Direct measurement of the plasma response to electrostatic ion waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sarfaty, M.; DeSouza-Machado, S.; Skiff, F.
1995-01-01
Plasma wave-wave and wave-particle interactions are studied in a linear magnetized plasma. The relatively quiet plasma is produced by an argon gas-discharge. The plasma density is n e ≅ 10 9 cm -3 and the electron/ion temperatures are T e ≅ 5eV and T i = 0.05eV. A grid and a four ring antenna, both mounted on a scanning carriage, are used to launch electrostatic ion waves in the plasma. Laser Induced Fluorescence measurements of both the linear and the nonlinear plasma response to the wave fields are presented. The Vlasov-Poisson equations are used to explain the measured zero, first and second order terms of the ion distribution function in the presence of wave fields. In addition to the broadening (heating) of the ion distribution as the authors increase the wave amplitudes, induced plasma flows are observed both along and across the magnetic field
Swanson, DG
1989-01-01
Plasma Waves discusses the basic development and equations for the many aspects of plasma waves. The book is organized into two major parts, examining both linear and nonlinear plasma waves in the eight chapters it encompasses. After briefly discussing the properties and applications of plasma wave, the book goes on examining the wave types in a cold, magnetized plasma and the general forms of the dispersion relation that characterize the waves and label the various types of solutions. Chapters 3 and 4 analyze the acoustic phenomena through the fluid model of plasma and the kinetic effects. Th
Measurements of beat wave accelerated electrons in a toroidal plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rogers, J.H.
1992-06-01
Electrons are accelerated by large amplitude electron plasma waves driven by counter-propagating microwaves with a difference frequency approximately equal to the electron plasma frequency. Energetic electrons are observed only when the phase velocity of the wave is in the range 3v e ph e (v ph was varied 2v e ph e ), where v e is the electron thermal velocity, (kT e /m e ) 1/2 . As the phase velocity increases, fewer electrons are accelerated to higher velocities. The measured current contained in these accelerated electrons has the power dependence predicted by theory, but the magnitude is lower than predicted
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Swanson, D. G
1989-01-01
... Swanson, D.G. (Donald Gary), D a t e - Plasma waves. Bibliography: p. Includes index. 1. Plasma waves. QC718.5.W3S43 1989 ISBN 0-12-678955-X I. Title. 530.4'4 88-34388 Printed in the United Sta...
Plasma wave amplitude measurement created by guided laser wakefield
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wojda, Franck
2010-01-01
The interaction of an intense laser pulse of short duration with a plasma produces a plasma wave with large amplitude in its wake, which is associated with a longitudinal electric field. It can be used to accelerate relativistic electrons injected into the wave to energies in the GeV range over distances of the order of a few centimeters, short compared to acceleration lengths in conventional accelerators. The control of the electron beam characteristics during the acceleration process is fundamental for achieving a usable laser-plasma acceleration stage. The main result of this thesis is the creation and characterization of a plasma wave in a weakly nonlinear regime over a length of several centimeters. Capillary tubes are used to guide the laser beam over these distances, while maintaining a large enough intensity (∼ 10 17 W/cm 2 ). The guided laser beam ionizes the gas in the tube and creates the plasma wave. A diagnostic based on the modification of the laser pulse spectrum was used to determine the amplitude of the plasma wave along the tube. The amplitude of the plasma wave was studied as a function of gas filling pressure, length of the capillary and laser energy. Experimental results are compared; they are in excellent agreement with analytical results and modeling. They show that the electric field associated with the plasma wave is between 1 and 10 GV/m over a length of up to 8 cm. This work has demonstrated the ability to create a controlled plasma wave in a weakly nonlinear regime. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Saito, T.; Hamada, Y.; Yamashita, T.; Ikeda, M.; Nakamura, M.
1980-01-01
The SMM wave laser scattering apparatus has been developed for the measurement of the waves and turbulences in the plasma. This apparatus will help greatly to clarify the physics of RF heating of the tokamak plasma. The present status of main parts of the apparatus, the SMM wave laser and the Schottky barrier diode mixer for the heterodyne receiver, are described. (author)
Experimental measurements of Helicon wave coupling in KSTAR plasmas
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kim, H. J.; Wi, H. H.; Wang, S. J.; Park, S. Y.; Jeong, J. H.; Han, J. W.; Kwak, J. G.; Oh, Y. K. [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Chun, M. H.; Yu, I. H. [Pohang Accelerator Laboratory, Pohang (Korea, Republic of)
2016-05-15
KSTAR tokamak can be a good platform to test this current drive concept because it has adequate machine parameters. Furthermore, KSTAR will have high electron beta plasmas in near future with additional ECH power. In 2015 KSTAR experiments, low-power traveling wave antenna has been designed, fabricated and installed for helicon wave coupling tests in KSTAT plasmas. In 2016 KSTAR campaign, 200 kW klystron power will be combined using three coaxial hybrid couplers and three dummy loads. High power RF will be fed into the traveling wave antenna with two coaxial feeders through two dual disk windows and 6 inch coaxial transmission line system. Current status and plan for high power helicon wave current drive system in KSTAR will be presented. Mock-up TWA antenna installed at the KSTAR reveals high couplings in both L- and H-mode plasmas. The coupling can be easily controlled by radial outer gap without degradation of plasma confinement or local gas puffing with slight decrease of plasma confinement.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jang, D G; Kim, J J; Suk, H; Hur, M S
2012-01-01
When an intense laser beam is focused in a plasma, a plasma wake wave is generated and the oscillatary motion of the plasma electrons produces a strong electromagnetic wave by a Cherenkov-like process. Spectrum of the genetated electromagnetic wave has dependence on the plasma density. In this paper, we propose to use the emitted electromagnetic radiation for plasma diagnostic, which may provide an accurate information for local electron densities of the plasma and will be very useful for three-dimensional plasma density profiles by changing the focal point location of the laser beam. Two-dimensional (2-D) particle-in-cell (PIC) simulation is used to study the correlation between the spectrum of the emitted radiation and plasma density, and the results demonstrate that this method is promising for the electron density measurement in the plasma.
Electric field measurements on plasma bullets in N2 using four-wave mixing
van der Schans, M.; Böhm, P.; Nijdam, S.; IJzerman, W.L.; Czarnetzki, U.
2015-01-01
Atmospheric pressure plasma jets driven by pulsed DC or kHz AC voltages typically consist of discrete guided ionisation waves called plasma bullets. In this work, the electric field of plasma bullets generated in a pulsed DC jet with N2 as feed gas is investigated. Electric field measurements in N2
Measurement of plasma conductivity using faraday rotation of submillimeter waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kuzmenko, P.J.; Self, S.A.
1983-01-01
This paper examines the application of Faraday rotation to the measurement of electron combustion MHD plasmas. Details on the design of a working system are given, including the selection of operating wavelength. A theoretical comparison between the Faraday rotation technique and two-path interferometry shows Faraday rotation in its simplest form to be somewhat less sensitive to changes in electron concentration. This deficit can be balanced against greater immunity to vibration and thermal drift. Improved techniques of measuring the rotation angle promise greater sensitivity. A preliminary experiment has verified the technique
Gurnett, Donald A.
1995-01-01
An overview is given of spacecraft observations of plasma waves in the solar system. In situ measurements of plasma phenomena have now been obtained at all of the planets except Mercury and Pluto, and in the interplanetary medium at heliocentric radial distances ranging from 0.29 to 58 AU. To illustrate the range of phenomena involved, we discuss plasma waves in three regions of physical interest: (1) planetary radiation belts, (2) planetary auroral acceleration regions and (3) the solar wind. In each region we describe examples of plasma waves that are of some importance, either due to the role they play in determining the physical properties of the plasma, or to the unique mechanism involved in their generation.
Magnetoresistive waves in plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Felber, F.S.; Hunter, R.O. Jr.; Pereira, N.R.; Tajima, T.
1982-01-01
The self-generated magnetic field of a current diffusing into a plasma between conductors can magnetically insulate the plasma. Propagation of magnetoresistive waves in plasmas is analyzed. Applications to plasma opening switches are discussed
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lambert, A.J.D.
1979-01-01
A review of linear and weakly non-linear theory of electron waves, ion waves and electromagnetic waves in plasmas is presented. The author restricts the discussion to an infinitely extended, homogeneous and isotropic plasma, not affected by external fields and described by Vlasov's and Maxwell's equations. (Auth.)
Plasma scattering measurement using a submillimeter wave gyrotron as a radiation source
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ogawa, I.; Idehara, T.; Itakura, Y.; Myodo, M.; Hori, T.; Hatae, T.
2004-01-01
Plasma scattering measurement is an effective technique to observe low frequency density fluctuations excited in plasma. The spatial and wave number resolutions and the S/N ratio of measurement depend on the wavelength range, the size and the intensity of a probe beam. A well-collimated, submillimeter wave beam is suitable for improving the spatial and wave number resolutions. Application of high frequency gyrotron is effective in improving the S/N ratio of the measurement because of its capacity to deliver high power. Unlike the molecular vapor lasers, the gyrotrons generate diverging beam of radiation with TE mn mode structure. It is therefore necessary to convert the output radiation into a Gaussian beam. A quasi-optical antenna is a suitable element for the conversion system under consideration since it is applicable to several TE 0n and TE 1n modes. In order to apply the gyrotron to plasma scattering measurement, we have stabilized the output (P = 110 W, f = 354 GHz) of gyrotron up to the level (ΔP/P < 1 %, Δf< 10 kHz). The gyrotron output can be stabilized by decreasing the fluctuation of the cathode potential. (authors)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Eriksson, A.I.; Bostroem, R.
1995-04-01
Spherical electrostatic probes are in wide use for the measurements of electric fields and plasma density. This report concentrates on the measurements of fluctuations of these quantities rather than background values. Potential problems with the technique include the influence of density fluctuations on electric field measurements and vice versa, effects of varying satellite potential, and non-linear rectification in the probe and satellite sheaths. To study the actual importance of these and other possible effects, we simulate the response of the probe-satellite system to various wave phenomena in the plasma by applying approximate analytical as well as numerical methods. We use a set of non-linear probe equations, based on probe characteristics experimentally obtained in space, and therefore essentially independent of any specific probe theory. This approach is very useful since the probe theory for magnetized plasmas is incomplete. 47 refs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shawhan, S.D.
1977-01-01
A brief history of plasma wave observations in the Earth's magnetosphere is recounted and a classification of the identified plasma wave phenomena is presented. The existence of plasma waves is discussed in terms of the characteristic frequencies of the plasma, the energetic particle populations and the proposed generation mechanisms. Examples are given for which plasmas waves have provided information about the plasma parameters and particle characteristics once a reasonable theory has been developed. Observational evidence and arguments by analogy to the observed Earth plasma wave processes are used to identify plasma waves that may be significant in other planetary magnetospheres. The similarities between the observed characteristics of the terrestrial kilometric radiation and radio bursts from Jupiter, Saturn and possibly Uranus are stressed. Important scientific problems concerning plasma wave processes in the solar system and beyond are identified and discussed. Models for solar flares, flare star radio outbursts and pulsars include elements which are also common to the models for magnetospheric radio bursts. Finally, a listing of the research and development in terms of instruments, missions, laboratory experiments, theory and computer simulations needed to make meaningful progress on the outstanding scientific problems of plasma wave research is given. (Auth.)
Lominadze, D G
2013-01-01
Cyclotron Waves in Plasma is a four-chapter text that covers the basic physical concepts of the theory of cyclotron waves and cyclotron instabilities, brought about by the existence of steady or alternating plasma currents flowing perpendicular to the magnetic field.This book considers first a wide range of questions associated with the linear theory of cyclotron oscillations in equilibrium plasmas and in electron plasmas in metals and semiconductors. The next chapter deals with the parametric excitation of electron cyclotron oscillations in plasma in an alternating electric field. A chapter f
Measurements of long-range enhanced collisional velocity drag through plasma wave damping
Affolter, M.; Anderegg, F.; Dubin, D. H. E.; Driscoll, C. F.
2018-05-01
We present damping measurements of axial plasma waves in magnetized, multispecies ion plasmas. At high temperatures T ≳ 10-2 eV, collisionless Landau damping dominates, whereas, at lower temperatures T ≲ 10-2 eV, the damping arises from interspecies collisional drag, which is dependent on the plasma composition and scales roughly as T-3 /2 . This drag damping is proportional to the rate of parallel collisional slowing, and is found to exceed classical predictions of collisional drag damping by as much as an order of magnitude, but agrees with a new collision theory that includes long-range collisions. Centrifugal mass separation and collisional locking of the species occur at ultra-low temperatures T ≲ 10-3 eV, which reduce the drag damping from the T-3 /2 collisional scaling. These mechanisms are investigated by measuring the damping of higher frequency axial modes, and by measuring the damping in plasmas with a non-equilibrium species profile.
Electron plasma waves and plasma resonances
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Franklin, R N; Braithwaite, N St J
2009-01-01
In 1929 Tonks and Langmuir predicted of the existence of electron plasma waves in an infinite, uniform plasma. The more realistic laboratory environment of non-uniform and bounded plasmas frustrated early experiments. Meanwhile Landau predicted that electron plasma waves in a uniform collisionless plasma would appear to be damped. Subsequent experimental work verified this and revealed the curious phenomenon of plasma wave echoes. Electron plasma wave theory, extended to finite plasmas, has been confirmed by various experiments. Nonlinear phenomena, such as particle trapping, emerge at large amplitude. The use of electron plasma waves to determine electron density and electron temperature has not proved as convenient as other methods.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Huettemann, P.W.; Waidmann, G.
1982-09-01
A homodyne, real time 155 GHz interferometer channel is described which is one module of a multichannel system for use on TEXTOR tokamak. A standing sine wave is generated in a phase bridge by transmitting a frequency modulated millimeter wave down two unequal interferometer branches. The presence of plasma produces a phase slip of the sine wave with respect to a reference signal. The phase shift is linear proportional to plasma density for expected TEXTOR plasmas. Long plasma paths give multiradian phase shifts which are recorded by a digital fringe counting system. The accuracy of phase measurement is ΔPHI = 2π/16. Phase changes of 7π/8 are accepted per modulation period. The microwave in the measurement branch of the interferometer is transmitted using a quasioptical technique. Components and technical details are described. The interferometer was tested in a simulation set-up and in two different plasma experiments. Experimental results are presented. (orig.)
Kitahara, M.; Katoh, Y.; Hikishima, M.; Kasahara, Y.; Matsuda, S.; Kojima, H.; Ozaki, M.; Yagitani, S.
2017-12-01
The Plasma Wave Experiment (PWE) is installed on board the ARASE satellite to measure the electric field in the frequency range from DC to 10 MHz, and the magnetic field in the frequency range from a few Hz to 100 kHz using two dipole wire-probe antennas (WPT) and three magnetic search coils (MSC), respectively. In particular, the Waveform Capture (WFC), one of the receivers of the PWE, can detect electromagnetic field waveform in the frequency range from a few Hz to 20 kHz. The Software-type Wave Particle Interaction Analyzer (S-WPIA) is installed on the ARASE satellite to measure the energy exchange between plasma waves and particles. Since S-WPIA uses the waveform data measured by WFC to calculate the relative phase angle between the wave magnetic field and velocity of energetic electrons, the high-accuracy is required to calibration of both amplitude and phase of the waveform data. Generally, the calibration procedure of the signal passed through a receiver consists of three steps; the transformation into spectra, the calibration by the transfer function of a receiver, and the inverse transformation of the calibrated spectra into the time domain. Practically, in order to reduce the side robe effect, a raw data is filtered by a window function in the time domain before applying Fourier transform. However, for the case that a first order differential coefficient of the phase transfer function of the system is not negligible, the phase of the window function convoluted into the calibrated spectra is shifted differently at each frequency, resulting in a discontinuity in the time domain of the calibrated waveform data. To eliminate the effect of the phase shift of a window function, we suggest several methods to calibrate a waveform data accurately and carry out simulations assuming simple sinusoidal waves as an input signal and using transfer functions of WPT, MSC, and WFC obtained in pre-flight tests. In consequence, we conclude that the following two methods can
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Thomas, Edward, E-mail: etjr@auburn.edu; Konopka, Uwe [Physics Department, Auburn University, Auburn, Alabama 36849 (United States); Merlino, Robert L. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa 52242 (United States); Rosenberg, Marlene [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 (United States)
2016-05-15
The Magnetized Dusty Plasma Experiment at Auburn University has been operational for over one year. In that time, a number of experiments have been performed at magnetic fields up to B = 2.5 T to explore the interaction between magnetized plasmas and charged, micron-sized dust particles. This paper reports on the initial results from studies of: (a) the formation of imposed, ordered structures, (b) the properties of dust wave waves in a rotating frame, and (c) the generation of plasma filaments.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aramaki, M.; Kobayashi, J.; Kono, A.; Stamate, E.; Sugai, H.
2006-01-01
A high-efficiency multichannel Thomson scattering measurement system was developed as a tool for studying the electron heating mechanisms in a surface wave plasma. By improving the output power and repetition rate of the Nd:YAG laser, an F-number of spectrograph, and a quantum efficiency of ICCD camera, the overall Thomson signal collection efficiency per unit measurement time has been improved by a factor larger than 40 in comparison with the previous measurement system developed by the authors. The one-dimensional electron velocity distribution functions were measured in the vicinity of the dielectric window of a surface wave plasma
In situ measurement of plasma and shock wave properties inside laser-drilled metal holes
Brajdic, Mihael; Hermans, Martin; Horn, Alexander; Kelbassa, Ingomar
2008-10-01
High-speed imaging of shock wave and plasma dynamics is a commonly used diagnostic method for monitoring processes during laser material treatment. It is used for processes such as laser ablation, cutting, keyhole welding and drilling. Diagnosis of laser drilling is typically adopted above the material surface because lateral process monitoring with optical diagnostic methods inside the laser-drilled hole is not possible due to the hole walls. A novel method is presented to investigate plasma and shock wave properties during the laser drilling inside a confined environment such as a laser-drilled hole. With a novel sample preparation and the use of high-speed imaging combined with spectroscopy, a time and spatial resolved monitoring of plasma and shock wave dynamics is realized. Optical emission of plasma and shock waves during drilling of stainless steel with ns-pulsed laser radiation is monitored and analysed. Spatial distributions and velocities of shock waves and of plasma are determined inside the holes. Spectroscopy is accomplished during the expansion of the plasma inside the drilled hole allowing for the determination of electron densities.
Plasma waves in an inhomogeneous cylindrical plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pesic, S.S.
1976-01-01
The complete dispersion equation governing small amplitude plasma waves propagating in an inhomogeneous cylindrical plasma confined by a helical magnetic field is solved numerically. The efficiency of the wave energy thermalization in the lower hybrid frequency range is studied
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lominadse, D.G.
1975-01-01
The book deals with fundamental physical concepts of the theory of cyclotron waves and cyclotron instabilities conditioned by the presence in plasma of direct or alternating electric currents passing in it perpendicularily to a magnetic field. A great variety of problems is considered connected with the linear theory of cyclotron oscillations in equilibrium and electron plasma of metals and semiconductors. Parametric excitations of electron cyclotron oscillations of plasma in an alternating electric field are studied. Particular attention is paid to the investigation of plasma turbulence arising as a result of development of cyclotron instabilities. Experimental data are discussed and compared with theoretical results
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pedersen, Morten Stejner; Rasmussen, Jesper; Nielsen, Stefan Kragh
2017-01-01
We demonstrate measurements of spectra of O-mode electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH) waves scattered collectively from microscopic plasma fluctuations in ASDEX Upgrade discharges with an ITER-like ECRH scenario. The measured spectra are shown to allow determination of the main ion...... temperature and plasma rotation velocity. This demonstrates that ECRH systems can be exploited for diagnostic purposes alongside their primary heating purpose in a reactor relevant scenario....
Waves in Space Plasmas Program
Fredricks, R. W.; Taylor, W. W. L.
1981-01-01
The Waves in Space Plasmas (WISP) program is a joint international effort involving instrumentation to be designed and fabricated by funding from NASA and the National Research Council of Canada. The instrumentation, with a tentatively planned payload for 1986, can be used to perturb the plasma with radio waves to solve problems in ionospheric, atmospheric, magnetospheric, and plasma physics. Among the ionospheric and plasma phenomena to be investigated using WISP instrumentation are VLF wave-particle interactions; ELF/VLF propagation; traveling ionospheric disturbances and gravity wave coupling; equatorial plasma bubble phenomena; plasma wave physics such as mode-coupling, dispersion, and instabilities; and plasma physics of the antenna-plasma interactions.
Waves in Space Plasmas Program
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fredricks, R.W.; Taylor, W.W.L.
1981-01-01
The Waves in Space Plasmas (WISP) program is a joint international effort involving instrumentation to be designed and fabricated by funding from NASA and the National Research Council of Canada. The instrumentation, with a tentatively planned payload for 1986, can be used to perturb the plasma with radio waves to solve problems in ionospheric, atmospheric, magnetospheric, and plasma physics. Among the ionospheric and plasma phenomena to be investigated using WISP instrumentation are VLF wave-particle interactions, ELF/VLF propagation, traveling ionospheric disturbances and gravity wave coupling, equatorial plasma bubble phenomena, plasma wave physics such as mode-coupling, dispersion, and instabilities, and plasma physics of the antenna-plasma interactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mori, W.; Joshi, C.; Dawson, J.M.
1982-01-01
It was shown that the insertion of a cross magnetic field prevents the particles from getting out of phase with the electric field of the plasma wave in the beat wave accelerator scheme. Thus, using a CO 2 laser, n/sub c//n/sub e/ = (ω 0 /ω/sub p/) 2 approx. 35, and a 300 kG magnetic field, electrons can be (in principle) accelerated to 100 GeV in 2 meters. For comparison without the magnetic field, the same energies may be obtained in a n/sub c//n/sub e/ approx. 10 5 plasma over a distance of 100 meters
Measurement of the development and evolution of shock waves in a laser-induced gas breakdown plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chu, T.K.; Johnson, L.C.
1975-01-01
Space- and time-resolved interferometric measurements of electron density in CO 2 -laser produced plasmas in helium or hydrogen are made near the laser focal spot. Immediately after breakdown, a rapidly growing region of approximately uniform plasma density appears at the focal spot. After a few tens of nanoseconds, shock waves are formed, propagating both transverse and parallel to the incident laser beam direction. Behind the transverse propagating shock is an on-axis density minimum, which results in laser-beam self-trapping. The shock wave propagating toward the focusing lens effectively shields the interior plasma from the incident beam because the lower plasma temperature and higher plasma density in the shock allow strong absorption of the incident beam energy. By arranging the laser radiation-plasma interaction to begin at a plasma-vacuum interface at the exit of a free-expansion jet, this backward propagating shock wave is eliminated, thus permitting efficient energy deposition in the plasma interior
Surface Roughness Measurements Utilizing Long-Range Surface-Plasma Waves
1984-11-01
8217 The theory dealt only with the depen- modes, one symmetric and one antisymmetric, dence of the real wave vector on the real part of that propagate...quantity, while the wave vector is complex. It is shown that for both the supported and unsup- From Eqs. (1) and (2) one obtains the real implic- ported...Opt. Soc. sabbatical leave from the University of Toledo. Am.). Optical feild enhancemeft by long-range surface- I" ouT In O’ in OUT way@, plasma waves
Undamped electrostatic plasma waves
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Valentini, F.; Perrone, D.; Veltri, P. [Dipartimento di Fisica and CNISM, Universita della Calabria, 87036 Rende (CS) (Italy); Califano, F.; Pegoraro, F. [Dipartimento di Fisica and CNISM, Universita di Pisa, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Morrison, P. J. [Institute for Fusion Studies and Department of Physics, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712-1060 (United States); O' Neil, T. M. [Department of Physics, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 (United States)
2012-09-15
Electrostatic waves in a collision-free unmagnetized plasma of electrons with fixed ions are investigated for electron equilibrium velocity distribution functions that deviate slightly from Maxwellian. Of interest are undamped waves that are the small amplitude limit of nonlinear excitations, such as electron acoustic waves (EAWs). A deviation consisting of a small plateau, a region with zero velocity derivative over a width that is a very small fraction of the electron thermal speed, is shown to give rise to new undamped modes, which here are named corner modes. The presence of the plateau turns off Landau damping and allows oscillations with phase speeds within the plateau. These undamped waves are obtained in a wide region of the (k,{omega}{sub R}) plane ({omega}{sub R} being the real part of the wave frequency and k the wavenumber), away from the well-known 'thumb curve' for Langmuir waves and EAWs based on the Maxwellian. Results of nonlinear Vlasov-Poisson simulations that corroborate the existence of these modes are described. It is also shown that deviations caused by fattening the tail of the distribution shift roots off of the thumb curve toward lower k-values and chopping the tail shifts them toward higher k-values. In addition, a rule of thumb is obtained for assessing how the existence of a plateau shifts roots off of the thumb curve. Suggestions are made for interpreting experimental observations of electrostatic waves, such as recent ones in nonneutral plasmas.
Undamped electrostatic plasma waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Valentini, F.; Perrone, D.; Veltri, P.; Califano, F.; Pegoraro, F.; Morrison, P. J.; O'Neil, T. M.
2012-01-01
Electrostatic waves in a collision-free unmagnetized plasma of electrons with fixed ions are investigated for electron equilibrium velocity distribution functions that deviate slightly from Maxwellian. Of interest are undamped waves that are the small amplitude limit of nonlinear excitations, such as electron acoustic waves (EAWs). A deviation consisting of a small plateau, a region with zero velocity derivative over a width that is a very small fraction of the electron thermal speed, is shown to give rise to new undamped modes, which here are named corner modes. The presence of the plateau turns off Landau damping and allows oscillations with phase speeds within the plateau. These undamped waves are obtained in a wide region of the (k,ω R ) plane (ω R being the real part of the wave frequency and k the wavenumber), away from the well-known “thumb curve” for Langmuir waves and EAWs based on the Maxwellian. Results of nonlinear Vlasov-Poisson simulations that corroborate the existence of these modes are described. It is also shown that deviations caused by fattening the tail of the distribution shift roots off of the thumb curve toward lower k-values and chopping the tail shifts them toward higher k-values. In addition, a rule of thumb is obtained for assessing how the existence of a plateau shifts roots off of the thumb curve. Suggestions are made for interpreting experimental observations of electrostatic waves, such as recent ones in nonneutral plasmas.
Interaction between electromagnetic waves and plasma waves in motional plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chen, S. Y.; Gao, M.; Tang, C. J.; Peng, X. D.
2009-01-01
The electromagnetic wave (EM wave) behavior and the electromagnetic instability caused by the interaction between an EM wave and a plasma wave in motional plasma are studied. The dispersion relation of EM waves and the dielectric tensor of motional plasma are derived by magnetohydrodynamics, and the wave phenomenon in motional plasma is displayed. As a result, the electromagnetic instability, which is excited by the interaction between the EM waves and the plasma waves, is revealed. The mechanism of the instability is the coupling between high frequency electromagnetic field and the transverse electron oscillation derived from the deflection of longitudinal electron oscillation due to self-magnetic field. The present research is useful with regard to the new type of plasma radiation source, ion-focusing accelerator, and plasma diagnostic technique.
Plasma Wave Electronic Terahertz Technology
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Shur, Michael
2003-01-01
Plasma waves are oscillations of electron density in time and space. In deep submicron field effect transistors plasma wave frequencies lie in the terahertz range and can be tuned by applied gate bias...
Plasma production from helicon waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Degeling, A.W.; Jung, C.O.; Boswell, R.W.; Ellingboe, A.R.
1996-01-01
Experimental measurements taken in a large magnetoplasma show that a simple double half-turn antenna will excite m=1 helicon waves with wavelengths from 10 endash 60 cm. Increased ionization in the center of the downstream plasma is measured when the axial wavelength of the helicon wave becomes less than the characteristic length of the system, typically 50 endash 100 cm. A sharp maximum in the plasma density downstream from the source is measured for a magnetic field of 50 G, where the helicon wave phase velocity is about 3x10 8 cms -1 . Transport of energy away from the source to the downstream region must occur to create the hot electrons needed for the increased ionization. A simple model shows that electrons in a Maxwellian distribution most likely to ionize for these experimental conditions also have a velocity of around 3x10 8 cms -1 . This strong correlation suggests that the helicon wave is trapping electrons in the Maxwellian distribution with velocities somewhat slower than the wave and accelerating them into a quasibeam with velocity somewhat faster than the wave. The nonlinear increase in central density downstream as the power is increased for helicon waves with phase velocities close to the optimum electron velocity for ionization lends support to this idea. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics
Quiescent plasma machine for beam-plasma interaction and wave studies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ferreira, J.L.
1994-01-01
A quiescent double plasma machine for beam-plasma interaction wave studies is described. A detailed description of several plasma diagnostics used for plasma and wave excitation detection is given. A beam-plasma wave dispersion relation is used to compare theoretical values with the experimentally measured Langmuir wave frequencies and wavelengths. (author). 14 refs, 10 figs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jones, B.; Taylor, G.; Efthimion, P.C.; Munsat, T.
2004-01-01
Measurement of the magnetic field in a spherical torus by observation of harmonic overlap frequencies in the electron Bernstein wave (EBW) spectrum has been previously suggested [V.F. Shevchenko, Plasma Phys. Reports 26 (2000) 1000]. EBW mode conversion to X-mode radiation has been studied in the Current Drive Experiment-Upgrade spherical torus, [T. Jones, Ph.D. thesis, Princeton University, 1995] with emission measured at blackbody levels [B. Jones et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 90 (2003) article no. 165001]. Sharp transitions in the thermally emitted EBW spectrum have been observed for the first two harmonic overlaps. These transition frequencies are determined by the magnetic field and electron density at the mode conversion layer in accordance with hot-plasma wave theory. Prospects of extending this measurement to higher harmonics, necessary in order to determine the magnetic field profile, and high beta equilibria are discussed for this proposed magnetic field diagnostic
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Petrov, V. G.; Petrov, A. A.; Malyshev, A. Yu.; De Benedetti, M.; Tudisco, O.
2008-01-01
On-line control over the plasma density in tokamaks (especially, in long-term discharges) requires reliable measurements of the averaged plasma density. For this purpose, a new method of density measurements-a pulsed time-of-flight plasma refractometry-was developed and tested in the T-11M tokamak. This method allows one to determine the averaged density from the measured time delay of nanosecond microwave pulses propagating through the plasma. For an O-wave, the measured time delay is proportional to the line-averaged density and is independent of the density profile (f>>f p ) τ o ∼ k o 1/f 2 ∫ l N(x)dx. Here, f is the frequency of the probing wave, f p is the plasma frequency, l= 4 a is the path length for two-pass probing in the equatorial plane, a is the plasma minor radius, k O and k X are numerical factors, f c is the electron-cyclotron frequency at the axis of the plasma column, and f p >>f c , f. Measurements of the time delay provide the same information as plasma interferometry, though they do no employ the effect of interference. When the conditions f p >>f c , f are not satisfied, the measured time delay depends on the shape of the density profile. In this case, in order to determine the average density regardless of the density profile, it is necessary to perform simultaneous measurements at several probing frequencies in order to determine the average density. In ITER (Bt ∼ 5T), a spectral window between the lower and upper cutoff frequencies in the range of 50-100 GHz can be used for pulsed time-of-flight X-wave refractometry. This appreciably simplifies the diagnostics and eliminates the problem of the first mirror. In this paper, the first results obtained in the FTU tokamak with a prototype of the ITER pulsed time-of-flight refractometer are presented. The geometry and layout of experiments similar to the planned ITER experiments are described. The density measured by pulsed time-of-flight refractometry is shown to agree well with the
Upstream region, foreshock and bow shock wave at Halley's Comet from plasma electron measurements
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Anderson, K.A.; Carlson, C.W.; Curtis, D.W.
1986-01-01
Halley plasma electron parameters from 2.7 million km from the comet nucleus to the bow shock wave at 1.1 million km and beyond are surveyed. The features of the electron foreshock lying outside the shock to a distance of 230,000 km are described. It is a region of intense solar wind-comet plasma interaction in which energetic electrons are prominent. Several spikes of electrons whose energies extend to 2.5 keV appear in front of the shock. These energetic electrons may be accelerated in the same way electrons are accelerated at the Earth's bow shock to energies of 1 to 10 keV. The direction of the electron bulk flow direction changes abruptly between 1920 and 1922 UT, and the flow speed begins a sharp decline at the same time. It is suggested that the spacecraft entered the bow shock wave between 1920 and 1922 UT. Electron density variations at Halley are very much smaller than those at Giacobini-Zinner
Waves and oscillations in plasma crystals
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Piel, A; Homann, A; Klindworth, M; Melzer, A; Zafiu, C; Nosenko, V; Goree, J
2003-01-01
An overview of the properties of plasma crystals and clusters is given with emphasis on oscillations of particles in the plasma trap, instabilities associated with the solid-liquid phase transition and the propagation of waves. It is demonstrated how laser manipulation can be used to stimulate particle motion and waves. From characteristic resonance frequencies and from wave dispersion the particle charge and shielding length parameters, which determine the interparticle forces, can be quantitatively measured
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cotrino, J.; Gamero, A.; Sola, A.; Lao, C.
1989-01-01
During the first instant, previous to steady-state in a surface-wave-produced plasma, an ionization front advance front the launcher to the plasma column end. The velocity of the ionization front is much slower than the group velocity of the surface wave, this give a reflection of the incident signal on the moving ionization front. In this paper, the authors use this effect to calculate the surface wave group velocity
Nonlinear Electromagnetic Waves and Spherical Arc-Polarized Waves in Space Plasmas
Tsurutani, B.; Ho, Christian M.; Arballo, John K.; Lakhina, Gurbax S.; Glassmeier, Karl-Heinz; Neubauer, Fritz M.
1997-01-01
We review observations of nonlinear plasma waves detected by interplanetary spacecraft. For this paper we will focus primarily on the phase-steepened properties of such waves. Plasma waves at comet Giacobini-Zinner measured by the International Cometary Explorer (ICE), at comets Halley and Grigg-Skjellerup measured by Giotto, and interplanetary Alfven waves measured by Ulysses, will be discussed and intercompared.
Millimetre waves and plasma physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brand, G.F.
1999-01-01
Full text: This talk is a review of the plasma-related presentations at the 23rd International Conference on Infrared and Millimeter Waves held at the University of Essex, Colchester, UK 7-11 September 1998. Of most relevance to fusion is the development of high-power sources for electron cyclotron resonance heating and current drive. The requirements for ITER are a total of 50 MW at 170 GHz. The state of the art is illustrated by (a) high-power gyrotrons that deliver 1 MW for 1 s at 170 GHz, and (b) a free-electron maser that has generated millimetre waves for the first time, 730 kW at 200 GHz. A number of papers describe new technologies that allow high powers to be achieved; internal mode converters to convert the whispering-gallery mode generated in the gyrotron cavity into a gaussian beam, depressed collectors to raise the efficiency from 1/3 to better than 1/2, CVD diamond output windows and coaxial gyrotrons with improved mode purity. Other papers describe transmission lines and steerable mirrors. Several papers deal with millimetre-wave plasma diagnostics for fusion such as electron cyclotron emission measurements and reflectometry. (author)
Wave turbulence in magnetized plasmas
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. Galtier
2009-02-01
Full Text Available The paper reviews the recent progress on wave turbulence for magnetized plasmas (MHD, Hall MHD and electron MHD in the incompressible and compressible cases. The emphasis is made on homogeneous and anisotropic turbulence which usually provides the best theoretical framework to investigate space and laboratory plasmas. The solar wind and the coronal heating problems are presented as two examples of application of anisotropic wave turbulence. The most important results of wave turbulence are reported and discussed in the context of natural and simulated magnetized plasmas. Important issues and possible spurious interpretations are also discussed.
Harmonic surface wave propagation in plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shivarova, A.; Stoychev, T.
1980-01-01
Second order harmonic surface waves generated by one fundamental high-frequency surface wave are investigated experimentally in gas discharge plasma. Two types of harmonic waves of equal frequency, associated with the linear dispersion relation and the synchronism conditions relatively propagate. The experimental conditions and the different space damping rates of the waves ensure the existence of different spatial regions (consecutively arranged along the plasma column) of a dominant propagation of each one of these two waves. Experimental data are obtained both for the wavenumbers and the space damping rates by relatively precise methods for wave investigations such as the methods of time-space diagrams and of phase shift measurements. The results are explained by the theoretical model for nonlinear mixing of dispersive waves. (author)
Submillimeter wave propagation in tokamak plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ma, C.H.; Hutchinson, D.P.; Staats, P.A.; Vander Sluis, K.L.; Mansfield, D.K.; Park, H.; Johnson, L.C.
1985-01-01
The propagation of submillimeter-waves (smm) in tokamak plasmas has been investigated both theoretically and experimentally to ensure successful measurements of electron density and plasma current distributions in tokamak devices. Theoretical analyses have been carried out to study the polarization of the smm waves in TFTR and ISX-B tokamaks. A multichord smm wave interferometer/polarimeter system has been employed to simultaneously measure the line electron density and poloidal field-induced Faraday rotation in the ISX-B tokamak. The experimental study on TFTR is under way. Computer codes have been developed and have been used to study the wave propagation and to reconstruct the distributions of plasma current and density from the measured data. The results are compared with other measurements
Submillimeter wave propagation in tokamak plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ma, C.H.; Hutchinson, D.P.; Staats, P.A.; Vander Sluis, K.L.; Mansfield, D.K.; Park, H.; Johnson, L.C.
1986-01-01
Propagation of submillimeter waves (smm) in tokamak plasma was investigated both theoretically and experimentally to ensure successful measurements of electron density and plasma current distributions in tokamak devices. Theoretical analyses were carried out to study the polarization of the smm waves in TFTR and ISX-B tokamaks. A multichord smm wave interferometer/polarimeter system was employed to simultaneously measure the line electron density and poloidal field-induced Faraday rotation in the ISX-B tokamak. The experimental study on TFTR is under way. Computer codes were developed and have been used to study the wave propagation and to reconstruct the distributions of plasma current and density from the measured data. The results are compared with other measurements. 5 references, 2 figures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Boyd, D.A.; Skiff, F.; Gulick, S.
1997-01-01
A two-chord, four-beam suprathermal electron diagnostic has been installed on TdeV (B>1.5 T, R=0.86 m, a=0.25 m). Resonant absorption of extraordinary mode electron cyclotron waves is measured to deduce the chordal averaged suprathermal electron distribution function amplitude at the resonant momentum. Simultaneously counterpropagating beams permit good refractive loss cancellation. A nonlinear frequency sweep leads to a concentration of appropriately propagating power in a narrow range of time of flight, thus increasing the signal-to-noise ratio and facilitating the rejection of spurious reflections. Numerous measurements of electron distribution functions have been obtained during lower-hybrid current-drive experiments. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schuss, J.J.; Chu, T.K.; Johnson, L.C.
1977-11-01
We report the results of small-angle ruby laser Thomson scattering measurements of the parametric excitation of plasma waves by CO 2 laser radiation at quarter-critical density in a laser-heated gas target plasma. From supplementary data obtained from interferometry and large-angle ruby laser scattering we infer that the threshold conditions for a convective decay are satisfied
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Noble, S.T.; Djuth, F.T.
1990-01-01
Two radar systems with beams intersecting in the HF-modified F region were used to simultaneously measure HF-enhanced plasma lines (HFPLs) and artificial geomagnetic field-aligned irregularities (AFAIs). The Arecibo 430-MHz radar was used for the HFPL observations, and a portable 49.92-MHz backscatter radar was deployed on the island of Guadeloupe to monitor the AFAIs. The experiment was desgined to examine the degree to which HF-induced plasma turbulence influences the development of AFAIs. When the HF beam is stepped up in power, sustained HFPLs and AFAIs are first observed at the same HF power level, indicating that ponderomotively driven instabilities may be involved in the early time development of AFAIs. As the HF power is increased, the HFPL backscatter power begins to saturate at ∼70 MW effective radiated power (ERP). However, the backscatter from AFAIs is linearly dependent on HF power, even at the highest (120 MW ERP) HF power levels available at Arecibo. This suggests that additional processes may contribute to the development of AFAIs. For example, ponderomotively driven instabilities may give rise to weak geomagnetic field-aligned irregularities that are subsequently driven unstable by processes excited near the upper hybrid resonance. It is also likely that AFAIs greatly impact the development of HF-induced plasma turbulence at late times (>1 s) following HF turn-on. Once the ionosphere is preconditioned by high-power HF modifications, AFAIs and HFPLs can be simultaneously sustained at a much lower HF power level than that needed to originally excite them. The nature of the preconditioning process is currently not well understood. New theoretical initiatives are clearly needed to guide future experimental activity in this area
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pathak, Pallabi; Sharma, Sumita Kumari; Bailung, Heremba
2015-01-01
The evolution of super rogue wave having amplitude ∼5 times the background wave has been observed in multicomponent plasma with critical concentration of negative ions in a double plasma device. In normal electron-ion plasma the ion acoustic solitons are described by the Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation. At a critical concentration of negative ions, the ion acoustic modified KdV solitons are found to propagate. Multicomponent plasma also supports the propagation of a special kind of soliton namely 'Peregrine soliton' at critical concentration of negative ions. Peregrine soliton is a doubly localized solution of the nonlinear Schrodinger equation (NLSE) having amplitude 3 times the background carrier wave. In a double plasma device, ion-acoustic Peregrine soliton is excited by applying slowly varying amplitude modulated continuous sinusoidal signal to the source anode and described by the rational solution of NLSE. The ion acoustic wave is modulationally unstable in multicomponent plasma with critical concentration of negative ions and an initial modulated wave perturbation is found to undergo self-modulation to form localized structures by balancing the nonlinearity with the dispersion. In presence of higher order nonlinearity, propagation of a high amplitude (∼5 times of background carrier wave) ion acoustic Peregrine soliton has been observed experimentally. The existence of such types of higher order wave has been reported in other dispersive media. These are considered to be the prototype of super rogue wave in deep water. In this work, experimental results on the evolution of super rogue wave in a double plasma device are presented and compared with the numerical solution of NLSE. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brodin, G.; Stenflo, L.
2017-01-01
Considering a class of solutions where the density perturbations are functions of time, but not of space, we derive a new exact large amplitude wave solution for a cold uniform electron plasma. This result illustrates that most simple analytical solutions can appear even if the density perturbations are large. - Highlights: • The influence of large amplitude electromagnetic waves on electrostatic oscillations is found. • A generalized Mathieu equation is derived. • Anharmonic wave profiles are computed numerically.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Brodin, G., E-mail: gert.brodin@physics.umu.se [Department of Physics, Umeå University, SE-901 87 Umeå (Sweden); Stenflo, L. [Department of Physics, Linköping University, SE-581 83 Linköping (Sweden)
2017-03-18
Considering a class of solutions where the density perturbations are functions of time, but not of space, we derive a new exact large amplitude wave solution for a cold uniform electron plasma. This result illustrates that most simple analytical solutions can appear even if the density perturbations are large. - Highlights: • The influence of large amplitude electromagnetic waves on electrostatic oscillations is found. • A generalized Mathieu equation is derived. • Anharmonic wave profiles are computed numerically.
Waves and instabilities in plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chen, L.
1987-01-01
The contents of this book are: Plasma as a Dielectric Medium; Nyquist Technique; Absolute and Convective Instabilities; Landau Damping and Phase Mixing; Particle Trapping and Breakdown of Linear Theory; Solution of Viasov Equation via Guilding-Center Transformation; Kinetic Theory of Magnetohydrodynamic Waves; Geometric Optics; Wave-Kinetic Equation; Cutoff and Resonance; Resonant Absorption; Mode Conversion; Gyrokinetic Equation; Drift Waves; Quasi-Linear Theory; Ponderomotive Force; Parametric Instabilities; Problem Sets for Homework, Midterm and Final Examinations
Waves and Oscillations in Plasmas
Pecseli, Hans L
2012-01-01
The result of more than 15 years of lectures in plasma sciences presented at universities in Denmark, Norway, and the United States, Waves and Oscillations in Plasmas addresses central issues in modern plasma sciences. The book covers fluid models as well as kinetic plasma models, including a detailed discussion of, for instance, collisionless Landau damping. Offering a clear separation of linear and nonlinear models, the book can be tailored for readers of varying levels of expertise.Designed to provide basic training in linear as well as nonlinear plasma dynamics, and practical in areas as d
Nonlinear wavenumber of an electron plasma wave
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vidmar, P.J.; Malmberg, J.H.; Starke, T.P.
1976-01-01
The wavenumber of a large-amplitude electron plasma wave propagating on a collisionless plasma column is measured. The wavenumber is shifted from that of a small-amplitude wave of the same frequency. This nonlinear wavenumber shift, deltak/subr/, depends on position, frequency, and initial wave amplitude, Phi. The observed spatial oscillations of deltak/subr/ agree qualitatively with recent theories. Experimentally deltak/subr/proportionalk/subi/S (Phi) rootPhi where k/subi/ is the linear Landau damping coefficient, S (Phi) equivalentk/subi/(Phi)/k/subi/, and k/subi/(Phi) is the initial damping coefficient which depends on Phi
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Booker, H.G.
1984-01-01
The book aims to present current knowledge concerning the propagation of electromagnetic waves in a homogeneous magnetoplasma for which temperature effects are unimportant. It places roughly equal emphasis on the radio and the hydromagnetic parts of the electromagnetic spectrum. The dispersion properties of a magnetoplasma are treated as a function both of wave frequency (assumed real) and of ionization density. The effect of collisions is included only in so far as this can be done with simplicity. The book describes how pulses are radiated from both small and large antennas embedded in a homogeneous magnetoplasma. The power density radiated from a type of dipole antenna is studied as a function of direction of radiation in all bands of wave frequency. Input reactance is not treated, but the dependence of radiation resistance on wave frequency is described for the entire electromagnetic spectrum. Also described is the relation between beaming and guidance for Alfven waves. (Auth.)
Waves in plasmas (part 1 - wave-plasma interaction general background)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dumont, R.
2004-01-01
This document gathers a series of transparencies presented in the framework of the week-long lectures 'hot plasmas 2004' and dedicated to the physics of wave-plasma interaction. The structure of this document is as follows: 1) wave and diverse plasmas, 2) basic equations (Maxwell equations), 3) waves in a fluid plasma, and 4) waves in a kinetic plasma (collisionless plasma)
Alfven Waves in Gyrokinetic Plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lee, W.W.; Qin, H.
2003-01-01
A brief comparison of the properties of Alfven waves that are based on the gyrokinetic description with those derived from the MHD equations is presented. The critical differences between these two approaches are the treatment of the ion polarization effects. As such, the compressional Alfven waves in a gyrokinetic plasma can be eliminated through frequency ordering, whereas geometric simplifications are needed to decouple the shear Alfven waves from the compressional Alfven waves within the context of MHD. Theoretical and numerical procedures of using gyrokinetic particle simulation for studying microturbulence and kinetic-MHD physics including finite Larmor radius effects are also presented
Measuring Millimeter Wave of Cold Atmospheric Plasma Array by a Novel Technique
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bryon Eckert
2016-08-01
Full Text Available An unexplained repulsive force occasionally observed during non-thermal plasma treatment of large infections may point the way to an efficient mechanism for characterizing biofield energy. Ambient pressure air plasma in non-thermal equilibrium creates areas of localized population inversion, causing spontaneous emission at magnetic dipole rotational resonance lines. For O2, many of these lines occur in the 60 GHz frequency range. This experiment examines a possible link between the fine resonance frequencies of oxygen in the 60 GHz region, and the therapeutic frequencies used in Russian non-thermal EHF therapy. This paper also explores the feasibility of using a plasma array for biological torsion field characterization. An array of several hundred non-thermal plasma plumes are placed directly in front of a circular horn. A switchable circular polarizer is used to select left hand circular, linear or right hand circular polarization. A low noise frequency converter allows a noise temperature of less than 1150 K. A frequency scan and averaging algorithm is developed to characterize noise temperature versus frequency, comparing signal and noise levels between plasma on and plasma off, and switching polarization sense. An experimental setup is proposed as a proof of concept for detecting signals from the plasma array, while a practical laboratory tool is also proposed.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
H. Rothkaehl
2008-02-01
Full Text Available The region of the main ionospheric trough is a unique region of the ionosphere, where different types of waves and instabilities can be generated. This region of the ionosphere acts like a lens, focusing a variety of indicators from the equator of plasmapause and local ionospheric plasma. This paper reports the results of monitoring the mid-latitude trough structure, dynamics and wave activity. For these purposes, the data gathered by the currently-operating DEMETER satellite and past diagnostics located on IK-19, Apex, and MAGION-3 spacecraft, as well as TEC measurements were used. A global-time varying picture of the ionospheric trough was reconstructed using the sequence of wave spectra registered and plasma measurements in the top-side ionosphere. The authors present the wave activity from ULF frequency band to the HF frequency detected inside the trough region and discuss its properties during geomagnetic disturbances. It is thought that broadband emissions are correlated with low frequency radiation, which is excited by the wave-particle interaction in the equatorial plasmapause and moves to the ionosphere along the geomagnetic field line. In the ionosphere, the suprathermal electrons can interact with these electrostatic waves and excite electron acoustic waves or HF longitudinal plasma waves.
Furthermore, the electron density trough can provide useful data on the magnetosphere ionosphere dynamics and morphology and, in consequence, can be used for Space Weather purposes.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
H. Rothkaehl
2008-02-01
Full Text Available The region of the main ionospheric trough is a unique region of the ionosphere, where different types of waves and instabilities can be generated. This region of the ionosphere acts like a lens, focusing a variety of indicators from the equator of plasmapause and local ionospheric plasma. This paper reports the results of monitoring the mid-latitude trough structure, dynamics and wave activity. For these purposes, the data gathered by the currently-operating DEMETER satellite and past diagnostics located on IK-19, Apex, and MAGION-3 spacecraft, as well as TEC measurements were used. A global-time varying picture of the ionospheric trough was reconstructed using the sequence of wave spectra registered and plasma measurements in the top-side ionosphere. The authors present the wave activity from ULF frequency band to the HF frequency detected inside the trough region and discuss its properties during geomagnetic disturbances. It is thought that broadband emissions are correlated with low frequency radiation, which is excited by the wave-particle interaction in the equatorial plasmapause and moves to the ionosphere along the geomagnetic field line. In the ionosphere, the suprathermal electrons can interact with these electrostatic waves and excite electron acoustic waves or HF longitudinal plasma waves. Furthermore, the electron density trough can provide useful data on the magnetosphere ionosphere dynamics and morphology and, in consequence, can be used for Space Weather purposes.
Wave propagation in plasma-filled wave-guide
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Leprince, Philippe
1966-01-01
This research thesis reports the study of wave propagation along a plasma column without external magnetic field. The author first present and comment various theoretical results, and dispersion curves plotted for the main modes (particularly, the bipolar mode). He tries to define fundamental magnitudes which characterise a plasma-filled wave-guide. He reports the comparison of some experimental results with the previous theoretical results. Based on the study of the bipolar mode, the author develops a method of measurement of plasma column density. In the last part, the author reports the study of the resonance of a plasma-containing cavity. Several resonances are highlighted and new dispersion curves are plotted by using a varying length cavity. He also addresses the coupling of plasma modes with guide modes, and thus indicates the shape of Brillouin diagrams for a plasma-filled wave-guide. Moreover, some phenomena highlighted during plasma column density measurements by using the cavity method could then be explained [fr
Time variations of hf induced plasma waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Showen, R.L.
1976-01-01
Intense plasma waves are generated by an HF pump wave in an ionospheric heating experiment at the Arecibo Observatory. These plasma waves can be observed as enhancements to the ion and plasma lines of the incoherent backscatter echo. The enhancements can be three or four orders of magnitude more intense than the unenhanced lines, and tend to fluctuate wildly. Both the purely growing and the decay mode parametric instabilities are present. When the pump wave is turned on abruptly the enhancements develop in time in a repeatable manner. A rather remarkable feature on time scales of seconds is an overshoot in instability power. These overshoots occur frequently but not universally and last for 1 to 6 seconds. They can have a magnitude from ten to hundreds of times the average instability level. Field aligned irregularities may be the cause of the overshoots. The overshoots appear definitely related to an unusually rapid rise in measured electron temperature that cannot be understood in terms of ohmic energy deposition. On time scales of milliseconds there is a ''mini-overshoot'' before the growth of the instability to a large value. The spectral details also change in a striking manner. The instabilities can first be detected 2 to 4 msec after the pump wave turn-on. The decay mode is present as well as a broad featureless ''noise bump'', which partially sharpens into a line as time progresses. These changes of the spectra in time seem to run counter to the currently accepted theories of plasma wave saturation
Ionospheric plasma by VHF waves
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
The amplitude scintillations of very high frequency electromagnetic wave ... Scintillations at low latitude are known to occur in discrete patches [5,6] and are part .... weakly ionized plasma with a density gradient and a relative drift of ions and ...
EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF SHOCK WAVE DYNAMICS IN MAGNETIZED PLASMAS
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Podder, Nirmol K.
2009-01-01
In this four-year project (including one-year extension), the project director and his research team built a shock-wave-plasma apparatus to study shock wave dynamics in glow discharge plasmas in nitrogen and argon at medium pressure (1-20 Torr), carried out various plasma and shock diagnostics and measurements that lead to increased understanding of the shock wave acceleration phenomena in plasmas. The measurements clearly show that in the steady-state dc glow discharge plasma, at fixed gas pressure the shock wave velocity increases, its amplitude decreases, and the shock wave disperses non-linearly as a function of the plasma current. In the pulsed discharge plasma, at fixed gas pressure the shock wave dispersion width and velocity increase as a function of the delay between the switch-on of the plasma and shock-launch. In the afterglow plasma, at fixed gas pressure the shock wave dispersion width and velocity decrease as a function of the delay between the plasma switch-off and shock-launch. These changes are found to be opposite and reversing towards the room temperature value which is the initial condition for plasma ignition case. The observed shock wave properties in both igniting and afterglow plasmas correlate well with the inferred temperature changes in the two plasmas
Solitons and nonlinear waves in space plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stasiewicz, K.
2005-01-01
Recent measurements made on the ESA/NASA Cluster mission to the Earth's magnetosphere have provided first detailed measurements of magnetosonic solitons in space. The solitons represent localized enhancements of the magnetic field by a factor of 2-10, or depressions down to 10% of the ambient field. The magnetic field signatures are associated with density depressions/enhancements A two-fluid model of nonlinear electron and ion inertial waves in anisotropic plasmas explains the main properties of these structures. It is shown that warm plasmas support four types of nonlinear waves, which correspond to four linear modes: Alfvenic, magnetosonic, sound, and electron inertial waves. Each of these nonlinear modes has slow and fast versions. It is shown by direct integration that the exponential growth rate of nonlinear modes is balanced by the ion and electron dispersion leading to solutions in the form of trains of solitons or cnoidal waves. By using a novel technique of phase portraits it is shown how the dispersive properties of electron and ion inertial waves change at the transition between warm and hot plasmas, and how trains of solitons ('' mirror modes '') are produced in a hot, anisotropic plasma. The applicability of the model is illustrated with data from Cluster spacecraft. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Williams, R.L.; Johnson, J.A. III
1993-01-01
The feasibility of using an ionizing shock wave to produce high density plasmas suitable for the propagation large amplitude relativistic plasma waves is being investigated. A 20 kv arc driven shock tube of coaxial geometry produces a hypersonic shock wave (10 p > 10 17 cm -3 ). The shock can be made to reflect off the end of the tube, collide with its wake, and thus increase the plasma density further. After reflecting, the plasma is at rest. The shock speed is measured using piezoelectric pressure probes and the ion density is measured using laser induced fluorescence (LIF) techniques on argon 488.0 nm and 422.8 nm lines. The future plans are to excite large amplitude relativistic plasma waves in this plasma by either injecting a short pulse laser (Laser Wake Field Scheme), two beating lasers (Plasma Beat Wave Scheme), or a short bunch of relativistic electrons (Plasma Wake Field Scheme). Results of recent computational and theoretical studies, as well as initial experimental measurements on the plasma using LIF, are reported. Implications for the application of high density plasmas produced in this way to such novel schemes as the plasma wave accelerator, photon accelerator, plasma wave undulator, and also plasma lens, are discussed. The effect of plasma turbulence is also discussed
Ion Acoustic Waves in the Presence of Electron Plasma Waves
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Michelsen, Poul; Pécseli, Hans; Juul Rasmussen, Jens
1977-01-01
Long-wavelength ion acoustic waves in the presence of propagating short-wavelength electron plasma waves are examined. The influence of the high frequency oscillations is to decrease the phase velocity and the damping distance of the ion wave.......Long-wavelength ion acoustic waves in the presence of propagating short-wavelength electron plasma waves are examined. The influence of the high frequency oscillations is to decrease the phase velocity and the damping distance of the ion wave....
On helicon wave induced radial plasma transport
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Petrzilka, V.
1993-04-01
Estimates of helicon wave induced radial plasma transport are presented. The wave induced transport grows or decreases in dependence on the sign of the azimuthal wave number; these changes in transport may play an important role in helicon wave plasma sources. (author) 5 figs., 18 refs
KINETIC THEORY OF PLASMA WAVES: Part II: Homogeneous Plasma
Westerhof, E.
2010-01-01
The theory of electromagnetic waves in a homogeneous plasma is reviewed. The linear response of the plasma to the waves is obtained in the form of the dielectric tensor. Waves ranging from the low frequency Alfven to the high frequency electron cyclotron waves are discussed in the limit of the cold
Kinetic theory of plasma waves: Part II homogeneous plasma
Westerhof, E.
2000-01-01
The theory of electromagnetic waves in a homogeneous plasma is reviewed. The linear response of the plasma to the waves is obtained in the form of the dielectric tensor. Waves ranging from the low frequency Alfven to the high frequency electron cyclotron waves are discussed in the limit of the cold
Kinetic theory of plasma waves - Part II: Homogeneous plasma
Westerhof, E.
2008-01-01
The theory of electromagnetic waves in a homogeneous plasma is reviewed. The linear response of the plasma to the waves is obtained in the form of the dielectric tensor. Waves ranging from the low frequency Alfven to the high frequency electron cyclotron waves axe discussed in the limit of the cold
Electron waves and resonances in bounded plasmas
Vandenplas, Paul E
1968-01-01
General theoretical methods and experimental techniques ; the uniform plasma slab-condenser system ; the hollow cylindrical plasma ; scattering of a plane electromagnetic wave by a plasma column in steady magnetic fields (cold plasma approximation) ; hot non-uniform plasma column ; metallic and dielectric resonance probes, plasma-dielectric coated antenna, general considerations.
Millimeter wave and terahertz wave transmission characteristics in plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ma Ping; Qin Long; Chen Weijun; Zhao Qing; Shi Anhua; Huang Jie
2013-01-01
An experiment was conducted on the shock tube to explore the transmission characteristics of millimeter wave and terahertz wave in high density plasmas, in order to meet the communication requirement of hypersonic vehicles during blackout. The transmission attenuation curves of millimeter wave and terahertz wave in different electron density and collision frequency were obtained. The experiment was also simulated by auxiliary differential equation finite-difference time-domain (ADE-FDTD) methods. The experimental and numerical results show that the transmission attenuation of terahertz wave in the plasma is smaller than that of millimeter wave under the same conditions. The transmission attenuation of terahertz wave in the plasma is enhanced with the increase of electron density. The terahertz wave is a promising alternative to the electromagnetic wave propagation in high density plasmas. (authors)
Nonlinear waves in solar plasmas - a review
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ballai, I
2006-01-01
Nonlinearity is a direct consequence of large scale dynamics in the solar plasmas. When nonlinear steepening of waves is balanced by dispersion, solitary waves are generated. In the vicinity of resonances, waves can steepen into nonlinear waves influencing the efficiency of energy deposition. Here we review recent theoretical breakthroughs that have lead to a greater understanding of many aspects of nonlinear waves arising in homogeneous and inhomogeneous solar plasmas
Penetration of slow waves into an overdense plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Motley, R.W.; Bernabei, S.; Hooke, W.M.; McWilliams, R.; Olson, L.
1978-06-01
Probe measurements are reported of the propagation of a 2.45 GHz slow wave launched into a linear, overdense test plasma by a phased double waveguide. We find that waves in the frequency interval omega/sub LH/ < omega < omega/sub pe/ penetrate to the plasma interior only if they satisfy the accessibility criterion
Plasma wave and second harmonic generation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sodha, M.S.; Sharma, J.K.; Tewari, D.P.; Sharma, R.P.; Kaushik, S.C.
1978-01-01
An investigation is made of a plasma wave at pump wave frequency and second harmonic generation caused by a self induced transverse inhomogeneity introduced by a Gaussian electromagnetic beam in a hot collisionless plasma. In the presence of a Gaussian beam the carriers get redistributed from the high field region to the low field region by ponderomative force and a transverse density gradient is established in the plasma. When the electric vector of the main beam is parallel to this density gradient, a plasma wave at the pump wave frequency is generated. In addition to this the transverse intensity gradient of the electromagnetic wave also contributes significantly to the plasma wave generation. The power of the plasma wave exhibits a maximum and minimum with the power of the pump wave (at z = 0). The generated plasma wave interacts with the electromagnetic wave and leads to the generation of a second harmonic. Furthermore, if the initial power of the pump wave is more than the critical power for self-focusing, the beam gets self-focused and hence the generated plasma wave and second harmonic which depend upon the background electron concentration and power of the main beam also get accordingly modified. (author)
Magnetoacoustic waves in current-carrying plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brennan, M.H.
1980-04-01
The results of theoretical and experimental investigations of the characteristics of magnetoacoustic waves in non-uniform, current-carrying plasmas are reviewed. Dissipative MHD and collisionless theories are considered. Also discussed is the use of magnetoacoustic waves in plasma diagnostics and plasma heating
Large amplitude waves and fields in plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Angelis, U. de; Naples Univ.
1990-02-01
In this review, based mostly on the results of the recent workshop on ''Large Amplitude Waves and Fields in Plasmas'' held at ICTP (Trieste, Italy) in May 1989 during the Spring College on Plasma Physics, I will mostly concentrate on underdense, cold, homogeneous plasmas, discussing some of the alternative (to fusion) uses of laser-plasma interaction. In Part I an outline of some basic non-linear processes is given, together with some recent experimental results. The processes are chosen because of their relevance to the applications or because new interesting developments have been reported at the ICTP workshop (or both). In Part II the excitation mechanisms and uses of large amplitude plasma waves are presented: these include phase-conjugation in plasmas, plasma based accelerators (beat-wave, plasma wake-field and laser wake-field), plasma lenses and plasma wigglers for Free Electron Lasers. (author)
Shock wave interaction with pulsed glow discharge and afterglow plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Podder, N.K.; LoCascio, A.C.
2009-01-01
Acoustic shock waves are launched by the spark-discharge of a high voltage capacitor in pulsed glow discharge and afterglow plasmas. The glow discharge section of the shock tube is switched on for a period of less than one second at a time, during which a shock wave is launched starting with a large delay between the plasma switch-on and the shock-launch. In the subsequent runs this delay is decremented in equal time intervals up to the plasma switch-on time. A photo acoustic deflection method sensitive to the density gradient of the shock wave is used to study the propagating shock structure and velocity in the igniting plasma. A similar set of measurements are also performed at the plasma switch-off, in which the delay time is incremented in equal time intervals from the plasma switch-off time until the afterglow plasma fully neutralizes itself into the room-temperature gas. Thus, complete time histories of the shock wave propagation in the igniting plasma, as well as in the afterglow plasma, are produced. In the igniting plasma, the changes in the shock-front velocity and dispersion are found to be a strong non-linear function of delay until a saturation point is reached. On the other hand, in the afterglow plasma the trend has been opposite and reversing towards the room temperature values. The observed shock wave properties in both igniting and afterglow plasmas correlate well with the inferred temperature changes in the two plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wakatsuki, Takuma; Ejiri, Akira; Kakuda, Hidetoshi
2012-01-01
Non-inductive plasma current start-up experiments using RF power in the lower hybrid frequency range is being conducted on the TST-2 spherical tokamak. Plasma currents of up to 15 kA have been achieved. The effect of direct current drive can be seen by comparing the cases with co-drive and counter-drive. X-rays in various energy ranges were measured to investigate the interaction between the wave and the electrons. Soft X-ray (SX) measurements revealed that the perpendicular SX emission increased significantly as the plasma current increased, and that the tangential SX emission in the direction of RF drive was enhanced more strongly in the co-drive case compared to the counter-drive case. These observations imply that the fast electrons accelerated by the lower hybrid wave contribute to the plasma current. However, RF amplitude modulation experiments showed that the confinement time of these fast electrons are very short (less than 0.05 ms), much shorter than the collisional slowing down time. Hard X-ray spectral measurements showed that the radiation temperature of fast electrons in the co-direction for current drive was higher than that in the counter-direction. These observations are consistent with the existence of RF-driven fast electrons. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Matoba, Tohru; Funahashi, Akimasa; Itagaki, Tokiyoshi; Takahashi, Koki; Kumagai, Katsuaki
1976-08-01
The electron density in JFT-2 tokamak has been measured by two methods, i.e. Thomson scattering of ruby-laser light and interferometry of millimeter wave. Two-dimensional distribution of the scattered light intensities were obtained by scattering measurement; absolute calibration was made by normalizing the scattered intensities with the averaged density determined from interferometric measurement. The horizontal density distributions in laser scattering were compared with those in from the averaged densities measured with a 4-mm interferometer through inverse-transformation. Agreement is good between the two measurements, except where they give erroneous data because of irreproducibility of the discharge. (auth.)
Scattering of electromagnetic waves into plasma oscillations via plasma particles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lin, A.T.; Dawson, J.M.
1975-01-01
A plasma subjected to an intense electromagnetic wave can exhibit a large number of parametric instabilities. An interesting example which has received little attention is the decay of the electromagnetic wave into a plasma oscillation with the excess energy and momentum being carried off by electrons. This process has been simulated on a one-and-two-halves dimensional electromagnetic code. The incident electromagnetic wave had a frequency near the plasma frequency so that decay into a plasma oscillation and a backscattered electromagnetic wave was excluded. As expected, the threshold for this instability was very large , so it is unlikely that this instability is competitive in most laser plasmas. Nevertheless, the physical mechanism involved provides a means for absorption of laser light and acceleration of particles in a plasma containing large amplitude plasma oscillations
Chu, F.; Skiff, F.
2018-01-01
Extensive information can be obtained on wave-particle interactions and wave fields by a direct measurement of perturbed ion distribution functions using laser-induced fluorescence (LIF). For practical purposes, LIF is frequently performed on metastable states that are produced from neutral gas particles and ions in other electronic states. If the laser intensity is increased to obtain a better LIF signal, then optical pumping can produce systematic effects depending on the collision rates which control metastable population and lifetime. We numerically simulate the ion velocity distribution measurement and wave-detection process using a Lagrangian model for the LIF signal for the case where metastables are produced directly from neutrals. This case requires more strict precautions and is important for discharges with energetic primary electrons and a high density of neutrals. Some of the results also apply to metastables produced from pre-existing ions. The simulations show that optical pumping broadening affects the ion velocity distribution function f0(v) and its first-order perturbation f1(v,t) when the laser intensity is increased above a certain level. The results also suggest that ion temperature measurements are only accurate when the metastable ions can live longer than the ion-ion collision mean free time. For the purposes of wave detection, the wave period has to be significantly shorter than the lifetime of metastable ions for a direct interpretation. It is more generally true that metastable ions may be viewed as test-particles. As long as an appropriate model is available, LIF can be extended to a range of environments.
Fundamental plasma emission involving ion sound waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cairns, I.H.
1987-01-01
The theory for fundamental plasma emission by the three-wave processes L ± S → T (where L, S and T denote Langmuir, ion sound and transverse waves, respectively) is developed. Kinematic constraints on the characteristics and growth lengths of waves participating in the wave processes are identified. In addition the rates, path-integrated wave temperatures, and limits on the brightness temperature of the radiation are derived. (author)
Stationary Density Variation Produced by a Standing Plasma Wave
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Michelsen, Poul; Pécseli, Hans; Juul Rasmussen, Jens
1977-01-01
Measurements are presented of a stationary density modulation produced by a standing electron plasma wave. The experimental results are well explained by taking into account the ponderomotive forces on the electrons exerted by the high frequency field.......Measurements are presented of a stationary density modulation produced by a standing electron plasma wave. The experimental results are well explained by taking into account the ponderomotive forces on the electrons exerted by the high frequency field....
Plasma waves in the Earth's foreshock, bow shock, and magnetosheath
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Onsager, T.G.
1988-01-01
The research presented in this dissertation is a detailed analysis of electrostatic waves in the Earth's foreshock, bow shock, and magnetosheath. The wave modes measured in these regions, the possible generation mechanisms, and the process which drive the plasma to its unstable state are investigated. The measurements used in this study were obtained from the plasma wave receiver, the particle instrument, and the magnetometer on board the Active Magnetospheric Particle Tracer Explorer (AMPTE) Ion Release Module (IRM). Electron beam mode waves have been identified in the Earth's foreshock. A technique is developed which allows the rest frame frequency and wave number of the electron beam mode waves to be determined from the measurements. The experimentally determined values are compared with theoretical predictions, and approximate limits are put on the beam temperatures. It is demonstrated that electrostatic waves are present in the bow shock and magnetosheath with frequencies above the maximum frequency for Doppler shifted ion acoustic waves, yet below the Langmuir frequency. Waves in this frequency range are tentatively identified as electron beam mode waves. This identification is based on the measured frequencies and electric field polarization directions. Data from 45 bow shock crossings are then used to investigate possible correlations between the electron beam mode waves and the near shock plasma parameters. The best correlations are found with Alfven Mach number and electron beta. Possible mechanism which might produce electron beams in the shock and magnetosheath are discussed in terms of the correlation study results
Numerical simulation of electrostatic waves in plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Erz, U.
1981-08-01
In this paper the propagation of electrostatic waves in plasmas and the non-linear interactions, which occur in the case of large wave amplitudes, are studied using a new numerical method for plasma simulation. This mathematical description is based on the Vlasov-model. Changes in the distribution-function are taken into account and thus plasma kinetic effects can be treated. (orig./HT) [de
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Niu, K.
1996-01-01
A shock wave is a discontinuous surface that connects supersonic flow with subsonic flow. After a shock wave, flow velocity is reduced, and pressure and temperature increase; entropy especially increases across a shock wave. Therefore, flow is in nonequilibrium, and irreversible processes occur inside the shock layer. The thickness of a shock wave in neutral gas is of the order of the mean free path of the fluid particle. A shock wave also appears in magnetized plasma. Provided that when the plasma flow is parallel to the magnetic field, a shock wave appears if the governing equation for velocity potential is in hyperbolic type in relation with the Mach number and the Alfven number. When the flow is perpendicular to the magnetic field, the Maxwell stress, in addition to the pressure, plays a role in the shock wave in plasma. When the plasma temperature is so high, as the plasma becomes collision-free, another type of shock wave appears. In a collision-free shock wave, gyromotions of electrons around the magnetic field lines cause the shock formation instead of collisions in a collision-dominant plasma or neutral gas. Regardless of a collision-dominant or collision-free shock wave, the fluid that passes through the shock wave is heated in addition to being compressed. In inertial confinement fusion, the fuel must be compressed. Really, implosion motion performs fuel compression. A shock wave, appearing in the process of implosion, compresses the fuel. The shock wave, however, heats the fuel more intensively, and it makes it difficult to compress the fuel further because high temperatures invite high pressure. Adiabatic compression of the fuel is the desired result during the implosion, without the formation of a shock wave. (Author)
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
ion plasma are discussed. It is shown that the temperature and/or mass difference of both species could produce drift wave in a pair-ion plasma. The results are discussed in the context of the fullerene pair-ion plasma experiment.
Plasma production for electron acceleration by resonant plasma wave
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Anania, M.P.; Biagioni, A.; Chiadroni, E.; Cianchi, A.; Croia, M.; Curcio, A.; Di Giovenale, D.; Di Pirro, G.P.; Filippi, F.; Ghigo, A.; Lollo, V.; Pella, S.; Pompili, R.; Romeo, S.; Ferrario, M.
2016-01-01
Plasma wakefield acceleration is the most promising acceleration technique known nowadays, able to provide very high accelerating fields (10–100 GV/m), enabling acceleration of electrons to GeV energy in few centimeter. However, the quality of the electron bunches accelerated with this technique is still not comparable with that of conventional accelerators (large energy spread, low repetition rate, and large emittance); radiofrequency-based accelerators, in fact, are limited in accelerating field (10–100 MV/m) requiring therefore hundred of meters of distances to reach the GeV energies, but can provide very bright electron bunches. To combine high brightness electron bunches from conventional accelerators and high accelerating fields reachable with plasmas could be a good compromise allowing to further accelerate high brightness electron bunches coming from LINAC while preserving electron beam quality. Following the idea of plasma wave resonant excitation driven by a train of short bunches, we have started to study the requirements in terms of plasma for SPARC-LAB (Ferrario et al., 2013 [1]). In particular here we focus on hydrogen plasma discharge, and in particular on the theoretical and numerical estimates of the ionization process which are very useful to design the discharge circuit and to evaluate the current needed to be supplied to the gas in order to have full ionization. Eventually, the current supplied to the gas simulated will be compared to that measured experimentally.
Plasma production for electron acceleration by resonant plasma wave
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Anania, M.P., E-mail: maria.pia.anania@lnf.infn.it [INFN - LNF, via Enrico Fermi, 40, 00044 Frascati (Italy); Biagioni, A.; Chiadroni, E. [INFN - LNF, via Enrico Fermi, 40, 00044 Frascati (Italy); Cianchi, A. [University of Rome Tor Vergata - INFN, via della Ricerca Scientifica, 1, 00133 Roma (Italy); INFN, Via della Ricerca Scientifica, 1, 00133 Roma (Italy); Croia, M.; Curcio, A. [INFN - LNF, via Enrico Fermi, 40, 00044 Frascati (Italy); University of Rome La Sapienza, Piazzale Aldo Moro, 2, 00185 Roma (Italy); Di Giovenale, D.; Di Pirro, G.P. [INFN - LNF, via Enrico Fermi, 40, 00044 Frascati (Italy); Filippi, F. [University of Rome La Sapienza, Piazzale Aldo Moro, 2, 00185 Roma (Italy); Ghigo, A.; Lollo, V.; Pella, S.; Pompili, R. [INFN - LNF, via Enrico Fermi, 40, 00044 Frascati (Italy); Romeo, S. [INFN - LNF, via Enrico Fermi, 40, 00044 Frascati (Italy); University of Rome La Sapienza, Piazzale Aldo Moro, 2, 00185 Roma (Italy); Ferrario, M. [INFN - LNF, via Enrico Fermi, 40, 00044 Frascati (Italy)
2016-09-01
Plasma wakefield acceleration is the most promising acceleration technique known nowadays, able to provide very high accelerating fields (10–100 GV/m), enabling acceleration of electrons to GeV energy in few centimeter. However, the quality of the electron bunches accelerated with this technique is still not comparable with that of conventional accelerators (large energy spread, low repetition rate, and large emittance); radiofrequency-based accelerators, in fact, are limited in accelerating field (10–100 MV/m) requiring therefore hundred of meters of distances to reach the GeV energies, but can provide very bright electron bunches. To combine high brightness electron bunches from conventional accelerators and high accelerating fields reachable with plasmas could be a good compromise allowing to further accelerate high brightness electron bunches coming from LINAC while preserving electron beam quality. Following the idea of plasma wave resonant excitation driven by a train of short bunches, we have started to study the requirements in terms of plasma for SPARC-LAB (Ferrario et al., 2013 [1]). In particular here we focus on hydrogen plasma discharge, and in particular on the theoretical and numerical estimates of the ionization process which are very useful to design the discharge circuit and to evaluate the current needed to be supplied to the gas in order to have full ionization. Eventually, the current supplied to the gas simulated will be compared to that measured experimentally.
Wave-driven countercurrent plasma centrifuge
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fetterman, Abraham J; Fisch, Nathaniel J [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States)
2009-11-15
A method for driving rotation and a countercurrent flow in a fully ionized plasma centrifuge is described. The rotation is produced by radiofrequency waves near the cyclotron resonance. The wave energy is transferred into potential energy in a manner similar to the {alpha} channeling effect. The countercurrent flow may also be driven by radiofrequency waves. By driving both the rotation and the flow pattern using waves instead of electrodes, physical and engineering issues may be avoided.
Wave-driven countercurrent plasma centrifuge
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fetterman, Abraham J; Fisch, Nathaniel J
2009-01-01
A method for driving rotation and a countercurrent flow in a fully ionized plasma centrifuge is described. The rotation is produced by radiofrequency waves near the cyclotron resonance. The wave energy is transferred into potential energy in a manner similar to the α channeling effect. The countercurrent flow may also be driven by radiofrequency waves. By driving both the rotation and the flow pattern using waves instead of electrodes, physical and engineering issues may be avoided.
Wave-driven Countercurrent Plasma Centrifuge
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fetterman, A.J.; Fisch, N.J.
2009-01-01
A method for driving rotation and a countercurrent flow in a fully ionized plasma centrifuge is described. The rotation is produced by radiofrequency waves near the cyclotron resonance. The wave energy is transferred into potential energy in a manner similar to the α channeling effect. The countercurrent flow may also be driven by radiofrequency waves. By driving both the rotation and the flow pattern using waves instead of electrodes, physical and engineering issues may be avoided
Resonances and surface waves in bounded plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bowers, K.J.; Qui, D.W.; Smith, H.B.; Birdsall, C.K.
1999-01-01
Surface waves provide a promising means of creating large, area plasmas. These waves can uniformly distribute the excitation energy and while presenting a small resistance and zero reactance to the driving source. Experimentally and in the simulations, the electron temperature is low (like 1--3 eV) as is the plasma potential (like 10 Te). The use of surface waves experimentally, and now industrially, to sustain large area plasma sources with device size is comparable to free space wavelength have motivated the authors to refine the theories of [1] and [2] to be fully electromagnetic. The wave dispersion predicted by the electromagnetic theory differs from the predictions of the prior theories and the results illuminate limitations of the electrostatic model. The use of surface waves have also motivated them to explore the mechanisms by which surface waves heat the plasma. In the 1d electrostatic simulations high velocity electron bunches are formed in the sheaths and are alternatively accelerated from each sheath into the bulk plasma each RF cycle. They speculate similar mechanisms provide the ionization in surface wave discharges. They also see in these simulations the plasma makes an abrupt transition from capacitively coupled to resistively coupled and the series resonance locks onto the drive frequency; these abrupt transitions resemble mode-jumping seen experimentally in large area sources. Furthermore, the density profile of the plasma tracks the drive frequency while in the resonant mode giving a new mechanism by which the plasma parameters can be controlled. They are currently investigating the effect of the driving electrode shape has on these resonances and conducting 2d simulations of a large area surface wave source to explore the ignition of surface wave devices and how the plasma fills in the device
Nonlinear Electron Waves in Strongly Magnetized Plasmas
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pécseli, Hans; Juul Rasmussen, Jens
1980-01-01
Weakly nonlinear dispersive electron waves in strongly magnetized plasma are considered. A modified nonlinear Schrodinger equation is derived taking into account the effect of particles resonating with the group velocity of the waves (nonlinear Landau damping). The possibility of including the ion...... dynamics in the analysis is also demonstrated. As a particular case the authors investigate nonlinear waves in a strongly magnetized plasma filled wave-guide, where the effects of finite geometry are important. The relevance of this problem to laboratory experiments is discussed....
Evolution Of Nonlinear Waves in Compressing Plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schmit, P.F.; Dodin, I.Y.; Fisch, N.J.
2011-01-01
Through particle-in-cell simulations, the evolution of nonlinear plasma waves is examined in one-dimensional collisionless plasma undergoing mechanical compression. Unlike linear waves, whose wavelength decreases proportionally to the system length L(t), nonlinear waves, such as solitary electron holes, conserve their characteristic size Δ during slow compression. This leads to a substantially stronger adiabatic amplification as well as rapid collisionless damping when L approaches Δ. On the other hand, cessation of compression halts the wave evolution, yielding a stable mode.
Evolution Of Nonlinear Waves in Compressing Plasma
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
P.F. Schmit, I.Y. Dodin, and N.J. Fisch
2011-05-27
Through particle-in-cell simulations, the evolution of nonlinear plasma waves is examined in one-dimensional collisionless plasma undergoing mechanical compression. Unlike linear waves, whose wavelength decreases proportionally to the system length L(t), nonlinear waves, such as solitary electron holes, conserve their characteristic size {Delta} during slow compression. This leads to a substantially stronger adiabatic amplification as well as rapid collisionless damping when L approaches {Delta}. On the other hand, cessation of compression halts the wave evolution, yielding a stable mode.
Investigations of electrostatic ion waves in a collisionless plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Michelsen, P.
1980-06-01
The author reviews a series of publications concerning theoretical and experimental investigations of electrostatic ion waves in a collisionless plasma. The experimental work was performed in the Risoe Q-machine under various operational conditions. Besides a description of this machine and the diagnostic techniques used for the measurements, two kinds of electrostatic waves are treated, namely, ion-acoustic waves and ion-cyclotron waves. Due to the relative simplicity of the ion-acoustic waves, these were treated in detail in order to get a more general understanding of the behaviour of the propagation properties of electrostatic waves. The problem concerning the difficulties in describing waves excited at a certain position and propagating in space by a proper mathematical model was especially considered in depth. Furthermore, ion-acoustic waves were investigated which propagated in a plasma with a density gradient, and afterwards in a plasma with an ion beam. Finally, a study of the electrostatic ion-cyclotron waves was undertaken, and it was shown that these waves were unstable in a plasma traversed by an ion beam. (Auth.)
Comparison of third-order plasma wave echoes with ballistic second-order plasma wave echoes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Leppert, H.D.; Schuelter, H.; Wiesemann, K.
1982-01-01
The apparent dispersion of third-order plasma wave echoes observed in a high frequency plasma is compared with that of simultaneously observed ballistic second-order echoes. Amplitude and wavelength of third-order echoes are found to be always smaller than those of second-order echoes, however, the dispersion curves of both types of echoes are very similar. These observations are in qualitative agreement with calculations of special ballistic third-order echoes. The ballistic nature of the observed third-order echoes may, therefore, be concluded from these measurements. (author)
Radiation from nonlinear coupling of plasma waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fung, S.F.
1986-01-01
The author examines the generation of electromagnetic radiation by nonlinear resonant interactions of plasma waves in a cold, uniformly magnetized plasma. In particular, he considers the up-conversion of two electrostatic wave packets colliding to produce high frequency electromagnetic radiation. Efficient conversion of electrostatic to electromagnetic wave energy occurs when the pump amplitudes approach and exceed the pump depletion threshold. Results from the inverse scattering transform analysis of the three-wave interaction equations are applied. When the wave packets are initially separated, the fully nonlinear set of coupling equations, which describe the evolution of the wave packets, can be reduced to three separate eigenvalue problems; each can be considered as a scattering problem, analogous to eh Schroedinger equation. In the scattering space, the wave packet profiles act as the scattering potentials. When the wavepacket areas approach (or exceed) π/2, the wave functions are localized (bound states) and the scattering potentials are said to contain solitons. Exchange of solitons occurs during the interaction. The transfer of solitons from the pump waves to the electromagnetic wave leads to pump depletion and the production of strong radiation. The emission of radio waves is considered by the coupling of two upper-hybrid branch wave packets, and an upper-hybrid and a lower hybrid branch wave packet
Surge of plasma waves in an inhomogeneous plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Benhassine, Mohammed
1985-01-01
The first part of this research thesis addresses the propagation of waves in a plasma. It presents the equation of propagation of an electromagnetic wave in a plasma without magnetic field, and analyses the propagation in an inhomogeneous medium. The second part addresses the wave-particle interaction: interaction between electrons and an electromagnetic wave, between electrons and an electrostatic wave (trapping), and between electrons and a localised electric field. The third chapter presents the analytic theory of oscillations of a cold plasma (macroscopic equations in Lagrangian coordinates, analytic solution before surge). The next chapter discusses physical interpretations before the wave surge, after the wave surge, and about energy exchange (within or outside of resonance). Numerical simulations and their results are then reported and discussed. The sixth chapter addresses the case of an electrostatic wave surge in a hot plasma. It notably addresses the following aspects: equivalence between the description of moments and the Waterbag model, interaction between non linearity and thermal effects, variation of electric field amplitude with temperature. Results of numerical simulations are presented, and the last part addresses experimental predictions for microwaves-plasma interaction and laser-matter interaction [fr
Fast wave evanescence in filamentary boundary plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Myra, J. R.
2014-01-01
Radio frequency waves for heating and current drive of plasmas in tokamaks and other magnetic confinement devices must first traverse the scrape-off-layer (SOL) before they can be put to their intended use. The SOL plasma is strongly turbulent and intermittent in space and time. These turbulent properties of the SOL, which are not routinely taken into account in wave propagation codes, can have an important effect on the coupling of waves through an evanescent SOL or edge plasma region. The effective scale length for fast wave (FW) evanescence in the presence of short-scale field-aligned filamentary plasma turbulence is addressed in this paper. It is shown that although the FW wavelength or evanescent scale length is long compared with the dimensions of the turbulence, the FW does not simply average over the turbulent density; rather, the average is over the exponentiation rate. Implications for practical situations are discussed
Quasi-electrostatic waves in dusty plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Das, A.C.; Goswami, K.S.; Misra, A.K.
1997-01-01
Low frequency quasi-electrostatic waves in cold dusty plasma are investigated taking account of liberation and absorption of electrons and ions by the dust and their momentum transfer mechanism. (author)
Nonlinear Electrostatic Wave Equations for Magnetized Plasmas
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Dysthe, K.B.; Mjølhus, E.; Pécseli, Hans
1984-01-01
The lowest order kinetic effects are included in the equations for nonlinear electrostatic electron waves in a magnetized plasma. The modifications of the authors' previous analysis based on a fluid model are discussed.......The lowest order kinetic effects are included in the equations for nonlinear electrostatic electron waves in a magnetized plasma. The modifications of the authors' previous analysis based on a fluid model are discussed....
Electromagnetic wave in a relativistic magnetized plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Krasovitskiy, V. B.
2009-01-01
Results are presented from a theoretical investigation of the dispersion properties of a relativistic plasma in which an electromagnetic wave propagates along an external magnetic field. The dielectric tensor in integral form is simplified by separating its imaginary and real parts. A dispersion relation for an electromagnetic wave is obtained that makes it possible to analyze the dispersion and collisionless damping of electromagnetic perturbations over a broad parameter range for both nonrelativistic and ultrarelativistic plasmas.
Drift waves in a weakly ionized plasma
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Popovic, M.; Melchior, H.
1968-01-01
A dispersion relation for low frequency drift waves in a weakly ionized plasma has been derived, and through numerical calculations the effect of collisions between the charged and the neutral particles is estimated.......A dispersion relation for low frequency drift waves in a weakly ionized plasma has been derived, and through numerical calculations the effect of collisions between the charged and the neutral particles is estimated....
Creating an anisotropic plasma resistivity with waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fisch, N.J.; Boozer, A.H.
1980-05-01
An anisotropic plasma resistivity may be created by preferential heating of electrons traveling in one direction. This can result in a steady-state toroidal current in a tokamak even in the absence of net wave momentum. In fact, at high wave phase velocities, the current associated with the change in resistivity is greater than that associated with net momentum input. An immediate implication is that other waves, such as electron cyclotron waves, may be competitive with lower-hybrid waves as a means for generating current. An analytical expression is derived for the current generated per power dissipated which agrees remarkably well with numerical calculations
Radiation phenomena of plasma waves, 1
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ohnuma, Toshiro.
1978-06-01
The fundamental radiation theories on radiation phenomena of plasma waves are presented. As the fundamental concepts of propagating waves, phase, group and ray velocities are explained, and phase velocity surface, group velocity surface, ray velocity surface and refractive index surface are considered. These concepts are important in anisotropic plasma. Fundamental equations for electron plasma waves in a fluid model and fundamental equations for ion plasma waves can be expressed with the above mentioned concepts. Kuehl derived the formulas for general radiation fields of electromagnetic and electrostatic waves which are radiated from an arbitrary current source. Fundamental equations for kinetic model are the Vlasov equation and Maxwell equations. By investigating electromagnetic radiation in cold anisotropic plasma, Kuehl found the important behavior that the fields radiated from a source become very large in certain directions for some ranges of plasma parameters. The fact is the so-called high frequency resonance cone. A fundamental formula for quasi-static radiation from an oscillating point source in warm anisotropic plasma includes the near field of electromagnetic mode and the field of electrostatic mode, which are radiated from the source. This paper presents the formula in a generalized form. (Kato, T.)
On solitary surface waves in cold plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vladimirov, S.V.; Yu, M.Y.; Stenflo, L.
1993-01-01
A new type of nonlinear electromagnetic solitary surface waves propagating along the boundary of a cold plasma is discussed. These waves are described by a novel nonlinear evolution equation, obtained when the nonlinear surface currents at the boundary are taken into consideration. (Author)
Project of experimental study on plasma waves and plasma turbulence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ferreira, J.L.
1990-09-01
The objective of this project is to perform experiments with wave phenomena on plasmas. Particular attention will be given to Langmuir and whistler waves due to its relations with several phenomena occuring on space and laboratory plasmas. The new concepts of particle acceleration with electromagnetic waves, the auroral phenomena on the polar regions and the charged particle precipitation to the atmosphere through anomalies of the earth magnetic field are examples where these waves have an important role. In this project we intend to study the propagation of these waves in a quiescent plasma machine. This machine is able to produce a plasma with density and temperature with values similar to what is met in the ionosphere. This project will be a part of the activities of the basic plasma group of the INPE's Associated Plasma Laboratory (LAP). It will have the collaboration of the departments of Aeronomy and Geophysics also from INPE, and the collaboration of the Plasma and Gas Physics Laboratory from University of Paris - South, in France. (author)
Plasma mechanizm for auroral kilometer wave radiation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vlasov, V.G.
1989-01-01
The linear mechanism of auroral kilometer radiation (AKR) on the Cherenkov resonance is developed. The point is that plasma waves swinged by the electron beam in a dimer auroral plasma cavern on the Cherenkov resonance excercise 100% transformation under conventional and inconventional AKR modes under definite conditions
Waves generated in the plasma plume of helicon magnetic nozzle
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Singh, Nagendra; Rao, Sathyanarayan; Ranganath, Praveen
2013-01-01
Experimental measurements have shown that the plasma plume created in a helicon plasma device contains a conical structure in the plasma density and a U-shaped double layer (US-DL) tightly confined near the throat where plasma begins to expand from the source. Recently reported two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations verified these density and US-DL features of the plasma plume. Simulations also showed that the plasma in the plume develops non-thermal feature consisting of radial ion beams with large densities near the conical surface of the density structure. The plasma waves that are generated by the radial ion beams affecting the structure of the plasma plume are studied here. We find that most intense waves persist in the high-density regions of the conical density structure, where the transversely accelerated ions in the radial electric fields in the plume are reflected setting up counter-streaming. The waves generated are primarily ion Bernstein modes. The nonlinear evolution of the waves leads to magnetic field-aligned striations in the fields and the plasma near the conical surface of the density structure.
Waves generated in the plasma plume of helicon magnetic nozzle
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Singh, Nagendra; Rao, Sathyanarayan; Ranganath, Praveen [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Alabama, Huntsville, Alabama 35899 (United States)
2013-03-15
Experimental measurements have shown that the plasma plume created in a helicon plasma device contains a conical structure in the plasma density and a U-shaped double layer (US-DL) tightly confined near the throat where plasma begins to expand from the source. Recently reported two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations verified these density and US-DL features of the plasma plume. Simulations also showed that the plasma in the plume develops non-thermal feature consisting of radial ion beams with large densities near the conical surface of the density structure. The plasma waves that are generated by the radial ion beams affecting the structure of the plasma plume are studied here. We find that most intense waves persist in the high-density regions of the conical density structure, where the transversely accelerated ions in the radial electric fields in the plume are reflected setting up counter-streaming. The waves generated are primarily ion Bernstein modes. The nonlinear evolution of the waves leads to magnetic field-aligned striations in the fields and the plasma near the conical surface of the density structure.
Gabor Wave Packet Method to Solve Plasma Wave Equations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pletzer, A.; Phillips, C.K.; Smithe, D.N.
2003-01-01
A numerical method for solving plasma wave equations arising in the context of mode conversion between the fast magnetosonic and the slow (e.g ion Bernstein) wave is presented. The numerical algorithm relies on the expansion of the solution in Gaussian wave packets known as Gabor functions, which have good resolution properties in both real and Fourier space. The wave packets are ideally suited to capture both the large and small wavelength features that characterize mode conversion problems. The accuracy of the scheme is compared with a standard finite element approach
BOOK REVIEW: Kinetic theory of plasma waves, homogeneous plasmas
Porkolab, Miklos
1998-11-01
The linear theory of plasma waves in homogeneous plasma is arguably the most mature and best understood branch of plasma physics. Given the recently revised version of Stix's excellent Waves in Plasmas (1992), one might ask whether another book on this subject is necessary only a few years later. The answer lies in the scope of this volume; it is somewhat more detailed in certain topics than, and complementary in many fusion research relevant areas to, Stix's book. (I am restricting these comments to the homogeneous plasma theory only, since the author promises a second volume on wave propagation in inhomogeneous plasmas.) This book is also much more of a theorist's approach to waves in plasmas, with the aim of developing the subject within the logical framework of kinetic theory. This may indeed be pleasing to the expert and to the specialist, but may be too difficult to the graduate student as an `introduction' to the subject (which the author explicitly states in the Preface). On the other hand, it may be entirely appropriate for a second course on plasma waves, after the student has mastered fluid theory and an introductory kinetic treatment of waves in a hot magnetized `Vlasov' plasma. For teaching purposes, my personal preference is to review the cold plasma wave treatment using the unified Stix formalism and notation (which the author wisely adopts in the present book, but only in Chapter 5). Such an approach allows one to deal with CMA diagrams early on, as well as to provide a framework to discuss electromagnetic wave propagation and accessibility in inhomogeneous plasmas (for which the cold plasma wave treatment is perfectly adequate). Such an approach does lack some of the rigour, however, that the author achieves with the present approach. As the author correctly shows, the fluid theory treatment of waves follows logically from kinetic theory in the cold plasma limit. I only question the pedagogical value of this approach. Otherwise, I welcome this
Electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves in the plasma depletion layer
Denton, Richard E.; Hudson, Mary K.; Fuselier, Stephen A.; Anderson, Brian J.
1993-01-01
Results of a study of the theoretical properties of electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves which occur in the plasma depletion layer are presented. The analysis assumes a homogeneous plasma with the characteristics which were measured by the AMPTE/CCE satellite at 1450-1501 UT on October 5, 1984. Waves were observed in the Pc 1 frequency range below the hydrogen gyrofrequency, and these waves are identified as EMIC waves. The higher-frequency instability is driven by the temperature anisotropy of the H(+) ions, while the lower-frequency instability is driven by the temperature anisotropy of the He(2+) ions. It is argued that the higher-frequency waves will have k roughly parallel to B(0) and will be left-hand polarized, while the lower frequency wave band will have k oblique to B(0) and will be linearly polarized, in agreement with observations.
Weakly nonlinear electron plasma waves in collisional plasmas
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pecseli, H. L.; Rasmussen, J. Juul; Tagare, S. G.
1986-01-01
The nonlinear evolution of a high frequency plasma wave in a weakly magnetized, collisional plasma is considered. In addition to the ponderomotive-force-nonlinearity the nonlinearity due to the heating of the electrons is taken into account. A set of nonlinear equations including the effect...
Localization of waves in a fluctuating plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Escande, D.F.; Souillard, B.
1984-01-01
We present the first application of localization theory to plasma physics: Density fluctuations induce exponential localization of longitudinal and transverse electron plasma waves, i.e., the eigenmodes have an amplitude decreasing exponentially for large distances without any dissipative mechanism in the plasma. This introduces a new mechanism for converting a convective instability into an absolute one. Localization should be observable in clear-cut experiments
Spectroscopic investigation of wave driven microwave plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wijtvliet, R.; Felizardo, E.; Tatarova, E.; Dias, F. M.; Ferreira, C. M.; Nijdam, S.; Veldhuizen, E. V.; Kroesen, G.
2009-01-01
Large H atom line broadening was found throughout the volume of surface wave generated He-H 2 and H 2 microwave plasmas at low pressures. The measured Doppler temperatures corresponding to the H β , H γ , H δ , H ε , and H ζ line profiles were found to be higher than the rotational temperature of the hydrogen molecular Fulcher-α band and the Doppler temperature of the 667.1 nm singlet He line. No excessive broadening has been found. The Lorentzian and Gaussian widths as determined by fitting the spectral lines with a Voigt profile increase with the principal quantum number of the upper level. In contrast, no such dependence for the Gaussian width has been observed in an Ar-H 2 discharge. No population inversion has been observed from measurements of the relative intensities of transitions within the Balmer series.
Nonlinear extraordinary wave in dense plasma
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Krasovitskiy, V. B., E-mail: krasovit@mail.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Keldysh Institute of Applied Mathematics (Russian Federation); Turikov, V. A. [Russian University of Peoples’ Friendship (Russian Federation)
2013-10-15
Conditions for the propagation of a slow extraordinary wave in dense magnetized plasma are found. A solution to the set of relativistic hydrodynamic equations and Maxwell’s equations under the plasma resonance conditions, when the phase velocity of the nonlinear wave is equal to the speed of light, is obtained. The deviation of the wave frequency from the resonance frequency is accompanied by nonlinear longitudinal-transverse oscillations. It is shown that, in this case, the solution to the set of self-consistent equations obtained by averaging the initial equations over the period of high-frequency oscillations has the form of an envelope soliton. The possibility of excitation of a nonlinear wave in plasma by an external electromagnetic pulse is confirmed by numerical simulations.
Electron Acoustic Waves in Pure Ion Plasmas
Anderegg, F.; Driscoll, C. F.; Dubin, D. H. E.; O'Neil, T. M.
2009-11-01
Electron Acoustic Waves (EAW) are the low frequency branch of electrostatic plasma waves. These waves exist in neutralized plasmas, pure electron plasmas and in pure ion plasmasfootnotetextF. Anderegg et al., PRL 102, 095001 (2009) and PoP 16, 055705 (2009). (where the name is deceptive). Here, we observe standing mθ= 0 mz= 1 EAWs in a pure ion plasma column. At small amplitude, the EAWs have a phase velocity vph ˜1.4 v, and the frequencies are in close agreement with theory. At moderate amplitudes, waves can be excited over a broad range of frequencies, with observed phase velocities in the range of 1.4 v vph diagnostic shows that particles slower than vph oscillate in phase with the wave, while particles moving faster than vph oscillate 180^o out of phase with the wave. From a fluid perspective, this gives an unusual negative dynamical compressibility. That is, the wave pressure oscillations are 180^o out of phase from the density oscillations, almost fully canceling the electrostatic restoring force, giving the low and malleable frequency.
Twisted electron-acoustic waves in plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aman-ur-Rehman; Ali, S.; Khan, S. A.; Shahzad, K.
2016-01-01
In the paraxial limit, a twisted electron-acoustic (EA) wave is studied in a collisionless unmagnetized plasma, whose constituents are the dynamical cold electrons and Boltzmannian hot electrons in the background of static positive ions. The analytical and numerical solutions of the plasma kinetic equation suggest that EA waves with finite amount of orbital angular momentum exhibit a twist in its behavior. The twisted wave particle resonance is also taken into consideration that has been appeared through the effective wave number q_e_f_f accounting for Laguerre-Gaussian mode profiles attributed to helical phase structures. Consequently, the dispersion relation and the damping rate of the EA waves are significantly modified with the twisted parameter η, and for η → ∞, the results coincide with the straight propagating plane EA waves. Numerically, new features of twisted EA waves are identified by considering various regimes of wavelength and the results might be useful for transport and trapping of plasma particles in a two-electron component plasma.
In-tube shock wave driven by atmospheric millimeter-wave plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Oda, Yasuhisa; Kajiwara, Ken; Takahashi, Koji; Kasugai, Atsushi; Sakamoto, Keishi; Komurasaki, Kimiya
2009-01-01
A shock wave in a tube supported by atmospheric millimeter-wave plasma is discussed. After atmospheric breakdown, the shock wave supported by the millimeter wave propagates at a constant velocity in the tube. In this study, a driving model of the millimeter-wave shock wave is proposed. The model consists of a normal shock wave supported by a propagating heat-supply area in which an ionization front is located. The flow properties predicted by the model show good agreement with the measured properties of the shock wave generated in the tube using a 170 GHz millimeter wave beam. The shock propagation velocity U shock is identical to the propagation velocity of the ionization front U ioniz when U ioniz is supersonic. Then the pressure increment at the tube end is independent of the power density. (author)
Nonlinear waves in plasma with negative ion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Saito, Maki; Watanabe, Shinsuke; Tanaca, Hiroshi.
1984-01-01
The propagation of nonlinear ion wave is investigated theoretically in a plasma with electron, positive ion and negative ion. The ion wave of long wavelength is described by a modified K-dV equation instead of a K-dV equation when the nonlinear coefficient of the K-dV equation vanishes at the critical density of negative ion. In the vicinity of the critical density, the ion wave is described by a coupled K-dV and modified K-dV equation. The transition from a compressional soliton to a rarefactive soliton and vice versa are examined by the coupled equation as a function of the negative ion density. The ion wave of short wavelength is described by a nonlinear Schroedinger equation. In the plasma with a negative ion, the nonlinear coefficient of the nonlinear Schroedinger equation changes the sign and the ion wave becomes modulationally unstable. (author)
Stochastic growth of localized plasma waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Robinson, P.A.; Cairns, Iver H.
2001-01-01
Localized bursty plasma waves are detected by spacecraft in many space plasmas. The large spatiotemporal scales involved imply that beam and other instabilities relax to marginal stability and that mean wave energies are low. Stochastic wave growth occurs when ambient fluctuations perturb the system, causing fluctuations about marginal stability. This yields regions where growth is enhanced and others where damping is increased; bursts are associated with enhanced growth and can occur even when the mean growth rate is negative. In stochastic growth, energy loss from the source is suppressed relative to secular growth, preserving it far longer than otherwise possible. Linear stochastic growth can operate at wave levels below thresholds of nonlinear wave-clumping mechanisms such as strong-turbulence modulational instability and is not subject to their coherence and wavelength limits. These mechanisms can be distinguished by statistics of the fields, whose strengths are lognormally distributed if stochastically growing and power-law distributed in strong turbulence. Recent applications of stochastic growth theory (SGT) are described, involving bursty plasma waves and unstable particle distributions in type III solar radio sources, the Earth's foreshock, magnetosheath, and polar cap regions. It is shown that when combined with wave-wave processes, SGT also accounts for associated radio emissions
Measurement of plasma parameters
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1999-01-01
The physics issues of the measurements of the plasma properties necessary to provide both the control and science data for achieving the goals of the ITER device are discussed. The assessment of the requirements for these measurements is first discussed, together with priorities that relate to the experimental program. Subsequently, some of the proposed measurement techniques, the plasma diagnostics, are described with particular emphasis on their implementation on ITER and their capability to meet the requirements. A judgement on the present status of the diagnostic program on ITER is provided with some indication of the research and development program necessary to demonstrate viability of techniques or their implementation. (author)
Damping Measurements of Plasma Modes
Anderegg, F.; Affolter, M.; Driscoll, C. F.
2010-11-01
For azimuthally symmetric plasma modes in a magnesium ion plasma, confined in a 3 Tesla Penning-Malmberg trap with a density of n ˜10^7cm-3, we measure a damping rate of 2s-1plasma column, alters the frequency of the mode from 16 KHz to 192 KHz. The oscillatory fluid displacement is small compared to the wavelength of the mode; in contrast, the fluid velocity, δvf, can be large compared to v. The real part of the frequency satisfies a linear dispersion relation. In long thin plasmas (α> 10) these modes are Trivelpiece-Gould (TG) modes, and for smaller values of α they are Dubin spheroidal modes. However the damping appears to be non-linear; initially large waves have weaker exponential damping, which is not yet understood. Recent theoryootnotetextM.W. Anderson and T.M. O'Neil, Phys. Plasmas 14, 112110 (2007). calculates the damping of TG modes expected from viscosity due to ion-ion collisions; but the measured damping, while having a similar temperature and density dependence, is about 40 times larger than calculated. This discrepancy might be due to an external damping mechanism.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Follett, R. K., E-mail: rfollett@lle.rochester.edu; Delettrez, J. A.; Edgell, D. H.; Henchen, R. J.; Katz, J.; Myatt, J. F.; Froula, D. H. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, 250 East River Road, Rochester, New York 14623 (United States)
2016-11-15
Collective Thomson scattering is a technique for measuring the plasma conditions in laser-plasma experiments. Simultaneous measurements of ion-acoustic and electron plasma-wave spectra were obtained using a 263.25-nm Thomson-scattering probe beam. A fully reflective collection system was used to record light scattered from electron plasma waves at electron densities greater than 10{sup 21} cm{sup −3}, which produced scattering peaks near 200 nm. An accurate analysis of the experimental Thomson-scattering spectra required accounting for plasma gradients, instrument sensitivity, optical effects, and background radiation. Practical techniques for including these effects when fitting Thomson-scattering spectra are presented and applied to the measured spectra to show the improvements in plasma characterization.
Mode coupling of electron plasma waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Harte, J.A.
1975-01-01
The driven coupled mode equations are derived for a two fluid, unequal temperature (T/sub e/ much greater than T/sub i/) plasma in the one-dimensional, electrostatic model and applied to the coupling of electron plasma waves. It is assumed that the electron to ion mass ratio identical with m/sub e/M/sub i// much less than 1 and eta 2 /sub ko/k lambda/sub De/ less than 1 where eta 2 /sub ko/ is the pump wave's power normalized to the plasma thermal energy, k the mode wave number and lambda/sub De/ the electron Debye length. Terms up to quadratic in pump power are retained. The equations describe the linear plasma modes oscillating at the wave number k and at ω/sub ek/, the Bohn Gross frequency, and at Ω/sub k/, the ion acoustic frequency, subject to the damping rates ν/sub ek/ and ν/sub ik/ for electrons and ions and their interactions due to intense high frequency waves E/sub k//sup l/. n/sub o/ is the background density, n/sub ik/ the fluctuating ion density, ω/sub pe/ the plasma frequency
Advanced Accelerators: Particle, Photon and Plasma Wave Interactions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Williams, Ronald L. [Florida A & M University, Tallahassee, FL (United States)
2017-06-29
The overall objective of this project was to study the acceleration of electrons to very high energies over very short distances based on trapping slowly moving electrons in the fast moving potential wells of large amplitude plasma waves, which have relativistic phase velocities. These relativistic plasma waves, or wakefields, are the basis of table-top accelerators that have been shown to accelerate electrons to the same high energies as kilometer-length linear particle colliders operating using traditional decades-old acceleration techniques. The accelerating electrostatic fields of the relativistic plasma wave accelerators can be as large as GigaVolts/meter, and our goal was to study techniques for remotely measuring these large fields by injecting low energy probe electron beams across the plasma wave and measuring the beam’s deflection. Our method of study was via computer simulations, and these results suggested that the deflection of the probe electron beam was directly proportional to the amplitude of the plasma wave. This is the basis of a proposed diagnostic technique, and numerous studies were performed to determine the effects of changing the electron beam, plasma wave and laser beam parameters. Further simulation studies included copropagating laser beams with the relativistic plasma waves. New interesting results came out of these studies including the prediction that very small scale electron beam bunching occurs, and an anomalous line focusing of the electron beam occurs under certain conditions. These studies were summarized in the dissertation of a graduate student who obtained the Ph.D. in physics. This past research program has motivated ideas for further research to corroborate these results using particle-in-cell simulation tools which will help design a test-of-concept experiment in our laboratory and a scaled up version for testing at a major wakefield accelerator facility.
Particle acceleration by plasma waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Joshi, C.
2006-01-01
In an advanced particle accelerator particles are driven near by light velocity through ionized gas. Such plasma devices are compact, cost efficient and usable in many fields. Examples are given in detail. (GL)
Plasma characterization using terahertz-wave-enhanced fluorescence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liu Jingle; Zhang, X.-C.
2010-01-01
We demonstrate that the terahertz-wave-enhanced fluorescence emission from excited atoms or molecules can be employed in the characterization of laser-induced gas plasmas. The electron relaxation time and plasma density were deduced through applying the electron impact excitation/ionization and electron-ion recombination processes to the measured time-dependent enhanced fluorescence. The electron collision dynamics of nitrogen plasma excited at different gas pressures and laser pulse energies have been systematically investigated. This plasma characterization method provides picosecond temporal resolution and enables omnidirectional optical signal collection.
Plasma heating by kinetic Alfven wave
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Assis, A.S. de.
1982-01-01
The heating of a nonuniform plasma (electron-ion) due to the resonant excitation of the shear Alfven wave in the low β regime is studied using initially the ideal MHD model and posteriorly using the kinetic model. The Vlasov equation for ions and the drift kinetic equation for electrons have been used. Through the ideal MHD model, it is concluded that the energy absorption is due to the continuous spectrum (phase mixing) which the shear Alfven wave has in a nonuniform plasma. An explicit expression for the energy absorption is derived. Through the kinetic model it is concluded that the energy absorption is due to a resonant mode convertion of the incident wave into the kinetic Alfven wave which propagates away from the resonant region. Its electron Landau damping has been observed. There has been a concordance with the MHD calculations. (Author) [pt
Determination of Jupiter's electron density profile from plasma wave observations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gurnett, D.A.; Scarf, F.L.; Kurth, W.S.; Shaw, R.R.; Poynter, R.L.
1981-01-01
This paper summarizes the electron density measurements obtained in the Jovian magnetosphere from the plasma wave instruments on the Voyager 1 and 2 spacecraft. Three basic techniques are discussed for determining the electron density: (1) local measurements from the low-frequency cutoff of continuum radiation, (2) local measurements from the frequency of upper hybrid resonance emissions, and (3) integral measurements from the dispersion of whistlers. The limitations and advantages of each technique are critically reviewed. In all cases the electron densities are unaffected by spacecraft charging or sheath effects, which makes these measurements of particular importance for verifying in situ plasma and low-energy charged particle measurments. In the outer regions of the dayside magnetosphere, beyond about 40 R/sub J/, the electron densities range from about 3 x 10 -3 to 3 x 10 -2 cm -3 . On Voyager 2, several brief excursions apparently occurred into the low-density region north of the plasma sheet with densities less than 10 -3 cm -3 . Approaching the planet the electron density gradually increases, with the plasma frequency extending above the frequency range of the plasma wave instrument (56 kHz, or about 38 electrons cm -3 ) inside of about 8 R/sub J/. Within the high-density region of the Io plasma torus, whistlers provide measurements of the north-south scale height of the plasma torus, with scale heights ranging from about 0.9 to 2.5 R/sub J/
Shock Wave Dynamics in Weakly Ionized Plasmas
Johnson, Joseph A., III
1999-01-01
An investigation of the dynamics of shock waves in weakly ionized argon plasmas has been performed using a pressure ruptured shock tube. The velocity of the shock is observed to increase when the shock traverses the plasma. The observed increases cannot be accounted for by thermal effects alone. Possible mechanisms that could explain the anomalous behavior include a vibrational/translational relaxation in the nonequilibrium plasma, electron diffusion across the shock front resulting from high electron mobility, and the propagation of ion-acoustic waves generated at the shock front. Using a turbulence model based on reduced kinetic theory, analysis of the observed results suggest a role for turbulence in anomalous shock dynamics in weakly ionized media and plasma-induced hypersonic drag reduction.
Alfven wave absorption in dissipative plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gavrikov, M B; Taiurskii, A A
2017-01-01
We consider nonlinear absorption of Alfven waves due to dissipative effects in plasma and relaxation of temperatures of electrons and ions. This study is based on an exact solution of the equations of two-fluid electromagnetic hydrodynamics (EMHD) of plasma. It is shown that in order to study the decay of Alfven waves, it suffices to examine the behavior of their amplitudes whose evolution is described by a system of ordinary differential equations (ODEs) obtained in this paper. On finite time intervals, the system of equations on the amplitudes is studied numerically, while asymptotic integration (the Hartman-Grobman theorem) is used to examine its large-time behavior. (paper)
Stationary quenching wave in magnetized plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Alikhanov, S.G.; Glushkov, I.S.
1976-01-01
The interaction of a magnetized hot plasma (ωsub(e)tau sub(e)>>1) with cold plasma or a gas leads to the appearanci of a cooling wave. The transition layer between hot and cold plasma is the main source of radiation losses which should be compensated by a heat flow from the hot region. A stationary state is considered, equations are written in the system in which temperature and magnetic field profiles are steady, and the plasma flux with magnetic field passes through the cooling wave. Calculations, have been carried out on a computer. The dependence of the magnetized plasma flux velocity Vsub(r) on the ratio p/Hsub(r) is shown, where p is the pressure, Hsub(r) is the magnetic field in the hot reqion. The dependence of the characteristic dimension of the cooling wave on the magnetic field is determined for the hot plasma region. A considerable fraction of the rediation losses is shown to fall to the region of (ωsub(e)tausub(e)< or approximately)1
The Potential for Ambient Plasma Wave Propulsion
Gilland, James H.; Williams, George J.
2016-01-01
A truly robust space exploration program will need to make use of in-situ resources as much as possible to make the endeavor affordable. Most space propulsion concepts are saddled with one fundamental burden; the propellant needed to produce momentum. The most advanced propulsion systems currently in use utilize electric and/or magnetic fields to accelerate ionized propellant. However, significant planetary exploration missions in the coming decades, such as the now canceled Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter, are restricted by propellant mass and propulsion system lifetimes, using even the most optimistic projections of performance. These electric propulsion vehicles are inherently limited in flexibility at their final destination, due to propulsion system wear, propellant requirements, and the relatively low acceleration of the vehicle. A few concepts are able to utilize the environment around them to produce thrust: Solar or magnetic sails and, with certain restrictions, electrodynamic tethers. These concepts focus primarily on using the solar wind or ambient magnetic fields to generate thrust. Technically immature, quasi-propellantless alternatives lack either the sensitivity or the power to provide significant maneuvering. An additional resource to be considered is the ambient plasma and magnetic fields in solar and planetary magnetospheres. These environments, such as those around the Sun or Jupiter, have been shown to host a variety of plasma waves. Plasma wave propulsion takes advantage of an observed astrophysical and terrestrial phenomenon: Alfven waves. These are waves that propagate in the plasma and magnetic fields around and between planets and stars. The generation of Alfven waves in ambient magnetic and plasma fields to generate thrust is proposed as a truly propellantless propulsion system which may enable an entirely new matrix of exploration missions. Alfven waves are well known, transverse electromagnetic waves that propagate in magnetized plasmas at
The laser, measuring instrument for plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Anderegg, F.; Behn, R.; Paris, P.J.; Salito, S.A.; Siegrist, M.R.; Weisen, H.
1988-06-01
There are several different and in general complementary methods for the investigation of plasmas. All of them have different characteristics and properties covering a large spectrum of physical measuring techniques. Electromagnetic waves serving as 'thermometers' permit to detect the global behaviour of the plasma as well as that of the particles composing it. One of the advantages of these introspective methods is that it brings information on temporary and local conditions of the domain being interrogated. With the development of micro-wave sources and lasers after the war the principal tools of this type of plasma diagnostics are now available. In this paper the emphasis is on the lasers which are different according to the type of measurement. Their versatility in measuring plasma parameters is largely acknowledged. We illustrate the potential of measuring methods by lasers by means of the research work done at two experimental installations of CRPP. (author) 21 figs., 8 refs
Counterstreaming magnetized plasmas. II. Perpendicular wave propagation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tautz, R.C.; Schlickeiser, R.
2006-01-01
The properties of longitudinal and transverse oscillations in magnetized symmetric counterstreaming Maxwellian plasmas with equal thermal velocities for waves propagating perpendicular to the stream direction are investigated on the basis of Maxwell equations and the nonrelativistic Vlasov equation. With the constraint of vanishing particle flux in the stream direction, three distinct dispersion relations are known, which are the ordinary-wave mode, the Bernstein wave mode, and the extraordinary electromagnetic wave mode, where the latter two are only approximations. In this article, all three dispersion relations are evaluated for a counterstreaming Maxwellian distribution function in terms of the hypergeometric function 2 F 2 . The growth rates for the ordinary-wave mode are compared to earlier results by Bornatici and Lee [Phys. Fluids 13, 3007 (1970)], who derived approximate results, whereas in this article the exact dispersion relation is solved numerically. The original results are therefore improved and show differences of up to 21% to the results obtained in this article
Gravitational instability in isotropic MHD plasma waves
Cherkos, Alemayehu Mengesha
2018-04-01
The effect of compressive viscosity, thermal conductivity and radiative heat-loss functions on the gravitational instability of infinitely extended homogeneous MHD plasma has been investigated. By taking in account these parameters we developed the six-order dispersion relation for magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) waves propagating in a homogeneous and isotropic plasma. The general dispersion relation has been developed from set of linearized basic equations and solved analytically to analyse the conditions of instability and instability of self-gravitating plasma embedded in a constant magnetic field. Our result shows that the presence of viscosity and thermal conductivity in a strong magnetic field substantially modifies the fundamental Jeans criterion of gravitational instability.
Waves in inhomogeneous plasma of cylindrical geometry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rebut, P.H.
1966-01-01
The conductivity tensor of a hot and inhomogeneous plasma has been calculated for a cylindrical geometry using Vlasov equations. The method used consists in a perturbation method involving the first integrals of the unperturbed movement. The conductivity tensor will be particularly useful for dealing with stability problems. In the case of a cold plasma the wave equation giving the electric fields as a function of the radius is obtained. This equation shows the existence of resonant layers which lead to an absorption analogous to the Landau absorption in a hot plasma. (author) [fr
Solitons and Weakly Nonlinear Waves in Plasmas
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pécseli, Hans
1985-01-01
Theoretical descriptions of solitons and weakly nonlinear waves propagating in plasma media are reviewed, with particular attention to the Korteweg-de Vries (KDV) equation and the Nonlinear Schrödinger equation (NLS). The modifications of these basic equations due to the effects of resonant...
Wave-particle Interactions in Space and Laboratory Plasmas
An, Xin
This dissertation presents a study of wave-particle interactions in space and in the laboratory. To be concrete, the excitation of whistler-mode chorus waves in space and in the laboratory is studied in the first part. The relaxation of whistler anisotropy instability relevant to whistler-mode chorus waves in space is examined. Using a linear growth rate analysis and kinetic particle-in-cell simulations, the electron distributions are demonstrated to be well-constrained by the whistler anisotropy instability to a marginal-stability state, consistent with measurements by Van Allen Probes. The electron parallel beta beta ∥e separates the excited whistler waves into two groups: (i) quasi-parallel whistler waves for beta∥e > 0.02 and (ii) oblique whistler waves close to the resonance cone for beta∥e cell simulations. Motivated by the puzzles of chorus waves in space and by their recognized importance, the excitation of whistler-mode chorus waves is studied in the Large Plasma Device by the injection of a helical electron beam into a cold plasma. Incoherent broadband whistler waves similar to magnetospheric hiss are observed in the laboratory plasma. Their mode structures are identified by the phase-correlation technique. It is demonstrated that the waves are excited through a combination of Landau resonance, cyclotron resonance and anomalous cyclotron resonance. To account for the finite size effect of the electron beam, linear unstable eigenmodes of whistler waves are calculated by matching the eigenmode solution at the boundary. It is shown that the perpendicular wave number inside the beam is quantized due to the constraint imposed by the boundary condition. Darwin particle-in-cell simulations are carried out to study the simultaneous excitation of Langmuir and whistler waves in a beam-plasma system. The electron beam is first slowed down and relaxed by the rapidly growing Langmuir wave parallel to the background magnetic field. The tail of the core electrons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yang Min; Li Xiaoping; Xie Kai; Liu Donglin; Liu Yanming
2013-01-01
A large volume uniform plasma generator is proposed for the experiments of electromagnetic (EM) wave propagation in plasma, to reproduce a “black out” phenomenon with long duration in an environment of the ordinary laboratory. The plasma generator achieves a controllable approximate uniform plasma in volume of 260 mm× 260 mm× 180 mm without the magnetic confinement. The plasma is produced by the glow discharge, and the special discharge structure is built to bring a steady approximate uniform plasma environment in the electromagnetic wave propagation path without any other barriers. In addition, the electron density and luminosity distributions of plasma under different discharge conditions were diagnosed and experimentally investigated. Both the electron density and the plasma uniformity are directly proportional to the input power and in roughly reverse proportion to the gas pressure in the chamber. Furthermore, the experiments of electromagnetic wave propagation in plasma are conducted in this plasma generator. Blackout phenomena at GPS signal are observed under this system and the measured attenuation curve is of reasonable agreement with the theoretical one, which suggests the effectiveness of the proposed method.
Ion Acceleration in Plasmas with Alfven Waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kolesnychenko, O.Ya.; Lutsenko, V.V.; White, R.B.
2005-01-01
Effects of elliptically polarized Alfven waves on thermal ions are investigated. Both regular oscillations and stochastic motion of the particles are observed. It is found that during regular oscillations the energy of the thermal ions can reach magnitudes well exceeding the plasma temperature, the effect being largest in low-beta plasmas (beta is the ratio of the plasma pressure to the magnetic field pressure). Conditions of a low stochasticity threshold are obtained. It is shown that stochasticity can arise even for waves propagating along the magnetic field provided that the frequency spectrum is non-monochromatic. The analysis carried out is based on equations derived by using a Lagrangian formalism. A code solving these equations is developed. Steady-state perturbations and perturbations with the amplitude slowly varying in time are considered
Stochastic growth of localized plasma waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Robinson, P.A.; Cairns, I.H.
2000-01-01
Full text: Localized bursty plasma waves occur in many natural systems, where they are detected by spacecraft. The large spatiotemporal scales involved imply that beam and other instabilities relax to marginal stability and that mean wave energies are low. Stochastic wave growth occurs when ambient fluctuations perturb the wave-driver interaction, causing fluctuations about marginal stability. This yields regions where growth is enhanced and others where damping is increased; observed bursts are associated with enhanced growth and can occur even when the mean growth rate is negative. In stochastic growth, energy loss from the source is suppressed relative to secular growth, preserving it for much longer times and distances than otherwise possible. Linear stochastic growth can operate at wave levels below thresholds of nonlinear wave-clumping mechanisms such as strong-turbulence modulational instability and is not subject to their coherence and wavelength limits. Growth mechanisms can be distinguished by statistics of the fields, whose strengths are lognormally distributed if stochastically growing, power-law distributed in strong turbulence, and uniformly distributed in log under secular growth. After delineating stochastic growth and strong-turbulence regimes, recent applications of stochastic growth theory (SGT) are described, involving bursty plasma waves and unstable particle distributions in type II and III solar radio sources, foreshock regions upstream of the bow shocks of Earth and planets, and Earth's magnetosheath, auroras, and polar-caps. It is shown that when combined with wave-wave processes, SGT accounts for type II and III solar radio emissions. SGT thus removes longstanding problems in understanding persistent unstable distributions, bursty fields, and radio emissions observed in space
Nonlinear modulation of ion acoustic waves in a magnetized plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bharuthram, R.; Shukla, P.K.
1987-01-01
The quasistatic plasma slow response to coherent ion acoustic waves in a magnetized plasma is considered. A multidimensional cubic nonlinear Schroedinger equation is derived. It is found that the ion acoustic waves remain modulationally stable against oblique perturbations
Electromagnetic Wave Attenuation in Atmospheric Pressure Plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang Shu; Hu Xiwei; Liu Minghai; Luo Fang; Feng Zelong
2007-01-01
When an electromagnetic (EM) wave propagates in an atmospheric pressure plasma (APP) layer, its attenuation depends on the APP parameters such as the layer width, the electron density and its profile and collision frequency between electrons and neutrals. This paper proposes that a combined parameter-the product of the line average electron density n-bar and width d of the APP layer (i.e., the total number of electrons in a unit volume along the wave propagation path) can play a more explicit and decisive role in the wave attenuation than any of the above individual parameters does. The attenuation of the EM wave via the product of n-bar and d with various collision frequencies between electrons and neutrals is presented
Spin waves and spin instabilities in quantum plasmas
Andreev, P. A.; Kuz'menkov, L. S.
2014-01-01
We describe main ideas of method of many-particle quantum hydrodynamics allows to derive equations for description of quantum plasma evolution. We also present definitions of collective quantum variables suitable for quantum plasmas. We show that evolution of magnetic moments (spins) in quantum plasmas leads to several new branches of wave dispersion: spin-electromagnetic plasma waves and self-consistent spin waves. Propagation of neutron beams through quantum plasmas is also considered. Inst...
ECOLE POLYTECHNIQUE: Acceleration by plasma beat waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Anon.
1995-01-01
An experiment by a multi-disciplinary team including laser, plasma, accelerator and particle detector specialists at the École Polytechnique, Palaiseau, France, has confirmed the principle of particle acceleration by the 'beating' of laser waves. The first accelerated electrons were detected in May 1994, just after the apparatus had been completely assembled, during the subsequent set of experiments in July, and again in January. In the continual quest for new acceleration methods, such ideas had been proposed for several decades, but it was only about ten years ago that experimental verification of these effects began. In existing accelerators using radiofrequency cavities the electric field is limited to some hundred megavolts per metre, beyond which breakdowns occur. The joint use of power lasers and plasmas, however, should make it possible to generate fields very much greater than a GV/m. The light wave fulfils the same purpose as radiofrequency and the material medium required to couple the electromagnetic energy to the particle beam is provided by the plasma which - already fully ionized - is not destroyed by a breakdown. In the wave-beating method, proposed in 1979 by Dawson and Tajima, two laser waves of adjacent frequencies are transmitted and produce 'beats'. If the frequency of these is equal to the natural oscillation frequency of the plasma electrons, there is resonant energy transfer. The resultant longitudinal electric field is propagated at slightly below the speed of light and may be used to accelerate particles injected into the plasma in the right phase
Wave function of free electron in a strong laser plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhu Shitong; Shen Wenda; Guo Qizhi
1993-01-01
The wave function of free electron in a strong laser plasma is obtained by solving exactly the Dirac equation in a curved space-time with optical metric for the laser plasma. When the laser field is diminished to zero, the wave function is naturally reduced to relativistic wave function of free electron. The possible application of the wave function is discussed
Alfven wave propagation in a partially ionized plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Watts, Christopher; Hanna, Jeremy
2004-01-01
Results from a laboratory study of the dispersion relation of Alfven waves propagating through a partially ionized plasma are presented. The plasma is generated using a helicon source, creating a high density, current-free discharge, where the source can be adjusted to one of several modes with varying neutral fraction. Depending on the neutral fraction, the measured dispersion curve of shear Alfven waves can change significantly. Measurement results are compared with theoretical predictions of the effect of neutral particles on Alfven wave propagation. In fitting the theory, the neutral fraction is independently estimated using two simple particle transport models, one collisionless, the other collisional. The two models predict comparable neutral fractions, and agree well with the neutral fraction required for the Alfven dispersion theory
Wave propagation on a plasma media
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Torres-Silva, H.; Villarroel-Gonzalez, C.; Reggiani, N.; Sakanaka, P.H.
1995-01-01
Chiral-media and ferrite media have been studied over the last decade for many applications. Chiral-media have been examined as coating for reducing radar cross section, for antennas and arrays, for antenna radomes in waveguides and for microstrip substrate. Here, we examine a chiral-plasma medium, where the plasma part of the composite medium is non-reciprocal due to the external magnetic field, to find the general dispersion relation giving the ω against K behavior, vector phasor Helmholtz based equations are derived. We determine the modal eigenvalue properties in the chiral-plasma medium, which is doubly anisotropic. For the case of waves which propagate parallel to the magnetic field is a cold magnetized chiro-plasma. We compare our results with the typical results obtained for a cold plasma. Also we obtain the chiral-Faraday rotation which can be compared with the typical Faraday rotation for a pair of right-and left-handed circularly polarized waves. (author). 5 refs., 2 figs
Three-wave interactions in a warm plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shivamoggi, B.K.
1983-01-01
The nonlinear resonance interactions between a Langmuir wave and two transverse electromagnetic waves (T-T-L) as well as between an ion-acoustic wave and two transverse electromagnetic waves (T-T-S) in a warm plasma are studied. It is shown that an incident transverse electromagnetic wave decays into another transverse electromagnetic wave and a Langmuir wave in a T-T-L wave-wave interaction as well as into another transverse electromagnetic wave and an ion-acoustic wave in a T-T-S wave-wave interaction. The growth rates of the daughter waves in the T-T-L wave-wave interaction are shown to be smaller than those of the daughter waves in the T-T-S wave-wave interaction. (M.F.W.)
Theory of longitudinal plasma waves with allowance for ion mobility
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kichigin, G.N.
2003-01-01
One studies propagation of stationary longitudinal plasma wave of high amplitude in collisionless cold plasma with regard to motion of electrons and ions in a wave. One derived dependences of amplitudes of electric field, potential, frequency and length of wave on the speed of wave propagation and on the parameter equal to the ration of ion mass to electron mass. Account of motion of ions in the wave with maximum possible amplitude resulted in nonmonotone dependence of frequency on wave speed [ru
Studies on Charge Variation and Waves in Dusty Plasmas
Kausik, Siddhartha Sankar
Plasma and dust grains are both ubiquitous ingredients of the universe. The interplay between them has opened up a new and fascinating research domain, that of dusty plasmas, which contain macroscopic particles of solid matter besides the usual plasma constituents. The research in dusty plasmas received a major boost in the early eighties with Voyager spacecraft observation on the formation of Saturn rings. Dusty plasmas are defined as partially or fully-ionized gases that contain micron-sized particles of electrically charged solid material, either dielectric or conducting. The physics of dusty plasmas has recently been studied intensively because of its importance for a number of applications in space and laboratory plasmas. This thesis presents the experimental studies on charge variation and waves in dusty plasmas. The experimental observations are carried out in two different experimental devices. Three different sets of experiments are carried out in two different experimental devices. Three different sets of experiments are carried out to study the dust charge variation in a filament discharge argon plasma. The dust grains used in these experiments are grains of silver. In another get of experiment, dust acoustic waves are studied in a de glow discharge argon plasma. Alumina dust grains are sprinkled in this experiment. The diagnostic tools used in these experiments are Langmuir probe and Faraday cup. The instruments used in these experiments are electrometer, He-Ne laser and charge coupled device (CCD) camera. Langmuir probe is used to measure plasma parameters, while Faraday cup and electrometer are used to measure very low current (~pA) carried by a collimated dust beam. He-Ne laser illuminates the dust grains and CCD camera is used to capture the images of dust acoustic waves. Silver dust grains are produced in the dust chamber by gas-evaporation technique. Due to differential pressure maintained between the dust and plasma chambers, the dust grains move
Beat-wave generation of plasmons in semiconductor plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Berezhiani, V.I.; Mahajan, S.M.
1995-08-01
It is shown that in semiconductor plasmas, it is possible to generate large amplitude plasma waves by the beating of two laser beams with frequency difference close to the plasma frequency. For narrow gap seimconductors (for example n-type InSb), the system can simulate the physics underlying beat wave generation in relativistic gaseous plasmas
Beat-wave generation of plasmons in semiconductor plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Berezhiani, V.I.; Mahajan, S.M.
1995-08-01
It is shown that in semiconductor plasmas, it is possible to generate large amplitude plasma waves by the beating of two laser beams with frequency difference close to the plasma frequency. For narrow gap semiconductor (for example n-type InSb), the system can simulate the physics underlying beat wave generation in relativistic gaseous plasmas. (author). 7 refs
Waves in plasmas: some historical highlights
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stix, T.H.
1984-08-01
To illustrate the development of some fundamental concepts in plasma waves, a number of experimental observations, going back over half a century, are reviewed. Particular attention is paid to the phenomena of dispersion, collisionfree damping, finite-Larmor-radius and cyclotron and cyclotron-harmonic effects, nonlocal response, and stochasticity. One may note not only the constructive interplay between observation and theory and experiment but also that major advances have come from each of the many disciplines that invoke plasma physics as a tool, including radio communication, astrophysics, controlled fusion, space physics, and basic research
Dispersion relation of test waves in an electron beam plasma system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hayashi, N.; Tanaka, M.; Shinohara, S.; Kawai, Y.
1994-01-01
Test waves are propagated in an electron beam plasma system and the dispersion relation is measured. At the center of the experimental region a beam mode is excited. Near the chamber wall an electron plasma wave is excited and propagates from the chamber wall to the center of the experimental region. It is also found that observed unstable waves are standing wave which is formed by superposing the beam modes propagating in the opposite directions each other. (author). 6 refs, 6 figs
Chaotic waves in Hall thruster plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Peradzynski, Zbigniew; Barral, S.; Kurzyna, J.; Makowski, K.; Dudeck, M.
2006-01-01
The set of hyperbolic equations of the fluid model describing the acceleration of plasma in a Hall thruster is analyzed. The characteristic feature of the flow is the existence of a trapped characteristic; i.e. there exists a characteristic line, which never intersects the boundary of the flow region in the thruster. To study the propagation of short wave perturbations, the approach of geometrical optics (like WKB) can be applied. This can be done in a linear as well as in a nonlinear version. The nonlinear version describes the waves of small but finite amplitude. As a result of such an approach one obtains so called transport equation, which are governing the wave amplitude. Due to the existence of trapped characteristics this transport equation appears to have chaotic (turbulent) solutions in both, linear and nonlinear versions
Directional wave measurements and modelling
Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)
Anand, N.M.; Nayak, B.U.; Bhat, S.S.; SanilKumar, V.
Some of the results obtained from analysis of the monsoon directional wave data measured over 4 years in shallow waters off the west coast of India are presented. The directional spectrum computed from the time series data seems to indicate...
WHAMP - waves in homogeneous, anisotropic, multicomponent plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Roennmark, K.
1982-06-01
In this report, a computer program which solves the dispersion relation of waves in a magnetized plasma is described. The dielectric tensor is derived using the kinetic theory of homogeneous plasmas with Maxwellian velocity distribution. Up to six different plasma components can be included in this version of the program, and each component is specified by its density, temperature, particle mass, anisotropy and drift velocity along the magnetic field. The program is thus applicable to a very wide class of plasmas, and the method should in general be useful whenever a homogeneous magnetized plasma can be approximated by a linear combination of Maxwellian components. The general theory underlying the program is outlined. It is shown that by introducing a Pade approximant for the plasma dispersion function Z, the infinite sums of modified Bessel functions which appear in the dielectric tensor may be reduced to a summable form. The Pade approximant is derived and the accuracy of the approximation is also discussed. The subroutines making up the program are described. (Author)
Collisional damping rates for plasma waves
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tigik, S. F., E-mail: sabrina.tigik@ufrgs.br; Ziebell, L. F., E-mail: luiz.ziebell@ufrgs.br [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, 91501-970 Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil); Yoon, P. H., E-mail: yoonp@umd.edu [Institute for Physical Science and Technology, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States); School of Space Research, Kyung Hee University, Yongin, Gyeonggi 446-701 (Korea, Republic of)
2016-06-15
The distinction between the plasma dynamics dominated by collisional transport versus collective processes has never been rigorously addressed until recently. A recent paper [P. H. Yoon et al., Phys. Rev. E 93, 033203 (2016)] formulates for the first time, a unified kinetic theory in which collective processes and collisional dynamics are systematically incorporated from first principles. One of the outcomes of such a formalism is the rigorous derivation of collisional damping rates for Langmuir and ion-acoustic waves, which can be contrasted to the heuristic customary approach. However, the results are given only in formal mathematical expressions. The present brief communication numerically evaluates the rigorous collisional damping rates by considering the case of plasma particles with Maxwellian velocity distribution function so as to assess the consequence of the rigorous formalism in a quantitative manner. Comparison with the heuristic (“Spitzer”) formula shows that the accurate damping rates are much lower in magnitude than the conventional expression, which implies that the traditional approach over-estimates the importance of attenuation of plasma waves by collisional relaxation process. Such a finding may have a wide applicability ranging from laboratory to space and astrophysical plasmas.
Plasma waves observed by sounding rockets
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kimura, I.
1977-01-01
Observations of plasma wave phenomena have been conducted with several rockets launched at Kagoshima Space Center, Kyushu, Japan, and at Showa Base, Antarctica. This report presents some results of the observations in anticipation of having valuable comments from other plasma physicists, especially from those who are concerned with laboratory plasma. In the K-9M-41 rocket experiment, VLF plasma waves were observed. In this experiment, the electron beam of several tens of uA was emitted from a hot cathode when a positive dc bias changing from 0 to 10V at 1V interval each second was applied to a receiving dipole antenna. The discrete emissions with 'U' shaped frequency spectrum were observed for the dc bias over 3 volts. The U emissions appeared twice per spin period of the rocket. Similar rocket experiment was performed at Showa Base using a loop and dipole antenna and without hot cathode. Emissions were observed with varying conditions. At present, the authors postulate that such emissions may be produced just in the vicinity of a rocket due to a kind of wake effect. (Aoki, K.)
Plasma acceleration by magnetic nozzles and shock waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hattori, Kunihiko; Murakami, Fumitake; Miyazaki, Hiroyuki; Imasaki, Atsushi; Yoshinuma, Mikirou; Ando, Akira; Inutake, Masaaki
2001-01-01
We have measured axial profiles of ion acoustic Mach number, M i , of a plasma flow blowing off from an MPD (magneto-plasma-dynamic) arc-jet in various magnetic configurations. It is found that the Mach number increases in a divergent nozzle up to 3, while it stays at about unity in a uniform magnetic channel. When a magnetic bump is added in the exit of the divergent magnetic nozzle, the Mach number suddenly decreases below unity, due to an occurrence of shock wave. The subsonic flow after the shock wave is re-accelerated to a supersonic flow through a magnetic Laval nozzle. This behavior is explained well by the one-dimensional isotropic flow model. The shock wave is discussed in relation to the Rankine-Hugoniot relation. (author)
Electromagnetic wave propagation in relativistic magnetized plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Weiss, I.
1985-01-01
An improved mathematical technique and a new code for deriving the conductivity tensor for collisionless plasmas have been developed. The method is applicable to a very general case, including both hot (relativistic) and cold magnetized plasmas, with only isotropic equilibrium distributions being considered here. The usual derivation starts from the relativistic Vlasov equation and leads to an integration over an infinite sum of Bessel functions which has to be done numerically. In the new solution the integration is carried out over a product of two Bessel functions only. This reduces the computing time very significantly. An added advantage over existing codes is our capability to perform the computations for waves propagating obliquely to the magnetic field. Both improvements greatly facilitate investigations of properties of the plasma under conditions hitherto unexplored
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
El Naggar, I.A.; Hussein, A.M.; Khalil, Sh.M.
1992-09-01
Electromagnetic waves radiated with combination frequencies from a semi-bounded plasma due to nonlinear interaction of radiation with surface wave (both of P-polarization) has been investigated. Waves are radiated both into vacuum and plasma are found to be P-polarized. We take into consideration the continuity at the plasma boundary of the tangential components of the electric field of the waves. The case of normal incidence of radiation and rarefield plasma layer is also studied. (author). 7 refs
Ion Bernstein wave heating in a multi-component plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Puri, S.
1980-10-01
Conditions for the coupling and absorption of Gross-Bernstein ion-cyclotron waves in a multi-component plasma are examined. Two cases are distinguished depending upon whether, the antenna initially launches, (i) the quasi-torsional slow electromagnetic wave with azimuthal magnetic field (TM) polarization, or (ii) the quasi-compressional fast wave with the electric field oriented azimuthally (TE). Analytic expressions for the plasma surface impedance are derived taking into account the pertinent warm plasma modifications near the vacuum-plasma interface. Antenna configurations capable of efficient coupling of the radio frequency energy to these modes are studied. A method for simulating waveguide like launching using transmission lines is pointed out. It is found that impurity concentrations exceeding a few parts in a thousand are capable of competing with the bulk ions in the energy absorption processes; this could lead to energy deposition near the plasma edge. Measures for avoiding edge heating problems by a careful choice of parameters e.g. restricting the heating frequency to the fundamental ion gyrofrequency are outlined. Equal care is to be exercised in limiting the nsub(z) spectrum to low discrete values in order to avoid the potentially dangerous problem of runaway electron heating. (orig.)
Electron Acoustic Waves in Pure Ion Plasmas
Anderegg, F.; Affolter, M.; Driscoll, C. F.; O'Neil, T. M.; Valentini, F.
2012-10-01
Electron Acoustic Waves (EAWs) are the low-frequency branch of near-linear Langmuir (plasma) waves: the frequency is such that the complex dielectric function (Dr, Di) has Dr= 0; and ``flattening'' of f(v) near the wave phase velocity vph gives Di=0 and eliminates Landau damping. Here, we observe standing axisymmetric EAWs in a pure ion column.footnotetextF. Anderegg, et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 095001 (2009). At low excitation amplitudes, the EAWs have vph˜1.4 v, in close agreement with near-linear theory. At moderate excitation strengths, EAW waves are observed over a range of frequencies, with 1.3 v vphvph.footnotetextF. Valentini et al., arXiv:1206.3500v1. Large amplitude EAWs have strong phase-locked harmonic content, and experiments will be compared to same-geometry simulations, and to simulations of KEENfootnotetextB. Afeyan et al., Proc. Inertial Fusion Sci. and Applications 2003, A.N.S. Monterey (2004), p. 213. waves in HEDLP geometries.
2D full wave simulation on electromagnetic wave propagation in toroidal plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hojo, Hitoshi; Uruta, Go; Nakayama, Kazunori; Mase, Atsushi
2002-01-01
Global full-wave simulation on electromagnetic wave propagation in toroidal plasma with an external magnetic field imaging a tokamak configuration is performed in two dimensions. The temporal behavior of an electromagnetic wave launched into plasma from a wave-guiding region is obtained. (author)
Dust confinement and dust acoustic waves in a magnetized plasma
Piel, A.
2005-10-01
Systematic laboratory experiments on dust acoustic waves require the confinement of dust particles. Here we report on new experiments in a magnetized plasma region in front of an additional positively biased disk electrode in a background plasma which is generated in argon at 27MHz between a disk and grid electrode. The plasma diffuses through the grid along the magnetic field. The three-dimensional dust distribution is measured with a horizontal sheet of laser light and a CCD camera, which are mounted on a vertical translation stage. Depending on magnetic field and discharge current, cigar or donut-shaped dust clouds are generated, which tend to rotate about the magnetic field direction. Measurements with emissive probes show that the axial confinement of dust particles with diameters between 0.7-2 μm is achieved by a balance of ion-drag force and electric field force. Dust levitation and radial confinement is due to a strong radial electric field. Dust acoustic waves are destabilized by the ion flow or can be stimulated by a periodic bias on the disk electrode. The observed wave dispersion is compared with fluid and kinetic models of the dust acoustic wave.
Lage-area planar RF plasma productions by surface waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nonaka, S.
1994-01-01
Large-area rf plasmas are confirmed to be produced by means of RF discharges inside a large-area dielectric tube. The plasma space is 73 cm x 176 cm and 2.5 cm. The plasma is thought to be produced by an odd plasma-surface wave (PSW ο ) in case of using large-area electrodes and by an even plasma-surface wave (PSW ο ) in case of without the electrodes. (author). 7 refs, 4 figs
Nonlinear interaction of the surface waves at a plasma boundary
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dolgopolov, V.V.; El-Naggar, I.A.; Hussein, A.M.; Khalil, Sh.M.
1976-01-01
Amplitudes of electromagnetic waves with combination frequencies, radiating from the plasma boundary due to nonlinear interaction of the surface waves, have been found. Previous papers on this subject did not take into account that the tangential components of the electric field of waves with combination frequencies were discontinuous at the plasma boundary. (Auth.)
Rarefaction Shock Waves in Collisionless Plasma with Electronic Beam
Gurovich, Victor Ts.; Fel, Leonid G.
2011-01-01
We show that an electronic beam passing through the collisionless plasma of the "cold" ions and the "hot" Boltzmann electrons can give rise to the propagation of the supersonic ion-acoustic rarefaction shock waves. These waves are analogous to those predicted by Zeldovich [5] in gasodynamics and complementary to the ion-acoustic compression shock waves in collisionless plasma described by Sagdeev [3].
Ulysses radio and plasma wave observations in the jupiter environment.
Stone, R G; Pedersen, B M; Harvey, C C; Canu, P; Cornilleau-Wehrlin, N; Desch, M D; de Villedary, C; Fainberg, J; Farrell, W M; Goetz, K; Hess, R A; Hoang, S; Kaiser, M L; Kellogg, P J; Lecacheux, A; Lin, N; Macdowall, R J; Manning, R; Meetre, C A; Meyer-Vernet, N; Moncuquet, M; Osherovich, V; Reiner, M J; Tekle, A; Thiessen, J; Zarka, P
1992-09-11
The Unified Radio and Plasma Wave (URAP) experiment has produced new observations of the Jupiter environment, owing to the unique capabilities of the instrument and the traversal of high Jovian latitudes. Broad-band continuum radio emission from Jupiter and in situ plasma waves have proved valuable in delineating the magnetospheric boundaries. Simultaneous measurements of electric and magnetic wave fields have yielded new evidence of whistler-mode radiation within the magnetosphere. Observations of aurorallike hiss provided evidence of a Jovian cusp. The source direction and polarization capabilities of URAP have demonstrated that the outer region of the lo plasma torus supported at least five separate radio sources that reoccurred during successive rotations with a measurable corotation lag. Thermal noise measurements of the lo torus densities yielded values in the densest portion that are similar to models suggested on the basis of Voyager observations of 13 years ago. The URAP measurements also suggest complex beaming and polarization characteristics of Jovian radio components. In addition, a new class of kilometer-wavelength striated Jovian bursts has been observed.
Electromagnetic solitary waves in magnetized plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hazeltine, R.D.; Holm, D.D.; Morrison, P.J.
1985-03-01
A Hamiltonian formulation, in terms of noncanonical Poisson bracket, is presented for a nonlinear fluid system that includes reduced magnetohydrodynamics and the Hasegawa-Mima equation as limiting cases. The single-helicity and axisymmetric versions possess three nonlinear Casimir invariants, from which a generalized potential can be constructed. Variation of the generalized potential yields a description of exact nonlinear stationary states. The new equilibria, allowing for plasma flow as well as partial electron adiabaticity, are distinct from those found in conventional magnetohydrodynamic theory. They differ from electrostatic stationary states in containing plasma current and magnetic field excitation. One class of steady-state solutions is shown to provide a simple electromagnetic generalization of drift-solitary waves
Nonlinear plasma waves excited near resonance
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cohen, B.I.; Kaufman, A.N.
1977-01-01
The nonlinear resonant response of a uniform plasma to an external plane-wave field is formulated in terms of the mismatch Δ/sub n l/ between the driving frequency and the time-dependent, complex, nonlinear normal mode frequency at the driving wavenumber. This formalism is applied to computer simulations of this process, yielding a deduced nonlinear frequency shift. The time dependence of the nonlinear phenomena, at frequency Δ/sub n l/ and at the bounce frequency of the resonant particles, is analyzed. The interdependence of the nonlinear features is described by means of energy and momentum relations
Mishra, Rinku; Dey, M.
2018-04-01
An analytical model is developed that explains the propagation of a high frequency electrostatic surface wave along the interface of a plasma system where semi-infinite electron-ion plasma is interfaced with semi-infinite dusty plasma. The model emphasizes that the source of such high frequency waves is inherent in the presence of ion acoustic and dust ion acoustic/dust acoustic volume waves in electron-ion plasma and dusty plasma region. Wave dispersion relation is obtained for two distinct cases and the role of plasma parameters on wave dispersion is analyzed in short and long wavelength limits. The normalized surface wave frequency is seen to grow linearly for lower wave number but becomes constant for higher wave numbers in both the cases. It is observed that the normalized frequency depends on ion plasma frequencies when dust oscillation frequency is neglected.
Plasma waves in hot relativistic beam-plasma systems: Pt. 1
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Magneville, A.
1990-01-01
Dispersion relations of plasma waves in a beam-plasma system are computed in the general case where the plasma and beam temperatures, and the velocity of the beam, may be relativistic. The two asymptotic temperature cases, and different contributions of plasma or beam particles to wave dispersion are considered. (author)
Plasma Waves Associated with Mass-Loaded Comets
Tsurutani, Bruce; Glassmeier, Karl-Heinz
2015-01-01
Plasma waves and instabilities are integrally involved with the plasma "pickup" process and the mass loading of the solar wind (thus the formation of ion tails and the magnetic tails). Anisotropic plasmas generated by solar wind-comet interactions (the bow shock, magnetic field pileup) cause the generation of plasma waves which in turn "smooth out" these discontinuities. The plasma waves evolve and form plasma turbulence. Comets are perhaps the best "laboratories" to study waves and turbulence because over time (and distance) one can identify the waves and their evolution. We will argue that comets in some ways are better laboratories than magnetospheres, interplanetary space and fusion devices to study nonlinear waves and their evolution.
Surface impedance of travelling--Wave antenna in magnetized plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Denisenko, I.B.; Ostrikov, K.N.
1993-01-01
Wave properties of metal antennas immersed in a magnetoactive plasma are intensively studied nowadays with the objects of radio communications in ionosphere, plasma heating, gas discharge technique. Many papers are devoted to studies of sheath waves (SW) in magnetoplasma, which are surface by nature and propagate along the metal-low-density sheath-plasma waveguide structure. The results of these papers suggest that the existence of these waves makes significant contribution in antenna impedance. Note that the impedance measurement is one of possible ways of experimental surface waves characterization. In the present report the surface impedance of travelling SW antenna immersed in magnetoactive plasma is calculated and its dependence on the waveguide structure parameters such as plasma density, external magnetic field H 0 and electrons collisional frequency values, sheath region width, conductivity of metal surface is studied. The calculations have been carried out in a quasiplane approximation, when antenna radius greatly exceeds the SW skin depth. Note that the finite conductivity of metal is necessary to be taken into account to provide a finite surface impedance value. The surface impedance is calculated in two cases, namely when SW propagate along (Ζ parallel ) and across (Ζ perpendicular ) the external magnetic field. The relation between the values Ζ parallel and Ζ perpendicular is obtained. This relation shows that the values Ζ parallel and Ζ parallel may satisfy both inequalities Ζ parallel much-gt Ζ perpendicular and Ζ perpendicular approx-gt Ζ perpendicular dependent on the parameters of the structure. The comparison of dispersion properties of the SW propagating along Η 0 with the experimental results is carried out. The results are shown to satisfactorily correspond to the experimental results
Linear and Nonlinear Electrostatic Waves in Unmagnetized Dusty Plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mamun, A. A.; Shukla, P. K.
2010-01-01
A rigorous and systematic theoretical study has been made of linear and nonlinear electrostatic waves propagating in unmagnetized dusty plasmas. The basic features of linear and nonlinear electrostatic waves (particularly, dust-ion-acoustic and dust-acoustic waves) for different space and laboratory dusty plasma conditions are described. The experimental observations of such linear and nonlinear features of dust-ion-acoustic and dust-acoustic waves are briefly discussed.
Wave trajectory and electron cyclotron heating in tokamak plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tanaka, S.; Maekawa, T.; Terumichi, Y.; Hamada, Y.
1980-01-01
Wave trajectories in high density tokamak plasmas are studied numerically. Results show that the ordinary wave injected at an appropriate incident angle can propagate into the dense plasmas and is mode-converted to the extraordinary wave at the plasma cutoff, is further converted to the electron Bernstein wave during passing a loop or a folded curve near the upper hybrid resonance layer, and is cyclotron damped away, resulting in local electron heating before arriving at the cyclotron resonance layer. Similar trajectory and damping are obtained when a microwave in a form of extraordinary wave is injected quasi-perpendicularly in the direction of decreasing toroidal field
Resonant emission of electromagnetic waves by plasma solitons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mironov, V.A.; Sergeev, A.M.; Khimich, A.V.
1988-01-01
The ability of plasma-wave solitons to radiate electromagnetic waves at the frequency of the natural oscillations of the field is considered. It is shown that this radiation is the main energy dissipation channel for strong plasma turbulence in a magnetoactive plasma. An interpretation is proposed for the artificial radio emission produced when the ionosphere is acted upon by beams of strong electromagnetic waves. The use of this phenomenon for plasma turbulence, particularly in the outer-space plasma near the earth, is discussed
Electromagnetic Wave Transmittance Control using Anisotropic Plasma Lattice
Matlis, Eric; Corke, Thomas; Hoffman, Anthony
2017-11-01
Experiments of transmission through a lattice array of plasma columns have shown an absorption band close to the plasma frequency at 14 GHz. The beam was oriented at a 35° incident angle to the planar plasma cell. These experiments were designed to determine if the observed absorption was the result of the isotropic plasma medium or that of an anisotropic metamaterial. Transmission of the microwave energy was not consistent with an isotropic material in which absorption would monotonically increase below the plasma frequency. The experimental results are supported by an anisotropic model which was developed for the plasma permittivity using an effective medium approximation. The plasma columns were modeled as uniform rods with permittivity described by a Drude model while the components of the permittivity tensor was calculated using the Maxwell-Garnett effective medium theory. Electron densities of n = 4 x1012 cm-3 were assumed which is consistent with prior experimental measurements. This model confirms the existence of non-zero imaginary wave vector k in a narrow region centered about 14 GHz.
S/WAVES: The Radio and Plasma Wave Investigation on the STEREO Mission
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Bougeret, J. L.; Goetz, K.; Kaiser, M. L.; Bale, S. D.; Kellogg, P. J.; Maksimovic, M.; Monge, N.; Monson, S. J.; Astier, P. L.; Davy, S.; Dekkali, M.; Hinze, J. J.; Manning, R. E.; Aguilar-Rodriguez, E.; Bonnin, X.; Briand, C.; Cairns, I. H.; Cattell, C. A.; Cecconi, B.; Eastwood, J.; Ergun, R. E.; Fainberg, J.; Hoang, S.; Huttunen, K. E. J.; Krucker, S.; Lecacheux, A.; MacDowall, R. J.; Macher, W.; Mangeney, A.; Meetre, C. A.; Moussas, X.; Nguyen, Q. N.; Oswald, T. H.; Pulupa, M.; Reiner, M. J.; Robinson, P. A.; Rucker, H.; Salem, c.; Santolík, Ondřej; Silvis, J. M.; Ullrich, R.; Zarka, P.; Zouganelis, I.
2008-01-01
Roč. 136, 1-4 (2008), s. 487-528 ISSN 0038-6308 Grant - others: NASA (US) NAS5-03076 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30420517 Keywords : S/WAVES * STEREO * plasma waves * radio waves Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 2.372, year: 2008
Relativistic electromagnetic waves in an electron-ion plasma
Chian, Abraham C.-L.; Kennel, Charles F.
1987-01-01
High power laser beams can drive plasma particles to relativistic energies. An accurate description of strong waves requires the inclusion of ion dynamics in the analysis. The equations governing the propagation of relativistic electromagnetic waves in a cold electron-ion plasma can be reduced to two equations expressing conservation of energy-momentum of the system. The two conservation constants are functions of the plasma stream velocity, the wave velocity, the wave amplitude, and the electron-ion mass ratio. The dynamic parameter, expressing electron-ion momentum conversation in the laboratory frame, can be regarded as an adjustable quantity, a suitable choice of which will yield self-consistent solutions when other plasma parameters were specified. Circularly polarized electromagnetic waves and electrostatic plasma waves are used as illustrations.
Plasma wave excitation by intense microwave transmission from a space vehicle
Kimura, I.; Matsumoto, H.; Kaya, N.; Miyatake, S.
An impact of intense microwave upon the ionospheric plasma was empirically investigated by an active rocket experiment (MINIX). The rocket carried two high-power (830W) transmitters of 2.45 GHz microwave on the mother section of the rocket. The ionospheric plasma response to the intense microwave was measured by a diagnostic package installed on both mother and daughter sections. The daughter section was separated from the mother with a slow speed of 15 cm/sec. The plasma wave analyzers revealed that various plasma waves are nonlinearly excited by the microwave. Among them, the most intense are electron cyclotron waves, followed by electron plasma waves. Extremely low frequency waves (several tens of Hz) are also found. The results of the data analysis as well as comparative computer simulations are given in this paper.
Energy balance of plasma with wave taking the nonpotential nature of the waves into consideration
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gel'berg, M.G.; Volosevich, A.V.
1986-01-01
It is shown that in the ionospheric plasma the potential electric field of low-frequency plasma waves is shifted in phase with respect to fluctuations of current by approximately -π/2 and the rotational field is almost in phase with the current. Therefore, the energy transfer between the plasma and the wave occurs mainly with the participation of rotational field
Surface flute waves in plasmas theory and applications
Girka, Volodymyr; Thumm, Manfred
2014-01-01
The book presents results of a comprehensive study of various features of eigen electromagnetic waves propagating across the axis of plasma filled metal waveguides with cylindrical geometry. The authors collected in one book material on various features of surface flute waves, i. e. impact of waveguide design on wave dispersion, wave damping influenced by various reasons, impact of plasma density and external magnetic field inhomogeneity on the wave, and impact of waveguide corrugation and electric current on the wave. A variety of present surface waves applications and possible future applications is also included. Using the method of successive approximations it is shown how one can solve problems, which concern real experimental devices, starting from simple models. The book applies to both professionals dealing with problems of confined plasmas and to graduate and post-graduate students specializing in the field of plasma physics and related applications.
TE Wave Measurement and Modeling
Sikora, John P; Sonnad, Kiran G; Alesini, David; De Santis, Stefano
2013-01-01
In the TE wave method, microwaves are coupled into the beam-pipe and the effect of the electron cloud on these microwaves is measured. An electron cloud (EC) density can then be calculated from this measurement. There are two analysis methods currently in use. The first treats the microwaves as being transmitted from one point to another in the accelerator. The second more recent method, treats the beam-pipe as a resonant cavity. This paper will summarize the reasons for adopting the resonant TE wave analysis as well as give examples from CESRTA and DA{\\Phi}NE of resonant beam-pipe. The results of bead-pull bench measurements will show some possible standing wave patterns, including a cutoff mode (evanescent) where the field decreases exponentially with distance from the drive point. We will outline other recent developments in the TE wave method including VORPAL simulations of microwave resonances, as well as the simulation of transmission in the presence of both an electron cloud and magnetic fields.
Wave measurement in severe ocean currents
Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)
Diwan, S.G.; Suryavanshi, A.K.; Nayak, B.U.
The measurement of ocean waves has been of particular interest, as wave data and understanding of wave phenomena are essential to ocean engineering, coastal engineering and to many marine operations. The National Institute of Oceanography, Goa...
Analysis of waves in the plasma guided by a periodical vane-type slow wave structure
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wu, T.J.; Kou, C.S.
2005-01-01
In this study, the dispersion relation has been derived to characterize the propagation of the waves in the plasma guided by a periodical vane-type slow wave structure. The plasma is confined by a quartz plate. Results indicate that there are two different waves in this structure. One is the plasma mode that originates from the plasma surface wave propagating along the interface between the plasma and the quartz plate, and the other is the guide mode that originally travels along the vane-type slow wave structure. In contrast to its original slow wave characteristics, the guide mode becomes a fast wave in the low-frequency portion of the passband, and there exists a cut-off frequency for the guide mode. The vane-type guiding structure has been shown to limit the upper frequency of the passband of the plasma mode, compared with that of the plasma surface wave. In addition, the passband of the plasma mode increases with the plasma density while it becomes narrower for the guide mode. The influences of the parameters of the guiding structure and plasma density on the propagation of waves are also presented
Real time wave measurements and wave hindcasting in deep waters
Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)
Anand, N.M.; Mandal, S.; SanilKumar, V.; Nayak, B.U.
Deep water waves off Karwar (lat. 14~'45.1'N, long. 73~'34.8'E) at 75 m water depth pertaining to peak monsoon period have been measured using a Datawell waverider buoy. Measured wave data show that the significant wave height (Hs) predominantly...
Quadrature interferometry for plasma density measurements
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Warthen, B.J.; Shlachter, J.S.
1995-01-01
A quadrature interferometer has been used routinely in several pulsed power experiments to measure the line-averaged electron density. The optical source is a 30 mW, continuous wave Nd-YAG laser operating at 1,300 nm. The light is coupled directly to an optical fiber and split into reference and scene beams with a fiber splitter. The scene beam is transported to and from the plasma using single mode optical fibers up to 100 m in length. To simplify alignment through the plasma, the authors have used GRIN lenses on both the launch and receive sides of the single pass transmission diagnostic where this is possible. The return beam passes through a half-wave plate which is used to compensate for polarization rotation associated with slow (hour) time scale drift in the single mode fibers. The reference beam is sent through a quarter-wave plate to produce circular polarization; mixing of the reference and scene beams is accomplished using a non-polarizing beam splitter, and the interference signals are focused into additional fibers which relay the light to fast photodiodes. The quadrature optics allow for an unambiguous determination of the slope of the density changes at inflection points. All of the beam processing optics are located on a stable optical table which is remote and protected from the experiment. Final setup of the interferometer is facilitated by looking at the Lissajous figure generated from the two quadrature components. The authors have used this interferometer to diagnose the background density in the Pegasus-II power flow channel, to study the plasma plume generated in foil implosion experiments, to measure the plasma blowoff during implosions, and to understand the plasma formation mechanism in a fusion target plasma system
Continuing studies of the plasma beat wave accelerator
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Joshi, C.
1990-01-01
This is a proposal for the release of third year funds for the ''Plasma Beat Wave Accelerator'' program (PBWA) at UCLA under the direction of Professor C. Joshi. This report is also a summary of progress on this project since March 1990; i.e., the date of the last report to the DOE. Once again we note that although the program is for historical reasons called the Plasma Beat Wave Accelerator Program, our group is active in all areas of applications of lasers and plasmas in future high energy accelerators. These are as follows: heat gradient plasma structures; excited by plasma beat wave technique; laser wake field technique; and plasma wake field technique. Development of a photoinjector-driven, 20 MeV linac; and theoretical studies of the plasma lens and use of plasmas at the final focus
Resonant absorption of radar waves by a magnetized collisional plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sun Aiping; Tong Honghui; Shen Liru; Tang Deli; Qiu Xiaoming
2001-01-01
The propagation of radar waves in a magnetized collisional plasma slab is studied numerically. It is found for uniform plasma that: first, the wave attenuation and absorbed power show a peak value, i.e., resonant absorption when the collision frequency f en = 0.1, 0.5, 1 GHz and the wave frequency nears upper hybrid frequency. Secondly, the attenuation, absorbed, and transmitted power curves become flat at f en = 5, 10 Ghz. thirdly, the attenuation and absorbed power increase with plasma density, and the attenuation and the proportion of absorbed power can reach 100 dB and 80%, respectively, at the plasma density n = 10 11 cm -3 . For nonuniform plasma, the peak value of reflected power is larger than that in uniform plasma. So, uniform magnetized plasma is of more benefit to plasma cloaking
External excitation of ion cyclotron drift waves in a two-ion species plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kando, M.; Ikezawa, S.; Sugai, H.
1984-01-01
Ion cyclotron drift waves propagating across a density gradient and a magnetic field have been excited externally in a two-ion species plasma, with its concentration ratio controlled. The measured dispersion relations agree with the theoretical predictions. (author)
Studies on waves and turbulence in natural plasmas and in laboratory plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ferreira, J.L.
1990-09-01
The project for studying plasma waves and plasma turbulence submitted to CAPES to be included in the CAPES/COFECUB international cooperation agreement is presented. The project will be carry out in cooperation with Paris University aiming to simulate in laboratory wave-particle interaction phenomena occuring in space plasma. (M.C.K.)
Plasma heating by non-linear wave-Plasma interaction | Echi ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
We simulate the non-linear interaction of waves with magnetized tritium plasma with the aim of determining the parameter values that characterize the response of the plasma. The wave-plasma interaction has a non-conservative Hamiltonian description. The resulting system of Hamilton's equations is integrated numerically ...
Plasma wave observations during electron and ion gun experiments
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Olsen, R.C.; Lowery, D.R.; Weddle, L.E.
1988-01-01
Plasma wave instruments with high temporal and frequency resolution in the 0-6 kHz frequency range have been used to monitor electron gun-employing charge control experiments with the USAF/NASA p78-2 satellite, in order to determine whether plasma wave signatures consistent with the previous inference of electron heating were present. Strong plasma waves were noted near the electron gyrofrequency; these waves can heat ambient low energy electrons, as previously inferred. Attention is given to the two distinct classes of behavior revealed by the ion gun experiments. 16 references
Parametric trapping of electromagnetic waves in an inhomogeneous plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Silin, V.P.; Starodub, A.N.
1977-01-01
Considered is parametric instability in an inhomogeneous plasma at which a pumping wave is transformed to an electromagnetic wave and aperiodically in-time-growing disturbances. It is shown that after achievement of some boundary pumping value by electric field intensity an absolute parametric instability evolution becomes possible. In-time growing plasma disturbances are localized near electric field extremums of a pumping wave. Such localization areas are small as compared to characteristic size of pumping inhomogeneity in a plasma. The secondary electromagnetic waves stay within the localization areas and, therefore, are not scattered by a plasma. As following from this it has been established, that due to parametric instability electromagnetic radiation trapping by a plasma occurs. Such a trapping is considerably connected with a spatial structure of a pumping field and it cannot arise within the field of a running wave in the theoretical model considered. However parametric trapping turns out to be possible even with very small reflection coefficients
Plasma acceleration in a wave with varying frequency
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Petrzilka, V.A.
1978-01-01
The averaged velocity of a test particle and the averaged velocity of a plasma in an electromagnetic wave packet with varying frequency (e.g., a radiation pulse from pulsar) is derived. The total momentum left by the wave packet in regions of plasma inhomogeneity is found. In case the plasma concentration is changing due to ionization the plasma may be accelerated parallelly or antiparallelly to the direction of the wave packet propagation which is relevant for a laser induced breakdown in gas. (author)
Some remarks on coherent nonlinear coupling of waves in plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wilhelmsson, H.
1976-01-01
The analysis of nonlinear processes in plasma physics has given rise to a basic set of coupled equations. These equations describe the coherent nonlinear evolution of plasma waves. In this paper various possibilities of analysing these equations are discussed and inherent difficulties in the description of nonlinear interactions between different types of waves are pointed out. Specific examples of stimulated excitation of waves are considered. These are the parametric excitation of hybrid resonances in hot magnetized multi-ion component plasma and laser-plasma interactions. (B.D.)
On lower hybrid wave scattering by plasma density fluctuations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Petrzilka, V.
1988-01-01
The scattering of lower hybrid waves on plasma density fluctuations in a thin turbulent layer at the plasma periphery is studied numerically. The lower hybrid waves are supposed to be radiated by a four-waveguide grill used on the CASTOR tokamak. A great number of calculated scattered wave spectra show that the scattered spectrum shifts to larger values of the parallel-to-magnetic-field component of the wave vector (to slower waves) with increasing central plasma density and with the decreasing safety factor at the boundary. As known, this shift of the wave spectra results in a decrease in current drive efficiency. The current drive efficiency will hence decrease with growing plasma density and with decreasing safety factor. (J.U.). 2 figs., 4 refs
Non linear excitation of waves at the vicinity of plasma resonance
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chiron, Arnaud
1992-01-01
This research thesis reports the study of the non linear evolution of ionic acoustic and plasma waves excited by resonant absorption of an electromagnetic wave, in a non collisional plasma, without external magnetic field, and with a parabolic density profile. The plasma resonance occurs about the density profile peak. The numerical resolution of the Zakharov equation system is performed to describe the coupled evolution of the plasma wave electric field envelope, and low frequency density disturbances. Experiments performed in the microwave domain show the existence of a new effect related to the modification of the electromagnetic wave propagation under the influence of plasma density disturbances created by the ponderomotive force. This effect which results in a collisional relaxation of plasma waves trapped in the cavity formed at resonance, cannot be taken into account by a numerical simulation using a capacitive pump field. Measurements showed that plasma waves were trapped and relaxing in a cavity with characteristic dimensions of some thousands of Debye lengths, and that the plasma wave in the cavity was stationary. A new turbulence regime is thus highlighted [fr
Wave Model Development in Multi-Ion Plasmas
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sung-Hee Song
1999-06-01
Full Text Available Near-earth space is composed of plasmas which embed a number of plasma waves. Space plasmas consist of electrons and multi-ion that determine local wave propagation characteristics. In multi-ion plasmas, it is di cult to find out analytic solution from the dispersion relation in general. In this work, we have developed a model with an arbitrary magnetic field and density as well as multi-ion plasmas. This model allows us to investigate how plasma waves behave when they propagate along realistic magnetic field lines, which are assumed by IGRF(International Geomagnetic Reference Field. The results are found to be useful for the analysis of the in situ observational data in space. For instance, if waves are assumed to propagate into the polar region, from the equatorial region, our model quantitatively shows how polarization is altered along earth travel path.
Nonlinear interaction of waves in an inhomogeneous plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Istomin, Ya.N.
1988-01-01
Nonlinear wave processes in a weakly inhomogeneous plasma are considered. A quasilinear equation is derived which takes into account the effect of the waves on resonance particles, provided that the inhomogeneity appreciably affects the nature of the resonance interaction. Three-wave interaction is investigated under the same conditions. As an example, the nonlinear interaction in a relativistic plasma moving along a strong curvilinear magnetic field is considered
Unlimited electron acceleration in laser-driven plasma waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Katsouleas, T.; Dawson, J.M.
1983-01-01
It is shown that the limitation to the energy gain of 2(ω/ω/sub p/) 2 mc 2 of an electron in the laser-plasma beat-wave accelerator can be overcome by imposing a magnetic field of appropriate strength perpendicular to the plasma wave. This accelerates particles parallel to the phase fronts of the accelerating wave which keeps them in phase with it. Arbitrarily large energy is theoretically possible
THz detectors using surface Josephson plasma waves in layered superconductors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Savel'ev, Sergey; Yampol'skii, Valery; Nori, Franco
2006-01-01
We describe a proposal for THz detectors based on the excitation of surface waves, in layered superconductors, at frequencies lower than the Josephson plasma frequency ω J . These waves propagate along the vacuum-superconductor interface and are attenuated in both transverse directions out of the surface (i.e., towards the superconductor and towards the vacuum). The surface Josephson plasma waves are also important for the complete suppression of the specular reflection from a sample (Wood's anomalies, used for gratings) and produce a huge enhancement of the wave absorption, which can be used for the detection of THz waves
Linear theory of plasma filled backward wave oscillator
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
An analytical and numerical study of backward wave oscillator (BWO) in linear regime is presented to get an insight into the excitation of electromagnetic waves as a result of the interaction of the relativistic electron beam with a slow wave structure. The effect of background plasma on the BWO instability is also presented.
The energy density of a Landau damped plasma wave
Best, R. W. B.
1999-01-01
In this paper some theories about the energy of a Landau damped plasma wave are discussed and new initial conditions are proposed. Analysis of a wave packet, rather than an infinite wave, gives a clear picture of the energy transport from field to particles. Initial conditions are found which excite
Bounce-harmonic Landau Damping of Plasma Waves
Anderegg, Francois
2015-11-01
We present measurement of plasma wave damping, spanning the temperature regimes of direct Landau damping, bounce-harmonic Landau damping, inter-species drag damping, and viscous damping. Direct Landau damping is dominant at high temperatures, but becomes negligible as v vph / 5 . The measurements are conducted in trapped pure ion plasmas contained in Penning-Malmberg trap, with wave-coherent LIF diagnostics of particle velocities. Our focus is on bounce harmonics damping, controlled by an applied ``squeeze'' potential, which generates harmonics in the wave potential and in the particle dynamics. A particle moving in z experiences a non-sinusoidal mode potential caused by the squeeze, producing high spatial harmonics with lower phase velocity. These harmonics are Landau damped even when the mode phase velocity vph is large compared to the thermal velocity v , since the nth harmonic is resonant with a particle bouncing at velocity vb =vph / n . Here we increase the bounce harmonics through applied squeeze potential; but some harmonics are always present in finite length systems. For our centered squeeze geometry, theory shows that only odd harmonics are generated, and predicts the Landau damping rate from vph / n . Experimentally, the squeeze potential increases the wave damping and reduces its frequency. The frequency shift occurs because the squeeze potential reduces the number of particle where the mode velocity is the largest, therefore reducing the mode frequency. We observe an increase in the damping proportional to Vs2,and a frequency reduction proportional to Vs , in quantitative agreement with theory. Wave-coherent laser induced fluorescence allows direct observation of bounce resonances on the particle distribution, here predominantly at vph / 3 . A clear increase of the bounce harmonics is visible on the particle distribution when the squeeze potential is applied. Supported by NSF Grant PHY-1414570, and DOE Grants DE-SC0002451 and DE-SC0008693.
ALFVEN WAVES IN A PARTIALLY IONIZED TWO-FLUID PLASMA
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Soler, R.; Ballester, J. L.; Terradas, J. [Departament de Fisica, Universitat de les Illes Balears, E-07122 Palma de Mallorca (Spain); Carbonell, M., E-mail: roberto.soler@uib.es, E-mail: joseluis.ballester@uib.es, E-mail: jaume.terradas@uib.es, E-mail: marc.carbonell@uib.es [Departament de Matematiques i Informatica, Universitat de les Illes Balears, E-07122 Palma de Mallorca (Spain)
2013-04-20
Alfven waves are a particular class of magnetohydrodynamic waves relevant in many astrophysical and laboratory plasmas. In partially ionized plasmas the dynamics of Alfven waves is affected by the interaction between ionized and neutral species. Here we study Alfven waves in a partially ionized plasma from the theoretical point of view using the two-fluid description. We consider that the plasma is composed of an ion-electron fluid and a neutral fluid, which interact by means of particle collisions. To keep our investigation as general as possible, we take the neutral-ion collision frequency and the ionization degree as free parameters. First, we perform a normal mode analysis. We find the modification due to neutral-ion collisions of the wave frequencies and study the temporal and spatial attenuation of the waves. In addition, we discuss the presence of cutoff values of the wavelength that constrain the existence of oscillatory standing waves in weakly ionized plasmas. Later, we go beyond the normal mode approach and solve the initial-value problem in order to study the time-dependent evolution of the wave perturbations in the two fluids. An application to Alfven waves in the low solar atmospheric plasma is performed and the implication of partial ionization for the energy flux is discussed.
Electron plasma waves in CO/sub 2/ laser plasma interactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baldis, H.A.; Villeneuve, D.M.; Walsh, C.J.
1984-01-01
During the past few years, the use of Thomson scattering in CO/sub 2/ laser produced plasmas has permitted the identification and study of electron plasma waves and ion waves, driven by various instabilities in the plasma corona, such as Stimulated Raman Scattering (SRS), two plasmon decay, and Stimulated Brillouin Scattering (SBS). Since these instabilities may coexist in the plasma, the density fluctuations associated with one wave may influence the behaviour of one or more of the other instabilities. The authors discuss the experimental evidence of such effects and, in particular, the consequences of a recent experiment in which the ion waves driven by SBS were observed to adversely affect the production of the electron plasma waves driven by SRS. In that experiment, a strong correlation was observed between the onset of SBS and the disappearance of the electron plasma waves driven by SRS at low densities (n/sub e/ n/sub e/ > 0.05 n/sub c/)
Propagation of electromagnetic waves in a weakly ionized dusty plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jia, Jieshu; Yuan, Chengxun; Gao, Ruilin; Wang, Ying; Liu, Yaoze; Gao, Junying; Zhou, Zhongxiang; Sun, Xiudong; Li, Hui; Wu, Jian; Pu, Shaozhi
2015-01-01
Propagation properties of electromagnetic (EM) waves in weakly ionized dusty plasmas are the subject of this study. Dielectric relation for EM waves propagating at a weakly ionized dusty plasma is derived based on the Boltzmann distribution law while considering the collision and charging effects of dust grains. The propagation properties of EM energy in dusty plasma of rocket exhaust are numerically calculated and studied, utilizing the parameters of rocket exhaust plasma. Results indicate that increase of dust radius and density enhance the reflection and absorption coefficient. High dust radius and density make the wave hardly transmit through the dusty plasmas. Interaction enhancements between wave and dusty plasmas are developed through effective collision frequency improvements. Numerical results coincide with observed results by indicating that GHz band wave communication is effected by dusty plasma as the presence of dust grains significantly affect propagation of EM waves in the dusty plasmas. The results are helpful to analyze the effect of dust in plasmas and also provide a theoretical basis for the experiments. (paper)
Electromagnetic-wave absorption by inhomogeneous, collisional plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gregoire, D.J.; Santoru, J.; Schumacher, R.W.
1990-01-01
Unmagnetized, collisional plasmas can be used as broadband EM-wave absorbers or refractors. In the absorption process, plasma electrons are first accelerated by the EM-wave fields and then collide with background-gas molecules, thereby transferring energy from the EM waves to the gas. A plasma absorber has several advantages compared to conventional materials. A plasma can be turned on and off very rapidly, thereby switching between absorbing and transparent conditions. Calculations indicate that plasma absorbers can also be tailored to provide broadband absorption (>40 dB) over multiple octaves. The authors have developed a one-dimensional model and a computer code to calculate the net power reflected from a plasma-enclosed EM-wave-reflecting target. They included three contributions to the reflected EM-wave power: reflections from the vacuum-plasma interface; reflections from the bulk plasma volume; and reflection of the attenuated EM wave that is transmitted through the plasma and reflected by the target
Plasma-ﬁlled rippled wall rectangular backward wave oscillator
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Performance of the backward wave oscillator (BWO) is greatly enhanced with the introduction of plasma. Linear theory of the dispersion relation and the growth rate have been derived and analysed numerically for plasma-ﬁlled rippled wall rectangular waveguide driven by sheet electron beam. To see the effect of plasma ...
Kinetic theory of surface waves in plasma jets
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shokri, B.
2002-01-01
The kinetic theory analysis of surface waves propagating along a semi-bounded plasma jet is presented. The frequency spectra and their damping rate are obtained in both the high and low frequency regions. Finally, the penetration of the static field in the plasma jet under the condition that the plasma jet velocity is smaller than the sound velocity is studied
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sati, Priti; Tripathi, V. K.
2012-01-01
Parametric decay of a large amplitude electromagnetic wave into two electromagnetic modes in a rippled density plasma channel is investigated. The channel is taken to possess step density profile besides a density ripple of axial wave vector. The density ripple accounts for the momentum mismatch between the interacting waves and facilitates nonlinear coupling. For a given pump wave frequency, the requisite ripple wave number varies only a little w.r.t. the frequency of the low frequency decay wave. The radial localization of electromagnetic wave reduces the growth rate of the parametric instability. The growth rate decreases with the frequency of low frequency electromagnetic wave.
Experiments on ion-acoustic shock waves in a dusty plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nakamura, Y.
2002-01-01
Dust ion-acoustic shock waves have been investigated experimentally in a homogeneous unmagnetized dusty double-plasma device. An initial compressional wave with a ramp shape steepens to form oscillations at the leading part due to dispersion. The oscillation develops to a train of solitons when the plasma contains no dust grain. The wave becomes an oscillatory shock wave when the dust is mixed in the plasma and the density of the dust grains is smaller than a critical value. When the dust density is larger than the critical value, only steepening is observed at the leading part of the wave and a monotonic shock structure is observed. The velocity and width of the shock waves are measured and compared with results of numerical integrations of the modified Korteweg-de Vries-Burgers equation
Criteria governing electron plasma waves in a two-temperature plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dell, M.P.; Gledhill, I.M.A.; Hellberg, M.A.
1987-01-01
Using a technique based on the saddle-points of the dielectric function, criteria are found which govern the behaviour of electron plasma waves in plasmas with two electron populations having different temperatures. (orig.)
Helicon wave coupling to a chiral-plasma column
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Torres-Silva, H.; Reggiani, N.; Sakanaka, P.H.
1995-01-01
Inductive helicon wave coupling to a chiro-plasma column is studied numerically. In our theoretical model, the RF current distribution of the chiro-plasma is taken into account using the constitutive relations of a chiral-plasma. Computational results based on the data of present-day helicon devices are show. In particular, we discuss the role of magnetic-field-aligned electron landau damping for the helicon wave absorption. In many a see, the numerical findings can be understood reasonably in terms of the wavenumber spectra of the helicon wave dispersion relation for slow and fast wave of a chiral-plasma. In general however, the full electromagnetic treatment is necessary in order to describe and to understand the inductive coupling in the helicon wave regime. (author). 9 refs., 1 fig
Electro-acoustic shock waves in dusty plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mamun, A.A.; Rahman, A.
2005-10-01
A rigorous theoretical investigation has been made of electro- acoustic [particularly, dust-ion acoustic (DIA) and dust-acoustic (DA)] shock waves in unmagnetized dusty plasmas. The reductive perturbation method has been employed for the study of the small but finite amplitude DIA and DA shock waves. It has been reported that the dust grain charge fluctuation can be one of the candidates for the source of dissipation, and can be responsible for the formation of DIA shock waves in an unmagnetized dusty plasma with static charged dust particles. It has also been reported that the strong co-relation among dust particles can be one of the candidates for the source of dissipation, and can be responsible for the formation of DA shock waves in an unmagnetized strongly coupled dusty plasma. The basic features and the underlying physics of DIA and DA shock waves, which are relevant to space and laboratory dusty plasmas, are briefly discussed. (author)
Wave trajectory and electron cyclotron heating in toroidal plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Maekawa, T.; Tanaka, S.; Terumichi, Y.; Hamada, Y.
1977-12-01
Wave trajectories propagating obliquely to magnetic field in toroidal plasmas are studied theoretically. Results show that the ordinary wave at appropriate incident angle is mode-converted to the extraordinary wave at first turning point and is further converted to the electron Bernstein wave during passing a loop or a hooked nail curve near second turning point and is cyclotron-damped away, resulting in local electron heating, before arriving at cyclotron resonance layer. (auth.)
Nonlinear periodic waves in dusty plasma with variable dust charge
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yadav, Lakhan Lal; Bharuthram, R.
2002-01-01
Using the reductive perturbation method, we present a theory of nonlinear periodic waves, viz. the cnoidal waves, in a dusty plasma consisting of electrons, ions, and cold dust grains with charge fluctuations, which in the limiting case reduce to dust acoustic solitons. It is found that the frequency of the dust acoustic cnoidal wave increases with its amplitude. The dust charge fluctuations are found to affect the characteristics of the cnoidal waves
Re-ionization of a partially ionized plasma by an Alfven wave of moderate amplitude
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brennan, M.H.; Sawley, M.L.
1980-01-01
The use of forced magnetic-acoustic oscillations to investigate the effect of a torsional hydromagnetic (Alfven) wave pulse of moderate amplitude on the properties of a partially ionized afterglow helium plasma is reported. Observations of the magnetic flux associated with the oscillations, measured at a number of frequencies are used to determine radial density profiles and to provide estimates of plasma temperature. The torsional wave is shown to cause significant re-ionization of the plasma with no corresponding increase in the plasma temperature. The presence of a number of energetic particles is evidenced by the production of a significant number of doubly charged helium ions. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Moreau, Philippe [Aix-Marseille-1 Univ., 13 - Marseille (France)
1997-10-17
The density profile of the fusion plasmas can be investigated by the reflectometry diagnostics. The measurement principle is based on the radar techniques which calculate the phase shift of a millimeter wave propagating into the plasma and reflected at a cut-off layer. However, this propagation is perturbed by the plasma turbulence. These phenomena affect the phase delay measurement by not well understood a process. In this work we have tried to find the mechanisms and origin of the turbulence which is responsible for the phase disturbance. We point out the role of collisionality and plasma radiation in controlling the instability and also, demonstrate that the phase delay of the probing wave is very sensitive to the plasma MHD phenomena and is less affected by the micro-turbulence. The second part of this work is the development and the use of a new heterodyne reflectometer. The principal characteristics are given. Its heterodyne detection allows the separation of phase and amplitude information from the detected signal and then to study their contribution to the mechanism of signal perturbation. The use of this reflectometer allows us to point out the following points: - a high dynamic availability, required by the large amplitude drops, often greater than 30 db; - fast sweep operation requirement to `freeze` the plasma turbulence; - multiple reflection effects which modulate the amplitude and phase of the probing wave if they are not suppressed by filtering the detected signal; - very good localisation of the measurement (of the order of millimeter). The heterodyne reflectometer developed during this work offers several advantages of different distinct reflectometry techniques (fast sweep, absolute and differential phase measurements, heterodyne detection). It could be developed to work over higher frequency range so as to measure density profile over larger radial extension with very high performances. (author) 93 refs., 101 figs., 8 tabs. 3 ills.
RF generated currents in a magnetized plasma using a slow wave structure
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Poole, B.R.; Cheo, B.R.; Kuo, S.P.; Tang, M.G.
1983-01-01
The generation of a dc current in a plasma by using RF waves is of importance for the operation of steadystate toroidal devices. An experimental investigation in the use of unidirectional, low frequency RF waves to drive currents has been made. Instead of using a natural plasma wave a slow wave guiding structure is used along the entire length of the plasma. When the RF wave is injected an increase in ionization and T/sub e/, and hence the background current is observed. However, the change depends on wave direction: The +k/sub z/ excitation yields a much larger electron current compared with the -k/sub z/ excitation indicating a net wave driven current. The measured modification in electron density and T/sub e/ is independent of wave direction. The current with a standing wave excitation generally falls at the average of the travelling wave (+ or - k/sub z/) driven currents. The net wave driven current is proportional to the feed power at approx. = 10 mA/kW. No saturation of the current is observed with feed powers up to 1 kW. Since the exciting structure is only 1 wavelength long, its k/sub z/ spectrum is relatively broad and hence no sharp resonances are observed as various plasma parameters and B/sub O/ are changed. There is no measurable difference between the power absorbed by the load resistors and the input power to the slow wave structure. Thus the current is driven by the wave field exclamation E exclamation 2 rather than the power absorbed in the plasma. The theoretical background and the physical mechanism is presented
The Radio & Plasma Wave Investigation (RPWI) for JUICE
Wahlund, J.-E.
2013-09-01
We present the Radio & Plasma Waves Investigation (RPWI) selected for implementation on the JUICE mission. RPWI consists of a highly integrated instrument package that provides a whole set of plasma and fields measurements. The RPWI instrument has outstanding new capabilities not previously available to outer planet missions, and that would address many fundamental planetary science objectives. Specifically, RPWI would be able to study the electro-dynamic influence of the Jovian magnetosphere on the exospheres, surfaces and conducting oceans of Ganymede, Europa and Callisto. RPWI would also be able to monitor the sources of radio emissions from auroral regions of Ganymede and Jupiter, and possibly also from lightning activity in Jupiter's clouds. Moreover, RPWI will search for exhaust plumes from cracks on the icy moons, as well as μm-sized dust and related dust-plasmasurface interaction processes occurring near the icy moons of Jupiter.
Electro-acoustic solitary waves in dusty plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mamun, A.A.; Sayed, F.
2005-10-01
present a rigorous theoretical investigation of electro- acoustic [particularly, dust-ion acoustic (DIA) and dust-acoustic (DA)] solitary waves in dusty plasmas. We employ the reductive perturbation method for small but finite amplitude solitary waves as well as the pseudo-potential approach for arbitrary amplitude ones. We also analyze the effects of non-planar geometry and dust charge fluctuations on both DIA and DA solitary waves, the effect of finite ion-temperature on DIA solitary waves, and the effects of dust-fluid temperature and non-isothermal ion distributions on DA solitary waves. It has been reported that these effects do not only significantly modify the basic features of DIA or DA solitary waves, but also introduce some important new features. The basic features and the underlying physics of DIA and DA solitary waves, which are relevant to space and laboratory dusty plasmas, are briefly discussed. (author)
Studies on the parametric decay of waves in fusion plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Paettikangas, T.
1992-08-01
Parametric instabilities of large-amplitude electromagnetic waves are investigated in fusion applications. In laser fusion, the electromegnetic wave reflected from the overdense plasma can act as a secondary pump wave and exite parametric instabilities. In double simulated Brilloun scattering (DSBS), both the incoming and the reflected pump wave scatter from a common ion sound wave. The stationary states and the dynamics of DSBS are investigated by using a simple envelope model. The ion sound wave that is exited in DSBS is shown to have soliton-like properties. The simulated Raman scattering (SRS) of free-electron-laser radiation can be applied to current drive in tokamaks. SRS generates fast longitudinal electron plasma waves which accelerate electrons to relativistic energies. Since the energetic current-carrying electrons are almost collisionless, the current decays very slowly. The feasibility of the Raman current drive in tokamaks is investigated theoretically. The current drive efficiency and the optimum free-electron-laser parameters are determined. The energy transfer to the fast electrons from the electrostatic wave is studied with relativistic Vlasov-Maxwell simulations. The parametric decay of a wave to half-harmonics is investigated. It is shown that the growth rate of the decay vanishes in the limit of a long wavelenght of the pump wave even for general electromagnetic or electrostatic decay models. The results are applied to the decay of a fast magnetosonic waves in tokamak plasmas. (orig.)
Slow wave antenna coupling to ion Bernstein waves for plasma heating in ICRF
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sy, W.N-C.; Amano, T.; Ando, R.; Fukuyama, A.; Watari, T.
1984-10-01
The coupling of ICRF power from a slow wave antenna to a plasma with finite temperature is examined theoretically and compared to an independent computer calculation. It is shown that such antennas can be highly efficient in trasferring most of the antenna power directly to ion Bernstein waves, with only a very small fraction going into fast waves. The potentiality of this coupling scheme for plasma heating in ICRF is briefly discussed. (author)
Observation of Ion Acoustic Waves Excited by Drift Waves in a Weakly Magnetized Plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tsukabayashi, Isao; Sato, Sugiya; Nakamura, Yoshiharu
2003-01-01
Spontaneous fluctuations excited by drift waves are investigated experimentally in magnetic multi-pole plasma. The magnetic multi-pole has been widely used in DP devices and so on. It was observed that the high level of density fluctuations was generated by the drift instability near a magnetic multi-pole or a dipole magnet. The waves propagate to the middle plasma region forming the envelope train waves
MAGNETOACOUSTIC WAVES IN A PARTIALLY IONIZED TWO-FLUID PLASMA
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Soler, Roberto; Ballester, Jose Luis [Departament de Física, Universitat de les Illes Balears, E-07122 Palma de Mallorca (Spain); Carbonell, Marc, E-mail: roberto.soler@uib.es, E-mail: joseluis.ballester@uib.es, E-mail: marc.carbonell@uib.es [Departament de Matemàtiques i Informàtica, Universitat de les Illes Balears, E-07122 Palma de Mallorca (Spain)
2013-11-01
Compressible disturbances propagate in a plasma in the form of magnetoacoustic waves driven by both gas pressure and magnetic forces. In partially ionized plasmas the dynamics of ionized and neutral species are coupled due to ion-neutral collisions. As a consequence, magnetoacoustic waves propagating through a partially ionized medium are affected by ion-neutral coupling. The degree to which the behavior of the classic waves is modified depends on the physical properties of the various species and on the relative value of the wave frequency compared to the ion-neutral collision frequency. Here, we perform a comprehensive theoretical investigation of magnetoacoustic wave propagation in a partially ionized plasma using the two-fluid formalism. We consider an extensive range of values for the collision frequency, ionization ratio, and plasma β, so that the results are applicable to a wide variety of astrophysical plasmas. We determine the modification of the wave frequencies and study the frictional damping due to ion-neutral collisions. Approximate analytic expressions for the frequencies are given in the limit case of strongly coupled ions and neutrals, while numerically obtained dispersion diagrams are provided for arbitrary collision frequencies. In addition, we discuss the presence of cutoffs in the dispersion diagrams that constrain wave propagation for certain combinations of parameters. A specific application to propagation of compressible waves in the solar chromosphere is given.
MAGNETOACOUSTIC WAVES IN A PARTIALLY IONIZED TWO-FLUID PLASMA
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Soler, Roberto; Ballester, Jose Luis; Carbonell, Marc
2013-01-01
Compressible disturbances propagate in a plasma in the form of magnetoacoustic waves driven by both gas pressure and magnetic forces. In partially ionized plasmas the dynamics of ionized and neutral species are coupled due to ion-neutral collisions. As a consequence, magnetoacoustic waves propagating through a partially ionized medium are affected by ion-neutral coupling. The degree to which the behavior of the classic waves is modified depends on the physical properties of the various species and on the relative value of the wave frequency compared to the ion-neutral collision frequency. Here, we perform a comprehensive theoretical investigation of magnetoacoustic wave propagation in a partially ionized plasma using the two-fluid formalism. We consider an extensive range of values for the collision frequency, ionization ratio, and plasma β, so that the results are applicable to a wide variety of astrophysical plasmas. We determine the modification of the wave frequencies and study the frictional damping due to ion-neutral collisions. Approximate analytic expressions for the frequencies are given in the limit case of strongly coupled ions and neutrals, while numerically obtained dispersion diagrams are provided for arbitrary collision frequencies. In addition, we discuss the presence of cutoffs in the dispersion diagrams that constrain wave propagation for certain combinations of parameters. A specific application to propagation of compressible waves in the solar chromosphere is given
Measuring brightness temperature distributions of plasma bunches
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kirko, V.I.; Stadnichenko, I.A.
1981-01-01
The possibility of restoration of brightness temperature distribution along plasma jet on the base of a simple ultra high- speed photography and subsequent photometric treatment is shown. The developed technique has been applied for finding spectral radiation intensity and brightness temperature of plasma jets of a tubular gas-cumulative charge and explosive plasma compressor. The problem of shock wave front has been successfully solved and thus distribution of above parameters beginning from the region preceeding the shock wave has been obtained [ru
LDA measurements under plasma conditions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lesinski, J.; Mizera-Lesinska, B.; Fanton, J.C.; Boulos, M.I.
1979-01-01
A study was made of the application of Laser Doppler Anemometry (LDA) for the measurement of the fluid and particle velocities under plasma conditions. The flow configuration, is that of a dc plasma jet called the principal jet, in which an alumina powder of a mean particle diameter of 115 μm and a standard deviation of 11.3 μm was injected using a secondary jet. The plasma jet immerged from a 7.1 mm ID nozzle while that of the secondary jet was 2 nm in diameter. The secondary jet was introduced at the nozzle level of the plasma jet directed 90 0 to its axis. Details of the nozzle and the gas flow system are shown in Figure 2
Linear and Nonlinear MHD Wave Processes in Plasmas. Final Report
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tataronis, J. A.
2004-01-01
This program treats theoretically low frequency linear and nonlinear wave processes in magnetized plasmas. A primary objective has been to evaluate the effectiveness of MHD waves to heat plasma and drive current in toroidal configurations. The research covers the following topics: (1) the existence and properties of the MHD continua in plasma equilibria without spatial symmetry; (2) low frequency nonresonant current drive and nonlinear Alfven wave effects; and (3) nonlinear electron acceleration by rf and random plasma waves. Results have contributed to the fundamental knowledge base of MHD activity in symmetric and asymmetric toroidal plasmas. Among the accomplishments of this research effort, the following are highlighted: Identification of the MHD continuum mode singularities in toroidal geometry. Derivation of a third order ordinary differential equation that governs nonlinear current drive in the singular layers of the Alfven continuum modes in axisymmetric toroidal geometry. Bounded solutions of this ODE implies a net average current parallel to the toroidal equilibrium magnetic field. Discovery of a new unstable continuum of the linearized MHD equation in axially periodic circular plasma cylinders with shear and incompressibility. This continuum, which we named ''accumulation continuum'' and which is related to ballooning modes, arises as discrete unstable eigenfrequency accumulate on the imaginary frequency axis in the limit of large mode numbers. Development of techniques to control nonlinear electron acceleration through the action of multiple coherent and random plasmas waves. Two important elements of this program aye student participation and student training in plasma theory
Turbulence measurements in fusion plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Conway, G D
2008-01-01
Turbulence measurements in magnetically confined toroidal plasmas have a long history and relevance due to the detrimental role of turbulence induced transport on particle, energy, impurity and momentum confinement. The turbulence-the microscopic random fluctuations in particle density, temperature, potential and magnetic field-is generally driven by radial gradients in the plasma density and temperature. The correlation between the turbulence properties and global confinement, via enhanced diffusion, convection and direct conduction, is now well documented. Theory, together with recent measurements, also indicates that non-linear interactions within the turbulence generate large scale zonal flows and geodesic oscillations, which can feed back onto the turbulence and equilibrium profiles creating a complex interdependence. An overview of the current status and understanding of plasma turbulence measurements in the closed flux surface region of magnetic confinement fusion devices is presented, highlighting some recent developments and outstanding problems.
Phase velocity of nonlinear plasma waves in the laser beat-wave accelerator
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Spence, W.L.
1985-01-01
The suggested plasma-laser accelerator is an attempt to achieve a very high energy gradient by resonantly exciting a longitudinal wave traveling at close to the speed of light in cold plasma by means of the beat-wave generated by the transverse fields in two laser beams. Previous calculations to all orders in v/sub z/ have been done essentially from the laboratory frame point of view and have treated the plasma wave as having sharply defined phase velocity equal to the speed of light. However a high energy particle beam undergoing acceleration sees the plasma wave from a nearly light-like frame of reference and hence is very sensitive to small deviations in its phase velocity. Here the authors introduce a calculational scheme that includes all orders in v/sub z/ and in the plasma density, and additionally takes into account the influence of plasma nonlinearities on the wave's phase velocity. The main assumption is that the laser frequencies are very large compared to the plasma frequency - under which they are able to in essence formally sum up all orders of forward Raman scattering. They find that the nonlinear plasma wave does not have simply a single phase velocity - it is really a superposition of many - but that the beat-wave which drives it is usefully described by a non-local effective phase velocity function
Influence of Plasma Pressure Fluctuation on RF Wave Propagation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liu Zhiwei; Bao Weimin; Li Xiaoping; Liu Donglin; Zhou Hui
2016-01-01
Pressure fluctuations in the plasma sheath from spacecraft reentry affect radio-frequency (RF) wave propagation. The influence of these fluctuations on wave propagation and wave properties is studied using methods derived by synthesizing the compressible turbulent flow theory, plasma theory, and electromagnetic wave theory. We study these influences on wave propagation at GPS and Ka frequencies during typical reentry by adopting stratified modeling. We analyzed the variations in reflection and transmission properties induced by pressure fluctuations. Our results show that, at the GPS frequency, if the waves are not totally reflected then the pressure fluctuations can remarkably affect reflection, transmission, and absorption properties. In extreme situations, the fluctuations can even cause blackout. At the Ka frequency, the influences are obvious when the waves are not totally transmitted. The influences are more pronounced at the GPS frequency than at the Ka frequency. This suggests that the latter can mitigate blackout by reducing both the reflection and the absorption of waves, as well as the influences of plasma fluctuations on wave propagation. Given that communication links with the reentry vehicles are susceptible to plasma pressure fluctuations, the influences on link budgets should be taken into consideration. (paper)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sugaya, Reija
1991-01-01
The velocity-space diffusion equation describing distortion of the velocity distribution function due to resonant wave-wave scattering of electromagnetic and electrostatic waves in an unmagnetized plasma is derived from the Vlasov-Maxwell equations by perturbation theory. The conservation laws for total energy and momentum densities of waves and particles are verified, and the time evolutions of the energy and momentum densities of particles are given in terms of the nonlinear wave-wave coupling coefficient in the kinetic wave equation. (author)
High energy particle acceleration by relativistic plasma waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Amiranoff, F.; Jacquet, F.; Mora, P.; Matthieussent, G.
1991-01-01
Accelerating schemes using plasmas, lasers or electron beams are proposed and compared to electron bunches in dielectric media or laser propagation through a slow wave structure made of liquid droplets. (L.C.J.A.). 33 refs, 20 figs
Interaction of EM Waves with Atmospheric Pressure Plasmas
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Laroussi, Mounir
2000-01-01
.... The focus of the main activities is the generation of large volume, non-thermal, atmospheric pressure plasmas, their diagnostics, and their interactions with EM waves and with the cells of microorganism...
Propagation and scattering of waves in dusty plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vladimirov, S.V.
1994-01-01
Wave propagation and scattering in dusty plasmas with variable charges on dust particles are considered. New kinetic theory including instant charge of a dust particle as a new independent variable is further developed. (author). 9 refs
Theory and experiments on the generation of spontaneous emission using a plasma wave undulator
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Williams, R.L.; Clayton, C.E.; Joshi, C.; Katsouleas, T.; Mori, W.B.; Slater, J.
1990-01-01
This paper reports that, the authors are studying the feasibility of using relativistically moving plasma waves as short wavelength undulators for possible FEL and Compton scattering applications at UCLA. The remarkable property of such waves is that the wiggler parameter a w = eA/mc 2 can be on the order 0.1 while their wavelength λ w can be submillimeter. Such waves can be excited by either an intense electron bunch going through a plasma (plasma wake field) or a short but intense laser pulse going through the plasma (laser wake field). A variation of the laser wake field scheme is the plasm beat wave excitation. Here a moderately intense laser pulse containing two frequencies excites the plasm wave resonantly. Using a laser pulse containing 10.27 μm and 9.6 μm lines of the Co 2 laser that is approximately 400 ps (FWHM) and 200 GW of power, we were able to measure a w times the length product of 0.013 cm in our experiments. If a length of 0.75 cm i assumed, this implies an a w of 0.17 for a λ w ∼156 μm. Injection of an electron beam across such a plasma wave proved not to be feasible in these experiments, because the θ-pinch plasma source contained significant trapped magnetic fields. We are currently developing a field free plasma source which will permit transverse electron injection
Terahertz waves radiated from two noncollinear femtosecond plasma filaments
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Du, Hai-Wei; Hoshina, Hiromichi; Otani, Chiko, E-mail: otani@riken.jp [Terahertz Sensing and Imaging Research Team, RIKEN Center for Advanced Photonics, RIKEN, Sendai, Miyagi 980-0845 (Japan); Midorikawa, Katsumi [Attosecond Science Research Team, RIKEN Center for Advanced Photonics, RIKEN, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan)
2015-11-23
Terahertz (THz) waves radiated from two noncollinear femtosecond plasma filaments with a crossing angle of 25° are investigated. The irradiated THz waves from the crossing filaments show a small THz pulse after the main THz pulse, which was not observed in those from single-filament scheme. Since the position of the small THz pulse changes with the time-delay of two filaments, this phenomenon can be explained by a model in which the small THz pulse is from the second filament. The denser plasma in the overlap region of the filaments changes the movement of space charges in the plasma, thereby changing the angular distribution of THz radiation. As a result, this schematic induces some THz wave from the second filament to propagate along the path of the THz wave from the first filament. Thus, this schematic alters the direction of the THz radiation from the filamentation, which can be used in THz wave remote sensing.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ghosal, S.K.; Sen, S.N.
1977-01-01
The problem of transmission of sonic waves through a weakly ionised plasma bounded in each side by a neutral gas medium has been treated by assuming the plasma to be a mixture of two intermingled fluids viz., neutral particle fluid and ion fluid in equilibrium. From a hydrodynamic analysis the wave equation for 'p', the macroscopic pressure perturbation has been obtained and it is shown that two independent wave motions, one due to the neutral particles and the other due to ions are propagated through the plasma with two different phase velocities. Assuming the usual boundary conditions at the interface, the amplitude of the transmitted wave has been calculated in case of weakly ionized plasma; the theory can be utilized for the determination of electron temperature from the measured value of attenuation if the percentage of ionization and collision cross section can be obtained independently. (author)
Dynamical chaos of plasma ions in electrostatic waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fasoli, A.; Kleiber, R.; Tran, M.Q.; Paris, P.J.; Skiff, F.
1992-09-01
Chaos generated by the interaction between charged particles and electrostatic plasma waves has been observed in a linear magnetized plasma. The macroscopic wave properties, the kinetic ion dielectric response and the microscopic heating mechanisms have been investigated via optical diagnostic techniques based on laser induced fluorescence. Observations of test-particle dynamical evolution indicate an exponential separation of initially close ion trajectories. (author) 5 figs., 20 refs
Four-wave mixing and phase conjugation in plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Federici, J.F.
1989-01-01
Nonlinear optical effects such as Stimulated Brillouin Scattering, Stimulated Raman Scattering, self-focusing, wave-mixing, parametric mixing, etc., have a long history in plasma physics. Recently, four-wave mixing in plasmas and its applications to phase conjugation has been extensively studied. Although four-wave mixing (FWM), using various nonlinear mediums, has many practical applications in the visible regime, no successful attempt has been made to study or demonstrate FWM for wavelengths longer than 10μm. Plasmas as phase conjugate mirrors have received considerable attention since they become more efficient at longer wavelengths (far-infrared to microwave). The purpose of this thesis is to study various fundamental issues which concern the suitability of plasmas for four-wave mixing and phase conjugation. The major contributions of this thesis are the identification and study of thermal and ionization nonlinearities as potential four-wave mixing and phase conjugation mechanisms and the study of the affect of density inhomogeneities on the FWM process. Using a fluid description for the plasma, this thesis demonstrates that collisional heating generates a thermal force which substantially enhances the phase conjugate reflectivity. The prospect of using a novel ionization nonlinearity in weakly ionized plasmas for wave-mixing and phase conjugation is discussed. The ionization nonlinearity arises from localized heating of the plasma by the beat-wave. Wherever, the local temperature is increased, a plasma density grating is produced due to increased electron-impact ionization. Numerical estimates of the phase conjugate reflectivity indicate reflectivities in the range of 10 -4 -10 -3 are possible in a weakly ionized steady-state gas discharge plasma
Coherent Wave Measurement Buoy Arrays to Support Wave Energy Extraction
Spada, F.; Chang, G.; Jones, C.; Janssen, T. T.; Barney, P.; Roberts, J.
2016-02-01
Wave energy is the most abundant form of hydrokinetic energy in the United States and wave energy converters (WECs) are being developed to extract the maximum possible power from the prevailing wave climate. However, maximum wave energy capture is currently limited by the narrow banded frequency response of WECs as well as extended protective shutdown requirements during periods of large waves. These limitations must be overcome in order to maximize energy extraction, thus significantly decreasing the cost of wave energy and making it a viable energy source. Techno-economic studies of several WEC devices have shown significant potential to improve wave energy capture efficiency through operational control strategies that incorporate real-time information about local surface wave motions. Integral Consulting Inc., with ARPA-E support, is partnering with Sandia National Laboratories and Spoondrift LLC to develop a coherent array of wave-measuring devices to relay and enable the prediction of wave-resolved surface dynamics at a WEC location ahead of real time. This capability will provide necessary information to optimize power production of WECs through control strategies, thereby allowing for a single WEC design to perform more effectively across a wide range of wave environments. The information, data, or work presented herein was funded in part by the Advanced Research Projects Agency-Energy (ARPA-E), U.S. Department of Energy, under Award Number DE-AR0000514.
Evolution of rogue waves in dusty plasmas
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tolba, R. E., E-mail: tolba-math@yahoo.com; El-Bedwehy, N. A., E-mail: nab-elbedwehy@yahoo.com [Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, Damietta University, New Damietta 34517 (Egypt); Moslem, W. M., E-mail: wmmoslem@hotmail.com [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Port Said University, Port Said 42521 (Egypt); Centre for Theoretical Physics, The British University in Egypt (BUE), El-Shorouk City, Cairo (Egypt); El-Labany, S. K., E-mail: skellabany@hotmail.com [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Damietta University, New Damietta 34517 (Egypt)
2015-04-15
The evolution of rogue waves associated with the dynamics of positively charged dust grains that interact with streaming electrons and ions is investigated. Using a perturbation method, the basic set of fluid equations is reduced to a nonlinear Schrödinger equation (NLSE). The rational solution of the NLSE is presented, which proposed as an effective tool for studying the rogue waves in Jupiter. It is found that the existence region of rogue waves depends on the dust-acoustic speed and the streaming densities of the ions and electrons. Furthermore, the supersonic rogue waves are much taller than the subsonic rogue waves by ∼25 times.
Analysis of multidimensional measurements of electromagnetic waves in the Earth's magnetosphere
Pechal, Radim
2011-01-01
Title: Analysis of multidimensional measurements of electromagnetic waves in the Earth's magnetosphere Author: Radim Pechal Department: Department of Surface and Plasma Science Supervisor: doc. RNDr. Lubomír Přech, Dr. Supervisor's e-mail address: Abstract: The thesis introduces into basic knowledge of waves in plasma, especially waves in the Earth's magnetosphere. There are mentioned some space projects focused on chorus waves. The second part of this thesis is a la...
Stochastic particle acceleration by plasma waves in AGN jets
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li, Hui; Colgate, S.A.; Miller, J.A.
1997-01-01
The free energy stored in the stressed magnetic fields in AGN jets could be dissipated via generating turbulent plasma waves. The authors review several key wave-particle resonant interactions and point out the importance of a broad wave spectrum. Under several idealized assumptions, they show that the transit-time damping process can accelerate electrons to TeV energies in an AGN jet environment, and present a preliminary calculation on the evolution of plasma wave, electron, and photon distributions. The authors especially emphasize several open questions on particle acceleration by waves, and argue that a plausible scenario is to energize electrons out of the thermal background via transit-time damping and further accelerate them by the parallel propagating right-handed waves
Electromagnetic drift waves dispersion for arbitrarily collisional plasmas
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lee, Wonjae, E-mail: wol023@ucsd.edu; Krasheninnikov, Sergei I., E-mail: skrash@mae.ucsd.edu [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, California 92093 (United States); Angus, J. R. [Naval Research Laboratory, 4555 Overlook Avenue, Washington, DC 20375 (United States)
2015-07-15
The impacts of the electromagnetic effects on resistive and collisionless drift waves are studied. A local linear analysis on an electromagnetic drift-kinetic equation with Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook-like collision operator demonstrates that the model is valid for describing linear growth rates of drift wave instabilities in a wide range of plasma parameters showing convergence to reference models for limiting cases. The wave-particle interactions drive collisionless drift-Alfvén wave instability in low collisionality and high beta plasma regime. The Landau resonance effects not only excite collisionless drift wave modes but also suppress high frequency electron inertia modes observed from an electromagnetic fluid model in collisionless and low beta regime. Considering ion temperature effects, it is found that the impact of finite Larmor radius effects significantly reduces the growth rate of the drift-Alfvén wave instability with synergistic effects of high beta stabilization and Landau resonance.
Wave launching as a diagnostic tool to investigate plasma turbulence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tsui, H.Y.W.; Bengtson, R.D.; Li, G.X.; Richards, B.; Uglum, J.; Wootton, A.J.; Uckan, T.
1994-01-01
An experimental scheme to extend the investigation of plasma turbulence has been implemented. It involves driving waves into the plasma to modify the statistical properties of the fluctuations; the dynamic balance of the turbulence is perturbed via the injection of waves at selected spectral regions. A conditional sampling technique is used in conjunction with correlation analyses to study the wave launching and the wave-wave coupling processes. Experimental results from TEXT-U tokamak show that the launched waves interact with the intrinsic fluctuations both linearly and nonlinearly. The attainment of driven nonlinearity is necessary for this diagnostic scheme to work. It is also the key to an active modification and control of edge turbulence in tokamaks
Solitary ionizing surface waves on low-temperature plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vladimirov, S.V.; Yu, M.Y.
1993-01-01
It is demonstrated that at the boundary of semi-infinite low-temperature plasma new types of localized ionizing surface wave structures can propagate. The solitary waves are described by an evolution equation similar to the KdV equation, but the solutions differ considerably from that of the latter
Evolution of Modulated Dispersive Electron Waves in a Plasma
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sugai, H.; Lynov, Jens-Peter; Michelsen, Poul
1979-01-01
The linear propagation of amplitude-modulated electron waves was examined in a low-density Q-machine plasma. Three effects of the strong dispersion on the modulated wave have been demonstrated: (i) a wavepacket expands along its direction of propagation, followed by a shift of the frequency through...
Dispersion surfaces and ion wave instabilities in space plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Andre, M
1985-08-01
In this thesis, the dispersion relation of linear waves in a non-relativistic, collisionless and homogeneous plasma in a uniform magnetic field, is solved numerically. Both electrostatic and elecromagnetic waves with frequencies from below the ion gyrofrequency to above the electron gyrofrequency are studied for all angles of propagation. Modes occurring in a cold plasma as well as waves dependent on thermal effects are included. Dispersion surfaces, that is plots of frequency versus wavevector components, are presented for some models of space plasmas. Waves with frequencies of the order of the ion gyrofrequency (ion waves), are well known to exist in space plasmas. In this thesis, the generation of ion waves by ion distributions with loss-cones or temperature anisotropies, or by beams of charged particles, is investigated by numerical methods. Effects of heavy ions are considered. Dispersion surfaces and analytical arguments are used to clarify the results. It is shown that particle beams and ion loss-cone distributions can generate electrostatic ion waves, even when a significant amount of the electrons are cool. These calculations are in agreement with simultaneous observatons of waves and particles obtained by a satellite on auroral field lines. (author)
Active-passive waveguide array for wave excitation in plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Motley, R.W.; Hooke, W.M.
1979-11-01
A modified version of the standard waveguide grill for exciting lower hybrid plasma waves is proposed. This version should reduce both the number of RF drive components and the amplitude of the (undesirable) surface waves. Results from a simple 2-element array are presented
Plasma particle drifts due to traveling waves with cyclotron frequencies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hatakeyama, Rikizo; Sato, Naoyuki; Sato, Noriyoshi
1991-01-01
A particle orbit theory yields that traveling waves with cyclotron frequencies give rise to charged particle drifts perpendicular both to the wave propagation and external magnetic field lines. The result is applicable to particle-flux control of magnetized plasmas. (author)
Nonlinear drift waves in a dusty plasma with sheared flows
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Vranjes, J. [K.U. Leuven (Belgium). Center for Plasma Astrophysics; Shukla, R.K. [Ruhr-Univ. Bochum (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik IV
2002-01-01
Nonlinear properties of dust-modified drift waves and dust-drift waves in a dusty magnetoplasma with equilibrium sheared flows are examined. For this purpose, the relevant nonlinear equations for drift waves are analyzed for various profiles of the perpendicular and parallel plasma flows, and a variety of nonlinear solutions (viz. single and double vortex chains accompanied with zonal flows, tripolar and global vortices), which are driven by nommiform shear flows and nommiform dust density, is presented.
Nonlinear drift waves in a dusty plasma with sheared flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vranjes, J.; Shukla, R.K.
2002-01-01
Nonlinear properties of dust-modified drift waves and dust-drift waves in a dusty magnetoplasma with equilibrium sheared flows are examined. For this purpose, the relevant nonlinear equations for drift waves are analyzed for various profiles of the perpendicular and parallel plasma flows, and a variety of nonlinear solutions (viz. single and double vortex chains accompanied with zonal flows, tripolar and global vortices), which are driven by nommiform shear flows and nommiform dust density, is presented
Nonlinear periodic space-charge waves in plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kovalev, V. A.
2009-01-01
A solution is obtained in the form of coupled nonlinear periodic space-charge waves propagating in a magnetoactive plasma. The wave spectrum in the vicinity of the critical point, where the number of harmonics increases substantially, is found to fall with harmonic number as ∝ s -1/3 . Periodic space-charge waves are invoked to explain the zebra pattern in the radio emission from solar flares.
Propagation of waves in a multicomponent plasma having charged ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Propagation of waves in a multicomponent plasma having charged dust particles has been investigated by various authors in recent times as the presence of charged dust grains give rise to a new kind of modes called dust modes and it has wide applications in magneto- sphere and space plasma [1–3]. In fact, Rao et al [4] ...
Spatiotemporal synchronization of drift waves in a magnetron sputtering plasma
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Martines, E.; Zuin, M.; Cavazzana, R.; Adámek, Jiří; Antoni, V.; Serianni, G.; Spolaore, M.; Vianello, N.
2014-01-01
Roč. 21, č. 10 (2014), s. 102309-102309 ISSN 1070-664X Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : Drift waves * Magnetron sputtering plasma * Spatiotemporal synchronization Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 2.142, year: 2014 http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4898693
Degenerate mixing of plasma waves on cold, magnetized single-species plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Anderson, M. W.; O'Neil, T. M.; Dubin, D. H. E.; Gould, R. W.
2011-01-01
In the cold-fluid dispersion relation ω=ω p /[1+(k perpendicular /k z ) 2 ] 1/2 for Trivelpiece-Gould waves on an infinitely long magnetized plasma cylinder, the transverse and axial wavenumbers appear only in the combination k perpendicular /k z . As a result, for any frequency ω p , there are infinitely many degenerate waves, all having the same value of k perpendicular /k z . On a cold finite-length plasma column, these degenerate waves reflect into one another at the ends; thus, each standing-wave normal mode of the bounded plasma is a mixture of many degenerate waves, not a single standing wave as is often assumed. A striking feature of the many-wave modes is that the short-wavelength waves often add constructively along resonance cones given by dz/dr=±(ω p 2 /ω 2 -1) 1/2 . Also, the presence of short wavelengths in the admixture for a predominantly long-wavelength mode enhances the viscous damping beyond what the single-wave approximation would predict. Here, numerical solutions are obtained for modes of a cylindrical plasma column with rounded ends. Exploiting the fact that the modes of a spheroidal plasma are known analytically (the Dubin modes), a perturbation analysis is used to investigate the mixing of low-order, nearly degenerate Dubin modes caused by small deformations of a plasma spheroid.
Interaction of the electromagnetic waves and non-magnetized plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sun Aiping; Qiu Xiaoming; Dong Yuying; Li Liqiong
2002-01-01
The propagation of electromagnetic waves with 0.5 - 10 GHz in a non-magnetized collisional plasma slab is studied numerically. The change in the absorbed power, reflected power and transmitted power of the electromagnetic wave with collisional frequency of electrons and neutral atoms in plasma from 0.1 - 10 GHz, is calculated, in the condition of the uniform plasma with density of 10 10 or 10 11 cm -3 and depth of 10 cm, and the non-uniform plasma with density distribution of n = n 0 exp[2(z/d-1)] and depth of 10 cm, respectively. The results show that the absorbed power in either uniform or non-uniform plasma is large when the plasma density is large and collision frequency is high, and the peak value is 90%
Observation of large-amplitude ion acoustic solitary waves in a plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nakamura, Yoshiharu
1987-01-01
Propagation of nonlinear ion acoustic waves in a multi-component plasma with negative ions is investigated in a double-plasma device. When the density of negative ions is larger than a critical value, a broad negative pulse evolves to rarefactive solitons, and a positive pulse whose amplitude is less than a certain threshold value becomes a subsonic wave train. In the same plasma, a positive pulse whose amplitude is larger than the threshold develops into a solitary wave. The critical amplitude is measured as a function of the density of negative ions and compared with predictions of the pseudo-potential method. The energy distribution of electrons in the solitary wave is also measured. (author)
The effect of LH wave on the peripheral plasma of TM-1-MH tokamak
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Badalec, J.; Datlov, J.; Jakubka, K.; Kopecky, V.; Koerbel, S.; Kryska, L.; Magula, P.; Stoeckel, J.; Zacek, F.; Nanobashvili, S.
1983-01-01
The effect of lower hybrid waves on the parameters of peripheral plasma in the TM-1-MH tokamak is investigated in close connection with a previous study of lower hybrid heating of the plasma core. Radial profiles of the saturated ion current are reconstructed from measurements using a movable Langmuir probe. The enhancement of the saturated ion current observed in a limiter shadow is interpreted as the heating of peripheral ions due to absorption of decay waves generated in this region as a result of the nonlinear wave-plasma interaction. Langmuir probe measurements found no increase in electron temperature or electron density due to direct local absorption of the pump wave. (J.U.)
Auroral E-region diagnosis by means of nonlinearly stabilized plasma waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Primdahl, F.; Bahnsen, A.
1985-01-01
Recently published comparative measurements indicate that the phase velocity of low frequency waves in the ionospheric E-region is often lower than the drift speed of the electrons that drive the waves unstable. This finding is in agreement with a rocket experiment that measured plasma waves ''in situ''. These data are reevaluated in the present paper. In order to understand these results, the linear instability theory is modified, following Sudan, to conform with zero growth rate even above threshold. The result is that the waves travel at the ion-acoustic velocity with an amplitude stabilized at a level which is found to agree with our observations
Ion temperature in plasmas with intrinsic Alfven waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wu, C. S.; Yoon, P. H.; Wang, C. B.
2014-01-01
This Brief Communication clarifies the physics of non-resonant heating of protons by low-frequency Alfvenic turbulence. On the basis of general definition for wave energy density in plasmas, it is shown that the wave magnetic field energy is equivalent to the kinetic energy density of the ions, whose motion is induced by the wave magnetic field, thus providing a self-consistent description of the non-resonant heating by Alfvenic turbulence. Although the study is motivated by the research on the solar corona, the present discussion is only concerned with the plasma physics of the heating process
Finite Amplitude Electron Plasma Waves in a Cylindrical Waveguide
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Juul Rasmussen, Jens
1978-01-01
The nonlinear behaviour of the electron plasma wave propagating in a cylindrical plasma waveguide immersed in an infinite axial magnetic field is investigated using the Krylov-Bogoliubov-Mitropolsky perturbation method, by means of which is deduced the nonlinear Schrodinger equation governing...... the long-time slow modulation of the wave amplitude. From this equation the amplitude-dependent frequency and wavenumber shifts are calculated, and it is found that the electron waves with short wavelengths are modulationally unstable with respect to long-wavelength, low-frequency perturbations...
Wave propagation in a quasi-chemical equilibrium plasma
Fang, T.-M.; Baum, H. R.
1975-01-01
Wave propagation in a quasi-chemical equilibrium plasma is studied. The plasma is infinite and without external fields. The chemical reactions are assumed to result from the ionization and recombination processes. When the gas is near equilibrium, the dominant role describing the evolution of a reacting plasma is played by the global conservation equations. These equations are first derived and then used to study the small amplitude wave motion for a near-equilibrium situation. Nontrivial damping effects have been obtained by including the conduction current terms.
Spectroscopic measurements of anode plasma with cryogenic pulsed ion sources
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yoneda, H.; Urata, T.; Ohbayashi, K.; Kim, Y.; Horioka, K.; Kasuya, K.
1987-01-01
In ion beam diodes, electromagnetic wave is coupled to ion beam. Ion is extracted from anode plasma, which is produced early in the power pulse. However, exact mechanism of anode plasma production, expansion and ion extraction process is unknown. In particularly, anode plasma expansion is seemed to be one of the reasons of rapid impedance collapse of the diode, which is serious problem in high power experiments. Some experimental results showed that anode plasma expansion velocity was about 5 times larger than that inferred from simple thermal velocity. Several explanations for these results were proposed; for example, electron collisionarity in anode plasma, fast neutral gas particle, diamagnetism. To solve this question, it is necessary to measure the characteristic of anode plasma with space and time resolution. The authors made spectroscopic measurements to investigate variety of electron temperature, electron density, expansion velocity of anode plasma with various ion sources
Variations of helicon wave induced radial plasma transport in different experimental conditions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Petrzilka, V.
1993-08-01
Variations of the helicon wave induced radial plasma transport are presented in dependence on values of the plasma radius, magnetostatic field, plasma density, frequency of the helicon wave and on the ion charge. 22 refs., 14 figs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sagdeev, R.Z.; Shapiro, V.D.; Shevchenko, V.I.
1980-01-01
An attempt is made to analyze two assumptions of the present theory of plasma turbulence, initiated by an electromagnetic wave, as applied to the problem of heating the plasma target. It has been assumed that in the long-scale region (the region of an electromagnetic wave source) and in the inertia range, separating the source region and the short-wave absorption region, there is a permanent pumping. The first assumption consists in simulating a situation in a plasma target when the Langmuir turbulence arises due to an electromagnetic wave incident on the target. The second assumption is valid only at a very high intensity of plasma waves when their energy is significantly less than the thermal energy of plasma W/nsub(c)T 0 is the frequency of an incident electromagnetic wave). At W approximately equal to nsub(c)T the plasma oscillations, arising due to modulation instability from the electromagnetic pumping wave, fall immediately into the absorption region. A phenomenological theory of such a turbulence, called ''superstrong'', is formulated on the assumption that there is a mechanism of ''mixing up'' plasmon phases as a result of their populating the long-wave density fluctuations
Degenerate mixing of plasma waves on cold, magnetized single-species plasmas
Anderson, M. W.; O'Neil, T. M.; Dubin, D. H. E.; Gould, R. W.
2011-10-01
In the cold-fluid dispersion relation ω =ωp/[1+(k⊥/kz)2]1/2 for Trivelpiece-Gould waves on an infinitely long magnetized plasma cylinder, the transverse and axial wavenumbers appear only in the combination k⊥/kz. As a result, for any frequency ω plasma column, these degenerate waves reflect into one another at the ends; thus, each standing-wave normal mode of the bounded plasma is a mixture of many degenerate waves, not a single standing wave as is often assumed. A striking feature of the many-wave modes is that the short-wavelength waves often add constructively along resonance cones given by dz /dr=±(ωp2/ω2-1)1/2. Also, the presence of short wavelengths in the admixture for a predominantly long-wavelength mode enhances the viscous damping beyond what the single-wave approximation would predict. Here, numerical solutions are obtained for modes of a cylindrical plasma column with rounded ends. Exploiting the fact that the modes of a spheroidal plasma are known analytically (the Dubin modes), a perturbation analysis is used to investigate the mixing of low-order, nearly degenerate Dubin modes caused by small deformations of a plasma spheroid.
LANGMUIR WAVE DECAY IN INHOMOGENEOUS SOLAR WIND PLASMAS: SIMULATION RESULTS
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Krafft, C. [Laboratoire de Physique des Plasmas, Ecole Polytechnique, F-91128 Palaiseau Cedex (France); Volokitin, A. S. [IZMIRAN, Troitsk, 142190, Moscow (Russian Federation); Krasnoselskikh, V. V., E-mail: catherine.krafft@u-psud.fr [Laboratoire de Physique et Chimie de l’Environnement et de l’Espace, 3A Av. de la Recherche Scientifique, F-45071 Orléans Cedex 2 (France)
2015-08-20
Langmuir turbulence excited by electron flows in solar wind plasmas is studied on the basis of numerical simulations. In particular, nonlinear wave decay processes involving ion-sound (IS) waves are considered in order to understand their dependence on external long-wavelength plasma density fluctuations. In the presence of inhomogeneities, it is shown that the decay processes are localized in space and, due to the differences between the group velocities of Langmuir and IS waves, their duration is limited so that a full nonlinear saturation cannot be achieved. The reflection and the scattering of Langmuir wave packets on the ambient and randomly varying density fluctuations lead to crucial effects impacting the development of the IS wave spectrum. Notably, beatings between forward propagating Langmuir waves and reflected ones result in the parametric generation of waves of noticeable amplitudes and in the amplification of IS waves. These processes, repeated at different space locations, form a series of cascades of wave energy transfer, similar to those studied in the frame of weak turbulence theory. The dynamics of such a cascading mechanism and its influence on the acceleration of the most energetic part of the electron beam are studied. Finally, the role of the decay processes in the shaping of the profiles of the Langmuir wave packets is discussed, and the waveforms calculated are compared with those observed recently on board the spacecraft Solar TErrestrial RElations Observatory and WIND.
Low-frequency waves in magnetized dusty plasmas revisited
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Salimullah, M.; Khan, M.I.; Amin, R.; Nitta, H.; Shukla, P.K.
2005-10-01
The general dispersion relation of any wave is examined for low-frequency waves in a homogeneous dusty plasma in the presence of an external magnetic field. The low-frequency parallel electromagnetic wave propagates as a dust cyclotron wave or a whistler in the frequency range below the ion cyclotron frequency. In the same frequency regime, the transverse electromagnetic magnetosonic wave is modified with a cutoff frequency at the dust-ion lower-hybrid frequency, which reduces to the usual magnetosonic wave in absence of the dust. Electrostatic dust-lower- hybrid mode is also recovered propagating nearly perpendicular to the magnetic field with finite ion temperature and cold dust particles which for strong ion-Larmor radius effect reduces to the usual dust-acoustic wave driven by the ion pressure. (author)
Parametric wave penetration through an overdense plasma layer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gradov, O.M.; Suender, D.
1981-01-01
The nonlinear penetration of an electromagnetic wave through an overdense plasma layer due to the excitation of parametric instabilities is studied. The quasistatic h.f. surface wave and the ion-acoustic wave, both parametrically growing, generate a nonlinear current which also exist beyound the linear skin length of the incident electromagnetic wave. This current leads to an exponential amplification of the electromagnetic wave amplitude in the layer. The growth rate of this process depends on the overthreshold value of the external wave intensity and the thickness of the layer. The saturation level of the transmitted wave amplitude is estimated for the case, when the instabilities are stabilized by generation of ion-acoustic harmonics. (author)
Fast wave current drive in H mode plasmas on the DIII-D tokamak
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Petty, C.C.; Grassie, J.S. de; Baity, F.W.
1999-01-01
Current driven by fast Alfven waves is measured in H mode and VH mode plasmas on the DIII-D tokamak for the first time. Analysis of the poloidal flux evolution shows that the fast wave current drive profile is centrally peaked but sometimes broader than theoretically expected. Although the measured current drive efficiency is in agreement with theory for plasmas with infrequent ELMs, the current drive efficiency is an order of magnitude too low for plasmas with rapid ELMs. Power modulation experiments show that the reduction in current drive with increasing ELM frequency is due to a reduction in the fraction of centrally absorbed fast wave power. The absorption and current drive are weakest when the electron density outside the plasma separatrix is raised above the fast wave cut-off density by the ELMs, possibly allowing an edge loss mechanism to dissipate the fast wave power since the cut-off density is a barrier for fast waves leaving the plasma. (author)
Saturation of Langmuir waves in laser-produced plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baker, K.L.
1996-04-01
This dissertation deals with the interaction of an intense laser with a plasma (a quasineutral collection of electrons and ions). During this interaction, the laser drives large-amplitude waves through a class of processes known as parametric instabilities. Several such instabilities drive one type of wave, the Langmuir wave, which involves oscillations of the electrons relative to the nearly-stationary ions. There are a number of mechanisms which limit the amplitude to which Langmuir waves grow. In this dissertation, these mechanisms are examined to identify qualitative features which might be observed in experiments and/or simulations. In addition, a number of experiments are proposed to specifically look for particular saturation mechanisms. In a plasma, a Langmuir wave can decay into an electromagnetic wave and an ion wave. This parametric instability is proposed as a source for electromagnetic emission near half of the incident laser frequency observed from laser-produced plasmas. This interpretation is shown to be consistent with existing experimental data and it is found that one of the previous mechanisms used to explain such emission is not. The scattering version of the electromagnetic decay instability is shown to provide an enhanced noise source of electromagnetic waves near the frequency of the incident laser
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
of charged particles in electromagnetic fields. The linear and nonlinear collective modes in electron-positron plasma have been investigated theoretically [3–6]. Recently, Oohara and Hatakeyama [7] have developed a novel method for generating a pair plasma con- sisting of only negative and positive ions with equal mass ...
The analysis of Alfven wave current drive and plasma heating in TCABR tokamak
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ruchko, L.F.; Lerche, E.A.; Galvao, R.M.O.; Elfimov, A.G.; Nascimento, I.C.; Sa, W.P. de; Sanada, E.; Elizondo, J.I.; Ferreira, A.A.; Saettone, E.A.; Severo, J.H.F.; Bellintani, V.; Usuriaga, O.N.
2002-01-01
The results of experiments on Alfven wave current drive and plasma heating in the TCABR tokamak are analyzed with the help of a numerical code for simulation of the diffusion of the toroidal electric field. It permits to find radial distributions of plasma current density and conductivity, which match the experimentally measured total plasma current and loop voltage changes, and thus to study the performance of the RF system during Alfven wave plasma heating and current drive experiments. Regimes with efficient RF power input in TCABR have been analyzed and revealed the possibility of noninductive current generation with magnitudes up to ∼8 kA. The increase of plasma energy content due to RF power input is consistent with the diamagnetic measurements. (author)
Resonant magnetohydrodynamic waves in high-beta plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ruderman, M. S.
2009-01-01
When a global magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) wave propagates in a weakly dissipative inhomogeneous plasma, the resonant interaction of this wave with either local Alfven or slow MHD waves is possible. This interaction occurs at the resonant position where the phase velocity of the global wave coincides with the phase velocity of either Alfven or slow MHD waves. As a result of this interaction a dissipative layer embracing the resonant position is formed, its thickness being proportional to R -1/3 , where R>>1 is the Reynolds number. The wave motion in the resonant layer is characterized by large amplitudes and large gradients. The presence of large gradients causes strong dissipation of the global wave even in very weakly dissipative plasmas. Very often the global wave motion is characterized by the presence of both Alfven and slow resonances. In plasmas with small or moderate plasma beta β, the resonance positions corresponding to the Alfven and slow resonances are well separated, so that the wave motion in the Alfven and slow dissipative layers embracing the Alfven and slow resonant positions, respectively, can be studied separately. However, when β > or approx. R 1/3 , the two resonance positions are so close that the two dissipative layers overlap. In this case, instead of two dissipative layers, there is one mixed Alfven-slow dissipative layer. In this paper the wave motion in such a mixed dissipative layer is studied. It is shown that this motion is a linear superposition of two motions, one corresponding to the Alfven and the other to the slow dissipative layer. The jump of normal velocity across the mixed dissipative layer related to the energy dissipation rate is equal to the sum of two jumps, one that occurs across the Alfven dissipative layer and the other across the slow dissipative layer.
Guided propagation of Alfven waves in a toroidal plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Borg, G.G.; Brennan, M.H.; Cross, R.C.; Giannone, L.; Donnelly, I.J.
1985-01-01
Experimental results are presented which show that the Alfven wave is strongly guided by magnetic fields. The experiment was conducted in a Tokamak plasma using a small dipole loop antenna to generate a localised Alfven ray. The ray was observed, with magnetic probes, to propagate as a localised disturbance along the curved lines of the steady magnetic field without significant refraction due to the effects of finite frequency, resistivity or magnetic field gradients. These results agree with theoretical predictions and demonstrate that a localised Alfven wave may be excited, and may propagate, independently of the fast wave, as expected. The implication of these results for the Alfven wave heating scheme is discussed. (author)
Guided propagation of Alfven waves in a toroidal plasma
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Borg, G G; Brennan, M H; Cross, R C; Giannone, L.; Donnelly, I J
1985-10-01
Experimental results are presented which show that the Alfven wave is strongly guided by magnetic fields. The experiment was conducted in a Tokamak plasma using a small dipole loop antenna to generate a localised Alfven ray. The ray was observed, with magnetic probes, to propagate as a localised disturbance along the curved lines of the steady magnetic field without significant refraction due to the effects of finite frequency, resistivity or magnetic field gradients. These results agree with theoretical predictions and demonstrate that a localised Alfven wave may be excited, and may propagate, independently of the fast wave, as expected. The implication of these results for the Alfven wave heating scheme is discussed.
Self-reflection of intense electromagnetic waves in plasmas
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tewari, D P; Kumar, A; Sharma, J K [Indian Inst. of Tech., New Delhi. Dept. of Physics
1977-10-01
A uniform electromagnetic wave of high power density, propagating in a collisional plasma gives rise to a modification in temperature-dependent collision frequency and in turn induces a gradient in the complex refractive index of the medium. A WKB solution of the problem predicts a backward propagating wave on account of the self-induced inhomogeneity. The amplitude of the backward (i.e. reflected) wave increases with increasing power density of the wave. This is a volume nonlinear effect and is appreciable for usually employed power densities.
Stimulated brillouin scattering of electromagnetic waves in a dusty plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Salimullah, M.; Sen, A.
1991-08-01
The stimulated Brilluoin scattering of electromagnetic waves in a homogeneous, unmagnetized and collisionless dusty plasma has been investigated theoretically. The Vlasov equation has been solved perturbatively to find the nonlinear response of the plasma particles. The presence of the dust particles introduces a background inhomogeneous electric field which significantly influences the dispersive properties of the plasma. At the ion acoustic branch we find the usual scattering slightly modified by the charged dust grains. However, at the frequency lower than the ion acoustic branch we find a new mode of the plasma arising from the oscillations of the ions in the static structure of the dust distribution. This low frequency branch causes enhanced stimulated Brillouin scattering of electromagnetic waves in a dusty plasma. (author). 15 refs
Parametric decay of an extraordinary electromagnetic wave in relativistic plasma
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dorofeenko, V. G. [Institute for Advanced Studies (Austria); Krasovitskiy, V. B., E-mail: krasovit@mail.ru [Keldysh Institute of Applied Mathematics (Russian Federation); Turikov, V. A. [Peoples’ Friendship University of Russia (Russian Federation)
2015-03-15
Parametric instability of an extraordinary electromagnetic wave in plasma preheated to a relativistic temperature is considered. A set of self-similar nonlinear differential equations taking into account the electron “thermal” mass is derived and investigated. Small perturbations of the parameters of the heated plasma are analyzed in the linear approximation by using the dispersion relation determining the phase velocities of the fast and slow extraordinary waves. In contrast to cold plasma, the evanescence zone in the frequency range above the electron upper hybrid frequency vanishes and the asymptotes of both branches converge. Theoretical analysis of the set of nonlinear equations shows that the growth rate of decay instability increases with increasing initial temperature of plasma electrons. This result is qualitatively confirmed by numerical simulations of plasma heating by a laser pulse injected from vacuum.
Arbitrary electron acoustic waves in degenerate dense plasmas
Rahman, Ata-ur; Mushtaq, A.; Qamar, A.; Neelam, S.
2017-05-01
A theoretical investigation is carried out of the nonlinear dynamics of electron-acoustic waves in a collisionless and unmagnetized plasma whose constituents are non-degenerate cold electrons, ultra-relativistic degenerate electrons, and stationary ions. A dispersion relation is derived for linear EAWs. An energy integral equation involving the Sagdeev potential is derived, and basic properties of the large amplitude solitary structures are investigated in such a degenerate dense plasma. It is shown that only negative large amplitude EA solitary waves can exist in such a plasma system. The present analysis may be important to understand the collective interactions in degenerate dense plasmas, occurring in dense astrophysical environments as well as in laser-solid density plasma interaction experiments.
Nonlinear nonresonant forces by radio-frequency waves in plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gao Zhe; Fisch, Nathaniel J.; Qin, Hong; Myra, J. R.
2007-01-01
Nonresonant forces by applied rf waves in plasmas are analyzed. Along the background dc magnetic field, the force arises from the gradient of the ponderomotive potential. Only when the dc magnetic field is straight, however, is this parallel force completely consistent with that from the single particle picture, where the ponderomotive force depends on the gradients of rf fields only. Across the dc magnetic field, besides the ponderomotive force from the particle picture, additional Reynolds stress and polarization stress contribute to the total force. For waves with frequency much lower than the cyclotron frequency, the perpendicular forces from the particle and fluid pictures can have opposite signs. In plasmas with a symmetry angle (e.g., toroidal systems), nonresonant forces cannot drive net flow or current in the flux surface, but the radial force may influence macroscopic behavior of plasma. Moreover, nonresonant forces may drive flow or current in linear plasmas or in a localized region of toroidal plasmas
Temperature measurements in thermonuclear plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Breton, D.
1958-01-01
The temperatures needed to produce thermonuclear reactions are of the order of several million degrees Kelvin. Devising methods for measuring such temperatures has been the subject of research in many countries. In order to present the problem clearly and to demonstrate its importance, the author reviews the various conditions which must be fulfilled in order that reactions may be qualified as thermonuclear. The relationship between the temperature and the cross-section of the reactions is studied, and it is shown that the notion of temperature in the plasmas is complex, which leads to a consideration of the temperature of the ions and that of the electrons. None of the methods for the temperature measurements is completely satisfactory because of the hypotheses which must be made, and which are seldom fulfilled during high-intensity discharges in the plasmas. In practice it is necessary to use several methods simultaneously. (author) [fr
Spectroscopic measurements of plasma emission light for plasma-based acceleration experiments
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Filippi, F.; Mostacci, A.; Palumbo, L.; Anania, M.P.; Biagioni, A.; Chiadroni, E.; Ferrario, M.; Cianchi, A.; Zigler, A.
2016-01-01
Advanced particle accelerators are based on the excitation of large amplitude plasma waves driven by either electron or laser beams. Future experiments scheduled at the SPARC-LAB test facility aim to demonstrate the acceleration of high brightness electron beams through the so-called resonant Plasma Wakefield Acceleration scheme in which a train of electron bunches (drivers) resonantly excites wakefields into a preformed hydrogen plasma; the last bunch (witness) injected at the proper accelerating phase gains energy from the wake. The quality of the accelerated beam depends strongly on plasma density and its distribution along the acceleration length. The measurements of plasma density of the order of 10 16 –10 17 cm −3 can be performed with spectroscopic measurements of the plasma-emitted light. The measured density distribution for hydrogen filled capillary discharge with both Balmer alpha and Balmer beta lines and shot-to-shot variation are here reported.
Spectroscopic measurements of plasma emission light for plasma-based acceleration experiments
Filippi, F.; Anania, M. P.; Biagioni, A.; Chiadroni, E.; Cianchi, A.; Ferrario, M.; Mostacci, A.; Palumbo, L.; Zigler, A.
2016-09-01
Advanced particle accelerators are based on the excitation of large amplitude plasma waves driven by either electron or laser beams. Future experiments scheduled at the SPARC_LAB test facility aim to demonstrate the acceleration of high brightness electron beams through the so-called resonant Plasma Wakefield Acceleration scheme in which a train of electron bunches (drivers) resonantly excites wakefields into a preformed hydrogen plasma; the last bunch (witness) injected at the proper accelerating phase gains energy from the wake. The quality of the accelerated beam depends strongly on plasma density and its distribution along the acceleration length. The measurements of plasma density of the order of 1016-1017 cm-3 can be performed with spectroscopic measurements of the plasma-emitted light. The measured density distribution for hydrogen filled capillary discharge with both Balmer alpha and Balmer beta lines and shot-to-shot variation are here reported.
Direct excitation of a high frequency wave by a low frequency wave in a plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tanaka, Takayasu
1993-01-01
A new mechanism is presented of an excitation of a high frequency wave by a low frequency wave in a plasma. This mechanism works when the low frequency wave varies in time in a manner deviated from a usual periodic motion with a constant amplitude. The conversion rate is usually not large but the conversion is done without time delay after the variation of the low frequency wave. The Manley Rowe relation in the usual sense does not hold in this mechanism. This mechanism can excite also waves with same or lower frequencies. (author)
Introduction to wave heating and current drive in magnetized plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pinsker, R. I.
2001-01-01
The development of high-power wave heating and current drive in magnetized plasmas in the last 40 years is a major ongoing success story in plasma science. A hallmark of this area of research has been the detailed quantitative comparison of theory and experiment; the good agreement consistently found is indicative of the robustness and the predictive power of the underlying theory. This tutorial paper is a brief overview of the fundamental concepts and applications of this branch of plasma science. Most of the high-power applications have been in three frequency regimes: the ion cyclotron range of frequencies (ICRF), the lower hybrid range of frequencies (LHRF), and the electron cyclotron range of frequencies (ECRF). The basic physics of wave propagation and damping in these regimes is briefly discussed. Some of the coupling structures (antennas) used to excite the waves at the plasma boundary are described, and the high-power systems used to generate the wave energy are touched on. Representative examples of the remarkably wide range of applications of high-power wave heating and current drive in high-temperature fusion plasmas will be discussed
Two dimensional kinetic analysis of electrostatic harmonic plasma waves
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fonseca-Pongutá, E. C.; Ziebell, L. F.; Gaelzer, R. [Instituto de Física, UFRGS, 91501-970 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Yoon, P. H. [IPST, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States); SSR, Kyung Hee University, Yongin, Gyeonggi 446-701 (Korea, Republic of)
2016-06-15
Electrostatic harmonic Langmuir waves are virtual modes excited in weakly turbulent plasmas, first observed in early laboratory beam-plasma experiments as well as in rocket-borne active experiments in space. However, their unequivocal presence was confirmed through computer simulated experiments and subsequently theoretically explained. The peculiarity of harmonic Langmuir waves is that while their existence requires nonlinear response, their excitation mechanism and subsequent early time evolution are governed by essentially linear process. One of the unresolved theoretical issues regards the role of nonlinear wave-particle interaction process over longer evolution time period. Another outstanding issue is that existing theories for these modes are limited to one-dimensional space. The present paper carries out two dimensional theoretical analysis of fundamental and (first) harmonic Langmuir waves for the first time. The result shows that harmonic Langmuir wave is essentially governed by (quasi)linear process and that nonlinear wave-particle interaction plays no significant role in the time evolution of the wave spectrum. The numerical solutions of the two-dimensional wave spectra for fundamental and harmonic Langmuir waves are also found to be consistent with those obtained by direct particle-in-cell simulation method reported in the literature.
Nonlinear instability and chaos in plasma wave-wave interactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kueny, C.S.
1993-01-01
Conventional linear stability analysis may fail for fluid systems with an indefinite free energy functional. When such a system is linearly stable, it is said to possess negative energy modes. Instability may then occur either via dissipation of the negative energy modes. Instability may then occur either via dissipation of the negative energy modes. Instability may then occur either via dissipitation of the negative energy modes, or nonlinearly via resonant wave-wave coupling, which leads to explosive growth. In the dissipationaless case, it is conjectured that intrinsic chaotic behavior may allow initially non-resonant systems to reach resonance by diffusion in phase space. This is illustrated for a simple equilibrium involving cold counter-streaming ions. The system is described in the fluid approximation by a Hamilitonian functional and associated noncanonical Poisson bracket. By Fourier decomposition and appropriate coordinate transformations, the Hamilitonian for the perturbed energy is expressed in action-angle form. The normal modes correspond to Doppler-shifted ion-acoustic waves of positive and negative energy. Nonlinear coupling leads to decay instability via two-wave interactions, which occur generically for long enough wavelengths. Three-wave interactions which occur in isolated, but numerous, regions of parameter space can drive either decay instability or explosive instability. When the resonance for explosive growth is detuned, a stable region exists around the equilibrium point in phase space, while explosive growth occurs outside of a separatrix. These interactions may be described exactly if only one resonance is considered, while multiple nonlinear terms make the Hamiltonian nonintegradable. Simple Hamiltonians of two and three degrees of freedom are studied numerically using symplectic integration algorithms, including an explicit algorithm derived using Lie algebraic methods
Stochastic acceleration of electrons from multiple uncorrelated plasma waves
Gee, David; Michel, Pierre; Wurtele, Jonathan
2017-10-01
One-dimensional theory puts a strict limit on the maximum energy attainable by an electron trapped and accelerated by an electron plasma wave (EPW). However, experimental measurements of hot electron distributions accelerated by stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) in ICF experiments typically show a thermal distribution with temperatures of the order of the kinetic energy of the resonant EPW's (Thot mvp2 , where vp is the phase velocity of the EPW's driven by SRS) and no clear cutoff at high energies. In this project, we are investigating conditions under which electrons can be stochastically accelerated by multiple uncorrelated EPW's, such as those generated by incoherent laser speckles in large laser spots like the ones used on NIF ( mm-size), and reproduce distributions similar to those observed in experiments. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract No. DE-AC52-07NA27344.
Relativistic solitary waves modulating long laser pulses in plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sanchez-Arriaga, G; Siminos, E; Lefebvre, E
2011-01-01
This paper discusses the existence of solitary electromagnetic waves trapped in a self-generated Langmuir wave and embedded in an infinitely long circularly polarized electromagnetic wave propagating through a plasma. From a mathematical point of view they are exact solutions of the one-dimensional relativistic cold fluid plasma model with nonvanishing boundary conditions. Under the assumption of travelling wave solutions with velocity V and vector potential frequency ω, the fluid model is reduced to a Hamiltonian system. The solitary waves are homoclinic (grey solitons) or heteroclinic (dark solitons) orbits to fixed points. Using a dynamical systems description of the Hamiltonian system and a spectral method, we identify a large variety of solitary waves, including asymmetric ones, discuss their disappearance for certain parameter values and classify them according to (i) grey or dark character, (ii) the number of humps of the vector potential envelope and (iii) their symmetries. The solutions come in continuous families in the parametric V-ω plane and extend up to velocities that approach the speed of light. The stability of certain types of grey solitary waves is investigated with the aid of particle-in-cell simulations that demonstrate their propagation for a few tens of the inverse of the plasma frequency.
Properties of waves in an ion-beam plasma system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zank, G.P.; McKenzie, J.F.
1988-01-01
A multi-fluid approach is used to describe electrostatic interactions in an ion-beam plasma system. The structure of the wave equation governing the system exhibits the anisotropic and dispersive nature of the waves, whose properties are analysed in terms of the dispersion relation. The main purpose is to classify the different waves that can arise in an ion-beam plasma system in a systematic fashion. The classification is facilitated by introducing a three-parameter CMA diagram that illustrates the topological changes in not only the wavenumber, or refractive-index, surface but also the ray-velocity surface. Furthermore, an analytic expression governing wave amplification in an ion beam plasma is incorporated within the framework of a generalized CMA diagram. Such a description provides a simple interpretation for the onset of wave amplification in terms of a topological change in the refractive-index surface. It is hoped that by collating the wave properties in a unified form, many of the complicated wave features observed in an experiment may be interpreted more easily. (author)
Detailed study of electron plasma waves upstream of the earth's bow shock
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Etcheto, J.; Faucheux, M.
1984-01-01
A detailed study of electron plasma waves observed upstream of the earth's bow shock and of their relationships to the position of the satellite in the foreshock and to the electron measurements has been carried out. The wave characteristics depend on the position in the electron foreshock: a narrow-bnd (a few percent) and intense (a few millivolts per meter) noise is observed at the plasma frequency at the edge of the foreshock while the spectrum widens (Δf/fapprox. =0.3) at the same time as the power decreases (hundreds of microvolts per meter) deeper (a few earth radii) inside the foreshock. Signals below the plasma frequency are also observed. These waves are polarized along the magnetic field, with long wavelengths below and at the plasma frequency and short wavelengths above it. They appear as short bursts, the duration of which depends on the frequency: longer close to the plasma frequency (50 ms), they shorten with increasing separation from the plasma frequency, the usual duration being 15 ms. While the correlation of the wave characteristics with the reflected electrons is good as the satellite moves inside the foreshock, no evolution is found with the distance to the bow shock, neither for the noise nor for the particles. These results are discussed in the frame of various mechanisms which have been proposed to explain these upstream waves but no satisfactory agreement is found with any of them
Ion-acoustic cnoidal waves in a quantum plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mahmood, S.; Haas, F.
2014-01-01
Nonlinear ion-acoustic cnoidal wave structures are studied in an unmagnetized quantum plasma. Using the reductive perturbation method, a Korteweg-de Vries equation is derived for appropriate boundary conditions and nonlinear periodic wave solutions are obtained. The corresponding analytical solution and numerical plots of the ion-acoustic cnoidal waves and solitons in the phase plane are presented using the Sagdeev pseudo-potential approach. The variations in the nonlinear potential of the ion-acoustic cnoidal waves are studied at different values of quantum parameter H e which is the ratio of electron plasmon energy to electron Fermi energy defined for degenerate electrons. It is found that both compressive and rarefactive ion-acoustic cnoidal wave structures are formed depending on the value of the quantum parameter. The dependence of the wavelength and frequency on nonlinear wave amplitude is also presented
Magnetic Field Effects and Electromagnetic Wave Propagation in Highly Collisional Plasmas.
Bozeman, Steven Paul
The homogeneity and size of radio frequency (RF) and microwave driven plasmas are often limited by insufficient penetration of the electromagnetic radiation. To investigate increasing the skin depth of the radiation, we consider the propagation of electromagnetic waves in a weakly ionized plasma immersed in a steady magnetic field where the dominant collision processes are electron-neutral and ion-neutral collisions. Retaining both the electron and ion dynamics, we have adapted the theory for cold collisionless plasmas to include the effects of these collisions and obtained the dispersion relation at arbitrary frequency omega for plane waves propagating at arbitrary angles with respect to the magnetic field. We discuss in particular the cases of magnetic field enhanced wave penetration for parallel and perpendicular propagation, examining the experimental parameters which lead to electromagnetic wave propagation beyond the collisional skin depth. Our theory predicts that the most favorable scaling of skin depth with magnetic field occurs for waves propagating nearly parallel to B and for omega << Omega_{rm e} where Omega_{rm e} is the electron cyclotron frequency. The scaling is less favorable for propagation perpendicular to B, but the skin depth does increase for this case as well. Still, to achieve optimal wave penetration, we find that one must design the plasma configuration and antenna geometry so that one generates primarily the appropriate angles of propagation. We have measured plasma wave amplitudes and phases using an RF magnetic probe and densities using Stark line broadening. These measurements were performed in inductively coupled plasmas (ICP's) driven with a standard helical coil, a reverse turn (Stix) coil, and a flat spiral coil. Density measurements were also made in a microwave generated plasma. The RF magnetic probe measurements of wave propagation in a conventional ICP with wave propagation approximately perpendicular to B show an increase in
Charged particle and photon acceleration by wakefield plasma waves in non-uniform plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bulanov, S.V.; Kirsanov, V.I.; Sakharov, A.S.; Pegoraro, F.
1993-01-01
We discuss the acceleration of charged particles and the upshift of the frequency of short wave packets of laser radiation. The acceleration and the upshift are caused by wake plasma waves excited by a strong laser pulse in a non-uniform plasma. We show that unlimited acceleration of charged particles is possible for specific spatial dependencies of the plasma density. In this unlimited acceleration regime, particles have a fixed phase relationship with respect to the plasma wave, while their energy increases with time. When the wave breaking limit is approached and surpassed, the efficiency of the acceleration of the charged particles and of the frequency upshift of the photons can be increased significantly. (author) 3 refs
Alfven waves in dusty plasmas with plasma particles described by anisotropic kappa distributions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Galvao, R. A.; Ziebell, L. F. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Caixa Postal 15051, CEP: 91501-970, Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil); Gaelzer, R. [Instituto de Fisica e Matematica, Universidade Federal de Pelotas, Caixa Postal 354-Campus UFPel, CEP: 96010-900 Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil); Juli, M. C. de [Centro de Radio-Astronomia e Astrofisica Mackenzie-CRAAM, Universidade Presbiteriana Mackenzie, Rua da Consolacao 896, CEP: 01302-907 Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo (Brazil)
2012-12-15
We utilize a kinetic description to study the dispersion relation of Alfven waves propagating parallelly to the ambient magnetic field in a dusty plasma, taking into account the fluctuation of the charge of the dust particles, which is due to inelastic collisions with electrons and ions. We consider a plasma in which the velocity distribution functions of the plasma particles are modelled as anisotropic kappa distributions, study the dispersion relation for several combinations of the parameters {kappa}{sub Parallel-To} and {kappa}{sub Up-Tack }, and emphasize the effect of the anisotropy of the distributions on the mode coupling which occurs in a dusty plasma, between waves in the branch of circularly polarized waves and waves in the whistler branch.
Spatiotemporal synchronization of drift waves in a magnetron sputtering plasma
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Martines, E.; Zuin, M.; Cavazzana, R.; Antoni, V.; Serianni, G.; Spolaore, M.; Vianello, N. [Consorzio RFX, Padova (Italy); Adámek, J. [Institute of Plasma Physics AS CR, Prague (Czech Republic)
2014-10-15
A feedforward scheme is applied for drift waves control in a magnetized magnetron sputtering plasma. A system of driven electrodes collecting electron current in a limited region of the explored plasma is used to interact with unstable drift waves. Drift waves actually appear as electrostatic modes characterized by discrete wavelengths of the order of few centimeters and frequencies of about 100 kHz. The effect of external quasi-periodic, both in time and space, travelling perturbations is studied. Particular emphasis is given to the role played by the phase relation between the natural and the imposed fluctuations. It is observed that it is possible by means of localized electrodes, collecting currents which are negligible with respect to those flowing in the plasma, to transfer energy to one single mode and to reduce that associated to the others. Due to the weakness of the external action, only partial control has been achieved.
Spatiotemporal synchronization of drift waves in a magnetron sputtering plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Martines, E.; Zuin, M.; Cavazzana, R.; Antoni, V.; Serianni, G.; Spolaore, M.; Vianello, N.; Adámek, J.
2014-01-01
A feedforward scheme is applied for drift waves control in a magnetized magnetron sputtering plasma. A system of driven electrodes collecting electron current in a limited region of the explored plasma is used to interact with unstable drift waves. Drift waves actually appear as electrostatic modes characterized by discrete wavelengths of the order of few centimeters and frequencies of about 100 kHz. The effect of external quasi-periodic, both in time and space, travelling perturbations is studied. Particular emphasis is given to the role played by the phase relation between the natural and the imposed fluctuations. It is observed that it is possible by means of localized electrodes, collecting currents which are negligible with respect to those flowing in the plasma, to transfer energy to one single mode and to reduce that associated to the others. Due to the weakness of the external action, only partial control has been achieved
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ferreira, J.L.; Ludwig, G.O.; Del Bosco, E.
1982-01-01
This work describes some experiments done at the Plasma Physics Laboratory at INPE. In the first part, the double plasma machine used for the study of ion acoustic wave propagation is described, and the results obtained so far are shown. The second part consists in the description of a plasma centrifuge project. It contains some basic parameters of our apparatus used for isotope separation, throuth electromagtnetic rotation of the plasma. (Author) [pt
Field experiments and laboratory study of plasma turbulence and effects on EM wave propagation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lee, M.C.; Kuo, S.P.
1990-01-01
Both active experiments in space and laboratory experiments with plasma chambers have been planned to investigate plasma turbulence and effects on electromagnetic wave propagation. Plasma turbulence can be generated by intense waves or occur inherently with the production of plasmas. The turbulence effects to be singled out for investigation include nonlinear mode conversion process and turbulence scattering of electromagnetic waves by plasma density fluctuations. The authors have shown theoretically that plasma density fluctuations can render the nonlinear mode conversion of electromagnetic waves into lower hybrid waves, leading to anomalous absorption of waves in magnetoplasmas. The observed spectral broadening of VLF waves is the evidence of the occurrence of this process. Since the density fluctuations may have a broad range of scale lengths, this process is effective in weakening the electromagnetic waves in a wideband. In addition, plasma density fluctuations can scatter waves and diversify the electromagnetic energy. Schemes of generating plasma turbulence and the diagnoses of plasma effects are discussed
Electron Bernstein wave emission from an overdense reversed field pinch plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chattopadhyay, P.K.; Anderson, J.K.; Biewer, T.M.; Craig, D.; Forest, C.B.; Harvey, R.W.; Smirnov, A.P.
2002-01-01
Blackbody levels of emission in the electron cyclotron range of frequencies have been observed from an overdense (ω pe ∼3ω ce ) Madison Symmetric Torus [Dexter et al., Fusion Technol. 19, 131 (1991)] reversed field pinch plasma, a result of electrostatic electron Bernstein waves emitted from the core and mode converted into electromagnetic waves at the extreme plasma edge. Comparison of the measured radiation temperature with profiles measured by Thomson scattering indicates that the mode conversion efficiency can be as high as ∼75%. Emission is preferentially in the X-mode polarization, and is strongly dependent upon the density and magnetic field profiles at the mode conversion point
Study on the electromagnetic waves propagation characteristics in partially ionized plasma slabs
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zhi-Bin Wang
2016-05-01
Full Text Available Propagation characteristics of electromagnetic (EM waves in partially ionized plasma slabs are studied in this paper. Such features are significant to applications in plasma antennas, blackout of re-entry flying vehicles, wave energy injection to plasmas, and etc. We in this paper developed a theoretical model of EM wave propagation perpendicular to a plasma slab with a one-dimensional density inhomogeneity along propagation direction to investigate essential characteristics of EM wave propagation in nonuniform plasmas. Particularly, the EM wave propagation in sub-wavelength plasma slabs, where the geometric optics approximation fails, is studied and in comparison with thicker slabs where the geometric optics approximation applies. The influences of both plasma and collisional frequencies, as well as the width of the plasma slab, on the EM wave propagation characteristics are discussed. The results can help the further understanding of propagation behaviours of EM waves in nonuniform plasma, and applications of the interactions between EM waves and plasmas.
Full-wave solution of short impulses in inhomogeneous plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ferencz, Orsolya E.
2005-01-01
In this paper the problem of real impulse propagation in arbitrarily inhomogeneous media will be presented on a fundamentally new, general, theoretical way. The general problem of wave propagation of monochromatic signals in inhomogeneous media was enlightened. The earlier theoretical models for spatial inhomogeneities have some errors regarding the structure of the resultant signal originated from backward and forward propagating parts. The application of the method of inhomogeneous basic modes (MIBM) and the complete full-wave solution of arbitrarily shaped non-monochromatic plane waves in plasmas made it possible to obtain a better description of the problem, on a fully analytical way, directly from Maxwell's equations. The model investigated in this paper is inhomogeneous of arbitrary order (while the wave pattern can exist), anisotropic (magnetized), linear, cold plasma, in which the gradient of the one-dimensional spatial inhomogeneity is parallel to the direction of propagation. (author)
Transverse MHD shock waves in a partly ionized plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mathers, C.D.
1980-01-01
The structure of transverse MHD shock waves in a partly ionized hydrogen plasma is studied using a three-fluid model with collisional transport coefficients. The morphology of the various sublayers in the shock front is analyzed in detail and it is shown that strong shock waves have a characteristic viscous structure. Weak to moderate strength shock waves display a resistive structure in which the enhanced transverse resistivity due to ion-slip plays a significant role, leading to a pronounced peak in the ion temperature profile. Calculated shock structure profiles are also compared with experimental temperature data. Results in the form of tables and figures are presented for shock waves with fast Mach number ranging from 1-10 in hydrogen plasma with initial degree of ionization ranging from 5-100%. (author)
SOLAR WIND STRAHL BROADENING BY SELF-GENERATED PLASMA WAVES
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pavan, J.; Gaelzer, R. [UFPEL, Pelotas (Brazil); Vinas, A. F. [NASA GSFC, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Yoon, P. H. [IPST, UMD, College Park, MD (United States); Ziebell, L. F., E-mail: joel.pavan@ufpel.edu.br, E-mail: rudi@ufpel.edu.br, E-mail: adolfo.vinas@nasa.gov, E-mail: yoonp@umd.edu, E-mail: luiz.ziebell@ufrgs.br [UFRGS, Porto Alegre (Brazil)
2013-06-01
This Letter reports on the results of numerical simulations which may provide a possible explanation for the strahl broadening during quiet solar conditions. The relevant processes involved in the broadening are due to kinetic quasi-linear wave-particle interaction. Making use of static analytical electron distribution in an inhomogeneous field, it is found that self-generated electrostatic waves at the plasma frequency, i.e., Langmuir waves, are capable of scattering the strahl component, resulting in energy and pitch-angle diffusion that broadens its velocity distribution significantly. The present theoretical results provide an alternative or complementary explanation to the usual whistler diffusion scenario, suggesting that self-induced electrostatic waves at the plasma frequency might play a key role in broadening the solar wind strahl during quiet solar conditions.
Theory for beam-plasma millimeter-wave radiation source experiments
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rosenberg, M.; Krall, N.A.
1989-01-01
This paper reports on theoretical studies for millimeter-wave plasma source experiments. In the device, millimeter-wave radiation is generated in a plasma-filled waveguide driven by counter-streaming electron beams. The beams excite electron plasma waves which couple to produce radiation at twice the plasma frequency. Physics topics relevant to the high electron beam current regime are discussed
MHD waves, reconnection, and plasma transport at the dayside magnetopause
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Johnson, J.R.; Cheng, C.Z.
1996-01-01
The magnetic field of the Earth creates a huge cavity in the solar wind known as the magnetosphere. The transition region between the solar wind plasma and magnetosphere plasma is of substantial interest because many magnetospheric processes are governed by the transport of particles, momentum and energy across that boundary. At this boundary, the magnetopause, there is an abrupt decrease in plasma bulk flow, density and pressure, and large increase in temperature and magnetic field. Throughout this region the plasmas is large. Large amplitude compressional waves are nearly always found in the region just outside of the magnetopause. These waves are either intrinsic solar wind fluctuations or they may be global mirror modes which are generated in a localized region of large pressure anisotropy just outside the magnetopause. The substantial background gradients observed at the magnetopause strongly couple the compressional waves with kinetic Alfven waves near the Alfven resonance location, leading to substantial particle transport. Moreover, for a sheared background magnetic field, as is found at times of southward interplanetary magnetic field, the mode converted kinetic Alfven waves can propagate to the location where k parallel = 0 and generate islands in phase space. We present a solution of the kinetic-MHD wave equations for the magnetic field structure based on a realistic steady state profile which includes: a sheared magnetic field; magnetic curvature; and gradients in the background density, pressure and magnetic field. We incorporate wave-particle resonance interactions for electrons and ions to obtain the dissipation. The background magnetic Keld curvature and gradient give rise to drifts which alter the resonance condition for the various particle species (ω - k circ V d - k parallel v parallel ) and reduces the Landau damping of the kinetic Alfven wave, allowing it to propagate to the k parallel = 0 location
Computational study of nonlinear plasma waves. I. Simulation model and monochromatic wave propagtion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Matda, Y.; Crawford, F.W.
1974-12-01
An economical low noise plasma simulation model is applied to a series of problems associated with electrostatic wave propagation in a one-dimensional, collisionless, Maxwellian plasma, in the absence of magnetic field. The model is described and tested, first in the absence of an applied signal, and then with a small amplitude perturbation, to establish the low noise features and to verify the theoretical linear dispersion relation at wave energy levels as low as 0.000,001 of the plasma thermal energy. The method is then used to study propagation of an essentially monochromatic plane wave. Results on amplitude oscillation and nonlinear frequency shift are compared with available theories. The additional phenomena of sideband instability and satellite growth, stimulated by large amplitude wave propagation and the resulting particle trapping, are described. (auth)
On the rogue wave propagation in ion pair superthermal plasma
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Abdelwahed, H. G., E-mail: hgomaa-eg@yahoo.com, E-mail: hgomaa-eg@mans.edu.eg; Zahran, M. A. [Physics Department, College of Sciences and Humanities Studies Al-Kharj, Prince Sattam Bin Abdulaziz University, Al-Kharj (Saudi Arabia); Theoretical Physics Group, Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Mansoura University, Mansoura (Egypt); El-Shewy, E. K., E-mail: emadshewy@yahoo.com; Elwakil, S. A. [Theoretical Physics Group, Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Mansoura University, Mansoura (Egypt)
2016-02-15
Effects of superthermal electron on the features of nonlinear acoustic waves in unmagnetized collisionless ion pair plasma with superthermal electrons have been examined. The system equations are reduced in the form of the nonlinear Schrodinger equation. The rogue wave characteristics dependences on the ionic density ratio (ν = n{sub –0}/n{sub +0}), ionic mass ratio (Q = m{sub +}/m{sub −}), and superthermality index (κ) are investigated. It is worth mentioning that the results present in this work could be applicable in the Earth's ionosphere plasmas.
Subcritical collisionless shock waves. [in earth space plasma
Mellott, M. M.
1985-01-01
The development history of theoretical accounts of low Mach number collisionless shock waves is related to recent observational advancements, with attention to weaker shocks in which shock steepening is limited by dispersion and/or anomalous resistivity and whose character is primarily determined by the dispersive properties of the ambient plasma. Attention has focused on nearly perpendicular shocks where dispersive scale lengths become small and the associated cross-field currents become strong enough to generate significant plasma wave turbulence. A number of oblique, low Mach number bow shocks have been studied on the basis of data from the ISEE dual spacecraft pair, allowing an accurate determination of shock scale lengths.
Langmuir wave dispersion relation in non-Maxwellian plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ouazene, M.; Annou, R.
2010-01-01
The Langmuir wave dispersion relation is derived in partially ionized plasmas, where free electrons are confined to move in a nearest neighbor ions' potential well. The equilibrium velocity distribution function experiences then, a departure from Maxwell distribution function. The effect of the non-Maxwellian character of the distribution function on the Langmuir phase and group velocities as well as the phase matching conditions and the nonlinear growth rate of decay instability is investigated. The proposed Langmuir wave dispersion relation is relevant to dense and cryogenic plasmas.
Nonlinear Electron Acoustic Waves in Dissipative Plasma with Superthermal Electrons
El-Hanbaly, A. M.; El-Shewy, E. K.; Kassem, A. I.; Darweesh, H. F.
2016-01-01
The nonlinear properties of small amplitude electron-acoustic ( EA) solitary and shock waves in a homogeneous system of unmagnetized collisionless plasma consisted of a cold electron fluid and superthermal hot electrons obeying superthermal distribution, and stationary ions have been investigated. A reductive perturbation method was employed to obtain the Kadomstev-Petviashvili-Burgers (KP-Brugers) equation. Some solutions of physical interest are obtained. These solutions are related to soliton, monotonic and oscillatory shock waves and their behaviour are shown graphically. The formation of these solutions depends crucially on the value of the Burgers term and the plasma parameters as well. By using the tangent hyperbolic (tanh) method, another interesting type of solution which is a combination between shock and soliton waves is obtained. The topology of phase portrait and potential diagram of the KP-Brugers equation is investigated.The advantage of using this method is that one can predict different classes of the travelling wave solutions according to different phase orbits. The obtained results may be helpful in better understanding of waves propagation in various space plasma environments as well as in inertial confinement fusion laboratory plasmas.
Effects of ion acoustic waves on diffusion in a magnetized plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Watanabe, Yukio; Akazaki, Masanori; Fujiyama, Hiroshi.
1975-01-01
This paper describes on the behavior of ion acoustic waves in magnetized plasma. The plasma was produced with a discharge tube placed in an air-core coil. The pressure of argon gas in the discharge tube was 1--10 mTorr. The plasma was entracted along the externally applied magnetic field through a nozzle into a measuring part. The condition of stabilization of drift waves was investigated. Four small glass tubes were placed in contact with the wall of the discharge tube, and the drift wave was remarkably suppressed. Then the ion acoustic waves can be observed. The magnetic field dependence of the frequency of ion acoustic waves was studied. The frequency depends on magnetic field and gas pressure. The magnetic field dependence of the frequency is caused by the variation of electron temperature. The Timofee's theory can explain the magnetic field of generating ion acoustic waves. The ion acoustic waves being excited naturally propagate to the direction of the diamagnetic drift of electrons, and their spectra are monochromatic. The dependence of Dsub(perpendicular), diffusion constant, on magnetic field is explained by two-pole diffusion, and the effect of the monochromatic ion acoustic waves on diffusion is small. (Kato, T.)
Investigations of toroidal wave numbers of the kink instabilities in a toroidal pinch plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hamajima, Takataro; Irisawa, Juichi; Tsukada, Tokuaki; Sugito, Osamu; Maruyama, Hideaki
1979-01-01
The axial toroidal wave numbers of the kink instability of toroidal pinch plasma were measured and investigated with a specially designed coil, and the results were compared with the MHD theory. The schematic figure and the particulars of the experimental apparatus are briefly illustrated in the first part. The method of generating theta-Z pinch plasma, the wave form of the magnetic flux density in Z-direction and the plasma current are also explained. The 360 deg stereoscopic framing photographs were taken with an image converter camera at the intervals of 0.5 μs after the initiation of the main electric discharge in Z-circuit. From these photographs, the growth of the kink instability was observed. The measured magnetic field distribution at t = 2 μs is presented. In the second part, the radial displacement of plasma and toroidal wave number were measured from the above framing photographs. Then the spectra of plasma displacement were analyzed by the Fourier analysis. The measured results of toroidal wave number was analyzed by both the skin current model and the diffuse current model. Many new results obtained from the present study were mainly derived from the observation of the framing photographs, and they are summarized in the final part of this paper. (Aoki, K.)
Harmonic emission due to the nonlinear coupling of a Gaussian laser and a plasma wave
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pathak, R; Jain, R K [Department of Mathematics, SSL Jain College, Vidisha, MP, 464001 (India); Parashar, J [Department of Physics, Samrat Ashok Technological Institute, Vidisha, MP, 464001 (India)
2010-04-15
A high-power Gaussian laser propagating through a plasma couples with a large-amplitude plasma wave and undergoes scattering to produce harmonics. The process is sensitive to the phase matching angle between the laser and plasma wave numbers and the plasma wave frequency. For larger harmonics, the phase matching angle is high. The efficiency of the process is comparatively high at higher plasma wave frequencies.
Plasma Sprayed Coatings for RF Wave Absorption
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Nanobashvili, S.; Matějíček, Jiří; Žáček, František; Stöckel, Jan; Chráska, Pavel; Brožek, Vlastimil
307-311, - (2002), s. 1334-1338 ISSN 0022-3115 Grant - others: COST (XE) Euratom DV4/04(TWO) Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2043910 Keywords : boron carbide, thermal spray coatings, fusion materials, RF wave absorption Subject RIV: JK - Corrosion ; Surface Treatment of Materials Impact factor: 1.730, year: 2002
Linear waves in a resistive plasma with Hall current
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Almaguer, J.A.
1992-01-01
Dispersion relations for the case of a magnetized plasma are determined taking into account the Hall current and a constant resistivity, η, in Ohm's law. It is found that the Hall effect is relevant only for parallel (to the equilibrium magnetic field) wave numbers in the case of uniform plasmas, giving place to a dispersive behavior. In particular, the cases of η→0 and small (nonzero) resistivity are discussed
Nonlinear propagation of Alfven waves in cometary plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lakhina, G.S.; Shukla, P.K.
1987-07-01
Large amplitude Alfven waves propagating along the guide magnetic field in a three-component plasma are shown to be modulationally unstable due to their nonlinear interaction with nonresonant electrostatic density fluctuations. A new class of subsonic Alfven soliton solutions are found to exist in the three-component plasma. The Alfven solitons can be relevant in explaining the properties of hydromagnetic turbulence near the comets. (author). 15 refs
Wave propagation near the lower hybrid resonance in toroidal plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ohkubo, K.; Ohasa, K.; Matsuura, K.
1975-10-01
Dielectric tensor and equipotential curves (ray trajectories) of an electrostatic wave near the lower hybrid resonance are investigated for the toroidal plasma with a shear magnetic field. The ray trajectories start from the vicinity of the plasma surface, and rotate in a spiral form around the magnetic axis, and then reach the lower or upper parts of lower hybrid resonance layer. The numerical computations are performed on the parameters of JIPP T-II device with two dimensional inhomogeneity. (auth.)
Mascali, D.; Celona, L.; Gammino, S.; Miracoli, R.; Castro, G.; Gambino, N.; Ciavola, G.
2011-10-01
A plasma reactor operates at the Laboratori Nazionali del Sud of INFN, Catania, and it has been used as a test-bench for the investigation of innovative mechanisms of plasma ignition based on electrostatic waves (ES-W), obtained via the inner plasma EM-to-ES wave conversion. Evidences of Bernstein wave (BW) generation will be shown. The Langmuir probe measurements have revealed a strong increase of the ion saturation current, where the BW are generated or absorbed, this being a signature of possible high energy ion flows. The results are interpreted through the Bernstein wave heating theory, which predicts the formation of high speed rotating layers of the plasma (a dense plasma ring is in fact observed). High intensity inner plasma self-generated electric fields (on the order of several tens of kV/cm) come out by our calculations.
2D full-wave simulation of waves in space and tokamak plasmas
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kim Eun-Hwa
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Simulation results using a 2D full-wave code (FW2D for space and NSTX fusion plasmas are presented. The FW2D code solves the cold plasma wave equations using the finite element method. The wave code has been successfully applied to describe low frequency waves in planetary magnetospheres (i.e., dipole geometry and the results include generation and propagation of externally driven ultra-low frequency waves via mode conversion at Mercury and mode coupling, refraction and reflection of internally driven field-aligned propagating left-handed electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC waves at Earth. In this paper, global structure of linearly polarized EMIC waves is examined and the result shows such resonant wave modes can be localized near the equatorial plane. We also adopt the FW2D code to tokamak geometry and examine radio frequency (RF waves in the scape-off layer (SOL of tokamaks. By adopting the rectangular and limiter boundary, we compare the results with existing AORSA simulations. The FW2D code results for the high harmonic fast wave heating case on NSTX with a rectangular vessel boundary shows excellent agreement with the AORSA code.
2D full-wave simulation of waves in space and tokamak plasmas
Kim, Eun-Hwa; Bertelli, Nicola; Johnson, Jay; Valeo, Ernest; Hosea, Joel
2017-10-01
Simulation results using a 2D full-wave code (FW2D) for space and NSTX fusion plasmas are presented. The FW2D code solves the cold plasma wave equations using the finite element method. The wave code has been successfully applied to describe low frequency waves in planetary magnetospheres (i.e., dipole geometry) and the results include generation and propagation of externally driven ultra-low frequency waves via mode conversion at Mercury and mode coupling, refraction and reflection of internally driven field-aligned propagating left-handed electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves at Earth. In this paper, global structure of linearly polarized EMIC waves is examined and the result shows such resonant wave modes can be localized near the equatorial plane. We also adopt the FW2D code to tokamak geometry and examine radio frequency (RF) waves in the scape-off layer (SOL) of tokamaks. By adopting the rectangular and limiter boundary, we compare the results with existing AORSA simulations. The FW2D code results for the high harmonic fast wave heating case on NSTX with a rectangular vessel boundary shows excellent agreement with the AORSA code.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
K. Sigsbee
2004-07-01
Full Text Available We present the statistics of Langmuir wave amplitudes in the Earth's foreshock using Cluster Wideband Data (WBD Plasma Wave Receiver electric field waveforms from spacecraft 2, 3 and 4 on 26 March 2002. The largest amplitude Langmuir waves were observed by Cluster near the boundary between the foreshock and solar wind, in agreement with earlier studies. The characteristics of the waves were similar for all three spacecraft, suggesting that variations in foreshock structure must occur on scales greater than the 50-100km spacecraft separations. The electric field amplitude probability distributions constructed using waveforms from the Cluster WBD Plasma Wave Receiver generally followed the log-normal statistics predicted by stochastic growth theory for the event studied. Comparison with WBD receiver data from 17 February 2002, when spacecraft 4 was set in a special manual gain mode, suggests non-optimal auto-ranging of the instrument may have had some influence on the statistics.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
K. Sigsbee
2004-07-01
Full Text Available We present the statistics of Langmuir wave amplitudes in the Earth's foreshock using Cluster Wideband Data (WBD Plasma Wave Receiver electric field waveforms from spacecraft 2, 3 and 4 on 26 March 2002. The largest amplitude Langmuir waves were observed by Cluster near the boundary between the foreshock and solar wind, in agreement with earlier studies. The characteristics of the waves were similar for all three spacecraft, suggesting that variations in foreshock structure must occur on scales greater than the 50-100km spacecraft separations. The electric field amplitude probability distributions constructed using waveforms from the Cluster WBD Plasma Wave Receiver generally followed the log-normal statistics predicted by stochastic growth theory for the event studied. Comparison with WBD receiver data from 17 February 2002, when spacecraft 4 was set in a special manual gain mode, suggests non-optimal auto-ranging of the instrument may have had some influence on the statistics.
The influence of multiple ion species on Alfven wave dispersion and Alfven wave plasma heating
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Elfimov, A.G.; Tataronis, J.A.; Hershkowitz, N.
1994-01-01
In this paper, the effects of light impurities, such as deuterium, helium, or carbon, on Alfven wave dispersion characteristics are explored. It is shown that a small population of light impurities in a hydrogen plasma modify the dispersion of the global Alfven waves and the Alfven continuum in such a way that the wave frequency depends weakly on the toroidal wave number. It is also shown that the global Alfven wave enters into the Alfven continuum. Under these conditions, it is possible to heat plasma efficiently by employing an antenna with a broad toroidal wavelength spectrum. The relationship between impurity concentration and the efficiency of Alfven wave heating is explored. Under appropriate conditions, the results indicate that in the presence of impurities, Alfven waves can heat electrons predominantly in the central part of the plasma. This effect is explored via a series of numerical calculations of the heating specifically for the Phaedrus-T Alfven wave heating experiment [Phys. Fluids B 5, 2506 (1993)
Waves and instabilities in noneutral plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Davidson, R.C.
1989-01-01
This paper presents a survey of the equilibrium, stability and collective oscillation properties of magnetically-confined nonneutral plasmas. Emphasis is placed on summarizing several of the technical advances that have occurred in both theory and experiment since the early 1970's. 97 refs., 26 figs
Nonlinear plasma waves excitation by intense ion beams in background plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kaganovich, Igor D.; Startsev, Edward A.; Davidson, Ronald C.
2004-01-01
Plasma neutralization of an intense ion pulse is of interest for many applications, including plasma lenses, heavy ion fusion, cosmic ray propagation, etc. An analytical electron fluid model has been developed to describe the plasma response to a propagating ion beam. The model predicts very good charge neutralization during quasi-steady-state propagation, provided the beam pulse duration τ b is much longer than the electron plasma period 2π/ω p , where ω p =(4πe 2 n p /m) 1/2 is the electron plasma frequency, and n p is the background plasma density. In the opposite limit, the beam pulse excites large-amplitude plasma waves. If the beam density is larger than the background plasma density, the plasma waves break. Theoretical predictions are compared with the results of calculations utilizing a particle-in-cell (PIC) code. The cold electron fluid results agree well with the PIC simulations for ion beam propagation through a background plasma. The reduced fluid description derived in this paper can provide an important benchmark for numerical codes and yield scaling relations for different beam and plasma parameters. The visualization of numerical simulation data shows complex collective phenomena during beam entry and exit from the plasma
Nonlinear Plasma Waves Excitation by Intense Ion Beams in Background Plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kaganovich, Igor D.; Startsev, Edward A.; Davidson, Ronald C.
2004-01-01
Plasma neutralization of an intense ion pulse is of interest for many applications, including plasma lenses, heavy ion fusion, cosmic ray propagation, etc. An analytical electron fluid model has been developed to describe the plasma response to a propagating ion beam. The model predicts very good charge neutralization during quasi-steady-state propagation, provided the beam pulse duration τ b is much longer than the electron plasma period 2π/ω p , where ω p = (4πe 2 n p /m) 1/2 is the electron plasma frequency and n p is the background plasma density. In the opposite limit, the beam pulse excites large-amplitude plasma waves. If the beam density is larger than the background plasma density, the plasma waves break. Theoretical predictions are compared with the results of calculations utilizing a particle-in-cell (PIC) code. The cold electron fluid results agree well with the PIC simulations for ion beam propagation through a background plasma. The reduced fluid description derived in this paper can provide an important benchmark for numerical codes and yield scaling relations for different beam and plasma parameters. The visualization of numerical simulation data shows complex collective phenomena during beam entry and exit from the plasma
Supersonic propagation of ionization waves in an underdense, laser-produced plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Constantin, C.; Back, C.A.; Fournier, K.B.; Gregori, G.; Landen, O.L.; Glenzer, S.H.; Dewald, E.L.; Miller, M.C.
2005-01-01
A laser-driven supersonic ionization wave propagating through a millimeter-scale plasma of subcritical density up to 2-3 keV electron temperatures was observed. Propagation velocities initially ten times the sound speed were measured by means of time-resolved x-ray imaging diagnostics. The measured ionization wave trajectory is modeled analytically and by a two-dimensional radiation-hydrodynamics code. The comparison to the modeling suggests that nonlocal heat transport effects may contribute to the attenuation of the heat-wave propagation
Start-up of plasma current by electron Bernstein wave
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Maekawa, Takashi; Tanaka, Hitoshi; Uehide, Masaki
2009-01-01
Electron cyclotron current drive by electron Bernstein (EB) waves for the start-up and ramp-up of toroidal plasma current with no central solenoid in tokamaks is discussed. It is shown that high N// EB waves have ability to ramp-up the current against the counter voltage from self-induction, where N// is the parallel refractive index to the magnetic field, and they are especially suitable for initial current start-up phase where the bulk electron temperature is low enough to ensure high N// EB waves. (author)
Linear wave propagation in a hot axisymmetric toroidal plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jaun, A.
1995-03-01
Kinetic effects on the propagation of the Alfven wave are studied for the first time in a toroidal plasma relevant for experiments. This requires the resolution of a set of coupled partial differential equations whose coefficients depend locally on the plasma parameters. For this purpose, a numerical wave propagation code called PENN has been developed using either a bilinear or a bicubic Hermite finite element discretization. It solves Maxwell's equations in toroidal geometry, with a dielectric tensor operator that takes into account the linear response of the plasma. Two different models have been implemented and can be used comparatively to describe the same physical case: the first treats the plasma as resistive fluids and gives results which are in good agreement with toroidal fluid codes. The second is a kinetic model and takes into account the finite size of the Larmor radii; it has successfully been tested against a kinetic plasma model in cylindrical geometry. New results have been obtained when studying kinetic effects in toroidal geometry. Two different conversion mechanisms to the kinetic Alfven wave have been described: one occurs at toroidally coupled resonant surfaces and is the kinetic counterpart of the fluid models' resonance absorption. The other has no such correspondence and results directly from the toroidal coupling between the kinetic Alfven wave and the global wavefield. An analysis of a heating scenario suggests that it might be difficult to heat a plasma with Alfven waves up to temperatures that are relevant for a tokamak reactor. Kinetic effects are studied for three types of global Alfven modes (GAE, TAE, BAE) and a new class of kinetic eigenmodes is described which appear inside the fluid gap: it could be related to recent observations in the JET (Joint European Torus) tokamak. (author) 56 figs., 6 tabs., 58 refs
Linear wave propagation in a hot axisymmetric toroidal plasma
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jaun, A [Ecole Polytechnique Federale, Lausanne (Switzerland). Centre de Recherche en Physique des Plasma (CRPP)
1995-03-01
Kinetic effects on the propagation of the Alfven wave are studied for the first time in a toroidal plasma relevant for experiments. This requires the resolution of a set of coupled partial differential equations whose coefficients depend locally on the plasma parameters. For this purpose, a numerical wave propagation code called PENN has been developed using either a bilinear or a bicubic Hermite finite element discretization. It solves Maxwell`s equations in toroidal geometry, with a dielectric tensor operator that takes into account the linear response of the plasma. Two different models have been implemented and can be used comparatively to describe the same physical case: the first treats the plasma as resistive fluids and gives results which are in good agreement with toroidal fluid codes. The second is a kinetic model and takes into account the finite size of the Larmor radii; it has successfully been tested against a kinetic plasma model in cylindrical geometry. New results have been obtained when studying kinetic effects in toroidal geometry. Two different conversion mechanisms to the kinetic Alfven wave have been described: one occurs at toroidally coupled resonant surfaces and is the kinetic counterpart of the fluid models` resonance absorption. The other has no such correspondence and results directly from the toroidal coupling between the kinetic Alfven wave and the global wavefield. An analysis of a heating scenario suggests that it might be difficult to heat a plasma with Alfven waves up to temperatures that are relevant for a tokamak reactor. Kinetic effects are studied for three types of global Alfven modes (GAE, TAE, BAE) and a new class of kinetic eigenmodes is described which appear inside the fluid gap: it could be related to recent observations in the JET (Joint European Torus) tokamak. (author) 56 figs., 6 tabs., 58 refs.
Shock-wave structure formation in a dusty plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Popel', S.I.; Golub', A.P.; Loseva, T.V.; Bingkhem, R.; Benkadda, S.
2001-01-01
Nonstationary problem on evolution perturbation and its transformation into nonlinear wave structure is considered. The method developed permits finding solution to the system of nonlinear evolution equations describing dust particles with variable charge, Boltzmann electron and inertia ions. An accurate stationary solution as ion-sonic wave structures explained by anomalous dissipation due to electric discharge of dust particles was found. Evolution of two types of initial perturbations was studied, i.e.: soliton and immobile region with increased density of ions - a step. Soliton evolution in plasma with variable charge of dust particles results in the appearance on nonstationary shock-wave structure, whereas the step evolution gives rise to appearance of a shock wave similar to the stationary one along with rarefaction wave [ru
Plasma wave instabilities in nonequilibrium graphene
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Aryal, Chinta M.; Hu, Ben Yu-Kuang; Jauho, Antti-Pekka
2016-01-01
We study two-stream instabilities in a nonequilibrium system in which a stream of electrons is injected into doped graphene. As with equivalent nonequilibrium parabolic band systems, we find that the graphene systems can support unstable charge-density waves whose amplitudes grow with time. We...... of the injected electrons that maximizes the growth rate increases with increasing | q |. We compare the range and strength of the instability in graphene to that of two- and three-dimensional parabolic band systems....
Electron Landau damping of ion Bernstein waves in tokamak plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brambilla, M.
1998-01-01
Absorption of ion Bernstein (IB) waves by electrons is investigated. These waves are excited by linear mode conversion in tokamak plasmas during fast wave (FW) heating and current drive experiments in the ion cyclotron range of frequencies. Near mode conversion, electromagnetic corrections to the local dispersion relation largely suppress electron Landau damping of these waves, which becomes important again, however, when their wavelength is comparable to the ion Larmor radius or shorter. The small Larmor radius wave equations solved by most numerical codes do not correctly describe the onset of electron Landau damping at very short wavelengths, and these codes, therefore, predict very little damping of IB waves, in contrast to what one would expect from the local dispersion relation. We present a heuristic, but quantitatively accurate, model which allows account to be taken of electron Landau damping of IB waves in such codes, without affecting the damping of the compressional wave or the efficiency of mode conversion. The possibilities and limitations of this approach are discussed on the basis of a few examples, obtained by implementing this model in the toroidal axisymmetric full wave code TORIC. (author)
Contribution to the electron density diagnostics of a plasma by means of three-wave interferometry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Says, L.P.
1988-01-01
Plasma use can be considered as an acceleration technique but a high precision diagnostic is necessary. This can be provided by refractive index determination. A three wave interferometer gives an accuracy in the range of a few nanometers in optical path measurements. Such an apparatus has been designed, built and tested on a discharge plasma, previously diagnosed by conventional methods. Results are in good agreement and the expected accuracy is achieved [fr
Interaction of High Intensity Electromagnetic Waves with Plasmas: Final Report
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shvets, G.
2008-01-01
The focus of our work during the duration of this grant was on the following areas: (a) the fundamental plasma physics of intense laser-plasma interactions, including the nonlinear excitation of plasma waves for accelerator applications, as well as the recently discovered by us phenomenon of the relativistic bi-stability of relativistic plasma waves driven by a laser beatwave; (b) interaction of high power microwave beams with magnetized plasma, including some of the recently discovered by us phenomena such as the Undulator Induced Transparency (UIT) as well as the new approaches to dynamic manipulation of microwave pulses; (c) investigations of the multi-color laser pulse interactions in the plasma, including the recently discovered by us phenomenon of Electromagnetic Cascading (EC) and the effect of the EC of three-dimensional dynamics of laser pulses (enhanced/suppressed selffocusing etc.); (d) interaction of high-current electron beams with the ambient plasma in the context of Fast Ignitor (FI) physics, with the emphasis on the nonlinear dynamics of the Weibel instability and beam filamentation.
First results from the Cluster wideband plasma wave investigation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
D. A. Gurnett
2001-09-01
Full Text Available In this report we present the first results from the Cluster wideband plasma wave investigation. The four Cluster spacecraft were successfully placed in closely spaced, high-inclination eccentric orbits around the Earth during two separate launches in July – August 2000. Each spacecraft includes a wideband plasma wave instrument designed to provide high-resolution electric and magnetic field wave-forms via both stored data and direct downlinks to the NASA Deep Space Network. Results are presented for three commonly occurring magnetospheric plasma wave phenomena: (1 whistlers, (2 chorus, and (3 auroral kilometric radiation. Lightning-generated whistlers are frequently observed when the spacecraft is inside the plasmasphere. Usually the same whistler can be detected by all spacecraft, indicating that the whistler wave packet extends over a spatial dimension at least as large as the separation distances transverse to the magnetic field, which during these observations were a few hundred km. This is what would be expected for nonducted whistler propagation. No case has been found in which a strong whistler was detected at one spacecraft, with no signal at the other spacecraft, which would indicate ducted propagation. Whistler-mode chorus emissions are also observed in the inner region of the magnetosphere. In contrast to lightning-generated whistlers, the individual chorus elements seldom show a one-to-one correspondence between the spacecraft, indicating that a typical chorus wave packet has dimensions transverse to the magnetic field of only a few hundred km or less. In one case where a good one-to-one correspondence existed, significant frequency variations were observed between the spacecraft, indicating that the frequency of the wave packet may be evolving as the wave propagates. Auroral kilometric radiation, which is an intense radio emission generated along the auroral field lines, is frequently observed over the polar regions. The
First results from the Cluster wideband plasma wave investigation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
D. A. Gurnett
Full Text Available In this report we present the first results from the Cluster wideband plasma wave investigation. The four Cluster spacecraft were successfully placed in closely spaced, high-inclination eccentric orbits around the Earth during two separate launches in July – August 2000. Each spacecraft includes a wideband plasma wave instrument designed to provide high-resolution electric and magnetic field wave-forms via both stored data and direct downlinks to the NASA Deep Space Network. Results are presented for three commonly occurring magnetospheric plasma wave phenomena: (1 whistlers, (2 chorus, and (3 auroral kilometric radiation. Lightning-generated whistlers are frequently observed when the spacecraft is inside the plasmasphere. Usually the same whistler can be detected by all spacecraft, indicating that the whistler wave packet extends over a spatial dimension at least as large as the separation distances transverse to the magnetic field, which during these observations were a few hundred km. This is what would be expected for nonducted whistler propagation. No case has been found in which a strong whistler was detected at one spacecraft, with no signal at the other spacecraft, which would indicate ducted propagation. Whistler-mode chorus emissions are also observed in the inner region of the magnetosphere. In contrast to lightning-generated whistlers, the individual chorus elements seldom show a one-to-one correspondence between the spacecraft, indicating that a typical chorus wave packet has dimensions transverse to the magnetic field of only a few hundred km or less. In one case where a good one-to-one correspondence existed, significant frequency variations were observed between the spacecraft, indicating that the frequency of the wave packet may be evolving as the wave propagates. Auroral kilometric radiation, which is an intense radio emission generated along the auroral field lines, is frequently observed over the polar regions. The
Quantum ion-acoustic solitary waves in weak relativistic plasma
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Abstract. Small amplitude quantum ion-acoustic solitary waves are studied in an unmagnetized two- species relativistic quantum plasma system, comprised of electrons and ions. The one-dimensional quantum hydrodynamic model (QHD) is used to obtain a deformed Korteweg–de Vries (dKdV) equation by reductive ...
A relativistic solitary wave in electron positron plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Berezhiani, V.I.; Skarka, V.; Mahajan, S.
1993-09-01
The relativistic solitary wave propagation is studied in cold electron-positron plasma embedded in an external arbitrary strong magnetic field. The exact, analytical soliton-like solution corresponding to a localized, purely electromagnetic pulse with arbitrary big amplitude is found. (author). 7 refs, 1 fig
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Inutake, Masaaki; Ando, Akira
2007-01-01
Fast plasma flow is produced by Magneto-Plasma-Dynamic Arcjet (MPDA). The properties of fast flow and shock wave in various magnetic channels are reported by the experiment results. Fast plasma flow by MPDA, shocked flow in the magnetic channel, supersonic plasma flow in the divergence magnetic nozzle, ion acoustic wave in the mirror field, transonic flow and sonic throat in the magnetic Laval nozzle, fast flow in the helical magnetic channel, and future subjects are reported. Formation of the supersonic plasma flow by the divergence magnetic nozzle and effects of background gas, helical-kink instability in the fast plasma jet, and formation of convergence magnetic nozzle near outlet are described. From the phase difference of azimuthal and axial probe array signals, the plasma has twisted structure and it rotates in the same direction of the twist. Section of MPDA, principle of magnetic acceleration of MPDA, HITOP, relation among velocities, temperature, and Mach number of He ion and atom and the discharge current, distribution of magnetic-flux density in the direction of electromagnetic field, measurement of magnetic field near MPDA exit are illustrated. (S.Y.)
Studies of hydromagnetic waves and oscillations in plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sawley, M.L.
1980-10-01
Small amplitude magnetoacoustic oscillations in a partially ionized, non-uniform, current carrying plasma column of finite beta are considered. The linearized magnetohydrodynamic equations are used to develop a theory describing both free and forced magnetoacoustic oscillations. The results of numerical calculations are given for the specific case of diffuse pinch equilibrium configurations. In an experimental study the amplitude of the oscillating axial magnetic flux is determined for several frequencies in the vicinity of the first magnetoacoustic resonance. Accurate determination of the plasma density profile is shown to be possible. Finite-amplitude effects on the propagation of axisymmetric hydromagnetic waves are examined. A nonlinear theory is developed which describes the second-order perturbation that accompanies the primary wave. The influence of Hall currents and the presence of neutral atoms on the second-order fields is treated. In an investigation on the propagation of torsional waves the observed second-order fields are shown to exhibit good quantitative agreement with theoretical calculations for moderate primary wave amplitudes. The re-ionization of the plasma by a torsional wave is investigated. A theoretical description is given of the nonlinear excitation of magnetoacoustic oscillations by means of an oscillating axial current
Acoustic nonlinear periodic waves in pair-ion plasmas
Mahmood, Shahzad; Kaladze, Tamaz; Ur-Rehman, Hafeez
2013-09-01
Electrostatic acoustic nonlinear periodic (cnoidal) waves and solitons are investigated in unmagnetized pair-ion plasmas consisting of same mass and oppositely charged ion species with different temperatures. Using reductive perturbation method and appropriate boundary conditions, the Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation is derived. The analytical solutions of both cnoidal wave and soliton solutions are discussed in detail. The phase plane plots of cnoidal and soliton structures are shown. It is found that both compressive and rarefactive cnoidal wave and soliton structures are formed depending on the temperature ratio of positive and negative ions in pair-ion plasmas. In the special case, it is revealed that the amplitude of soliton may become larger than it is allowed by the nonlinear stationary wave theory which is equal to the quantum tunneling by particle through a potential barrier effect. The serious flaws in the earlier published results by Yadav et al., [PRE 52, 3045 (1995)] and Chawla and Misra [Phys. Plasmas 17, 102315 (2010)] of studying ion acoustic nonlinear periodic waves are also pointed out.
Compressional wave events in the dawn plasma sheet observed by Interball-1
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
O. Verkhoglyadova
1999-09-01
Full Text Available Compressional waves with periods greater than 2 min (about 10-30 min at low geomagnetic latitudes, namely compressional Pc5 waves, are studied. The data set obtained with magnetometer MIF-M and plasma analyzer instrument CORALL on board the Interball-1 are analyzed. Measurements performed in October 1995 and October 1996 in the dawn plasma sheet at -30 RE ≤ XGSM and |ZGSM| ≤ 10 RE are considered. Anti-phase variations of magnetic field and ion plasma pressures are analyzed by searching for morphological similarities in the two time series. It is found that longitudinal and transverse magnetic field variations with respect to the background magnetic field are of the same order of magnitude. Plasma velocities are processed for each time period of the local dissimilarity in the pressure time series. Velocity disturbances occur mainly transversely to the local field line. The data reveal the rotation of the velocity vector. Because of the field line curvature, there is no fixed position of the rotational plane in the space. These vortices are localized in the regions of anti-phase variations of the magnetic field and plasma pressures, and the vortical flows are associated with the compressional Pc5 wave process. A theoretical model is proposed to explain the main features of the nonlinear wave processes. Our main goal is to study coupling of drift Alfven wave and magnetosonic wave in a warm inhomogeneous plasma. A vortex is the partial solution of the set of the equations when the compression is neglected. A compression effect gives rise to a nonlinear soliton-like solution.Key words. Magnetosphere physics (magnetotail · Space plasma physics (kinetic and MHD theory; non-linear phenomena
Self-consistent Langmuir waves in resonantly driven thermal plasmas
Lindberg, R. R.; Charman, A. E.; Wurtele, J. S.
2007-12-01
The longitudinal dynamics of a resonantly driven Langmuir wave are analyzed in the limit that the growth of the electrostatic wave is slow compared to the bounce frequency. Using simple physical arguments, the nonlinear distribution function is shown to be nearly invariant in the canonical particle action, provided both a spatially uniform term and higher-order spatial harmonics are included along with the fundamental in the longitudinal electric field. Requirements of self-consistency with the electrostatic potential yield the basic properties of the nonlinear distribution function, including a frequency shift that agrees closely with driven, electrostatic particle simulations over a range of temperatures. This extends earlier work on nonlinear Langmuir waves by Morales and O'Neil [G. J. Morales and T. M. O'Neil, Phys. Rev. Lett. 28, 417 (1972)] and Dewar [R. L. Dewar, Phys. Plasmas 15, 712 (1972)], and could form the basis of a reduced kinetic treatment of plasma dynamics for accelerator applications or Raman backscatter.
Self-consistent Langmuir waves in resonantly driven thermal plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lindberg, R. R.; Charman, A. E.; Wurtele, J. S.
2007-01-01
The longitudinal dynamics of a resonantly driven Langmuir wave are analyzed in the limit that the growth of the electrostatic wave is slow compared to the bounce frequency. Using simple physical arguments, the nonlinear distribution function is shown to be nearly invariant in the canonical particle action, provided both a spatially uniform term and higher-order spatial harmonics are included along with the fundamental in the longitudinal electric field. Requirements of self-consistency with the electrostatic potential yield the basic properties of the nonlinear distribution function, including a frequency shift that agrees closely with driven, electrostatic particle simulations over a range of temperatures. This extends earlier work on nonlinear Langmuir waves by Morales and O'Neil [G. J. Morales and T. M. O'Neil, Phys. Rev. Lett. 28, 417 (1972)] and Dewar [R. L. Dewar, Phys. Plasmas 15, 712 (1972)], and could form the basis of a reduced kinetic treatment of plasma dynamics for accelerator applications or Raman backscatter
Nonextensive dust acoustic waves in a charge varying dusty plasma
Bacha, Mustapha; Tribeche, Mouloud
2012-01-01
Our recent analysis on nonlinear nonextensive dust-acoustic waves (DA) [Amour and Tribeche in Phys. Plasmas 17:063702, 2010] is extended to include self-consistent nonadiabatic grain charge fluctuation. The appropriate nonextensive electron charging current is rederived based on the orbit-limited motion theory. Our results reveal that the amplitude, strength and nature of the nonlinear DA waves (solitons and shocks) are extremely sensitive to the degree of ion nonextensivity. Stronger is the electron correlation, more important is the charge variation induced nonlinear wave damping. The anomalous dissipation effects may prevail over that dispersion as the electrons evolve far away from their Maxwellian equilibrium. Our investigation may be of wide relevance to astronomers and space scientists working on interstellar dusty plasmas where nonthermal distributions are turning out to be a very common and characteristic feature.
Nonlinear electrostatic solitary waves in electron-positron plasmas
Lazarus, I. J.; Bharuthram, R.; Moolla, S.; Singh, S. V.; Lakhina, G. S.
2016-02-01
The generation of nonlinear electrostatic solitary waves (ESWs) is explored in a magnetized four component two-temperature electron-positron plasma. Fluid theory is used to derive a set of nonlinear equations for the ESWs, which propagate obliquely to an external magnetic field. The electric field structures are examined for various plasma parameters and are shown to yield sinusoidal, sawtooth and bipolar waveforms. It is found that an increase in the densities of the electrons and positrons strengthen the nonlinearity while the periodicity and nonlinearity of the wave increases as the cool-to-hot temperature ratio increases. Our results could be useful in understanding nonlinear propagation of waves in astrophysical environments and related laboratory experiments.
Nonlinear acoustic waves in partially ionized collisional plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rao, N.N.; Kaup, D.J.; Shukla, P.K.
1991-01-01
Nonlinear propagation of acoustic-type waves in a partially ionized three-component collisional plasma consisting of electrons, ions and neutral particles is investigated. For bidirectional propagation, it is shown that the small- but finite-amplitude waves are governed by the Boussinesq equation, which for unidirectional propagation near the acoustic speed reduces to the usual Korteweg-de Vries equation. For large-amplitude waves, it is demonstrated that the relevant fluid equations are integrable in a stationary frame, and the parameter values for the existence of finite-amplitude solutions are explicitly obtained. In both cases, the different temperatures of the individual species, are taken into account. The relevance of the results to the earth's ionospheric plasma in the lower altitude ranges is pointed out. (author)
Revisiting linear plasma waves for finite value of the plasma parameter
Grismayer, Thomas; Fahlen, Jay; Decyk, Viktor; Mori, Warren
2010-11-01
We investigate through theory and PIC simulations the Landau-damping of plasma waves with finite plasma parameter. We concentrate on the linear regime, γφB, where the waves are typically small and below the thermal noise. We simulate these condition using 1,2,3D electrostatic PIC codes (BEPS), noting that modern computers now allow us to simulate cases where (nλD^3 = [1e2;1e6]). We study these waves by using a subtraction technique in which two simulations are carried out. In the first, a small wave is initialized or driven, in the second no wave is excited. The results are subtracted to provide a clean signal that can be studied. As nλD^3 is decreased, the number of resonant electrons can be small for linear waves. We show how the damping changes as a result of having few resonant particles. We also find that for small nλD^3 fluctuations can cause the electrons to undergo collisions that eventually destroy the initial wave. A quantity of interest is the the life time of a particular mode which depends on the plasma parameter and the wave number. The life time is estimated and then compared with the numerical results. A surprising result is that even for large values of nλD^3 some non-Vlasov discreteness effects appear to be important.
Waves in plasmas: Highlights from the past and present
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stix, T.H.
1990-03-01
To illustrate the development of some fundamental concepts in plasma waves, a number of experimental observations, going back over half a century, are reviewed. Particular attention is paid to the phenomena of dispersion, collisionfree damping, ray trajectories, amplitude transport, plasma wave echos, finite-Larmor-radius and cyclotron and cyclotron-harmonic effects, nonlocal response, and mode conversion. Also to the straight, trajectory approximation and two-level phase mixing. And to quasilinear diffusion and its relation to radiofrequency heating, current drive and induced neoclassical transport, and to stochasticity and superadiabaticity. One notes not only the constructive interplay between experiment and theory but also that major advances have come from each of the many disciplines that invoke plasma physics as a tool, including radio communication, astrophysics, controlled fusion, space physics, and basic research. 47 refs., 33 figs
Experimental high power plasma-filled backward wave oscillator results
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Minami, K.; Lou, W.R.; Destler, W.W.; Kehs, R.A.; Granatstein, V.L.; Carmel, Y.
1988-01-01
Previous results have indicated that a background gas can be used to increase the output microwave power of relativistic backward wave oscillators (BWOs) two or three times the vacuum case. In their experiments, two methods of plasma production are investigated in detail: the use of the electron beam to ionize a background gas, and the use of a plasma gun to inject a background plasma into the slow-wave structure of a BWO. It is found in the first case that there was a resonant increase in microwave power at a particular pressure of the background gas by a factor of ten. In the second case, power also increased compared with power production in vacuum. Detailed results are presented and the relative merits of the two approaches is discussed and compared with theoretical expectations
Measurements of Wave Power in Wave Energy Converter Effectiveness Evaluation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Berins J.
2017-08-01
Full Text Available The article is devoted to the technical solution of alternative budget measuring equipment of the water surface gravity wave oscillation and the theoretical justification of the calculated oscillation power. This solution combines technologies such as lasers, WEB-camera image digital processing, interpolation of defined function at irregular intervals, volatility of discrete Fourier transformation for calculating the spectrum.
Measurements of Wave Power in Wave Energy Converter Effectiveness Evaluation
Berins, J.; Berins, J.; Kalnacs, A.
2017-08-01
The article is devoted to the technical solution of alternative budget measuring equipment of the water surface gravity wave oscillation and the theoretical justification of the calculated oscillation power. This solution combines technologies such as lasers, WEB-camera image digital processing, interpolation of defined function at irregular intervals, volatility of discrete Fourier transformation for calculating the spectrum.
Evidence of a plume on Europa from Galileo magnetic and plasma wave signatures
Jia, Xianzhe; Kivelson, Margaret G.; Khurana, Krishan K.; Kurth, William S.
2018-05-01
The icy surface of Jupiter's moon, Europa, is thought to lie on top of a global ocean1-4. Signatures in some Hubble Space Telescope images have been associated with putative water plumes rising above Europa's surface5,6, providing support for the ocean theory. However, all telescopic detections reported were made at the limit of sensitivity of the data5-7, thereby calling for a search for plume signatures in in-situ measurements. Here, we report in-situ evidence of a plume on Europa from the magnetic field and plasma wave observations acquired on Galileo's closest encounter with the moon. During this flyby, which dropped below 400 km altitude, the magnetometer8 recorded an approximately 1,000-kilometre-scale field rotation and a decrease of over 200 nT in field magnitude, and the Plasma Wave Spectrometer9 registered intense localized wave emissions indicative of a brief but substantial increase in plasma density. We show that the location, duration and variations of the magnetic field and plasma wave measurements are consistent with the interaction of Jupiter's corotating plasma with Europa if a plume with characteristics inferred from Hubble images were erupting from the region of Europa's thermal anomalies. These results provide strong independent evidence of the presence of plumes at Europa.
Evidence of a plume on Europa from Galileo magnetic and plasma wave signatures
Jia, Xianzhe; Kivelson, Margaret G.; Khurana, Krishan K.; Kurth, William S.
2018-06-01
The icy surface of Jupiter's moon, Europa, is thought to lie on top of a global ocean1-4. Signatures in some Hubble Space Telescope images have been associated with putative water plumes rising above Europa's surface5,6, providing support for the ocean theory. However, all telescopic detections reported were made at the limit of sensitivity of the data5-7, thereby calling for a search for plume signatures in in-situ measurements. Here, we report in-situ evidence of a plume on Europa from the magnetic field and plasma wave observations acquired on Galileo's closest encounter with the moon. During this flyby, which dropped below 400 km altitude, the magnetometer8 recorded an approximately 1,000-kilometre-scale field rotation and a decrease of over 200 nT in field magnitude, and the Plasma Wave Spectrometer9 registered intense localized wave emissions indicative of a brief but substantial increase in plasma density. We show that the location, duration and variations of the magnetic field and plasma wave measurements are consistent with the interaction of Jupiter's corotating plasma with Europa if a plume with characteristics inferred from Hubble images were erupting from the region of Europa's thermal anomalies. These results provide strong independent evidence of the presence of plumes at Europa.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Matsuda, Y.; Crawford, F.W.
1975-01-01
An economical low-noise plasma simulation model originated by Denavit is applied to a series of problems associated with electrostatic wave propagation in a one-dimensional, collisionless, Maxwellian plasma, in the absence of magnetic field. The model is described and tested, first in the absence of an applied signal, and then with a small amplitude perturbation. These tests serve to establish the low-noise features of the model, and to verify the theoretical linear dispersion relation at wave energy levels as low as 10 -6 of the plasma thermal energy: Better quantitative results are obtained, for comparable computing time, than can be obtained by conventional particle simulation models, or direct solution of the Vlasov equation. The method is then used to study propagation of an essentially monochromatic plane wave. Results on amplitude oscillation and nonlinear frequency shift are compared with available theories
Solitary Langmuir waves in two-electron temperature plasma
Prudkikh, V. V.; Prudkikh
2014-06-01
Nonlinear interaction of Langmuir and ion-acoustic waves in two-electron temperature plasma is investigated. New integrable wave interaction regime was discovered, this regime corresponds to the Langmuir soliton with three-hump amplitude, propagating with a speed close to the ion-sound speed in the conditions of strong non-isothermality of electronic components. It was discovered that besides the known analytical solution in the form of one- and two-hump waves, there exists a range of solutions in the form of solitary waves, which in the form of envelope has multi-peak structure and differs from the standard profiles described by hyperbolic functions. In case of fixed plasma parameters, different group velocities correspond to the waves with different number of peaks. It is found that the Langmuir wave package contains both even and uneven numbers of oscillations. Low-frequency potential here has uneven number of peaks. Interrelation of obtained and known earlier results are also discussed.
Plasma waves and electric discharges induced by a beam from a high-latitude satellite
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kuns, G.; Koen, G.
1985-01-01
Using P78-2 satellite measurements of characteristics of space probe charging in synchronous orbit are carried out. A particle beam generation system including electron and ion guns was part of the satellite equipment. Electric charge analyser placed aboard the satellite in course of electron and ion beam generation recorded plasma waves and electric discharges
A flowing plasma model to describe drift waves in a cylindrical helicon discharge
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chang, L.; Hole, M. J.; Corr, C. S.
2011-01-01
A two-fluid model developed originally to describe wave oscillations in the vacuum arc centrifuge, a cylindrical, rapidly rotating, low temperature, and confined plasma column, is applied to interpret plasma oscillations in a RF generated linear magnetized plasma [WOMBAT (waves on magnetized beams and turbulence)], with similar density and field strength. Compared to typical centrifuge plasmas, WOMBAT plasmas have slower normalized rotation frequency, lower temperature, and lower axial velocity. Despite these differences, the two-fluid model provides a consistent description of the WOMBAT plasma configuration and yields qualitative agreement between measured and predicted wave oscillation frequencies with axial field strength. In addition, the radial profile of the density perturbation predicted by this model is consistent with the data. Parameter scans show that the dispersion curve is sensitive to the axial field strength and the electron temperature, and the dependence of oscillation frequency with electron temperature matches the experiment. These results consolidate earlier claims that the density and floating potential oscillations are a resistive drift mode, driven by the density gradient. To our knowledge, this is the first detailed physics model of flowing plasmas in the diffusion region away from the RF source. Possible extensions to the model, including temperature nonuniformity and magnetic field oscillations, are also discussed.
Probing a dusty magnetized plasma with self-excited dust-density waves
Tadsen, Benjamin; Greiner, Franko; Piel, Alexander
2018-03-01
A cloud of nanodust particles is created in a reactive argon-acetylene plasma. It is then transformed into a dusty magnetized argon plasma. Plasma parameters are obtained with the dust-density wave diagnostic introduced by Tadsen et al. [Phys. Plasmas 22, 113701 (2015), 10.1063/1.4934927]. A change from an open to a cylindrically enclosed nanodust cloud, which was observed earlier, can now be explained by a stronger electric confinement if a vertical magnetic field is present. Using two-dimensional extinction measurements and the inverse Abel transform to determine the dust density, a redistribution of the dust with increasing magnetic induction is found. The dust-density profile changes from being peaked around the central void to being peaked at an outer torus ring resulting in a hollow profile. As the plasma parameters cannot explain this behavior, we propose a rotation of the nanodust cloud in the magnetized plasma as the origin of the modified profile.
Prospects for ion temperature measurements in JET by Thomson scattering of submillimetre waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Whitbourn, L.B.
1975-03-01
The Thomson scattering of submillimeter waves is envisaged as a possible means for measuring the ion temperature of the JET plasma. The present discussion is principally concerned with the practical limitations imposed to the method by the availability of high power pulsed sources and sensitive detectors and noise due to plasma emission at submillimeter wavelengths (bremsstrahlung and electron cyclotron emission). Coherent scattering from plasma wave (e.g. ion acoustic waves and electron drift waves) with millimeter and submillimeter waves are considered briefly. Further suitable development of lasers and heterodyne detectors would make such measurements possible. A pulsed HCN laser associated with a detectors with a lower heterodyne noise equivalent power could then be used to advantage. For scattering with CH 3 F laser the NEP of a Josephson junction would be adequate because a relatively high level of plasma emission is expected at 496 μm [fr
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tsujii, N.; Porkolab, M.; Bonoli, P. T.; Lin, Y.; Wright, J. C.; Wukitch, S. J.; Jaeger, E. F.; Green, D. L.; Harvey, R. W.
2012-01-01
Radio frequency waves in the ion cyclotron range of frequencies (ICRF) are widely used to heat tokamak plasmas. In ICRF heating schemes involving multiple ion species, the launched fast waves convert to ion cyclotron waves or ion Bernstein waves at the two-ion hybrid resonances. Mode converted waves are of interest as actuators to optimise plasma performance through current drive and flow drive. In order to describe these processes accurately in a realistic tokamak geometry, numerical simulations are essential, and it is important that these codes be validated against experiment. In this study, the mode converted waves were measured using a phase contrast imaging technique in D-H and D- 3 He plasmas. The measured mode converted wave intensity in the D- 3 He mode conversion regime was found to be a factor of ∼50 weaker than the full-wave predictions. The discrepancy was reduced in the hydrogen minority heating regime, where mode conversion is weaker.
Lagrangian analysis of nonlinear wave-wave interactions in bounded plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Carr, A.R.
1979-01-01
In a weakly turbulent nonlinear wave-supporting medium, one of the important nonlinear processes which may occur is resonant three-wave interaction. Whitham's averaged Lagrangian method provides a general formulation of wave evolution laws which is easily adapted to nonlinear dispersive media. In this thesis, the strength of nonlinear interactions between three coherent, axisymmetric, low frequency, magnetohydrodynamic (Alfven) waves propagating in resonance along a cold cylindrical magnetized plasma column is calculated. Both a uniform and a parabolic density distribution have been considered. To account for a non-zero plasma temperature, pressure effects have been included. Distinctive features of the work are the use of cylindrical geometry, the presence of a finite rather than an infinite axial magnetic field, the treatment of a parabolic density distribution, and the inclusion of both ion and electron contributions in all expressions. Two astrophysical applications of the presented theory have been considered. In the first, the possibility of resonant three-wave coupling between geomagnetic micropulsations, which propagate as Alfven or magnetosonic waves along the Earth's magnetic field lines, has been investigated. The second case is the theory of energy transport through the solar chromosphere by upward propagating magnetohydrodynamic waves, which may then couple to heavily damped waves in the corona, causing the observed excess heating in that region
Conditions for sustaining low-pressure plasma columns by travelling electromagnetic UHF waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Benova, E.; Zhelyazkov, I.
1997-01-01
The paper considers the conditions for sustaining low-pressure plasma columns by travelling electromagnetic waves in symmetric and dipolar modes, respectively. The treatment is fully electrodynamic. It is shown that the wave energy flux along the plasma column determines the conditions for sustaining the discharge. In particular as the plasma is sustained by a symmetric wave whose flux depends mainly on the radial distribution of the wave electric field whilst for a dipolar wave sustained plasma the flux is specified by the magnitude of the axial wave field component at the plasma-dielectric interface. (orig.)
Obliquely propagating large amplitude solitary waves in charge neutral plasmas
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
F. Verheest
2007-01-01
Full Text Available This paper deals in a consistent way with the implications, for the existence of large amplitude stationary structures in general plasmas, of assuming strict charge neutrality between electrons and ions. With the limit of pair plasmas in mind, electron inertia is retained. Combining in a fluid dynamic treatment the conservation of mass, momentum and energy with strict charge neutrality has indicated that nonlinear solitary waves (as e.g. oscillitons cannot exist in electron-ion plasmas, at no angle of propagation with respect to the static magnetic field. Specifically for oblique propagation, the proof has turned out to be more involved than for parallel or perpendicular modes. The only exception is pair plasmas that are able to support large charge neutral solitons, owing to the high degree of symmetry naturally inherent in such plasmas. The nonexistence, in particular, of oscillitons is attributed to the breakdown of the plasma approximation in dealing with Poisson's law, rather than to relativistic effects. It is hoped that future space observations will allow to discriminate between oscillitons and large wave packets, by focusing on the time variability (or not of the phase, since the amplitude or envelope graphs look very similar.
Resonance absorption of ICRF wave in edge plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sugihara, Ryo; Yamanaka, Kaoru.
1987-07-01
An edge plasma is shown to significantly absorb ICRF wave when a resonant triplet, a cutoff-resonance-cutoff triplet, is constructed in the evanescent region. Two-ion-component plasmas in a torus are considered though the plasmas are modeled by a slab in which the density changes linearly along the x-axis. The resonance is a perpendicular-ion-cyclotron resonance, i.e., an Alfven resonance, and is formed when the applied frequency ω is smaller than the local cyclotron frequency, at the edge of the antenna side, of the lighter species of ions. Roughly the absorption rate A b is given by M 2 for M 2 >> S 2 and S 4 for S 2 >> M 2 where M = k y l and S ≅ k z l and l is a scale length of the order of the plasma minor radius and k y and k z are the perpendicular and the parallel components of the wave vector. It is noted that the both quantities, M and S, readily become of the order of unity. Since A b is not very sensitive to the density ratio of the two ion species, a few percent of impurities may cause a significant absorption. As the mass ratio of the two ion species comes close to unity the triplet forms readily. Therefore a D-T plasma seems to suffer more easily this kind of resonance absorption than a D-H plasma. (author)
Full wave simulation of waves in ECRIS plasmas based on the finite element method
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Torrisi, G. [INFN - Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, via S. Sofia 62, 95123, Catania, Italy and Università Mediterranea di Reggio Calabria, Dipartimento di Ingegneria dell' Informazione, delle Infrastrutture e dell' Energia Sostenibile (DIIES), Via Graziella, I (Italy); Mascali, D.; Neri, L.; Castro, G.; Patti, G.; Celona, L.; Gammino, S.; Ciavola, G. [INFN - Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, via S. Sofia 62, 95123, Catania (Italy); Di Donato, L. [Università degli Studi di Catania, Dipartimento di Ingegneria Elettrica Elettronica ed Informatica (DIEEI), Viale Andrea Doria 6, 95125 Catania (Italy); Sorbello, G. [INFN - Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, via S. Sofia 62, 95123, Catania, Italy and Università degli Studi di Catania, Dipartimento di Ingegneria Elettrica Elettronica ed Informatica (DIEEI), Viale Andrea Doria 6, 95125 Catania (Italy); Isernia, T. [Università Mediterranea di Reggio Calabria, Dipartimento di Ingegneria dell' Informazione, delle Infrastrutture e dell' Energia Sostenibile (DIIES), Via Graziella, I-89100 Reggio Calabria (Italy)
2014-02-12
This paper describes the modeling and the full wave numerical simulation of electromagnetic waves propagation and absorption in an anisotropic magnetized plasma filling the resonant cavity of an electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS). The model assumes inhomogeneous, dispersive and tensorial constitutive relations. Maxwell's equations are solved by the finite element method (FEM), using the COMSOL Multiphysics{sup ®} suite. All the relevant details have been considered in the model, including the non uniform external magnetostatic field used for plasma confinement, the local electron density profile resulting in the full-3D non uniform magnetized plasma complex dielectric tensor. The more accurate plasma simulations clearly show the importance of cavity effect on wave propagation and the effects of a resonant surface. These studies are the pillars for an improved ECRIS plasma modeling, that is mandatory to optimize the ion source output (beam intensity distribution and charge state, especially). Any new project concerning the advanced ECRIS design will take benefit by an adequate modeling of self-consistent wave absorption simulations.
Electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves observed in the plasma depletion layer
Anderson, B. J.; Fuselier, S. A.; Murr, D.
1991-01-01
Observations from AMPTE/CCE in the earth's magnetosheath on October 5, 1984 are presented to illustrate 0.1 - 4.0 Hz magnetic field pulsations in the subsolar plasma depletion layer (PDL) for northward sheath field during a magnetospheric compression. The PDL is unambiguously identified by comparing CCE data with data from IRM in the upstream solar wind. Pulsations in the PDL are dominated by transverse waves with F/F(H+) 1.0 or less and a slot in spectral power at F/F(H+) = 0.5. The upper branch is left hand polarized while the lower branch is linearly polarized. In the sheath the proton temperature anisotropy is about 0.6 but it is about 1.7 in the PDL during wave occurrence. The properties and correlation of waves with increased anisotropy indicate that they are electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves.
Parametric Excitations of Fast Plasma Waves by Counter-propagating Laser Beams
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shvets, G.; Fisch, N.J.
2001-01-01
Short- and long-wavelength plasma waves can become strongly coupled in the presence of two counter-propagating laser pump pulses detuned by twice the cold plasma frequency. What makes this four-wave interaction important is that the growth rate of the plasma waves occurs much faster than in the more obvious co-propagating geometry
Reflection and absorption of ordinary waves in an inhomogeneous plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Croci, R.
1990-11-01
This study treats the system of Vlasov and Maxwell equations for the Fourier transform in space and time of a plasma referred to Cartesian coordinates with the coordinate z parallel to the uniform equilibrium magnetic field with the equilibrium plasma density dependent on ηx, where η is a parameter. The k y component of the wave vector is taken equal to zero, whereas k z is different from zero. When the interaction of ordinary and extraordinary waves is neglected, the Fourier transform of the electric field of the ordinary waves obeys a homogeneous integral equation with principal part integrals, which is solved in the case of weak absorption and sufficiently small η (essentially smaller than vacuum wave vector), but without limitations on the ratio of the wavelength to the Larmor radius (the usual approximation being limited to wavelengths much smaller than the Larmor radius). The reflection and transmission coefficients and the total energy absorption are given in this approximation, whereas the energy conservation theorem for the reflection and transmission coefficients in an absorption-free plasma are derived for every value of η without explicit knowledge of the solutions. Finally, a general and compact equation for the eigenvalues which does not require complex analysis and knowledge of all solutions of the dispersion relation is given. (orig.)
Cohen, Z.; Breneman, A. W.; Cattell, C. A.; Davis, L.; Grul, P.; Kersten, K.; Wilson, L. B., III
2017-12-01
Determining the role of plasma waves in providing energy dissipation at shock waves is of long-standing interest. Interplanetary (IP) shocks serve as a large database of low Mach number shocks. We examine electric field waveforms captured by the Time Domain Sampler (TDS) on the STEREO spacecraft during the ramps of IP shocks, with emphasis on captures lasting 2.1 seconds. Previous work has used captures of shorter duration (66 and 131 ms on STEREO, and 17 ms on WIND), which allowed for observation of waves with maximum (minimum) frequencies of 125 kHz (15 Hz), 62.5 kHz (8 Hz), and 60 kHz (59 Hz), respectively. The maximum frequencies are comparable to 2-8 times the plasma frequency in the solar wind, enabling observation of Langmuir waves, ion acoustic, and some whistler-mode waves. The 2 second captures resolve lower frequencies ( few Hz), which allows us to analyze packet structure of the whistler-mode waves and some ion acoustic waves. The longer capture time also improves the resolvability of simultaneous wave modes and of waves with frequencies on the order of 10s of Hz. Langmuir waves, however, cannot be identified at this sampling rate, since the plasma frequency is usually higher than 3.9 kHz. IP shocks are identified from multiple databases (Helsinki heliospheric shock database at http://ipshocks.fi, and the STEREO level 3 shock database at ftp://stereoftp.nascom.nasa.gov/pub/ins_data/impact/level3/). Our analysis focuses on TDS captures in shock ramp regions, with ramp durations determined from magnetic field data taken at 8 Hz. Software is used to identify multiple wave modes in any given capture and classify waves as Langmuir, ion acoustic, whistler, lower hybrid, electron cyclotron drift instability, or electrostatic solitary waves. Relevant frequencies are determined from density and magnetic field data collected in situ. Preliminary results suggest that large amplitude (∼ 5 mV/m) ion acoustic waves are most prevalent in the ramp, in agreement with
Study of self-excited ion acoustic waves in a plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ghoranneviss, M.H.; Agashe, V.V.
1985-01-01
Plasma oscillation were studied in spherical discharge system of different sizes: with diameters of 10, 20 and 40 cm. The self-excited ion-acoustic waves were observed, and the oscillation amplitudes were measured at different radial distances. If the discharge conditions were varied, the oscillation frequency was found varying discontinuously from mode to mode. The method used is suggested for application in plasma diagnostics as a very reliable tool for the investigation of stationary dc. low pressure plasma in the absence of external magnetic fields. (D.Gy.)
Plasma loading and wave generation for ICRH in the ST Tokamak
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Adam, J.; Getty, W.D.; Hooke, W.M.; Hosea, J.C.; Sinclair, R.M.
1974-01-01
Plasma loading and wave generation for two half-turn loops operating at 25 MHz are being investigated on the ST Tokamak at power levels up to 1 MW. The equivalent series resistance R/sub s/ = P/sub rf//I 2 /sub rf/, measured as a function of Ω = ω/ω/sub ci/(r = 0) and plasma density, is found to be in good agreement with the predictions of the cylindrical theory. R/sub s/ values as high as several ohms are obtained at high densities giving wave generation efficiencies well above 90 percent. Loading near Ω = 1 and 2 is apparently independent of power level. Measurements of B/sub zrf/ at 20 locations about the torus reveal the predicted wave generation; m = 0, +1 slow waves in the vicinity of Ω = 1, m = -1 fast waves after the expected onset (usually Ω greater than or equal to 1), and m = 0, +1 fast waves for higher Ω. Toroidal eigenmodes accompanied by large loading are detected for the fast waves when the damping lengths are long
Role of plasma equilibrium current in Alfven wave antenna optimization
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Puri, S.
1986-12-01
The modifications in the antenna loading produced by the plasma equilibrium current, the Faraday shield, and the finite electron temperature for coupling to the Alfven waves are studied using a self-consistent, three-dimensional, fully analytic periodic-loop-antenna model. The only significant changes are found to occur due to the plasma current and consist of an improved coupling (by a factor of ∝ 2.5) at low toroidal numbers (n ∝ 1-3). Despite this gain, however, the coupling to low n continues to be poor with R=0.03 Ω and Q=180 for n=2. Optimum coupling with R=0.71 Ω and Q=16.8 occurs for n=8 as was also the case in the absence of the plasma current. For the large n values, mode splitting due to the removal of the poloidal degeneracy combined with the finite electron temperatures effects lead to significant broadening of the energy absorption profile. Direct antenna coupling to the surface shear wave is small and no special provision, such as Faraday shielding, may be needed for preventing surface losses. The introduction of the Faraday screen, in fact, increases the coupling to the surface shear wave, possibly by acting as an impedance matching transformer between the antenna and the plasma. The finite electron temperature causes the predictable increase in the absorption width without influencing the antenna coupling. Thus the recommendations for antenna design for optimum coupling to the Alfven wave remain unaffected by the inclusion of the plasma current. Efficient coupling with capabilities for dynamic impedance tracking through purely electronic means may be obtained using a dense-cluster-array antenna with a toroidal configuration of n ∝ 8. (orig.)
Numerical Computation of Wave-Plasma Interactions in Multi-Dimensional Systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
D. A. D'Ippolito; J. R. Myra
2005-01-01
This project studied two kinds of nonlinear interactions between ion cyclotron range of frequency waves and fusion plasmas. A wavelet technique was also developed for analyzing the complex wave fields produced by wave propagation codes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nishida, Y.; Hirose, A.
1977-01-01
The refraction and convergence of ion acoustic waves are experimentally investigated in a magnetized plasma with an electron temperature gradient. When ion acoustic waves are launched parallel to the field lines the waves converge toward the interior of the plasma column where the electron temperature is lower, in good agreement with theoretical prediction. Wave interference is also observed. (author)
On the self-trapping of an electromagnetic wave in magnetized plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
El-Ashry, M.Y.; Berezhiani, V.I.; Pichkhadze, Sh.D.
1987-06-01
The possibility of relativistic self-trapping of an electromagnetic wave in magnetized plasma is studied. It is shown that in the case of propagation of fast wave packet of electromagnetic wave in plasma, self-trapping is possible due to the effect of relativistic non-linearity, which is effective even for small amplitudes of the pumping wave. (author). 7 refs
The Plasma Wave Experiment (PWE) on board the Arase (ERG) satellite
Kasahara, Yoshiya; Kasaba, Yasumasa; Kojima, Hirotsugu; Yagitani, Satoshi; Ishisaka, Keigo; Kumamoto, Atsushi; Tsuchiya, Fuminori; Ozaki, Mitsunori; Matsuda, Shoya; Imachi, Tomohiko; Miyoshi, Yoshizumi; Hikishima, Mitsuru; Katoh, Yuto; Ota, Mamoru; Shoji, Masafumi; Matsuoka, Ayako; Shinohara, Iku
2018-05-01
The Exploration of energization and Radiation in Geospace (ERG) project aims to study acceleration and loss mechanisms of relativistic electrons around the Earth. The Arase (ERG) satellite was launched on December 20, 2016, to explore in the heart of the Earth's radiation belt. In the present paper, we introduce the specifications of the Plasma Wave Experiment (PWE) on board the Arase satellite. In the inner magnetosphere, plasma waves, such as the whistler-mode chorus, electromagnetic ion cyclotron wave, and magnetosonic wave, are expected to interact with particles over a wide energy range and contribute to high-energy particle loss and/or acceleration processes. Thermal plasma density is another key parameter because it controls the dispersion relation of plasma waves, which affects wave-particle interaction conditions and wave propagation characteristics. The DC electric field also plays an important role in controlling the global dynamics of the inner magnetosphere. The PWE, which consists of an orthogonal electric field sensor (WPT; wire probe antenna), a triaxial magnetic sensor (MSC; magnetic search coil), and receivers named electric field detector (EFD), waveform capture and onboard frequency analyzer (WFC/OFA), and high-frequency analyzer (HFA), was developed to measure the DC electric field and plasma waves in the inner magnetosphere. Using these sensors and receivers, the PWE covers a wide frequency range from DC to 10 MHz for electric fields and from a few Hz to 100 kHz for magnetic fields. We produce continuous ELF/VLF/HF range wave spectra and ELF range waveforms for 24 h each day. We also produce spectral matrices as continuous data for wave direction finding. In addition, we intermittently produce two types of waveform burst data, "chorus burst" and "EMIC burst." We also input raw waveform data into the software-type wave-particle interaction analyzer (S-WPIA), which derives direct correlation between waves and particles. Finally, we introduce our
Gurnett, D. A.
2017-12-01
Voyager 1, which is now 140 AU (Astronomical Units) from the Sun, crossed the heliopause into interstellar space in 2012 at a heliospheric radial distance of 121 AU. Since crossing the heliopause the plasma wave instrument has on several occasions detected plasma oscillations and radio emissions at or near the electron plasma frequency. The most notable of these events occurred in Oct.-Nov. 2012, April-May 2013, Feb.-Nov. 2014, and Sept.-Nov. 2015. Most recently, a very weak emission has been observed at or near the electron plasma frequency through most of 2016. These emissions are all believed to be produced by shock waves propagating into the interstellar medium from energetic solar events. The oscillation frequency of the plasma indicates that the electron density in the interstellar plasma has gradually increased from about 0.06 cm-3 near the heliopause to about 0.12 cm-3 in the most recent data. The plasma wave instrument also continues to detect impacts of what are believed to be interstellar dust grains at an impact rate of a few per year. Comparisons with Ulysses observations of similar interstellar dust near 5 AU suggest that the dust grains have sizes in the range from about 0.1 to 1 micrometer. Although the statistics are poor due to the low count rate, the dust flux observed in the outer heliosphere appears to be as much as a factor of two greater than that observed in the interstellar medium. Since the dust particles are likely to be charged, this increase in the heliosphere suggests that there may be a significant electrodynamic interaction of the dust particles with the heliospheric magnetic field.
Plasma waves generated by rippled magnetically focused electron beams surrounded by tenuous plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cuperman, S.; Petran, F.
1982-01-01
This chapter investigates the electrostatic instability and the corresponding unstable wave spectrum of magnetically focused neutralized rippled electron beams under spacelike conditions. Topics considered include general equations and equilibrium, the derivation of the dispersion relation, and the solution of the dispersion relation (long wavelength perturbations, short wavelength perturbations, the rippled beam). The results indicate that in the long wavelength limit two types of instability (extending over different frequency ranges) exist. An instability of the beam-plasma type occurs due to the interaction between the beam electrons and the surrounding plasm electrons at the beam-plasma interface. A parametric type instability is produced by the coupling of a fast forward wave and a fast backward wave due to the rippling (modulation) of the beam. It is demonstrated that in the short wavelength limit, surface waves which are stable for the laminar beam may become unstable in the rippled beam case
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Intrator, T.; Meassick, S.; Browning, J.; Majeski, R.; Ferron, J.R.; Hershkowitz, N.
1989-01-01
It is shown that the predictions of a numerical code (ANTENA) and the data of wave field measurements in the Phaedrus-B tandem mirror are consistent (±25%) for right-handed (B-vector - ) wave fields and less so (±40%) for left-handed (B-vector + ) wave fields in the plasma core, and that they disagree for B-vector + fields near the column edge. Shorting out or reduction of the wave azimuthal electric fields by limiters is the probable cause of this discrepancy. The ICRF fluctuating wave B-vector fields are shown as |B-vector| contour maps in the r-z plane, where the B-vector + data peak at a smaller radius than predicted. The waves are characterized by different dominant axial wave numbers for the left- and right-handed circularly polarized fields. (author). 28 refs, 20 figs, 1 tab
Longitudinal traveling waves bifurcating from Vlasov plasma equilibria
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Holloway, J.P.
1989-01-01
The kinetic equations governing longitudinal motion along a straight magnetic field in a multi-species collisionless plasma are investigated. A necessary condition for the existence of small amplitude spatially periodic equilibria and traveling waves near a given spatially uniform background equilibrium is derived, and the wavelengths which such solutions must approach as their amplitude decreases to zero are discussed. A sufficient condition for the existence of these small amplitude waves is also established. This is accomplished by studying the nonlinear ODE for the potential which arises when the distribution functions are represented in a BGK form; the arbitrary functions of energy that describe the BGK representation are tested as an infinite dimensional set of parameters in a bifurcation theory for the ODE. The positivity and zero current condition in the wave frame of the BGK distribution functions are maintained. The undamped small amplitude nonlinear waves so constructed can be made to satisfy the Vlasov dispersion relation exactly, but in general they need only satisfy it approximately. Numerical calculations reveal that even a thermal equilibrium electron-proton plasma with equal ion and electron temperatures will support undamped traveling waves with phase speeds greater than 1.3 times the electron velocity; the dispersion relation for this case exhibits both Langmuir and ion-acoustic branches as long wavelength limits, and shows how these branches are in fact connected by short wavelength waves of intermediate frequency. In apparent contradiction to the linear theory of Landau, these exact solutions of the kinetic equations do not damp; this contradiction is explained by observing that the linear theory is, in general, fundamentally incapable of describing undamped traveling waves
Nonlinear plasma wave models in 3D fluid simulations of laser-plasma interaction
Chapman, Thomas; Berger, Richard; Arrighi, Bill; Langer, Steve; Banks, Jeffrey; Brunner, Stephan
2017-10-01
Simulations of laser-plasma interaction (LPI) in inertial confinement fusion (ICF) conditions require multi-mm spatial scales due to the typical laser beam size and durations of order 100 ps in order for numerical laser reflectivities to converge. To be computationally achievable, these scales necessitate a fluid-like treatment of light and plasma waves with a spatial grid size on the order of the light wave length. Plasma waves experience many nonlinear phenomena not naturally described by a fluid treatment, such as frequency shifts induced by trapping, a nonlinear (typically suppressed) Landau damping, and mode couplings leading to instabilities that can cause the plasma wave to decay rapidly. These processes affect the onset and saturation of stimulated Raman and Brillouin scattering, and are of direct interest to the modeling and prediction of deleterious LPI in ICF. It is not currently computationally feasible to simulate these Debye length-scale phenomena in 3D across experimental scales. Analytically-derived and/or numerically benchmarked models of processes occurring at scales finer than the fluid simulation grid offer a path forward. We demonstrate the impact of a range of kinetic processes on plasma reflectivity via models included in the LPI simulation code pF3D. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.
Relation of wave energy and momentum with the plasma dispersion relation in an inhomogeneous plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Berk, H.L.; Pfirsch, D.
1988-01-01
The expressions for wave energy and angular momentum commonly used in homogeneous and near-homogeneous media is generalized to inhomogeneous media governed by a nonlocal conductivity tensor. The expression for wave energy applies to linear excitations in an arbitrary three-dimensional equilibrium, while the expression for angular momentum applies to linear excitations of azimuthally symmetric equilibria. The wave energy E-script/sub wave/ is interpreted as the energy transferred from linear external sources to the plasma if there is no dissipation. With dissipation, such a simple interpretation is lacking as energy is also thermally absorbed. However, for azimuthally symmetric equilibria, the expression for the wave energy in a frame rotating with a frequency ω can be unambiguously separated from thermal energy. This expression is given by E-script/sub wave/ -ωL/sub wave/ l, where L/sub wave/ is the wave angular momentum defined in the text and l the azimuthal wavenumber and it is closely related to the real part of a dispersion relation for marginal stability. The imaginary part of the dispersion is closely related to the energy input into a system. Another useful quantity discussed is the impedance form, which can be used for three-dimensional equilibrium without an ignorable coordinate and the expression is closely related to the wave impedance used in antenna theory. Applications to stability theory are also discussed
Suitability of tunneling ionization produced plasmas for the plasma beat wave accelerator
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Leeman, W.P.; Clayton, C.E.; Marsh, K.A.; Dyson, A.; Joshi, C.
1991-01-01
Tunneling ionization can be thought of as the high intensity, low frequency limit of multi-photon ionization (MPI). Extremely uniform plasmas were produced by the latter process at Rutherford lab for beat wave excitation experiments using a 0.5 μm laser. Plasmas with 100% ionization were produced with densities exceeding 10 17 cm -3 . The experiment uses a CO 2 laser (I max ∼ 5 x 10 14 W/cm 2 ) which allows the formation of plasmas via the tunneling process. For the experiments the authors need plasmas with densities in the range of 5 to 10 x 10 16 cm -3 . Using Thomson scattering as a diagnostic they have explored the density and temperature regime of tunneling ionization produced plasmas. They find that plasmas with densities up to 10 16 cm -3 can indeed be produced and that these plasmas are hot. Beyond this density strong refraction of laser radiation occurs due to the radial profile of the plasma. Implications of this work to the Beat Wave Accelerator program will be discussed
Electron cyclotron waves, transport and instabilities in hot plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Westerhof, E.
1987-01-01
A number of topics relevant to the magnetic confinement approach to the thermonuclear fusion is addressed. The absorption and emission of electron cyclotron waves in a thermal plasma with a small population of supra-thermal, streaming electrons is examined and the properties of electron cyclotron waves in a plasma with a pure loss-cone distribution are studied. A report is given on the 1-D transport code simulations that were performed to assist the interpretation of the electron cyclotron heating experiments on the TFR tokamak. Transport code simulations of sawteeth discharges in the T-10 tokamak are discussed in order to compare the predictions of different models for the sawtooth oscillations with the experimental findings. 149 refs.; 69 figs.; 7 tabs
PLASMA-WAVE GENERATION IN A DYNAMIC SPACETIME
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yang, Huan [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, Waterloo, Ontario N2L2Y5 (Canada); Zhang, Fan [Gravitational Wave and Cosmology Laboratory, Department of Astronomy, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China)
2016-02-01
We propose a new electromagnetic (EM)-emission mechanism in magnetized, force-free plasma, which is driven by the evolution of the underlying dynamic spacetime. In particular, the emission power and angular distribution of the emitted fast-magnetosonic and Alfvén waves are separately determined. Previous numerical simulations of binary black hole mergers occurring within magnetized plasma have recorded copious amounts of EM radiation that, in addition to collimated jets, include an unexplained, isotropic component that becomes dominant close to the merger. This raises the possibility of multimessenger gravitational-wave and EM observations on binary black hole systems. The mechanism proposed here provides a candidate analytical characterization of the numerical results, and when combined with previously understood mechanisms such as the Blandford–Znajek process and kinetic-motion-driven radiation, it allows us to construct a classification of different EM radiation components seen in the inspiral stage of compact-binary coalescences.
Nonlinear electrostatic wave equations for magnetized plasmas - II
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Dysthe, K. B.; Mjølhus, E.; Pécseli, H. L.
1985-01-01
For pt.I see ibid., vol.26, p.443-7 (1984). The problem of extending the high frequency part of the Zakharov equations for nonlinear electrostatic waves to magnetized plasmas, is considered. Weak electromagnetic and thermal effects are retained on an equal footing. Direction dependent (electrosta......For pt.I see ibid., vol.26, p.443-7 (1984). The problem of extending the high frequency part of the Zakharov equations for nonlinear electrostatic waves to magnetized plasmas, is considered. Weak electromagnetic and thermal effects are retained on an equal footing. Direction dependent...... (electrostatic) cut-off implies that various cases must be considered separately, leading to equations with rather different properties. Various equations encountered previously in the literature are recovered as limiting cases....
Mathematical preliminaries for a study of waves in a plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Trocheris, M.
1965-01-01
This report contains the detailed proofs of mathematical results which are used in a study of the linear and 'quasi-linear' approximation for 'electrostatic' waves in a uniform plasma. Certain classes of functions of a complex variable, which are analytic in a strip parallel to the real axis, are defined and studied. In particular, properties of convergence of a sequence and of continuity with respect to a parameter are established for functions remaining inside one such class. The results are used to prove an existence theorem for the simplest equation in the quasi-linear theory of plasma waves. A number of elementary lemmas are used in the text and proved in an appendix. (author) [fr
Measuring the Plasma Density of a Ferroelectric Plasma Source in an Expanding Plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dunaevsky, A.; Fisch, N.J.
2003-01-01
The initial density and electron temperature at the surface of a ferroelectric plasma source were deduced from floating probe measurements in an expanding plasma. The method exploits negative charging of the floating probe capacitance by fast flows before the expanding plasma reaches the probe. The temporal profiles of the plasma density can be obtained from the voltage traces of the discharge of the charged probe capacitance by the ion current from the expanding plasma. The temporal profiles of the plasma density, at two different distances from the surface of the ferroelectric plasma source, could be further fitted by using the density profiles for the expanding plasma. This gives the initial values of the plasma density and electron temperature at the surface. The method could be useful for any pulsed discharge, which is accompanied by considerable electromagnetic noise, if the initial plasma parameters might be deduced from measurements in expanding plasma
Excitation of plasma waves by electron guns at the ISEE-1 satellite
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lebreton, Zh.P.; Torbert, R.; Anderson, R.; Kharvi, K.
1985-01-01
Study of the effects resulting from excitation of plasma waves by electron beams injected from JSEE-1 satellite is carried out. Cases of the satellite traversing the magnetosphere magnetosheath and solar wind are considered. 10-60 μA and 0-40 V electron beam injection from the satellite increased electrostatic waves spectral intensity. The waves below ionic plasma frequency are interpreted as ion acoustic waves. To explain the-above-electron-plasma-frequency wave oscillation a communication system between electron plasma mode and electron flux with the velocities above the mean thermal velocity of plasma cold electrons is suggested
Resistive effects on helicity-wave current drive generated by Alfven waves in tokamak plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bruma, C.; Cuperman, S.; Komoshvili, K.
1997-01-01
This work is concerned with the investigation of non-ideal (resistive) MHD effects on the excitation of Alfven waves by externally launched fast-mode waves, in simulated tokamak plasmas; both continuum range, CR ({ω Alf (r)} min Alf (r)} max ) and discrete range, DR, where global Alfven eigenmodes, GAEs (ω Alf (r)} min ) exist, are considered. (Here, ω Alf (r) ≡ ω Alf [n(r), B 0 (r)] is an eigenfrequency of the shear Alfven wave). For this, a cylindrical current carrying plasma surrounded by a helical sheet-current antenna and situated inside a perfectly conducting shell is used. Toroidicity effects are simulated by adopting for the axial equilibrium magnetic field component a suitable radial profile; shear and finite relative poloidal magnetic field are properly accounted for. A dielectric tensor appropriate to the physical conditions considered in this paper is derived and presented. (author)
Opacity measurements in shock-generated argon plasmas
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Erskine, D.
1993-07-01
Dense plasmas having uniform and constant density and temperature are generated by passage of a planar shock wave through gas. The opacity of the plasma is accurately measured versus wavelength by recording the risetime of emitted light. This technique is applicable to a wide variety of species and plasma conditions. Initial experiments in argon have produced plasmas with 2 eV temperatures, 0.004--0.04 g/cm{sup 3} densities, and coupling parameters {Gamma} {approximately}0.3--0.7. Measurements in visible light are compared with calculations using the HOPE code. An interesting peak in the capacity at 400 nm is observed for the first time and is identified with the 4s-5p transition in excited neutral argon atoms.
Ion-Bernstein wave mode conversion in hot tokamak plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jaun, A.; Hellsten, T.; Chiu, S.C.
1997-08-01
Mode conversion at the second harmonic cyclotron resonance is studied in a toroidal plasma, showing how the ion-Bernstein wave can dramatically affect the power profile and partition among the species. The results obtained with the gyrokinetic toroidal PENN code in particular suggest that off-axis electron and second harmonic core ion heating should become important when the temperatures in JET reach 10 keV. (author) 1 fig., 11 refs
Pulsed lower-hybrid wave penetration in reactor plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cohen, R.H.; Bonoli, P.T.; Porkolab, M.; Rognlien, T.D.
1989-01-01
Providing lower-hybrid power in short, intense (GW) pulses allows enhanced wave penetration in reactor-grade plasmas. We examine nonlinear absorption, ray propagation, and parametric instability of the intense pulses. We find that simultaneously achieving good penetration while avoiding parametric instabilities is possible, but imposes restrictions on the peak power density, pulse duration, and/or r.f. spot shape. In particular, power launched in narrow strips, elongated along the field direction, is desired
Drift wave coherent vortex structures in inhomogeneous plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Su, X.N.
1992-01-01
Nonlinear drift wave vortex structures in magnetized plasmas are studied theoretically and numerically in the various physical environments. The effects of density and temperature gradients on drift wave vortex dynamics are analyzed using a fully nonlinear model with the Boltzmann density distribution. The equation, based on the full Boltzmann relation, possess no localized monopole solution in the short wavelength (∼ρ s ) region, while in the longer wavelength (∼(ρ s (r) n ) 1/2 ) region the density profile governs the existence of monopole-like solutions. In the longer wavelength regime, however, the monopoles cannot be localized sufficiently to avoid coupling to propagating drift waves due to the inhomogeneity of the plasma. Thus, the monopole vortex is a long lived coherent structure, but it is not precisely a stationary structure since the coupling results in a open-quote flapping close-quote tail. The tail causes energy of the vortex to leak out, but the effect of the temperature gradient is to reduce the leaking of this energy. Nonlinear coherent structures governing by the coupled drift wave-ion acoustic mode equations in sheared magnetic field are studied analytically and numerically. A solitary vortex equation that includes the effects of density and temperature gradients and magnetic shear is derived and analyzed. The results show that for a plasma in a sheared magnetic field, there exist the solitary vortex solutions. The new vortex structures are dipole-like in their symmetry, but not the modon type of dipoles. The numerical simulations are performed in 2-D with the coupled vorticity and parallel mass flow equations. The vortex structures in an unstable drift wave system driven by parallel shear flow are studied. The nonlinear solitary vortex solutions are given and the formation of the vortices from a turbulent state is observed from the numerical simulations
Analysis and measurement of property disturbances in a combustion magnetohydrodynamic plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Simons, T.D.; Mitchner, M.; Eustis, R.H.
1984-01-01
Measurements of propagating pressure and temperature (entropy) waves in a combustion magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) generator are presented along with a general model which describes how to produce controlled rapid property disturbances in a combustion MHD plasma. The model identifies the principal mechanisms of wave formation and predicts the qualitative and quantitative wave shapes as a function of average plasma and electrical properties but does not describe wave amplification. The model exhibits quantitatively the coupling between the entropy and acoustic waves and the electric current and magnetic field under conditions applicable to MHD power generation
FDTD Simulation on Terahertz Waves Propagation Through a Dusty Plasma
Wang, Maoyan; Zhang, Meng; Li, Guiping; Jiang, Baojun; Zhang, Xiaochuan; Xu, Jun
2016-08-01
The frequency dependent permittivity for dusty plasmas is provided by introducing the charging response factor and charge relaxation rate of airborne particles. The field equations that describe the characteristics of Terahertz (THz) waves propagation in a dusty plasma sheath are derived and discretized on the basis of the auxiliary differential equation (ADE) in the finite difference time domain (FDTD) method. Compared with numerical solutions in reference, the accuracy for the ADE FDTD method is validated. The reflection property of the metal Aluminum interlayer of the sheath at THz frequencies is discussed. The effects of the thickness, effective collision frequency, airborne particle density, and charge relaxation rate of airborne particles on the electromagnetic properties of Terahertz waves through a dusty plasma slab are investigated. Finally, some potential applications for Terahertz waves in information and communication are analyzed. supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 41104097, 11504252, 61201007, 41304119), the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (Nos. ZYGX2015J039, ZYGX2015J041), and the Specialized Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education of China (No. 20120185120012)
Nonlinear electromagnetic waves in a degenerate electron-positron plasma
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
El-Labany, S.K., E-mail: skellabany@hotmail.com [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Damietta University, New Damietta (Egypt); El-Taibany, W.F., E-mail: eltaibany@hotmail.com [Department of Physics, College of Science for Girls in Abha, King Khalid University, Abha (Saudi Arabia); El-Samahy, A.E.; Hafez, A.M.; Atteya, A., E-mail: ahmedsamahy@yahoo.com, E-mail: am.hafez@sci.alex.edu.eg, E-mail: ahmed_ateya2002@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Alexandria University, Alexandria (Egypt)
2015-08-15
Using the reductive perturbation technique (RPT), the nonlinear propagation of magnetosonic solitary waves in an ultracold, degenerate (extremely dense) electron-positron (EP) plasma (containing ultracold, degenerate electron, and positron fluids) is investigated. The set of basic equations is reduced to a Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation for the lowest-order perturbed magnetic field and to a KdV type equation for the higher-order perturbed magnetic field. The solutions of these evolution equations are obtained. For better accuracy and searching on new features, the new solutions are analyzed numerically based on compact objects (white dwarf) parameters. It is found that including the higher-order corrections results as a reduction (increment) of the fast (slow) electromagnetic wave amplitude but the wave width is increased in both cases. The ranges where the RPT can describe adequately the total magnetic field including different conditions are discussed. (author)
Improved ion acceleration via laser surface plasma waves excitation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bigongiari, A. [CEA/DSM/LSI, CNRS, Ecole Polytechnique, 91128 Palaiseau Cedex (France); TIPS/LULI, Université Paris 6, CNRS, CEA, Ecole Polytechnique, 3, rue Galilée, 94200 Ivry-sur-Seine (France); Raynaud, M. [CEA/DSM/LSI, CNRS, Ecole Polytechnique, 91128 Palaiseau Cedex (France); Riconda, C. [TIPS/LULI, Université Paris 6, CNRS, CEA, Ecole Polytechnique, 3, rue Galilée, 94200 Ivry-sur-Seine (France); Héron, A. [CPHT, CNRS, Ecole Polytechnique, 91128 Palaiseau Cedex (France)
2013-05-15
The possibility of enhancing the emission of the ions accelerated in the interaction of a high intensity ultra-short (<100 fs) laser pulse with a thin target (<10λ{sub 0}), via surface plasma wave excitation is investigated. Two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations are performed for laser intensities ranging from 10{sup 19} to 10{sup 20} Wcm{sup −2}μm{sup 2}. The surface wave is resonantly excited by the laser via the coupling with a modulation at the target surface. In the cases where the surface wave is excited, we find an enhancement of the maximum ion energy of a factor ∼2 compared to the cases where the target surface is flat.
Fast-wave heating of a two-component plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stix, T.H.
1975-02-01
The use of the compressional hydromagnetic mode (also called the magnetosonic or, simply, the fast wave) is examined in some detail with respect to the heating of a tritium plasma containing a few percent deuterium. Efficient absorption of wave energy by the deuteron component is found when ω = ω/sub c/ (deuterons), with Q/sub wave/ greater than or equal to 100. The dominant behavior of the high-energy deuteron distribution function is found to be f(v) approximately exp[3/2) ∫/sup v/ dv less than Δv greater than/less than(Δv/sub perpendicular to/) 2 greater than], where [Δv] is the Chandrasekhar-Spitzer drag coefficient, and [(Δv/sub perpendicular to/) 2 sigma] is the Kennel-Englemann quasilinear diffusion coefficient for wave--particle interaction at the deuteron cyclotron frequency. An analytic solution to the one-dimensional Fokker--Planck equation, with rf-induced diffusion, is developed, and using this solution together with Duane's fit to the D-T fusion cross-section, it is found that the nuclear fusion power output from an rf-produced two-component plasma can significantly exceed the incremental (radiofrequency) power input. (auth)
Plasma mass density, species mix and fluctuation diagnostics using fast Alfven wave
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ikezi, H.; deGrassie, J.S.; Pinsker, R.I.; Snider, R.T.
1996-06-01
The authors propose to employ a fast Alfven wave interferometer and reflectometer as a tokamak diagnostic to measure the plasma mass density, D-T species mix profile, and density fluctuations. Utilize the property that the phase velocity of the fast wave propagating across the magnetic field is the Alfven speed with thermal correction, this fast wave interferometer on the DIII-D tokamak was successfully used to obtain the line integrated density. Since the position of the ion-ion hybrid cut-off in tokamaks is uniquely determined by the species mix ratio and the wave frequency, the reflectometer arrangement finds the species mix profile. The inversion method of reflectometry is discussed. The multiple chord interferometer also measures the mass density fluctuation profile.
Plasma mass density, species mix and fluctuation diagnostics using fast Alfven wave
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ikezi, H.; deGrassie, J.S.; Pinsker, R.I.; Snider, R.T.
1996-06-01
The authors propose to employ a fast Alfven wave interferometer and reflectometer as a tokamak diagnostic to measure the plasma mass density, D-T species mix profile, and density fluctuations. Utilize the property that the phase velocity of the fast wave propagating across the magnetic field is the Alfven speed with thermal correction, this fast wave interferometer on the DIII-D tokamak was successfully used to obtain the line integrated density. Since the position of the ion-ion hybrid cut-off in tokamaks is uniquely determined by the species mix ratio and the wave frequency, the reflectometer arrangement finds the species mix profile. The inversion method of reflectometry is discussed. The multiple chord interferometer also measures the mass density fluctuation profile
Electric field vector measurements in a surface ionization wave discharge
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Goldberg, Benjamin M; Adamovich, Igor V; Lempert, Walter R; Böhm, Patrick S; Czarnetzki, Uwe
2015-01-01
This work presents the results of time-resolved electric field vector measurements in a short pulse duration (60 ns full width at half maximum), surface ionization wave discharge in hydrogen using a picosecond four-wave mixing technique. Electric field vector components are measured separately, using pump and Stokes beams linearly polarized in the horizontal and vertical planes, and a polarizer placed in front of the infrared detector. The time-resolved electric field vector is measured at three different locations across the discharge gap, and for three different heights above the alumina ceramic dielectric surface, ∼100, 600, and 1100 μm (total of nine different locations). The results show that after breakdown, the discharge develops as an ionization wave propagating along the dielectric surface at an average speed of 1 mm ns −1 . The surface ionization wave forms near the high voltage electrode, close to the dielectric surface (∼100 μm). The wave front is characterized by significant overshoot of both vertical and horizontal electric field vector components. Behind the wave front, the vertical field component is rapidly reduced. As the wave propagates along the dielectric surface, it also extends further away from the dielectric surface, up to ∼1 mm near the grounded electrode. The horizontal field component behind the wave front remains quite significant, to sustain the electron current toward the high voltage electrode. After the wave reaches the grounded electrode, the horizontal field component experiences a secondary rise in the quasi-dc discharge, where it sustains the current along the near-surface plasma sheet. The measurement results indicate presence of a cathode layer formed near the grounded electrode with significant cathode voltage fall, ≈3 kV, due to high current density in the discharge. The peak reduced electric field in the surface ionization wave is 85–95 Td, consistent with dc breakdown field estimated from the Paschen
Observation of electron plasma waves in plasma of two-temperature electrons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ikezawa, Shunjiro; Nakamura, Yoshiharu.
1981-01-01
Propagation of electron plasma waves in a large and unmagnetized plasma containing two Maxwellian distributions of electrons is studied experimentally. Two kinds of plasma sources which supply electrons of different temperature are used. The temperature ratio is about 3 and the density ratio of hot to cool electrons is varied from 0 to 0.5. A small contamination of hot electrons enhances the Landau damping of the principal mode known as the Bohm-Gross mode. When the density of hot electrons is larger than about 0.2, two modes are observed. The results agree with theoretical dispersion relations when excitation efficiencies of the modes are considered. (author)
Anisimov, V. N.; Kozolupenko, A. P.; Sebrant, A. Yu
1988-12-01
An experimental investigation was made of the plasma transparency to heating radiation in capillaries when absorption waves propagated in these capillaries as a result of interaction with a CO2 laser pulse of 5-μs duration. When the length of the capillary was in excess of 20 mm, total absorption of the radiation by the plasma was observed at air pressures of 1-100 kPa. When the capillary length was 12 mm, a partial recovery of the transparency took place. A comparison was made with the dynamics and recovery of the plasma transparency when breakdown of air took place near the free surface.
Assessment of thermodynamic parameters of plasma shock wave
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vasileva, O V; Isaev, Yu N; Budko, A A; Filkov, A I
2014-01-01
The work is devoted to the solution of the one-dimensional equation of hydraulic gas dynamics for the coaxial magneto plasma accelerator by means of Lax-Wendroff modified algorithm with optimum choice of the regularization parameter artificial viscosity. Replacement of the differential equations containing private derivatives is made by finite difference method. Optimum parameter of regularization artificial viscosity is added using the exact known decision of Soda problem. The developed algorithm of thermodynamic parameter calculation in a braking point is proved. Thermodynamic parameters of a shock wave in front of the plasma piston of the coaxial magneto plasma accelerator are calculated on the basis of the offered algorithm. Unstable high-frequency fluctuations are smoothed using modeling and that allows narrowing the ambiguity area. Results of calculation of gas dynamic parameters in a point of braking coincide with literary data. The chart 3 shows the dynamics of change of speed and thermodynamic parameters of a shock wave such as pressure, density and temperature just before the plasma piston
High intensity surface plasma waves, theory and PIC simulations
Raynaud, M.; Héron, A.; Adam, J.-C.
2018-01-01
With the development of intense (>1019 W cm-2) short pulses (≤25 fs) laser with very high contrast, surface plasma wave (SPW) can be explored in the relativistic regime. As the SPW propagates with a phase velocity close to the speed of light it may results in a strong acceleration of electron bunches along the surface permitting them to reach relativistic energies. This may be important e.g. for applications in the field of plasma-based accelerators. We investigate in this work the excitation of SPWs on grating preformed over-dense plasmas for laser intensities ranging from 1019 up to 1021 W cm-2. We discuss the nature of the interaction with respect to the solid case in which surface plasmon can be resonantly excited with weak laser intensity. In particular, we show the importance of the pulse duration and focalization of the laser beam on the amplitude of the SPW.
Low frequency waves in streaming quantum dusty plasmas
Rozina, Ch.; Jamil, M.; Khan, Arroj A.; Zeba, I.; Saman, J.
2017-09-01
The influence of quantum effects on the excitation of two instabilities, namely quantum dust-acoustic and quantum dust-lower-hybrid waves due to the free streaming of ion/dust particles in uniformly magnetized dusty plasmas has been investigated using a quantum hydrodynamic model. We have obtained dispersion relations under some particular conditions applied on streaming ions and two contrastreaming dust particle beams at equilibrium and have analyzed the growth rates graphically. We have shown that with the increase of both the electron number density and the streaming speed of ion there is enhancement in the instability due to the fact that the dense plasma particle system with more energetic species having a high speed results in the increase of the growth rate in the electrostatic mode. The application of this work has been pointed out for laboratory as well as for space dusty plasmas.
Plasma waves and electrical discharges stimulated by beam operations on a high altitude satellite
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Koons, H.C.; Cohen, H.A.
1982-01-01
A satellite experiment was conducted to measure the characteristics of the spacecraft charging process near synchronous orbit. The payload included a particle beam system (both an electron gun and an ion gun) and a charging electrical effects analyzer consisting of a pulse shape analyzer, a VLF analyzer, and an RF analyzer. The characteristics of plasma waves and electrical discharges measured by these instruments during electron and ion beam operations are discussed
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ferreira, J.L.
1991-01-01
Quiescent plasmas generated by thermionic discharges and surface confined by multipole magnetic fields have been used in basic plasma research since 1973. The first machine was developed at UCLA (USA) to produce an uniform plasma for beam and waves studies in large cross section plasmas. A double quiescent plasma machine was constructed at the plasma laboratory of INPE in 1981, it began its operation producing linear ion-acoustic waves in an Argon plasma. Later on non linear ion acoustic waves and solitons were studied in plasma containing several species of negative and positive ions. The anomalous particle transport across multipole magnetic fields were also investigated. An anomalous resistivity associated with an ion acoustic turbulence is responsible for the formation of a small amplitude double-layer. The existence of a bootstrap mechanism is shown experimentally. Today, the main interest is toward the generation of Langmuir waves in non uniform plasmas. An experimental study on Langmuir wave generation using a grid system is been carried on. A magnetized quiescent plasma device for studies of whistle wave generation is been constructed. This machine will make possible future studies on several wave modes of magnetized plasmas. (author). 31 refs, 16 figs
Measurements of plasma composition in the TEXTOR tokamak by collective Thomson scattering
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Stejner Pedersen, Morten; Korsholm, Søren Bang; Nielsen, Stefan Kragh
2012-01-01
We demonstrate the use of collective Thomson scattering (CTS) for spatially localized measurements of the isotopic composition of magnetically confined fusion plasmas. The experiments were conducted in the TEXTOR tokamak by scattering millimeter-wave probe radiation off plasma fluctuations...... with wave vector components nearly perpendicular to the magnetic field. Under such conditions the sensitivity of the CTS spectrum to plasma composition is enhanced by the spectral signatures of the ion cyclotron motion and of weakly damped ion Bernstein waves. Recent experiments on TEXTOR demonstrated...... the ability to resolve these signatures in the CTS spectrum as well as their sensitivity to the ion species mix in the plasma. This paper shows that the plasma composition can be inferred from the measurements through forward modeling of the CTS spectrum. We demonstrate that spectra measured in plasmas...
Bowen, LI; Zhibin, WANG; Qiuyue, NIE; Xiaogang, WANG; Fanrong, KONG; Zhenyu, WANG
2018-01-01
Intensive collisions between electrons and neutral particles in partially ionized plasmas generated in atmospheric/sub-atmospheric pressure environments can sufficiently affect the propagation characteristics of electromagnetic waves, particularly in the sub-wavelength regime. To investigate the collisional effect in such plasmas, we introduce a simplified plasma slab model with a thickness on the order of the wavelength of the incident electromagnetic wave. The scattering matrix method (SMM) is applied to solve the wave equation in the plasma slab with significant nonuniformity. Results show that the collisions between the electrons and the neutral particles, as well as the incident angle and the plasma thickness, can disturb the transmission and reduce reflection significantly.
Sound excitation at reflection of two electromagnetic waves from dence semibounded plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Livdan, D.O.; Muratov, V.I.; Shuklin, A.P.
1988-01-01
The problem of two electromagnetic waves reflection by semibounded plasma which is nontransparent for each of these waves is solved. The reflection coefficients are obtained for normally incident waves. It is shown that the moduli of the reflection coefficients differ from the unit and this is due to the interaction of the external raiation with the acoustic wave excited in plasma. The energy flux in plasma is calculated
Application of Electron Bernstein Wave heating and current drive to high beta plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Efthimion, P.C.
2002-01-01
Electron Bernstein Waves (EBW) can potentially heat and drive current in high-beta plasmas. Electromagnetic waves can convert to EBW via two paths. O-mode heating, demonstrated on W-7AS, requires waves be launched within a narrow k-parallel range. Alternately, in high-beta plasmas, the X-mode cutoff and EBW conversion layers are millimeters apart, so the fast X-mode can tunnel to the EBW branch. We are studying the conversion of EBW to the X-mode by measuring the radiation temperature of the cyclotron emission and comparing it to the electron temperature. In addition, mode conversion has been studied with an approximate kinetic full-wave code. We have enhanced EBW mode conversion to ∼ 100% by encircling the antenna with a limiter that shortens the density scale length at the conversion layer in the scrape off of the CDX-U spherical torus (ST) plasma. Consequently, a limiter in front of a launch antenna achieves efficient X-mode coupling to EBW. Ray tracing and Fokker-Planck codes have been used to develop current drive scenarios in NSTX high-beta (∼ 40%) ST plasmas and a relativistic code will examine the potential synergy of EBW current drive with the bootstrap current. (author)
Electron Bernstein wave experiments in a over-dense reversed field pinch plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Forest, C. B.; Anderson, J.K.; Cengher, M.; Chattopadhyay, P.K.; Carter, M.; Harvey, R.W.; Pinsker, R.I.; Smirnov, A.P.
2003-01-01
Experiments and theoretical work show that it is possible to couple power to the EBW in an RFP, and that these waves may be suitable for driving current. The main results of our work thus far are: (1) A coupling theory for a phased array of waveguides is developed and compared to experiment. Both O and X mode polarizations can be used; in general coupling for both is optimized for obliquely launched waves. (2) The surface impedance and reflection coefficients have been measured for EBWs launched by waveguide antennas on the edge of MST. Emission and coupling measurements are both consistent with theoretical models and the measured density gradients at the plasma edge. In particular, the coupling showed a strong asymmetry in N Φ for X-mode launch. (3) Black-body levels of emission have been observed in the ECRF from over-dense MST plasmas, which by reciprocity indicate that coupling to the EBW is possible with external antennas. Emission is preferentially polarized in the X-mode and is affected by density fluctuations at the plasma edge. Mode conversion efficiencies as high as 75% have been observed. (4) Ray tracing of EBW waves, coupled to Fokker Planck calculations show that localized, efficient current drive is possible. Current drive is possible by choosing the poloidal angle of the launching antenna to control the N of the wave. (authors)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Buenemann, D
1963-03-15
Some aspects of the theory of longitudinal and transversal waves in a collisionless nonrelativistic plasma are treated. A dispersion relation for multicomponent plasmas is derived from the linearized Boltzmann-Vlasov equation using the full set of Maxwell's equations without an external field. The velocity distributions of the plasma streams are assumed to be Maxwellian. For the particular case of two counterstreaming plasmas it is shown that there exists transversal instabilities for all counterstreaming velocities whereas the well known two stream instabilities only exist for velocities greater than a critical velocity. Exact solutions for the onset of the instabilities can be given. This kind of instability may occur for any nonisotropic velocity distribution in a collisionless plasma. (auth)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Prokopov, P A; Zakharov, Yu P; Tishchenko, V N; Shaikhislamov, I F; Boyarintsev, E L; Melekhov, A V; Ponomarenko, A G; Posukh, V G; Terekhin, V A
2016-01-01
Generation of Alfven waves propagating along external magnetic field B 0 and Collisionless Shock Waves propagating across B 0 are studied in experiments with laser- produced plasma and magnetized background plasma. The collisionless interaction of interpenetrating plasma flows takes place through a so-called Magnetic Laminar Mechanism (MLM) or Larmor Coupling. At the edge of diamagnetic cavity LP-ions produce induction electric field E φ which accelerates BP-ions while LP-ions rotate in opposite direction. The ions movement generates sheared azimuthal magnetic field B φ which could launches torsional Alfven wave. In previous experiments at KI-1 large scale facility a generation of strong perturbations propagating across B 0 with magnetosonic speed has been studied at a moderate value of interaction parameter δ∼0.3. In the present work we report on experiments at conditions of 5∼R2 and large Alfven-Mach number M A ∼10 in which strong transverse perturbations traveling at a scale of ∼1 m in background plasma at a density of ∼3*10 13 cm -3 is observed. At the same conditions but smaller M A ∼ 2 a generation, the structure and dynamic of Alfven wave with wavelength ∼0.5 m propagating along fields B 0 ∼100÷500 G for a distance of ∼2.5 m is studied. (paper)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Marpaung, A.M.; Kurniawan, H.; Tjia, M.O.; Kagawa, K.
2001-01-01
An experimental study has been carried out on the dynamical process taking place in the plasma generated by a TEA CO 2 laser (400 mJ, 100 ns) on a zinc target when surrounded by helium gas of pressure ranging from 2 Torr to 1 atm. Plasma characteristics were examined in detail on the emission lines of Zn I 481.0 nm and He I 587.6 nm by means of an unique time-resolved spatial distribution technique in addition to an ordinary time-resolved emission measurement technique. The results reveal, for the first time, persistent shock wave characteristics in all cases throughout the entire pressure range considered. Further analysis of the data has clarified the distinct characteristics of laser plasmas generated in different ranges of gas pressure. It is concluded that three types of shock wave plasma can be identified; namely, a target shock wave plasma in the pressure range from 2 Torr to around 50 Torr; a coupling shock wave plasma in the pressure range from around 50 Torr to 200 Torr and a gas breakdown shock wave plasma in the pressure range from around 200 Torr to 1 atm. These distinct characteristics are found to be ascribable to the different extents of the gas breakdown process taking place at the different gas pressures. These results, obtained for a TEA CO 2 laser, will provide a useful basis for the analyses of plasmas induced by other lasers. (author)
Hamiltonian analysis of fast wave current drive in tokamak plasmas
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Becoulet, A; Fraboulet, D; Giruzzi, G; Moreau, D; Saoutic, B [Association Euratom-CEA, Centre d` Etudes de Cadarache, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France). Dept. de Recherches sur la Fusion Controlee; Chinardet, J [CISI Ingenierie, Centre d` Etudes de Cadarache, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France)
1993-12-01
The Hamiltonian formalism is used to analyze the direct resonant interaction between the fast magnetosonic wave and the electrons in a tokamak plasma. The intrinsic stochasticity of the electron phase space trajectories is derived, and together with extrinsic de-correlation processes, assesses the validity of the quasilinear approximation for the kinetic studies of fast wave current drive (FWCD). A full-wave resolution of the Maxwell-Vlasov set of equations provides the exact pattern of the wave fields in a complete tokamak geometry, for a realistic antenna spectrum. The local quasilinear diffusion tensor is derived from the wave fields, and is used for a computation of the driven current and deposited power profiles, the current drive efficiency, including possible non-linear effects in the kinetic equation. Several applications of FWCD on existing and future machines are given, as well as results concerning combination of FWCD with other non inductive current drive methods. An analytical expression for the current drive efficiency is given in the high single-pass absorption regimes. (authors). 20 figs., 1 tab., 26 refs.
Drift wave dispersion relation for arbitrarily collisional plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Angus, Justin R.; Krasheninnikov, Sergei I.
2012-01-01
The standard local linear analysis of drift waves in a plasma slab is generalized to be valid for arbitrarily collisional electrons by considering the electrons to be governed by the drift-kinetic equation with a BGK-like (Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook) collision operator. The obtained dispersion relation reduces to that found from collisionless kinetic theory when the collision frequency is zero. Electron temperature fluctuations must be retained in the standard fluid analysis in order to obtain good quantitative agreement with our general solution in the highly collisional limit. Any discrepancies between the fluid solution and our general solution in this limit are attributed to the limitations of the BGK collision operator. The maximum growth rates in both the collisional and collisionless limits are comparable and are both on the order of the fundamental drift wave frequency. The main role of the destabilizing mechanism is found to be in determining the parallel wave number at which the maximum growth rate will occur. The parallel wave number corresponding to the maximum growth rate is set by the wave-particle resonance condition in the collisionless limit and transitions to being set by the real frequency being on the order of the rate for electrons to diffuse a parallel wavelength in the collisional limit.
Drift wave dispersion relation for arbitrarily collisional plasma
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Angus, Justin R.; Krasheninnikov, Sergei I. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093-0417 (United States)
2012-05-15
The standard local linear analysis of drift waves in a plasma slab is generalized to be valid for arbitrarily collisional electrons by considering the electrons to be governed by the drift-kinetic equation with a BGK-like (Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook) collision operator. The obtained dispersion relation reduces to that found from collisionless kinetic theory when the collision frequency is zero. Electron temperature fluctuations must be retained in the standard fluid analysis in order to obtain good quantitative agreement with our general solution in the highly collisional limit. Any discrepancies between the fluid solution and our general solution in this limit are attributed to the limitations of the BGK collision operator. The maximum growth rates in both the collisional and collisionless limits are comparable and are both on the order of the fundamental drift wave frequency. The main role of the destabilizing mechanism is found to be in determining the parallel wave number at which the maximum growth rate will occur. The parallel wave number corresponding to the maximum growth rate is set by the wave-particle resonance condition in the collisionless limit and transitions to being set by the real frequency being on the order of the rate for electrons to diffuse a parallel wavelength in the collisional limit.
Hamiltonian analysis of fast wave current drive in tokamak plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Becoulet, A.; Fraboulet, D.; Giruzzi, G.; Moreau, D.; Saoutic, B.
1993-12-01
The Hamiltonian formalism is used to analyze the direct resonant interaction between the fast magnetosonic wave and the electrons in a tokamak plasma. The intrinsic stochasticity of the electron phase space trajectories is derived, and together with extrinsic de-correlation processes, assesses the validity of the quasilinear approximation for the kinetic studies of fast wave current drive (FWCD). A full-wave resolution of the Maxwell-Vlasov set of equations provides the exact pattern of the wave fields in a complete tokamak geometry, for a realistic antenna spectrum. The local quasilinear diffusion tensor is derived from the wave fields, and is used for a computation of the driven current and deposited power profiles, the current drive efficiency, including possible non-linear effects in the kinetic equation. Several applications of FWCD on existing and future machines are given, as well as results concerning combination of FWCD with other non inductive current drive methods. An analytical expression for the current drive efficiency is given in the high single-pass absorption regimes. (authors). 20 figs., 1 tab., 26 refs
Scattering of Electromagnetic Waves by Drift Vortex in Plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang Dong; Chen Yinhua; Wang Ge
2008-01-01
In a quasi-two-dimensional model, the scattering of incident ordinary electromagnetic waves by a dipole-electrostatic drift vortex is studied with first-order Born approximation. The distribution of the scattering cross-section and total cross-section are evaluated analytically in different approximate conditions, and the physical interpretations are discussed. When the wavelength of incident wave is much longer than the vortex radius (k i a || 1), it is found that the angle at which the scattering cross-section reaches its maxim depends significantly on the approximation of the parameters of the vortex used. It is also found that the total scattering cross-section has an affinitive relation with the parameters of the plasma, while it is irrelevant to the frequency of the incident wave in a wide range of parameters of the vortex. In a totally different range of parameters when incident wave is in the radar-frequency range (then k i a || 1, the wavelength of incident wave is much shorter than the vortex radius), the numerical procedure is conducted with computer in order to obtain the distribution and the total expression of the scattering cross-section. Then it is found that the total scattering cross-section in the low frequency range is much larger than that in high frequency range, so the scattering is more effective in the low frequency range than in high frequency range.
Measurement of toroidal plasma current in RF heated helical plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Besshou, Sakae
1993-01-01
This report describes the measurement of toroidal plasma current by a semiflexible Rogowski coil in a helical vacuum chamber. A Rogowski coil measures the toroidal plasma current with a resolution of 0.1 kA, frequency range of up to 1 kHz and sensitivity of 6.5 x 10 -9 V · s/A. We measured the spontaneous toroidal plasma current (from -1.2 to +1.2 kA) under electron cyclotron resonance heating at 0.94 T toroidal field in the Heliotron-E device. We found that the measured direction of toroidal plasma current changes its sign as in the predicted behavior of a neoclassical diffusion-driven bootstrap current, depending on the horizontal position of the plasma column. We explain the observed plasma currents in terms of the compound phenomenon of an ohmic current and a neoclassical diffusion-driven current. The magnitude of the neoclassical current component is smaller than the value predicted by a collisionless neoclassical theory. (author)
Electron Bernstein wave excitation by counterpropagating electromagnetic waves in a plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kumar, Asheel; Tripathi, V.K.
2005-01-01
Two high-power counterpropagating electromagnetic waves (ω 1 ,k 1 x) and (ω 2 ,-k 2 x) in a low-density plasma in the presence of a static magnetic field B s z, drive an electron Bernstein wave at the beat frequency ω=ω 1 -ω 2 and k=(k 1 +k 2 )x, when ω∼ω c 1 ,ω 2 and kρ≥1, where ω c is the electron cyclotron frequency and ρ is the Larmor radius. The electromagnetic waves exert a ponderomotive force on the electrons and resonantly drive the Bernstein mode(ω,k). When the pump waves have finite z extent, the Bernstein wave has an effective k z and a component of group velocity in the direction of the magnetic field, leaking it out of the interaction region, limiting the level of the Bernstein mode. Plasma inhomogeneity also introduces convection losses. However, the electron Bernstein mode potential could still be significantly greater than the ponderomotive potential
Oblique Propagation of Fast Surface Waves in a Low-Beta Hall-Magnetohydrodynamics Plasma Slab
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhelyazkov, I.; Mann, G.
1999-01-01
The oblique propagation of fast sausage and kink magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) surface waves in an ideal magnetized plasma slab in the low-beta plasma limit is studied considering the Hall term in the generalized Ohm's law. It is found that the combined action of the Hall effect and oblique wave propagation makes possible the existence of multivalued solutions to the wave dispersion relations - some of them corresponding to positive values of the transfer wave number, k y , undergo a 'propagation stop' at specific (numerically found) full wave numbers. It is also shown that with growing wave number the waves change their nature - from bulk modes to pseudosurface or pure surface waves. (author)
Electron density measurement in gas discharge plasmas by optical and acoustic methods
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Biagioni, A.; Anania, M.P.; Bellaveglia, M.; Chiadroni, E.; Giovenale, D. Di; Pirro, G. Di; Ferrario, M.; Pompili, R.; Shpakov, V.; Vaccarezza, C.; Villa, F.; Cianchi, A.; Filippi, F.; Mostacci, A.; Zigler, A.
2016-01-01
Plasma density represents a very important parameter for both laser wakefield and plasma wakefield acceleration, which use a gas-filled capillary plasma source. Several techniques can be used to measure the plasma density within a capillary discharge, which are mainly based on optical diagnostic methods, as for example the well-known spectroscopic method using the Stark broadening effect. In this work, we introduce a preliminary study on an alternative way to detect the plasma density, based on the shock waves produced by gas discharge in a capillary. Firstly, the measurements of the acoustic spectral content relative to the laser-induced plasmas by a solid target allowed us to understand the main properties of the acoustic waves produced during this kind of plasma generation; afterwards, we have extended such acoustic technique to the capillary plasma source in order to calibrate it by comparison with the stark broadening method.
The launching and propagation of drift waves in a steady-state plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sandeman, J.; Elliott, J.A.; Sutcliffe, M.; Rusbridge, M.G.
1992-01-01
The UMIST linear quadrupole GOLUX is a steady-state device in which hydrogen plasma is continuously injected axially, at one end, from an external duoplasmatron source. The electron temperature in the drift wave region is about 1 eV, and the density about 10 15 m -3 . Self-excited intrinsic drift modes are observed in the shared flux region of GOLUX, forming a broad band between 30 and 50 kHz. Drift waves may also be launched into the system, by passing an AC current through the plasma between the two flag antennae. These coherent launched waves present a powerful means of studying drift wave phenomena. We obtain information about the launched wave by detecting both density and potential fluctuations, using a small cylindrical Langmuir probe and lock-in amplifier techniques. Scanning the probe in the longitudinal (z) direction yields the spatial variation of amplitude and phase with respect to the launching signal; the ratio of the wave potential, extrapolated back to the probe, to the launching current gives the launching impedance, a measure of the effectiveness of the launching process. (author) 5 refs., 6 figs
Effect of switching-off of a plasma medium on a traveling wave
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kalluri, D.K.
1989-01-01
It is known that a sudden creation of a plasma medium of plasma frequency ω ρ splits a traveling wave of frequency ω o into two new waves of frequencies. The negative value for the frequency here indicates a reflected wave. The effect of a sudden collapse of the plasma medium, on a travelling wave of frequency ω o is shown to be the creation of two new waves of frequencies. A numerical solution is obtained for the case of a gradual collapse of the plasma medium. For the case of a slow decay of the particle density an approximate WKB type solution is obtained. Several results are presented
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baek, S. G.; Shiraiwa, S.; Parker, R. R.; Bonoli, P. T.; Marmar, E. S.; Wallace, G. M.; Lau, C.; Dominguez, A.; Kramer, G. J.
2014-01-01
Microwave backscattering experiments have been performed on the Alcator C-Mod tokamak in order to investigate the propagation of lower hybrid (LH) waves in reactor-relevant, high-density plasmas. When the line-averaged density is raised above 1 × 10 20 m –3 , lower hybrid current drive efficiency is found to be lower than expected [Wallace et al., Phys. Plasmas 19, 062505 (2012)] and LH power is thought to be dissipated at the plasma edge. Using a single channel (60 GHz) ordinary-mode (O-mode) reflectometer system, we demonstrate radially localized LH wave measurements in the scrape-off layer of high density plasmas (n ¯ e ≳ 0.9×10 20 m −3 ). Measured backscattered O-mode power varies depending on the magnetic field line mapping, suggesting the resonance cone propagation of LH waves. Backscattered power is also sensitive to variations in plasma density and the launched parallel refractive index of the LH waves. LH ray-tracing simulations have been carried out to interpret the observed variations. To understand the measured LH waves in regions not magnetically connected to the launcher, two hypotheses are examined. One is the weak single pass absorption and the other is scattering of LH waves by non-linear effects
Propagation of a hybrid inferior wave in axisymmetrical plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fivaz, M.; Appert, K.; Krlin, L.
1990-05-01
The linear propagation of hybrid inferior waves in an axisymmetrical plasma (magnetohydrodynamic equilibrium of the Soloviev type) has been numerically simulated. The evolution of k // (component of the wave vector k parallel to the magnetic field B), important for current drive modelling, has been studied as a function of the geometric parameters of the equilibrium: aspect ratio, ellipticity and triangularity. The results show that k // depends abruptly on the parameters; the engendered structures are very rich. Two mechanisms by which k // increases have been shown: the 'resonance' occurring in small bands of the space of the parameters and which is associated with trajectories in (R,Z) near stabilization; a stochastic evolution resembling diffusion in equlibriums of very high triangularity. However, a strong increase of k // of a part of the waves, susceptible of engendering a current in the plasma, has only been observed in a minority of cases. In literature current drive experiments have been reported which work and whose parameters are a priori such that our model cannot be expected to show the desired growth of k // . Consequently, our model, which is similar to normally used models, does not explain the current drive. 5 refs., 16 figs
Relativistic harmonic content of nonlinear electromagnetic waves in underdense plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mori, W.B.; Decker, C.D.; Leemans, W.P.
1993-01-01
The relativistic harmonic content of large amplitude electromagnetic waves propagating in underdense plasmas is investigated. The steady state harmonic content of nonlinear linearly polarized waves is calculated for both the very underdense (w p /w o ) much-lt 1 and critical density (w p /w o ) ≅ 1 limits. For weak nonlinearities, eE o /mcw o p /w o . Arguments are given for extending these results for arbitrary wave amplitudes. The authors also show that the use of the variable x-ct and the quasi-static approximation leads to errors in both magnitude and sign when calculating the third harmonic. In the absence of damping or density gradients the third harmonic's amplitude is found to oscillate between zero and twice the steady state value. Preliminary PIC simulation results are presented. The simulation results are in basic agreement with the uniform plasma predictions for the third harmonic amplitude. However, the higher harmonics are orders of magnitude larger than expected and the presence of density ramps significantly modifies the results
Self excitation of second harmonic ion-acoustic waves in a weakly magnetized plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tsukabayashi, I.; Yagishita, T.; Nakamura, Y.
1994-01-01
Electrostatic ion-acoustic waves in a weakly magnetized plasma are investigated experimentally. It is observed that finite amplitudes ion acoustic waves excite a new second harmonic wave train behind the initial ion waves excite a new second harmonic wave train behind the initial ion waves in a parallel magnetic field. The excitation of higher harmonic waves can be explained by non-linearity of finite amplitude ion-acoustic waves. The newly excited second harmonics waves satisfy a dispersion relation of the ion-acoustic waves. (author). 3 refs, 5 figs
Online wave estimation using vessel motion measurements
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
H. Brodtkorb, Astrid; Nielsen, Ulrik D.; J. Sørensen, Asgeir
2018-01-01
parameters and motion transfer functions are required as input. Apart from this the method is signal-based, with no assumptions on the wave spectrum shape, and as a result it is computationally efficient. The algorithm is implemented in a dynamic positioning (DP)control system, and tested through simulations......In this paper, a computationally efficient online sea state estimation algorithm isproposed for estimation of the on site sea state. The algorithm finds the wave spectrum estimate from motion measurements in heave, roll and pitch by iteratively solving a set of linear equations. The main vessel...
Coherent structures and transport in drift wave plasma turbulence
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bang Korsholm, S.
2011-12-15
Fusion energy research aims at developing fusion power plants providing safe and clean energy with abundant fuels. Plasma turbulence induced transport of energy and particles is a performance limiting factor for fusion devices. Hence the understanding of plasma turbulence is important for optimization. The present work is a part of the puzzle to understand the basic physics of transport induced by drift wave turbulence in the edge region of a plasma. The basis for the study is the Hasegawa-Wakatani model. Simulation results for 3D periodic and nonperiodic geometries are presented. The Hasegawa-Wakatani model is further expanded to include ion temperature effects. Another expansion of the model is derived from the Braginskii electron temperature equation. The result is a self-consistent set of equations describing the dynamical evolution of the drift wave fluctuations of the electron density, electron temperature and the potential in the presence of density and temperature gradients. 3D simulation results of the models are presented. Finally, the construction and first results from the MAST fluctuation reflectometer is described. The results demonstrate how L- to H-mode transitions as well as edge-localized-modes can be detected by the relatively simple diagnostic system. The present Risoe report is a slightly updated version of my original PhD report which was submitted in April 2002 and defended in August 2002. (Author)
Coherent structures and transport in drift wave plasma turbulence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bang Korsholm, S.
2011-12-01
Fusion energy research aims at developing fusion power plants providing safe and clean energy with abundant fuels. Plasma turbulence induced transport of energy and particles is a performance limiting factor for fusion devices. Hence the understanding of plasma turbulence is important for optimization. The present work is a part of the puzzle to understand the basic physics of transport induced by drift wave turbulence in the edge region of a plasma. The basis for the study is the Hasegawa-Wakatani model. Simulation results for 3D periodic and nonperiodic geometries are presented. The Hasegawa-Wakatani model is further expanded to include ion temperature effects. Another expansion of the model is derived from the Braginskii electron temperature equation. The result is a self-consistent set of equations describing the dynamical evolution of the drift wave fluctuations of the electron density, electron temperature and the potential in the presence of density and temperature gradients. 3D simulation results of the models are presented. Finally, the construction and first results from the MAST fluctuation reflectometer is described. The results demonstrate how L- to H-mode transitions as well as edge-localized-modes can be detected by the relatively simple diagnostic system. The present Risoe report is a slightly updated version of my original PhD report which was submitted in April 2002 and defended in August 2002. (Author)
Evaluation of bispectrum in the wave number domain based on multi-point measurements
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Y. Narita
2008-10-01
Full Text Available We present an estimator of the bispectrum, a measure of three-wave couplings. It is evaluated directly in the wave number domain using a limited number of detectors. The ability of the bispectrum estimator is examined numerically and then it is applied to fluctuations of magnetic field and electron density in the terrestrial foreshock region observed by the four Cluster spacecraft, which indicates the presence of a three-wave coupling in space plasma.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Amein, W.H.; El-Siragy, N.M.; Nagy, O.Z.; Sayed, Y.A.
1981-01-01
Nonlinear interaction of S-Polarized surface waves at the boundary of a semibounded magnetized plasma is investigated. The expressions of the amplitudes of the generated waves are found. It is shown that, the generated waves with combined frequencies are equally radiated from the transient layer into plasma and vacuum
Use of plasma waves to create in Tokamaks quasi-stationary conditions required for controlled fusion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Moreau, D.
1993-04-01
In this thesis are studied the coupling of hybrid waves to the plasma, multijunction antennas, hybrid wave stochastic propagation, fast wave current drive and lower-hybrid current drive experiments in Tore Supra and Jet. The possibility of decoupling current density profile and temperature give one more degree of freedom for the control of plasma in a configuration which is not very flexible
Localized structures of electromagnetic waves in hot electron-positron plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kartal, S.; Tsintsadze, L.N.; Berezhiani, V.I.
1995-08-01
The dynamics of relatively strong electromagnetic (EM) wave propagation in hot electron-positron plasma is investigated. The possibility of finding localized stationary structures of EM waves is explored. It it shown that under certain conditions the EM wave forms a stable localized soliton-like structures where plasma is completely expelled from the region of EM field location. (author). 9 refs, 2 figs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Diem, S. J.; Caughman, J. B.; Taylor, G.; Efthimion, P. C.; Kugel, H.; LeBlanc, B. P.; Phillips, C. K.; Preinhaelter, J.; Urban, J.; Sabbagh, S. A.
2009-01-01
The first experimental verification of electron Bernstein wave (EBW) collisional damping, and its mitigation by evaporated Li conditioning, in an overdense spherical-tokamak plasma has been observed in the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX). Initial measurements of EBW emission, coupled from NSTX plasmas via double-mode conversion to O-mode waves, exhibited <10% transmission efficiencies. Simulations show 80% of the EBW energy is dissipated by collisions in the edge plasma. Li conditioning reduced the edge collision frequency by a factor of 3 and increased the fundamental EBW transmission to 60%.
Confinement effects of shock waves on laser-induced plasma from a graphite target
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Huang, Feiling; Liang, Peipei; Yang, Xu; Cai, Hua; Wu, Jiada; Xu, Ning; Ying, Zhifeng; Sun, Jian, E-mail: jsun@fudan.edu.cn [Shanghai Ultra-Precision Optical Manufacturing Engineering Center, Department of Optical Science and Engineering, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China)
2015-06-15
The spatial confinement effects of shock waves on the laser-induced plasma (LIP) from a graphite target in air were studied by probe beam deflection (PBD) measurements and optical emission spectroscopy (OES). A clear relationship between the confinement of the LIP by the shock wave and the effects on the LIP emission was observed, and the underlying mechanisms are discussed. PBD monitoring revealed that the laser-ablation induced shock wave could be well analogized to the shock wave generated by a point explosion and would be reflected by a block. OES measurements indicated that the optical emission of the LIP exhibited significant variations with the block placement. A first enhancement and then a fast decay of CN molecular emission as well as a suppression of carbon atomic emission were observed in the presence of the block. The results revealed that the reflected shock wave spatially confined the expansion of the LIP and compressed the LIP after encountering it, pushing back the species of the LIP and changing the density of the LIP species including luminous carbon atoms and CN molecules. It is suggested that the change of the LIP emission is attributed to the density variation of the LIP species due to the compression of the LIP and the reactions occurring in the plasma.
Plasma generation using high-power millimeter-wave beam and its application for thrust generation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Oda, Yasuhisa; Komurasaki, Kimiya; Takahashi, Koji; Kasugai, Atsushi; Sakamoto, Keishi
2006-01-01
Propagation of an ionization front in the beam channel was observed after plasma was generated using a 170 GHz millimeter-wave beam in the atmosphere. The propagation velocity of the ionization front was found to be supersonic when the millimeter-wave power density was greater than 75 kW cm -2 . The momentum coupling coefficient C m , a ratio of the propulsive impulse to the input energy, was measured using conical and cylindrical thruster models. A C m value greater than 350 N MW -1 was recorded when the ionization front propagated with supersonic velocity
Nonlinear instability and chaos in plasma wave-wave interactions, I., Introduction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kueny, C.S.; Morrison, P.J.
1994-11-01
Conventional linear stability analyses may fail for fluid systems with an indefinite free energy functional. When such a system is linearly stable, it is said to possess negative energy modes. Instability may then occur either via dissipation of the negative energy modes, or nonlinearly via resonant wave-wave coupling, leading to explosive growth. In the dissipationless case, it is conjectured that intrinsic chaotic behavior may allow initially nonresonant systems to reach resonance by diffusion in phase space. In this and a companion paper [submitted to Physics of Plasmas], this phenomenon is demonstrated for a simple equilibrium involving cold counterstreaming ions. The system is described in the fluid approximation by a Hamiltonian functional and associated noncanonical Poisson bracket. By Fourier decomposition and appropriate coordinate transformations, the Hamiltonian for the perturbed energy is expressed in action-angle form. The normal modes correspond to Doppler-shifted ion-acoustic waves of positive and negative energy. Nonlinear coupling leads to decay instability via two-wave interactions, and to either decay or explosive instability via three-wave interactions. These instabilities are described for various (integrable) systems of waves interacting via single nonlinear terms. This discussion provides the foundation for the treatment of nonintegrable systems in the companion paper
Nonlinear instability and chaos in plasma wave--wave interactions. I. Introduction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kueny, C.S.; Morrison, P.J.
1995-01-01
Conventional linear stability analyses may fail for fluid systems with an indefinite free-energy functional. When such a system is linearly stable, it is said to possess negative energy modes. Instability may then occur either via dissipation of the negative energy modes, or nonlinearly via resonant wave--wave coupling, leading to explosive growth. In the dissipationless case, it is conjectured that intrinsic chaotic behavior may allow initially nonresonant systems to reach resonance by diffusion in phase space. In this and a companion paper (submitted to Phys. Plasmas), this phenomenon is demonstrated for a simple equilibrium involving cold counterstreaming ions. The system is described in the fluid approximation by a Hamiltonian functional and associated noncanonical Poisson bracket. By Fourier decomposition and appropriate coordinate transformations, the Hamiltonian for the perturbed energy is expressed in action-angle form. The normal modes correspond to Doppler-shifted ion-acoustic waves of positive and negative energy. Nonlinear coupling leads to decay instability via two-wave interactions, and to either decay or explosive instability via three-wave interactions. These instabilities are described for various integrable systems of waves interacting via single nonlinear terms. This discussion provides the foundation for the treatment of nonintegrable systems in the companion paper. copyright 1995 American Institute of Physics
Longitudinal waves and a beam instability in a relativistic anisotropic plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Onishchenko, O.G.
1981-01-01
Dispersion relations are derived for longitudinal waves in a relativistic plasma with an arbitrary anisotropic particle distribution function. Longitudinal waves with phase velocity lower than the speed of light are shown to exist in such a plasma. The damping rate of longitudinal waves due to the Cerenkov interaction with plasma particles is derived for such a plasma. The instability of a beam of high-energy particles in such a plasma is studied. As the anisotropy of an ultrarelativistic plasma becomes less pronounced, the maximum hydrodynamic growth rate decreases
Study of dense-plasma properties using very high-frequency electromagnetic waves (light waves)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gormezano, C.
1966-06-01
A study is made of methods based on the use of lasers for measuring the electronic density and temperature of dense plasmas (N e > 10 15 e/cm 3 ): - an interferometric method using a gas laser, based on the. properties of the Perot-Fabry cavities; - a method making use of the 90 deg C scattering produced by the plasma on light emitted by a ruby laser. These methods have been applied to various dense plasmas: - high-frequency plasma torch; - azimuth compression; - plasma bursts produced by focussing a laser beam on a metal target. The measurements have also been carried out using conventional methods of diagnosis. It has thus been possible to measure densities of between 5.10 15 and 10 19 e/cm 3 and temperatures of between 3 and 10 eV. These different-methods are then compared, (author) [fr
Magnetohydrodynamic spin waves in degenerate electron-positron-ion plasmas
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mushtaq, A. [TPPD, PINSTECH Nilore, 44000 Islamabad (Pakistan); National Center for Physics, Shahdrah Valley Road, 44000 Islamabad (Pakistan); Maroof, R.; Ahmad, Zulfiaqr [Institute of Physics and Electronics, University of Peshawar, 25000 Peshawar (Pakistan); Qamar, A. [National Center for Physics, Shahdrah Valley Road, 44000 Islamabad (Pakistan); Institute of Physics and Electronics, University of Peshawar, 25000 Peshawar (Pakistan)
2012-05-15
Low frequency magnetosonic waves are studied in magnetized degenerate electron-positron-ion plasmas with spin effects. Using the fluid equations of magnetoplasma with quantum corrections due to the Bohm potential, temperature degeneracy, and spin magnetization energy, a generalized dispersion relation for oblique magnetosonic waves is derived. Spin effects are incorporated via spin force and macroscopic spin magnetization current. For three different values of angle {theta}, the generalized dispersion relation is reduced to three different relations under the low frequency magnetohydrodynamic assumptions. It is found that the effect of quantum corrections in the presence of positron concentration significantly modifies the dispersive properties of these modes. The importance of the work relevant to compact astrophysical bodies is pointed out.
Marginal instability threshold of magnetosonic waves in kappa distributed plasma
Bashir, M. F.; Manzoor, M. Z.; Ilie, R.; Yoon, P. H.; Miasli, M. S.
2017-12-01
The dispersion relation of magnetosonic wave is studied taking the non-extensive anisotropic counter-streaming distribution which follows the Tsallis statistics. The effects of non-extensivity parameter (q), counter-streaming parameter (P) and the wave-particle interaction is analyzed on the growth rate and the marginal instability threshold condition of Magnetosonic (MS) mode to provide the possible explanation of different regions the Bale-diagram obtained from the solar wind data at 1 AU as represented by the temperature anisotropy ( ) vs plasma beta ( ) solar wind data plot. It is shown that the most of the regions of Bale-diagram is bounded by the MS instability under different condition and best fitted by the non-extesnive distribution. The results for the bi-kappa distribution and bi- Maxwellian distribution are also obtained in the limits and respectively.
Interferometric measurements of plasma density in high-β plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Quinn, W.E.
1977-01-01
The coupled-cavity laser interferometer technique is particularly applicable to the measurement of pulsed plasma densities. This technique is based on the fact that if a small fraction of a gas laser's output radiation is reflected into the laser with an external mirror, the intensity of the laser output is modulated. These amplitude or intensity modulations are produced by changes in the laser gain. A rotating corner mirror or an oscillating mirror can be used to produce a continuous feedback modulation of the interferometer which produces a continuous background fringe pattern. The presence of plasma in the outer cavity causes an additional change which results in a phase shift of the regular period of the background fringe pattern. The integral of the plasma density along the line of sight can be evaluated by comparison of the time history of the fringes obtained with and without plasma
Negative-energy waves in a magnetized, homogeneous plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Correa-Restrepo, D.; Pfirsch, D.
1991-09-01
The general expression for the second wave energy of a Vlasov-Maxwell system derived by Morrison and Pfirsch is evaluated here for the case of a magnetized, homogeneous plasma. It is again shown that negative-energy waves (which could become nonlinearly unstable and cause anomalous transport) exist for any deviation from monotonicity and/or any (however small) anisotropy in the equilibrium distribution function of any of the particle species. The partly unexpected and particularly interesting feature of the results is that, contrary to the proof of Morrison and Pfirsch, no restricting condition has to be imposed on the perpendicular wave number k perpendicular to of the perturbation (i.e. large k perpendicular to is not required). Finite-gyroradius effects are therefore not expected to improve the situation. Anisotropy alone would, however, impose a restriction on k z , the parallel wave number, relating it to the gyroradius. As far as distribution functions with v z δf v (0) /δv z > 0 in some region of v-space are concerned, however, this result agrees with a result found by Pfirsch and Morrison within the framework of drift-kinetic theory. (orig.)
Plasma fluctuation measurements in tokamaks using beam-plasma interactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fonck, R.J.; Duperrex, P.A.; Paul, S.F.
1990-01-01
High-frequency observations of light emitted from the interactions between plasma ions and injected neutral beam atoms allow the measurement of moderate-wavelength fluctuations in plasma and impurity ion densities. To detect turbulence in the local plasma ion density, the collisionally excited fluorescence from a neutral beam is measured either separately at several spatial points or with a multichannel imaging detector. Similarly, the role of impurity ion density fluctuations is measured using charge exchange recombination excited transitions emitted by the ion species of interest. This technique can access the relatively unexplored region of long-wavelength plasma turbulence with k perpendicular ρ i much-lt 1, and hence complements measurements from scattering experiments. Optimization of neutral beam geometry and optical sightlines can result in very good localization and resolution (Δx≤1 cm) in the hot plasma core region. The detectable fluctuation level is determined by photon statistics, atomic excitation processes, and beam stability, but can be as low as 0.2% in a 100 kHz bandwidth over the 0--1 MHz frequency range. The choices of beam species (e.g., H 0 , He 0 , etc.), observed transition (e.g., H α , L α , He I singlet or triplet transitions, C VI Δn=1, etc.) are dictated by experiment-specific factors such as optical access, flexibility of beam operation, plasma conditions, and detailed experimental goals. Initial tests on the PBX-M tokamak using the H α emissions from a heating neutral beam show low-frequency turbulence in the edge plasma region
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bell, T.F.; Ngo, H.D.
1990-01-01
Recent satellite observations demonstrate that high amplitude, short wavelength (5 m ≤ λ ≤ 100 m) electrostatic waves are commonly excited by electromagnetic whistler mode waves propagating in regions of the magnetosphere and topside ionosphere where small-scale magnetic-field-aligned plasma density irregularities are thought to exist. A new theoretical model of this phenomenon is presented, based upon passive linear scattering in a cold magnetoplasma. In this model the electrostatic waves are excited by linear mode coupling as the incident electromagnetic whistler mode waves scatter from the magnetic-field-aligned plasma density irregularities. The excited short wavelength waves are quasi-electrostatic whistler mode waves, a type of lower hybrid wave, whose wave normal lies near the whistler mode resonance cone where the wave refractive index becomes very large. The amplitude of the excited electrostatic lower hybrid waves is calculated for a wide range of values of input electromagnetic wave frequency, wave normal direction, electron plasma frequency, gyrofrequency, ion composition, and irregularity scale and density enhancement. Results indicate that high amplitude lower hybrid waves can be excited over a wide range of parameters for irregularity density enhancements as low as 5% whenever the scale of the irregularity is of the same order as the lower hybrid wavelength
Bragg scattering of electromagnetic waves by microwave-produced plasma layers
Kuo, S. P.; Zhang, Y. S.
1990-01-01
A set of parallel plasma layers is generated by two intersecting microwave pulses in a chamber containing dry air at a pressure comparable to the upper atmosphere. The dependencies of breakdown conditions on the pressure and pulse length are examined. The results are shown to be consistent with the appearance of tail erosion of the microwave pulse caused by air breakdown. A Bragg scattering experiment, using the plasma layers as a Bragg reflector, is then performed. Both time domain and frequency domain measurements of wave scattering are conducted. The experimental results are found to agree very well with the theory.
Radar cross section measurements using terahertz waves
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Iwaszczuk, Krzysztof; Heiselberg, Henning; Jepsen, Peter Uhd
2010-01-01
Radar cross sections at terahertz frequencies are measured on scale models of aircrafts. A time domain broadband THz system generates freely propagating THz pulses measured with sub-picosecond time resolution. The THz radiation is generated using fs laser pulses by optical rectification...... in order to measure realistic radar cross sections. RCS polar and azimuthal angle plots of F-16 and F-35 are presented....... in a lithium niobate crystal with application of the tilted wave front method, resulting in high electric field THz pulses with a broad band spectrum from 100 GHz up to 4 THz. The corresponding wave lengths are two orders of magnitude smaller than normal radars and we therefore use scale models of size 5-10 cm...
Physics of Collisionless Shocks Space Plasma Shock Waves
Balogh, André
2013-01-01
The present book provides a contemporary systematic treatment of shock waves in high-temperature collisionless plasmas as are encountered in near Earth space and in Astrophysics. It consists of two parts. Part I develops the complete theory of shocks in dilute hot plasmas under the assumption of absence of collisions among the charged particles when the interaction is mediated solely by the self-consistent electromagnetic fields. Such shocks are naturally magnetised implying that the magnetic field plays an important role in their evolution and dynamics. This part treats both subcritical shocks, which dissipate flow energy by generating anomalous resistance or viscosity, and supercritical shocks. The main emphasis is, however, on super-critical shocks where the anomalous dissipation is insufficient to retard the upstream flow. These shocks, depending on the direction of the upstream magnetic field, are distinguished as quasi-perpendicular and quasi-parallel shocks which exhibit different behaviours, reflecti...
Kinetic computer modeling of microwave surface-wave plasma production
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ganachev, Ivan P.
2004-01-01
Kinetic computer plasma modeling occupies an intermediate position between the time consuming rigorous particle dynamic simulation and the fast but rather rough cold- or warm-plasma fluid models. The present paper reviews the kinetic modeling of microwave surface-wave discharges with accent on recent kinetic self-consistent models, where the external input parameters are reduced to the necessary minimum (frequency and intensity of the applied microwave field and pressure and geometry of the discharge vessel). The presentation is limited to low pressures, so that Boltzmann equation is solved in non-local approximation and collisional electron heating is neglected. The numerical results reproduce correctly the bi-Maxwellian electron energy distribution functions observed experimentally. (author)
Intense plasma wave emissions associated with Saturn's moon Rhea
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Santolík, Ondřej; Gurnett, D. A.; Jones, G. H.; Schippers, P.; Crary, F. J.; Leisner, J. S.; Hospodarsky, G. B.; Kurth, W. S.; Russell, C. T.; Dougherty, M. K.
2011-01-01
Roč. 38, - (2011), L19204/1-L19204/7 ISSN 0094-8276 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP205/10/2279; GA MŠk(CZ) ME10001; GA MŠk(CZ) LH11122 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30420517 Keywords : III RADIO-BURSTS * LANGMUIR-WAVES * ICY MOON * CASSINI * ELECTRONS Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 3.792, year: 2011 http://www.agu.org/pubs/crossref/2011/2011GL049219.shtml
Broadband notch filter design for millimeter-wave plasma diagnostics
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Furtula, Vedran; Michelsen, Poul; Leipold, Frank
2010-01-01
Notch filters are integrated in plasma diagnostic systems to protect millimeter-wave receivers from intensive stray radiation. Here we present a design of a notch filter with a center frequency of 140 GHz, a rejection bandwidth of ∼ 900 MHz, and a typical insertion loss below 2 dB in the passband...... of ±9 GHz. The design is based on a fundamental rectangular waveguide with eight cylindrical cavities coupled by T-junction apertures formed as thin slits. Parameters that affect the notch performance such as physical lengths and conductor materials are discussed. The excited resonance mode...
The study of waves, instabilities, and turbulence using Thomson scattering in laser plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Drake, R.P.
1995-01-01
Much basic work in plasma physics has been devoted to the study of wave properties in plasmas, one of the nonlinear development of driven waves, and of the instabilities in which such waves may participate. The use of laser-plasma techniques has allowed one to extend such studies into new regimes. Such techniques and their results are the subject here. Once one chooses a physical problem within this subject area, it is now possible to design a laser-plasma experiment that is optimized for the study of that problem. The plasma can be designed to have a variety of density and flow-velocity profiles, the damping of ion acoustic waves and of electron plasma waves can be independently controlled, and the waves can be driven weakly or strongly. By using Nd-glass lasers and their harmonics one can non-invasively drive and diagnose the waves, using separate laser beams to produce the plasma, drive the waves, and diagnose their properties. The author uses as examples some recent work with his collaborators, including the first experimental detection of ion plasma waves and the first direct observation of the plasma wave driven by the acoustic decay of laser light
Ofman, Leon; Ozak, Nataly; Vinas, Adolfo F.
2016-01-01
Near the Sun (plasma. The heating and the acceleration of the solar wind ions by turbulent wave spectrum in inhomogeneous plasma is studied using a 2.5D hybrid model. The hybrid model describes the kinetics of the ions, while the electrons are modeled as massless neutralizing fluid in an expanding box approach. Turbulent magnetic fluctuations dominated by power-law frequency spectra, which are evident from in-situ as well as remote sensing measurements, are used in our models. The effects of background density inhomogeneity across the magnetic field on the resonant ion heating are studied. The effect of super- Alfvenic ion drift on the ion heating is investigated. It is found that the turbulent wave spectrum of initially parallel propagating waves cascades to oblique modes, and leads to enhanced resonant ion heating due to the inhomogeneity. The acceleration of the solar wind ions is achieved by the parametric instability of large amplitude waves in the spectrum, and is also affected by the inhomogeneity. The results of the study provide the ion temperature anisotropy and drift velocity temporal evolution due to relaxation of the instability. The non-Maxwellian velocity distribution functions (VDFs) of the ions are modeled in the inhomogeneous solar wind plasma in the acceleration region close to the Sun.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ofman, Leon, E-mail: Leon.Ofman@nasa.gov [Department of Physics, The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States); NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (United States); Visiting, Department of Geosciences, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv (Israel); Ozak, Nataly [Centre for mathematical Plasma Astrophysics, KU Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200B, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Viñas, Adolfo F. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (United States)
2016-03-25
Near the Sun (< 10R{sub s}) the acceleration, heating, and propagation of the solar wind are likely affected by the background inhomogeneities of the magnetized plasma. The heating and the acceleration of the solar wind ions by turbulent wave spectrum in inhomogeneous plasma is studied using a 2.5D hybrid model. The hybrid model describes the kinetics of the ions, while the electrons are modeled as massless neutralizing fluid in an expanding box approach. Turbulent magnetic fluctuations dominated by power-law frequency spectra, which are evident from in-situ as well as remote sensing measurements, are used in our models. The effects of background density inhomogeneity across the magnetic field on the resonant ion heating are studied. The effect of super-Alfvénic ion drift on the ion heating is investigated. It is found that the turbulent wave spectrum of initially parallel propagating waves cascades to oblique modes, and leads to enhanced resonant ion heating due to the inhomogeneity. The acceleration of the solar wind ions is achieved by the parametric instability of large amplitude waves in the spectrum, and is also affected by the inhomogeneity. The results of the study provide the ion temperature anisotropy and drift velocity temporal evolution due to relaxation of the instability. The non-Maxwellian velocity distribution functions (VDFs) of the ions are modeled in the inhomogeneous solar wind plasma in the acceleration region close to the Sun.
Measuring methods for the TFR plasma diagnostics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Etievant, C.
1975-02-01
The measuring methods in operation or still under development for the diagnostics of the TFR plasma parameters (ion and electron temperatures, electron density, current density are reviewed, the diagnostics of the electrical behavior of the discharge, the neutral gas densities, the impurities and the parameters of the plasma turbulence being also investigated. Actual works are principally devoted to: improving ion temperature measurements by the possible use of the Doppler effect or infra-red incoherent scattering; improving n(e) and T(e) measurement by Thomson scattering; measuring the poloidal field and current density; measuring impurities by X and UV spectroscopy and measuring instabilities and turbulence [fr
Frequency spectral broadening of lower hybrid waves in tokamak plasmas - causes and effects
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pericoli Ridolfini, V; Giannone, L.; Bartiromo, R [Associazione Euratom-ENEA sulla Fusione, Rome (Italy). Centro Ricerche Energia Frascati
1994-04-01
The frequency spectral broadening of lower hybrid (LH) waves injected into tokamak plasmas is extensively analyzed with reference mostly to experimental data from the ASDEX tokamak. The link between the magnitude of the pump spectral width and the degradation of the LH current drive efficiency (up to a factor of 2), pointed out in previous works, is explained. The experimental behaviour of LH power absorption is also well reproduced, even in situations when the access of the launched LH waves to the core plasma should be largely forbidden. Experiments are described that are aimed at determined whether parametric decay instabilities (PDIs) or scattering of LH waves by density fluctuations in the plasma edge are causes of the broadening of the LH pump frequency spectrum. Fluctuations emerge as the largely dominant process, while no signature of PDI processes is observed. Careful measurements of the density fluctuations in the ASDEX scrape-off layer plasma allow the analytical description given by Andrews and Perkins to be assumed as the appropriate model of LH scattering. Indeed, it supplies the correct magnitude for the frequency spectral width of the LH pump, and explains quantitatively, together with a ray tracing code, why the CD efficiency decreases with the broadening of the pump spectrum. It can also account for the observed LH power absorption coefficient. (author). 48 refs, 13 figs, 2 tabs.
Radio-frequency wave excitation and damping on a high β plasma column
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Meuth, H.
1984-01-01
Azimuthally symmetric (m = 0) radio-frequency (RF) waves for zero and for finite axial wave number k/sub z/ are investigated on the High BETA Q Machine, a two-meter, 20 cm-diameter, low-compression linear theta pinch (T greater than or equal to 200 eV, n approx. = 10 15 cm -3 ) fast rising (0.4 μs) compression field. The (k/sub z/ = 0) modes occur spontaneously following the implosion phase of the discharge. A novel 100-MW 1 to 1.3 MHz, short wavelength current drive excites the plasma column in the vicinity of the lowest fast magnetoacoustic mode at various filling pressures. This current drive is designed as an integral part of the compression coil, which is segmented with a 20-cm axial wavelength (k/sub z/ = 0.314 cm -1 ). The electron density oscillations along major and minor chords at various positions are measured by interferometry perpendicular to the pinch axis. The oscillatory radial magnetic field component between pinch wall and hot plasma edge is measured by probes. Phases, amplitudes and radial mode structure are studied for the free (k = 0) modes and the externally driven (k does not equal 0) modes for various filling pressures of deuterium. The energy deposition from the externally driven RF wave leads to a radial expansion of the plasma column, as observed by axial interferometry and by excluded flux measurements
Benefits of up-wave measurements in linear short-term wave forecasting for wave energy applications
Paparella, Francesco; Monk, Kieran; Winands, Victor; Lopes, Miguel; Conley, Daniel; Ringwood, John
2014-01-01
The real-time control of wave energy converters requires the prediction of the wave elevation at the location of the device in order to maximize the power extracted from the waves. One possibility is to predict the future wave elevation by combining its past history with the spatial information coming from a sensor which measures the free surface elevation upwave of the wave energy converter. As an application example, the paper focuses on the prediction of the wave eleva...
On performance of cylindrical dipole antenna in diagnostics of wave phenomena in space plasma
Kiraga, A.
Tubular and wire antennas have been employed since an advent of in situ measurements in space. It is generally accepted that they are well suited to recipe electromagnetic radiation from remote sources as well as divers local plasma emissions. Quasi thermal noise spectroscopy provides an example of well documented, both experimentally and theoretically, technique to study solar wind plasma. In many data sets of wave spectra, recorded with use of tubular or wire antennas at all altitudes inside a plasma sphere, there is pronounced, permanent, variable frequency spectral structure, routinely assigned to upper hybrid band (UHR) emissions. On the other hand, spectral structure, which could be assigned to upper hybrid band, is less pronounced and infrequent, in sets of wave spectra recorded in polar region with the use of spherical double probes. These apparently inconsistent observations have not drawn much attention of wave community. Assignment to UHR emission have been bolstered by theoretical plausibility, permanency in data sets, frequency verification with independent techniques and conviction that measurements were performed with good voltmeter with well known properties. It has been recognized that stray capacitance acts as a voltage divider and underestimates real voltage imposed on antenna. But in sufficiently dense and cold main plasma component, even short antenna is inductive in some frequency band below upper hybrid frequency. Stray capacitance and antenna inductance result in circuit resonance, which is very pronounced, if antenna resistance is low and input resistance is high. In such circumstances, a good voltmeter concept is very misleading. In this report we show that good voltmeter concept is not sufficient for interpretation of passive mode spectra recorded with tubular antenna on IK -19, APEX and CORONAS satellites. With orbit inclination of ~80deg and altitude range of 500-3000km, very divers plasmas were encountered, but distinct plasma emission
Multi-instrument comparisons of D-region plasma measurements
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. Friedrich
2013-01-01
Full Text Available The ECOMA (Existence and Charge state Of Meteoric dust grains in the middle Atmosphere series of sounding rocket flights consisted of nine flights with almost identical payload design and flight characteristics. All flights carried a radio wave propagation experiment together with a variety of plasma probes. Three of these measured electron densities, two ion densities. The rockets were all launched from the Andøya Rocket Range, Norway, in four campaigns between 2006 and 2010. Emphasis is on the final three flights from 2010 where the payloads were equipped with four instruments capable of measuring plasma densities in situ, among them a novel probe flown for the first time in conjunction with a wave propagation experiment. Deviation factors of all probe data relative to the wave propagation results were derived and revealed that none of the probe data were close to the wave propagation results at all heights, but – more importantly – the instruments showed very different behaviour at different altitudes. The novel multi-needle Langmuir probe exhibits the best correlation to the wave propagation data, as there is minimal influence of the payload potential, but it is still subject to aerodynamics, especially at its location at the rear of the payload. For all other probe types, the deviation factor comes closer to unity with increasing plasma density. No systematic difference of the empirical deviation factor between day and night can be found. The large negative payload potential in the last three flights may be the cause for discrepancies between electron and ion probe data below 85 km.
Stimulated scattering of electromagnetic waves by magnetosonic modes in a plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stenflo, L.
1985-01-01
The dispersion relation for magnetosonic waves in a dissipative plasma, which is penetrated by a high-frequency electromagnetic wave, is derived. Previous results are generalized and discussed. (author)
On the influence of electromagnetic wave and relativistic electron beam on a plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
El Ashry, M.Y.; Berezhiani, V.I.; Javakhishvili, J.L.
1993-08-01
The dynamics of nonlinear wave in plasma under the influence of high-frequency electromagnetic pump and relativistic electron beam is considered. It is shown that the electrons of the beam play the role of the heavy plasma component, the matter which creates a possibility of formation of wave of a soliton type in a pure electron plasma. The wave structure is investigated and the characteristic parameters of the soliton are obtained. (author). 8 refs
3+1 dimensional envelop waves and its stability in magnetized dusty plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Duan Wenshan
2006-01-01
It is well known that there are envelope solitary waves in unmagnetized dusty plasmas which are described by a nonlinear Schrodinger equation (NLSE). A three dimension nonlinear Schrodinger equation for small but finite amplitude dust acoustic waves is first obtained for magnetized dusty plasma in this paper. It suggest that in magnetized dusty plasmas the envelope solitary waves exist. The modulational instability for three dimensional NLSE is studied as well. The regions of stability and instability are well determined in this paper
Non linear dynamic of Langmuir and electromagnetic waves in space plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Guede, Jose Ricardo Abalde
1995-11-01
The aim of this work is to study the nonlinear dynamics of Langmuir and electromagnetic waves in space plasmas. Firstly, the generalized Zakharov equations are derived which are used to study the hybrid parametric instability involving the generation of daughter Langmuir, electromagnetic and ion-acoustic waves induced by two counter-propagating Langmuir pump waves with different amplitudes based on a coupled dispersion relation. Secondly, starting from the generalized Zakharov equations the linear and nonlinear coupled mode theories of three-wave and four-wave parametric interactions are developed, respectively. In three-waves processes, a Langmuir wave decays into another Langmuir wave and an ion-acoustic wave (electrostatic parametric decay) or into an electromagnetic wave and an ion-acoustic wave (electromagnetic parametric decay). In four-wave (modulational) processes, the interaction involves two wave triplets: in the decay triplet a pump wave couples with a low-frequency wave to generate a Stokes wave, and in the fusion triplets: in the decay triplet a pump wave couples with a low-frequency wave to generate a Stokes wave, and in the fusion triplet the coupling of a pump wave with a low-frequency wave generate an anti-Stokes wave. These modulational processes are convective and resonant processes wherein the low-frequency modes are Eigenmodes of plasma and are known as the stimulated modulational processes. Four such processes are investigated in this thesis: two with Langmuir pump waves (electrostatic and hybrid stimulated modulation processes) and the other two with electromagnetic pump waves (stimulated modulation Brillouin scattering and electromagnetic stimulated modulation process). Applications of the theoretical results in space plasmas are discussed. In particular, it is shown that the electrostatic and electromagnetic parametric decay processes of Langmuir waves can model the generation and modulation of radio emissions and Langmuir waves in the
A full wave code for ion cyclotron waves in toroidal plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brambilla, M.
1996-02-01
The code TORIC solves the finite Larmor radius wave equations in the ion cyclotron frequency range in arbitrary axisymmetric toroidal geometry. The model used describes the compressional and torsional Alfven waves (or, depending on the parallel phase velocity, the kinetic counterpart of the latter), and ion Bernstein waves excited by mode conversion near the first ion cyclotron harmonic. In the ion response the broadening of the absorption regions due to the finite width of the cyclotron resonance of individual ions in toroidal geometry is taken into account. The parallel component of the wave electric field is evaluated on the same footing as the transverse ones; the response of the electrons includes Landau damping, Transit Time damping and the mixed term. The numerical approach uses a spectral representation of the solution in the poloidal angle θ, and cubic finite elements in the radial variable ψ. Great flexibility is provided in the way ion Bernstein waves excited by mode conversion are damped when their wavelength becomes comparable with the ion Larmor radius, in the regularization of Alfven resonances, and in the treatment of the outer plasma layers. As an option, we have also implemented the Order Reduction Algorithm, which provides a particularly fast, yet accurate evaluation of the power deposition profiles in toroidal geometry. Thee present report describes the model and its numerical implementation, and provides the information needed to use the code. A few examples illustrating applications of TORIC are also included. (orig.)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
El-Tantawy, S.A., E-mail: samireltantawy@yahoo.com
2017-02-26
Progress is reported on the modulational instability (MI) of ion-acoustic waves (IAWs) and dissipative rogue waves (RWs) in ultracold neutral plasmas (UNPs). The UNPs consist of inertial ions fluid and Maxwellian inertialess hot electrons, and the presence of an ion kinematic viscosity is allowed. For this purpose, a modified nonlinear Schrödinger equation (NLSE) is derived and then solved analytically to show the occurrence of MI. It is found that the (in)stability regions of the wavepacks are dependent on time due to of the existence of the dissipative term. The existing regions of the MI of the IAWs are inventoried precisely. After that, we use a suitable transformation to convert the modified NLSE into the normal NLSE whose analytical solutions for rogue waves are known. The rogue wave propagation condition and its behavior are discussed. The impact of the relevant physical parameters on the profile of the RWs is examined. - Highlights: • UNPs are modeled by the phenomenological generalized hydrodynamic equations. • The derivative expansion method has been employed in order to derive a modified-NLSE. • A suitable transformation is used to transform the modified-NLSE into the standard NLSE. • The effect of the ion viscosity on the modulational instability and rogue waves is investigated.
An investigation of the structure of plasma produced by reflected shock waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Phillips, M.G.R.; Pugatschew, A.A.
1979-05-01
Space and time resolved measurements of electron density and temperature have been made in the reflected-shock plasma produced by a Mach 20 incident shock wave propagating in argon at an initial pressure of 1.5 Torr. The peak electron density was found to decrease away from the reflecting wall in such a way that the plasma was fairly uniform at all times. Close to the reflecting wall (0.2 cm away) the measured peak electron density was close to (i.e. about 20% lower than) the predicted equilibrium value but further away (1.0 cm) it was lower by a factor 4. Possible reasons for this discrepancy are discussed. Calculations of reflected-shock plasma structure based on incident shock structure are only partially supported by available experimental evidence
Landau damping of dust acoustic solitary waves in nonthermal plasmas
Ghai, Yashika; Saini, N. S.; Eliasson, B.
2018-01-01
Dust acoustic (DA) solitary and shock structures have been investigated under the influence of Landau damping in a dusty plasma containing two temperature nonthermal ions. Motivated by the observations of Geotail spacecraft that reported two-temperature ion population in the Earth's magnetosphere, we have investigated the effect of resonant wave-particle interactions on DA nonlinear structures. The Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation with an additional Landau damping term is derived and its analytical solution is presented. The solution has the form of a soliton whose amplitude decreases with time. Further, we have illustrated the influence of Landau damping and nonthermality of the ions on DA shock structures by a numerical solution of the Landau damping modified KdV equation. The study of the time evolution of shock waves suggests that an initial shock-like pulse forms an oscillatory shock at later times due to the balance of nonlinearity, dispersion, and dissipation due to Landau damping. The findings of the present investigation may be useful in understanding the properties of nonlinear structures in the presence of Landau damping in dusty plasmas containing two temperature ions obeying nonthermal distribution such as in the Earth's magnetotail.
Excitation of nonlinear wave patterns in flowing complex plasmas
Jaiswal, S.; Bandyopadhyay, P.; Sen, A.
2018-01-01
We describe experimental observations of nonlinear wave structures excited by a supersonic mass flow of dust particles over an electrostatic potential hill in a dusty plasma medium. The experiments have been carried out in a Π- shaped experimental (DPEx) device in which micron sized Kaolin particles are embedded in a DC glow discharge Argon plasma. An equilibrium dust cloud is formed by maintaining the pumping speed and gas flow rate and the dust flow is induced either by suddenly reducing the height of a potential hill or by suddenly reducing the gas flow rate. For a supersonic flow of the dust fluid precursor solitons are seen to propagate in the upstream direction while wake structures propagate in the downstream direction. For flow speeds with a Mach number greater than 2 the dust particles flowing over the potential hill give rise to dispersive dust acoustic shock waves. The experimental results compare favorably with model theories based on forced K-dV and K-dV Burger's equations.