Direct excitation of a high frequency wave by a low frequency wave in a plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tanaka, Takayasu
1993-01-01
A new mechanism is presented of an excitation of a high frequency wave by a low frequency wave in a plasma. This mechanism works when the low frequency wave varies in time in a manner deviated from a usual periodic motion with a constant amplitude. The conversion rate is usually not large but the conversion is done without time delay after the variation of the low frequency wave. The Manley Rowe relation in the usual sense does not hold in this mechanism. This mechanism can excite also waves with same or lower frequencies. (author)
Low-frequency waves in magnetized dusty plasmas revisited
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Salimullah, M.; Khan, M.I.; Amin, R.; Nitta, H.; Shukla, P.K.
2005-10-01
The general dispersion relation of any wave is examined for low-frequency waves in a homogeneous dusty plasma in the presence of an external magnetic field. The low-frequency parallel electromagnetic wave propagates as a dust cyclotron wave or a whistler in the frequency range below the ion cyclotron frequency. In the same frequency regime, the transverse electromagnetic magnetosonic wave is modified with a cutoff frequency at the dust-ion lower-hybrid frequency, which reduces to the usual magnetosonic wave in absence of the dust. Electrostatic dust-lower- hybrid mode is also recovered propagating nearly perpendicular to the magnetic field with finite ion temperature and cold dust particles which for strong ion-Larmor radius effect reduces to the usual dust-acoustic wave driven by the ion pressure. (author)
Mishra, Rinku; Dey, M.
2018-04-01
An analytical model is developed that explains the propagation of a high frequency electrostatic surface wave along the interface of a plasma system where semi-infinite electron-ion plasma is interfaced with semi-infinite dusty plasma. The model emphasizes that the source of such high frequency waves is inherent in the presence of ion acoustic and dust ion acoustic/dust acoustic volume waves in electron-ion plasma and dusty plasma region. Wave dispersion relation is obtained for two distinct cases and the role of plasma parameters on wave dispersion is analyzed in short and long wavelength limits. The normalized surface wave frequency is seen to grow linearly for lower wave number but becomes constant for higher wave numbers in both the cases. It is observed that the normalized frequency depends on ion plasma frequencies when dust oscillation frequency is neglected.
Plasma acceleration in a wave with varying frequency
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Petrzilka, V.A.
1978-01-01
The averaged velocity of a test particle and the averaged velocity of a plasma in an electromagnetic wave packet with varying frequency (e.g., a radiation pulse from pulsar) is derived. The total momentum left by the wave packet in regions of plasma inhomogeneity is found. In case the plasma concentration is changing due to ionization the plasma may be accelerated parallelly or antiparallelly to the direction of the wave packet propagation which is relevant for a laser induced breakdown in gas. (author)
Plasma particle drifts due to traveling waves with cyclotron frequencies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hatakeyama, Rikizo; Sato, Naoyuki; Sato, Noriyoshi
1991-01-01
A particle orbit theory yields that traveling waves with cyclotron frequencies give rise to charged particle drifts perpendicular both to the wave propagation and external magnetic field lines. The result is applicable to particle-flux control of magnetized plasmas. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
El Naggar, I.A.; Hussein, A.M.; Khalil, Sh.M.
1992-09-01
Electromagnetic waves radiated with combination frequencies from a semi-bounded plasma due to nonlinear interaction of radiation with surface wave (both of P-polarization) has been investigated. Waves are radiated both into vacuum and plasma are found to be P-polarized. We take into consideration the continuity at the plasma boundary of the tangential components of the electric field of the waves. The case of normal incidence of radiation and rarefield plasma layer is also studied. (author). 7 refs
Nonlinear nonresonant forces by radio-frequency waves in plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gao Zhe; Fisch, Nathaniel J.; Qin, Hong; Myra, J. R.
2007-01-01
Nonresonant forces by applied rf waves in plasmas are analyzed. Along the background dc magnetic field, the force arises from the gradient of the ponderomotive potential. Only when the dc magnetic field is straight, however, is this parallel force completely consistent with that from the single particle picture, where the ponderomotive force depends on the gradients of rf fields only. Across the dc magnetic field, besides the ponderomotive force from the particle picture, additional Reynolds stress and polarization stress contribute to the total force. For waves with frequency much lower than the cyclotron frequency, the perpendicular forces from the particle and fluid pictures can have opposite signs. In plasmas with a symmetry angle (e.g., toroidal systems), nonresonant forces cannot drive net flow or current in the flux surface, but the radial force may influence macroscopic behavior of plasma. Moreover, nonresonant forces may drive flow or current in linear plasmas or in a localized region of toroidal plasmas
Low Frequency Turbulence as the Source of High Frequency Waves in Multi-Component Space Plasmas
Khazanov, George V.; Krivorutsky, Emmanuel N.; Uritsky, Vadim M.
2011-01-01
Space plasmas support a wide variety of waves, and wave-particle interactions as well as wavewave interactions are of crucial importance to magnetospheric and ionospheric plasma behavior. High frequency wave turbulence generation by the low frequency (LF) turbulence is restricted by two interconnected requirements: the turbulence should be strong enough and/or the coherent wave trains should have the appropriate length. These requirements are strongly relaxed in the multi-component plasmas, due to the heavy ions large drift velocity in the field of LF wave. The excitation of lower hybrid waves (LHWs), in particular, is a widely discussed mechanism of interaction between plasma species in space and is one of the unresolved questions of magnetospheric multi-ion plasmas. It is demonstrated that large-amplitude Alfven waves, in particular those associated with LF turbulence, may generate LHW s in the auroral zone and ring current region and in some cases (particularly in the inner magnetosphere) this serves as the Alfven wave saturation mechanism. We also argue that the described scenario can playa vital role in various parts of the outer magnetosphere featuring strong LF turbulence accompanied by LHW activity. Using the data from THEMIS spacecraft, we validate the conditions for such cross-scale coupling in the near-Earth "flow-braking" magnetotail region during the passage of sharp injection/dipolarization fronts, as well as in the turbulent outflow region of the midtail reconnection site.
Excitation of plasma waves by nonlinear currents induced by a high-frequency electromagnetic pulse
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Grishkov, V. E.; Uryupin, S. A., E-mail: uryupin@sci.lebedev.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Lebedev Physical Institute (Russian Federation)
2017-03-15
Excitation of plasma waves by nonlinear currents induced by a high-frequency electromagnetic pulse is analyzed within the kinetic approach. It is shown that the most efficient source of plasma waves is the nonlinear current arising due to the gradient of the energy density of the high-frequency field. Generation of plasma waves by the drag current is usually less efficient but not negligibly small at relatively high frequencies of electron–ion collisions. The influence of electron collisions on the excitation of plasma waves by pulses of different duration is described quantitatively.
Stabilizing effects of hot electrons on low frequency plasma drift waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Huang Chaosong; Qiu Lijian; Ren Zhaoxing
1988-01-01
The MHD equation is used to study the stabilization of low frequency drift waves driven by density gradient of plasma in a hot electron plasma. The dispersion relation is derived, and the stabilizing effects of hot electrons are discussed. The physical mechanism for hot electron stabilization of the low frequency plasma perturbations is charge uncovering due to the hot electron component, which depends only on α, the ratio of N h /N i , but not on the value of β h . The hot electrons can reduce the growth rate of the interchange mode and drift wave driven by the plasma, and suppress the enomalous plasma transport caused by the drift wave. Without including the effectof β h , the stabilization of the interchange mode requires α≅2%, and the stabilization of the drift wave requires α≅40%. The theoretical analyses predict that the drift wave is the most dangerous low frequency instability in the hot electron plasma
Initial frequency shift of large amplitude plasma wave, 2
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yamanaka, K.; Sugihara, R.; Ohsawa, Y.; Kamimura, T.
1979-07-01
A nonlinear complex frequency shift of the ion acoustic wave in the initial phase defined by 0 0 and ωsub(s)/k as long as ωsub(s) >> γsub( l), where phi 0 , ωsub(s), γsub( l) and t sub(c) are the initial value of the potential, the frequency of the wave, the linear Landau damping coefficient and the time for the first minimum of the amplitude oscillation, respectively. A simulation study is also carried out. The results confirm the validity of the theory. (author)
Absorption of low-frequency electromagnetic waves by plasma in electromagnetic trap
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
D'yakov, V.E.
1984-01-01
Absorption of electromagnetic waves in plasma of the electromagnetic trap is investigated. An integro-differential equation describing the behaviour of the electrical and magnetic fields of the wave is obtained. The wave has a component along the plasma inhomogeneity axis. Solution of this equation is found within the low frequency range corresponding to the anomalous skin-effect. The possibility of ion-acoustic waves excitation is demonstrated. Expressions are found for reflection, absorption and transformation coefficients
Nonlinear beat excitation of low frequency wave in degenerate plasmas
Mir, Zahid; Shahid, M.; Jamil, M.; Rasheed, A.; Shahbaz, A.
2018-03-01
The beat phenomenon due to the coupling of two signals at slightly different frequencies that generates the low frequency signal is studied. The linear dispersive properties of the pump and sideband are analyzed. The modified nonlinear dispersion relation through the field coupling of linear modes against the beat frequency is derived in the homogeneous quantum dusty magnetoplasmas. The dispersion relation is used to derive the modified growth rate of three wave parametric instability. Moreover, significant quantum effects of electrons through the exchange-correlation potential, the Bohm potential, and the Fermi pressure evolved in macroscopic three wave interaction are presented. The analytical results are interpreted graphically describing the significance of the work. The applications of this study are pointed out at the end of introduction.
Low frequency waves in streaming quantum dusty plasmas
Rozina, Ch.; Jamil, M.; Khan, Arroj A.; Zeba, I.; Saman, J.
2017-09-01
The influence of quantum effects on the excitation of two instabilities, namely quantum dust-acoustic and quantum dust-lower-hybrid waves due to the free streaming of ion/dust particles in uniformly magnetized dusty plasmas has been investigated using a quantum hydrodynamic model. We have obtained dispersion relations under some particular conditions applied on streaming ions and two contrastreaming dust particle beams at equilibrium and have analyzed the growth rates graphically. We have shown that with the increase of both the electron number density and the streaming speed of ion there is enhancement in the instability due to the fact that the dense plasma particle system with more energetic species having a high speed results in the increase of the growth rate in the electrostatic mode. The application of this work has been pointed out for laboratory as well as for space dusty plasmas.
A theoretical study of hot plasma spheroids in the presence of low-frequency electromagnetic waves
Ahmadizadeh, Y.; Jazi, B.; Barjesteh, S.
2016-07-01
While taking into account thermal motion of electrons, scattering of electromagnetic waves with low frequency from hot plasma spheroids is investigated. In this theoretical research, ions are heavy to respond to electromagnetic fluctuations. The solution of scalar wave equation in spheroidal coordinates for electric potential inside the plasma spheroids are obtained. The variations of resonance frequencies vs. Debye length are studied and consistency between the obtained results in this paper and the results for the well-known plasma objects such as plasma column and spherical plasma have been proved.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Klimas, A.J.
1983-01-01
A bump-on-tail unstable reduced velocity distribution has been constructed from data obtained at the upstream boundary of the electron foreshock by the GSFC electron spectrometer experiment on the ISEE 1 satellite. This distribution is used as the initial plasma state for a numerical integration of the one-dimensional Vlasov-Maxwell system of equations. The integration is carried through the growth of the instability, beyond its saturation, and well into the stabilized plasma regime. A power spectrum for the electric field of the stabilized plasma is computed. The spectrum is dominated by a narrow peak at the Bohm-Gross frequency of the unstable field mode but it also contain significant power at the harmonics of the Bohm-Gross frequency. The harmonic power is in sharp peaks which are split into closely spaced doublets. The fundamental peak at the Bohm-Gross frequency is also split, in this case into a closely space triplet. The fundamental peak at the Bohm-Gross frequency is also split, in this case into a closely space triplet. The splitting is due to slow modulations of the stabilized electric field oscillations which, it is thought, are caused by wave-particle trapping. The wavelength of mth harmonic of the Bohm-Gross frequency is given by lambda/sub u//m, where lambda/sub u/ is the wavelength of the unstable mode. The mechanism for excitation of the second harmonic is shwn to be second-order wave-wave coupling which takes place during that period in the evolution of the instability which would otherwise be called the linear growth phase. It is conjectured that the higher harmonics are excited by the same mechanism. It is further argued that harmonic excitation at the boundary of the electron foreshock should be a common occurrence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Faith, J.; Kuo, S.P.; Huang, J.
1997-01-01
Experimental and numerical results of the interaction of electromagnetic waves with rapidly time varying spatially periodic plasmas are presented. It is shown that a number of Floquet modes, each with their own oscillation frequency, are created during the interaction. Included among these modes are downshifted waves which will not exist in the single slab case, and also waves with a larger upshifted frequency than one can obtain with a single plasma layer of the same density. In addition, the periodic structure is characterized by pass and stop bands that are different from those of a single plasma layer, and the frequencies of the downshifted modes falling in the stop band of a single plasma layer. Therefore these waves are trapped within the plasma structure until the plasma decays away. To show this phenomenon a chamber experiment is conducted, with the periodic plasma being produced by a capacitive discharge. The power spectrum recorded for waves interacting with the plasma shows vastly improved efficiency in the downshift mechanism, which the numerical calculations suggest is related to the trapping of the wave within the plasma. Reproducible results are recorded which are found to agree well with the numerical simulation. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society
Swanson, DG
1989-01-01
Plasma Waves discusses the basic development and equations for the many aspects of plasma waves. The book is organized into two major parts, examining both linear and nonlinear plasma waves in the eight chapters it encompasses. After briefly discussing the properties and applications of plasma wave, the book goes on examining the wave types in a cold, magnetized plasma and the general forms of the dispersion relation that characterize the waves and label the various types of solutions. Chapters 3 and 4 analyze the acoustic phenomena through the fluid model of plasma and the kinetic effects. Th
Kinetic theory of interaction of high frequency waves with a rotating plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chiu, S. C.; Chan, V. S.; Chu, M. S.; Lin-Liu, Y. R.
2000-01-01
The equations of motion of charged particles of a strongly magnetized flowing plasma under the influence of high frequency waves are derived in the guiding center approximation. A quasilinear theory of the interactions of waves with rotating plasmas is formulated. This is applied to investigate the effect of radio frequency waves on a rotating tokamak plasma with a heated minority species. The angular momentum drive is mainly due to the rf-induced radial minority current. The return current by the bulk plasma gives an equal and opposite rotation drive on the bulk. Using moment equations and a small banana width approximation, the JxB drive was evaluated for the bulk plasma. Quite remarkably, although collisions are included, the net rotation drive is due to a term which can be obtained by neglecting collisions. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Avitzour, Yoav; Shvets, Gennady
2008-01-01
A new approach to manipulating the duration and frequency of microwave pulses using magnetized plasmas is demonstrated. The plasma accomplishes two functions: (i) slowing down and spatially compressing the incident wave, and (ii) modifying the propagation properties (group velocity and frequency) of the wave in the plasma during a uniform in space adiabatic in time variation of the magnitude and/or direction of the magnetic field. The increase in the group velocity results in the shortening of the temporal pulse duration. Depending on the plasma parameters, the frequency of the outgoing compressed pulse can either change or remain unchanged. Such dynamic manipulation of radiation in plasma opens new avenues for manipulating high power microwave pulses
Large Amplitude Low Frequency Waves in a Magnetized Nonuniform Electron-Positron-Ion Plasma
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Q. Haque; H. Saleem
2004-01-01
@@ It is shown that the large amplitude low-frequency electromagnetic drift waves in electron-positron-ion plasmas might give rise to dipolar vortices. A linear dispersion relation of several coupled electrostatic and electromagnetic low-frequency modes is obtained. The relevance of this work to both laboratory and astrophysical situations is pointed out.
Parametrically induced low-frequency waves in weakly inhomogeneous magnetized plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pesic, S.
1981-01-01
The linear dispersion relation governing the parametric interaction of a lower hybrid pump wave with a weakly-inhomogeneous current carrying hot plasma confined by a helical magnetic field is derived and solved numerically. The stability boundaries are delineated over a wide range in the k-space. The frequency and growth rate of decay instabilities are calculated for plasma parameters relevant to lower hybrid plasma heating experiments. The parametric excitation of drift waves and ion cyclotron current instabilities is discussed. In the low-density plasma region low minimum thresholds and high growth rates are obtained for the pump decay into ion cyclotron and nonresonant quasimodes. The spatial amplification of hot ion Bernstein waves and nonresonant quasimodes dominate in the plasma core (ω 0 /ωsub(LH) < 2). The presented theoretical results are in qualitative agreement with current LH plasma heating experiments. (author)
Fokker-Planck description of the scattering of radio frequency waves at the plasma edge
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hizanidis, Kyriakos; Kominis, Yannis; Tsironis, Christos; Ram, Abhay K.
2010-01-01
In magnetic fusion devices, radio frequency (rf) waves in the electron cyclotron (EC) and lower hybrid (LH) range of frequencies are being commonly used to modify the plasma current profile. In ITER, EC waves are expected to stabilize the neoclassical tearing mode (NTM) by providing current in the island region [R. Aymar et al., Nucl. Fusion 41, 1301 (2001)]. The appearance of NTMs severely limits the plasma pressure and leads to the degradation of plasma confinement. LH waves could be used in ITER to modify the current profile closer to the edge of the plasma. These rf waves propagate from the excitation structures to the core of the plasma through an edge region, which is characterized by turbulence--in particular, density fluctuations. These fluctuations, in the form of blobs, can modify the propagation properties of the waves by refraction. In this paper, the effect on rf due to randomly distributed blobs in the edge region is studied. The waves are represented as geometric optics rays and the refractive scattering from a distribution of blobs is formulated as a Fokker-Planck equation. The scattering can have two diffusive effects--one in real space and the other in wave vector space. The scattering can modify the trajectory of rays into the plasma and it can affect the wave vector spectrum. The refraction of EC waves, for example, could make them miss the intended target region where the NTMs occur. The broadening of the wave vector spectrum could broaden the wave generated current profile. The Fokker-Planck formalism for diffusion in real space and wave vector space is used to study the effect of density blobs on EC and LH waves in an ITER type of plasma environment. For EC waves the refractive effects become important since the distance of propagation from the edge to the core in ITER is of the order of a meter. The diffusion in wave vector space is small. For LH waves the refractive effects are insignificant but the diffusion in wave vector space is
Damping and Frequency Shift of Large Amplitude Electron Plasma Waves
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Thomsen, Kenneth; Juul Rasmussen, Jens
1983-01-01
The initial evolution of large-amplitude one-dimensional electron waves is investigated by applying a numerical simulation. The initial wave damping is found to be strongly enhanced relative to the linear damping and it increases with increasing amplitude. The temporal evolution of the nonlinear...
Fine structure in plasma waves and radiation near the plasma frequency in Earth's foreshock
Cairns, Iver H.
1994-01-01
Novel observations are presented of intrunsic fine structure in the frequency spectrum of electomagnetic (EM) radiation and plasma waves near the electron plasma frequency f(sub p) during a period of unusually high interplanetary magnetic field strength. Measured using the wideband receiver on the International Sun-Earth Explorer (ISEE) 1 spacecraft, fine-structured emissions are observed both in the solar wind and the foreshock, The fine structure is shown to correspond to emissions spaced above f(sub p) near half harmonies of the electon cyclotron frequency f(sub ce), i.e., near f(sub p) + nf(sub ce)/2. These appear to be the first space physics observations of emissions spaced by f(sub ce)/2. Indirect but strong arguments are used to discriminate between EM and electrostatic (ES) signals, to identify whether ISEE 1 is in the solar wind or the foreshock, and to determine the relative frequencies of the emissions and the local f(sub p). The data are consistent with generation of the ES and EM emissions in the foreshock, with subsequent propagation of the EM emissions into the solar wind. It remains possible that some emissions currently identified as ES have significant EM character. The ES and EM emisions often merge into one another with minimal changes in frequency, arguing that their source regions and generation mechanisms are related and imposing significant constraints on theories. The f(sub ce)/2 ES and EM fine structures observed may be intrinsic to the emission mechanisms or to superposition of two series of signals with f(sub ce) spacing that differ in starting frequency by f(sub ce)/2. Present theories for nonlinear wave coupling processes, cyclotron maser emission, and other linear instability processes are all unable to explain multiple EM and/or ES components spaced by approximately f(sub ce)/2 above f(sub p) for f(sub p)/f(sub ce) much greater than 1 and typical for shock beams parameters. Suitable avenues for further theoretical research are
High frequency parametric wave phenomena and plasma heating: a review
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Porkolab, M.
1975-11-01
A survey of parametric instabilities in plasma, and associated particle heating, is presented. A brief summary of linear theory is given. The physical mechanism of decay instability, the purely growing mode (oscillating two-stream instability) and soliton and density cavity formation is presented. Effects of density gradients are discussed. Possible nonlinear saturation mechanisms are pointed out. Experimental evidence for the existence of parametric instabilities in both unmagnetized and magnetized plasmas is reviewed in some detail. Experimental observation of plasma heating associated with the presence of parametric instabilities is demonstrated by a number of examples. Possible application of these phenomena to heating of pellets by lasers and heating of magnetically confined fusion plasmas by high power microwave sources is discussed
Influence of radio frequency waves on the interchange stability in HANBIT mirror plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hogun Jhang; Kim, S.S.; Lee, S.G.; Park, B.H.; Bak, J.G.
2005-01-01
Experimental and theoretical studies are made of the influence of high frequency radio frequency (rf) waves upon interchange stability in HANBIT mirror plasmas. An emphasis is put on the interchange stability near the resonance region, ω 0 ∼Ω i , where ω 0 is the angular frequency of the applied rf wave and Ω i is the ion cyclotron frequency. Recent HANBIT experiments have shown the existence of the interchange-stable operation window in favor of ω 0 /Ω i ≤1 with its sensitivity on the applied rf power. A strong nonlinear interaction between the rf wave and the interchange mode has been observed with the generation of sideband waves. A theoretical analysis including both the ponderomotive force and the nonlinear sideband wave coupling has been developed and applied to the interpretation of the experiments, resulting in a good agreement. From the study, it is concluded that the nonlinear wave-wave coupling process is responsible for the rf stabilization of the interchange modes in HANBIT mirror plasmas operating near the resonance condition. (author)
ANTENNA RADIATION NEAR THE LOCAL PLASMA FREQUENCY BY LANGMUIR WAVE EIGENMODES
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Malaspina, David M.; Cairns, Iver H.; Ergun, Robert E.
2012-01-01
Langmuir waves (LWs) in the solar wind are generated by electron beams associated with solar flares, interplanetary shock fronts, planetary bow shocks, and magnetic holes. In principle, LWs localized as eigenmodes of density fluctuations can emit electromagnetic (EM) radiation by an antenna mechanism near the local plasma frequency f p and twice the local plasma frequency. In this work, analytic expressions are derived for the radiated electric and magnetic fields and power generated near f p by LW eigenmodes. The EM wave power emitted near f p is predicted as a function of the eigenmode length scale L, maximum electric field, driving electron beam speed, and the ambient plasma density and temperature. The escape to a distant observer of f p radiation from a localized Langmuir eigenmode is also briefly explored as a function of the plasma conditions.
Nonlinear gyrokinetic equations for low-frequency electromagnetic waves in general plasma equilibria
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Frieman, E.A.; Chen, L.
1981-10-01
A nonlinear gyrokinetic formalism for low-frequency (less than the cyclotron frequency) microscopic electromagnetic perturbations in general magnetic field configurations is developed. The nonlinear equations thus derived are valid in the strong-turbulence regime and contain effects due to finite Larmor radius, plasma inhomogeneities, and magentic field geometries. The specific case of axisymmetric tokamaks is then considered, and a model nonlinear equation is derived for electrostatic drift waves. Also, applying the formalism to the shear Alfven wave heating sceme, it is found that nonlinear ion Landau damping of kinetic shear-Alfven waves is modified, both qualitatively and quantitatively, by the diamagnetic drift effects. In particular, wave energy is found to cascade in wavenumber instead of frequency
Multi-fluid Approach to High-frequency Waves in Plasmas. III. Nonlinear Regime and Plasma Heating
Martínez-Gómez, David; Soler, Roberto; Terradas, Jaume
2018-03-01
The multi-fluid modeling of high-frequency waves in partially ionized plasmas has shown that the behavior of magnetohydrodynamic waves in the linear regime is heavily influenced by the collisional interaction between the different species that form the plasma. Here, we go beyond linear theory and study large-amplitude waves in partially ionized plasmas using a nonlinear multi-fluid code. It is known that in fully ionized plasmas, nonlinear Alfvén waves generate density and pressure perturbations. Those nonlinear effects are more pronounced for standing oscillations than for propagating waves. By means of numerical simulations and analytical approximations, we examine how the collisional interaction between ions and neutrals affects the nonlinear evolution. The friction due to collisions dissipates a fraction of the wave energy, which is transformed into heat and consequently raises the temperature of the plasma. As an application, we investigate frictional heating in a plasma with physical conditions akin to those in a quiescent solar prominence.
Initial frequency shift of large amplitude plasma wave
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sugihara, Ryo; Yamanaka, Kaoru.
1979-04-01
A distribution function which is an exact solution to the collisionless Boltzmann equation is obtained in an expansion form in terms of the potential phi(x, t). A complex nonlinear frequency shift ωsub( n)(t) is obtained by use of the Poisson equation and the expansion. The theory is valid for arbitrary phi 0 and v sub(p) as long as ωsub(p) >> γsub( l), and in the initial phase defined by 0 0 , v sub(p), ωsub(p), γsub( l) and t sub(c) are the initial value of phi, the phase velocity, the Langmuir frequency, the linear Landau damping coefficient and the time for the first minimum of the amplitude oscillation. The ωsub( n)(0) does not vanish and Reωsub( n)(0)/γsub( l) > 1 holds even for e phi 0 /T 1 in the initial phase for v sub( p) > v sub( t). The theory reproduces main features of experimental results and that of simulations. (author)
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Swanson, D. G
1989-01-01
... Swanson, D.G. (Donald Gary), D a t e - Plasma waves. Bibliography: p. Includes index. 1. Plasma waves. QC718.5.W3S43 1989 ISBN 0-12-678955-X I. Title. 530.4'4 88-34388 Printed in the United Sta...
Study of dense-plasma properties using very high-frequency electromagnetic waves (light waves)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gormezano, C.
1966-06-01
A study is made of methods based on the use of lasers for measuring the electronic density and temperature of dense plasmas (N e > 10 15 e/cm 3 ): - an interferometric method using a gas laser, based on the. properties of the Perot-Fabry cavities; - a method making use of the 90 deg C scattering produced by the plasma on light emitted by a ruby laser. These methods have been applied to various dense plasmas: - high-frequency plasma torch; - azimuth compression; - plasma bursts produced by focussing a laser beam on a metal target. The measurements have also been carried out using conventional methods of diagnosis. It has thus been possible to measure densities of between 5.10 15 and 10 19 e/cm 3 and temperatures of between 3 and 10 eV. These different-methods are then compared, (author) [fr
Frequency spectral broadening of lower hybrid waves in tokamak plasmas - causes and effects
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pericoli Ridolfini, V; Giannone, L.; Bartiromo, R [Associazione Euratom-ENEA sulla Fusione, Rome (Italy). Centro Ricerche Energia Frascati
1994-04-01
The frequency spectral broadening of lower hybrid (LH) waves injected into tokamak plasmas is extensively analyzed with reference mostly to experimental data from the ASDEX tokamak. The link between the magnitude of the pump spectral width and the degradation of the LH current drive efficiency (up to a factor of 2), pointed out in previous works, is explained. The experimental behaviour of LH power absorption is also well reproduced, even in situations when the access of the launched LH waves to the core plasma should be largely forbidden. Experiments are described that are aimed at determined whether parametric decay instabilities (PDIs) or scattering of LH waves by density fluctuations in the plasma edge are causes of the broadening of the LH pump frequency spectrum. Fluctuations emerge as the largely dominant process, while no signature of PDI processes is observed. Careful measurements of the density fluctuations in the ASDEX scrape-off layer plasma allow the analytical description given by Andrews and Perkins to be assumed as the appropriate model of LH scattering. Indeed, it supplies the correct magnitude for the frequency spectral width of the LH pump, and explains quantitatively, together with a ray tracing code, why the CD efficiency decreases with the broadening of the pump spectrum. It can also account for the observed LH power absorption coefficient. (author). 48 refs, 13 figs, 2 tabs.
Power absorption of high-frequency electromagnetic waves in a partially ionized magnetized plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Guo Bin; Wang Xiaogang
2005-01-01
Power absorption of high-frequency electromagnetic waves in a uniformly magnetized plasma layer covering a highly conducting surface is studied under atmosphere conditions. It is assumed that the system consists of not only electrons and positive ions but negative ions as well. By a general formula derived in our previous work [B. Guo and X. G. Wang, Plasma Sci. Tech. 7, 2645 (2005)], the total power absorption in the plasma layer with multiple reflections between an air-plasma interface and the conducting surface is computed. The results show that although the existence of negative ions greatly reduces the total power absorption, the magnetization of the plasma can, however, partially enhance it. Parameter dependence of the effects is calculated and discussed
Theoretical study of very low-frequency wave heating of a fusion plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fiori, C.
1980-12-01
For a certain order of frequencies defined here we give the derivation and general solution of the 4th order differential equation obeyed by the radial MHD displacement of a cylindrical, resistive and incompressible plasma column. By means of a flux function the expressions of the elctromagnetic field and the current density in the resistive layer are obtained the power dissipated in this layer by an external wave and its limit when the resistivity disappears are then discussed [fr
The relative importance of fluid and kinetic frequency shifts of an electron plasma wave
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Winjum, B. J.; Fahlen, J.; Mori, W. B.
2007-01-01
The total nonlinear frequency shift of a plasma wave including both fluid and kinetic effects is estimated when the phase velocity of the wave is much less than the speed of light. Using a waterbag or fluid model, the nonlinear frequency shift due to harmonic generation is calculated for an arbitrary shift in the wavenumber. In the limit where the wavenumber does not shift, the result is in agreement with previously published work [R. L. Dewar and J. Lindl, Phys. Fluids 15, 820 (1972); T. P. Coffey, ibid. 14, 1402 (1971)]. This shift is compared to the kinetic shift of Morales and O'Neil [G. J. Morales and T. M. O'Neil, Phys. Rev. Lett. 28, 417 (1972)] for wave amplitudes and values of kλ D of interest to Raman backscatter of a laser driver in inertial confinement fusion
The relative importance of fluid and kinetic frequency shifts of an electron plasma wave
Winjum, B. J.; Fahlen, J.; Mori, W. B.
2007-10-01
The total nonlinear frequency shift of a plasma wave including both fluid and kinetic effects is estimated when the phase velocity of the wave is much less than the speed of light. Using a waterbag or fluid model, the nonlinear frequency shift due to harmonic generation is calculated for an arbitrary shift in the wavenumber. In the limit where the wavenumber does not shift, the result is in agreement with previously published work [R. L. Dewar and J. Lindl, Phys. Fluids 15, 820 (1972); T. P. Coffey, Phys. Fluids 14, 1402 (1971)]. This shift is compared to the kinetic shift of Morales and O'Neil [G. J. Morales and T. M. O'Neil, Phys. Rev. Lett. 28, 417 (1972)] for wave amplitudes and values of kλD of interest to Raman backscatter of a laser driver in inertial confinement fusion.
Structured waves near the plasma frequency observed in three auroral rocket flights
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. Samara
2006-11-01
Full Text Available We present observations of waves at and just above the plasma frequency (fpe from three high frequency electric field experiments on three recent rockets launched to altitudes of 300–900 km in active aurora. The predominant observed HF waves just above fpe are narrowband, short-lived emissions with amplitudes ranging from <1 mV/m to 20 mV/m, often associated with structured electron density. The nature of these HF waves, as determined from frequency-time spectrograms, is highly variable: in some cases, the frequency decreases monotonically with time as in the "HF-chirps" previously reported (McAdams and LaBelle, 1999, but in other cases rising frequencies are observed, or features which alternately rise and fall in frequency. They exhibit two timescales of amplitude variation: a short timescale, typically 50–100 ms, associated with individual discrete features, and a longer timescale associated with the general decrease in the amplitudes of the emissions as the rocket moves away from where the condition f~fpe holds. The latter timescale ranges from 0.6 to 6.0 s, corresponding to distances of 2–7 km, assuming the phenomenon to be stationary and using the rocket velocity to convert time to distance.
Structured waves near the plasma frequency observed in three auroral rocket flights
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. Samara
2006-11-01
Full Text Available We present observations of waves at and just above the plasma frequency (f_{pe} from three high frequency electric field experiments on three recent rockets launched to altitudes of 300–900 km in active aurora. The predominant observed HF waves just above f_{pe} are narrowband, short-lived emissions with amplitudes ranging from <1 mV/m to 20 mV/m, often associated with structured electron density. The nature of these HF waves, as determined from frequency-time spectrograms, is highly variable: in some cases, the frequency decreases monotonically with time as in the "HF-chirps" previously reported (McAdams and LaBelle, 1999, but in other cases rising frequencies are observed, or features which alternately rise and fall in frequency. They exhibit two timescales of amplitude variation: a short timescale, typically 50–100 ms, associated with individual discrete features, and a longer timescale associated with the general decrease in the amplitudes of the emissions as the rocket moves away from where the condition f~f_{pe} holds. The latter timescale ranges from 0.6 to 6.0 s, corresponding to distances of 2–7 km, assuming the phenomenon to be stationary and using the rocket velocity to convert time to distance.
Plasma waves in an inhomogeneous cylindrical plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pesic, S.S.
1976-01-01
The complete dispersion equation governing small amplitude plasma waves propagating in an inhomogeneous cylindrical plasma confined by a helical magnetic field is solved numerically. The efficiency of the wave energy thermalization in the lower hybrid frequency range is studied
Frequency-dependent absorbance of broadband terahertz wave in dense plasma sheet
Peng, Yan; Qi, Binbin; Jiang, Xiankai; Zhu, Zhi; Zhao, Hongwei; Zhu, Yiming
2018-05-01
Due to the ability of accurate fingerprinting and low-ionization for different substances, terahertz (THz) technology has a lot of crucial applications in material analysis, information transfer, and safety inspection, etc. However, the spectral characteristic of atmospheric gas and ionized gas has not been widely investigated, which is important for the remote sensing application. Here, in this paper, we investigate the absorbance of broadband terahertz wave in dense plasma sheet generated by femtosecond laser pulses. It was found that as the terahertz wave transmits through the plasma sheet formed, respectively, in carbon dioxide, oxygen, argon and nitrogen, spectrum presents completely different and frequency-dependent absorbance. The reasons for these absorption peaks are related to the molecular polarity, electric charge, intermolecular and intramolecular interactions, and collisional absorption of gas molecules. These results have significant implications for the remote sensing of gas medium.
Radio-frequency wave excitation and damping on a high β plasma column
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Meuth, H.
1984-01-01
Azimuthally symmetric (m = 0) radio-frequency (RF) waves for zero and for finite axial wave number k/sub z/ are investigated on the High BETA Q Machine, a two-meter, 20 cm-diameter, low-compression linear theta pinch (T greater than or equal to 200 eV, n approx. = 10 15 cm -3 ) fast rising (0.4 μs) compression field. The (k/sub z/ = 0) modes occur spontaneously following the implosion phase of the discharge. A novel 100-MW 1 to 1.3 MHz, short wavelength current drive excites the plasma column in the vicinity of the lowest fast magnetoacoustic mode at various filling pressures. This current drive is designed as an integral part of the compression coil, which is segmented with a 20-cm axial wavelength (k/sub z/ = 0.314 cm -1 ). The electron density oscillations along major and minor chords at various positions are measured by interferometry perpendicular to the pinch axis. The oscillatory radial magnetic field component between pinch wall and hot plasma edge is measured by probes. Phases, amplitudes and radial mode structure are studied for the free (k = 0) modes and the externally driven (k does not equal 0) modes for various filling pressures of deuterium. The energy deposition from the externally driven RF wave leads to a radial expansion of the plasma column, as observed by axial interferometry and by excluded flux measurements
Chen, Wei; Guo, Li-xin; Li, Jiang-ting
2017-04-01
This study analyzes the scattering characteristics of obliquely incident electromagnetic (EM) waves in a time-varying plasma sheath. The finite-difference time-domain algorithm is applied. According to the empirical formula of the collision frequency in a plasma sheath, the plasma frequency, temperature, and pressure are assumed to vary with time in the form of exponential rise. Some scattering problems of EM waves are discussed by calculating the radar cross section (RCS) of the time-varying plasma. The laws of the RCS varying with time are summarized at the L and S wave bands.
Plasma Wave Electronic Terahertz Technology
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Shur, Michael
2003-01-01
Plasma waves are oscillations of electron density in time and space. In deep submicron field effect transistors plasma wave frequencies lie in the terahertz range and can be tuned by applied gate bias...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shawhan, S.D.
1977-01-01
A brief history of plasma wave observations in the Earth's magnetosphere is recounted and a classification of the identified plasma wave phenomena is presented. The existence of plasma waves is discussed in terms of the characteristic frequencies of the plasma, the energetic particle populations and the proposed generation mechanisms. Examples are given for which plasmas waves have provided information about the plasma parameters and particle characteristics once a reasonable theory has been developed. Observational evidence and arguments by analogy to the observed Earth plasma wave processes are used to identify plasma waves that may be significant in other planetary magnetospheres. The similarities between the observed characteristics of the terrestrial kilometric radiation and radio bursts from Jupiter, Saturn and possibly Uranus are stressed. Important scientific problems concerning plasma wave processes in the solar system and beyond are identified and discussed. Models for solar flares, flare star radio outbursts and pulsars include elements which are also common to the models for magnetospheric radio bursts. Finally, a listing of the research and development in terms of instruments, missions, laboratory experiments, theory and computer simulations needed to make meaningful progress on the outstanding scientific problems of plasma wave research is given. (Auth.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lu, LingFeng
2016-01-01
Ion Cyclotron Resonant Heating (ICRH) by waves in 30-80 MHz range is currently used in magnetic fusion plasmas. Excited by phased arrays of current straps at the plasma periphery, these waves exist under two polarizations. The Fast Wave tunnels through the tenuous plasma edge and propagates to its center where it is absorbed. The parasitically emitted Slow Wave only exists close to the launchers. How much power can be coupled to the center with 1 A current on the straps? How do the emitted radiofrequency (RF) near and far fields interact parasitically with the edge plasma via RF sheath rectification at plasma-wall interfaces? To address these two issues simultaneously, in realistic geometry over the size of ICRH antennas, this thesis upgraded and tested the Self-consistent Sheaths and Waves for ICH (SSWICH) code. SSWICH couples self-consistently RF wave propagation and Direct Current (DC) plasma biasing via non-linear RF and DC sheath boundary conditions (SBCs) at plasma/wall interfaces. Its upgrade is full wave and was implemented in two dimensions (toroidal/radial). New SBCs coupling the two polarizations were derived and implemented along shaped walls tilted with respect to the confinement magnetic field. Using this new tool in the absence of SBCs, we studied the impact of a density decaying continuously inside the antenna box and across the Lower Hybrid (LH) resonance. Up to the memory limits of our workstation, the RF fields below the LH resonance changed with the grid size. However the coupled power spectrum hardly evolved and was only weakly affected by the density inside the box. In presence of SBCs, SSWICH-FW simulations have identified the role of the fast wave on RF sheath excitation and reproduced some key experimental observations. SSWICH-FW was finally adapted to conduct the first electromagnetic and RF-sheath 2D simulations of the cylindrical magnetized plasma device ALINE. (author) [fr
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tian, Yuan; Han, Yiping, E-mail: yphan@xidian.edu.cn [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Engineering, Xidian University, Xi' an 710071 (China); Ai, Xia [National Key Laboratory of Science and Technology on Test physics and Numerical Mathematical, Beijing 100076 (China); Liu, Xiuxiang [Science and Technology on Space Physics Laboratory, Beijing 100076 (China)
2014-12-15
In this paper, we investigate the propagation of terahertz (THz) electromagnetic wave in an anisotropic magnetized plasma by JE convolution-finite difference time domain method. The anisotropic characteristic of the plasma, which leads to right-hand circularly polarized (RCP) and right-hand circularly polarized (LCP) waves, has been taken into account. The interaction between electromagnetic waves and magnetized plasma is illustrated by reflection and transmission coefficients for both RCP and LCP THz waves. The effects of both the magnetized plasma thickness and the external magnetized field are analyzed and numerical results demonstrate that the two factors could influence the THz wave greatly. It is worthy to note that besides the reflection and transmission coefficients in the frequency domain, the waveform of the electric field in the time domain varying with thicknesses and external magnetic fields for different polarized direction has been studied.
Strongly nonlinear evolution of low-frequency wave packets in a dispersive plasma
Vasquez, Bernard J.
1993-01-01
The evolution of strongly nonlinear, strongly modulated wave packets is investigated in a dispersive plasma using a hybrid numerical code. These wave packets have amplitudes exceeding the strength of the external magnetic field, along which they propagate. Alfven (left helicity) wave packets show strong steepening for p Schrodinger (DNLS) equation.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Peterson, W.K.; Shelley, E.G.; Boardsen, S.A.; Gurnett, D.A.; Ledley, B.G.; Sugiura, M.; Moore, T.E.; Waite, J.H.
1988-01-01
The transport of ions from the ionosphere to the magnetosphere requires that ions acquire significant energy in directions both transverse and parallel to the magnetic field. There is a considerable body of experimental evidence that shows that transverse energization occurs over a wide range of altitudes on auroral field lines. Many recent analytical and simulation studies have addressed the microphysics involved in transverse ion energization. There are, however, remarkably few published high-resolution plasma and plasma wave observations obtained in the mid-altitude auroral region available to compare with the analytical and simulation studies. Several hundred hours of high-resolution plasma data obtained from the Dynamics Explorer 1 satellite have been surveyed. A wide variety of plasma environments that are difficult to simply characterize were found. We present here a comprehensive set of high-sensitivity, high-resolution plasma wave, ion, and magnetometer data obtained from an evening auroral zone crossing at r/R/sub E/∼3. The total density, thermal structure, and composition of the plasma in this representative interval varied rapidly, as did the character (mode) of low-frequency plasma waves observed. We did not find an unambiguous particle and wave signature of local transverse ion energization, but we did frequently find intervals where local transverse ion heating was consistent with the observations. We also found a downward flowing ion distribution that occurred simultaneously with a region of intense plasma wave emissions primarily below the lower hybrid resonance frequency. copyright American Geophysical Union 1988
Bulk plasma rotation in the presence of waves in the ion cyclotron range of frequencies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Eriksson, L.G.; Noterdaeme, J.M.; Kirov, K.
2003-01-01
Experiments with directed ICRF waves have for the first time in JET demonstrated the influence of absorbed wave momentum on bulk plasma rotation. Resonating fast ions acted as an intermediary in this process, and the experiments therefore provided evidence for the effect of fast ions on the plasma rotation. Results from these experiments are reviewed together with results from ICRF heated plasmas with symmetric spectra in JET and Tore Supra. The relevance of different theoretical models is briefly considered. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Belmont, G.
1981-01-01
Intense natural waves are commonly observed onboard satellites in the outer earth's magnetosphere, inside a narrow frequency range, including the electron plasma and upper hybrid frequencies. In order to progress in the understanding of their emission processes, it is necessary to determine precisely the relationship which exists between their frequencies and the characteristic frequencies of the magnetospheric plasma. For this purpose, it is necessary to take into account the fact that some of these characteristic frequencies, which are provided by active sounding of the plasma, not only depend on the total density, but also on the shape of the distribution function (which has generally been assumed to be Maxwellian). A method providing a fine diagnosis of general non-Maxwellian plasmas is developed. This method of analysis of the experimental data is based on a theoretical study which points out the influence of the shape of the distribution function on the dispersion curves (for wave vectors perpendicular to the static magnetic field)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Martínez-Gómez, David; Soler, Roberto; Terradas, Jaume, E-mail: david.martinez@uib.es [Departament de Física, Universitat de les Illes Balears, E-07122, Palma de Mallorca (Spain)
2016-12-01
Ideal magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) provides an accurate description of low-frequency Alfvén waves in fully ionized plasmas. However, higher-frequency waves in many plasmas of the solar atmosphere cannot be correctly described by ideal MHD and a more accurate model is required. Here, we study the properties of small-amplitude incompressible perturbations in both the low- and the high-frequency ranges in plasmas composed of several ionized species. We use a multi-fluid approach and take into account the effects of collisions between ions and the inclusion of Hall’s term in the induction equation. Through the analysis of the corresponding dispersion relations and numerical simulations, we check that at high frequencies ions of different species are not as strongly coupled as in the low-frequency limit. Hence, they cannot be treated as a single fluid. In addition, elastic collisions between the distinct ionized species are not negligible for high-frequency waves, since an appreciable damping is obtained. Furthermore, Coulomb collisions between ions remove the cyclotron resonances and the strict cutoff regions, which are present when collisions are not taken into account. The implications of these results for the modeling of high-frequency waves in solar plasmas are discussed.
Model of inductive plasma production assisted by radio-frequency wave in tokamaks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hasegawa, Makoto; Hanada, Kazuaki; Sato, Kohnosuke
2007-01-01
For initial plasma production, an induction electric field generated by applying voltage to a poloidal field (PF) coil system is used to produce a Townsend avalanche breakdown. When the avalanche margins are small, as for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) in which the induction electric field is about 0.3 V/m, the assistance of radio-frequency waves (RF) is provided to reduce the induction electric field required for reliable breakdown. However, the conditions of RF-assisted breakdown are not clear. Here, the effects of both RF and induction electric field on the RF-assisted breakdown are evaluated considering the electron loss. When traveling loss is the dominant loss, a simple model of an extended Townsend avalanche is proposed. In this model, the induction electric field required for RF-assisted breakdown can be decreased to half that required for induction breakdown. (author)
Localization of Ultra-Low Frequency Waves in Multi-Ion Plasmas of the Planetary Magnetosphere
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Eun-Hwa Kim
2015-12-01
Full Text Available By adopting a 2D time-dependent wave code, we investigate how mode-converted waves at the Ion-Ion Hybrid (IIH resonance and compressional waves propagate in 2D density structures with a wide range of field-aligned wavenumbers to background magnetic fields. The simulation results show that the mode-converted waves have continuous bands across the field line consistent with previous numerical studies. These waves also have harmonic structures in frequency domain and are localized in the field-aligned heavy ion density well. Our results thus emphasize the importance of a field-aligned heavy ion density structure for ultra-low frequency wave propagation, and suggest that IIH waves can be localized in different locations along the field line.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Longinov, A.V.; Lukinov, V.A.
1992-01-01
It is proposed to use a system of auxiliary passive gaps to excite waves in a plasma traveling in one direction parallel to the magnetic field, in order to localize the radiating surface of a surface-wave antenna. Using excitation of ion Bernstein waves in the plasma as an example the main properties of such an antenna system have been studied. It is shown that the use of passive gaps permits high directionality to be achieved for the radiation and allows the size of the radiating surface of the antenna to be controlled. 10 refs., 6 figs
Interaction between electromagnetic waves and plasma waves in motional plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chen, S. Y.; Gao, M.; Tang, C. J.; Peng, X. D.
2009-01-01
The electromagnetic wave (EM wave) behavior and the electromagnetic instability caused by the interaction between an EM wave and a plasma wave in motional plasma are studied. The dispersion relation of EM waves and the dielectric tensor of motional plasma are derived by magnetohydrodynamics, and the wave phenomenon in motional plasma is displayed. As a result, the electromagnetic instability, which is excited by the interaction between the EM waves and the plasma waves, is revealed. The mechanism of the instability is the coupling between high frequency electromagnetic field and the transverse electron oscillation derived from the deflection of longitudinal electron oscillation due to self-magnetic field. The present research is useful with regard to the new type of plasma radiation source, ion-focusing accelerator, and plasma diagnostic technique.
Ahmadizadeh, Y.; Jazi, B.; Abdoli-Arani, A.
2014-01-01
Response of a prolate spheroid plasma and/or an oblate spheroid plasma in presence of long wavelength electromagnetic wave has been studied. The resonance frequencies of these objects are obtained and it is found that they reduce to the resonance frequency of spherical cold plasma. Moreover, the resonant frequencies of prolate spheroid plasma and oblate spheroid plasma covered by a dielectric are investigated as well. Furthermore, their dependency on dielectric permittivity and geometry dimensions is simulated.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Martínez-Gómez, David; Soler, Roberto; Terradas, Jaume, E-mail: david.martinez@uib.es [Departament de Física, Universitat de les Illes Balears, E-07122, Palma de Mallorca (Spain)
2017-03-01
The presence of neutral species in a plasma has been shown to greatly affect the properties of magnetohydrodynamic waves. For instance, the interaction between ions and neutrals through momentum transfer collisions causes the damping of Alfvén waves and alters their oscillation frequency and phase speed. When the collision frequencies are larger than the frequency of the waves, single-fluid magnetohydrodynamic approximations can accurately describe the effects of partial ionization, since there is a strong coupling between the various species. However, at higher frequencies, the single-fluid models are not applicable and more complex approaches are required. Here, we use a five-fluid model with three ionized and two neutral components, which takes into consideration Hall’s current and Ohm’s diffusion in addition to the friction due to collisions between different species. We apply our model to plasmas composed of hydrogen and helium, and allow the ionization degree to be arbitrary. By analyzing the corresponding dispersion relation and numerical simulations, we study the properties of small-amplitude perturbations. We discuss the effect of momentum transfer collisions on the ion-cyclotron resonances and compare the importance of magnetic resistivity, and ion–neutral and ion–ion collisions on the wave damping at various frequency ranges. Applications to partially ionized plasmas of the solar atmosphere are performed.
Absolute parametric instability of low frequency waves in a 2-D nonuniform anisotropic warm plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zaki, N.G.
2004-01-01
Using the separation method, the problem of absolute parametric instability (API) of electrostatic waves in magnetized pumped warm plasma is investigated. In this case the effect of static strong magnetic field is considered. The problem of strong magnetic field is solved in 2-D nonuniform plane plasma. The equations which describe the spatial part of the electric potential are obtained. Also the growth rates and conditions of the parametric instability for periodic cases are obtained. It is found that the spatial nonuniformity of the plasma exerts a stabilizing effect on the API. It is shown that the growth rates of periodic and aperiodic API in warm plasma are reduced in comparison with a cold plasma case
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mirza, Arshad M.; Hasan, Asma; Azeem, M.; Saleem, H.
2003-01-01
It is found that the low-frequency ion acoustic and electrostatic drift waves can become unstable in uniform electron-ion and electron-positron-ion plasmas due to the ion shear flow. In a collisional plasma a drift-dissipative instability can also take place. In the presence of collisions the temporal behavior of nonlinear drift-dissipative mode can be represented in the form of well-known Lorenz and Stenflo type equations that admit chaotic trajectories. On the other hand, a quasi-stationary solution of the mode coupling equations can be represented in the form of monopolar vortex. The results of the present investigation can be helpful in understanding electrostatic turbulence and wave phenomena in laboratory and astrophysical plasmas
Peterson, W. K.; Shelley, E. G.; Boardsen, S. A.; Gurnett, D. A.; Ledley, B. G.; Sugiura, M.; Moore, T. E.
1988-01-01
Evidence of transverse ion energization at altitudes of several earth radii in the auroral zone was reexamined using several hundred hours of high-sensitivity and high-resolution plasma data obtained by the Dynamics Explorer 1 satellite. The data on particle environment encountered at midaltitudes in the auroral zone disclosed rapid variations in the values of total density, thermal structure, and composition of the plasma in the interval measured; the modes of low-frequency plasma waves also varied rapidly. It was not possible to unambiguously identify in these data particle and wave signature of local transverse ion energization; however, many intervals were found where local transverse ion heating was consistent with the observations.
Creating poloidal flux in a tokamak plasma with low frequency waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kirkwood, R.K.; Capewell, D.L.; Bellan, P.M.
1993-01-01
Using a fully toroidal, collisionless, low frequency model, we show that low amplitude, circularly polarized waves can, depending on antenna geometry (i) drive the toroidal EMF necessary to sustain a tokamak reactor, or (ii) shift the internal current profile. Measurements on a small tokamak to test (ii) agree with the model predictions. (orig.)
Numerical modelisation of RF waves in the ion cyclotron range of frequency for Tokamak plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Edery, D.; Picq, H.; Samain, A.; Gambier, D.J.
1987-12-01
The purpose of this paper is to present the numerical code ALCYON developed to compute the RF field structure in the ion cyclotron range of frequencies. The code handles fundamental and second harmonic heating while the mode conversion onto modes of decreasing wavelength is simulated by a selective power absorption on slow waves when their wavelength reaches the mesh size
Matsuda, Shoya; Kasahara, Yoshiya; Kojima, Hirotsugu; Kasaba, Yasumasa; Yagitani, Satoshi; Ozaki, Mitsunori; Imachi, Tomohiko; Ishisaka, Keigo; Kumamoto, Atsushi; Tsuchiya, Fuminori; Ota, Mamoru; Kurita, Satoshi; Miyoshi, Yoshizumi; Hikishima, Mitsuru; Matsuoka, Ayako; Shinohara, Iku
2018-05-01
We developed the onboard processing software for the Plasma Wave Experiment (PWE) onboard the Exploration of energization and Radiation in Geospace, Arase satellite. The PWE instrument has three receivers: Electric Field Detector, Waveform Capture/Onboard Frequency Analyzer (WFC/OFA), and the High-Frequency Analyzer. We designed a pseudo-parallel processing scheme with a time-sharing system and achieved simultaneous signal processing for each receiver. Since electric and magnetic field signals are processed by the different CPUs, we developed a synchronized observation system by using shared packets on the mission network. The OFA continuously measures the power spectra, spectral matrices, and complex spectra. The OFA obtains not only the entire ELF/VLF plasma waves' activity but also the detailed properties (e.g., propagation direction and polarization) of the observed plasma waves. We performed simultaneous observation of electric and magnetic field data and successfully obtained clear wave properties of whistler-mode chorus waves using these data. In order to measure raw waveforms, we developed two modes for the WFC, `chorus burst mode' (65,536 samples/s) and `EMIC burst mode' (1024 samples/s), for the purpose of the measurement of the whistler-mode chorus waves (typically in a frequency range from several hundred Hz to several kHz) and the EMIC waves (typically in a frequency range from a few Hz to several hundred Hz), respectively. We successfully obtained the waveforms of electric and magnetic fields of whistler-mode chorus waves and ion cyclotron mode waves along the Arase's orbit. We also designed the software-type wave-particle interaction analyzer mode. In this mode, we measure electric and magnetic field waveforms continuously and transfer them to the mission data recorder onboard the Arase satellite. We also installed an onboard signal calibration function (onboard SoftWare CALibration; SWCAL). We performed onboard electric circuit diagnostics and
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Takahashi, Masayuki; Ohnishi, Naofumi
2016-01-01
A filamentary plasma is reproduced based on a fully kinetic model of electron and ion transports coupled with electromagnetic wave propagation. The discharge plasma transits from discrete to diffusive patterns at a 110-GHz breakdown, with decrease in the ambient pressure, because of the rapid electron diffusion that occurs during an increase in the propagation speed of the ionization front. A discrete plasma is obtained at low pressures when a low-frequency microwave is irradiated because the ionization process becomes more dominant than the electron diffusion, when the electrons are effectively heated by the low-frequency microwave. The propagation speed of the plasma increases with decrease in the incident microwave frequency because of the higher ionization frequency and faster plasma diffusion resulting from the increase in the energy-absorption rate. An external magnetic field is applied to the breakdown volume, which induces plasma filamentation at lower pressures because the electron diffusion is suppressed by the magnetic field. The thrust performance of a microwave rocket is improved by the magnetic fields corresponding to the electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) and its higher-harmonic heating, because slower propagation of the ionization front and larger energy-absorption rates are obtained at lower pressures. It would be advantageous if the fundamental mode of ECR heating is coupled with a lower frequency microwave instead of combining the higher-harmonic ECR heating with the higher frequency microwave. This can improve the thrust performance with smaller magnetic fields even if the propagation speed increases because of the decrease in the incident microwave frequency.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Takahashi, Masayuki, E-mail: m.takahashi@al.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics, The University of Tokyo, Bunkyo-ku 113-8656 (Japan); Ohnishi, Naofumi [Department of Aerospace Engineering, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan)
2016-08-14
A filamentary plasma is reproduced based on a fully kinetic model of electron and ion transports coupled with electromagnetic wave propagation. The discharge plasma transits from discrete to diffusive patterns at a 110-GHz breakdown, with decrease in the ambient pressure, because of the rapid electron diffusion that occurs during an increase in the propagation speed of the ionization front. A discrete plasma is obtained at low pressures when a low-frequency microwave is irradiated because the ionization process becomes more dominant than the electron diffusion, when the electrons are effectively heated by the low-frequency microwave. The propagation speed of the plasma increases with decrease in the incident microwave frequency because of the higher ionization frequency and faster plasma diffusion resulting from the increase in the energy-absorption rate. An external magnetic field is applied to the breakdown volume, which induces plasma filamentation at lower pressures because the electron diffusion is suppressed by the magnetic field. The thrust performance of a microwave rocket is improved by the magnetic fields corresponding to the electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) and its higher-harmonic heating, because slower propagation of the ionization front and larger energy-absorption rates are obtained at lower pressures. It would be advantageous if the fundamental mode of ECR heating is coupled with a lower frequency microwave instead of combining the higher-harmonic ECR heating with the higher frequency microwave. This can improve the thrust performance with smaller magnetic fields even if the propagation speed increases because of the decrease in the incident microwave frequency.
SiOx Ink-Repellent Layer Deposited by Radio Frequency (RF) Plasmas in Continuous Wave and Pulse Mode
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chen Qiang; Fu Yabo; Pang Hua; Zhang Yuefei; Zhang Guangqiu
2007-01-01
Low surface energy layers, proposed application for non-water printing in computer to plate (CTP) technology, are deposited in both continuous wave and pulse radio frequency (13.56 MHz) plasma with hexamethyldisiloxane (HMDSO) as precursor. It is found that the plasma mode dominates the polymer growth rate and the surface composition. Derived from the spectra of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and combined with printable test it is concluded that concentration of Si in coatings plays an important role for the ink printability and the ink does not adhere on the surface with high silicon concentration
Model for spontaneous frequency sweeping of an Alfvén wave in a toroidal plasma
Wang, Ge; Berk, H. L.
2012-05-01
We study the frequency chirping signals arising from spontaneously excited toroidial Alfvén eigenmode (TAE) waves that are being driven by an inverted energetic particle distribution whose free energy is tapped from the generic particle/wave resonance interaction. Initially a wave is excited inside the Alfvén gap with a frequency determined from the linear tip model of Rosenbluth, Berk and Van dam (RBV) [1]. Hole/clumps structures are formed and are observed to chirp towards lower energy states. We find that the chirping signals from clump enter the Alfvén continuum which eventually produce more rapid chirping signals. The accuracy of the adiabatic approximation for the mode evolution is tested and verified by demonstrating that a WKB-like decomposition of the time response for the field phase and amplitude agree with the data. Plots of the phase space structure correlate well with the chirping dependent shape of the separatrix structure. A novel aspect of the simulation is that it performed close to the wave frame of the phase space structure, which enables the numerical time step to remain the same during the simulation, independent of the rest frame frequency.
Magnetoresistive waves in plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Felber, F.S.; Hunter, R.O. Jr.; Pereira, N.R.; Tajima, T.
1982-01-01
The self-generated magnetic field of a current diffusing into a plasma between conductors can magnetically insulate the plasma. Propagation of magnetoresistive waves in plasmas is analyzed. Applications to plasma opening switches are discussed
Frequency domain and wavelet analysis of the laser-induced plasma shock waves
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Burger, Miloš, E-mail: milosb@ff.bg.ac.rs; Nikolić, Zoran
2015-08-01
In addition to optical emission, another trace of interest that laser-induced plasma provides is a form of acoustic feedback. The acoustic emission (AE) signals were obtained using both microphone and piezo transducers. This kind of optoacoustic signals have some distinct features resembling the short, burst-like sounds, that may differ significantly depending mainly on the sample exposed and irradiance applied. Experiments were performed on atmospheric pressure by irradiating various metallic samples. The recorded waveforms were examined and numerically processed. Single-shot acoustical spectra have shown significant potential of providing valuable supplementary information regarding plasma propagation dynamics. Moreover, the general approach suggests the possibility of making the whole measurement system cost-effective and portable. - Highlights: • We report acoustical waveform, and acoustical spectroscopy measurements and analysis in a laser-induced plasma of a different metals in air. • Both piezo and microphone transducer were used. • The acoustical spectra of the emission were obtained when the sample (and plasma) were enclosed in experimental chamber. • The acquired acoustical spectra are time-integrated and the frequency peaks were sharp and relatively isolated. • Finally, both time and frequency resolved wavelet spectrogram present a novel method of observing laser-induced plasma behavior.
Undamped electrostatic plasma waves
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Valentini, F.; Perrone, D.; Veltri, P. [Dipartimento di Fisica and CNISM, Universita della Calabria, 87036 Rende (CS) (Italy); Califano, F.; Pegoraro, F. [Dipartimento di Fisica and CNISM, Universita di Pisa, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Morrison, P. J. [Institute for Fusion Studies and Department of Physics, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712-1060 (United States); O' Neil, T. M. [Department of Physics, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 (United States)
2012-09-15
Electrostatic waves in a collision-free unmagnetized plasma of electrons with fixed ions are investigated for electron equilibrium velocity distribution functions that deviate slightly from Maxwellian. Of interest are undamped waves that are the small amplitude limit of nonlinear excitations, such as electron acoustic waves (EAWs). A deviation consisting of a small plateau, a region with zero velocity derivative over a width that is a very small fraction of the electron thermal speed, is shown to give rise to new undamped modes, which here are named corner modes. The presence of the plateau turns off Landau damping and allows oscillations with phase speeds within the plateau. These undamped waves are obtained in a wide region of the (k,{omega}{sub R}) plane ({omega}{sub R} being the real part of the wave frequency and k the wavenumber), away from the well-known 'thumb curve' for Langmuir waves and EAWs based on the Maxwellian. Results of nonlinear Vlasov-Poisson simulations that corroborate the existence of these modes are described. It is also shown that deviations caused by fattening the tail of the distribution shift roots off of the thumb curve toward lower k-values and chopping the tail shifts them toward higher k-values. In addition, a rule of thumb is obtained for assessing how the existence of a plateau shifts roots off of the thumb curve. Suggestions are made for interpreting experimental observations of electrostatic waves, such as recent ones in nonneutral plasmas.
Undamped electrostatic plasma waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Valentini, F.; Perrone, D.; Veltri, P.; Califano, F.; Pegoraro, F.; Morrison, P. J.; O'Neil, T. M.
2012-01-01
Electrostatic waves in a collision-free unmagnetized plasma of electrons with fixed ions are investigated for electron equilibrium velocity distribution functions that deviate slightly from Maxwellian. Of interest are undamped waves that are the small amplitude limit of nonlinear excitations, such as electron acoustic waves (EAWs). A deviation consisting of a small plateau, a region with zero velocity derivative over a width that is a very small fraction of the electron thermal speed, is shown to give rise to new undamped modes, which here are named corner modes. The presence of the plateau turns off Landau damping and allows oscillations with phase speeds within the plateau. These undamped waves are obtained in a wide region of the (k,ω R ) plane (ω R being the real part of the wave frequency and k the wavenumber), away from the well-known “thumb curve” for Langmuir waves and EAWs based on the Maxwellian. Results of nonlinear Vlasov-Poisson simulations that corroborate the existence of these modes are described. It is also shown that deviations caused by fattening the tail of the distribution shift roots off of the thumb curve toward lower k-values and chopping the tail shifts them toward higher k-values. In addition, a rule of thumb is obtained for assessing how the existence of a plateau shifts roots off of the thumb curve. Suggestions are made for interpreting experimental observations of electrostatic waves, such as recent ones in nonneutral plasmas.
KINETIC THEORY OF PLASMA WAVES: Part II: Homogeneous Plasma
Westerhof, E.
2010-01-01
The theory of electromagnetic waves in a homogeneous plasma is reviewed. The linear response of the plasma to the waves is obtained in the form of the dielectric tensor. Waves ranging from the low frequency Alfven to the high frequency electron cyclotron waves are discussed in the limit of the cold
Kinetic theory of plasma waves: Part II homogeneous plasma
Westerhof, E.
2000-01-01
The theory of electromagnetic waves in a homogeneous plasma is reviewed. The linear response of the plasma to the waves is obtained in the form of the dielectric tensor. Waves ranging from the low frequency Alfven to the high frequency electron cyclotron waves are discussed in the limit of the cold
Kinetic theory of plasma waves - Part II: Homogeneous plasma
Westerhof, E.
2008-01-01
The theory of electromagnetic waves in a homogeneous plasma is reviewed. The linear response of the plasma to the waves is obtained in the form of the dielectric tensor. Waves ranging from the low frequency Alfven to the high frequency electron cyclotron waves axe discussed in the limit of the cold
Ion Acoustic Waves in the Presence of Electron Plasma Waves
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Michelsen, Poul; Pécseli, Hans; Juul Rasmussen, Jens
1977-01-01
Long-wavelength ion acoustic waves in the presence of propagating short-wavelength electron plasma waves are examined. The influence of the high frequency oscillations is to decrease the phase velocity and the damping distance of the ion wave.......Long-wavelength ion acoustic waves in the presence of propagating short-wavelength electron plasma waves are examined. The influence of the high frequency oscillations is to decrease the phase velocity and the damping distance of the ion wave....
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
K. M. Ferrière
2004-01-01
Full Text Available We review the basic approximations underlying magnetohydrodynamic (MHD theory, with special emphasis on the closure approximations, i.e. the approximations used in any fluid approach to close the hierarchy of moment equations. We then present the main closure models that have been constructed for collisionless plasmas in the large-scale regime, and we describe our own mixed MHD-kinetic model, which is designed to study low-frequency linear waves and instabilities in collisionless plasmas. We write down the full dispersion relation in a new, general form, which gathers all the specific features of our MHD-kinetic model into four polytropic indices, and which can be applied to standard adiabatic MHD and to double-adiabatic MHD through a simple change in the expressions of the polytropic indices. We study the mode solutions and the stability properties of the full dispersion relation in each of these three theories, first in the case of a uniform plasma, and then in the case of a stratified plasma. In both cases, we show how the results are affected by the collisionless nature of the plasma.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hoshino, Katsumichi
1989-09-01
A study on the heating and diagnosis of tokamak plasma by electromagnetic waves of electron cyclotron range of frequency is summarized. The main results obtained are as follows. On the engineering and technology, the technology of injecting high frequency, large power millimeter waves into tokamak plasma was established by carrying out the design, manufacture and test of a 60 GHz, 400 kW high frequency heating system, and the design, manufacture and test of a heterodyne type electron cyclotron radiation multi-channel mealsuring system were carried out, and the technology of measuring the radiation from tokamak plasma with the time resolution of 10 μs in multi-channel was established. On nuclear fusion reactor core engineering and plasma physics, the high efficiency electron heating of tokamak plasma by the incidence of fundamental irregular and regular waves at electron cyclotron frequency was verified. The discovery and analysis of the heating by electrostatic waves arising due to mode transformation from electromagnetic waves in upper hybrid resonance layer were carried out. By the incidence of second harmonic waves, the high efficiency electron heating of tokamak plasma was verified, and the heating characteristics were clarified. And others. (K.I.) 179 refs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lambert, A.J.D.
1979-01-01
A review of linear and weakly non-linear theory of electron waves, ion waves and electromagnetic waves in plasmas is presented. The author restricts the discussion to an infinitely extended, homogeneous and isotropic plasma, not affected by external fields and described by Vlasov's and Maxwell's equations. (Auth.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mamun, A. A.
2014-01-01
The propagation of finite amplitude ultra-low-frequency shear dust Alfvén (SDA) waves, and their modulational instability in a magnetized plasma medium of positive and negatively charged dust fluids have been theoretically investigated by using the reductive perturbation method. The derivative nonlinear Schrödinger equation is derived to examine the stability analysis of such SDA waves. It is found that the SDA waves propagating in such an opposite polarity dust plasma medium are modulationally unstable, and that the instability criterion and the growth rate of these unstable SDA waves in such a novel opposite polarity dust plasma medium are found to be significantly different from those in electron–ion or electron–positron plasma media. The implications of the present investigation in different space environments and laboratory devices are briefly discussed.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jacquot, Jonathan
2013-01-01
A correct understanding of the interactions between the edge plasma and the ion cyclotron (IC) waves (40-80 MHz) is needed to inject reliably large amount of power required for self-sustainable fusion plasmas. These thesis objectives were to model separately, with Comsol Multiphysics, but in compatible approaches the wave coupling and the radio-frequency (RF) sheath formation to anticipate development of a single code combining both. Modelling of fast wave coupling requires a detailed description of the antenna (2D or 3D) and of the plasma environment by a full wave approach for a cold plasma. Absorption of outgoing waves is emulated by perfectly matched layers, rendered compatible with a plasma dielectric tensor. Experimental trends for the coupling resistance of the antennas of Tore Supra are qualitatively reproduced but the coupling efficiency is overestimated. In parallel a novel self-consistent description, including RF sheaths, of the interplay between the cold wave propagation and DC biasing of the magnetized edge plasma of a tokamak was developed with the minimum set of physics ingredients. For Tore Supra antenna cases, the code coupled with TOPICA allowed to unveil qualitatively some unexpected observations on the latest design of Tore Supra Faraday screens whose electrical design was supposed to minimize RF sheaths. From simulations, a DC (Direct Current) current transport appears necessary to explain the radial structures of measurements. Cantilevered bars have been identified as the design element in the antenna structure enhancing the plasma potential. (author) [fr
Lominadze, D G
2013-01-01
Cyclotron Waves in Plasma is a four-chapter text that covers the basic physical concepts of the theory of cyclotron waves and cyclotron instabilities, brought about by the existence of steady or alternating plasma currents flowing perpendicular to the magnetic field.This book considers first a wide range of questions associated with the linear theory of cyclotron oscillations in equilibrium plasmas and in electron plasmas in metals and semiconductors. The next chapter deals with the parametric excitation of electron cyclotron oscillations in plasma in an alternating electric field. A chapter f
Alfven Waves in Gyrokinetic Plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lee, W.W.; Qin, H.
2003-01-01
A brief comparison of the properties of Alfven waves that are based on the gyrokinetic description with those derived from the MHD equations is presented. The critical differences between these two approaches are the treatment of the ion polarization effects. As such, the compressional Alfven waves in a gyrokinetic plasma can be eliminated through frequency ordering, whereas geometric simplifications are needed to decouple the shear Alfven waves from the compressional Alfven waves within the context of MHD. Theoretical and numerical procedures of using gyrokinetic particle simulation for studying microturbulence and kinetic-MHD physics including finite Larmor radius effects are also presented
Electron plasma waves and plasma resonances
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Franklin, R N; Braithwaite, N St J
2009-01-01
In 1929 Tonks and Langmuir predicted of the existence of electron plasma waves in an infinite, uniform plasma. The more realistic laboratory environment of non-uniform and bounded plasmas frustrated early experiments. Meanwhile Landau predicted that electron plasma waves in a uniform collisionless plasma would appear to be damped. Subsequent experimental work verified this and revealed the curious phenomenon of plasma wave echoes. Electron plasma wave theory, extended to finite plasmas, has been confirmed by various experiments. Nonlinear phenomena, such as particle trapping, emerge at large amplitude. The use of electron plasma waves to determine electron density and electron temperature has not proved as convenient as other methods.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sharma, S.; Turner, M. M. [National Centre for Plasma Science and Technology, School of Physical Sciences, Dublin City University, Dublin 9 (Ireland)
2013-07-15
Capacitively coupled radio-frequency (RF) discharges have great significance for industrial applications. Collisionless electron heating in such discharges is important, and sometimes is the dominant mechanism. This heating is usually understood to originate in a stochastic interaction between electrons and the electric fields. However, other mechanisms may also be important. There is evidence of wave emission with a frequency near the electron plasma frequency, i.e., ω{sub pe}, from the sheath region in collisionless capacitive RF discharges. This is the result of a progressive breakdown of quasi-neutrality close to the electron sheath edge. These waves are damped in a few centimeters during their propagation from the sheath towards the bulk plasma. The damping occurs because of the Landau damping or some related mechanism. This research work reports that the emission of waves is associated with a field reversal during the expanding phase of the sheath. Trapping of electrons near to this field reversal region is observed. The amplitude of the wave increases with increasing RF current density amplitude J(tilde sign){sub 0} until some maximum is reached, beyond which the wave diminishes and a new regime appears. In this new regime, the density of the bulk plasma suddenly increases because of ion reflection, which occurs due to the presence of strong field reversal near sheath region. Our calculation shows that these waves are electron plasma waves. These phenomena occur under extreme conditions (i.e., higher J(tilde sign){sub 0} than in typical experiments) for sinusoidal current waveforms, but similar effects may occur with non-sinusoidal pulsed waveforms for conditions of experimental interest, because the rate of change of current is a relevant parameter. The effect of electron elastic collisions on plasma waves is also investigated.
Ionospheric plasma by VHF waves
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
The amplitude scintillations of very high frequency electromagnetic wave ... Scintillations at low latitude are known to occur in discrete patches [5,6] and are part .... weakly ionized plasma with a density gradient and a relative drift of ions and ...
Gurnett, Donald A.
1995-01-01
An overview is given of spacecraft observations of plasma waves in the solar system. In situ measurements of plasma phenomena have now been obtained at all of the planets except Mercury and Pluto, and in the interplanetary medium at heliocentric radial distances ranging from 0.29 to 58 AU. To illustrate the range of phenomena involved, we discuss plasma waves in three regions of physical interest: (1) planetary radiation belts, (2) planetary auroral acceleration regions and (3) the solar wind. In each region we describe examples of plasma waves that are of some importance, either due to the role they play in determining the physical properties of the plasma, or to the unique mechanism involved in their generation.
Relativistic theory of current drive by radio frequency waves in a magnetized plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Khan, T.P.
1992-01-01
A relativistic kinetic theory of rf current drive in a magnetized plasma is developed. Analytical expressions are obtained for the rf generated currents, the dissipated power, and the current drive efficiency in the presence of a magnetic field. The relativistic transport coefficients in both parallel and perpendicular directions of the magnetic field are exhibited to have important contributions to the efficiency of rf-generated current drive. The consideration of perpendicular particle and heat fluxes make it more attractive for fusion problems. The effect of collisions in the presence of a magnetic field on the transport of the rf-generated current drive is discussed
Simulation of laser propagation in a plasma with a frequency wave equation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Desroziers, S.; Nataf, F.; Sentis, R.
2008-01-01
The aim of this work is to perform numerical simulations of the propagation of a laser in a plasma. At each time step, one has to solve a Helmholtz equation in a domain which consists in some hundreds of millions of cells. To solve this huge linear system, we use an iterative Krylov method preconditioned by a separable matrix. The corresponding linear system is solved with a block cyclic reduction method. Some enlightenments on the parallel implementation are also given. Lastly, numerical results are presented including some features concerning the scalability of the numerical method on a parallel architecture. (authors)
Quiescent plasma machine for beam-plasma interaction and wave studies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ferreira, J.L.
1994-01-01
A quiescent double plasma machine for beam-plasma interaction wave studies is described. A detailed description of several plasma diagnostics used for plasma and wave excitation detection is given. A beam-plasma wave dispersion relation is used to compare theoretical values with the experimentally measured Langmuir wave frequencies and wavelengths. (author). 14 refs, 10 figs
Millimeter wave and terahertz wave transmission characteristics in plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ma Ping; Qin Long; Chen Weijun; Zhao Qing; Shi Anhua; Huang Jie
2013-01-01
An experiment was conducted on the shock tube to explore the transmission characteristics of millimeter wave and terahertz wave in high density plasmas, in order to meet the communication requirement of hypersonic vehicles during blackout. The transmission attenuation curves of millimeter wave and terahertz wave in different electron density and collision frequency were obtained. The experiment was also simulated by auxiliary differential equation finite-difference time-domain (ADE-FDTD) methods. The experimental and numerical results show that the transmission attenuation of terahertz wave in the plasma is smaller than that of millimeter wave under the same conditions. The transmission attenuation of terahertz wave in the plasma is enhanced with the increase of electron density. The terahertz wave is a promising alternative to the electromagnetic wave propagation in high density plasmas. (authors)
Girka, Igor O.; Pavlenko, Ivan V.; Thumm, Manfred
2018-05-01
Azimuthal surface waves are electromagnetic eigenwaves of cylindrical plasma-dielectric waveguides which propagate azimuthally nearby the plasma-dielectric interface across an axial external stationary magnetic field. Their eigenfrequency in particular can belong to the electron cyclotron frequency range. Excitation of azimuthal surface waves by rotating relativistic electron flows was studied in detail recently in the case of the zeroth radial mode for which the waves' radial phase change within the layer where the electrons gyrate is small. In this case, just the plasma parameters cause the main influence on the waves' dispersion properties. In the case of the first and higher radial modes, the wave eigenfrequency is higher and the wavelength is shorter than in the case of the zeroth radial mode. This gain being of interest for practical applications can be achieved without any change in the device design. The possibility of effective excitation of the higher order radial modes of azimuthal surface waves is demonstrated here. Getting shorter wavelengths of the excited waves in the case of higher radial modes is shown to be accompanied by decreasing growth rates of the waves. The results obtained here are of interest for developing new sources of electromagnetic radiation, in nano-physics and in medical physics.
Plasma wave and second harmonic generation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sodha, M.S.; Sharma, J.K.; Tewari, D.P.; Sharma, R.P.; Kaushik, S.C.
1978-01-01
An investigation is made of a plasma wave at pump wave frequency and second harmonic generation caused by a self induced transverse inhomogeneity introduced by a Gaussian electromagnetic beam in a hot collisionless plasma. In the presence of a Gaussian beam the carriers get redistributed from the high field region to the low field region by ponderomative force and a transverse density gradient is established in the plasma. When the electric vector of the main beam is parallel to this density gradient, a plasma wave at the pump wave frequency is generated. In addition to this the transverse intensity gradient of the electromagnetic wave also contributes significantly to the plasma wave generation. The power of the plasma wave exhibits a maximum and minimum with the power of the pump wave (at z = 0). The generated plasma wave interacts with the electromagnetic wave and leads to the generation of a second harmonic. Furthermore, if the initial power of the pump wave is more than the critical power for self-focusing, the beam gets self-focused and hence the generated plasma wave and second harmonic which depend upon the background electron concentration and power of the main beam also get accordingly modified. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Booker, H.G.
1984-01-01
The book aims to present current knowledge concerning the propagation of electromagnetic waves in a homogeneous magnetoplasma for which temperature effects are unimportant. It places roughly equal emphasis on the radio and the hydromagnetic parts of the electromagnetic spectrum. The dispersion properties of a magnetoplasma are treated as a function both of wave frequency (assumed real) and of ionization density. The effect of collisions is included only in so far as this can be done with simplicity. The book describes how pulses are radiated from both small and large antennas embedded in a homogeneous magnetoplasma. The power density radiated from a type of dipole antenna is studied as a function of direction of radiation in all bands of wave frequency. Input reactance is not treated, but the dependence of radiation resistance on wave frequency is described for the entire electromagnetic spectrum. Also described is the relation between beaming and guidance for Alfven waves. (Auth.)
HF heating of a plasma column at frequencies below the electron cyclotron frequency
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Datlov, J.; Kopecky, V.; Musil, J.; Zacek, F.; Novik, K.
1978-02-01
The dispersion of waves, excited by the helical structure in a plasma column and the heating of a tail of the electron distribution function is studied at frequencies below the electron plasma frequency and the electron cyclotron frequency. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lominadse, D.G.
1975-01-01
The book deals with fundamental physical concepts of the theory of cyclotron waves and cyclotron instabilities conditioned by the presence in plasma of direct or alternating electric currents passing in it perpendicularily to a magnetic field. A great variety of problems is considered connected with the linear theory of cyclotron oscillations in equilibrium and electron plasma of metals and semiconductors. Parametric excitations of electron cyclotron oscillations of plasma in an alternating electric field are studied. Particular attention is paid to the investigation of plasma turbulence arising as a result of development of cyclotron instabilities. Experimental data are discussed and compared with theoretical results
Waves in Space Plasmas Program
Fredricks, R. W.; Taylor, W. W. L.
1981-01-01
The Waves in Space Plasmas (WISP) program is a joint international effort involving instrumentation to be designed and fabricated by funding from NASA and the National Research Council of Canada. The instrumentation, with a tentatively planned payload for 1986, can be used to perturb the plasma with radio waves to solve problems in ionospheric, atmospheric, magnetospheric, and plasma physics. Among the ionospheric and plasma phenomena to be investigated using WISP instrumentation are VLF wave-particle interactions; ELF/VLF propagation; traveling ionospheric disturbances and gravity wave coupling; equatorial plasma bubble phenomena; plasma wave physics such as mode-coupling, dispersion, and instabilities; and plasma physics of the antenna-plasma interactions.
Waves in Space Plasmas Program
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fredricks, R.W.; Taylor, W.W.L.
1981-01-01
The Waves in Space Plasmas (WISP) program is a joint international effort involving instrumentation to be designed and fabricated by funding from NASA and the National Research Council of Canada. The instrumentation, with a tentatively planned payload for 1986, can be used to perturb the plasma with radio waves to solve problems in ionospheric, atmospheric, magnetospheric, and plasma physics. Among the ionospheric and plasma phenomena to be investigated using WISP instrumentation are VLF wave-particle interactions, ELF/VLF propagation, traveling ionospheric disturbances and gravity wave coupling, equatorial plasma bubble phenomena, plasma wave physics such as mode-coupling, dispersion, and instabilities, and plasma physics of the antenna-plasma interactions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gormezano, C [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires
1967-07-01
A study is made of methods based on the use of lasers for measuring the electronic density and temperature of dense plasmas (N{sub e} > 10{sup 15}e/cm{sup 3}): - an interferometric method using a gas laser, based on the. properties of the Perot-Fabry cavities; - a method making use of the 90 deg C scattering produced by the plasma on light emitted by a ruby laser. These methods have been applied to various dense plasmas: - high-frequency plasma torch; - azimuth compression; - plasma bursts produced by focussing a laser beam on a metal target. The measurements have also been carried out using conventional methods of diagnosis. It has thus been possible to measure densities of between 5.10{sup 15} and 10{sup 19} e/cm{sup 3} and temperatures of between 3 and 10 eV. These different-methods are then compared, (author) [French] On etudie la mesure de la densite et de la temperature electronique des plasmas denses (N{sub e} > 10{sup 15} e/cm{sup 3}) a I'aide de methodes utilisant des lasers: - une methode interferometrique utilisant un laser a gaz, basee sur les proprietes des cavites Perot Fabry; -- une methode utilisant la diffusion a 900 deg C par le plasma de la lumiere issue d'un laser a rubis. Ces methodes ont ete appliquees sur differents plasmas denses: - Torche a plasma haute-frequence; - Compression azimutale; - Bouffees de plasma produites par la focalisation d'un faisceau laser sur une cible metallique. Les mesures ont ete egalement faites a I'aide de diagnostics classiques. On a pu ainsi mesurer des densites comprises entre 5.10{sup 15} et 10{sup 19} e/cm{sup 3} et des temperatures comprises entre 3 et 10 eV. On compare ensuite ces differentes methodes. (auteur)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gormezano, C. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires
1967-07-01
A study is made of methods based on the use of lasers for measuring the electronic density and temperature of dense plasmas (N{sub e} > 10{sup 15}e/cm{sup 3}): - an interferometric method using a gas laser, based on the. properties of the Perot-Fabry cavities; - a method making use of the 90 deg C scattering produced by the plasma on light emitted by a ruby laser. These methods have been applied to various dense plasmas: - high-frequency plasma torch; - azimuth compression; - plasma bursts produced by focussing a laser beam on a metal target. The measurements have also been carried out using conventional methods of diagnosis. It has thus been possible to measure densities of between 5.10{sup 15} and 10{sup 19} e/cm{sup 3} and temperatures of between 3 and 10 eV. These different-methods are then compared, (author) [French] On etudie la mesure de la densite et de la temperature electronique des plasmas denses (N{sub e} > 10{sup 15} e/cm{sup 3}) a I'aide de methodes utilisant des lasers: - une methode interferometrique utilisant un laser a gaz, basee sur les proprietes des cavites Perot Fabry; -- une methode utilisant la diffusion a 900 deg C par le plasma de la lumiere issue d'un laser a rubis. Ces methodes ont ete appliquees sur differents plasmas denses: - Torche a plasma haute-frequence; - Compression azimutale; - Bouffees de plasma produites par la focalisation d'un faisceau laser sur une cible metallique. Les mesures ont ete egalement faites a I'aide de diagnostics classiques. On a pu ainsi mesurer des densites comprises entre 5.10{sup 15} et 10{sup 19} e/cm{sup 3} et des temperatures comprises entre 3 et 10 eV. On compare ensuite ces differentes methodes. (auteur)
Scattering of electromagnetic waves into plasma oscillations via plasma particles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lin, A.T.; Dawson, J.M.
1975-01-01
A plasma subjected to an intense electromagnetic wave can exhibit a large number of parametric instabilities. An interesting example which has received little attention is the decay of the electromagnetic wave into a plasma oscillation with the excess energy and momentum being carried off by electrons. This process has been simulated on a one-and-two-halves dimensional electromagnetic code. The incident electromagnetic wave had a frequency near the plasma frequency so that decay into a plasma oscillation and a backscattered electromagnetic wave was excluded. As expected, the threshold for this instability was very large , so it is unlikely that this instability is competitive in most laser plasmas. Nevertheless, the physical mechanism involved provides a means for absorption of laser light and acceleration of particles in a plasma containing large amplitude plasma oscillations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mori, W.; Joshi, C.; Dawson, J.M.
1982-01-01
It was shown that the insertion of a cross magnetic field prevents the particles from getting out of phase with the electric field of the plasma wave in the beat wave accelerator scheme. Thus, using a CO 2 laser, n/sub c//n/sub e/ = (ω 0 /ω/sub p/) 2 approx. 35, and a 300 kG magnetic field, electrons can be (in principle) accelerated to 100 GeV in 2 meters. For comparison without the magnetic field, the same energies may be obtained in a n/sub c//n/sub e/ approx. 10 5 plasma over a distance of 100 meters
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fraboulet, D.; Becoulet, A.; Nguyen, F.
1998-11-01
To maintain the ignition state in a tokamak fusion reactor, a control must be performed on the population of alpha-products, and this implies the ability to diagnose those α-particles. It is studied here whether the detection of emission radiated in the ion cyclotron range of frequency be a reactor plasma can provide useful information concerning fusion products, especially concerning their density profile. It is shown that the detection of the radiation emitted by the fast alpha particles along their cyclotron motion can give access to moments of their distribution function. This requires to compute the phase of the emitted field, using a full-wave approach. Such a technique allows to set in a convenient way the inverse problem of the determination of the emitting α-particles distribution through the radiation detection. A brief analysis of the expected situation in a reactor-relevant plasma is given. In parallel, the 1-D full-wave code developed in this frame is also useful for studying the physics of Fast Wave plasma heating. It enables to take into account the mode conversion of the Fast Wave into the Ion Bernstein Wave that appears near each ion cyclotron resonance. Results show that higher order terms may significantly alter the energy partitioning, in hot plasma cases involving mode conversion heating and/or ion cyclotron high harmonics heating. (author)
Quasi-electrostatic waves in dusty plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Das, A.C.; Goswami, K.S.; Misra, A.K.
1997-01-01
Low frequency quasi-electrostatic waves in cold dusty plasma are investigated taking account of liberation and absorption of electrons and ions by the dust and their momentum transfer mechanism. (author)
Waves and oscillations in plasma crystals
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Piel, A; Homann, A; Klindworth, M; Melzer, A; Zafiu, C; Nosenko, V; Goree, J
2003-01-01
An overview of the properties of plasma crystals and clusters is given with emphasis on oscillations of particles in the plasma trap, instabilities associated with the solid-liquid phase transition and the propagation of waves. It is demonstrated how laser manipulation can be used to stimulate particle motion and waves. From characteristic resonance frequencies and from wave dispersion the particle charge and shielding length parameters, which determine the interparticle forces, can be quantitatively measured
On the generation of steady currents in a plasma cylinder using m=0 radio-frequency waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hugrass, W.N.
1981-01-01
The generation of a steady current in a resistive plasma cylinder by means of a travelling-wave magnetic field has been studied by using the resistive MHD equations. The non-linear initial-boundary value problem has been solved numerically. Hollow DC current profiles, similar to the experimental data obtained by other workers, have been found. A simple analytical argument, of a more general nature, shows that classical resistive diffusion cannot lead to a more uniform current distribution. (author)
Drift waves in a weakly ionized plasma
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Popovic, M.; Melchior, H.
1968-01-01
A dispersion relation for low frequency drift waves in a weakly ionized plasma has been derived, and through numerical calculations the effect of collisions between the charged and the neutral particles is estimated.......A dispersion relation for low frequency drift waves in a weakly ionized plasma has been derived, and through numerical calculations the effect of collisions between the charged and the neutral particles is estimated....
Beat-wave generation of plasmons in semiconductor plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Berezhiani, V.I.; Mahajan, S.M.
1995-08-01
It is shown that in semiconductor plasmas, it is possible to generate large amplitude plasma waves by the beating of two laser beams with frequency difference close to the plasma frequency. For narrow gap seimconductors (for example n-type InSb), the system can simulate the physics underlying beat wave generation in relativistic gaseous plasmas
Beat-wave generation of plasmons in semiconductor plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Berezhiani, V.I.; Mahajan, S.M.
1995-08-01
It is shown that in semiconductor plasmas, it is possible to generate large amplitude plasma waves by the beating of two laser beams with frequency difference close to the plasma frequency. For narrow gap semiconductor (for example n-type InSb), the system can simulate the physics underlying beat wave generation in relativistic gaseous plasmas. (author). 7 refs
Efthimion, Philip C.; Helfritch, Dennis J.
1989-11-28
An apparatus and method for creating high temperature plasmas for enhanced chemical processing of gaseous fluids, toxic chemicals, and the like, at a wide range of pressures, especially at atmospheric and high pressures includes an electro-magnetic resonator cavity, preferably a reentrant cavity, and a wave guiding structure which connects an electro-magnetic source to the cavity. The cavity includes an intake port and an exhaust port, each having apertures in the conductive walls of the cavity sufficient for the intake of the gaseous fluids and for the discharge of the processed gaseous fluids. The apertures are sufficiently small to prevent the leakage of the electro-magnetic radiation from the cavity. Gaseous fluid flowing from the direction of the electro-magnetic source through the guiding wave structure and into the cavity acts on the plasma to push it away from the guiding wave structure and the electro-magnetic source. The gaseous fluid flow confines the high temperature plasma inside the cavity and allows complete chemical processing of the gaseous fluids at a wide range of pressures.
Theory of longitudinal plasma waves with allowance for ion mobility
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kichigin, G.N.
2003-01-01
One studies propagation of stationary longitudinal plasma wave of high amplitude in collisionless cold plasma with regard to motion of electrons and ions in a wave. One derived dependences of amplitudes of electric field, potential, frequency and length of wave on the speed of wave propagation and on the parameter equal to the ration of ion mass to electron mass. Account of motion of ions in the wave with maximum possible amplitude resulted in nonmonotone dependence of frequency on wave speed [ru
Kirichok, A. V.; Kuklin, V. M.; Pryimak, A. V.; Zagorodny, A. G.
2015-09-01
The development of one-dimensional parametric instabilities of intense long plasma waves is considered in terms of the so-called hybrid models, with electrons being treated as a fluid and ions being regarded as particles. The analysis is performed for both cases when the average plasma field energy is lower (Zakharov's hybrid model—ZHM) or greater (Silin's hybrid model—SHM) than the plasma thermal energy. The efficiency of energy transfer to ions and to ion perturbations under the development of the instability is considered for various values of electron-to-ion mass ratios. The energy of low-frequency oscillations (ion-sound waves) is found to be much lower than the final ion kinetic energy. We also discuss the influence of the changes in the damping rate of the high-frequency (HF) field on the instability development. The decrease of the absorption of the HF field inhibits the HF field burnout within plasma density cavities and gives rise to the broadening of the HF spectrum. At the same time, the ion velocity distribution tends to the normal distribution in both ZHM and SHM.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kirichok, A. V., E-mail: sandyrcs@gmail.com; Kuklin, V. M.; Pryimak, A. V. [Institute for High Technologies, V.N. Karazin Kharkiv National University, 4 Svobody Sq., Kharkiv 61022 (Ukraine); Zagorodny, A. G. [Bogolyubov Institute for Theoretical Physics, 14-b, Metrolohichna str., Kiev 03680 (Ukraine)
2015-09-15
The development of one-dimensional parametric instabilities of intense long plasma waves is considered in terms of the so-called hybrid models, with electrons being treated as a fluid and ions being regarded as particles. The analysis is performed for both cases when the average plasma field energy is lower (Zakharov's hybrid model—ZHM) or greater (Silin's hybrid model—SHM) than the plasma thermal energy. The efficiency of energy transfer to ions and to ion perturbations under the development of the instability is considered for various values of electron-to-ion mass ratios. The energy of low-frequency oscillations (ion-sound waves) is found to be much lower than the final ion kinetic energy. We also discuss the influence of the changes in the damping rate of the high-frequency (HF) field on the instability development. The decrease of the absorption of the HF field inhibits the HF field burnout within plasma density cavities and gives rise to the broadening of the HF spectrum. At the same time, the ion velocity distribution tends to the normal distribution in both ZHM and SHM.
High-frequency modulation of ion-acoustic waves.
Albright, N. W.
1972-01-01
A large amplitude, high-frequency electromagnetic oscillation is impressed on a nonrelativistic, collisionless plasma from an external source. The frequency is chosen to be far from the plasma frequency (in fact, lower). The resulting electron velocity distribution function strongly modifies the propagation of ion-acoustic waves parallel to the oscillating electric field. The complex frequency is calculated numerically.
Harmonic surface wave propagation in plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shivarova, A.; Stoychev, T.
1980-01-01
Second order harmonic surface waves generated by one fundamental high-frequency surface wave are investigated experimentally in gas discharge plasma. Two types of harmonic waves of equal frequency, associated with the linear dispersion relation and the synchronism conditions relatively propagate. The experimental conditions and the different space damping rates of the waves ensure the existence of different spatial regions (consecutively arranged along the plasma column) of a dominant propagation of each one of these two waves. Experimental data are obtained both for the wavenumbers and the space damping rates by relatively precise methods for wave investigations such as the methods of time-space diagrams and of phase shift measurements. The results are explained by the theoretical model for nonlinear mixing of dispersive waves. (author)
Plasma Dispersion Functions for Complex Frequencies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pavlov, S. S.; Castejon, F.
2005-01-01
Plasma dispersion functions for complex wave propagation frequency in the weak relativistic regime for arbitrary longitudinal refractive index are estimated and presented in this work. These functions, that are know as Shkarofsky functions in the case of real frequency, are estimated using a new method that avoids the singularities that appear in previous calculations shown in the preceding literature. These results can be used to obtain the properties of plasma instabilities in the weakly relativistic regime. (Author) 14 refs
Nonlinear wavenumber of an electron plasma wave
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vidmar, P.J.; Malmberg, J.H.; Starke, T.P.
1976-01-01
The wavenumber of a large-amplitude electron plasma wave propagating on a collisionless plasma column is measured. The wavenumber is shifted from that of a small-amplitude wave of the same frequency. This nonlinear wavenumber shift, deltak/subr/, depends on position, frequency, and initial wave amplitude, Phi. The observed spatial oscillations of deltak/subr/ agree qualitatively with recent theories. Experimentally deltak/subr/proportionalk/subi/S (Phi) rootPhi where k/subi/ is the linear Landau damping coefficient, S (Phi) equivalentk/subi/(Phi)/k/subi/, and k/subi/(Phi) is the initial damping coefficient which depends on Phi
Nonlinear interaction of the surface waves at a plasma boundary
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dolgopolov, V.V.; El-Naggar, I.A.; Hussein, A.M.; Khalil, Sh.M.
1976-01-01
Amplitudes of electromagnetic waves with combination frequencies, radiating from the plasma boundary due to nonlinear interaction of the surface waves, have been found. Previous papers on this subject did not take into account that the tangential components of the electric field of waves with combination frequencies were discontinuous at the plasma boundary. (Auth.)
Nonlinear extraordinary wave in dense plasma
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Krasovitskiy, V. B., E-mail: krasovit@mail.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Keldysh Institute of Applied Mathematics (Russian Federation); Turikov, V. A. [Russian University of Peoples’ Friendship (Russian Federation)
2013-10-15
Conditions for the propagation of a slow extraordinary wave in dense magnetized plasma are found. A solution to the set of relativistic hydrodynamic equations and Maxwell’s equations under the plasma resonance conditions, when the phase velocity of the nonlinear wave is equal to the speed of light, is obtained. The deviation of the wave frequency from the resonance frequency is accompanied by nonlinear longitudinal-transverse oscillations. It is shown that, in this case, the solution to the set of self-consistent equations obtained by averaging the initial equations over the period of high-frequency oscillations has the form of an envelope soliton. The possibility of excitation of a nonlinear wave in plasma by an external electromagnetic pulse is confirmed by numerical simulations.
Weakly nonlinear electron plasma waves in collisional plasmas
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pecseli, H. L.; Rasmussen, J. Juul; Tagare, S. G.
1986-01-01
The nonlinear evolution of a high frequency plasma wave in a weakly magnetized, collisional plasma is considered. In addition to the ponderomotive-force-nonlinearity the nonlinearity due to the heating of the electrons is taken into account. A set of nonlinear equations including the effect...
Resonances and surface waves in bounded plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bowers, K.J.; Qui, D.W.; Smith, H.B.; Birdsall, C.K.
1999-01-01
Surface waves provide a promising means of creating large, area plasmas. These waves can uniformly distribute the excitation energy and while presenting a small resistance and zero reactance to the driving source. Experimentally and in the simulations, the electron temperature is low (like 1--3 eV) as is the plasma potential (like 10 Te). The use of surface waves experimentally, and now industrially, to sustain large area plasma sources with device size is comparable to free space wavelength have motivated the authors to refine the theories of [1] and [2] to be fully electromagnetic. The wave dispersion predicted by the electromagnetic theory differs from the predictions of the prior theories and the results illuminate limitations of the electrostatic model. The use of surface waves have also motivated them to explore the mechanisms by which surface waves heat the plasma. In the 1d electrostatic simulations high velocity electron bunches are formed in the sheaths and are alternatively accelerated from each sheath into the bulk plasma each RF cycle. They speculate similar mechanisms provide the ionization in surface wave discharges. They also see in these simulations the plasma makes an abrupt transition from capacitively coupled to resistively coupled and the series resonance locks onto the drive frequency; these abrupt transitions resemble mode-jumping seen experimentally in large area sources. Furthermore, the density profile of the plasma tracks the drive frequency while in the resonant mode giving a new mechanism by which the plasma parameters can be controlled. They are currently investigating the effect of the driving electrode shape has on these resonances and conducting 2d simulations of a large area surface wave source to explore the ignition of surface wave devices and how the plasma fills in the device
Electron Acoustic Waves in Pure Ion Plasmas
Anderegg, F.; Driscoll, C. F.; Dubin, D. H. E.; O'Neil, T. M.
2009-11-01
Electron Acoustic Waves (EAW) are the low frequency branch of electrostatic plasma waves. These waves exist in neutralized plasmas, pure electron plasmas and in pure ion plasmasfootnotetextF. Anderegg et al., PRL 102, 095001 (2009) and PoP 16, 055705 (2009). (where the name is deceptive). Here, we observe standing mθ= 0 mz= 1 EAWs in a pure ion plasma column. At small amplitude, the EAWs have a phase velocity vph ˜1.4 v, and the frequencies are in close agreement with theory. At moderate amplitudes, waves can be excited over a broad range of frequencies, with observed phase velocities in the range of 1.4 v vph diagnostic shows that particles slower than vph oscillate in phase with the wave, while particles moving faster than vph oscillate 180^o out of phase with the wave. From a fluid perspective, this gives an unusual negative dynamical compressibility. That is, the wave pressure oscillations are 180^o out of phase from the density oscillations, almost fully canceling the electrostatic restoring force, giving the low and malleable frequency.
Mode coupling of electron plasma waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Harte, J.A.
1975-01-01
The driven coupled mode equations are derived for a two fluid, unequal temperature (T/sub e/ much greater than T/sub i/) plasma in the one-dimensional, electrostatic model and applied to the coupling of electron plasma waves. It is assumed that the electron to ion mass ratio identical with m/sub e/M/sub i// much less than 1 and eta 2 /sub ko/k lambda/sub De/ less than 1 where eta 2 /sub ko/ is the pump wave's power normalized to the plasma thermal energy, k the mode wave number and lambda/sub De/ the electron Debye length. Terms up to quadratic in pump power are retained. The equations describe the linear plasma modes oscillating at the wave number k and at ω/sub ek/, the Bohn Gross frequency, and at Ω/sub k/, the ion acoustic frequency, subject to the damping rates ν/sub ek/ and ν/sub ik/ for electrons and ions and their interactions due to intense high frequency waves E/sub k//sup l/. n/sub o/ is the background density, n/sub ik/ the fluctuating ion density, ω/sub pe/ the plasma frequency
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sati, Priti; Tripathi, V. K.
2012-01-01
Parametric decay of a large amplitude electromagnetic wave into two electromagnetic modes in a rippled density plasma channel is investigated. The channel is taken to possess step density profile besides a density ripple of axial wave vector. The density ripple accounts for the momentum mismatch between the interacting waves and facilitates nonlinear coupling. For a given pump wave frequency, the requisite ripple wave number varies only a little w.r.t. the frequency of the low frequency decay wave. The radial localization of electromagnetic wave reduces the growth rate of the parametric instability. The growth rate decreases with the frequency of low frequency electromagnetic wave.
Fast wave evanescence in filamentary boundary plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Myra, J. R.
2014-01-01
Radio frequency waves for heating and current drive of plasmas in tokamaks and other magnetic confinement devices must first traverse the scrape-off-layer (SOL) before they can be put to their intended use. The SOL plasma is strongly turbulent and intermittent in space and time. These turbulent properties of the SOL, which are not routinely taken into account in wave propagation codes, can have an important effect on the coupling of waves through an evanescent SOL or edge plasma region. The effective scale length for fast wave (FW) evanescence in the presence of short-scale field-aligned filamentary plasma turbulence is addressed in this paper. It is shown that although the FW wavelength or evanescent scale length is long compared with the dimensions of the turbulence, the FW does not simply average over the turbulent density; rather, the average is over the exponentiation rate. Implications for practical situations are discussed
Radiation from nonlinear coupling of plasma waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fung, S.F.
1986-01-01
The author examines the generation of electromagnetic radiation by nonlinear resonant interactions of plasma waves in a cold, uniformly magnetized plasma. In particular, he considers the up-conversion of two electrostatic wave packets colliding to produce high frequency electromagnetic radiation. Efficient conversion of electrostatic to electromagnetic wave energy occurs when the pump amplitudes approach and exceed the pump depletion threshold. Results from the inverse scattering transform analysis of the three-wave interaction equations are applied. When the wave packets are initially separated, the fully nonlinear set of coupling equations, which describe the evolution of the wave packets, can be reduced to three separate eigenvalue problems; each can be considered as a scattering problem, analogous to eh Schroedinger equation. In the scattering space, the wave packet profiles act as the scattering potentials. When the wavepacket areas approach (or exceed) π/2, the wave functions are localized (bound states) and the scattering potentials are said to contain solitons. Exchange of solitons occurs during the interaction. The transfer of solitons from the pump waves to the electromagnetic wave leads to pump depletion and the production of strong radiation. The emission of radio waves is considered by the coupling of two upper-hybrid branch wave packets, and an upper-hybrid and a lower hybrid branch wave packet
Fast waves near the lower hybrid frequency. Final contract report
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
McWilliams, R.
1984-01-01
The main function of this contract has been to advance the theory of fast waves near the lower hybrid frequency. Special emphasis was to be given to aspects which would assist experimentalists in planning and performing experiments to test the feasibility of using the fast wave for plasma heating and current drive. Evanescent and propagating conditions for the wave were to be determined. Possible antennas for launching the waves were to be determined. Coupling coefficients of the waves into the plasma were to be found. The results were to be applied to present day and reactor grade plasma parameters
Radiation phenomena of plasma waves, 1
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ohnuma, Toshiro.
1978-06-01
The fundamental radiation theories on radiation phenomena of plasma waves are presented. As the fundamental concepts of propagating waves, phase, group and ray velocities are explained, and phase velocity surface, group velocity surface, ray velocity surface and refractive index surface are considered. These concepts are important in anisotropic plasma. Fundamental equations for electron plasma waves in a fluid model and fundamental equations for ion plasma waves can be expressed with the above mentioned concepts. Kuehl derived the formulas for general radiation fields of electromagnetic and electrostatic waves which are radiated from an arbitrary current source. Fundamental equations for kinetic model are the Vlasov equation and Maxwell equations. By investigating electromagnetic radiation in cold anisotropic plasma, Kuehl found the important behavior that the fields radiated from a source become very large in certain directions for some ranges of plasma parameters. The fact is the so-called high frequency resonance cone. A fundamental formula for quasi-static radiation from an oscillating point source in warm anisotropic plasma includes the near field of electromagnetic mode and the field of electrostatic mode, which are radiated from the source. This paper presents the formula in a generalized form. (Kato, T.)
HIGH FREQUENCY ELECTROSTATIC INSTABILITIES IN A PLASMA
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Klein, M W; Auer, P L
1963-06-15
The dispersion relation is examined for a collisionless infinite plasma in the presence of an anisotropic Maxwellian velocity distribution and a uniform external magnetic field. Unstable solutions exist below the muitiples of the electron cyclotron frequency provided the temperature anisotropy is sufficiently large. The dependence of the growth rate upon harmonic number, density, angle of propagation with respect to the magnetic field, and frequency is discussed for zero as well as non-zero parallel temperatures. In the latter case, the waves are strongly damped as their frequency approaches a multiple of the gyro- frequency. (auth)
Wave turbulence in magnetized plasmas
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. Galtier
2009-02-01
Full Text Available The paper reviews the recent progress on wave turbulence for magnetized plasmas (MHD, Hall MHD and electron MHD in the incompressible and compressible cases. The emphasis is made on homogeneous and anisotropic turbulence which usually provides the best theoretical framework to investigate space and laboratory plasmas. The solar wind and the coronal heating problems are presented as two examples of application of anisotropic wave turbulence. The most important results of wave turbulence are reported and discussed in the context of natural and simulated magnetized plasmas. Important issues and possible spurious interpretations are also discussed.
Nonlinear plasma waves excited near resonance
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cohen, B.I.; Kaufman, A.N.
1977-01-01
The nonlinear resonant response of a uniform plasma to an external plane-wave field is formulated in terms of the mismatch Δ/sub n l/ between the driving frequency and the time-dependent, complex, nonlinear normal mode frequency at the driving wavenumber. This formalism is applied to computer simulations of this process, yielding a deduced nonlinear frequency shift. The time dependence of the nonlinear phenomena, at frequency Δ/sub n l/ and at the bounce frequency of the resonant particles, is analyzed. The interdependence of the nonlinear features is described by means of energy and momentum relations
Variations of helicon wave induced radial plasma transport in different experimental conditions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Petrzilka, V.
1993-08-01
Variations of the helicon wave induced radial plasma transport are presented in dependence on values of the plasma radius, magnetostatic field, plasma density, frequency of the helicon wave and on the ion charge. 22 refs., 14 figs
Radio frequency plasma excitation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Burden, M.St.J.; Cross, K.B.
1979-01-01
An investigation into the use of rf sputtering for ion cleaning of insulating substrates before ion plating is reported. Initial experiments consisted of sputtering metals with rf power followed by the deposition of copper onto glass slides using rf plasma excitation and biasing supply. It was found that good quality films were obtained by rf ion plating onto plastics with excellent adhesion over a wide operating pressure range. A block schematic of the rf plasma excitation system is shown. (UK)
Kinetic theory of surface waves in plasma jets
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shokri, B.
2002-01-01
The kinetic theory analysis of surface waves propagating along a semi-bounded plasma jet is presented. The frequency spectra and their damping rate are obtained in both the high and low frequency regions. Finally, the penetration of the static field in the plasma jet under the condition that the plasma jet velocity is smaller than the sound velocity is studied
High-frequency plasma oscillations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Akhiezer, A I; Fainberg, Y B; Sitenko, A G; Stepanov, K; Kurilko, V; Gorbatenko, M; Kirochkin, U [Academy of Sciences of the Ukrainian SSR (USSR)
1958-07-01
It is well known that the electrical conductivity of a plasma, the ion-electron equilibration time, and the time required to heat the electron component of the plasma all increase greatly with increasing temperature. Consequently, the usual method of Joule heating a plasma may be difficult to apply in the region of high temperatures (> 10{sup 6}K), especially if the plasma current alone, without any additional measures, is used to generate magnetic fields for the confinement of the plasma. Therefore, it is of interest to study methods of plasma heating that do not directly use Joule heat, especially methods by which energy is directly supplied to the ion component during the time between collisions. Some of these methods make use of ionic resonance as well as other resonance phenomena which can occur in plasma in an external magnetic field. This paper deals with certain aspects of the theory of high-frequency plasma oscillations.
An amplitude modulated radio frequency plasma generator
Lei, Fan; Li, Xiaoping; Liu, Yanming; Liu, Donglin; Yang, Min; Xie, Kai; Yao, Bo
2017-04-01
A glow discharge plasma generator and diagnostic system has been developed to study the effects of rapidly variable plasmas on electromagnetic wave propagation, mimicking the plasma sheath conditions encountered in space vehicle reentry. The plasma chamber is 400 mm in diameter and 240 mm in length, with a 300-mm-diameter unobstructed clear aperture. Electron densities produced are in the mid 1010 electrons/cm3. An 800 W radio frequency (RF) generator is capacitively coupled through an RF matcher to an internally cooled stainless steel electrode to form the plasma. The RF power is amplitude modulated by a waveform generator that operates at different frequencies. The resulting plasma contains electron density modulations caused by the varying power levels. A 10 GHz microwave horn antenna pair situated on opposite sides of the chamber serves as the source and detector of probe radiation. The microwave power feed to the source horn is split and one portion is sent directly to a high-speed recording oscilloscope. On mixing this with the signal from the pickup horn antenna, the plasma-induced phase shift between the two signals gives the path-integrated electron density with its complete time dependent variation. Care is taken to avoid microwave reflections and extensive shielding is in place to minimize electronic pickup. Data clearly show the low frequency modulation of the electron density as well as higher harmonics and plasma fluctuations.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pathak, Pallabi; Sharma, Sumita Kumari; Bailung, Heremba
2015-01-01
The evolution of super rogue wave having amplitude ∼5 times the background wave has been observed in multicomponent plasma with critical concentration of negative ions in a double plasma device. In normal electron-ion plasma the ion acoustic solitons are described by the Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation. At a critical concentration of negative ions, the ion acoustic modified KdV solitons are found to propagate. Multicomponent plasma also supports the propagation of a special kind of soliton namely 'Peregrine soliton' at critical concentration of negative ions. Peregrine soliton is a doubly localized solution of the nonlinear Schrodinger equation (NLSE) having amplitude 3 times the background carrier wave. In a double plasma device, ion-acoustic Peregrine soliton is excited by applying slowly varying amplitude modulated continuous sinusoidal signal to the source anode and described by the rational solution of NLSE. The ion acoustic wave is modulationally unstable in multicomponent plasma with critical concentration of negative ions and an initial modulated wave perturbation is found to undergo self-modulation to form localized structures by balancing the nonlinearity with the dispersion. In presence of higher order nonlinearity, propagation of a high amplitude (∼5 times of background carrier wave) ion acoustic Peregrine soliton has been observed experimentally. The existence of such types of higher order wave has been reported in other dispersive media. These are considered to be the prototype of super rogue wave in deep water. In this work, experimental results on the evolution of super rogue wave in a double plasma device are presented and compared with the numerical solution of NLSE. (author)
Energy balance of plasma with wave taking the nonpotential nature of the waves into consideration
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gel'berg, M.G.; Volosevich, A.V.
1986-01-01
It is shown that in the ionospheric plasma the potential electric field of low-frequency plasma waves is shifted in phase with respect to fluctuations of current by approximately -π/2 and the rotational field is almost in phase with the current. Therefore, the energy transfer between the plasma and the wave occurs mainly with the participation of rotational field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brodin, G.; Stenflo, L.
2017-01-01
Considering a class of solutions where the density perturbations are functions of time, but not of space, we derive a new exact large amplitude wave solution for a cold uniform electron plasma. This result illustrates that most simple analytical solutions can appear even if the density perturbations are large. - Highlights: • The influence of large amplitude electromagnetic waves on electrostatic oscillations is found. • A generalized Mathieu equation is derived. • Anharmonic wave profiles are computed numerically.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Brodin, G., E-mail: gert.brodin@physics.umu.se [Department of Physics, Umeå University, SE-901 87 Umeå (Sweden); Stenflo, L. [Department of Physics, Linköping University, SE-581 83 Linköping (Sweden)
2017-03-18
Considering a class of solutions where the density perturbations are functions of time, but not of space, we derive a new exact large amplitude wave solution for a cold uniform electron plasma. This result illustrates that most simple analytical solutions can appear even if the density perturbations are large. - Highlights: • The influence of large amplitude electromagnetic waves on electrostatic oscillations is found. • A generalized Mathieu equation is derived. • Anharmonic wave profiles are computed numerically.
Waves and instabilities in plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chen, L.
1987-01-01
The contents of this book are: Plasma as a Dielectric Medium; Nyquist Technique; Absolute and Convective Instabilities; Landau Damping and Phase Mixing; Particle Trapping and Breakdown of Linear Theory; Solution of Viasov Equation via Guilding-Center Transformation; Kinetic Theory of Magnetohydrodynamic Waves; Geometric Optics; Wave-Kinetic Equation; Cutoff and Resonance; Resonant Absorption; Mode Conversion; Gyrokinetic Equation; Drift Waves; Quasi-Linear Theory; Ponderomotive Force; Parametric Instabilities; Problem Sets for Homework, Midterm and Final Examinations
Waves and Oscillations in Plasmas
Pecseli, Hans L
2012-01-01
The result of more than 15 years of lectures in plasma sciences presented at universities in Denmark, Norway, and the United States, Waves and Oscillations in Plasmas addresses central issues in modern plasma sciences. The book covers fluid models as well as kinetic plasma models, including a detailed discussion of, for instance, collisionless Landau damping. Offering a clear separation of linear and nonlinear models, the book can be tailored for readers of varying levels of expertise.Designed to provide basic training in linear as well as nonlinear plasma dynamics, and practical in areas as d
BOOK REVIEW: Kinetic theory of plasma waves, homogeneous plasmas
Porkolab, Miklos
1998-11-01
addition to the literature, for it gives the teacher of the subject a valuable reference where the inquisitive student will be able to read up on and satisfy himself about the practicality and reliability of the Vlasov theory in a hot magnetized and collisionless plasma. The book has excellent treatments of several new topics not included in previous textbooks, for example, the relativistic theory of plasma wave propagation, so important in electron cyclotron heating of magnetically confined fusion plasmas, a discussion of current drive theory and there is a welcome introduction to parametric instabilities in the final chapter. There are some things that make the readability of the book somewhat difficult. In the early parts, certain advanced concepts are introduced without much motivation or explanation, although the author is trying to be helpful by providing a list of relevant references at the end of each chapter. Here the teacher's role will be critical. Again, a certain amount of previous knowledge of the subject would prove to be invaluable to the student. The main content of the book is included in 11 chapters. Use is made of CGS Gaussian units, a favourite of plasma theorists. As the author states, these are still widely used in advanced plasma theory, and the student is well advised to become familiar with this system of units (as well as the SI system for applications). To help the reader in the Introduction, the author defines various expressions often used in plasma physics in practical units (frequencies in hertz, lengths in centimetres, temperatures in kiloelectronvolts and magnetic fields in teslas). Chapter 2 is entitled `Plasma Electrodynamics' and it introduces the Maxwell-Vlasov set of equations, as well as the important fundamentals of wave propagation, such as polarization, dispersion and the dielectric tensor, and energy relations. In Chapter 3, `Elementary Plasma Kinetic Theory', the author derives the Vlasov equation and the Fokker-Planck equation
Resonant absorption of radar waves by a magnetized collisional plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sun Aiping; Tong Honghui; Shen Liru; Tang Deli; Qiu Xiaoming
2001-01-01
The propagation of radar waves in a magnetized collisional plasma slab is studied numerically. It is found for uniform plasma that: first, the wave attenuation and absorbed power show a peak value, i.e., resonant absorption when the collision frequency f en = 0.1, 0.5, 1 GHz and the wave frequency nears upper hybrid frequency. Secondly, the attenuation, absorbed, and transmitted power curves become flat at f en = 5, 10 Ghz. thirdly, the attenuation and absorbed power increase with plasma density, and the attenuation and the proportion of absorbed power can reach 100 dB and 80%, respectively, at the plasma density n = 10 11 cm -3 . For nonuniform plasma, the peak value of reflected power is larger than that in uniform plasma. So, uniform magnetized plasma is of more benefit to plasma cloaking
Waves in plasmas (part 1 - wave-plasma interaction general background)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dumont, R.
2004-01-01
This document gathers a series of transparencies presented in the framework of the week-long lectures 'hot plasmas 2004' and dedicated to the physics of wave-plasma interaction. The structure of this document is as follows: 1) wave and diverse plasmas, 2) basic equations (Maxwell equations), 3) waves in a fluid plasma, and 4) waves in a kinetic plasma (collisionless plasma)
Electromagnetic Wave Attenuation in Atmospheric Pressure Plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang Shu; Hu Xiwei; Liu Minghai; Luo Fang; Feng Zelong
2007-01-01
When an electromagnetic (EM) wave propagates in an atmospheric pressure plasma (APP) layer, its attenuation depends on the APP parameters such as the layer width, the electron density and its profile and collision frequency between electrons and neutrals. This paper proposes that a combined parameter-the product of the line average electron density n-bar and width d of the APP layer (i.e., the total number of electrons in a unit volume along the wave propagation path) can play a more explicit and decisive role in the wave attenuation than any of the above individual parameters does. The attenuation of the EM wave via the product of n-bar and d with various collision frequencies between electrons and neutrals is presented
Plasma wave observations during electron and ion gun experiments
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Olsen, R.C.; Lowery, D.R.; Weddle, L.E.
1988-01-01
Plasma wave instruments with high temporal and frequency resolution in the 0-6 kHz frequency range have been used to monitor electron gun-employing charge control experiments with the USAF/NASA p78-2 satellite, in order to determine whether plasma wave signatures consistent with the previous inference of electron heating were present. Strong plasma waves were noted near the electron gyrofrequency; these waves can heat ambient low energy electrons, as previously inferred. Attention is given to the two distinct classes of behavior revealed by the ion gun experiments. 16 references
Analysis of waves in the plasma guided by a periodical vane-type slow wave structure
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wu, T.J.; Kou, C.S.
2005-01-01
In this study, the dispersion relation has been derived to characterize the propagation of the waves in the plasma guided by a periodical vane-type slow wave structure. The plasma is confined by a quartz plate. Results indicate that there are two different waves in this structure. One is the plasma mode that originates from the plasma surface wave propagating along the interface between the plasma and the quartz plate, and the other is the guide mode that originally travels along the vane-type slow wave structure. In contrast to its original slow wave characteristics, the guide mode becomes a fast wave in the low-frequency portion of the passband, and there exists a cut-off frequency for the guide mode. The vane-type guiding structure has been shown to limit the upper frequency of the passband of the plasma mode, compared with that of the plasma surface wave. In addition, the passband of the plasma mode increases with the plasma density while it becomes narrower for the guide mode. The influences of the parameters of the guiding structure and plasma density on the propagation of waves are also presented
Penetration of slow waves into an overdense plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Motley, R.W.; Bernabei, S.; Hooke, W.M.; McWilliams, R.; Olson, L.
1978-06-01
Probe measurements are reported of the propagation of a 2.45 GHz slow wave launched into a linear, overdense test plasma by a phased double waveguide. We find that waves in the frequency interval omega/sub LH/ < omega < omega/sub pe/ penetrate to the plasma interior only if they satisfy the accessibility criterion
Harmonic emission due to the nonlinear coupling of a Gaussian laser and a plasma wave
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pathak, R; Jain, R K [Department of Mathematics, SSL Jain College, Vidisha, MP, 464001 (India); Parashar, J [Department of Physics, Samrat Ashok Technological Institute, Vidisha, MP, 464001 (India)
2010-04-15
A high-power Gaussian laser propagating through a plasma couples with a large-amplitude plasma wave and undergoes scattering to produce harmonics. The process is sensitive to the phase matching angle between the laser and plasma wave numbers and the plasma wave frequency. For larger harmonics, the phase matching angle is high. The efficiency of the process is comparatively high at higher plasma wave frequencies.
High-frequency heating of plasma with two ion species
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Klima, R.; Longinov, A.V.; Stepanov, K.N.
1975-01-01
The authors consider the penetration of electromagnetic waves with a frequency of the order of the ion cyclotron frequencies and with a fixed longitudinal wave number ksub(long), so that Nsub(long)=ksub(long)c/ω>>1 deep into an inhomogeneous plasma with two ion species. The propagation of two kinds of waves (fast and slow) with widely differing polarization and transverse refraction index is possible. For both types of waves there is an evanescence region at the plasma periphery. The evanescence region is narrow for slow waves and they easily penetrate the plasma. In a dense plasma they become electrostatic and can reach the ion-ion hybrid resonance region. However, the damping of these waves due to Cherenkov interaction with electrons in a high-temperature plasma is strong and therefore they are not suitable for heating plasma of large dimensions, as they are absorbed at the plasma periphery. The fast waves have a wider evanescence region and can be excited effectively only if N 2 is not too high. These waves can be completely absorbed in the plasma (due to Cherenkov interaction with electrons) if xi approximately (v 2 sub(Ti)/v 2 sub(A))Zsub(e)(ωsub(pi)a/c)exp(-Zsub(e) 2 ) > 1, where a is the plasma radius and Zsub(e) = ω/(√2 ksub(long)vsub(Te)). Fast waves can also reach the region where they are transformed into slow waves. In this region their damping increases considerably. It is shown that the transformation region in an inhomogeneous plasma with two ion species in a non-uniform magnetic field may be at the centre of the plasma. Fast waves can be used effectively for heating plasma of large dimensions. (author)
THz detectors using surface Josephson plasma waves in layered superconductors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Savel'ev, Sergey; Yampol'skii, Valery; Nori, Franco
2006-01-01
We describe a proposal for THz detectors based on the excitation of surface waves, in layered superconductors, at frequencies lower than the Josephson plasma frequency ω J . These waves propagate along the vacuum-superconductor interface and are attenuated in both transverse directions out of the surface (i.e., towards the superconductor and towards the vacuum). The surface Josephson plasma waves are also important for the complete suppression of the specular reflection from a sample (Wood's anomalies, used for gratings) and produce a huge enhancement of the wave absorption, which can be used for the detection of THz waves
Nonlinear frequency shift of finite-amplitude electrostatic surface waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stenflo, L.
1989-01-01
The problem concerning the appropriate form for the nonlinear frequency shift arising from slow density modulations of electrostatic surface waves in a semi-infinite unmagnetized plasma is reconsidered. The spatial dependence of the wave amplitude normal to the surface is kept general in order to allow for possible nonlinear attenuation behaviour of the surface waves. It is found that if the frequency shift is expressed as a function of the density and its gradient then the result is identical with that of Zhelyazkov, I. Proceedings International Conference on Plasma Physics, Kiev, 1987, Vol. 2, p. 694, who assumed a linear exponential attenuation behaviour. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rudakov, Leonid
2004-01-01
It is shown that the oscillation named by Shukla as the 'Shukla mode' is well known in the plasma physics literature as the magnetic drift wave. In addition, the instability of these modes in a cold plasma as claimed by Shukla et al. [Phys. Plasmas 11, 1732 (2004)] does not exist and is due to a mathematical error in their analysis. Also the 'new' resonance and new cutoff frequencies claimed by Shukla et al. and Mamum et al. [Phys Plasmas 11, 2307 (2004)] have been known in the published literature for decades
Resonant emission of electromagnetic waves by plasma solitons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mironov, V.A.; Sergeev, A.M.; Khimich, A.V.
1988-01-01
The ability of plasma-wave solitons to radiate electromagnetic waves at the frequency of the natural oscillations of the field is considered. It is shown that this radiation is the main energy dissipation channel for strong plasma turbulence in a magnetoactive plasma. An interpretation is proposed for the artificial radio emission produced when the ionosphere is acted upon by beams of strong electromagnetic waves. The use of this phenomenon for plasma turbulence, particularly in the outer-space plasma near the earth, is discussed
Low-Frequency Waves in HF Heating of the Ionosphere
Sharma, A. S.; Eliasson, B.; Milikh, G. M.; Najmi, A.; Papadopoulos, K.; Shao, X.; Vartanyan, A.
2016-02-01
Ionospheric heating experiments have enabled an exploration of the ionosphere as a large-scale natural laboratory for the study of many plasma processes. These experiments inject high-frequency (HF) radio waves using high-power transmitters and an array of ground- and space-based diagnostics. This chapter discusses the excitation and propagation of low-frequency waves in HF heating of the ionosphere. The theoretical aspects and the associated models and simulations, and the results from experiments, mostly from the HAARP facility, are presented together to provide a comprehensive interpretation of the relevant plasma processes. The chapter presents the plasma model of the ionosphere for describing the physical processes during HF heating, the numerical code, and the simulations of the excitation of low-frequency waves by HF heating. It then gives the simulations of the high-latitude ionosphere and mid-latitude ionosphere. The chapter also briefly discusses the role of kinetic processes associated with wave generation.
Effect of switching-off of a plasma medium on a traveling wave
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kalluri, D.K.
1989-01-01
It is known that a sudden creation of a plasma medium of plasma frequency ω ρ splits a traveling wave of frequency ω o into two new waves of frequencies. The negative value for the frequency here indicates a reflected wave. The effect of a sudden collapse of the plasma medium, on a travelling wave of frequency ω o is shown to be the creation of two new waves of frequencies. A numerical solution is obtained for the case of a gradual collapse of the plasma medium. For the case of a slow decay of the particle density an approximate WKB type solution is obtained. Several results are presented
The Potential for Ambient Plasma Wave Propulsion
Gilland, James H.; Williams, George J.
2016-01-01
frequencies below the ion cyclotron frequency. They have been observed in both laboratory and astrophysical settings. On Earth, they are being investigated as a possible means for plasma heating, current drive, and momentum addition in magnetic confinement fusion systems. In addition, Alfven waves have been proposed as a mechanism for acceleration of the solar wind away from the sun.
Scattering of radio frequency waves by blob-filaments
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Myra, J. R.; D'Ippolito, D. A.
2010-01-01
Radio frequency waves used for heating and current drive in magnetic confinement experiments must traverse the scrape-off-layer (SOL) and edge plasma before reaching the core. The edge and SOL plasmas are strongly turbulent and intermittent in both space and time. As a first approximation, the SOL can be treated as a tenuous background plasma upon which denser filamentary field-aligned blobs of plasma are superimposed. The blobs are approximately stationary on the rf time scale. The scattering of plane waves in the ion-cyclotron to lower-hybrid frequency range from a cylindrical blob is treated here in the cold plasma fluid model. Scattering widths are derived for incident fast and slow waves, and the scattered power fraction is estimated. Processes such as scattering-induced mode conversion, scattering resonances, and shadowing are investigated.
Electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves in the plasma depletion layer
Denton, Richard E.; Hudson, Mary K.; Fuselier, Stephen A.; Anderson, Brian J.
1993-01-01
Results of a study of the theoretical properties of electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves which occur in the plasma depletion layer are presented. The analysis assumes a homogeneous plasma with the characteristics which were measured by the AMPTE/CCE satellite at 1450-1501 UT on October 5, 1984. Waves were observed in the Pc 1 frequency range below the hydrogen gyrofrequency, and these waves are identified as EMIC waves. The higher-frequency instability is driven by the temperature anisotropy of the H(+) ions, while the lower-frequency instability is driven by the temperature anisotropy of the He(2+) ions. It is argued that the higher-frequency waves will have k roughly parallel to B(0) and will be left-hand polarized, while the lower frequency wave band will have k oblique to B(0) and will be linearly polarized, in agreement with observations.
Ion Acceleration in Plasmas with Alfven Waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kolesnychenko, O.Ya.; Lutsenko, V.V.; White, R.B.
2005-01-01
Effects of elliptically polarized Alfven waves on thermal ions are investigated. Both regular oscillations and stochastic motion of the particles are observed. It is found that during regular oscillations the energy of the thermal ions can reach magnitudes well exceeding the plasma temperature, the effect being largest in low-beta plasmas (beta is the ratio of the plasma pressure to the magnetic field pressure). Conditions of a low stochasticity threshold are obtained. It is shown that stochasticity can arise even for waves propagating along the magnetic field provided that the frequency spectrum is non-monochromatic. The analysis carried out is based on equations derived by using a Lagrangian formalism. A code solving these equations is developed. Steady-state perturbations and perturbations with the amplitude slowly varying in time are considered
ECOLE POLYTECHNIQUE: Acceleration by plasma beat waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Anon.
1995-01-01
An experiment by a multi-disciplinary team including laser, plasma, accelerator and particle detector specialists at the École Polytechnique, Palaiseau, France, has confirmed the principle of particle acceleration by the 'beating' of laser waves. The first accelerated electrons were detected in May 1994, just after the apparatus had been completely assembled, during the subsequent set of experiments in July, and again in January. In the continual quest for new acceleration methods, such ideas had been proposed for several decades, but it was only about ten years ago that experimental verification of these effects began. In existing accelerators using radiofrequency cavities the electric field is limited to some hundred megavolts per metre, beyond which breakdowns occur. The joint use of power lasers and plasmas, however, should make it possible to generate fields very much greater than a GV/m. The light wave fulfils the same purpose as radiofrequency and the material medium required to couple the electromagnetic energy to the particle beam is provided by the plasma which - already fully ionized - is not destroyed by a breakdown. In the wave-beating method, proposed in 1979 by Dawson and Tajima, two laser waves of adjacent frequencies are transmitted and produce 'beats'. If the frequency of these is equal to the natural oscillation frequency of the plasma electrons, there is resonant energy transfer. The resultant longitudinal electric field is propagated at slightly below the speed of light and may be used to accelerate particles injected into the plasma in the right phase
Plasma production from helicon waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Degeling, A.W.; Jung, C.O.; Boswell, R.W.; Ellingboe, A.R.
1996-01-01
Experimental measurements taken in a large magnetoplasma show that a simple double half-turn antenna will excite m=1 helicon waves with wavelengths from 10 endash 60 cm. Increased ionization in the center of the downstream plasma is measured when the axial wavelength of the helicon wave becomes less than the characteristic length of the system, typically 50 endash 100 cm. A sharp maximum in the plasma density downstream from the source is measured for a magnetic field of 50 G, where the helicon wave phase velocity is about 3x10 8 cms -1 . Transport of energy away from the source to the downstream region must occur to create the hot electrons needed for the increased ionization. A simple model shows that electrons in a Maxwellian distribution most likely to ionize for these experimental conditions also have a velocity of around 3x10 8 cms -1 . This strong correlation suggests that the helicon wave is trapping electrons in the Maxwellian distribution with velocities somewhat slower than the wave and accelerating them into a quasibeam with velocity somewhat faster than the wave. The nonlinear increase in central density downstream as the power is increased for helicon waves with phase velocities close to the optimum electron velocity for ionization lends support to this idea. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics
Plasma waves in the Earth's foreshock, bow shock, and magnetosheath
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Onsager, T.G.
1988-01-01
The research presented in this dissertation is a detailed analysis of electrostatic waves in the Earth's foreshock, bow shock, and magnetosheath. The wave modes measured in these regions, the possible generation mechanisms, and the process which drive the plasma to its unstable state are investigated. The measurements used in this study were obtained from the plasma wave receiver, the particle instrument, and the magnetometer on board the Active Magnetospheric Particle Tracer Explorer (AMPTE) Ion Release Module (IRM). Electron beam mode waves have been identified in the Earth's foreshock. A technique is developed which allows the rest frame frequency and wave number of the electron beam mode waves to be determined from the measurements. The experimentally determined values are compared with theoretical predictions, and approximate limits are put on the beam temperatures. It is demonstrated that electrostatic waves are present in the bow shock and magnetosheath with frequencies above the maximum frequency for Doppler shifted ion acoustic waves, yet below the Langmuir frequency. Waves in this frequency range are tentatively identified as electron beam mode waves. This identification is based on the measured frequencies and electric field polarization directions. Data from 45 bow shock crossings are then used to investigate possible correlations between the electron beam mode waves and the near shock plasma parameters. The best correlations are found with Alfven Mach number and electron beta. Possible mechanism which might produce electron beams in the shock and magnetosheath are discussed in terms of the correlation study results
MAGNETOACOUSTIC WAVES IN A PARTIALLY IONIZED TWO-FLUID PLASMA
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Soler, Roberto; Ballester, Jose Luis [Departament de Física, Universitat de les Illes Balears, E-07122 Palma de Mallorca (Spain); Carbonell, Marc, E-mail: roberto.soler@uib.es, E-mail: joseluis.ballester@uib.es, E-mail: marc.carbonell@uib.es [Departament de Matemàtiques i Informàtica, Universitat de les Illes Balears, E-07122 Palma de Mallorca (Spain)
2013-11-01
Compressible disturbances propagate in a plasma in the form of magnetoacoustic waves driven by both gas pressure and magnetic forces. In partially ionized plasmas the dynamics of ionized and neutral species are coupled due to ion-neutral collisions. As a consequence, magnetoacoustic waves propagating through a partially ionized medium are affected by ion-neutral coupling. The degree to which the behavior of the classic waves is modified depends on the physical properties of the various species and on the relative value of the wave frequency compared to the ion-neutral collision frequency. Here, we perform a comprehensive theoretical investigation of magnetoacoustic wave propagation in a partially ionized plasma using the two-fluid formalism. We consider an extensive range of values for the collision frequency, ionization ratio, and plasma β, so that the results are applicable to a wide variety of astrophysical plasmas. We determine the modification of the wave frequencies and study the frictional damping due to ion-neutral collisions. Approximate analytic expressions for the frequencies are given in the limit case of strongly coupled ions and neutrals, while numerically obtained dispersion diagrams are provided for arbitrary collision frequencies. In addition, we discuss the presence of cutoffs in the dispersion diagrams that constrain wave propagation for certain combinations of parameters. A specific application to propagation of compressible waves in the solar chromosphere is given.
MAGNETOACOUSTIC WAVES IN A PARTIALLY IONIZED TWO-FLUID PLASMA
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Soler, Roberto; Ballester, Jose Luis; Carbonell, Marc
2013-01-01
Compressible disturbances propagate in a plasma in the form of magnetoacoustic waves driven by both gas pressure and magnetic forces. In partially ionized plasmas the dynamics of ionized and neutral species are coupled due to ion-neutral collisions. As a consequence, magnetoacoustic waves propagating through a partially ionized medium are affected by ion-neutral coupling. The degree to which the behavior of the classic waves is modified depends on the physical properties of the various species and on the relative value of the wave frequency compared to the ion-neutral collision frequency. Here, we perform a comprehensive theoretical investigation of magnetoacoustic wave propagation in a partially ionized plasma using the two-fluid formalism. We consider an extensive range of values for the collision frequency, ionization ratio, and plasma β, so that the results are applicable to a wide variety of astrophysical plasmas. We determine the modification of the wave frequencies and study the frictional damping due to ion-neutral collisions. Approximate analytic expressions for the frequencies are given in the limit case of strongly coupled ions and neutrals, while numerically obtained dispersion diagrams are provided for arbitrary collision frequencies. In addition, we discuss the presence of cutoffs in the dispersion diagrams that constrain wave propagation for certain combinations of parameters. A specific application to propagation of compressible waves in the solar chromosphere is given
Influence of Plasma Pressure Fluctuation on RF Wave Propagation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liu Zhiwei; Bao Weimin; Li Xiaoping; Liu Donglin; Zhou Hui
2016-01-01
Pressure fluctuations in the plasma sheath from spacecraft reentry affect radio-frequency (RF) wave propagation. The influence of these fluctuations on wave propagation and wave properties is studied using methods derived by synthesizing the compressible turbulent flow theory, plasma theory, and electromagnetic wave theory. We study these influences on wave propagation at GPS and Ka frequencies during typical reentry by adopting stratified modeling. We analyzed the variations in reflection and transmission properties induced by pressure fluctuations. Our results show that, at the GPS frequency, if the waves are not totally reflected then the pressure fluctuations can remarkably affect reflection, transmission, and absorption properties. In extreme situations, the fluctuations can even cause blackout. At the Ka frequency, the influences are obvious when the waves are not totally transmitted. The influences are more pronounced at the GPS frequency than at the Ka frequency. This suggests that the latter can mitigate blackout by reducing both the reflection and the absorption of waves, as well as the influences of plasma fluctuations on wave propagation. Given that communication links with the reentry vehicles are susceptible to plasma pressure fluctuations, the influences on link budgets should be taken into consideration. (paper)
Theory for beam-plasma millimeter-wave radiation source experiments
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rosenberg, M.; Krall, N.A.
1989-01-01
This paper reports on theoretical studies for millimeter-wave plasma source experiments. In the device, millimeter-wave radiation is generated in a plasma-filled waveguide driven by counter-streaming electron beams. The beams excite electron plasma waves which couple to produce radiation at twice the plasma frequency. Physics topics relevant to the high electron beam current regime are discussed
Stationary Density Variation Produced by a Standing Plasma Wave
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Michelsen, Poul; Pécseli, Hans; Juul Rasmussen, Jens
1977-01-01
Measurements are presented of a stationary density modulation produced by a standing electron plasma wave. The experimental results are well explained by taking into account the ponderomotive forces on the electrons exerted by the high frequency field.......Measurements are presented of a stationary density modulation produced by a standing electron plasma wave. The experimental results are well explained by taking into account the ponderomotive forces on the electrons exerted by the high frequency field....
Observation of frequency cutoff for self-excited dust acoustic waves
Nosenko, V.; Zhdanov, S. K.; Morfill, G. E.; Kim, S.-H.; Heinrich, J.; Merlino, R. L.
2009-11-01
Complex (dusty) plasmas consist of fine solid particles suspended in a weakly ionized gas. Complex plasmas are excellent model systems to study wave phenomena down to the level of individual ``atoms''. Spontaneously excited dust acoustic waves were observed with high temporal resolution in a suspension of micron-size kaolin particles in a dc discharge in argon. Wave activity was found at frequencies as high as 400 Hz. At high wave numbers, the wave dispersion relation was acoustic-like (frequency proportional to wave number). At low wave numbers, the wave frequency did not tend to zero, but reached a cutoff frequency fc instead. The value of fc declined with distance from the anode. We propose a simple model that explains the observed cutoff by particle confinement in plasma. The existence of a cutoff frequency is very important for the propagation of waves: the waves excited above fc are propagating, and those below fc are evanescent.
Cluster observations of high-frequency waves in the exterior cusp
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Y. Khotyaintsev
2004-07-01
Full Text Available We study wave emissions, in the frequency range from above the lower hybrid frequency up to the plasma frequency, observed during one of the Cluster crossings of a high-beta exterior cusp region on 4 March 2003. Waves are localized near narrow current sheets with a thickness a few times the ion inertial length; currents are strong, of the order of 0.1-0.5μA/m^{2} (0.1-0.5mA/m^{2} when mapped to ionosphere. The high frequency part of the waves, frequencies above the electron-cyclotron frequency, is analyzed in more detail. These high frequency waves can be broad-band, can have spectral peaks at the plasma frequency or spectral peaks at frequencies below the plasma frequency. The strongest wave emissions usually have a spectral peak near the plasma frequency. The wave emission intensity and spectral character change on a very short time scale, of the order of 1s. The wave emissions with strong spectral peaks near the plasma frequency are usually seen on the edges of the narrow current sheets. The most probable generation mechanism of high frequency waves are electron beams via bump-on-tail or electron two-stream instability. Buneman and ion-acoustic instability can be excluded as a possible generation mechanism of waves. We suggest that high frequency waves are generated by electron beams propagating along the separatrices of the reconnection region.
Electron Acoustic Waves in Pure Ion Plasmas
Anderegg, F.; Affolter, M.; Driscoll, C. F.; O'Neil, T. M.; Valentini, F.
2012-10-01
Electron Acoustic Waves (EAWs) are the low-frequency branch of near-linear Langmuir (plasma) waves: the frequency is such that the complex dielectric function (Dr, Di) has Dr= 0; and ``flattening'' of f(v) near the wave phase velocity vph gives Di=0 and eliminates Landau damping. Here, we observe standing axisymmetric EAWs in a pure ion column.footnotetextF. Anderegg, et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 095001 (2009). At low excitation amplitudes, the EAWs have vph˜1.4 v, in close agreement with near-linear theory. At moderate excitation strengths, EAW waves are observed over a range of frequencies, with 1.3 v vphvph.footnotetextF. Valentini et al., arXiv:1206.3500v1. Large amplitude EAWs have strong phase-locked harmonic content, and experiments will be compared to same-geometry simulations, and to simulations of KEENfootnotetextB. Afeyan et al., Proc. Inertial Fusion Sci. and Applications 2003, A.N.S. Monterey (2004), p. 213. waves in HEDLP geometries.
On helicon wave induced radial plasma transport
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Petrzilka, V.
1993-04-01
Estimates of helicon wave induced radial plasma transport are presented. The wave induced transport grows or decreases in dependence on the sign of the azimuthal wave number; these changes in transport may play an important role in helicon wave plasma sources. (author) 5 figs., 18 refs
Electron waves and resonances in bounded plasmas
Vandenplas, Paul E
1968-01-01
General theoretical methods and experimental techniques ; the uniform plasma slab-condenser system ; the hollow cylindrical plasma ; scattering of a plane electromagnetic wave by a plasma column in steady magnetic fields (cold plasma approximation) ; hot non-uniform plasma column ; metallic and dielectric resonance probes, plasma-dielectric coated antenna, general considerations.
Numerical Computation of Wave-Plasma Interactions in Multi-Dimensional Systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
D. A. D'Ippolito; J. R. Myra
2005-01-01
This project studied two kinds of nonlinear interactions between ion cyclotron range of frequency waves and fusion plasmas. A wavelet technique was also developed for analyzing the complex wave fields produced by wave propagation codes
Nonlinear periodic waves in dusty plasma with variable dust charge
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yadav, Lakhan Lal; Bharuthram, R.
2002-01-01
Using the reductive perturbation method, we present a theory of nonlinear periodic waves, viz. the cnoidal waves, in a dusty plasma consisting of electrons, ions, and cold dust grains with charge fluctuations, which in the limiting case reduce to dust acoustic solitons. It is found that the frequency of the dust acoustic cnoidal wave increases with its amplitude. The dust charge fluctuations are found to affect the characteristics of the cnoidal waves
Radio frequency conductivity of plasma in inhomogeneous magnetic field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Itoh, Sanae; Nishikawa, Kyoji; Fukuyama, Atsushi; Itoh, Kimitaka.
1985-01-01
Nonlocal conductivity tensor is obtained to study the kinetic effects on propagation and absorption of radio frequency (rf) waves in dispersive plasmas. Generalized linear propagator in the presence of the inhomogeneity of magnetic field strength along the field line is calculated. The influence of the inhomogeneity to the rf wave-energy deposition is found to be appreciable. Application to toroidal plasmas is shown. (author)
Laser frequency modulation with electron plasma
Burgess, T. J.; Latorre, V. R.
1972-01-01
When laser beam passes through electron plasma its frequency shifts by amount proportional to plasma density. This density varies with modulating signal resulting in corresponding modulation of laser beam frequency. Necessary apparatus is relatively inexpensive since crystals are not required.
ALFVEN WAVES IN A PARTIALLY IONIZED TWO-FLUID PLASMA
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Soler, R.; Ballester, J. L.; Terradas, J. [Departament de Fisica, Universitat de les Illes Balears, E-07122 Palma de Mallorca (Spain); Carbonell, M., E-mail: roberto.soler@uib.es, E-mail: joseluis.ballester@uib.es, E-mail: jaume.terradas@uib.es, E-mail: marc.carbonell@uib.es [Departament de Matematiques i Informatica, Universitat de les Illes Balears, E-07122 Palma de Mallorca (Spain)
2013-04-20
Alfven waves are a particular class of magnetohydrodynamic waves relevant in many astrophysical and laboratory plasmas. In partially ionized plasmas the dynamics of Alfven waves is affected by the interaction between ionized and neutral species. Here we study Alfven waves in a partially ionized plasma from the theoretical point of view using the two-fluid description. We consider that the plasma is composed of an ion-electron fluid and a neutral fluid, which interact by means of particle collisions. To keep our investigation as general as possible, we take the neutral-ion collision frequency and the ionization degree as free parameters. First, we perform a normal mode analysis. We find the modification due to neutral-ion collisions of the wave frequencies and study the temporal and spatial attenuation of the waves. In addition, we discuss the presence of cutoff values of the wavelength that constrain the existence of oscillatory standing waves in weakly ionized plasmas. Later, we go beyond the normal mode approach and solve the initial-value problem in order to study the time-dependent evolution of the wave perturbations in the two fluids. An application to Alfven waves in the low solar atmospheric plasma is performed and the implication of partial ionization for the energy flux is discussed.
Electro-optical frequency shifting of lasers for plasma diagnostics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Forman, P.R.
1977-07-01
An electro-optical frequency shifting device is proposed as an aid for plasma physics heterodyne interferometry and heterodyne scattering experiments. The method has the advantage over other electro-optic shifters, that a pure separable frequency shifted beam can be obtained even when less than half wave voltage is applied. (orig.) [de
Stefan, V. Alexander
2014-10-01
A novel method for alpha particle diagnostics is proposed. The theory of stimulated Raman scattering, SRS, of the fast wave and ion Bernstein mode, IBM, turbulence in multi-ion species plasmas, (Stefan University Press, La Jolla, CA, 2008). is utilized for the diagnostics of fast ions, (4)He (+2), in ITER plasmas. Nonlinear Landau damping of the IBM on fast ions near the plasma edge leads to the space-time changes in the turbulence level, (inverse alpha particle channeling). The space-time monitoring of the IBM turbulence via the SRS techniques may prove efficient for the real time study of the fast ion velocity distribution function, spatial distribution, and transport. Supported by Nikola Tesla Labs., La Jolla, CA 92037.
Time domain phenomena of wave propagation in rapidly created plasma of periodic distribution
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kuo, S P
2007-01-01
Theories, experiments and numerical simulations on the interaction of electromagnetic waves with rapidly created unmagnetized plasmas are presented. In the case that plasma is created uniformly, the frequency of a propagating electromagnetic wave is upshifted. An opposite propagation wave of the same frequency is also generated. In addition, a static current supporting a wiggler magnetic field is also produced in the plasma. When a spatially periodic structure is introduced to the rapidly created plasma, the theory and numerical simulation results show that both frequency-upshifted and downshifted waves are generated. If the plasma has a large but finite dimension in the incident wave propagation direction and is created rapidly rather than instantaneously, the frequency downshifted waves are found to be trapped by the plasma when the plasma frequency is larger than the wave frequency. The wave trapping results in accumulating the frequency-downshifted waves during the finite transient period of plasma creation. Indeed, in the experimental observations the frequency downshifted signals were detected repetitively with considerably enhanced spectral intensities, confirming the results of the numerical simulations. The missing of frequency upshifted signals in the experimental observations is explained by the modal field distributions in the periodic structure, indicating that the frequency upshifted modes experience heavier collisional damping of the plasma than the frequency downshifted modes
Nonlinear waves in solar plasmas - a review
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ballai, I
2006-01-01
Nonlinearity is a direct consequence of large scale dynamics in the solar plasmas. When nonlinear steepening of waves is balanced by dispersion, solitary waves are generated. In the vicinity of resonances, waves can steepen into nonlinear waves influencing the efficiency of energy deposition. Here we review recent theoretical breakthroughs that have lead to a greater understanding of many aspects of nonlinear waves arising in homogeneous and inhomogeneous solar plasmas
Evolution of Modulated Dispersive Electron Waves in a Plasma
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sugai, H.; Lynov, Jens-Peter; Michelsen, Poul
1979-01-01
The linear propagation of amplitude-modulated electron waves was examined in a low-density Q-machine plasma. Three effects of the strong dispersion on the modulated wave have been demonstrated: (i) a wavepacket expands along its direction of propagation, followed by a shift of the frequency through...
Linear and Nonlinear MHD Wave Processes in Plasmas. Final Report
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tataronis, J. A.
2004-01-01
This program treats theoretically low frequency linear and nonlinear wave processes in magnetized plasmas. A primary objective has been to evaluate the effectiveness of MHD waves to heat plasma and drive current in toroidal configurations. The research covers the following topics: (1) the existence and properties of the MHD continua in plasma equilibria without spatial symmetry; (2) low frequency nonresonant current drive and nonlinear Alfven wave effects; and (3) nonlinear electron acceleration by rf and random plasma waves. Results have contributed to the fundamental knowledge base of MHD activity in symmetric and asymmetric toroidal plasmas. Among the accomplishments of this research effort, the following are highlighted: Identification of the MHD continuum mode singularities in toroidal geometry. Derivation of a third order ordinary differential equation that governs nonlinear current drive in the singular layers of the Alfven continuum modes in axisymmetric toroidal geometry. Bounded solutions of this ODE implies a net average current parallel to the toroidal equilibrium magnetic field. Discovery of a new unstable continuum of the linearized MHD equation in axially periodic circular plasma cylinders with shear and incompressibility. This continuum, which we named ''accumulation continuum'' and which is related to ballooning modes, arises as discrete unstable eigenfrequency accumulate on the imaginary frequency axis in the limit of large mode numbers. Development of techniques to control nonlinear electron acceleration through the action of multiple coherent and random plasmas waves. Two important elements of this program aye student participation and student training in plasma theory
Finite Amplitude Electron Plasma Waves in a Cylindrical Waveguide
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Juul Rasmussen, Jens
1978-01-01
The nonlinear behaviour of the electron plasma wave propagating in a cylindrical plasma waveguide immersed in an infinite axial magnetic field is investigated using the Krylov-Bogoliubov-Mitropolsky perturbation method, by means of which is deduced the nonlinear Schrodinger equation governing...... the long-time slow modulation of the wave amplitude. From this equation the amplitude-dependent frequency and wavenumber shifts are calculated, and it is found that the electron waves with short wavelengths are modulationally unstable with respect to long-wavelength, low-frequency perturbations...
Millimetre waves and plasma physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brand, G.F.
1999-01-01
Full text: This talk is a review of the plasma-related presentations at the 23rd International Conference on Infrared and Millimeter Waves held at the University of Essex, Colchester, UK 7-11 September 1998. Of most relevance to fusion is the development of high-power sources for electron cyclotron resonance heating and current drive. The requirements for ITER are a total of 50 MW at 170 GHz. The state of the art is illustrated by (a) high-power gyrotrons that deliver 1 MW for 1 s at 170 GHz, and (b) a free-electron maser that has generated millimetre waves for the first time, 730 kW at 200 GHz. A number of papers describe new technologies that allow high powers to be achieved; internal mode converters to convert the whispering-gallery mode generated in the gyrotron cavity into a gaussian beam, depressed collectors to raise the efficiency from 1/3 to better than 1/2, CVD diamond output windows and coaxial gyrotrons with improved mode purity. Other papers describe transmission lines and steerable mirrors. Several papers deal with millimetre-wave plasma diagnostics for fusion such as electron cyclotron emission measurements and reflectometry. (author)
Some considerations about frequency tuning effects in ECRIS plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mascali, D.; Gammino, S.; Celona, L.; Ciavola, G.; Neri, L.; Miracoli, R.; Gambino, N.; Castro, G.; Maimone, F.
2012-01-01
In the recent past many experiments demonstrated that slight variations of the microwave frequency used for the ignition of ECRIS plasmas strongly influence their performances (frequency tuning effect) either in terms of extracted current, of mean charge state and of beam emittance. According with theoretical investigations, this phenomenon can be explained by assuming that the plasma chamber works as a resonant cavity: the excited standing waves, whose spatial structure considerably changes with the pumping frequency, globally influences either the energy absorption rate and the plasma spatial structure. The paper is followed by the slides of the presentation. (authors)
Parametric Excitations of Fast Plasma Waves by Counter-propagating Laser Beams
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shvets, G.; Fisch, N.J.
2001-01-01
Short- and long-wavelength plasma waves can become strongly coupled in the presence of two counter-propagating laser pump pulses detuned by twice the cold plasma frequency. What makes this four-wave interaction important is that the growth rate of the plasma waves occurs much faster than in the more obvious co-propagating geometry
The potential for very high-frequency gravitational wave detection
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cruise, A M
2012-01-01
The science case for observing gravitational waves at frequencies in the millihertz-kilohertz range using LIGO, VIRGO, GEO600 or LISA is very strong and the first results are expected at these frequencies. However, as gravitational wave astronomy progresses beyond the first detections, other frequency bands may be worth exploring. Early predictions of gravitational wave emission from discrete sources at very much higher frequencies (megahertz and above) have been published and more recent studies of cosmological signals from inflation, Kaluza-Klein modes from gravitational interactions in brane worlds and plasma instabilities surrounding violent astrophysical events, are all possible sources. This communication examines current observational possibilities and the detector technology required to make meaningful observations at these frequencies. (paper)
Study on the electromagnetic waves propagation characteristics in partially ionized plasma slabs
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zhi-Bin Wang
2016-05-01
Full Text Available Propagation characteristics of electromagnetic (EM waves in partially ionized plasma slabs are studied in this paper. Such features are significant to applications in plasma antennas, blackout of re-entry flying vehicles, wave energy injection to plasmas, and etc. We in this paper developed a theoretical model of EM wave propagation perpendicular to a plasma slab with a one-dimensional density inhomogeneity along propagation direction to investigate essential characteristics of EM wave propagation in nonuniform plasmas. Particularly, the EM wave propagation in sub-wavelength plasma slabs, where the geometric optics approximation fails, is studied and in comparison with thicker slabs where the geometric optics approximation applies. The influences of both plasma and collisional frequencies, as well as the width of the plasma slab, on the EM wave propagation characteristics are discussed. The results can help the further understanding of propagation behaviours of EM waves in nonuniform plasma, and applications of the interactions between EM waves and plasmas.
Magnetoacoustic waves in current-carrying plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brennan, M.H.
1980-04-01
The results of theoretical and experimental investigations of the characteristics of magnetoacoustic waves in non-uniform, current-carrying plasmas are reviewed. Dissipative MHD and collisionless theories are considered. Also discussed is the use of magnetoacoustic waves in plasma diagnostics and plasma heating
Plasma waves observed by sounding rockets
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kimura, I.
1977-01-01
Observations of plasma wave phenomena have been conducted with several rockets launched at Kagoshima Space Center, Kyushu, Japan, and at Showa Base, Antarctica. This report presents some results of the observations in anticipation of having valuable comments from other plasma physicists, especially from those who are concerned with laboratory plasma. In the K-9M-41 rocket experiment, VLF plasma waves were observed. In this experiment, the electron beam of several tens of uA was emitted from a hot cathode when a positive dc bias changing from 0 to 10V at 1V interval each second was applied to a receiving dipole antenna. The discrete emissions with 'U' shaped frequency spectrum were observed for the dc bias over 3 volts. The U emissions appeared twice per spin period of the rocket. Similar rocket experiment was performed at Showa Base using a loop and dipole antenna and without hot cathode. Emissions were observed with varying conditions. At present, the authors postulate that such emissions may be produced just in the vicinity of a rocket due to a kind of wake effect. (Aoki, K.)
Overview of Spontaneous Frequency Chirping in Confined Plasmas
Berk, Herbert
2012-10-01
Spontaneous rapid frequency chirping is now a commonly observed phenomenon in plasmas with an energetic particle component. These particles typically induce so called weak instabilities, where they excite background waves that the plasma can support such as shear Alfven waves. The explanation for this phenomenon attributes the frequency chirping to the formation of phase space structures in the form of holes and clumps. Normally a saturated mode, in the presence of background dissipation, would be expected decay after saturation as the background plasma absorbs the energy of the excited wave. However the phase space structures take an alternate route, and move to a regions of phase space that are lower energy states of the energetic particle distribution. Through the wave-resonant particle interaction, this movement is locked to the frequency observed by the wave. This phenomenon implies that alternate mechanisms for plasma relaxation need to be considered for plasma states new marginal stability. It is also possible that these chirping mechanisms can be used to advantage to externally control states of plasma.
Phase velocity of nonlinear plasma waves in the laser beat-wave accelerator
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Spence, W.L.
1985-01-01
The suggested plasma-laser accelerator is an attempt to achieve a very high energy gradient by resonantly exciting a longitudinal wave traveling at close to the speed of light in cold plasma by means of the beat-wave generated by the transverse fields in two laser beams. Previous calculations to all orders in v/sub z/ have been done essentially from the laboratory frame point of view and have treated the plasma wave as having sharply defined phase velocity equal to the speed of light. However a high energy particle beam undergoing acceleration sees the plasma wave from a nearly light-like frame of reference and hence is very sensitive to small deviations in its phase velocity. Here the authors introduce a calculational scheme that includes all orders in v/sub z/ and in the plasma density, and additionally takes into account the influence of plasma nonlinearities on the wave's phase velocity. The main assumption is that the laser frequencies are very large compared to the plasma frequency - under which they are able to in essence formally sum up all orders of forward Raman scattering. They find that the nonlinear plasma wave does not have simply a single phase velocity - it is really a superposition of many - but that the beat-wave which drives it is usefully described by a non-local effective phase velocity function
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lakhin, V. P.; Sorokina, E. A., E-mail: sorokina.ekaterina@gmail.com, E-mail: vilkiae@gmail.com; Ilgisonis, V. I. [National Research Centre Kurchatov Institute (Russian Federation); Konovaltseva, L. V. [Peoples’ Friendship University of Russia (Russian Federation)
2015-12-15
A set of reduced linear equations for the description of low-frequency perturbations in toroidally rotating plasma in axisymmetric tokamak is derived in the framework of ideal magnetohydrodynamics. The model suitable for the study of global geodesic acoustic modes (GGAMs) is designed. An example of the use of the developed model for derivation of the integral conditions for GGAM existence and of the corresponding dispersion relation is presented. The paper is dedicated to the memory of academician V.D. Shafranov.
Excitation of plasma waves by electron guns at the ISEE-1 satellite
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lebreton, Zh.P.; Torbert, R.; Anderson, R.; Kharvi, K.
1985-01-01
Study of the effects resulting from excitation of plasma waves by electron beams injected from JSEE-1 satellite is carried out. Cases of the satellite traversing the magnetosphere magnetosheath and solar wind are considered. 10-60 μA and 0-40 V electron beam injection from the satellite increased electrostatic waves spectral intensity. The waves below ionic plasma frequency are interpreted as ion acoustic waves. To explain the-above-electron-plasma-frequency wave oscillation a communication system between electron plasma mode and electron flux with the velocities above the mean thermal velocity of plasma cold electrons is suggested
Propagation of electromagnetic waves in a weakly ionized dusty plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jia, Jieshu; Yuan, Chengxun; Gao, Ruilin; Wang, Ying; Liu, Yaoze; Gao, Junying; Zhou, Zhongxiang; Sun, Xiudong; Li, Hui; Wu, Jian; Pu, Shaozhi
2015-01-01
Propagation properties of electromagnetic (EM) waves in weakly ionized dusty plasmas are the subject of this study. Dielectric relation for EM waves propagating at a weakly ionized dusty plasma is derived based on the Boltzmann distribution law while considering the collision and charging effects of dust grains. The propagation properties of EM energy in dusty plasma of rocket exhaust are numerically calculated and studied, utilizing the parameters of rocket exhaust plasma. Results indicate that increase of dust radius and density enhance the reflection and absorption coefficient. High dust radius and density make the wave hardly transmit through the dusty plasmas. Interaction enhancements between wave and dusty plasmas are developed through effective collision frequency improvements. Numerical results coincide with observed results by indicating that GHz band wave communication is effected by dusty plasma as the presence of dust grains significantly affect propagation of EM waves in the dusty plasmas. The results are helpful to analyze the effect of dust in plasmas and also provide a theoretical basis for the experiments. (paper)
Dispersion surfaces and ion wave instabilities in space plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Andre, M
1985-08-01
In this thesis, the dispersion relation of linear waves in a non-relativistic, collisionless and homogeneous plasma in a uniform magnetic field, is solved numerically. Both electrostatic and elecromagnetic waves with frequencies from below the ion gyrofrequency to above the electron gyrofrequency are studied for all angles of propagation. Modes occurring in a cold plasma as well as waves dependent on thermal effects are included. Dispersion surfaces, that is plots of frequency versus wavevector components, are presented for some models of space plasmas. Waves with frequencies of the order of the ion gyrofrequency (ion waves), are well known to exist in space plasmas. In this thesis, the generation of ion waves by ion distributions with loss-cones or temperature anisotropies, or by beams of charged particles, is investigated by numerical methods. Effects of heavy ions are considered. Dispersion surfaces and analytical arguments are used to clarify the results. It is shown that particle beams and ion loss-cone distributions can generate electrostatic ion waves, even when a significant amount of the electrons are cool. These calculations are in agreement with simultaneous observatons of waves and particles obtained by a satellite on auroral field lines. (author)
Large amplitude waves and fields in plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Angelis, U. de; Naples Univ.
1990-02-01
In this review, based mostly on the results of the recent workshop on ''Large Amplitude Waves and Fields in Plasmas'' held at ICTP (Trieste, Italy) in May 1989 during the Spring College on Plasma Physics, I will mostly concentrate on underdense, cold, homogeneous plasmas, discussing some of the alternative (to fusion) uses of laser-plasma interaction. In Part I an outline of some basic non-linear processes is given, together with some recent experimental results. The processes are chosen because of their relevance to the applications or because new interesting developments have been reported at the ICTP workshop (or both). In Part II the excitation mechanisms and uses of large amplitude plasma waves are presented: these include phase-conjugation in plasmas, plasma based accelerators (beat-wave, plasma wake-field and laser wake-field), plasma lenses and plasma wigglers for Free Electron Lasers. (author)
Comparison of third-order plasma wave echoes with ballistic second-order plasma wave echoes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Leppert, H.D.; Schuelter, H.; Wiesemann, K.
1982-01-01
The apparent dispersion of third-order plasma wave echoes observed in a high frequency plasma is compared with that of simultaneously observed ballistic second-order echoes. Amplitude and wavelength of third-order echoes are found to be always smaller than those of second-order echoes, however, the dispersion curves of both types of echoes are very similar. These observations are in qualitative agreement with calculations of special ballistic third-order echoes. The ballistic nature of the observed third-order echoes may, therefore, be concluded from these measurements. (author)
Interaction of the electromagnetic waves and non-magnetized plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sun Aiping; Qiu Xiaoming; Dong Yuying; Li Liqiong
2002-01-01
The propagation of electromagnetic waves with 0.5 - 10 GHz in a non-magnetized collisional plasma slab is studied numerically. The change in the absorbed power, reflected power and transmitted power of the electromagnetic wave with collisional frequency of electrons and neutral atoms in plasma from 0.1 - 10 GHz, is calculated, in the condition of the uniform plasma with density of 10 10 or 10 11 cm -3 and depth of 10 cm, and the non-uniform plasma with density distribution of n = n 0 exp[2(z/d-1)] and depth of 10 cm, respectively. The results show that the absorbed power in either uniform or non-uniform plasma is large when the plasma density is large and collision frequency is high, and the peak value is 90%
High-frequency microinstabilities in hot-electron plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chen, Y.J.; Nevins, W.M.; Smith, G.R.
1981-01-01
Instabilities with frequencies in the neighborhood of the electron cyclotron frequency are of interest in determining stable operating regimes of hot-electron plasmas in EBT devices and in tandem mirrors. Previous work used model distributions significantly different than those suggested by recent Fokker-Planck studies. We use much more realistic model distributions in a computer code that solves the full electromagnetic dispersion relation governing longitudinal and transverse waves in a uniform plasma. We allow for an arbitrary direction of wave propagation. Results for the whistler and upper-hybrid loss-cone instabilities are presented
Generation of sheet currents by high frequency fast MHD waves
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Núñez, Manuel, E-mail: mnjmhd@am.uva.es
2016-07-01
The evolution of fast magnetosonic waves of high frequency propagating into an axisymmetric equilibrium plasma is studied. By using the methods of weakly nonlinear geometrical optics, it is shown that the perturbation travels in the equatorial plane while satisfying a transport equation which enables us to predict the time and location of formation of shock waves. For plasmas of large magnetic Prandtl number, this would result into the creation of sheet currents which may give rise to magnetic reconnection and destruction of the original equilibrium. - Highlights: • Regular solutions of quasilinear hyperbolic systems may evolve into shocks. • The shock location is found for high frequency fast MHD waves. • The result is applied to static axisymmetric equilibria. • The previous process may lead to the formation of sheet currents and destruction of the equilibrium.
Relativistic nonlinear waves of cyclotron in electron and electron-ion plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bruno, R.
1981-12-01
Dispersion relations for electron-cyclotron and ion-cyclotron waves are examined in two models of plasmas, the first propagating in fluent electronic plasmas (''streaming'') as well as in fluent electron-ionic plasmas, and the last in fluent electron-ionic plasmas. The identification of the propagation modes is realized with the aid of a special technique of polinomial expantion of the dispersion relation in the limit of large frequencies and short wavelenghts. The analisys so developed on these dispersion relations for fluent plasmas show that: (i) the wave amplitudes are frequency dependent; (ii) the ''resonances'' frequencies of the respective estationary plasmas must be re-examined with the relations between wave amplitudes and the propagation frequencies near these frequencies; (iii) the electric field amplitudes for the non-linear waves of electron-cyclotron and ion-cyclotron go to zero in the limits of the respective cyclotron frequencies in both fluent plasma models. (M.W.O.) [pt
Introduction to wave heating and current drive in magnetized plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pinsker, R. I.
2001-01-01
The development of high-power wave heating and current drive in magnetized plasmas in the last 40 years is a major ongoing success story in plasma science. A hallmark of this area of research has been the detailed quantitative comparison of theory and experiment; the good agreement consistently found is indicative of the robustness and the predictive power of the underlying theory. This tutorial paper is a brief overview of the fundamental concepts and applications of this branch of plasma science. Most of the high-power applications have been in three frequency regimes: the ion cyclotron range of frequencies (ICRF), the lower hybrid range of frequencies (LHRF), and the electron cyclotron range of frequencies (ECRF). The basic physics of wave propagation and damping in these regimes is briefly discussed. Some of the coupling structures (antennas) used to excite the waves at the plasma boundary are described, and the high-power systems used to generate the wave energy are touched on. Representative examples of the remarkably wide range of applications of high-power wave heating and current drive in high-temperature fusion plasmas will be discussed
High-frequency Rayleigh-wave method
Xia, J.; Miller, R.D.; Xu, Y.; Luo, Y.; Chen, C.; Liu, J.; Ivanov, J.; Zeng, C.
2009-01-01
High-frequency (???2 Hz) Rayleigh-wave data acquired with a multichannel recording system have been utilized to determine shear (S)-wave velocities in near-surface geophysics since the early 1980s. This overview article discusses the main research results of high-frequency surface-wave techniques achieved by research groups at the Kansas Geological Survey and China University of Geosciences in the last 15 years. The multichannel analysis of surface wave (MASW) method is a non-invasive acoustic approach to estimate near-surface S-wave velocity. The differences between MASW results and direct borehole measurements are approximately 15% or less and random. Studies show that simultaneous inversion with higher modes and the fundamental mode can increase model resolution and an investigation depth. The other important seismic property, quality factor (Q), can also be estimated with the MASW method by inverting attenuation coefficients of Rayleigh waves. An inverted model (S-wave velocity or Q) obtained using a damped least-squares method can be assessed by an optimal damping vector in a vicinity of the inverted model determined by an objective function, which is the trace of a weighted sum of model-resolution and model-covariance matrices. Current developments include modeling high-frequency Rayleigh-waves in near-surface media, which builds a foundation for shallow seismic or Rayleigh-wave inversion in the time-offset domain; imaging dispersive energy with high resolution in the frequency-velocity domain and possibly with data in an arbitrary acquisition geometry, which opens a door for 3D surface-wave techniques; and successfully separating surface-wave modes, which provides a valuable tool to perform S-wave velocity profiling with high-horizontal resolution. ?? China University of Geosciences (Wuhan) and Springer-Verlag GmbH 2009.
Ionospheric heating with oblique high-frequency waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Field, E.C. Jr.; Bloom, R.M.; Kossey, P.A.
1990-01-01
This paper presents calculations of ionospheric electron temperature and density perturbations and ground-level signal changes produced by intense oblique high-frequency (HF) radio waves. The analysis takes into account focusing at caustics, the consequent Joule heating of the surrounding plasma, heat conduction, diffusion, and recombination processes, these being the effects of a powerful oblique modifying wave. It neglects whatever plasma instabilities might occur. The authors then seek effects on a secondary test wave that is propagated along the same path as the first. The calculations predict ground-level field strength reductions of several decibels in the test wave for modifying waves having effective radiated power (ERP) in the 85- to 90-dBW range. These field strength changes are similar in sign, magnitude, and location to ones measured in Soviet experiments. The location of the signal change is sensitive to the frequency and the model ionosphere assumed; so future experiments should employ the widest possible range of frequencies and propagation conditions. An ERP of 90 dBW seems to be a sort of threshold that, if exceeded, might result in substantial rather than small signal changes. The conclusions are based solely on Joule heating and subsequent refraction of waves passing through caustic regions
Fundamental plasma emission involving ion sound waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cairns, I.H.
1987-01-01
The theory for fundamental plasma emission by the three-wave processes L ± S → T (where L, S and T denote Langmuir, ion sound and transverse waves, respectively) is developed. Kinematic constraints on the characteristics and growth lengths of waves participating in the wave processes are identified. In addition the rates, path-integrated wave temperatures, and limits on the brightness temperature of the radiation are derived. (author)
Radio Frequency Plasma Applications for Space Propulsion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baity, F.W. Jr.; Barber, G.C.; Carter, M.D.; Chang-Diaz, F.R.; Goulding, R.H.; Ilin, A.V.; Jaeger, E.F.; Sparks, D.O.; Squire, J.P.
1999-01-01
Recent developments in solid-state radio frequency (RF) power technologies allow for the practical consideration of RF heated plasmas for space propulsion. These technologies permit the use of any electrical power source, de-couple the power and propellant sources, and allow for the efficient use of both the propellant mass and power. Efficient use of the propellant is obtained by expelling the rocket exhaust at the highest possible velocity, which can be orders of magnitude higher than those achieved in chemical rockets. Handling the hot plasma exhaust requires the use of magnetic nozzles, and the basic physics of ion detachment from the magnetic eld is discussed. The plasma can be generated by RF using helicon waves to heat electrons. Further direct heating of the ions helps to reduce the line radiation losses, and the magnetic geometry is tailored to allow ion cyclotron resonance heating. RF eld and ion trajectory calculations are presented to give a reasonably self-consistent picture of the ion acceleration process
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Khalil, Sh.M.; El-Sherif, N.; El-Siragy, N.M.; Tanta Univ.; El-Naggar, I.A.; Alexandria Univ.
1985-01-01
Investigation is made for nonlinear interaction between incident radiation and a surface wave in a magnetized plasma layer. Both interacting waves are of P polarization. The generated currents and fields at combination frequencies are obtained analytically. Unlike the S-polarized interacting waves, the magnetic field affects the fundamental waves and leads to an amplification of generated waves when their frequencies approach the cyclotron frequency. (author)
Nonlinear low-frequency wave aspect of foreshock density holes
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
N. Lin
2008-11-01
Full Text Available Recent observations have uncovered short-duration density holes in the Earth's foreshock region. There is evidence that the formation of density holes involves non-linear growth of fluctuations in the magnetic field and plasma density, which results in shock-like boundaries followed by a decrease in both density and magnetic field. In this study we examine in detail a few such events focusing on their low frequency wave characteristics. The propagation properties of the waves are studied using Cluster's four point observations. We found that while these density hole-structures were convected with the solar wind, in the plasma rest frame they propagated obliquely and mostly sunward. The wave amplitude grows non-linearly in the process, and the waves are circularly or elliptically polarized in the left hand sense. The phase velocities calculated from four spacecraft timing analysis are compared with the velocity estimated from δE/δB. Their agreement justifies the plane electromagnetic wave nature of the structures. Plasma conditions are found to favor firehose instabilities. Oblique Alfvén firehose instability is suggested as a possible energy source for the wave growth. Resonant interaction between ions at certain energy and the waves could reduce the ion temperature anisotropy and thus the free energy, thereby playing a stabilizing role.
Nonlinear low-frequency wave aspect of foreshock density holes
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
N. Lin
2008-11-01
Full Text Available Recent observations have uncovered short-duration density holes in the Earth's foreshock region. There is evidence that the formation of density holes involves non-linear growth of fluctuations in the magnetic field and plasma density, which results in shock-like boundaries followed by a decrease in both density and magnetic field. In this study we examine in detail a few such events focusing on their low frequency wave characteristics. The propagation properties of the waves are studied using Cluster's four point observations. We found that while these density hole-structures were convected with the solar wind, in the plasma rest frame they propagated obliquely and mostly sunward. The wave amplitude grows non-linearly in the process, and the waves are circularly or elliptically polarized in the left hand sense. The phase velocities calculated from four spacecraft timing analysis are compared with the velocity estimated from δE/δB. Their agreement justifies the plane electromagnetic wave nature of the structures. Plasma conditions are found to favor firehose instabilities. Oblique Alfvén firehose instability is suggested as a possible energy source for the wave growth. Resonant interaction between ions at certain energy and the waves could reduce the ion temperature anisotropy and thus the free energy, thereby playing a stabilizing role.
Charged particle and photon acceleration by wakefield plasma waves in non-uniform plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bulanov, S.V.; Kirsanov, V.I.; Sakharov, A.S.; Pegoraro, F.
1993-01-01
We discuss the acceleration of charged particles and the upshift of the frequency of short wave packets of laser radiation. The acceleration and the upshift are caused by wake plasma waves excited by a strong laser pulse in a non-uniform plasma. We show that unlimited acceleration of charged particles is possible for specific spatial dependencies of the plasma density. In this unlimited acceleration regime, particles have a fixed phase relationship with respect to the plasma wave, while their energy increases with time. When the wave breaking limit is approached and surpassed, the efficiency of the acceleration of the charged particles and of the frequency upshift of the photons can be increased significantly. (author) 3 refs
Stimulated brillouin scattering of electromagnetic waves in a dusty plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Salimullah, M.; Sen, A.
1991-08-01
The stimulated Brilluoin scattering of electromagnetic waves in a homogeneous, unmagnetized and collisionless dusty plasma has been investigated theoretically. The Vlasov equation has been solved perturbatively to find the nonlinear response of the plasma particles. The presence of the dust particles introduces a background inhomogeneous electric field which significantly influences the dispersive properties of the plasma. At the ion acoustic branch we find the usual scattering slightly modified by the charged dust grains. However, at the frequency lower than the ion acoustic branch we find a new mode of the plasma arising from the oscillations of the ions in the static structure of the dust distribution. This low frequency branch causes enhanced stimulated Brillouin scattering of electromagnetic waves in a dusty plasma. (author). 15 refs
Parametric decay of an extraordinary electromagnetic wave in relativistic plasma
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dorofeenko, V. G. [Institute for Advanced Studies (Austria); Krasovitskiy, V. B., E-mail: krasovit@mail.ru [Keldysh Institute of Applied Mathematics (Russian Federation); Turikov, V. A. [Peoples’ Friendship University of Russia (Russian Federation)
2015-03-15
Parametric instability of an extraordinary electromagnetic wave in plasma preheated to a relativistic temperature is considered. A set of self-similar nonlinear differential equations taking into account the electron “thermal” mass is derived and investigated. Small perturbations of the parameters of the heated plasma are analyzed in the linear approximation by using the dispersion relation determining the phase velocities of the fast and slow extraordinary waves. In contrast to cold plasma, the evanescence zone in the frequency range above the electron upper hybrid frequency vanishes and the asymptotes of both branches converge. Theoretical analysis of the set of nonlinear equations shows that the growth rate of decay instability increases with increasing initial temperature of plasma electrons. This result is qualitatively confirmed by numerical simulations of plasma heating by a laser pulse injected from vacuum.
Ion temperature in plasmas with intrinsic Alfven waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wu, C. S.; Yoon, P. H.; Wang, C. B.
2014-01-01
This Brief Communication clarifies the physics of non-resonant heating of protons by low-frequency Alfvenic turbulence. On the basis of general definition for wave energy density in plasmas, it is shown that the wave magnetic field energy is equivalent to the kinetic energy density of the ions, whose motion is induced by the wave magnetic field, thus providing a self-consistent description of the non-resonant heating by Alfvenic turbulence. Although the study is motivated by the research on the solar corona, the present discussion is only concerned with the plasma physics of the heating process
Frequency upshift via flash ionization phenomena using semiconductor plasma
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nishida A.
2013-11-01
Full Text Available We have demonstrated frequency upshift in the terahertz region by flash ionization. The magnitude of upshift frequency is tuned by the laser intensity. A proof of principle experiment has been performed with a plasma creation time scale much shorter than the period of the electromagnetic wave and a plasma length longer than its wavelength. Frequency upshifted from 0.35 to 3.5 THz by irradiating a ZnSe crystal with a ultra-short laser pulse has been observed.
Measurements of beat wave accelerated electrons in a toroidal plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rogers, J.H.
1992-06-01
Electrons are accelerated by large amplitude electron plasma waves driven by counter-propagating microwaves with a difference frequency approximately equal to the electron plasma frequency. Energetic electrons are observed only when the phase velocity of the wave is in the range 3v e ph e (v ph was varied 2v e ph e ), where v e is the electron thermal velocity, (kT e /m e ) 1/2 . As the phase velocity increases, fewer electrons are accelerated to higher velocities. The measured current contained in these accelerated electrons has the power dependence predicted by theory, but the magnitude is lower than predicted
Exponential Frequency Spectrum in Magnetized Plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pace, D. C.; Shi, M.; Maggs, J. E.; Morales, G. J.; Carter, T. A.
2008-01-01
Measurements of a magnetized plasma with a controlled electron temperature gradient show the development of a broadband spectrum of density and temperature fluctuations having an exponential frequency dependence at frequencies below the ion cyclotron frequency. The origin of the exponential frequency behavior is traced to temporal pulses of Lorentzian shape. Similar exponential frequency spectra are also found in limiter-edge plasma turbulence associated with blob transport. This finding suggests a universal feature of magnetized plasma turbulence leading to nondiffusive, cross-field transport, namely, the presence of Lorentzian shaped pulses
Stimulated scattering of electromagnetic waves by magnetosonic modes in a plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stenflo, L.
1985-01-01
The dispersion relation for magnetosonic waves in a dissipative plasma, which is penetrated by a high-frequency electromagnetic wave, is derived. Previous results are generalized and discussed. (author)
Electromagnetic drift waves dispersion for arbitrarily collisional plasmas
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lee, Wonjae, E-mail: wol023@ucsd.edu; Krasheninnikov, Sergei I., E-mail: skrash@mae.ucsd.edu [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, California 92093 (United States); Angus, J. R. [Naval Research Laboratory, 4555 Overlook Avenue, Washington, DC 20375 (United States)
2015-07-15
The impacts of the electromagnetic effects on resistive and collisionless drift waves are studied. A local linear analysis on an electromagnetic drift-kinetic equation with Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook-like collision operator demonstrates that the model is valid for describing linear growth rates of drift wave instabilities in a wide range of plasma parameters showing convergence to reference models for limiting cases. The wave-particle interactions drive collisionless drift-Alfvén wave instability in low collisionality and high beta plasma regime. The Landau resonance effects not only excite collisionless drift wave modes but also suppress high frequency electron inertia modes observed from an electromagnetic fluid model in collisionless and low beta regime. Considering ion temperature effects, it is found that the impact of finite Larmor radius effects significantly reduces the growth rate of the drift-Alfvén wave instability with synergistic effects of high beta stabilization and Landau resonance.
Degenerate mixing of plasma waves on cold, magnetized single-species plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Anderson, M. W.; O'Neil, T. M.; Dubin, D. H. E.; Gould, R. W.
2011-01-01
In the cold-fluid dispersion relation ω=ω p /[1+(k perpendicular /k z ) 2 ] 1/2 for Trivelpiece-Gould waves on an infinitely long magnetized plasma cylinder, the transverse and axial wavenumbers appear only in the combination k perpendicular /k z . As a result, for any frequency ω p , there are infinitely many degenerate waves, all having the same value of k perpendicular /k z . On a cold finite-length plasma column, these degenerate waves reflect into one another at the ends; thus, each standing-wave normal mode of the bounded plasma is a mixture of many degenerate waves, not a single standing wave as is often assumed. A striking feature of the many-wave modes is that the short-wavelength waves often add constructively along resonance cones given by dz/dr=±(ω p 2 /ω 2 -1) 1/2 . Also, the presence of short wavelengths in the admixture for a predominantly long-wavelength mode enhances the viscous damping beyond what the single-wave approximation would predict. Here, numerical solutions are obtained for modes of a cylindrical plasma column with rounded ends. Exploiting the fact that the modes of a spheroidal plasma are known analytically (the Dubin modes), a perturbation analysis is used to investigate the mixing of low-order, nearly degenerate Dubin modes caused by small deformations of a plasma spheroid.
Numerical simulation of electrostatic waves in plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Erz, U.
1981-08-01
In this paper the propagation of electrostatic waves in plasmas and the non-linear interactions, which occur in the case of large wave amplitudes, are studied using a new numerical method for plasma simulation. This mathematical description is based on the Vlasov-model. Changes in the distribution-function are taken into account and thus plasma kinetic effects can be treated. (orig./HT) [de
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Niu, K.
1996-01-01
A shock wave is a discontinuous surface that connects supersonic flow with subsonic flow. After a shock wave, flow velocity is reduced, and pressure and temperature increase; entropy especially increases across a shock wave. Therefore, flow is in nonequilibrium, and irreversible processes occur inside the shock layer. The thickness of a shock wave in neutral gas is of the order of the mean free path of the fluid particle. A shock wave also appears in magnetized plasma. Provided that when the plasma flow is parallel to the magnetic field, a shock wave appears if the governing equation for velocity potential is in hyperbolic type in relation with the Mach number and the Alfven number. When the flow is perpendicular to the magnetic field, the Maxwell stress, in addition to the pressure, plays a role in the shock wave in plasma. When the plasma temperature is so high, as the plasma becomes collision-free, another type of shock wave appears. In a collision-free shock wave, gyromotions of electrons around the magnetic field lines cause the shock formation instead of collisions in a collision-dominant plasma or neutral gas. Regardless of a collision-dominant or collision-free shock wave, the fluid that passes through the shock wave is heated in addition to being compressed. In inertial confinement fusion, the fuel must be compressed. Really, implosion motion performs fuel compression. A shock wave, appearing in the process of implosion, compresses the fuel. The shock wave, however, heats the fuel more intensively, and it makes it difficult to compress the fuel further because high temperatures invite high pressure. Adiabatic compression of the fuel is the desired result during the implosion, without the formation of a shock wave. (Author)
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
ion plasma are discussed. It is shown that the temperature and/or mass difference of both species could produce drift wave in a pair-ion plasma. The results are discussed in the context of the fullerene pair-ion plasma experiment.
Frequency mixing in boron carbide laser ablation plasmas
Oujja, M.; Benítez-Cañete, A.; Sanz, M.; Lopez-Quintas, I.; Martín, M.; de Nalda, R.; Castillejo, M.
2015-05-01
Nonlinear frequency mixing induced by a bichromatic field (1064 nm + 532 nm obtained from a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser) in a boron carbide (B4C) plasma generated through laser ablation under vacuum is explored. A UV beam at the frequency of the fourth harmonic of the fundamental frequency (266 nm) was generated. The dependence of the efficiency of the process as function of the intensities of the driving lasers differs from the expected behavior for four-wave mixing, and point toward a six-wave mixing process. The frequency mixing process was strongly favored for parallel polarizations of the two driving beams. Through spatiotemporal mapping, the conditions for maximum efficiency were found for a significant delay from the ablation event (200 ns), when the medium is expected to be a low-ionized plasma. No late components of the harmonic signal were detected, indicating a largely atomized medium.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Amein, W.H.; El-Siragy, N.M.; Nagy, O.Z.; Sayed, Y.A.
1981-01-01
Nonlinear interaction of S-Polarized surface waves at the boundary of a semibounded magnetized plasma is investigated. The expressions of the amplitudes of the generated waves are found. It is shown that, the generated waves with combined frequencies are equally radiated from the transient layer into plasma and vacuum
Charge density fluctuation of low frequency in a dusty plasma
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
李芳; 吕保维; O.Havnes
1997-01-01
The charge density fluctuation of low frequency in a dusty plasma, which is derived from the longitudinal dielectric permittivity of the dusty plasma, has been studied by kinetic theory. The results show that the P value, which describes the relative charge density on the dust in the plasma, and the charging frequency of a dust particle Ωc, which describes the ratio of charge changing of the dust particles, determine the character of the charge density fluctuation of low frequency. For a dusty plasma of P<<1, when the charging frequency Ωc is much smaller than the dusty plasma frequency wd, there is a strong charge density fluctuation which is of character of dust acoustic eigen wave. For a dusty plasma of P>>1, when the frequency Ωc, is much larger than wd there are weaker fluctuations with a wide spectrum. The results have been applied to the ionosphere and the range of radius and density of dust particles is found, where a strong charge density fluctuation of low frequency should exist.
Guided propagation of Alfven waves in a toroidal plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Borg, G.G.; Brennan, M.H.; Cross, R.C.; Giannone, L.; Donnelly, I.J.
1985-01-01
Experimental results are presented which show that the Alfven wave is strongly guided by magnetic fields. The experiment was conducted in a Tokamak plasma using a small dipole loop antenna to generate a localised Alfven ray. The ray was observed, with magnetic probes, to propagate as a localised disturbance along the curved lines of the steady magnetic field without significant refraction due to the effects of finite frequency, resistivity or magnetic field gradients. These results agree with theoretical predictions and demonstrate that a localised Alfven wave may be excited, and may propagate, independently of the fast wave, as expected. The implication of these results for the Alfven wave heating scheme is discussed. (author)
Guided propagation of Alfven waves in a toroidal plasma
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Borg, G G; Brennan, M H; Cross, R C; Giannone, L.; Donnelly, I J
1985-10-01
Experimental results are presented which show that the Alfven wave is strongly guided by magnetic fields. The experiment was conducted in a Tokamak plasma using a small dipole loop antenna to generate a localised Alfven ray. The ray was observed, with magnetic probes, to propagate as a localised disturbance along the curved lines of the steady magnetic field without significant refraction due to the effects of finite frequency, resistivity or magnetic field gradients. These results agree with theoretical predictions and demonstrate that a localised Alfven wave may be excited, and may propagate, independently of the fast wave, as expected. The implication of these results for the Alfven wave heating scheme is discussed.
Self-reflection of intense electromagnetic waves in plasmas
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tewari, D P; Kumar, A; Sharma, J K [Indian Inst. of Tech., New Delhi. Dept. of Physics
1977-10-01
A uniform electromagnetic wave of high power density, propagating in a collisional plasma gives rise to a modification in temperature-dependent collision frequency and in turn induces a gradient in the complex refractive index of the medium. A WKB solution of the problem predicts a backward propagating wave on account of the self-induced inhomogeneity. The amplitude of the backward (i.e. reflected) wave increases with increasing power density of the wave. This is a volume nonlinear effect and is appreciable for usually employed power densities.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lee, Myoung-Jae [Department of Physics, Hanyang University, Seoul 04763 (Korea, Republic of); Research Institute for Natural Sciences, Hanyang University, Seoul 04763 (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Young-Dae, E-mail: ydjung@hanyang.ac.kr [Department of Applied Physics and Department of Bionanotechnology, Hanyang University, Ansan, Kyunggi-Do 15588 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, MC 0407, University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA 92093-0407 (United States)
2017-02-12
High frequency electrostatic wave propagation in a dense and semi-bounded electron quantum plasma is investigated with consideration of the Bohm potential. The dispersion relation for the surface mode of quantum plasma is derived and numerically analyzed. We found that the quantum effect enhances the frequency of the wave especially in the high wave number regime. However, the frequency of surface wave is found to be always lower than that of the bulk wave for the same quantum wave number. The group velocity of the surface wave for various quantum wave number is also obtained. - Highlights: • High frequency electrostatic wave propagation is investigated in a dense semi-bounded quantum plasma. • The dispersion relation for the surface mode of quantum plasma is derived and numerically analyzed. • The quantum effect enhances the frequency of the wave especially in the high wave number regime. • The frequency of surface wave is found to be always lower than that of the bulk wave. • The group velocity of the surface wave for various quantum wave number is also obtained.
Saturation of Langmuir waves in laser-produced plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baker, K.L.
1996-04-01
This dissertation deals with the interaction of an intense laser with a plasma (a quasineutral collection of electrons and ions). During this interaction, the laser drives large-amplitude waves through a class of processes known as parametric instabilities. Several such instabilities drive one type of wave, the Langmuir wave, which involves oscillations of the electrons relative to the nearly-stationary ions. There are a number of mechanisms which limit the amplitude to which Langmuir waves grow. In this dissertation, these mechanisms are examined to identify qualitative features which might be observed in experiments and/or simulations. In addition, a number of experiments are proposed to specifically look for particular saturation mechanisms. In a plasma, a Langmuir wave can decay into an electromagnetic wave and an ion wave. This parametric instability is proposed as a source for electromagnetic emission near half of the incident laser frequency observed from laser-produced plasmas. This interpretation is shown to be consistent with existing experimental data and it is found that one of the previous mechanisms used to explain such emission is not. The scattering version of the electromagnetic decay instability is shown to provide an enhanced noise source of electromagnetic waves near the frequency of the incident laser
2D full-wave simulation of waves in space and tokamak plasmas
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kim Eun-Hwa
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Simulation results using a 2D full-wave code (FW2D for space and NSTX fusion plasmas are presented. The FW2D code solves the cold plasma wave equations using the finite element method. The wave code has been successfully applied to describe low frequency waves in planetary magnetospheres (i.e., dipole geometry and the results include generation and propagation of externally driven ultra-low frequency waves via mode conversion at Mercury and mode coupling, refraction and reflection of internally driven field-aligned propagating left-handed electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC waves at Earth. In this paper, global structure of linearly polarized EMIC waves is examined and the result shows such resonant wave modes can be localized near the equatorial plane. We also adopt the FW2D code to tokamak geometry and examine radio frequency (RF waves in the scape-off layer (SOL of tokamaks. By adopting the rectangular and limiter boundary, we compare the results with existing AORSA simulations. The FW2D code results for the high harmonic fast wave heating case on NSTX with a rectangular vessel boundary shows excellent agreement with the AORSA code.
2D full-wave simulation of waves in space and tokamak plasmas
Kim, Eun-Hwa; Bertelli, Nicola; Johnson, Jay; Valeo, Ernest; Hosea, Joel
2017-10-01
Simulation results using a 2D full-wave code (FW2D) for space and NSTX fusion plasmas are presented. The FW2D code solves the cold plasma wave equations using the finite element method. The wave code has been successfully applied to describe low frequency waves in planetary magnetospheres (i.e., dipole geometry) and the results include generation and propagation of externally driven ultra-low frequency waves via mode conversion at Mercury and mode coupling, refraction and reflection of internally driven field-aligned propagating left-handed electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves at Earth. In this paper, global structure of linearly polarized EMIC waves is examined and the result shows such resonant wave modes can be localized near the equatorial plane. We also adopt the FW2D code to tokamak geometry and examine radio frequency (RF) waves in the scape-off layer (SOL) of tokamaks. By adopting the rectangular and limiter boundary, we compare the results with existing AORSA simulations. The FW2D code results for the high harmonic fast wave heating case on NSTX with a rectangular vessel boundary shows excellent agreement with the AORSA code.
Wave-driven countercurrent plasma centrifuge
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fetterman, Abraham J; Fisch, Nathaniel J [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States)
2009-11-15
A method for driving rotation and a countercurrent flow in a fully ionized plasma centrifuge is described. The rotation is produced by radiofrequency waves near the cyclotron resonance. The wave energy is transferred into potential energy in a manner similar to the {alpha} channeling effect. The countercurrent flow may also be driven by radiofrequency waves. By driving both the rotation and the flow pattern using waves instead of electrodes, physical and engineering issues may be avoided.
Wave-driven countercurrent plasma centrifuge
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fetterman, Abraham J; Fisch, Nathaniel J
2009-01-01
A method for driving rotation and a countercurrent flow in a fully ionized plasma centrifuge is described. The rotation is produced by radiofrequency waves near the cyclotron resonance. The wave energy is transferred into potential energy in a manner similar to the α channeling effect. The countercurrent flow may also be driven by radiofrequency waves. By driving both the rotation and the flow pattern using waves instead of electrodes, physical and engineering issues may be avoided.
Wave-driven Countercurrent Plasma Centrifuge
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fetterman, A.J.; Fisch, N.J.
2009-01-01
A method for driving rotation and a countercurrent flow in a fully ionized plasma centrifuge is described. The rotation is produced by radiofrequency waves near the cyclotron resonance. The wave energy is transferred into potential energy in a manner similar to the α channeling effect. The countercurrent flow may also be driven by radiofrequency waves. By driving both the rotation and the flow pattern using waves instead of electrodes, physical and engineering issues may be avoided
SOLAR WIND STRAHL BROADENING BY SELF-GENERATED PLASMA WAVES
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pavan, J.; Gaelzer, R. [UFPEL, Pelotas (Brazil); Vinas, A. F. [NASA GSFC, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Yoon, P. H. [IPST, UMD, College Park, MD (United States); Ziebell, L. F., E-mail: joel.pavan@ufpel.edu.br, E-mail: rudi@ufpel.edu.br, E-mail: adolfo.vinas@nasa.gov, E-mail: yoonp@umd.edu, E-mail: luiz.ziebell@ufrgs.br [UFRGS, Porto Alegre (Brazil)
2013-06-01
This Letter reports on the results of numerical simulations which may provide a possible explanation for the strahl broadening during quiet solar conditions. The relevant processes involved in the broadening are due to kinetic quasi-linear wave-particle interaction. Making use of static analytical electron distribution in an inhomogeneous field, it is found that self-generated electrostatic waves at the plasma frequency, i.e., Langmuir waves, are capable of scattering the strahl component, resulting in energy and pitch-angle diffusion that broadens its velocity distribution significantly. The present theoretical results provide an alternative or complementary explanation to the usual whistler diffusion scenario, suggesting that self-induced electrostatic waves at the plasma frequency might play a key role in broadening the solar wind strahl during quiet solar conditions.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sagdeev, R.Z.; Shapiro, V.D.; Shevchenko, V.I.
1980-01-01
An attempt is made to analyze two assumptions of the present theory of plasma turbulence, initiated by an electromagnetic wave, as applied to the problem of heating the plasma target. It has been assumed that in the long-scale region (the region of an electromagnetic wave source) and in the inertia range, separating the source region and the short-wave absorption region, there is a permanent pumping. The first assumption consists in simulating a situation in a plasma target when the Langmuir turbulence arises due to an electromagnetic wave incident on the target. The second assumption is valid only at a very high intensity of plasma waves when their energy is significantly less than the thermal energy of plasma W/nsub(c)T 0 is the frequency of an incident electromagnetic wave). At W approximately equal to nsub(c)T the plasma oscillations, arising due to modulation instability from the electromagnetic pumping wave, fall immediately into the absorption region. A phenomenological theory of such a turbulence, called ''superstrong'', is formulated on the assumption that there is a mechanism of ''mixing up'' plasmon phases as a result of their populating the long-wave density fluctuations
Degenerate mixing of plasma waves on cold, magnetized single-species plasmas
Anderson, M. W.; O'Neil, T. M.; Dubin, D. H. E.; Gould, R. W.
2011-10-01
In the cold-fluid dispersion relation ω =ωp/[1+(k⊥/kz)2]1/2 for Trivelpiece-Gould waves on an infinitely long magnetized plasma cylinder, the transverse and axial wavenumbers appear only in the combination k⊥/kz. As a result, for any frequency ω plasma column, these degenerate waves reflect into one another at the ends; thus, each standing-wave normal mode of the bounded plasma is a mixture of many degenerate waves, not a single standing wave as is often assumed. A striking feature of the many-wave modes is that the short-wavelength waves often add constructively along resonance cones given by dz /dr=±(ωp2/ω2-1)1/2. Also, the presence of short wavelengths in the admixture for a predominantly long-wavelength mode enhances the viscous damping beyond what the single-wave approximation would predict. Here, numerical solutions are obtained for modes of a cylindrical plasma column with rounded ends. Exploiting the fact that the modes of a spheroidal plasma are known analytically (the Dubin modes), a perturbation analysis is used to investigate the mixing of low-order, nearly degenerate Dubin modes caused by small deformations of a plasma spheroid.
Determination of Jupiter's electron density profile from plasma wave observations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gurnett, D.A.; Scarf, F.L.; Kurth, W.S.; Shaw, R.R.; Poynter, R.L.
1981-01-01
This paper summarizes the electron density measurements obtained in the Jovian magnetosphere from the plasma wave instruments on the Voyager 1 and 2 spacecraft. Three basic techniques are discussed for determining the electron density: (1) local measurements from the low-frequency cutoff of continuum radiation, (2) local measurements from the frequency of upper hybrid resonance emissions, and (3) integral measurements from the dispersion of whistlers. The limitations and advantages of each technique are critically reviewed. In all cases the electron densities are unaffected by spacecraft charging or sheath effects, which makes these measurements of particular importance for verifying in situ plasma and low-energy charged particle measurments. In the outer regions of the dayside magnetosphere, beyond about 40 R/sub J/, the electron densities range from about 3 x 10 -3 to 3 x 10 -2 cm -3 . On Voyager 2, several brief excursions apparently occurred into the low-density region north of the plasma sheet with densities less than 10 -3 cm -3 . Approaching the planet the electron density gradually increases, with the plasma frequency extending above the frequency range of the plasma wave instrument (56 kHz, or about 38 electrons cm -3 ) inside of about 8 R/sub J/. Within the high-density region of the Io plasma torus, whistlers provide measurements of the north-south scale height of the plasma torus, with scale heights ranging from about 0.9 to 2.5 R/sub J/
Nonlinear Electron Waves in Strongly Magnetized Plasmas
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pécseli, Hans; Juul Rasmussen, Jens
1980-01-01
Weakly nonlinear dispersive electron waves in strongly magnetized plasma are considered. A modified nonlinear Schrodinger equation is derived taking into account the effect of particles resonating with the group velocity of the waves (nonlinear Landau damping). The possibility of including the ion...... dynamics in the analysis is also demonstrated. As a particular case the authors investigate nonlinear waves in a strongly magnetized plasma filled wave-guide, where the effects of finite geometry are important. The relevance of this problem to laboratory experiments is discussed....
Evolution Of Nonlinear Waves in Compressing Plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schmit, P.F.; Dodin, I.Y.; Fisch, N.J.
2011-01-01
Through particle-in-cell simulations, the evolution of nonlinear plasma waves is examined in one-dimensional collisionless plasma undergoing mechanical compression. Unlike linear waves, whose wavelength decreases proportionally to the system length L(t), nonlinear waves, such as solitary electron holes, conserve their characteristic size Δ during slow compression. This leads to a substantially stronger adiabatic amplification as well as rapid collisionless damping when L approaches Δ. On the other hand, cessation of compression halts the wave evolution, yielding a stable mode.
Evolution Of Nonlinear Waves in Compressing Plasma
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
P.F. Schmit, I.Y. Dodin, and N.J. Fisch
2011-05-27
Through particle-in-cell simulations, the evolution of nonlinear plasma waves is examined in one-dimensional collisionless plasma undergoing mechanical compression. Unlike linear waves, whose wavelength decreases proportionally to the system length L(t), nonlinear waves, such as solitary electron holes, conserve their characteristic size {Delta} during slow compression. This leads to a substantially stronger adiabatic amplification as well as rapid collisionless damping when L approaches {Delta}. On the other hand, cessation of compression halts the wave evolution, yielding a stable mode.
Resonant interactions between cometary ions and low frequency electromagnetic waves
Thorne, Richard M.; Tsurutani, Bruce T.
1987-01-01
The conditions for resonant wave amplification in a plasma with a ring-beam distribution which is intended to model pick-up ions in a cometary environment are investigated. The inclination between the interplanetary field and the solar wind is found to play a crucial role in governing both the resonant frequency and the growth rate of any unstable mode. It is suggested that the low-frequency MHD mode should experience the most rapid amplification for intermediate inclination. In the frame of the solar wind, such waves should propagate along the field in the direction upstream toward the sun with a phase speed lower than the beaming velocity of the pick-up ions. This mechanism may account for the presence of the interior MHD waves noted by satellites over a region surrounding comets Giacobini-Zinner and Halley.
Low-frequency electrostatic waves in the ionospheric E region
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Krane, B [NDRE, Box 25, N-2027 Kjeller (Norway); Pecseli, H L; Sato, H [Physics Department, University of Oslo, PO Box 1048 Blindern, N-0316 Oslo (Norway); Trulsen, J [Institute of Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Oslo, PO Box 1029 Blindern, N-0315 Oslo (Norway); Wernik, A W, E-mail: hans.pecseli@fys.uio.n [Space Research Center, Polish Academy of Sciences, ul. Bartycka 18a, 00-716 Warsaw (Poland)
2010-06-15
Low-frequency electrostatic waves in the ionospheric E region are studied by analyzing data obtained by instrumented rockets. We identify the origin of the enhanced fluctuation level to be the Farley-Buneman instability. The basic information on instability, such as altitude varying spectra and speed of propagation are obtained. Comparison of power spectra for the fluctuations in plasma density and electrostatic potential, respectively, provides information on the electron dynamics. A bispectral analysis gives indications of phase-coherent couplings within the wave spectrum, while higher order structure functions indicate some intermittent features of the turbulence.
Surge of plasma waves in an inhomogeneous plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Benhassine, Mohammed
1985-01-01
The first part of this research thesis addresses the propagation of waves in a plasma. It presents the equation of propagation of an electromagnetic wave in a plasma without magnetic field, and analyses the propagation in an inhomogeneous medium. The second part addresses the wave-particle interaction: interaction between electrons and an electromagnetic wave, between electrons and an electrostatic wave (trapping), and between electrons and a localised electric field. The third chapter presents the analytic theory of oscillations of a cold plasma (macroscopic equations in Lagrangian coordinates, analytic solution before surge). The next chapter discusses physical interpretations before the wave surge, after the wave surge, and about energy exchange (within or outside of resonance). Numerical simulations and their results are then reported and discussed. The sixth chapter addresses the case of an electrostatic wave surge in a hot plasma. It notably addresses the following aspects: equivalence between the description of moments and the Waterbag model, interaction between non linearity and thermal effects, variation of electric field amplitude with temperature. Results of numerical simulations are presented, and the last part addresses experimental predictions for microwaves-plasma interaction and laser-matter interaction [fr
Relativistic solitary waves modulating long laser pulses in plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sanchez-Arriaga, G; Siminos, E; Lefebvre, E
2011-01-01
This paper discusses the existence of solitary electromagnetic waves trapped in a self-generated Langmuir wave and embedded in an infinitely long circularly polarized electromagnetic wave propagating through a plasma. From a mathematical point of view they are exact solutions of the one-dimensional relativistic cold fluid plasma model with nonvanishing boundary conditions. Under the assumption of travelling wave solutions with velocity V and vector potential frequency ω, the fluid model is reduced to a Hamiltonian system. The solitary waves are homoclinic (grey solitons) or heteroclinic (dark solitons) orbits to fixed points. Using a dynamical systems description of the Hamiltonian system and a spectral method, we identify a large variety of solitary waves, including asymmetric ones, discuss their disappearance for certain parameter values and classify them according to (i) grey or dark character, (ii) the number of humps of the vector potential envelope and (iii) their symmetries. The solutions come in continuous families in the parametric V-ω plane and extend up to velocities that approach the speed of light. The stability of certain types of grey solitary waves is investigated with the aid of particle-in-cell simulations that demonstrate their propagation for a few tens of the inverse of the plasma frequency.
Nonlinear Electrostatic Wave Equations for Magnetized Plasmas
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Dysthe, K.B.; Mjølhus, E.; Pécseli, Hans
1984-01-01
The lowest order kinetic effects are included in the equations for nonlinear electrostatic electron waves in a magnetized plasma. The modifications of the authors' previous analysis based on a fluid model are discussed.......The lowest order kinetic effects are included in the equations for nonlinear electrostatic electron waves in a magnetized plasma. The modifications of the authors' previous analysis based on a fluid model are discussed....
Electromagnetic wave in a relativistic magnetized plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Krasovitskiy, V. B.
2009-01-01
Results are presented from a theoretical investigation of the dispersion properties of a relativistic plasma in which an electromagnetic wave propagates along an external magnetic field. The dielectric tensor in integral form is simplified by separating its imaginary and real parts. A dispersion relation for an electromagnetic wave is obtained that makes it possible to analyze the dispersion and collisionless damping of electromagnetic perturbations over a broad parameter range for both nonrelativistic and ultrarelativistic plasmas.
Creating an anisotropic plasma resistivity with waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fisch, N.J.; Boozer, A.H.
1980-05-01
An anisotropic plasma resistivity may be created by preferential heating of electrons traveling in one direction. This can result in a steady-state toroidal current in a tokamak even in the absence of net wave momentum. In fact, at high wave phase velocities, the current associated with the change in resistivity is greater than that associated with net momentum input. An immediate implication is that other waves, such as electron cyclotron waves, may be competitive with lower-hybrid waves as a means for generating current. An analytical expression is derived for the current generated per power dissipated which agrees remarkably well with numerical calculations
Cohen, Z.; Breneman, A. W.; Cattell, C. A.; Davis, L.; Grul, P.; Kersten, K.; Wilson, L. B., III
2017-12-01
Determining the role of plasma waves in providing energy dissipation at shock waves is of long-standing interest. Interplanetary (IP) shocks serve as a large database of low Mach number shocks. We examine electric field waveforms captured by the Time Domain Sampler (TDS) on the STEREO spacecraft during the ramps of IP shocks, with emphasis on captures lasting 2.1 seconds. Previous work has used captures of shorter duration (66 and 131 ms on STEREO, and 17 ms on WIND), which allowed for observation of waves with maximum (minimum) frequencies of 125 kHz (15 Hz), 62.5 kHz (8 Hz), and 60 kHz (59 Hz), respectively. The maximum frequencies are comparable to 2-8 times the plasma frequency in the solar wind, enabling observation of Langmuir waves, ion acoustic, and some whistler-mode waves. The 2 second captures resolve lower frequencies ( few Hz), which allows us to analyze packet structure of the whistler-mode waves and some ion acoustic waves. The longer capture time also improves the resolvability of simultaneous wave modes and of waves with frequencies on the order of 10s of Hz. Langmuir waves, however, cannot be identified at this sampling rate, since the plasma frequency is usually higher than 3.9 kHz. IP shocks are identified from multiple databases (Helsinki heliospheric shock database at http://ipshocks.fi, and the STEREO level 3 shock database at ftp://stereoftp.nascom.nasa.gov/pub/ins_data/impact/level3/). Our analysis focuses on TDS captures in shock ramp regions, with ramp durations determined from magnetic field data taken at 8 Hz. Software is used to identify multiple wave modes in any given capture and classify waves as Langmuir, ion acoustic, whistler, lower hybrid, electron cyclotron drift instability, or electrostatic solitary waves. Relevant frequencies are determined from density and magnetic field data collected in situ. Preliminary results suggest that large amplitude (∼ 5 mV/m) ion acoustic waves are most prevalent in the ramp, in agreement with
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yuan Zhongcai; Shi Jiaming; Xu Bo
2005-01-01
The plasma diagnostic method using the transmission attenuation of microwaves at double frequencies (PDMUTAMDF) indicates that the frequency and the electron-neutral collision frequency of the plasma can be deduced by utilizing the transmission attenuation of microwaves at two neighboring frequencies in a non-magnetized plasma. Then the electron density can be obtained from the plasma frequency. The PDMUTAMDF is a simple method to diagnose the plasma indirectly. In this paper, the interaction of electromagnetic waves and the plasma is analyzed. Then, based on the attenuation and the phase shift of a microwave in the plasma, the principle of the PDMUTAMDF is presented. With the diagnostic method, the spatially mean electron density and electron collision frequency of the plasma can be obtained. This method is suitable for the elementary diagnosis of the atmospheric-pressure plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tang, D.L.; Fu, R.K.Y.; Tian, X.B.; Chu, P.K.
2003-01-01
Plasmas with higher density and better uniformity are produced using an improved planar radio frequency (rf) inductively coupled plasma configuration in plasma immersion ion implantation (PIII). An axial magnetic field is produced by external electromagnetic coils outside the discharge chamber. The rf power can be effectively absorbed by the plasma in the vicinity of the electron gyrofrequency due to the enhanced resonant absorption of electromagnetic waves in the whistler wave range, which can propagate nearly along the magnetic field lines thus greatly increases the plasma density. The plasma is confined by a longitudinal multipolar cusp magnetic field made of permanent magnets outside the process chamber. It can improve the plasma uniformity without significantly affecting the ion density. The plasma density can be increased from 3x10 9 to 1x10 10 cm -3 employing an axial magnetic field of several Gauss at 1000 W rf power and 5x10 -4 Torr gas pressure. The nonuniformity of the plasma density is less than 10% and can be achieved in a process chamber with a diameter of 600 mm. Since the plasma generation and process chambers are separate, plasma extinction due to the plasma sheath touching the chamber wall in high-energy PIII can be avoided. Hence, low-pressure, high-energy, and high-uniformity ion implantation can be accomplished using this setup
On solitary surface waves in cold plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vladimirov, S.V.; Yu, M.Y.; Stenflo, L.
1993-01-01
A new type of nonlinear electromagnetic solitary surface waves propagating along the boundary of a cold plasma is discussed. These waves are described by a novel nonlinear evolution equation, obtained when the nonlinear surface currents at the boundary are taken into consideration. (Author)
Project of experimental study on plasma waves and plasma turbulence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ferreira, J.L.
1990-09-01
The objective of this project is to perform experiments with wave phenomena on plasmas. Particular attention will be given to Langmuir and whistler waves due to its relations with several phenomena occuring on space and laboratory plasmas. The new concepts of particle acceleration with electromagnetic waves, the auroral phenomena on the polar regions and the charged particle precipitation to the atmosphere through anomalies of the earth magnetic field are examples where these waves have an important role. In this project we intend to study the propagation of these waves in a quiescent plasma machine. This machine is able to produce a plasma with density and temperature with values similar to what is met in the ionosphere. This project will be a part of the activities of the basic plasma group of the INPE's Associated Plasma Laboratory (LAP). It will have the collaboration of the departments of Aeronomy and Geophysics also from INPE, and the collaboration of the Plasma and Gas Physics Laboratory from University of Paris - South, in France. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gunell, H.; Loefgren, T.
1997-02-01
In the electron beam-plasma interaction at an electric double layer the beam density is much higher than in the classical beam-plasma experiments. The wave propagation takes place along the density gradient, that is present at the high potential side of the double layer. Such a case is studied experimentally by injecting the electron beam from a plane cathode, without any grids suppressing the gradient, and by particle simulations. The high frequency field concentrates in a sharp 'spike' with a half width of the order of one wavelength. The spike is found to be a standing wave surrounded by regions dominated by propagating waves. It forms at a position where its frequency is close to the local plasma frequency. The spike forms also when the electric field is well below the threshold for modulational instability, and long before a density cavity is formed in the simulations. Particle simulations reveal that, at the spike, there is a backward travelling wave that, when it is strongly damped, accelerates electrons back towards the cathode. In a simulation of a homogeneous plasma without the density gradient no spike is seen, and the wave is purely travelling instead of standing. 9 refs
Computational study of nonlinear plasma waves. I. Simulation model and monochromatic wave propagtion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Matda, Y.; Crawford, F.W.
1974-12-01
An economical low noise plasma simulation model is applied to a series of problems associated with electrostatic wave propagation in a one-dimensional, collisionless, Maxwellian plasma, in the absence of magnetic field. The model is described and tested, first in the absence of an applied signal, and then with a small amplitude perturbation, to establish the low noise features and to verify the theoretical linear dispersion relation at wave energy levels as low as 0.000,001 of the plasma thermal energy. The method is then used to study propagation of an essentially monochromatic plane wave. Results on amplitude oscillation and nonlinear frequency shift are compared with available theories. The additional phenomena of sideband instability and satellite growth, stimulated by large amplitude wave propagation and the resulting particle trapping, are described. (auth)
Plasma mechanizm for auroral kilometer wave radiation
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Vlasov, V.G.
1989-01-01
The linear mechanism of auroral kilometer radiation (AKR) on the Cherenkov resonance is developed. The point is that plasma waves swinged by the electron beam in a dimer auroral plasma cavern on the Cherenkov resonance excercise 100% transformation under conventional and inconventional AKR modes under definite conditions
Gabor Wave Packet Method to Solve Plasma Wave Equations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pletzer, A.; Phillips, C.K.; Smithe, D.N.
2003-01-01
A numerical method for solving plasma wave equations arising in the context of mode conversion between the fast magnetosonic and the slow (e.g ion Bernstein) wave is presented. The numerical algorithm relies on the expansion of the solution in Gaussian wave packets known as Gabor functions, which have good resolution properties in both real and Fourier space. The wave packets are ideally suited to capture both the large and small wavelength features that characterize mode conversion problems. The accuracy of the scheme is compared with a standard finite element approach
Ion-acoustic cnoidal waves in a quantum plasma
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Mahmood, S.; Haas, F.
2014-01-01
Nonlinear ion-acoustic cnoidal wave structures are studied in an unmagnetized quantum plasma. Using the reductive perturbation method, a Korteweg-de Vries equation is derived for appropriate boundary conditions and nonlinear periodic wave solutions are obtained. The corresponding analytical solution and numerical plots of the ion-acoustic cnoidal waves and solitons in the phase plane are presented using the Sagdeev pseudo-potential approach. The variations in the nonlinear potential of the ion-acoustic cnoidal waves are studied at different values of quantum parameter H e which is the ratio of electron plasmon energy to electron Fermi energy defined for degenerate electrons. It is found that both compressive and rarefactive ion-acoustic cnoidal wave structures are formed depending on the value of the quantum parameter. The dependence of the wavelength and frequency on nonlinear wave amplitude is also presented
Transparency of Magnetized Plasma at Cyclotron Frequency
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G. Shvets; J.S. Wurtele
2002-03-01
Electromagnetic radiation is strongly absorbed by a magnetized plasma if the radiation frequency equals the cyclotron frequency of plasma electrons. It is demonstrated that absorption can be completely canceled in the presence of a magnetostatic field of an undulator or a second radiation beam, resulting in plasma transparency at the cyclotron frequency. This effect is reminiscent of the electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) of the three-level atomic systems, except that it occurs in a completely classical plasma. Unlike the atomic systems, where all the excited levels required for EIT exist in each atom, this classical EIT requires the excitation of the nonlocal plasma oscillation. The complexity of the plasma system results in an index of refraction at the cyclotron frequency that differs from unity. Lagrangian description was used to elucidate the physics and enable numerical simulation of the plasma transparency and control of group and phase velocity. This control naturally leads to applications for electromagnetic pulse compression in the plasma and electron/ion acceleration
Self-consistent Langmuir waves in resonantly driven thermal plasmas
Lindberg, R. R.; Charman, A. E.; Wurtele, J. S.
2007-12-01
The longitudinal dynamics of a resonantly driven Langmuir wave are analyzed in the limit that the growth of the electrostatic wave is slow compared to the bounce frequency. Using simple physical arguments, the nonlinear distribution function is shown to be nearly invariant in the canonical particle action, provided both a spatially uniform term and higher-order spatial harmonics are included along with the fundamental in the longitudinal electric field. Requirements of self-consistency with the electrostatic potential yield the basic properties of the nonlinear distribution function, including a frequency shift that agrees closely with driven, electrostatic particle simulations over a range of temperatures. This extends earlier work on nonlinear Langmuir waves by Morales and O'Neil [G. J. Morales and T. M. O'Neil, Phys. Rev. Lett. 28, 417 (1972)] and Dewar [R. L. Dewar, Phys. Plasmas 15, 712 (1972)], and could form the basis of a reduced kinetic treatment of plasma dynamics for accelerator applications or Raman backscatter.
Self-consistent Langmuir waves in resonantly driven thermal plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lindberg, R. R.; Charman, A. E.; Wurtele, J. S.
2007-01-01
The longitudinal dynamics of a resonantly driven Langmuir wave are analyzed in the limit that the growth of the electrostatic wave is slow compared to the bounce frequency. Using simple physical arguments, the nonlinear distribution function is shown to be nearly invariant in the canonical particle action, provided both a spatially uniform term and higher-order spatial harmonics are included along with the fundamental in the longitudinal electric field. Requirements of self-consistency with the electrostatic potential yield the basic properties of the nonlinear distribution function, including a frequency shift that agrees closely with driven, electrostatic particle simulations over a range of temperatures. This extends earlier work on nonlinear Langmuir waves by Morales and O'Neil [G. J. Morales and T. M. O'Neil, Phys. Rev. Lett. 28, 417 (1972)] and Dewar [R. L. Dewar, Phys. Plasmas 15, 712 (1972)], and could form the basis of a reduced kinetic treatment of plasma dynamics for accelerator applications or Raman backscatter
Localization of waves in a fluctuating plasma
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Escande, D.F.; Souillard, B.
1984-01-01
We present the first application of localization theory to plasma physics: Density fluctuations induce exponential localization of longitudinal and transverse electron plasma waves, i.e., the eigenmodes have an amplitude decreasing exponentially for large distances without any dissipative mechanism in the plasma. This introduces a new mechanism for converting a convective instability into an absolute one. Localization should be observable in clear-cut experiments
Spatiotemporal synchronization of drift waves in a magnetron sputtering plasma
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Martines, E.; Zuin, M.; Cavazzana, R.; Antoni, V.; Serianni, G.; Spolaore, M.; Vianello, N. [Consorzio RFX, Padova (Italy); Adámek, J. [Institute of Plasma Physics AS CR, Prague (Czech Republic)
2014-10-15
A feedforward scheme is applied for drift waves control in a magnetized magnetron sputtering plasma. A system of driven electrodes collecting electron current in a limited region of the explored plasma is used to interact with unstable drift waves. Drift waves actually appear as electrostatic modes characterized by discrete wavelengths of the order of few centimeters and frequencies of about 100 kHz. The effect of external quasi-periodic, both in time and space, travelling perturbations is studied. Particular emphasis is given to the role played by the phase relation between the natural and the imposed fluctuations. It is observed that it is possible by means of localized electrodes, collecting currents which are negligible with respect to those flowing in the plasma, to transfer energy to one single mode and to reduce that associated to the others. Due to the weakness of the external action, only partial control has been achieved.
Spatiotemporal synchronization of drift waves in a magnetron sputtering plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Martines, E.; Zuin, M.; Cavazzana, R.; Antoni, V.; Serianni, G.; Spolaore, M.; Vianello, N.; Adámek, J.
2014-01-01
A feedforward scheme is applied for drift waves control in a magnetized magnetron sputtering plasma. A system of driven electrodes collecting electron current in a limited region of the explored plasma is used to interact with unstable drift waves. Drift waves actually appear as electrostatic modes characterized by discrete wavelengths of the order of few centimeters and frequencies of about 100 kHz. The effect of external quasi-periodic, both in time and space, travelling perturbations is studied. Particular emphasis is given to the role played by the phase relation between the natural and the imposed fluctuations. It is observed that it is possible by means of localized electrodes, collecting currents which are negligible with respect to those flowing in the plasma, to transfer energy to one single mode and to reduce that associated to the others. Due to the weakness of the external action, only partial control has been achieved
On the influence of electromagnetic wave and relativistic electron beam on a plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
El Ashry, M.Y.; Berezhiani, V.I.; Javakhishvili, J.L.
1993-08-01
The dynamics of nonlinear wave in plasma under the influence of high-frequency electromagnetic pump and relativistic electron beam is considered. It is shown that the electrons of the beam play the role of the heavy plasma component, the matter which creates a possibility of formation of wave of a soliton type in a pure electron plasma. The wave structure is investigated and the characteristic parameters of the soliton are obtained. (author). 8 refs
Non linear dynamic of Langmuir and electromagnetic waves in space plasmas
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Guede, Jose Ricardo Abalde
1995-11-01
The aim of this work is to study the nonlinear dynamics of Langmuir and electromagnetic waves in space plasmas. Firstly, the generalized Zakharov equations are derived which are used to study the hybrid parametric instability involving the generation of daughter Langmuir, electromagnetic and ion-acoustic waves induced by two counter-propagating Langmuir pump waves with different amplitudes based on a coupled dispersion relation. Secondly, starting from the generalized Zakharov equations the linear and nonlinear coupled mode theories of three-wave and four-wave parametric interactions are developed, respectively. In three-waves processes, a Langmuir wave decays into another Langmuir wave and an ion-acoustic wave (electrostatic parametric decay) or into an electromagnetic wave and an ion-acoustic wave (electromagnetic parametric decay). In four-wave (modulational) processes, the interaction involves two wave triplets: in the decay triplet a pump wave couples with a low-frequency wave to generate a Stokes wave, and in the fusion triplets: in the decay triplet a pump wave couples with a low-frequency wave to generate a Stokes wave, and in the fusion triplet the coupling of a pump wave with a low-frequency wave generate an anti-Stokes wave. These modulational processes are convective and resonant processes wherein the low-frequency modes are Eigenmodes of plasma and are known as the stimulated modulational processes. Four such processes are investigated in this thesis: two with Langmuir pump waves (electrostatic and hybrid stimulated modulation processes) and the other two with electromagnetic pump waves (stimulated modulation Brillouin scattering and electromagnetic stimulated modulation process). Applications of the theoretical results in space plasmas are discussed. In particular, it is shown that the electrostatic and electromagnetic parametric decay processes of Langmuir waves can model the generation and modulation of radio emissions and Langmuir waves in the
Submillimeter wave propagation in tokamak plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ma, C.H.; Hutchinson, D.P.; Staats, P.A.; Vander Sluis, K.L.; Mansfield, D.K.; Park, H.; Johnson, L.C.
1985-01-01
The propagation of submillimeter-waves (smm) in tokamak plasmas has been investigated both theoretically and experimentally to ensure successful measurements of electron density and plasma current distributions in tokamak devices. Theoretical analyses have been carried out to study the polarization of the smm waves in TFTR and ISX-B tokamaks. A multichord smm wave interferometer/polarimeter system has been employed to simultaneously measure the line electron density and poloidal field-induced Faraday rotation in the ISX-B tokamak. The experimental study on TFTR is under way. Computer codes have been developed and have been used to study the wave propagation and to reconstruct the distributions of plasma current and density from the measured data. The results are compared with other measurements
Submillimeter wave propagation in tokamak plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ma, C.H.; Hutchinson, D.P.; Staats, P.A.; Vander Sluis, K.L.; Mansfield, D.K.; Park, H.; Johnson, L.C.
1986-01-01
Propagation of submillimeter waves (smm) in tokamak plasma was investigated both theoretically and experimentally to ensure successful measurements of electron density and plasma current distributions in tokamak devices. Theoretical analyses were carried out to study the polarization of the smm waves in TFTR and ISX-B tokamaks. A multichord smm wave interferometer/polarimeter system was employed to simultaneously measure the line electron density and poloidal field-induced Faraday rotation in the ISX-B tokamak. The experimental study on TFTR is under way. Computer codes were developed and have been used to study the wave propagation and to reconstruct the distributions of plasma current and density from the measured data. The results are compared with other measurements. 5 references, 2 figures
Twisted electron-acoustic waves in plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aman-ur-Rehman; Ali, S.; Khan, S. A.; Shahzad, K.
2016-01-01
In the paraxial limit, a twisted electron-acoustic (EA) wave is studied in a collisionless unmagnetized plasma, whose constituents are the dynamical cold electrons and Boltzmannian hot electrons in the background of static positive ions. The analytical and numerical solutions of the plasma kinetic equation suggest that EA waves with finite amount of orbital angular momentum exhibit a twist in its behavior. The twisted wave particle resonance is also taken into consideration that has been appeared through the effective wave number q_e_f_f accounting for Laguerre-Gaussian mode profiles attributed to helical phase structures. Consequently, the dispersion relation and the damping rate of the EA waves are significantly modified with the twisted parameter η, and for η → ∞, the results coincide with the straight propagating plane EA waves. Numerically, new features of twisted EA waves are identified by considering various regimes of wavelength and the results might be useful for transport and trapping of plasma particles in a two-electron component plasma.
Kinetic Scale Structure of Low-frequency Waves and Fluctuations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
López, Rodrigo A.; Yoon, Peter H. [Institute for Physical Science and Technology, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Viñas, Adolfo F. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Heliophysics Science Division, Geospace Physics Laboratory, Mail Code 673, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Araneda, Jaime A., E-mail: rlopezh@umd.edu, E-mail: yoonp@umd.edu [Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Físicas y Matemáticas, Universidad de Concepción, Concepción (Chile)
2017-08-10
The dissipation of solar wind turbulence at kinetic scales is believed to be important for the heating of the corona and for accelerating the wind. The linear Vlasov kinetic theory is a useful tool for identifying various wave modes, including kinetic Alfvén, fast magnetosonic/whistler, and ion-acoustic (or kinetic slow), and their possible roles in the dissipation. However, the kinetic mode structure in the vicinity of ion-cyclotron modes is not clearly understood. The present paper aims to further elucidate the structure of these low-frequency waves by introducing discrete particle effects through hybrid simulations and Klimontovich formalism of spontaneous emission theory. The theory and simulation of spontaneously emitted low-frequency fluctuations are employed to identify and distinguish the detailed mode structures associated with ion-Bernstein modes versus quasi-modes. The spontaneous emission theory and simulation also confirm the findings of the Vlasov theory in that the kinetic Alfvén waves can be defined over a wide range of frequencies, including the proton cyclotron frequency and its harmonics, especially for high-beta plasmas. This implies that these low-frequency modes may play predominant roles even in the fully kinetic description of kinetic scale turbulence and dissipation despite the fact that cyclotron harmonic and Bernstein modes may also play important roles in wave–particle interactions.
Wave propagation in plasma-filled wave-guide
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Leprince, Philippe
1966-01-01
This research thesis reports the study of wave propagation along a plasma column without external magnetic field. The author first present and comment various theoretical results, and dispersion curves plotted for the main modes (particularly, the bipolar mode). He tries to define fundamental magnitudes which characterise a plasma-filled wave-guide. He reports the comparison of some experimental results with the previous theoretical results. Based on the study of the bipolar mode, the author develops a method of measurement of plasma column density. In the last part, the author reports the study of the resonance of a plasma-containing cavity. Several resonances are highlighted and new dispersion curves are plotted by using a varying length cavity. He also addresses the coupling of plasma modes with guide modes, and thus indicates the shape of Brillouin diagrams for a plasma-filled wave-guide. Moreover, some phenomena highlighted during plasma column density measurements by using the cavity method could then be explained [fr
Nonlinear waves in plasma with negative ion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Saito, Maki; Watanabe, Shinsuke; Tanaca, Hiroshi.
1984-01-01
The propagation of nonlinear ion wave is investigated theoretically in a plasma with electron, positive ion and negative ion. The ion wave of long wavelength is described by a modified K-dV equation instead of a K-dV equation when the nonlinear coefficient of the K-dV equation vanishes at the critical density of negative ion. In the vicinity of the critical density, the ion wave is described by a coupled K-dV and modified K-dV equation. The transition from a compressional soliton to a rarefactive soliton and vice versa are examined by the coupled equation as a function of the negative ion density. The ion wave of short wavelength is described by a nonlinear Schroedinger equation. In the plasma with a negative ion, the nonlinear coefficient of the nonlinear Schroedinger equation changes the sign and the ion wave becomes modulationally unstable. (author)
Stochastic growth of localized plasma waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Robinson, P.A.; Cairns, Iver H.
2001-01-01
Localized bursty plasma waves are detected by spacecraft in many space plasmas. The large spatiotemporal scales involved imply that beam and other instabilities relax to marginal stability and that mean wave energies are low. Stochastic wave growth occurs when ambient fluctuations perturb the system, causing fluctuations about marginal stability. This yields regions where growth is enhanced and others where damping is increased; bursts are associated with enhanced growth and can occur even when the mean growth rate is negative. In stochastic growth, energy loss from the source is suppressed relative to secular growth, preserving it far longer than otherwise possible. Linear stochastic growth can operate at wave levels below thresholds of nonlinear wave-clumping mechanisms such as strong-turbulence modulational instability and is not subject to their coherence and wavelength limits. These mechanisms can be distinguished by statistics of the fields, whose strengths are lognormally distributed if stochastically growing and power-law distributed in strong turbulence. Recent applications of stochastic growth theory (SGT) are described, involving bursty plasma waves and unstable particle distributions in type III solar radio sources, the Earth's foreshock, magnetosheath, and polar cap regions. It is shown that when combined with wave-wave processes, SGT also accounts for associated radio emissions
Frequency effects in silane plasmas for PECVD
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Howling, A.A.; Dorier, J.L.; Hollenstein, C.; Finger, F.; Kroll, U.
1991-09-01
It is generally recognised that the excitation frequency is an important parameter in rf plasma-assisted deposition. VHF silane plasmas (50-100 MHz) have been shown to produce high quality amorphous silicon films up to 20 A/s, and therefore the aim of this work is to compare the VHF range with the 13.56 MHz industrial frequency in the same reactor. The principal diagnostics used are electrical measurements and a CCD camera for spatially-resolved plasma-induced emission with Abel inversion of the plasma image. We present a comparative study of key discharge parameters such as deposition rates, plasma uniformity, ion impact energy, power transfer efficiency and powder formation for the rf range 13-70 MHz. (author) 5 figs., 19 refs
First results from the Cluster wideband plasma wave investigation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
D. A. Gurnett
2001-09-01
Full Text Available In this report we present the first results from the Cluster wideband plasma wave investigation. The four Cluster spacecraft were successfully placed in closely spaced, high-inclination eccentric orbits around the Earth during two separate launches in July – August 2000. Each spacecraft includes a wideband plasma wave instrument designed to provide high-resolution electric and magnetic field wave-forms via both stored data and direct downlinks to the NASA Deep Space Network. Results are presented for three commonly occurring magnetospheric plasma wave phenomena: (1 whistlers, (2 chorus, and (3 auroral kilometric radiation. Lightning-generated whistlers are frequently observed when the spacecraft is inside the plasmasphere. Usually the same whistler can be detected by all spacecraft, indicating that the whistler wave packet extends over a spatial dimension at least as large as the separation distances transverse to the magnetic field, which during these observations were a few hundred km. This is what would be expected for nonducted whistler propagation. No case has been found in which a strong whistler was detected at one spacecraft, with no signal at the other spacecraft, which would indicate ducted propagation. Whistler-mode chorus emissions are also observed in the inner region of the magnetosphere. In contrast to lightning-generated whistlers, the individual chorus elements seldom show a one-to-one correspondence between the spacecraft, indicating that a typical chorus wave packet has dimensions transverse to the magnetic field of only a few hundred km or less. In one case where a good one-to-one correspondence existed, significant frequency variations were observed between the spacecraft, indicating that the frequency of the wave packet may be evolving as the wave propagates. Auroral kilometric radiation, which is an intense radio emission generated along the auroral field lines, is frequently observed over the polar regions. The
First results from the Cluster wideband plasma wave investigation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
D. A. Gurnett
Full Text Available In this report we present the first results from the Cluster wideband plasma wave investigation. The four Cluster spacecraft were successfully placed in closely spaced, high-inclination eccentric orbits around the Earth during two separate launches in July – August 2000. Each spacecraft includes a wideband plasma wave instrument designed to provide high-resolution electric and magnetic field wave-forms via both stored data and direct downlinks to the NASA Deep Space Network. Results are presented for three commonly occurring magnetospheric plasma wave phenomena: (1 whistlers, (2 chorus, and (3 auroral kilometric radiation. Lightning-generated whistlers are frequently observed when the spacecraft is inside the plasmasphere. Usually the same whistler can be detected by all spacecraft, indicating that the whistler wave packet extends over a spatial dimension at least as large as the separation distances transverse to the magnetic field, which during these observations were a few hundred km. This is what would be expected for nonducted whistler propagation. No case has been found in which a strong whistler was detected at one spacecraft, with no signal at the other spacecraft, which would indicate ducted propagation. Whistler-mode chorus emissions are also observed in the inner region of the magnetosphere. In contrast to lightning-generated whistlers, the individual chorus elements seldom show a one-to-one correspondence between the spacecraft, indicating that a typical chorus wave packet has dimensions transverse to the magnetic field of only a few hundred km or less. In one case where a good one-to-one correspondence existed, significant frequency variations were observed between the spacecraft, indicating that the frequency of the wave packet may be evolving as the wave propagates. Auroral kilometric radiation, which is an intense radio emission generated along the auroral field lines, is frequently observed over the polar regions. The
Nonlinear plasma waves excitation by intense ion beams in background plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kaganovich, Igor D.; Startsev, Edward A.; Davidson, Ronald C.
2004-01-01
Plasma neutralization of an intense ion pulse is of interest for many applications, including plasma lenses, heavy ion fusion, cosmic ray propagation, etc. An analytical electron fluid model has been developed to describe the plasma response to a propagating ion beam. The model predicts very good charge neutralization during quasi-steady-state propagation, provided the beam pulse duration τ b is much longer than the electron plasma period 2π/ω p , where ω p =(4πe 2 n p /m) 1/2 is the electron plasma frequency, and n p is the background plasma density. In the opposite limit, the beam pulse excites large-amplitude plasma waves. If the beam density is larger than the background plasma density, the plasma waves break. Theoretical predictions are compared with the results of calculations utilizing a particle-in-cell (PIC) code. The cold electron fluid results agree well with the PIC simulations for ion beam propagation through a background plasma. The reduced fluid description derived in this paper can provide an important benchmark for numerical codes and yield scaling relations for different beam and plasma parameters. The visualization of numerical simulation data shows complex collective phenomena during beam entry and exit from the plasma
Nonlinear Plasma Waves Excitation by Intense Ion Beams in Background Plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kaganovich, Igor D.; Startsev, Edward A.; Davidson, Ronald C.
2004-01-01
Plasma neutralization of an intense ion pulse is of interest for many applications, including plasma lenses, heavy ion fusion, cosmic ray propagation, etc. An analytical electron fluid model has been developed to describe the plasma response to a propagating ion beam. The model predicts very good charge neutralization during quasi-steady-state propagation, provided the beam pulse duration τ b is much longer than the electron plasma period 2π/ω p , where ω p = (4πe 2 n p /m) 1/2 is the electron plasma frequency and n p is the background plasma density. In the opposite limit, the beam pulse excites large-amplitude plasma waves. If the beam density is larger than the background plasma density, the plasma waves break. Theoretical predictions are compared with the results of calculations utilizing a particle-in-cell (PIC) code. The cold electron fluid results agree well with the PIC simulations for ion beam propagation through a background plasma. The reduced fluid description derived in this paper can provide an important benchmark for numerical codes and yield scaling relations for different beam and plasma parameters. The visualization of numerical simulation data shows complex collective phenomena during beam entry and exit from the plasma
Scattering of Electromagnetic Waves by Drift Vortex in Plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang Dong; Chen Yinhua; Wang Ge
2008-01-01
In a quasi-two-dimensional model, the scattering of incident ordinary electromagnetic waves by a dipole-electrostatic drift vortex is studied with first-order Born approximation. The distribution of the scattering cross-section and total cross-section are evaluated analytically in different approximate conditions, and the physical interpretations are discussed. When the wavelength of incident wave is much longer than the vortex radius (k i a || 1), it is found that the angle at which the scattering cross-section reaches its maxim depends significantly on the approximation of the parameters of the vortex used. It is also found that the total scattering cross-section has an affinitive relation with the parameters of the plasma, while it is irrelevant to the frequency of the incident wave in a wide range of parameters of the vortex. In a totally different range of parameters when incident wave is in the radar-frequency range (then k i a || 1, the wavelength of incident wave is much shorter than the vortex radius), the numerical procedure is conducted with computer in order to obtain the distribution and the total expression of the scattering cross-section. Then it is found that the total scattering cross-section in the low frequency range is much larger than that in high frequency range, so the scattering is more effective in the low frequency range than in high frequency range.
Plasma rotation study in Tore Supra radio frequency heated plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chouli, Bilal
2014-01-01
Toroidal flows are found to improve the performance of the magnetic confinement devices with increase of the plasma stability and confinement. In ITER or future reactors, the torque from NBI should be less important than in present-day tokamaks. Consequently, it is of interest to study other intrinsic mechanisms that can give rise to plasma rotation in order to predict the rotation profile in experiments. Intriguing observations of plasmas rotation have been made in radio frequency (RF) heated plasmas with little or no external momentum injection. Toroidal rotation in both the direction of the plasma current (co-current) and in the opposite direction (counter-current) has been observed depending on the heating schemes and plasma performance. In Tore Supra, most observations in L-mode plasmas have been in the counter-current direction. However, in this thesis, we show that in lower hybrid current drive (LHCD), the core toroidal rotation increment is in co- or counter-current direction depending on the plasma current amplitude. At low plasma current the rotation change is in the co-current direction while at high plasma current, the change is in the counter-current direction. In both low and high plasma current cases, rotation increments are found to increase linearly with the injected LH power. Several mechanisms in competition which can induce co- or counter-current rotation in Tore Supra LHCD plasmas are investigated and typical order of magnitude are discussed in this thesis. (author) [fr
Recent results on the beat wave acceleration of externally injected electrons on a plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Clayton, C.E.; Marsh, K.; Dyson, A.; Everett, M.; Lal, A.; Josh, C.; Williams, R.; Katsouleas, T.
1992-01-01
In the Plasma Beat Wave Accelerator (PBWA) two laser beams of slightly different frequencies resonantly beat in a plasma in such a way that their frequency and wavenumber differences correspond to the plasma wave frequency and wavenumber. The amplitude-modulated electromagnetic wave envelope of the laser pulse exerts a periodic nonlinear force on the plasma electrons, causing them to bunch. The resulting space-charge wave can have a phase velocity nearly equal to the speed of light. If an electron bunch is injected with a velocity close to this it can be trapped and accelerated. The UCLA program investigating PBWA has found that tunnel or multi-photon ionized plasmas a re homogeneous enough for coherent macroscopic acceleration. The laser pulse should be short, and the peak laser intensity should be such that Iλ 2 ∼ 2 x 10 16 W/cm 2 μm 2 in order to get substantial beat wave amplitudes. tab., 3 refs
Time variations of hf induced plasma waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Showen, R.L.
1976-01-01
Intense plasma waves are generated by an HF pump wave in an ionospheric heating experiment at the Arecibo Observatory. These plasma waves can be observed as enhancements to the ion and plasma lines of the incoherent backscatter echo. The enhancements can be three or four orders of magnitude more intense than the unenhanced lines, and tend to fluctuate wildly. Both the purely growing and the decay mode parametric instabilities are present. When the pump wave is turned on abruptly the enhancements develop in time in a repeatable manner. A rather remarkable feature on time scales of seconds is an overshoot in instability power. These overshoots occur frequently but not universally and last for 1 to 6 seconds. They can have a magnitude from ten to hundreds of times the average instability level. Field aligned irregularities may be the cause of the overshoots. The overshoots appear definitely related to an unusually rapid rise in measured electron temperature that cannot be understood in terms of ohmic energy deposition. On time scales of milliseconds there is a ''mini-overshoot'' before the growth of the instability to a large value. The spectral details also change in a striking manner. The instabilities can first be detected 2 to 4 msec after the pump wave turn-on. The decay mode is present as well as a broad featureless ''noise bump'', which partially sharpens into a line as time progresses. These changes of the spectra in time seem to run counter to the currently accepted theories of plasma wave saturation
Benson, Robert F.; Fung, Shing F.
2008-01-01
Many plasma-wave phenomena, observed by space-borne radio sounders, cannot be properly explained in terms of wave propagation in a cold plasma consisting of mobile electrons and infinitely massive positive ions. These phenomena include signals known as plasma resonances. The principal resonances at the harmonics of the electron cyclotron frequency, the plasma frequency, and the upper-hybrid frequency are well explained by the warm-plasma propagation of sounder-generated electrostatic waves, Other resonances have been attributed to sounder-stimulated plasma instability and non-linear effects, eigenmodes of cylindrical electromagnetic plasma oscillations, and plasma memory processes. Data from the topside sounders of the International Satellites for Ionospheric Studies (ISIS) program played a major role in these interpretations. A data transformation and preservation effort at the Goddard Space Flight Center has produced digital ISIS topside ionograms and a metadata search program that has enabled some recent discoveries pertaining to the physics of these plasma resonances. For example, data records were obtained that enabled the long-standing question (several decades) of the origin of the plasma resonance at the fundamental electron cyclotron frequency to be explained [Muldrew, Radio Sci., 2006]. These data-search capabilities, and the science enabled by them, will be presented as a guide to desired data search capabilities to be included in the Virtual Wave Observatory (VWO).
The influence of multiple ion species on Alfven wave dispersion and Alfven wave plasma heating
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Elfimov, A.G.; Tataronis, J.A.; Hershkowitz, N.
1994-01-01
In this paper, the effects of light impurities, such as deuterium, helium, or carbon, on Alfven wave dispersion characteristics are explored. It is shown that a small population of light impurities in a hydrogen plasma modify the dispersion of the global Alfven waves and the Alfven continuum in such a way that the wave frequency depends weakly on the toroidal wave number. It is also shown that the global Alfven wave enters into the Alfven continuum. Under these conditions, it is possible to heat plasma efficiently by employing an antenna with a broad toroidal wavelength spectrum. The relationship between impurity concentration and the efficiency of Alfven wave heating is explored. Under appropriate conditions, the results indicate that in the presence of impurities, Alfven waves can heat electrons predominantly in the central part of the plasma. This effect is explored via a series of numerical calculations of the heating specifically for the Phaedrus-T Alfven wave heating experiment [Phys. Fluids B 5, 2506 (1993)
Particle acceleration by plasma waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Joshi, C.
2006-01-01
In an advanced particle accelerator particles are driven near by light velocity through ionized gas. Such plasma devices are compact, cost efficient and usable in many fields. Examples are given in detail. (GL)
Ion Bernstein wave heating in a multi-component plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Puri, S.
1980-10-01
Conditions for the coupling and absorption of Gross-Bernstein ion-cyclotron waves in a multi-component plasma are examined. Two cases are distinguished depending upon whether, the antenna initially launches, (i) the quasi-torsional slow electromagnetic wave with azimuthal magnetic field (TM) polarization, or (ii) the quasi-compressional fast wave with the electric field oriented azimuthally (TE). Analytic expressions for the plasma surface impedance are derived taking into account the pertinent warm plasma modifications near the vacuum-plasma interface. Antenna configurations capable of efficient coupling of the radio frequency energy to these modes are studied. A method for simulating waveguide like launching using transmission lines is pointed out. It is found that impurity concentrations exceeding a few parts in a thousand are capable of competing with the bulk ions in the energy absorption processes; this could lead to energy deposition near the plasma edge. Measures for avoiding edge heating problems by a careful choice of parameters e.g. restricting the heating frequency to the fundamental ion gyrofrequency are outlined. Equal care is to be exercised in limiting the nsub(z) spectrum to low discrete values in order to avoid the potentially dangerous problem of runaway electron heating. (orig.)
Dispersion and energy conservation relations of surface waves in semi-infinite plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Atanassov, V.
1981-01-01
The hydrodynamic theory of surface wave propagation in semi-infinite homogeneous isotropic plasma is considered. Explicit linear surface wave solutions are given for the electric and magnetic fields, charge and current densities. These solutions are used to obtain the well-known dispersion relations and, together with the general energy conservation equation, to find appropriate definitions for the energy and the energy flow densities of surface waves. These densities are associated with the dispersion relation and the group velocity by formulae similar to those for bulk waves in infinite plasmas. Both cases of high-frequency (HF) and low-frequency (LF) surface waves are considered. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Matsuda, Y.; Crawford, F.W.
1975-01-01
An economical low-noise plasma simulation model originated by Denavit is applied to a series of problems associated with electrostatic wave propagation in a one-dimensional, collisionless, Maxwellian plasma, in the absence of magnetic field. The model is described and tested, first in the absence of an applied signal, and then with a small amplitude perturbation. These tests serve to establish the low-noise features of the model, and to verify the theoretical linear dispersion relation at wave energy levels as low as 10 -6 of the plasma thermal energy: Better quantitative results are obtained, for comparable computing time, than can be obtained by conventional particle simulation models, or direct solution of the Vlasov equation. The method is then used to study propagation of an essentially monochromatic plane wave. Results on amplitude oscillation and nonlinear frequency shift are compared with available theories
Reflection and absorption of ion-acoustic waves in a plasma density gradient
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ishihara, O.
1977-01-01
Plasma is characterized by electrical quasineutrality and the collective behavior. There exists a longitudinal low-frequency wave called an ion-acoustic wave in a plasma. One problem in the experimental study of ion-acoustic waves has been that sometimes they are observed to be reflected from discharge tube walls, and sometimes to be absorbed. Theoretical computation reveals that a velocity gradient produced by a density gradient plays a significant role in the reflection. The velocity gradient produces the subsonic-supersonic transition and long wavelength waves are reflected before reaching the transition while short wavelength waves penetrate over the transition and are absorbed in the supersonic flow plasma
Plasma heating by kinetic Alfven wave
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Assis, A.S. de.
1982-01-01
The heating of a nonuniform plasma (electron-ion) due to the resonant excitation of the shear Alfven wave in the low β regime is studied using initially the ideal MHD model and posteriorly using the kinetic model. The Vlasov equation for ions and the drift kinetic equation for electrons have been used. Through the ideal MHD model, it is concluded that the energy absorption is due to the continuous spectrum (phase mixing) which the shear Alfven wave has in a nonuniform plasma. An explicit expression for the energy absorption is derived. Through the kinetic model it is concluded that the energy absorption is due to a resonant mode convertion of the incident wave into the kinetic Alfven wave which propagates away from the resonant region. Its electron Landau damping has been observed. There has been a concordance with the MHD calculations. (Author) [pt
On creating transport barrier by radio-frequency waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sen, S.; Cairns, R.A.; Dasgupta, B.; Pantis, G.
1998-01-01
The use of radio frequency (RF) waves in the range of Alfven frequencies is shown to stabilize the drift-ballooning modes in the tokamak if the radial profile of the RF field energy is properly chosen. Stabilization is achieved by the ponder motive force arising due to the radial gradient in the RF field energy. The estimate of the RF power required for this stabilization is found to be rather modest and hence should be easily obtained in the actual experiments. This result therefore shows that the use of the RF waves can create a transport barrier to reduce the loss of particle and energy from the plasma. The new improved mode produced by the RF is expected to have all the advantageous features of the enhanced reverse shear (ERS) modes and at the same time will, unlike the ERS plasma, be sustainable for unlimited period of time and hence should be an attractive choice for the reactor-grade self-sustaining plasma. (author)
On the Self-Focusing of Whistler Waves in a Radial Inhomogeneous Plasma
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Balmashnov, A. A.
1980-01-01
The process of whistler wave self-focusing is experimentally investigated. It was found that a whistler wave propagating along the plasma column with a density crest excites a longitudinal wave of the same frequency propagating across the external magnetic field. The amplitude modulation of the l......The process of whistler wave self-focusing is experimentally investigated. It was found that a whistler wave propagating along the plasma column with a density crest excites a longitudinal wave of the same frequency propagating across the external magnetic field. The amplitude modulation...... of the latter wave is accompanied by a density modification, which leads to trapping of the whistler wave in a density trough in the center of the plasma column....
Exponential frequency spectrum and Lorentzian pulses in magnetized plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pace, D. C.; Shi, M.; Maggs, J. E.; Morales, G. J.; Carter, T. A.
2008-01-01
Two different experiments involving pressure gradients across the confinement magnetic field in a large plasma column are found to exhibit a broadband turbulence that displays an exponential frequency spectrum for frequencies below the ion cyclotron frequency. The exponential feature has been traced to the presence of solitary pulses having a Lorentzian temporal signature. These pulses arise from nonlinear interactions of drift-Alfven waves driven by the pressure gradients. In both experiments the width of the pulses is narrowly distributed resulting in exponential spectra with a single characteristic time scale. The temporal width of the pulses is measured to be a fraction of a period of the drift-Alfven waves. The experiments are performed in the Large Plasma Device (LAPD-U) [W. Gekelman et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 62, 2875 (1991)] operated by the Basic Plasma Science Facility at the University of California, Los Angeles. One experiment involves a controlled, pure electron temperature gradient associated with a microscopic (6 mm gradient length) hot electron temperature filament created by the injection a small electron beam embedded in the center of a large, cold magnetized plasma. The other experiment is a macroscopic (3.5 cm gradient length) limiter-edge experiment in which a density gradient is established by inserting a metallic plate at the edge of the nominal plasma column of the LAPD-U. The temperature filament experiment permits a detailed study of the transition from coherent to turbulent behavior and the concomitant change from classical to anomalous transport. In the limiter experiment the turbulence sampled is always fully developed. The similarity of the results in the two experiments strongly suggests a universal feature of pressure-gradient driven turbulence in magnetized plasmas that results in nondiffusive cross-field transport. This may explain previous observations in helical confinement devices, research tokamaks, and arc plasmas.
The interaction of an electromagnetic wave with an inhomogeneous plasma slab
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lacina, J.; Preinhaelter, J.
1982-07-01
In connection with the problem of plasma heating by high-frequency waves a numerical code was developed which makes it possible to study the incidence of an electromagnetic wave on an inhomogeneous plasma slab. Using a one-dimensional model, non-magnetized plasma is described by means of two-fluid equations with finite electron pressure and with the adiabatic condition for all processes. It is shown that at normal incidence of a wave on a cold plasma, the wave is reflected from the region of plasma resonance. A standing wave arises which generates an electrostatic standing wave of a double frequency. At the same time the density gradient sharply rises in this region. In a warm plasma the incident wave again creates a standing wave but nonlinear perturbations propagate from the region of plasma resonance at ion acoustic velocity to the whole plasma volume. In this case the density gradient does not change very much. In the region of plasma resonance ion acoustic waves are also generated. (author)
Shock Wave Dynamics in Weakly Ionized Plasmas
Johnson, Joseph A., III
1999-01-01
An investigation of the dynamics of shock waves in weakly ionized argon plasmas has been performed using a pressure ruptured shock tube. The velocity of the shock is observed to increase when the shock traverses the plasma. The observed increases cannot be accounted for by thermal effects alone. Possible mechanisms that could explain the anomalous behavior include a vibrational/translational relaxation in the nonequilibrium plasma, electron diffusion across the shock front resulting from high electron mobility, and the propagation of ion-acoustic waves generated at the shock front. Using a turbulence model based on reduced kinetic theory, analysis of the observed results suggest a role for turbulence in anomalous shock dynamics in weakly ionized media and plasma-induced hypersonic drag reduction.
Alfven wave absorption in dissipative plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gavrikov, M B; Taiurskii, A A
2017-01-01
We consider nonlinear absorption of Alfven waves due to dissipative effects in plasma and relaxation of temperatures of electrons and ions. This study is based on an exact solution of the equations of two-fluid electromagnetic hydrodynamics (EMHD) of plasma. It is shown that in order to study the decay of Alfven waves, it suffices to examine the behavior of their amplitudes whose evolution is described by a system of ordinary differential equations (ODEs) obtained in this paper. On finite time intervals, the system of equations on the amplitudes is studied numerically, while asymptotic integration (the Hartman-Grobman theorem) is used to examine its large-time behavior. (paper)
Solitons and nonlinear waves in space plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stasiewicz, K.
2005-01-01
Recent measurements made on the ESA/NASA Cluster mission to the Earth's magnetosphere have provided first detailed measurements of magnetosonic solitons in space. The solitons represent localized enhancements of the magnetic field by a factor of 2-10, or depressions down to 10% of the ambient field. The magnetic field signatures are associated with density depressions/enhancements A two-fluid model of nonlinear electron and ion inertial waves in anisotropic plasmas explains the main properties of these structures. It is shown that warm plasmas support four types of nonlinear waves, which correspond to four linear modes: Alfvenic, magnetosonic, sound, and electron inertial waves. Each of these nonlinear modes has slow and fast versions. It is shown by direct integration that the exponential growth rate of nonlinear modes is balanced by the ion and electron dispersion leading to solutions in the form of trains of solitons or cnoidal waves. By using a novel technique of phase portraits it is shown how the dispersive properties of electron and ion inertial waves change at the transition between warm and hot plasmas, and how trains of solitons ('' mirror modes '') are produced in a hot, anisotropic plasma. The applicability of the model is illustrated with data from Cluster spacecraft. (author)
Dispersion relation of electromagnetic waves in one-dimensional plasma photonic crystals
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hojo, Hitoshi; Mase, Atsushi
2004-01-01
The dispersion relation of electromagnetic waves in one-dimensional plasma photonic crystals is studied. The plasma photonic crystal is a periodic array composed of alternating thin plasma and dielectric material. The dispersion relation is obtained by solving a Maxwell wave equation using a method analogous to Kronig-Penny's problem in quantum mechanics, and it is found that the frequency gap and cut-off appear in the dispersion relation. The frequency gap is shown to become larger with the increase of the plasma density as well as plasma width. (author)
Resonance absorption of ICRF wave in edge plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sugihara, Ryo; Yamanaka, Kaoru.
1987-07-01
An edge plasma is shown to significantly absorb ICRF wave when a resonant triplet, a cutoff-resonance-cutoff triplet, is constructed in the evanescent region. Two-ion-component plasmas in a torus are considered though the plasmas are modeled by a slab in which the density changes linearly along the x-axis. The resonance is a perpendicular-ion-cyclotron resonance, i.e., an Alfven resonance, and is formed when the applied frequency ω is smaller than the local cyclotron frequency, at the edge of the antenna side, of the lighter species of ions. Roughly the absorption rate A b is given by M 2 for M 2 >> S 2 and S 4 for S 2 >> M 2 where M = k y l and S ≅ k z l and l is a scale length of the order of the plasma minor radius and k y and k z are the perpendicular and the parallel components of the wave vector. It is noted that the both quantities, M and S, readily become of the order of unity. Since A b is not very sensitive to the density ratio of the two ion species, a few percent of impurities may cause a significant absorption. As the mass ratio of the two ion species comes close to unity the triplet forms readily. Therefore a D-T plasma seems to suffer more easily this kind of resonance absorption than a D-H plasma. (author)
Radio frequency induction plasma spraying of molybdenum
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jiang Xianliang
2003-01-01
Radio frequency (RF) induction plasma was used to make free-standing deposition of molybdenum (Mo). The phenomena of particle melting, flattening, and stacking were investigated. The effect of process parameters such as plasma power, chamber pressure, and spray distance on the phenomena mentioned above was studied. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to analyze the plasma-processed powder, splats formed, and deposits obtained. Experimental results show that less Mo particles are spheroidized when compared to the number of spheroidized tungsten (W) particles at the same powder feed rate under the same plasma spray condition. Molten Mo particles can be sufficiently flattened on substrate. The influence of the process parameters on the flattening behavior is not significant. Mo deposit is not as dense as W deposit, due to the splash and low impact of molten Mo particles. Oxidation of the Mo powder with a large particle size is not evident under the low pressure plasma spray
Propagation of a surface electromagnetic wave in a plasma with allowance for electron heating
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Boev, A.G.; Prokopov, A.V.
1978-01-01
Considered is propagation of a surface high-frequency wave in a semibounded plasma, which electron component is heated within the wave field. Dissipative effects are considered small, that is possible if wave frequency is much higher than the collision frequency and phase velocity of wave considerably exceeds electron heat velocity. Under conditions of anomalous skin-effect the distributions of electron temperature and wave damping have been found. It is established, that higher electron temperature on the boundary results in a higher decrease of temperature inside a plasma, far from the boundary temperature decreases exponentially; damping coefficient under anomalous skin-effect conditions is characterized by a stronger dependence not only on the wave amplitude, but as well as on gas pressure and wave frequency in comparison with normal conditions
Stationary quenching wave in magnetized plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Alikhanov, S.G.; Glushkov, I.S.
1976-01-01
The interaction of a magnetized hot plasma (ωsub(e)tau sub(e)>>1) with cold plasma or a gas leads to the appearanci of a cooling wave. The transition layer between hot and cold plasma is the main source of radiation losses which should be compensated by a heat flow from the hot region. A stationary state is considered, equations are written in the system in which temperature and magnetic field profiles are steady, and the plasma flux with magnetic field passes through the cooling wave. Calculations, have been carried out on a computer. The dependence of the magnetized plasma flux velocity Vsub(r) on the ratio p/Hsub(r) is shown, where p is the pressure, Hsub(r) is the magnetic field in the hot reqion. The dependence of the characteristic dimension of the cooling wave on the magnetic field is determined for the hot plasma region. A considerable fraction of the rediation losses is shown to fall to the region of (ωsub(e)tausub(e)< or approximately)1
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bell, T.F.; Ngo, H.D.
1990-01-01
Recent satellite observations demonstrate that high amplitude, short wavelength (5 m ≤ λ ≤ 100 m) electrostatic waves are commonly excited by electromagnetic whistler mode waves propagating in regions of the magnetosphere and topside ionosphere where small-scale magnetic-field-aligned plasma density irregularities are thought to exist. A new theoretical model of this phenomenon is presented, based upon passive linear scattering in a cold magnetoplasma. In this model the electrostatic waves are excited by linear mode coupling as the incident electromagnetic whistler mode waves scatter from the magnetic-field-aligned plasma density irregularities. The excited short wavelength waves are quasi-electrostatic whistler mode waves, a type of lower hybrid wave, whose wave normal lies near the whistler mode resonance cone where the wave refractive index becomes very large. The amplitude of the excited electrostatic lower hybrid waves is calculated for a wide range of values of input electromagnetic wave frequency, wave normal direction, electron plasma frequency, gyrofrequency, ion composition, and irregularity scale and density enhancement. Results indicate that high amplitude lower hybrid waves can be excited over a wide range of parameters for irregularity density enhancements as low as 5% whenever the scale of the irregularity is of the same order as the lower hybrid wavelength
Ionospheric electron acceleration by electromagnetic waves near regions of plasma resonances
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Villalon, E.
1989-01-01
Electron acceleration by electromagnetic fields propagating in the inhomogeneous ionospheric plasma is investigated. It is found that high-amplitude short wavelength electrostatic waves are generated by the incident electromagnetic fields that penetrate the radio window. These waves can very efficiently transfer their energy to the electrons if the incident frequency is near the second harmonic of the cyclotron frequency
Nonlinear electrostatic wave equations for magnetized plasmas - II
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Dysthe, K. B.; Mjølhus, E.; Pécseli, H. L.
1985-01-01
For pt.I see ibid., vol.26, p.443-7 (1984). The problem of extending the high frequency part of the Zakharov equations for nonlinear electrostatic waves to magnetized plasmas, is considered. Weak electromagnetic and thermal effects are retained on an equal footing. Direction dependent (electrosta......For pt.I see ibid., vol.26, p.443-7 (1984). The problem of extending the high frequency part of the Zakharov equations for nonlinear electrostatic waves to magnetized plasmas, is considered. Weak electromagnetic and thermal effects are retained on an equal footing. Direction dependent...... (electrostatic) cut-off implies that various cases must be considered separately, leading to equations with rather different properties. Various equations encountered previously in the literature are recovered as limiting cases....
Gurnett, D. A.
2017-12-01
Voyager 1, which is now 140 AU (Astronomical Units) from the Sun, crossed the heliopause into interstellar space in 2012 at a heliospheric radial distance of 121 AU. Since crossing the heliopause the plasma wave instrument has on several occasions detected plasma oscillations and radio emissions at or near the electron plasma frequency. The most notable of these events occurred in Oct.-Nov. 2012, April-May 2013, Feb.-Nov. 2014, and Sept.-Nov. 2015. Most recently, a very weak emission has been observed at or near the electron plasma frequency through most of 2016. These emissions are all believed to be produced by shock waves propagating into the interstellar medium from energetic solar events. The oscillation frequency of the plasma indicates that the electron density in the interstellar plasma has gradually increased from about 0.06 cm-3 near the heliopause to about 0.12 cm-3 in the most recent data. The plasma wave instrument also continues to detect impacts of what are believed to be interstellar dust grains at an impact rate of a few per year. Comparisons with Ulysses observations of similar interstellar dust near 5 AU suggest that the dust grains have sizes in the range from about 0.1 to 1 micrometer. Although the statistics are poor due to the low count rate, the dust flux observed in the outer heliosphere appears to be as much as a factor of two greater than that observed in the interstellar medium. Since the dust particles are likely to be charged, this increase in the heliosphere suggests that there may be a significant electrodynamic interaction of the dust particles with the heliospheric magnetic field.
High-frequency conductivity of photoionized plasma
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Anakhov, M. V.; Uryupin, S. A., E-mail: uryupin@sci.lebedev.ru [National Research Nuclear University “MEPhI,” (Russian Federation)
2016-08-15
The tensor of the high-frequency conductivity of a plasma created via tunnel ionization of atoms in the field of linearly or circularly polarized radiation is derived. It is shown that the real part of the conductivity tensor is highly anisotropic. In the case of a toroidal velocity distribution of photoelectrons, the possibility of amplification of a weak high-frequency field polarized at a sufficiently large angle to the anisotropy axis of the initial nonequilibrium distribution is revealed.
Counterstreaming magnetized plasmas. II. Perpendicular wave propagation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tautz, R.C.; Schlickeiser, R.
2006-01-01
The properties of longitudinal and transverse oscillations in magnetized symmetric counterstreaming Maxwellian plasmas with equal thermal velocities for waves propagating perpendicular to the stream direction are investigated on the basis of Maxwell equations and the nonrelativistic Vlasov equation. With the constraint of vanishing particle flux in the stream direction, three distinct dispersion relations are known, which are the ordinary-wave mode, the Bernstein wave mode, and the extraordinary electromagnetic wave mode, where the latter two are only approximations. In this article, all three dispersion relations are evaluated for a counterstreaming Maxwellian distribution function in terms of the hypergeometric function 2 F 2 . The growth rates for the ordinary-wave mode are compared to earlier results by Bornatici and Lee [Phys. Fluids 13, 3007 (1970)], who derived approximate results, whereas in this article the exact dispersion relation is solved numerically. The original results are therefore improved and show differences of up to 21% to the results obtained in this article
Gravitational instability in isotropic MHD plasma waves
Cherkos, Alemayehu Mengesha
2018-04-01
The effect of compressive viscosity, thermal conductivity and radiative heat-loss functions on the gravitational instability of infinitely extended homogeneous MHD plasma has been investigated. By taking in account these parameters we developed the six-order dispersion relation for magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) waves propagating in a homogeneous and isotropic plasma. The general dispersion relation has been developed from set of linearized basic equations and solved analytically to analyse the conditions of instability and instability of self-gravitating plasma embedded in a constant magnetic field. Our result shows that the presence of viscosity and thermal conductivity in a strong magnetic field substantially modifies the fundamental Jeans criterion of gravitational instability.
Waves in inhomogeneous plasma of cylindrical geometry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rebut, P.H.
1966-01-01
The conductivity tensor of a hot and inhomogeneous plasma has been calculated for a cylindrical geometry using Vlasov equations. The method used consists in a perturbation method involving the first integrals of the unperturbed movement. The conductivity tensor will be particularly useful for dealing with stability problems. In the case of a cold plasma the wave equation giving the electric fields as a function of the radius is obtained. This equation shows the existence of resonant layers which lead to an absorption analogous to the Landau absorption in a hot plasma. (author) [fr
Electron Landau damping of ion Bernstein waves in tokamak plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brambilla, M.
1998-01-01
Absorption of ion Bernstein (IB) waves by electrons is investigated. These waves are excited by linear mode conversion in tokamak plasmas during fast wave (FW) heating and current drive experiments in the ion cyclotron range of frequencies. Near mode conversion, electromagnetic corrections to the local dispersion relation largely suppress electron Landau damping of these waves, which becomes important again, however, when their wavelength is comparable to the ion Larmor radius or shorter. The small Larmor radius wave equations solved by most numerical codes do not correctly describe the onset of electron Landau damping at very short wavelengths, and these codes, therefore, predict very little damping of IB waves, in contrast to what one would expect from the local dispersion relation. We present a heuristic, but quantitatively accurate, model which allows account to be taken of electron Landau damping of IB waves in such codes, without affecting the damping of the compressional wave or the efficiency of mode conversion. The possibilities and limitations of this approach are discussed on the basis of a few examples, obtained by implementing this model in the toroidal axisymmetric full wave code TORIC. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cros, Brigitte
1989-01-01
This research thesis reports the study of the non linear evolution of plasma waves excited by mode conversion in a non homogeneous, non collisional, and free-of-external-magnetic-field plasma. Experiments performed in the microwave domain in a plasma created by means of a multi-polar device show that the evolution of plasma waves displays a transition between a non linear quasi-steady regime and a stochastic regime when the power of incident electromagnetic waves or plasma gradient length is increased. These regimes are characterized through a numerical resolution of Zakharov equations which describe the coupled evolution of plasma wave envelope and low frequency density perturbations [fr
Plasma waves generated by rippled magnetically focused electron beams surrounded by tenuous plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cuperman, S.; Petran, F.
1982-01-01
This chapter investigates the electrostatic instability and the corresponding unstable wave spectrum of magnetically focused neutralized rippled electron beams under spacelike conditions. Topics considered include general equations and equilibrium, the derivation of the dispersion relation, and the solution of the dispersion relation (long wavelength perturbations, short wavelength perturbations, the rippled beam). The results indicate that in the long wavelength limit two types of instability (extending over different frequency ranges) exist. An instability of the beam-plasma type occurs due to the interaction between the beam electrons and the surrounding plasm electrons at the beam-plasma interface. A parametric type instability is produced by the coupling of a fast forward wave and a fast backward wave due to the rippling (modulation) of the beam. It is demonstrated that in the short wavelength limit, surface waves which are stable for the laminar beam may become unstable in the rippled beam case
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yi Sumin; Ryu, C.-M.; Yoon, Peter H.
2003-01-01
The nonlinear frequency shift of a low-frequency, coherent dust-acoustic wave in the presence of higher frequency dust-acoustic turbulence is investigated in the framework of weak turbulence theory. It is found that the frequency shift of the dust-acoustic wave in an unmagnetized dusty plasma is always positive irrespective of the propagation direction of the coherent wave. It is also found that turbulent waves propagating in the same direction as the coherent wave are shown to give rise to a much higher frequency shift than the opposite case. Finally, it is shown that the nonlinear frequency shift of a dust-acoustic wave is more pronounced than in the case of the customary ion-acoustic waves in fully ionized plasmas
Solitons and Weakly Nonlinear Waves in Plasmas
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pécseli, Hans
1985-01-01
Theoretical descriptions of solitons and weakly nonlinear waves propagating in plasma media are reviewed, with particular attention to the Korteweg-de Vries (KDV) equation and the Nonlinear Schrödinger equation (NLS). The modifications of these basic equations due to the effects of resonant...
FDTD Simulation on Terahertz Waves Propagation Through a Dusty Plasma
Wang, Maoyan; Zhang, Meng; Li, Guiping; Jiang, Baojun; Zhang, Xiaochuan; Xu, Jun
2016-08-01
The frequency dependent permittivity for dusty plasmas is provided by introducing the charging response factor and charge relaxation rate of airborne particles. The field equations that describe the characteristics of Terahertz (THz) waves propagation in a dusty plasma sheath are derived and discretized on the basis of the auxiliary differential equation (ADE) in the finite difference time domain (FDTD) method. Compared with numerical solutions in reference, the accuracy for the ADE FDTD method is validated. The reflection property of the metal Aluminum interlayer of the sheath at THz frequencies is discussed. The effects of the thickness, effective collision frequency, airborne particle density, and charge relaxation rate of airborne particles on the electromagnetic properties of Terahertz waves through a dusty plasma slab are investigated. Finally, some potential applications for Terahertz waves in information and communication are analyzed. supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 41104097, 11504252, 61201007, 41304119), the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (Nos. ZYGX2015J039, ZYGX2015J041), and the Specialized Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education of China (No. 20120185120012)
Lagrangian analysis of nonlinear wave-wave interactions in bounded plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Carr, A.R.
1979-01-01
In a weakly turbulent nonlinear wave-supporting medium, one of the important nonlinear processes which may occur is resonant three-wave interaction. Whitham's averaged Lagrangian method provides a general formulation of wave evolution laws which is easily adapted to nonlinear dispersive media. In this thesis, the strength of nonlinear interactions between three coherent, axisymmetric, low frequency, magnetohydrodynamic (Alfven) waves propagating in resonance along a cold cylindrical magnetized plasma column is calculated. Both a uniform and a parabolic density distribution have been considered. To account for a non-zero plasma temperature, pressure effects have been included. Distinctive features of the work are the use of cylindrical geometry, the presence of a finite rather than an infinite axial magnetic field, the treatment of a parabolic density distribution, and the inclusion of both ion and electron contributions in all expressions. Two astrophysical applications of the presented theory have been considered. In the first, the possibility of resonant three-wave coupling between geomagnetic micropulsations, which propagate as Alfven or magnetosonic waves along the Earth's magnetic field lines, has been investigated. The second case is the theory of energy transport through the solar chromosphere by upward propagating magnetohydrodynamic waves, which may then couple to heavily damped waves in the corona, causing the observed excess heating in that region
Modeling of physical processes in radio-frequency plasma thrusters
Tian, Bin
2017-01-01
This Thesis presents an investigation of the plasma-wave interaction in Helicon Plasma Thrusters (HPT). The HPT is a new concept of electric space propulsion, which generates plasmas with RF heating and provides thrust by the electrodeless acceleration of plasmas in a magnetic nozzle. An in-depth and extensive literature review of the state of the art of the models and experiments of plasma-wave interaction in helicon plasma sources and thrusters is carried out. Then, a theoret...
Studies of hydromagnetic waves and oscillations in plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sawley, M.L.
1980-10-01
Small amplitude magnetoacoustic oscillations in a partially ionized, non-uniform, current carrying plasma column of finite beta are considered. The linearized magnetohydrodynamic equations are used to develop a theory describing both free and forced magnetoacoustic oscillations. The results of numerical calculations are given for the specific case of diffuse pinch equilibrium configurations. In an experimental study the amplitude of the oscillating axial magnetic flux is determined for several frequencies in the vicinity of the first magnetoacoustic resonance. Accurate determination of the plasma density profile is shown to be possible. Finite-amplitude effects on the propagation of axisymmetric hydromagnetic waves are examined. A nonlinear theory is developed which describes the second-order perturbation that accompanies the primary wave. The influence of Hall currents and the presence of neutral atoms on the second-order fields is treated. In an investigation on the propagation of torsional waves the observed second-order fields are shown to exhibit good quantitative agreement with theoretical calculations for moderate primary wave amplitudes. The re-ionization of the plasma by a torsional wave is investigated. A theoretical description is given of the nonlinear excitation of magnetoacoustic oscillations by means of an oscillating axial current
Guo, Li-xin; Chen, Wei; Li, Jiang-ting; Ren, Yi; Liu, Song-hua
2018-05-01
The dielectric coefficient of a weakly ionised dusty plasma is used to establish a three-dimensional time and space inhomogeneous dusty plasma sheath. The effects of scattering on electromagnetic (EM) waves in this dusty plasma sheath are investigated using the auxiliary differential equation finite-difference time-domain method. Backward radar cross-sectional values of various parameters, including the dust particle radius, charging frequency of dust particles, dust particle concentration, effective collision frequency, rate of the electron density variation with time, angle of EM wave incidence, and plasma frequency, are analysed within the time and space inhomogeneous plasma sheath. The results show the noticeable effects of dusty plasma parameters on EM waves.
Stochastic growth of localized plasma waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Robinson, P.A.; Cairns, I.H.
2000-01-01
Full text: Localized bursty plasma waves occur in many natural systems, where they are detected by spacecraft. The large spatiotemporal scales involved imply that beam and other instabilities relax to marginal stability and that mean wave energies are low. Stochastic wave growth occurs when ambient fluctuations perturb the wave-driver interaction, causing fluctuations about marginal stability. This yields regions where growth is enhanced and others where damping is increased; observed bursts are associated with enhanced growth and can occur even when the mean growth rate is negative. In stochastic growth, energy loss from the source is suppressed relative to secular growth, preserving it for much longer times and distances than otherwise possible. Linear stochastic growth can operate at wave levels below thresholds of nonlinear wave-clumping mechanisms such as strong-turbulence modulational instability and is not subject to their coherence and wavelength limits. Growth mechanisms can be distinguished by statistics of the fields, whose strengths are lognormally distributed if stochastically growing, power-law distributed in strong turbulence, and uniformly distributed in log under secular growth. After delineating stochastic growth and strong-turbulence regimes, recent applications of stochastic growth theory (SGT) are described, involving bursty plasma waves and unstable particle distributions in type II and III solar radio sources, foreshock regions upstream of the bow shocks of Earth and planets, and Earth's magnetosheath, auroras, and polar-caps. It is shown that when combined with wave-wave processes, SGT accounts for type II and III solar radio emissions. SGT thus removes longstanding problems in understanding persistent unstable distributions, bursty fields, and radio emissions observed in space
Nonlinear modulation of ion acoustic waves in a magnetized plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bharuthram, R.; Shukla, P.K.
1987-01-01
The quasistatic plasma slow response to coherent ion acoustic waves in a magnetized plasma is considered. A multidimensional cubic nonlinear Schroedinger equation is derived. It is found that the ion acoustic waves remain modulationally stable against oblique perturbations
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Hwang, Paul
2006-01-01
... at he expected intrinsic frequency in the frequency spectrum measured by a stationary probe. The advection of the wave number component by the orbital current of background waves produces a net downshift in the encounter frequency...
Dust-Lower-Hybrid Surface Waves in Classical and Degenerate Plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ayub, M.; Shah, H.A.; Qureshi, M.N.S.; Salimullah, M.
2013-01-01
The dispersion relation for general dust low frequency electrostatic surface waves propagating on an interface between a magnetized dusty plasma region and a vacuum is derived by using specular reflection boundary conditions both in classical and quantum regimes. The frequency limit ω ≪ ω ci ≪ ω ce is considered and the dispersion relation for the Dust-Lower-Hybrid Surface Waves (DLHSW's) is derived for both classical and quantum plasma half-space and analyzed numerically. It is shown that the wave behavior changes as the quantum nature of the problem is considered. (physics of gases, plasmas, and electric discharges)
Electromagnetic Wave Transmittance Control using Anisotropic Plasma Lattice
Matlis, Eric; Corke, Thomas; Hoffman, Anthony
2017-11-01
Experiments of transmission through a lattice array of plasma columns have shown an absorption band close to the plasma frequency at 14 GHz. The beam was oriented at a 35° incident angle to the planar plasma cell. These experiments were designed to determine if the observed absorption was the result of the isotropic plasma medium or that of an anisotropic metamaterial. Transmission of the microwave energy was not consistent with an isotropic material in which absorption would monotonically increase below the plasma frequency. The experimental results are supported by an anisotropic model which was developed for the plasma permittivity using an effective medium approximation. The plasma columns were modeled as uniform rods with permittivity described by a Drude model while the components of the permittivity tensor was calculated using the Maxwell-Garnett effective medium theory. Electron densities of n = 4 x1012 cm-3 were assumed which is consistent with prior experimental measurements. This model confirms the existence of non-zero imaginary wave vector k in a narrow region centered about 14 GHz.
Frequency splitting in stria bursts: Possible roles of low-frequency waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Melrose, D.B.
1983-01-01
The kinematics of the process L+-F->L' are explored where L represents a parallel Langmuir wave, F represents a low frequency fluctuation and L' represents a secondary Langmuir wave, and the results are used to discuss (a) a possible interpretation of the frequency splitting in stria bursts in terms of the processes L+-F->L', L'+-F'->t, where t represents a transverse wave, and (b) second harmonic emission due to the processes L+-s->L', L+L'->t, where s represents an ion sound wave. The following results are obtained: (1) The processes L+-s->L' are allowed only for ksub(s) 0 , respectively, with k 0 =ωsub(p)/65 Vsub(e). (2) The inclusion of a magnetic field does not alter the result (1) and adds further kinematic restrictions related to angles of propagation; the kinematic restriction Tsub(e)>5x10 5 K for second harmonic emission through process (b) above is also unchanged by inclusion of the magnetic field. The effect of a spread in the wavevectors of the Langmuir waves on this restriction is discussed in the Appendix. (3) For parallel Langmuir waves the process L-f->L' is forbidden for lower hybrid waves and for nearly perpendicular resonant whistlers, and the process L+F->L' is allowed only for resonant whistlers at ωsub(F)> or approx.1/2ωsub(p)(Ωsub(e)/ωsub(p)) 2 . (4) The sequential three waves processes L+-s->L', L'+-s->t and L+F->L', L'+-F'->t encounter difficulties when applied to the interpretation of the splitting in split pair and triple bursts. (5) The four-wave process L+-F+-F'->t is kinematically allowed and provides a favourable qualitative interpretation of the splitting when F denotes a resonant whistler near the frequency mentioned in (3) above. The four wave processes should saturate under conditions which are not extreme and produce fundamental plasma emission with brightness temperature Tsub(t) equal to the effective temperature Tsub(L) of the Langmuir waves. (orig.)
Frequency Upconversion and Parametric Surface Instabilities in Microwave Plasma Interactions.
Rappaport, Harold Lee
In this thesis the interaction of radiation with plasmas whose density profiles are nearly step functions of space and/or time are studied. The wavelengths of radiation discussed are large compared with plasma density gradient scale lengths. The frequency spectra are evaluated and the energy balance investigated for the transmitted and reflected transient electromagnetic waves that are generated when a monochromatic source drives a finite width plasma in which a temporal step increase in density occurs. Transmission resonances associated with the abrupt boundaries manifest themselves as previously unreported multiple frequency peaks in the transmitted electromagnetic spectrum. A tunneling effect is described in which a burst of energy is transmitted from the plasma immediately following a temporal density transition. Stability of an abruptly bounded plasma, one for which the incident radiation wavelength is large compared with the plasma density gradient scale length, is investigated for both s and p polarized radiation types. For s-polarized radiation a new formalism is introduced in which pump induced perturbations are expressed as an explicit superposition of linear and non-linear plasma half-space modes. Results for a particular regime and a summary of relevant literature is presented. We conclude that when s-polarized radiation acts alone on an abrupt diffusely bounded underdense plasma stimulated excitation of electron surface modes is suppressed. For p-polarized radiation the recently proposed Lagrangian Frame Two-Plasmon Decay mode (LFTPD) ^dag is investigated in the regime in which the instability is not resonantly coupled to surface waves propagating along the boundary region. In this case, spatially dependent growth rate profiles and spatially dependent transit layer magnetic fields are reported. The regime is of interest because we have found that when the perturbation wavenumber parallel to the boundary is less than the pump frequency divided by twice
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tsujii, N.; Porkolab, M.; Bonoli, P. T.; Lin, Y.; Wright, J. C.; Wukitch, S. J.; Jaeger, E. F.; Green, D. L.; Harvey, R. W.
2012-01-01
Radio frequency waves in the ion cyclotron range of frequencies (ICRF) are widely used to heat tokamak plasmas. In ICRF heating schemes involving multiple ion species, the launched fast waves convert to ion cyclotron waves or ion Bernstein waves at the two-ion hybrid resonances. Mode converted waves are of interest as actuators to optimise plasma performance through current drive and flow drive. In order to describe these processes accurately in a realistic tokamak geometry, numerical simulations are essential, and it is important that these codes be validated against experiment. In this study, the mode converted waves were measured using a phase contrast imaging technique in D-H and D- 3 He plasmas. The measured mode converted wave intensity in the D- 3 He mode conversion regime was found to be a factor of ∼50 weaker than the full-wave predictions. The discrepancy was reduced in the hydrogen minority heating regime, where mode conversion is weaker.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yao, Jingfeng; Yuan, Chengxun, E-mail: yuancx@hit.edu.cn, E-mail: zhouzx@hit.edu.cn; Gao, Ruilin; Jia, Jieshu; Wang, Ying; Zhou, Zhongxiang, E-mail: yuancx@hit.edu.cn, E-mail: zhouzx@hit.edu.cn; Wang, Xiaoou [Department of Physics, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Wu, Jian [National Key Laboratory of Electromagnetic Environment (LEME), China Research Institute of Radio Wave Propagation, Beijing 102206 (China); Li, Hui [Department of Physics, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); National Key Laboratory of Electromagnetic Environment (LEME), China Research Institute of Radio Wave Propagation, Beijing 102206 (China)
2016-08-15
This study focuses on the transmission of normal-incidence electromagnetic waves in one-dimensional plasma photonic crystals. Using the Maxwell's equations in a medium, a method that is based on the concept of impendence is employed to perform the simulation. The accuracy of the method was evaluated by simulating a one-layer plasma and conventional photonic crystal. In frequency-domain, the transmission and reflection coefficients in the unmagnetized plasma photonic crystal were calculated, and the influence factors on plasma photonic crystals including dielectric constants of dielectric, spatial period, filling factor, plasma frequency, and collision frequency were studied.
Solitary Langmuir waves in two-electron temperature plasma
Prudkikh, V. V.; Prudkikh
2014-06-01
Nonlinear interaction of Langmuir and ion-acoustic waves in two-electron temperature plasma is investigated. New integrable wave interaction regime was discovered, this regime corresponds to the Langmuir soliton with three-hump amplitude, propagating with a speed close to the ion-sound speed in the conditions of strong non-isothermality of electronic components. It was discovered that besides the known analytical solution in the form of one- and two-hump waves, there exists a range of solutions in the form of solitary waves, which in the form of envelope has multi-peak structure and differs from the standard profiles described by hyperbolic functions. In case of fixed plasma parameters, different group velocities correspond to the waves with different number of peaks. It is found that the Langmuir wave package contains both even and uneven numbers of oscillations. Low-frequency potential here has uneven number of peaks. Interrelation of obtained and known earlier results are also discussed.
Possible parametric instabilities of beat waves in a transversely magnetized plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Salimullah, M.
1988-05-01
The effect of an external magnetic field on the various possible parametric instabilities of the longitudinal beat wave at the difference frequency of two incident laser beams in a hot plasma has been thoeretically investigated. The kinetic equation is employed to obtain the nonlinear response of the magnetized electrons due to the nonlinear coupling of the beat wave with the low-frequency electrostatic plasma modes. It is noted that the growth rates of the three-wave and the four-wave parametric instabilities can be influenced by the external transverse magnetic field. (author). 20 refs, 3 figs
The nonlinear distortion of propagation cones of lower hybrid wave in an inhomogeneous plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sanuki, Heiji; Ogino, Tatsuki.
1976-12-01
Nonlinear propagation of externally driven waves in the lower hybrid frequency range in an inhomogeneous plasma are investigated. The results of finite temperature, inhomogeneity of the plasma and density depression due to the ponderomotive force are emphasized since these effects are responsible for the propagation characteristics of the waves. The results shows that the waves are localized in a spatial wave packet that propagates into the plasma center along the conical trajectory which makes a small angle with respect to the confining magnetic field. (auth.)
Spin waves and spin instabilities in quantum plasmas
Andreev, P. A.; Kuz'menkov, L. S.
2014-01-01
We describe main ideas of method of many-particle quantum hydrodynamics allows to derive equations for description of quantum plasma evolution. We also present definitions of collective quantum variables suitable for quantum plasmas. We show that evolution of magnetic moments (spins) in quantum plasmas leads to several new branches of wave dispersion: spin-electromagnetic plasma waves and self-consistent spin waves. Propagation of neutron beams through quantum plasmas is also considered. Inst...
Excitation of a plasma wave by a right-handed Gaussian EM beam
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sodha, M.S.; Patheja, B.L.; Sharma, R.P.
1979-01-01
This paper presents an investigation of the excitation of an electron plasma wave in a hot collisionless magnetoplasma by a right-handed Gaussian EM beam (pump wave) when the plasma wave and the pump wave are propagating along the static magnetic field. On account of the Gaussian intensity distribution of the pump wave, pondermotive force becomes finite and the electrons are redistributed. This redistribution is highly dependent on whether ω/sub c/>2ω 0 or ω/sub c/ 0 , where ω/sub c/ is the electron cyclotron frequency and ω 0 is the pump-wave frequency. The modified background electron density leads to coupling between the plasma wave and the pump wave. When the initial power of the pump wave is greater than the critical power for self-focusing, oscillatory self-focusing of the pump wave occurs and the coupling of the two waves are modified. Moreover, the effect of changing the intensity of the magnetic field affects the self-focusing of the pump wave, and the plasma-wave excitation is accordingly affected
Drift wave dispersion relation for arbitrarily collisional plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Angus, Justin R.; Krasheninnikov, Sergei I.
2012-01-01
The standard local linear analysis of drift waves in a plasma slab is generalized to be valid for arbitrarily collisional electrons by considering the electrons to be governed by the drift-kinetic equation with a BGK-like (Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook) collision operator. The obtained dispersion relation reduces to that found from collisionless kinetic theory when the collision frequency is zero. Electron temperature fluctuations must be retained in the standard fluid analysis in order to obtain good quantitative agreement with our general solution in the highly collisional limit. Any discrepancies between the fluid solution and our general solution in this limit are attributed to the limitations of the BGK collision operator. The maximum growth rates in both the collisional and collisionless limits are comparable and are both on the order of the fundamental drift wave frequency. The main role of the destabilizing mechanism is found to be in determining the parallel wave number at which the maximum growth rate will occur. The parallel wave number corresponding to the maximum growth rate is set by the wave-particle resonance condition in the collisionless limit and transitions to being set by the real frequency being on the order of the rate for electrons to diffuse a parallel wavelength in the collisional limit.
Drift wave dispersion relation for arbitrarily collisional plasma
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Angus, Justin R.; Krasheninnikov, Sergei I. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093-0417 (United States)
2012-05-15
The standard local linear analysis of drift waves in a plasma slab is generalized to be valid for arbitrarily collisional electrons by considering the electrons to be governed by the drift-kinetic equation with a BGK-like (Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook) collision operator. The obtained dispersion relation reduces to that found from collisionless kinetic theory when the collision frequency is zero. Electron temperature fluctuations must be retained in the standard fluid analysis in order to obtain good quantitative agreement with our general solution in the highly collisional limit. Any discrepancies between the fluid solution and our general solution in this limit are attributed to the limitations of the BGK collision operator. The maximum growth rates in both the collisional and collisionless limits are comparable and are both on the order of the fundamental drift wave frequency. The main role of the destabilizing mechanism is found to be in determining the parallel wave number at which the maximum growth rate will occur. The parallel wave number corresponding to the maximum growth rate is set by the wave-particle resonance condition in the collisionless limit and transitions to being set by the real frequency being on the order of the rate for electrons to diffuse a parallel wavelength in the collisional limit.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Breus, S. N.; Kurdjumov, V. N.; Levin, M. L.; Osovec, S. M.; Popova, N. Ja.; Popov, I. A.; Hodataev, K. V.; Shimchuk, V. P. [Radiotehnicheskij Institut AN SSSR, Moskva, SSSR (Russian Federation)
1966-04-15
The paper describes the results of research on the interaction of a dense plasma with the high-frequency field of a magnetic wave travelling along a toroidal discharge chamber (large diameter - 700 mm, small diameter - 85 mm). The travelling wave is excited at a frequency 2.4 Mc/s by a three-phase automatic generator with a power about 50 MW and a pulse length about 250 to 350 {mu}s. The range of initial pressures was 0.1 to 0.001 Tore and the amplitude of the hf magnetic field on the surface of the plasma attained 500 to 600 Oe. In these circumstances, the main factors determining the interaction are connected with the non-linear effects and, above all, with the appearance of a steady longitudinal component of current that reached values of a few thousand amperes. In the centre of the chamber, in the small-field region, the conductivity of the plasma was of the order of 3 to 4 x 10{sup 14} esu, which, for close to 100% ionization, corresponds to an electron temperature of 8 to 12 eV. In the strong-field (skin-layer) region, conductivity falls off by more than an order of magnitude, which leads to a sharp increase in the required HF power. In addition to a longitudinal current, the plasma was found to contain a longitudinal quasi-stationary field formed by transverse currents in the plasma. This field has a composite structure and, as shown by theoretical approximations, is possibly due to a toroidal effect. The existence of quasi-stationary magnetic fields apparently has a connection with the plasma oscillations which have been observed at 200 to 500 kc/s, corresponding approximately to the natural Alfven oscillations in such fields. The quasi-stationary currents and fields hamper the detachment of the plasma from the walls of the discharge chamber and subsequent compression. By themselves, however, the longitudinal steady waves cannot lead to the development of kinetic instabilities, since the electron velocities corresponding to such instabilities are smaller
Radio Frequency Power in Plasmas: 12th Topical Conference. Proceedings
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ryan, P.M.; Intrator, T.
1997-01-01
The twelfth Topical Conference on Radio Frequency Power in Plasmas was held in April, 1997, in Georgia, USA under the sponsorship of Oak Ridge National Laboratory of the US Department of Energy, the University of Wisconsin, and the American Physical Society. A large part of the conference was devoted to the ion cyclotron range of frequencies. Radio frequency contributions to the creation and maintenance of transport barriers to both particle and heat flux received a lot of attention. In addition to plasma heating, the use of RF as a versatile tool to drive current, shape profiles and stabilize plasmas was also discussed. The RF systems designs for ITER, ICRF heating advances on helical devices were among the topics of interest, so were progress in ion cyclotron codes, advanced launchers and technology, RF startup, general wave theory and the application of RF plasmas to material processing. A total of 103 papers were presented and are included in these proceedings. Out of these, 54 have been abstracted for the Energy Science and Technology database
Wave function of free electron in a strong laser plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhu Shitong; Shen Wenda; Guo Qizhi
1993-01-01
The wave function of free electron in a strong laser plasma is obtained by solving exactly the Dirac equation in a curved space-time with optical metric for the laser plasma. When the laser field is diminished to zero, the wave function is naturally reduced to relativistic wave function of free electron. The possible application of the wave function is discussed
Electromagnetic waves near the proton cyclotron frequency: Stereo observations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jian, L. K. [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Wei, H. Y.; Russell, C. T. [Institute of Geophysics and Planetary Physics, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Luhmann, J. G. [Space Science Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Klecker, B. [Max-Planck-Institut für Extraterrestrische Physik, D-85741 Garching (Germany); Omidi, N. [Solana Scientific Inc., Solana Beach, CA 92075 (United States); Isenberg, P. A. [Institute for the Study of Earth, Oceans, and Space, University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH 03824 (United States); Goldstein, M. L.; Figueroa-Viñas, A. [Heliophysics Science Division, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, MD 20771 (United States); Blanco-Cano, X., E-mail: lan.jian@nasa.gov [Instituto de Geofisica, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Coyoacán D.F. (Mexico)
2014-05-10
Transverse, near-circularly polarized, parallel-propagating electromagnetic waves around the proton cyclotron frequency were found sporadically in the solar wind throughout the inner heliosphere. They could play an important role in heating and accelerating the solar wind. These low-frequency waves (LFWs) are intermittent but often occur in prolonged bursts lasting over 10 minutes, named 'LFW storms'. Through a comprehensive survey of them from Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory A using dynamic spectral wave analysis, we have identified 241 LFW storms in 2008, present 0.9% of the time. They are left-hand (LH) or right-hand (RH) polarized in the spacecraft frame with similar characteristics, probably due to Doppler shift of the same type of waves or waves of intrinsically different polarities. In rare cases, the opposite polarities are observed closely in time or even simultaneously. Having ruled out interplanetary coronal mass ejections, shocks, energetic particles, comets, planets, and interstellar ions as LFW sources, we discuss the remaining generation scenarios: LH ion cyclotron instability driven by greater perpendicular temperature than parallel temperature or by ring-beam distribution, and RH ion fire hose instability driven by inverse temperature anisotropy or by cool ion beams. The investigation of solar wind conditions is compromised by the bias of the one-dimensional Maxwellian fit used for plasma data calibration. However, the LFW storms are preferentially detected in rarefaction regions following fast winds and when the magnetic field is radial. This preference may be related to the ion cyclotron anisotropy instability in fast wind and the minimum in damping along the radial field.
Nonlinear plasma wave models in 3D fluid simulations of laser-plasma interaction
Chapman, Thomas; Berger, Richard; Arrighi, Bill; Langer, Steve; Banks, Jeffrey; Brunner, Stephan
2017-10-01
Simulations of laser-plasma interaction (LPI) in inertial confinement fusion (ICF) conditions require multi-mm spatial scales due to the typical laser beam size and durations of order 100 ps in order for numerical laser reflectivities to converge. To be computationally achievable, these scales necessitate a fluid-like treatment of light and plasma waves with a spatial grid size on the order of the light wave length. Plasma waves experience many nonlinear phenomena not naturally described by a fluid treatment, such as frequency shifts induced by trapping, a nonlinear (typically suppressed) Landau damping, and mode couplings leading to instabilities that can cause the plasma wave to decay rapidly. These processes affect the onset and saturation of stimulated Raman and Brillouin scattering, and are of direct interest to the modeling and prediction of deleterious LPI in ICF. It is not currently computationally feasible to simulate these Debye length-scale phenomena in 3D across experimental scales. Analytically-derived and/or numerically benchmarked models of processes occurring at scales finer than the fluid simulation grid offer a path forward. We demonstrate the impact of a range of kinetic processes on plasma reflectivity via models included in the LPI simulation code pF3D. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.
Bounce-harmonic Landau Damping of Plasma Waves
Anderegg, Francois
2015-11-01
We present measurement of plasma wave damping, spanning the temperature regimes of direct Landau damping, bounce-harmonic Landau damping, inter-species drag damping, and viscous damping. Direct Landau damping is dominant at high temperatures, but becomes negligible as v vph / 5 . The measurements are conducted in trapped pure ion plasmas contained in Penning-Malmberg trap, with wave-coherent LIF diagnostics of particle velocities. Our focus is on bounce harmonics damping, controlled by an applied ``squeeze'' potential, which generates harmonics in the wave potential and in the particle dynamics. A particle moving in z experiences a non-sinusoidal mode potential caused by the squeeze, producing high spatial harmonics with lower phase velocity. These harmonics are Landau damped even when the mode phase velocity vph is large compared to the thermal velocity v , since the nth harmonic is resonant with a particle bouncing at velocity vb =vph / n . Here we increase the bounce harmonics through applied squeeze potential; but some harmonics are always present in finite length systems. For our centered squeeze geometry, theory shows that only odd harmonics are generated, and predicts the Landau damping rate from vph / n . Experimentally, the squeeze potential increases the wave damping and reduces its frequency. The frequency shift occurs because the squeeze potential reduces the number of particle where the mode velocity is the largest, therefore reducing the mode frequency. We observe an increase in the damping proportional to Vs2,and a frequency reduction proportional to Vs , in quantitative agreement with theory. Wave-coherent laser induced fluorescence allows direct observation of bounce resonances on the particle distribution, here predominantly at vph / 3 . A clear increase of the bounce harmonics is visible on the particle distribution when the squeeze potential is applied. Supported by NSF Grant PHY-1414570, and DOE Grants DE-SC0002451 and DE-SC0008693.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Oscarsson, T.E.; Roennmark, K.G.
1990-01-01
In this paper the authors present an investigation of low-frequency waves observed on auroral field lines below the acceleration region by the Swedish satellite Viking. The measured frequency spectra are peaked at half the local proton gyrofrequency, and the waves are observed in close connection with precipitating electrons. In order to obtain information about the distribution of wave energy in wave vector space, they reconstruct the wave distribution function (WDF) from observed spectral densities. They use a new scheme that allows them to reconstruct simultaneously the WDF over a broad frequency band. The method also makes it possible to take into account available particle observations as well as Doppler shifts caused by the relative motion between the plasma and the satellite. The distribution of energy in wave vector space suggested by the reconstructed WDF is found to be consistent with what is expected from a plasma instability driven by the observed precipitating electrons. Furthermore, by using UV images obtained on Viking, they demonstrate that the wave propagation directions indicated by the reconstructed WDFs are consistent with a simple model of the presumed wave source in the electron precipitation region
Studies on the transmission of sub-THz waves in magnetized inhomogeneous plasma sheath
Yuan, Kai; Shen, Linfang; Yao, Ming; Deng, Xiaohua; Chen, Zhou; Hong, Lujun
2018-01-01
There have been many studies on the sub-terahertz (sub-THz) wave transmission in reentry plasma sheaths. However, only some of them have paid attention to the transmission of sub-THz waves in magnetized plasma sheaths. In this paper, the transmission of sub-THz waves in both unmagnetized and magnetized reentry plasma sheaths was investigated. The impacts of temporal evolution of the plasma sheath on the wave transmission were studied. The transmission of "atmospheric window" frequencies in a magnetized plasma sheath was discussed in detail. According to the study, the power transmission rates (Tp) for the left hand circular (LHC) and the right hand circular modes in the magnetized plasma sheath are obviously higher and lower than those in the unmagnetized plasma sheath, respectively. The Tp of LHC mode increases with both wave frequency and external magnetic field strength. Also, the Tp of LHC mode in both magnetized and unmagnetized plasma sheaths varies with time due to the temporal evolution of the plasma sheath. Moreover, the performance of sub-THz waves in magnetized plasma sheath hints at a new approach to the "blackout" problem. The new approach, which is in the capability of modern technology, is to utilize the communication system operating at 140 GHz with an onboard magnet installed near the antenna.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dum, C.T.
1990-01-01
The generation of waves with frequencies downshifted from the plasma frequency, as observed in the electron foreshock, is analyzed by particle simulation. Wave excitation differs fundamentally from the familiar excitation of the plasma eigenmodes by a gentle bump-on-tail electron distribution. Beam modes are destabilized by resonant interaction with bulk electrons, provided the beamvelocity spread is very small. These modes are stabilized, starting with the higher frequencies, as the beam is broadened and slowed down by the interaction with the wave spectrum. Initially, a very cold beam is also capable of exciting frequencies considerably above the plasma frequency, but such oscillations are quickly stabilized. Low-frequency modes persist for a long time, until the bump in the electron distribution is completely ironed out. This diffusion process also is quite different from the familiar case of well-separated beam and bulk electrons. A quantitative analysis of these processes is carried out
Dum, C. T.
1990-01-01
The generation of waves with frequencies downshifted from the plasma frequency, as observed in the electron foreshock, is analyzed by particle simulation. Wave excitation differs fundamentally from the familiar excitation of the plasma eigenmodes by a gentle bump-on-tail electron distribution. Beam modes are destabilized by resonant interaction with bulk electrons, provided the beam velocity spread is very small. These modes are stabilized, starting with the higher frequencies, as the beam is broadened and slowed down by the interaction with the wave spectrum. Initially a very cold beam is also capable of exciting frequencies considerably above the plasma frequency, but such oscillations are quickly stabilized. Low-frequency modes persist for a long time, until the bump in the electron distribution is completely 'ironed' out. This diffusion process also is quite different from the familiar case of well-separated beam and bulk electrons. A quantitative analysis of these processes is carried out.
Relation of wave energy and momentum with the plasma dispersion relation in an inhomogeneous plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Berk, H.L.; Pfirsch, D.
1988-01-01
The expressions for wave energy and angular momentum commonly used in homogeneous and near-homogeneous media is generalized to inhomogeneous media governed by a nonlocal conductivity tensor. The expression for wave energy applies to linear excitations in an arbitrary three-dimensional equilibrium, while the expression for angular momentum applies to linear excitations of azimuthally symmetric equilibria. The wave energy E-script/sub wave/ is interpreted as the energy transferred from linear external sources to the plasma if there is no dissipation. With dissipation, such a simple interpretation is lacking as energy is also thermally absorbed. However, for azimuthally symmetric equilibria, the expression for the wave energy in a frame rotating with a frequency ω can be unambiguously separated from thermal energy. This expression is given by E-script/sub wave/ -ωL/sub wave/ l, where L/sub wave/ is the wave angular momentum defined in the text and l the azimuthal wavenumber and it is closely related to the real part of a dispersion relation for marginal stability. The imaginary part of the dispersion is closely related to the energy input into a system. Another useful quantity discussed is the impedance form, which can be used for three-dimensional equilibrium without an ignorable coordinate and the expression is closely related to the wave impedance used in antenna theory. Applications to stability theory are also discussed
Wave propagation on a plasma media
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Torres-Silva, H.; Villarroel-Gonzalez, C.; Reggiani, N.; Sakanaka, P.H.
1995-01-01
Chiral-media and ferrite media have been studied over the last decade for many applications. Chiral-media have been examined as coating for reducing radar cross section, for antennas and arrays, for antenna radomes in waveguides and for microstrip substrate. Here, we examine a chiral-plasma medium, where the plasma part of the composite medium is non-reciprocal due to the external magnetic field, to find the general dispersion relation giving the ω against K behavior, vector phasor Helmholtz based equations are derived. We determine the modal eigenvalue properties in the chiral-plasma medium, which is doubly anisotropic. For the case of waves which propagate parallel to the magnetic field is a cold magnetized chiro-plasma. We compare our results with the typical results obtained for a cold plasma. Also we obtain the chiral-Faraday rotation which can be compared with the typical Faraday rotation for a pair of right-and left-handed circularly polarized waves. (author). 5 refs., 2 figs
Three-wave interactions in a warm plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shivamoggi, B.K.
1983-01-01
The nonlinear resonance interactions between a Langmuir wave and two transverse electromagnetic waves (T-T-L) as well as between an ion-acoustic wave and two transverse electromagnetic waves (T-T-S) in a warm plasma are studied. It is shown that an incident transverse electromagnetic wave decays into another transverse electromagnetic wave and a Langmuir wave in a T-T-L wave-wave interaction as well as into another transverse electromagnetic wave and an ion-acoustic wave in a T-T-S wave-wave interaction. The growth rates of the daughter waves in the T-T-L wave-wave interaction are shown to be smaller than those of the daughter waves in the T-T-S wave-wave interaction. (M.F.W.)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kim Sun Ho
2017-01-01
Full Text Available An efficient current drive scheme in central or off-axis region is required for the steady state operation of tokamak fusion reactors. The current drive by using the fast wave in frequency range higher than two times lower hybrid resonance (w>2wlh could be such a scheme in high density, high temperature reactor-grade tokamak plasmas. First, it has relatively higher parallel electric field to the magnetic field favorable to the current generation, compared to fast waves in other frequency range. Second, it can deeply penetrate into high density plasmas compared to the slow wave in the same frequency range. Third, parasitic coupling to the slow wave can contribute also to the current drive avoiding parametric instability, thermal mode conversion and ion heating occured in the frequency range w<2wlh. In this study, the propagation boundary, accessibility, and the energy flow of the fast wave are given via cold dispersion relation and group velocity. The power absorption and current drive efficiency are discussed qualitatively through the hot dispersion relation and the polarization. Finally, those characteristics are confirmed with ray tracing code GENRAY for the KSTAR plasmas.
Waves in plasmas: some historical highlights
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stix, T.H.
1984-08-01
To illustrate the development of some fundamental concepts in plasma waves, a number of experimental observations, going back over half a century, are reviewed. Particular attention is paid to the phenomena of dispersion, collisionfree damping, finite-Larmor-radius and cyclotron and cyclotron-harmonic effects, nonlocal response, and stochasticity. One may note not only the constructive interplay between observation and theory and experiment but also that major advances have come from each of the many disciplines that invoke plasma physics as a tool, including radio communication, astrophysics, controlled fusion, space physics, and basic research
Suitability of tunneling ionization produced plasmas for the plasma beat wave accelerator
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Leeman, W.P.; Clayton, C.E.; Marsh, K.A.; Dyson, A.; Joshi, C.
1991-01-01
Tunneling ionization can be thought of as the high intensity, low frequency limit of multi-photon ionization (MPI). Extremely uniform plasmas were produced by the latter process at Rutherford lab for beat wave excitation experiments using a 0.5 μm laser. Plasmas with 100% ionization were produced with densities exceeding 10 17 cm -3 . The experiment uses a CO 2 laser (I max ∼ 5 x 10 14 W/cm 2 ) which allows the formation of plasmas via the tunneling process. For the experiments the authors need plasmas with densities in the range of 5 to 10 x 10 16 cm -3 . Using Thomson scattering as a diagnostic they have explored the density and temperature regime of tunneling ionization produced plasmas. They find that plasmas with densities up to 10 16 cm -3 can indeed be produced and that these plasmas are hot. Beyond this density strong refraction of laser radiation occurs due to the radial profile of the plasma. Implications of this work to the Beat Wave Accelerator program will be discussed
Attenuation bands and cut-off frequencies for ELF electromagnetic waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rauch, J.L.; Lefeuvre, F.; Cerisier, J.C.; Berthelier, J.J.; Boud'ko, N.; Michailova, G.; Kapustina, O.
1985-01-01
The propagation characteristic of ELF (10 Hz - 1500 Hz) electromagnetic waves observed on ARCAD 3, in three different zones: low L value (L 6). Unambiguous determinations of the wave normal directions are obtained from the interpretations of the measurements of four (3 magnetic, 1 electric) wave field components. The technique that is used, is based on the Means method in the cases of highly polarized waves and on the Storey and Lefeuvre WDF method in the other cases. A particular emphasis is put on the propagation characteristics of the waves, in a multiple ion plasma, and on the cut-off frequencies which appear at and below the local proton gyrofrequency
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Evans, T.E.
1984-09-01
The first direct observation of the internal structure of driven global Alfven eigenmodes in a tokamak plasma is presented. A carbon dioxide laser scattering/interferometer has been designed, built, and installed on the PRETEXT tokamak. By using this diagnostic system in the interferometer configuration, we have for the first time, thoroughly investigated the resonance conditions required for, and the spatial wave field structure of, driven plasma eigenmodes at frequencies below the ion cyclotron frequency in a confined, high temperature, tokamak plasma
Electron Bernstein wave excitation by counterpropagating electromagnetic waves in a plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kumar, Asheel; Tripathi, V.K.
2005-01-01
Two high-power counterpropagating electromagnetic waves (ω 1 ,k 1 x) and (ω 2 ,-k 2 x) in a low-density plasma in the presence of a static magnetic field B s z, drive an electron Bernstein wave at the beat frequency ω=ω 1 -ω 2 and k=(k 1 +k 2 )x, when ω∼ω c 1 ,ω 2 and kρ≥1, where ω c is the electron cyclotron frequency and ρ is the Larmor radius. The electromagnetic waves exert a ponderomotive force on the electrons and resonantly drive the Bernstein mode(ω,k). When the pump waves have finite z extent, the Bernstein wave has an effective k z and a component of group velocity in the direction of the magnetic field, leaking it out of the interaction region, limiting the level of the Bernstein mode. Plasma inhomogeneity also introduces convection losses. However, the electron Bernstein mode potential could still be significantly greater than the ponderomotive potential
Radio wave dissipation in turbulent auroral plasma during the precipitation of energetic electrons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mishin, E.V.; Luk'ianova, L.N.; Makarenko, S.F.; Atamaniuk, B.M.
1992-01-01
The results of the theoretical analysis of anomalous (collisionless) radio wave absorption in the turbulent auroral ionosphere during the intrusion of energetic electrons (i.e., in aurorae) are presented. The implications of the plasma turbulent layer (PTL) theory are used. It is shown that the dissipation of radio waves with frequencies much higher than the plasma frequency is caused by the nonlinear (combined) scattering in turbulent plasma of the PTL. In the auroral electrojet layer the principal dissipative process for the radio waves with frequencies close to the plasma frequency is O-Z transformation on the field-aligned, small-scale density fluctuations. The typical dissipation decrements are estimated. 26 refs
Detailed study of electron plasma waves upstream of the earth's bow shock
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Etcheto, J.; Faucheux, M.
1984-01-01
A detailed study of electron plasma waves observed upstream of the earth's bow shock and of their relationships to the position of the satellite in the foreshock and to the electron measurements has been carried out. The wave characteristics depend on the position in the electron foreshock: a narrow-bnd (a few percent) and intense (a few millivolts per meter) noise is observed at the plasma frequency at the edge of the foreshock while the spectrum widens (Δf/fapprox. =0.3) at the same time as the power decreases (hundreds of microvolts per meter) deeper (a few earth radii) inside the foreshock. Signals below the plasma frequency are also observed. These waves are polarized along the magnetic field, with long wavelengths below and at the plasma frequency and short wavelengths above it. They appear as short bursts, the duration of which depends on the frequency: longer close to the plasma frequency (50 ms), they shorten with increasing separation from the plasma frequency, the usual duration being 15 ms. While the correlation of the wave characteristics with the reflected electrons is good as the satellite moves inside the foreshock, no evolution is found with the distance to the bow shock, neither for the noise nor for the particles. These results are discussed in the frame of various mechanisms which have been proposed to explain these upstream waves but no satisfactory agreement is found with any of them
ALFVÉN WAVES IN A PARTIALLY IONIZED TWO-FLUID PLASMA
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Soler, R.; Ballester, J. L.; Terradas, J.; Carbonell, M.
2013-01-01
Alfvén waves are a particular class of magnetohydrodynamic waves relevant in many astrophysical and laboratory plasmas. In partially ionized plasmas the dynamics of Alfvén waves is affected by the interaction between ionized and neutral species. Here we study Alfvén waves in a partially ionized plasma from the theoretical point of view using the two-fluid description. We consider that the plasma is composed of an ion-electron fluid and a neutral fluid, which interact by means of particle collisions. To keep our investigation as general as possible, we take the neutral-ion collision frequency and the ionization degree as free parameters. First, we perform a normal mode analysis. We find the modification due to neutral-ion collisions of the wave frequencies and study the temporal and spatial attenuation of the waves. In addition, we discuss the presence of cutoff values of the wavelength that constrain the existence of oscillatory standing waves in weakly ionized plasmas. Later, we go beyond the normal mode approach and solve the initial-value problem in order to study the time-dependent evolution of the wave perturbations in the two fluids. An application to Alfvén waves in the low solar atmospheric plasma is performed and the implication of partial ionization for the energy flux is discussed.
Plasma wave excitation by intense microwave transmission from a space vehicle
Kimura, I.; Matsumoto, H.; Kaya, N.; Miyatake, S.
An impact of intense microwave upon the ionospheric plasma was empirically investigated by an active rocket experiment (MINIX). The rocket carried two high-power (830W) transmitters of 2.45 GHz microwave on the mother section of the rocket. The ionospheric plasma response to the intense microwave was measured by a diagnostic package installed on both mother and daughter sections. The daughter section was separated from the mother with a slow speed of 15 cm/sec. The plasma wave analyzers revealed that various plasma waves are nonlinearly excited by the microwave. Among them, the most intense are electron cyclotron waves, followed by electron plasma waves. Extremely low frequency waves (several tens of Hz) are also found. The results of the data analysis as well as comparative computer simulations are given in this paper.
Chaotic waves in Hall thruster plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Peradzynski, Zbigniew; Barral, S.; Kurzyna, J.; Makowski, K.; Dudeck, M.
2006-01-01
The set of hyperbolic equations of the fluid model describing the acceleration of plasma in a Hall thruster is analyzed. The characteristic feature of the flow is the existence of a trapped characteristic; i.e. there exists a characteristic line, which never intersects the boundary of the flow region in the thruster. To study the propagation of short wave perturbations, the approach of geometrical optics (like WKB) can be applied. This can be done in a linear as well as in a nonlinear version. The nonlinear version describes the waves of small but finite amplitude. As a result of such an approach one obtains so called transport equation, which are governing the wave amplitude. Due to the existence of trapped characteristics this transport equation appears to have chaotic (turbulent) solutions in both, linear and nonlinear versions
Direct measurement of the plasma response to electrostatic ion waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sarfaty, M.; DeSouza-Machado, S.; Skiff, F.
1995-01-01
Plasma wave-wave and wave-particle interactions are studied in a linear magnetized plasma. The relatively quiet plasma is produced by an argon gas-discharge. The plasma density is n e ≅ 10 9 cm -3 and the electron/ion temperatures are T e ≅ 5eV and T i = 0.05eV. A grid and a four ring antenna, both mounted on a scanning carriage, are used to launch electrostatic ion waves in the plasma. Laser Induced Fluorescence measurements of both the linear and the nonlinear plasma response to the wave fields are presented. The Vlasov-Poisson equations are used to explain the measured zero, first and second order terms of the ion distribution function in the presence of wave fields. In addition to the broadening (heating) of the ion distribution as the authors increase the wave amplitudes, induced plasma flows are observed both along and across the magnetic field
WHAMP - waves in homogeneous, anisotropic, multicomponent plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Roennmark, K.
1982-06-01
In this report, a computer program which solves the dispersion relation of waves in a magnetized plasma is described. The dielectric tensor is derived using the kinetic theory of homogeneous plasmas with Maxwellian velocity distribution. Up to six different plasma components can be included in this version of the program, and each component is specified by its density, temperature, particle mass, anisotropy and drift velocity along the magnetic field. The program is thus applicable to a very wide class of plasmas, and the method should in general be useful whenever a homogeneous magnetized plasma can be approximated by a linear combination of Maxwellian components. The general theory underlying the program is outlined. It is shown that by introducing a Pade approximant for the plasma dispersion function Z, the infinite sums of modified Bessel functions which appear in the dielectric tensor may be reduced to a summable form. The Pade approximant is derived and the accuracy of the approximation is also discussed. The subroutines making up the program are described. (Author)
Plasma heating via electron Bernstein wave heating using ordinary and extraodinary mode
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. Parvazian
2008-03-01
Full Text Available Magnetically confined plasma can be heated with high power microwave sources. In spherical torus the electron plasma frequency exeeds the electron cyclotron frequency (EC and, as a consequence, electromagnetic waves at fundamental and low harmonic EC cannot propagate within the plasma. In contrast, electron Bernstein waves (EBWs readily propagate in spherical torus plasma and are absorbed strongly at the electron cyclotron resonances. In order to proagate EBWs beyond the upper hybrid resonance (UHR, that surrounds the plasma, the EBWs must convert via one of two processes to either ordinary (O-mode or extraordinary (X-mode electromagnetic waves. O-mode and X-mode electromagnetic waves lunched at the plasma edge can convert to the electron Bernstein waves (EBWs which can propagate without and cut-off into the core of the plasma and damp on electrons. Since the electron Bernstein wave (EBW has no cut-off limits, it is well suited to heat an over-dense plasma by resonant absorption. An important problem is to calculate mode conversion coefficient that is very sensitive to density. Mode conversion coefficient depends on Budden parameter ( ñ and density scale length (Ln in upper hybrid resonance (UHR. In Mega Ampere Spherical Tokamak (MAST, the optimized conversion efficiency approached 72.5% when Ln was 4.94 cm and the magnetic field was 0.475 Tesla in the core of the plasma.
Collisional damping rates for plasma waves
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tigik, S. F., E-mail: sabrina.tigik@ufrgs.br; Ziebell, L. F., E-mail: luiz.ziebell@ufrgs.br [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, 91501-970 Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil); Yoon, P. H., E-mail: yoonp@umd.edu [Institute for Physical Science and Technology, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States); School of Space Research, Kyung Hee University, Yongin, Gyeonggi 446-701 (Korea, Republic of)
2016-06-15
The distinction between the plasma dynamics dominated by collisional transport versus collective processes has never been rigorously addressed until recently. A recent paper [P. H. Yoon et al., Phys. Rev. E 93, 033203 (2016)] formulates for the first time, a unified kinetic theory in which collective processes and collisional dynamics are systematically incorporated from first principles. One of the outcomes of such a formalism is the rigorous derivation of collisional damping rates for Langmuir and ion-acoustic waves, which can be contrasted to the heuristic customary approach. However, the results are given only in formal mathematical expressions. The present brief communication numerically evaluates the rigorous collisional damping rates by considering the case of plasma particles with Maxwellian velocity distribution function so as to assess the consequence of the rigorous formalism in a quantitative manner. Comparison with the heuristic (“Spitzer”) formula shows that the accurate damping rates are much lower in magnitude than the conventional expression, which implies that the traditional approach over-estimates the importance of attenuation of plasma waves by collisional relaxation process. Such a finding may have a wide applicability ranging from laboratory to space and astrophysical plasmas.
Magnetohydrodynamic spin waves in degenerate electron-positron-ion plasmas
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mushtaq, A. [TPPD, PINSTECH Nilore, 44000 Islamabad (Pakistan); National Center for Physics, Shahdrah Valley Road, 44000 Islamabad (Pakistan); Maroof, R.; Ahmad, Zulfiaqr [Institute of Physics and Electronics, University of Peshawar, 25000 Peshawar (Pakistan); Qamar, A. [National Center for Physics, Shahdrah Valley Road, 44000 Islamabad (Pakistan); Institute of Physics and Electronics, University of Peshawar, 25000 Peshawar (Pakistan)
2012-05-15
Low frequency magnetosonic waves are studied in magnetized degenerate electron-positron-ion plasmas with spin effects. Using the fluid equations of magnetoplasma with quantum corrections due to the Bohm potential, temperature degeneracy, and spin magnetization energy, a generalized dispersion relation for oblique magnetosonic waves is derived. Spin effects are incorporated via spin force and macroscopic spin magnetization current. For three different values of angle {theta}, the generalized dispersion relation is reduced to three different relations under the low frequency magnetohydrodynamic assumptions. It is found that the effect of quantum corrections in the presence of positron concentration significantly modifies the dispersive properties of these modes. The importance of the work relevant to compact astrophysical bodies is pointed out.
Electromagnetic wave propagation in relativistic magnetized plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Weiss, I.
1985-01-01
An improved mathematical technique and a new code for deriving the conductivity tensor for collisionless plasmas have been developed. The method is applicable to a very general case, including both hot (relativistic) and cold magnetized plasmas, with only isotropic equilibrium distributions being considered here. The usual derivation starts from the relativistic Vlasov equation and leads to an integration over an infinite sum of Bessel functions which has to be done numerically. In the new solution the integration is carried out over a product of two Bessel functions only. This reduces the computing time very significantly. An added advantage over existing codes is our capability to perform the computations for waves propagating obliquely to the magnetic field. Both improvements greatly facilitate investigations of properties of the plasma under conditions hitherto unexplored
Plasma processing of superconducting radio frequency cavities
Upadhyay, Janardan
The development of plasma processing technology of superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities not only provides a chemical free and less expensive processing method, but also opens up the possibility for controlled modification of the inner surfaces of the cavity for better superconducting properties. The research was focused on the transition of plasma etching from two dimensional flat surfaces to inner surfaces of three dimensional (3D) structures. The results could be applicable to a variety of inner surfaces of 3D structures other than SRF cavities. Understanding the Ar/Cl2 plasma etching mechanism is crucial for achieving the desired modification of Nb SRF cavities. In the process of developing plasma etching technology, an apparatus was built and a method was developed to plasma etch a single cell Pill Box cavity. The plasma characterization was done with the help of optical emission spectroscopy. The Nb etch rate at various points of this cavity was measured before processing the SRF cavity. Cylindrical ring-type samples of Nb placed on the inner surface of the outer wall were used to measure the dependence of the process parameters on plasma etching. The measured etch rate dependence on the pressure, rf power, dc bias, temperature, Cl2 concentration and diameter of the inner electrode was determined. The etch rate mechanism was studied by varying the temperature of the outer wall, the dc bias on the inner electrode and gas conditions. In a coaxial plasma reactor, uniform plasma etching along the cylindrical structure is a challenging task due to depletion of the active radicals along the gas flow direction. The dependence of etch rate uniformity along the cylindrical axis was determined as a function of process parameters. The formation of dc self-biases due to surface area asymmetry in this type of plasma and its variation on the pressure, rf power and gas composition was measured. Enhancing the surface area of the inner electrode to reduce the
Hashimoto, Yusuke; Bossini, Davide; Johansen, Tom H.; Saitoh, Eiji; Kirilyuk, Andrei; Rasing, Theo
2017-01-01
Using spin-wave tomography (SWaT), we have investigated the excitation and the propagation dynamics of optically-excited magnetoelastic waves, i.e. hybridized modes of spin waves and elastic waves, in a garnet film. By using time-resolved SWaT, we reveal the excitation dynamics of magnetoelastic waves through coherent-energy transfer between optically-excited pure-elastic waves and spin waves via magnetoelastic coupling. This process realizes frequency and wavenumber selective excitation of s...
Surface impedance of travelling--Wave antenna in magnetized plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Denisenko, I.B.; Ostrikov, K.N.
1993-01-01
Wave properties of metal antennas immersed in a magnetoactive plasma are intensively studied nowadays with the objects of radio communications in ionosphere, plasma heating, gas discharge technique. Many papers are devoted to studies of sheath waves (SW) in magnetoplasma, which are surface by nature and propagate along the metal-low-density sheath-plasma waveguide structure. The results of these papers suggest that the existence of these waves makes significant contribution in antenna impedance. Note that the impedance measurement is one of possible ways of experimental surface waves characterization. In the present report the surface impedance of travelling SW antenna immersed in magnetoactive plasma is calculated and its dependence on the waveguide structure parameters such as plasma density, external magnetic field H 0 and electrons collisional frequency values, sheath region width, conductivity of metal surface is studied. The calculations have been carried out in a quasiplane approximation, when antenna radius greatly exceeds the SW skin depth. Note that the finite conductivity of metal is necessary to be taken into account to provide a finite surface impedance value. The surface impedance is calculated in two cases, namely when SW propagate along (Ζ parallel ) and across (Ζ perpendicular ) the external magnetic field. The relation between the values Ζ parallel and Ζ perpendicular is obtained. This relation shows that the values Ζ parallel and Ζ parallel may satisfy both inequalities Ζ parallel much-gt Ζ perpendicular and Ζ perpendicular approx-gt Ζ perpendicular dependent on the parameters of the structure. The comparison of dispersion properties of the SW propagating along Η 0 with the experimental results is carried out. The results are shown to satisfactorily correspond to the experimental results
Artificial excitation of ELF waves with frequency of Schumann resonance
Streltsov, A. V.; Guido, T.; Tulegenov, B.; Labenski, J.; Chang, C.-L.
2014-11-01
We report results from the experiment aimed at the artificial excitation of extremely low-frequency (ELF) electromagnetic waves with frequencies corresponding to the frequency of Schumann resonance. Electromagnetic waves with these frequencies can form a standing pattern inside the spherical cavity formed by the surface of the Earth and the ionosphere. In the experiment the ELF waves were excited by heating the ionosphere with X-mode HF electromagnetic waves generated at the High Frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) facility in Alaska. The experiment demonstrates that heating of the ionosphere can excite relatively large-amplitude electromagnetic waves with frequencies in the range 7.8-8.0 Hz when the ionosphere has a strong F layer, the frequency of the HF radiation is in the range 3.20-4.57 MHz, and the electric field greater than 5 mV/m is present in the ionosphere.
Beat-wave excitation and current driven in tokamak plasma. Vol. 2
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mohamed, B F [Plasma physics Department, Nuclear Research Center, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt)
1996-03-01
Wave heating current drive in tokamaks is a growing subject in the plasma physics literature. For current drive in tokamaks by electromagnetic waves, different methods have been proposed recently. One of the promising schemes for current drive remains the beat wave scheme. This technique employs two CO- or counterpropagating monochromatic laser beams (or microwaves) whose frequency difference matches the plasma frequency, while the wave number difference (or sum, in the case of counterpropagating) determine the wave number of the resulting plasma beat wave. In this work, the basic analysis of a beat wave current drive scheme in which collinear waves are used is discussed. by assuming a Gaussian profile for the amplitude of these pump waves, the amplitudes of the longitudinal and radial fields of the beat wave due to the nonlinear wave interactions have been calculated. Besides, the transfer of momentum flux that accompanies the transfer of wave action in beat-wave scattering will be used to drive the toroidal radial currents in tokamaks. self-generated magnetic fields due to those currents were also calculated. 1 fig.
Plasma Immersion Ion Implantation in Radio Frequency Plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bora, B.; Bhuyan, H.; Wyndham, E.
2013-01-01
Plasma immersion ion implantation (PIII) has attracted wide interests since it emulates conventional ion-beam ion implantation (IBII) in niche applications. For instance, the technique has very high throughput, the implantation time is independent of the sample size, and samples with an irregular shape can be implanted without complex beam scanning or sample manipulation. For uniform ion implantation and deposition on to different substrates, like silicon, stainless steel etc., a capacitive coupled Radio frequency (RF), 13.6 MHz, plasma is used. During the PIII process, the physical parameters which are expected to play crucial rule in the deposition process like RF power, Negative pulse voltage and pulse duration, gas type and gas mixture, gas flow rates and the implantation dose are studied. The ion dose is calculated by dynamic sheath model and the plasma parameters are calculated from the V-I characteristic and power balance equation by homogeneous model of rf plasma discharge considering Ohmic as well as Stochastic heating. The correlations between the yield of the implantation process and the physical parameters as well as plasma parameters are discussed. (author)
ISII-II satellite observations during Siple Station very-low-frequency wave-injection experiments
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bell, T.F.; Katsufrakis, J.P.
1987-01-01
One of the critical scientific objectives of space plasma physics is to understand the processes that couple distinct parts of the Earth's plasma environment, such as the solar wind, magnetosphere, ionosphere, and upper atmosphere. An important source of coupling between the magnetosphere, ionosphere, and upper atmosphere is the flux of energetic particles which are precipitated from the Earth's radiation belts through interactions with both natural and manmade very-low-frequency (VLE) waves. One of the goals of this study is to understand a newly discovered phenomenon in which high-amplitude electrostatic waves are stimulated by electromagnetic VLF whistler-mode waves propagating at low altitudes (less than 8,000 kilometers) (Bell and Ngo in press a). This phenomenon is very common at all latitudes, and theoretical models (Bell and Ngo in press b) indicate that the electrostatic waves are stimulated when the input electromagnetic waves scatter from small scale (less than 100 meters) magnetic-field-aligned plasma density irregularities. It is believed that the stimulated electrostatic waves produce enhanced pitch angle scattering of energetic radiation belt particles, resulting in enhanced particle precipitation. The precipitated flux produces plasma density enhancements in the ionosphere, and upward diffusion of thermal plasma from the regions of enhanced ionospheric plasma density creates additional magnetic-field-aligned plasma density irregularities in the magnetosphere
Wave dispersion relation of two-dimensional plasma crystals in a magnetic field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Uchida, G.; Konopka, U.; Morfill, G.
2004-01-01
The wave dispersion relation in a two-dimensional strongly coupled plasma crystal is studied by theoretical analysis and molecular dynamics simulation taking into account a constant magnetic field parallel to the crystal normal. The expression for the wave dispersion relation clearly shows that high-frequency and low-frequency branches exist as a result of the coupling of longitudinal and transverse modes due to the Lorenz force acting on the dust particles. The high-frequency and the low-frequency branches are found to belong to right-hand and left-hand polarized waves, respectively
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Turco, F
2008-06-15
In this work we addressed the issue of the phenomena typical of the non-inductive discharges in the Tore Supra tokamak, probed by means of localised perturbations of the current density profile, performed by electron cyclotron (EC) waves. In order to correctly utilize the current density profile, reconstructed by means of the CRONOS code we performed a sensitivity study on the code results. Concerning the MHD regimes we have shown that a dynamic evolution of the safety factor q which tends to shrink its profile appears to be the cause of the triggering of such regimes. From the operational point of view, deposing the EC current, generated in the same direction of the plasma current, outside the q{sub min} position results hazardous because it causes a rise in q{sub 0} and consequently the shrinking of the q profile which triggers the MHD regimes. On the contrary, the EC counter-current scans show that a very central deposition ({rho}(ECCD) < 0.1) lead almost certainly to an MHD regime, while a more external countercurrent generation has generally the quality of creating internal transport barriers (ITBs). The phenomenon of non-linear temperature oscillations (the O-regime) has also been addressed, to provide an analytical description as well as from the experimental point of view, concerning the triggering and canceling of the oscillating phases. By constructing a non-linear predator-prey system with noise, solved on two regions of space coupled by a diffusion term, we could reproduce the experimental temperature oscillations: this study allowed us to confirm that the oscillatory phenomenon is the manifestation of a Lotka-Volterra like coupling between j and T{sub e}. The experimental analysis led to the identification of the mechanism at the origin of the triggering and canceling of the O-regime in presence of a perturbation in a specific shape of magnetic shear perturbation. These results have been reproduced by the simulations preformed with the integrated
2D full wave simulation on electromagnetic wave propagation in toroidal plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hojo, Hitoshi; Uruta, Go; Nakayama, Kazunori; Mase, Atsushi
2002-01-01
Global full-wave simulation on electromagnetic wave propagation in toroidal plasma with an external magnetic field imaging a tokamak configuration is performed in two dimensions. The temporal behavior of an electromagnetic wave launched into plasma from a wave-guiding region is obtained. (author)
Nonlinear Electromagnetic Waves and Spherical Arc-Polarized Waves in Space Plasmas
Tsurutani, B.; Ho, Christian M.; Arballo, John K.; Lakhina, Gurbax S.; Glassmeier, Karl-Heinz; Neubauer, Fritz M.
1997-01-01
We review observations of nonlinear plasma waves detected by interplanetary spacecraft. For this paper we will focus primarily on the phase-steepened properties of such waves. Plasma waves at comet Giacobini-Zinner measured by the International Cometary Explorer (ICE), at comets Halley and Grigg-Skjellerup measured by Giotto, and interplanetary Alfven waves measured by Ulysses, will be discussed and intercompared.
EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF SHOCK WAVE DYNAMICS IN MAGNETIZED PLASMAS
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Podder, Nirmol K.
2009-01-01
In this four-year project (including one-year extension), the project director and his research team built a shock-wave-plasma apparatus to study shock wave dynamics in glow discharge plasmas in nitrogen and argon at medium pressure (1-20 Torr), carried out various plasma and shock diagnostics and measurements that lead to increased understanding of the shock wave acceleration phenomena in plasmas. The measurements clearly show that in the steady-state dc glow discharge plasma, at fixed gas pressure the shock wave velocity increases, its amplitude decreases, and the shock wave disperses non-linearly as a function of the plasma current. In the pulsed discharge plasma, at fixed gas pressure the shock wave dispersion width and velocity increase as a function of the delay between the switch-on of the plasma and shock-launch. In the afterglow plasma, at fixed gas pressure the shock wave dispersion width and velocity decrease as a function of the delay between the plasma switch-off and shock-launch. These changes are found to be opposite and reversing towards the room temperature value which is the initial condition for plasma ignition case. The observed shock wave properties in both igniting and afterglow plasmas correlate well with the inferred temperature changes in the two plasmas
Radio-frequency plasma spraying of ceramics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Okada, T.; Hamatani, H.; Yoshida, T.
1989-01-01
This study was aimed at developing a novel spraying process using a radio-frequency (rf) plasma. Experiments of Al 2 O 3 and ZrO 2 - 8 wt% Y 2 O 3 spraying showed that the initial powder size was the most important parameter for depositing dense coatings. The optimum powder sizes of Al 2 O 3 and ZrO 2 - 8 wt% Y 2 O 3 were considered to be around 100 and 80 μm, respectively. The use of such large-size powders compared with those used by conventional dc plasma spraying made it possible to deposit adherent ceramics coatings of 150 to 300 μm on as-rolled SS304 substrates. It was also shown that low particle velocity of about 10 m/s, which is peculiar to rf plasma spraying, was sufficient for particle deformation, though it imposed a severe limitation on the substrate position. These experimental results prove that rf plasma spraying is an effective process and a strong candidate to open new fields of spraying applications
Nonlinear ion-acoustic waves and solitons in a magnetized plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lee, L.C.; Kan, J.R.
1981-01-01
A unified formulation is presented to study the nonlinear low-frequency electrostatic waves in a magnetized low-β plasma. It is found that there exist three types of nonlinear waves; (1) nonlinear ion-cyclotron periodic waves with a wave speed V/sub p/ > C/sub s/ (ion-acoustic velocity); (2) nonlinear ion-acoustic periodic waves with V/sub p/ < C/sub s/ costheta; and (3) ion-acoustic solitons with C/sub s/ costheta < V/sub p/ < C/sub s/, where theta is the angle between the wave vector and the magnetic field
Longitudinal traveling waves bifurcating from Vlasov plasma equilibria
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Holloway, J.P.
1989-01-01
The kinetic equations governing longitudinal motion along a straight magnetic field in a multi-species collisionless plasma are investigated. A necessary condition for the existence of small amplitude spatially periodic equilibria and traveling waves near a given spatially uniform background equilibrium is derived, and the wavelengths which such solutions must approach as their amplitude decreases to zero are discussed. A sufficient condition for the existence of these small amplitude waves is also established. This is accomplished by studying the nonlinear ODE for the potential which arises when the distribution functions are represented in a BGK form; the arbitrary functions of energy that describe the BGK representation are tested as an infinite dimensional set of parameters in a bifurcation theory for the ODE. The positivity and zero current condition in the wave frame of the BGK distribution functions are maintained. The undamped small amplitude nonlinear waves so constructed can be made to satisfy the Vlasov dispersion relation exactly, but in general they need only satisfy it approximately. Numerical calculations reveal that even a thermal equilibrium electron-proton plasma with equal ion and electron temperatures will support undamped traveling waves with phase speeds greater than 1.3 times the electron velocity; the dispersion relation for this case exhibits both Langmuir and ion-acoustic branches as long wavelength limits, and shows how these branches are in fact connected by short wavelength waves of intermediate frequency. In apparent contradiction to the linear theory of Landau, these exact solutions of the kinetic equations do not damp; this contradiction is explained by observing that the linear theory is, in general, fundamentally incapable of describing undamped traveling waves
Excitation of electrostatic ion cyclotron wave in electron beam plasma system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fukumura, Takashi; Takamoto, Teruo
1984-01-01
The electrostatic ion cyclotron waves excited in an electron beam plasma system was investigated. The excitation condition of the waves was calculated by using Harris type dispersion relation under some assumption, and its comparison with the experimental result was made. Beam plasma discharge is a kind of RF discharge, and it is caused by the waves generated by the interaction of electron beam with plasma. It was shown that electrostatic ion cyclotron waves seemed to be the most probable as excited waves. But the excitation mechanism of these waves has not been concretely investigated. In this study, the excitation condition of electrostatic ion cyclotron waves was calculated as described above. The experimental apparatus and the results of potential, electric field and ion saturation current in beam plasma, electron drift motion in azimuthal direction and the waves excited in beam plasma are reported. The frequency of oscillation observed in beam plasma corresponds to the harmonics or subharmonics of ion cyclotron frequency. The calculation of Harris type dispersion relation, the numerical calculation and the comparison of the experimental result with the calculated result are described. (Kako, I.)
Acceleration of particles by electron plasma waves in a moderate magnetic field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Smith, D.F.
1976-01-01
A general scheme is established to examine any magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) configuration for its acceleration potential including the effects of various types of plasma waves. The analysis is restricted to plasma waves in a magnetic field with electron cyclotron frequency less than, but comparable to, the electron plasma frequency (moderate field). The general role of electron plasma waves is examined in this paper independent of a specific MHD configuration or generating mechanism in the weak turbulence limit. The evolution of arbitrary wave spectra in a non-relativistic plasma is examined, and it is shown that the nonlinear process of induced scattering on the polarization clouds of ions leads to the collapse of the waves to an almost one-dimensional spectrum directed along the magnetic field. The subsequent acceleration of non-relativistic and relativistic particles is considered. It is shown for non-relativistic particles that when the wave distribution has a negative slope the acceleration is retarded for lower velocities and enhanced for higher velocities compared to acceleration by an isotropic distribution of electron plasma waves in a magnetic field. This change in behaviour is expected to affect the development of wave spectra and the subsequent acceleration spectrum. (Auth.)
Dispersion of linearly polarized electromagnetic wave in magnetized quantum plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Singh, Abhisek Kumar; Kumar, Punit
2015-01-01
The generation of harmonic radiation is significant in terms of laser-plasma interaction and has brought interesting notice due to the diversity of its applications. The odd harmonics of laser frequency are generated in the majority of laser interactions with homogenous plasma. It has been remarked that second harmonic generation takes place in the presence of density gradient which gives rise to perturbation in the electron density at the laser frequency. The density perturbation coupled with the quiver motion of the electrons produces a source current at the second harmonic frequency. Second harmonic generation has also been related with filamentation. In the present paper, a study of second harmonic generation by propagation of a linearly polarized electromagnetic wave through homogeneous high density quantum plasma in the presence of transverse magnetic field. The nonlinear current density and dispersion relations for the fundamental and second harmonic frequencies have been obtained using the recently developed quantum hydrodynamic (QHD) model. The effect of quantum Bohm potential, Fermi pressure and the electron spin have been taken into account. The second harmonic is found to be less dispersed than the first. (author)
Plasma production for electron acceleration by resonant plasma wave
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Anania, M.P.; Biagioni, A.; Chiadroni, E.; Cianchi, A.; Croia, M.; Curcio, A.; Di Giovenale, D.; Di Pirro, G.P.; Filippi, F.; Ghigo, A.; Lollo, V.; Pella, S.; Pompili, R.; Romeo, S.; Ferrario, M.
2016-01-01
Plasma wakefield acceleration is the most promising acceleration technique known nowadays, able to provide very high accelerating fields (10–100 GV/m), enabling acceleration of electrons to GeV energy in few centimeter. However, the quality of the electron bunches accelerated with this technique is still not comparable with that of conventional accelerators (large energy spread, low repetition rate, and large emittance); radiofrequency-based accelerators, in fact, are limited in accelerating field (10–100 MV/m) requiring therefore hundred of meters of distances to reach the GeV energies, but can provide very bright electron bunches. To combine high brightness electron bunches from conventional accelerators and high accelerating fields reachable with plasmas could be a good compromise allowing to further accelerate high brightness electron bunches coming from LINAC while preserving electron beam quality. Following the idea of plasma wave resonant excitation driven by a train of short bunches, we have started to study the requirements in terms of plasma for SPARC-LAB (Ferrario et al., 2013 [1]). In particular here we focus on hydrogen plasma discharge, and in particular on the theoretical and numerical estimates of the ionization process which are very useful to design the discharge circuit and to evaluate the current needed to be supplied to the gas in order to have full ionization. Eventually, the current supplied to the gas simulated will be compared to that measured experimentally.
Plasma production for electron acceleration by resonant plasma wave
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Anania, M.P., E-mail: maria.pia.anania@lnf.infn.it [INFN - LNF, via Enrico Fermi, 40, 00044 Frascati (Italy); Biagioni, A.; Chiadroni, E. [INFN - LNF, via Enrico Fermi, 40, 00044 Frascati (Italy); Cianchi, A. [University of Rome Tor Vergata - INFN, via della Ricerca Scientifica, 1, 00133 Roma (Italy); INFN, Via della Ricerca Scientifica, 1, 00133 Roma (Italy); Croia, M.; Curcio, A. [INFN - LNF, via Enrico Fermi, 40, 00044 Frascati (Italy); University of Rome La Sapienza, Piazzale Aldo Moro, 2, 00185 Roma (Italy); Di Giovenale, D.; Di Pirro, G.P. [INFN - LNF, via Enrico Fermi, 40, 00044 Frascati (Italy); Filippi, F. [University of Rome La Sapienza, Piazzale Aldo Moro, 2, 00185 Roma (Italy); Ghigo, A.; Lollo, V.; Pella, S.; Pompili, R. [INFN - LNF, via Enrico Fermi, 40, 00044 Frascati (Italy); Romeo, S. [INFN - LNF, via Enrico Fermi, 40, 00044 Frascati (Italy); University of Rome La Sapienza, Piazzale Aldo Moro, 2, 00185 Roma (Italy); Ferrario, M. [INFN - LNF, via Enrico Fermi, 40, 00044 Frascati (Italy)
2016-09-01
Plasma wakefield acceleration is the most promising acceleration technique known nowadays, able to provide very high accelerating fields (10–100 GV/m), enabling acceleration of electrons to GeV energy in few centimeter. However, the quality of the electron bunches accelerated with this technique is still not comparable with that of conventional accelerators (large energy spread, low repetition rate, and large emittance); radiofrequency-based accelerators, in fact, are limited in accelerating field (10–100 MV/m) requiring therefore hundred of meters of distances to reach the GeV energies, but can provide very bright electron bunches. To combine high brightness electron bunches from conventional accelerators and high accelerating fields reachable with plasmas could be a good compromise allowing to further accelerate high brightness electron bunches coming from LINAC while preserving electron beam quality. Following the idea of plasma wave resonant excitation driven by a train of short bunches, we have started to study the requirements in terms of plasma for SPARC-LAB (Ferrario et al., 2013 [1]). In particular here we focus on hydrogen plasma discharge, and in particular on the theoretical and numerical estimates of the ionization process which are very useful to design the discharge circuit and to evaluate the current needed to be supplied to the gas in order to have full ionization. Eventually, the current supplied to the gas simulated will be compared to that measured experimentally.
RF-heating of plasma in the frequency domain of the ion cyclotron harmonics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hahnekamp, H.G.; Stampa, A.; Tuczek, H.; Laeuter, R.; Wulf, H.O.
1976-01-01
Experiments on rf-heating of plasmas in the frequency domain of the ion cyclotron harmonics are reported. The rf-power is coupled to the magneto-acoustic wave for frequencies between ωsub(ci) and 5ωsub(ci). The measurements indicate that the damping of the pump wave is mainly due to the excitation of turbulence, whereas direct resonance at 2ωsub(ci) seems to be of minor importance
Lage-area planar RF plasma productions by surface waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nonaka, S.
1994-01-01
Large-area rf plasmas are confirmed to be produced by means of RF discharges inside a large-area dielectric tube. The plasma space is 73 cm x 176 cm and 2.5 cm. The plasma is thought to be produced by an odd plasma-surface wave (PSW ο ) in case of using large-area electrodes and by an even plasma-surface wave (PSW ο ) in case of without the electrodes. (author). 7 refs, 4 figs
On radio frequency wave induced radial transport and wave helicity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Petrzilka, V.
1992-09-01
Expressions for wave induced radial transport are derived allowing simple estimates. The transport is enhanced due to the presence of poloidal magnetostatic field and in the vicinity of the ion cyclotron resonance. The direction of the wave induced transport depends also on the wave polarization. (author) 19 refs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Moreau, D.
1993-04-01
It is studied, on the one hand, how using hybrid waves with frequency near from lower hybrid frequency in fusion plasma. Works about coupling waves in plasma (chap.I), their propagation and response of the plasma to the absorption of the waves (chap.II). This method is the most effective until today. Because of limits, it has been investigated, on the other hand, fast magnetosonic wave to control current density in the centre of the discharge in a reactor or a very hot plasma. Theoretical study (chap.III) and experimental results (chap.IV) are presented. Experiments are in progress or planned in following tokamaks: D3-D (USA), JET (Europe), TORE SUPRA (France), JT-60 (Japan). figs. refs. tabs
Rarefaction Shock Waves in Collisionless Plasma with Electronic Beam
Gurovich, Victor Ts.; Fel, Leonid G.
2011-01-01
We show that an electronic beam passing through the collisionless plasma of the "cold" ions and the "hot" Boltzmann electrons can give rise to the propagation of the supersonic ion-acoustic rarefaction shock waves. These waves are analogous to those predicted by Zeldovich [5] in gasodynamics and complementary to the ion-acoustic compression shock waves in collisionless plasma described by Sagdeev [3].
Fast-wave heating of a two-component plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stix, T.H.
1975-02-01
The use of the compressional hydromagnetic mode (also called the magnetosonic or, simply, the fast wave) is examined in some detail with respect to the heating of a tritium plasma containing a few percent deuterium. Efficient absorption of wave energy by the deuteron component is found when ω = ω/sub c/ (deuterons), with Q/sub wave/ greater than or equal to 100. The dominant behavior of the high-energy deuteron distribution function is found to be f(v) approximately exp[3/2) ∫/sup v/ dv less than Δv greater than/less than(Δv/sub perpendicular to/) 2 greater than], where [Δv] is the Chandrasekhar-Spitzer drag coefficient, and [(Δv/sub perpendicular to/) 2 sigma] is the Kennel-Englemann quasilinear diffusion coefficient for wave--particle interaction at the deuteron cyclotron frequency. An analytic solution to the one-dimensional Fokker--Planck equation, with rf-induced diffusion, is developed, and using this solution together with Duane's fit to the D-T fusion cross-section, it is found that the nuclear fusion power output from an rf-produced two-component plasma can significantly exceed the incremental (radiofrequency) power input. (auth)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pinsker, R. I.
2015-01-01
This introductory-level tutorial article describes the application of plasma waves in the lower hybrid range of frequencies (LHRF) for current drive in tokamaks. Wave damping mechanisms in a nearly collisionless hot magnetized plasma are briefly described, and the connections between the properties of the damping mechanisms and the optimal choices of wave properties (mode, frequency, wavelength) are explored. The two wave modes available for current drive in the LHRF are described and compared. The terms applied to these waves in different applications of plasma physics are elucidated. The character of the ray paths of these waves in the LHRF is illustrated in slab and toroidal geometries. Applications of these ideas to experiments in the DIII-D tokamak are discussed
Assessment of thermodynamic parameters of plasma shock wave
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vasileva, O V; Isaev, Yu N; Budko, A A; Filkov, A I
2014-01-01
The work is devoted to the solution of the one-dimensional equation of hydraulic gas dynamics for the coaxial magneto plasma accelerator by means of Lax-Wendroff modified algorithm with optimum choice of the regularization parameter artificial viscosity. Replacement of the differential equations containing private derivatives is made by finite difference method. Optimum parameter of regularization artificial viscosity is added using the exact known decision of Soda problem. The developed algorithm of thermodynamic parameter calculation in a braking point is proved. Thermodynamic parameters of a shock wave in front of the plasma piston of the coaxial magneto plasma accelerator are calculated on the basis of the offered algorithm. Unstable high-frequency fluctuations are smoothed using modeling and that allows narrowing the ambiguity area. Results of calculation of gas dynamic parameters in a point of braking coincide with literary data. The chart 3 shows the dynamics of change of speed and thermodynamic parameters of a shock wave such as pressure, density and temperature just before the plasma piston
Bifurcation of space-charge wave in a plasma waveguide including the wake potential effect
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lee, Myoung-Jae [Department of Physics and Research Institute for Natural Sciences, Hanyang University, Seoul 04763 (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Young-Dae, E-mail: ydjung@hanyang.ac.kr [Department of Applied Physics and Department of Bionanotechnology, Hanyang University, Ansan, Kyunggi-Do 15588, South Korea and Department of Physics, Applied Physics, and Astronomy, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, 110 8th Street, Troy, New York 12180-3590 (United States)
2016-09-15
The wake potential effects on the propagation of the space-charge dust ion-acoustic wave are investigated in a cylindrically bounded dusty plasma with the ion flow. The results show that the wake potential would generate the double frequency modes in a cylindrically bounded dusty plasma. It is found that the upper mode of the wave frequency with the root of higher-order is smaller than that with the root of lower-order in intermediate wave number domains. However, the lower mode of the scaled wave frequency with the root of higher-order is found to be greater than that with the root of lower-order. It is found that the influence in the order of the root of the Bessel function on the wave frequency of the space-charge dust-ion-acoustic wave in a cylindrically confined dusty plasma decreases with an increase in the propagation wave number. It is also found that the double frequency modes increase with increasing Mach number due to the ion flow in a cylindrical dusty plasma. In addition, it is found that the upper mode of the group velocity decreases with an increase in the scaled radius of the plasma cylinder. However, it is shown that the lower mode of the scaled group velocity of the space-charge dust ion acoustic wave increases with an increase in the radius of the plasma cylinder. The variation of the space-charge dust-ion-acoustic wave due to the wake potential and geometric effects is also discussed.
Broadband notch filter design for millimeter-wave plasma diagnostics
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Furtula, Vedran; Michelsen, Poul; Leipold, Frank
2010-01-01
Notch filters are integrated in plasma diagnostic systems to protect millimeter-wave receivers from intensive stray radiation. Here we present a design of a notch filter with a center frequency of 140 GHz, a rejection bandwidth of ∼ 900 MHz, and a typical insertion loss below 2 dB in the passband...... of ±9 GHz. The design is based on a fundamental rectangular waveguide with eight cylindrical cavities coupled by T-junction apertures formed as thin slits. Parameters that affect the notch performance such as physical lengths and conductor materials are discussed. The excited resonance mode...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhou, Yong-Jie; Yuan, Qiang-Hua; Li, Fei; Wang, Xiao-Min; Yin, Gui-Qin; Dong, Chen-Zhong
2013-01-01
An atmospheric pressure plasma jet is generated by dual sinusoidal wave (50 kHz and 2 MHz). The dual-frequency plasma jet exhibits the advantages of both low frequency and radio frequency plasmas, namely, the long plasma plume and the high electron density. The radio frequency ignition voltage can be reduced significantly by using dual-frequency excitation compared to the conventional radio frequency without the aid of the low frequency excitation source. A larger operating range of α mode discharge can be obtained using dual-frequency excitation which is important to obtain homogeneous and low-temperature plasma. A larger controllable range of the gas temperature of atmospheric pressure plasma could also be obtained using dual-frequency excitation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bhattacharyya, B.; Chakraborty, B.
1979-01-01
Nonlinear corrections of a left and a right circularly polarized electromagnetic wave of the same frequency, propagating in the direction of a static and uniform magnetic field in a cold and collisionally damped two-component plasma, have been evaluated. The nonlinearly correct dispersion relation, self-generating nonlinear precessional rotation of the polarization ellipse of the wave and the shift in a wave parameter depend on linear combinations of products of the amplitude components taken two at a time and hence on the energies of the waves. Both in the low frequency resonance (that is when the ion cyclotron frequency equals the wave frequency) and in the high frequency resonance (that is when the electron cyclotron frequency equals the wave frequency), the self-precessional rate and wavenumber shift are found to be large and so have the possibility of detection in laboratory experiments. Moreover, for the limit leading to Alfven waves, these nonlinear effects have been found to have some interesting and significant properties. (Auth.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Williams, R.L.; Johnson, J.A. III
1993-01-01
The feasibility of using an ionizing shock wave to produce high density plasmas suitable for the propagation large amplitude relativistic plasma waves is being investigated. A 20 kv arc driven shock tube of coaxial geometry produces a hypersonic shock wave (10 p > 10 17 cm -3 ). The shock can be made to reflect off the end of the tube, collide with its wake, and thus increase the plasma density further. After reflecting, the plasma is at rest. The shock speed is measured using piezoelectric pressure probes and the ion density is measured using laser induced fluorescence (LIF) techniques on argon 488.0 nm and 422.8 nm lines. The future plans are to excite large amplitude relativistic plasma waves in this plasma by either injecting a short pulse laser (Laser Wake Field Scheme), two beating lasers (Plasma Beat Wave Scheme), or a short bunch of relativistic electrons (Plasma Wake Field Scheme). Results of recent computational and theoretical studies, as well as initial experimental measurements on the plasma using LIF, are reported. Implications for the application of high density plasmas produced in this way to such novel schemes as the plasma wave accelerator, photon accelerator, plasma wave undulator, and also plasma lens, are discussed. The effect of plasma turbulence is also discussed
Low-frequency fluid waves in fractures and pipes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Korneev, Valeri
2010-09-01
Low-frequency analytical solutions have been obtained for phase velocities of symmetrical fluid waves within both an infinite fracture and a pipe filled with a viscous fluid. Three different fluid wave regimes can exist in such objects, depending on the various combinations of parameters, such as fluid density, fluid viscosity, walls shear modulus, channel thickness, and frequency. Equations for velocities of all these regimes have explicit forms and are verified by comparisons with the exact solutions. The dominant role of fractures in rock permeability at field scales and the strong amplitude and frequency effects of Stoneley guided waves suggest the importance of including these wave effects into poroelastic theories.
Electromagnetic solitary waves in magnetized plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hazeltine, R.D.; Holm, D.D.; Morrison, P.J.
1985-03-01
A Hamiltonian formulation, in terms of noncanonical Poisson bracket, is presented for a nonlinear fluid system that includes reduced magnetohydrodynamics and the Hasegawa-Mima equation as limiting cases. The single-helicity and axisymmetric versions possess three nonlinear Casimir invariants, from which a generalized potential can be constructed. Variation of the generalized potential yields a description of exact nonlinear stationary states. The new equilibria, allowing for plasma flow as well as partial electron adiabaticity, are distinct from those found in conventional magnetohydrodynamic theory. They differ from electrostatic stationary states in containing plasma current and magnetic field excitation. One class of steady-state solutions is shown to provide a simple electromagnetic generalization of drift-solitary waves
Re-ionization of a partially ionized plasma by an Alfven wave of moderate amplitude
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brennan, M.H.; Sawley, M.L.
1980-01-01
The use of forced magnetic-acoustic oscillations to investigate the effect of a torsional hydromagnetic (Alfven) wave pulse of moderate amplitude on the properties of a partially ionized afterglow helium plasma is reported. Observations of the magnetic flux associated with the oscillations, measured at a number of frequencies are used to determine radial density profiles and to provide estimates of plasma temperature. The torsional wave is shown to cause significant re-ionization of the plasma with no corresponding increase in the plasma temperature. The presence of a number of energetic particles is evidenced by the production of a significant number of doubly charged helium ions. (author)
Non linear excitation of waves at the vicinity of plasma resonance
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chiron, Arnaud
1992-01-01
This research thesis reports the study of the non linear evolution of ionic acoustic and plasma waves excited by resonant absorption of an electromagnetic wave, in a non collisional plasma, without external magnetic field, and with a parabolic density profile. The plasma resonance occurs about the density profile peak. The numerical resolution of the Zakharov equation system is performed to describe the coupled evolution of the plasma wave electric field envelope, and low frequency density disturbances. Experiments performed in the microwave domain show the existence of a new effect related to the modification of the electromagnetic wave propagation under the influence of plasma density disturbances created by the ponderomotive force. This effect which results in a collisional relaxation of plasma waves trapped in the cavity formed at resonance, cannot be taken into account by a numerical simulation using a capacitive pump field. Measurements showed that plasma waves were trapped and relaxing in a cavity with characteristic dimensions of some thousands of Debye lengths, and that the plasma wave in the cavity was stationary. A new turbulence regime is thus highlighted [fr
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hall, J.O.
2004-01-01
Analytic expressions are presented for conversion of localized lower hybrid oscillations and magnetosonic waves by scattering off a small scale density cavity. The governing equations are solved in slab geometry with wave vectors perpendicular to both the ambient magnetic field and the density gradient associated with density cavity using a scale length separation method. The theory predicts strong excitation of localized lower hybrid oscillations for a set of frequencies between the lower hybrid frequency of the ambient plasma and the minimum lower hybrid frequency inside the cavity. The theory is relevant for the lower hybrid solitary structures observed in space plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Saito, Yukimasa
1977-01-01
The transient reflection and transmission waves of E polarized electromagnetic waves coming into the boundary surface between air and moving isotropic plasma were theoretically investigated. By using the Laplace transformation in the moving system, the formulae of Lorentz and inverse Lorentz transformations concerning electromagnetic field were transformed, thus the transient reflection and transmission waves were obtained. These waves were normalized with the angular frequency of the incident waves, and the variation of the wave form was obtained. Examples of the numerical calculation of reflected waves are shown for the plasma moving in parallel to the boundary surface. (Kato, T.)
Enhancement of wave growth for warm plasmas with a high-energy tail distribution
Thorne, Richard M.; Summers, Danny
1991-01-01
The classical linear theory of electromagnetic wave growth in a warm plasma is considered for waves propagating parallel to a uniform ambient magnetic field. Wave-growth rates are calculated for ion-driven right-hand mode waves for Kappa and Maxwellian particle distribution functions and for various values of the spectral index, the temperature anisotropy, and the ratio of plasma pressure to magnetic pressure appropriate to the solar wind. When the anisotropy is low the wave growth is limited to frequencies below the proton gyrofrequency and the growth rate increases dramatically as the spectral index is reduced. The growth rate for any Kappa distribution greatly exceeds that for a Maxwellian with the same bulk properties. For large thermal anisotropy the growth rate from either distribution is greatly enhanced. The growth rates from a Kappa distribution are generally larger than for a Maxwellian distribution, and significant wave growth occurs over a broader range of frequencies.
Plasma waves in hot relativistic beam-plasma systems: Pt. 1
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Magneville, A.
1990-01-01
Dispersion relations of plasma waves in a beam-plasma system are computed in the general case where the plasma and beam temperatures, and the velocity of the beam, may be relativistic. The two asymptotic temperature cases, and different contributions of plasma or beam particles to wave dispersion are considered. (author)
Plasma Waves Associated with Mass-Loaded Comets
Tsurutani, Bruce; Glassmeier, Karl-Heinz
2015-01-01
Plasma waves and instabilities are integrally involved with the plasma "pickup" process and the mass loading of the solar wind (thus the formation of ion tails and the magnetic tails). Anisotropic plasmas generated by solar wind-comet interactions (the bow shock, magnetic field pileup) cause the generation of plasma waves which in turn "smooth out" these discontinuities. The plasma waves evolve and form plasma turbulence. Comets are perhaps the best "laboratories" to study waves and turbulence because over time (and distance) one can identify the waves and their evolution. We will argue that comets in some ways are better laboratories than magnetospheres, interplanetary space and fusion devices to study nonlinear waves and their evolution.
Bispectral analysis of nonlinear compressional waves in a two-dimensional dusty plasma crystal
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nosenko, V.; Goree, J.; Skiff, F.
2006-01-01
Bispectral analysis was used to study the nonlinear interaction of compressional waves in a two-dimensional strongly coupled dusty plasma. A monolayer of highly charged polymer microspheres was suspended in a plasma sheath. The microspheres interacted with a Yukawa potential and formed a triangular lattice. Two sinusoidal pump waves with different frequencies were excited in the lattice by pushing the particles with modulated Ar + laser beams. Coherent nonlinear interaction of the pump waves was shown to be the mechanism of generating waves at the sum, difference, and other combination frequencies. However, coherent nonlinear interaction was ruled out for certain combination frequencies, in particular, for the difference frequency below an excitation-power threshold, as predicted by theory
Scattering of electromagnetic waves by anomalous fluctuations of a magnetized plasma
Pavlenko, V. N.; Panchenko, V. G.
1990-04-01
Fluctuations and scattering of transverse electromagnetic waves by density fluctuations in a magnetized plasma in the presence of parametric decay of the pump wave are investigated. The spectral density of electron-density fluctuations is calculated. It is shown that the differential scattering cross-section has sharp maxima at the ion-acoustic and lower-hybrid frequencies when parametric decay of the lower-hybrid pump wave occurs. We note that scattering at the ion-acoustic frequency is dominant. When the pump-wave amplitude tends to the threshold strength of the electric field the scattering cross-section increases anomalously, i.e. there is critical opalescence.
Acoustic Wave in a Dusty Plasma with Frequent Grain Charging Collisions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lee, Hee J.; Cho, Sang-Hoon
2003-01-01
The sink terms in the electron and ion continuity equations and the frictional terms in the momentum equations of a dusty plasma are obtained by taking moments of a kinetic equation which takes into account the grain charging collisions by electrons and ions. We show that an acoustic wave can propagate as a normal mode in the parameter regime where the frequencies of charging collisions are much greater than the wave frequency
The wave buoy analogy - estimating high-frequency wave excitations
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Ulrik Dam
2008-01-01
of sea state parameters — influence of filtering. Ocean Engineering 2007;34:1797–810.], where time series of ship responses were generated from a known wave spectrum for the purpose of the inverse process — the estimation of the underlying wave excitations. Similar response generations and vice versa...
MAVEN Observation of an Obliquely Propagating Low-Frequency Wave Upstream of Mars
Ruhunusiri, Suranga; Halekas, J. S.; Connerney, J. E. P.; Espley, J. R.; McFadden, J. P.; Mazelle, C.; Brain, D.; Collinson, G.; Harada, Y.; Larson, D. E.;
2016-01-01
We report Mars Atmosphere and Volatile EvolutioN (MAVEN) mission observations of a large amplitude low-frequency plasma wave that propagated oblique to the ambient magnetic field upstream of Mars along with a non-solar-wind plasma component that had a flow velocity perpendicular to the magnetic field. We consider nine possibilities for this wave that include various combinations of its propagation direction, polarization in the solar wind frame, and ion source responsible for its generation. Using the observed wave parameters and the measured plasma parameters as constraints, we uniquely identify the wave by systematically discarding these possibilities. We determine that the wave is a right-hand polarized wave that propagated upstream in the solar wind frame. We find two possibilities for the ion source that can be responsible for this wave generation. They are either newly born pickup protons or reflected solar wind protons from the bow shock.We determine that the observed non-solar-wind component is not responsible for the wave generation, and it is likely that the non-solar-wind component was merely perturbed by the passage of the wave.
Linear and Nonlinear Electrostatic Waves in Unmagnetized Dusty Plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mamun, A. A.; Shukla, P. K.
2010-01-01
A rigorous and systematic theoretical study has been made of linear and nonlinear electrostatic waves propagating in unmagnetized dusty plasmas. The basic features of linear and nonlinear electrostatic waves (particularly, dust-ion-acoustic and dust-acoustic waves) for different space and laboratory dusty plasma conditions are described. The experimental observations of such linear and nonlinear features of dust-ion-acoustic and dust-acoustic waves are briefly discussed.
Propagation of thermal and hydromagnetic waves in an ionizing-recombining hydrogen plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Di Sigalotti, Leonardo G.; Sira, Eloy; Rendon, Otto; Tremola, Ciro; Mendoza-Briceno, Cesar A.
2004-01-01
The propagation of thermal and magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) waves in a heat-conducting, hydrogen plasma, threaded by an external uniform magnetic field (B) and in which photoionization and photorecombination [H + +e - H+hν(χ)] processes are progressing, is investigated here using linear analysis. The resulting dispersion equation is solved analytically for varied strength (β<<1 and ∼1) and orientation of the magnetic field, where β denotes the ratio of plasma to magnetic pressures. Application of this model to the interstellar medium shows that heat conduction governs the propagation of thermal waves only at relatively high frequencies regardless of the plasma temperature, strength, and orientation of the magnetic field. When the direction of wave propagation is held perpendicular to B (i.e., k perpendicular B), the magnetosonic phase velocity is closely Alfvenic for β<<1, while for β∼1 both the hydrostatic and magnetic pressures determine the wave velocity. As long as k parallel B, the fast (transverse) magnetosonic wave becomes an Alfven wave for all frequencies independent of the plasma temperature and field strength, while the slow (longitudinal) magnetosonic wave becomes a pure sound wave. Amplification of thermal and MHD waves always occur at low frequencies and preferentially at temperatures for which the plasma is either weakly or partially ionized. Compared to previous analysis for the same hydrogen plasma model with B=0, the presence of the magnetic field makes the functional dependence of the physical quantities span a longer range of frequencies, which becomes progressively longer as the field strength is increased
Frequency tunable surface magneto elastic waves
Janusonis, J.; Chang, C. L.; van Loosdrecht, P. H. M.; Tobey, R. I.
2015-01-01
We use the transient grating technique to generate narrow-band, widely tunable, in-plane surface magnetoelastic waves in a nickel film. We monitor both the structural deformation of the acoustic wave and the accompanying magnetic precession and witness their intimate coupling in the time domain.
Wave trajectory and electron cyclotron heating in tokamak plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tanaka, S.; Maekawa, T.; Terumichi, Y.; Hamada, Y.
1980-01-01
Wave trajectories in high density tokamak plasmas are studied numerically. Results show that the ordinary wave injected at an appropriate incident angle can propagate into the dense plasmas and is mode-converted to the extraordinary wave at the plasma cutoff, is further converted to the electron Bernstein wave during passing a loop or a folded curve near the upper hybrid resonance layer, and is cyclotron damped away, resulting in local electron heating before arriving at the cyclotron resonance layer. Similar trajectory and damping are obtained when a microwave in a form of extraordinary wave is injected quasi-perpendicularly in the direction of decreasing toroidal field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nowak, S.; Orefice, A.
1994-01-01
In today's high frequency systems employed for plasma diagnostics, power heating, and current drive the behavior of the wave beams is appreciably affected by the self-diffraction phenomena due to their narrow collimation. In the present article the three-dimensional propagation of Gaussian beams in inhomogeneous and anisotropic media is analyzed, starting from a properly formulated dispersion relation. Particular attention is paid, in the case of electromagnetic electron cyclotron (EC) waves, to the toroidal geometry characterizing tokamak plasmas, to the power density evolution on the advancing wave fronts, and to the absorption features occurring when a beam crosses an EC resonant layer
Kinetic computer modeling of microwave surface-wave plasma production
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ganachev, Ivan P.
2004-01-01
Kinetic computer plasma modeling occupies an intermediate position between the time consuming rigorous particle dynamic simulation and the fast but rather rough cold- or warm-plasma fluid models. The present paper reviews the kinetic modeling of microwave surface-wave discharges with accent on recent kinetic self-consistent models, where the external input parameters are reduced to the necessary minimum (frequency and intensity of the applied microwave field and pressure and geometry of the discharge vessel). The presentation is limited to low pressures, so that Boltzmann equation is solved in non-local approximation and collisional electron heating is neglected. The numerical results reproduce correctly the bi-Maxwellian electron energy distribution functions observed experimentally. (author)
Dust-lower-hybrid waves in a magnetized self-gravitating dusty plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Salimullah, M.; Roy Chowdhury, A.; Dasgupta, B.
1997-11-01
General dispersion relation for a self-gravitating magnetized and finite temperature dusty plasma has been derived using the Vlasov-kinetic theory in guiding center technique. Results of earlier studies in unmagnetized situations turn out to be special cases of our general dispersion relation. In addition to the usual dust-acoustic waves in unmagnetized plasmas, we find an ultra-low-frequency mode in the frequency range between cyclotron frequencies of ions and charged dust particles and the Jean's instability of the self-gravitating dusty plasma systems. (author)
Effect of weak nonlinearities on the plane waves in a plasma stream
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Seshadri, S.R.
1976-01-01
The effect of weak nonlinearities on the monochromatic plane waves in a cold infinite plasma stream is investigated for the case in which the waves are progressing parallel to the drift velocity. The fast and the slow space-charge waves undergo amplitude-dependent frequency and wave number shifts. There is a long time slow modulation of the amplitude of the electromagnetic mode which becomes unstable to this nonlinear wave modulation. The importance of using the relativistically correct equation of motion for predicting correctly the modulational stability of the electromagnetic mode is pointed out. (author)
Nonlinear propagation of ultra-low-frequency electronic modes in a magnetized dusty plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mamun, A.A.
1999-07-01
A theoretical investigation has been made of nonlinear propagation of ultra-low-frequency electromagnetic waves in a magnetized two fluid (negatively charged dust and positively charged ion fluids) dusty plasma. These are modified Alfven waves for small value of θ and are modified magnetosonic waves for large θ, where θ is the angle between the directions of the external magnetic field and the wave propagation. A nonlinear evolution equation for the wave magnetic field, which is known as Korteweg de Vries (K-dV) equation and which admits a stationary solitary wave solution, is derived by the reductive perturbation method. The effects of external magnetic field and dust characteristics on the amplitude and the width of these solitary structures are examined. The implications of these results to some space and astrophysical plasma systems, especially to planetary ring-systems, are briefly mentioned. (author)
S/WAVES: The Radio and Plasma Wave Investigation on the STEREO Mission
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Bougeret, J. L.; Goetz, K.; Kaiser, M. L.; Bale, S. D.; Kellogg, P. J.; Maksimovic, M.; Monge, N.; Monson, S. J.; Astier, P. L.; Davy, S.; Dekkali, M.; Hinze, J. J.; Manning, R. E.; Aguilar-Rodriguez, E.; Bonnin, X.; Briand, C.; Cairns, I. H.; Cattell, C. A.; Cecconi, B.; Eastwood, J.; Ergun, R. E.; Fainberg, J.; Hoang, S.; Huttunen, K. E. J.; Krucker, S.; Lecacheux, A.; MacDowall, R. J.; Macher, W.; Mangeney, A.; Meetre, C. A.; Moussas, X.; Nguyen, Q. N.; Oswald, T. H.; Pulupa, M.; Reiner, M. J.; Robinson, P. A.; Rucker, H.; Salem, c.; Santolík, Ondřej; Silvis, J. M.; Ullrich, R.; Zarka, P.; Zouganelis, I.
2008-01-01
Roč. 136, 1-4 (2008), s. 487-528 ISSN 0038-6308 Grant - others: NASA (US) NAS5-03076 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30420517 Keywords : S/WAVES * STEREO * plasma waves * radio waves Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 2.372, year: 2008
Numerical calculation of high frequency fast wave current drive in a reactor grade tokamak
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ushigusa, Kenkichi; Hamamatsu, Kiyotaka
1988-02-01
A fast wave current drive with a high frequency is estimated for a reactor grade tokamak by the ray tracing and the quasi-linear Fokker-Planck calculations with an assumption of single path absorption. The fast wave can drive RF current with the drive efficiency of η CD = n-bar e (10 19 m -3 )I RC (A)R(m)/P RF (W) ∼ 3.0 when the wave frequency is selected to be f/f ci > 7. A sharp wave spectrum and a ph|| >/υ Te ∼ 3.0 are required to obtain a good efficiency. A center peaked RF current profile can be formed with an appropriate wave spectrum even in the high temperature plasma. (author)
Relativistic electromagnetic waves in an electron-ion plasma
Chian, Abraham C.-L.; Kennel, Charles F.
1987-01-01
High power laser beams can drive plasma particles to relativistic energies. An accurate description of strong waves requires the inclusion of ion dynamics in the analysis. The equations governing the propagation of relativistic electromagnetic waves in a cold electron-ion plasma can be reduced to two equations expressing conservation of energy-momentum of the system. The two conservation constants are functions of the plasma stream velocity, the wave velocity, the wave amplitude, and the electron-ion mass ratio. The dynamic parameter, expressing electron-ion momentum conversation in the laboratory frame, can be regarded as an adjustable quantity, a suitable choice of which will yield self-consistent solutions when other plasma parameters were specified. Circularly polarized electromagnetic waves and electrostatic plasma waves are used as illustrations.
Plasma oscillations and sound waves in collision-dominated two-component plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hansen, J.P.; Sjoegren, L.
1982-01-01
Charge, mass, and electron density fluctuation spectra of strongly correlated, fully ionized two-component plasmas within the framework of the Mori--Zwanzig memory function formalism are analyzed. All dynamical correlation functions are expressed in terms of the memory functions of the ion and electron velocity autocorrelation functions by a generalized effective field approximation which preserves the exact initial values (i.e., static correlations). The theory reduces correctly to the mean field (or collisionless Vlasov) results in the weak coupling limit, and yields charge density fluctuation spectra in good agreement with available computer simulation data, as well as reasonable estimates of the transport coefficients. The collisional damping and frequency shift of the plasma oscillation mode are sizeable, even in the long wavelength limit. The theory also predicts the propagation of well-defined sound waves in dense plasmas in thermal equilibrium
Ion sense of polarization of the electromagnetic wave field in the electron whistler frequency band
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
B. Lundin
Full Text Available It is shown that the left-hand (or ion-type sense of polarization can appear in the field interference pattern of two plane electron whistler waves. Moreover, it is demonstrated that the ion-type polarized wave electric fields can be accompanied by the presence at the same observation point of electron-type polarized wave magnetic fields. The registration of ion-type polarized fields with frequencies between the highest ion gyrofrequency and the electron gyrofrequency in a cold, overdense plasma is a sufficient indication for the existence of an interference wave pattern, which can typically occur near artificial or natural reflecting magnetospheric plasma regions, inside waveguides (as in helicon discharges, for example, in fields resonantly emitted by beams of charged particles or, in principle, in some self-sustained, nonlinear wave field structures. A comparison with the conventional spectral matrix data processing approach is also presented in order to facilitate the calculations of the analyzed polarization parameters.
Key words. Ionosphere (wave propagation Radio science (waves in plasma Space plasma physics (general or miscellaneous
Ion sense of polarization of the electromagnetic wave field in the electron whistler frequency band
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
B. Lundin
2002-08-01
Full Text Available It is shown that the left-hand (or ion-type sense of polarization can appear in the field interference pattern of two plane electron whistler waves. Moreover, it is demonstrated that the ion-type polarized wave electric fields can be accompanied by the presence at the same observation point of electron-type polarized wave magnetic fields. The registration of ion-type polarized fields with frequencies between the highest ion gyrofrequency and the electron gyrofrequency in a cold, overdense plasma is a sufficient indication for the existence of an interference wave pattern, which can typically occur near artificial or natural reflecting magnetospheric plasma regions, inside waveguides (as in helicon discharges, for example, in fields resonantly emitted by beams of charged particles or, in principle, in some self-sustained, nonlinear wave field structures. A comparison with the conventional spectral matrix data processing approach is also presented in order to facilitate the calculations of the analyzed polarization parameters.Key words. Ionosphere (wave propagation Radio science (waves in plasma Space plasma physics (general or miscellaneous
Surface flute waves in plasmas theory and applications
Girka, Volodymyr; Thumm, Manfred
2014-01-01
The book presents results of a comprehensive study of various features of eigen electromagnetic waves propagating across the axis of plasma filled metal waveguides with cylindrical geometry. The authors collected in one book material on various features of surface flute waves, i. e. impact of waveguide design on wave dispersion, wave damping influenced by various reasons, impact of plasma density and external magnetic field inhomogeneity on the wave, and impact of waveguide corrugation and electric current on the wave. A variety of present surface waves applications and possible future applications is also included. Using the method of successive approximations it is shown how one can solve problems, which concern real experimental devices, starting from simple models. The book applies to both professionals dealing with problems of confined plasmas and to graduate and post-graduate students specializing in the field of plasma physics and related applications.
A time-frequency analysis of wave packet fractional revivals
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ghosh, Suranjana; Banerji, J
2007-01-01
We show that the time-frequency analysis of the autocorrelation function is, in many ways, a more appropriate tool to resolve fractional revivals of a wave packet than the usual time-domain analysis. This advantage is crucial in reconstructing the initial state of the wave packet when its coherent structure is short-lived and decays before it is fully revived. Our calculations are based on the model example of fractional revivals in a Rydberg wave packet of circular states. We end by providing an analytical investigation which fully agrees with our numerical observations on the utility of time-frequency analysis in the study of wave packet fractional revivals
Dominant wave frequency and amplitude estimation for adaptive control of wave energy converters
Nguyen , Hoai-Nam; Tona , Paolino; Sabiron , Guillaume
2017-01-01
International audience; Adaptive control is of great interest for wave energy converters (WEC) due to the inherent time-varying nature of sea conditions. Robust and accurate estimation algorithms are required to improve the knowledge of the current sea state on a wave-to-wave basis in order to ensure power harvesting as close as possible to optimal behavior. In this paper, we present a simple but innovative approach for estimating the wave force dominant frequency and wave force dominant ampl...
Shock wave interaction with pulsed glow discharge and afterglow plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Podder, N.K.; LoCascio, A.C.
2009-01-01
Acoustic shock waves are launched by the spark-discharge of a high voltage capacitor in pulsed glow discharge and afterglow plasmas. The glow discharge section of the shock tube is switched on for a period of less than one second at a time, during which a shock wave is launched starting with a large delay between the plasma switch-on and the shock-launch. In the subsequent runs this delay is decremented in equal time intervals up to the plasma switch-on time. A photo acoustic deflection method sensitive to the density gradient of the shock wave is used to study the propagating shock structure and velocity in the igniting plasma. A similar set of measurements are also performed at the plasma switch-off, in which the delay time is incremented in equal time intervals from the plasma switch-off time until the afterglow plasma fully neutralizes itself into the room-temperature gas. Thus, complete time histories of the shock wave propagation in the igniting plasma, as well as in the afterglow plasma, are produced. In the igniting plasma, the changes in the shock-front velocity and dispersion are found to be a strong non-linear function of delay until a saturation point is reached. On the other hand, in the afterglow plasma the trend has been opposite and reversing towards the room temperature values. The observed shock wave properties in both igniting and afterglow plasmas correlate well with the inferred temperature changes in the two plasmas
Free-electron laser with a plasma wave wiggler propagating through a magnetized plasma channel
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jafari, S; Jafarinia, F; Mehdian, H
2013-01-01
A plasma eigenmode has been employed as a wiggler in a magnetized plasma channel for the generation of laser radiation in a free-electron laser. The short wavelength of the plasma wave allows a higher radiation frequency to be obtained than from conventional wiggler free-electron lasers. The plasma can significantly slow down the radiation mode, thereby relaxing the beam energy requirement considerably. In addition, it allows a beam current in excess of the vacuum current limit via charge neutralization. This configuration has a higher tunability by controlling the plasma density in addition to the γ-tunability of the standard FEL. The laser gain has been calculated and numerical computations of the electron trajectories and gain are presented. Four groups (I–IV) of electron orbits have been found. It has been shown that by increasing the cyclotron frequency, the gain for orbits of group I and group III increases, while a decrease in gain has been obtained for orbits of group II and group IV. Similarly, the effect of plasma density on gain has been exhibited. The results indicate that with increasing plasma density, the orbits of all groups shift to higher cyclotron frequencies. The effects of beam self-fields on gain have also been demonstrated. It has been found that in the presence of beam self-fields the sensitivity of the gain increases substantially in the vicinity of gyroresonance. Here, the gain enhancement and reduction are due to the paramagnetic and diamagnetic effects of the self-magnetic field, respectively. (paper)
Stimulation of plasma waves by electron guns on the ISEE-1 satellite
Lebreton, J.-P.; Torbert, R.; Anderson, R.; Harvey, C.
1982-01-01
The results of the ISEE-1 satellite experiment relating to observations of the waves stimulated during electron injections, when the spacecraft is passing through the magnetosphere, the magnetosheath, and the solar wind, are discussed. It is shown that the injection of an electron beam current of the order of 10 to 60 microamperes with energies ranging from 0 to 40 eV produces enhancements in the electric wave spectrum. An attempt has been made to identify the low-frequency electrostatic wave observed below the ion plasma frequency as an ion acoustic mode, although the excitation mechanism is not clear. A coupling mechanism between the electron plasma mode and streaming electrons with energies higher than the thermal speed of the cold electron population has been proposed to explain the observations above the electron plasma frequency.
Stimulation of plasma waves by electron guns on the ISEE-1 satellite
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lebreton, J.P.; Torbert, R.; Anderson, R.; Harvey, C.
1982-01-01
The results of the ISEE-1 satellite experiment relating to observations of the waves stimulated during electron injections, when the spacecraft is passing through the magnetosphere, the magnetosheath, and the solar wind, are discussed. It is shown that the injection of an electron beam current of the order of 10 to 60 microamperes with energies ranging from 0 to 40 eV produces enhancements in the electric wave spectrum. An attempt has been made to identify the low-frequency electrostatic wave observed below the ion plasma frequency as an ion acoustic mode, although the excitation mechanism is not clear. A coupling mechanism between the electron plasma mode and streaming electrons with energies higher than the thermal speed of the cold electron population has been proposed to explain the observations above the electron plasma frequency. 9 references
Lee, Myoung-Jae; Jung, Young-Dae
2018-05-01
The dispersion properties of surface dust ion-acoustic waves in a self-gravitating magnetized dusty plasma layer with the (r, q) distribution are investigated. The result shows that the wave frequency of the symmetric mode in the plasma layer decreases with an increase in the wave number. It is also shown that the wave frequency of the symmetric mode decreases with an increase in the spectral index r. However, the wave frequency of the anti-symmetric mode increases with an increase in the wave number. It is also found that the anti-symmetric mode wave frequency increases with an increase in the spectral index r. In addition, it is found that the influence of the self-gravitation on the symmetric mode wave frequency decreases with increasing scaled Jeans frequency. Moreover, it is found that the wave frequency of the symmetric mode increases with an increase in the dust charge; however, the anti-symmetric mode shows opposite behavior.
Frequency selective tunable spin wave channeling in the magnonic network
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sadovnikov, A. V., E-mail: sadovnikovav@gmail.com; Nikitov, S. A. [Laboratory “Metamaterials,” Saratov State University, Saratov 410012 (Russian Federation); Kotel' nikov Institute of Radioengineering and Electronics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow 125009 (Russian Federation); Beginin, E. N.; Odincov, S. A.; Sheshukova, S. E.; Sharaevskii, Yu. P. [Laboratory “Metamaterials,” Saratov State University, Saratov 410012 (Russian Federation); Stognij, A. I. [Scientific-Practical Materials Research Center, National Academy of Sciences of Belarus, 220072 Minsk (Belarus)
2016-04-25
Using the space-resolved Brillouin light scattering spectroscopy, we study the frequency and wavenumber selective spin-wave channeling. We demonstrate the frequency selective collimation of spin-wave in an array of magnonic waveguides, formed between the adjacent magnonic crystals on the surface of yttrium iron garnet film. We show the control over spin-wave propagation length by the orientation of an in-plane bias magnetic field. Fabricated array of magnonic crystal can be used as a magnonic platform for multidirectional frequency selective signal processing applications in magnonic networks.
Theory for nonlinear magnetosonic waves in a two-ion-species plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Toida, Mieko; Ohsawa, Yukiharu
1997-01-01
Magnetosonic waves propagating perpendicular to a magnetic field in a plasma containing two ion species is studied theoretically. The magnetosonic wave is split into two modes in a two-ion-species plasma; low- and high- frequency modes. The frequency of the low-frequency mode tends to zero as the wave number k goes to zero. A KdV equation is derived for this mode by the conventional reductive perturbation method. The frequency of high-frequency mode does not go to zero as k → 0. However, using a new expansion scheme, a KdV equation for the nonlinear high-frequency mode has also been derived. This shows that KdV equations are not limited to waves whose frequencies tend to zero as k → 0. The KdV equation for the low-frequency mode is valid when the amplitudes ε are quite small, while that for the high-frequency mode is valid when (m. e /m. i ) 1/2 e /m. i is a measure of electron-to-ion mass ratios. The characteristic soliton widths are the ion inertia length for the low-frequency mode and the electron skin depth for the high-frequency mode. (author)
Studies of instabilities and waves in a mirror confined hot electron plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Huang Chaosong; Qiu Lijian; Ren Zhaoxing
1989-01-01
The stability of hot electron plasmas is studied. The hot electron component can stabilize the low frequency drift wave and the interchange mode driven by the plasma, which depends only on α=N h /N i , the density ratio of the hot electrons to the plasma ions, but not on the beta value and the annular structure of the hot electrons. Stabilization of the drift wave occurs for α > 40%, and that of the interchange mode for α > 5%, which allows the prediction that the interchange mode can be suppressed in hot electron plasma experiments. The experiments have been conducted in a simple mirror machine. It is observed that the plasma drives a drift wave at 40 kHz and an interchange mode at about 100 kHz. The fluctuation amplitude of the drift wave is much higher than that of the interchange mode. The hot electrons reduce the density gradient, the fluctuation amplitude and the radial loss of the plasma. On the other hand, the hot electrons drive the interchange mode and drift wave in the ion cyclotron frequency region. The effects of a cold plasma on hot electron perturbations are discussed. (author). 10 refs, 6 figs
Nonlinear Right-Hand Polarized Wave in Plasma in the Electron Cyclotron Resonance Region
Krasovitskiy, V. B.; Turikov, V. A.
2018-05-01
The propagation of a nonlinear right-hand polarized wave along an external magnetic field in subcritical plasma in the electron cyclotron resonance region is studied using numerical simulations. It is shown that a small-amplitude plasma wave excited in low-density plasma is unstable against modulation instability with a modulation period equal to the wavelength of the excited wave. The modulation amplitude in this case increases with decreasing detuning from the resonance frequency. The simulations have shown that, for large-amplitude waves of the laser frequency range propagating in plasma in a superstrong magnetic field, the maximum amplitude of the excited longitudinal electric field increases with the increasing external magnetic field and can reach 30% of the initial amplitude of the electric field in the laser wave. In this case, the energy of plasma electrons begins to substantially increase already at magnetic fields significantly lower than the resonance value. The laser energy transferred to plasma electrons in a strong external magnetic field is found to increase severalfold compared to that in isotropic plasma. It is shown that this mechanism of laser radiation absorption depends only slightly on the electron temperature.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rizzato, F.B.
1992-01-01
A nonlinear emission mechanism of electromagnetic waves at the fundamental plasma frequency has been examined. This mechanism is based on the electromagnetic oscillating two-stream instability driven by two oppositely propagating Langmuir waves. The excitation of the electromagnetic oscillating two-stream instability is due to nonlinear wave-wave coupling involving Langmuir waves, low-frequency density waves and electromagnetic waves. The Chian and Alves model is improved using the generalized Zakharov equations. Attention is directed toward the influence of induced low-frequency and Langmuir waves on the properties of the electromagnetic oscillating two-stream instability. Presumably, the properties derived in the present context may be relevant to both space and laboratory plasmas. (author)
Ulysses radio and plasma wave observations at high southern heliographic latitudes.
Stone, R G; Macdowall, R J; Fainberg, J; Kaiser, M L; Desch, M D; Goldstein, M L; Hoang, S; Bougeret, J L; Harvey, C C; Manning, R; Steinberg, J L; Kellogg, P J; Lin, N; Goetz, K; Osherovich, V A; Reiner, M J; Canu, P; Cornilleau-Wehrlin, N; Lengyel-Frey, D; Thejappa, G
1995-05-19
Ulysses spacecraft radio and plasma wave observations indicate that some variations in the intensity and occurrence rate of electric and magnetic wave events are functions of heliographic latitude, distance from the sun, and phase of the solar cycle. At high heliographic latitudes, solartype Ill radio emissions did not descend to the local plasma frequency, in contrast to the emission frequencies of some bursts observed in the ecliptic. Short-duration bursts of electrostatic and electromagnetic waves were often found in association with depressions in magnetic field amplitude, known as magnetic holes. Extensive wave activity observed in magnetic clouds may exist because of unusually large electron-ion temperature ratios. The lower number of intense in situ wave events at high latitudes was likely due to the decreased variability of the high- latitude solar wind.
Nonlinear interaction of an intense radio wave with ionospheric D/E layer plasma
Sodha, Mahendra Singh; Agarwal, Sujeet Kumar
2018-05-01
This paper considers the nonlinear interaction of an intense electromagnetic wave with the D/E layer plasma in the ionosphere. A simultaneous solution of the electromagnetic wave equation and the equations describing the kinetics of D/E layer plasma is obtained; the phenomenon of ohmic heating of electrons by the electric field of the wave causes enhanced collision frequency and ionization of neutral species. Electron temperature dependent recombination of electrons with ions, electron attachment to O 2 molecules, and detachment of electrons from O2 - ions has also been taken into account. The dependence of the plasma parameters on the square of the electric vector of the wave E0 2 has been evaluated for three ionospheric heights (viz., 90, 100, and 110 km) corresponding to the mid-latitude mid-day ionosphere and discussed; these results are used to investigate the horizontal propagation of an intense radio wave at these heights.
Perfectly matched layers for radio wave propagation in inhomogeneous magnetized plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gondarenko, Natalia A.; Guzdar, Parvez N.; Ossakow, Sidney L.; Bernhardt, Paul A.
2004-01-01
We present 1D and 2D numerical models of the propagation of high-frequency (HF) radio waves in inhomogeneous magnetized plasmas. The simulations allow one to describe the process of linear conversion of HF electromagnetic waves into electrostatic waves. The waves, launched from the lower boundary normally or at a specified angle on a layer of a magnetoactive plasma, can undergo linear conversion of the incident O-mode into a Z-mode at appropriate locations in an inhomogeneous prescribed plasma density. The numerical scheme for solving 2D HF wave propagation equations is described. The model employed the Maxwellian perfectly matched layers (PML) technique for approximating nonreflecting boundary conditions. Our numerical studies demonstrate the effectiveness of the PML technique for transparent boundary conditions for an open-domain problem
Effects of ion acoustic waves on diffusion in a magnetized plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Watanabe, Yukio; Akazaki, Masanori; Fujiyama, Hiroshi.
1975-01-01
This paper describes on the behavior of ion acoustic waves in magnetized plasma. The plasma was produced with a discharge tube placed in an air-core coil. The pressure of argon gas in the discharge tube was 1--10 mTorr. The plasma was entracted along the externally applied magnetic field through a nozzle into a measuring part. The condition of stabilization of drift waves was investigated. Four small glass tubes were placed in contact with the wall of the discharge tube, and the drift wave was remarkably suppressed. Then the ion acoustic waves can be observed. The magnetic field dependence of the frequency of ion acoustic waves was studied. The frequency depends on magnetic field and gas pressure. The magnetic field dependence of the frequency is caused by the variation of electron temperature. The Timofee's theory can explain the magnetic field of generating ion acoustic waves. The ion acoustic waves being excited naturally propagate to the direction of the diamagnetic drift of electrons, and their spectra are monochromatic. The dependence of Dsub(perpendicular), diffusion constant, on magnetic field is explained by two-pole diffusion, and the effect of the monochromatic ion acoustic waves on diffusion is small. (Kato, T.)
Spectroscopic investigation of wave driven microwave plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wijtvliet, R.; Felizardo, E.; Tatarova, E.; Dias, F. M.; Ferreira, C. M.; Nijdam, S.; Veldhuizen, E. V.; Kroesen, G.
2009-01-01
Large H atom line broadening was found throughout the volume of surface wave generated He-H 2 and H 2 microwave plasmas at low pressures. The measured Doppler temperatures corresponding to the H β , H γ , H δ , H ε , and H ζ line profiles were found to be higher than the rotational temperature of the hydrogen molecular Fulcher-α band and the Doppler temperature of the 667.1 nm singlet He line. No excessive broadening has been found. The Lorentzian and Gaussian widths as determined by fitting the spectral lines with a Voigt profile increase with the principal quantum number of the upper level. In contrast, no such dependence for the Gaussian width has been observed in an Ar-H 2 discharge. No population inversion has been observed from measurements of the relative intensities of transitions within the Balmer series.
Low frequency wave sources in the outer magnetosphere, magnetosheath, and near Earth solar wind
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
O. D. Constantinescu
2007-11-01
Full Text Available The interaction of the solar wind with the Earth magnetosphere generates a broad variety of plasma waves through different mechanisms. The four Cluster spacecraft allow one to determine the regions where these waves are generated and their propagation directions. One of the tools which takes full advantage of the multi-point capabilities of the Cluster mission is the wave telescope technique which provides the wave vector using a plane wave representation. In order to determine the distance to the wave sources, the source locator – a generalization of the wave telescope to spherical waves – has been recently developed. We are applying the source locator to magnetic field data from a typical traversal of Cluster from the cusp region and the outer magnetosphere into the magnetosheath and the near Earth solar wind. We find a high concentration of low frequency wave sources in the electron foreshock and in the cusp region. To a lower extent, low frequency wave sources are also found in other magnetospheric regions.
Continuing studies of the plasma beat wave accelerator
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Joshi, C.
1990-01-01
This is a proposal for the release of third year funds for the ''Plasma Beat Wave Accelerator'' program (PBWA) at UCLA under the direction of Professor C. Joshi. This report is also a summary of progress on this project since March 1990; i.e., the date of the last report to the DOE. Once again we note that although the program is for historical reasons called the Plasma Beat Wave Accelerator Program, our group is active in all areas of applications of lasers and plasmas in future high energy accelerators. These are as follows: heat gradient plasma structures; excited by plasma beat wave technique; laser wake field technique; and plasma wake field technique. Development of a photoinjector-driven, 20 MeV linac; and theoretical studies of the plasma lens and use of plasmas at the final focus
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Di Sigalotti, Leonardo G.; Sira, Eloy; Tremola, Ciro
2002-01-01
The propagation of acoustic and thermal waves in a heat conducting, hydrogen plasma, in which photoionization and photorecombination [H + +e - H+hν(χ)] processes are progressing, is re-examined here using linear analysis. The resulting dispersion equation is solved analytically and the results are compared with previous solutions for the same plasma model. In particular, it is found that wave propagation in a slightly and highly ionized hydrogen plasma is affected by crossing between acoustic and thermal modes. At temperatures where the plasma is partially ionized, waves of all frequencies propagate without the occurrence of mode crossing. These results disagree with those reported in previous work, thereby leading to a different physical interpretation of the propagation of small linear disturbances in a conducting, ionizing-recombining, hydrogen plasma
Radiative cooling and broadband phenomenon in low-frequency waves
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2000-01-01
In this paper, we analyze the effects of radiative cooling on the pure baroclinic low-frequency waves under the approximation of equatorial -plane and semi-geostrophic condition. The results show that radiative cooling does not, exclusively, provide the damping effects on the development of low-frequency waves. Under the delicate radiative-convective equilibrium, radiative effects will alter the phase speed and wave period, and bring about the broadband of phase velocity and wave period by adjusting the vertical profiles of diabatic heating. when the intensity of diabatic heating is moderate and appropriate, it is conductive to the development and sustaining of the low-frequency waves and their broadband phenomena, not the larger, the better. The radiative cooling cannot be neglected in order to reach the moderate and appropriate intensity of diabatic heating.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lan Chaohui; Hu Xiwei; Jiang Zhonghe
2008-01-01
A two-dimensional metal model is established to investigate the stealth mechanisms of radar absorbing material (RAM) and plasma when they cover the model together. Using the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method, the interaction of electromagnetic (EM) waves with the model can be studied. In this paper, three covering cases are considered: a. RAM or plasma covering the metal solely; b. RAM and plasma covering the metal, while plasma is placed outside; c. RAM and plasma covering the metal, while RAM is placed outside. The calculated results show that the covering order has a great influence on the absorption of EM waves. Compared to case a, case b has an advantage in the absorption of relatively high-frequency EM waves (HFWs), whereas case c has an advantage in the absorption of relatively low-frequency EM waves (LFWs). Through the optimization of the parameters of both plasma and RAM, it is hopeful to obtain a broad absorption band by RAM and plasma covering. Near-field attenuation rate and far-field radar cross section (RCS) are employed to compare the different cases. (low temperature plasma)
Ion Acoustic Wave Frequencies and Onset Times During Type 3 Solar Radio Bursts
Cairns, Iver H.; Robinson, P. A.
1995-01-01
Conflicting interpretations exist for the low-frequency ion acoustic (S) waves often observed by ISEE 3 in association with intense Langmuir (L) waves in the source regions of type III solar radio bursts near 1 AU. Two indirect lines of observational evidence, as well as plasma theory, suggest they are produced by the electrostatic (ES) decay L yields L(PRIME) + S. However, contrary to theoretical predictions, an existing analysis of the wave frequencies instead favors the electromagnetic (EM) decays L yields T + S, where T denotes an EM wave near the plasma frequency. This conflict is addressed here by comparing the observed wave frequencies and onset times with theoretical predictions for the ES and EM decays, calculated using the time-variable electron beam and magnetic field orientation data, rather than the nominal values used previously. Field orientation effects and beam speed variations are shown analytically to produce factor-of-three effects, greater than the difference in wave frequencies predicted for the ES and EM decays; effects of similar magnitude occur in the events analyzed here. The S-wave signals are extracted by hand from a sawtooth noise background, greatly improving the association between S waves and intense L waves. Very good agreement exists between the time-varying predictions for the ES decay and the frequencies of most (but not all) wave bursts. The waves occur only after the ES decay becomes kinematically allowed, which is consistent with the ES decay proceeding and producing most of the observed signals. Good agreement exists between the EM decay's predictions and a significant fraction of the S-wave observations while the EM decay is kinematically allowed. The wave data are not consistent, however, with the EM decay being the dominant nonlinear process. Often the observed waves are sufficiently broadband to overlap simultaneously the frequency ranges predicted for the ES and EM decays. Coupling the dominance of the ES decay with this
Bogatskaya, A. V.; Klenov, N. V.; Tereshonok, M. V.; Adjemov, S. S.; Popov, A. M.
2018-05-01
We present an analysis of the possibility of penetrating electromagnetic waves through opaque media using an optical-mechanical analogy. As an example, we consider the plasma sheath surrounding the vehicle as a potential barrier and analyze the overcoming of radiocommunication blackout problem. The idea is to embed a «resonator» between the surface on the vehicle and plasma sheath which is supposed to provide an effective tunneling of the signal to the receiving antenna. We discuss the peculiarities of optical mechanical analogy applicability and analyze the radio frequency wave tunneling regime in detail. The cases of normal and oblique incidence of radiofrequency waves on the vehicle surface are studied.
Study of a dual frequency atmospheric pressure corona plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, Dan Bee; Moon, S. Y.; Jung, H.; Gweon, B.; Choe, Wonho
2010-01-01
Radio frequency mixing of 2 and 13.56 MHz was investigated by performing experimental measurements on the atmospheric pressure corona plasma. As a result of the dual frequency, length, current density, and electron excitation temperature of the plasma were increased, while the gas temperature was maintained at roughly the same level when compared to the respective single frequency plasmas. Moreover, observation of time-resolved images revealed that the dual frequency plasma has a discharge mode of 2 MHz positive streamer, 2 MHz negative glow, and 13.56 MHz continuous glow.
Ultra-low-frequency electromagnetic waves in the Earth's crust and magnetosphere
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Guglielmi, A V
2007-01-01
Research on natural intra- and extraterrestrially produced electromagnetic waves with periods ranging from 0.2 to 600 s is reviewed. The way in which the energy of rock movements transforms into the energy of an alternating magnetic field is analyzed. Methods for detecting seismomagnetic signals against a strong background are described. In discussing the physics of ultra-low-frequency waves in the magnetosphere, the 11-year activity modulation of 1-Hz waves and ponderomotive forces affecting plasma distribution are emphasized. (reviews of topical problems)
A full wave code for ion cyclotron waves in toroidal plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brambilla, M.
1996-02-01
The code TORIC solves the finite Larmor radius wave equations in the ion cyclotron frequency range in arbitrary axisymmetric toroidal geometry. The model used describes the compressional and torsional Alfven waves (or, depending on the parallel phase velocity, the kinetic counterpart of the latter), and ion Bernstein waves excited by mode conversion near the first ion cyclotron harmonic. In the ion response the broadening of the absorption regions due to the finite width of the cyclotron resonance of individual ions in toroidal geometry is taken into account. The parallel component of the wave electric field is evaluated on the same footing as the transverse ones; the response of the electrons includes Landau damping, Transit Time damping and the mixed term. The numerical approach uses a spectral representation of the solution in the poloidal angle θ, and cubic finite elements in the radial variable ψ. Great flexibility is provided in the way ion Bernstein waves excited by mode conversion are damped when their wavelength becomes comparable with the ion Larmor radius, in the regularization of Alfven resonances, and in the treatment of the outer plasma layers. As an option, we have also implemented the Order Reduction Algorithm, which provides a particularly fast, yet accurate evaluation of the power deposition profiles in toroidal geometry. Thee present report describes the model and its numerical implementation, and provides the information needed to use the code. A few examples illustrating applications of TORIC are also included. (orig.)
Studies on waves and turbulence in natural plasmas and in laboratory plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ferreira, J.L.
1990-09-01
The project for studying plasma waves and plasma turbulence submitted to CAPES to be included in the CAPES/COFECUB international cooperation agreement is presented. The project will be carry out in cooperation with Paris University aiming to simulate in laboratory wave-particle interaction phenomena occuring in space plasma. (M.C.K.)
Plasma heating by non-linear wave-Plasma interaction | Echi ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
We simulate the non-linear interaction of waves with magnetized tritium plasma with the aim of determining the parameter values that characterize the response of the plasma. The wave-plasma interaction has a non-conservative Hamiltonian description. The resulting system of Hamilton's equations is integrated numerically ...
Radio-frequency wave enhanced runaway production rate
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chan, V.S.; McClain, F.W.
1983-01-01
Enhancement of runaway electron production (over that of an Ohmic discharge) can be achieved by the addition of radio-frequency waves. This effect is studied analytically and numerically using a two-dimensional Fokker--Planck quasilinear equation
Computation of High-Frequency Waves with Random Uncertainty
Malenova, Gabriela; Motamed, Mohammad; Runborg, Olof; Tempone, Raul
2016-01-01
or nonlinear functionals of the wave solution and its spatial/temporal derivatives. The numerical scheme combines two techniques: a high-frequency method based on Gaussian beams [2, 3], a sparse stochastic collocation method [4]. The fast spectral
Theory and experiments on the generation of spontaneous emission using a plasma wave undulator
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Williams, R.L.; Clayton, C.E.; Joshi, C.; Katsouleas, T.; Mori, W.B.; Slater, J.
1990-01-01
This paper reports that, the authors are studying the feasibility of using relativistically moving plasma waves as short wavelength undulators for possible FEL and Compton scattering applications at UCLA. The remarkable property of such waves is that the wiggler parameter a w = eA/mc 2 can be on the order 0.1 while their wavelength λ w can be submillimeter. Such waves can be excited by either an intense electron bunch going through a plasma (plasma wake field) or a short but intense laser pulse going through the plasma (laser wake field). A variation of the laser wake field scheme is the plasm beat wave excitation. Here a moderately intense laser pulse containing two frequencies excites the plasm wave resonantly. Using a laser pulse containing 10.27 μm and 9.6 μm lines of the Co 2 laser that is approximately 400 ps (FWHM) and 200 GW of power, we were able to measure a w times the length product of 0.013 cm in our experiments. If a length of 0.75 cm i assumed, this implies an a w of 0.17 for a λ w ∼156 μm. Injection of an electron beam across such a plasma wave proved not to be feasible in these experiments, because the θ-pinch plasma source contained significant trapped magnetic fields. We are currently developing a field free plasma source which will permit transverse electron injection
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shukla, Nitin; Shukla, P.K.
2011-01-01
The dispersion relation for the dust acoustic wave (DAW) in an unmagnetized dusty plasma cylindrical waveguide is derived, accounting for strong electrostatic interactions between charged dust grains. It is found that the boundary effect limits the radial extent of the DAW. The present result should be helpful for understanding the frequency spectrum of the DAW in a dusty plasma waveguide with strongly coupled charged dust grains. - Highlights: → We study the dust acoustic wave (DAW) in a bounded plasma. → We account for interactions between dust grains. → The boundary effect limits the radial extent of the DAW.
Reflection of ion acoustic waves by the plasma sheath
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ibrahim, I.; Kuehl, H.H.
1984-01-01
The reflection coefficient R for linear monochromatic ion acoustic waves incident on the transonic layer and sheath from the plasma interior is calculated. The treatment differs from previous analyses in that (1) the exact zero-order ion density and velocity profiles for a planar, bounded plasma are used, and the zero-order charge separation is not neglected, and (2) the first-order quantities near the transonic layer are considered in detail, including first-order charge separation, whereby it is found that no coupling to the beam modes exists, and that the functional form of the first-order solution is completely determined. It is shown that the upper bound for Vertical BarRVertical Bar is (1)/(3) . The largest reflection occurs for frequencies which are small compared with the ionization frequency, and generally decreases with increasing frequency. By Fourier superposition, the reflection of a pulse is computed. For a narrow incident pulse, the reflected pulse is greatly distorted and is small compared with the incident pulse. For a broad pulse, the reflected pulse is similar in shape to the incident pulse, and has a magnitude which is approximately (1)/(3) of the incident pulse
Parametric trapping of electromagnetic waves in an inhomogeneous plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Silin, V.P.; Starodub, A.N.
1977-01-01
Considered is parametric instability in an inhomogeneous plasma at which a pumping wave is transformed to an electromagnetic wave and aperiodically in-time-growing disturbances. It is shown that after achievement of some boundary pumping value by electric field intensity an absolute parametric instability evolution becomes possible. In-time growing plasma disturbances are localized near electric field extremums of a pumping wave. Such localization areas are small as compared to characteristic size of pumping inhomogeneity in a plasma. The secondary electromagnetic waves stay within the localization areas and, therefore, are not scattered by a plasma. As following from this it has been established, that due to parametric instability electromagnetic radiation trapping by a plasma occurs. Such a trapping is considerably connected with a spatial structure of a pumping field and it cannot arise within the field of a running wave in the theoretical model considered. However parametric trapping turns out to be possible even with very small reflection coefficients
Some remarks on coherent nonlinear coupling of waves in plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wilhelmsson, H.
1976-01-01
The analysis of nonlinear processes in plasma physics has given rise to a basic set of coupled equations. These equations describe the coherent nonlinear evolution of plasma waves. In this paper various possibilities of analysing these equations are discussed and inherent difficulties in the description of nonlinear interactions between different types of waves are pointed out. Specific examples of stimulated excitation of waves are considered. These are the parametric excitation of hybrid resonances in hot magnetized multi-ion component plasma and laser-plasma interactions. (B.D.)
On lower hybrid wave scattering by plasma density fluctuations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Petrzilka, V.
1988-01-01
The scattering of lower hybrid waves on plasma density fluctuations in a thin turbulent layer at the plasma periphery is studied numerically. The lower hybrid waves are supposed to be radiated by a four-waveguide grill used on the CASTOR tokamak. A great number of calculated scattered wave spectra show that the scattered spectrum shifts to larger values of the parallel-to-magnetic-field component of the wave vector (to slower waves) with increasing central plasma density and with the decreasing safety factor at the boundary. As known, this shift of the wave spectra results in a decrease in current drive efficiency. The current drive efficiency will hence decrease with growing plasma density and with decreasing safety factor. (J.U.). 2 figs., 4 refs
Ion source plasma parameters measurement based on Langmuir probe with commercial frequency sweep
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Xie, Y.H.; Hu, C.D.; Liu, S.; Shong, S.H.; Jiang, C.C.; Liu, Z.M.
2010-01-01
Langmuir probe is one of the main diagnostic tools to measure the plasma parameters in the ion source. In this article, the commercial frequency power, which is sine wave of 50 Hz, was supplied on the Langmuir probe to measure the plasma parameters. The best feature of this probe sweep voltage is that it does not need extra design. The probe I-V characteristic curve can be got in less than 5 ms and the plasma parameters, the electron temperature and the electron density, varying with the time can be got in one plasma discharge of 400 ms.
Wave Model Development in Multi-Ion Plasmas
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sung-Hee Song
1999-06-01
Full Text Available Near-earth space is composed of plasmas which embed a number of plasma waves. Space plasmas consist of electrons and multi-ion that determine local wave propagation characteristics. In multi-ion plasmas, it is di cult to find out analytic solution from the dispersion relation in general. In this work, we have developed a model with an arbitrary magnetic field and density as well as multi-ion plasmas. This model allows us to investigate how plasma waves behave when they propagate along realistic magnetic field lines, which are assumed by IGRF(International Geomagnetic Reference Field. The results are found to be useful for the analysis of the in situ observational data in space. For instance, if waves are assumed to propagate into the polar region, from the equatorial region, our model quantitatively shows how polarization is altered along earth travel path.
Nonlinear propagation of intense electromagnetic waves in weakly-ionized plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shukla, P.K.
1993-01-01
The nonlinear propagation of intense electromagnetic waves in weakly-ionized plasmas is considered. Stimulated scattering mechanisms involving electromagnetic and acoustic waves in an unmagnetized plasma are investigated. The growth rate and threshold for three-wave decay interactions as well as modulational and filamentation instabilities are presented. Furthermore, the electromagnetic wave modulation theory is generalized for weakly ionized collisional magnetoplasmas. Here, the radiation envelope is generally governed by a nonlinear Schroedinger equation. Accounting for the dependence of the attachment frequency on the radiation intensity, ponderomotive force, as well as the differential Joule heating nonlinearity, the authors derive the equations for the nonthermal electron density and temperature perturbations. The various nonlinear terms in the electron motion are compared. The problems of self-focusing and wave localization are discussed. The relevance of the investigation to ionospheric modification by powerful electromagnetic waves is pointed out
The theory of electromagnetic wave scattering by density fluctuations in nonequilibrium plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pavlenko, V.N.; Panchenko, V.G.
1993-01-01
Scattering of electromagnetic waves by density fluctuations in a magnetized plasma in the presence of the external pump field is investigated. The spectral density of electron density fluctuations is calculated. The pump wave is supposed to decay into a lower hybrid wave and low frequency oscillations (ion-acoustic wave, modified convective cell and ion-cyclotron wave with ion-temperature anisotropy). When the pump wave amplitude tends to the threshold strength of the electric field, the scattering cross section increases anomalously, i.e. there is the critical opalescence. The differential scattering cross section dependence on the pump amplitude and ion temperature anisotropy is obtained in the region above the parametric instability threshold. For characteristic parameters of fusion and space plasmas it is shown that the pump field terms considerably surmount the thermal noise contribution to the scattering cross section
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sharma, S; Turner, M M
2014-01-01
Dual frequency capacitively coupled discharges are widely used during fabrication of modern-day integrated circuits, because of low cost and robust uniformity over broad areas. At low pressure, stochastic or collisionless electron heating is important in such discharges. The stochastic heating occurs adjacent to the sheath edge due to energy transfer from the oscillating high voltage electron sheath to electrons. The present research discusses evidence of wave emission from the sheath in such discharges, with a frequency near the electron plasma frequency. These waves are damped very promptly as they propagate away from the sheath towards the bulk plasma, by Landau damping or some related mechanism. In this work, the occurrence of strong wave phenomena during the expanding and collapsing phase of the low frequency sheath has been investigated. This is the result of a progressive breakdown of quasi-neutrality close to the electron sheath edge. The characteristics of waves in the dual-frequency case are entirely different from the single-frequency case studied in earlier works. The existence of a field reversal phenomenon, occurring several times within a lower frequency period in the proximity of the sheath is also reported. Electron trapping near to the field reversal regions also occurs many times during a lower frequency period. The emission of waves is associated with these field reversal regions. It is observed that the field reversal and electron trapping effects appear under conditions typical of many recent experiments, and are consequently of much greater practical interest than similar effects in single frequency discharges, which occur only under extreme conditions that are not usually realized in experiments. (paper)
RF generated currents in a magnetized plasma using a slow wave structure
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Poole, B.R.; Cheo, B.R.; Kuo, S.P.; Tang, M.G.
1983-01-01
The generation of a dc current in a plasma by using RF waves is of importance for the operation of steadystate toroidal devices. An experimental investigation in the use of unidirectional, low frequency RF waves to drive currents has been made. Instead of using a natural plasma wave a slow wave guiding structure is used along the entire length of the plasma. When the RF wave is injected an increase in ionization and T/sub e/, and hence the background current is observed. However, the change depends on wave direction: The +k/sub z/ excitation yields a much larger electron current compared with the -k/sub z/ excitation indicating a net wave driven current. The measured modification in electron density and T/sub e/ is independent of wave direction. The current with a standing wave excitation generally falls at the average of the travelling wave (+ or - k/sub z/) driven currents. The net wave driven current is proportional to the feed power at approx. = 10 mA/kW. No saturation of the current is observed with feed powers up to 1 kW. Since the exciting structure is only 1 wavelength long, its k/sub z/ spectrum is relatively broad and hence no sharp resonances are observed as various plasma parameters and B/sub O/ are changed. There is no measurable difference between the power absorbed by the load resistors and the input power to the slow wave structure. Thus the current is driven by the wave field exclamation E exclamation 2 rather than the power absorbed in the plasma. The theoretical background and the physical mechanism is presented
Nonlinear interaction of waves in an inhomogeneous plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Istomin, Ya.N.
1988-01-01
Nonlinear wave processes in a weakly inhomogeneous plasma are considered. A quasilinear equation is derived which takes into account the effect of the waves on resonance particles, provided that the inhomogeneity appreciably affects the nature of the resonance interaction. Three-wave interaction is investigated under the same conditions. As an example, the nonlinear interaction in a relativistic plasma moving along a strong curvilinear magnetic field is considered
Unlimited electron acceleration in laser-driven plasma waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Katsouleas, T.; Dawson, J.M.
1983-01-01
It is shown that the limitation to the energy gain of 2(ω/ω/sub p/) 2 mc 2 of an electron in the laser-plasma beat-wave accelerator can be overcome by imposing a magnetic field of appropriate strength perpendicular to the plasma wave. This accelerates particles parallel to the phase fronts of the accelerating wave which keeps them in phase with it. Arbitrarily large energy is theoretically possible
TEMPERATURE ANISOTROPY IN THE PRESENCE OF ULTRA LOW FREQUENCY WAVES IN THE TERRESTRIAL FORESHOCK
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Selzer, L. A.; Hnat, B.; Osman, K. T.; Nakariakov, V. M.; Eastwood, J. P.; Burgess, D.
2014-01-01
We report the first study of the correlation between elevated solar wind core plasma temperatures and temperature anisotropy in the terrestrial foreshock. Plasma temperature is enhanced near the fire hose marginal stability threshold in the presence of ultra low frequency (ULF) large amplitude magnetic perturbations, which are intrinsically right-hand circularly polarized. Direct comparison of contemporaneous anisotropic temperatures in the upstream solar wind and the foreshock suggests that the net heating of plasma is mediated via increase of the parallel temperature in the foreshock region where the ULF waves are present. We consider the possibility that a mechanism based on Landau damping, where solar wind plasma temperature parallel to the background magnetic field is increased by interaction with oblique compressible fast magneto-acoustic ULF waves, influences temperature anisotropy
TEMPERATURE ANISOTROPY IN THE PRESENCE OF ULTRA LOW FREQUENCY WAVES IN THE TERRESTRIAL FORESHOCK
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Selzer, L. A.; Hnat, B.; Osman, K. T.; Nakariakov, V. M. [Centre for Fusion, Space and Astrophysics, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Eastwood, J. P. [Space and Atmospheric Physics, The Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College London, London (United Kingdom); Burgess, D., E-mail: L.A.Selzer@warwick.ac.uk [School of Physics and Astronomy, Queen Mary University of London (United Kingdom)
2014-06-10
We report the first study of the correlation between elevated solar wind core plasma temperatures and temperature anisotropy in the terrestrial foreshock. Plasma temperature is enhanced near the fire hose marginal stability threshold in the presence of ultra low frequency (ULF) large amplitude magnetic perturbations, which are intrinsically right-hand circularly polarized. Direct comparison of contemporaneous anisotropic temperatures in the upstream solar wind and the foreshock suggests that the net heating of plasma is mediated via increase of the parallel temperature in the foreshock region where the ULF waves are present. We consider the possibility that a mechanism based on Landau damping, where solar wind plasma temperature parallel to the background magnetic field is increased by interaction with oblique compressible fast magneto-acoustic ULF waves, influences temperature anisotropy.
Linear theory of plasma filled backward wave oscillator
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
An analytical and numerical study of backward wave oscillator (BWO) in linear regime is presented to get an insight into the excitation of electromagnetic waves as a result of the interaction of the relativistic electron beam with a slow wave structure. The effect of background plasma on the BWO instability is also presented.
The energy density of a Landau damped plasma wave
Best, R. W. B.
1999-01-01
In this paper some theories about the energy of a Landau damped plasma wave are discussed and new initial conditions are proposed. Analysis of a wave packet, rather than an infinite wave, gives a clear picture of the energy transport from field to particles. Initial conditions are found which excite
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shvets, G.; Tushentsov, M.; Tokman, M.D.; Kryachko, A.
2005-01-01
Propagation of electromagnetic waves in magnetized plasma near the electron cyclotron frequency can be strongly modified by adding a weak magnetic undulator. For example, both right- and left-hand circularly polarized waves can propagate along the magnetic field without experiencing resonant absorption. This effect of entirely eliminating electron cyclotron heating is referred to as the undulator-induced transparency (UIT) of the plasma, and is the classical equivalent of the well-known quantum mechanical effect of electromagnetically induced transparency. The basics of UIT are reviewed, and various ways in which UIT can be utilized to achieve exotic propagation properties of electromagnetic waves in plasmas are discussed. For example, UIT can dramatically slow down the waves' group velocity, resulting in the extreme compression of the wave energy in the plasma. Compressed waves are polarized along the propagation direction, and can be used for synchronous electron or ion acceleration. Strong coupling between the two wave helicities are explored to impart the waves with high group velocities ∂ω/∂k for vanishing wave numbers k. Cross-helicity coupling for realistic density and magnetic field profiles are examined using a linearized fluid code, particle-in-cell simulations, and ray-tracing WKB calculations
Electron plasma waves in CO/sub 2/ laser plasma interactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baldis, H.A.; Villeneuve, D.M.; Walsh, C.J.
1984-01-01
During the past few years, the use of Thomson scattering in CO/sub 2/ laser produced plasmas has permitted the identification and study of electron plasma waves and ion waves, driven by various instabilities in the plasma corona, such as Stimulated Raman Scattering (SRS), two plasmon decay, and Stimulated Brillouin Scattering (SBS). Since these instabilities may coexist in the plasma, the density fluctuations associated with one wave may influence the behaviour of one or more of the other instabilities. The authors discuss the experimental evidence of such effects and, in particular, the consequences of a recent experiment in which the ion waves driven by SBS were observed to adversely affect the production of the electron plasma waves driven by SRS. In that experiment, a strong correlation was observed between the onset of SBS and the disappearance of the electron plasma waves driven by SRS at low densities (n/sub e/ n/sub e/ > 0.05 n/sub c/)
Noise Suppression and Enhanced Focusability in Plasma Raman Amplifier with Multi-frequency Pump
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Balakin, A.A.; Fraiman, G.M.; Fisch, N.J.; Malkin, V.M.
2003-01-01
Laser pulse compression/amplification through Raman backscattering in plasmas can be facilitated by using multi-frequency pump laser beams. The efficiency of amplification is increased by suppressing the Raman instability of thermal fluctuations and seed precursors. Also the focusability of the amplified radiation is enhanced due to the suppression of large-scale longitudinal speckles in the pump wave structure
Electromagnetic-wave absorption by inhomogeneous, collisional plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gregoire, D.J.; Santoru, J.; Schumacher, R.W.
1990-01-01
Unmagnetized, collisional plasmas can be used as broadband EM-wave absorbers or refractors. In the absorption process, plasma electrons are first accelerated by the EM-wave fields and then collide with background-gas molecules, thereby transferring energy from the EM waves to the gas. A plasma absorber has several advantages compared to conventional materials. A plasma can be turned on and off very rapidly, thereby switching between absorbing and transparent conditions. Calculations indicate that plasma absorbers can also be tailored to provide broadband absorption (>40 dB) over multiple octaves. The authors have developed a one-dimensional model and a computer code to calculate the net power reflected from a plasma-enclosed EM-wave-reflecting target. They included three contributions to the reflected EM-wave power: reflections from the vacuum-plasma interface; reflections from the bulk plasma volume; and reflection of the attenuated EM wave that is transmitted through the plasma and reflected by the target
Rocket experiment on spontaneously and artificially stimulated VLF plasma waves in the ionosphere
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Matsumoto, H.; Miyatake, S.; Kimura, I.
1975-01-01
In situ active experiments on the nonlinear wave-wave and wave-particle interactions in the ionospheric plasma were performed by a Japanese sounding rocket K-9M-41. Both spontaneously and artificially stimulated plasma waves in the VLF range were observed. When a large amplitude electron plasma wave was transmitted from the rocket, parametrically excited ion acoustic waves were observed in addition to natural emissions such as whistlers, LHR emissions, and hisslike emissions. It was also found that 'risers' were triggered by the LHR emissions, which seem to be very similar to a phenomenon of the so-called ASE (artificially stimulated emissions). When a slow electron beam with energy lower than 3 eV was ejected from the rocket, a new type of periodic U-shaped discrete emission was observed which was excited through a wave-particle interaction. The frequency of these emissions is lower than the LHR frequency and decreases as the beam energy is increased. Spectrograms of the observed plasma are presented, and some are analyzed theoretically. (auth)
Plasma-ﬁlled rippled wall rectangular backward wave oscillator
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Performance of the backward wave oscillator (BWO) is greatly enhanced with the introduction of plasma. Linear theory of the dispersion relation and the growth rate have been derived and analysed numerically for plasma-ﬁlled rippled wall rectangular waveguide driven by sheet electron beam. To see the effect of plasma ...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bora, B.; Bhuyan, H.; Favre, M.; Wyndham, E.; Chuaqui, H.
2012-01-01
Plasma series resonance (PSR) effect is well known in geometrically asymmetric capacitively couple radio frequency plasma. However, plasma series resonance effect in geometrically symmetric plasma has not been properly investigated. In this work, a theoretical approach is made to investigate the plasma series resonance effect and its influence on Ohmic and stochastic heating in geometrically symmetric discharge. Electrical asymmetry effect by means of dual frequency voltage waveform is applied to excite the plasma series resonance. The results show considerable variation in heating with phase difference between the voltage waveforms, which may be applicable in controlling the plasma parameters in such plasma.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Minami, Kazuo; Sato, Kazunori.
1978-09-01
The dynamic shear stabilization of the hydromagnetic instability in low-beta plasmas by an axial RF current whose frequency is not much smaller than the ion cyclotron frequency ωsub(ci) is analyzed in some detail. We adopt the simple model of a uniform plasma column with infinite conductivity. Attention is limited to the case of the m = 1 kink mode with long wave lengths. The Mathieu equation, in which the effect of the ion cyclotron motion is taken into account, is derived. It is shown that the dynamic shear stabilization is still effective, even if the frequency of the applied RF current is of the order of ωsub(ci), which is considerably higher than the frequencies believed to be available in the previous analyses. (author)
Parametric instabilities of parallel propagating incoherent Alfven waves in a finite ion beta plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nariyuki, Y.; Hada, T.; Tsubouchi, K.
2007-01-01
Large amplitude, low-frequency Alfven waves constitute one of the most essential elements of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence in the fast solar wind. Due to small collisionless dissipation rates, the waves can propagate long distances and efficiently convey such macroscopic quantities as momentum, energy, and helicity. Since loading of such quantities is completed when the waves damp away, it is important to examine how the waves can dissipate in the solar wind. Among various possible dissipation processes of the Alfven waves, parametric instabilities have been believed to be important. In this paper, we numerically discuss the parametric instabilities of coherent/incoherent Alfven waves in a finite ion beta plasma using a one-dimensional hybrid (superparticle ions plus an electron massless fluid) simulation, in order to explain local production of sunward propagating Alfven waves, as suggested by Helios/Ulysses observation results. Parameter studies clarify the dependence of parametric instabilities of coherent/incoherent Alfven waves on the ion and electron beta ratio. Parametric instabilities of coherent Alfven waves in a finite ion beta plasma are vastly different from those in the cold ions (i.e., MHD and/or Hall-MHD systems), even if the collisionless damping of the Alfven waves are neglected. Further, ''nonlinearly driven'' modulational instability is important for the dissipation of incoherent Alfven waves in a finite ion beta plasma regardless of their polarization, since the ion kinetic effects let both the right-hand and left-hand polarized waves become unstable to the modulational instability. The present results suggest that, although the antisunward propagating dispersive Alfven waves are efficiently dissipated through the parametric instabilities in a finite ion beta plasma, these instabilities hardly produce the sunward propagating waves
Computer simulations on the nonlinear frequency shift and nonlinear modulation of ion-acoustic waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ohsawa, Yukiharu; Kamimura, Tetsuo.
1976-11-01
The nonlinear behavior of ion-acoustic waves with rather short wave-length, k lambda sub(De) asymptotically equals 1, is investigated by computer sumulations. It is observed that the nonlinear frequency shift is negative and is proportional to square root of the initial wave amplitude when the amplitude is not too large. This proportionality breaks down and the frequency shift can become positive (for large Te/Ti), when (n tilde sub(i)/n 0 )sup(1/2)>0.25, where n tilde sub(i) is the ion density perturbation and n 0 the average plasma density. Nonlinear modulation of the wave-packet is clearly seen; however, modulational instability was not observed. The importance of the effects of trapped ions to these phenomena is emphasized. (auth.)
Detecting high-frequency gravitational waves with optically levitated sensors.
Arvanitaki, Asimina; Geraci, Andrew A
2013-02-15
We propose a tunable resonant sensor to detect gravitational waves in the frequency range of 50-300 kHz using optically trapped and cooled dielectric microspheres or microdisks. The technique we describe can exceed the sensitivity of laser-based gravitational wave observatories in this frequency range, using an instrument of only a few percent of their size. Such a device extends the search volume for gravitational wave sources above 100 kHz by 1 to 3 orders of magnitude, and could detect monochromatic gravitational radiation from the annihilation of QCD axions in the cloud they form around stellar mass black holes within our galaxy due to the superradiance effect.
MESSENGER Magnetic Field Observations of Upstream Ultra-Low Frequency Waves at Mercury
Le, G.; Chi, P. J.; Boardsen, S.; Blanco-Cano, X.; Anderosn, B. J.; Korth, H.
2012-01-01
The region upstream from a planetary bow shock is a natural plasma laboratory containing a variety of wave particle phenomena. The study of foreshocks other than the Earth's is important for extending our understanding of collisionless shocks and foreshock physics since the bow shock strength varies with heliocentric distance from the Sun, and the sizes of the bow shocks are different at different planets. The Mercury's bow shock is unique in our solar system as it is produced by low Mach number solar wind blowing over a small magnetized body with a predominately radial interplanetary magnetic field. Previous observations of Mercury upstream ultra-low frequency (ULF) waves came exclusively from two Mercury flybys of Mariner 10. The MESSENGER orbiter data enable us to study of upstream waves in the Mercury's foreshock in depth. This paper reports an overview of upstream ULF waves in the Mercury's foreshock using high-time resolution magnetic field data, 20 samples per second, from the MESSENGER spacecraft. The most common foreshock waves have frequencies near 2 Hz, with properties similar to the I-Hz waves in the Earth's foreshock. They are present in both the flyby data and in every orbit of the orbital data we have surveyed. The most common wave phenomenon in the Earth's foreshock is the large-amplitude 30-s waves, but similar waves at Mercury have frequencies at near 0.1 Hz and occur only sporadically with short durations (a few wave cycles). Superposed on the "30-s" waves, there are spectral peaks at near 0.6 Hz, not reported previously in Mariner 10 data. We will discuss wave properties and their occurrence characteristics in this paper.
High-frequency homogenization for travelling waves in periodic media.
Harutyunyan, Davit; Milton, Graeme W; Craster, Richard V
2016-07-01
We consider high-frequency homogenization in periodic media for travelling waves of several different equations: the wave equation for scalar-valued waves such as acoustics; the wave equation for vector-valued waves such as electromagnetism and elasticity; and a system that encompasses the Schrödinger equation. This homogenization applies when the wavelength is of the order of the size of the medium periodicity cell. The travelling wave is assumed to be the sum of two waves: a modulated Bloch carrier wave having crystal wavevector [Formula: see text] and frequency ω 1 plus a modulated Bloch carrier wave having crystal wavevector [Formula: see text] and frequency ω 2 . We derive effective equations for the modulating functions, and then prove that there is no coupling in the effective equations between the two different waves both in the scalar and the system cases. To be precise, we prove that there is no coupling unless ω 1 = ω 2 and [Formula: see text] where Λ =(λ 1 λ 2 …λ d ) is the periodicity cell of the medium and for any two vectors [Formula: see text] the product a ⊙ b is defined to be the vector ( a 1 b 1 , a 2 b 2 ,…, a d b d ). This last condition forces the carrier waves to be equivalent Bloch waves meaning that the coupling constants in the system of effective equations vanish. We use two-scale analysis and some new weak-convergence type lemmas. The analysis is not at the same level of rigour as that of Allaire and co-workers who use two-scale convergence theory to treat the problem, but has the advantage of simplicity which will allow it to be easily extended to the case where there is degeneracy of the Bloch eigenvalue.
Absorption of high-frequency electromagnetic energy in a high-temperature plasma
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sagdeyev, R S; Shafranov, V D
1958-07-01
In this paper an analysis of the cyclotron and Cherenkov mechanisms is given. These are two fundamental mechanisms for noncollisional absorption of electromagnetic radiation by plasma in a magnetic field. The expressions for the dielectric permeability tensor, for plasma with a nonisotropic temperature distribution in a magnetic field, are obtained by integrating the kinetic equation with Lagrangian particle co-ordinates in a form suitable to allow a comprehensive physical interpretation of the absorption mechanisms. The oscillations of a plasma column stabilized by a longitudinal field have been analyzed. For uniform plasma, the frequency spectrum has been obtained together with the direction of electromagnetic wave propagation when both the cyclotron and Cherenkov absorption mechanisms take place. The influence of nonlinear effects on the electromagnetic wave absorption and the part which cyclotron and Cherenkov absorption play in plasma heating have also been investigated.
Electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves observed near the oxygen cyclotron frequency by ISEE 1 and 2
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fraser, B.J.; Samson, J.C.; Hu, Y.D.; McPherron, R.L.; Russell, C.T.
1992-01-01
Pc 2 electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves at 0.1 waves at 0.1 Hz, near the oxygen cyclotron frequency, have been observed by ISEE 1 and 2 between L = 7.6 and 5.8 on an inbound near-equatorial pass in the dusk sector. The waves occurred in a thick plasmapause of width ∼ 1.5 R E and penetrated ∼1 R E into the plasmasphere. Wave onset was accompanied by significant increases in the thermal (0-100 eV) He + and the warm (0.1-16 keV/e) O + and He + heavy ion populations. The most intense waves (8 nT) were observed in the outer plasmasphere where convection drift velocities (E x B)/B 2 were largest and the Alfven velocity was a minimum. Wave polarization is predominantly left-handed with propagation almost parallel to the ambient magnetic field, and the spectral slot and polarization reversal predicted by cold plasma propagation theory are identified in the wave data. Poynting fluxes calculated during the first 15 min of the event show wave energy propagation directions both parallel and antiparallel to the field. Computations of the experimental wave spectra during the passage through the plasmapause show that the spectral slots relate to local plasma parameters, possibly suggesting an ion cyclotron wave growth source near the spacecraft. A regular wave packet structure seen over the first 30 min of the event may be attributed to the modulation of this energy source by the Pc 5 waves seen at the same time. Overall, the results are considered an example of an electromagnetic ion cyclotron wave-particle interaction occurring during the outer plasmasphere refilling process at the time of the substorm recovery phase
Experimental Limits on Gravitational Waves in the MHz frequency Range
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lanza, Robert Jr. [Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States)
2015-03-01
This thesis presents the results of a search for gravitational waves in the 1-11MHz frequency range using dual power-recycled Michelson laser interferometers at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory. An unprecedented level of sensitivity to gravitational waves in this frequency range has been achieved by cross-correlating the output fluctuations of two identical and colocated 40m long interferometers. This technique produces sensitivities better than two orders of magnitude below the quantum shot-noise limit, within integration times of less than 1 hour. 95% confidence level upper limits are placed on the strain amplitude of MHz frequency gravitational waves at the 10^{-21} Hz^{-1/2} level, constituting the best direct limits to date at these frequencies. For gravitational wave power distributed over this frequency range, a broadband upper limit of 2.4 x 10^{-21}Hz^{-1/2} at 95% confidence level is also obtained. This thesis covers the detector technology, the commissioning and calibration of the instrument, the statistical data analysis, and the gravitational wave limit results. Particular attention is paid to the end-to-end calibration of the instrument’s sensitivity to differential arm length motion, and so to gravitational wave strain. A detailed statistical analysis of the data is presented as well.