cross sections are being used in cascade models to predict X-ray emission spectra relevant to solar systemand astrophysical environments.D. Lyons, R. S. Cumbee, P. D. Mullen, P. C. Stancil (UGA), D. R. Schultz (UNT), P. Liebermann (Wuppertal Univ.),R. Buenker (NCSU).This work was partially supported by NASA grant NNX09AC46G.

  17. Soft x-ray emission studies of several aluminum alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsang, K.L.; Zhang, C.H.; Callcott, T.A.; Arakawa, E.T.; Ederer, D.L.; Biancaniello, F.; Curelaru, I.

    1986-01-01

    During the first few months of operation of our soft x-ray spectrometer at the NSLS, we have measured the L emission spectrum for three classes of aluminum alloys: dilute aluminum-magnesium alloys to extend the Al-Mg system to the impurity limit; a 50-50 alloy of aluminum-lithium to characterize the band structure of bulk samples of this potential battery electrolite; and the icosahedral and normal Al-Mn alloys to see if the two phases had measurably different density of states which have been predicted. All spectra shown are produced when core holes generated by energetic electrons or photons are filled by radiative transitions from conduction band states. Dipole selection rules govern the transitions. Thus, K spectra provide a measure of the p-symmetic partial density of states (DOS) near the atom. Similarly, L spectra produced by transitions to p-core holes map the s and d symmetric DOS in the vicinity of the atom with the core hole

  18. Soft x-ray emission studies of several aluminum alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsang, K.L.; Zhang, C.H.; Callcott, T.A.; Arakawa, E.T.; Ederer, D.L.; Biancaniello, F.; Curelaru, I.

    1986-09-23

    During the first few months of operation of our soft x-ray spectrometer at the NSLS, we have measured the L emission spectrum for three classes of aluminum alloys: dilute aluminum-magnesium alloys to extend the Al-Mg system to the impurity limit; a 50-50 alloy of aluminum-lithium to characterize the band structure of bulk samples of this potential battery electrolite; and the icosahedral and normal Al-Mn alloys to see if the two phases had measurably different density of states which have been predicted. All spectra shown are produced when core holes generated by energetic electrons or photons are filled by radiative transitions from conduction band states. Dipole selection rules govern the transitions. Thus, K spectra provide a measure of the p-symmetic partial density of states (DOS) near the atom. Similarly, L spectra produced by transitions to p-core holes map the s and d symmetric DOS in the vicinity of the atom with the core hole.

  19. PIXE (proton induced X-ray emission) analysis of caatinger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakanishi, T.M.; Futatsugawa, Shoji; Sera, Kouichiro.

    1995-01-01

    Caatinger (Mimosa acutistipula Benth), which has been a popular wood among the people in north east part of Brazil, was analyzed using PIXE (proton induced X-ray emission). The wood sample was divided into three parts, center, inner and outer side of the wood. Using the wood slice of each part, Na, Mg, Al, Si, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Br, Rb, Sr, Y, Ru and Pb were detected. When the wood slices were decomposed with nitric acid, Co and Ni were able to be determined. Two samples, non-destructive and chemically treated sample, of heartwood and sapwood showed the similar concentration of the elements. There was a discrete change of the accumulated elements between heartwood and sapwood. Most of the elements detected tended to be concentrated at sapwood, whereas Ca, Cu and Sr were concentrated at heartwood. At center part, especially, Na, Mg, Fe and Sr were accumulated. Since most of the heartwood and sapwood is dead, discrete change of the element concentration suggests some element movement across the annual ring at heartwood formation. (author)

  20. Effect of inserted metal at anode tip on formation of pulsed X-ray emitting zone of plasma focus device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miremad, Seyed Milad; Shirani Bidabadi, Babak

    2018-04-01

    The effect of the anode's insert material of a plasma focus device on the properties of X-ray emission zone was studied. Inserts were fabricated out of six different materials including aluminum, copper, zinc, tin, tungsten, and lead to cover a wide range of atomic numbers. For each anode's insert material at different gas pressures and different voltages, the shape of X-ray emission zone was recorded by three pinhole cameras, which were installed on sidewall and roof of the chamber of plasma focus device. The results indicated that by changing the gas pressure and the charge voltage of capacitor, the X-ray source of plasma focus emerges with different forms as a concentrated column or conical shape with sharp or cloudy edges. These structures are in the form of a combination of plasma emission and anode-tip emission with different intensities. These observations indicate that the material of the anode-tip especially affects the structure of X-ray emission zone.

  1. A Novel Spectrometer for Measuring Laser-Produced Plasma X-Ray in Inertial Confinement Fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Gang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the experimental investigations of inertial confinement fusion, the laser-produced high-temperature plasma contains very abundant information, such as the electron temperature and density, ionization. In order to diagnose laser-plasma distribution in space and evolution in time, an elliptical curved crystal spectrometer has been developed and applied to diagnose X-ray of laser-produced plasma in 0.2~2.46 nm region. According to the theory of Bragg diffraction, four kinds of crystal including LiF, PET, MiCa, and KAP were chosen as dispersive elements. The distance of crystal lattice varies from 0.4 to 2.6 nm. Bragg angle is in the range of 30°~67.5°, and the spectral detection angle is in 55.4°~134°. The curved crystal spectrometer mainly consists of elliptical curved crystal analyzer, vacuum configuration, aligning device, spectral detectors and three-dimensional microadjustment devices. The spectrographic experiment was carried out on the XG-2 laser facility. Emission spectrum of Al plasmas, Ti plasma, and Au plasmas have been successfully recorded by using X-ray CCD camera. It is demonstrated experimentally that the measured wavelength is accorded with the theoretical value.

  2. Study of laser-imploded core plasmas with an advanced Kirkpatrick endash Baez x-ray microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kodama, R.; Shiraga, H.; Miyanaga, M.; Matsushita, T.; Nakai, M.; Azechi, H.; Mima, K.; Kato, Y.

    1997-01-01

    We developed an advanced Kirkpatrick endash Baez (AKB) x-ray microscope which consisted of two hyperbolic mirrors and two elliptic mirrors. The spatial resolution of approx-lt 3 μm was realized over ∼1 mm diam. This AKB microscope was used for x-ray imaging in laser fusion experiments. Laser absorption nonuniformity with a large wave number on a spherical solid target or a plane slab target was estimated by measurements of x-ray emission from the target surface with the microscope. The x-ray images of the imploded core plasmas were also obtained with the AKB microscope, changing the laser focus condition and the laser energy balance. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  3. Trends in grazing emission x-ray analysis techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grieken, R. van; Tsuji, K.; Injuk, J.

    2000-01-01

    In grazing-emission x-ray fluorescence (GEXRF) spectrometry, XRF is made surface-sensitive, not by grazing incidence of the exciting radiation as in total reflection XRF (TXRF), but by detecting only that part of fluorescence radiation that is emitted at grazing angles above a polished sample carrier or above a flat wafer. In case of GEXRF, and contrary to TXRF, wavelength-dispersive (WD) detection can be used. Applications are, in principle, similar to those of (variable angle) TXRF. At the laboratory scale, only prototype instruments are available, and the GEXRF unit can be an accessory to a commercial WD-XRF instrument. The detection limits of GEXRF are in the higher pg range, corresponding to a concentration of between 0.4-3 μg/l, if a sample volume of 100 μl is examined. Because of the WD detection, GEXRF also lends itself for the analysis of low-Z elements, from Z > 5; this is an advantage over conventional TXRF (but similar to TXRF using a thin-window energy-dispersive detector). Since the GEXRF prototype is a sequential rather than a simultaneous instrument, the analysis time is long when many elements have to be determined. Moreover, because the soft characteristic radiation is more strongly absorbed in its longer path through the matrix than in TXRF, the linear response for trace analysis using GEXRF is limited; this was proven by calculating the fluorescence intensities as a function of layer thickness and composition. The specimens are very limited in thickness. The sample preparation procedure for liquid or other samples to be analyzed with the GEXRF unit is thus very problematic. Results for water samples, bio-materials and pigment and aerosol samples have indeed shown that the quantitative nature of GEXRF for trace analysis is poor. The most promising features of GEXRF are in the field of surface and thin-layer analysis. Trace contaminations on silicon wafers can be determined and depth profiling can characterize stratified near-surface layers. But

  4. A ROTSE-I/ROSAT Survey of X-ray Emission from Contact Binary Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geske, M.; McKay, T.

    2005-05-01

    Using public data from the ROSAT All Sky Survey (RASS) and the ROTSE-I Sky Patrols, the incidence of strong x-ray emissions from contact binary systems was examined. The RASS data was matched to an expanded catalog of contact binary systems from the ROTSE-I data, using a 35 arc second radius. X-ray luminosities for matching objects were then determined. This information was then used to evaluate the total x-ray emissions from all such objects, in order to determine their contribution to the galactic x-ray background.

  5. Time-resolved X-ray diffraction with accelerator- and laser-plasma-based X-ray sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicoul, Matthieu

    2010-01-01

    Femtosecond X-ray pulses are a powerful tool to investigate atomic motions triggered by femtosecond pump pulses. This thesis is dedicated to the production of such pulses and their use in optical pump - X-ray probe measurement. This thesis describes the laser-plasma-based sources available at the University of Duisburg-Essen. Part of it consists of the description of the design, built-up and characterization of a new ''modular'' X-ray source dedicated to optimize the X-ray flux onto the sample under investigation. The acoustic wave generation in femtosecond optically excited semiconductor (gallium arsenide) and metal (gold) was performed using the sources of the University of Duisburg-Essen. The physical answer of the material was modeled by a simple strain model for the semiconductor, pressure model for the metal, in order to gain information on the interplay of the electronic and thermal pressures rising after excitation. Whereas no reliable information could be obtain in gallium arsenide (principally due to the use of a bulk), the model for gold achieved very good agreement, providing useful information. The relaxation time of the electron to lattice energy was found to be (5.0±0.3) ps, and the ratio of the Grueneisen parameters was found to be γ e / γ i = (0.5±0.1). This thesis also describes the Sub-Picosecond Pulse Source (SPPS) which existed at the (formally) Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, an accelerator-based X-ray source, and two measurements performed with it. The first one is the detailed investigation of the phonon softening of the A 1g mode launch in bismuth upon fluence excitation. Detailed information concerning the new equilibrium position and phonon frequency were obtained over extended laser pump fluences. The second measurement concerned the study of the liquid phase dynamics in a newly formed liquid phase following ultrafast melting in indium antimonide. The formation of the liquid phase and its development for excitations close to the

  6. Time-resolved X-ray diffraction with accelerator- and laser-plasma-based X-ray sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicoul, Matthieu

    2010-09-01

    Femtosecond X-ray pulses are a powerful tool to investigate atomic motions triggered by femtosecond pump pulses. This thesis is dedicated to the production of such pulses and their use in optical pump - X-ray probe measurement. This thesis describes the laser-plasma-based sources available at the University of Duisburg-Essen. Part of it consists of the description of the design, built-up and characterization of a new ''modular'' X-ray source dedicated to optimize the X-ray flux onto the sample under investigation. The acoustic wave generation in femtosecond optically excited semiconductor (gallium arsenide) and metal (gold) was performed using the sources of the University of Duisburg-Essen. The physical answer of the material was modeled by a simple strain model for the semiconductor, pressure model for the metal, in order to gain information on the interplay of the electronic and thermal pressures rising after excitation. Whereas no reliable information could be obtain in gallium arsenide (principally due to the use of a bulk), the model for gold achieved very good agreement, providing useful information. The relaxation time of the electron to lattice energy was found to be (5.0{+-}0.3) ps, and the ratio of the Grueneisen parameters was found to be {gamma}{sub e} / {gamma}{sub i} = (0.5{+-}0.1). This thesis also describes the Sub-Picosecond Pulse Source (SPPS) which existed at the (formally) Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, an accelerator-based X-ray source, and two measurements performed with it. The first one is the detailed investigation of the phonon softening of the A{sub 1g} mode launch in bismuth upon fluence excitation. Detailed information concerning the new equilibrium position and phonon frequency were obtained over extended laser pump fluences. The second measurement concerned the study of the liquid phase dynamics in a newly formed liquid phase following ultrafast melting in indium antimonide. The formation of the liquid phase

  7. Weak Hard X-Ray Emission from Broad Absorption Line Quasars: Evidence for Intrinsic X-Ray Weakness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luo, B.; Brandt, W. N.; Alexander, D. M.

    2014-01-01

    We report NuSTAR observations of a sample of six X-ray weak broad absorption line (BAL) quasars. These targets, at z = 0.148-1.223, are among the optically brightest and most luminous BAL quasars known at z 330 times weaker than...... expected for typical quasars. Our results from a pilot NuSTAR study of two low-redshift BAL quasars, a Chandra stacking analysis of a sample of high-redshift BAL quasars, and a NuSTAR spectral analysis of the local BAL quasar Mrk 231 have already suggested the existence of intrinsically X-ray weak BAL...... quasars, i.e., quasars not emitting X-rays at the level expected from their optical/UV emission. The aim of the current program is to extend the search for such extraordinary objects. Three of the six new targets are weakly detected by NuSTAR with ≲ 45 counts in the 3-24 keV band, and the other three...

  8. INTEGRAL hard X-ray spectra of the cosmic X-ray background and Galactic ridge emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Türler, M.; Chernyakova, M.; Courvoisier, T. J.-L.; Lubiński, P.; Neronov, A.; Produit, N.; Walter, R.

    2010-03-01

    Aims: We derive the spectra of the cosmic X-ray background (CXB) and of the Galactic ridge X-ray emission (GRXE) in the ~20-200 keV range from the data of the IBIS instrument aboard the INTEGRAL satellite obtained during the four dedicated Earth-occultation observations in early 2006. Methods: We analyze the modulation of the IBIS/ISGRI detector counts induced by the passage of the Earth through the field of view of the instrument. Unlike previous studies, we do not fix the spectral shape of the various contributions, but model instead their spatial distribution and derive for each of them the expected modulation of the detector counts. The spectra of the diffuse emission components are obtained by fitting the normalizations of the model lightcurves to the observed modulation in different energy bins. Because of degeneracy, we guide the fits with a realistic choice of the input parameters and a constraint for spectral smoothness. Results: The obtained CXB spectrum is consistent with the historic HEAO-1 results and falls slightly below the spectrum derived with Swift/BAT. A 10% higher normalization of the CXB cannot be completely excluded, but it would imply an unrealistically high albedo of the Earth. The derived spectrum of the GRXE confirms the presence of a minimum around 80 keV with improved statistics and yields an estimate of ~0.6 M⊙ for the average mass of white dwarfs in the Galaxy. The analysis also provides updated normalizations for the spectra of the Earth's albedo and the cosmic-ray induced atmospheric emission. Conclusions: This study demonstrates the potential of INTEGRAL Earth-occultation observations to derive the hard X-ray spectra of three fundamental components: the CXB, the GRXE and the Earth emission. Further observations would be extremely valuable to confirm our results with improved statistics.

  9. High resolution X-ray spectroscopy of thermal plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canizares, C.R.

    1990-01-01

    This paper concentrates on reviewing highlights of the Focal Plane Crystal Spectrometer (FPCS) results on thermal plasmas, particularly supernova remnants (SNRs) and clusters of galaxies from the Einstein observatory. During Einstein's short but happy life, we made over 400 observations with the FPCS of 40 different objects. Three quarters of these were objects in which the emission was primarily from optically thin thermal plasma, primarily supernova remnants (SNRs) and clusters of galaxies. Thermal plasmas provide an excellent illustration of how spectral data, particularly high resolution spectral data, can be an important tool for probing the physical properties of astrophysical objects. (author)

  10. Influence of Xe and Kr impurities on x-ray yield from debris-free plasma x-ray sources with an Ar supersonic gas jet irradiated by femtosecond near-infrared-wavelength laser pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantsyrev, V. L.; Schultz, K. A.; Shlyaptseva, V. V.; Petrov, G. M.; Safronova, A. S.; Petkov, E. E.; Moschella, J. J.; Shrestha, I.; Cline, W.; Wiewior, P.; Chalyy, O.

    2016-11-01

    Many aspects of physical phenomena occurring when an intense laser pulse with subpicosecond duration and an intensity of 1018-1019W /cm2 heats an underdense plasma in a supersonic clustered gas jet are studied to determine the relative contribution of thermal and nonthermal processes to soft- and hard-x-ray emission from debris-free plasmas. Experiments were performed at the University of Nevada, Reno (UNR) Leopard laser operated with a 15-J, 350-fs pulse and different pulse contrasts (107 or 105). The supersonic linear (elongated) nozzle generated Xe cluster-monomer gas jets as well as jets with Kr-Ar or Xe-Kr-Ar mixtures with densities of 1018-1019cm-3 . Prior to laser heating experiments, all jets were probed with optical interferometry and Rayleigh scattering to measure jet density and cluster distribution parameters. The supersonic linear jet provides the capability to study the anisotropy of x-ray yield from laser plasma and also laser beam self-focusing in plasma, which leads to efficient x-ray generation. Plasma diagnostics included x-ray diodes, pinhole cameras, and spectrometers. Jet signatures of x-ray emission from pure Xe gas, as well as from a mixture with Ar and Kr, was found to be very different. The most intense x-ray emission in the 1-9 KeV spectral region was observed from gas mixtures rather than pure Xe. Also, this x-ray emission was strongly anisotropic with respect to the direction of laser beam polarization. Non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (Non-LTE) models have been implemented to analyze the x-ray spectra to determine the plasma temperature and election density. Evidence of electron beam generation in the supersonic jet plasma was found. The influence of the subpicosecond laser pulse contrast (a ratio between the laser peak intensity and pedestal pulse intensity) on the jets' x-ray emission characteristics is discussed. Surprisingly, it was found that the x-ray yield was not sensitive to the prepulse contrast ratio.

  11. X-ray emission on hybird stars: ROSAT observations of alpha Trianguli Australis and iota Aurigae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashyap, V.; Rosner, R.; Harnden, F. R., Jr.; Maggio, A.; Micela, G.; Sciortino, S.

    1994-01-01

    We report on deep ROSAT observations of two Hybrid atmosphere stars, alpha TrA and iota Aur, and our analysis of these observations. We detect high-energy transient phenomena on alpha TrA and consider the implications of this discovery to the atmospheres of Hybrid stars. We detect iota Aur in the high-energy passband of ROSAT, implying the existence of multimillion degree plasma on the star. Our major results include the following: discovery of two large flare events, detected during pointed observations of alpha TrA; the demonstration that the flare emission most likely comes from the giant itself, rather than from a previously unseen low-mass companion star; the demonstration that the plasma characteristics associated with the flares and with the 'quiescent' component are essentially indistinguishable; and that the geometric dimensions of the emitting plasma are considerably smaller than the critical dimension characterizing stable 'hot' coronal loop structures. Our results suggest that alpha TrA does not have any steady X-ray emission consistent with theoretical expectations, and support the argument that Hybrid stars constitute a transitional type of object in which large-scale magnetic dynamo activity ceases, and the dominant spatial scales characterizing coronal structure rapidly decline as such stars evolve across the X-ray 'Dividing Line' in the H-R diagram.

  12. Maximum material thickness for extreme ultra-violet and X-ray backlighter probing of dense plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, H.; Tallents, G.J.

    2008-01-01

    Extreme ultra-violet (EUV) lasers, X-ray lasers and other backlighter sources can be used to probe high-energy density materials if their brightness can overcome self-emission from the material. We investigate the maximum plasma thickness of aluminum, silicon and iron that can be probed with EUV or X-ray photons of energy 89-1243 eV before self-emission from the plasma overwhelms the backlighter output. For a uniform plasma, backlighter transmission decreases exponentially with increasing thickness of the material following Beer's law at a rate dependent on the plasma opacity. We evaluate the plasma opacity with the Los Alamos TOPS opacity data. The self-emission is assumed to be either that of a black body to arise from a plasma in LTE or to only consist of free-free and free-bound emission. It is shown that at higher plasma temperature (≥40 eV), EUV radiation (e.g. photon energy=89 eV) can probe a greater thickness of plasma than X-ray radiation (e.g. photon energy=1243 eV)

  13. X-RAY EMISSION FROM YOUNG STARS IN THE MASSIVE STAR-FORMING REGION IRAS 20126+4104

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, C. N.; Hofner, P.; Creech-Eakman, M.; Shepherd, D.

    2011-01-01

    We present a 40 ks Chandra observation of the IRAS 20126+4104 core region. In the inner 6'' two X-ray sources were detected, which are coincident with the radio jet source I20S and the variable radio source I20Var. No X-ray emission was detected from the nearby massive protostar I20N. The spectra of both detected sources are hard and highly absorbed, with no emission below 3 keV. For I20S, the measured 0.5-8 keV count rate was 4.3 counts ks -1 . The X-ray spectrum was fitted with an absorbed 1T APEC model with an energy of kT =10 keV and an absorbing column of N H = 1.2 x 10 23 cm -2 . An unabsorbed X-ray luminosity of about 1.4 x 10 32 erg s -1 was estimated. The spectrum shows broad line emission between 6.4 and 6.7 keV, indicative of emission from both neutral and highly ionized iron. The X-ray light curve indicates that I20S is marginally variable; however, no flare emission was observed. The variable radio source I20Var was detected with a count rate of 0.9 counts ks -1 but there was no evidence of X-ray variability. The best-fit spectral model is a 1T APEC model with an absorbing hydrogen column of N H = 1.1 x 10 23 cm -2 and a plasma energy of kT = 6.0 keV. The unabsorbed X-ray luminosity is about 3 x 10 31 erg s -1 .

  14. Chandra X-ray Observations of Jovian Low-latitude Emissions: Morphological, Temporal, and Spectral Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhardwaj, Anil; Elsner, Ronald F.; Gladstone, G. Randall; Cravens, Thomas E.; Waiate J. Hunter, Jr.; Branduardi-Raymont, Graziella; Ford, Peter

    2004-01-01

    Chandra observed X-rays from Jupiter during 24-26 February 2003 for about 40 hours with the ACIS-S and HRC-I instruments. The analysis of Jovian low-latitude "disk" Xray emissions are presented and compared with the high-latitude "auroral" emissions. We report the first Chandra ACIS-S measured X-ray spectrum (0.3-2 keV) of Jupiter's low-latitude disk The disk X-ray emission is harder and extends to higher energies than the auroral spectrum. The temporal variation in the Jovian disk X-rays is on an average consistent with those in the solar X-rays observed by GOES, and TIMED/SSE. Contrary to the auroral X-rays, the disk emissions are uniformly distributed over Jupiter; no indication of longitudinal dependence or correlation with surface magneh field strength is visible. Also, unlike the approx. 40 +/- 20 min periodic oscillations seen in the auroral X-ray emissions, the disk emissions do not show any periodic oscillations. The disk spectrum seems to be consistent with resonant and fluorescent scattering of solar X-rays by the Jovian upper atmosphere. Jupiter's disk is found to be about 50% dimmer in soft X-rays in February 2003 compared that in December 2000, which is consistent with the decrease in solar activity. No evidence of lightning-induced X-rays is seen in the Chandra X-ray data. The Jovian disk spectra observed with Chandra-ACIS is stronger than that observed with XMM-Newton two months later during April 28-29, 2003. The XMM-Newton Xray image of Jupiter shows evidence of limb darkening on the anti-sunward side as seen from Earth, as well as an asymmetry with respect to the subsolar point: suggesting a solar driven process.

  15. Irradiation of intense characteristic x-rays from weakly ionized linear molybdenum plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Eiichi; Hayasi, Yasuomi

    2003-01-01

    In the plasma flash x-ray generator, a high-voltage main condenser of approximately 200 nF is charged up to 55 kV by a power supply, and electric charges in the condenser are discharged to an x-ray tube after triggering the cathode electrode. The flash x-rays are then produced. The x-ray tube is a demountable triode that is connected to a turbo molecular pump with a pressure of approximately 1 mPa. As electron flows from the cathode electrode are roughly converged to a rod molybdenum target of 2.0 mm in diameter by the electric field in the x-ray tube, weakly ionized linear plasma, which consists of molybdenum ions and electrons, forms by target evaporation. At a charging voltage of 55 kV, the maximum tube voltage was almost equal to the charging voltage of the main condenser, and the peak current was about 20 kA. When the charging voltage was increased, the linear plasma formed, and the K-series characteristic x-ray intensities increased. The K lines were quite sharp and intense, and hardly any bremsstrahlung rays were detected. The x-ray pulse widths were approximately 700 ns, and the time-integrated x-ray intensity had a value of approximately 35 μC/kg at 1.0 m from the x-ray source with a charging voltage of 50 kV. (author)

  16. Using X-ray spectroheliograph technique for investigations of laser-produced plasma under interaction with strong magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faenov, A.; Dyakin, V.; Magunov, A.; Pikuz, T.; Skobelev, I.; Pikuz, S.; Pisarczyk, T.; Wolowski, J.; Zielinska, E.

    1996-01-01

    A dense jet of a plasma consisting of multiply charged ions was generated in the interaction of a laser plasma with a strong external axial magnetic field. It is shown that using the high-luminosity X-ray spectroheliograph technique allows to measure plasma emission spectra with 2-dimensional spatial resolution even in the cases when these spectra have small intensities. The X-ray spectroscopy and interferometry methods are used to measure plasma parameter distributions. The dependencies of N e (z) and T e (z) measured in this paper can be used to calculate the evolution of plasma ionization state during plasma expansion. The quasihomogeneous laser jet, which appears when a laser plasma interacts with an external magnetic field can be used not only to form an active medium of a short wavelength laser, but probably also to tackle the urgent problem of transport in a laser ion injector. (orig.)

  17. Using X-ray spectroheliograph technique for investigations of laser-produced plasma under interaction with strong magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faenov, A. [MISDC of VNIIFTRI, Mendeleevo (Russian Federation); Dyakin, V. [MISDC of VNIIFTRI, Mendeleevo (Russian Federation); Magunov, A. [MISDC of VNIIFTRI, Mendeleevo (Russian Federation); Pikuz, T. [MISDC of VNIIFTRI, Mendeleevo (Russian Federation); Skobelev, I. [MISDC of VNIIFTRI, Mendeleevo (Russian Federation); Pikuz, S. [Rossijskaya Akademiya Nauk, Moscow (Russian Federation). Fizicheskij Inst.; Kasperczyk, A. [Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion, Warsaw (Poland); Pisarczyk, T. [Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion, Warsaw (Poland); Wolowski, J. [Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion, Warsaw (Poland); Zielinska, E. [Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion, Warsaw (Poland)

    1996-08-01

    A dense jet of a plasma consisting of multiply charged ions was generated in the interaction of a laser plasma with a strong external axial magnetic field. It is shown that using the high-luminosity X-ray spectroheliograph technique allows to measure plasma emission spectra with 2-dimensional spatial resolution even in the cases when these spectra have small intensities. The X-ray spectroscopy and interferometry methods are used to measure plasma parameter distributions. The dependencies of N{sub e}(z) and T{sub e}(z) measured in this paper can be used to calculate the evolution of plasma ionization state during plasma expansion. The quasihomogeneous laser jet, which appears when a laser plasma interacts with an external magnetic field can be used not only to form an active medium of a short wavelength laser, but probably also to tackle the urgent problem of transport in a laser ion injector. (orig.).

  18. Maximum entropy based reconstruction of soft X ray emissivity profiles in W7-AS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ertl, K.; Linden, W. von der; Dose, V.; Weller, A.

    1996-01-01

    The reconstruction of 2-D emissivity profiles from soft X ray tomography measurements constitutes a highly underdetermined and ill-posed inversion problem, because of the restricted viewing access, the number of chords and the increased noise level in most plasma devices. An unbiased and consistent probabilistic approach within the framework of Bayesian inference is provided by the maximum entropy method, which is independent of model assumptions, but allows any prior knowledge available to be incorporated. The formalism is applied to the reconstruction of emissivity profiles in an NBI heated plasma discharge to determine the dependence of the Shafranov shift on β, the reduction of which was a particular objective in designing the advanced W7-AS stellarator. (author). 40 refs, 7 figs

  19. Resonant soft X-ray emission spectroscopy of liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, J.-H.; Augustsson, A.; Englund, C.-J.; Nordgren, J.

    2004-01-01

    We present now a possible way to carry out soft-x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy of liquids. The liquid cell has a window to attain compatibility with UHV conditions of the spectrometer and beamline. The synchrotron radiation enters the liquid cell through a 100nm-thick silicon nitride window and the emitted x-rays exit through the same window. This allows in particular liquid solid interfaces to be studied. Such a liquid cell has been used to study the electronic structure of a variety of systems ranging from water solutions of inorganic salts and inertial drugs to nano materials and actinide compounds in their wet conditions

  20. DISCOVERY OF X-RAY EMISSION FROM THE GALACTIC SUPERNOVA REMNANT G32.8-0.1 WITH SUZAKU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bamba, Aya; Sawada, Makoto [Department of Physics and Mathematics, Aoyama Gakuin University 5-10-1 Fuchinobe Chuo-ku, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5258 (Japan); Terada, Yukikatsu [Department of Physics, Science, Saitama University, Sakura, Saitama 338-8570 (Japan); Hewitt, John; Petre, Robert; Angelini, Lorella [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Safi-Harb, Samar [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg MB R3T 2N2 (Canada); Zhou, Ping [Department of Astronomy, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Bocchino, Fabrizio [INAF—Osservatorio Astronomico di Palermo, Piazza del Parlamento 1, I-90134, Palermo (Italy)

    2016-02-10

    We present the first dedicated X-ray study of the supernova remnant (SNR) G32.8−0.1 (Kes 78) with Suzaku. X-ray emission from the whole SNR shell has been detected for the first time. The X-ray morphology is well correlated with the emission from the radio shell, while anti-correlated with the molecular cloud found in the SNR field. The X-ray spectrum shows not only conventional low-temperature (kT ∼ 0.6 keV) thermal emission in a non-equilibrium ionization state, but also a very high-temperature (kT ∼ 3.4 keV) component with a very low ionization timescale (∼2.7 × 10{sup 9} cm{sup −3} s), or a hard nonthermal component with a photon index Γ ∼ 2.3. The average density of the low-temperature plasma is rather low, of the order of 10{sup −3}–10{sup −2} cm{sup −3}, implying that this SNR is expanding into a low-density cavity. We discuss the X-ray emission of the SNR, also detected in TeV with H.E.S.S., together with multi-wavelength studies of the remnant and other gamma-ray emitting SNRs, such as W28 and RCW 86. Analysis of a time-variable source, 2XMM J185114.3−000004, found in the northern part of the SNR, is also reported for the first time. Rapid time variability and a heavily absorbed hard-X-ray spectrum suggest that this source could be a new supergiant fast X-ray transient.

  1. Discovery of X-Ray Emission from the Galactic Supernova Remnant G32.8-0.1 with Suzaku

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamba, Aya; Terada, Yukikatsu; Hewitt, John; Petre, Robert; Angelini, Lorella; Safi-Harb, Samar; Zhou, Ping; Bocchino, Fabrizio; Sawada, Makoto

    2016-01-01

    We present the first dedicated X-ray study of the supernova remnant (SNR) G32.8-0.1 (Kes 78) with Suzaku. X-ray emission from the whole SNR shell has been detected for the first time. The X-ray morphology is well correlated with the emission from the radio shell, while anti-correlated with the molecular cloud found in the SNR field. The X-ray spectrum shows not only conventional low-temperature (kT approximately 0.6 kiloelectronvolts) thermal emission in a nonequilibrium ionization state, but also a very high-temperature (approximately 3.4 kiloelectronvolts) component with a very low ionization timescale (approximately 2.7 times 10 (sup 9) per cubic centimeter per second), or a hard nonthermal component with a photon index Gamma approximately equal to 2.3. The average density of the low-temperature plasma is rather low, of the order of 10 (sup -3) - 10 (sup -2) per cubic centimeter, implying that this SNR is expanding into a low-density cavity. We discuss the X-ray emission of the SNR, also detected in teraelectronvolts with H.E.S.S. (High Energy Stereoscopic System), together with multi-wavelength studies of the remnant and other gamma-ray emitting SNRs, such as W28 and RCW 86. Analysis of a time-variable source, 2XMM J185114.3-000004, found in the northern part of the SNR, is also reported for the first time. Rapid time variability and a heavily absorbed hard-X-ray spectrum suggest that this source could be a new supergiant fast X-ray transient.

  2. Capillary-discharge sodium plasma for pulsed-power X-ray laser experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, F.C.; Commisso, R.J.; Cooperstein, G.

    1986-01-01

    A capillary discharge plasma is being studied as a source of sodium plasma for Na/Ne x-ray laser experiments. The objective is to develop an intense x-ray pump of He-α emission from Na for matched-line photopumping of Ne. A uniform Na-bearing plasma (≅2-cm dia and ≅4-cm long) is to be injected into the anode-cathode gap of the Gamble II pulsed-power generator and imploded by MA-level currents to produce the intense sodium K-line radiation. Implosions of neon gas puffs have produced up to 50 GW of 0.92-keV He-α line emission, and similar x-ray power is expected from sodium implosions. Plasma from the capillary is produced by discharging current through an evacuated small hole in a plastic dielectric (≤ 3-mm dia and 1 to 2.5-cm long). A Na-bearing plasma is generated by forming the hole in NaF. Discharges of 30-kA (60-kA) peak current and 2-μs (2.6-μs) period are provided by a 0.6-μF (1.8-μF) capacitor bank charged to 25 kV. Diagnostics to evaluate plasma characteristics include witness plates, Faraday cups, photodiodes, open-shutter photographs, framing images, and visible light and near UV spectrographs. This plasma source emits visible light for 5-10 μs over a region extending - 1.5 cm from the capillary. Emission is more intense for capillary dia ≤ 0.8 mm. Spectroscopic measurements indicate that both positive ions and neutrals are present, including neutral Na from NaF capillaries. Velocities of≅2 cm/μs are deduced from Faraday cup measurements. For a 0.3-mm dia plastic capillary and 30-kA discharge current, ≅100 μg of capillary material is removed, which corresponds to≅10 μg/cm in the plasma

  3. X-ray emission from open star clusters with Spectrum-Rontgen-Gamma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, K.P.; Ojha, D.K.; Schnopper, H.W.

    1998-01-01

    The study of X-ray emission from co-evolving populations of stars in open dusters is extremely important for understanding the dynamo activity among the stars. With this objective, we propose to observe a number of open clusters in the X-ray and UV bands using SPECTRUM-Rontgen-Gamma. The high...... throughput of SPECTRUM-Rontgen-Gamma will help detect main sequence stars like Sun in middle-aged and old clusters. We will study the relationships between various parameters - age, rotation, abundance, UBV colors, X-ray luminosity, coronal temperature etc. X-ray spectra of younger and brighter populations...

  4. Exploring the Hard and Soft X-ray Emission of Magnetic Cataclysmic Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Martino, D.; Anzolin, G.; Bonnet-Bidaud, J.-M.; Falanga, M.; Matt, G.; Mouchet, M.; Mukai, K.; Masetti, N.

    2009-05-01

    A non-negligible fraction of galactic hard (>20 keV) X-ray sources were identified as CVs of the magnetic Intermediate Polar type in INTEGRAL, SWIFT and RXTE surveys, that suggests a still hidden but potentially important population of faint hard X-ray sources. Simbol-X has the unique potential to simultaneously characterize their variable and complex soft and hard X-ray emission thus allowing to understand their putative role in galactic populations of X-ray sources.

  5. DISCOVERY OF X-RAY EMISSION FROM YOUNG SUNS IN THE SMALL MAGELLANIC CLOUD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oskinova, L. M.; Hainich, R.; Sun, W.; Chen, Y.; Evans, C. J.; Hénault-Brunet, V.; Chu, Y.-H.; Gruendl, R. A.; Gallagher, J. S. III; Guerrero, M. A.; Güdel, M.; Silich, S.; Nazé, Y.; Reyes-Iturbide, J.

    2013-01-01

    We report the discovery of extended X-ray emission within the young star cluster NGC 602a in the Wing of the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) based on observations obtained with the Chandra X-Ray Observatory. X-ray emission is detected from the cluster core area with the highest stellar density and from a dusty ridge surrounding the H II region. We use a census of massive stars in the cluster to demonstrate that a cluster wind or wind-blown bubble is unlikely to provide a significant contribution to the X-ray emission detected from the central area of the cluster. We therefore suggest that X-ray emission at the cluster core originates from an ensemble of low- and solar-mass pre-main-sequence (PMS) stars, each of which would be too weak in X-rays to be detected individually. We attribute the X-ray emission from the dusty ridge to the embedded tight cluster of the newborn stars known in this area from infrared studies. Assuming that the levels of X-ray activity in young stars in the low-metallicity environment of NGC 602a are comparable to their Galactic counterparts, then the detected spatial distribution, spectral properties, and level of X-ray emission are largely consistent with those expected from low- and solar-mass PMS stars and young stellar objects (YSOs). This is the first discovery of X-ray emission attributable to PMS stars and YSOs in the SMC, which suggests that the accretion and dynamo processes in young, low-mass objects in the SMC resemble those in the Galaxy.

  6. Electromagnetic diagnostics of ECR-Ion Sources plasmas: optical/X-ray imaging and spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascali, D.; Castro, G.; Altana, C.; Caliri, C.; Mazzaglia, M.; Romano, F. P.; Leone, F.; Musumarra, A.; Naselli, E.; Reitano, R.; Torrisi, G.; Celona, L.; Cosentino, L. G.; Giarrusso, M.; Gammino, S.

    2017-12-01

    Magnetoplasmas in ECR-Ion Sources are excited from gaseous elements or vapours by microwaves in the range 2.45-28 GHz via Electron Cyclotron Resonance. A B-minimum, magnetohydrodynamic stable configuration is used for trapping the plasma. The values of plasma density, temperature and confinement times are typically ne= 1011-1013 cm-3, 01 eVSilicon Drift detectors with high energy resolution of 125 eV at 5.9 keV have been used for the characterization of plasma emission at 02X-ray pin-hole camera technique has allowed space resolved X-ray spectroscopy with a spatial resolution down to 30 μm and an energy resolution down to 140 eV at 5.9 keV . In parallel, imaging in the optical range and spectroscopic measurements have been carried out. Relative abundances of H/H2 atoms/molecules in the plasmas have been measured for different values of neutral pressure, microwave power and magnetic field profile (they are critical for high-power proton sources).

  7. X-ray emission from supernova remnants with particular reference to the Cygnus Loop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gronenschild, E.H.B.M.

    1979-01-01

    Observational or theoretical results related to the study of supernova remnants (SNRs) are described. Some background information is given by reviewing the present status of our knowledge of supernovae and supernova remnants, both from theory and observations. Also the distribution of all known radio, optical, and X-ray SNRs in the Galaxy is shown and a comparison is made. The X-ray observations of the well-known X-ray SNR the Cygnus Loop are discussed in detail and the discovery of a new X-ray emitting SNR W44 is described. Other radio sources are investigated, and the observed X-ray emission of SNRs are analysed using thermal spectra like exponential or bremsstrahlung spectra. The X-ray line spectrum that emerges from SNRs is described in detail. (Auth.)

  8. A development of laser-plasma-based soft x-ray microscope system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nam, Ki Yong; Kim, Kyong Woo; Kim, Kyu Gyeom; Kwon, Young Man; Yoon, Kwon Ha

    2003-01-01

    Soft x-ray nano-imaging microscopy system for biomedical application with a high resolution about 50 nm has been designed and described, and its integrated techniques also have been studied. The system is mainly composed of soft x-ray generation system, nano-scaled control system, x-ray optical device like a condenser or object mirror, a CCD camera coupled with multichannel plate (MCP) and vacuum system. In the system, soft x-ray is generated from the laser-based plasma by focusing Nd:YAG laser beam on tantalum (Ta) target. In an x-ray optical system, a wolter mirror has been considering condensing the x-ray beam on a biological specimen and zone plate was adapted as an object mirror. A Si 3 N 4 was used as specimen holder for keeping a biological sample alive in atmosphere conditions. A back-illuminated-CCD camera coupled with multichannel plate was determined to set up.

  9. X-ray absorption and X-ray emission spectroscopy theory and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Lamberti, Carlo

    2016-01-01

    During the last two decades, remarkable and often spectacular progress has been made in the methodological and instrumental aspects of x–ray absorption and emission spectroscopy. This progress includes considerable technological improvements in the design and production of detectors especially with the development and expansion of large-scale synchrotron reactors All this has resulted in improved analytical performance and new applications, as well as in the perspective of a dramatic enhancement in the potential of x–ray based analysis techniques for the near future. This comprehensive two-volume treatise features articles that explain the phenomena and describe examples of X–ray absorption and emission applications in several fields, including chemistry, biochemistry, catalysis, amorphous and liquid systems, synchrotron radiation, and surface phenomena. Contributors explain the underlying theory, how to set up X–ray absorption experiments, and how to analyze the details of the resulting spectra. X-R...

  10. X-Ray Emission of Cataclysmic Variables Observed by Integral

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gális, R.; Eckert, D.; Paltani, S.; Münz, F.; Kocka, Matúš

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 18, 3-4 (2009), s. 321-326 ISSN 1392-0049 Grant - others:ESA(XE) ESA- PECS project No. 98023; VEGA(SK) 2/0078/10 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : binaries starss * cataclysmic * X-rays Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 1.032, year: 2009

  11. X-ray Emission Characteristics of Flares Associated with CMEs ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    tics of solar flares and their relationship with the dynamics of CMEs have ... lation between X-ray peak intensity of the flares with linear speed as well ... shear angle (θ1, measured at the flare onset), the final shear angle (θ2, measured at the.

  12. Spectral modeling of the charge-exchange X-ray emission from M82

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Shuinai; Ji, Li; Zhou, Xin [Purple Mountain Observatory, CAS, Nanjing 210008 (China); Wang, Q. Daniel [Astronomy Department, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Smith, Randall K.; Foster, Adam R., E-mail: snzhang@pmo.ac.cn [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2014-10-10

    It has been proposed that the charge-exchange (CX) process at the interface between hot and cool interstellar gases could contribute significantly to the observed soft X-ray emission in star-forming galaxies. We analyze the XMM-Newton/reflection grating spectrometer (RGS) spectrum of M82 using a newly developed CX model combined with a single-temperature thermal plasma to characterize the volume-filling hot gas. The CX process is largely responsible for not only the strongly enhanced forbidden lines of the Kα triplets of various He-like ions but also good fractions of the Lyα transitions of C VI (∼87%), O VIII, and N VII (≳50%) as well. In total about a quarter of the X-ray flux in the RGS 6-30 Å band originates in the CX. We infer an ion incident rate of 3 × 10{sup 51} s{sup –1} undergoing CX at the hot and cool gas interface and an effective area of the interface of ∼2 × 10{sup 45} cm{sup 2} that is one order of magnitude larger than the cross section of the global biconic outflow. With the CX contribution accounted for, the best-fit temperature of the hot gas is 0.6 keV, and the metal abundances are approximately solar. We further show that the same CX/thermal plasma model also gives an excellent description of the EPIC-pn spectrum of the outflow Cap, projected at 11.6 kpc away from the galactic disk of M82. This analysis demonstrates that the CX is potentially an important contributor to the X-ray emission from starburst galaxies and also an invaluable tool to probe the interface astrophysics.

  13. On the properties of synchrotron-like X-ray emission from laser wakefield accelerated electron beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuffey, C.; Schumaker, W.; Matsuoka, T.; Chvykov, V.; Dollar, F.; Kalintchenko, G.; Kneip, S.; Najmudin, Z.; Mangles, S. P. D.; Vargas, M.; Yanovsky, V.; Maksimchuk, A.; Thomas, A. G. R.; Krushelnick, K.

    2018-04-01

    The electric and magnetic fields responsible for electron acceleration in a Laser Wakefield Accelerator (LWFA) also cause electrons to radiate x-ray photons. Such x-ray pulses have several desirable properties including short duration and being well collimated with tunable high energy. We measure the scaling of this x-ray source experimentally up to laser powers greater than 100 TW. An increase in laser power allows electron trapping at a lower density as well as with an increased trapped charge. These effects resulted in an x-ray fluence that was measured to increase non-linearly with laser power. The fluence of x-rays was also compared with that produced from K-α emission resulting from a solid target interaction for the same energy laser pulse. The flux was shown to be comparable, but the LWFA x-rays had a significantly smaller source size. This indicates that such a source may be useful as a backlighter for probing high energy density plasmas with ultrafast temporal resolution.

  14. Development of a compact laser-produced plasma soft X-ray source for radiobiology experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adjei, Daniel, E-mail: nana.adjeidan@gmail.com [Institute of Optoelectronics, Military University of Technology, 2, Kaliskiego Str., 00-908 Warsaw (Poland); Radiation Protection Institute, Ghana Atomic Energy Commission, P.O. Box LG 80, Legon, Accra (Ghana); Ayele, Mesfin Getachew; Wachulak, Przemyslaw; Bartnik, Andrzej; Wegrzynski, Łukasz; Fiedorowicz, Henryk [Institute of Optoelectronics, Military University of Technology, 2, Kaliskiego Str., 00-908 Warsaw (Poland); Vyšín, Luděk [Institute of Physics, Czech Academy of Sciences, Na Slovance 2, 182 21 Prague 8 (Czech Republic); Faculty of Nuclear Sciences and Engineering Physics, Czech Technical University in Prague, Břehová 7, 115 19 Prague 1 (Czech Republic); Wiechec, Anna; Lekki, Janusz; Kwiatek, Wojciech M. [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, 152, Radzikowskiego Str., 31-342 Cracow (Poland); Pina, Ladislav [Faculty of Nuclear Sciences and Engineering Physics, Czech Technical University in Prague, Břehová 7, 115 19 Prague 1 (Czech Republic); Davídková, Marie [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Czech Academy of Sciences, Řež (Czech Republic); Juha, Libor [Institute of Physics, Czech Academy of Sciences, Na Slovance 2, 182 21 Prague 8 (Czech Republic)

    2015-12-01

    A desk-top laser-produced plasma (LPP) source of soft X-rays (SXR) has been developed for radiobiology research. The source is based on a double-stream gas puff target, irradiated with the focused beam of a commercial Nd:YAG laser. The source has been optimized to get a maximum photon emission from LPP in the X-ray “water window” spectral wavelength range from 2.3 nm (i.e., an absorption edge of oxygen) to 4.4 nm (i.e., an absorption edge of carbon) (280–540 eV in photon energy units) by using argon gas-puff target and spectral filtering by free-standing thin foils. The present source delivers nanosecond pulses of soft X-rays at a fluence of about 4.2 × 10{sup 3} photons/μm{sup 2}/pulse on a sample placed inside the vacuum chamber. In this paper, the source design, radiation output characterization measurements and initial irradiation experiments are described. The source can be useful in addressing observations related to biomolecular, cellular and organisms’ sensitivity to pulsed radiation in the “water window”, where carbon atoms absorb X-rays more strongly than the oxygen, mostly present in water. The combination of the SXR source and the radiobiology irradiation layout, reported in this article, make possible a systematic investigation of relationships between direct and indirect action of ionizing radiation, an increase of a local dose in carbon-rich compartments of the cell (e.g., lipid membranes), an experimental estimation of a particular role of the Auger effect (in particular in carbon atoms) in the damage to biological systems, and the study of ionization/excitation-density (LET – Linear Energy Transfer) and dose-rate effects in radiobiology.

  15. Characteristics of X-ray photons in tilted incident laser-produced plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Ruirong; Chen Weimin; Xie Dongzhu

    2008-01-01

    Characteristics of X-ray and spout direction of heat plasma flow were studied on Shenguang-II laser facility. Using of pinhole X-ray camera, X-ray photons from the plasma of aluminum (Al) irradiated by 1.053 μm laser, was measured and analysed. It is observed that the spatial distribution of X-ray photons in Al plasma for tilted irradiation is symmetic at the center of the target. The spout direction of heat plasma flow is inferred by the distribution contour of X-ray photons. the experimental results show that the spout direction of heat plasma flow is normal to target plane and the output intensity of X-ray photons does not increase significantly for tilted laser incidence. Uniformity of laser energy deposition is improved by superposing tilted incident and laser perpendicularly incident laser. At the same time, it is found that the conversion efficiency from the tilted incident laser energy to X-ray photons of laser-produced plasma is decreased. (authors)

  16. Accretion dynamics and polarized x-ray emission of magnetized neutron stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arons, J.

    1991-01-01

    The basic ideas of accretion onto magnetized neutron stars are outlined. These are applied to a simple model of the structure of the plasma mound sitting at the magnetic poles of such as star, in which upward diffusion of photons is balanced by their downward advection. This steady flow model of the plasma's dynamical state is used to compute the emission of polarized X-rays from the optically thick, birefringent medium. The linear polarization of the continuum radiation emerging from the quasi-static mound is found to be as much as 40% at some rotation phases, but is insensitive to the geometry of the accretion flow. The role of the accretion shock, whose detailed polarimetric and spectral characteristics have yet to be calculated, is emphasized as the final determinant of the properties of the emerging X-rays. Some results describing the fully time dependent dynamics of the flow are also presented. In particular, steady flow onto a neutron star is shown to exhibit formation of ''photon bubbles,'' regions of greatly reduced plasma density filled with radiation which form and rise on millisecond time scales. The possible role of these complex structures in the flow for the formation of the emergent spectrum is briefly outlined

  17. ORIGIN OF THE GALACTIC DIFFUSE X-RAY EMISSION: IRON K-SHELL LINE DIAGNOSTICS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nobukawa, Masayoshi [Department of Teacher Training and School Education, Nara University of Education, Takabatake-cho, Nara, 630-8528 (Japan); Uchiyama, Hideki [Faculty of Education, Shizuoka University, 836 Ohya, Suruga-ku, Shizuoka, 422-8529 (Japan); Nobukawa, Kumiko K.; Koyama, Katsuji [Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University, Kitashirakawa-oiwake-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto, 606-8502 (Japan); Yamauchi, Shigeo, E-mail: nobukawa@nara-edu.ac.jp [Department of Physics, Nara Women’s University, Kitauoyanishimachi, Nara, 630-8506 (Japan)

    2016-12-20

    This paper reports detailed K-shell line profiles of iron (Fe) and nickel (Ni) of the Galactic Center X-ray Emission (GCXE), Galactic Bulge X-ray Emission (GBXE), Galactic Ridge X-ray Emission (GRXE), magnetic Cataclysmic Variables (mCVs), non-magnetic Cataclysmic Variables (non-mCVs), and coronally Active Binaries (ABs). For the study of the origin of the GCXE, GBXE, and GRXE, the spectral analysis is focused on equivalent widths of the Fe i-K α , Fe xxv-He α , and Fe xxvi-Ly α  lines. The global spectrum of the GBXE is reproduced by a combination of the mCVs, non-mCVs, and ABs spectra. On the other hand, the GRXE spectrum shows significant data excesses at the Fe i-K α and Fe xxv-He α  line energies. This means that additional components other than mCVs, non-mCVs, and ABs are required, which have symbiotic phenomena of cold gas and very high-temperature plasma. The GCXE spectrum shows larger excesses than those found in the GRXE spectrum at all the K-shell lines of iron and nickel. Among them the largest ones are the Fe i-K α , Fe xxv-He α , Fe xxvi-Ly α , and Fe xxvi-Ly β  lines. Together with the fact that the scale heights of the Fe i-K α , Fe xxv-He α , and Fe xxvi-Ly α lines are similar to that of the central molecular zone (CMZ), the excess components would be related to high-energy activity in the extreme envelopment of the CMZ.

  18. Millimeter and X-Ray Emission from the 5 July 2012 Solar Flare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsap, Y. T.; Smirnova, V. V.; Motorina, G. G.; Morgachev, A. S.; Kuznetsov, S. A.; Nagnibeda, V. G.; Ryzhov, V. S.

    2018-03-01

    The 5 July 2012 solar flare SOL2012-07-05T11:44 (11:39 - 11:49 UT) with an increasing millimeter spectrum between 93 and 140 GHz is considered. We use space and ground-based observations in X-ray, extreme ultraviolet, microwave, and millimeter wave ranges obtained with the Reuven Ramaty High-Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager, Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO), Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite, Radio Solar Telescope Network, and Bauman Moscow State Technical University millimeter radio telescope RT-7.5. The main parameters of thermal and accelerated electrons were determined through X-ray spectral fitting assuming the homogeneous thermal source and thick-target model. From the data of the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly/SDO and differential-emission-measure calculations it is shown that the thermal coronal plasma gives a negligible contribution to the millimeter flare emission. Model calculations suggest that the observed increase of millimeter spectral flux with frequency is determined by gyrosynchrotron emission of high-energy (≳ 300 keV) electrons in the chromosphere. The consequences of the results are discussed in the light of the flare-energy-release mechanisms.

  19. Hard X-ray Emission and Efficient Particle Acceleration by Supernova Remnants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vink, Jacco

    2009-01-01

    I discuss the non-thermal X-ray emission from young supernova remnants. Over the last decade it has become clear from both X-ray and γ-ray observations that young supernovae accelerate particles up to 100 TeV. In soft X-rays the accelerated >10 TeV electrons produce synchrotron radiation, coming from narrow filaments located at the shock fronts. The width of these filaments shows that the magnetic fields are relatively high, thus providing evidence for magnetic field amplification.The synchrotron radiation of several remnants is known to extend into the hard X-ray regime. In particular Cas A, has a spectrum that appears as a power law up to almost 100 TeV. This is very surprising, as a steepening is expected going from the soft to the hard X-ray band. The spectrum is likely a result of many superimposed individual spectra, each steepening at different energies. This implies considerable spatial variation in hard X-rays, an obvious target for Simbol-X. The variations will be important to infer local shock acceleration properties, but also magnetic field fluctuations may cause spatial and temporal variations.Finally, I draw the attention to super bubbles and supernovae as sources of cosmic rays. As such they may be sources of hard X-ray emission. In particular, supernovae exploding inside the dense red supergiants winds of their progenitors ares promising candidates for hard X-ray emission.

  20. Hard X-ray Emission and Efficient Particle Acceleration by Supernova Remnants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vink, Jacco

    2009-05-01

    I discuss the non-thermal X-ray emission from young supernova remnants. Over the last decade it has become clear from both X-ray and γ-ray observations that young supernovae accelerate particles up to 100 TeV. In soft X-rays the accelerated >10 TeV electrons produce synchrotron radiation, coming from narrow filaments located at the shock fronts. The width of these filaments shows that the magnetic fields are relatively high, thus providing evidence for magnetic field amplification. The synchrotron radiation of several remnants is known to extend into the hard X-ray regime. In particular Cas A, has a spectrum that appears as a power law up to almost 100 TeV. This is very surprising, as a steepening is expected going from the soft to the hard X-ray band. The spectrum is likely a result of many superimposed individual spectra, each steepening at different energies. This implies considerable spatial variation in hard X-rays, an obvious target for Simbol-X. The variations will be important to infer local shock acceleration properties, but also magnetic field fluctuations may cause spatial and temporal variations. Finally, I draw the attention to super bubbles and supernovae as sources of cosmic rays. As such they may be sources of hard X-ray emission. In particular, supernovae exploding inside the dense red supergiants winds of their progenitors ares promising candidates for hard X-ray emission.

  1. Measurement of central nickel density in Doublet III plasmas with a soft x-ray diode array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groebner, R.J.; Jahns, G.L.; Ejima, S.; Hsieh, C.L.

    1985-01-01

    An array of soft x-ray diodes has been used to obtain central nickel densities for discharges in the Doublet III tokamak, during operation with an inconel primary limiter, in which nickel L-line radiation dominated the diode signals. The nature of the diode signals is determined primarily by comparison with soft x-ray spectra. The contribution of the continuum portion of the spectra to the central diode signal can be calculated and compared to the observed signal. When the diode signal is dominated by nickel L-line emission, the observed signal is considerably larger than the calculated continuum contribution. Chordal data from the array of diodes are inverted to provide the spatial profile of soft x-ray emission. Because the diodes are absolute detectors of radiation, the soft x-ray emission profile is used to obtain the absolute nickel concentration and density profile in the center of the plasma. A computer code, including over 100 nickel L-line transitions, has been developed to obtain the nickel density. The nickel L-line cooling rate, calculated with the code, is presented. The nickel density obtained by this technique agrees well with that obtained from the K/sub α/ line intensity measured with a soft x-ray spectrometer and that obtained from a bolometric measurement of central radiated power coupled with a coronal equilibrium model of the radiation

  2. High-resolution X-ray spectroscopy of hollow atoms created in plasma heated by subpicosecond laser radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faenov, A.Ya.; Magunov, A.I.; Pikuz, T.A.

    1997-01-01

    The investigations of ultrashort (0.4-0.6 ps) laser pulse radiation interaction with solid targets have been carried out. The Trident subpicosecond laser system was used for plasma creation. The X-ray plasma emission was investigated with the help of high-resolution spectrographs with spherically bent mica crystals. It is shown that when high contrast ultrashort laser pulses were used for plasma heating its emission spectra could not be explained in terms of commonly used theoretical models, and transitions in so called hollow atoms must be taken into account for adequate description of plasma radiation

  3. News on the X-ray emission from hot subdwarf stars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palombara Nicola La

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In latest years, the high sensitivity of the instruments on-board the XMM-Newton and Chandra satellites allowed us to explore the properties of the X-ray emission from hot subdwarf stars. The small but growing sample of X-ray detected hot subdwarfs includes binary systems, in which the X-ray emission is due to wind accretion onto a compact companion (white dwarf or neutron star, as well as isolated sdO stars, in which X-rays are probably due to shock instabilities in the wind. X-ray observations of these low-mass stars provide information which can be useful for our understanding of the weak winds of this type of stars and can lead to the discovery of particularly interesting binary systems. Here we report the most recent results we have recently obtained in this research area.

  4. Dense plasma focus PACO as a hard X-ray emitter: a study on the radiation source

    OpenAIRE

    Supán, L.; Guichón, S.; Milanese, Maria Magdalena; Niedbalski, Jorge Julio; Moroso, Roberto Luis; Acuña, H.; Malamud, Florencia

    2016-01-01

    The radiation in the X-ray range detected outside the vacuum chamber of the dense plasma focus (DPF) PACO, are produced on the anode zone. The zone of emission is studied in a shot-to-shot analysis, using pure deuterium as filling gas. We present a diagnostic method to determine the place and size of the hard X-ray source by image analysis of high density radiography plates. Fil: Supán, L.. Universidad Nacional del Centro de la Provincia de Buenos Aires. Facultad de Ciencias Exactas. Insti...

  5. Characterizing X-Ray and Radio Emission in the Black Hole X-Ray Binary V404 Cygni During Quiescence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rana, Vikram; Loh, Alan; Corbel, Stephane

    2016-01-01

    We present results from multi-wavelength simultaneous X-ray and radio observations of the black hole X-ray binary V404 Cyg in quiescence. Our coverage with NuSTAR provides the very first opportunity to study the X-ray spectrum of V404 Cyg at energies above 10 keV. The unabsorbed broadband (0...

  6. Radial profiles of hard X-ray emission during steady state current drive in the TRIAM-1M tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Y.; Takabatake, Y.; Jotaki, E.; Moriyama, S.; Nagao, A.; Nakamura, K.; Hiraki, N.; Itoh, S.

    1990-01-01

    The hard X-ray emission from the TRIAM-1M tokamak plasma during steady state lower hybrid current drive with a discharge duration of a few minutes was measured with sodium iodide scintillation spectrometers. The radial profiles of the X-ray emission were also measured and indicate that, in the low density regime (n e =(1-3)x10 12 cm -3 ), the current carrying high energy electrons are mainly in the inner region of the plasma column and their radial profile remains unchanged during current drive. On the other hand, high density discharges (n e =(3-6)x10 12 cm -3 ) are always accompanied by an abrupt drop of the plasma current, and the X-ray emission profile changes from peaked to broad. This change can be attributed to the conditions of wave accessibility. As the electron density increases, the accessibility of the plasma to lower hybrid waves with low values of the parallel wave number n parallel is significantly reduced and high energy electrons resonating with the waves are produced at the plasma periphery. Interaction of these electrons with the limiters causes an increase of the electron density in this region; waves with low n parallel then become completely excluded from the inner part of the plasma column. This interpretation is supported by measurements of the density profile and impurity radiation, and has been confirmed in an investigation of discharges with additional gas puffing. (author). 17 refs, 21 figs

  7. Picosecond x-ray streak camera studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasyanov, Yu.S.; Malyutin, A.A.; Richardson, M.C.; Chevokin, V.K.

    1975-01-01

    Some initial results of direct measurement of picosecond x-ray emission from laser-produced plasmas are presented. A PIM-UMI 93 image converter tube, incorporating an x-ray sensitive photocathode, linear deflection, and three stages of image amplification was used to analyse the x-ray radiation emanating from plasmas produced from solid Ti targets by single high-intensity picosecond laser pulses. From such plasmas, the x-ray emission typically persisted for times of 60psec. However, it is shown that this detection system should be capable of resolving x-ray phenomena of much shorter duration. (author)

  8. Soft x-ray emission from classical novae in outburst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starrfield, S.; Krautter, J.; MacDonald, J.

    1989-01-01

    Theoretical modeling of novae in outburst predicts that they should be active emitters of radiation at soft x-ray wavelengths twice during their outburst. The first time occurs very early in the outburst when only a very sensitive all sky survey will be able to detect them. This period lasts only a few hours for the very fastest novae. They again become bright in x-rays late in the outburst when the remnant object becomes very hot and is still luminous. Both simulations and observations show that novae can remain very hot for months to years. It is important to observe them at these late times because a measurement both of the flux and temperature can provide information about the mass of the white dwarf, the turn-off time scale, and the energy budget of the outburst. 8 refs., 2 figs

  9. Nonlinear QED effects in X-ray emission of pulsars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shakeri, Soroush [Department of Physics, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Haghighat, Mansour [Department of Physics, Shiraz University, Shiraz 71946-84795 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Xue, She-Sheng, E-mail: Soroush.Shakeri@ph.iut.ac.ir, E-mail: m.haghighat@shirazu.ac.ir, E-mail: xue@icra.it [ICRANet, Piazzale della Repubblica 10, 65122, Pescara (Italy)

    2017-10-01

    In the presence of strong magnetic fields near pulsars, the QED vacuum becomes a birefringent medium due to nonlinear QED interactions. Here, we explore the impact of the effective photon-photon interaction on the polarization evolution of photons propagating through the magnetized QED vacuum of a pulsar. We solve the quantum Boltzmann equation within the framework of the Euler-Heisenberg Lagrangian to find the evolution of the Stokes parameters. We find that linearly polarized X-ray photons propagating outward in the magnetosphere of a rotating neutron star can acquire high values for the circular polarization parameter. Meanwhile, it is shown that the polarization characteristics of photons besides photon energy depend strongly on parameters of the pulsars such as magnetic field strength, inclination angle and rotational period. Our results are clear predictions of QED vacuum polarization effects in the near vicinity of magnetic stars which can be tested with the upcoming X-ray polarimetric observations.

  10. AGN X-Ray emission and black holes (Kelly+, 2008)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kelly, B. C.; Bechtold, J.; Trump, J. R.

    2009-01-01

    In this analysis we combine 169 RQQs from Kelly et al. (2007ApJ...665.1489K) with 149 RQQs from the main SDSS sample of Strateva et al. (2005, Cat. J/AJ/130/387) to create a sample of 318 RQQs. Out of these 318 sources, 276 (86.8%) are detected in the X-ray. (1 data file)....

  11. X-ray emission from clusters and groups of galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushotzky, R.

    1998-01-01

    Recent major advances in x-ray imaging and spectroscopy of clusters have allowed the determination of their mass and mass profile out to approximately 1/2 the virial radius. In rich clusters, most of the baryonic mass is in the gas phase, and the ratio of mass in gas/stars varies by a factor of 2-4. The baryonic fractions vary by a factor of approximately 3 from cluster to cluster and almost always exceed 0.09 h50-[3/2] and thus are in fundamental conflict with the assumption of Omega = 1 and the results of big bang nucleosynthesis. The derived Fe abundances are 0.2-0.45 solar, and the abundances of O and Si for low redshift systems are 0.6-1.0 solar. This distribution is consistent with an origin in pure type II supernova. The amount of light and energy produced by these supernovae is very large, indicating their importance in influencing the formation of clusters and galaxies. The lack of evolution of Fe to a redshift of z approximately 0.4 argues for very early enrichment of the cluster gas. Groups show a wide range of abundances, 0.1-0.5 solar. The results of an x-ray survey indicate that the contribution of groups to the mass density of the universe is likely to be larger than 0.1 h50-2. Many of the very poor groups have large x-ray halos and are filled with small galaxies whose velocity dispersion is a good match to the x-ray temperatures.

  12. X-RAY EMISSION FROM THE DOUBLE-BINARY OB-STAR SYSTEM QZ CAR (HD 93206)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parkin, E. R.; Naze, Y.; Rauw, G.; Broos, P. S.; Townsley, L. K.; Pittard, J. M.; Moffat, A. F. J.; Oskinova, L. M.; Waldron, W. L.

    2011-01-01

    X-ray observations of the double-binary OB-star system QZ Car (HD 93206) obtained with the Chandra X-ray Observatory over a period of roughly 2 years are presented. The respective orbits of systems A (O9.7 I+b2 v, P A = 21 days) and B (O8 III+o9 v, P B = 6 days) are reasonably well sampled by the observations, allowing the origin of the X-ray emission to be examined in detail. The X-ray spectra can be well fitted by an attenuated three-temperature thermal plasma model, characterized by cool, moderate, and hot plasma components at kT ≅ 0.2, 0.7, and 2 keV, respectively, and a circumstellar absorption of ≅0.2 x 10 22 cm -2 . Although the hot plasma component could be indicating the presence of wind-wind collision shocks in the system, the model fluxes calculated from spectral fits, with an average value of ≅7 x 10 -13 erg s -1 cm -2 , do not show a clear correlation with the orbits of the two constituent binaries. A semi-analytical model of QZ Car reveals that a stable momentum balance may not be established in either system A or B. Yet, despite this, system B is expected to produce an observed X-ray flux well in excess of the observations. If one considers the wind of the O8 III star to be disrupted by mass transfer, the model and observations are in far better agreement, which lends support to the previous suggestion of mass transfer in the O8 III + o9 v binary. We conclude that the X-ray emission from QZ Car can be reasonably well accounted for by a combination of contributions mainly from the single stars and the mutual wind-wind collision between systems A and B.

  13. Alpha Particle Induced X-ray Emission in the Classroom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez, Jorge A.; Borunda, Mario F.; Morales, Jaime

    2003-01-01

    We report on an experimental demonstration in an introductory modern physics course to elucidate the X-ray line spectra, and how they arise from transitions of electrons to inner shells. We seek to determine the effect of limited use of an interactive component as a supplement to a traditional lecture, and how it would improve the student achievement. In this preliminary study the students were exposed to traditional lectures on X-ray production and Bohr's model, they then were given a homework on the abc of X-ray spectra, after which they were given a pre-test on the materials, followed by an in-class demonstration, and a final post-exam. The gain, as measured from pre- to post-exams appears to remark the differences in how students approached the subject before and after the use of the demonstration. This initial study shows the validity of in-class demonstrations as teaching tools and opens a wide new area of research in modern physics teaching

  14. A SEARCH FOR X-RAY EMISSION FROM COLLIDING MAGNETOSPHERES IN YOUNG ECCENTRIC STELLAR BINARIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Getman, Konstantin V.; Broos, Patrick S. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, 525 Davey Laboratory, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Kóspál, Ágnes [Konkoly Observatory, Research Center for Astronomy and Earth Sciences, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 67, 1525 Budapest (Hungary); Salter, Demerese M. [Department of Astronomy and Laboratory for Millimeter-Wave Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Garmire, Gordon P. [Huntingdon Institute for X-ray Astronomy, LLC, 10677 Franks Road, Huntingdon, PA 16652 (United States)

    2016-12-01

    Among young binary stars whose magnetospheres are expected to collide, only two systems have been observed near periastron in the X-ray band: the low-mass DQ Tau and the older and more massive HD 152404. Both exhibit elevated levels of X-ray emission at periastron. Our goal is to determine whether colliding magnetospheres in young high-eccentricity binaries commonly produce elevated average levels of X-ray activity. This work is based on Chandra snapshots of multiple periastron and non-periastron passages in four nearby young eccentric binaries (Parenago 523, RX J1622.7-2325 Nw, UZ Tau E, and HD 152404). We find that for the merged sample of all four binaries the current X-ray data show an increasing average X-ray flux near periastron (at a ∼2.5-sigma level). Further comparison of these data with the X-ray properties of hundreds of young stars in the Orion Nebula Cluster, produced by the Chandra Orion Ultradeep Project (COUP), indicates that the X-ray emission from the merged sample of our binaries cannot be explained within the framework of the COUP-like X-ray activity. However, due to the inhomogeneities of the merged binary sample and the relatively low statistical significance of the detected flux increase, these findings are regarded as tentative only. More data are needed to prove that the flux increase is real and is related to the processes of colliding magnetospheres.

  15. The determination of light elements in heavy matrix using proton induced X-ray emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levenets, V.V.; Omel'nik, A.P.; Shchur, A.A.; Chernov, A.E.; Usikov, N.P.; Zats, A.V.

    2007-01-01

    In this report the possibility of determination of light impurities in heavy matrixes is studied using proton induced X-Ray emission. The wide-band X-ray emission filter made from pyrolytic graphite was used in spectrometric scheme of experiment. The results of studying of filter features in energy range of X-ray emission from 4 to 12 keV were presented. The possibilities were examined of application of pyrolytic graphite filter to modify the X-rays spectrum for determination of iron, using characteristic emission of K-series, and hafnium, using L-series, in substances on base of zirconium (glasses, alloys etc.). It was shown, that the using of similar filter allows to reach the significant improving of metrological characteristics of analysis of mentioned impurities: the limits of detection of iron and hafnium were lowered single-order of magnitude. (authors)

  16. The Elusive Soft Emission from Hard X-ray Symbiotic System RT Cru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karovska, Margarita

    2014-09-01

    RT Cru is a fascinating member of a new class of hard X-ray emitting symbiotic binaries showing X-ray emission extending to over 50keV. While its hard X-ray emission has been studied in detail, the soft component of the spectrum, including flares, remains elusive, since previous observations have focused on the high-energy regime. We propose Chandra HRC-S/LETG observations to determine the spatial, spectral, and temporal characteristics of the source of the soft X-ray emission with a goal to establish the origin of the soft component, and determine whether and how it is tied to the hard component. Determining the origin of the soft emission is a crucial piece of the puzzle to understanding the geometry, energetics, and the environment of WD accretion in this class of symbiotic systems.

  17. Characterization of nuclear physics targets using Rutherford backscattering and particle induced X-ray emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubehn, T.; Wozniak, G.J.; Phair, L.; Moretto, L.G.; Yu, K.M.

    1997-01-01

    Rutherford backscattering and particle induced X-ray emission have been utilized to precisely characterize targets used in nuclear fission experiments. The method allows for a fast and non-destructive determination of target thickness, homogeneity and element composition. (orig.)

  18. Intensity-dependent resonant transmission of x-rays in solid-density aluminum plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, M. S.; Chung, H.-K.; Cho, B. I.

    2018-05-01

    X-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs) provide unique opportunities to generate and investigate dense plasmas. The absorption and transmission properties of x-ray photons in dense plasmas are important in characterizing the state of the plasmas. Experimental evidence shows that the transmission of x-ray photons through dense plasmas depends greatly on the incident XFEL intensity. Here, we present a detailed analysis of intensity-dependent x-ray transmission in solid-density aluminum using collisional-radiative population kinetics calculations. Reverse saturable absorption (RSA), i.e., an increase in x-ray absorption with intensity has been observed for photon energies below the K-absorption edge and in the intensity range of 1016-1017 W/cm2 for XFEL photons with 1487 eV. At higher intensities, a transition from RSA to saturable absorption (SA) is predicted; thus, the x-ray absorption decreases with intensity above a threshold value. For XFEL photon energies of 1501 eV and 1515 eV, the transition from RSA to SA occurs at XFEL intensities between 1017-1018 W/cm2. Electron temperatures are predicted to be in the range of 30-50 eV for the given experimental conditions. Detailed population kinetics of the charge states explains the intensity-dependent absorption of x-ray photons and the fast modulation of XFEL pulses for both RSA and SA.

  19. Laboratory simulation of charge exchange-produced X-ray emission from comets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beiersdorfer, P; Boyce, K R; Brown, G V; Chen, H; Kahn, S M; Kelley, R L; May, M; Olson, R E; Porter, F S; Stahle, C K; Tillotson, W A

    2003-06-06

    In laboratory experiments using the engineering spare microcalorimeter detector from the ASTRO-E satellite mission, we recorded the x-ray emission of highly charged ions of carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen, which simulates charge exchange reactions between heavy ions in the solar wind and neutral gases in cometary comae. The spectra are complex and do not readily match predictions. We developed a charge exchange emission model that successfully reproduces the soft x-ray spectrum of comet Linear C/1999 S4, observed with the Chandra X-ray Observatory.

  20. Design calculations for a xenon plasma x-ray shield to protect the NIF optical Thomson scattering diagnostic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swadling, G. F.; Ross, J. S.; Datte, P.; Moody, J.; Divol, L.; Jones, O.; Landen, O. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)

    2016-11-15

    An Optical Thomson Scattering (OTS) diagnostic is currently being developed for the National Ignition Facility (NIF) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. This diagnostic is designed to make measurements of the hohlraum plasma parameters, such as the electron temperature and the density, during inertial confinement fusion (ICF) experiments. NIF ICF experiments present a very challenging environment for optical measurements; by their very nature, hohlraums produce intense soft x-ray emission, which can cause “blanking” (radiation induced opacity) of the radiation facing optical components. The soft x-ray fluence at the surface of the OTS blast shield, 60 cm from the hohlraum, is estimated to be ∼8 J cm{sup −2}. This is significantly above the expected threshold for the onset of “blanking” effects. A novel xenon plasma x-ray shield is proposed to protect the blast shield from x-rays and mitigate “blanking.” Estimates suggest that an areal density of 10{sup 19} cm{sup −2} Xe atoms will be sufficient to absorb 99.5% of the soft x-ray flux. Two potential designs for this shield are presented.

  1. Design calculations for a xenon plasma x-ray shield to protect the NIF optical Thomson scattering diagnostic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swadling, G F; Ross, J S; Datte, P; Moody, J; Divol, L; Jones, O; Landen, O

    2016-11-01

    An Optical Thomson Scattering (OTS) diagnostic is currently being developed for the National Ignition Facility (NIF) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. This diagnostic is designed to make measurements of the hohlraum plasma parameters, such as the electron temperature and the density, during inertial confinement fusion (ICF) experiments. NIF ICF experiments present a very challenging environment for optical measurements; by their very nature, hohlraums produce intense soft x-ray emission, which can cause "blanking" (radiation induced opacity) of the radiation facing optical components. The soft x-ray fluence at the surface of the OTS blast shield, 60 cm from the hohlraum, is estimated to be ∼8 J cm -2 . This is significantly above the expected threshold for the onset of "blanking" effects. A novel xenon plasma x-ray shield is proposed to protect the blast shield from x-rays and mitigate "blanking." Estimates suggest that an areal density of 10 19 cm -2 Xe atoms will be sufficient to absorb 99.5% of the soft x-ray flux. Two potential designs for this shield are presented.

  2. CHANDRA DETECTION OF X-RAY EMISSION FROM ULTRACOMPACT DWARF GALAXIES AND EXTENDED STAR CLUSTERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hou, Meicun; Li, Zhiyuan, E-mail: lizy@nju.edu.cn [School of Astronomy and Space Science, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210046 (China)

    2016-03-10

    We have conducted a systematic study of X-ray emission from ultracompact dwarf (UCD) galaxies and extended star clusters (ESCs), based on archival Chandra observations. Among a sample of 511 UCDs and ESCs complied from the literature, 17 X-ray counterparts with 0.5–8 keV luminosities above ∼5 × 10{sup 36} erg s{sup −1} are identified, which are distributed in eight early-type host galaxies. To facilitate comparison, we also identify X-ray counterparts of 360 globular clusters (GCs) distributed in four of the eight galaxies. The X-ray properties of the UCDs and ESCs are found to be broadly similar to those of the GCs. The incidence rate of X-ray-detected UCDs and ESCs, 3.3% ± 0.8%, while lower than that of the X-ray-detected GCs (7.0% ± 0.4%), is substantially higher than expected from the field populations of external galaxies. A stacking analysis of the individually undetected UCDs/ESCs further reveals significant X-ray signals, which corresponds to an equivalent 0.5–8 keV luminosity of ∼4 × 10{sup 35} erg s{sup −1} per source. Taken together, these provide strong evidence that the X-ray emission from UCDs and ESCs is dominated by low-mass X-ray binaries having formed from stellar dynamical interactions, consistent with the stellar populations in these dense systems being predominantly old. For the most massive UCDs, there remains the possibility that a putative central massive black hole gives rise to the observed X-ray emission.

  3. CHANDRA DETECTION OF X-RAY EMISSION FROM ULTRACOMPACT DWARF GALAXIES AND EXTENDED STAR CLUSTERS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hou, Meicun; Li, Zhiyuan

    2016-01-01

    We have conducted a systematic study of X-ray emission from ultracompact dwarf (UCD) galaxies and extended star clusters (ESCs), based on archival Chandra observations. Among a sample of 511 UCDs and ESCs complied from the literature, 17 X-ray counterparts with 0.5–8 keV luminosities above ∼5 × 10 36 erg s −1 are identified, which are distributed in eight early-type host galaxies. To facilitate comparison, we also identify X-ray counterparts of 360 globular clusters (GCs) distributed in four of the eight galaxies. The X-ray properties of the UCDs and ESCs are found to be broadly similar to those of the GCs. The incidence rate of X-ray-detected UCDs and ESCs, 3.3% ± 0.8%, while lower than that of the X-ray-detected GCs (7.0% ± 0.4%), is substantially higher than expected from the field populations of external galaxies. A stacking analysis of the individually undetected UCDs/ESCs further reveals significant X-ray signals, which corresponds to an equivalent 0.5–8 keV luminosity of ∼4 × 10 35 erg s −1 per source. Taken together, these provide strong evidence that the X-ray emission from UCDs and ESCs is dominated by low-mass X-ray binaries having formed from stellar dynamical interactions, consistent with the stellar populations in these dense systems being predominantly old. For the most massive UCDs, there remains the possibility that a putative central massive black hole gives rise to the observed X-ray emission

  4. X-ray Spectroscopy of Hot Dense Plasmas: Experimental Limits, Line Shifts and Field Effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renner, Oldrich; Sauvan, Patrick; Dalimier, Elisabeth; Riconda, Caterina; Rosmej, Frank B.; Weber, Stefan; Nicolai, Philippe; Peyrusse, Olivier; Uschmann, Ingo; Hoefer, Sebastian; Kaempfer, Tino; Loetzsch, Robert; Zastrau, Ulf; Foerster, Eckhart; Oks, Eugene

    2008-01-01

    High-resolution x-ray spectroscopy is capable of providing complex information on environmental conditions in hot dense plasmas. Benefiting from application of modern spectroscopic methods, we report experiments aiming at identification of different phenomena occurring in laser-produced plasma. Fine features observed in broadened profiles of the emitted x-ray lines and their satellites are interpreted using theoretical models predicting spectra modification under diverse experimental situations.

  5. Modeling of X-ray emissions produced by stepping lightning leaders

    OpenAIRE

    Xu , Wei; Celestin , Sebastien; Pasko , Victor P.

    2014-01-01

    International audience; Intense and brief bursts of X-ray emissions have been measured during the stepping processof both natural cloud-to-ground (CG) and rocket-triggered lightning flashes. In this paper, we investigatetheoretically the energy spectra of X-rays produced by the bremsstrahlung emission of thermal runawayelectrons accelerated in the inhomogeneous electric field produced around lightning leader tips. The X-rayenergy spectrum depends on the physical properties of the associated l...

  6. Compact tunable Compton x-ray source from laser-plasma accelerator and plasma mirror

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsai, Hai-En; Wang, Xiaoming; Shaw, Joseph M.; Li, Zhengyan; Zgadzaj, Rafal; Henderson, Watson; Downer, M. C.; Arefiev, Alexey V.; Zhang, Xi; Khudik, V.; Shvets, G.

    2015-01-01

    We present an in-depth experimental-computational study of the parameters necessary to optimize a tunable, quasi-monoenergetic, efficient, low-background Compton backscattering (CBS) x-ray source that is based on the self-aligned combination of a laser-plasma accelerator (LPA) and a plasma mirror (PM). The main findings are (1) an LPA driven in the blowout regime by 30 TW, 30 fs laser pulses produce not only a high-quality, tunable, quasi-monoenergetic electron beam, but also a high-quality, relativistically intense (a 0 ∼ 1) spent drive pulse that remains stable in profile and intensity over the LPA tuning range. (2) A thin plastic film near the gas jet exit retro-reflects the spent drive pulse efficiently into oncoming electrons to produce CBS x-rays without detectable bremsstrahlung background. Meanwhile, anomalous far-field divergence of the retro-reflected light demonstrates relativistic “denting” of the PM. Exploiting these optimized LPA and PM conditions, we demonstrate quasi-monoenergetic (50% FWHM energy spread), tunable (75–200 KeV) CBS x-rays, characteristics previously achieved only on more powerful laser systems by CBS of a split-off, counter-propagating pulse. Moreover, laser-to-x-ray photon conversion efficiency (∼6 × 10 −12 ) exceeds that of any previous LPA-based quasi-monoenergetic Compton source. Particle-in-cell simulations agree well with the measurements

  7. Discrepancies between soft x-ray emissivity contours and magnetic flux surfaces in Alcator C-Mod

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borras, M.C.; Granetz, R.S.

    1996-01-01

    The soft x-ray diagnostic system of Alcator C-Mod, equipped with 152 detectors distributed in four arrays, is used to obtain iso-emissivity surfaces. These surfaces have been characterized by giving their elongation and relative shift from the centre of the tokamak as functions of plasma radius. Flux surfaces, provided by magnetic diagnostics, have also been described with elongation and shift. Results from the comparison of the two sets of geometric parameters obtained from magnetic and x-ray diagnostics are presented. We find that, whereas the shifts obtained from these two diagnostic methods are always in good agreement, the corresponding elongation curves show different patterns. An agreement between elongations better than 2% is only found in a range of about 2 cm in minor radius. On the other hand, the elongations can differ by 10% towards the plasma edge and the plasma centre. Error bars for the x-ray diagnostic are obtained by propagating the effect of ± 1% random errors at the detector signals, and can amount to ± 1-2% of the estimated values near the edge and the centre of the plasma. The estimated uncertainties in the determination of elongation from magnetic flux surfaces are of the order of 4%. A series of tests and simulations performed to verify the accuracy of the X-ray diagnostic system is presented. The discrepancies found could imply the existence of asymmetries in impurity concentration. (Author)

  8. Atomic physics for fusion plasma spectroscopy; a soft x-ray study of molybdenum ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fournier, K.B.

    1996-01-01

    Understanding the radiative patterns of the ions of heavy atoms (Z approx-gt 18) is crucial to fusion experiments. The present thesis applies ab initio, relativistic calculations of atomic data to modeling the emission of molybdenum (Z = 42) ions in magnetically confined fusion plasmas. The models are compared to observations made in the Alcator C-Mod tokamak (Plasma Fusion Center, Massachusetts Institute of Technology), and the Frascati Tokamak Upgrade. Experimental confirmation of these models allows confidence in calculations of the total molybdenum concentration and quantitative estimates of the total power lost from the plasmas due to molybdenum line radiation. Charge states in the plasma core (Mo 33+ to Mo 29+ ) emit strong x-ray and XUV spectra which allow benchmarking of models for the spatial distribution of highly stripped molybdenum ions; the models only achieve agreement with observations when the rates of indirect ionization and recombination processes are included in the calculation of the charge state distribution of the central molybdenum ions. The total concentration of molybdenum in the core of the plasma is found, and the total power radiated from the plasma core is computed. Observations of line emission from more highly charged molybdenum ions (Mo 36+ to Mo 34+ ) are presented. open-quotes Bulkclose quotes molybdenum charge states (Mo 25+ to Mo 23+ ) emit complicated XUV spectra from a position in the plasma near C-Mod's half radius; spatial profiles of these ions' emission are analyzed. Models for the line-emission spectra of adjacent ions (Mo 28+ to Mo 26+ ) are offered, and the accuracy and limits of ab initio energy level calculations are discussed. open-quotes Edgeclose quotes charge states (Mo 22+ to Mo 15 ) extend to the last closed magnetic flux surface of the C-Mod plasma. The strongest features from these charge states are emitted in a narrow band from ∼70 Angstrom

  9. X-ray emission as a potential hazard during ultrashort pulse laser material processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legall, Herbert; Schwanke, Christoph; Pentzien, Simone; Dittmar, Günter; Bonse, Jörn; Krüger, Jörg

    2018-06-01

    In laser machining with ultrashort laser pulses unwanted X-ray radiation in the keV range can be generated when a critical laser intensity is exceeded. Even if the emitted X-ray dose per pulse is low, high laser repetition rates can lead to an accumulation of X-ray doses beyond exposure safety limits. For 925 fs pulse duration at a center wavelength of 1030 nm, the X-ray emission was investigated up to an intensity of 2.6 × 1014 W/cm2. The experiments were performed in air with a thin disk laser at a repetition rate of 400 kHz. X-ray spectra and doses were measured for various planar target materials covering a wide range of the periodic table from aluminum to tungsten. Without radiation shielding, the measured radiation doses at this high repetition rate clearly exceed the regulatory limits. Estimations for an adequate radiation shielding are provided.

  10. On the Absence of Non-thermal X-Ray Emission around Runaway O Stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toalá, J. A. [Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica (ASIAA), Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Oskinova, L. M. [Institute for Physics and Astronomy, University of Potsdam, D-14476 Potsdam (Germany); Ignace, R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, East Tennessee State University, Johnson City, TN 37614 (United States)

    2017-04-01

    Theoretical models predict that the compressed interstellar medium around runaway O stars can produce high-energy non-thermal diffuse emission, in particular, non-thermal X-ray and γ -ray emission. So far, detection of non-thermal X-ray emission was claimed for only one runaway star, AE Aur. We present a search for non-thermal diffuse X-ray emission from bow shocks using archived XMM-Newton observations for a clean sample of six well-determined runaway O stars. We find that none of these objects present diffuse X-ray emission associated with their bow shocks, similarly to previous X-ray studies toward ζ Oph and BD+43°3654. We carefully investigated multi-wavelength observations of AE Aur and could not confirm previous findings of non-thermal X-rays. We conclude that so far there is no clear evidence of non-thermal extended emission in bow shocks around runaway O stars.

  11. Radio and X-ray emission from newly born remnants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salvati, M.

    1983-01-01

    Radio and X-ray observations of SN 1979c and SN 1980k offer a unique opportunity of monitoring the transition from supernovae to remnants. By means of the two-frequency radio light curves, the hypothesis that these objects are surrounded by circumstellar matter, originated in a presupernova wind, is tested, and the relevant parameters are derived. Then the absorption-corrected light curves are used to test the various proposed models. SN 1980k appears to be powered by a canonical shock, while SN 1979c is a good plerion candidate. An optical pulsar could still be detected at its location. (Auth.)

  12. X-ray emitting hot plasma in solar active regions observed by the SphinX spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miceli, M.; Reale, F.; Gburek, S.; Terzo, S.; Barbera, M.; Collura, A.; Sylwester, J.; Kowalinski, M.; Podgorski, P.; Gryciuk, M.

    2012-08-01

    Aims: The detection of very hot plasma in the quiescent corona is important for diagnosing heating mechanisms. The presence and the amount of such hot plasma is currently debated. The SphinX instrument on-board the CORONAS-PHOTON mission is sensitive to X-ray emission of energies well above 1 keV and provides the opportunity to detect the hot plasma component. Methods: We analysed the X-ray spectra of the solar corona collected by the SphinX spectrometer in May 2009 (when two active regions were present). We modelled the spectrum extracted from the whole Sun over a time window of 17 days in the 1.34-7 keV energy band by adopting the latest release of the APED database. Results: The SphinX broadband spectrum cannot be modelled by a single isothermal component of optically thin plasma and two components are necessary. In particular, the high statistical significance of the count rates and the accurate calibration of the spectrometer allowed us to detect a very hot component at ~7 million K with an emission measure of ~2.7 × 1044 cm-3. The X-ray emission from the hot plasma dominates the solar X-ray spectrum above 4 keV. We checked that this hot component is invariably present in both the high and low emission regimes, i.e. even excluding resolvable microflares. We also present and discuss the possibility of a non-thermal origin (which would be compatible with a weak contribution from thick-target bremsstrahlung) for this hard emission component. Conclusions: Our results support the nanoflare scenario and might confirm that a minor flaring activity is ever-present in the quiescent corona, as also inferred for the coronae of other stars.

  13. Non-thermal Hard X-Ray Emission from Coma and Several Abell Clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Correa, C

    2004-01-01

    We report results of hard X-Ray observations of the clusters Coma, Abell 496, Abell754, Abell 1060, Abell 1367, Abell2256 and Abell3558 using RXTE data from the NASA HEASARC public archive. Specifically we searched for clusters with hard x-ray emission that can be fitted by a power law because this would indicate that the cluster is a source of non-thermal emission. We are assuming the emission mechanism proposed by Vahk Petrosian where the inter cluster space contains clouds of relativistic electrons that by themselves create a magnetic field and emit radio synchrotron radiation. These relativistic electrons Inverse-Compton scatter Microwave Background photons up to hard x-ray energies. The clusters that were found to be sources of non-thermal hard x-rays are Coma, Abell496, Abell754 and Abell 1060

  14. Time-resolved x-ray line diagnostics of laser-produced plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kauffman, R.L.; Matthews, D.L.; Kilkenny, J.D.; Lee, R.W.

    1982-01-01

    We have examined the underdense plasma conditions of laser irradiated disks using K x-rays from highly ionized ions. A 900 ps laser pulse of 0.532 μm light is used to irradiate various Z disks which have been doped with low concentrations of tracer materials. The tracers whose Z's range from 13 to 22 are chosen so that their K x-ray spectrum is sensitive to typical underdense plasma temperatures and densities. Spectra are measured using a time-resolved crystal spectrograph recording the time history of the x-ray spectrum. A spatially-resolved, time-integrated crystal spectrograph also monitors the x-ray lines. Large differences in Al spectra are observed when the host plasma is changed from SiO 2 to PbO or In. Spectra will be presented along with preliminary analysis of the data

  15. X-ray absorption spectroscopy of aluminum z-pinch plasma with tungsten backlighter planar wire array source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osborne, G. C.; Kantsyrev, V. L.; Safronova, A. S.; Esaulov, A. A.; Weller, M. E.; Shrestha, I.; Shlyaptseva, V. V. [Physics Department, University of Nevada, Reno, Reno, Nevada 89557 (United States); Ouart, N. D. [Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, D.C. 20375 (United States)

    2012-10-15

    Absorption features from K-shell aluminum z-pinch plasmas have recently been studied on Zebra, the 1.7 MA pulse power generator at the Nevada Terawatt Facility. In particular, tungsten plasma has been used as a semi-backlighter source in the generation of aluminum K-shell absorption spectra by placing a single Al wire at or near the end of a single planar W array. All spectroscopic experimental results were recorded using a time-integrated, spatially resolved convex potassium hydrogen phthalate (KAP) crystal spectrometer. Other diagnostics used to study these plasmas included x-ray detectors, optical imaging, laser shadowgraphy, and time-gated and time-integrated x-ray pinhole imagers. Through comparisons with previous publications, Al K-shell absorption lines are shown to be from much lower electron temperature ({approx}10-40 eV) plasmas than emission spectra ({approx}350-500 eV).

  16. X-ray Spectroscopic Characterization of Plasma for a Charged-Particle Energy-Loss Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Nm; Lee, Cl; Wilson, Dc; Barnes, Cris W.; Petrasso, Rd; Li, C.; Hicks, D.

    2000-10-01

    We are pursuing an approach to a charged-particle energy-loss experiment in which charged fusion products from an imploded ICF capsule travel through a well characterized, spatially separate plasma. For this purpose, a fully ionized, uniform, nearly steady-state carbon-hydrogen plasma will be created by laser irradiation of a plastic foil. The temperature and density structure of this plasma must be determined accurately in order to relate observed energy losses to predictions of theory. Various methods for diagnosing the plasma are possible, including Thomson scattering. Alternatively, if a small admixture of higher-Z material such as chlorine is included in the plastic, x-ray spectroscopic techniques will allow the plasma's temperature and density to be determined. Electron temperature is inferred from the ratios of line strengths of various chlorine ion stages, while electron density is determined from the spectra of lithium-like satellite lines near the He beta line of helium-like chlorine. We present results from detailed-configuration accounting (DCA) models of line emission from C+H+Cl plasmas, and estimate the accuracy with which such plasmas can be characterized.

  17. Nuclear X-ray emission after fusion of heavy ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berner, Christian; Muecher, Dennis; Gernhaeuser, Roman; Faestermann, Thomas [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Lehrstuhl E12 (Germany); Henning, Walter [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Lehrstuhl E12 (Germany); Argonne National Laboratory (United States); Morita, Kosuke; Morimoto, Kouji; Kaji, Daija [RIKEN, Research Group for Superheavy Elements (Japan)

    2015-07-01

    The goal is to establish in-beam K-X-ray spectroscopy as a sensitive tool to identify super heavy elements (SHEs) produced in fusion reactions via their proton number. SHEs, formed after cold or hot fusion, are usually identified via the alpha-decay products, which have to be connected to well-known elements. In case of hot fusion, the daughter nuclei quickly undergo spontaneous fission, so that the identification of the produced SHEs is difficult. Using the hot fusion approach in our first test experiments, the resultant products will be analysed by the gas-filled GARIS separator at the RILAC facility at RIKEN. As the X-ray detector is required to have superior energy and timing resolution to best identify the rare events at highest masses and to supress random coincidences as sufficient as possible, we chose a thin and planar geometry, which also reduces the damage caused by fast neutrons. We show first measurements using the MINIBALL Ge array at Munich. Additionally we report on our feasibility studies and on first tests using the new detector at high count rates together with a powerful DAQ system and transistor reset preamplifiers.

  18. SphinX MEASUREMENTS OF THE 2009 SOLAR MINIMUM X-RAY EMISSION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sylwester, J.; Kowalinski, M.; Gburek, S.; Siarkowski, M.; Bakała, J.; Gryciuk, M.; Podgorski, P.; Sylwester, B.; Kuzin, S.; Farnik, F.; Reale, F.; Phillips, K. J. H.

    2012-01-01

    The SphinX X-ray spectrophotometer on the CORONAS-PHOTON spacecraft measured soft X-ray emission in the 1-15 keV energy range during the deep solar minimum of 2009 with a sensitivity much greater than GOES. Several intervals are identified when the X-ray flux was exceptionally low, and the flux and solar X-ray luminosity are estimated. Spectral fits to the emission at these times give temperatures of 1.7-1.9 MK and emission measures between 4 × 10 47 cm –3 and 1.1 × 10 48 cm –3 . Comparing SphinX emission with that from the Hinode X-ray Telescope, we deduce that most of the emission is from general coronal structures rather than confined features like bright points. For one of 27 intervals of exceptionally low activity identified in the SphinX data, the Sun's X-ray luminosity in an energy range roughly extrapolated to that of ROSAT (0.1-2.4 keV) was less than most nearby K and M dwarfs.

  19. SphinX Measurements of the 2009 Solar Minimum X-Ray Emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sylwester, J.; Kowalinski, M.; Gburek, S.; Siarkowski, M.; Kuzin, S.; Farnik, F.; Reale, F.; Phillips, K. J. H.; Bakała, J.; Gryciuk, M.; Podgorski, P.; Sylwester, B.

    2012-06-01

    The SphinX X-ray spectrophotometer on the CORONAS-PHOTON spacecraft measured soft X-ray emission in the 1-15 keV energy range during the deep solar minimum of 2009 with a sensitivity much greater than GOES. Several intervals are identified when the X-ray flux was exceptionally low, and the flux and solar X-ray luminosity are estimated. Spectral fits to the emission at these times give temperatures of 1.7-1.9 MK and emission measures between 4 × 1047 cm-3 and 1.1 × 1048 cm-3. Comparing SphinX emission with that from the Hinode X-ray Telescope, we deduce that most of the emission is from general coronal structures rather than confined features like bright points. For one of 27 intervals of exceptionally low activity identified in the SphinX data, the Sun's X-ray luminosity in an energy range roughly extrapolated to that of ROSAT (0.1-2.4 keV) was less than most nearby K and M dwarfs.

  20. SphinX MEASUREMENTS OF THE 2009 SOLAR MINIMUM X-RAY EMISSION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sylwester, J.; Kowalinski, M.; Gburek, S.; Siarkowski, M.; Bakala, J.; Gryciuk, M.; Podgorski, P.; Sylwester, B. [Space Research Centre, Polish Academy of Sciences, 51-622, Kopernika 11, Wroclaw (Poland); Kuzin, S. [P. N. Lebedev Physical Institute (FIAN), Russian Academy of Sciences, Leninsky Prospect 53, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Farnik, F. [Astronomical Institute, Ondrejov Observatory (Czech Republic); Reale, F. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Palermo, Palermo, Italy, and INAF, Osservatorio Astronomico di Palermo, Palermo (Italy); Phillips, K. J. H., E-mail: js@cbk.pan.wroc.pl [Mullard Space Science Laboratory, University College London, Holmbury St. Mary, Dorking, Surrey RH5 6NT (United Kingdom)

    2012-06-01

    The SphinX X-ray spectrophotometer on the CORONAS-PHOTON spacecraft measured soft X-ray emission in the 1-15 keV energy range during the deep solar minimum of 2009 with a sensitivity much greater than GOES. Several intervals are identified when the X-ray flux was exceptionally low, and the flux and solar X-ray luminosity are estimated. Spectral fits to the emission at these times give temperatures of 1.7-1.9 MK and emission measures between 4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 47} cm{sup -3} and 1.1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 48} cm{sup -3}. Comparing SphinX emission with that from the Hinode X-ray Telescope, we deduce that most of the emission is from general coronal structures rather than confined features like bright points. For one of 27 intervals of exceptionally low activity identified in the SphinX data, the Sun's X-ray luminosity in an energy range roughly extrapolated to that of ROSAT (0.1-2.4 keV) was less than most nearby K and M dwarfs.

  1. AN XMM-NEWTON SURVEY OF THE SOFT X-RAY BACKGROUND. III. THE GALACTIC HALO X-RAY EMISSION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henley, David B.; Shelton, Robin L.

    2013-01-01

    We present measurements of the Galactic halo's X-ray emission for 110 XMM-Newton sight lines selected to minimize contamination from solar wind charge exchange emission. We detect emission from few million degree gas on ∼4/5 of our sight lines. The temperature is fairly uniform (median = 2.22 × 10 6 K, interquartile range = 0.63 × 10 6 K), while the emission measure and intrinsic 0.5-2.0 keV surface brightness vary by over an order of magnitude (∼(0.4-7) × 10 –3 cm –6 pc and ∼(0.5-7) × 10 –12 erg cm –2 s –1 deg –2 , respectively, with median detections of 1.9 × 10 –3 cm –6 pc and 1.5 × 10 –12 erg cm –2 s –1 deg –2 , respectively). The high-latitude sky contains a patchy distribution of few million degree gas. This gas exhibits a general increase in emission measure toward the inner Galaxy in the southern Galactic hemisphere. However, there is no tendency for our observed emission measures to decrease with increasing Galactic latitude, contrary to what is expected for a disk-like halo morphology. The measured temperatures, brightnesses, and spatial distributions of the gas can be used to place constraints on models for the dominant heating sources of the halo. We provide some discussion of such heating sources, but defer comparisons between the observations and detailed models to a later paper

  2. Globular clusters as a source of X-ray emission from the neighbourhood of M87

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabian, A.C.; Pringle, J.E.; Rees, M.J.

    1976-01-01

    It is stated that the X-ray emission from globular clusters may be attributable to accretion on to compact objects, the accreting material being supplied from binary companions, or gas trapped in the potential well of the cluster. Counts of objects in the vicinity of the M87 have revealed that it has an extensive halo of globular clusters, the number of which may exceed 10,000 within a radius of 23 arc min. Most of these clusters may be explicable as a population effect, and the similarity of their optical properties to those of cluster in our own Galaxy suggests that they may also contain X-ray sources. The brighter globular clusters in M87 may, however, be substantially more X-ray luminous, and there may be proportionally more gas available in globular clusters in M87 compared with our Galaxy. The average X-ray luminosity of individual globular clusters may be of the order of 10 38 erg/sec., which raises the possibility that the integrated globular cluster emission may account for a substantial fraction of the X-ray emission observed from the region of M87. In support of this it is noted that the extended X-ray emission from the Virgo cluster is centered on M87, which lies approximately 45 arc min from the cluster centroid, and it is expected that the general X-ray emission from the globular cluster will appear to be smoothly and symmetrically distributed about M87 at moderate spatial resolution. A similar situation may apply to the elliptical galaxy NGC 3311 in Abell 1060 which, as a cluster, has been suggested as the identification for the X-ray source 3 U 1044-40, and it seems possible that that galaxy is surrounded by a similar globular cluster population to that of M87. (U.K.)

  3. Ultra fast atomic process in X-ray emission by inner-shell ionization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moribayashi, Kengo; Sasaki, Akira [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Neyagawa, Osaka (Japan). Kansai Research Establishment; Tajima, T

    1998-03-01

    An ultra-fast atomic process together with X-ray emission by inner-shell ionization using high intensity (10{sup 18} W/cm{sup 2}) short pulse (20fs) X-ray is studied. A new class of experiment is proposed and a useful pumping source is suggested. In this method, it is found that the gain value of X-ray laser amounts to larger than 1000(1/cm) with use of the density of 10{sup 22}/cm{sup 3} of carbon atom. Electron impact ionization effect and initial density effect as well as intensity of pumping source effect are also discussed. (author)

  4. Proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) analysis at Lucas Heights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, D.; Duerden, P.

    1979-02-01

    The state of the proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) work at Lucas Heights is reported together with a full description of the experimental arrangement and its use for analysis of trace elements (Z >or= 14). The fundamentals of PIXE are examined in detail with a view to understanding not only the background continuum but also the X-ray production mechanisms. Quantitative predictions for the number of X-rays detected after proton bombardment of the target have been made and these compare well with experiments

  5. X-ray imaging studies of electron cyclotron microwave-heated plasmas in the Tandem Mirror Experiment-Upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Failor, B.H.

    1986-02-01

    An x-ray pinhole camera designed to efficiently detect photons with energies between 5 and 250 keV was built to image bremsstrahlung emission from a microwave-heated hot electron plasma. This plasma is formed at one of the thermal barrier locations in the Tandem Experiment-Upgrade at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The instrument consists of a lead aperture, an x-ray converter in the form of a sodium-activated cesium iodide scintillator, light intensifier electronics, and a recording medium that may either be high speed film or a CCD array. The nominal spatial and temporal resolutions are one part in 40 and 17 msec, respectively. The component requirements for optimum performance were determined both analytically and by computer simulation, and were verified experimentally. The details of these results are presented. The instrument has been used to measure x-ray emission from the TMX-U west end cell. Data acquired with the x-ray camera has allowed us to infer the temporal evolution of the mirror-trapped electron radial profile

  6. X-ray emission in collisions of highly charged I, Pr, Ho, and Bi ions with a W surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, H.; Tona, M.; Ohtani, S.; Sun, J.; Nakamura, N.; Yamada, C.; Yoshiyasu, N.; Sakurai, M.

    2007-01-01

    X-ray emission yields, which are defined as the total number of emitted x-ray photons per incident ion, and dissipated fractions of potential energies through x-ray emission have been measured for slow highly charged ions of I, Pr, Ho, and Bi colliding with a W surface. A larger amount of potential energy was consumed for the x-ray emission with increasing the atomic number and the charge state. The present measurements show that x-ray emission is one of the main decay channels of hollow atoms produced in collisions of very highly charged ions of heavy elements

  7. Extended hard-X-ray emission in the inner few parsecs of the Galaxy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perez, Kerstin; Hailey, Charles J.; Bauer, Franz E.

    2015-01-01

    of objects emitting soft X-rays (less than 10 kiloelectronvolts) within the surrounding hundreds of parsecs, as well as the population responsible for unresolved X-ray emission extending along the Galactic plane, is dominated by accreting white dwarf systems. Observations of diffuse hard-X-ray (more than 10...... kiloelectronvolts) emission in the inner 10 parsecs, however, have been hampered by the limited spatial resolution of previous instruments. Here we report the presence of a distinct hard-X-ray component within the central 4 × 8 parsecs, as revealed by subarcminute-resolution images in the 20-40 kiloelectronvolt...... outflows interacting with the surrounding radiation field, dense molecular material or magnetic fields. However, all these interpretations pose significant challenges to our understanding of stellar evolution, binary formation, and cosmic-ray production in the Galactic Centre....

  8. Time-resolved x-ray line diagnostics of laser-produced plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kauffman, R.L.; Matthews, D.L.; Kilkenny, J.D.; Lee, R.W.

    1982-11-01

    We have examined the underdense plasma conditions of laser irradiated disks using K x-rays from highly ionized ions. A 900 ps laser pulse of 0.532 μm light is used to irradiate various Z disks which have been doped with low concentrations of tracer materials. The tracers, whose Z's range from 13 to 22, are chosen so that their K x-ray spectrum is sensitive to typical underdense plasma temperatures and densities. Spectra are measured using a time-resolved crystal spectrograph recording the time history of the x-ray spectrum. A spatially-resolved, time-integrated crystal spectrograph also monitors the x-ray lines. Large differences in Al spectra are observed when the host plasms is changed from SiO 2 to PbO or In. Spectra will be presented along with preliminary analysis of the data

  9. X-ray emission from high-intensity interaction of picosecond and subnanosecond laser pulses with solid targets

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Badziak, J.; Jabloňski, S.; Makowski, J.; Parys, P.; Ryc, L.; Vankov, A. B.; Wolowski, J.; Woryna, E.; Juha, Libor; Krása, Josef

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 32, 1-2 (2002), s. 41-46 ISSN 0078-5466 Grant - others:KBN(PL) 2PO3B08219 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010921 Keywords : soft x-ray emission * laser produced plasma * 1-ps and 0.5ns laser pulses Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 0.291, year: 2002

  10. Electron and photon emissions from gold nanoparticles irradiated by X-ray photons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casta, R., E-mail: castaromain@gmail.com, E-mail: romain.casta@irsamc.ups-tlse.fr; Champeaux, J.-P.; Moretto-Capelle, P.; Sence, M.; Cafarelli, P. [Université de Toulouse, UPS, Laboratoire Collisions Agrégats Réactivité, IRSAMC, CNRS, UMR 5589 (France)

    2015-01-15

    In this paper, we develop a totally new probabilistic model for the electron and photon emission of gold nanoparticles irradiated by X-ray photons. This model allows direct applications to recent researches about the radiotherapy enhancement by gold nanoparticles in the context of cancer treatment. Our model uses, in a complete original way, simulated Auger cascade and stopping power to compute electron emission spectra, photon emission spectra and released energy inside the material of gold nanoparticles. It allows us to present new results about the electron and photon emission of gold nanoparticle irradiated by hard X-rays.

  11. THERMAL X-RAY EMISSION FROM THE SHOCKED STELLAR WIND OF PULSAR GAMMA-RAY BINARIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zabalza, V.; Paredes, J. M. [Departament d' Astronomia i Meteorologia, Institut de Ciencies del Cosmos (ICC), Universitat de Barcelona (IEEC-UB), Marti i Franques 1, E08028 Barcelona (Spain); Bosch-Ramon, V., E-mail: vzabalza@am.ub.es [Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies, 31 Fitzwilliam Place, Dublin 2 (Ireland)

    2011-12-10

    Gamma-ray-loud X-ray binaries are binary systems that show non-thermal broadband emission from radio to gamma rays. If the system comprises a massive star and a young non-accreting pulsar, their winds will collide producing broadband non-thermal emission, most likely originated in the shocked pulsar wind. Thermal X-ray emission is expected from the shocked stellar wind, but until now it has neither been detected nor studied in the context of gamma-ray binaries. We present a semi-analytic model of the thermal X-ray emission from the shocked stellar wind in pulsar gamma-ray binaries, and find that the thermal X-ray emission increases monotonically with the pulsar spin-down luminosity, reaching luminosities of the order of 10{sup 33} erg s{sup -1}. The lack of thermal features in the X-ray spectrum of gamma-ray binaries can then be used to constrain the properties of the pulsar and stellar winds. By fitting the observed X-ray spectra of gamma-ray binaries with a source model composed of an absorbed non-thermal power law and the computed thermal X-ray emission, we are able to derive upper limits on the spin-down luminosity of the putative pulsar. We applied this method to LS 5039, the only gamma-ray binary with a radial, powerful wind, and obtain an upper limit on the pulsar spin-down luminosity of {approx}6 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 36} erg s{sup -1}. Given the energetic constraints from its high-energy gamma-ray emission, a non-thermal to spin-down luminosity ratio very close to unity may be required.

  12. Some implications of excess soft X-ray emission from Seyfert 1 galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabian, A.C.; Guilbert, P.W.; Arnaud, K.A.; Shafer, R.A.; Tennant, A.F.; Ward, M.J.

    1986-01-01

    The X-ray spectrum of Seyfert 1 galaxies is characterized by a hard power-law spectrum. It is often postulated that this maintains a Compton-heated two-phase Broad-Line Region (BLR) around the central source. It is shown here that the strong excess soft X-ray emission observed in MKN 841 and other Seyfert galaxies invalidates this model if the BLR is spherically symmetric. Alternatives are proposed. (author)

  13. X-Ray Emission from Active Galactic Nuclei with Intermediate-Mass Black Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewangan, G. C.; Mathur, S.; Griffiths, R. E.; Rao, A. R.

    2008-12-01

    We present a systematic X-ray study of eight active galactic nuclei (AGNs) with intermediate-mass black holes (MBH ~ 8-95 × 104 M⊙) based on 12 XMM-Newton observations. The sample includes the two prototype AGNs in this class—NGC 4395 and POX 52 and six other AGNs discovered with the Sloan Digitized Sky Survey. These AGNs show some of the strongest X-ray variability, with the normalized excess variances being the largest and the power density break timescales being the shortest observed among radio-quiet AGNs. The excess-variance-luminosity correlation appears to depend on both the BH mass and the Eddington luminosity ratio. The break timescale-black hole mass relations for AGN with IMBHs are consistent with that observed for massive AGNs. We find that the FWHM of the Hβ/Hα line is uncorrelated with the BH mass, but shows strong anticorrelation with the Eddington luminosity ratio. Four AGNs show clear evidence for soft X-ray excess emission (kTin ~ 150-200 eV). X-ray spectra of three other AGNs are consistent with the presence of the soft excess emission. NGC 4395 with lowest L/LEdd lacks the soft excess emission. Evidently small black mass is not the primary driver of strong soft X-ray excess emission from AGNs. The X-ray spectral properties and optical-to-X-ray spectral energy distributions of these AGNs are similar to those of Seyfert 1 galaxies. The observed X-ray/UV properties of AGNs with IMBHs are consistent with these AGNs being low-mass extensions of more massive AGNs, those with high Eddington luminosity ratio looking more like narrow-line Seyfert 1 s and those with low L/LEdd looking more like broad-line Seyfert 1 galaxies.

  14. Elemental analysis of coal by proton-induced x-ray emission analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cronch, S.M.; Ehmann, W.D.; Laumer, H.W.; Gabbard, F.

    1976-01-01

    Proton-induced x-ray emission was used to determine elemental concentrations in solid coal samples. The coal samples were irradiated with 2.5 to 5.5 MeV protons. Concentrations were determined from characteristic x-ray yields taking into account matrix absorption. The precision is shown by replicate analysis and the accuracy by comparison with results obtained by other laboratories using different techniques

  15. The x-ray laser as a tool for imaging plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Libby, S.B.; Da Silva, L.B.; Barbee, T.W. Jr.

    1995-07-01

    The x-ray laser is now being used at LLNL as a tool for measuring the behaviors of hot dense plasmas. In particular, we have used the 155 Angstrom yttrium laser to study transient plasmas by both radiography and moire deflectrometry. These techniques have been used to probe long scale length plasmas at electron densities exceeding 10 22 cm -3 . Recent advances in multilayer technology have made it possible to directly image ion densities in directly driven thin foils to an accuracy of 1--2 μm. In addition, we have constructed an x-ray laser Mach-Zehnder interferometer using multilayer beam-splitters. This interferometer yields direct 2D projections of electron densities in plasmas with micron spatial resolution. In addition, this interferometer can be used to measure spectral line shapes to high accuracy. Among the subject plasmas under study are laser irradiated planar targets, gold hohlraums, and x-ray lasers themselves

  16. Spectrometry with high count rate for the study of the soft X-rays. Application for the plasma of WEGA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brouquet, P.

    1979-04-01

    The plasma of the WEGA torus, whose electron temperature varies between 0.5 and 1 keV, emits electromagnetic radiation extending to wavelengths of the order of 1A. Different improvements performed on a semi-conductor spectrometer have permitted the study of this emission in the soft X ray region (1 keV - 30 keV) at a count rate of 3.10 5 counts/s with an energy resolution of 350 eV. For each plasma shot, this diagnostic gives 4 measurements of the plasma electron temperature and of the effective charge, Zeff, with a time resolution of 5 ms. The values of the electron temperature and of the effective charge derived from the study of soft X rays are in agreement with those given by other diagnostic methods [fr

  17. Temporal behavior of unresolved transition array emission in water window soft x-ray spectral region from multiply charged ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dinh, Thanh-Hung, E-mail: dinh@cc.utsunomiya-u.ac.jp; Suzuki, Yuhei; Arai, Goki; Higashiguchi, Takeshi, E-mail: higashi@cc.utsunomiya-u.ac.jp [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Center for Optical Research and Education (CORE), Utsunomiya University, Yoto 7-1-2, Utsunomiya, Tochigi 321-8585 (Japan); Li, Bowen [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Dunne, Padraig; O' Sullivan, Gerry [School of Physics, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4 (Ireland); Fujioka, Shinsuke [Institute of Laser Engineering, Osaka University, 2-6 Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Hasegawa, Noboru; Kawachi, Tetsuya; Nishikino, Masaharu [Quantum Beam Science Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 8-1-7 Umemidai, Kizugawa, Kyoto 619-0215 (Japan)

    2015-09-21

    We have characterized the spectral structure and the temporal history of the laser-produced high-Z multi-charged ion plasmas for the efficient water window soft x-ray sources. Strong unresolved transition array emission was observed due to 4d–4f and 4f–5g transitions from Au, Pb, and Bi plasmas in the 280–700 eV photon energy region. The temporal behavior of the emission was essentially similar of that of the laser pulse with a slight delay between different transitions. These results provide feedback for accurate modeling of the atomic processes with the radiative hydrodynamic simulations.

  18. X-Ray Emission from a Merger Remnant, NGC 7252 (the ``Atoms-for-Peace'' Galaxy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awaki, Hisamitsu; Matsumoto, Hironori; Tomida, Hiroshi

    2002-03-01

    We observed a nearby merger remnant NGC 7252 with the X-ray satellite ASCA and detected X-ray emission with the X-ray flux of (1.8+/-0.3)×10-13 ergs s-1 cm-2 in the 0.5-10 keV band. This corresponds to the X-ray luminosity of 8.1×1040 ergs s-1. The X-ray emission is well described with a two-component model: a soft component with kT=0.72+/-0.13 keV and a hard component with kT>5.1 keV. Although NGC 7252 is referred to as a dynamically young protoelliptical, the 0.5-4 keV luminosity of the soft component is about 2×1040 ergs s-1, which is low for an early-type galaxy. The ratio of LX/LFIR suggests that the soft component originated from the hot gas due to star formation. Its low luminosity can be explained by the gas ejection from the galaxy as galaxy winds. Our observation reveals the existence of hard X-ray emission with the 2-10 keV luminosity of 5.6×1040 ergs s-1. This may indicate the existence of nuclear activity or an intermediate-mass black hole in NGC 7252.

  19. NuSTAR HARD X-RAY SURVEY OF THE GALACTIC CENTER REGION. I. HARD X-RAY MORPHOLOGY AND SPECTROSCOPY OF THE DIFFUSE EMISSION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mori, Kaya; Hailey, Charles J.; Perez, Kerstin; Nynka, Melania; Zhang, Shuo; Canipe, Alicia M. [Columbia Astrophysics Laboratory, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Krivonos, Roman; Tomsick, John A.; Barrière, Nicolas; Boggs, Steven E.; Craig, William W. [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Hong, Jaesub [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Ponti, Gabriele [Max-Planck-Institut f. extraterrestrische Physik, HEG, Garching (Germany); Bauer, Franz [Instituto de Astrofísica, Facultad de Física, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, 306, Santiago 22 (Chile); Alexander, David M. [Department of Physics, Durham University, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Baganoff, Frederick K. [Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, Massachusets Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Barret, Didier [Université de Toulouse, UPS-OMP, IRAP, Toulouse (France); Christensen, Finn E. [DTU Space—National Space Institute, Technical University of Denmark, Elektrovej 327, DK-2800 Lyngby (Denmark); Forster, Karl [Cahill Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Giommi, Paolo, E-mail: kaya@astro.columbia.edu [ASI Science Data Center, Via del Politecnico snc I-00133, Roma (Italy); and others

    2015-12-01

    We present the first sub-arcminute images of the Galactic Center above 10 keV, obtained with NuSTAR. NuSTAR resolves the hard X-ray source IGR J17456–2901 into non-thermal X-ray filaments, molecular clouds, point sources, and a previously unknown central component of hard X-ray emission (CHXE). NuSTAR detects four non-thermal X-ray filaments, extending the detection of their power-law spectra with Γ ∼ 1.3–2.3 up to ∼50 keV. A morphological and spectral study of the filaments suggests that their origin may be heterogeneous, where previous studies suggested a common origin in young pulsar wind nebulae (PWNe). NuSTAR detects non-thermal X-ray continuum emission spatially correlated with the 6.4 keV Fe Kα fluorescence line emission associated with two Sgr A molecular clouds: MC1 and the Bridge. Broadband X-ray spectral analysis with a Monte-Carlo based X-ray reflection model self-consistently determined their intrinsic column density (∼10{sup 23} cm{sup −2}), primary X-ray spectra (power-laws with Γ ∼ 2) and set a lower limit of the X-ray luminosity of Sgr A* flare illuminating the Sgr A clouds to L{sub X} ≳ 10{sup 38} erg s{sup −1}. Above ∼20 keV, hard X-ray emission in the central 10 pc region around Sgr A* consists of the candidate PWN G359.95–0.04 and the CHXE, possibly resulting from an unresolved population of massive CVs with white dwarf masses M{sub WD} ∼ 0.9 M{sub ⊙}. Spectral energy distribution analysis suggests that G359.95–0.04 is likely the hard X-ray counterpart of the ultra-high gamma-ray source HESS J1745–290, strongly favoring a leptonic origin of the GC TeV emission.

  20. [Experimental investigation of laser plasma soft X-ray source with gas target].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Qi-liang; Gong, Yan; Lin, Jing-quan; Chen, Bo; Cao, Jian-lin

    2003-02-01

    This paper describes a debris-free laser plasma soft X-ray source with a gas target, which has high operating frequency and can produce strong soft X-ray radiation. The valve of this light source is drived by a piezoelectrical ceramic whose operating frequency is up to 400 Hz. In comparison with laser plasma soft X-ray sources using metal target, the light source is debris-free. And it has higher operating frequency than gas target soft X-ray sources whose nozzle is controlled by a solenoid valve. A channel electron multiplier (CEM) operating in analog mode is used to detect the soft X-ray generated by the laser plasma source, and the CEM's output is fed to to a charge-sensitive preamplifier for further amplification purpose. Output charges from the CEM are proportional to the amplitude of the preamplifier's output voltage. Spectra of CO2, Xe and Kr at 8-14 nm wavelength which can be used for soft X-ray projection lithography are measured. The spectrum for CO2 consists of separate spectral lines originate mainly from the transitions in Li-like and Be-like ions. The Xe spectrum originating mainly from 4d-5f, 4d-4f, 4d-6p and 4d-5p transitions in multiply charged xenon ions. The spectrum for Kr consists of separate spectral lines and continuous broad spectra originating mainly from the transitions in Cu-, Ni-, Co- and Fe-like ions.

  1. Study of plasmas created by X-ray laser-matter interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galtier, E.

    2010-11-01

    This thesis took advantage of the emerging newly developed 4. generation sources of light, namely the free electron lasers, to create and characterize a state of matter under extreme conditions which is still obscure: the warm dense matter (WDM). WDM is found in giant planets and is also produced in inertial fusion. An experiment allowed to study the transitions between the different phases, solid/WDM/plasma, and characterize the mechanism responsible for the equilibration. The laser pulse FLASH, of duration and energy equal to about 20 femto-seconds and 30 μJ respectively, is micro-focussed on a solid target producing an isochoric heating. The intensity, greater than 10 16 W.cm -2 , has never been reached in such an experimental context so far. Emission spectra from an aluminium plasma are studied with a code coupling a genetic algorithm and a code of atomic physics, in order to interpret the whole temporal evolution of the XUV laser-matter interaction for the first time, despite the time integration of the experimental spectra. The first experimental proof of the important contribution of the Auger effect in the isochoric heating of an aluminium target is established. The first observation of the X-ray emission of a boron nitride target under extreme conditions has been investigated by a preliminary study. Additionally, the effect of hot electrons on the electron population distribution in the energy levels of the ions is analysed and shows an important similarity with the photo-ionization process occurring in XUV/X-ray laser-matter interaction. (author)

  2. Lifetime-vibrational interference effects in resonantly excited x-ray emission spectra of CO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skytt, P.; Glans, P.; Gunnelin, K. [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden)] [and others

    1997-04-01

    The parity selection rule for resonant X-ray emission as demonstrated for O{sub 2} and N{sub 2} can be seen as an effect of interference between coherently excited degenerate localized core states. One system where the core state degeneracy is not exact but somewhat lifted was previously studied at ALS, namely the resonant X-ray emission of amino-substituted benzene (aniline). It was shown that the X-ray fluorescence spectrum resulting from excitation of the C1s at the site of the {open_quotes}aminocarbon{close_quotes} could be described in a picture separating the excitation and the emission processes, whereas the spectrum corresponding to the quasi-degenerate carbons could not. Thus, in this case it was necessary to take interference effects between the quasi-degenerate intermediate core excited states into account in order to obtain agreement between calculations and experiment. The different vibrational levels of core excited states in molecules have energy splittings which are of the same order of magnitude as the natural lifetime broadening of core excitations in the soft X-ray range. Therefore, lifetime-vibrational interference effects are likely to appear and influence the band shapes in resonant X-ray emission spectra. Lifetime-vibrational interference has been studied in non-resonant X-ray emission, and in Auger spectra. In this report the authors discuss results of selectively excited soft X-ray fluorescence spectra of molecules, where they focus on lifetime-interference effects appearing in the band shapes.

  3. X-ray-based attenuation correction for positron emission tomography/computed tomography scanners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinahan, Paul E; Hasegawa, Bruce H; Beyer, Thomas

    2003-07-01

    A synergy of positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) scanners is the use of the CT data for x-ray-based attenuation correction of the PET emission data. Current methods of measuring transmission use positron sources, gamma-ray sources, or x-ray sources. Each of the types of transmission scans involves different trade-offs of noise versus bias, with positron transmission scans having the highest noise but lowest bias, whereas x-ray scans have negligible noise but the potential for increased quantitative errors. The use of x-ray-based attenuation correction, however, has other advantages, including a lack of bias introduced from post-injection transmission scanning, which is an important practical consideration for clinical scanners, as well as reduced scan times. The sensitivity of x-ray-based attenuation correction to artifacts and quantitative errors depends on the method of translating the CT image from the effective x-ray energy of approximately 70 keV to attenuation coefficients at the PET energy of 511 keV. These translation methods are usually based on segmentation and/or scaling techniques. Errors in the PET emission image arise from positional mismatches caused by patient motion or respiration differences between the PET and CT scans; incorrect calculation of attenuation coefficients for CT contrast agents or metallic implants; or keeping the patient's arms in the field of view, which leads to truncation and/or beam-hardening (or x-ray scatter) artifacts. Proper interpretation of PET emission images corrected for attenuation by using the CT image relies on an understanding of the potential artifacts. In cases where an artifact or bias is suspected, careful inspection of all three available images (CT and PET emission with and without attenuation correction) is recommended. Copyright 2003 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. X-ray spectroscopic study of high-temperature plasmas by curved crystal spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morita, Shigeru.

    1983-07-01

    Extensive studies have been carried out on the structure of X-ray spectra from the highly stripped ions of first transition elements and their behavior in high temperature plasma, using a high resolution crystal spectrometer. Calculation was made on the design and the use of a curved crystal spectrometer for plasma diagnostics. A Johann type crystal spectrometer for measuring X-ray lines was constructed on the basis of the calculation. The characteristics of curved crystals of LiF, Ge and quartz used for the measurement of Kα lines from first transition elements were investigated. Vacuum sparks have been formed for producing high temperature plasma which emits X-ray lines from highly stripped ions. Two different structures of vacuum spark plasma were shown, that is, thermalized point plasma and extended plasma associated with non-thermal electrons. The X-ray lines from the extended plasma, those associated with the K shell from the point plasma and the Kα lines of Ti through Zn from the point plasma have been observed. (Kako, I.)

  5. X ray emission: a tool and a probe for laser - clusters interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prigent, Ch.

    2004-12-01

    In intense laser-cluster interaction, the experimental results show a strong energetic coupling between radiation and matter. We have measured absolute X-ray yields and charge state distributions under well control conditions as a function of physical parameters governing the interaction; namely laser intensity, pulse duration, wavelength or polarization state of the laser light, the size and the species of the clusters (Ar, Kr, Xe). We have highlighted, for the first time, an intensity threshold in the X-ray production very low (∼ 2.10 14 W/cm 2 for a pulse duration of 300 fs) which can results from an effect of the dynamical polarisation of clusters in an intense electric field. A weak dependence with the wavelength (400 nm / 800 nm) on the absolute X-ray yields has been found. Moreover, we have observed a saturation of the X-ray emission probability below a critical cluster size. (author)

  6. Soft X-ray measurements for investigating the plasma focus dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nahrath, B.

    In a Mather-type plasma focus short time soft x-ray pictures are taken by means of a double pinhole camera equipped with a pulsed channel plate and two different filters to study the local development of electron temperatures Tsub(e) with time resolution of 3 ns. Up to the maximum compression the measured Tsub(e) are roughly in accordance with the results of MHD-calculations. During a later phase, characterized by the occurence of m=O-instabilities, localized plasma regions with high densities and high electron temperatures Tsub(e) of about 600 eV (up to 1000 eV) are observed. Using the channel plate technique with increased sensivity a slowly decaying plasma with local Tsub(e)-values of about 300 eV and large diffuse structures is identified for several hundred nanoseconds. During this 'late phase' of the focus most of the neutron emission takes place. There is no correlation between the value of Tsub(e) and the rate of neutron emission. (orig.) [de

  7. Time Variabilities of Solar Wind Ion Fluxes and of X-ray and EUV Emissions from Comet Hyakutake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neugebauer, M.; Cravens, T.; Lisse, C.; Ipavich, F.; von Steiger, R.; Shah, P.; Armstrong, T.

    1999-01-01

    Observations of X-ray and extreme ultraviolet (EUV) emissions from comet C/Hyakutake 1996 B2 made by the Rontgen X-ray satellite (ROSAT) and the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer (EUVE) revealed a total X-ray luminosity of about 500 MW.

  8. Sub-keV, subnanosecond measurements of x-ray spectra from laser-produced plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kornblum, H.N.; Koppel, L.N.; Slivinsky, V.W.; Glaros, S.S.; Ahlstrom, H.G.; Larsen, J.T.

    1977-01-01

    As part of the effort to extend our x-ray diagnostic capabilities, we have made x-ray spectral measurements of laser-produced plasmas for photon energies down to 100 eV with a time response of 0.5 nsec. Fast, windowless x-ray diodes were used in conjunction with critical angle reflecting mirrors and thin filters for energy definition for two channels, 300 to 600 eV and 800 to 1300 eV. A third channel, using only an x-ray diode and filter, provided spectral information in the 100 to 300 eV region. Results from exploding pusher targets will be presented and compared with those of other diagnostic techniques and Lasnex calculations. Future expansion and modifications of the present system will be discussed

  9. X-ray spectroscopic characterization of shock-ignition-relevant plasmas

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šmíd, Michal; Antonelli, L.; Renner, Oldřich

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 2 (2013), 233-236 ISSN 1210-2709 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP205/10/0814 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : hot electrons * shock ignition * laser-produced plasma * X-ray spectroscopy * Kα radiation Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics

  10. Electron and X-ray emission in collisions of multiply charged ions and atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woerlee, P.H.

    1979-01-01

    The author presents experimental results of electron and X-ray emission following slow collisions of multiply charged ions and atoms. The aim of the investigation was to study the mechanisms which are responsible for the emission. (G.T.H.)

  11. X-RAY EMISSION FROM SN 2004dj: A TALE OF TWO SHOCKS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chakraborti, Sayan; Yadav, Naveen; Ray, Alak [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, 1 Homi Bhabha Road, Colaba, Mumbai 400 005 (India); Smith, Randall [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Chandra, Poonam [Department of Physics, Royal Military College of Canada, Kingston, ON K7K 7B4 (Canada); Pooley, David, E-mail: schakraborti@fas.harvard.edu [Department of Physics, Sam Houston State University, Huntsville, TX (United States)

    2012-12-20

    Type IIP (Plateau) supernovae are the most commonly observed variety of core-collapse events. They have been detected in a wide range of wavelengths from radio, through optical to X-rays. The standard picture of a Type IIP supernova has the blastwave interacting with the progenitor's circumstellar matter to produce a hot region bounded by a forward and a reverse shock. This region is thought to be responsible for most of the X-ray and radio emission from these objects. Yet the origin of X-rays from these supernovae is not well understood quantitatively. The relative contributions of particle acceleration and magnetic field amplification in generating the X-ray and radio emission need to be determined. In this work, we analyze archival Chandra observations of SN 2004dj, one of the nearest supernovae since SN 1987A, along with published radio and optical information. We determine the pre-explosion mass-loss rate, blastwave velocity, electron acceleration, and magnetic field amplification efficiencies. We find that a greater fraction of the thermal energy goes into accelerating electrons than into amplifying magnetic fields. We conclude that the X-ray emission arises out of a combination of inverse Compton scattering by non-thermal electrons accelerated in the forward shock and thermal emission from supernova ejecta heated by the reverse shock.

  12. Modelling of X-ray emission supernova remnants observed by the European satellite XMM-Newton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cassam-Chenai, G.

    2004-01-01

    This thesis deals with the X-ray emission of supernova remnants (SNRs) observed by the European satellite XMM-Newton. In SNRs, the matter heated to millions of degrees shines brightly in X-rays. This emission depends on the hydrodynamical evolution of the SNR, on the chemical composition of the ejected matter and on the ambient medium. Moreover, the blast-wave is considered to be the prime site of the production and the acceleration of cosmic-rays in our Galaxy. XMM-Newton is one of the first to allow the investigation of these different aspects thanks to its spatially-resolved spectroscopy and its very good sensitivity. l first studied Kepler's SNR (SN 1604) whose X-ray emission is dominated by the ejecta. Its observation has allowed to obtain information on the nucleosynthesis products, on their spatial distribution and on the temperature structure in the shocked ejecta. This gives strong constraints on the physics of the explosion and on the progenitor's type. l have shown also that the X-ray emission at the shock is likely to be non-thermal. Then, l studied the SNR G347.3-0.5 whose X-ray emission is entirely due to the synchrotron radiation of relativistic (TeV) electrons accelerated at the shock. From five pointing, l made a full mapping of the X-ray emission characteristics (brightness, absorption and spectral index) at small scale. Combined to radio observations, these results have indicated a clear interaction between the SNR and molecular clouds located at 1 kpc and not at 6 kpc as previously estimated. Lastly, in the framework of a self-similar hydrodynamical model coupled with non-linear particle acceleration, l have obtained the synchrotron emission profile in SNRs, including the adiabatic and radiative losses of the accelerated electrons. (author) [fr

  13. Tenth International Colloquium on UV and X-Ray Spectroscopy of Astrophysical and Laboratory Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silver, Eric H.; Kahn, Steven M.

    UV and X-ray spectroscopy of astrophysical and laboratory plasmas draws interest from many disciplines. Contributions from international specialists are collected together in this book from a timely recent conference. In astrophysics, the Hubble Space Telescope, Astro 1 and ROSAT observatories are now providing UV and X-ray spectra and images of cosmic sources in unprecedented detail, while the Yohkoh mission recently collected superb data on the solar corona. In the laboratory, the development of ion-trap facilities and novel laser experiments are providing vital new data on high temperature plasmas. Recent innovations in the technology of spectroscopic instrumentation are discussed. These papers constitute an excellent up-to-date review of developments in short-wavelength spectroscopy and offer a solid introduction to its theoretical and experimental foundations. These proceedings give an up-to-date review of developments in short-wavelength spectroscopy and offer a solid introduction to its theoretical and experimental foundations. Various speakers presented some of the first results from the high resolution spectrograph on the Hubble Space Telescope, the high sensitivity far ultraviolet and X-ray spectrometers of the ASTRO 1 Observatory, the imaging X-ray spectrometer on the ROSAT Observatory, and the high resolution solar X-ray spectrometer on Yohkoh. The development of ion trap devices had brought about a revolution in laboratory investigations of atomic processes in highly charged atoms. X-ray laser experiments had not only yielded considerable insight into electron ion interactions in hot dense plasmas, but also demonstrated the versatility of laser plasmas as laboratory X-ray sources. Such measurements also motivated and led to refinements in the development of large-scale atomic and molecular codes. On the instrumental side, the design and development of the next series of very powerful short wavelength observatories had generated a large number of

  14. The Chandra planetary nebula survey (CHANPLANS). II. X-ray emission from compact planetary nebulae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeman, M.; Kastner, J. H. [Center for Imaging Science and Laboratory for Multiwavelength Astrophysics, Rochester Institute of Technology, 54 Lomb Memorial Drive, Rochester, NY 14623 (United States); Montez, R. Jr. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN (United States); Balick, B. [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Frew, D. J.; De Marco, O.; Parker, Q. A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy and Macquarie Research Centre for Astronomy, Astrophysics and Astrophotonics, Macquarie University, Sydney, NSW 2109 (Australia); Jones, D. [Departamento de Física, Universidad de Atacama, Copayapu 485, Copiapó (Chile); Miszalski, B. [South African Astronomical Observatory, P.O. Box 9, Observatory, 7935 (South Africa); Sahai, R. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, MS 183-900, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Blackman, E.; Frank, A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY (United States); Chu, Y.-H. [Department of Astronomy, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL (United States); Guerrero, M. A. [Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía, IAA-CSIC, Glorieta de la Astronomía s/n, Granada, E-18008 (Spain); Lopez, J. A. [Instituto de Astronomía, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Campus Ensenada, Apdo. Postal 22860, Ensenada, B. C. (Mexico); Zijlstra, A. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Bujarrabal, V. [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, E-38200 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Corradi, R. L. M. [Departamento de Astrofísica, Universidad de La Laguna, E-38206 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Nordhaus, J. [NSF Astronomy and Astrophysics Fellow, Center for Computational Relativity and Gravitation, Rochester Institute of Technology, Rochester, NY 14623 (United States); and others

    2014-10-20

    We present results from the most recent set of observations obtained as part of the Chandra X-ray observatory Planetary Nebula Survey (CHANPLANS), the first comprehensive X-ray survey of planetary nebulae (PNe) in the solar neighborhood (i.e., within ∼1.5 kpc of the Sun). The survey is designed to place constraints on the frequency of appearance and range of X-ray spectral characteristics of X-ray-emitting PN central stars and the evolutionary timescales of wind-shock-heated bubbles within PNe. CHANPLANS began with a combined Cycle 12 and archive Chandra survey of 35 PNe. CHANPLANS continued via a Chandra Cycle 14 Large Program which targeted all (24) remaining known compact (R {sub neb} ≲ 0.4 pc), young PNe that lie within ∼1.5 kpc. Results from these Cycle 14 observations include first-time X-ray detections of hot bubbles within NGC 1501, 3918, 6153, and 6369, and point sources in HbDs 1, NGC 6337, and Sp 1. The addition of the Cycle 14 results brings the overall CHANPLANS diffuse X-ray detection rate to ∼27% and the point source detection rate to ∼36%. It has become clearer that diffuse X-ray emission is associated with young (≲ 5 × 10{sup 3} yr), and likewise compact (R {sub neb} ≲ 0.15 pc), PNe with closed structures and high central electron densities (n{sub e} ≳ 1000 cm{sup –3}), and is rarely associated with PNe that show H{sub 2} emission and/or pronounced butterfly structures. Hb 5 is one such exception of a PN with a butterfly structure that hosts diffuse X-ray emission. Additionally, two of the five new diffuse X-ray detections (NGC 1501 and NGC 6369) host [WR]-type central stars, supporting the hypothesis that PNe with central stars of [WR]-type are likely to display diffuse X-ray emission.

  15. SERENDIPITOUS DETECTION OF X-RAY EMISSION FROM THE HOT BORN-AGAIN CENTRAL STAR OF THE PLANETARY NEBULA K 1-16

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montez, Rodolfo Jr. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37235 (United States); Kastner, Joel H., E-mail: rodolfo.montez.jr@gmail.com, E-mail: jhk@cis.rit.edu [Center for Imaging Science and Laboratory for Multiwavelength Astrophysics, Rochester Institute of Technology, 54 Lomb Memorial Drive, Rochester, NY 14623 (United States)

    2013-03-20

    We report the serendipitous detection of point-like X-ray emission from the hot, PG1159-type central star of the planetary nebula (CSPN) K 1-16 by the XMM-Newton and Chandra X-Ray Observatories. The CSPN lies superimposed on a galaxy cluster that includes an X-ray-bright quasar, but we have successfully isolated the CSPN X-ray emission from the strong diffuse background contributed by the quasar and intracluster gas. We have modeled the XMM-Newton and Chandra X-ray data, taking advantage of the contrasting detection efficiencies of the two observatories to better constrain the low-energy spectral response of Chandra's Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer. We find that the CSPN X-ray spectrum is well characterized by the combination of a non-local thermodynamic equilibrium model atmosphere with T{sub *} {approx} 135 kK and a carbon-rich, optically thin thermal plasma with T{sub X} {approx} 1 MK. These results for X-ray emission from the K 1-16 CSPN, combined with those obtained for other PG1159-type objects, lend support to the 'born-again' scenario for Wolf-Rayet and PG1159 CSPNe, wherein a late helium shell flash dredges up carbon-rich intershell material and ejects this material into the circumstellar environment.

  16. Trace analysis in cadmium telluride by heavy ion induced X-ray emission and by SIMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scharager, C.; Stuck, R.; Siffert, P.; Cailleret, J.; Heitz, Ch.; Lagarde, G.; Tenorio, D.

    1979-01-01

    The possibilities of using both selective heavy ion induced X-ray emission and secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS), for the identification of impurities present at low concentrations in cadmium telluride are examined. The relative concentrations of the impurities along CdTe crystals have been determined by exciting the X-ray emission of the elements in several slices with Ar and Kr ions and by comparing the relative characteristic X-ray emission yields. As a consequence of the quasimolecular inner shell ionization mechanism in heavy ion-atom collisions, Ar and Kr ions allow a strong excitation of the main impurities seen by SIMS namely Si, Cl and Ge, As, with only a minor contribution of Cd and Te. From the changes of the concentrations of the various impurities along the crystal, informations about segregation coefficients and compensation can be obtained

  17. Ultrafast atomic process in X-ray emission by using inner-shell ionization method for sodium and carbon atoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moribayashi, Kengo; Sasaki, Akira; Tajima, Toshiki [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Neyagawa, Osaka (Japan). Kansai Research Establishment

    1998-07-01

    An ultrafast inner-shell ionization process with X-ray emission stimulated by high-intensity short-pulse X-ray is studied. Carbon and sodium atoms are treated as target matter. It is shown that atomic processes of the target determine the necessary X-ray intensity for X-ray laser emission as well as the features of X-ray laser such as wavelength and duration time. The intensity also depends on the density of initial atoms. Furthermore, we show that as the intensity of X-ray source becomes high, the multi-inner-shell ionization predominates, leading to the formation of hollow atoms. As the density of hollow atoms is increased by the pumping X-ray power, the emission of X-rays is not only of significance for high brightness X-ray measurement but also is good for X-ray lasing. New classes of experiments of pump X-ray probe and X-ray laser are suggested. (author)

  18. Simultaneous emissions of X-rays and microwaves from long laboratory sparks and downward lightning leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montanya, J.; Oscar, V. D. V.; Tapia, F. F.

    2017-12-01

    Since the discovery of the Terrestrial Gamma-ray Flashes more than 20 years ago, investigations on high energy emissions from natural lightning and high voltage laboratory sparks gained significant interest. X-ray emissions from lightning as well from high voltage laboratory sparks have in common the role played by negative leaders/streamers. On the other hand, negative leaders are well known to produce much more VHF and microwave radiation than positive leaders. Moreover, in previous works, microwave emissions from lightning leaders have been attributed to Bremsstrahlung process. The object of this work is to investigate if X-rays and RF microwave emissions share the same origin. We present simultaneous measurements of X-rays and microwaves in high voltage sparks and natural lightning. The instrumentation consists on a NaI(Tl) and LaBr3 scintillation detectors and two different receivers. One is fix tuned at 2.4 GHz with a bandwidth of 5.5 MHz. The second can be tuned at any frequency up to 18 GHz with different selectable bandwidths of 10 MHz, 40 MHz and 100 MHz. In the laboratory, results have shown that all the sparks presented microwave radiation before the breakdown of the gap, either X-rays were detected or not. In the cases where X-rays were identified, microwave emissions peaked at the same time (in the microsecond scale). We found that the power amplitudes of the microwave emissions are related to the applied voltage to the gap. In the same configuration, those cases where X-rays were detected microwave emissions presented higher power levels. The results suggest that in some part of the discharge electrons are very fast accelerated allowing, in some cases, to reach enought energy to produce X-rays. In the field, we have found similar results. On 13th of June of 2015 a bipolar cloud-to-ground flash struck 200 m close to the Eagle Nest instrumented tower (Spanish Pyrenees, 2536 m ASL). The flash presented four strokes and, in all of them, microwave

  19. Multi-energy soft-x-ray technique for impurity transport measurements in the fusion plasma edge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clayton, D J; Tritz, K; Stutman, D; Finkenthal, M; Kumar, D; Kaye, S M; LeBlanc, B P; Paul, S; Sabbagh, S A

    2012-01-01

    A new diagnostic technique was developed to produce high-resolution impurity transport measurements of the steep-gradient edge of fusion plasmas. Perturbative impurity transport measurements were performed for the first time in the NSTX plasma edge (r/a ∼ 0.6 to the SOL) with short neon gas puffs, and the resulting line and continuum emission was measured with the new edge multi-energy soft-x-ray (ME-SXR) diagnostic. Neon transport is modeled with the radial impurity transport code STRAHL and the resulting x-ray emission is computed using the ADAS atomic database. The radial transport coefficient profiles D(r) and v(r), and the particle flux from the gas puff Φ(t), are the free parameters in this model and are varied to find the best fit to experimental x-ray emissivity measurements, with bolometry used to constrain the impurity source. Initial experiments were successful and results were consistent with previous measurements of core impurity transport and neoclassical transport calculations. New diagnostic tools will be implemented on NSTX-U to further improve these transport measurements. (paper)

  20. Line Emission and X-ray Line Polarization of Multiply Ionized Mo Ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petkov, E. E.; Safronova, A. S.; Kantsyrev, V. L.; Shlyaptseva, V. V.; Stafford, A.; Safronova, U. I.; Shrestha, I. K.; Schultz, K. A.; Childers, R.; Cooper, M. C.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Hell, N.; Brown, G. V.

    2016-10-01

    We present a comprehensive experimental and theoretical study of the line emission from multiply ionized Mo ions produced by two different sets of experiments: at LLNL EBIT and the pulsed power generator Zebra at UNR. Mo line emission and polarization measurements were accomplished at EBIT for the first time. In particular, benchmarking experiments at the LLNL EBIT with Mo ions produced at electron beam energies from 2.75 keV up to 15 keV allowed us to break down these very complicated spectra into spectra with only few ionization stages and to select processes that influence them as well as to measure line polarization. The EBIT data were recorded using the EBIT Calorimeter Spectrometer and a crystal spectrometer with a Ge crystal. X-ray Mo spectra and pinhole images were collected from Z-pinch plasmas produced from various wire loads. Non-LTE modeling, high-precision relativistic atomic and polarization data were used to analyze L-shell Mo spectra. The influence of different plasma processes including electron beams on Mo line radiation is summarized. This work was supported by NNSA under DOE Grant DE-NA0002954. Experiments at the NTF/UNR were funded in part by DE-NA0002075. Work at LLNL was performed under the auspices of the U.S. DOE under contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  1. MODELING THE THERMAL DIFFUSE SOFT AND HARD X-RAY EMISSION IN M17

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velázquez, P. F.; Rodríguez-González, A.; Esquivel, A.; Rosado, M.; Reyes-Iturbide, J.

    2013-01-01

    We present numerical models of very young wind driven superbubbles. The parameters chosen for the simulations correspond to the particular case of the M17 nebula, but are appropriate for any young superbubble in which the wind sources have not completely dispersed their parental cloud. From the simulations, we computed the diffuse emission in the soft ([0.5-1.5] keV) and hard ([1.5-5] keV) X-ray bands. The total luminosity in our simulations agrees with the observations of Hyodo et al., about two orders of magnitude below the prediction of the standard model of Weaver et al.. The difference with respect to the standard (adiabatic) model is the inclusion of radiative cooling, which is still important in such young bubbles. We show that for this type of object the diffuse hard X-ray luminosity is significant compared to that of soft X-rays, contributing as much as 10% of the total luminosity, in contrast with more evolved bubbles where the hard X-ray emission is indeed negligible, being at least four orders of magnitude lower than the soft X-ray emission.

  2. Detection of x-rays emitted from a plasma focus device with energy of 2.8 KJ, and its applications in plasma diagnostic and radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AL-Hawat, Sh.; Akel, M.

    2011-06-01

    The local plasma focus device was modified by replacing the old capacitors (25μF,20 kV ,1.43μH ) and the open spark gap by new capacitors with (25μF,20 kV ,200 nH ) and a new closed spark gap, so instead of a current of 50 kA as a maximum value we obtained a maximum current about 120 kA. The modified device is capable now to generate x-rays, which was confirmed by taking some radiographies for metallic pieces, electronic elements and others . In addition to that some diagnostics were carried out on the device using Ohm voltage divider to record voltage curves, Rogovskii coil for measuring the current, and five channel diodes to evaluate the temporal evolution of x-rays generated in the device working on argon vs. pressure and voltage. The generation of the soft x-ray emission in a low energy 2.8 kJ plasma focus device operated with argon using a detector of five PIN-Si BPX-65 diodes filtered with different foils of Mylar, Al and Cu. Spectral analysis using the recorded x-ray signals ratio method shows that there are two components in the x-ray emissions: one arising from the focused argon plasma with temperature of 2.5 keV and the other arising from the electron beam activity on copper anode, where the second component is predominant in most of investigated experiments due to the used of solid anode. Numerical experiments were carried out using five phases radiative Lee model RADPF5.15d-dd with N 2 , O 2 , Ar, Ne gases on plasma focus device AECS PF1-2 (or PF SY1-2) for its characterization and soft x-ray optimization. (author)

  3. X-ray emission spectroscopic determination of iron in a polyurethane encapsulant curing agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carter, J.M.; Kling, E.N.

    1979-01-01

    Presented is a procedure for determining the iron content in a polyurethane encapsulant curing agent by x-ray emission spectroscopy. Standards were prepared by adding ferric acetyl acetonate to a curing agent of identical composition to that being analyzed, but containing no iron. Results show that x-ray emission spectroscopy is feasible for determination of iron in the 30 to 50 ppM range. This range could probably be extended by the preparation of additional standards. Precision of the method is approximately 1.2 ppM at the 99 percent confidence level

  4. Study of x-ray emission enhancement via high contrast femtosecond laser interacting with solid foil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Liming; Kando, Masaki; Bulanov, S.V.; Koga, James K.; Tajima, Toshiki; Xu M.H.; Yuan X.H.; Li Y.T.; Dong Q.L.; Zhang J.

    2007-01-01

    We studied the hard x-ray emission and the Kα x-ray conversion efficiency (η K ) produced by 60 fs high contrast frequency doubled Ti: sapphire laser pulse focused on Cu foil target. Cu Kα photon emission obtained with second harmonic laser pulse is more intense than the case of fundamental laser pulse. The Cu η K shows strong dependence on laser nonlinearly skewed pulse shape and reaches the maximum value 4x10 -4 with 100 fs negatively skewed pulse. It shows the electron spectrum shaping contribute to the increase of η K . (author)

  5. Accretion dynamics and polarized X-ray emission of magnetized neutron stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arons, Jonathan

    1991-01-01

    The basic ideas of accretion onto magnetized neutron stars are outlined. These are applied to a simple model of the structure of the plasma mound sitting at the magnetic poles of such a star, in which upward diffusion of photons is balanced by their downward advection. This steady flow model of the plasma's dynamical state is used to compute the emission of polarized X-raysfrom the optically thick, birefringent medium. The linear polarization of the continuum radiation emerging from the quasi-static mound is found to be as much as 40 percent at some rotation phases, but is insensitive to the geometry of the accretion flow. The role of the accretion shock, whose detailed polarimetric and spectral characteristics have yet to be calculated, is emphasized as the final determinant of the properties of the emerging X-rays. Some results describing the fully time dependent dynamics of the flow are also presented. In particular, steady flow onto a neutron star is shown to exhibit formation of 'photon bubbles', regions of greatly reduced plasma density filled with radiation which form and rise on millisecond time scale. The possible role of these complex structures in the flow for the formation of the emergent spectrum is briefly outlined.

  6. Weak Hard X-Ray Emission from Two Broad Absorption Line Quasars Observed with NuStar: Compton-Thick Absorption or Intrinsic X-Ray Weakness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, B.; Brandt, W. N.; Alexander, D. M.; Harrison, F. A.; Stern, D.; Bauer, F. E.; Boggs, S. E.; Christensen, F. E.; Comastri, A.; Craig, W. W..; hide

    2013-01-01

    We present Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) hard X-ray observations of two X-ray weak broad absorption line (BAL) quasars, PG 1004+130 (radio loud) and PG 1700+518 (radio quiet). Many BAL quasars appear X-ray weak, probably due to absorption by the shielding gas between the nucleus and the accretion-disk wind. The two targets are among the optically brightest BAL quasars, yet they are known to be significantly X-ray weak at rest-frame 2-10 keV (16-120 times fainter than typical quasars). We would expect to obtain approx. or equal to 400-600 hard X-ray (is greater than or equal to 10 keV) photons with NuSTAR, provided that these photons are not significantly absorbed N(sub H) is less than or equal to 10(exp24) cm(exp-2). However, both BAL quasars are only detected in the softer NuSTAR bands (e.g., 4-20 keV) but not in its harder bands (e.g., 20-30 keV), suggesting that either the shielding gas is highly Compton-thick or the two targets are intrinsically X-ray weak. We constrain the column densities for both to be N(sub H) 7 × 10(exp 24) cm(exp-2) if the weak hard X-ray emission is caused by obscuration from the shielding gas. We discuss a few possibilities for how PG 1004+130 could have Compton-thick shielding gas without strong Fe Ka line emission; dilution from jet-linked X-ray emission is one likely explanation. We also discuss the intrinsic X-ray weakness scenario based on a coronal-quenching model relevant to the shielding gas and disk wind of BAL quasars. Motivated by our NuSTAR results, we perform a Chandra stacking analysis with the Large Bright Quasar Survey BAL quasar sample and place statistical constraints upon the fraction of intrinsically X-ray weak BAL quasars; this fraction is likely 17%-40%.

  7. WEAK HARD X-RAY EMISSION FROM TWO BROAD ABSORPTION LINE QUASARS OBSERVED WITH NuSTAR: COMPTON-THICK ABSORPTION OR INTRINSIC X-RAY WEAKNESS?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, B.; Brandt, W. N. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, 525 Davey Lab, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Alexander, D. M.; Hickox, R. [Department of Physics, Durham University, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Harrison, F. A.; Fuerst, F.; Grefenstette, B. W.; Madsen, K. K. [Cahill Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Stern, D. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Bauer, F. E. [Departamento de Astronomia y Astrofisica, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Casilla 306, Santiago 22 (Chile); Boggs, S. E.; Craig, W. W. [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Christensen, F. E. [DTU Space-National Space Institute, Technical University of Denmark, Elektrovej 327, DK-2800 Lyngby (Denmark); Comastri, A. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Bologna, Via Ranzani 1, I-40127 Bologna (Italy); Fabian, A. C. [Institute of Astronomy, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Farrah, D. [Department of Physics, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24061 (United States); Fiore, F. [Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma, via Frascati 33, I-00040 Monteporzio Catone (Italy); Hailey, C. J. [Columbia Astrophysics Laboratory, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Matt, G. [Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica, Universita degli Studi Roma Tre, via della Vasca Navale 84, I-00146 Roma (Italy); Ogle, P. [IPAC, California Institute of Technology, Mail Code 220-6, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); and others

    2013-08-01

    We present Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) hard X-ray observations of two X-ray weak broad absorption line (BAL) quasars, PG 1004+130 (radio loud) and PG 1700+518 (radio quiet). Many BAL quasars appear X-ray weak, probably due to absorption by the shielding gas between the nucleus and the accretion-disk wind. The two targets are among the optically brightest BAL quasars, yet they are known to be significantly X-ray weak at rest-frame 2-10 keV (16-120 times fainter than typical quasars). We would expect to obtain Almost-Equal-To 400-600 hard X-ray ({approx}> 10 keV) photons with NuSTAR, provided that these photons are not significantly absorbed (N{sub H} {approx}< 10{sup 24} cm{sup -2}). However, both BAL quasars are only detected in the softer NuSTAR bands (e.g., 4-20 keV) but not in its harder bands (e.g., 20-30 keV), suggesting that either the shielding gas is highly Compton-thick or the two targets are intrinsically X-ray weak. We constrain the column densities for both to be N{sub H} Almost-Equal-To 7 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 24} cm{sup -2} if the weak hard X-ray emission is caused by obscuration from the shielding gas. We discuss a few possibilities for how PG 1004+130 could have Compton-thick shielding gas without strong Fe K{alpha} line emission; dilution from jet-linked X-ray emission is one likely explanation. We also discuss the intrinsic X-ray weakness scenario based on a coronal-quenching model relevant to the shielding gas and disk wind of BAL quasars. Motivated by our NuSTAR results, we perform a Chandra stacking analysis with the Large Bright Quasar Survey BAL quasar sample and place statistical constraints upon the fraction of intrinsically X-ray weak BAL quasars; this fraction is likely 17%-40%.

  8. Efficient soft x-ray generation in short wavelength laser produced plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mochizuki, T.; Yamanaka, C.

    1987-01-01

    Intense x-ray generation in 1.053, 0.53, 0.26 μm laser-produced plasma has been investigated in the photon energy range of 0.1 to 3keV. The x-ray spectrum is found to have several humps which move to the higher energy side as the atomic number of the target increases. This atomic dependence is explained by a semi-Moseley's law and allows us to predict a target material most suitable for generating the photons of desired energies. Conversion efficiencies of 1.5 -- 3keV x-rays are obtained also as a function of laser wavelength at the intensity of 10/sup 13/W/cm/sup 2/. The conversion efficiency of keV x rays has been enhanced by a factor of 2 -- 3 with a controlled prepulse laser. From the semi-Moseley's law we find that cryogenic targets using either Xe or Kr in a liquid or solid phase may be most useful for a number of applications because they radiate 1 -- 3 keV x rays efficiently and never deposit on the x-ray optical components and the objects to be exposed

  9. Instantaneous x-ray radiation energy from laser produced polystyrene plasmas for shock ignition conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shang, Wanli; Wei, Huiyue; Li, Zhichao; Yi, Rongqing; Zhu, Tuo; Song, Tianmin; Huang, Chengwu; Yang, Jiamin

    2013-01-01

    Laser target energy coupling mechanism is crucial in the shock ignition (SI) scheme, and x-ray radiation energy is a non-negligible portion of the laser produced plasma energy. To evaluate the x-ray radiation energy amount at conditions relevant to SI scheme, instantaneous x-ray radiation energy is investigated experimentally with continuum phase plates smoothed lasers irradiating layer polystyrene targets. Comparative laser pulses without and with shock spike are employed. With the measured x-ray angular distribution, full space x-ray radiation energy and conversion efficiency are observed. Instantaneous scaling law of x-ray conversion efficiency is obtained as a function of laser intensity and time. It should be pointed out that the scaling law is available for any laser pulse shape and intensity, with which irradiates polystyrene planar target with intensity from 2 × 10 14 to 1.8 × 10 15 W/cm 2 . Numerical analysis of the laser energy transformation is performed, and the simulation results agree with the experimental data

  10. A development of laser-plasma-based soft x-ray microscope system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nam, Ki Yong; Kim, Kyong Woo; Kim, Kyu Gyeom; Kwon, Young Man; Yoon, Kwon Ha [X-ray Microscopy Research Center, Wonkwang University, Iksan (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-07-01

    Soft x-ray nano-imaging microscopy system for biomedical application with a high resolution about 50 nm has been designed and described, and its integrated techniques also have been studied. The system is mainly composed of soft x-ray generation system, nano-scaled control system, x-ray optical device like a condenser or object mirror, a CCD camera coupled with multichannel plate (MCP) and vacuum system. In the system, soft x-ray is generated from the laser-based plasma by focusing Nd:YAG laser beam on tantalum (Ta) target. In an x-ray optical system, a wolter mirror has been considering condensing the x-ray beam on a biological specimen and zone plate was adapted as an object mirror. A Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} was used as specimen holder for keeping a biological sample alive in atmosphere conditions. A back-illuminated-CCD camera coupled with multichannel plate was determined to set up.

  11. X-ray astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giacconi, R.; Gursky, H.

    1974-01-01

    This text contains ten chapters and three appendices. Following an introduction, chapters two through five deal with observational techniques, mechanisms for the production of x rays in a cosmic setting, the x-ray sky and solar x-ray emission. Chapters six through ten include compact x-ray sources, supernova remnants, the interstellar medium, extragalactic x-ray sources and the cosmic x-ray background. Interactions of x rays with matter, units and conversion factors and a catalog of x-ray sources comprise the three appendices. (U.S.)

  12. Investigating high speed phenomena in laser plasma interactions using dilation x-ray imager (invited).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagel, S R; Hilsabeck, T J; Bell, P M; Bradley, D K; Ayers, M J; Piston, K; Felker, B; Kilkenny, J D; Chung, T; Sammuli, B; Hares, J D; Dymoke-Bradshaw, A K L

    2014-11-01

    The DIlation X-ray Imager (DIXI) is a new, high-speed x-ray framing camera at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) sensitive to x-rays in the range of ≈2-17 keV. DIXI uses the pulse-dilation technique to achieve a temporal resolution of less than 10 ps, a ≈10× improvement over conventional framing cameras currently employed on the NIF (≈100 ps resolution), and otherwise only attainable with 1D streaked imaging. The pulse-dilation technique utilizes a voltage ramp to impart a velocity gradient on the signal-bearing electrons. The temporal response, spatial resolution, and x-ray sensitivity of DIXI are characterized with a short x-ray impulse generated using the COMET laser facility at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. At the NIF a pinhole array at 10 cm from target chamber center (tcc) projects images onto the photocathode situated outside the NIF chamber wall with a magnification of ≈64×. DIXI will provide important capabilities for warm-dense-matter physics, high-energy-density science, and inertial confinement fusion, adding important capabilities to temporally resolve hot-spot formation, x-ray emission, fuel motion, and mix levels in the hot-spot at neutron yields of up to 10(17). We present characterization data as well as first results on electron-transport phenomena in buried-layer foil experiments.

  13. Investigating high speed phenomena in laser plasma interactions using dilation x-ray imager (invited)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagel, S. R., E-mail: nagel7@llnl.gov; Bell, P. M.; Bradley, D. K.; Ayers, M. J.; Piston, K.; Felker, B. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Hilsabeck, T. J.; Kilkenny, J. D.; Chung, T.; Sammuli, B. [General Atomics, P.O. Box 85608, San Diego, California 92186-5608 (United States); Hares, J. D.; Dymoke-Bradshaw, A. K. L. [Kentech Instruments Ltd., Wallingford, Oxfordshire OX10 (United Kingdom)

    2014-11-15

    The DIlation X-ray Imager (DIXI) is a new, high-speed x-ray framing camera at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) sensitive to x-rays in the range of ≈2–17 keV. DIXI uses the pulse-dilation technique to achieve a temporal resolution of less than 10 ps, a ≈10× improvement over conventional framing cameras currently employed on the NIF (≈100 ps resolution), and otherwise only attainable with 1D streaked imaging. The pulse-dilation technique utilizes a voltage ramp to impart a velocity gradient on the signal-bearing electrons. The temporal response, spatial resolution, and x-ray sensitivity of DIXI are characterized with a short x-ray impulse generated using the COMET laser facility at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. At the NIF a pinhole array at 10 cm from target chamber center (tcc) projects images onto the photocathode situated outside the NIF chamber wall with a magnification of ≈64×. DIXI will provide important capabilities for warm-dense-matter physics, high-energy-density science, and inertial confinement fusion, adding important capabilities to temporally resolve hot-spot formation, x-ray emission, fuel motion, and mix levels in the hot-spot at neutron yields of up to 10{sup 17}. We present characterization data as well as first results on electron-transport phenomena in buried-layer foil experiments.

  14. Development of a high resolution cylindrical crystal spectrometer for line shape and spectral diagnostics of x-rays emitted from - hot - plasmas. Final report, June 1, 1976-December 31, 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaellne, E.G.

    1984-01-01

    The development, installation and evaluation of a high resolution X-ray spectroscopic diagnostics are reported. The approach has been to optimize spectrometer throughput to enable single shot plasma diagnostics with good time resolution and to ensure sufficient energy resolution to allow line profile analysis. These goals have been achieved using a new X-ray geometry combined with a new position sensitive X-ray detector. These diagnostics have been used at Alcator C to detect X-ray emission of highly ionized impurity elements as well as argon seed elements specially introduced into the plasma for this diagnostic. Temporally resolved ion temperature profiles have been obtained from the recorded X-ray spectra simultaneously with other plasma parameters such as electron temperature, ionization temperature and ionization stage distribution. Radial profiles have also been measured. The developed X-ray diagnostics thus serve as a major multiparameter probe of the central core of the plasma with complementary informtion on radial profiles

  15. Relations Between FUV Excess and Coronal Soft X-Ray Emission Among Dwarf Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Graeme H.; Hargrave, Mason; Eckholm, Elliot

    2017-11-01

    The far-ultraviolet magnitudes of late-F, G and early-K dwarfs with (B - V) ⩾ 0.50 as measured by the GALEX satellite are shown to correlate with soft X-ray luminosity. This result indicates that line and continuum emission from stellar active regions make significant contributions to the flux in the GALEX FUV band for late-F, G and K dwarfs. By contrast, detection of a correlation between FUV brightness and soft X-ray luminosity among early-F dwarfs requires subtraction of the photospheric component from the FUV flux. The range in (B - V) among F and G dwarfs over which a correlation between uncorrected FUV magnitude and X-ray luminosity is detected coincides with the range in colour over which coronal and chromospheric emission correlates with stellar rotation.

  16. K and L X-ray emission intensities of some radionuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verma, H R; Pal, D [Punjabi Univ., Patiala (India). Dept. of Physics

    1985-01-01

    The K and L x-ray emission intensities per 100 disintegrations have been calculated for some radionuclides using the latest adopted data for gamma-ray intensities, electron capture and internal conversion coefficients for the parent nuclides, fluorescence yield values, Coster-Kronig transition probabilities, average total number of primary L shell vacancies produced in the decay of K shell vacancies and emission rates for various shells and subshells for the daughter nuclei. The results are in good agreement with theoretical and experimental values for the K x-ray intensities. There are no experimental results available to compare with the present calculations for the L x-ray intensities; however, there is a marked discrepancy in the L..cap alpha.. and L..beta.. intensities available on the basis of theoretical estimates.

  17. Obtaining attosecond x-ray pulses using a self-amplified spontaneous emission free electron laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Zholents

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available We describe a technique for the generation of a solitary attosecond x-ray pulse in a free-electron laser (FEL, via a process of self-amplified spontaneous emission. In this method, electrons experience an energy modulation upon interacting with laser pulses having a duration of a few cycles within single-period wiggler magnets. Two consecutive modulation sections, followed by compression in a dispersive section, are used to obtain a single, subfemtosecond spike in the electron peak current. This region of the electron beam experiences an enhanced growth rate for FEL amplification. After propagation through a long undulator, this current spike emits a ∼250   attosecond x-ray pulse whose intensity dominates the x-ray emission from the rest of the electron bunch.

  18. Einstein X-ray survey of the Pleiades - The dependence of X-ray emission on stellar age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micela, G.; Sciortino, S.; Serio, S.; Vaiana, G. S.; Bookbinder, J.; Golub, L.; Harnden, F. R., Jr.; Rosner, R.

    1985-01-01

    The data obtained with two pointed observations of 1 deg by 1 deg fields of the Pleiades region have been analyzed, and the results are presented. The maximum-likelihood X-ray luminosity functions for the Pleiades G and K stars in the cluster are derived, and it is shown that, for the G stars, the Pleiades X-ray luminosity function is significantly brighter than the corresponding function for Hyades G dwarf stars. This finding indicates a dependence of X-ray luminosity on stellar age, which is confirmed by comparison of the same data with median X-ray luminosities of pre-main sequence and local disk population dwarf G stars. It is suggested that the significantly larger number of bright X-ray sources associated with G stars than with K stars, the lack of detection of M stars, and the relatively rapid rotation of the Pleiades K stars can be explained in terms of the onset of internal differential rotation near the convective envelope-radidative core interface after the spin-up phase during evolution to the main sequence.

  19. Role of local absorption on the X-ray emission from MHD accretion shocks in classical T Tauri stars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonito

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Accretion processes onto classical T Tauri stars (CTTSs are believed to generate shocks at the stellar surface due to the impact of supersonic downflowing plasma. Although current models of accretion streams provide a plausible global picture of this process, several aspects are still unclear. For example, the observed X-ray luminosity in accretion shocks is, in general, well below the predicted value. A possible explanation discussed in the literature is in terms of significant absorption of the emission due to the thick surrounding medium. Here we consider a 2D MHD model describing an accretion stream propagating through the atmosphere of a CTTS and impacting onto its chromosphere. The model includes all the relevant physics, namely the gravity, the thermal conduction, and the radiative cooling, and a realistic description of the unperturbed stellar atmosphere (from the chromosphere to the corona. From the model results, we synthesize the X-ray emission emerging from the hot slab produced by the accretion shock, exploring different configurations and strengths of the stellar magnetic field. The synthesis includes the local absorption by the thick surrounding medium and the Doppler shift of lines due to the component of plasma velocity along the line-of-sight. We explore the effects of absorption on the emerging X-ray spectrum, considering different inclinations of the accretion stream with respect to the observer. Finally we compare our results with the observations.

  20. The Sun's X-ray Emission During the Recent Solar Minimum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sylwester, Janusz; Kowalinski, Mirek; Gburek, Szymon; Siarkowski, Marek; Kuzin, Sergey; Farnik, Frantisek; Reale, Fabio; Phillips, Kenneth J. H.

    2010-02-01

    The Sun recently underwent a period of a remarkable lack of major activity such as large flares and sunspots, without equal since the advent of the space age a half century ago. A widely used measure of solar activity is the amount of solar soft X-ray emission, but until recently this has been below the threshold of the X-ray-monitoring Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES). There is thus an urgent need for more sensitive instrumentation to record solar X-ray emission in this range. Anticipating this need, a highly sensitive spectrophotometer called Solar Photometer in X-rays (SphinX) was included in the solar telescope/spectrometer TESIS instrument package on the third spacecraft in Russia's Complex Orbital Observations Near-Earth of Activity of the Sun (CORONAS-PHOTON) program, launched 30 January 2009 into a near-polar orbit. SphinX measures X-rays in a band similar to the GOES longer-wavelength channel.

  1. Soft x-ray emission from gamma-ray bursts observed with ginga

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Atsumasa; Murakami, Toshio; Itoh, Masayuki

    1989-01-01

    The soft X-ray emission of gamma-ray bursts below 10 keV provides information about size, location, and emission mechanism. The Gamma-ray Burst Detector (GBD) on board Ginga, which consists of a proportional counter and a scintillation detector, covers an energy range down to 1.5 keV with 63 cm 2 effective area. In several of the observed gamma-ray bursts, the intensity of the soft X-ray emission showed a longer decay time of 50 to 100s after the higher energy gamma-ray emission had ended. Although we cannot rule out other models, such as bremsstrahlung and thermal cyclotron types, due to poor statistics, the soft X-ray spectra are consistent with a blackbody of 1 to 2 keV in the late phase of the gamma-ray bursts. This enables us to estimate the size of the blackbody responsible for the X-ray emission. (author)

  2. X-ray continuum and iron K emission line from the radio galaxy 3C 390.3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inda, M.; Makishima, K.; Kohmura, Y.; Tashiro, M.; Ohashi, T.; Barr, P.; Hayashida, K.; Palumbo, G. G. C.; Trinchieri, G.; Elvis, M.

    1994-01-01

    X-ray properties of the radio galaxy 3C 390.3 were investigated using the European X-ray Observatory Satellite (EXOSAT) and Ginga satellites. Long-term, large-amplitude X-ray intensity changes were detected over a period extending from 1984 through 1991, and high-quality X-ray spectra were obtained especially with Ginga. The X-ray continuum spectra were described with power-law model with photon slope in the range 1.5-1.8, and the slope flattened as the 2-20 keV luminosity decreased by 40%. There was a first detection of the iron emission line from this source at the 90% confidence level. An upper limit was derived on the thermal X-ray component. X-ray emission mechanisms and possible origins of the long-term variation are discussed.

  3. X-ray emission in heavy-ion collisions. Progress report, April 1, 1979-March 31, 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, R.L.

    1980-04-01

    Recent research in the cyclotron institute and department of chemistry at Texas A and M University on the x-ray emission in heavy-ion collisions is described. Areas covered include: spectra of Ka x-rays from 64 MeV sulfur ions traveling in solids; foil-excited Ka x-ray transitions in few-electron sulfur ions; high-resolution study of the target thickness dependence of x-ray emission from 65 MeV sulfur ions; dynamic screening of highly stripped sulfur ions in solids; Mg Ka x-ray satellites excited by ion bombardment, multiplet structure and dependence on projectile and chemical environment; angular distributions of beam and target Ka x-rays; chemical effects on K x-ray satellites of fluorine compounds; and a non-linear least-squares peak-fitting program employing Voight functions

  4. Characteristics of soft x-ray and extreme ultraviolet (XUV) emission from laser-produced highly charged rhodium ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barte, Ellie Floyd; Hara, Hiroyuki; Tamura, Toshiki; Gisuji, Takuya; Chen, When-Bo; Lokasani, Ragava; Hatano, Tadashi; Ejima, Takeo; Jiang, Weihua; Suzuki, Chihiro; Li, Bowen; Dunne, Padraig; O'Sullivan, Gerry; Sasaki, Akira; Higashiguchi, Takeshi; Limpouch, Jiří

    2018-05-01

    We have characterized the soft x-ray and extreme ultraviolet (XUV) emission of rhodium (Rh) plasmas produced using dual pulse irradiation by 150-ps or 6-ns pre-pulses, followed by a 150-ps main pulse. We have studied the emission enhancement dependence on the inter-pulse time separation and found it to be very significant for time separations less than 10 ns between the two laser pulses when using 6-ns pre-pulses. The behavior using a 150-ps pre-pulse was consistent with such plasmas displaying only weak self-absorption effects in the expanding plasma. The results demonstrate the advantage of using dual pulse irradiation to produce the brighter plasmas required for XUV applications.

  5. X-RAY AND RADIO EMISSION FROM TYPE IIn SUPERNOVA SN 2010jl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandra, Poonam [National Centre for Radio Astrophysics, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Pune University Campus, Pune 411 007 (India); Chevalier, Roger A. [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, P.O. Box 400325, Charlottesville, VA 22904-4325 (United States); Chugai, Nikolai [Institute of Astronomy of Russian Academy of Sciences, Pyatnitskaya St. 48, 109017 Moscow (Russian Federation); Fransson, Claes [Oskar Klein Centre, Department of Astronomy, Stockholm University, AlbaNova, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Soderberg, Alicia M., E-mail: poonam@ncra.tifr.res.in [Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, 60 Garden St., MS-20, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2015-09-01

    We present all X-ray and radio observations of the Type IIn supernova SN 2010jl. The X-ray observations cover a period up to day 1500 with Chandra, XMM-Newton, NuSTAR, and Swift-X-ray Telescope (XRT). The Chandra observations after 2012 June, the XMM-Newton observation in 2013 November, and most of the Swift-XRT observations until 2014 December are presented for the first time. All the spectra can be fitted by an absorbed hot thermal model except for Chandra spectra on 2011 October and 2012 June when an additional component is needed. Although the origin of this component is uncertain, it is spatially coincident with the supernova and occurs when there are changes to the supernova spectrum in the energy range close to that of the extra component, indicating that the emission is related to the supernova. The X-ray light curve shows an initial plateau followed by a steep drop starting at day ∼300. We attribute the drop to a decrease in the circumstellar density. The column density to the X-ray emission drops rapidly with time, showing that the absorption is in the vicinity of the supernova. We also present Very Large Array radio observations of SN 2010jl. Radio emission was detected from SN 2010jl from day 570 onwards. The radio light curves and spectra suggest that the radio luminosity was close to its maximum at the first detection. The velocity of the shocked ejecta derived assuming synchrotron self-absorption is much less than that estimated from the optical and X-ray observations, suggesting that free–free absorption dominates.

  6. Positron emission CT and X-ray CT findings in chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, Yoshikazu; Murata, Kiyoshi; Ito, Harumi; Senda, Michio; Yonekura, Yoshiharu; Konishi, Junji; Nishimura, Koichi; Izumi, Takahide; Oshima, Shunsaku

    1987-08-01

    Positron emission CT and X-ray CT were performed in fifteen patients with emphysema confirmed SAB and twelve patients with clinical DPB. In patients with emphysema, 20 of 36 areas showed a central pattern and their perfusion scintigrams showed stripe-signs. On the other hand, the patients with DPB showed outer layer progression of the disease.

  7. Cometary X-ray Emission: the View After the First Chandra Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisse, C. M.

    2002-01-01

    The unexpected discovery of x-ray emission from Comet Hyakutake in March 1996 (Lisse et al. 1996) has produced a number of questions about the physical mechanism producing the radiation. The original detection and subsequent observations (Dennerl et al. 1997, Mumma et al. 1997, Krasnopolsky et al. 1998, Owens et al. 1998, Lisse et al. 1999) have shown that the very soft (best fit thermal bremsstrahlung model kT ~ 0.2 keV) emission is due to an interaction between the solar wind and the comet's atmosphere. Using the results from the 15 comets detected to date in x-rays, we report on the latest results on cometary x-ray emission, including new results from Chandra and XMM. As-observed morphologies, spectra, and light curves will be discussed. Our emphasis will be on understanding the physical mechanism producing the emission, and using this to determine the nature of the cometary coma, the structure of the solar wind in the heliosphere, and the source of the local soft x-ray background. This work has been graciously supported by grants from the NASA Planetary Astronomy and Astrophysical Data Programs.

  8. Correlation between X-ray and high energy gamma-ray emission form Cygnus X-3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weekes, T.C.; Danaher, S.; Fegan, D.J.; Porter, N.A.

    1981-01-01

    In May-June 1980, the 4.8 hour modulated X-ray flux from Cygnus X-3 underwent a significant change in the shape of the light curve; this change correlates with the peak in the high-energy (E > 2 x 10 12 eV) gamma ray emission at the same epoch. (orig.)

  9. X-ray emission from reverse-shocked ejecta in supernova remnants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cioffi, Denis F.; Mckee, Christopher F.

    1990-01-01

    A simple physical model of the dynamics of a young supernova remnant is used to derive a straightforward kinematical description of the reverse shock. With suitable approximations, formulae can then be developed to give the X-ray emission of the reverse-shocked ejecta. The results are found to agree favorably with observations of SN1006.

  10. The application of proton induced X-ray emission in criminalistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Zhenyuan; Xie Shuxian

    1993-01-01

    The determination method of trace elements in high pure gold by proton induced X-ray emission is reported. The target preparation, design of physical experiment, data proceeding and the analysis of gold samples by the internal standard of single-standard are discussed. Using this determination method, the identification of a sample of high pure gold is performed

  11. Interpretation of x-ray emission from lithium-like ions in collisions with helium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armen, G.B.; Aaberg, T.

    1994-01-01

    We consider the continuous x-ray distribution on the low-energy side of the K α line in projectile spectra coincident with single-electron loss in collision of lithium-like ions with helium. We demonstrate that the observed distributions are due to two-photon emission rather than to the radiative Auger effect. (author)

  12. Proton induced X-ray emission analysis of trace elements in human blood serum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheek, D.B.; Hay, H.J.; Newton, C.S.

    1979-01-01

    Proton induced x-ray emission has been used for quantitative analyses of trace elements in blood serum samples. This work is part of a survey concerned with Zn, Cu, Fe, Cr, Mn and Se in Australian Aboriginal people not receiving optimal diet. Special attention is being directed to Cr because of the high incidence of diabetes mellitus in these people

  13. Proton-induced X-ray emission analysis of Jordanian cigarettes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hallak, A.B.

    1981-01-01

    Proton-induced X-ray emission spectroscopy was applied to determine the concentration of 11 elements in cigaretta tobacco of four brands commercially made in Jordan, and one foreign brand. The results are expressed in absolute amount per cigarette. Cigarette wrapping paper and cigarette smoke were also anlayzed. The significance of some of the elements found in the samples are discussed. (author)

  14. Qualitative analysis of a powdered diamond sample by particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mabida, C.; Annegarn, H.J.; Renan, M.J.; Sellschop, J.P.F.

    The main purpose of this analysis was to determine whether nickel is present in diamond powder as a trace element. Particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) showed unambiguously that nickel was present. Due to the convenience of PIXE in multielemental analysis, the investigations also include a number of other trace elements in the sample

  15. X-ray Emission from the Radio Jet in 3C 120

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harris, D. E.; Hjorth, J.; Sadun, A. C.

    1999-01-01

    We report the discovery of X-ray emission from a radio knot at a projected distance of 25" from the nucleus of the Seyfert galaxy, 3C 120. The data were obtained with the ROSAT High Resolution Imager (HRI). Optical upper limits for the knot preclude a simple power law extension of the radio...

  16. 14th International Conference on Particle Induced X-ray Emission ("PIXE 2015")

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przybyłowicz, Wojciech Józef; Pineda-Vargas, Carlos

    2015-11-01

    This special issue of Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B contains the proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Particle Induced X-ray Emission ("PIXE 2015") that was held in Somerset West (South Africa) from 25th February to 3rd March 2015.

  17. Forensic analysis of tempered sheet glass by particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jisonna, L.J. [Department of Chemistry and Department of Physics, Hope College, Holland, MI 49422-9000 (United States); DeYoung, P.A., E-mail: deyoung@hope.ed [Department of Chemistry and Department of Physics, Hope College, Holland, MI 49422-9000 (United States); Ferens, J.; Hall, C.; Lunderberg, J.M.; Mears, P. [Department of Chemistry and Department of Physics, Hope College, Holland, MI 49422-9000 (United States); Padilla, D. [Department of Physics, San Diego State University, San Diego, CA 92182-1233 (United States); Peaslee, G.F. [Department of Chemistry and Department of Physics, Hope College, Holland, MI 49422-9000 (United States); Sampson, R. [Department of Physics, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States)

    2011-05-15

    Highlights: {yields} PIXE was found to give the same results for trace elements in glass as ICP. {yields} PIXE can non-destructively determine trace element concentrations in auto glass. {yields} Measured Ca, Fe, Ti, Mn, and Sr in auto glass with PIXE. -- Abstract: The elemental concentrations of five trace elements in tempered sheet glass fragments were determined using particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) spectrometry. The trace element concentrations for calcium, iron, manganese, strontium, and titanium are compared to those obtained by inductively-coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) following complete digestion by hydrofluoric acid. For these five elements, the absolute concentrations obtained by both methods are shown to agree well over a wide range of concentrations. The limits of detection for trace elements are typically lower for the ICP-AES method. However, we show that the concentrations of these five elements can be accurately measured by the PIXE method. Since PIXE is an entirely non-destructive method, there exists a niche for this technique to be used as a complement to the more sensitive ICP-AES technique in the forensic analysis of sheet glass.

  18. Soft X-ray emission from the radio pulsar PSR 0656 + 14

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordova, F. A.; Middleditch, J.; Hjellming, R. M.; Mason, K. O.

    1989-01-01

    A radio source with a flux density of a few mJy was found in the error region of the soft X-ray source E0656 + 14, and identified as the radio pulsar PSR 0656 + 14. The radio source has a steep, nonthermal spectrum and a high degree of linear (62 percent) and circular (19 percent) polarization. The X-ray spectrum of the pulsar is among the softest sources observed with the Einstein Observatory. The X-ray data taken with the Einstein imaging proportional counter (IPC) permit a range of blackbody temperatures of 3-6 x 10 to the 5th K, and an equivalent column density of hydrogen smaller than 4 x 10 to the 20th/sq cm. If the assumption is made that the X-ray flux is thermal radiation from surface of the neutron star, then the pulsar must be at a distance smaller than 550 pc, consistent with the low dispersion measure of PSR 0656 + 14. The X-ray timing data suggest that the X-ray emission is modulated at the pulsar's 0.385-s spin period with an amplitude of 18 percent + or - 6 percent, and that there is a 0.0002 probability that this is spurious. It was noted that PSR 0656 + 14 is close to the geometric center of a 20-deg diameter soft X-ray emitting ring called the Gemini-Monoceros enhancement. The close distance of the pulsar, together with its relatively young age of 1.1 x 10 to the 5th yr, makes it possible that the ring is a supernova remnant from the explosion of the pulsar's progenitor. A radio source extending over a region 1.2 to 3.3 arcmin south of the pulsar is a candidate for association with the pulsar.

  19. Soft X-ray emission from the radio pulsar PSR 0656 + 14

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cordova, F.A.; Middleditch, J.; Hjellming, R.M.; Mason, K.O.

    1989-01-01

    A radio source with a flux density of a few mJy was found in the error region of the soft X-ray source E0656 + 14, and identified as the radio pulsar PSR 0656 + 14. The radio source has a steep, nonthermal spectrum and a high degree of linear (62%) and circular (19%) polarization. The X-ray spectrum of the pulsar is among the softest sources observed with the Einstein Observatory. The X-ray data taken with the Einstein imaging proportional counter (IPC) permit a range of blackbody temperatures of 3-6 x 10 to the 5th K, and an equivalent column density of hydrogen smaller than 4 x 10 to the 20th/sq cm. If the assumption is made that the X-ray flux is thermal radiation from surface of the neutron star, then the pulsar must be at a distance smaller than 550 pc, consistent with the low dispersion measure of PSR 0656 + 14. The X-ray timing data suggest that the X-ray emission is modulated at the pulsar's 0.385-s spin period with an amplitude of 18% + or - 6%, and that there is a 0.0002 probability that this is spurious. It was noted that PSR 0656 + 14 is close to the geometric center of a 20-deg diameter soft X-ray emitting ring called the Gemini-Monoceros enhancement. The close distance of the pulsar, together with its relatively young age of 1.1 x 10 to the 5th yr, makes it possible that the ring is a supernova remnant from the explosion of the pulsar's progenitor. A radio source extending over a region 1.2 to 3.3 arcmin south of the pulsar is a candidate for association with the pulsar. 46 refs

  20. Generation of plasma X-ray sources via high repetition rate femtosecond laser pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baguckis, Artūras; Plukis, Artūras; Reklaitis, Jonas; Remeikis, Vidmantas; Giniūnas, Linas; Vengris, Mikas

    2017-12-01

    In this study, we present the development and characterization of Cu plasma X-ray source driven by 20 W average power high repetition rate femtosecond laser in ambient atmosphere environment. The peak Cu- Kα photon flux of 2.3 × 109 photons/s into full solid angle is demonstrated (with a process conversion efficiency of 10-7), using pulses with peak intensity of 4.65 × 1014 W/cm2. Such Cu- Kα flux is significantly larger than others found in comparable experiments, performed in air environment. The effects of resonance plasma absorption process, when optimized, are shown to increase measured flux by the factor of 2-3. The relationship between X-ray photon flux and plasma-driving pulse repetition rate is quasi-linear, suggesting that fluxes could further be increased to 1010 photons/s using even higher average powers of driving radiation. These results suggest that to fully utilize the potential of high repetition rate laser sources, novel target material delivery systems (for example, jet-based ones) are required. On the other hand, this study demonstrates that high energy lasers currently used for plasma X-ray sources can be conveniently and efficiently replaced by high average power and repetition rate laser radiation, as a way to increase the brightness of the generated X-rays.

  1. Absorption of aluminium X-ray lines in a laser created gold plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Combis, P.; Busquet, M.; Louis-Jacquet, M.

    1986-04-01

    We have studied the absorption of aluminium X-ray lines through a gold plasma by focusing a high intensity laser-beam onto a specific target. Absorption in the wavelength range of 5 to 7 A has been evidenced and measured for Aluminium resonance lines

  2. X-ray Heating and Electron Temperature of Laboratory Photoionized Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancini, Roberto; Lockard, Tom; Mayes, Daniel C.; Loisel, Guillaume; Bailey, James E.; Rochau, Gregory; Abdallah, J.; Golovkin, I.

    2018-06-01

    In separate experiments performed at the Z facility of Sandia National Laboratories two different samples were employed to produce and characterize photoionized plasmas. One was a gas cell filled with neon, and the other was a thin silicon layer coated with plastic. Both samples were driven by the broadband x-ray flux produced at the collapse of a wire array z-pinch implosion. Transmission spectroscopy of a narrowband portion of the x-ray flux was used to diagnose the charge state distribution, and the electron temperature was extracted from a Li-like ion level population ratio. To interpret the temperature measurement, we performed Boltzmann kinetics and radiation-hydrodynamic simulations. We found that non-equilibrium atomic physics and the coupling of the radiation flux to the atomic level population kinetics play a critical role in modeling the x-ray heating of photoionized plasmas. In spite of being driven by similar x-ray drives, differences of ionization and charged state distributions in the neon and silicon plasmas are reflected in the plasma heating and observed electron temperatures.This work was sponsored in part by DOE Office of Science Grant DE-SC0014451, and the Z Facility Fundamental Science Program of SNL.

  3. Assessment of image quality in x-ray radiography imaging using a small plasma focus device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanani, A.; Shirani, B.; Jabbari, I.; Mokhtari, J.

    2014-01-01

    This paper offers a comprehensive investigation of image quality parameters for a small plasma focus as a pulsed hard x-ray source for radiography applications. A set of images were captured from some metal objects and electronic circuits using a low energy plasma focus at different voltages of capacitor bank and different pressures of argon gas. The x-ray source focal spot of this device was obtained to be about 0.6 mm using the penumbra imaging method. The image quality was studied by several parameters such as image contrast, line spread function (LSF) and modulation transfer function (MTF). Results showed that the contrast changes by variations in gas pressure. The best contrast was obtained at a pressure of 0.5 mbar and 3.75 kJ stored energy. The results of x-ray dose from the device showed that about 0.6 mGy is sufficient to obtain acceptable images on the film. The measurements of LSF and MTF parameters were carried out by means of a thin stainless steel wire 0.8 mm in diameter and the cut-off frequency was obtained to be about 1.5 cycles/mm. - Highlights: • We investigated a small plasma focus as pulsed x-ray source for radiography applications. • The image quality was studied by several parameters such as image contrast, LSF and MTF. • The x-ray source focal spot was obtained to be ∼0.6 mm using the penumbra imaging method. • The x-ray dose measurement showed that about 0.6 mGy is sufficient to obtain acceptable images on the film. • The profiles of LSF and MTF showed that the cut-off frequency is about 1.5 cycles/mm

  4. Trace element analysis in liquids by proton induced x-ray emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deconninck, G.

    Proton induced x-ray emission (PIXE) from liquid has been developed for quantitative and simultaneous analysis of trace elements. Liquid drops and trickles are bombarded at atmospheric pressure, x-rays are detected in a non dispersive Si(Li) solid state detector. Absolute determinations are made by comparison with standard solutions. Detection limits in a 5 minutes run are in the ppm range for a single drop (0.05 ml). The application of this technique to the determination of trace elements in biological liquids is investigated (Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, in plant extracts, haemocyanine, albumins...). (author)

  5. X-ray emission in slow highly charged ion-surface collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, H; Abe, T; Fujita, Y; Sun, J; Takahashi, S; Tona, M; Yoshiyasu, N; Nakamura, N; Sakurai, M; Yamada, C; Ohtani, S

    2007-01-01

    X-rays emitted in the collisions of highly charged ions with a surface have been measured to investigate dissipation schemes of their potential energies. While 8.1% of the potential energy was dissipated in the collisions of He-like I ions with a W surface, 29.1% has been dissipated in the case of He-like Bi ions. The x-ray emissions play significant roles in the dissipation of the potential energies in the interaction of highly charged heavy ions with the surface

  6. Observation of hard X-rays line emission from Her X-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polcaro, V.F.; Bazzano, A.; la Padula, C.; Ubertini, P.; Vialetto, G.; Manchanda, R.K.; Damle, S.V.

    1982-04-01

    We present the results of a hard X-ray measurement of the binary source Her X-1, carried out with a balloon borne X-ray telescope consisting of two Multiwire Proportional Counters, having 900 cm/sup 2/ sensitive area each and spectral resolution of 15% and 24% FWHM respectively at 60 keV. The source was observed during the 'Mid-on' state. Our data confirm the previously reported high energy emission line overimposed on the low energy thermal spectrum.

  7. X-ray fluorescence analysis and optical emission spectrometry of an roman mirror from Tomis, Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belc, M.; Bogoi, M.; Ionescu, D.; Guita, D.; Caiteanu, S.; Caiteanu, D.

    2000-01-01

    The miscellaneous population of Roman Empire, their diverse cultural tradition, their ability to assimilate the roman civilization spirits, had determined a permanent reassessment superimposed upon the roman contribution. Analysis was undertaken using optical emission spectrometry and non-destructive X-ray fluorescence. X-ray fluorescence analysis is a well-established method and is often used in archaeometry and other work dealing with valuable objects pertaining to the history of art and civilization. Roman mirror analysed has been found not to be made of speculum (a high tin bronze). (authors)

  8. THE SPECTACULAR RADIO-NEAR-IR-X-RAY JET OF 3C 111: THE X-RAY EMISSION MECHANISM AND JET KINEMATICS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clautice, Devon; Perlman, Eric S. [Department of Physics and Space Sciences, Florida Institute of Technology, 150 W. University Boulevard, Melbourne, FL 32901 (United States); Georganopoulos, Markos [Department of Physics, University of Maryland—Baltimore County, 1000 Hilltop Circle, Baltimore, MD 21250 (United States); Lister, Matthew L.; Hogan, Brandon [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Purdue University, 525 Northwestern Avenue, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Tombesi, Francesco [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742-2421 (United States); Cara, Mihai [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Marshall, Herman L. [Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Kazanas, Demos [NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center, Astrophysics Science Division, Code 663, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2016-08-01

    Relativistic jets are the most energetic manifestation of the active galactic nucleus (AGN) phenomenon. AGN jets are observed from the radio through gamma-rays and carry copious amounts of matter and energy from the sub-parsec central regions out to the kiloparsec and often megaparsec scale galaxy and cluster environs. While most spatially resolved jets are seen in the radio, an increasing number have been discovered to emit in the optical/near-IR and/or X-ray bands. Here we discuss a spectacular example of this class, the 3C 111 jet, housed in one of the nearest, double-lobed FR II radio galaxies known. We discuss new, deep Chandra and Hubble Space Telescope ( HST ) observations that reveal both near-IR and X-ray emission from several components of the 3C 111 jet, as well as both the northern and southern hotspots. Important differences are seen between the morphologies in the radio, X-ray, and near-IR bands. The long (over 100 kpc on each side), straight nature of this jet makes it an excellent prototype for future, deep observations, as it is one of the longest such features seen in the radio, near-IR/optical, and X-ray bands. Several independent lines of evidence, including the X-ray and broadband spectral shape as well as the implied velocity of the approaching hotspot, lead us to strongly disfavor the EC/CMB model and instead favor a two-component synchrotron model to explain the observed X-ray emission for several jet components. Future observations with NuSTAR , HST , and Chandra will allow us to further constrain the emission mechanisms.

  9. Development of a plasma system as a source of radiation for X-ray microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neff, W.; Lebert, R.; Holz, R.

    1992-01-01

    During the period of the report, an X-ray source was developed for a laboratory X-ray microscope based on a plasma focus. Nitrogen is used as the discharge gas. The Lyman α line (λ = 2.48 nm) of nitrogen ions N VII similar to hydrogen is used for the image in the microscope. This line is favourably situated at the start of the water window (2.33 - 4.37 nm), so that the microscope is particularly suitable for the examination of biological objects. (orig.) [de

  10. Observations of non-collective x-ray scattering in warm dense carbon plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bao Lihua; Zhang Jiyan; Zhao Yang; Ding Yongkun; Zhang Xiaoding

    2012-01-01

    An experiment for observing the spectrally resolved non-collective x-ray scattering in warm dense carbon plasma is presented in this paper. The experiment used Ta M-band x-rays to heat a foamed carbon cylinder sample isochorically and measured the scattering spectrum with a HOPG crystal spectrometer. The spectrum was compared with the calculation results using a Born-Mermin-approximation model. The best fitting was found at an electron temperature of T e =34 eV and an electron density of n e =1.6×10 23 cm −3 .

  11. Review of x-ray spectroscopy from laser-produced plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kauffman, R.L.

    1987-09-01

    Recent progress in x-ray spectroscopy from laser plasmas is reviewed. Advances in the use of K-shell spectra as a diagnostic tool is discussed. Much activity in understanding complex spectra especially from Ne I and Ni I isoelectronic series have been made. Much of the progress has been due to observation of amplification from Δn = O transitions from these configurations. The spectroscopy will be discussed and examples of spectra of the amplified lines will be shown. Finally, recent work on using x-ray spectroscopy to diagnose high density implosions will be discussed. 33 refs

  12. Soft x-ray microradiography and lithograph using a laser produced plasma source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, P.C.

    1992-01-01

    Considering the hardware characteristics of the laser-induced plasma X-ray source and the limitations of the conventional cone-beam reconstruction algorithm, a general cone-beam reconstruction algorithm has been developed at our laboratory, in which the motion locus of the X-ray source is an arbitrary curve corresponding to at least a 2π continuous horizontal angular displacement in the coordinate system of the specimen. The preliminary simulation shows that the general cone-beam reconstruction algorithm consistently results in visually satisfactory images

  13. Specific features of X-ray generation by plasma focus chambers with deuterium and deuterium–tritium fillings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dulatov, A. K., E-mail: bogolubov@vniia.ru; Krapiva, P. S.; Lemeshko, B. D.; Mikhailov, Yu. V.; Moskalenko, I. N.; Prokuratov, I. A.; Selifanov, A. N. [All-Russia Research Institute of Automatics (Russian Federation)

    2016-01-15

    The process of hard X-ray (HXR) generation in plasma focus (PF) chambers was studied experimentally. The radiation was recorded using scintillation detectors with a high time resolution and thermoluminescent detectors in combination with the method of absorbing filters. Time-resolved analysis of the processes of neutron and X-ray generation in PFs is performed. The spectra of HXR emission from PF chambers with deuterium and deuterium–tritium fillings are determined. In experiments with PF chambers filled with a deuterium–tritium mixture, in addition to the HXR pulse with photon energies of up to 200–300 keV, a γ-ray pulse with photon energies of up to 2.5–3.0 MeV is recorded, and a mechanism of its generation is proposed.

  14. X-RAY EMISSION FROM SUPERNOVAE IN DENSE CIRCUMSTELLAR MATTER ENVIRONMENTS: A SEARCH FOR COLLISIONLESS SHOCKS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ofek, E. O.; Gal-Yam, A.; Yaron, O.; Arcavi, I.; Fox, D.; Cenko, S. B.; Filippenko, A. V.; Bloom, J. S.; Sullivan, M.; Gnat, O.; Frail, D. A.; Horesh, A.; Kulkarni, S. R.; Corsi, A.; Quimby, R. M.; Gehrels, N.; Nugent, P. E.; Kasliwal, M. M.; Bildsten, L.; Poznanski, D.

    2013-01-01

    The optical light curve of some supernovae (SNe) may be powered by the outward diffusion of the energy deposited by the explosion shock (the so-called shock breakout) in optically thick (τ ∼> 30) circumstellar matter (CSM). Recently, it was shown that the radiation-mediated and radiation-dominated shock in an optically thick wind must transform into a collisionless shock and can produce hard X-rays. The X-rays are expected to peak at late times, relative to maximum visible light. Here we report on a search, using Swift/XRT and Chandra, for X-ray emission from 28 SNe that belong to classes whose progenitors are suspected to be embedded in dense CSM. Our sample includes 19 Type IIn SNe, one Type Ibn SN, and eight hydrogen-poor superluminous SNe (SLSN-I such as SN 2005ap). Two SNe (SN 2006jc and SN 2010jl) have X-ray properties that are roughly consistent with the expectation for X-rays from a collisionless shock in optically thick CSM. However, the X-ray emission from SN 2006jc can also be explained as originating in an optically thin region. Thus, we propose that the optical light curve of SN 2010jl is powered by shock breakout in CSM. We suggest that two other events (SN 2010al and SN 2011ht) were too X-ray bright during the SN maximum optical light to be explained by the shock-breakout model. We conclude that the light curves of some, but not all, SNe IIn/Ibn are powered by shock breakout in CSM. For the rest of the SNe in our sample, including all of the SLSN-I events, our X-ray limits are not deep enough and were typically obtained too early (i.e., near the SN maximum light) for definitive conclusions about their nature. Late-time X-ray observations are required in order to further test whether these SNe are indeed embedded in dense CSM. We review the conditions required for a shock breakout in a wind profile. We argue that the timescale, relative to maximum light, for the SN to peak in X-rays is a probe of the column density and the density profile above the

  15. CORRELATION OF HARD X-RAY AND WHITE LIGHT EMISSION IN SOLAR FLARES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuhar, Matej; Krucker, Säm; Battaglia, Marina; Kleint, Lucia; Casadei, Diego [University of Applied Sciences and Arts Northwestern Switzerland, Bahnhofstrasse 6, 5210 Windisch (Switzerland); Oliveros, Juan Carlos Martinez; Hudson, Hugh S. [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-7450 (United States)

    2016-01-01

    A statistical study of the correlation between hard X-ray and white light emission in solar flares is performed in order to search for a link between flare-accelerated electrons and white light formation. We analyze 43 flares spanning GOES classes M and X using observations from the Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager and Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager. We calculate X-ray fluxes at 30 keV and white light fluxes at 6173 Å summed over the hard X-ray flare ribbons with an integration time of 45 s around the peak hard-X ray time. We find a good correlation between hard X-ray fluxes and excess white light fluxes, with a highest correlation coefficient of 0.68 for photons with energy of 30 keV. Assuming the thick target model, a similar correlation is found between the deposited power by flare-accelerated electrons and the white light fluxes. The correlation coefficient is found to be largest for energy deposition by electrons above ∼50 keV. At higher electron energies the correlation decreases gradually while a rapid decrease is seen if the energy provided by low-energy electrons is added. This suggests that flare-accelerated electrons of energy ∼50 keV are the main source for white light production.

  16. Propagation and scattering of high-intensity X-ray pulses in dense atomic gases and plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weninger, Clemens

    2015-10-01

    Nonlinear spectroscopy in the X-ray domain is a promising technique to explore the dynamics of elementary excitations in matter. X-rays provide an element specificity that allows them to target individual chemical elements, making them a great tool to study complex molecules. The recent advancement of X-ray free electron lasers (XFELs) allows to investigate non-linear processes in the X-ray domain for the first time. XFELs provide short femtosecond X-ray pulses with peak powers that exceed previous generation synchrotron X-ray sources by more than nine orders of magnitude. This thesis focuses on the theoretical description of stimulated emission processes in the X-ray regime in atomic gases. These processes form the basis for more complex schemes in molecules and provide a proof of principle for nonlinear X-ray spectroscopy. The thesis also includes results from two experimental campaigns at the Linac Coherent Light Source and presents the first experimental demonstration of stimulated X-ray Raman scattering. Focusing an X-ray free electron laser beam into an elongated neon gas target generates an intense stimulated X-ray emission beam in forward direction. If the incoming X-rays have a photon energy above the neon K edge, they can efficiently photo-ionize 1s electrons and generate short-lived core excited states. The core-excited states decay mostly via Auger decay but have a small probability to emit a spontaneous X-ray photon. The spontaneous emission emitted in forward direction can stimulate X-ray emission along the medium and generate a highly directional and intense X-ray laser pulse. If the photon energy of the incoming X-rays however is below the ionization edge in the region of the pre-edge resonance the incoming X-rays can be inelastically scattered. This spontaneous X-ray Raman scattering process has a very low probability, but the spontaneously scattered photons in the beginning of the medium can stimulate Raman scattering along the medium. The

  17. Characterization of metallic nanoparticles by high-resolution X-ray absorption and X-ray emission spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuehn, Timna-Josua

    2012-03-15

    In almost all areas of technology, metallic nanoparticles are of interest due to their special thermal, electronic, magnetic and optical properties. Their special properties are mainly due to their small size which implies the relevance of quantum effects as well as the significance of the surface: For 2 nm nanoparticles, the surface-to-volume ratio is already 1:1. However, the identification of surface-to-volume interactions - that are responsible for the new properties - is a difficult task due to the small size that inhibits a lot of 'standard' techniques to be applicable. Here X-ray absorption/emission spectroscopy (XAS/XES) is a favorable tool for the characterization of nanoparticles, independent on size, degree of crystallinity and shape/condition of the surface. Using XAS, a tempered nanosized Co{sub 3}Pt/C catalyst have been investigated. Its outstanding oxygen-reduction reaction (ORR) properties in a fuel cell could be related to a lowered Pt 5d-band center connected to a tightened Pt-Pt bonding distance, leading to a weakening of the oxygen adsorption strength so that the ORR may proceed faster. One drawback remains, however, as the properties found by (standard) XAS are summed up for different chemical environments of the chosen element. Thus, no distinction can be made between, e.g., the pure metal in a nanoparticles' interior and the ligated metal in the outer shells or surface. Here, high-resolution fluorescence-detected XAS (HRFD-XAS) provides additional opportunities as, due to its chemical sensitivity, it leads to site-selective XAS. For a system of 6 nm sized Co nanoparticles, build up of a metallic core surrounded by a protecting shell, that resulted from the 'smooth oxidation' process, this technique of site-selective XAS was proven to be applicable. For the first time, the interior and outer shell of a metallic nanoparticle could be characterized separately. In particular, the Co-hcp phase could be determined for the

  18. Scintillator power meter applied on Z-pinch plasma soft X-ray yield measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Siqun; Huang Xianbin; Li Jing; Dan Jiakun; Li Jun; Yang Libing; Cui Mingqi; Zhao Yidong

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the configuration and measuring parameters of scintillator power meter applied in Z-pinch plasma soft X-ray yield measurement on Yang accelerator. It also introduces the calibration experiment on BSRF, and analyzes the defect of the power meter from calibration results, the possible errors and feasible method for correcting the errors. The measuring results are revised according to spectrum acquired from Dante spectrometer. The revised discrepancy of two instruments is decreased from over 30% to subter-15%. Finally, the result of yield measurement of the puff Z-pinch X-ray radiation is reported as well, i.e., hundreds of Joule, multigigawatt levels of soft X ray radiation were produced by puff Z-pinch on Yang accelerator. (authors)

  19. Multiframe, Single Line-of-Sight X-Ray Imager for Burning Plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, Kevin L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-01-28

    The purpose of this LDRD project was to demonstrate high spatial and temporal resolution x-ray imaging using optical detectors, and in particular the VISAR and OHRV diagnostics on the OMEGA laser. The x-ray source being imaged was a backlighter capsule being imploded by 39 beams of the OMEGA laser. In particular this approach utilized a semiconductor with the side facing the backlighter capsule coated with a thin aluminum layer to allow x rays to pass through the metal layer and then get absorbed in the semiconductor. The other side of the semiconductor was AR coated to allow the VISAR or OHRV probe beam to sample the phase change of the semiconductor as the x rays were absorbed in the semiconductor. This technique is capable of acquiring sub-picosecond 2-D or 1-D x-ray images, detector spatial resolution of better than 10 um and the ability to operate in a high neutron flux environment expected on ignition shots with burning plasmas. In addition to demonstrating this technique on the OMEGA laser, several designs were made to improve the phase sensitivity, temporal resolution and number of frames over the existing diagnostics currently implemented on the OMEGA laser. These designs included both 2-d imaging diagnostics as well as improved 1-D imaging diagnostics which were streaked in time.

  20. X-ray High-resolution Spectroscopy for Laser-produced Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbato, F.; Scarpellini, D.; Malizia, A.; Gaudio, P.; Richetta, M.; Antonelli, L.

    The study of the emission spectrum gives information about the material generating the spectrum itself and the condition in which this is generated. The wavelength spectra lines are linked to the specific element and plasma conditions (electron temperature, density), while their shape is influenced by several physical effects like Stark and Doppler ones. In this work we study the X-ray emission spectra of a copper laser-produced plasma by using a spherical bent crystal spectrometer to measure the electron temperature. The facility used is the laser TVLPS, at the Tor Vergata University in Rome. It consists of a Nd:Glass source (in first harmonic - 1064 nm) whose pulse parameters are: 8 J in energy, time duration of 15 ns and a focal spot diameter of 200 μm. The adopted spectrometer is based on a spherical bent crystal of muscovite. The device combines the focusing property of a spherical mirror with the Bragg's law. This allows to obtain a great power resolution but a limited range of analysis. In our case the resolution is on average 80 eV. As it is well-known, the position of the detector on the Rowland's circle is linked to the specific spectral range which has been studied. To select the area to be investigated, we acquired spectra by means of a flat spectrometer. The selected area is centered on 8.88 Å. To calibrate the spectrum we wrote a ray-tracing MATLAB code, which calculates the detector alignment parameters and calibration curve. We used the method of line ratio to measure the electron temperature. This is possible because we assumed the plasma to be in LTE condition. The temperature value was obtained comparing the experimental one, given by the line ratio, with the theoretical one, preceded by FLYCHK simulations.

  1. Diagnosing high density, fast-evolving plasmas using x-ray lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cauble, R.; Da Silva, L.B.; Barbee, T.W. Jr.

    1994-09-01

    As x-ray laser (XRL) research has matured, it has become possible to reliably utilize XRLs for applications in the laboratory. Laser coherence, high brightness and short pulse duration all make the XRL a unique tool for the diagnosis of laboratory plasmas. The high brightness of XRLs makes them well-suited for imaging and for interferometry when used in conjunction with multilayer mirrors and beamsplitters. We have utilized a soft x-ray laser in such an imaging system to examine laser-produced plasmas using radiography, moire deflectometry, and interferometry. Radiography experiments yield 100-200 ps snapshots of laser driven foils at a resolution of 1-2 μm. Moire deflectometry with an XRL has been used to probe plasmas at higher density than by optical means. Interferograms, which allow direct measurement of electron density in laser plasmas, have been obtained with this system

  2. Non-thermal electron populations in microwave heated plasmas investigated with X-ray detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belapure, Jaydeep Sanjay

    2013-04-15

    An investigation of the generation and dynamics of superthermal electrons in fusion plasma is carried out. A SDD+CsI(Tl) based X-ray diagnostic is constructed, characterized and installed at ASDEX Upgrade. In various plasma heating power and densities, the fraction and the energy distribution of the superthermal electrons is obtained by a bi-Maxwellian model and compared with Fokker-Planck simulations.

  3. Analysis of the electronic structure of human hemoglobin from soft X-ray emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soldatov, A.V.; Kravtsova, A.N.; Fedorovich, E.N.; Ankudinov, A.; Moewes, A.; Kurmaev, E.Z.

    2005-01-01

    We present X-ray emission spectra (XES) of human hemoglobin excited near the iron L 2,3 threshold and the nitrogen and carbon K-edges. The experiment is compared with our calculations of the corresponding spectra and gives good agreement. We find that the Fe L 3 emission is affected by the nearest nitrogen atoms located in the heme plane around the central iron atom. The distribution of the partial electronic densities of states of hemoglobin is determined

  4. HOT PLASMA FROM SOLAR ACTIVE-REGION CORES: CONSTRAINTS FROM THE HINODE X-RAY TELESCOPE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmelz, J. T. [USRA, 7178 Columbia Gateway Drive, Columbia, MD 21046 (United States); Christian, G. M.; Matheny, P. O., E-mail: jschmelz@usra.edu [Physics Department, University of Memphis, Memphis, TN 38152 (United States)

    2016-12-20

    Mechanisms invoked to heat the solar corona to millions of degrees kelvin involve either magnetic waves or magnetic reconnections. Turbulence in the convection zone produces MHD waves, which travel upward and dissipate. Photospheric motions continuously build up magnetic energy, which is released through magnetic reconnection. In this paper, we concentrate on hot non-flaring plasma with temperatures of 5 MK <  T  < 10 MK because it is one of the few observables for which wave and reconnection models make different predictions. Wave models predict no (or little) hot plasma, whereas reconnection models predict it, although in amounts that are challenging to detect with current instrumentation. We used data from the X-ray Telescope (XRT) and the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA). We requested a special XRT observing sequence, which cycled through the thickest XRT filter several times per hour so we could average these images and improve the signal-to-noise. We did differential emission measure (DEM) analysis using the time-averaged thick-filter data as well as all available channels from both the XRT and AIA for regions observed on 2014 December 11. Whereas our earlier work was only able to determine that plasma with a temperature greater than 5 MK was present , we are now able to find a well-constrained DEM distribution. We have therefore added a strong observational constraint that must be explained by any viable coronal heating model. Comparing state-of-the-art wave and reconnection model predictions, we can conclude that reconnection is heating the hot plasma in these active regions.

  5. Study of electrons distribution produced by laser-plasma interaction on x-ray generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikzad, L.; Sadighi-Bonabi, R.

    2010-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. In the present work, X-ray beams are generated from interaction of relativistic electron beams produced by interaction of 500 mJ, 30 femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser pulses with thin solid targets such as lead, molybdenum and tungsten. After interaction of an intense pulsed laser with He gas-jet, a micron-scale laser produced plasma, creates and accelerates electron bunches, which propagate in the ion channel produced in the wake of the laser pulse. When an electron bunch is injected into the bubble in phase with its field, it will gain relativistic energies within very short distance. These accelerated electrons with Megaelectron-Volt energy and different distributions, can interact with targets to generate X-ray radiation with Kiloelectron-Volt energy, providing to be close enough to the gas-jet, where the relativistic accelerated electrons exist. Here, to determine the results, Monte Carlo simulation (MCNP-4C code) is employed to present Bremsstrahlung and characteristic X-ray production by quasi-Maxwellian and quasi-monoenergetic electron beams for three samples with different thicknesses. The outcome shows that for one specific electron spectrum and one definite target, the energy which the maximum characteristic x-ray flux takes place, varies with thickness. Also, for each material the energy which this maximum happens is constant for all thicknesses, for both produced electron spectra. For each sample, x-ray flux is calculated for different thicknesses and the thickness which the maximum characteristic x-ray flux occurs is obtained. Besides, it is concluded that by increasing the atomic number of the target, maximum X-ray flux moves towards higher energy. Also, comparison of the results for three targets and two electron distributions shows that by using quasi-monoenergetic electron spectra, more intense and narrower characteristic X-ray can be produced compared to the quasi-Maxwellian electron distribution, almost for all

  6. An optimised set-up for total reflection particle induced X-ray emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kan, J.A. van; Vis, R.D.

    1997-01-01

    MeV proton beams at small angles of incidence (0-35 mrad) are used to analyse trace elements on flat surfaces such as Si wafers or quartz substrates. In these experiments, the particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) signal is used in a new optimized set-up. This set-up is constructed in such a way that the X-ray detector can reach very large solid angles, larger than 1 sr. Use of these large detector solid angles, combined with the reduction of bremsstrahlung background, affords limits of detection (LOD) of the order of 10 10 at cm -2 using total reflection particle induced X-ray emission (TPIXE). The LODs from earlier TPIXE measurements in a non-optimized set-up are used to estimate LODs in the new TPIXE set-up. Si wafers with low surface concentrations of V, Ni, Cu and Ag are used as standards to calibrate the LODs found with this set-up. The metal concentrations are determined by total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF). The TPIXE measurements are compared with TXRF measurements on the same wafers. (Author)

  7. Efficient soft x-ray emission source at 13.5 nm by use of a femtosecond-laser-produced Li-based microplasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higashiguchi, Takeshi; Rajyaguru, Chirag; Kubodera, Shoichi; Sasaki, Wataru; Yugami, Noboru; Kikuchi, Takashi; Kawata, Shigeo; Andreev, Alex

    2005-01-01

    A proof-of-principle experiment was demonstrated to optimize a Li-based microjet target coupled to dual subpicosecond laser pulses as a 13.5 nm soft x-ray emission source. An optimum pulse duration of 450 fs to achieve a maximum emission at 13.5 nm was well explained by the resonant absorption process. Utilization of dual femtosecond pulses revealed that the optimum pulse separation around 500 ps was necessary to achieve a maximum soft x-ray conversion efficiency of 0.2%, where plasma hydrodynamics could not be neglected. A one-fluid two-temperature hydrodynamic simulation reproduced this optimum pulse separation behavior

  8. Soft X-ray synchrotron radiation investigations of actinide materials systems utilizing X-ray emission spectroscopy and resonant inelastic X-ray scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shuh, D.K.; Butorin, S.M.; Guo, J.-H.; Nordgren, J.

    2004-01-01

    Synchrotron radiation (SR) methods have been utilized with increasing frequency over the past several years to study topics in actinide science, ranging from those of a fundamental nature to those that address a specifically-targeted technical need. In particular, the emergence of microspectroscopic and fluorescence-based techniques have permitted investigations of actinide materials at sources of soft x-ray SR. Spectroscopic techniques with fluorescence-based detection are useful for actinide investigations since they are sensitive to small amounts of material and the information sampling depth may be varied. These characteristics also serve to simplify both sample preparation and safety considerations. Examples of investigations using these fluorescence techniques will be described along with their results, as well as the prospects for future investigations utilizing these methodologies

  9. Where is the X-ray emission coming from in RT Cru Symbiotic System?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karovska, Margarita

    2014-11-01

    RT Cru is a member of a new sub-class of symbiotic interacting binaries with copious hard X-ray emission. It consists of a high-mass WD (>1.3 Ms) accreting from the wind of an M giant, and it is an important system to study in order to constrain precursor conditions for asymmetric PN and SN Ia. The Chandra HRC-I observation (Dec 2012), and an overlapping Swift observation, detected intermittent soft X-ray flaring, and we find evidence for a significant soft component in the spectrum. The flaring could be a consequence of clumped absorption columns moving in and out of the line of sight, or the variations could be due to changes at the accretion boundary layer. Further observations are needed to determine the origin of the soft emission and its relation to the hard emission.

  10. Optimising hard X-ray generation from laser-produced plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindheimer, C.

    1995-04-01

    The aim of this work is to increase the X-ray yield for a laser produced plasma by optimising the focusing conditions and temporal shape of the laser pulses. The focusing conditions are improved by introducing a control system that secures the laser target surface to exact focus within a range of a few micrometers, allowing continuously high laser intensity for plasma generation. The temporal shape of the laser pulses is changed by introducing a saturable absorber in the laser beam. The laser produces a substantial pre-pulse that heats and expands the target material prior to main pulse arrival. The saturable absorber can increase the main pulse/pre-pulse ratio of the laser pulse up to four orders of magnitude and consequently reduce expansion of the target material before the main pulse. The belief is that an increase in target density at the time of main pulse arrival will change the energy distribution of the X-rays, towards a more efficient X-ray production in the hard X-ray region. This report and the work connected to it, includes the preliminary measurements and results for these improvements. 17 refs

  11. Study of soft X-ray energy spectra from gas-puff Z-pinch plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zou Xiaobing; Wang Xinxin; Zhang Guixin; Han Min; Luo Chengmu

    2006-01-01

    A ROSS-FILTER-PIN spectrometer in the spectral range of 0.28 keV-1.56 keV was developed to study the soft X-ray radiation emitted from gas-puff Z-pinch plasma. It is composed of five channels covering the energy interval of interest without gaps. Soft X-ray spectral energy cuts were determined by the L absorption edges of selected filter elements (K absorption edges being used for light filter elements), and the optimum thickness of filter material was designed using computer code. To minimize the residual sensitivity outside the sensitivity range of each channel, element of the first filter was added into the second filter of all the Ross pair. To diminish the area of each filter, PIN detector with small sensitive area of 1 mm 2 was adopted for the spectrometer. A filter with small area is easy to fabricate and would be helpful to withstand the Z-pinch discharge shock wave. With this ROSS-FILTER-PIN spectrometer, the energy spectra of soft X-ray from a small gas-puff Z-pinch were investigated, and the correlation between the soft X-ray yield and the plasma implosion state was also studied. (authors)

  12. Resonant x-ray emission from gas-phase TiCl{sub 4}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hague, C.F.; Tronc, M. [Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris (France); De Groot, F. [Univ. of Groningen (Netherlands)] [and others

    1997-04-01

    Resonant x-ray emission spectroscopy (RXES) has proved to be a powerful tool for studying the electronic structure of condensed matter. Over the past few years it has been used mainly for studying the valence bands of solids and condensed molecules. Very recently the advent of high brightness photon beams provided by third generation synchrotron radiation source undulators, associated with efficient x-ray emission spectrometers has made it possible to perform experiments on free diatomic molecular systems. RXE spectra of free molecules are of prime importance to gain insight into their electronic structure and bonding as they reflect the symmetry of orbitals engaged in the two-electron, two-step process with the l = 0, {+-}2 parity-conserving selection rule, and are free from solid state effects which can introduce difficulties in the interpretation. They provide information (more so than XAS) on the core excited states, and, when performed at fixed incident photon energy as a function of the emitted photon energy, on the electronic excitation (charge transfer, multiplet states). Moreover the anisotropy of the angular distribution of resonant x-ray emission affects the relative intensity of the emission peaks and provides information concerning the symmetries of final states. This is a preliminary report on what are the first RXE spectra of a 3d transition metal complex in the gas phase. The experiment concerns the Ti 3d {yields}2p emission spectrum of TiCl{sub 4} over the 450 to 470 eV region.

  13. Resonant x-ray emission from gas-phase TiCl4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hague, C.F.; Tronc, M.; De Groot, F.

    1997-01-01

    Resonant x-ray emission spectroscopy (RXES) has proved to be a powerful tool for studying the electronic structure of condensed matter. Over the past few years it has been used mainly for studying the valence bands of solids and condensed molecules. Very recently the advent of high brightness photon beams provided by third generation synchrotron radiation source undulators, associated with efficient x-ray emission spectrometers has made it possible to perform experiments on free diatomic molecular systems. RXE spectra of free molecules are of prime importance to gain insight into their electronic structure and bonding as they reflect the symmetry of orbitals engaged in the two-electron, two-step process with the l = 0, ±2 parity-conserving selection rule, and are free from solid state effects which can introduce difficulties in the interpretation. They provide information (more so than XAS) on the core excited states, and, when performed at fixed incident photon energy as a function of the emitted photon energy, on the electronic excitation (charge transfer, multiplet states). Moreover the anisotropy of the angular distribution of resonant x-ray emission affects the relative intensity of the emission peaks and provides information concerning the symmetries of final states. This is a preliminary report on what are the first RXE spectra of a 3d transition metal complex in the gas phase. The experiment concerns the Ti 3d →2p emission spectrum of TiCl 4 over the 450 to 470 eV region

  14. X-ray spectroscopic technique for energetic electron transport studies in short-pulse laser/plasma interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tutt, T.E.

    1994-12-01

    When a solid target is irradiated by a laser beam, the material is locally heated to a high temperature and a plasma forms. The interaction of the laser with plasma can produce energetic electrons. By observing the behavior of these {open_quotes}hot{close_quotes} electrons, we hope to obtain a better understanding of Laser/Plasma Interactions. In this work we employ a layered-fluorescer technique to study the transport, and therefore the energetics, of the electrons. The plasma forms on a thin foil of metallic Pd which is bonded to thin layer of metallic Sn. Electrons formed from the plasma penetrate first the Pd and then the Sn. In both layers the energetic electrons promote inner (K) shell ionization of the metallic atoms which leads to the emission of characteristic K{sub {alpha}} x-rays of the fluorescers. By recording the x-ray spectrum emitted by the two foils, we can estimate the energy-dependent range of the electrons and their numbers.

  15. Space-time structure of neutron and X-ray sources in a plasma focus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bostick, W.H.; Nardi, V.; Prior, W.

    1977-01-01

    Systematic measurements with paraffin collimators of the neutron emission intensity have been completed on a plasma focus with a 15-20 kV capacitor bank (hollow centre electrode; discharge period T approximately 8 μs; D 2 filling at 4-8 torr). The space resolution was 1 cm or better. These data indicate that at least 70% of the total neutron yield originates within hot-plasma regions where electron beams and high-energy D beams (approximately > 0.1-1 MeV) are produced. The neutron source is composed of several (approximately > 1-10) space-localized sources of different intensity, each with a duration approximately less than 5 ns (FWHM). Localized neutron sources and hard (approximately > 100 keV) X-ray sources have the same time multiplicity and are usually distributed in two groups over a time interval 40-400 ns long. By the mode of operation used by the authors one group of localized sources (Burst II) is observed 200-400 ns after the other group (Burst I) and its space distribution is broader than for Burst I. The maximum intensity of a localized source of neutrons in Burst I is much higher than the maximum intensity in Burst II. Secondary reactions T(D,n) 4 He (from the tritium produced only by primary reactions in the same discharge; no tritium was used in filling the discharge chamber) are observed in a time coincidence with the strongest D-D neutron pulse of Burst I. The neutron signal from a localized source with high intensity has a relatively long tail of small amplitude (area tail approximately less than 0.2 X area peak). This tail can be generated by the D-D reactions of the unconfined part of an ion beam in the cold plasma. Complete elimination of scattered neutrons on the detector was achieved in these measurements. (author)

  16. Multi-millijoule, deeply saturated x-ray laser at 21.2 nm for applications in plasma physics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rus, Bedřich; Mocek, Tomáš; Präg R., Ansgar; Kozlová, Michaela; Hudeček, Miroslav; Jamelot, G.; Carillon, A.; Ros, D.; Lagron, J.C.; Joyeux, D.; Phalippou, D.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 44, - (2002), s. B207-B223 ISSN 0741-3335 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LN00A100; GA AV ČR IAA1010014 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010921 Keywords : x-ray lasers * laser plasma * x-ray spectroscopy * x-ray optics Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 2.121, year: 2002

  17. X ray emission experiments at 1.06 μm and 0.35 μm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babonneau, D.; Billon, D.; Bocher, J.L.; Di Bona, G.; Fortin, X.; Thiell, G.

    1982-10-01

    Experiments and analyses on high-Z targets X-ray emission are reported. Two kinds of targets have been used: spherical targets with Octal laser (1.06 μm; 10 13 to 10 13 to 10 15 W/cm 2 ) and planar targets with P102 laser (0.35μm; 3 x 10 13 to 3 x 10 14 W/cm 2 ). The influence of the different parameters (laser flux, laser wavelength, atomic number) on emission rates and spectra is discussed. The results about the emission rates are compared with data from other laboratories and an experimental scaling law is proposed. Temperatures can be evaluated from experimental spectra and related to the different plasma regions. Space-time resolved measurements with a streak camera, from spherical targets, in the (1 - 1.3 keV) energy range allow to determine a velocity: about 6 x 10 6 cm/s for the emission region

  18. Study of X-ray emission in aluminium z-pinches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosch, R.

    1999-01-01

    Previous experiments, at 0.1. TX level, have shown that stability and x-ray emission of fast Z-pinches, could be strongly increased by imploding an aluminium vapor jet onto a very thin coaxial wire. We present here first results of an aluminium Z-pinch, using a similar liner, but at mega-ampere level. The pinch is driven by AMBIORIX high-power facility, a 2 TW, 0.5 Ω, 2 MA, 50 ns pulse-line generator. We study the effect of an aluminium wire and its diameter (20-50 μm) on the implosion dynamics, on x-ray yield on MHD stability of the column at stagnation. Analysis of A1 jet on A1 wire shots demonstrates that x-ray yield due to emission processes in the H- and He- like ionization stages (i.e. the K-shell) is significantly enhanced, relative to that of A1 jet only ones. The wire also leads to better symmetry of the implosion, and to better reproducibility of shots. X-ray signals exhibit two similar pulses, 10 ns in width, 15 ns spaced. To discern spectral origin of both pulses, experiments are realized with stainless steel wire (25 μm in diameter). Results show that liner and wire radial simultaneously and contribute to both pulses. Analysis of a typical A1 jet on A1 wire shot, using detailed collisional-radiative equilibrium (CRE) model is also given in this thesis. View o the pinch at stagnation as a cola-dense core surrounded by a hot-low density corona reproduces all features of the X-ray data. (author)

  19. Detection and Analysis of X Ray Emission from the Princeton-Field-Reversed Configuration (PFRC-2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosh, Alexandra; Swanson, Charles; Jandovitz, Peter; Cohen, Samuel

    2016-10-01

    The PFRC is an odd-parity rotating-magnetic-field-driven field-reversed-configuration magnetic confinement experiment. Studying X rays produced via electron Bremsstrahlung with neutral particles is crucial to the further understanding of the energy and particle confinement of the PFRC. The data on the x rays are collected using a detector system comprised of two, spatially scannable Amptek XR-100 CR detectors and a Amptek XR-100 SDD detector that view the plasma column at two axial locations, one in the divertor and one near the axial midplane. These provide X-ray energy and arrival-time information. (Data analysis requires measurement of each detector's efficiency, a parameter that is modified by window transmission. Detector calibrations were performed with a custom-made X-ray tube that impinged 1-microamp 1-5 kV electron beams onto a carbon target.) From the analyzed data, the average electron energy, effective temperature, and electron density can be extracted. Spatial scans then allow the FRC's internal energy to be measured. We present recent measurements of the Bremsstrahlung spectrum from 0.8 to 6 keV and the inferred electron temperature in the PFRC device as functions of heating power, magnetic field and fill gas pressure. This work was supported, in part, by DOE Contract Number DE-AC02-09CH11466.

  20. A SUZAKU SEARCH FOR NONTHERMAL EMISSION AT HARD X-RAY ENERGIES IN THE COMA CLUSTER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wik, Daniel R.; Sarazin, Craig L.; Finoguenov, Alexis; Matsushita, Kyoko; Nakazawa, Kazuhiro; Clarke, Tracy E.

    2009-01-01

    The brightest cluster radio halo known resides in the Coma cluster of galaxies. The relativistic electrons producing this diffuse synchrotron emission should also produce inverse Compton emission that becomes competitive with thermal emission from the intracluster medium (ICM) at hard X-ray energies. Thus far, claimed detections of this emission in Coma are controversial. We present a Suzaku HXD-PIN observation of the Coma cluster in order to nail down its nonthermal hard X-ray content. The contribution of thermal emission to the HXD-PIN spectrum is constrained by simultaneously fitting thermal and nonthermal models to it and a spatially equivalent spectrum derived from an XMM-Newton mosaic of the Coma field. We fail to find statistically significant evidence for nonthermal emission in the spectra which are better described by only a single- or multitemperature model for the ICM. Including systematic uncertainties, we derive a 90% upper limit on the flux of nonthermal emission of 6.0 x 10 -12 erg s -1 cm -2 (20-80 keV, for Γ = 2.0), which implies a lower limit on the cluster-averaged magnetic field of B>0.15 μG. Our flux upper limit is 2.5 times lower than the detected nonthermal flux from RXTE and BeppoSAX. However, if the nonthermal hard X-ray emission in Coma is more spatially extended than the observed radio halo, the Suzaku HXD-PIN may miss some fraction of the emission. A detailed investigation indicates that ∼50%-67% of the emission might go undetected, which could make our limit consistent with that of Rephaeli and Gruber and Fusco-Femiano et al. The thermal interpretation of the hard Coma spectrum is consistent with recent analyses of INTEGRAL and Swift data.

  1. Proton-Induced X-Ray Emission Analysis of Crematorium Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Salina; Nadareski, Benjamin; Yoskowitz, Joshua; Labrake, Scott; Vineyard, Michael

    2014-09-01

    There has been considerable debate in recent years about possible mercury emissions from crematoria due to amalgam tooth restorations. We have performed a proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) analysis of aerosol and soil samples taken near the Vale Cemetery Crematorium in Schenectady, NY, to address this concern. The aerosol samples were collected on the roof of the crematorium using a nine-stage, cascade impactor that separates the particulate matter by aerodynamic diameter and deposits it onto thin Kapton foils. The soil samples were collected at several different distances from the crematorium and compressed into pellets with a hydraulic press. The Kapton foils containing the aerosol samples and the soil pellets were bombarded with 2.2-MeV protons from the 1.1-MV tandem Pelletron accelerator in the Union College Ion-Beam Analysis Laboratory. We measured significant concentrations of sulfur, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, and iron, but essentially no mercury in the aerosol samples. The lower limit of detection for airborne mercury in this experiment was approximately 0.2 ng / m3. The PIXE analysis of the soil samples showed the presence of elements commonly found in soil (Si, K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe), but no trace of mercury. There has been considerable debate in recent years about possible mercury emissions from crematoria due to amalgam tooth restorations. We have performed a proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) analysis of aerosol and soil samples taken near the Vale Cemetery Crematorium in Schenectady, NY, to address this concern. The aerosol samples were collected on the roof of the crematorium using a nine-stage, cascade impactor that separates the particulate matter by aerodynamic diameter and deposits it onto thin Kapton foils. The soil samples were collected at several different distances from the crematorium and compressed into pellets with a hydraulic press. The Kapton foils containing the aerosol samples and the soil pellets were bombarded with 2.2-Me

  2. A Multiwavelength Exploration of the Grand Design Spiral M83: Diffuse X-ray Emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuntz, K. D.; Long, K. S.; Blair, W. P.; Plucinsky, P. P.; Soria, R.; Winkler, P. F.

    2013-01-01

    We have obtained a series of deep X-ray images of the nearby galaxy M83, with a total exposure 729 ksec with the Chandra ACIS-S array. Since the bulk of the X-ray emitting disk falls within the BI chip, these observations allow a detailed study of the soft diffuse emission in the disk. Most of the diffuse emission is related to star-formation regions and must be powered by supernovae and stellar winds, though the amount of emission due to identifiable SNR is only a few percent. The relation between the spectral shape and surface brightness that was seen in M101 suggests that the properties of the X-ray emission in spiral disks are shaped by the local hot gas production rate (traced by the local star-formation rate) or the disk mid-plane pressure, but it is unclear which physical mechanism dominates. To illuminate this problem, we will compare M83 with the previous Chandra studies of M101 and M33.

  3. Dense plasma focus x-ray source for sub-micron lithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasad, R.R.; Krishnan, M.; Mangano, J.; Greene, P.; Qi, Niansheng

    1993-01-01

    A discharge driven, dense plasma focus in neon is under development at SRL for use as a point x-ray source for sub-micron lithography. This source is presently capable of delivering ∼ 13j/pulse of neon K-shell x-rays (8--14 angstrom) into 4π steradians with 2 kj of electrical energy stored in the capacitor bank charged to 9 kV at a pulse repetition rate of 2 Hz. The discharge is produced by a ≤4 kj, ≤12 kV, capacitor bank circuit, which has a fixed inductance of 12 nH and drives ≤450 kA currents into the DPF load, with ∼1.1 μs rise-times. X-rays are produced when a dense pinch of neon is formed along the axis of the DPF electrodes. A new rail-gap switched capacitor bank and DPF have been built, designed for continuous operation at 2 Hz and burst mode operation at 20 Hz. This paper will present measurements of the x-ray output at a repetition rate of 2 Hz using the new capacitor bank. It will also describe measurements of the spot size (0.3--0.8 mm) and the spectrum (8--14 angstrom) of the DPF source. The dependence of these parameters on the DPF head geometry, bank energy and operating pressure will be discussed. The x-ray output has been measured using filtered pin diodes, x-ray diodes, and absolutely calibrated x-ray crystal spectra. Results from the source operating at 2 Hz will be presented. A novel concept of a windowless beamline has also been developed. The results of preliminary experiments to test the concept will be discussed. At a pulse repetition rate of 20 Hz, this source should produce 200--400 W of x-ray power in the 8-14 angstrom wavelength band, with an input power of 40--60 kW

  4. Direct electron acceleration in plasma waveguides for compact high-repetition-rate x-ray sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, M-W; Jovanovic, I

    2014-01-01

    Numerous applications in fundamental and applied research, security, and industry require robust, compact sources of x-rays, with a particular recent interest in monochromatic, spatially coherent, and ultrafast x-ray pulses in well-collimated beams. Such x-ray sources usually require production of high-quality electron beams from compact accelerators. Guiding a radially polarized laser pulse in a plasma waveguide has been proposed for realizing direct laser acceleration (DLA), where the electrons are accelerated by the axial electric field of a co-propagating laser pulse (Serafim et al 2000 IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 28 1190). A moderate laser peak power is required for DLA when compared to laser wakefield acceleration, thus offering the prospect for high repetition rate operation. By using a density-modulated plasma waveguide for DLA, the acceleration distance can be extended with pulse guiding, while the density-modulation with proper axial structure can realize the quasi-phase matching between the laser pulses and electrons for a net gain accumulation (York et al 2008 Phys. Rev. Lett. 100 195001; York et al 2008 J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25 B137; Palastro et al 2008 Phys. Rev. E 77 036405). We describe the development and application of a test particle model and particle-in-cell model for DLA. Experimental setups designed for fabrication of optically tailored plasma waveguides via the ignitor-heater scheme, and for generation and characterization of radially polarized short pulses used to drive DLA, are presented. (paper)

  5. Hard X-Ray Emission from Partially Occulted Solar Flares: RHESSI Observations in Two Solar Cycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Effenberger, Frederic; Costa, Fatima Rubio da; Petrosian, Vahé [Department of Physics and KIPAC, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Oka, Mitsuo; Saint-Hilaire, Pascal; Krucker, Säm [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-7450 (United States); Liu, Wei [Bay Area Environmental Research Institute, 625 2nd Street, Suite 209, Petaluma, CA 94952 (United States); Glesener, Lindsay, E-mail: feffen@stanford.edu, E-mail: frubio@stanford.edu [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States)

    2017-02-01

    Flares close to the solar limb, where the footpoints are occulted, can reveal the spectrum and structure of the coronal looptop source in X-rays. We aim at studying the properties of the corresponding energetic electrons near their acceleration site, without footpoint contamination. To this end, a statistical study of partially occulted flares observed with Reuven Ramaty High-Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager is presented here, covering a large part of solar cycles 23 and 24. We perform detailed spectra, imaging, and light curve analyses for 116 flares and include contextual observations from SDO and STEREO when available, providing further insights into flare emission that were previously not accessible. We find that most spectra are fitted well with a thermal component plus a broken power-law, non-thermal component. A thin-target kappa distribution model gives satisfactory fits after the addition of a thermal component. X-ray imaging reveals small spatial separation between the thermal and non-thermal components, except for a few flares with a richer coronal source structure. A comprehensive light curve analysis shows a very good correlation between the derivative of the soft X-ray flux (from GOES ) and the hard X-rays for a substantial number of flares, indicative of the Neupert effect. The results confirm that non-thermal particles are accelerated in the corona and estimated timescales support the validity of a thin-target scenario with similar magnitudes of thermal and non-thermal energy fluxes.

  6. X-ray Emission Spectrum of Liquid Ethanol: Origin of Split Peaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Osamu; Ljungberg, Mathias P; Pettersson, Lars G M

    2017-12-14

    The X-ray emission spectrum of liquid ethanol was calculated using density functional theory and a semiclassical approximation to the Kramers-Heisenberg formula including core-hole-induced dynamics. Our spectrum agrees well with the experimental spectrum. We found that the intensity ratio between the two peaks at 526 and 527 eV assigned as 10a' and 3a″ depends not only on the hydrogen bonding network around the target molecule but also on the intramolecular conformation. This effect is absent in liquid methanol and demonstrates the high sensitivity of X-ray emission to molecular structure. The dependence of spectral features on hydrogen-bonding as well as on dynamical effects following core excitation are also discussed.

  7. Polarization and spectral features of the hard x-ray continuum from non-thermal plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hesse, M.; Platz, P.

    1989-12-01

    Starting from the cross-sections for the free-free radiation obtained within the relativistic Born-Elwert theory, we calculate the spectral and polarization properties of the hard X-ray continuum (hν > 50 KeV) for plasmas containing fast electrons with an anisotropic velocity distribution. The physical and geometrical quantities of our model are oriented towards the future lower-hybrid current drive (LHCD) experiments on Tore-Supra. Our parameter space covers parallel and perpendicular temperatures, the nuclear charge of the ions (mainly Z = 14 and 28), the cut-off energy of the electrons, the radial current profile and the viewing angle. Extensive calculations open on the optimum conditions for polarization measurements and also give guide-lines for the quantitative interpretation of data under real plasma conditions. A second part of this report will treat with the operational principles and expected performances of hard X-ray polarimeters

  8. Hydrodynamic evolution of plasma waveguides for soft-x-ray amplifiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliva, Eduardo; Depresseux, Adrien; Cotelo, Manuel; Lifschitz, Agustín; Tissandier, Fabien; Gautier, Julien; Maynard, Gilles; Velarde, Pedro; Sebban, Stéphane

    2018-02-01

    High-density, collisionally pumped plasma-based soft-x-ray lasers have recently delivered hundreds of femtosecond pulses, breaking the longstanding barrier of one picosecond. To pump these amplifiers an intense infrared pulse must propagate focused throughout all the length of the amplifier, which spans several Rayleigh lengths. However, strong nonlinear effects hinder the propagation of the laser beam. The use of a plasma waveguide allows us to overcome these drawbacks provided the hydrodynamic processes that dominate the creation and posterior evolution of the waveguide are controlled and optimized. In this paper we present experimental measurements of the radial density profile and transmittance of such waveguide, and we compare them with numerical calculations using hydrodynamic and particle-in-cell codes. Controlling the properties (electron density value and radial gradient) of the waveguide with the help of numerical codes promises the delivery of ultrashort (tens of femtoseconds), coherent soft-x-ray pulses.

  9. Laser-driven x-ray and neutron source development for industrial applications of plasma accelerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenner, C. M.; Mirfayzi, S. R.; Rusby, D. R.; Armstrong, C.; Alejo, A.; Wilson, L. A.; Clarke, R.; Ahmed, H.; Butler, N. M. H.; Haddock, D.; Higginson, A.; McClymont, A.; Murphy, C.; Notley, M.; Oliver, P.; Allott, R.; Hernandez-Gomez, C.; Kar, S.; McKenna, P.; Neely, D.

    2016-01-01

    Pulsed beams of energetic x-rays and neutrons from intense laser interactions with solid foils are promising for applications where bright, small emission area sources, capable of multi-modal delivery are ideal. Possible end users of laser-driven multi-modal sources are those requiring advanced non-destructive inspection techniques in industry sectors of high value commerce such as aerospace, nuclear and advanced manufacturing. We report on experimental work that demonstrates multi-modal operation of high power laser-solid interactions for neutron and x-ray beam generation. Measurements and Monte Carlo radiation transport simulations show that neutron yield is increased by a factor ~2 when a 1 mm copper foil is placed behind a 2 mm lithium foil, compared to using a 2 cm block of lithium only. We explore x-ray generation with a 10 picosecond drive pulse in order to tailor the spectral content for radiography with medium density alloy metals. The impact of using  >1 ps pulse duration on laser-accelerated electron beam generation and transport is discussed alongside the optimisation of subsequent bremsstrahlung emission in thin, high atomic number target foils. X-ray spectra are deconvolved from spectrometer measurements and simulation data generated using the GEANT4 Monte Carlo code. We also demonstrate the unique capability of laser-driven x-rays in being able to deliver single pulse high spatial resolution projection imaging of thick metallic objects. Active detector radiographic imaging of industrially relevant sample objects with a 10 ps drive pulse is presented for the first time, demonstrating that features of 200 μm size are resolved when projected at high magnification.

  10. Laser-driven x-ray and neutron source development for industrial applications of plasma accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brenner, C M; Rusby, D R; Armstrong, C; Wilson, L A; Clarke, R; Haddock, D; McClymont, A; Notley, M; Oliver, P; Allott, R; Hernandez-Gomez, C; Neely, D; Mirfayzi, S R; Alejo, A; Ahmed, H; Kar, S; Butler, N M H; Higginson, A; McKenna, P; Murphy, C

    2016-01-01

    Pulsed beams of energetic x-rays and neutrons from intense laser interactions with solid foils are promising for applications where bright, small emission area sources, capable of multi-modal delivery are ideal. Possible end users of laser-driven multi-modal sources are those requiring advanced non-destructive inspection techniques in industry sectors of high value commerce such as aerospace, nuclear and advanced manufacturing. We report on experimental work that demonstrates multi-modal operation of high power laser-solid interactions for neutron and x-ray beam generation. Measurements and Monte Carlo radiation transport simulations show that neutron yield is increased by a factor ∼2 when a 1 mm copper foil is placed behind a 2 mm lithium foil, compared to using a 2 cm block of lithium only. We explore x-ray generation with a 10 picosecond drive pulse in order to tailor the spectral content for radiography with medium density alloy metals. The impact of using  >1 ps pulse duration on laser-accelerated electron beam generation and transport is discussed alongside the optimisation of subsequent bremsstrahlung emission in thin, high atomic number target foils. X-ray spectra are deconvolved from spectrometer measurements and simulation data generated using the GEANT4 Monte Carlo code. We also demonstrate the unique capability of laser-driven x-rays in being able to deliver single pulse high spatial resolution projection imaging of thick metallic objects. Active detector radiographic imaging of industrially relevant sample objects with a 10 ps drive pulse is presented for the first time, demonstrating that features of 200 μm size are resolved when projected at high magnification. (paper)

  11. Environmental aspects of ion-induced x-ray emission by infinitely thick targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Rinsvelt, H.A.; Dunnam, F.E.; Russell, J.P.; Bolch, W.E.

    1974-01-01

    Elemental analysis through proton and alpha particle induced x-ray emission by infinitely thick samples of environmental interest was found to be feasible. A quantization technique using internal standards and the optimization of the beam energy for optimal sensitivity were investigated. The average limit of detection ranges from about 0.1 ppM for calcium to 1 ppM for strontium

  12. Bulk band gaps in divalent hexaborides: A soft x-ray emission study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denlinger, Jonathan D.; Gweon, Gey-Hong; Allen, James W.; Bianchi, Andrea D.; Fisk, Zachary

    2001-01-01

    Boron K-edge soft x-ray emission and absorption are used to address the fundamental question of whether divalent hexaborides are intrinsic semimetals or defect-doped bandgap insulators. These bulk sensitive measurements, complementary and consistent with surface-sensitive angle-resolved photoemission experiments, confirm the existence of a bulk band gap and the location of the chemical potential at the bottom of the conduction band

  13. Method and multichannel equipment for chemical analysis by X-ray emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bacso, J.; Horkay, Gy.; Kalinka, G.; Kertesz, Zs.; Kiss Varga, M.; Lakatos, T.; Mathe, Gy.; Paal, A.; Sulik, B.

    1978-01-01

    In the patent a simple method and an apparatus are described for chemical analysis based on X-ray emission generated by irradiation. The concentrations of pre-selected elements can be determined easily by this method using an equipment containing microprocessor. The number of channels and the elements to be determined can be modified by a simple change in the program. (Sz.J.)

  14. Particle induced X-ray emission for quantitative trace-element analysis using the Eindhoven cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kivits, H.

    1980-01-01

    Development of a multi-elemental trace analysis technique using PIXE (Particle Induced X-ray Emission), was started almost five years ago at the Eindhoven University of Technology, in the Cyclotron Applications Group of the Physics Department. The aim of the work presented is to improve the quantitative aspects of trace-element analysis with PIXE, as well as versatility, speed and simplicity. (Auth.)

  15. X-ray radiation source based on a plasma filled diode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popkov, N F; Kargin, V I; Ryaslov, E A; Pikar, A S [All-Russian Research Inst. of Experimental Physics, Sarov (Russian Federation). Russian Federal Nuclear Center

    1997-12-31

    The results are given of studies on a plasma X-ray source providing 2.5 krad of radiation dose per pulse over an area of 100 cm{sup 2} in the quantum energy range between 20 and 500 keV. The pulse duration was 100 ns. The spectral radiation distribution was obtained under various operating conditions of plasma and diode. A Marx generator served as the starting power source of 120 kJ with a discharge time of T/4=10{sup -6} s. A short electromagnetic pulse (10{sup -7} s) was shaped using plasma erosion opening switches. (author). 5 figs., 4 refs.

  16. Microscopic nonlinear relativistic quantum theory of absorption of powerful x-ray radiation in plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avetissian, H K; Ghazaryan, A G; Matevosyan, H H; Mkrtchian, G F

    2015-10-01

    The microscopic quantum theory of plasma nonlinear interaction with the coherent shortwave electromagnetic radiation of arbitrary intensity is developed. The Liouville-von Neumann equation for the density matrix is solved analytically considering a wave field exactly and a scattering potential of plasma ions as a perturbation. With the help of this solution we calculate the nonlinear inverse-bremsstrahlung absorption rate for a grand canonical ensemble of electrons. The latter is studied in Maxwellian, as well as in degenerate quantum plasma for x-ray lasers at superhigh intensities and it is shown that one can achieve the efficient absorption coefficient in these cases.

  17. X-ray laser studies using plasmas created by optical field ionization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krushelnick, K.M.; Tighe, W.; Suckewer, S.

    1995-01-01

    X-ray laser experiments involving the creation of fast recombining plasmas by optical field ionization of preformed targets were conducted. A nonlinear increase in the intensity of the 13.5nm Lyman-α line in Li III with the length of the target plasma was observed but only for distances less than the laser confocal parameter and for low plasma electron temperatures. Multiphoton pumping of resonant atomic transitions was also examined and the process of multiphoton ionization of FIII was found to be more probable than multiphoton excitation

  18. Measurements of laser generated soft X-ray emission from irradiated gold foils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, J. S.; Keiter, P. A.; Klein, S. R.; Drake, R. P.; Shvarts, D. [University of Michigan, 2455 Hayward St., Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Frank, Y.; Raicher, E.; Fraenkel, M. [Soreq Nuclear Research Center, Yavne (Israel)

    2016-11-15

    Soft x-ray emission from laser irradiated gold foils was measured at the Omega-60 laser system using the Dante photodiode array. The foils were heated with 2 kJ, 6 ns laser pulses and foil thicknesses were varied between 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 μm. Initial Dante analysis indicates peak emission temperatures of roughly 100 eV and 80 eV for the 0.5 μm and 1.0 μm thick foils, respectively, with little measurable emission from the 2.0 μm foils.

  19. X-ray Computed Tomographic Investigation of the Porosity and Morphology of Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation Coatings

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zhang, X.; Aliasghari, S.; Němcová, A.; Burnett, T.L.; Kuběna, Ivo; Šmíd, Miroslav; Thompson, G.; Skeldon, P.; Withers, P.J.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 13 (2016), s. 8801-8810 ISSN 1944-8244 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0068 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : plasma electrolytic oxidation * porosity * scanning electron microscopy * titanium * X-ray computed tomography Subject RIV: JK - Corrosion ; Surface Treatment of Materials Impact factor: 7.504, year: 2016 http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/acsami.6b00274

  20. Analysis of the x-ray spectrum emitted by laser-produced plasma of dysprosium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcus, Gilad; Louzon, Einat; Henis, Zohar; Maman, Shlomo; Mandelbaum, Pinchas

    2007-01-01

    A detailed analysis of the x-ray spectrum (5-10.2 A ring ) emitted by laser-produced plasma of dysprosium (Dy) is given using ab initio calculations with the HULLAC relativistic code and isoelectronic trends. Resonance 3d-4p, 3d-nf (n=4 to 7), 3p-4s, and 3p-4d transitions of Ni I-like Dy XXXIX and neighboring ion satellite transitions (from Dy XXXIV to Dy XL) are identified

  1. Purification and preliminary X-ray crystallographic studies of β-microseminoprotein from human seminal plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Vijay; Roske, Yvette; Singh, Nagendra; Heinemann, Udo; Singh, Tej P.; Yadav, Savita

    2009-01-01

    The preliminary X-ray data of β-microseminoprotein isolated from human seminal plasma at 2.4 Å resolution are reported. β-Microseminoprotein (β-MSP) is a small cysteine-rich protein with a molecular mass of 10 kDa. It was first isolated from human seminal plasma and has subsequently been identified from several species. Comparison of the amino-acid sequences of β-MSP proteins suggests that the protein is a rapidly evolving protein. The function of β-MSP is poorly understood. Furthermore, no crystal structure has been reported of any β-MSP; therefore, determination of the crystal structure of β-MSP is the foremost task in order to understand the function of this protein completely. Here, the purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of β-MSP from human seminal plasma are described. The protein was purified using anion-exchange and size-exclusion chromatography and the purified protein was crystallized using 0.1 M ammonium sulfate, 0.1 M HEPES buffer pH 7.0 and 20%(w/v) PEG 3350. The crystals belonged to the tetragonal space group P4 3 22 and contained three β-MSP molecules in the asymmetric unit. X-ray intensity data were collected to 2.4 Å resolution

  2. Bright X-ray source from a laser-driven micro-plasma-waveguide

    CERN Document Server

    Yi, Longqing

    2016-01-01

    Bright tunable x-ray sources have a number of applications in basic science, medicine and industry. The most powerful sources are synchrotrons, where relativistic electrons are circling in giant storage rings. In parallel, compact laser-plasma x-ray sources are being developed. Owing to the rapid progress in laser technology, very high-contrast femtosecond laser pulses of relativistic intensities become available. These pulses allow for interaction with micro-structured solid-density plasma without destroying the structure by parasitic pre-pulses. The high-contrast laser pulses as well as the manufacturing of materials at micro- and nano-scales open a new realm of possibilities for laser interaction with photonic materials at the relativistic intensities. Here we demonstrate, via numerical simulations, that when coupling with a readily available 1.8 Joule laser, a micro-plasma-waveguide (MPW) may serve as a novel compact x-ray source. Electrons are extracted from the walls by the laser field and form a dense ...

  3. Electron density measurement of a colliding plasma using soft x-ray laser interferometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan, A.S.; Back, C.A.; Barbee, T.W.Jr.; Cauble, R.; Celliers, P.; DaSilva, L.B.; Glenzer, S.; Moreno, J.C.; Rambo, P.W.; Stone, G.F.; Trebes, J.E.; Weber, F.

    1996-05-01

    The understanding of the collision and subsequent interaction of counter-streaming high-density plasmas is important for the design of indirectly-driven inertial confinement fusion (ICF) hohlraums. We have employed a soft x-ray Mach-Zehnder interferometer, using a Ne- like Y x-ray laser at 155 angstrom as the probe source, to study interpenetration and stagnation of two colliding plasmas. We observed a peaked density profile at the symmetry axis with a wide stagnation region with width of order 100 μm. We compare the measured density profile with density profiles calculated by the radiation hydrodynamic code LASNEX and a multi-specie fluid code which allows for interpenetration. The measured density profile falls in between the calculated profiles using collisionless and fluid approximations. By using different target materials and irradiation configurations, we can vary the collisionality of the plasma. We hope to use the soft x-ray laser interferometry as a mechanism to validate and benchmark our numerical codes used for the design and analysis of high-energy- density physics experiments

  4. INVERSE COMPTON X-RAY EMISSION FROM SUPERNOVAE WITH COMPACT PROGENITORS: APPLICATION TO SN2011fe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Margutti, R.; Soderberg, A. M.; Chomiuk, L.; Milisavljevic, D.; Foley, R. J.; Slane, P.; Moe, M.; Chevalier, R.; Hurley, K.; Hughes, J. P.; Fransson, C.; Barthelmy, S.; Cummings, J.; Boynton, W.; Enos, H.; Fellows, C.; Briggs, M.; Connaughton, V.; Costa, E.; Del Monte, E.

    2012-01-01

    We present a generalized analytic formalism for the inverse Compton X-ray emission from hydrogen-poor supernovae and apply this framework to SN 2011fe using Swift X-Ray Telescope (XRT), UVOT, and Chandra observations. We characterize the optical properties of SN 2011fe in the Swift bands and find them to be broadly consistent with a 'normal' SN Ia, however, no X-ray source is detected by either XRT or Chandra. We constrain the progenitor system mass-loss rate M-dot -9 M ☉ yr -1 (3σ c.l.) for wind velocity v w = 100 km s –1 . Our result rules out symbiotic binary progenitors for SN 2011fe and argues against Roche lobe overflowing subgiants and main-sequence secondary stars if ∼> 1% of the transferred mass is lost at the Lagrangian points. Regardless of the density profile, the X-ray non-detections are suggestive of a clean environment (n CSM –3 ) for 2 × 10 15 ∼ 16 cm around the progenitor site. This is either consistent with the bulk of material being confined within the binary system or with a significant delay between mass loss and supernova explosion. We furthermore combine X-ray and radio limits from Chomiuk et al. to constrain the post-shock energy density in magnetic fields. Finally, we searched for the shock breakout pulse using gamma-ray observations from the Interplanetary Network and find no compelling evidence for a supernova-associated burst. Based on the compact radius of the progenitor star we estimate that the shock breakout pulse was likely not detectable by current satellites.

  5. X ray and EUV spectroscopic measurements of highly charged tungsten ions relevant to fusion plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radtke, R; Biedermann, C; Mandelbaum, P; Schwob, J L

    2007-01-01

    Using high-resolution x ray and extreme ultraviolet (EUV) spectrometry, the line emission of W 28+ - W 50+ ions was measured at the Berlin Electron Beam Ion Trap (EBIT). Our study encompasses a wide range of wavelengths (5-800 A) and includes the observation of electric and magnetic dipole lines. The results of our measurements are compared with predicted transition wavelengths from ab initioatomic structure calculations

  6. DISCOVERY OF X-RAY EMISSION FROM THE FIRST Be/BLACK HOLE SYSTEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munar-Adrover, P.; Paredes, J. M.; Ribó, M. [Departament d' Astronomia i Meteorologia, Institut de Ciències del Cosmos, Universitat de Barcelona, IEEC-UB, Martí i Franquès 1, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain); Iwasawa, K. [ICREA, Institut de Ciències del Cosmos, Universitat de Barcelona, IEEC-UB, Martí i Franquès 1, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain); Zabalza, V. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, University Road, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); Casares, J. [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, E-38200 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain)

    2014-05-10

    MWC 656 (=HD 215227) was recently discovered to be the first binary system composed of a Be star and a black hole (BH). We observed it with XMM-Newton, and detected a faint X-ray source compatible with the position of the optical star, thus proving it to be the first Be/BH X-ray binary. The spectrum analysis requires a model fit with two components, a blackbody plus a power law, with k{sub B}T=0.07{sub −0.03}{sup +0.04} keV and a photon index Γ = 1.0 ± 0.8, respectively. The non-thermal component dominates above ≅0.8 keV. The obtained total flux is F(0.3-5.5 keV)=(4.6{sub −1.1}{sup +1.3})×10{sup −14} erg cm{sup –2} s{sup –1}. At a distance of 2.6 ± 0.6 kpc the total flux translates into a luminosity L {sub X} = (3.7 ± 1.7) × 10{sup 31} erg s{sup –1}. Considering the estimated range of BH masses to be 3.8-6.9 M {sub ☉}, this luminosity represents (6.7 ± 4.4) × 10{sup –8} L {sub Edd}, which is typical of stellar-mass BHs in quiescence. We discuss the origin of the two spectral components: the thermal component is associated with the hot wind of the Be star, whereas the power-law component is associated with emission from the vicinity of the BH. We also find that the position of MWC 656 in the radio versus X-ray luminosity diagram may be consistent with the radio/X-ray correlation observed in BH low-mass X-ray binaries. This suggests that this correlation might also be valid for BH high-mass X-ray binaries (HMXBs) with X-ray luminosities down to ∼10{sup –8} L {sub Edd}. MWC 656 will allow the accretion processes and the accretion/ejection coupling at very low luminosities for BH HMXBs to be studied.

  7. Spectral properties of X-ray selected narrow emission line galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Colmenero, E.

    1998-03-01

    This thesis reports a study of the X-ray and optical properties of two samples of X-ray selected Narrow Emission Line Galaxies (NELGs), and their comparison with the properties of broad line Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN). One sample (18 NELGs) is drawn from the ROSAT International X-ray Optical Survey (RIXOS), the other (19 NELGs and 33 AGN) from the ROSAT UK Deep Survey. ROSAT multi-channel X-ray spectra have been extracted and fitted with power-law, bremsstrahlung and black body models for the brighter RIXOS sources. In most cases, power-law and bremsstrahlung models provide the best results. The average spectral energy index, alpha, of the RIXOS NELGs is 0.96 +/- 0.07, similar to that of AGN (alpha~1). For the fainter RIXOS NELGs, as well as for all the UK Deep Survey sources, counts in three spectral bands have been extracted and fitted with a power-law model, assuming the Galactic value for N_H. The brighter RIXOS sources demonstrated that the results obtained by these two different extraction and fitting procedures provide consistent results. Two average X-ray spectra, one for the NELGs and another for the AGN, were created from the UK Deep Survey sources. The power-law slope of the average NELG is alpha = 0.45 +/- 0.09, whilst that of the AGN is alpha = 0.96 +/- 0.03. ROSAT X-ray surveys have shown that the fractional surface density of NELGs increases with respect to AGN at faint fluxes (case for NELGs to be major contributors to the XRB at the fainter fluxes. The analysis of optical spectroscopy, obtained on La Palma and Hawaii, shows that NELGs form a very heterogeneous group, made up of a mixture of Seyfert 2, LINER and HII-region like galaxies. Seyfert 2 galaxies are found to possess in general the steepest X-ray slopes. Ways to explain this in the context of the unified model of AGN are discussed. The FWHM of some emission lines (Halpha, Hbeta, [NII]) in the NELGs appears to increase with steepening X-ray spectral slope. In the case of the Balmer lines

  8. Ultra fast x-ray streak camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coleman, L.W.; McConaghy, C.F.

    1975-01-01

    A unique ultrafast x-ray sensitive streak camera, with a time resolution of 50psec, has been built and operated. A 100A thick gold photocathode on a beryllium vacuum window is used in a modified commerical image converter tube. The X-ray streak camera has been used in experiments to observe time resolved emission from laser-produced plasmas. (author)

  9. Short-time X-ray diffraction with an efficient-optimized, high repetition-rate laser-plasma X-ray-source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaehle, Stephan

    2009-01-01

    This thesis deals with the production and application of ultrashort X-ray pulses. In the beginning different possibilities for the production of X-ray pulses with pulse durations of below one picosecond are presented, whereby the main topic lies on the so called laser-plasma X-ray sources with high repetition rate. In this case ultrashort laser pulses are focused on a metal, so that in the focus intensities of above 10 16 W/cm 2 dominate. In the ideal case in such way ultrafast electrons are produced, which are responsible for line radiation. In these experiments titanium K α radiation is produced, thes photons possess an energy of 4.51 keV. For the efficient production of line radiation here the Ti:Sa laser is optimized in view of the laser energy and the pulse shape and the influence of the different parameters on the K α production systematically studied. The influences of laser intensity, system-conditioned pre-pulses and of phase modulation are checked. It turns out that beside the increasement of the K α radiation by a suited laser intensity a reduction of the X-ray background radiation is of deciding importance for the obtaining of clear diffraction images. This background radiation is mainly composed of bremsstrahlung. It can be suppressed by the avoidance of intrinsic pre-pulses and by means of 2nd-order phase modulation. By means of optical excitation and X-ray exploration experiments the production of acoustic waves after ultrashort optical excitation in a 150 nm thick Ge(111) film on Si(111) is studied. These acoustic waves are driven by thermal (in this time scale time-independent) and electronic (time dependent) pressure amounts. As essential results it turns out that the relative amount of the electronic pressure increases with decreasing excitation density [de

  10. Numerical simulations of flares on M dwarf stars. I - Hydrodynamics and coronal X-ray emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Chung-Chieh; Pallavicini, Roberto

    1991-01-01

    Flare-loop models are utilized to simulate the time evolution and physical characteristics of stellar X-ray flares by varying the values of flare-energy input and loop parameters. The hydrodynamic evolution is studied in terms of changes in the parameters of the mass, energy, and momentum equations within an area bounded by the chromosphere and the corona. The zone supports a magnetically confined loop for which processes are described including the expansion of heated coronal gas, chromospheric evaporation, and plasma compression at loop footpoints. The intensities, time profiles, and average coronal temperatures of X-ray flares are derived from the simulations and compared to observational evidence. Because the amount of evaporated material does not vary linearly with flare-energy input, large loops are required to produce the energy measured from stellar flares.

  11. Soft X-ray emission of a fast-capillary-discharge device

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Schmidt, Jiří; Koláček, Karel; Štraus, Jaroslav; Prukner, Václav; Frolov, Oleksandr; Boháček, Vladislav

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 2 (2005), s. 105-109 ISSN 1051-9998. [International Conference on High- Power Particle Beams, BEAMS /15th./. St. Petersburg, 18.7.2004-23.7.2004] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) KSK2043105; GA ČR(CZ) GA202/03/0711 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : pre-pulse plasma * capillary discharge * soft X-ray laser Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 0.271, year: 2005

  12. Characterization of nova plasmas using an x-ray spectrometer with temporal and spatial resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Back, C.A.; Kauffman, R.L.; Bell, P.; Kilkenny, J.D.

    1994-05-01

    Spectroscopic diagnostics have great potential to obtain high temperature measurements of plasmas created in ICF targets. The plasmas may be over 1 mm in size and therefore, one of the first steps in making accurate spectroscopic measurements has been to improve the resolution of the instrument. A spectrograph is now available for Nova experiments which takes advantage of gated technology by coupling a Bragg crystal to a microchannel plate that can record data over a 250 ps time frame. The crystal disperses the x-rays, while slits add the ability to image the plasmas in the perpendicular direction. The characteristics of this diagnostic, TSPEC, will be evaluated for laser-produced plasmas. Recent data will be presented from colliding plasmas and large-scale hohlraums which indicate that imaging can greatly enhance the ability to diagnose these plasmas

  13. Extracting chemical information from high-resolution Kβ X-ray emission spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limandri, S.; Robledo, J.; Tirao, G.

    2018-06-01

    High-resolution X-ray emission spectroscopy allows studying the chemical environment of a wide variety of materials. Chemical information can be obtained by fitting the X-ray spectra and observing the behavior of some spectral features. Spectral changes can also be quantified by means of statistical parameters calculated by considering the spectrum as a probability distribution. Another possibility is to perform statistical multivariate analysis, such as principal component analysis. In this work the performance of these procedures for extracting chemical information in X-ray emission spectroscopy spectra for mixtures of Mn2+ and Mn4+ oxides are studied. A detail analysis of the parameters obtained, as well as the associated uncertainties is shown. The methodologies are also applied for Mn oxidation state characterization of double perovskite oxides Ba1+xLa1-xMnSbO6 (with 0 ≤ x ≤ 0.7). The results show that statistical parameters and multivariate analysis are the most suitable for the analysis of this kind of spectra.

  14. Role of screening and angular distributions in resonant soft-x-ray emission of CO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skytt, P.; Glans, P.; Gunnelin, K. [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden)] [and others

    1997-04-01

    In the present work the authors focus on two particular properties of resonant X-ray emission, namely core hole screening of the excited electron, and anisotropy caused by the polarization of the exciting synchrotron radiation. The screening of the core hole by the excited electron causes energy shifts and intensity variations in resonant spectra compared to the non-resonant case. The linear polarization of the synchrotron radiation and the dipole nature of the absorption process create a preferential alignment selection of the randomly oriented molecules in the case of resonant excitation, producing an anisotropy in the angular distribution of the emitted X-rays. The authors have chosen CO for this study because this molecule has previously served as a showcase for non-resonant X-ray emission, mapping the valence electronic structure differently according to the local selection rules. With the present work they take interest in how this characteristic feature of the spectroscopy is represented in the resonant case.

  15. Determination of impurities in silicon nitride by particle induced x-ray emission analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyagawa, Yoshiko; Saito, Kazuo; Niwa, Hiroaki; Ishizuka, Toshio; Miyagawa, Soji

    1985-01-01

    A method is presented for quantitative particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) analysis of impurities in the thick samples of silicon nitride. In the analysis of ceramic materials such as silicon nitride, chemical treatments are required to prepare thin enough samples. However, the chemical treatments are undesirable for the PIXE analysis, because another complications are brought about. Our method does not need any chemical treatments and thick samples can be subjected to the measurements. The determination of impurities were made by on-line use of a personal computer in which standard X-ray intensity data were stored. The method and procedures are as follows: After subtracting a buckground spectrum from an observed PIXE spectrum, the resultant peaks are assigned to individual elements. Then, in order to determine the contents of the impurities, the intensity of each peak is compared with a Gaussian curve which is generated from the standard X-ray intensity data. The latter data were determined theoretically. The results were in satisfactory agreement with those obtained by ICP emission spectrometry. (author)

  16. Electron-electron correlation, resonant photoemission and X-ray emission spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parlebas, J.C.; Kotani, Akio; Tanaka, Satoshi.

    1991-01-01

    In this short review paper we essentially focus on the high energy spectroscopies which involve second order quantum processes, i.e., resonance photoemission, Auger and X-ray emission spectroscopies, denoted respectively by RXPS, AES and XES. First, we summarize the main 3p-RXPS and AES results obtained in Cu and Ni metals; especially we recall that the satellite near the 3p-threshold in the spectra, which arises from a d-hole pair bound state, needs a careful treatment of the electron-electron correlation. Then we analyze the RXPS spectra in a few Ce compounds (CeO 2 , Ce 2 O 3 and CeF 3 ) involving 3d or 4d core levels and we interpret the spectra consistently with the other spectroscopies, such as core XPS and XAS which are first order quantum processes. Finally within the same one-impurity model and basically with the same sets of parameters, we review a theory for the Ce 5p→3d XES, as well as for the corresponding RXES, where (1) the incident X-ray is tuned to resonate with the 3d→4f transition and (2) the X-ray emission due to the 5p→3d transition is actually observed. The paper ends with a general discussion. (author) 77 refs

  17. Reconnection, Particle Acceleration, and Hard X-ray Emission in Eruptive Solar Flares

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martens, Petrus C.

    1998-11-01

    The frequent occurrence of Hard X-ray emission from the top of flaring loops was one of the discoveries by the Hard X-ray telescope on board the Japanese Yohkoh satellite. I will show how the combined effect of magnetic field convergence and pitch- angle scattering of non-thermal electrons injected at the top of the loop results in the generation of looptop sources with properties akin to those observed by Yohkoh. In addition it is shown that the injection of proton beams in the loop legs, expected from theory, reproduces the observed high temperature ``ridges" in the loop legs by mirroring and energy loss through collisions. I will interpret these numerical results as supporting the now widely accepted model of an erupting magnetic flux tube generating a reconnecting current sheet in its wake, where most of the energy release takes place. The strong similarity with the reconnection observed in the MRX experiment in Princeton will be analyzed in detail.

  18. Particle induced x-ray emission (PIXE) measurement of the Cd content in animal tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Huong Quynh; Demeter, I.; Hollos-Nagy, K.; Szoekefalvi-Nagy, Z.

    1989-12-01

    Particle induced x-ray emission (PIXE) measurements were performed on thin samples prepared from different rabbit tissues, using 3 MeV proton beam for inducing x-rays from the animal tissues. This method is very sensitive and very small amounts of trace elements can be detected. Cadmium, one of the most toxic elements which can be concentrated in animal and human tissues due to environmental pollution, was detected with a limit of 0.7 ppm. The trace element concentrations obtained by PIXE were compared to those measured by atomic absorption spectrometry. PIXE method is proposed for routine analysis at the Veterinary and Food Investigating Service, Budapest, Hungary. (D.Gy.) 6 refs.; 3 figs

  19. Changes of soft X-ray emission spectra of oxygen and copper in high Tc superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukushima, Sei; Gohshi, Yohichi; Kohiki, Shigemi; Saitoh, Naoki

    1989-01-01

    X-ray induced soft X-ray emission spectroscopy is one of the bulk analysis methods used to characterize high-Tc superconductor. In this report, some observations on the changes in O Kα and Cu L spectra of thin layer LnBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-δ (Ln=Er,Gd) samples are presented. From the measurement of O Kα, no discernible difference was found between those of Gd compounds which were composed single phase or not. It may be said that the electronic structure of p state localized on the O is not sensitive to the change of Tc or zero-resistance temperature. From the measurement of Cu L spectra, it was found that Cu Lα of only Gd containing compounds has a low energy shoulder

  20. Multielement proton-induced x-ray emission analysis of Bangladeshi tobacco

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadi, D.A.; Ali, M.; Biswas, S.K.; Islam, M.M.; Khan, A.H.

    1984-01-01

    The concentration of 12 different elements in cigarette tobacco of different brands, commercially made in Bangladesh, was determined using the proton particle-induced x-ray emission (proton PIXE) method. In all the present experiments, proton beams of 2.0 MeV (on the target in air) and about 30 nA current were used for characteristic x-ray excitation. The concentration of the elements (K, Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br, Rb and Sr) was determined by comparison with a calibration obtained from the NBS orchard leaf standard SRM 1571. The results have been compared with available data on some foreign brands of tobacco and the probable reasons for the difference in the contents of some of the elements found in the Bangladeshi brands are discussed. (author)